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Sample records for ligurian sea italy

  1. Cerebral toxoplasmosis in striped dolphins (Stenella coeruleoalba) stranded along the Ligurian Sea coast of Italy.

    PubMed

    Di Guardo, G; Proietto, U; Di Francesco, C E; Marsilio, F; Zaccaroni, A; Scaravelli, D; Mignone, W; Garibaldi, F; Kennedy, S; Forster, F; Iulini, B; Bozzetta, E; Casalone, C

    2010-03-01

    This article reports the results of necropsy, parasitologic, microbiologic, histopathologic, immunohistochemical, indirect immunofluorescence, biomolecular, and serologic investigations on 8 striped dolphins (Stenella coeruleoalba) found stranded from August to December 2007 on the Ligurian Sea coast of Italy. Severe, nonsuppurative meningoencephalitis was found in 4 animals, as characterized by prominent perivascular mononuclear cell cuffing and macrophage accumulations in neuropil. These lesions were associated with mild lymphocytic-plasmacytic infiltration of choroid plexuses in 1 dolphin. Toxoplasma gondii cysts and zoites, confirmed by immunohistochemical labeling, were scattered throughout the brain parenchyma of 2 of the 4 dolphins. No viral inclusions were seen in the brain of any animal. Other findings included severe bronchointerstitial pneumonia and pulmonary atelectasis, consolidation, and emphysema. Parasites were identified in a variety of organs, including lung (Halocerchus lagenorhynchi). Microbiologic and serologic examinations for Brucella spp were negative on all 8 dolphins. The 4 animals with meningoencephalitis had serum antibodies against T gondii (titers ranging from 1:80 to 1:320) but not against morbillivirus. In contrast, the other 4 dolphins were seropositive for morbillivirus (with titers ranging from 1:10 to 1:40) but seronegative for T gondii. No morbillivirus antigen or nucleic acid was detected in the tissues of any dolphin. It is concluded that the severe lung and brain lesions were the cause of death and that T gondii was the likely etiologic agent of the cerebral lesions. Morbillivirus infection was not considered to have contributed to death of these animals. PMID:20118319

  2. Applicability of an empirical law to predict significant sea-wave heights from microseisms along the Western Ligurian Coast (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferretti, Gabriele; Scafidi, Davide; Cutroneo, Laura; Gallino, Stefano; Capello, Marco

    2016-07-01

    The use of microseisms with appropriate predictive laws is a reliable method for estimating such sea-wave parameters as period and significant height. Through the use of opportune predictive laws calibrated with measurements obtained from wave buoys, it is possible to determine the significant height of the wave as a function of the spectral energy-content of the microseism. In this paper we will present a procedure that utilises microseisms recorded by a micro network of five seismic stations to predict the significant height of waves, and its uncertainty, along the western Ligurian coast (Italy). The calibration and validation of the procedure was performed using wave measurements obtained from a wave buoy off Capo Mele (Imperia, Italy) over a two and a half year period. The differences between the significant heights measured by the wave buoy and the empirical predictions were less than 10 cm (corresponding to 10% of the mean measured value) for 47% of the data and less than 20 cm (corresponding to 20% of the mean measured value) for 72%.

  3. Square-wave anodic-stripping voltammetric determination of Cd, Pb, and Cu in a hydrofluoric acid solution of siliceous spicules of marine sponges (from the Ligurian Sea, Italy, and the Ross Sea, Antarctica).

    PubMed

    Truzzi, C; Annibaldi, A; Illuminati, S; Bassotti, E; Scarponi, G

    2008-09-01

    Square-wave anodic-stripping voltammetry (SWASV) was set up and optimized for simultaneous determination of cadmium, lead, and copper in siliceous spicules of marine sponges, directly in the hydrofluoric acid solution (approximately 0.55 mol L(-1) HF, pH approximately 1.9). A thin mercury-film electrode (TMFE) plated on to an HF-resistant epoxy-impregnated graphite rotating-disc support was used. The optimum experimental conditions, evaluated also in terms of the signal-to-noise ratio, were as follows: deposition potential -1100 mV vs. Ag/AgCl, KCl 3 mol L(-1), deposition time 3-10 min, electrode rotation 3000 rpm, SW scan from -1100 mV to +100 mV, SW pulse amplitude 25 mV, frequency 100 Hz, DeltaE(step) 8 mV, t(step) 100 ms, t(wait) 60 ms, t(delay) 2 ms, t(meas) 3 ms. Under these conditions the metal peak potentials were Cd -654 +/- 1 mV, Pb -458 +/- 1 mV, Cu -198 +/- 1 mV. The electrochemical behaviour was reversible for Pb, quasi-reversible for Cd, and kinetically controlled (possibly following chemical reaction) for Cu. The linearity of the response with concentration was verified up to approximately 4 microg L(-1) for Cd and Pb and approximately 20 microg L(-1) for Cu. The detection limits were 5.8 ng L(-1), 3.6 ng L(-1), and 4.3 ng L(-1) for Cd, Pb, and Cu, respectively, with t(d) = 5 min. The method was applied for determination of the metals in spicules of two specimens of marine sponges (Demosponges) from the Portofino natural reserve (Ligurian Sea, Italy, Petrosia ficiformis) and Terra Nova Bay (Ross Sea, Antarctica, Sphaerotylus antarcticus). The metal contents varied from tens of ng g(-1) to approximately 1 microg g(-1), depending on the metal considered and with significant differences between the two sponge species. PMID:18642105

  4. Ecological response of benthic foraminifera to the acid drainage from mine areas. An example from the Gromolo torrent mouth (Eastern Ligurian Sea, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergamin, Luisa; Capello, Marco; Carbone, Cristina; Magno, Maria Celia; Consani, Sirio; Cutroneo, Laura; Ferraro, Luciana; Pierfranceschi, Giancarlo; Romano, Elena

    2016-04-01

    Benthic foraminiferal assemblages react in short time to natural and anthropogenic environmental changes and, for this, they are considered as reliable indicators of environmental quality. An interesting application of these indicators is the study of their response to environmental changes in coastal marine areas, affected by dismissed mines and dump areas. The Libiola Fe-Cu sulphide mine was intensively exploited in 19th and 20th centuries, and the activity ended in 1962. The sulphide mineral assemblages consist of pyrite and chalcopyrite, with minor sphalerite and pyrrhotite, in a gangue of quartz and chlorite. The sulphide ore occurs within the Jurassic ophiolites of the Northern Apennines which were subjected to metamorphic and tectonic processes during the subsequent Apennine orogenesis. Waters circulating in the Libiola mine area, and discharging in the adjacent streams and creeks, are strongly polluted due to the diffuse occurrence of Acid Mine Drainage processes. The Gromolo torrent collects these acidic waters enriched of heavy metals which flow into Ligurian Sea. The study area is characterised by a shelf with a gentle slope, mainly constituted by sediment supplied by Entella torrent. The general circulation has trend from East to West and the coastal drift is generally eastwards. A total of 15 marine sediment samples (upper 2 cm) were collected by means of Van Veen grab in the coastal zone close to the Gromolo mouth and analyzed for living (rose Bengal stained) and dead benthic foraminifera, together with grain size, metals and trace elements, and metal fractioning. Quantitative foraminiferal parameters, like as abundance, species diversity, heterogeneity and assemblage composition, were determined and evaluated for environmental purpose. Additionally, possible increase above the natural background level of deformed specimens was considered as indicative of metal contamination. The grain-size analyses highlighted mainly sandy sediments, characterized by

  5. The pre-oceanic evolution of the Erro-Tobbio peridotite (Voltri Massif, Ligurian Alps, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piccardo, G. B.; Vissers, R. L. M.

    2007-05-01

    This paper presents the results of field, structural, petrologic and geochemical investigations on the Erro-Tobbio (E-T) ophiolitic peridotite (Voltri Massif, Ligurian Alps, Italy). This massif represents a mantle section equilibrated at spinel-facies conditions in the subcontinental lithosphere of the Europe-Adria system prior to the Early Jurassic that has been exhumed and emplaced at the sea-floor during rifting and opening of an ocean basin. The E-T massif comprises km-scale volumes of peridotites with structural and compositional characteristics pointing to melt-peridotite interaction. Their formation is thought to result from the interaction of pristine lithospheric peridotites with MORB-type melts ascending by porous flow, leading to the development of reactive spinel harzburgites, impregnated plagioclase peridotites and replacive spinel dunites. The melt-related events were followed by MORB melt intrusion. Field relationships between sheared lithospheric peridotites, including coarse tectonites as well as fine-grained mylonites developed during lithosphere extension, and melt-modified peridotites suggest that melt-related processes occurred during exhumation of the E-T mantle. These melt-related processes likely included both diffuse percolation and focused intrusion and are considered to be a consequence of MORB-forming partial melting of the asthenosphere induced by near-adiabatic decompressional upwelling related to lithosphere extension and thinning. Field, structural and petrological data allow us to conclude that the entire pre-oceanic evolution of deformation, metamorphism and magmatism recorded by the E-T mantle started during the Early-Middle Jurassic and was related to lithospheric extension leading to the Late Jurassic opening of the Ligurian Tethys ocean.

  6. Upper layer current variability in the Central Ligurian Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Picco, P.; Cappelletti, A.; Sparnocchia, S.; Schiano, M. E.; Pensieri, S.; Bozzano, R.

    2010-10-01

    Long-time series of surface currents and meteorological parameters were analysed to estimate the variability of the upper layer circulation and the response to the local winds. Current meter data were collected by an upward-looking RDI Sentinel 300 kHz ADCP deployed in the Central Ligurian Sea (43°47.77' N; 9°02.85' E) near the meteo-oceanographic buoy ODAS Italia 1 for more than eight months, from 13th of September 2003 to 24th of May 2004. The ADCP sampled the upper 50 m of water column at 8 m vertical resolution and 1 h time interval; surface marine and atmospheric hourly averaged data were provided by the buoy. Currents in the sampled layer were mainly barotropic, directed North-West in accordance with the general circulation of the area, and had a mean velocity of about 18 cm/s and hourly mean peaks up to 80 cm/s. Most of the observed variability in the upper thermocline was determined by inertial currents and mesoscale activity due to the presence of the Ligurian Front. Local wind had a minor role in the near-surface circulation but induced internal waves propagating downward in the water column.

  7. Depositional architecture and sequence stratigraphy of Pleistocene coarse-grained deltas along the Ligurian coast (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciampalini, A.; Firpo, M.

    2015-12-01

    This study aims to develop a better understanding of the stratigraphy of the southern side of the Maritime Alps and of the Ligurian Sea during the Plio-Pleistocene. Five stratigraphic sections were measured and studied in the Segno River valley (Liguria, Italy). These sections are composed of Lower to Middle Pleistocene marine and continental deposits. Based on detailed mapping and sedimentological analysis, 12 marine and deltaic facies were identified. These facies were grouped into facies associations. Two allostratigraphic units were recognized, namely U1 and U2 from oldest to youngest. The lower unit (U1) represents the evolution of a coarse-grained delta developed in a valley or embayment. Within the deltaic sequence, transgressive and highstand systems tracts were recognized. The coarsening/shallowing upward trend observed within the sections suggests that the delta prograded rapidly in the landward portion of the canyon adjacent to the paleo-river outlet. The upper boundary of U1 is represented by a subaerial unconformity overlain by U2, which is composed of sediments deposited by several alluvial fan systems.

  8. Mesoscale vortices in the Ligurian Sea and their effect on coastal upwelling processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casella, Elisa; Molcard, Anne; Provenzale, Antonello

    2011-10-01

    We study numerically the dynamics of intense anticyclonic eddies in the Ligurian Sea (NW Mediterranean Sea). To this end, we use the Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) with a resolution of 3 km for a domain covering the whole Ligurian Sea, with an embedded child grid covering the northwestern part of Ligurian Sea at resolution 1 km. The model is forced with daily boundary conditions obtained from the MFS dataset for the year 2006 at the open lateral boundaries. Surface heat and evapotranspiration fluxes are provided by the monthly climatological dataset COADS at 1/2° spatial resolution. For wind forcing, we consider two configurations. In the first setting, the model is forced by the COADS climatological monthly mean wind stresses; in a second configuration, the model is forced by the daily mean wind stresses provided by a mesoscale meteorological model for the area of interest in the year 2006. The latter setting shows the formation of intense anticyclonic eddy structures in the coastal area, generated by the variable winds and by the interaction of transient currents with bottom and coastal topography (in the NW part of the Ligurian Sea). Comparison of model output with satellite SST data shows definite agreement between numerical results and observations. Analysis of the simulation results over the whole year 2006 and of SST satellite images in 2006 and 2007 indicates that coastal anticyclonic eddies are of common occurrence in the Ligurian Sea, with several events per year, mainly concentrated in autumn and winter. The eddies are characterized by a complex pattern of intense vertical velocities and induce strong, long-lasting coastal upwelling events. For this reason, anticyclonic vortices in the coastal area can generate bursts of nutrient input in the euphotic layer and contribute to the fertilization of the Ligurian Sea, with potentially important effects on the dynamics of phyto- and zooplankton.

  9. Reconstruction of late Holocene flooding events in the Gulf of Genoa, Ligurian Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamy, Frank; Kaiser, Jerome; Arz, Helge; Ruggieri, Nicoletta

    2014-05-01

    The area of the Gulf of Genoa contains a large potential for studying past rainfall variability as it is one of the major Mediterranean centers for cyclogenesis. The strongest depressions form when cold arctic/subarctic air outbreaks flow through the Rhone valley into the Gulf of Lions and the Ligurian Sea during late autumn when sea surface temperatures are still relatively high. The cyclones are more frequent during negative Arctic Oscillation / North Atlantic Oscillation (AO/NAO). As well, significant negative correlations exist between AO/NAO and winter/spring precipitation and river discharge in northwestern Italy. Related autumn flooding events occur at interannual time-scales and may cause substantial damage in the region. Moreover, the "Genoa Cyclones" sometimes move northeastwards into eastern/central Europe (the so-called "Vb" cyclone track) and contributed for example substantially to the Elbe flooding in 2002. During R/V Poseidon cruise P413 (May 2011), ca. 60 sediment cores were taken along the Ligurian shelf, continental slope and in the basin between off Livorno and the French border. Coring profiles from the coastal area to the deep basin allow reconstructing past environmental variability over the last ca. 90000 years with sedimentation rates varying between ca. 0.5 cm*yr-1 for the latest Holocene to ca. 10 cm*kyr-1 for the last glacial. On the shelf, mud lenses with exceptionally high sedimentation rates reaching several m/kyr provide detailed Holocene records of changes in terrigenous sediment input primarily related to autumn rainfall events. We performed high resolution (mm) analyses of major elements using XRF core-scanning on two cores with extremely high resolution (0.2-0.4 cm/year) over the last 2.5 kyr BP. Typical elements of detrital origin (i.e. Ti, Fe) present a very high variability, probably related to flooding events during the late Holocene. Spectral analysis on these records reveals significant periodicities around 4-5 and 7

  10. U-Pb zircon geochronology of the Ligurian ophiolites (Northern Apennine, Italy): Implications for continental breakup to slow seafloor spreading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tribuzio, Riccardo; Garzetti, Fabio; Corfu, Fernando; Tiepolo, Massimo; Renna, Maria Rosaria

    2016-01-01

    Fragments of Jurassic oceanic crust exposed in the Northern Apennine (Italy) are either associated with continental lithosphere material (External Ligurian ophiolites), or bear structural and compositional resemblances to slow spreading ridge crust (Internal Ligurian ophiolites). To acquire new information about the transition from continental breakup to slow seafloor spreading, we carried out a U-Pb geochronological study of zircons from gabbro bodies of both External and Internal Ligurian ophiolites. Zircons were separated from seven samples and analyzed for U-Pb isotopes by laser ablation ICPMS and isotope dilution TIMS. The zircons were also investigated for morphology, internal structures, inclusions and chemistry. These characteristics reveal remarkable similarities to zircons collected from modern oceanic crust. Taken as a whole, the new U-Pb zircon dates obtained for the Ligurian ophiolites range from ~ 165 to ~ 161 Ma, thereby arguing against previous geochronological investigations suggesting a period of ~ 26 Ma for the formation of the Ligurian gabbroic crust. The time interval intervened from onset of gabbroic crust formation to configuration of a "slow spreading ridge type" crust was most likely ≤ 5 Ma. New insights into the opening mechanisms of the fossil, slow seafloor spreading basin are provided.

  11. Sea Level Rise and Decadal Variations in the Ligurian Sea Inferred from the Medimaremetre Measurements.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karpytchev, M.; Coulomb, A.; Vallee, M.

    2015-12-01

    Estimations of sea level rise over the last centuries are mostly based on the rare historical sea level records from tide gauge stations usually designed for navigational purposes. In this study, we examine the quality of sea level measurements performed by a mean sea level gauge operated in Nice from 1887 to 1909 and transferred to the nearby town of Villefranche-sur-Mer in 1913 where it stayed in operation untill 1974. The mean sea level gauges, called medimaremetres, were invented for geodetic studies and installed in many French ports since the end of the XIX century. By construction, the medimaremetre was connected to the sea through a porous porcelain crucible in order to filter out the tides and higher frequency sea level oscillations. Ucontrolled properties of the crucible and some systematic errors made the medimaremetre data to be ignored in the current sea level researches. We demonstrate that the Nice-Villefranche medimaremetre measurements are coherent with two available historical tide gauge records from Marseille and Genova and a new century-scale sea level series can be build up by combining the medimaremetre data with the those recorded by a tide gauge operating in Nice since the 1980s. We analyse the low frequency variabilities in Marseille, Nice-Villefranche and Genova and get new insights on the decadal sea level variations in the Ligurian Sea since the end of the XIX century.

  12. 3d Operational Hydrodinamic Modelling System as a Support to Oil Spill Responses in the Ligurian Sea (North-Western Mediterranean)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Giudice, T.; Quagliati, M.; Bertolotto, R.; Pedroncini, A.; Cusati, L. A.

    2014-12-01

    Accidental oil spills have a significant impact on marine ecosystems reminding us the importance of an efficiency emergency planning to ensure a quick and proper response. In this phase, the numerical modelling approach emerges as a useful tool in order to simulate the scenarios and addresses the issue of oil dispersion in the case of a spill. The 3D operational hydrodynamic modelling system of the Ligurian Sea (North-Western Mediterranean) is used as a base to predict the possible oil trajectory and to track the path and fate of spilled oil under the prevailing hydrodynamic and meteorological conditions. The operative chain of the hydrodynamic model was developed by DHI Italia for the Regional Environment Protection Agency (ARPAL) operating in the Ligurian region (Italy) with the objective to preserve the environment, support the activities of the Civil Protection Department and promote a sustainable, healthy and safety management of the local resources. In this chain the MFS Mediterranean 3D model (operated within MyOcean EU Project - Copernicus Programme) was downscaled from 6.5 km to finer nearshore mesh (500 m). The increased spatial resolution allows the correct simulation of current developments in the vicinity of morphological discontinuities such as the promontory of Portofino on the Ligurian coast. The meteorological forcing is provided by MOLOCH, a LAM model operated by ARPAL together with fresh water discharges from the main rivers through hydrological modelling. Since the Ligurian Sea recently hosted the transfer of wreck Costa Concordia some real time simulations of hypothetical oil spill were performed to support the crisis unit of the Genoa Coast Guard. Simulations led to interesting results concerning the importance of updated weather conditions, which strongly influence current trends, focusing on the importance of the continuity of the modelling chain.

  13. Polyphase deformation and fluid flow in the Internal Ligurian Units, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varga-Vass, Anna; Daniel, Daniel; Molli, Giancarlo

    2016-04-01

    We studied the Internal Ligurian Unit (ILU) of the Northern Apennines, Italy. Field observations, fold axes, stylolites and crenulation cleavages indicate that the first folding had a direction of NW-SE, whereas the second main folding was in the direction of NE-SW. These orientations are in accordance with previous studies attributing the first folding to a E-SE-dipping, early subduction, and the second (main) folding to the accretion of the sequence towards the NE in a W-SW-dipping subduction zone. The unfolding of conjugate veins along the second folding axes showed the rotation of the main horizontal stresses. Oldest conjugates formed during the deformation in the SE-dipping subduction zone. As the subduction polarity-flip occurred and the subduction zone migrated towards its current strike direction, NW-SE, the main horizontal stresses also rotated forming conjugates triggered by E-W, NE-SW and N-S compression. Tectonic stylolites found in the Val Lavagna Shale also reflect these compression directions. In addition to conjugates, several other vein types (e.g. bed-parallel and perpendicular, folding-related veins, blobs of mineralization) were observed in the Palombini and Val Lavagna Shale. As the veins intensity was increasing towards the Palombini-Val Lavagna boundary that is considered a fault-contact, we propose that fluid flow along the fault was responsible for the veining. Microstructural evidence, however, also suggested that diffusion from the host rock and dissolution of the veins could have contributed locally to material transport. Early veins show combinations of layer parallel and perpendicular veins and probably represent fluid overpressures. However these features are relatively local.

  14. Comparison between QuikSCAT and buoy wind data in the Ligurian Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pensieri, Sara; Bozzano, Roberto; Schiano, Maria Elisabetta

    2010-06-01

    Wind above sea surface plays an important role in the Mediterranean Sea for a large variety of scientific applications (i.e., climatological, meteorological and oceanographic studies). In this work we compare wind vectors obtained from the SeaWinds scatterometer on board the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) QuikSCAT satellite with wind data measured in situ by an anemometer mounted on the offshore ODAS Italia 1 buoy. This platform is moored in the Central Ligurian Sea, a basin where the wind field is highly variable both in time and space due to the orographic constraints and the thermal contrast between land and sea that give rise to specific local effects. The work covers the period from July 2006 to June 2007. The comparison confirms that the QuikSCAT wind vectors satisfy the accuracy requirements for high wind speeds, but, QuikSCAT skill is less for low wind speed, especially for the direction assessment. These results are in agreement with those of previous investigations but the analysis evidences some issues mistreated until now. The most relevant is the scarceness of data. The satellite passes over the Ligurian Sea only twice a day and data taken under rainy condition and with wind speed lower than 3 ms - 1 are not valid. Thus, the temporal sampling may be not adequate to monitor wind fields and their evolution over this basin where calm condition often occurs and strong perturbations are generally associated to rain. Furthermore, the comparison shows that it may be difficult to recognize spurious values obtained from QuikSCAT when the true wind speed is lower than 3 ms - 1 without a reference at sea.

  15. Investigating frontal variability from repeated glider transects in the Ligurian Current (North West Mediterranean Sea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piterbarg, L.; Taillandier, V.; Griffa, A.

    2014-01-01

    Mesoscale variability of the Ligurian Current (North Western Mediterranean Sea) is studied using glider data from a repeated cross-frontal transect. The Ligurian Current is characterized by a complex time variability, with propagation velocities that can be compared to those of the glider. As a consequence, time variability can appear as folded into space variability in the glider data through the mechanism of Doppler smearing. In this paper, we provide a general framework to illustrate the effects of spatial and temporal variability and introduce a simple methodology to at least partially unfold the uncertainty. We capitalize on the fact that the glider repeatedly covers the transect, and we build time series of isopycnal depth at fixed points using nonlinear interpolation in time and spatial smoothing. Estimates of the isopycnal space patterns are obtained at various times, and a function fitting is used when appropriate allowing to describe the frontal time variability through a few descriptive parameters. Results show a mesoscale signal with scales consistent with what is known in the literature, and characterized by a cross-shore oscillation of the front between approximately 15 and 50 km offshore. The frontal oscillation is quite smooth during the first four transects with propagation speed significantly lower than the glider (≈ 8 km/day), so that the deconvolution method is robust. Local wind also appears to play a role. During the last two transects, instead, the system undergoes dramatic changes with time scales of the order of a day, so that the deconvolution is more problematic.

  16. The ODAS Italia 1 buoy: More than forty years of activity in the Ligurian Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canepa, Elisa; Pensieri, Sara; Bozzano, Roberto; Faimali, Marco; Traverso, Pierluigi; Cavaleri, Luigi

    2015-06-01

    The Ligurian Sea plays a relevant role in driving both the circulation of the Western Mediterranean Sea and the weather and climate of the area. In order to better understand the peculiarities of this basin, the Oceanographic Data Acquisition System (ODAS) Italia 1 buoy was developed and deployed in the early '70s. Throughout the years, the buoy has been fitted with updated measuring and data acquiring systems. Since 2003 the buoy has been part of the Mediterranean Moored Multi-sensor Array network of fixed open ocean observatories with the W1-M3A identifier and presently constitutes one of the Mediterranean sites of the European FixO3 network. Recently, a deep-ocean sub-surface mooring line was, and is, deployed close to it in relation to specific projects. This multidisciplinary observing system is able to perform both long-term operational and ad-hoc monitoring from the lower atmosphere to the deep ocean. It is used for analysis of air-sea interaction processes, study of the physical proprieties of the water column, bio-geo-chemical monitoring of the sea, meteorological and oceanographic model evaluation, calibration of remotely sensed measurements, and development of innovative marine monitoring technologies. After reporting some historical notes and the description of the observing system, this paper summarises and reviews the main oceanographic and atmospheric studies performed during the last 15 years using the data acquired on board.

  17. Analysis of surface circulation structures along a frequently repeated XBT transect crossing the Ligurian and Tyrrhenian Seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciuffardi, Tiziana; Napolitano, Ernesto; Iacono, Roberto; Reseghetti, Franco; Raiteri, Giancarlo; Bordone, Andrea

    2016-07-01

    A dataset of XBT (eXpendable BathyThermograph) temperature profiles collected by ships of opportunity along the Genova-Palermo route, since September 1999, is analyzed, together with altimetric observations and model results, with the purpose of identifying and characterizing robust circulation features along the track and investigating their variability. An anticyclone is found in the Ligurian Sea, just north of the Corsica Channel, not present in previous descriptions of the Mediterranean Sea circulation. It appears to be a recurrent feature, better defined and stronger in summer and in the beginning of autumn. In the northern part of the Tyrrhenian Sea, the well-known Bonifacio dipole shows a similar seasonality, in agreement with previous observations. However, the Bonifacio anticyclone also displays a strong interannual variability, not previously recorded, with significant variations in position and shape. In fact, the data suggest the existence of two distinct summer circulation regimes related to the position and shape of the Ligurian anticyclone. When the latter is wider, filling the entire region north of the Corsica Channel, the circulation in the northern Tyrrhenian Sea is isolated from that in the Ligurian Sea, in agreement with the common picture. However, the altimeter maps show that there are several cases in the last two decades in which the Ligurian anticyclone is small and displaced to the west, allowing an inflow through the Corsica Channel into the Tyrrhenian Sea. The two regimes appear to result from a delicate balance between the forcings acting in the two sub-basins and the topographic constraints.

  18. Analysis of surface circulation structures along a frequently repeated XBT transect crossing the Ligurian and Tyrrhenian Seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciuffardi, Tiziana; Napolitano, Ernesto; Iacono, Roberto; Reseghetti, Franco; Raiteri, Giancarlo; Bordone, Andrea

    2016-04-01

    A dataset of XBT (eXpendable BathyThermograph) temperature profiles collected by ships of opportunity along the Genova-Palermo route, since September 1999, is analyzed, together with altimetric observations and model results, with the purpose of identifying and characterizing robust circulation features along the track and investigating their variability. An anticyclone is found in the Ligurian Sea, just north of the Corsica Channel, not present in previous descriptions of the Mediterranean Sea circulation. It appears to be a recurrent feature, better defined and stronger in summer and in the beginning of autumn. In the northern part of the Tyrrhenian Sea, the well-known Bonifacio dipole shows a similar seasonality, in agreement with previous observations. However, the Bonifacio anticyclone also displays a strong interannual variability, not previously recorded, with significant variations in position and shape. In fact, the data suggest the existence of two distinct summer circulation regimes related to the position and shape of the Ligurian anticyclone. When the latter is wider, filling the entire region north of the Corsica Channel, the circulation in the northern Tyrrhenian Sea is isolated from that in the Ligurian Sea, in agreement with the common picture. However, the altimeter maps show that there are several cases in the last two decades in which the Ligurian anticyclone is small and displaced to the west, allowing an inflow through the Corsica Channel into the Tyrrhenian Sea. The two regimes appear to result from a delicate balance between the forcings acting in the two sub-basins and the topographic constraints.

  19. Recreational Boating in Ligurian Marine Protected Areas (Italy): A Quantitative Evaluation for a Sustainable Management.

    PubMed

    Venturini, S; Massa, F; Castellano, M; Costa, S; Lavarello, I; Olivari, E; Povero, P

    2016-01-01

    Recreational boating is an important economic activity that can also represent a powerful source of interference for biological communities. The monitoring of the recreational boating in all Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) within the Liguria region was conducted in the 2010 summer season and it allowed to obtain information not provided by any official institution. The collaboration of geographically different MPAs in Liguria has led to the implementation of a monitoring framework of recreational boating, and this has made it possible to develop uniform management strategies for all the Ligurian marine parks. This study identifies the optimal number of boats for each MPAs, the number of boats that can anchor in the various parks without creating any impact on the biocenosis of merit, providing a first characterization of recreational boating in Liguria during the high touristic season and providing management recommendation to each MPAs. Generally, the Ligurian MPAs do not present critical situations, the number of boats in each MPA being below the optimal number, with the exception of Portofino MPA, where in the 12.5 % of monitored days more than 220 boats were counted and the mean density for weekend is 1.19 no boats/ha (4 times higher than weekday). The results confirm the dependence of the boats peaking from the holidays and the months of the summer, but also it highlights other factors that can contribute in the choice of the boaters. PMID:26289349

  20. Recreational Boating in Ligurian Marine Protected Areas (Italy): A Quantitative Evaluation for a Sustainable Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venturini, S.; Massa, F.; Castellano, M.; Costa, S.; Lavarello, I.; Olivari, E.; Povero, P.

    2016-01-01

    Recreational boating is an important economic activity that can also represent a powerful source of interference for biological communities. The monitoring of the recreational boating in all Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) within the Liguria region was conducted in the 2010 summer season and it allowed to obtain information not provided by any official institution. The collaboration of geographically different MPAs in Liguria has led to the implementation of a monitoring framework of recreational boating, and this has made it possible to develop uniform management strategies for all the Ligurian marine parks. This study identifies the optimal number of boats for each MPAs, the number of boats that can anchor in the various parks without creating any impact on the biocenosis of merit, providing a first characterization of recreational boating in Liguria during the high touristic season and providing management recommendation to each MPAs. Generally, the Ligurian MPAs do not present critical situations, the number of boats in each MPA being below the optimal number, with the exception of Portofino MPA, where in the 12.5 % of monitored days more than 220 boats were counted and the mean density for weekend is 1.19 no boats/ha (4 times higher than weekday). The results confirm the dependence of the boats peaking from the holidays and the months of the summer, but also it highlights other factors that can contribute in the choice of the boaters.

  1. Evaluation of empirical and semi-analytical chlorophyll algorithms in the Ligurian and North Tyrrhenian Seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lapucci, Chiara; Ampolo Rella, Marina; Brandini, Carlo; Ganzin, Nicolas; Gozzini, Bernardo; Maselli, Fabio; Massi, Luca; Nuccio, Caterina; Ortolani, Alberto; Trees, Charles

    2012-01-01

    The estimation of chlorophyll concentration in marine waters is fundamental for a number of scientific and practical purposes. Standard ocean color algorithms applicable to moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) imagery, such as OC3M and MedOC3, are known to overestimate chlorophyll concentration ([CHL]) in Mediterranean oligotrophic waters. The performances of these algorithms are currently evaluated together with two relatively new algorithms, OC5 and SAM_LT, which make use of more of the spectral information of MODIS data. This evaluation exercise has been carried out using in situ data collected in the North Tyrrhenian and Ligurian Seas during three recent oceanographic campaigns. The four algorithms perform differently in Case 1 and Case 2 waters defined following global and local classification criteria. In particular, the mentioned [CHL] overestimation of OC3M and MedOC3 is not evident for typical Case 1 waters; this overestimation is instead significant in intermediate and Case 2 waters. OC5 and SAM_LT are less sensitive to this problem, and are generally more accurate in Case 2 waters. These results are finally interpreted and discussed in light of a possible operational utilization of the [CHL] estimation methods.

  2. Assimilation of HF radar data in a regional model of the Ligurian Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vandenbulcke, Luc; Barth, Alexander; Beckers, Jean-Marie

    2015-04-01

    An ensemble of ROMS models with 1/60 degree resolution, covering the Ligurian Sea, and nested in the Mediterranean Forecasting System, is coupled with two WERA high-frequency radars run by the NATO Undersea Research Center (now CMRE). The following perturbations are applied to the members of the ensemble: the wind forcing field, the open sea boundary conditions, and a supplementary term in the momentum equation. An ensemble Kalman (EnKF) filter is then used to assimilate hourly-averaged radial currents into the model. A observation operator extracts the corresponding model radial currents from the model currents, then smooths them in the azimuthal direction as a function of distance to the radar. The observations are spatially dense, and not uncorrelated to one another, which is approximated in our experiment by increasing the observation error variance. Different cases are run, with the estimation vector containing the model state (in which case it is called the state vector) or multiple model states at different time steps. In the latter case, the filter is closely related to the Ensemble Smoother and the Asynchronous EnKF. The impact of different parameters is studied: the correlation length of the localization function, the (experimentally determined) total observational error, the stochastic perturbation in the momentum equation, the assimilation window length, etc. The update vector generated by the data assimilation scheme is analyzed to examine whether inertial oscillations are present and corrected. The model surface temperature is also compared with satellite images in order to assess the impact of assimilating one variable (surface currents) on another one (surface temperature).

  3. Differences in foraging activity of deep sea diving odontocetes in the Ligurian Sea as determined by passive acoustic recorders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giorli, Giacomo; Au, Whitlow W. L.; Neuheimer, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Characterizing the trophic roles of deep-diving odontocete species and how they vary in space and time is challenged by our ability to observe foraging behavior. Though sampling methods are limited, foraging activity of deep-diving odontocetes can be monitored by recording their biosonar emissions. Daily occurrence of echolocation clicks was monitored acoustically for five months (July-December 2011) in the Ligurian Sea (Mediterranean Sea) using five passive acoustic recorders. Detected odontocetes included Cuvier's beaked whales (Zipuhius cavirostris), sperm whales (Physeter macrocephalus), Risso's dolphins (Grampus griseus), and long-finned pilot whales (Globicephala melas). The results indicated that the foraging strategies varied significantly over time, with sperm whales switching to nocturnal foraging in late September whereas Risso's dolphins and pilot whales foraged mainly at night throughout the sampling period. In the study area, winter nights are about five hours longer than summer nights and an analysis showed that pilot whales and Risso's dolphins adjusted their foraging activity with the length of the night, foraging longer during the longer winter nights. This is the first study to show that marine mammals exhibit diurnal foraging patterns closely correlated to sunrise and sunset.

  4. Short term summer to autumn variability of dissolved lipid classes in the Ligurian sea (NW Mediterranean)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goutx, M.; Guigue, C.; Aritio D., D.; Ghiglione, J. F.; Pujo-Pay, M.; Raybaud, V.; Duflos, M.; Prieur, L.

    2009-07-01

    Changes in concentration and composition of Iatroscan-measured dissolved lipids were examined at a daily to month scale, in relation to the hydrological and biological context at a central site of the Ligurian sea, NW Mediterranean during the PECHE-DYNAPROC 2 experiment (14 September to 17 October 2004). Lipid concentrations (excluding hydrocarbons) (TLd-HC) and TLd-HC to DOC ratios in the 0-1000 m water column, varied from 5.3 to 48.5 μg l-1 and 0.01 to 0.09, respectively. The highest TLd-HC concentration values were found in the 0-50 m surface layer, coinciding with phytoplankton biomass. Significant correlations (p<0.01, n=87) between glycolipids from chloroplast membranes, namely the monogalactosyldiacylglycerols, a major component of dissolved lipids (25.1±10.8% of TLd-HC, n=166), and various phytoplankton pigments (chlorophyll cs-170, violaxanthin, diadinoxanthin, zeaxanthin, and lutein), suggested that picoeucaryote phytoplankton were a major source of dissolved lipids. Lipid metabolites (free fatty acids, alcohols, diacylglycerols and monoacylglycerols), an other important component of TLd-HC (37.6±11.1%, n=166), showed a greater degree of degradation of lipids in this transitional period than previously observed earlier in the year. Zooplankton wax and steryl ester biomarkers (WSE) and triacylglycerols showed a distinct periodicity in the mesopelagic layer throughout the period investigated. Concentrations of WSE (5.5-13.6 μg/l) increased in the 0-150 m surface layer, mid-way through the cruise (4-6 October), before the winter mixing. WSE were observed later and deeper in the mesopelagic layer (6-11 October), accompanied by rebounds in hydrocarbons (6-8 October) and phospholipid concentrations (12 October) in the 400-1000 m depth layer. Zooplankton migration and/or fecal pellet egestion, followed by DOM release from POM, were likely responsible for the appearance of these lipid signatures in the mesopelagic layer. Because we observed these signatures

  5. Spatial distribution of the copepod Centropages typicus in Ligurian Sea (NW Mediterranean). Role of surface currents estimated by Topex-Poseidon altimetry.

    PubMed

    Molinero, Juan Carlos; Nival, Paul

    2004-12-01

    A particle-tracking model was used to simulate the dispersion and development of the planktonic copepod Centropages typicus during spring in Ligurian Sea. We show that mesoscale current structure, with a coastal jet and eddies, plays a key role in the transport and dispersion of C. typicus during its life cycle. Although, in the north, offshore Nice, cohorts can be advected southwestward out of Ligurian basin, more to the south others are retained in the central eddy and may give the start to the spring bloom of this species. However, input of individuals from the south through the Corsican Channel and along the west coast of Corsica may also be important in spring. This study shows that the ambit of C. typicus population is larger than the Ligurian Sea. PMID:15656353

  6. Endolithic microbial communities in carbonate precipitates from serpentinite-hosted hyperalkaline springs of the Voltri Massif (Ligurian Alps, Northern Italy).

    PubMed

    Quéméneur, Marianne; Palvadeau, Alexandra; Postec, Anne; Monnin, Christophe; Chavagnac, Valérie; Ollivier, Bernard; Erauso, Gaël

    2015-09-01

    The Voltri Massif is an ophiolitic complex located in the Ligurian Alps close to the city of Genova (Northern Italy) where several springs discharge high pH (up to 11.7), low salinity waters produced by the active serpentinization of the ultramafic basement. Mixing of these hyperalkaline waters with the river waters along with the uptake of atmospheric carbon dioxide forms brownish carbonate precipitates covering the bedrock at the springs. Diverse archaeal and bacterial communities were detected in these carbonate precipitates using 454 pyrosequencing analyses of 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes. Archaeal communities were dominated by members of potential methane-producing and/or methane-oxidizing Methanobacteriales and Methanosarcinales (Euryarchaeota) together with ammonia-oxidizing Nitrososphaerales (Thaumarchaeota) similar to those found in other serpentinization-driven submarine and terrestrial ecosystems. Bacterial communities consisted of members of the Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Planctomycetes, Bacteroidetes, Chloroflexi, and Verrucomicrobia phyla, altogether accounting for 92.2% of total retrieved bacterial 16S rRNA gene sequences. Amongst Bacteria, potential chemolithotrophy was mainly associated with Alpha- and Betaproteobacteria classes, including nitrogen-fixing, methane-oxidizing or hydrogen-oxidizing representatives of the genera Azospirillum, Methylosinus, and Hydrogenophaga/'Serpentinomonas', respectively. Besides, potential chemoorganotrophy was attributed mainly to representatives of Actinobacteria and Planctomycetales phyla. The reported 16S rRNA gene data strongly suggested that hydrogen, methane, and nitrogen-based chemolithotrophy can sustain growth of the microbial communities inhabiting the carbonate precipitates in the hyperalkaline springs of the Voltri Massif, similarly to what was previously observed in other serpentinite-hosted ecosystems. PMID:25874424

  7. Submarine-fan facies associations of the Upper Cretaceous and Paleocene Gottero Sandstone, Ligurian Apennines, Italy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nilsen, T.H.; Abbate, E.

    1984-01-01

    The Upper Cretaceous and Paleocene Gottero Sandstone was deposited as a small deep-sea fan on ophiolitic crust in a trench-slope basin. It was thrust northeastward as an allochthonous sheet in Early and Middle Cenozoic time. The Gottero, as thick as 1500 m, was probably derived from erosion of Hercynian granites and associated metamorphic rocks in northern Corsica. Outcrops of inner-fan channel, middle-fan channel and interchannel, outer-fan lobe, fan-fringe, and basin-plain facies associations indicate that the depositional model of Mutti and Ricci Lucchi for mixed-sediment deep-sea fans can be used. The original fan had a radius of 30 to 50 km. ?? 1984 Springer-Verlag New York Inc.

  8. Testing models of orogen exhumation using zircon (U-Th)/He thermochronology: Insight from the Ligurian Alps, Northern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maino, Matteo; Dallagiovanna, Giorgio; Dobson, Katherine J.; Gaggero, Laura; Persano, Cristina; Seno, Silvio; Stuart, Finlay M.

    2012-08-01

    Testing models of orogen exhumation requires precise constraint of the time-temperature paths of the exhumed rocks. The zircon (U-Th)/He (ZHe) thermochronometer has a closure temperature of ~ 140-210 °C, and can provide temporal constraints on the exhumation history of rocks through a thermal range which crucially corresponds the onset of brittle behaviour of an exhuming orogen. We performed ZHe analyses to test the existing contradictory models for the exhumation of the Ligurian Alps. The ZHe ages indicate a very rapid (1.3-6.8 mm/yr) and southward migrating exhumation of the orogen between ~ 32 and 25 Ma. These high exhumation rates are unique within the Alpine belt and cannot be reconciled with existing geodynamic models of the evolution of the Ligurian Alps. We propose a model of tectonic denudation via detachment accomplished in the shallowest crust (< 5 km) as a result of the last orogenic phase of extension.

  9. Observed development of the vertical structure of the marine boundary layer during the LASIE experiment in the Ligurian Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sempreviva, A. M.; Schiano, M. E.; Pensieri, S.; Semedo, A.; Tomé, R.; Bozzano, R.; Borghini, M.; Grasso, F.; Soerensen, L. L.; Teixeira, J.; Transerici, C.

    2010-01-01

    In the marine environment, complete datasets describing the surface layer and the vertical structure of the Marine Atmospheric Boundary Layer (MABL), through its entire depth, are less frequent than over land, due to the high cost of measuring campaigns. During the seven days of the Ligurian Air-Sea Interaction Experiment (LASIE), organized by the NATO Undersea Research Centre (NURC) in the Mediterranean Sea, extensive in situ and remote sensing measurements were collected from instruments placed on a spar buoy and a ship. Standard surface meteorological measurements were collected by meteorological sensors mounted on the buoy ODAS Italia1 located in the centre of the Gulf of Genoa. The evolution of the height (zi) of the MABL was monitored using radiosondes and a ceilometer on board of the N/O Urania. Here, we present the database and an uncommon case study of the evolution of the vertical structure of the MABL, observed by two independent measuring systems: the ceilometer and radiosondes. Following the changes of surface flow conditions, in a sequence of onshore - offshore - onshore wind direction shifting episodes, during the mid part of the campaign, the overall structure of the MABL changed. Warm and dry air from land advected over a colder sea, induced a stably stratified Internal Boundary Layer (IBL) and a consequent change in the structure of the vertical profiles of potential temperature and relative humidity.

  10. Meadow development of the seagrass Posidonia oceanica on the rocky seabed: a preliminary study in the Ligurian Sea.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montefalcone, Monica; Vacchi, Matteo; Schiaffino, Chiara Francesca; Morri, Carla; Cristina, Carbone; Cabella, Roberto; Elter, Franco Marco; Nike Bianchi, Carlo; Ferrari, Marco

    2014-05-01

    Seagrass meadows are key ecosystems in coastal waters, influencing coastal zone features in terms of wave attenuation and shoreline stabilization. Landscape patterns observed in seagrass habitats are often associated with natural effects by waves or currents, as well as by human induced disturbances. Posidonia oceanica, the most important and abundant seagrass in the Mediterranean Sea, forms large meadows from the sea surface down to 40 m depth, colonizing a wide range of substratum typologies. Several studies have correlated the occurrence of P. oceanica meadows with sedimentological features, but few have investigated the role of substratum typology in shaping the geometry of a meadow. Meadows often develop on sand, but may also colonize rock. The present study relates geological parameters (structural, geotechnical, and mineralogical) of the rocky substrata with the development and characteristics of two shallow P. oceanica meadows in the Ligurian Sea (NW Mediterranean). Preliminary results show that the seagrass, in situations of high hydrodynamics, may colonize only specific lithotypes of the rocky substratum such as the clastic sedimentary rocks (mainly sandstone) that are characterized by low porosity and high values of strength. Under these conditions, the plant is capable to settle in areas with high hydrodynamics, where its development is usually prevented by lack of strong rhizome anchoring. When the upper portion of the meadow is installed on sub-verticalized layered rock, on which differential erosion acts, the arrangement of the more tenacious layers becomes the main element characterizing meadow geometry.

  11. Organic matter recycling during a mucilage event and its influence on the surrounding environment (Ligurian Sea, NW Mediterranean)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misic, Cristina; Schiaparelli, Stefano; Harriague, Anabella Covazzi

    2011-04-01

    The development of benthic mucilage in the Marine Protected Area of Portofino (Ligurian Sea) during the summer of 2009 was studied to verify the influence of this event on the surrounding environment (seawater and soft-bottom). The calm meteorological and sea conditions at the beginning of the time frame under consideration caused the thermal stratification of the water column. This stratification was one of the driving factors influencing the development of the mucilage, which developed on a large boulder surface above the pycnocline. Mucilage was progressively detached from the boulder surface by hydrodynamism, together with macroalgae, and sank onto the sediment below the thermocline. Increased surface-water movements, caused by meteorological forcing during the study period, influenced the aggregation-disaggregation of mucilage flocks above the thermocline, leading to increased dissolved oxygen concentrations and enhanced production and turnover of the organic matter (OM). Mixing with the adjacent seawater led to the fertilisation of the surrounding environment with potentially labile OM and inorganic phosphorus, which caused increases in the hydrolytic enzymatic activity. Conversely, below the thermocline, the sunken mucilage and algae aggregates supported a heterotrophic consumption system. Dissolved oxygen concentrations were lower than those recorded in the mucilage lying above the thermocline, making more carbohydrates than proteins and labile phosphorus available. Despite the slow oxygenation of this mucilage, it contributed to the food supply for the soft-bottom macrofauna, which showed an increase in density, diversity and biomass during the study. These results suggest that the development and fate of the mucilage, as well as its interactions with the surrounding environment, were principally regulated by physical features. In the oligotrophic coastal area of the Ligurian Sea, certain compartments of the ecosystem were able to promptly respond and take

  12. Why is the Ligurian Basin (Mediterranean Sea) seismogenic? Thermomechanical modeling of a reactivated passive margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    BéThoux, Nicole; Tric, Emmanuel; Chery, Jean; Beslier, Marie-Odile

    2008-10-01

    The seismic activity of the Ligurian Basin, the northeastern termination of the western Mediterranean basin, is larger than in surrounding regions, even though recent geodetic studies attest that this area is subject to very low levels of deformation. This basin is an example of a type of passive margins that cannot be considered solely as inert sites of sedimentation and of progressive subsidence and that are reactivated in a compressive pattern; other examples include the Kwanza basin (Angola) and the Brazil margin. We investigated, by means of 2-D thermomechanical modeling, the structural and rheological heterogeneities that can lead to concentration of strain in this marginal basin. We deduced that the deformation of the basin is due to its particular geometric features, narrow and with a thick surrounding continental crust, related to its position at the southern termination of the Alps. This sharp transition, in terms of both geometry and rheological contrast, is a main factor in explaining the weakness of the margin. We discuss the importance of buoyancy forces versus tectonic forces, as well as thermal effects, on the observed reactivation. Influence of contrast in rheology between an oceanic-type crust and continental crust is also studied. Geodynamical implications are proposed for the region. The good agreement between the predicted localized deformation and the observed seismicity distribution should help improve seismic hazard assessment in the region.

  13. Halimeda dominance in the coastal wedge of Pietra di Finale (Ligurian Alps, Italy): The role of trophic conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandano, Marco; Tomassetti, Laura; Frezza, Virgilio

    2015-05-01

    The Middle to Late Miocene mixed carbonate-siliciclastic coastal wedge of the Pietra di Finale, unconformably overlying the Ligurian Alps succession, displays a carbonate portion dominated by Halimeda and Porites fragments that fall in the photozoan assemblages. Photozoan assemblages typically develop under tropical and oligotrophic conditions, while hetorozoan assemblages tend to thrive in high-nutrient settings. The Pietra di Finale Formation shows, however, that high weathering and an increase of nutrient inputs related to Alpine uplift and humid climatic conditions promoted Halimeda over the seagrass carbonate factory in the photic zone. The successful Halimeda proliferation was due to its efficient competition for nutrients, especially nitrogen. Thus, the Pietra di Finale Formation represents an interesting, counter-intuitive example in which increased nutrient concentrations promoted, instead of inhibited, a photozoan over a seagrass-related heterozoan carbonate production.

  14. Data assimilation in a marine ecosystem model coupled to a mixed layer model of the ligurian sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magri, S.; Brasseur, P.; Lacroix, G.

    2003-04-01

    Data assimilation have been conducted in a one-dimensional, coupled physical ecosystem model of the upper ocean to characterize the observability properties of in situ observing systems. The assimilation method is based on the Singular Evolutive Extended Kalman (SEEK) filter, in which the error sub-space is decomposed into multivariate orthogonal functions of the system's variability. The coupled model simulates the primary production in a coastal zone of the Ligurian Sea, where oligotrophic conditions prevail. The ecosystem dynamics is represented by 12 interacting compartments expressed in nitrogen units. The coupling with an hydrodynamic model determines the physical constraints associated to the development of a seasonal mixed layer. The stratification of the water column, according to the computation of the vertical turbulent diffusivities, is a key parameter of the evolution of the marine ecosystem. The coupled system have been developped and validated on the basis of field data collected during the FRONTAL compains between 1984 and 1988. Firstly, twin experiments have been performed to approach the observability properties, i.e. to study if the available data are sufficient to control the spatio-temporal evolution of the biological state variables. Experiments have been also performed where two quantities are observed simultaneously. For that, vertical temperature and salinity profiles on the one hand, and vertical nitrate and chlorophyll profiles on the other hand, have been assimilated with different spatial sampling strategies ( 'complete' profiles along the water column - 'pseudo-profiles' FRONTAL taking into account the spatial sampling of FRONTAL campains). These experiments allow to know if FRONTAL data are appropriately sampled to be assimilated, or if it is necessary to take into account new strategies for futures campains. Secondly, applying lessons learned from twin assimilation experiments, physical and biological profiles of in situ data

  15. Soft-bottom macrobenthic community composition and biomass in a Posidonia oceanica meadow in the Ligurian Sea (NW Mediterranean)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Covazzi Harriague, Anabella; Bianchi, Carlo Nike; Albertelli, Giancarlo

    2006-10-01

    A soft-bottom community (6-8 m depth) within a seagrass bed in Prelo Bay (Eastern Ligurian Sea) was studied between April 1990 and August 1991. Samples were collected using a suction device and were sieved through a 1-mm mesh size. Cluster analysis showed seasonal fluctuations in the macrofauna density with highest values in summer 1990 (maximum 2870.0 ± 2029.4 ind. m -2 in August 1990) and lowest in late spring 1991 (100.0 ± 37.8 ind. m -2 at the end of May 1991). On the whole, the community was characterised by a high number of species (184 species plus 17 higher taxa) but only 12 accounted for 78% of the total density, so diversity was relatively low. Dissimilarity between seasons was high (on average 74.7 ± 8.3) and the principal discriminating species was the amphipod Siphonoecetes dellavallei, whose successful recruitment dominated community density in summer 1990. Total macrofauna biomass ranged between 166.1 ± 67.8 mg AFDW m -2 (May 1991) and 2399.8 ± 1073.2 mg AFDW m -2 (June 1991); molluscs being the major contributors (ca. 61%) with single large individuals. Secondary production reached on average 0.4 ± 0.2 g C m -2 y -1. Notwithstanding the relative low biomass, deposit-feeders were the major contributors to secondary production (38%), indicating their high efficiency in utilizing their food resource (detritus-associated bacteria). The seagrass bed seems to play only an indirect role in the structure and function of macrofaunal assemblages.

  16. Seafloor morphology: nature of the seabed and the cold water corals of the Levante Canyon (eastern Ligurian Sea, NW Mediterranean)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delbono, Ivana; Ivaldi, Roberta; Pratellesi, Marta; Fanelli, Emanuela; Peirano, Andrea; Cocito, Silvia; Dialti, Lorenzo; Delfanti, Roberta

    2014-05-01

    The Levante Canyon, located approximately in the offshore area of Cinque Terre (eastern Ligurian Sea, NW Mediterranean), was investigated in autumn 2013 onboard Italian Navy Ships through high resolution multibeam (MB), side scan sonar (SSS) and image data acquired by a Remotely Operating Vehicle (ROV) in order to study the seafloor features and ecological characters. First data allow us to product a seabed mapping of the study area with high detail of seafloor shapes, to be extended to other similar sectors of the canyon catchment area, constituted by a dendritic pattern of each individual gully network. The highest values of slope (17°) can be found in the steep canyon heads and flanks. Slope values up to 10° can be seen depicting sea-bed mounds on the northernmost and central interfluve. MB and SSS data show higher acoustic backscatter in the deepest sections of the canyon than interfluve and the changes in the sea-bed nature over the mounds are highlighted as areas of variable intensity. ROV images were recorded from 510 m depth up to 370 m and suggested the presence of biological communities, mainly typical of deep muddy bottom, and small cold water coral colonies, possibly identified as Madrepora oculata. This survey provides not only a detailed mapping of the variable morphology of the proximal area of the Levante Canyon, but it also investigates the seabed nature and biological communities within the canyon system for the assessment of a potential Site of Community Importance (SCI) under the European Commission Habitats Directive (92/43/EEC). In particular cold water corals (CWC) provide a complex structural marine habitat hosting high levels of biological diversity, which are in the reef habitat three times higher compared to the surrounding seabed. For this reason they fall within the habitats that deserve protection (EU-Habitat 1170 "Reefs"). Preliminary observations and data interpretations suggest that the Levante Canyon shows interesting

  17. Drones as tools for monitoring beach topography changes in the Ligurian Sea (NW Mediterranean)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casella, Elisa; Rovere, Alessio; Pedroncini, Andrea; Stark, Colin P.; Casella, Marco; Ferrari, Marco; Firpo, Marco

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate topographic changes along a stretch of coastline in the Municipality of Borghetto Santo Spirito (Region of Liguria, Italy, north-western Mediterranean) by means of a remotely piloted aircraft system coupled with structure from motion and multi-view stereo techniques. This sector was surveyed three times over 5 months in the fall-winter of 2013-2014 (1 November 2013, 4 December 2013, 17 March 2014) to obtain digital elevation models and orthophotos of the beach. Changes in beach topography associated with storm action and human activities were assessed in terms of gain/loss of sediments and shifting of the wet-dry boundary defining the shoreline. Between the first and second surveys, the study area was hit by two storms (10-11 November 2013 and 21-22 November 2013) with waves approaching from the E-NNE, causing a shoreline retreat which, in some sectors, reached 7 m. Between the second and third surveys, by contrast, four storms (25-27 December 2013, 5-6 January 2014, 17-18 January 2014 and 6-10 February 2014) with waves propagating from the SE produced a general advancement of the shoreline (up to ~5 m) by deposition of sediments along some parts of the beach. The data also reflect changes in beach topography due to human activity during the 2013 fall season, when private beach managers quarried ~178 m3 of sediments on the emerged beach near the shoreline to accumulate them landwards. The results show that drones can be used for regular beach monitoring activities, and that they can provide new insights into the processes related to natural and/or human-related topographic beach changes.

  18. Habitat use and preferences of cetaceans along the continental slope and the adjacent pelagic waters in the western Ligurian Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azzellino, A.; Gaspari, S.; Airoldi, S.; Nani, B.

    2008-03-01

    The physical habitat of cetaceans occurring along the continental slope in the western Ligurian Sea was investigated. Data were collected from two different sighting platforms, one of the two being a whale-watching boat. Surveys, conducted from May to October and from 1996 to 2000, covered an area of approximately 3000 km 2 with a mean effort of about 10,000 km year -1. A total of 814 sightings was reported, including all the species occurring in the area: Stenella coeruleoalba, Balaenoptera physalus, Physeter macrocephalus, Globicephala melas, Grampus griseus, Ziphius cavirostris, Tursiops truncatus, Delphinus delphis. A Geographic Information System was used to integrate sighting data to a set of environmental characteristics, which included bottom gradient, area between different isobaths, and length and linearity of the isobaths within a cell unit. Habitat use was analysed by means of a multi-dimensional scaling, MDS, analysis. Significant differences were found in the habitat preference of most of the species regularly occurring in the area. Bottlenose dolphin, Risso's dolphin, sperm whale and Cuvier's beaked whale were found strongly associated to well-defined depth and slope gradient characteristics of the shelf-edge and the upper and lower slope. The hypothesis of habitat segregation was considered for Risso's dolphin, sperm whale and Cuvier's beaked whale. Canonical discriminant functions using depth and slope as predictors outlined clear and not overlapping habitat preferences for Risso's dolphin and Cuvier's beaked whale, whereas a partial overlapping of the habitat of the other two species was observed for sperm whale. Such a partitioning of the upper and lower slope area may be the result of the common feeding habits and suggests a possible competition of these three species. A temporal segregation in the use of the slope area was also observed for sperm whales and Risso's dolphins. Fin whales, and the occasionally encountered common dolphin and long

  19. Real-time forecasting at weekly timescales of the SST and SLA of the Ligurian Sea with a satellite-based ocean forecasting (SOFT) system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ÁLvarez, A.; Orfila, A.; Tintoré, J.

    2004-03-01

    Satellites are the only systems able to provide continuous information on the spatiotemporal variability of vast areas of the ocean. Relatively long-term time series of satellite data are nowadays available. These spatiotemporal time series of satellite observations can be employed to build empirical models, called satellite-based ocean forecasting (SOFT) systems, to forecast certain aspects of future ocean states. SOFT systems can predict satellite-observed fields at different timescales. The forecast skill of SOFT systems forecasting the sea surface temperature (SST) at monthly timescales has been extensively explored in previous works. In this work we study the performance of two SOFT systems forecasting, respectively, the SST and sea level anomaly (SLA) at weekly timescales, that is, providing forecasts of the weekly averaged SST and SLA fields with 1 week in advance. The SOFT systems were implemented in the Ligurian Sea (Western Mediterranean Sea). Predictions from the SOFT systems are compared with observations and with the predictions obtained from persistence models. Results indicate that the SOFT system forecasting the SST field is always superior in terms of predictability to persistence. Minimum prediction errors in the SST are obtained during winter and spring seasons. On the other hand, the biggest differences between the performance of SOFT and persistence models are found during summer and autumn. These changes in the predictability are explained on the basis of the particular variability of the SST field in the Ligurian Sea. Concerning the SLA field, no improvements with respect to persistence have been found for the SOFT system forecasting the SLA field.

  20. High-frequency fluxes of labile compounds in the central Ligurian Sea, northwestern Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goutx, M.; Momzikoff, A.; Striby, L.; Andersen, V.; Marty, J. C.; Vescovali, I.

    2000-03-01

    Sinking particles were collected every 4 h with drifting sediment traps deployed at 200 m depth in May 1995 in a 1-D vertical system during the DYNAPROC observations in the northwestern Mediterranean sea. POC, proteins, glucosamine and lipid classes were used as indicators of the intensity and quality of the particle flux. The roles of day/night cycle and wind on the particle flux were examined. The transient regime of production from late spring bloom to pre-oligotrophy determined the flux intensity and quality. POC fluxes decreased from, on average, 34 to 11 mg m -2 d -1, representing 6-14% of the primary production under late spring bloom conditions to 1-2% under pre-oligotrophic conditions. Total protein and chloroplast lipid fluxes correlated with POC and reflected the input of algal biomass into the traps. As the season proceeded, changes in the biochemical composition of the exported material were observed. The C/N ratio rose from 7.8 to 12. Increases of serine (10-28% of total proteins), total lipids (7-9 to 14-28% of POC) and reserve lipids (1-5 to 5-22% of total lipids) were noticeable, whereas total protein content in POC decreased (20-27 to 18-7%). N-acetyl glucosamine, a tracer of fecal pellet flux, showed that zooplankton grazing was a major vector of downward export during the decaying bloom. Against this background pattern, episodic events specifically increased the flux, modifying the quality and the settling velocity of particles. Day/night signals in biotracers (POC, N-acetyl glucosamine, protein and chloroplast lipids) showed that zooplankton migrations were responsible for sedimentation of fresh material through fast sinking particles ( V=170-180 m d -1) at night. Periodic signatures of re-processed material (high lipolysis and bacterial biomass indices) suggested that other zooplankton fecal pellets or small aggregates, probably of lower settling velocities ( V<170 m d -1), contributed to the flux during calm periods. At the beginning of the

  1. Multiple refertilisation of oceanic mantle: new insights into the evolution of the southern sector of the Ligurian Tethys from Mt. Pollino ophiolites (Basilicata, Southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carmine Mazzeo, Fabio; D'Antonio, Massimo; Zanetti, Alberto; Petrosino, Paola; Aulinas, Meritxell

    2015-04-01

    Southern Apennine ophiolites consist of a serpentinized peridotite basement and a reduced crustal sequence characterized by lack of sheeted-dyke complexes, relatively small volumes of intruded gabbros, and a discontinuous basaltic and pelagic sediments cover. These ophiolites are believed to represent fragments of the Ligurian branch of Tethys oceanic crust that were obducted on continental crust during its closure. A thorough petrological investigation has been carried out on ophiolites that crop out widely along the boundary between Basilicata and Calabria, close to Mt. Pollino (Southern Italy). All peridotite samples contain large amount of serpentine, and are characterized by millimeter-sized porphyroclasts of olivine and orthopyroxene, varying from anhedral to subhedral and showing internal deformation. Clinopyroxene is present as large crystals or as exsolution lamellae in orthopyroxene. Spinels are typically anhedral. The protoliths of all samples were likely depleted harzburgites and/or cpx-poor lherzolites. Three samples (named Type-1) have MgO = 40.9-41.3 wt.%, while the other samples (named Type-2) have higher concentrations of MgO = 43.3-44.6 wt.%. The Type-1 peridotites have the highest values of Al2O3, CaO, SiO2, Sc and V, but lower Ni and Co contents. Peridotites show chondrite-normalized REE patterns with strong, but variable depletions in LREE. Type-1 peridotites are less depleted, whereas Type-2 peridotites are strongly depleted HREE pattern regions are poorly variable, showing chondritic values. The geochemical variations displayed by major oxides and trace elements, and the positive relationship between Fo content of olivine and Cr# of spinel suggest high degrees of partial melting (~20%). However, the degree of partial melting inferred on the basis of LREE concentrations of clinopyroxenes is much lower than that recorded by the spinel-olivine equilibrium (maximum ~6% near-fractional melting of a spinel-facies depleted mantle for both

  2. Observation of Mesoscale Instabilities of the Northern Current in the North Western Mediterranean Sea : a Combined Study Using Gliders, Surface Drifters, Moving Vessel Profiler and Vessel Data in the Ligurian Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pairaud, I. L.; Garreau, P.; Le Berre, D.; Fernandez Bruyère, D.; Bellomo, L.; Garnier, V.

    2014-12-01

    The Northern Current (NC) is a branch of the general North-Western Mediterranean cyclonic circulation extending from the Ligurian to the Catalan Sea (Millot, Dynamics of Atmospheres and Oceans, vol. 15, 1991). In winter and early spring, instabilities of this slope current are intense and can generate eddies, meanders and filaments. The study of mesoscale structures is crucial in the coastal area because of their physical and biogeochemical impact on ecosystems. They play a role in water, chemicals and nutrients transport, vertical mixing and possible trapping of biological materials. Results from a combined observational effort put forth in March 2012 during the IMEDIA cruise dedicated to eddy tracking are presented. This work aims at providing experimental evidence of the effects that mesoscale exerts on the NC dynamics via an innovative and complementary data set. A Slocum Glider equipped with a CTD was deployed along the French coast from Nice to Toulon for one month and performed cross-current sections down to 600m depth. Drifters were deployed before the cruise in the Corsica Channel and close to Italy. Concurrent observations were obtained along the vessel track by a thermosalinograph and a fluorometer (subsurface measurements), and using a CTD and a Vessel-Mounted ADCP during the 11-day oceanographic cruise on board of the Research Vessel Tethys II. Additional water profiling was performed using a Moving Vessel Profiler (MVP) equipped with a CTD and capable of profiling down to 400m depth at a speed of 4 knots. The combined use of data from the MVP and the ship-based ADCP measurements reveals the presence of an instability of the NC north of the Corsica Island. The main branch of the current is moved westward and forms a meander. It is characterized by a density decrease down to 350m of the water column, associated with a salinity decrease of 0.4-0.6 psu (see Figure). Its location is confirmed by high-resolution satellite images as the associated water

  3. Linking serpentinite geochemistry with tectonic evolution at the subduction plate-interface: The Voltri Massif case study (Ligurian Western Alps, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cannaò, E.; Scambelluri, M.; Agostini, S.; Tonarini, S.; Godard, M.

    2016-10-01

    Recent geochemical work shows that subduction-zone serpentinites are repositories for fluid-mobile elements absorbed during interaction with sediment-derived fluids. Unraveling the geochemical fingerprint of these rocks helps to define timing of tectonic accretion of sediments along the subduction interface and the role of serpentinite in element recycling to volcanic arcs. Here we present the trace element and isotopic composition (B-O-H, Sr, Pb) of high-pressure serpentinites from the Voltri Massif (Ligurian Western Alps, Italy), to discuss their role as incompatible element carriers and their contribution to recycling of sediment-derived components in subduction zones. The serpentinites presented here record metamorphic olivine growth during eclogite-facies metamorphism and show undeformed and mylonitic textures. Field relations show that undeformed rocks are enclosed in deformed ones and that no metasedimentary rocks are present nearby. Undeformed serpentinite has very high δ11BSRM951 (from +26‰ to +30‰), low Sr and Pb isotope ratios (87Sr/86Sr = 0.7053-0.7069; 206Pb/204Pb = 18.131-18.205) and low As and Sb contents (0.1 and 0.01 μg/g, respectively). Oxygen and hydrogen isotope compositions are +4.5‰ and -67‰, respectively. In contrast, mylonitic serpentinite shows lower δ11B (from +22‰ to +17‰), significant enrichment in radiogenic Sr and Pb isotopes (87Sr/86Sr up to 0.7105; 206Pb/204Pb up to 18.725), and enrichment in As and Sb (1.3 and 0.39 μg/g, respectively). δ18O of the mylonitic serpentinites reaches values of +5.9‰, whereas δD is comparable with that of undeformed rocks (approximately -70‰). In mylonitic serpentinites, the B and Sr isotopic values and the fluid-mobile element (FME) concentrations are near those for the Voltri metasedimentary rocks (calc- and mica-schists). Pb systematics also reveal influx of a crust-derived component. Our dataset shows that undeformed serpentinite still preserves an oceanic geochemical fingerprint

  4. Influence of meteorological variability on primary production dynamics in the Ligurian Sea (NW Mediterranean Sea) with a 1D hydrodynamic/biological model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacroix, G.; Nival, P.

    1998-09-01

    In order to estimate the effects of the meteorological variability on the gross primary production in the Ligurian Sea (NW Mediterranean Sea), a coupling between a hydrodynamic model and a biological one is realized. The one-dimensional version of the GHER hydrodynamic model includes heat and momentum exchanges at the air-sea interface. It is coupled with a simple food-web model from the LEPM. A simulation performed with real meteorological data for the year 1985 reproduces reasonably the seasonal phytoplanktonic dynamics and the distribution between diatoms and flagellates. From this simulation, an annual gross primary production integrated over 200 m of 46.4 g C m -2 year -1 is computed which is representative of an oligotrophic environment. In order to estimate the relative effect on the gross primary production of the meteorological variability on the one hand and of the initial conditions on the other hand, several runs have been performed for the year 1985 with different conditions of light, wind intensity and nitrate initial quantity. The first simulations are performed with daily and monthly mean solar radiation and wind intensity. An averaging of wind intensity yields a decrease in the gross primary production and leads to unrealistic phytoplankton dynamics. It seems then necessary to take into account the 3-hourly variability of the wind intensity in order to simulate the phytoplankton dynamics with relatively good accuracy. On the other hand, an averaging of the solar radiation leads to an increase in the gross primary production. The following simulations are performed with an increase (decrease) in the solar radiation, the wind intensity or the nitrate initial quantity which are representative of the variability observed in a 5-year set of meteorological and hydrobiological data (1984-1988). An increase in the solar radiation is found to reduce the gross primary production, while an increase in the initial nitrate quantity or the wind intensity leads

  5. Atmospheric input of inorganic nitrogen and phosphorus to the Ligurian Sea: Data from the Cap Ferrat coastal time-series station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Fommervault, Orens Pasqueron; Migon, Christophe; Dufour, Aurélie; D'Ortenzio, Fabrizio; Kessouri, Fayçal; Raimbault, Patrick; Garcia, Nicole; Lagadec, Véronique

    2015-12-01

    Atmospheric fluxes of bio-available inorganic nitrogen (DIN, i.e. nitrate+ammonium) and phosphorus (DIP, i.e. phosphate) were measured in 2010, 2011 and 2013 at the sampling station of Cap Ferrat (Ligurian Sea). Wet and dry fluxes of DIN, averaged over three years, were 35 and 19 mmol m-2 yr-1, respectively. Most of the nitrate was deposited under dry form, whilst ammonia was twice more found in wet deposition. Wet and dry fluxes of DIP, averaged over three years, were 0.11 and 0.64 mmol m-2 yr-1, respectively. Atmospheric fluxes of DIN and DIP were compared with other photic zone nutrient input sources, physical and biological, i.e. winter convection, N2 fixation, and upward diffusion. Even if convection is by far the most important nutrient input for surface waters, atmospheric sources may be the second one, supplying more nutrients than diazotrophy and diffusion, particularly in conditions of water column stratification.

  6. Synrift sedimentation on the northern Tethys margin: an example from the Ligurian Alps (Upper Triassic to Lower Cretaceous, Prepiedmont domain, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Decarlis, Alessandro; Lualdi, Alberto

    2011-10-01

    The Prepiedmont domain succession of the Ligurian Alps is formed by a thick Mesozoic sedimentary cover tectonically detached from its substratum. The Arnasco-Castelbianco unit preserves the most complete record of the Ligurian Prepiedmont, although completely overturned and deformed due to Alpine tectonics. It is composed of carbonate and clastic rocks deposited during the Upper Triassic to Lower Cretaceous interval. This paper is focused on the stratigraphy of the Jurassic series and its relationships to the Tethyan rifting. Each term of the sedimentary record is seen as a witness of the several phases through which the rifting took place. An early rifting phase (Late Hettangian to Early Sinemurian) brought to the formation of a normal fault system affecting the carbonate platform and favoured the development of condensed sedimentation on pelagic highs. The rapid transition from open-platform carbonates to slope-basin cherty limestones testifies the increased subsidence of the margin in the Late Sinemurian, during which moderate fault activity is recorded (intraformational breccia horizons). Until the Early Pliensbachian, a tectonic pause brought to the sedimentation of a succession of pelagic carbonates, occasionally interrupted by clastic flows. During the Late Pliensbachian (?) to Toarcian, the rifting phase followed, evidenced by the large amount of clastics and generated by renewed fault activity. Clastics flowed down into the basin as fluxoturbidites first, and then passed to breccias during the maximum tectonic pulse. In the Late Toarcian to Aalenian (?), the thermal uplift of the Briançonnais shoulder generated a basin fill of fine clastics. The following thermal subsidence (Aalenian to Tithonian) favoured the restoration of quiet basinal conditions evidenced by the deposition of radiolarites.

  7. Methyl mercury distributions in relation to the presence of nano- and picophytoplankton in an oceanic water column (Ligurian Sea, North-western Mediterranean)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heimbürger, Lars-Eric; Cossa, Daniel; Marty, Jean-Claude; Migon, Christophe; Averty, Bernard; Dufour, Aurélie; Ras, Josephine

    2010-10-01

    Recent findings on the distribution of methylated mercury (MeHg T) in waters have highlighted the importance of organic carbon remineralization on the production of these compounds in the open ocean. Here, we present the first time-series (20 monthly samplings between July 2007 and May 2009) of high-resolution vertical profiles (10-12 depths in a 2350 m water column) of MeHg T distributions in an open ocean environment, the Ligurian Sea (North-western Mediterranean Sea). Concentrations varied within the sub-picomolar range (general mean: 0.30 ± 0.17 pmol L -1, n = 214) with the lowest values at the surface, increasing with depth up to the oxygen minimum zone, and decreasing slowly at greater depth. Concentrations in the surface waters never exceeded 0.15 pmol L -1, while the highest concentrations (up to 0.82 pmol L -1) were associated to the hypoxycline during the autumn bloom. A detailed vertical MeHg T profile reveals a "double-peak" pattern, coincidental with the two microbial layers described by Tanaka and Rassoulzadegan (2002), the so-called "microbial food web" in the euphotic zone (<100 m) and the "microbial loop" in the aphotic zone (>100 m). Temporal variations in the MeHg T abundance and distribution in the water column were linked to seasonality. The highest MeHg T concentrations were found in the oxygen minimum zone during the period of stratification, and coincide with the greatest abundance of nano- and picophytoplankton (cyanobacteria, nanoflagellates, etc.) in the euphotic layer. None of our deep MeHg T measurements (˜100 m above the sea bottom) revealed a significant sedimentary source of MeHg T. We explored the correlation between MeHg T concentrations and the apparent oxygen utilization, a proxy of organic matter remineralization, over the study period. Results of this study strengthen the hypothesis that net mercury methylation in the open ocean occurs in the water column, is linked to organic matter regeneration, and is promoted by the

  8. Metal mobility in river and sea sediments affected by mine drainage (Sestri Levante, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Consani, Sirio; Capello, Marco; Cutroneo, Laura; Vagge, Greta; Zuccarelli, Andrea; Carbone, Cristina

    2016-04-01

    The Gromolo Torrent is a metal-polluted Apennine streamflow located near Sestri Levante (Liguria, Italy). It springs from the Monte Rocca Grande (850 m a.s.l.), and flows for 11.5 km through the Gromolo Valley before flowing into the Ligurian Sea. Inside the Gromolo basin is located the abandoned Fe-Cu mine of Libiola, which was the most important sulfide deposit of the Ligurian Apennines. In this mining site, extensive Acid Mine Drainage (AMD) processes are active, both inside the mine tunnels and in the sulfide rich waste-rock dumps; the solutions generated are characterised by low pH values and high amounts of dissolved SO42-, Fe, and other chemical elements such as Cu, Zn, Pb, Al, Co, and Ni. Moreover, exstensively precipitation of Fe and Cu-rich secondary minerals occurs both as soft crusts inside the mine adits and as loose suspensions associated with overland flow of mine drainage. AMD waters flowed into the uncontaminated Gromolo Torrent where abundant precipitation of amorphous Fe(III)-oxy-hydroxides occurred. The marine study area is characterised by the presence of the headland of Sestri Levante with two bays, the western one named "Baia delle Favole". The dynamics of the area is dominated by a permanent north-westward off-shore current flowing approximately along isobath, and an eastward counter-current along the north coast with a resulting drift of the coastal materials from the West to Est towards "Baia delle Favole". The bottom sediment are principally characterised by coarse materials, mostly consisting of fine sand, with a percentage of the fine sediment increasing inside the bay, where the dynamics is low. The aims of this work are to 1) evaluate the metal mobility of colloidal river precipitates for about 7 km up to its mouth in the Ligurian Sea; 2) verify the contamination state of the marine bottom sediments off the mouth of the Gromolo Torrent ("Baia delle Favole" of Sestri Levante), and 3) identify the main sources and diffusion ways of

  9. Tephrochronology offshore Ischia Island, Tyrrhenian sea, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Insinga, Donatella; Sulpizio, Roberto; de Alteriis, Giovanni; Morabito, Simona; Morra, Vincenzo; Sprovieri, Mario; di Benedetto, Claudia; Lubritto, Carmine; Zanchetta, Giovanni

    2010-05-01

    the coring site. The definition of the source area of these two major events is still a matter of debate. However, the Somma-Vesuvius complex reasonably sourced the Schiava deposits while a Campi Flegrei provenance for the Codola deposits cannot be ruled out (Di Vito et al., 2008). These latters, known as C10 tephra in the Tyrrhenian and Adriatic sea (Paterne et al., 1988; Giaccio et al., 2008), in particular, represent reliable regional markers for the whole central Mediterranean area. References De Vivo, B., Rolandi, G., Gans, P.B., Calvert, A., Bohrson,W.A., Spera, F.J., Belkin, H.E., 2001. New constraints on the pyroclastic eruptive history of the Campanian volcanic Plain (Italy). Mineralogy and Petrology 73, 47-65. Di Vito,M.A., Sulpizio, R., Zanchetta, G., D'Orazio, M., 2008. The late Pleistocene pyroclastic deposits of the Campanian Plain: newinsights into the explosive activity of Neapolitan volcanoes. J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res.177, 19-48. Giaccio, B., Isaia, R., Fedele, F.G., Di Canzio, E., Hoffecker, J., Ronchitelli, A., Sinitsyn, A., Anikovich, M., Lisitsyn, S.N., 2008. The Campanian Ignimbrite and Codola tephra layers: two temporal/stratigraphic markers for the Early Upper Palaeloithic in southern Italy and eastern Europe. J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res. 177, 210-228. Paterne M., Guichard F. & Labeyrie J., 1988. Explosive activity of the south Italian volcanoes during the past 80.000 years as determined by marine tephrochronology. J. Volcanol. Geother. Res. 34, 153-172. Paterne, M., Guichard, F., 1993. Triggering of volcanic pluses in the Campanian area, south Italy, by periodic deep magma in.ux. Journal of Geophysical Research 98 (B2), 1861-1873. Rio, D., Raffi, I., Villa, G., 1990. Pliocene-Pleistocene calcareous nannofossil distribution patterns in the western Mediterranean. In: Kastens, K.A. (Ed.), Proceedings of the Ocean Drilling Program. Scientific Results, vol. 107. Ocean Drilling Program, College Station, TX, pp. 513-533. Sulpizio, R., Zanchetta, G

  10. 210Pb mass accumulation rates in the depositional area of the Magra River (Mediterranean Sea, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delbono, I.; Barsanti, M.; Schirone, A.; Conte, F.; Delfanti, R.

    2016-08-01

    Nine sediment cores were collected between 2009 and 2012 in the inner continental shelf (Mediterranean Sea, Italy) mainly influenced by the Magra River, at water depths ranging from 11 to 64 m. Mass Accumulation Rates (MARs) were calculated through 210Pb analysed by Gamma spectrometry. Three different dating models (single and two-layer CF-CS, CRS) were applied to clay normalised 210Pbxs profiles and 137Cs was used to validate the 210Pb geochronology. The maximum MAR values (>2 g cm-2 yr-1) were found in the region adjacent to the Magra River mouth and outside the Gulf of La Spezia (0.9±0.1 g cm-2 yr-1 at St. 3-C6 and 4-C4). Results from 137Cs/210Pbxs ratios calculated in Surface Mixed Layers (SMLs) evidenced the coastal boundaries of the Magra River depositional area, which is very limited towards south. Differently, in the north-west sector, fine sediments are generally driven by the Ligurian Current and move towards north-west: at the deepest and most distant station from the River mouth, the MAR value is the lowest one in the study area. Few major Magra River floods occurred during the sediment core sampling period. By using the short-lived radioisotope 7Be as a tracer of river floods, a clear 7Be signature of 2009 flood is present at St. 1-SA1C. Finally, by analyzing the clay normalised 210Pbxs profiles, a decrease of its activity dating the years 1999 and 2000 is observed in four cores, corresponding to two major Magra River floods occurring in those years.

  11. The Ligurian Cluster for Marine Technologies (DLTM): matching local research and industrial needs on oceanographic data.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stroobant, M.; Locritani, M.; Marini, D.; Sabbadini, L.; Carmisciano, C.; Manzella, G.; Magaldi, M.; Aliani, S.

    2012-04-01

    DLTM is the Ligurian Region (north Italy) cluster of Centre of Excellence (CoE) in waterborne technologies, that involves about 120 enterprises - of which, more than 100 SMEs -, the University of Genoa, all the main National Research Centres dealing with maritime and marine technologies established in Liguria (CNR, INGV, ENEA-UTMAR), the NATO Undersea Research Centre (NURC) and the Experimental Centre of the Italian Navy (CSSN), the Bank, the Port Authority and the Chamber of Commerce of the city of La Spezia. Following its mission, DLTM has recently established three Collaborative Research Laboratories focused on: 1. Computational Fluid dynamics (CFD_Lab) 2. High Performance Computing (HPC_Lab) 3. Monitoring and Analysis of Marine Ecosystems (MARE_Lab). The main role of them is to improve the relationships among the research centres and the enterprises, encouraging a systematic networking approach and sharing of knowledge, data, services, tools and human resources. Two of the key objectives of Lab_MARE are the establishment of: - an integrated system of observation and sea forecasting; - a Regional Marine Instrument Centre (RMIC) for oceanographic and metereological instruments (assembled using 'shared' tools and facilities). Besides, an important and innovative research project has been recently submitted to the Italian Ministry for Education, University and Research (MIUR). This project, in agreement with the European Directives (COM2009 (544)), is aimed to develop a Management Information System (MIS) for oceanographic and meteorological data in the Mediterranean Sea. The availability of adequate HPC inside DLTM is, of course, an important asset for achieving useful results; for example, the Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) model is currently running on a high-resolution mesh on the cluster to simulate and reproduce the circulation within the Ligurian Sea. ROMS outputs will have broad and multidisciplinary impacts because ocean circulation affects the

  12. A three-year time series of elemental and biochemical composition of organic matter in subtidal sandy sediments of the Ligurian Sea (northwestern Mediterranean)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fabiano, M.; Danovaro, R.; Fraschetti, S.

    Variations in organic matter composition and microphytobenthic biomass were examined in the surface sandy sediments at a water depth of 10 m in the Gulf of Marconi (NW Mediterranean Sea) over a three year period. Seasonal changes in elemental (organic C and total N) and biochemical (lipids, proteins, carbohydrates) composition of sediment organic matter as well as Chla were assessed in order to provide information about the origin and fate of sedimentary organic matter, the contribution of microphytobenthic biomass, seasonal and interannual variations of food quantity and quality, and factors related to food availability. Data obtained in this three-year study revealed that organic matter determined with a muffle furnace is clearly an overestimate of the organic content of the sediment and is thus of little significance for benthic ecologists studying community dynamics in relation to food availability. Labile organic matter, utilized to estimate the food potentially available for benthic consumers, accounted for only a small percentage (on average less than 10%) of total organic C. The highest labile fraction was observed in spring, whereas minima were recorded in winter. Analysis of elemental and biochemical composition of organic matter showed an inverse relationship between amount of organic matter and its potential availability to consumers; small quantities of high-quality organic matter were replaced by large quantities of refractory material. The labile portion was mostly microphytobenthic (65% of the labile carbon). Protein: carbohydrate ratios were low and confirmed the role of proteins as a potentially limiting factor for consumers. Significant differences in nutritional quality of the sediment organic matter were observed from year to year, changes due to the increase in specific labile compound content.

  13. Titanium- and water-rich metamorphic olivine in high-pressure serpentinites from the Voltri Massif (Ligurian Alps, Italy): evidence for deep subduction of high-field strength and fluid-mobile elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Hoog, Jan C. M.; Hattori, Keiko; Jung, Haemyeong

    2014-03-01

    Titanium- and water-rich metamorphic olivine (Fo 86-88) is reported from partially dehydrated serpentinites from the Voltri complex, Ligurian Alps. The rocks are composed of mostly antigorite and olivine in addition to magnetite, chlorite, clinopyroxene and Ti-clinohumite. In situ secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) data show that metamorphic olivine has very high and strongly correlated H2O (up to 0.7 wt%) and TiO2 contents (up to 0.85 wt%). Ti-rich olivine shows colourless to yellow pleochroism. Olivine associated with Ti-clinohumite contains low Ti, suggesting that Ti-rich olivine is not the breakdown product of Ti-clinohumite. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) absorption spectra show peaks of serpentine, Ti-clinohumite and OH-related Si vacancies. Combining FTIR and SIMS data, we suggest the presence of clustered planar defects or nanoscale exsolutions of Ti-clinohumite in olivine. These defects or exsolutions contain more H2O ( x ~ 0.1 in the formula 4Mg2SiO4·(1- x)Mg(OH,F)2· xTiO2) than Ti-clinohumite in the sample matrix ( x = 0.34-0.46). In addition to TiO2 and H2O, secondary olivine contains significant Li (2-60 ppm), B (10-20 ppm), F (10-130 ppm) and Zr (0.9-2.1 ppm). It is enriched in 11B (δ11B = +17 to +23 ‰). Our data indicate that secondary olivine may play a significant role in transporting water, high-field strength and fluid-mobile elements into the deeper mantle as well as introduce significant B isotope anomalies. Release of hydrogen from H2O-rich olivine subducted into the deep mantle may result in strongly reduced mantle domains.

  14. Geophysical exploration of the Southeast Tyrrhenian Sea (Italy): Seamounts batimetries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Passaro, Salvatore; Milano, Girolamo

    2010-05-01

    The Tyrrhenian Sea is a young extensional basin in the Central Mediterranean that formed within a complex convergent boundary between Africa and Eurasian Plates. Its opening, associated to the west dipping subduction of the Ionian lithosphere, started about 11 My ago and was marked first by an EW and successively by an ESE directed extension. This last mainly affected the Southeast Tyrrhenian Sea and led to the formation of the Marsili ocean-like basin. This large-scale extension produced the onset of volcanism throughout the Tyrrhenian Sea and the formation of several seamounts. High values of heat flow (>150 mW m-2) and the thin crust (7 km on average) and lithosphere (30 km on average) testify the young age of formation of oceanic crust in the Southeast Tyrrhenian Sea. On November 2007, a multidisciplinary oceanographic survey was carried out in the Southeast Tyrrhenian Sea by a group of researchers of the IAMC-CNR (Naples), Osservatorio Vesuviano (INGV, Naples), NOAA (Seattle) and GNS (New Zealand) on board of the R/V Urania. The main aim of the survey was the identification and the exploration of potential active volcanic and/or hydrothermal vents on the seamounts located in the Southeast Tyrrhenian Sea. Twelve Tyrrhenian seamounts have been explored with a modified CTD system, in order to acquire "tow-yo" profiles in dynamic mode (real time monitoring of physical and chemical parameters of seawater along vertical/horizontal profiles). In addiction, Multibeam swath bathymetry was carried out over fifteen seamounts. The strategy for the achieving of the aim consisted in two phases: i) row multibeam acquisition of the sea floor morphology to verify, confirm or review all available data, ii) tow-yo activity and seawater sampling. Here, we show the main results of bathymetric data acquisition carried out over fifteen seamounts with the use of the Reson Seabat 8160 multibeam sonar system mounted on keel of the R/V Urania. The most interesting morphostructural

  15. Italy.

    PubMed

    1987-04-01

    For "Background Notes" on Italy, the U.S. State Department, Bureau of Public Affairs, covers geography, people, history, government, politics, economy, defense and foreign relations. Italy had 57.3 million persons in 1986, with a growth rate of 2.3%. The life expectancy is 73 years; the infant mortality rate is 14.3/1000 live births. 98% of the people are literate. The current constitutional republic has existed since 1948. Mean per capita income is $6,447. The people work mainly in services (60%), industry (30%) and agriculture (10%). Most of the country is mountainous, without significant food, energy or natural resources, so Italy's central position in the Mediterranean has influenced economic development since ancient times. The nation is highly homogeneous, as the government is centralized. Although there are several influential political parties, the diverse structure of the Christian Democrats has given them power since the war. The current prime minister, Bettino Craxi, is a member of the centralist Italian Socialist Party. The Italian Communist Party is the largest such party in the free world, polling 30% of the vote in 1983. Italy is a member of NATO. PMID:12177926

  16. Natural radionuclides in seafood from the central Adriatic Sea (Italy).

    PubMed

    Desideri, D; Meli, M A; Roselli, C

    2011-02-01

    Activity concentrations of ²¹⁰Po, ²¹⁰Pb, and ⁴⁰K were measured in different samples of marine organisms from the central Adriatic Sea. The marine organisms were purchased from the local consumer market during all four seasons of the year to evaluate the spatial and temporal distribution of the natural radioactivity. The concentration trend is the following: ⁴⁰K > ²¹⁰Po > ²¹⁰Pb. ⁴⁰K concentration ranged between 54.9 and 235.9 Bq kg⁻¹ fresh weight, and the arithmetic mean of Pb concentration for all samples is <0.7 Bq kg⁻¹ fresh weight. Po activity concentration ranged between 0.3 and 44.6 Bq kg⁻¹ fresh weight; its arithmetic mean was 5.7 ± 7.2 Bq kg⁻¹ fresh weight. Among the pelagic species, anchovy displayed the highest polonium concentration. The data obtained depend upon the type of marine organism and the period of sampling. Committed effective dose due to ²¹⁰Po ingestion from marine food for individuals in the two different population groups was calculated to be 95.9 and 466.4 μSv y⁻¹, respectively. PMID:21399431

  17. Cetacean strandings in Italy: an unusual mortality event along the Tyrrhenian Sea coast in 2013.

    PubMed

    Casalone, Cristina; Mazzariol, Sandro; Pautasso, Alessandra; Di Guardo, Giovanni; Di Nocera, Fabio; Lucifora, Giuseppe; Ligios, Ciriaco; Franco, Alessia; Fichi, Gianluca; Cocumelli, Cristiano; Cersini, Antonella; Guercio, Annalisa; Puleio, Roberto; Goria, Maria; Podestà, Michela; Marsili, Letizia; Pavan, Gianni; Pintore, Antonio; De Carlo, Esterina; Eleni, Claudia; Caracappa, Santo

    2014-04-23

    An unusual mortality event involving cetaceans, mainly striped dolphins Stenella coeruleoalba (Meyen, 1833), occurred along the Tyrrhenian Sea coast of Italy during the first 3 mo of 2013. Based on post-mortem analyses carried out according to body condition on 66 dolphins (54% of stranded animals), several hypotheses to explain the causes of this mortality event were proposed. Although no definitive conclusions can be drawn, dolphin morbillivirus was deemed the most likely cause, although other infectious agents (including Photobacterium damselae damselae and herpesvirus) or environmental factors may also have contributed to this recent mortality event. PMID:24781797

  18. Italy

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-17

    ... hues, because sun glitter (an ensemble of specular reflection points, see below) causes smooth, wet surfaces to look brighter to a ... If the sea surface is calm, a single mirror-like reflection of the sun can be seen at the horizontal specular point. However, ...

  19. Trace-Metal Enrichment and Pollution in Coastal Sediments in the Northern Tyrrhenian Sea, Italy.

    PubMed

    Piazzolla, Daniele; Scanu, Sergio; Frattarelli, Francesco Manfredi; Mancini, Emanuele; Tiralongo, Francesco; Brundo, Maria Violetta; Tibullo, Daniele; Pecoraro, Roberta; Copat, Chiara; Ferrante, Margherita; Marcelli, Marco

    2015-11-01

    This study evaluated the distribution pattern and pollution of chromium, arsenic (As), manganese (Mn), nickel, lead, and copper in surface sediments along the northern Latium coast of the Tyrrhenian Sea in Italy. The enrichment factor, geoaccumulation index, and potential toxicity response index were used to evaluate the degree of contamination. These results show As and Mn contamination. The high enrichment and contamination levels of As and Mn are located in two hot spots. These elevations are due to naturally high levels of As and Mn in the Mignone River and the Marangone Stream as well as the intense human activity in the area including the largest energy production site in Europe (Torrevaldaliga Nord coal-fired power plant) and of one of the most important ports for cruise traffic in the Mediterranean Sea. PMID:26033264

  20. Bacterial and viral pathogens detected in sea turtles stranded along the coast of Tuscany, Italy.

    PubMed

    Fichi, G; Cardeti, G; Cersini, A; Mancusi, C; Guarducci, M; Di Guardo, G; Terracciano, G

    2016-03-15

    During 2014, six loggerhead turtles, Caretta caretta and one green turtle, Chelonia mydas, found stranded on the Tuscany coast of Italy, were examined for the presence of specific bacterial and viral agents, along with their role as carriers of fish and human pathogens. Thirteen different species of bacteria, 10 Gram negative and 3 Gram positive, were identified. Among them, two strains of Vibrio parahaemolyticus and one strain of Lactococcus garviae were recovered and confirmed by specific PCR protocols. No trh and tdh genes were detected in V. parahaemolyticus. The first isolation of L. garviae and the first detection of Betanodavirus in sea turtles indicate the possibility for sea turtles to act as carriers of fish pathogens. Furthermore, the isolation of two strains of V. parahaemolyticus highlights the possible role of these animals in human pathogens' diffusion. PMID:26931392

  1. Underwater noise assessment in the Gulf of Trieste (Northern Adriatic Sea, Italy) using an MSFD approach.

    PubMed

    Codarin, Antonio; Picciulin, Marta

    2015-12-30

    In the marine environment, underwater noise is one of the most widespread input of man-made energy. Recently, the European Commission has stressed the necessity of establishing threshold levels as a target for the descriptor 11.2.1 "Continuous low frequency sounds" in the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD). In 2012, a monthly underwater noise monitoring programme was conducted in the Gulf of Trieste (Northern Adriatic Sea, Italy); the collected acoustic samples (frequency range: 10-20,000 Hz) were analysed in the 1/3 octave bands. The stations have been further clustered following the 63 and 125 Hz bands noise levels. Average SPL levels resulted similar to those previously computed for proximate areas, indicating that the Adriatic Sea sub-region experiences high noise pressure in the marine waters. In its turn this claims for a scientific and technical international cooperation, as requested by the EU programme. No seasonal variation in local noise levels has been found. PMID:26506026

  2. Activities and vectors responsible for the biological pollution in the Taranto Seas (Mediterranean Sea, southern Italy): a review.

    PubMed

    Cecere, E; Petrocelli, A; Belmonte, M; Portacci, G; Rubino, F

    2016-07-01

    Biological pollution, caused by the negative impact of alien species, also known as non-indigenous species (NIS), is regarded as one of the greatest threat to marine ecosystems. The recent upsurge in the number and spread of these species drew attention to putative vectors such as shipping and shellfish importation for culture and consumption. The port of Taranto in Southern Italy is a hub for several vectors as it serves commercial and military shipping, fishing and recreational boating, in addition to shellfish importation. An analysis of anthropogenic activities and possible vectors in Taranto Seas was recently carried out within the framework of the RITMARE Project, involving local stakeholders. Different categories of stakeholders answered dedicated questionnaires with a high degree of reticence, and this highlighted a general lack of awareness of the problems associated with alien species. Consequently, there is a strong need to instil a truly ecological awareness among the general public and stakeholders. PMID:26178840

  3. Investigation of sea-breeze convergence in Salento Peninsula (southeastern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Comin, Alcimoni Nelci; Miglietta, Mario Marcello; Rizza, Umberto; Acevedo, Otavio Costa; Degrazia, Gervasio Annes

    2015-06-01

    The frequency, the location and the characteristics of convective rainfall events induced by the convergence of different sea breeze systems on a Mediterranean peninsula (Salento, in southeastern Italy) are analyzed. Such events have been studied considering satellite/radar images and output fields from two Limited Area Models in the summer period of 2011-2013. A total of 20 days have been detected in which the precipitation due to sea-breeze convergence was clearly observed in satellite and radar images. The synoptic conditions associated with these events have been identified considering the averages of some relevant meteorological parameters in the selected days and the anomaly with respect to the climate. The presence of a cold trough in the central Mediterranean basin appears as a fundamental ingredient for the occurrence of sea breeze convergence and associated precipitation. High-resolution simulations with two state-of-art numerical models have revealed that both of them are generally able to simulate a convergence pattern correctly, apart from a couple of cases for each model. The higher rainfall amounts occur with weak synoptic wind, and weak-to-moderate values of Convective Available Potential Energy (CAPE). When the synoptic wind is of moderate intensity, the region of convergence moves toward the Adriatic coast for a prevailing southerly component, and toward the Ionian coast for a prevailing northerly component. On the opposite, the skin sea surface temperature is relatively uniform and the difference between the Ionian and the Adriatic Seas, surrounding the peninsula on the east and west side, is generally smaller than 1 K, having only a marginal effect on the sea breeze patterns. Similarly, the value of CAPE before the occurrence of rainfall has low prognostic value. The results shows that limited area models with a grid spacing of few km appear as appropriate tools for the simulation for such relatively small scale phenomena.

  4. Distribution and assessment of marine debris in the deep Tyrrhenian Sea (NW Mediterranean Sea, Italy).

    PubMed

    Angiolillo, Michela; di Lorenzo, Bianca; Farcomeni, Alessio; Bo, Marzia; Bavestrello, Giorgio; Santangelo, Giovanni; Cau, Angelo; Mastascusa, Vincenza; Cau, Alessandro; Sacco, Flavio; Canese, Simonepietro

    2015-03-15

    Marine debris is a recognized global ecological concern. Little is known about the extent of the problem in the Mediterranean Sea regarding litter distribution and its influence on deep rocky habitats. A quantitative assessment of debris present in the deep seafloor (30-300 m depth) was carried out in 26 areas off the coast of three Italian regions in the Tyrrhenian Sea, using a Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV). The dominant type of debris (89%) was represented by fishing gears, mainly lines, while plastic objects were recorded only occasionally. Abundant quantities of gears were found on rocky banks in Sicily and Campania (0.09-0.12 debris m(-2)), proving intense fishing activity. Fifty-four percent of the recorded debris directly impacted benthic organisms, primarily gorgonians, followed by black corals and sponges. This work provides a first insight on the impact of marine debris in Mediterranean deep ecosystems and a valuable baseline for future comparisons. PMID:25604749

  5. The role of the sea on the flash floods events over Liguria (northwestern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cassola, F.; Ferrari, F.; Mazzino, A.; Miglietta, M. M.

    2016-04-01

    The sensitivity to sea surface temperature (SST) of small-scale, flood-causing convective systems in Mediterranean coastal areas is analyzed by means of mesoscale numerical simulations. Two different SST initializations are considered: a coarse field provided by a global atmospheric model and a high-resolution multisatellite analysis. Quantitative precipitation forecasts are evaluated for a number of recent severe rainfall episodes in Liguria (northwestern Italy). In several cases, using a higher-resolution SST leads to more realistic precipitation estimates in the forecasting range 36-48 h. In the shorter range, the satellite SST has a limited, or even negative, impact, due to the relatively slow adjustment of initial atmospheric fields. In one case, the satellite SST is beneficial for the only run forced with accurate large-scale initial conditions. The results of this work suggest that a potentially significant improvement in severe precipitation forecasting in the Mediterranean could be achieved using realistic small-scale SST fields.

  6. Bathing water profile in the coastal belt of the province of Pescara (Italy, Central Adriatic Sea).

    PubMed

    Liberatore, Lolita; Murmura, Federica; Scarano, Antonio

    2015-06-15

    The quality of bathing water is fundamental, not only from an environmental point of view but also due to the economic importance of tourism. This paper examines the water profile in the coastal belt of the province of Pescara (Italy, Central Adriatic Sea) with reference to the microbiological parameters Escherichia coli and intestinal enterococci required by Directive 2006/07 of European Commission. The water quality of 15 coastal beaches was surveyed; data were produced from monitoring and controls made available by the Abruzzo Regional Environmental Prevention and Protection Agency (ARTA) and extracted and elaborated for the period of interest (2010-2013). Statistical analysis was used to confirm the aspects deduced from mean values of monitoring and control data for each stretch. The data highlight critical situations in various parts of the coast; these problems can be attributed to river pollution, mainly due to the malfunctioning of the treatment plants for urban wastewater. PMID:25934432

  7. Submarine landslides in the Ligurian Basin (western Mediterranean) and their consequences for the triggering of tsunamis. Part I: Distribution of landslides and triggering mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Migeon, S.; Garziglia, S.; Ioualalen, M.; Cattaneo, A.

    2006-12-01

    Submarine landslides are the major mechanism of sediment remobilisation and transfert from the slope to deep-sea environments. If landslides generally trigger at water depth greater than 200 m, they can also have a strong impact at shallow water depth, on coastal environments, by generating tsunamis. The Ligurian Basin experienced recently such phenomena: on October 16th 1979, at about 2 pm, a failure involving about 8 x 106 m3 of material occurred at shallow water depth during infilling operations related to the construction of the new Nice harbour. Since 1975, at least 25 x 106 m3 of aggregates were deposited on the narrow shelf, at a water depth ranging from 10 to 15 m, to increase the surface of the airport in a seaward direction. The failure affected both under-consolidated silty-clayey deposits of the upper continental slope and some of the landfill aggregates. At the time of the failure, witnesses located onshore observed a sea-level fall of tens of metres and eight minutes later, three successive waves, 2-3 m height, broke along the coastline between Nice and Antibes, causing damage and people death. In the case of the 1979 event, the landfill construction activity alone seems to explain the failure. Nevertheless, the Ligurian Basin has been frequently affected by earthquakes (four historical earthquakes in 1564, 1644, 1817 and 1887, and six earthquakes with magnitude ranging from 4 to 6 since 1963), and three historical tsunamis (1564, 1817 and 1887) affected the Nice-Menton area. Based on the 1979-event experience, earthquakes might have generated tsunamogenic failures on the Ligurian slope in the past. To understand the relationship between failures and the main features of potential related tsunamis, failures (volume, runout distance) and their triggered mechanisms have been studied along the margin using bathymetric data, HR seismic-reflection profiles and cores collected during student cruises conducted every year by the Villefranche-sur-Mer marine

  8. Geophysical investigations of the Southeast Tyrrhenian Sea (Italy): high resolution DTM of the Marsili seamount

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milano, G.; Passaro, S.; Marsella, E.

    2009-04-01

    The Tyrrhenian Sea is the small extensional back-arc basin in the Central Mediterranean Sea characterized by a peculiar volcanic activity due to the presence of two sub-basin: Vavilov and Marsili. The central sector of the Marsili sub-basin, younger than the Valilov, is occupied by the Marsili Volcano. On November 2007, a geophysical survey was carried out by IAMC-CNR research institute (Naples, Italy) in the southeastern Tyrrhenian Sea within the "Aeolian_2007" cruise onboard the Urania oceanographic vessel. During the second Leg of the survey, detailed multibeam data acquisition was carried out in order to obtain high resolution DTM of the major Seamounts of the southeast Tyrrhenian Sea. Here, we report a new, very high resolution Digital Terrain Model (DTM) of the summit area of the Marsili Seamount. Multibeam data acquisition was carried out with the use of the Reson Seabat 8160 multibeam sonar system, which properly works in the 50-3500 m depth range. The system, interfaced with a Differential Global Positioning System, is mounted on keel of the R/V Urania and is composed of a ping source of 50 KHz, 150° degree for the whole opening of the transmitted pulse and a 126 beams-receiver. The whole dataset has been processed with the use of the PDS2000 swath editor tool, in accordance with the International Hydrographic Organization standard, and subsequently reorganized in an MXN matrix (Digital Terrain Model, DTM) of 25X25 m of grid cell size. The total amount of area coverage consists in more than 500 squared Km of multibeam sonar data. The Marsili volcano shows a global sigmoidal trend extending for about 55 km in the N10°E direction. Both the eastern and the western sides shows equal average slopes. Throughout the framework, crater-like morphologies are not clearly visible. The western side of the seamount reveals furrowed channels showing peculiar rounded sections. The northern sector morphologically differs from the rest of the seamount and seems separated

  9. Central Italy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Clouds and haze cover most of the Italian peninsula in this view of central Italy (41.5N, 14.0E) but the Bay of Naples region with Mt. Vesuvius and the island of Capri are clear. The Adriatic Sea in the background separates Italy from the cloud covered Balkans of eastern Europe and the Tyrrhenian Sea in the foreground lies between the Italian mainland and the off scene islands of Corsica and Sardinia. Several aircraft contrails can also be seen.

  10. Underwater acoustic evidences of the 2011 autumnal floods in the Ligurian region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anagnostou, Marios; Pensieri, Sara; Bozzano, Roberto; Anagnostou, Emmanouil; Bechini, Renzo; Nystuen, Jeffry

    2013-04-01

    In the northernmost sector of the western Mediterranean Sea the Ligurian Sea is a deep basin showing peculiar hydrodynamic and meteo-oceanographic features. The region is characterized by steep Alpine and Apennine southward slopes with the watershed at few tens of kilometers at the most far from the coast. This geological complexity and a particular atmospheric circulation coupled to the fact that the Ligurian coasts are among the most urbanized and industrialized along the entire Mediterranean coastline, determine a high flood hazard, especially in late summer - early autumn when the Ligurian Sea is still warm and strong perturbations reach the basin from the south. Over the past 40 years there have been about 40 major flash floods (about one flash flood per year) associated with severe damages and loss of human lives. The latest flash flood event occurred in Autumn 2011, which is the subject matter of this study. Late summer 2011 was dominated, as usual in the recent decades, by a prolongation of the hot season with clear skies and temperatures above climatology so that ocean had sufficient time to store a large amount of heat capable of emitting a strong evaporation in the air layers above and, through interactions with the cool and wet near surface atmospheric layers, to give rise to powerful convection. Such type of events can be partially forecasted by atmospheric models, monitored at a large scale through remote sensing using radars and satellites, observed in their real time evolution by land hydro-meteorological stations. Among other observational systems, underwater acoustics can contribute to the monitoring of these phenomena through the use of off-shore deployed sensors that collect and process underwater noise in the ocean. Indeed, ambient noise in the ocean is a combination of natural and anthropogenic sounds that include breaking waves, precipitation, vocalizations of marine mammals, ship noise and sonar. Since 2009, a Passive Aquatic Listener (PAL

  11. Environmental monitoring in the Mar Grande basin (Ionian Sea, Southern Italy).

    PubMed

    De Serio, Francesca; Mossa, Michele

    2016-07-01

    Hydrodynamic and water quality data has been recorded since February 2014 by a meteo-oceanographic station installed in the inner part of the Gulf of Taranto, in the northeastern part of the Ionian Sea (Southern Italy). This monitoring action, managed by the research unit of the Technical University of Bari, DICATECh Department, could play a pivotal role in a vulnerable and sensitive area, affected by massive chemical and biological pollutant discharges due to the presence of heavy industry and intense maritime traffic. Monthly trends of winds, waves, currents, and biochemical parameters, such as dissolved oxygen, chlorophyll, and turbidity, are analyzed and discussed. The analysis exhibits that the wave regime is slightly controlled by wind forcing; rather, topography strongly affects the wave propagation direction. Surface currents appear wind induced in the measuring station, while near the bottom a quasi-steady current directed towards southwest is formed. The selected water quality indicators show monthly trends consistent with the typical seasonal convective fluxes and mixing. PMID:26077314

  12. Bisphenol A content in fish caught in two different sites of the Tyrrhenian Sea (Italy).

    PubMed

    Mita, L; Bianco, M; Viggiano, E; Zollo, F; Bencivenga, U; Sica, V; Monaco, G; Portaccio, M; Diano, N; Colonna, A; Lepore, M; Canciglia, P; Mita, D G

    2011-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is an endocrine disruptor (ED) that is abundant in the environment because of its extensive use in human-manufactured products. In this study, the BPA concentration was measured in the muscle and liver of five edible fish, characterized by different habitat and habits, caught in two different sites of the Tyrrhenian Sea (Italy). Our results show that: (i) fish livers are about 2.5 times more polluted than muscle; (ii) fish caught in the Gulf of Naples are more polluted than those from the Latium coasts, ranging from 1.2-fold more for White Bream to 6.6-fold for Grey Mullet; and (iii) the percentages of fish found to be BPA-polluted in the Gulf of Naples ranged from 73% (for Bass) to 90% (for Mullet), while the Latium fish range from 60% (for Bass) to 90% (for Mullet). These data indicate that consumers of fish caught in the Gulf of Naples are at a greater risk for BPA-induced endocrine pathologies compared to those who consume fish caught along the Latium coasts. PMID:20971495

  13. MidMedPol: Polychaetes from midlittoral rocky shores in Greece and Italy (Mediterranean Sea)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Abstract This paper describes a dataset of polychaetes (Annelida) from 14 midlittoral rocky shore sampling sites in Greece and Italy (Mediterranean Sea). The dataset combines the outcome of four different projects studying the hard substrate midlittoral zone in the Mediterranean between 1984 and 2009. Samples were collected by scraping and collecting the organisms from a framed area. The maximal sampling depth was 1.5 m. In total, 123 polychaete species were recorded, five of which are new records for the respective biogeographic sectors of the Mediterranean. The dataset contains 788 occurrence records, fully annotated with all required metadata. These data contribute to the knowledge of a previously very understudied regional habitat, since at present, comprehensive lists of the midlittoral communities in the Mediterranean are provided through only a few, paper-based, studies. This dataset is one of the first electronic data compilations of the Mediterranean midlittoral zone communities and certainly the most comprehensive of its kind, contributing to the ongoing efforts of the Ocean Biogeographic Information System (OBIS) which aims at filling the gaps in our current knowledge of the world's oceans. It is accessible at http://ipt.vliz.be/resource.do?r=mediterraneanpolychaetaintertidal. PMID:24723761

  14. Genotyping of Toxoplasma gondii isolates in meningo-encephalitis affected striped dolphins (Stenella coeruleoalba) from Italy.

    PubMed

    Di Guardo, Giovanni; Di Cesare, Angela; Otranto, Domenico; Casalone, Cristina; Iulini, Barbara; Mignone, Walter; Tittarelli, Cristiana; Meloni, Silvana; Castagna, Giuseppe; Forster, Fiona; Kennedy, Seamus; Traversa, Donato

    2011-12-29

    This study reports the occurrence of Toxoplasma gondii in the brain of three striped dolphins (Stenella ceoruleoalba) found stranded on the Ligurian Sea coast of Italy between 2007 and 2008. These animals showed a severe, subacute to chronic, non-purulent, multifocal meningo-encephalitis, with the cerebral parenchyma of two dolphins harbouring protozoan cysts and zoites immunohistochemically linked to T. gondii. Molecular, phylogenetic and mutation scanning analyses showed the occurrence of Type II and of an atypical Type II T. gondii isolates in one and two dolphins, respectively. In spite of the different molecular patterns characterizing the above T. gondii genotypes, the brain lesions observed in the three animals showed common microscopic features, with no remarkable differences among them. The role of T. gondii in causing the meningo-encephalitis is herein discussed. PMID:21802209

  15. Microbial processes and organic priority substances in marine coastal sediments (Adriatic Sea, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zoppini, Annamaria; Ademollo, Nicoletta; Amalfitano, Stefano; Dellisanti, Walter; Lungarini, Silvia; Miserocchi, Stefano; Patrolecco, Luisa; Langone, Leonardo

    2015-04-01

    PERSEUS EU FP7 Project aims to identify the interacting patterns of natural and human-derived pressures to assess their impact on marine ecosystems and, using the objectives and principles of the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) as a vehicle, to design an effective and innovative research governance framework based on sound scientific knowledge. In the frame of this Project (subtask 1.3.3 ADREX: Adriatic and Ionian Seas Experiment), monitoring surveys were conducted in the Adriatic Sea (Italy) in order to study the variation of structural and functional characteristics of native bacterial communities and the occurrence of selected classes of organic priority substances in sediments. The study area represents a good natural laboratory sensitive to climate variability and human pressure, owing to the semi-enclosed nature of the Adriatic Sea and to the increasing trend of human activities in the coastal regions. During the cruise ADRI-13 (November 2013) and ADRI-14 (October 2014) we sampled several coastal sites from the mouth of the Po River to the Otranto strait. Surface sediments were collected in all areas, while sediment cores were sampled in selected sites. Microbes associated with marine sediments play an important role in the C-flux being responsible for the transformation of organic detritus (autochthonous and allochthonous) into biomass. The sediment bacterial abundance was determined by epifluorescence microscopy and the rate of bacterial carbon production by measuring the 3H-leucine uptake rates. The community respiration rate was estimated by the measurement of the electron transport system (ETS) activity. The sediment contamination level was determined by measuring the concentration of contaminants included in the list of organic priority substances: PAHs, bisphenol A (BPA), alkylphenols (APs). The extraction/clean-up of PAHs, BPA and APs was performed by ultrasonic bath with the appropriate solvents, followed by analytical determination with

  16. Mercury and methylmercury contamination in Mytilus galloprovincialis from Taranto Gulf (Ionian Sea, Southern Italy): risk evaluation for consumers.

    PubMed

    Di Leo, A; Cardellicchio, N; Giandomenico, S; Spada, L

    2010-11-01

    Total mercury (THg) and methylmercury (Me-Hg) concentrations were determined in mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) from 10 stations located in the Mar Piccolo of Taranto (Ionian Sea, Taranto Gulf) an important semi-enclosed basin in Italy, devoted to mussel culture activities. The obtained results show that THg and Me-Hg concentrations ranged from 0.236 to 0.559 μg g(-1) d.w. and from 0.066 to 0.155 μg g(-1) d.w., respectively. Consequently, the Me-Hg/THg ratios ranged from 17% to 49%. The dietary intake of THg and Me-Hg were studied among children and adults from Taranto (Southern Italy). The estimated weekly intake for THg and Me-Hg was below the Provisional Tolerable Weekly Intake (PTWI) established by European Food Safety Autority (EFSA) for all sampled mussels, though their consumption provides a THg intake in children near the PTWI. PMID:20728495

  17. Eolianites and Paleosols as indicators of Sea Level Changes in the Elba Island (Central Italy) during Late Pleistocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trombino, Luca; Ern, Stephania Irmgard Elena

    2010-05-01

    Late Pleistocene Calcareous eolianites exist along the coasts and islands of the Tyrrhenian Sea (Central Mediterranean), particularly on Sardinia Island (western coast), on the Tuscany coast and on the islands of Toscano and Pontino Archipelagos. In the second half of the last century, some authors interpreted Italian eolianites as hanging beach sediments, as shown in the geological maps of that time: in fact, studied eolianites often show hard interpreting facies and uncertain dating. The aim of this work is focused on nature and paleoclimatic significance of the eolianites of Elba Island, which is located in the Tyrrhenian Sea, at about 10 Km from the coast of the Tuscany (Central Italy); the Elba Island is the greater of Toscano Archipelago. The work is based on: field survey, with sedimentological, pedological and geomorphological description; laboratory methods, mainly grain size analyses; micromorphology, with observation and description of thin sections of eolianites and related paleosols and soils.

  18. Lithosphere-biosphere interaction at a shallow-sea hydrothermal vent site; Hot Lake, Panarea, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Chia-I.; Amann, Rudolf; Amend, Jan P.; Bach, Wolfgang; Brunner, Benjamin; Meyerdierks, Anke; Price, Roy E.; Schubotz, Florence; Summons, Roger; Wenzhöfer, Frank

    2010-05-01

    Deep-Sea hydrothermal systems are unique habitats for microbial life with primary production based on chemosynthesis and are considered to be windows to the subsurface biosphere. It is often overlooked, however, that their far more accessible shallow-sea counterparts are also valuable targets to study the effects of hydrothermal activity on geology, seawater chemistry and finally, on microbial life. Such an area of shallow marine hydrothermal venting is observed approximately 2.5 km east of Panarea Island (Sicily, Italy). This system is characterized by fluid temperatures of up to 135° C, gas emissions dominated by CO2 and precipitation of elemental sulfur on the seafloor. In an interdisciplinary project to investigate the influence of geofuels on marine microbiota, sediment cores and pore fluids were sampled for geological and geochemical analyses. An attempt was made to link these geochemical data with a characterization of the microbial community. One of the investigated sites (Lago Caldo, Hot Lake) is an oval-shaped (~10 by 6 meters) shallow (~2.5 m deep) depression covered by elemental sulfur. The sediments in this depression are strongly affected by hydrothermal activity: the pH of pore fluids is in a range between 5 and 6; the salinity is approximately two times higher than seawater. In situ temperatures of 36° C and 74° C (10 cm sediment depth) at two different locations within Hot Lake indicate variability in hydrothermal flux. The sediment surface layer is anoxic, and with increasing depth from the sediment-water interface, sulfate concentrations decrease from ~30 mM to less than 10 mM, whereas sulfide concentrations increase from less than 50 μm to ~1000 μm at 25 cm sediment depth, thus suggesting a higher potential for energy gain based on sulfur disequilibrium. As indicated by the variability in the sediment temperatures at 10 cm, fluid fluxes and mixing with seawater is not found to be uniform at Hot Lake. This is reflected in variability of the

  19. Partitioning of deformation along a reactivated rifted margin: example of the northern Ligurian margin.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sage, Françoise; Beslier, Marie-Odile; Gaullier, Virginie; Larroque, Christophe; Dessa, Jean-Xavier; Mercier de Lepinay, Bernard; Corradi, Nicola; Migeon, Sébastien; Katz, Hélène; Ruiz Constan, Ana

    2013-04-01

    The northern Ligurian margin, of Oligo-Miocene age, is currently undergoing compression related to microplate motions and/or to gravity spreading of the Alpine chain located immediately north of it. Active thrust faults and folds have previously been identified below the margin, together with a global uplift of the continental edge, since at least the Messinian. The seismicity that goes with the present-day margin contraction (e.g. Mw 6.9, 1887/02/23) extends to the axis of the adjacent oceanic basin (e.g. ML 6.0, 1963/07/19; ML 5.4, 2011/07/07). However, we do not know of any recent or active crustal contractional structure within this oceanic domain. In this study, we use new 12-channel high-resolution seismic data (FABLES seismic cruise, 2012, R/V Tethys II) in order to image the sedimentary cover of the Ligurian oceanic basin, up to ~3km below the seabed, including the Plio-Quaternary and the Messinian sediment down to the bottom of the Messinian salt layer. Because the Messinian event is well dated (5.96-5.32 Ma) and well identified in the seismic data, it forms a clear marker that we use to characterize the recent deformation related to both mobile salt motion and crustal tectonics. About 50 km south of the margin offshore of Italy, we identify huge and complex salt walls that elongate SW-NE. Such salt walls, which cannot be explained by salt tectonics only, are interpreted as evidence of deep-seated crustal deformation. They form en echelon structures that are well expressed in the seabed morphology, and do not correspond to any significant vertical throw at the base of the salt layer. This suggests that within the deep basin, mainly strike-slip faulting accommodates long-term crustal deformation. It thus offers a contrast with the margin where deformation is mainly marked by shortening and reverse faulting, with vertical throws of several hundred meters. This discrepancy in the tectonic styles between the margin and the adjacent oceanic basin suggests some

  20. Living and dead benthic foraminiferal assemblages from bathyal environment in the Pontine Archipelago (Tyrrhenian Sea, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Bella, Letizia; Frezza, Virgilio; Ingrassia, Michela; Latino Chiocci, Francesco; Martorelli, Eleonora

    2016-04-01

    The western Pontine Archipelago (Tyrrhenian Sea, Italy), located about 30 km away from the Italian Peninsula, is composed of three volcanic islands (Ponza, Palmarola and Zannone). Sedimentological and micropaleontological characterization of the infralittoral and circalittoral zones in the Pontine Archipelago was already been studied, whereas it is lacking for deeper environments. The present study shows the preliminary micropaleontological results carried out on samples collected in the bathyal zone (at 500 mwd) in the Ventotene basin. Sediment samples, high resolution multibeam bathymetry, biological and video data were acquired in order to characterise both the morphological and biological features of study area, during the research cruise "BOLLE 2014" carried out on June 2014 aboard to the R/V Urania. Sediment samples were collected with a multi-corer, that allowed sampling of the upper decimetre of the sediments column. Successively, each core was sliced horizontally every 1 cm from the top to the bottom. For micropaleontological analyses, all samples were stained with Rose Bengal to distinguish living and dead assemblages. For each interval of the core all living specimens and 200 dead benthic foraminifera were classified and counted. Diversity index (α-Fisher, Shannon indices) and Faunal Density (specimens/gr) were calculated to define the structure of the assemblage. A variable number of living benthic foraminifera (Rose Bengal-stained) were found in all core-intervals (7-155 tests), with the Faunal Density ranging from 3 to 82 specimens/gr. A total of 77 species are recognised from living benthic foraminiferal assemblages, with a range of 4-31 species found in each core-interval. The α-Fisher index ranges between 3.88 and 43.45, whereas Shannon index shows a more limited variability (1.28-2.92). Among the living foraminifera, calcareous imperforate tests are very abundant, with percentages ranging between 33.3 and 100%; perforate species are subordinate

  1. Aragonite precipitation induced by anaerobic oxidation of methane in shallow-water seeps, Tyrrhenian Sea, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiedling, Johanna; Kuhfuß, Hanna; Lott, Christian; Böttcher, Michael E.; Lichtschlag, Anna; Wegener, Gunter; Deusner, Christian; Bach, Wolfgang; Weber, Miriam

    2014-05-01

    In the shallow-water organic-poor silicate sands off the West coast of Elba, Italy, we found aragonite precipitates within a radius of 10 cm to methane seeps in 20 - 40 cm sediment depth. The shallow seep site was mapped by SCUBA diving and in an area of 100 m2 nine gas emission spots were observed. The gas emission, containing 73 Vol. % methane, was measured to be 0.72 L m-2 d-1. Findings of anaerobic methane oxidizing archea (ANME 1, 2, 2a, 2b) and sulphate reducing bacteria (SRB) as well as in vitro rate measurements of anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) with a maximum of 67 ± 7 nmol CH4 cm-3 d-1 led to the hypothesis that carbonate precipitation is coupled to these microbial processes. Porewater analysis showed elevated concentrations of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) (up to 15.5 mmol L-1) and hydrogen sulfide (up to 6.6 mmol L-1). The presence of bicarbonate and the ambient temperature (14 - 25 ° C) facilitate the precipitation of needle-shaped aragonite. Oxygen isotope compositions of the mineral are consistent with the ambient temperatures and may indicate a recent diagenetic formation of this mineral. Although precipitation should not be preserved in these sandy permeable sediments, influenced by seasonality, wave action, and fluid flow, we found up to 10-50 cm3 irregular pieces of cemented sand grains, very often encrusting dead seagrass rhizomes. Commonly known carbonate structures, especially from the deep sea, are chimneys, mounds, hardgrounds and nodules. These structures are well known from seep and vent sites, usually showing the same range of stable carbon isotope fractionation as the escaping methane. The permeable sediment at the Elba site possibly allows the gas to frequently change its pathway to the sediment surface and thus precipitation can occure at several spots and more irregular than in the reported sites. Preservation of precipitates, however, requires sufficient authigenic aragonite to be formed before fluid dynamics changed the

  2. Analysis of coastal sea-level station records and implications for tsunami monitoring in the Adriatic Apulia region, southern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bressan, Lidia; Tinti, Stefano; Tallarico, Andrea

    2015-04-01

    The region of Apulia, southern Italy, was theater of one of the largest tsunami disaster in Italian history (the 30 July 1627 event) and is considered to be exposed to tsunami hazard coming from local Italian sources as well as from sources on the eastern side of the Adriatic and from the Ionian sea, including the Hellenic Arc earthquakes. Scientific interest for tsunami studies and monitoring in the region is only recent and this theme was specifically addressed by the international project OTRIONS, coordinated by the University of Bari. In the frame of this project the University of Bologna contributed to the analysis of the tsunami hazard and to the evaluation of the regional tide-gauge network with the scope of assessing its adequacy for tsunami monitoring. This latter is the main topic of the present work. In eastern Apulia, facing the Adriatic sea, the sea-level data network is sufficiently dense being formed of stations of the Italian tide-gauge network (Rete Mareografica Nazionale, RMN), of four additional stations operated by the Apulia Port Authority (in Brindisi, Ischitella, Manfredonia and Porto Cesareo) and of two more stations that were installed in the harbours of Barletta and Monopoli in the frame of the project OTRIONS with real-time data transmission and 1-sec sampling period. Pre-processing of the sea-level data of these stations included quality check and spectral analysis. Where the sampling rate was adequate, the records were also examined by means of the specific tools provided by the TEDA package. This is a Tsunami Early Detection Algorithm, developed by the Tsunami Research Team of the University of Bologna, that allows one to characterize the sea-level background signal in the typical tsunami frequency window (from 1 to several minutes) and consequently to optimize TEDA parameters for an efficient tsunami detection. The results of the analysis show stability of the spectral content and seasonal variations.

  3. The role of the contribution of the whole sea energy on pollution distribution and biocenosis quality: a case study in the Northern Tyrrhenian Sea, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonamano, Simone; Piermattei, Viviana; Piazzolla, Daniele; Paladini de Mendoza, Francesco; Manfredi Frattarelli, Francesco; Mancini, Emanuele; Cognetti de Martiis, Selvaggia; Madonia, Alice; Martellucci, Riccardo; Stefanì, Chiara; Pierattini, Alberto; Scanu, Sergio; Marcelli, Marco

    2016-04-01

    Marine sediments and benthic biocenosis record, at different spatial and temporal scales, natural and anthropogenic processes that occur in the water column. The coastal area of Civitavecchia, in the Tyrrhenian Sea, Italy, presents valuable marine and coastal ecosystems, which are subject to pollution due to the presence of potentially impactful uses of the coastline (the most important port for traffic passenger in the Mediterranean sea and one of the biggest energy production site in Europe) that overlap with the presence of natural geogenic anomalies related to the concentrations of some trace elements. The C-CEMS monitoring system, currently available in the study area, is able to perform the analysis of pollutants dispersion in coastal waters using in situ and remote observations coupled with numerical models simulations . In particular, water column parameters trends and the distribution of both benthic biocenosis and pollutants from natural sources and human activities in the water column can be assessed. This work focuses on the distribution patterns of pollutants and its relationship with the distribution of the benthic community in relation to biocenosis. Moreover, this work presents a first attempt to relate the whole sea energy contribution, which has effects on both the deposition of fine material and pollutants associated with it, and the distribution of communities, in terms of "exosomatic energy" (sensu Margalef).

  4. The key role played by the Augusta basin (southern Italy) in the mercury contamination of the Mediterranean Sea.

    PubMed

    Sprovieri, Mario; Oliveri, Elvira; Di Leonardo, Rossella; Romano, Elena; Ausili, Antonella; Gabellini, Massimo; Barra, Marco; Tranchida, Giorgio; Bellanca, Adriana; Neri, Rodolfo; Budillon, Francesca; Saggiomo, Roberto; Mazzola, Salvatore; Saggiomo, Vincenzo

    2011-06-01

    The Augusta basin, located in SE Sicily (southern Italy), is a semi-enclosed marine area, labelled as a highly contaminated site. The release of mercury into the harbour seawater and its dispersion to the blue water, make the Augusta basin a potential source of anthropogenic pollution for the Mediterranean Sea. A mass balance was implemented to calculate the HgT budget in the Augusta basin. Results suggest that an average of ∼0.073 kmol of HgT is released, by diffusion, on a yearly basis, from sediments to the seawater, with a consequent output of 0.162 kmol y(-1) to coastal and offshore waters; this makes the Augusta area an important contributor of mercury to the Mediterranean Sea. Owing to the geographical location of the Augusta basin, its outflowing shelf-waters are immediately intercepted by the surface Atlantic Ionian Stream (AIS) and mixed with the main gyres of the eastern Mediterranean Sea, thus representing a risk for the large-scale marine system. PMID:21552583

  5. Geophysical investigations of the Southeast Tyrrhenian Sea (Italy): volcanic features of the Palinuro Seamount enhanced by high resolution DTM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Passaro, S.; Milano, G.; Sprovieri, M.; Marsella, E.; Ruggieri, S.

    2009-04-01

    The Palinuro Seamount is a volcanic edifice located in the southeastern Tyrrhenian Sea, the small extensional back-arc basin in the Central Mediterranean Sea. Although several geophysical studies have been performed in the Tyrrhenian Sea, the Palinuro Seamount has not yet been subjected to intensive geophysical exploration, despite its global extension, thus representing the less known Seamount of the area. Previous studies on this Seamount focused on volcanic products, magnetic profiles, single beam data and, recentely, multibeam swath batimetry describing, the latter two, the general physiographic asset of the volcanic complex. On November 2007, a geophysical survey was performed by IAMC-CNR research institute (Naples, Italy) in the southeastern Tyrrhenian Sea within the "Aeolian_2007" cruise onboard the Urania oceanographic vessel. During the second Leg of the survey, detailed multibeam data acquisition was carried out in order to obtain high resolution DTM of the major Seamounts in the study area. Here we report a new, very high resolution Digital Terrain Model (DTM) of the Palinuro Seamount, resulting by multibeam swath bathymetric data. More than 1.000 squared Km of new high resolution multibeam sonar data have been processed and interpreted from IAMC - CNR of Naples. The processed bathymetric data of the seamount cover a depth range -3200 / -84 meters and unreported topographic features were detected both below 1000 m in depth and at the summit. The DEM evidences a global extension larger than that expected, characterized by a roughly elliptical shape extending about 55 km along E-W and 25 km in the N-S direction. The morphology reveals a very articulated summit consisting in a group of overlapped and/or coalescent volcanic cones inside collapsed calderas. Relic domes of calderic collapses are identifiable both in the western and in the central sectors of the Palinuro Seamount.

  6. Glacial to Interglacial Climate and Sea Level Changes Recorded in Submerged Speleothems, Argentarola, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Folz-Donahue, K.; Dutton, A.; Antonioli, F.; Richards, D. A.; Nita, D. C.; Lambeck, K.

    2014-12-01

    Direct records of Quaternary sea level change can provide insight on the timing and nature of ice sheet retreat during glacial terminations. Such records are generally rare, particularly prior to the last deglaciation, due in part to the difficulty of recovering material from sites that have been submerged by subsequent sea-level rise. A suite of stalagmites recovered from a submerged cave on Argentarola Island in the Tyrrhenian Sea contains hiatuses that were formed when the cave became submerged by seawater. These hiatuses are remarkable due to the presence of calcite tubes secreted by serpulid worms, providing direct evidence of marine inundation. As sea level drops during the following glacial inception, the cave is drained and dense spelean calcite encases the serpulid worm tubes, forming alternating layers of spelean and serpulid calcite. U-Th dates of spelean calcite directly above and below these serpulid layers has previously been used to constrain timing and amplitude of sea level highstands in the Mediterranean. Stable isotope records from the same cave have also been used to indicate increased precipitation across the Mediterranean during Sapropel 6 (175 ka). Here we present U-Th dates and stable isotope records for three Argentarola stalagmites. These specimens were recovered from -22, -18, and -14 m relative to present sea level (rpsl), and complement previously published data for Argentarola stalagmites at -21, -18.5, and -18 m rpsl. The timing and elevation of spelean calcite directly above and below serpulid tube layers provide rare insight on rates of sea-level change between -14 and -22 m during glacial terminations and inceptions prior to the last termination. Stable isotope records from the same stalagmites are used to investigate changes in western Mediterranean climate and potential relationships to Mediterranean sapropel events.

  7. Effect of sea-level variation on upper-slope depositional processes offshore of Tiber delta, Tyrrhenian Sea, Italy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chiocci, F.L.; Normark, W.R.

    1992-01-01

    The upper slope and outer shelf in front of the Tiber River mouth (east-central Tyrrhenian Sea) exhibits a series of about 15 gullies that are not clearly related to present-day erosional or depositional processes. An extensive, high-resolution, seismic-reflection profiling survey of a 450 km2 area in front of the Tiber delta shows several generations of similar features within the older depositional sequences underlying the outer continental shelf. The gully relief appears dominantly depositional, probably developed during lowstand periods when the Tiber River mouth was relatively near the shelf break. The position of the gullied intervals, including those on the modern slope relict from the last lowstand, shows a successive northward shift with time. This northward shift indicates continued tilting of this part of the eastern Tyrrhenian continental margin, probably resulting from a continued subsidence to the north. ?? 1992.

  8. Coastal vulnerability and the implications of sea level rise between the cities of Pescara and Ortona (Adriatic Sea - Central Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarragoni, C.; Bellotti, P.; Caputo, C.; Davoli, L.; Evangelista, S.; Pugliese, F.; Raffi, R.; Lupia Palmieri, E.

    2012-04-01

    Geomorphic processes induce rapid environmental changes especially along the coast that is highly susceptible to them. In addiction, the effects of storm or wave may be amplified by the expected relative sea level rise. In a context, like Italian coast, where the almost part of coast is densely populated and many infrastructures are presents, it is very important to have adequate tools to urban planning like the coastal vulnerability map. In this study the preliminary results of the ongoing SECOA project (Solution for Environmental contrasts in COastal Areas; 7th Framework Program) are presented, with reference to the Adriatic coast between Pescara and Ortona cities, in the Abruzzo region. In this work the same analytical model applied in the Venice Lagoon has been employed (Fontolan, 2001; 2005) involving the evaluation of the effective vulnerability (Ve). Ve is calculated as the difference between the potential vulnerability (Vp) and the defence elements present along the coast (D). (Ve = Vp - D) The data used to measure quantitative features are: high-resolution DEM (LiDAR), satellite images, aero photos, bathymetric profiles and topographic maps. The variables that contribute to the evaluation are: beach amplitude, berm height, seafloor gradient, seafloor evolution, recent and historical shorelines evolution for Vp; height, slope, vegetation cover, presence of passages, incipient dunes and windbreak barriers for the dune and anthropic barriers height. In this context, the potential vulnerability results from the sum of each variable (Vn) per the relative efficacy coefficient (Kn): Vp = V1K1+V2K2+ …VnKn In the same way the defences result from the sum of each kind of defence per the relative efficacy coefficient: D = D1K1+ …. DnKn The coastal area between Pescara and Ortona cities has been segmented in different sectors characterized by homogeneous values of the considered variables and for each of these the Ve values have been calculated and referred to one

  9. Biochemical and lysosomal biomarkers in the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis from the Mar Piccolo of Taranto (Ionian Sea, Southern Italy).

    PubMed

    Moschino, Vanessa; Da Ros, Luisa

    2016-07-01

    Biomarkers are internationally recognized as useful tools in marine coastal biomonitoring, in particular, as early-warning signals at the level of individual organisms to assess biological effects of pollutants and other stressors. In the present study, Mytilus galloprovincialis has been employed as a sentinel organism to assess biological pollution effects in the Mar Piccolo of Taranto (Southern Italy), a coastal lagoon divided into two small inlets, connected to the open sea through one natural and one artificial narrow openings. Mussels were collected in June 2013 at three sites located within each of the two inlets of the Mar Piccolo. Biological effects were investigated through a suite of biomarkers suitable to reflect effects and/or exposure to contaminants at biochemical and cellular levels. Biochemical biomarkers included glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) enzyme activities; as histochemical biomarkers, lysosomal membrane stability, lipofuscin and neutral lipid accumulation, and lysosomal structural changes were considered. As a whole, results highlighted differences among the three study sites, particularly for GST, AChE, and lipofuscins, which are consistent with the variations of the chemical pollutants in sediments. The applied biomarkers showed that a stress syndrome likely to be ascribed to environmental pollutants is occurring in mussels living in the Mar Piccolo of Taranto, in particular, the ones inhabiting the first inlet. PMID:26160119

  10. Hydromorphic to subaqueous soils transitions in the central Grado lagoon (Northern Adriatic Sea, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vittori Antisari, Livia; De Nobili, Maria; Ferronato, Chiara; Natale, Marco; Pellegrini, Elisa; Vianello, Gilmo

    2016-05-01

    The Grado lagoon is among the largest in the Mediterranean sea and is characterized by salt marshes, where tides influenced the development of a complex micromorphology coupled to a micromosaic of vegetation covers. This study represents the first contribution to the understanding of the main processes governing formation, development and spatial transitions between hydromorphic and subaqueous soils in an Adriatic lagoon ecosystem. Physicochemical characteristics and development of soils were investigated in three salt marshes differing for their proximity to the open sea, textural composition and age of formation. Soils of back barrier salt marshes had A/C profiles and were mostly characterized by a sandy coarse texture that allows rapid drainage and subsurface oxygen exchanges. Soil sequences from the inner salt marsh to its submerged border slope or to a brackish waterhole do not simply represent a hydrosequence, but also reflect erosion/sorting/accumulation processes. The soils in the central part of the lagoon have finer texture and in displayed transition or cambic horizons. Silty clay loam textures and low positions allowed the development of more severe anoxic conditions and accumulation of sulphides. The tide oscillation strongly contributed to formation of redoximorphic features, intensity of anaerobic conditions but also colonization by different plant communities. Discriminant analysis was performed to identify physicochemical properties which discriminate the different soils according to geo-morphological position and prevailing plants. It confirmed that differentiation of plant communities occurred according to distinct morphological and physicochemical soil properties, but also acted as a primary affecting factor of pedogenesis.

  11. High resolution (chirp) survey in the Ionian sea (Italy, central Maditerranean): seismic evidence of mud diapirism and coral colonies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fusi, N.; Savini, A.; Corselli, C.

    2003-04-01

    A CHIRP survey in the Ionian Sea between Calabria and Puglia (Italy) investigated: 1) the Calabrian margin, characterized by Eward dipping dip slip faults, which offset the sea bottom for a total throw of about 1200, and interested by diffuse mass-flow phenomena (slides and slumps); 2) the accretionary wedge, chiefly characterised by creep deposits; a flat plateau, identified in this area, is interpreted as the outcrop of coarse grained turbidites, coming from the steep Calabrian margin; 3) the Taranto Trench, affected by slumps in its upper part and by sedimentation of coarse grained sediments in the lower one; 4) the Apulian foreland, which rises from the Taranto trench through some appeninic (NNW-SSE) dip slip faults, with a total throw of about 1500 m; some anticlines, probably formed by Neogene-Pleistocene sediments and partly eroded, are interpreted on the basis of other seismic data (Doglioni et al., 1999; Merlini et al., 2000) as a local compression in a general extensive context. The identified echo characters have been compared with those described by Lee et al. (2002) and, on the basis of cores collected on some particular sites, they have been related to different kinds of sediments. In particular two echo characters have an interesting interpretation: 1) On the Apulian plateau we found a widespread presence of mounds, up to 50 m high, occurring as isolated mounds in the deepest zones (1600-800 m) and in groups in the shallower ones (800-600 m); they have been interpreted as coral mounds, in according to a recent discovery of living deep water coral colonies in this zone (Tursi A., Mastrototaro F., in press) and on the basis of their acoustic and morphological characters; in fact, due to high porosity and high water content, reef structures represent a poor seismic reflectors, appearing thus transparent (Hovland and Thomsen, 1997). Those coral mounds could be related to the intense fracturation of this area as a main via for fluid flow uprising. 2) Some

  12. Harmful Algae Records in Venice Lagoon and in Po River Delta (Northern Adriatic Sea, Italy)

    PubMed Central

    Bilaničovà, Dagmar; Marcomini, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    A detailed review of harmful algal blooms (HAB) in northern Adriatic Sea lagoons (Po River Delta and Venice lagoon) is presented to provide “updated reference conditions” for future research and monitoring activities. In the study areas, the high mollusc production requires the necessity to identify better methods able to prevent risks for human health and socioeconomical interests. So, an integrated approach for the identification and quantification of algal toxins is presented by combining microscopy techniques with Liquid Chromatography coupled with High Resolution Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry (HPLC-HR-TOF-MS). The method efficiency was first tested on some samples from the mentioned coastal areas, where Dinophysis spp. occurred during summer in the sites directly affected by seawaters. Although cell abundance was always <200 cells/L, the presence of Pectenotoxin-2 (PTX2), detected by HPLC-HR-TOF-MS, indicated the potential release of detectable amounts of toxins even at low cell abundance. PMID:24683360

  13. Seasonal and interannual dynamics of microzooplankton abundances in the Gulf of Trieste (Northern Adriatic Sea, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monti, Marina; Minocci, Marco; Milani, Luisella; Fonda Umani, Serena

    2012-12-01

    Abundance and composition of microzooplankton were studied over a 15 years period (from March 1986 to December 1990 and from July 1998 to December 2010) in the Gulf of Trieste (Adriatic Sea, NE Mediterranean Sea). Sampling was conducted biweekly-monthly at the surface at the historical station C1, 200 m offshore (bottom depth 17.5 m). Aloricate ciliates dominated in both periods (median 117 and 243 ind. L-1 in the first and second period respectively) while tintinnids were more abundant in the first period (median 55 ind. L-1vs 16 ind. L-1). For heterotrophic dinoflagellates there are no data during the first period and in the second one they represented the second major group. Micrometazoans remained almost constant over time. In the first period all microzooplankton groups showed a maximum in April, while in the last period the peak has shifted to September. This is particularly evident for both aloricate ciliates and micrometazoans. Tintinnids, that in the past had the absolute maximum in spring, in the second period maintained the only, lower peak in October. Tintinnids in the first period were constituted by 27 species and dominated by the genera Tintinnopsis, Stenosemella and Salpingella. In the last 10 years we registered a dramatic decrease in abundance, paralleling an increase in species (40) with some "new entries" as well as the almost complete disappearance of genera Helicostomella, Favella, Coxiella and Steenstrupiella. The observed changes of the seasonal dynamics of microzooplankton abundance, as well as of the tintinnids composition over the long period considered in our study, might suggest a climatic forcing together with the known anthropogenic oligotrophication of the entire North Adriatic.

  14. Statistical properties of coastal long waves analysed through sea-level time-gradient functions: exemplary analysis of the Siracusa, Italy, tide-gauge data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bressan, L.; Tinti, S.

    2015-09-01

    This study presents a new method to analyse the properties of the sea-level signal recorded by coastal tide gauges in the long wave range that is in a window between wind/storm waves and tides and is typical of several phenomena like local seiches, coastal shelf resonances and tsunamis. The method consists of computing four specific functions based on the time gradient (slope) of the recorded sea level oscillations, namely the instantaneous slope IS, and three more functions based on IS, that are the sea level SL, the background slope BS and the control function CF. These functions are examined through a traditional spectral FFT analysis and also through a statistical analysis showing that they can be characterised by probability distribution functions PDFs such as the Student's t distribution (IS and SL) and the Beta distribution (CF). As an example, the method has been applied to data from the tide-gauge station of Siracusa, Italy.

  15. Presence of trace metals in aquaculture marine ecosystems of the northwestern Mediterranean Sea (Italy).

    PubMed

    Squadrone, S; Brizio, P; Stella, C; Prearo, M; Pastorino, P; Serracca, L; Ercolini, C; Abete, M C

    2016-08-01

    Information regarding chemical pollutant levels in farmed fish and shellfish, along with the risks associated with their consumption is still scarce. This study was designed to assess levels of exposure to 21 trace elements in fish (Dicentrarchus labrax), mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) and oysters (Crassostrea gigas) collected from aquaculture marine ecosystems of the northwestern Mediterranean Sea. Metal concentrations showed great variability in the three species; the highest values of the nonessential elements As and Cd were found in oysters while the highest levels of Al, Pb and V were found in mussels. The essential elements Cu, Mn and Zn were highest in oysters, but Fe, Cr, Ni, Se, Co and Mo levels were highest in mussels. Fish had the lowest concentrations for all trace elements, which were at least one order of magnitude lower than in bivalves. The rare earth elements cerium and lanthanum were found at higher levels in mussels than in oysters, but undetectable in fish. The maximum values set by European regulations for Hg, Cd and Pb were never exceeded in the examined samples. However, comparing the estimated human daily intakes (EHDIs) with the suggested tolerable copper and zinc intakes suggested a potential risk for frequent consumers of oysters. Similarly, people who consume high quantities of mussels could be exposed to concentrations of Al that exceed the proposed TWI (tolerable weekly intake). PMID:27179326

  16. Levels of total mercury in marine organisms from Adriatic Sea, Italy.

    PubMed

    Perugini, Monia; Visciano, Pierina; Manera, Maurizio; Zaccaroni, Annalisa; Olivieri, Vincenzo; Amorena, Michele

    2009-08-01

    The presence of total mercury in fish, crustacean and cephalopod from Adriatic Sea, was investigated. The highest concentrations were observed in decreasing order in: Norway lobster (0.97 +/- 0.24 mg/kg; mean +/- SE), European hake (0.59 +/- 0.14 mg/kg), red mullet (0.48 +/- 0.09 mg/kg), blue whiting (0.38 +/- 0.09 mg/kg), Atlantic mackerel (0.36 +/- 0.08 mg/kg) and European flying squid (0.25 +/- 0.03 mg/kg). A significant difference (p < 0.01) was found between the levels of total mercury in Norway lobster and those detected in all other species. The 25% of all samples exceeded the maximum limit fixed by Commission Regulation (EC) No 1881/2006. The results show that fish and fishery products can exceed the maximum levels and stress the need of more information for consumers in particular for people that eat large amount of fish. PMID:19434348

  17. Linking subaerial erosion wih submarine geomorphology in the northern Ionian Sea, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goswami, Rajasmita; Mitchell, Neil C.; Argnani, Andrea

    2014-05-01

    The supply of sediment from continental sources is commonly suspected to have exerted a strong influence on the development of canyons and other morphological features on the continental slopes, but rarely is the sediment supply known quantitatively to make this link. Here, we outline an area where offshore morphology, in the northern Ionian Sea, may be linked to supply of sediment from subaerial erosion in NE Sicily and SW Calabria. Shelves in this area are very narrow (< 1 km), and the bathymetry shows that rivers and adjacent submarine channels are almost directly connected. Integrated topographic analyses were performed on a merged digital evelation model (DEM) of ASTER data for subaerial topography and multibeam sonar data for submarine bathymetry. Spatial variations in onshore erosion were assesed using a variety of methods, namely: long-term sediment flux from Pleistocene uplift rates, decadal sediment flux from landslides; published long-term exhumation rates from 10Be cosmogenic nuclide concentrations and published recent sediment yields determined using the Gavrilovic Method. Submarine channels associated with rivers delivering larger sediment fluxes have broad channels, high relief and smooth concave-upward longitudinal profiles. Conversely, submarine channels that lie offshore small-flux rivers have straight longitudinal profiles, low relief and steep gradients. Where river catchments supply a greater sediment flux offshore, shelves tend to be wider (~400 m) and submarine channels have gentler gradients. In contrast, where catchments supply less sediment flux, shelves are narrow (250-300 m) and offshore channel gradients are steeper. How morphology varies with tectonic uplift rate was also studied, but we find that, unlike onshore terrains where tectonics is commonly an important factor influencing channel morphology, in the submarine landscapes, sediment flux appears to dominate.

  18. Tectonic and magmatic evolution of a fossil (Ultra-)Slow Spreading Ocean: the study case of the Jurassic Ligurian Tethys.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piccardo, G. B.

    2008-12-01

    The Jurassic Ligurian Tethys oceanic basin has been recognized as the fossil analogue of modern (Ultra- )Slow Spreading Ridges. Stratigraphic and structural studies on the Western Alpine - Northern Apennine (AA) ophiolites, that are remnants of the lithosphere of the ancient basin, evidence that the basin was characterized by the sea-floor exposure on mantle peridotites, discontinuously covered by MORB volcanites and pelagic sediments (i.e. radiolarion cherts). The related passive margins were typically not-volcanic. Palaeogeographic restorations indicate that exhumed sub-continental mantle was exposed at the ocean- continent transition (OCT) zones, frequently associated to continental crust material and pelagic sediments. These exhumed sub-continental lithospheric peridotites were equilibrated under spinel-facies conditions, preserving diffuse structural relicts of precursor garnet, and show widespread spinel(-garnet)-pyroxenites bands. Sm-Nd isotope data on Cpx from these peridotites indicate DMM affinity and Proterozoic model ages, that have been interpreted as early accretion to, and long residence in, the sub-continental lithosphere. OCT peridotites frequently show strong localized deformation along km-scale shear zones that were formed during lithosphere extension leading to the oceanic opening. Isotope data indicate that mantle exhumation during lithosphere extension was already active during Triassic times and was most probably accomodated by a network of lithosphere-scale shear zones. Lithospheric thinning caused asthenosphere adiabatic upwelling and decompression melting along the axial zone of the extensional system. The asthenospheric MORB melts infiltrated by porous flow and percolated through the overlying extending lithospheric mantle causing significant melt-peridotite interaction. The pristine lithospheric mantle was tranformed to strongly pyroxene-depleted (i.e. reactive and replacive peridotites) or plagioclase-enriched (i.e. impregnated and

  19. Meningoencephalitis and Listeria monocytogenes, Toxoplasma gondii and Brucella spp. coinfection in a dolphin in Italy.

    PubMed

    Grattarola, Carla; Giorda, Federica; Iulini, Barbara; Pintore, Maria Domenica; Pautasso, Alessandra; Zoppi, Simona; Goria, Maria; Romano, Angelo; Peletto, Simone; Varello, Katia; Garibaldi, Fulvio; Garofolo, Giuliano; Di Francesco, Cristina Esmeralda; Marsili, Letizia; Bozzetta, Elena; Di Guardo, Giovanni; Dondo, Alessandro; Mignone, Walter; Casalone, Cristina

    2016-02-25

    Listeria monocytogenes, Toxoplasma gondii and Brucella spp. can infect a wide range of species, including humans. In cetaceans, meningoencephalitis has been associated with T. gondii and Brucella spp. infection, whereas to our knowledge, L. monocytogenes infection has not previously been reported. Meningoencephalitis and L. monocytogenes, T. gondii and Brucella spp. were identified by means of both direct and indirect laboratory techniques in an adult female striped dolphin Stenella coeruleoalba found stranded in January 2015 on the Ligurian Sea coast, northwestern Italy. The animal was emaciated, and histopathology disclosed severe meningoencephalitis. The nature of the inflammatory response and intra-lesional protozoa were consistent with a mixed infection by L. monocytogenes, T. gondii and Brucella spp. We believe this is an unprecedented case of infection by 3 zoonotic pathogens and also the first bacteriologically confirmed case report of neurolisteriosis in cetaceans. Cerebral toxoplasmosis and neurobrucellosis may have led to the animal's disorientation and stranding, with L. monocytogenes having likely exacerbated the coinfection leading to the demise of this dolphin. PMID:26912047

  20. Preliminary analysis of the Intensive Observation Period events occurred in Italy during the HyMeX campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferretti, Rossella

    2013-04-01

    HyMeX (Hydrological cycle in the Mediterranean eXperiment) is a project aimed at a better understanding and quantification of the hydrological cycle and related processes in the Mediterranean. As a part of HyMeX, Special Observation Periods (SOPs) are dedicated to provide detailed and specific observations to study key processes leading to orographic precipitation (ORP), heavy precipitation events (HPEs), and flash flood events (FFEs) in certain Target Areas (TAs). Informed by numerical weather forecasts and standard observations, Intensive Operation Periods (IOPs) are declared during the SOPs. Specific observations in the TAs are provided by operational measurements (ground meteorological networks, soundings, and remote-sensing instruments), coupled with specific measurements during IOPs from several instruments, such as disdrometers, sodars, lidars, research radars, extra soundings, etc. In this paper an overview is presented of the HyMeX IOPs in Italy during SOP1 (5 September - 6 November, 2012). The Hydro-Meteorological sites of interest were: Liguria-Tuscany (LT), northeastern Italy (NEI) and central Italy (CI). Typical situations encountered for HPEs in LT involved upper-level southwesterly flow with low-level moist southerly or southeasterly flow over the Tyrrhenian and the Ligurian Sea. Highlights include a measurement of 300 mm/24h of rain at the border between Liguria and Emilia on Sept. 26, 2012 during IOP7b. For NEI region, HPEs mainly occurred with upper level southwesterly flow ahead of advancing troughs with low-level moist southerly or southeasterly flow over the Adriatic Sea. Highlights include 120 mm/24h of rain in Friuli Venezia Giulia on Sept. 12, 2012 during IOP2. For CI region, HPEs and FFEs, a slowly propagating cut-off low centered over southern Italy was observed; the associated easterly flow on the north side of the cut-off low would frequently bring moisture into east central Italy from the Adriatic Sea. Highlights include an event with

  1. Near-bottom water column anomalies associated with active hydrothermal venting at Aeolian arc volcanoes, Tyrrhenian Sea, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, S. L.; Carey, S.; Bell, K. L.; Baker, E. T.; Faure, K.; Rosi, M.; Marani, M.; Nomikou, P.

    2012-12-01

    Hydrothermal deposits such as metalliferous sediments, Fe-Mn crusts, and massive sulfides are common on the submarine volcanoes of the Aeolian arc (Tyrrhenian Sea, Italy), but the extent and style of active hydrothermal venting is less well known. A systematic water column survey in 2007 found helium isotope ratios indicative of active venting at 6 of the 9 submarine volcanoes surveyed plus the Marsili back-arc spreading center (Lupton et al., 2011). Other plume indicators, such as turbidity and temperature anomalies were weak or not detected. In September 2011, we conducted five ROV Hercules dives at Eolo, Enarete, and Palinuro volcanoes during an E/V Nautilus expedition. Additionally, two dives explored the Casoni seamount on the southern flank of Stromboli where a dredge returned apparently warm lava in 2002 (Gamberi, 2006). Four PMEL MAPRs, with temperature, optical backscatter (particles), and oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) sensors, were arrayed along the lowermost 50 m of the Hercules/Argus cable during the dives to assess the relationship between seafloor observations and water column anomalies. Active venting was observed at each of the volcanoes visited. Particle anomalies were weak or absent, consistent with the 2007 CTD surveys, but ORP anomalies were common. Venting at Eolo volcano was characterized by small, localized patches of yellow-orange bacteria; living tubeworms were observed at one location. ORP anomalies (-1 to -22 mv) were measured at several locations, primarily along the walls of the crescent-shaped collapse area (or possible caldera) east of the Eolo summit. At Enarete volcano, we found venting fluids with temperatures up to 5°C above ambient as well as small, fragile iron-oxide chimneys. The most intense ORP anomaly (-140 mv) occurred at a depth of about 495 m on the southeast side of the volcano, with smaller anomalies (-10 to -20 mv) more common as the ROV moved upslope to the summit. At Palinuro volcano, multiple dives located

  2. Depositional and erosional coastal processes during the late postglacial sea-level rise: An example from the central Tyrrhenian continental shelf (Italy)

    SciTech Connect

    Tortora, P.

    1996-03-01

    A transgressive systems tract (TST) deposit on the inner continental shelf of the south Tuscany region (central Tyrrhenian Sea, Italy) formed during the last postglacial sea-level rise. Its small-scale stratigraphy has been detailed using high-resolution seismic profiles, gravity cores, and grab samples. The TST deposit overlies a lowstand unconformity, shows a tabular geometry, and comprises three internal architectures of beach facies. Because the lateral distribution of these vertical successions is not random, but parallel to the coast, each architecture represents an individual sedimentary stage during sea-level rise. However, all architectures were formed via shoreface retreat in response to the landward migration of a beach complex over the unconformity. During this migration the beach system was characterized by a source diastem located in the surf zone and by two sediment dispersal systems. One moved the eroded sand over the flat back-barrier palustrine area by storm washover, while the other transported part of this sand to the lower shoreface, forming a reworked sand sheet above the older and inactive source diastem (ravinement surface). The TST architectures originated from a transgressive succession of beach facies, differentiated according to the intensity of shoreface retreat. Architecture A represents a low preservation potential of the original beach complex, Architecture B relatively high preservation, and Architecture C no preservation. The intensity of erosion and the consequent preservation potential were totally controlled by antecedent topography.

  3. Statistical properties of coastal long waves analysed through sea-level time-gradient functions: exemplary analysis of the Siracusa, Italy, tide-gauge data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bressan, L.; Tinti, S.

    2016-01-01

    This study presents a new method to analyse the properties of the sea-level signal recorded by coastal tide gauges in the long wave range that is in a window between wind/storm waves and tides and is typical of several phenomena like local seiches, coastal shelf resonances and tsunamis. The method consists of computing four specific functions based on the time gradient (slope) of the recorded sea level oscillations, namely the instantaneous slope (IS) as well as three more functions based on IS, namely the reconstructed sea level (RSL), the background slope (BS) and the control function (CF). These functions are examined through a traditional spectral fast Fourier transform (FFT) analysis and also through a statistical analysis, showing that they can be characterised by probability distribution functions PDFs such as the Student's t distribution (IS and RSL) and the beta distribution (CF). As an example, the method has been applied to data from the tide-gauge station of Siracusa, Italy.

  4. Petroleum systems of the Po Basin Province of northern Italy and the northern Adriatic Sea; Porto Garibaldi (biogenic), Meride/Riva di Solto (thermal), and Marnoso Arenacea (thermal)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lindquist, Sandra J.

    1999-01-01

    The Porto Garibaldi total petroleum system dominates the Po Basin Province of onshore northern Italy and offshore Italy and Croatia in the northern Adriatic Sea. Porto Garibaldi contains Pliocene (primarily) and Pleistocene (secondarily) biogenic gas ? approximately 16 TCF (2.66 BBOE) ultimately recoverable ? accumulated in co-eval siliciclastic reservoirs. This area was the northwestern edge of the Gondwanan (African) continental plate in pre-Hercynian time until the assembly of Pangea, a dominantly carbonate passive continental margin during the Mesozoic breakup of Pangea, and a Cenozoic collision zone with siliciclastic foredeep and foreland regions surrounded by thrust belts. At least two other petroleum systems, with Triassic (Meride / Riva di Solto) and Miocene (Marnoso Arenacea) source rocks, contribute oil and thermal gas reserves (nearly 1 BBOE) to the province. The major time of hydrocarbon expulsion of the thermal systems was Late Neogene during the Alpine and Apennine orogenies. Local Mesozoic oil expulsion from Triassic rocks also occurred, but those oils either were not trapped or were leaked from faulty traps through time.

  5. The tsunami-like sea level disturbance in Crotone harbor, Italy, after the Mw6.5 strike-slip earthquake of 17 November 2015 in Lefkada Isl., Ionian Sea, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novikova, Tatyana; Annunziato, Alessandro; Charalampakis, Marinos; Romano, Fabrizio; Volpe, Manuela; Tonini, Roberto; Gerardinger, Andrea; Papadopoulos, Gerassimos A.

    2016-04-01

    On 17 November 2015 an Mw6.5 earthquake ruptured offshore Lefkada Isl. in Ionian Sea, Greece, causing two human victims, minor damage and several ground failures including coastal landslides. Fault plane solutions released by CMT/Harvard, NOA and other institutes have indicated that the faulting style was strike-slip right-lateral, which is quite typical for the area, as for example, the Mw6.3 event that occurred on August 14, 2003, in exactly the same fault zone. In spite of the very low tsunami potential commonly associated to this faulting mechanism, a tsunami-like sea level change was recorded after the earthquake by one tide-gauge in the Crotone harbor, Italy. Preliminary tsunami numerical simulations were performed to reproduce the observed signal. The spectral analysis of the synthetic mareograms close to the entrance of the harbor shows the presence of some peaks that could justify the relation between the natural port resonance and the observed wave amplification. Of particular interest is the coupling between the tsunami energy and the natural modes of basin oscillation enhancing tsunami wave amplitude in harbors through resonance, as shown in some historical events in the Mediterranean Sea and elsewhere. This research is a contribution to the EU-FP7 tsunami research project ASTARTE (Assessment, Strategy And Risk Reduction for Tsunamis in Europe), grant agreement no: 603839, 2013-10-30.

  6. Functional structure of marine benthic assemblages using Biological Traits Analysis (BTA): A study along the Emilia-Romagna coastline (Italy, North-West Adriatic Sea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paganelli, Daniele; Marchini, Agnese; Occhipinti-Ambrogi, Anna

    2012-01-01

    The functional diversity index has shown that the functional diversity of the macrobenthic community increased along a spatial gradient of distance from the Po river delta (Emilia-Romagna coast, Italy, North-Adriatic Sea), which suggests that riverine inputs have a detrimental effect on community functioning. This study focuses on two different depths along a southward gradient of increasing distance from the Po river delta where the Po river is the main source of freshwater and nutrient inputs in the North-Adriatic Sea. A Biological Traits Analysis (BTA) was used to examine a dataset of 156 soft-bottom macrobenthic species that were collected at eight stations in this area. Instead of comparing communities on the basis of their taxonomic composition, BTA uses a series of life history, morphological and behavioural characteristics of species to indicate aspects of their ecological functioning. The variability of the Emilia-Romagna dataset was governed by relatively few biological traits: growth form, trophic group, type of movement, habit, adult mobility and bioturbation activity. The community closer to the coastline was mainly composed of moderately mobile vermiform organisms with burrowing or tube-dwelling behaviour, and deposit feeding behaviour. However, the offshore community was mainly characterized by organisms with a laterally compressed or globose body and tube-dwelling behaviour; filter feeders and deposit feeders were dominant.

  7. Evidence of climatic variations in upper Pleistocene and Holocene sediments from the lagoon of Venice (Italy and the Bohai Sea (China))

    SciTech Connect

    Bonardi, M.; Carbognin, L.; Tosi, L.; Marabini, F.

    1996-12-31

    An accurate forecasting of environmental impact on sea level and shoreline changes due to global warming, requires a detailed investigation and interpretation of the events that occurred during the past 20,000 years. This time interval in fact corresponds to two significant climatic global changes: the last Wuermian glaciation, during the Upper Pleistocene, and the warming during the Holocene. Examples of the climatic variation impact on paleoenvironments are here evidenced by sedimentological studies, radiocarbon dating, paleobotanic, paleontological, mineralogical and geochemical investigations of two stratigraphic columns that are geographically far apart: the Lagoon of Venice, Italy, and the Bohai Sea, China. The study focuses first on a general overview of the regional paleoclimatic history of these two core locations and their correlation with the sedimentological variations; second on some depositional events, such clay layers and beachrock formations, that carry the imprints of the climatic conditions. The results of this investigation may contribute to a better understanding of diagenetic processes, still not sufficiently described, caused by the climatic changes. Furthermore the study provided information that may be useful to a more complete overview of the environmental impact caused by natural global warming before the anthropogenic input.

  8. Characterization of submarine canyon bathymetries in northern Ionian Sea, Italy, using sediment geochemical variation induced by transportation distance and basin depth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Francesco, Perri; Tohru, Ohta; Salvatore, Critelli

    2015-07-01

    Geochemical data of marine mud sediments collected from the Esaro, Neto and Corigliano canyons in the northern Ionian Sea (southern Italy) were investigated in order to characterize canyon bathymetry types. Mud sample compositions analyzed by the principal component analysis (PCA) provided useful information for the morphology of the depositional area of the northern Ionian Sea. The use of sediment geochemical data as well as transportation distance and depth as input variables for PCA enabled the extraction of following latent variables: basin depth (PC1), sedimentation rate (PC2) and transportation distance (PC3). Based on these results, we further developed geochemical indices that can estimate basin depth (F1), sedimentation rate (F2) and transportation distance (F3); these functions can be solely calculated from the elemental concentration data of the mud samples. Since these F1, F2 and F3 functions are mathematically independent variables, they facilitate more precise characterization of individual canyon types. That is, the Esaro Canyon is regarded as a sediment-starved deep canyon characterized by a single source area; the Neto Canyon can be seen as a deeply sloped submarine apron system and sediments are mainly supplied by the sediment gravity flows; the Corigliano Canyon is characterized by multiple sources and moderately sloped system, whose sediments disperse mainly by traction currents. These interpretations are concordant with the basin bathymetry of the studied area. Therefore, F1, F2 and F3 functions might be applicable to any oceanic basins.

  9. The Marsili Ridge (Southern Tyrrhenian Sea, Italy): An island-arc volcanic complex emplaced on a 'relict' back-arc basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ventura, G.; Milano, G.; Passaro, S.; Sprovieri, M.

    2013-01-01

    Marsili Seamount (< 1 Ma; Southern Tyrrhenian Sea, Italy) is classically interpreted as the spreading ridge of the about 2 Ma old Marsili oceanic back-arc associated to the Southern Tyrrhenian Sea-Calabrian Arc subduction setting. High resolution bathymetric data show that the ridge extends along a NNE-SSW strike and consists of 4 sectors and 11 major segments. Seafloor failures and central-type activity from an overpressurized sill-like reservoir characterize the central sector, whereas fissural volcanism and passive magma ascent take places at the edges. Cones indicative of high effusion rates concentrate in the axial zone, whereas flat-top shields associated to lower rates are located at the northern tip. Along-axis, lateral magma migration due to a local deepening of the elastic-brittle thickness of the crust develops from the central sector toward the northern tip. The opening of the Marsili back-arc basin vanished from about 1 Ma and the Marsili Ridge formed by passive magma ascent along pre-existing fractures inherited by early spreading activity. The values of the long-term output rate, the ratio between magmatic pressure and tectonic stress, and the morphological features of the lava flows and dikes are consistent with those found in volcanic arc subduction settings. Marsili Ridge represents a volcanic arc edifice emplaced on an older, 'relict' back-arc. The formation of the Marsili Ridge marks the transition from an extensional subduction setting to a compressive one.

  10. The non-indigenous Paranthura japonica Richardson, 1909 (Isopoda: Anthuroidea: Paranthuridae) from the Mar Piccolo lagoon, Taranto (Italy, Mediterranean Sea).

    PubMed

    Lorenti, Maurizio; Keppel, Erica; Petrocelli, Antonella; Sigovini, Marco; Tagliapietra, Davide

    2016-07-01

    Several individuals of Paranthura japonica, a non-indigenous isopod species, recently recorded on Italian coasts, have been collected from the Mar Piccolo basin, Taranto (Italy). This finding extends the distributional range of the species southwards in the Mediterranean, including a semi-enclosed coastal basin, which is considered the second Italian hotspot for the introduction of alien species. The characteristics of the place reinforce the hypothesis that its introduction is linked to shellfish trade and farming. Remarks on the morphology and ecology are included. PMID:26174984

  11. Parapenaeus longirostris (Lucas, 1846) an early warning indicator species of global warming in the central Mediterranean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colloca, Francesco; Mastrantonio, Gianluca; Lasinio, Giovanna Jona; Ligas, Alessandro; Sartor, Paolo

    2014-10-01

    The effect of temperature increase on the stock of the deep-sea pink shrimp (Parapenaeus longirostris) was analysed along the western coasts of Italy (North Tyrrhenian-Ligurian Sea: Geographical Sub-Area 9). This crustacean is currently one of the most important commercial species of the trawl fisheries in the Mediterranean Sea. Landings of the species in the North Tyrrhenian-Ligurian Sea have grown consistently during the last years following a rapid increase in the stock size. Since the deep-sea pink shrimp stock is exploited on the same fishing ground of other heavily overexploited stocks in a full mixed and poorly selective fishery, its condition seems to be largely independent of the current fishing exploitation pattern suggesting a positive role of climate change on the dynamic of the stock. To test this hypothesis we investigated the effect of sea surface temperature (SST) on density and distribution of P. longirostris by means of general additive models (GAMs). Two different models were developed for the whole stock and for the recruits (CL < 20 mm) using time series of MEDITS (International bottom trawl survey in the Mediterranean) survey density indices (n km- 2) covering the period 1995-2010. Predictors included were geographical coordinates, quarterly averaged minimum SST, sampling depth and year. Spawners density was included as predictor into the GAM for recruits. The best GAM for the whole stock explained 67.1% of the total deviance, showing a clear increase in density in concomitance with the expansion of the stock northward. We found a significant positive effect of the min SST of all seasons, as expected considering that P. longirostris spawn all year round, with the highest influence played by summer min SST, either in the same or previous year. The best model for recruits explained 64.9% of the total deviance. Recruitment increased linearly with the density of spawners showing a positive temporal trend and an expansion northward. The observed

  12. Upper Messinian conglomerates in Calabria, southern Italy: Response to orogenic wedge adjustment following Mediterranean sea-level changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Decelles, P. G.; Cavazza, W.

    1995-09-01

    Widespread uppermost Miocene conglomerate and sandstone along the Apenninic-Maghrebian orogenic belt in the central Mediterranean region cannot be explained as a result of the Messinian base-level falls. Along the Ionian coast of Calabria, southern Italy, these rocks were deposited in marine fan deltas and rest in angular unconformity or disconformity upon the internal part of the Calabrian accretionary wedge. We propose that the upper Messinian deposits were produced by internal shortening of the Calabrian accretionary wedge as it compensated for the decrease in upper surface slope caused by flexural rebound as the ˜3.4-km-thick Ionian water mass evaporated. Latest Miocene-Pliocene marine inundation reloaded the basin, restored the wedge to a critical state, and caused the rear part of the wedge again to become tectonically stable. This isostatically driven mechanism could explain widespread latest Messinian thrust faults and coarse siliciclastic deposits along much of the Apenninic-Maghrebian orogen.

  13. Adapting coastal structures to a moving relative sea level: Roman Time geoarchaeological evidence from Posillipo promontory (Naples, Italy).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aucelli, Pietro; Cinque, Aldo; Giordano, Francesco; Mattei, Gaia; Pappone, Gerardo; Rizzo, Angela

    2016-04-01

    The Posillipo promontory belongs to the southern periphery the active volcanic complex called Campi Flegrei. Especially the central caldera of CF is well known for offering a rich geoarchaeological record of the vertical ground movements it has been suffering since Roman times; which includes the ruins of Portus Julius (built in 37 BC) presently found between 10 and 5 m bsl and the Middle Ages Lithophaga perforations at about 7m asl on the marble columns of the Serapeo building (Morhange, 2006 and references therein). In order to better constraint the vertical movements suffered by the Posillipo promontory during the last two millennia, we selected three geoarcaeolgical coastal sites (Nisida Roman port, Marechiaro Roman port and Villa Robery) and we studied them by means of both geomorphological observations and geophysical surveys (Side Scan Sonar and Single Beam echo-sounder). Within the submerged Roman port of Nisida, built in the 1st AD, we found two pilae of the ancient pier. The submersion measuring of the well-preserved one provided a palaeo-sea level at 3.1±0.30 m bsl. In the submerged Roman port of Marechiaro, we recognized a still preserved breakwater connected to the tuffaceous sea cliff, and submerged foundations of a 1st century small sea-side villa. Nearby there is also a two-storeyed Roman building (Palazzo degli Spiriti), built in the 1st cent. BC and later restructured to adapt to a phase of subsidence (Gunther 1908). From our submersion measurements, two different paleo-sea levels can be deduced: one for the 1st cent. BC at -4.4 + -0.50 m and another for the 1st cent. AD at -3 + - 0.30 m. Finally, in front of the modern Villa Rosebery the sea bottom shows a sub-horizontal element at -3m to -3.5m bsl, emerged during the 1st BC century. In fact, at least three houses were erected there during said century (Gunther, 1908). As the area was very little elevated, an alignment of pilae was also constructed to protect those houses from the breakers. By

  14. Organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyl residues in reared and wild Dicentrarchus labrax from the Mediterranean Sea (Sicily, Italy).

    PubMed

    Lo Turco, V; Di Bella, G; La Pera, L; Conte, F; Macrí, B; mo Dugo, G

    2007-09-01

    The aim of this research was to compare the levels of organochlorine pesticides and PCBs in samples of Dicentrarchus labrax living in the Straits of Messina with samples cultivated in cages in the Mediterranean Sea. Muscles and liver tissues sampled over the months, within the same year, were analyzed. The quantitative determination of the organochlorine compounds was performed by GC-ECD and confirmed with GC-MS. The results showed that the concentrations of DDTs in muscles and livers as such of reared sea bass were in the range 0.2-1.3 microg/kg and 9.6 -48.4 microg/kg, respectively. In wild fish the concentrations of DDTs were very much lower: 0.1 microg/kg in muscles, 5.1-9.0 microg/kg in livers. Total PCBs levels were higher in cultivated sea bass than in wild fish; the concentration ranges were 5.3-59.7 microg/kg and 74.4-267.4 microg/kg in muscle and liver of reared samples, respectively, and 1.1-1.5 microg/kg and 63.2-109.4 microg/kg in muscle and liver of wild samples, respectively. PMID:17342439

  15. Consumer preferences regarding the introduction of new organic products. The case of the Mediterranean sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) in Italy.

    PubMed

    Mauracher, C; Tempesta, T; Vecchiato, D

    2013-04-01

    The introduction of new products on the market poses several challenges; in particular, whether the characteristics of the proposed product will be judged positively by potential consumers. This paper analyses the preferences of consumers regarding the introduction on the Italian market of a new product: organic Mediterranean sea bass. The aim of this study is to assess the importance given by consumers to four main characteristics of sea bass (country of origin, size, production method - organic or conventional - and price) so as to be able to formulate marketing strategies. We applied a choice experiment (CE) in order to define not only the ordinal ranking of preferences but also the willingness to pay (WTP) for the key characteristics of the newly-introduced product. We found that consumers show a higher WTP for the sea bass country of origin than for the breeding method used. Our results suggest that while organic aquaculture might be a new and important strategy for diversification, if suitable communication, either from a public policy or commercial perspective, and labelling/certification are not taken into consideration, the added value of the production method might not be perceived by the final consumers. PMID:23268110

  16. Collapse and flow of lowstand shelf-margin deposits: An example from the eastern Tyrrhenian Sea, Italy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Trincardi, F.; Field, M.E.

    1992-01-01

    The upper slope of the eastern Tyrrhenian Sea margin has a complex morphology shaped by Quaternary tectonism and by sedimentation phases controlled by changing sea levels. Sediment slides of widely varying size and shape are common in Quaternary deposits of the upper slope, particularly where gradients are steep. Our study of a large sediment failure in lowstand prograded coastal deposits west of Cape Licosa indicates that the nature of shelf-margin deposition is an additional important control on failure. The failure zone has a mobilization surface showing in-situ deformation in the sediment above it; an upper failure surface; a head scarp; and a zone of ponded sediment debris downslope from the exposed surface of failure. The basal mobilization surface is roughly parallel to the seafloor and coincident with a major downlap surface. The failed section is less that 20 m thick and local in extent, but deformation on the basal mobilization surface extends outside the immediate area of the failure. Directly downslope of the slide scarp are internally stratified mounds that show no evidence of deformation or movement. Most of the prograded deposit experienced in-situ deformation that evolved into the collapse of part of the sediment pile above the mobilization surface. A portion of the mobilized sediment flowed a few kilometers basinward and accumulated at the base of a slope-parallel ridge. Sediment failure occurred on the Licosa shelf margin following a major pulse of coastal sedimentation along the lowstand shoreline. On many continental margins, sea-level lowering is thought to be an important cause of failure unconsolidated sediment deposited during previous high-stand conditions. The Licosa slide demonstrates that sea-level fall has another, equally important but indirect, role in sediment failure. As sea level falls and reaches its lowstand position, streams are at their peak efficiency and a coarsening-upward clastic coastal wedge is rapidly emplaced at

  17. Benthic ecosystem functioning in the severely contaminated Mar Piccolo of Taranto (Ionian Sea, Italy): focus on heterotrophic pathways.

    PubMed

    Franzo, A; Auriemma, R; Nasi, F; Vojvoda, J; Pallavicini, A; Cibic, T; Del Negro, P

    2016-07-01

    The benthic ecosystem functioning is a rarely applied holistic approach that integrates the main chemical and biological features of the benthic domain with the key processes responsible for the flux of energy and C through the system. For the first time, such conceptual model, with an emphasis on the heterotrophic pathways, has been applied to the sediments at four stations within one of the most polluted coastal areas in Italy: the Mar Piccolo of Taranto. The functioning of the benthic ecosystem was different according to the investigated site. Nearby the military arsenal, i.e., the main source of organic contaminants and heavy metals, the system seemed inhibited at all the investigated structural and functional levels. Slow microbial processes of C reworking together with very limited densities of benthic fauna suggested a modest transfer of C both into a solid microbial loop and to the higher trophic levels. On the other hand, the ingression of marine water through the "Navigabile" channel seemed to stimulate the organic matter degradation and, consequently, the proliferation of meiofauna and macrofauna. In the innermost part of the basin, the system functioning, to some extent, is less impacted by contaminants and more influenced by mussel farms. The organic matter produced by these bivalves fueled faster C reworking by benthic prokaryotes and enhanced the proliferation of filter feeders. PMID:26370810

  18. Probabilistic tsunami hazard assessment related to underwater explosions in the Campi Flegrei caldera: Gulfs of Napoli and Pozzuoli (Tyrrhenian Sea, Italy).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulvrova, Martina; Selva, Jacopo; Paris, Raphael; Brizuela, Beatriz; Costa, Antonio; Grezio, Anita; Lorito, Stefano; Tonini, Roberto

    2016-04-01

    Tsunami caused by underwater volcanic explosions are typically characterized by short period waves and greater dispersion compared to tsunami generated by earthquakes, and the impact in the far-field is often limited. However, the effect of dispersion is reduced for underwater explosions occurring in shallow-water environments, as the length-to-depth ratio of the waves rapidly increase, and runup inland can be locally high. This effect was particularly illustrated by the 19 m runup at Karymsky Lake, Kamchatka, in 1996 (Belousov et al., 2010; Ulvrova et al., 2014). Hazards related to underwater volcanic explosions are challenging to evaluate and might be underestimated in some cases. In this study we consider different scenarios of explosions in the offshore part of the Campi Flegrei (Phlegraean Fields) caldera in the Pozzuoli - Naples region (Tyrrhenian Sea, Italy). The onshore eruptive history of the caldera is well documented (e.g. Orsi et al., 2004), but past and future activity offshore has been rarely discussed. The probability for eruptions in the submarine part of the caldera is perhaps low (Selva et al., 2012), but scenarios of tsunamis generated by underwater explosions and their impact in the proximal field (Bay of Pozzuoli) and far field (Bay of Naples) deserve to be considered due to high population density in the adjacent coastal areas. Initial surface displacement is estimated as a function of explosion energy at a given depth. We study 17 different potential vent locations within the Pozzuoli Bay, and 3 different vent radii (200 m, 650 m and 900 m), corresponding to the three representative eruptive scenarios identified in Orsi et al. (2009) and Selva et al. (2010). We then use these sources in a Bayesian Event Tree framework, following the procedure defined in Selva et al. (2010), in order to evaluate a first order Probabilistic Hazard Analysis for this type of tsunami sources for the Gulfs of Napoli and Pozzuoli. Belousov A., Voight B., Belousova M

  19. Dolomite as a tracer for sediment transport and deposition on the northwestern Adriatic continental shelf (Adriatic Sea, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravaioli, Mariangela; Alvisi, Francesca; Vitturi, Laura Menegazzo

    2003-09-01

    Surface sediments of the Northern and Middle Adriatic shelf were studied during five cruises, from 1977 to 1990, in order to map the distribution of Ca and Mg carbonates in bottom sediments of the Adriatic Sea. The aim of this work was to trace the preferential depositional areas of sediments derived from Italian rivers by distinguishing among the contributions from northeastern Italian rivers, the Po and Apenninic streams. The pattern distribution of dolomite concentration proved to be a good tracer of the alongshore transport of particulate material from the Northern toward the Middle and Southern Adriatic. Moreover, dolomite and textural sedimentary parameters such as grain size distributions discriminate between local, recent sources, and regional, older sources of bottom sedimentary material. The analysis of the main pathways of sediment transfer between different shelf compartments shows that a huge amount of material is transferred from north to south. This occurs in two main shelf sectors: along the Romagna coast, sediments moving inside the belt delimited by the 20 m isobaths are influenced by the local river input and minor coastal gyres, whereas offshore sediments, coming from the northern Adriatic Sea, are transported southward by the Northern Adriatic Coastal Current (NACC); along the Marche and Abruzzo coasts, the "local" belt extends offshore on the outer shelf. In order to obtain a quantitative estimate of sediment accumulation of fine sediments of Northern Adriatic origin along the shelf sectors, a mass budget was calculated for bulk sediments and for dolomite contributions. The budget shows that the amount of sediment transferred between adjacent boxes is always of the order of 50% of the fluvial input to the sea.

  20. Atmospheric deposition of metallic pollutants over the Ligurian Sea: labile and residual inputs.

    PubMed

    Sandroni, Valérie; Migon, Christophe

    2002-05-01

    Atmospheric fluxes of six trace metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn) with Al as a crustal reference were measured at Cap Ferrat (French Riviera) between February 1997 and July 1998. An original sampling protocol enabled the separation of labile (seawater at pH 2) and residual fractions in the total atmospheric input. Median acid-labile fractions were 91%, 69%, 83%, 84%, 97% and 98% of the total for Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn, respectively. Under the conditions used, lability of individual metals is related to the anthropogenic component of the samples. Enrichment factors and anthropogenic fraction are estimated for each metal. Some interannual changes are investigated (Pb, Zn). The observed increase of Zn inputs may be linked to local input from the Nice district waste plant (commissioned in 1988), 6.5 km away. PMID:12079071

  1. Heavy metals in coastal sediments of the Ligurian sea off Vado Ligure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertolotto, R. M.; Tortarolo, B.; Frignani, M.; Bellucci, L. G.; Albanese, S.; Cuneo, C.

    2003-05-01

    This paper combines data from a survey on heavy metal contamination of surficial sediments and the analysis of a short sediment core (30 cm) carried out in 1999 and 2001, respectively. Heavy metals (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, Zn) and Al were analysed by AAS after complete dissolution of the samples. Surficial sediments are particularly rich in Cr, Cu, Hg and Pb, which reach concentrations of 322, 47.0, 5.85 and 145 mg kg^{-1}, respectively. While most metals show high concentrations close to the built-up area, the maximum values of Cr characterise offshore samples, thus suggesting a different origin. Sediment accumulation rates and chronologies were calculated on the basis of both ^{137}Cs and ^{210}Pb activity-depth profiles. The depth distribution of Al is peculiar, showing several peaks (from ca. 17 to ca. 106 mg g^{-1}) that are not justified by changes in sediment grain size and mineralogical composition. Very recent inputs of Cr and Ni are accounted for by surficial peak values, whereas Hg and Cu reach high concentrations at depth in core (before the early 1960s) and then decrease. Cu shows also a recent peak. Sediment grain size as well as organic carbon content do not seem to be correlated and significantly influence the metal distributions. Hg concentrations exceed the ERM guidelines all over the study area, whereas Cr is higher than the ERM at the top of the core. Only Cd is always lower than the ERL guidelines.

  2. The Po river water from the Alps to the Adriatic Sea (Italy): new insights from geochemical and isotopic (δ(18)O-δD) data.

    PubMed

    Marchina, Chiara; Bianchini, Gianluca; Natali, Claudio; Pennisi, Maddalena; Colombani, Nicolò; Tassinari, Renzo; Knoeller, Kay

    2015-04-01

    Although the Po river is the most important fluvial system of Northern Italy, the systematic geochemical and isotopic investigations of its water are rare and were never reported for the whole basin. The present contribution aims to fill this knowledge gap, reporting a comprehensive data set including oxygen and hydrogen stable isotopes as well as major and trace element concentration of dissolved species for 54 Po river water samples, mainly collected in different hydrological conditions (peak discharge in April, drought in August) at increasing distance from the source, i.e., from the upper part of the catchment to the terminal (deltaic) part of the river at the confluence with the Adriatic Sea. The isotopic compositions demonstrate that the predominant part of the runoff derives from the Alpine sector of the catchment through important tributaries such as the Dora Baltea, Ticino, Adda, and Tanaro rivers, whereas the contribution from the Apennines tributaries is less important. The geochemical and isotopic compositions show that the Po river water attains a homogeneous composition at ca. 100 km from the source. The average composition is characterized by δ(18)O -9.8‰, δD -66.2‰, total dissolved solid (TDS) 268 mg/L, and chloride 17 mg/L and by a general Ca-HCO3 hydrochemical facies, which is maintained for most of the river stream, only varying in the terminal part where the river is diverted in a complex deltaic system affected by more significant evaporation and mixing with saline water evidenced by higher TDS and chloride content (up to 8198 and 4197 mg/L, respectively). Geochemical and isotopic maps have been drawn to visualize spatial gradients, which reflect the evolution of the river water composition at progressive distance from the source; more detailed maps were focused on the deltaic part in order to visualize the processes occurring in the transitional zone toward the Adriatic Sea. The data also highlight anthropogenic contributions, mainly

  3. Progressive changes in rifting directions in the Campania margin (Italy): New constrains for the Tyrrhenian Sea opening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milia, Alfonsa; Torrente, Maurizio Maria; Massa, Bruno; Iannace, Pietro

    2013-10-01

    Current models for the opening of the Tyrrhenian Sea invoke a unique extension vector throughout the rift to drift process, accommodated by margin parallel faults, but the role of the Campania margin faults in the opening of the Tyrrhenian back-arc basin is still poorly constrained. Gaeta Bay, located on the Campania margin, was investigated through the interpretation of seismic reflection and borehole data together with a stratigraphic correlation of dated outcropping units. The interpretation of a seismic grid using seismic and sequence stratigraphy and structural geology approaches in a dedicated GIS environment led to the generation of 2-D models of relevant geological surfaces, isochron maps, a 3-D digital model of the subsurface and to the reconstruction of the geological evolution of the margin with a resolution of 100 ka. Gaeta Bay is formed by three basins (northern, central and southern) and features a complex stratigraphic architecture: in the northern and central basins a syn-rift deposit (unit PP) is buried by the oldest aggradational deposit (unit A) that fills the accommodation space; a post 0.7 Ma succession (units B and C) filled the northern basin with a lateral aggradational geometry; a syn-tectonic wedge (unit B) was deposited in the central basin between 0.7 and 0.4 Ma; post 0.4 Ma thick deposits (unit C) are testimony to the collapse of the southern basin. A correlation between the geology of the bathyal basin and that of the Campania margin was established using a CROP seismic section that extended from the Vavilov basin to Gaeta Bay. Based on original and literature data we propose a kinematic evolution of the Tyrrhenian Sea upper plate over the last 10 Ma. This evolution consists of older extensional events (stages 1-2) off Sardinia and in the Vavilov basin (leaving the Campania margin unaffected). Younger events (stages 3-5) developed in the eastern (with a Pliocene-Quaternary change of the extension direction along the Campania Margin

  4. Deep-sea survey for the detection of methane at the “Santa Maria di Leuca” cold-water coral mounds (Ionian Sea, South Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Etiope, G.; Savini, A.; Lo Bue, N.; Favali, P.; Corselli, C.

    2010-03-01

    The "Santa Maria di Leuca" Cold-Water Coral (CWC) province (northern Ionian Sea) was investigated for the first time to detect eventual occurrence of methane anomalies as a possible indication of hydrocarbon seepage stimulating the coral growth. Most coral mounds have developed in correspondence with tectonic scarps and faults, orthogonal to the southern margin and trending NW-SE, which could be potential sites of gas escape. A visual and instrumental inspection was performed by using a new deep-sea probe equipped with video-cameras, sonar, CTD, methane sensors, and a water sampler. Eight areas were explored by 10 surveys, depths ranging from 380 to 1100 m, for a total of more than 26 h of continuous video and instrumental recording. Sediments were also sampled by gravity corers and analysed in laboratory. The images allowed to assess distribution, abundance and geometry of the colonies, most of which are developed on morphological highs often characterised by tectonic scarps. All data indicate however the lack of a significant occurrence of methane, both in seawater and sediments. No direct or indirect expressions of gas seepage were recognised on the seabed. Weak methane anomalies were detected only in seawater at the base of some fault-linked scarps, where more reducing conditions and bacterial methanogenesis are possibly enhanced by less water circulation. The faults are not fluid-bearing as previously suggested by high-resolution geophysical signatures. The development of the coral colonies thus cannot be attributed to seeping fluids, but to a favourable physiographic position with exposure to nutrient-rich currents.

  5. Aeromagnetic data provide new insights on the volcanism and tectonics of Vulcano Island and offshore areas (southern Tyrrhenian Sea, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Ritis, Riccardo; Blanco-Montenegro, Isabel; Ventura, Guido; Chiappini, Massimo

    2005-08-01

    The active Vulcano Island (Southern Tyrrhenian Sea) represents the southernmost portion of a NW-SE elongated volcanic ridge that includes also Lipari and Salina islands. The ridge is affected by a regional, NW-SE to N-S striking fault system. The elaboration and analysis of data from three high-resolution aeromagnetic surveys carried out between 1999 and 2004 on Vulcano and offshore allow us to recognize high intensity magnetic anomalies related to volcanic centers/conduits or shallow intrusions. Previously unreported offshore submarine vents have been also recognized. Some of them may correspond with source areas of outcropping exotic pyroclastics on Vulcano. The spatial analysis of the recognized magnetic anomalies and volcanic structures shows that they are preferably aligned along the strikes of the main regional faults that affect the volcanic ridge. Submarine volcanic conduits revealed by the aeromagnetic survey might represent potential sources for future submarine, effusive or explosive activity.

  6. Benthic foraminifera for heavy metal pollution monitoring: A case study from the central Adriatic Sea coast of Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frontalini, F.; Coccioni, R.

    2008-01-01

    Benthic foraminifera are increasingly used as environmental bio-indicators of pollution in coastal and marginal marine settings. Their community structure provides information on the general characteristics of the environment and some species are sensitive to specific environmental parameters. Among various criteria, the occurrence of test abnormalities may represent a useful bioindicator for monitoring environmental impacts in coastal regions. A study of living benthic foraminifera was carried out in 42 sediment samples collected from the central Adriatic coast of Italy. Benthic foraminiferal assemblages from this area are rich, well preserved, and dominated by Ammonia parkinsoniana, and subordinately by Ammonia tepida, Aubignyna perlucida, Eggerella scabra, and Nonionella turgida. Heavy metal concentrations have been analysed which indicate low polluted environmental conditions. Foraminiferal species and heavy metal concentrations were investigated both with bivariate (correlation matrix) and multivariate techniques of principal component analysis (PCA) and cluster analysis. Statistical analysis shows a possible control of these pollutants both on the taxonomic composition of the benthic foraminiferal assemblages and the development of test malformations. Increasing heavy metal contents lead to an increase in relative abundance of A. tepida A. perlucida, N. turgida and E. scabra, and a relative concurrent decrease in relative abundance of A. parkinsoniana and higher percentages of deformed specimens (FAI) and species (FMI). Our results confirm that A. parkinsoniana prefers clean to low polluted environments and show that it is a very sensitive and un-tolerant species to heavy metal pollution being deeply affected by heavy metal content even at low concentrations. Our findings also confirm the capacity of the A. tepida to tolerate increasing heavy metal concentrations, and highlights that A. perlucida, N. turgida and E. scabra can be considered as tolerant species

  7. Human-induced landscape changes and geo-hydrological risk: the Rupinaro catchment, Liguria, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giostrella, Paola; Faccini, Francesco; Maggi, Roberto; Cesare Mondini, Alessandro; Tarolli, Paolo; Guzzetti, Fausto

    2015-04-01

    Small and steep watersheds are typical of Liguria, northern Italy. In these small watersheds, geo-hydrological hazards, including flash floods and shallow landslides, caused by high intensity rainfall are frequent and abundant. In the coastal valleys of Liguria, narrow flood plains have hosted human settlements and communication lines since the protohistoric period. Since then, a variety of human activities have modified the natural landscape significantly, and chiefly through land-use changes first in the flood-plains, and next along the slopes. We have studied the 11-square km Rupinaro catchment, west of Chiavari, which has been inhabited since the 8th century BC. Progressive human actions have modified the main river and its tributaries, which have become narrower and canalized, and locally they were covered completely. Human actions have also contributed to the increase in the runoff coefficients, and to the progradation of the main river into the Ligurian Sea. Demographic growth, socio-economic development and urbanization are the main drivers for the land use changes occurred in the Rupinaro catchment. Through a combined analysis of archaeological and palynologycal data, and the multi-temporal analysis of historical maps, aerial photographs and satellite imagery of different vintages, we have reconstructed phases of modifications of the river and the tributaries. We determined the land use changes calculating the loss of soil, analyzing statistics of buildings and demography for the last 150 years, and interpreting historical maps and aerial and satellite imagery. We found that land reclamations, the construction of embankments, and the rectification of rivers are the main human actions performed to obtain building areas along the main river course. Expansion of urban settlements in flood prone areas, and even in the main riverbed, have reached a critical limit has shown by the destructive flood event that has affected the Rupinaro catchment, and chiefly the

  8. The Bulgheria canyon-fan: a small-scale proximal system in the eastern Tyrrhenian Sea (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budillon, Francesca; Conforti, Alessandro; Tonielli, Renato; de Falco, Giovanni; di Martino, Gabriella; Innangi, Sara; Marsella, Ennio

    2011-03-01

    The Bulgheria canyon-fan system in the eastern Tyrrhenian Sea displays well-developed, small-scale, fluvial-like features and has formed alongside the northern slope of the Sapri peri-Tyrrhenian basin. This study reveals, for the first time, the morphology and course of the present-day system as well as the buried elements based on a Digital Terrain Model and high-resolution seismic profiles interpretation. Two adjacent canyons (Infreschi and Luna) originate in the Cilento outer shelf at a short distance from each other and feed an intraslope basin fan through two main sub-parallel channels that run about 12 and 8 km, respectively. Channel and levee development seems to be controlled primarily by the local slope gradient and by Coriolis forces that induce a faster vertical growth of the right-side features, as is often observed in the Northern Hemisphere. Centrifugal forces, on the other hand, have induced episodic flow-stripping at the meander loops and bends, causing local destruction of the main channel levees rather than new levee growth at the outer bends. Overbank deposits are associated with overspill turbidite deposition in the mid fan where a topographic constraint occurs, whereas large-sediment, low-angle wave fields are mainly developed on the outer fan. Buried features and relict morphologies suggest that the Infreschi channel experienced at least two phases of re-incision since the final stages of the middle Pleistocene. Local re-adjustment of outer lobe growth due to channel avulsion and meander abandonment is possibly a consequence of relative base-level fluctuations. The sedimentary record of the mid and outer fan includes outrun mass wasting deposits from extensive failures of the Sapri slope. Indeed, a marked scar is present on the eastern side of the modern outer lobe that indicates the persistency of mass flow passages up to recent times. In addition to the environmental factors that are currently considered to cause canyon formation on the

  9. Phytoplankton dynamics with a special emphasis on harmful algal blooms in the Mar Piccolo of Taranto (Ionian Sea, Italy).

    PubMed

    Caroppo, Carmela; Cerino, Federica; Auriemma, Rocco; Cibic, Tamara

    2016-07-01

    The response of phytoplankton assemblages to the closure of urban sewage outfalls (USOs) was examined for the Mar Piccolo of Taranto (Mediterranean Sea), a productive semi-enclosed coastal marine ecosystem devoted to shellfish farming. Phytoplankton dynamics were investigated in relation to environmental variables, with a particular emphasis on harmful algal blooms (HABs). Recent analyses evidenced a general reduction of the inorganic nutrient loads, except for nitrates and silicates. Also phytoplankton biomass (chlorophyll a) and abundances were characterized by a decrease of the values, except for the inner area of the basin (second inlet). The phytoplankton composition changed, with nano-sized species, indicators of oligotrophic conditions, becoming dominant over micro-sized species. If the closure of the USOs affected phytoplankton dynamics, however, it did not preserve the Mar Piccolo from HABs and anoxia crises. About 25 harmful species have been detected throughout the years, such as the potentially domoic acid producers Pseudo-nitzschia cf. galaxiae and P seudo-nitzschia cf. multistriata, identified for the first time in these waters. The presence of HABs represents a threat for human health and aquaculture. Urgent initiatives are needed to improve the communication with authorities responsible for environmental protection, economic development, and public health for a sustainable mussel culture in the Mar Piccolo. PMID:26206123

  10. Occurrence and distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in mussels from the gulf of Naples, Tyrrhenian Sea, Italy.

    PubMed

    Mercogliano, Raffaelina; Santonicola, Serena; De Felice, Alessandra; Anastasio, Aniello; Murru, Nicoletta; Ferrante, Maria Carmela; Cortesi, Maria Luisa

    2016-03-15

    To assess the potential impact of the industrial activity on food safety and risk for consumers, the aim of the study was to evaluate the levels of 14 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in 69 samples of wild and farm Mytilus galloprovincialis, collected in sites of coast of Gulf of Naples, Tyrrhenian Sea. All hydrocarbons were found in samples. Higher levels of pyrolytic PAHs were in wild than in farm mussels. Benzo(a)pyrene exceeded the Regulation (EC) n.835/11 levels of 1μg/kg in 15 samples (71.42%) of wild and 25 samples (65.79%) of farm mussels. System of sum of 4 hydrocarbons exceeded the law level in 15 samples (71.42%) of wild and 21 samples (55.26%) of farm mussels. Wild mussel levels showed a potential impact of pyrolytic sources of PAH on food safety. Occurrence of carcinogenic PAHs should be a cause for concern, in areas where the mussels are being farmed for human consumption. PMID:26806661

  11. Speciation of inorganic arsenic in coastal seawater from Ionian and Tyrrhenian seas (Sicily, Italy) using derivative anodic stripping chronopotentiometry.

    PubMed

    La Pera, Lara; Di Bella, Giuseppa; Rando, Rossana; Vincenzo, Lo Turco; Dugo, Giacomo

    2008-10-01

    The purpose of this paper was to use derivative anodic stripping chronopotentiometry (dASCP) as a sensitive and accurate technique, to determine the concentrations of dissolved As (III) and As (V) in coastal seawater samples from the Straits of Messina, the Ionian and the Tyrrhenian seas, and to investigate the relationship between the anthropogenic activities on the coastal areas and the concentration of dissolved inorganic arsenic in seawaters. The obtained data indicated that As (V) was the most abundant species, with concentration ranging from 26.7 to 307 nM, whereas As (III) levels were lower than 48 nM in all the samples. In particular, As (III) and As (V) levels significantly decreased from high to low anthropogenic activities zones (p < 0.00001, ANOVA), with the reference samples, from a wildlife reserve, showing the lowest values. Furthermore it was observed that human activities influenced inorganic arsenic speciation, since the zones that received high human input presented the highest As(V)/As (III) ratio. PMID:18058034

  12. Enclaves provide new insights on the dynamics of magma mingling: A case study from Salina Island (Southern Tyrrhenian Sea, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ventura, Guido; Del Gaudio, Piero; Iezzi, Gianluca

    2006-03-01

    Three lava flows (hereafter, flows A, B, and C) from Salina Island (Italy) consist of basaltic andesitic enclaves dispersed in a dacitic matrix. Enclaves represent 8-12 vol.% of the erupted magma. The number of enclaves and the surface covered by the enclaves at each outcrop do not vary significantly with the distance from the vent in the flows A and B. These feature reflect the dynamics of magma mingling within the reservoir and not the kinematics of the lava flow. In the flow C, these parameters vary irregularly. The statistical entropy S( t) of the enclaves, which is a measure of their spatial distribution (dispersion), is estimated in outcrops located at different distance from the vent. The Kolmogorov-Sinai entropy rate k, which describes the variations of S( t) with time, is also determined. In the lava flow A, S( t) increases linearly with time t for 0 < t < 0.4; k is 0.04. For t > 0.5, S( t) attains its maximum value and maintains constant with increasing t. In the lava flow B, S( t) linearly increases with t, and k is 0.01. In the lava flow C, there is not correlation between S( t) and t. The comparison between the results from the analysis of the Porri enclaves and those from numerical experiments on the variation of S( t) in chaotic advective mixing systems and from previous experimental models on magma mixing, allow us to draw some conclusions on dynamics of the basaltic andesite-dacite mingling in the magma chamber. Fully chaotic magma mingling systems show three evolution stages. An initial stage, which is unknown because of the disruption of the initial configuration of the interacting magmas, a second stage characterized by a linear increase of the statistical entropy with time, and a third stage, in which the uniformity of the system is reached, and the entropy does not vary with increasing time. A system in which the uniformity is never attained, is characterized by irregular variations of S( t) with time. In the flows A and B, the relations

  13. Application of a toxicity test battery integrated index for a first screening of the ecotoxicological threat posed by ports and harbors in the southern Adriatic Sea (Italy).

    PubMed

    Manzo, Sonia; Schiavo, Simona; Aleksi, Pellumb; Tabaku, Afrim

    2014-11-01

    Ports and harbors may represent a threat for coastal ecosystems due to pollutant inputs, especially those derived from maritime activities. In this study, we report a first assessment of the ecotoxicological threat posed by six ports and harbors of opposite coastal regions, Apulia and Albania, in the southern Adriatic Sea (Italy). A bioassay battery consisting of four different species representing different trophic levels, algae Dunaliella tertiolecta, bacteria Vibrio fischeri, crustacean Artemia salina, and echinoids Paracentrotus lividus, has been used to assess sediment elutriates, pore waters, and sediment suspensions. Two different approaches of toxicity data integration, worst case and integrated index, have been used to determine the most appropriate procedure for the investigated sites. All sites with the worst case approach showed high toxicity levels. The chronic test with algae was the most sensitive identifying the highest effects in the battery. This effect can be attributable to contaminants derived from antifouling paints. The sediments, evaluated with V. fischeri test, often showed toxicity not found in the aqueous matrices of the same sites and that can be mainly linked to organic compounds. The test battery used in this study allowed us to perform a preliminary screening of the ecotoxicological risk of the studied area. In fact, the species utilized for toxicity tests responded differently to the investigated samples, showing different sensitivity. The test battery integrated index did not allow highlighting the differences among the sites and showed a general high ecotoxicological risk. A larger number of tests with higher sensitivity together with a tailored attribution of weights to endpoints and matrices will improve the final site evaluation. PMID:25012145

  14. Foraminiferal record of anthropogenic environmental changes in the northeastern Adriatic Sea (Panzano Bay, Gulf of Trieste, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vidovic, Jelena; Cosovic, Vlasta; Kern, Vieana; Gallmetzer, Ivo; Haselmair, Alexandra; Zuschin, Martin

    2016-04-01

    The northern Adriatic Sea is one of the world's largest modern epicontinental seas and a young marine ecosystem that has been subject to various natural and anthropogenic processes during the Holocene: marine transgression, regional climate fluctuations, urbanisation and pollution. The Gulf of Trieste, located in the northeastern part, presents the area of particular interest, as it is a shallow and sheltered embayment, prone to the accumulation of pollutants, populated for at least the last 2000 years and with recent anthropogenic pressure coming from several rivers, ports and industrial zones. The aim of this multidisciplinary study is to provide a high-resolution record of these processes using benthic foraminiferal assemblages, geochemical proxies (trace metals, nutrients and pollutants), sedimentological (sedimentation rates) and time-averaging data (from dated mollusc shells). One core of 1.5 m length was taken at the sampling station Panzano Bay, northernmost part of the Gulf of Trieste, at the water depth of 12.5 m. The sedimentation rate is estimated to be 2.5 mm/year, based on 210Pb sediment dating, while dating of the molluscs shells revealed the age at the bottom of the core to be approximately 500 years. The core was sliced into smaller subsamples, and four sediment fractions of each subsample (63, 125, 250 and 500 μm) were analysed for standard properties of the foraminiferal community (faunal composition, absolute and relative abundances of species, biodiversity indices), in order to make comparison with relevant physical and geochemical properties of the sediment. The results concerning changes in foraminiferal species composition, their abundance and biodiversity, supported by statistical analyses (cluster analysis, NMDS, PCA), allow identification of three major foraminiferal associations: 1) 80-150 cm - the oldest association is dominated by opportunistic genera ans species, characteristic for unstable environments: Valvulineria sp. (25

  15. Anoxic Events, Productivity Rhythms, and the Orbital Signature in a Mid-Cretaceous Deep-Sea Sequence from Central Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herbert, Timothy D.; Stallard, R. F.; Fischer, Alfred G.

    1986-12-01

    Albian pelagic sediments from the Umbrian Apennines exhibit rhythmic bedding in outcrop. High temporal resolution (˜ 4-kyr spacing) sampling of carbonate, Si, and Al along a 1.6-m.y. interval of core demonstrates that changes in accumulation rate of calcareous and siliceous microorganisms were controlled by insolation cycles. Optical densitometry logging correlates variations of geochemical parameters to episodes of deep-sea anoxia, indicated by numerous black, laminated zones ("black shales"). Harmonic analysis of data shows oscillations at three frequencies, which correspond closely in estimated duration and ratio to the modern eccentricity and precessional orbital cycles. As in Pleistocene marine sequences, the eccentricity (approximately 100 kyr) term dominates the sedimentary variance in the Umbrian cycles. Anoxic episodes occur in phase with a limestone-marl repetition and reflect minima of the precessional (21 kyr) cycle. The covariance of carbonate and silica, with estimates of foraminiferal abundances, suggest that carbonate cycles are the result of changes in surface productivity of calcareous organisms rather than an effect of dissolution or diagenesis. Recognition of orbital cyclicity provides a tool for making quantitative estimates of these changes. Productivity during anoxic events was uniformly low (0.4- 0.5 g/cm2/kyr carbonate, 0- .05 g/cm2/kyr silica), but it rose to high levels during oxygenated periods (1- 2.5 g/cm2/kyr carbonate, 0.1- 0.3 g/cm2/kyr silica). Vertical overturning and organic carbon flux decreased during anoxic episodes, but decreased oxygenation of the deep water led to enhanced preservation of the organic matter delivered. The degree of paleoceanographic variability indicated by this study requires that accepted notions of climate stability and oceanic quiescence during nonglacial times be reassessed.

  16. The strain path and emplacement mechanism of lava flows: an example from Salina (southern Tyrrhenian Sea, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ventura, Guido

    2001-05-01

    A lava flow from Salina (southern Tyrrhenian Sea) consists of subcircular to ellipsoidal basaltic enclaves dispersed in a dacitic host. A 2D strain and kinematic analysis of the enclaves has been performed in order to determine (a) the relative contribution of the coaxial ( α) and non-coaxial ( γ) components to the bulk flow deformation, (b) the flow vorticity Wk, (c) the strain path and (d) the mechanism of flow emplacement. The axial ratio Rf and the angle φf between the long axis of the enclaves and the transport direction have been measured in 196 sites located at different distances from the vent. In the near vent zone α> γ whereas further from the vent γ> α. α values were always larger than 1, ranging from 1.6 in the near vent zone to 1 at the front. γ values were between 0.2 (at the back) and 2.6 (at the front). Wk was between 0.13 and 1 and increased from the back to the front. The enclaves result from the injection of basalt into dacite. Most of the deformation was acquired during the lava flow emplacement and not during the rise in the conduit (plug flow). The strain path depicted by the enclaves is consistent with that resulting from experimental analogue models and reveals that the lava suffers lateral extension near the vent. Further from the vent, the lava deforms according to an ideal non-coaxial model. The lava emplacement is mainly controlled by the gravity. Evidence of deformation induced by the magma pressure is lacking. Near the vent, the lava behaves as a hyperbolic flow whereas at the front it behaves as a simple shear flow. The mechanism of flow emplacement is consistent with a mixed 'viscous gliding-spreading' transport model at the back and with a 'viscous gliding' model at the front.

  17. The proximal marine record of the Marsili Seamount in the last 7 ka (Southern Tyrrhenian Sea, Italy): Implications for the active processes in the Tyrrhenian Sea back-arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamburrino, S.; Vallefuoco, M.; Ventura, G.; Insinga, D. D.; Sprovieri, M.; Tiepolo, M.; Passaro, S.

    2015-10-01

    The volcanism of back-arc basins resembles that of oceanic spreading centers, rifts, and, in vanishing stages, extensional arcs, depending on the amount and rate of the dynamic processes associated to the subduction. Marsili Seamount (MS) represents the axial ridge of the Southern Tyrrhenian Sea back-arc basin, which is connected to the slab roll-backing processes affecting the Calabrian Arc (Italy). The Southern Tyrrhenian Sea back-arc is characterized by a significant decline in the spreading rate with time (2.8-3.1 mm/a to less than 1.8 mm/a in the last 0.78-1 Ma). MS develops between about 1 Ma and 3 ka and mainly consists of lava flows erupted from central and fissural vents. The MS products belong to the calcalkaline association and range in composition from basalts to trachytes. We present new stratigraphic, geochronological, and geochemical data (glass shards and minerals) of tephra from a 2.35 m long gravity core (Marsili1 core) recovered on MS at 943 m b.s.l. We recognize five tephras [M1 (top of the core) to M5 (bottom)] represented by poorly to highly vesiculated ashes. The lowermost tephra M5 emplaced between ca. 7 and 26 ka B.P.; it represents the less evolved distal counterpart of the Unit D related to the Biancavilla-Montalto products of Mount Etna (Sicily). The M1 to M4 tephras emplaced between 2.1 and 7.2 ka B.P. and are related to strombolian-like submarine eruptions of NNE-SSW aligned MS vents. The composition of the M1-M4 glasses ranges from basaltic trachyandesites to andesites and trachytes. The M1 to M4 magmas mainly originated by crystal fractionation from a heterogeneous mantle source with varying LILE enrichments by subduction-related fluids. The degree of evolution of the MS magmas increases with decreasing time. The formation of vertically stacked magma storage zones at the crust/mantle interface and within MS is related to the vanishing Southern Tyrrhenian Sea opening, which implies the rapid (< 1 Ma) evolution from a slow spreading

  18. Dinoflagellate cysts and benthic foraminifera in surface sediments from the Mar Piccolo in Taranto (Ionian Sea, Southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferraro, L.; Rubino, F.; Frontalini, F.; Belmonte, M.; Di Leo, A.; Giandomenico, S.; Greco, M.; Lirer, F.; Spada, L.; Vallefuoco, M.

    2012-12-01

    characteristic, cysts constitute a reservoir of potential biodiversity but can also be useful indicators of productivity, eutrophication and pollution in recent marine environments. In this way, the sampling sediments of a coastal marine area, allows to monitor the responses of both microplankton and microbenthos to possible disturbance events of the ecosystem. A preliminary study, preparatory to a more detailed sampling survey during winter 2013, was carried out in December 2011 in the Mar Piccolo of Taranto (Ionian Sea), on surface sediment samples which were analyzed to identify living benthic foraminiferal assemblages and dormant stages of plankton in order to establish the potentiality of these organisms as bio-indicators of environmental stress conditions.

  19. Localized Deformation along an Inverted Rifted Margin: Example of the Northern Ligurian Margin, Western Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    SAGE, F.; Beslier, M.; Mercier De Lepinay, B. F.; Béthoux, N.; Gaullier, V.; Larroque, C.; Corradi, N.; Schenini, L.; Dessa, J.; Bigot, A.; Migeon, S.; Ruiz-Constán, A.

    2013-12-01

    Along rifted margins, continental edges are heterogeneous systems that juxtapose lithospheres with different nature, mechanical behavior and structural inheritance. In this study, we focus on the northern Ligurian margin to examine how such complex systems might deform when they are submitted to a compressive stress field. The northern Ligurian margin, of Oligo-Miocene age, has been undergoing contraction over at least the past ~ 6 Ma. Active thrust faults and folds responsible for the regional uplift of the continental edge have previously been identified below the margin. Although seismicity extends as far as the axis of the basin, no recent or active crustal compressional structure has been identified so far in the oceanic domain. We used new 12-channel high-resolution seismic data (FABLES cruise, 2012) and other seismic reflexion lines from the last decades to image the sedimentary cover in the Ligurian oceanic basin, down to the bottom of the Messinian salt layer ~ 3 km below the seafloor. Because the Messinian event is well dated over the Mediterranean (5.96-5.32 Ma) and well identified in the seismic data, it forms a clear marker characterizing the recent deformation related to both salt and crustal tectonics. Noticeable deformation within the oceanic domain is restricted to large, SW-NE elongated salt walls located 10 to 40 km from the margin toe, over a 70-km length. The salt walls have a specific structure and arrangement that cannot result from salt tectonics only. We thus interpret them as resulting from combined deep-seated crustal and thin-skinned deformations. However, although the salt walls are well expressed in the seafloor morphology, their seismic images do not reveal any significant vertical throw across their trace, and they gradually disappear toward the SW. We thus interpret the salt walls as strike-slip structures with possibly very moderate compression. Overall, the post-Messinian deformation taken along these features is likely moderate

  20. Mycological assessment of sediments in Ligurian beaches in the Northwestern Mediterranean: pathogens and opportunistic pathogens.

    PubMed

    Salvo, Vanessa-Sarah; Fabiano, Mauro

    2007-05-01

    Sediments of five Ligurian beaches in compliance with European Union bathing water regulations were studied based on the characteristics of the fungal assemblage during the tourism season. Among the 179 taxa of filamentous fungi isolated, 120 were opportunistic pathogens, such as Acremonium sp., and the genus Penicillium was also present as the pathogenic species P. citrinum. Furthermore, 5% of the total filamentous fungi belonged to the dermatophyte genus Microsporum, whose species can cause mycoses. Beach sediments showed elevated densities of opportunistic pathogens, of pathogenic filamentous fungi, and of yeasts during the tourism season. Although monitoring of beach sediments for microbiological contamination is not mandatory, and disease transmission from sediments has not yet been demonstrated, our study suggests that beach sediments may act as a reservoir of potential pathogens, including fungi. In addition, the mycoflora displayed high sensitivity to critical environmental situations in the beaches studied. Therefore, the fungal community can be a useful tool for assessing the quality of sandy beaches in terms of sanitary and environmental quality. PMID:16854516

  1. Toxicity evaluation of diethylene glycol and its combined effects with produced waters of off-shore gas platforms in the Adriatic Sea (Italy): bioassays with marine/estuarine species.

    PubMed

    Tornambè, Andrea; Manfra, Loredana; Mariani, Livia; Faraponova, Olga; Onorati, Fulvio; Savorelli, Federica; Cicero, Anna Maria; Virno Lamberti, Claudia; Magaletti, Erika

    2012-06-01

    Diethylene glycol (DEG) is commonly used to dehydrate natural gas in off-shore extraction plants and to prevent formation of gas hydrates. It may be released into the sea accidentally or in discharged produced waters (PWs). PWs samples from off-shore gas platforms in the Adriatic Sea (Italy) have been used in this study. The objectives of the study were: a) to evaluate the toxicity of DEG for marine organisms; b) to evaluate if a high DEG content in PWs may alter their toxicity; c) to verify whether the DEG threshold concentration established by the Italian legislation (3.5 g/l) for PWs discharged at sea is safe for marine environment. Ten different species (Vibrio fischeri, Phaeodactylum tricornutum, Dunaliella tertiolecta, Brachionus plicatilis, Artemia franciscana, Tigropus fulvus, Mytilus galloprovincialis, Crassostrea gigas, Tapes philippinarum and Dicentrarchus labrax) have been exposed to DEG; four of these species were also exposed to PWs in combination with DEG. The results showed that: a) DEG is not toxic at levels normally detected in Adriatic PWs; b) DEG in combination with PW showed mainly additive or synergistic effects; c) short-term bioassays showed that the DEG limit of 3.5 g/l could be acceptable. PMID:22245535

  2. Mass transport deposits as witness of Holocene seismic activity on the Ligurian margin, Western Mediterranean (ASTARTE project)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samalens, Kevin; Cattaneo, Antonio; Migeon, Sébastien

    2016-04-01

    The Ligurian Margin (Western Mediterranean) is at the transition between the Southern Alpes and the Liguro-Provençal margin and it is one of the most seismic areas of France. Several historic earthquakes have been indexed; the strongest, on February 23rd, 1887, occurred offshore Menton and Imperia and also caused a tsunami wave. Its equivalent magnitude has been estimated between 6 and 6.5. In addition, a moderate recurrent seismicity shakes the margin. The aim of this study is to understand the link between seismic activity and slope destabilization, and to identify the sedimentary deposits resulting from mass transport or turbidity currents. During Malisar (Geoazur laboratory), Prisme 2 and Prisme 3 (Ifremer) cruises, bathymetry, seafloor imagery (SAR), geophysics data (CHIRP SYSIF and high resolution seismics), and sediment cores have been acquired on the continental slope, focussing on canyons and submarine landslides, and in the basin. These data record numerous mass transport deposits (slump, debrites) in the different physiographic areas of the margin. To search for evidences of past Ligurian margin seismicity during the Holocene, we focused on the northeast part of the margin, the Finale area. We identified and sampled acoustically transparent Mass Transport Deposits up to 20-m thick in the bottom of three coaleshing canyons: Noli, Pora and Centa canyons from W to E in the area offshore Finale Ligure. We also recovered an MTD in the collecting deeper canyon system. MTDs in cores appear as sediment with different degrees of deformation (tilted blocks, slump, debrites) and are topped by hemipelagites. The radiocarbon age of the top of MTDs can be considered synchronous and centered around 4900 yr BP. Mass wasting occurring over more than 50 km of the Ligurian margin could indicate that an earthquake stroke the Finale area sector at that time.

  3. Historical research as a tool in estimating hydrogeological hazard in a typical small alpine-like area: The example of the Versilia River basin (Apuan Alps, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giannecchini, Roberto; D'Amato Avanzi, Giacomo

    Morphological and landscape features (broad, beautiful sandy beaches close to high and impressive mountains) make the Versilia area one of the most important tourist areas in Italy, located in north-western Tuscany and facing the Ligurian Sea. Nevertheless, this particular geographic configuration contributes to a high frequency of intense meteorological phenomena. This paper presents the most significant results of an investigation into historical events (floods and landslides) occurring in the last centuries in the Versilia River basin. The main purpose is to contribute to hydrogeological hazard assessment in the Apuan area as well as to collect useful data in order to make a catalog of disastrous events. The research confirms the vulnerability of the territory being studied (186 damaging events from 1328 to 2009), which was emphasized by the tragic hydrogeological catastrophe of June 19, 1996 (13 fatalities). High severity events can also be identified in 1636, 1774, 1846, 1885 and 1902, together with many less intense events, which nonetheless had significant consequences. The damaging events show both a tendency to recur in the same areas, as well as a significant rise in frequency during the last centuries. These, in turn, probably depend on concurring factors: increased number and reliability of information sources; increased attention to the damaging phenomena; expansion of the elements at risk; possible climate changes. In the Versilia River basin, the average frequency is 1 damaging event every 3.7 years. An event similar to June 1996 should have a recurrence time of about 110 years. Moreover, the data forms the basis for a preliminary, but significant, classification of these identified events. This classification is based on event severity, deduced or estimated from the information gathered.

  4. Analysis of mercury and methylmercury concentrations, and selenium:mercury molar ratios for a toxicological assessment of sperm whales (Physeter macrocephalus) in the most recent stranding event along the Adriatic coast (Southern Italy, Mediterranean Sea).

    PubMed

    Squadrone, S; Chiaravalle, E; Gavinelli, S; Monaco, G; Rizzi, M; Abete, M C

    2015-11-01

    Mass stranding of sperm whales (Physeter macrocephalus) is a rare event in the Mediterranean Sea. In September 2014, a pod of seven sperm whales became stranded along the Adriatic coast of Southern Italy. This is the seventh occurrence of this type since 1555 in this sea basin. Total concentrations of mercury (T-Hg), methylmercury (MeHg) and selenium (Se) were measured from brain, muscle, liver and kidney of three female sperm whales, which died in this event. Analyses showed considerable, age-dependent variations in Hg and Se concentrations in the different organs. The contamination levels of T-Hg in the liver (up to 200 mg kg(-1)) and brain (up to 21 mg kg(-1)) samples were markedly higher than those in the kidney and muscle samples. The liver and brain also showed the highest Se levels. Se:Hg molar ratios ⩾1 were observed in all the organs of the three sperm whales, suggesting that Se could protect the animals from Hg toxicity. The risk of Hg-associated neurotoxicity was assessed by comparing our values to thresholds set for neurotoxicity in mammals, and the role of Se in the detoxification process of T-Hg/MeHg is discussed herein. PMID:26233668

  5. The CIRCEE-HR survey in the Calabrian arc and offshore E Sicily (Ionian Sea and Southern Italy): investigating active faults, recent deformation and the deep marine paleoseismic record (turbidites)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutscher, M.; Babonneau, N.; Cattaneo, A.; Gallais, F.; Graindorge, D.; San Pedro, L.

    2013-12-01

    (CIRCEE-HR - Calabrian arc Ionian sea Research and Catastrophic historical EarthquakE s in southern italy - a High Resolution seismic survey) We report on a recent marine geophysical and geological survey conducted onboard the R/V Le Suroit from 2-24 October in the Ionian Sea, offshore Eastern Sicily. The primary aim of the CIRCEE-HR cruise proposal was to conduct a neo-tectonic study of the Calabrian subduction zone offshore Southern Italy, a region struck repeatedly by the most destructive earthquakes in European history. The CIRCEE-HR survey targeted the region struck by the 1693 Catania earthquake (60,000 killed) and the 1908 Messina earthquakes, which produced intensity X-XI shaking and tsunamis. The 1908 (normal faulting mechanism) earthquake triggered a turbidite flow that ruptured submarine cables. The source of some strong historical earthquakes (1169, 1542, 1693) remains unknown. Several crustal scale structures have been proposed as being seismogenic: the Malta escarpment, a lithospheric tear fault (STEP), the subduction fault plane and other related faults. The main objectives of the cruise were therefore to seek evidence of active faults associated with these structures, and to characterize the degree of activity of the Calabria accretionary wedge (sedimentary deformation, dewatering processes) in order to better assess its seismogenic potential. Another major objective is to try to determine the typical recurrence interval for large earthquakes in the region (by coring and dating of turbidites triggered by great earthquakes). The Augias mega-turbidite dated either 3.5 ka (Cita et al., 1996) or 365 AD (Polonia et al., 2013) covers the entire floor of the Ionian abyssal plain with a thickness of 10-15m representing a volume of > 100km3. This layer serves as a stratigraphic marker to identify recent deformation in the abyssal domain. The methods applied were 72-channel high-resolution seismic profiles and sub-bottom profiling (chirp) (with 1200km of

  6. Project Seacleaner: from cooperation among ISMAR-CNR researchers, high school students and the Ligurian Cluster for Marine Technologies to an application for environmental monitoring and scientific research.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merlino, Silvia; Marini, Claudio; Tosi, Daniela; Caselli, Lorena; Marini, Davide; Lucchinelli, Paolo; Vatteroni, Davide; Lunardelli, Francesco; Agrusa, Astrid; Lombardi, Davide; Stroobant, Mascha

    2014-05-01

    Recently, the Institute for Marine Science of the Italian Research Council ISMAR-CNR has undertaken a series of actions to incorporate oceanography in education: among these, the project "SeaCleaner" that has been developed together with a local Secondary School (Istituto di Istruzione Superiore Capellini-Sauro) and the Ligurian Cluster for Marine Technologies (DLTM) [1]. Seven students, engaged within the national Programme "work-related learning"[2], have worked side-by-side with ISMAR-CNR researchers, investigating on the problem of debris accumulation on beaches, and understanding the damage that this issue causes to marine environments and ecosystems. This problem has recently become a challenging research subject for an increasing number of oceanographers and, in general, for environmental researchers coming from the Mediterranean areas [3, 4, 5], other European Seas [6] and Oceans [7, 8]. Data collected during repeated surveys (seasonally) in the same beach stretch, over several years, allow calculating debris accumulation rates and flow intensities. Application of current models gives additional information on debris dispersal and origin, but we shouldn't forget that, generally, relevance of acquired data is determined by the accuracy and standardization of the procedure. In this context, students have previously searched for literature sources and summarized the most important issues, among these: few data that are often collected during small ranges of time and usually a low number of available researchers for carrying out such a time-consuming survey in the field. In a initial part of the project, several trial surveys have been performed on different beaches in La Spezia province, in order to understand how to elaborate possible strategies to speed up and standardize the procedure. Developing an application for Android system (downloadable on any compatible mobile device such as smartphones, tablets, etc.) has been considered as a good solution since it

  7. A first survey on the biochemical composition of egg yolk and lysozyme-like activity of egg envelopment in the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis from the Northern Adriatic Sea (Italy).

    PubMed

    Matozzo, Valerio; Conenna, Irene; Riedl, Verena Maria; Marin, Maria Gabriella; Marčeta, Tihana; Mazzoldi, Carlotta

    2015-08-01

    The cuttlefish Sepia officinalis is an important fishery resource in the Northern Adriatic Sea (Italy). During reproduction, fertilised eggs are released by adult females in coastal waters and embryo development can take over two months. During this period, embryos rely on nutrients and other substances, such as immune factors, provided by the female in egg yolk. In cephalopods in general, and specifically in the common cuttlefish, little information is available on yolk biochemical composition and substances included in egg envelopment. In the present study, the main biochemical components of egg yolk and the presence of antimicrobial substances in egg envelopment of S. officinalis were determined for the first time. Statistically significant differences in total egg weight and egg yolk weight were observed among batches from different females. Egg and yolk weights were positively correlated, with yolk representing the 13% (±5%) of the total egg weight. Total proteins were the main biochemical component (46%) of egg yolk, followed by total carbohydrates plus glycogen (39%) and lipids (15%). Statistically significant differences among batches were recorded in egg yolk total protein amounts, lipids, carbohydrates and glycogen, but no correlations were found between egg yolk weight and the biochemical components. The Petri dish and the quantitative spectrophotometric assays revealed the presence of lysozyme-like activity in egg gelatinous envelopment. PMID:25982397

  8. Venice, Italy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Four hundred bridges cross the labyrinth of canals that form the 120 islands of Venice, situated in a saltwater lagoon between the mouths of the Po and Piave rivers in northeast Italy. All traffic in the city moves by boat. Venice is connected to the mainland, 4 kilometers (2.5 miles) away, by ferries as well as a causeway for road and rail traffic. The Grand Canal winds through the city for about 3 kilometers (about 2 miles), dividing it into two nearly equal sections. According to tradition, Venice was founded in 452, when the inhabitants of Aquileia, Padua, and several other northern Italian cities took refuge on the islands of the lagoon from the Teutonic tribes invading Italy at that time.

    This image was acquired on December 9, 2001 by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER will image Earth for the next 6 years to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.

    Dr. Anne

  9. A new chronostratigraphic framework for the Upper Palaeolithic of Riparo Mochi (Italy).

    PubMed

    Douka, Katerina; Grimaldi, Stefano; Boschian, Giovanni; del Lucchese, Angiolo; Higham, Thomas F G

    2012-02-01

    The rockshelter of Mochi, on the Ligurian coast of Italy, is often used as a reference point in the formation of hypotheses concerning the arrival of the Aurigancian in Mediterranean Europe. Yet, the site is poorly known. Here, we describe the stratigraphic sequence based on new field observations and present 15 radiocarbon determinations from the Middle Palaeolithic (late Mousterian) and Early Upper Palaeolithic (Aurignacian and Gravettian) levels. The majority of dates were produced on humanly modified material, specifically marine shell beads, which comprise some of the oldest directly-dated personal ornaments in Europe. The radiocarbon results are incorporated into a Bayesian statistical model to build a new chronological framework for this key Palaeolithic site. A tentative correlation of the stratigraphy to palaeoclimatic records is also attempted. PMID:22189428

  10. Platform/foreslope facies and buildup geometry resulting from short-term and long-term eustatic sea level fluctuations: latemar buildup (Middle Triassic), Dolomites, northern Italy

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, M.T.; Goldhammer, R.

    1987-05-01

    Superimposed short-term and long-term eustatic sea level fluctuations directly controlled Latemar platform stratigraphy and indirectly influenced the deeper water facies and overall buildup geometry. Deeper water facies, the foreslope and toe of slope, are a function of platform submergence (highstand shedding) and subaerial exposure (lowstand lithification and erosion) and thus only indirectly reflect eustatic fluctuations. The Latemar consists of a platform core (3-4 km wide, 700 m thick) with a narrow margin, flanked by foreslope (30-35/sup 0/ dips), toe of slope, and basin deposits. The shallowing-upward platform sequence records a long-term (about 10 m.y.) eustatic sea level oscillation with an amplitude of about 150 m. The lower 250 m marks an initial catch-up phase (subtidal carbonates); the upper 450 m marks the sequential keep-up phase (meter-scale cyclic carbonates). These cycles record platform submergence and exposure caused by short-term (10/sup 4/-10/sup 5/ years) Milankovitch eustatic oscillations superimposed on the long-term trend. Platform submergence and exposure conditions result in contrasting foreslope deposits. During highstands, platform-derived sands bypass the foreslope, accumulating as toe-of-slope graded beds and basin turbidites. During lowstands, sand supply ceases, producing basin hard-grounds. Foreslope megabreccias contain margin-derived boundstone clasts, with only minor platform-derived sands (highstands) and lithified clasts (lowstands). As the platform margin/foreslope contact is nearly vertical, a progressively increasing volume of foreslope megabreccia was needed to maintain the depositional geometry. This coincides with the most commonly exposed platform interval, suggesting that platform exposure determines buildup flank geometry by controlling megabreccia clast production.

  11. Mobility of heavy metals from polluted sediments of a semi-enclosed basin: in situ benthic chamber experiments in Taranto's Mar Piccolo (Ionian Sea, Southern Italy).

    PubMed

    Emili, Andrea; Acquavita, Alessandro; Covelli, Stefano; Spada, Lucia; Di Leo, Antonella; Giandomenico, Santina; Cardellicchio, Nicola

    2016-07-01

    In situ benthic flux experiments were conducted at two stations in the Mar Piccolo of Taranto (Italy), one of the most industrialised and contaminated coastal areas of the Mediterranean. Sediments of the two stations are notably different in their trace metal content, with a station closer to a Navy harbour showing higher mean concentrations of almost all investigated metals (Al, As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, V and Zn). Conversely, both stations are characterised by significant Hg contamination, compared to the local baseline. Results of a sequential extraction scheme on surface sediments suggest a relatively scarce mobility of the examined metals (Zn > Ni > Cr > As > Cu > Pb). A Hg-specific extraction procedure showed that most of the element (93.1 %) occurs in a fraction comprising Hg bound to Fe/Mn oxi-hydroxides. Reduction of these oxides may affect Hg remobilisation and redistribution. Porewater profiles of dissolved trace metals were quite similar in the two sites, although significant differences could be observed for Al, Cu, Fe and Hg. The highest diffusive fluxes were observed for As, Fe and Mn. Mobility rates of several trace elements (Al, As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, V and Zn) were directly measured at the sediment-water interface. Results from benthic in situ incubation experiments showed increasing dissolved metal concentrations with time, resulting in higher fluxes for Cu, Fe, Hg, V and Zn in the most contaminated site. Conversely, fluxes of Mn, Ni and Pb were comparable between the two stations. The estimated flux of Hg (97 μg m(-2) day(-1)) was the highest observed among similar experiments conducted in other highly contaminated Mediterranean coastal environments. Benthic fluxes could be partially explained by considering rates of organic matter remineralisation, dissolution of Fe/Mn oxy-hydroxides and metal speciation in sediments. Seasonal and spatial variation of biogeochemical parameters can influence metal remobilisation in

  12. Interplay between down-slope and along-slope sedimentary processes during the late Quaternary along the Capo Vaticano margin (southern Tyrrhenian Sea, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martorelli, Eleonora; Bosman, Alessandro; Casalbore, Daniele; Falcini, Federico

    2016-04-01

    Late Quaternary along-slope and down-slope sedimentary processes and structures in the upper slope-shelf sector of the Calabro-Tyrrhenian continental margin off Capo Vaticano have been investigated using very high-resolution single-channel seismic profiles and multibeam bathymetric data. The results show that a competition among along-slope bottom currents-vs down-slope mass-wasting mostly contributed in shaping the seafloor and controlling deposition of sedimentary units during the Late Quaternary. Along-slope processes mostly formed elongated drifts located on the upper continental slope and outer shelf, between -90 and -300 m. The contourite deposits and associated erosive elements indicate the presence of a northwestward geostrophic flow that can be related to the modified-LIW issued by the Messina Strait. According to the proposed stratigraphic reconstruction it is likely that the activity of bottom-currents off Capo Vaticano was intensified around the LGM period and during the post-glacial sea-level rise, whereas they were less intense during the Holocene. Gravity-driven down-slope processes formed mass-transport deposits and turbidite systems with erosive channels, locally indenting the present-day shelf. Several slide events affected the upper 10-20 m of the stratigraphic record, dismantling considerable volume of contourite sediment. High-resolution seismic profiles indicate that failure processes appear to be dominated by translational sliding with glide plains mainly developed within contourite deposits. The most striking feature is the Capo Vaticano slide complex, which displays a large spatial coverage (area of about 18 km2) and is composed by several intersecting slide scars and overlapping deposits; these characteristics are peculiar for the Tyrrhenian continental margins, where slide events developed in open-slope areas are usually less complex and smaller in size. The presence of high-amplitude reflectors within contourite deposits (representing

  13. Deformed Pleistocene marine terraces along the Ionian Sea margin of southern Italy: Unveiling blind fault-related folds contribution to coastal uplift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santoro, Enrico; Ferranti, Luigi; Burrato, Pierfrancesco; Mazzella, Maria Enrica; Monaco, Carmelo

    2013-06-01

    Morphotectonic analysis and fault numeric modeling of uplifted marine terraces along the Ionian Sea coast of the Southern Apennines allowed us to place quantitative constraints on middle Pleistocene-Holocene deformation. Ten terrace orders uplifted to as much as +660 m were mapped along ~80 km of the Taranto Gulf coastline. The shorelines document both a regional and a local, fault-induced contribution to uplift. The intermingling between the two deformation sources is attested by three 10 km scale undulations superimposed on a 100 km scale northeastward tilt. The undulations spatially coincide with the trace of NW-SE striking transpressional faults that affected the coastal range during the early Pleistocene. To test whether fault activity continued to the present, we modeled the differential uplift of marine terraces as progressive elastic displacement above blind oblique-thrust ramps seated beneath the coast. Through an iterative and mathematically based procedure, we defined the best geometric and kinematic fault parameters as well as the number and position of fault segments. Fault numerical models predict two fault-propagation folds cored by blind thrusts with slip rates ranging from 0.5 to 0.7 mm/yr and capable of generating an earthquake with a maximum moment magnitude of 5.9-6.3. Notably, we find that the locus of predominant activity has repeatedly shifted between the two fault systems during time and that slip rates on each fault have temporally changed. It is not clear if the active deformation is seismogenic or dominated by aseismic creep; however, the modeled faults are embedded in an offshore transpressional belt that may have sourced historical earthquakes.

  14. Benthic fluxes of cadmium, lead, copper and nitrogen species in the northern Adriatic Sea in front of the River Po outflow, Italy.

    PubMed

    Zago, C; Capodaglio, G; Ceradini, S; Ciceri, G; Abelmoschi, L; Soggia, F; Cescon, P; Scarponi, G

    2000-02-10

    Trace heavy metal (Cd, Pb and Cu) and nitrogen species (N-NO3, N-NO2 and N-NH4) fluxes between sediment and water were examined for approximately 4 days, in a coastal marine station located in the northern Adriatic Sea in front of the River Po outflow. An in situ benthic chamber, equipped with electronic devices for monitoring and adjustment of oxygen and pH and with a temperature detector, was used. The benthic chamber experiment enabled study of the temporal trend of metals and nutrients when oxygen concentration varied in a controlled environment. Although particular care was devoted to chamber deposition and parameter control, sediment resuspension occurred at the beginning of the experiment and O2 fluctuations were observed during the course of the experiment. Pb concentration was affected by both resuspension and oxic conditions in bottom water, which prevented determination of any reasonable Pb flux value. Cd and Cu, not influenced by oxygen fluctuations, reached an equilibrium phase in a short period with initial positive fluxes from sediment of 0.68 (S.D. = 0.07) and 6.9 (S.D. = 5.6) pmol cm(-2) h(-1), respectively. With regard to nitrogen species, the highest positive flux was that of N-NH4 (10.5, S.D. = 2.4, nmol cm(-2) h(-1)) whose concentration increased in the chamber, while nitrate concentration (initial flux of -5.7, S.D. = 1.5, nmol cm(-2) h(-1)) immediately decreased after the beginning of the experiment. Nitrite concentration was almost constant throughout the experiment and its flux was generally low (initial flux 0.1, S.D. = 0.9, nmol cm(-2) h(-1)). PMID:10696718

  15. Sedimentological imprint on subseafloor microbial communities in Western Mediterranean Sea Quaternary sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciobanu, M.-C.; Rabineau, M.; Droz, L.; Révillon, S.; Ghiglione, J.-F.; Dennielou, B.; Jorry, S.-J.; Kallmeyer, J.; Etoubleau, J.; Pignet, P.; Crassous, P.; Vandenabeele-Trambouze, O.; Laugier, J.; Guégan, M.; Godfroy, A.; Alain, K.

    2012-09-01

    An interdisciplinary study was conducted to evaluate the relationship between geological and paleoenvironmental parameters and the bacterial and archaeal community structure of two contrasting subseafloor sites in the Western Mediterranean Sea (Ligurian Sea and Gulf of Lion). Both depositional environments in this area are well-documented from paleoclimatic and paleooceanographic point of views. Available data sets allowed us to calibrate the investigated cores with reference and dated cores previously collected in the same area, and notably correlated to Quaternary climate variations. DNA-based fingerprints showed that the archaeal diversity was composed by one group, Miscellaneous Crenarchaeotic Group (MCG), within the Gulf of Lion sediments and of nine different lineages (dominated by MCG, South African Gold Mine Euryarchaeotal Group (SAGMEG) and Halobacteria) within the Ligurian Sea sediments. Bacterial molecular diversity at both sites revealed mostly the presence of the classes Alphaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria within Proteobacteria phylum, and also members of Bacteroidetes phylum. The second most abundant lineages were Actinobacteria and Firmicutes at the Gulf of Lion site and Chloroflexi at the Ligurian Sea site. Various substrates and cultivation conditions allowed us to isolate 75 strains belonging to four lineages: Alpha-, Gammaproteobacteria, Firmicutes and Actinobacteria. In molecular surveys, the Betaproteobacteria group was consistently detected in the Ligurian Sea sediments, characterized by a heterolithic facies with numerous turbidites from a deep-sea levee. Analysis of relative betaproteobacterial abundances and turbidite frequency suggested that the microbial diversity was a result of main climatic changes occurring during the last 20 ka. Statistical direct multivariate canonical correspondence analyses (CCA) showed that the availability of electron acceptors and the quality of electron donors (indicated by age

  16. Geochemistry of the Adige River water from the Eastern Alps to the Adriatic Sea (Italy): evidences for distinct hydrological components and water-rock interactions.

    PubMed

    Natali, C; Bianchini, G; Marchina, C; Knöller, K

    2016-06-01

    The Adige River flows from the Eastern Alps to the Adriatic Sea and the understanding of its fluvial dynamics can be improved by geochemical and O-H isotopic investigation. The most negative isotopic compositions are recorded close to the source (δ(18)O between -14.1 and -13.8 ‰, δD between -100.3 and -97.0 ‰), and δD and δ(18)O values generally increase downstream through the upper part (UP, the mountainous sector), stabilizing along the lower part (LP, the alluvial plain) of the river with δ(18)O between -12.4 and -11.8 ‰, δD between -86.9 and -83.7 ‰. The isotopic variations along the stream path (δ(18)O-δD vs distance from the source) depict subparallel distributions for all the investigated periods, with less negative values recorded in winter. Total dissolved solids (TDS) concentration shows the lowest value (<100 mg/l) at the river source, jumping to 310 mg/l at the Rio Ram inflow, then decreasing down to the Isarco River confluence; from here, we observed an increase toward the river mouth, with different values in the distinct sampling periods. The lowest values (140-170 mg/l) were recorded during high discharge in spring, whereas higher TDS values (up to 250 mg/l) were recorded during winter low flow conditions. Extreme TDS values were observed in the estuarine samples (up to 450 mg/l), as result of mixing with seawater. The results allow for the identification of distinct water end-members: glacio-nival component(s) characterized by the most negative isotopic composition and extremely low TDS, a rainfall component characterized by intermediate isotopic and elemental composition and groundwater characterized by the less negative isotopic composition and comparatively higher TDS. An additional component is represented by seawater, which is recorded at the lowest reach of the river during drought periods. These contributions variously mix along the stream path in the distinct hydrological periods, and the presented data are a

  17. The sequence of moderate-size earthquakes at the junction of the Ligurian basin and the Corsica margin (western Mediterranean): The initiation of an active deformation zone revealed?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larroque, Christophe; Delouis, Bertrand; Sage, Françoise; Régnier, Marc; Béthoux, Nicole; Courboulex, Françoise; Deschamps, Anne

    2016-04-01

    A new seismically active zone is found in the southern part of the Ligurian basin, 80-km west of Corsica (western Mediterranean). The activity began in February 2011 with a foreshock (ML 4) and a mainshock (ML 5.3) 5 days later, followed by numerous aftershocks. We first analyze the fore- and mainshock in detail. We compare the results obtained using classical methods (linear location in a 1D medium and focal mechanisms from P and S polarities) and new approaches (non-linear location in a 3D medium and waveform modeling for determining the seismic moment and the focal mechanism). Both methods provided similar results for location, depth (in the range of 6-13 km) and focal mechanisms, which reveal reverse faulting with nodal planes oriented N-S and NE-SW. We then locate 27 of the aftershocks in the 3D model and find a 10-km-long NE-SW alignment with a depth between 7 and 16 km. In 2012 and 2013, three other moderate-size events (ML 3.8, 4 and 4.5) occurred and confirm that this zone is still active. The epicentral area is located in the oceanic domain of the Ligurian Basin. From analysis of the bathymetry and high-resolution multi-channel seismic profiles, no morphologic anomaly at surface and no inherited fault in the shallow ~ 4 km depth were imaged, which suggest that no significant deformation occurred in the area since 5 Ma. Thus, the structure(s) activated during the 2011-2013 sequence remain unknown. In light of these results, we point out a notable difference on both sides of the Ligurian Basin: the northern margin, close to the alpine chain, suffered strong earthquakes and large cumulated deformation since 5 Ma, while the southern margin, close to the Corsica-Sardinia continental block, is poorly deformed since 5 Ma.

  18. Helium isotopes and tectonics in southern Italy

    SciTech Connect

    Sano, Yuji; Wakita, Hiroshi ); Nuccio, M.P. ); Italiano, F.

    1989-06-01

    Geodynamic evolution of southern Italy can be understood within the framework of the Mediterranean-Alpine System. Subduction of a plate along the Sicily-Calabrian forearc under the Tyrrhenian Sea has been suggested by many geophysicists, although it is not yet confirmed and remains somewhat controversial. Helium isotope ratios provide useful information on the geotectonic structure of the region. The authors report here the {sup 3}H/{sup 4}He ratios of terrestrial gas samples from southern Italy. The observed {sup 3}He/{sup 4}He ratios are relatively high in the Eolian volcanic arc region and low in the other areas. Dichotomous explanations are presented. Firstly, volcanic arc-forearc hypothesis suggests the subduction along the Sicily-Calabrian forearc. Secondly, horizontal transport hypothesis is described based on the relationship between the ratios and radial distance from the recent spreading basin in Southern Tyrrhenian Sea.

  19. Melt-rock reaction an melt impregnation in oceanic peridotites: insights from the Ligurian-Piemontese ophiolites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piccardo, G. B.

    2011-12-01

    Mantle peridotites from Alpine-Apennine ophiolites, deriving from the Jurassic Ligurian Tethys, record signatures of the complex petrogenetic evolution, other than partial melting, that the lithospheric mantle suffered during pre-oceanic extension and melt percolation, melt-rock interaction and refertilization of early melts from decompression melting of the almost adiabatically upwelling asthenosphere (Piccardo et al., 2008). Lithosphere extension by far field tectonic forces lead to thinning of the lithospheric mantle and its progressive exhumation. Field and petrographic-structural data indicate that lithosphere extension was driven by extensional shear zones during the whole evolution of the mantle lithosphere, from garnet- to plagioclase-facies conditions. The pristine sub-continental lithospheric mantle is still preserved in ophiolites deriving from the passive margins (ocean-continent transition zones) of the basin, whereas melt-reacted and refertilized peridotites are dominant in more internal oceanic domains. OCT peridotites maintain structural-paragenetic features indicating their provenance from the deep lithosphere (P > 2.5 GPa) (Piccardo et al., 2009). Km-scale extensional shear zones in spinel peridotites (e.g., Vissers et al., 1991; Hoogerduijn Strating et al., 1993) have been dated to 220 Ma (Lu-Hf age) (Montanini et al., 2006) and 225 Ma (40Ar/39Ar amphibole age) (Müntener & Hermann, 2001) indicating that significant lithosphere extension and mantle exhumation was already active during Triassic times. Passive upwelling asthenosphere underwent fractional melting under spinel-facies conditions forming MORB-type depleted single melt increments that were injected into the lithospheric spinel-facies shear zones. Porous flow percolation of the silica-undersaturated melt fractions and melt-peridotite interaction (pyroxene dissolution and olivine precipitation) formed reactive spinel harzburgites and dunites. Melt-peridotite interaction led to silica

  20. Tectonic mélanges and the exhumation of HP ophiolites: a case-study from the Ligurian Alps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Federico, Laura; Crispini, Laura; Scambelluri, Marco; Capponi, Giovanni; Malatesta, Cristina

    2010-05-01

    Mélanges form in a variety of geodynamic settings and can be related to either sedimentary, tectonic or diapiric processes, or a combination of them. We studied in detail a 100 m-scale tectonic mélange formed in the context of the alpine subduction/collision and we tested if the local-scale pattern could be applicable at larger scale in the Ligurian Western Alps. The studied mélange crops out inside metamorphic serpentinites belonging to the high-pressure (HP), meta-ophiolitic Voltri Massif (southern end of the Western Alps). It is made up of a foliated chlorite-actinolite greenschist matrix enclosing 10m-scale lenses of metabasites and metasediments. These blocks appear to be exotic because similar rocks do not outcrop in the surrounding HP-units. The matrix records three sets of superposed folds from blueschist to greenschist-facies conditions. The metabasite lenses preserve internal HP schistosities forming high angles with the greenschist matrix foliation. The lenses equilibrated at different peak metamorphic conditions (ranging from eclogite- to blueschist-facies). The matrix is widely retrogressed in greenschist facies, but it contains rare relics of Na-amphibole. Individual lenses display different segments of typical subduction PT paths which apparently converge in the blueschist facies. Moreover, geochronological data for the different HP blocks show that two undistinguishable blueschist samples display distinct peak ages of 43 and 40 Ma. One blueschist age is contemporaneous with the eclogitic equilibration of another block (43.2 ± 0.5 Ma) (Federico et al., 2007). The described structural, metamorphic and geochronological features suggest that this mélange formed at depth in a subduction channel and was active at least from blueschist- to greenschist-facies conditions, but possibly also at higher pressures. The subduction channel formed between the overriding and the subducting plates, as a consequence of progressive hydration of the mantle wedge by

  1. Project Seacleaner: from cooperation among ISMAR-CNR researchers, high school students and the Ligurian Cluster for Marine Technologies to an application for environmental monitoring and scientific research.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merlino, Silvia; Marini, Claudio; Tosi, Daniela; Caselli, Lorena; Marini, Davide; Lucchinelli, Paolo; Vatteroni, Davide; Lunardelli, Francesco; Agrusa, Astrid; Lombardi, Davide; Stroobant, Mascha

    2014-05-01

    Recently, the Institute for Marine Science of the Italian Research Council ISMAR-CNR has undertaken a series of actions to incorporate oceanography in education: among these, the project "SeaCleaner" that has been developed together with a local Secondary School (Istituto di Istruzione Superiore Capellini-Sauro) and the Ligurian Cluster for Marine Technologies (DLTM) [1]. Seven students, engaged within the national Programme "work-related learning"[2], have worked side-by-side with ISMAR-CNR researchers, investigating on the problem of debris accumulation on beaches, and understanding the damage that this issue causes to marine environments and ecosystems. This problem has recently become a challenging research subject for an increasing number of oceanographers and, in general, for environmental researchers coming from the Mediterranean areas [3, 4, 5], other European Seas [6] and Oceans [7, 8]. Data collected during repeated surveys (seasonally) in the same beach stretch, over several years, allow calculating debris accumulation rates and flow intensities. Application of current models gives additional information on debris dispersal and origin, but we shouldn't forget that, generally, relevance of acquired data is determined by the accuracy and standardization of the procedure. In this context, students have previously searched for literature sources and summarized the most important issues, among these: few data that are often collected during small ranges of time and usually a low number of available researchers for carrying out such a time-consuming survey in the field. In a initial part of the project, several trial surveys have been performed on different beaches in La Spezia province, in order to understand how to elaborate possible strategies to speed up and standardize the procedure. Developing an application for Android system (downloadable on any compatible mobile device such as smartphones, tablets, etc.) has been considered as a good solution since it

  2. Formation of the arc of the Western Alps and Alps-Apennines transition in the light of new geophysical data on the lithospheric architecture around the Ligurian knot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kissling, E.; Bousquet, R.; Ford, M.; Schmid, S.

    2012-04-01

    This study integrates new geophysical data on the lithospheric structure of the Western Alps with a wealth of geologic and tectonic data. Geological evidence suggests an evolution of the Western Alps in 3 stages: Stage 1 (85-35 Ma) is dominated by NW- to NNW-directed convergence of Adria with respect to Europe, leading to subduction in the Central Alps and sinistral transpression in the Western Alps; collisional stage 2 (35-23Ma) results in top WNW out of sequence thrusting along the Penninic front associated with some 240km of WNW-directed indentation of the Ivrea zone at the tip of the Adria plate into the Western Alpine orogen, substantially modifying its geometry in terms of post-nappe folding; stage 3 (23 Ma to recent) involves a change in subduction polarity in the Ligurian Alps and Apennines, linked to the modification of the southern part of the Western Alps in terms of oroclinal bending during rotational roll-back of the Adria plate around a pole of rotation ("Ligurian knot"). Initiated in Oligocene times this rotation created the the young Ligurian plate . New geophysical data (controlled source seismology, local earthquake tomography and receiver functions) tightly constrain the geometry of the Moho around the triple junction area between Europe, Adria and the new Ligurian plate that came into existence at the expense of the European plate near its suture with Adria. Moreover, these new data constrain the 3D geometry of the geophysical Ivrea body associated with a wedge of subcontinental mantle belonging to the Adria plate that rose to the surface of the earth in parts of the Western Alps during Alpine convergence. The internal (eastern) top of the Ivrea mantle wedge is identical with the Adriatic Moho rising up to shallow crustal depth. Local earthquake tomography constrains the external (western) limit of the Ivrea mantle wedge for the first time. The Ivrea wedge's subvertical-to-steeply west-dipping interface with the Penninic nappes and the Alpine

  3. Improvements of the Regional Seismic network of Northwestern Italy in the framework of ALCoTra program activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosco, Fabrizio

    2014-05-01

    ALCoTra project "CASSAT" (Coordination and Analysis of Alpine Trans-border Seismic Surveillance), we evaluate the improvement of monitoring systems performances in terms of localizations precision and number of detections. Furthermore, we update the procedures for the production of ground shaking maps, with installation of accelerometers and integration of new available data for site effects assessment (VS30 map, FA-VS30 correlations by numerical simulations of seismic response), determined for the specific regional context from geophysical surveys data and geological analysis. As a consequence of the increase of available data due to new stations installation and recently recorded events, a new local magnitude scaling law is calibrated for the area. We also develop a parametric methodology to improve network real-time localization procedures in Northwestern Italy. The area, surrounded by Western Alps and Northern Apennines, presents a complex system of lithospheric structures, characterized by strong heterogeneities of various physical parameters (Ivrea Body, subducting European lithosphere, Ligurian Sea Moho, Po Valley deposits). We work with a localization algorithm (Hypoinverse-2000) suitable for such a heterogeneous context , adopting multi-1d crustal velocities models, linked to epicentral coordinates. In this analysis, first we build velocities models integrating several available geophysical and geo-structural data; then we test jointly both models and algorithm parameters with specifically developed automatic iterative procedures, through batch scripting, database, GIS and statistical analysis tools.

  4. Carbonation of subduction-zone serpentinite (high-pressure ophicarbonate; Ligurian Western Alps) and implications for the deep carbon cycling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scambelluri, Marco; Bebout, Gray E.; Belmonte, Donato; Gilio, Mattia; Campomenosi, Nicola; Collins, Nathan; Crispini, Laura

    2016-05-01

    Much of the long-term carbon cycle in solid earth occurs in subduction zones, where processes of devolatilization, partial melting of carbonated rocks, and dissolution of carbonate minerals lead to the return of CO2 to the atmosphere via volcanic degassing. Release of COH fluids from hydrous and carbonate minerals influences C recycling and magmatism at subduction zones. Contradictory interpretations exist regarding the retention/storage of C in subducting plates and in the forearc to subarc mantle. Several lines of evidence indicate mobility of C, of uncertain magnitude, in forearcs. A poorly constrained fraction of the 40-115 Mt/yr of C initially subducted is released into fluids (by decarbonation and/or carbonate dissolution) and 18-43 Mt/yr is returned at arc volcanoes. Current estimates suggest the amount of C released into subduction fluids is greater than that degassed at arc volcanoes: the imbalance could reflect C subduction into the deeper mantle, beyond subarc regions, or storage of C in forearc/subarc reservoirs. We examine the fate of C in plate-interface ultramafic rocks, and by analogy serpentinized mantle wedge, via study of fluid-rock evolution of marble and variably carbonated serpentinite in the Ligurian Alps. Based on petrography, major and trace element concentrations, and carbonate C and O isotope compositions, we demonstrate that serpentinite dehydration at 2-2.5 GPa, 550 °C released aqueous fluids triggering breakdown of dolomite in nearby marbles, thus releasing C into fluids. Carbonate + olivine veins document flow of COH fluids and that the interaction of these COH fluids with serpentinite led to the formation of high-P carbonated ultramafic-rock domains (high-P ophicarbonates). We estimate that this could result in the retention of ∼0.5-2.0 Mt C/yr in such rocks along subduction interfaces. As another means of C storage, 1 to 3 km-thick layers of serpentinized forearc mantle wedge containing 50 modal % dolomite could sequester 1.62 to

  5. Developing a model for the mercury cycle in the Marano-Grado Lagoon (Italy)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Marano-Grado Lagoon is a wetland system of about 160 km2 located in the Northern Adriatic Sea (Italy) between the Tagliamento and the Isonzo River mouths. The lagoon morphology and biogeochemistry are primarily controlled by the exchange with the Adriatic Sea and, to a lesser...

  6. Biodiversity of entomopathogenic nematodes in Italy.

    PubMed

    Tarasco, E; Clausi, M; Rappazzo, G; Panzavolta, T; Curto, G; Sorino, R; Oreste, M; Longo, A; Leone, D; Tiberi, R; Vinciguerra, M T; Triggiani, O

    2015-05-01

    An investigation was carried out on the distribution and biodiversity of steinernematid and heterorhabdtid entomopathogenic nematodes (EPN) in nine regions of Italy in the period 1990-2010. More than 2000 samples were collected from 580 localities and 133 of them yielded EPN specimens. A mapping of EPN distribution in Italy showed 133 indigenous EPN strains belonging to 12 species: 43 isolates of Heterorhabditis bacteriophora, 1 of H. downesi, 1 of H. megidis, 51 of Steinernema feltiae, 12 of S. affine, 4 of S. kraussei, 8 of S. apuliae, 5 of S. ichnusae, 3 of S. carpocapsae, 1 of S. vulcanicum, 3 of Steinernema 'isolate S.sp.MY7' of 'S. intermedium group' and 1 of S. arenarium. Steinernematids are more widespread than heterorhabditids and S. feltiae and H. bacteriophora are the most commonly encountered species. Sampling sites were grouped into 11 habitats: uncultivated land, orchard, field, sea coast, pinewood, broadleaf wood, grasslands, river and lake borders, caves, salt pan and moist zones; the soil texture of each site was defined and the preferences of habitat and soil texture of each species was assessed. Except for the two dominant species, S. feltiae and H. bacteriophora, EPN occurrence tends to be correlated with a specific vegetation habitat. Steinernema kraussei, H. downesi and H. megidis were collected only in Sicily and three of the species recently described - S. apuliae, S. ichnusae and S. vulcanicum - are known only from Italy and seem to be endemic. PMID:24721783

  7. Occupational cancer in Italy.

    PubMed Central

    Merler, E; Vineis, P; Alhaique, D; Miligi, L

    1999-01-01

    This article is a discussion of occupational cancer in Italy. The introduction provides the necessary context of Italian industrialization and occupational health regulation. This is followed by a review of Italian epidemiologic studies of occupational cancer risks considered in terms of relative measures of risk and attributable risk of carcinogenic agents or exposure circumstances. We attempt to establish the number of workers exposed to carcinogens in Italy and the intensity of their exposures. Finally, the Italian system of compensation for occupational cancer is discussed. Several cohort and case-control studies have addressed the issue of occupational risks, mostly among male workers. The results of these studies suggest that the growing incidence of and mortality by mesothelioma is explained by the widespread and intense exposure to asbestos in some Italian industrial settings. A high attributable risk of lung tumors among male populations in industrial areas of northern Italy is explained by occupational exposures. However, insufficient data are available for clear definition of the extent and intensity of occupational exposure to carcinogenic substances. In Italy, we must prioritize and maximize resources in occupational cancer epidemiology and revitalize the role of national institutions. Recent legislation has established new regulations on the handling of carcinogenic substances in industrial settings, a new list of occupational diseases, and a national registry of mesothelioma linked to asbestos exposure. These legislative changes are expected to have positive effects. PMID:10350509

  8. Italy. [CME Country Reports].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council of Europe, Strasbourg (France). Documentation Center for Education in Europe.

    Ever since 1946, increased emigration in Italy has been paralleled by a slow but steady increase in educational activity. In 1971, Law No. 153 was adopted which provides for special educational arrangements to be made for migrant workers and their spouses adopted by the Italian Government are based on the need for Italian children to: (1) be…

  9. Personal Identity in Italy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crocetti, Elisabetta; Rabaglietti, Emanuela; Sica, Luigia Simona

    2012-01-01

    This chapter discusses specifics of identity formation in Italian adolescents and emerging adults. We review consistent evidence illustrating that, in Italy, a progressive deferral of transition to adulthood strongly impacts youth identity development by stimulating identity exploration and postponement of identity commitments. We also consider…

  10. Wastewater reuse in Italy.

    PubMed

    Barbagallo, S; Cirelli, G L; Indelicato, S

    2001-01-01

    In many parts of Italy, particularly in the South, it has become ever more difficult to meet the water demand. The recent years of drought and the constant increase of water demand for the civil sector have made irrigation supply more problematic. Wastewater reuse could represent a viable solution to meet water demand. The focus of this paper is on the regulation problems, hampering the development of wastewater reuse for irrigation, and on the potentials for reuse, particularly in Southern Italy. Planned exploitation of municipal wastewater could help meeting the irrigation water demand particularly in Southern Italy, where farmers have been practising uncontrolled wastewater reuse for a long time. In Northern and Central Italy, where available water resources generally meet water needs for different purposes, wastewater reuse could play an important role in controlling the pollution of water bodies. Despite the fact that Italian legislation is extremely strict and outdated, for several years in some regions, such as Sicily, wastewater reuse systems have been in operation; furthermore, several projects of wastewater reuse are currently in progress. PMID:11436802

  11. The flash flood of October 2011 in the Magra River basin (Italy): rainstorm characterisation and flood response analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchi, Lorenzo; Boni, Giorgio; Cavalli, Marco; Comiti, Francesco; Crema, Stefano; Lucía, Ana; Marra, Francesco; Zoccatelli, Davide

    2013-04-01

    On 25 October 2011, the Magra River, a stream of northwest Italy outflowing into the Ligurian Sea, was affected by a flash flood, which caused severe economic damage and loss of lives. The catchment covers an area of 1717 km2, of which 605 km2 are drained by the Vara River, the major tributary of the Magra River. The flood was caused by an intense rainstorm which lasted approximately 20 hours. The most intense phase lasted about 8 hours, with rainfall amounts up to around 500 mm. The largest rainfall depths (greater than 300 mm) occurred in a narrow southwest - northeast oriented belt covering an area of approximately 400 km2. This flash flood was studied by analysing rainstorm characteristics, runoff response and geomorphic effects. The rainfall fields used in the analysis are based on data from the Settepani weather radar antenna (located at around 100 km from the study basin) and the local rain gauge network. Radar observations and raingauge data were merged to obtain rainfall estimates at 30 min with a resolution of 1 km2. River stage and discharge rating curves are available for few cross-sections on the main channels. Post-flood documentation includes the reconstruction of peak discharge by means of topographic surveys and application of the slope-conveyance method in 34 cross-sections, observations on the geomorphic effects of the event - both in the channel network and on the hillslopes - and the assessment of the timing of the flood based on interviews to eyewitnesses. Regional authorities and local administrations contributed to the documentation of the flood by providing hydrometeorological data, civil protection volunteers accounts, photos and videos recorded during and immediately after the flood. A spatially distributed rainfall-runoff model, fed with rainfall estimates obtained by the radar-derived observations, was used to check the consistency of field-derived peak discharges and to derive the time evolution of the flood. The assessment of unit

  12. Late Miocene remagnetization within the internal sector of the Northern Apennines, Italy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Aiello, I.W.; Hagstrum, J.T.; Principi, G.

    2004-01-01

    Paleomagnetic and geologic evidence indicates that Upper Jurassic radiolarian cherts of both the Tuscan Cherts Formation (continental margin, Tuscan Units) and the Monte Alpe Cherts Formation (oceanic crust, Ligurian Units) were remagnetized during Miocene orogenesis of the Northern Apennines of Italy. Characteristic overprint magnetizations with reversed polarities have been found over a large area within the internal sector of the Northern Apennines, including eastern Liguria, Elba Island and the Thyrrenian margin, and west of the Middle Tuscan Ridge. The reversed-polarity overprint (average direction: D=177??, I=-52??, ??95=15??) was most likely acquired during Late Miocene uplift and denudation of the orogenic chain, and thermochemical remagnetization was a probable consequence of increased circulation of orogenic fluids. Similarly, mostly reversed-polarity directions of magnetization have been found by other workers in overlying post-orogenic Messinian sediments (D=177??, I=-57??, ??95=3??), which show little counterclockwise (CCW) vertical-axis rotation with respect to stable Europe (-8??5??). The Monte Alpe Cherts sampled at sites in the external sector of the Northern Apennines, close to major tectonic features, have normal- polarity overprint directions with in situ W-SW declinations. Since the overlying post-orogenic Messinian sediments have not been substantially rotated about vertical axes, the evidence points to an earlier,pre-Late Miocene remagnetization in the external parts of the orogenic chain. ?? 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Changes in Genetic Structure of Posidonia oceanica at Monterosso al Mare (Ligurian Sea) and Its Resilience Over a Decade (1998-2009)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Micheli, Carla; Cupido, Roberta; Lombardi, Chiara; Belmonte, Alessandro; Peirano, Andrea

    2012-10-01

    Genetic differences in the Posidonia oceanica meadow of Monterosso al Mare (NW Mediterranean, Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) "Cinque Terre") were compared in three stations, at an increasing distance from a source of impact (beach nourishment) in the recent decade. Random amplified polymorphic DNA analysis showed a higher genetic variability (>20 %) in the area directly subjected to the stress, increasing with time. Clone integration, confirmed by phenotypic analysis, showed increases both in shoot density and leaf length connected to genetic differences observed in DNA fingerprints of new shoots. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) showed 45 % individual differences within populations and 54 % among the populations. The fixation index ( F ST = 0.54), of the genetic differentiation, showed a marked difference between the populations at different temporal scales. Over a decade AMOVA indicated genetic variations from 28 % (1998) to 54 % (2009). These results make it clear that in the P. oceanica population examined the environment had, in ten years, selected those clones which were more resistant to the anthropogenic impact, despite being subjected to the effects of the resuspension of fine sediments. These findings could help to explain both the survival of the regressed Mediterranean P. oceanica meadows in areas subjected to moderate impacts and the extreme variability in success of revegetation experiments. Management of the ecological disturbance here described indicates also the timescale in population response to stress and its increased resilience in MPAs.

  14. (1)H NMR metabolomic profiling of the blue crab (Callinectes sapidus) from the Adriatic Sea (SE Italy): A comparison with warty crab (Eriphia verrucosa), and edible crab (Cancer pagurus).

    PubMed

    Zotti, Maurizio; De Pascali, Sandra Angelica; Del Coco, Laura; Migoni, Danilo; Carrozzo, Leonardo; Mancinelli, Giorgio; Fanizzi, Francesco Paolo

    2016-04-01

    The metabolomic profile of blue crab (Callinectes sapidus) captured in the Acquatina lagoon (SE Italy) was compared to an autochthonous (Eriphia verrucosa) and to a commercial crab species (Cancer pagurus). Both lipid and aqueous extracts of raw claw muscle were analyzed by (1)H NMR spectroscopy and MVA (multivariate data analysis). Aqueous extracts were characterized by a higher inter-specific discriminating power compared to lipid fractions. Specifically, higher levels of glutamate, alanine and glycine characterized the aqueous extract of C. sapidus, while homarine, lactate, betaine and taurine characterized E. verrucosa and C. pagurus. On the other hand, only the signals of monounsaturated fatty acids distinguished the lipid profiles of the three crab species. These results support the commercial exploitation and the integration of the blue crab in human diet of European countries as an healthy and valuable seafood. PMID:26593533

  15. Conscientious objection in Italy.

    PubMed

    Minerva, Francesca

    2015-02-01

    The law regulating abortion in Italy gives healthcare practitioners the option to make a conscientious objection to activities that are specific and necessary to an abortive intervention. Conscientious objectors among Italian gynaecologists amount to about 70%. This means that only a few doctors are available to perform abortions, and therefore access to abortion is subject to constraints. In 2012 the International Planned Parenthood Federation European Network (IPPF EN) lodged a complaint against Italy to the European Committee of Social Rights, claiming that the inadequate protection of the right to access abortion implies a violation of the right to health. In this paper I will discuss the Italian situation with respect to conscientious objection to abortion and I will suggest possible solutions to the problem. PMID:24861043

  16. Mount Vesuvius, Italy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) image of Mt. Vesuvius, Italy was acquired September 26, 2000. The full-size false-color image covers an area of 36 by 45 km. Vesuvius overlooks the city of Naples and the Bay of Naples in central Italy. (Popocatepetl and Mount Fuji are other volcanos surrounded by dense urban areas.) In 79 AD, Vesuvius erupted cataclysmically, burying all of the surrounding cites with up to 30 m of ash. The towns of Pompeii and Herculanaeum were rediscovered in the 18th century, and excavated in the 20th century. They provide a snapshot of Roman life from 2000 years ago: perfectly preserved are wooden objects, food items, and the casts of hundreds of victims. Vesuvius is intensively monitored for potential signs of unrest that could signal the beginning of another eruption. Image courtesy NASA/GSFC/MITI/ERSDAC/JAROS, and U.S./Japan ASTER Science Team

  17. Mt. Vesuvius, Italy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This ASTER image of Mt. Vesuvius Italy was acquired September 26, 2000, and covers an area of 36 by 45 km. Vesuvius overlooks the city of Naples and the Bay of Naples in central Italy. In 79 AD, Vesuvius erupted cataclysmically, burying all of the surrounding cites with up to 30 m of ash. The towns of Pompeii and Herculanaeum were rediscovered in the 18th century, and excavated in the 20th century. They provide a snapshot of Roman life from 2000 years ago: perfectly preserved are wooden objects, food items, and the casts of hundreds of victims. Vesuvius is intensively monitored for potential signs of unrest that could signal the beginning of another eruption. The image is centered at 40.8 degrees north latitude, 14.4 degrees east longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  18. Cost containment: Europe. Italy.

    PubMed

    Apolone, G; Melotti, R; Repetto, F; Iapichino, G

    1994-08-01

    Through prepaid compulsory insurance managed by the central government, Italy's National Health Service (NHS) provides full coverage, free accessibility, and no or limited copayment by individuals when receiving health services. Although Italy spends less than other countries on health care (< 8% of the country's gross national product), the present NHS faces considerable difficulties, and its performance regarding quality, outcome, and spending has come under question. ICUs account for < 2% of total hospital beds, and the proportion of ICU patients is < 2.5% of all hospital patients (2.5% of all Italian hospital patients receive ICU care at some time during their hospital stay). Information from administrative databases and epidemiologic studies gives an interesting national picture of the situation in Italy regarding admission criteria case mix, and outcomes when compared with data from other countries. Important changes in the financial and institutional framework of the NHS are underway, yielding an unpredictable scenario for the future. Innovations focus mostly on cost containment and quality initiatives. These innovations will likely produce a new health service in which regions will have a more important role than in the past. Actions planned in a large Italian region by the local government are used as an example to explain the potential impact of this new trend on critical care medicine. PMID:8087596

  19. Group Psychotherapy in Italy.

    PubMed

    Giannone, Francesca; Giordano, Cecilia; Di Blasi, Maria

    2015-10-01

    This article describes the history and the prevailing orientations of group psychotherapy in Italy (psychoanalytically oriented, psychodrama, CBT groups) and particularly group analysis. Provided free of charge by the Italian health system, group psychotherapy is growing, but its expansion is patchy. The main pathways of Italian training in the different group psychotherapy orientations are also presented. Clinical-theoretical elaboration on self development, psychopathology related to group experiences, and the methodological attention paid to objectives and methods in different clinical groups are issues related to group therapy in Italy. Difficulties in the relationship between research and clinical practice are discussed, as well as the empirical research network that tries to bridge the gap between research and clinical work in group psychotherapy. The economic crisis in Italy has led to massive cuts in health care and to an increasing demand for some forms of psychological treatment. For these reasons, and because of its positive cost-benefit ratio, group psychotherapy is now considered an important tool in the national health care system to expand the clinical response to different forms of psychological distress. PMID:26401793

  20. Ecological niches of three teuthophageous odontocetes in the northwestern Mediterranean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Praca, E.; Gannier, A.

    2008-02-01

    In the northwestern Mediterranean Sea, sperm whales, pilot whales and Risso's dolphins prey exclusively or preferentially on cephalopods. In order to evaluate their competition, we modelled their habitat suitability with the Ecological Niche Factor Analysis (ENFA) and compared their ecological niches using a discriminant analysis. We used a long term (1995-2005) small boat data set, with visual and acoustic (sperm whale) detections. Risso's dolphin had the shallowest and the more spatially restricted principal habitat, mainly located on the upper part of the continental slope (640 m mean depth). With a wider principal habitat, at 1750 m depth in average, the sperm whale used a deeper part of the slope as well as the closest offshore waters. Finally, the pilot whale has the most oceanic habitat (2500 m mean depth) mainly located in the central Ligurian Sea and Provençal basin. Therefore, potential competition for food between these species may be reduced by the differentiation of their habitats.

  1. Ecological niche of three teuthophageous odontocetes in the northwestern Mediterranean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Praca, E.; Gannier, A.

    2007-10-01

    In the northwestern Mediterranean Sea, sperm whales, pilot whales and Risso's dolphins prey on cephalopods exclusively or preferentially. In order to evaluate their competition, we modelled their habitat suitability with the Ecological Niche Factor Analysis (ENFA) and compared their ecological niche using a discriminant analysis. We used a long term (1995-2005) small boat data set, with visual and acoustic (sperm whale) detections. Risso's dolphin had the shallowest and the more spatially restricted principal habitat, mainly located on the upper part of the continental slope (640 m mean depth). With a wider principal habitat, at 1750 m depth in average, the sperm whale used a deeper part of the slope as well as close offshore waters. Finally, the pilot whale has the most oceanic habitat (2500 m mean depth) mainly located in the central Ligurian Sea and Provençal basin. Therefore, potential competition for food between these species may be reduced by the differentiation of their ecological niches.

  2. Morphostructure, growth patterns, and tectonic control of the Rhone and Nile deep-sea fans: A comparison

    SciTech Connect

    Bellaiche, G.; Mart, Y. |

    1995-02-01

    The Rhone and the Nile rivers shape the sediment distribution of the Ligurian and the Levantine basins in the Mediterranean Sea, respectively. Both rivers cut huge canyons in their bed rock during the Messinian desiccation of the Mediterranean, and the subsequent early Pliocene marine transgression reached far inland both in France and in Egypt. The sediment supply of both rivers was affected by climatic variations during the Pleistocene, but whereas glacial periods were associated with reduced water flow in the Rhone, they can be correlated with enhanced flow of the Nile. The sediment distribution and accumulation patterns of both rivers built large deltas on their continental shelves during high sea level stands. During low-stands both rivers flowed as far as the shelf edge, and transported their sedimentary load through the continental slopes directly to their deep-sea fans. The patterns of sediment distribution and accumulation in the marine basins of the Ligurian and the Levantine seas were affected also by Pliocene-Quaternary tectonic activity and halokinetic offsets that led to sediment instability. The present hydrographic and sedimentological regimes of both rivers do not represent their natural potential due to artificial interference. The principal economic significance of the deep-sea fan accumulation process is the transportation of medium- and coarse-grained sediments into the deep-marine basin. Considering the effect of these sediments on stratal permeabilities and hydrocarbon potential, the presented comparative overview emphasizes recent and subrecent sedimentological aspects that are critical to petroleum exploration in active and extinct deep-sea depositional environments.

  3. Active Faulting, Earthquakes and Geomorphological Changes from Archaeoseismic Data and High-Resolution Topography: Effects on the Urban Evolution of the Roman Town of Sybaris, Ionian Sea (Southern Italy).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alfonsi, L.; Brunori, C. A.; Cinti, F. R.

    2014-12-01

    The Sybaris town was founded by the Greeks in 720 B.C and its life went on up to the late Roman time (VI-VII century A.D.). The town was located within the Sibari Plain near the Crati River mouth (Ionian northern Calabria, southern Italy). Sybaris occurs in area repeatedly affected by natural damaging phenomena, as frequent flooding, high local subsidence, marine storms, and earthquakes. The 2700 year long record of history of Sybaris stores the traces of these natural events and their influence on the human ancient environment through time. Among the natural disasters, we recognize two Roman age earthquakes striking the town. We isolate the damaging of these seismic events, set their time of occurrence, and map a shear zone crossing the site. These results were obtained through i) survey of coseismic features on the ruins, ii) geoarchaeological stratigraphy analysis, and TL and C14 dating, iii) analysis of high-resolution topographic data (1m pixel LiDAR DEM). The Sybaris town showed a persistent resilience to the earthquakes, and following their occurrences the site was not abandoned but underwent remodeling of the urban topography. The interaction of the different approaches reveals the presence of a previously unknown fault crossing the archeological site, the Sybaris fault. The high-resolution topography allows the characterization of subtle geomorphological features and hydrological anomalies, tracing the fault extension, whose Holocene activity is controlling the local morphology and the present Crati river course.

  4. [Social cooperatives in Italy].

    PubMed

    Villotti, P; Zaniboni, S; Fraccaroli, F

    2014-06-01

    This paper describes the role of social cooperatives in Italy as a type of economic, non-profit organization and their role in contributing to the economic and social growth of the country. The purpose of this paper is to learn more about the experience of the Italian social cooperatives in promoting the work integration process of disadvantaged workers, especially those suffering from mental disorders, from a theoretical and an empirical point of view. Social enterprise is the most popular and consolidated legal and organizational model for social enterprises in Italy, introduced by Law 381/91. Developed during the early 1980s, and formally recognized by law in the early 1990s, social cooperatives aim at pursuing the general interest of the community to promote the human needs and social inclusion of citizens. They are orientated towards aims that go beyond the interest of the business owners, the primary beneficiary of their activities is the community, or groups of disadvantaged people. In Italy, Law 381/91 distinguishes between two categories of social cooperatives, those producing goods of social utility, such as culture, welfare and educational services (A-type), and those providing economic activities for the integration of disadvantaged people into employment (B-type). The main purpose of B-type social cooperatives is to integrate disadvantaged people into the open labour market. This goal is reached after a period of training and working experience inside the firm, during which the staff works to improve both the social and professional abilities of disadvantaged people. During the years, B-type social co-ops acquired a particular relevance in the care of people with mental disorders by offering them with job opportunities. Having a job is central in the recovery process of people suffering from mental diseases, meaning that B-type social co-ops in Italy play an important rehabilitative and integrative role for this vulnerable population of workers. The

  5. The Bologna Process in Italy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ballarino, Gabriele; Perotti, Loris

    2012-01-01

    Italy was among the promoters of the Bologna Process and the early adopters of the reform. If one looks at its impact on the formal structure of curricula and study programmes, the reform undertaken under the Bologna banner seems to have been one of the major educational reforms ever achieved in Italy. This article describes how the Bologna…

  6. The Language Situation in Italy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tosi, Arturo

    2004-01-01

    This monograph provides an overview of the language situation in Italy, within the framework of language policy and language planning. It presents an account of multilingualism, linguistic diversity, social variation, educational issues and phenomena of language contact both within and outside Italy. The four main threads are (1) the current…

  7. The inner structure of La Fossa di Vulcano (Vulcano Island, southern Tyrrhenian Sea, Italy) revealed by high resolution electric resistivity tomography coupled with self-potential, temperature, and soil CO2 gas measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Revil, A.; Finizola, A.

    2007-12-01

    La Fossa cone is an active stratovolcano located on Vulcano Island, in the Aeolian Archipelago (southern Italy). Its activity is characterized by explosive phreatic eruptions and phreato-magmatic eruptions producing wet and dry pyroclastic surges, pumice fall deposits and highly viscous lava flows. Nine profiles of 2D high resolution Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) (electrode spacing 20 meters, with a depth of penetration > 200 meters) were performed across this edifice to image its inner structure. In addition, we also measured the self-potential, the flux of CO2, and the temperature along these profiles. These data provide complementary information to interpret the ERT profiles. The ERT profiles allow to identify the main structural boundaries (and their associated fluid circulations) structuring the shallow architecture of the Fossa cone. The hydrothermal system is identified by very low values of the electrical resistivity (< 20 Ù m). Its lateral extension is clearly limited by the crater boundaries, which are relatively resistive (> 400 Ù m). Inside the crater, it is possible to follow the plumbing system of the main fumarolic area at depth. On the flank of the edifice, a thick layer of tuff is also marked by low resistivity values (in the range 1 to 20 Ù m). The ashes and pyroclastic materials ejected during the XIX Century eruptions and covering the flank of the volcano corresponds to relatively resistive materials (several hundreds to several thousands Ù m). Laboratory measurements are performed to determine the streaming coupling coefficient of the main materials forming the edifice. A 2D simulation of the ground water flow is performed over the edifice using the finite element code Comsol Multiphysics 3.3. Forward and inverse modeling of the self- potential data can be used to put constraints on the flux of water in the flanks of the edifice and inside the crater. The result reveals the very high potentiality of these methods for high

  8. [Occupational epidemiology in Italy].

    PubMed

    Assennato, G; Bisceglia, L

    2003-01-01

    The development of Occupational Epidemiology in Italy is closely correlated with the political and social awareness of the needs of preventive strategies in the workplace. In the late '60s the Trade Unions supported a model of intervention based on the involvement of the so-called "Homogeneous group of workers" in the validation of the preventive measures taken on the workplace. In spite of the shortcomings of the model, it was extremely effective resulting in enhanced perception of the priority of preventive strategies and in the formation within the National Health Service of the Occupational Health Services. In Italy over the period 1973-2002 there has been an impressive trend of research in field of occupational epidemiology (a search on Medline shows an increasing trend over the years and, in terms of international comparison, higher figures than in Germany, France and Spain). Occupational Epidemiology is now present in the activities of the local Occupational Health Services and in the teaching activities of the Medical Schools throughout the country. PMID:14582235

  9. Satellite and in situ measurements for coastal water quality assessment and monitoring: a comparison between MODIS Ocean Color and SST products with Wave Glider observations in the Southern Tyrrhenian Sea (Gulf of Naples, Italy).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sileo, Giancanio; Lacava, Teodosio; Tramutoli, Valerio; Budillon, Giorgio; Aulicino, Giuseppe; Cotroneo, Yuri; Ciancia, Emanuele; De Stefano, Massimo; Fusco, Giannetta; Pergola, Nicola; Satriano, Valeria

    2015-04-01

    A wave-propelled autonomous vehicle (Wave Glider, WG) carrying a variety of oceanographic and meteorological sensors was launched from Gulf of Naples on the 12th September 2012 for a three-week mission in the Southern Tyrrhenian Sea. The main objective of the mission was the opportunity to evaluate the usefulness of combined satellite and autonomous platform observations in providing reliable and concurrent information about sea water parameters about the Southern Tyrrhenian Sea surface layer. The Wave Glider was equipped with sensors to measure temperature, salinity, currents, as well as CDOM, turbidity and refined fuels fluorescence. Wave Glider oceanographic data were also compared to satellite measurements. In particular, MODIS Ocean Color (OC) products concerning sea water properties collected during the Wave Glider mission were used. The EOS constellation allowed us to have about two daily diurnal imagery providing information about ocean color products. Concerning SST, both diurnal and night-time data were available. The first study we performed was focused on the analysis of SST information coming from both WG and MODIS. A good coefficient of correlation was achieved considering together both day-time and night-time acquisitions, with a discrepancy not higher than 0,7 °C. The correlation increases considering only day-time values, when more samples respect to the night-time ones were available. The results confirm the capability of MODIS products to reproduce over large area the SST variability, with a good level of accuracy. A similar analysis has been carried out to compare the turbidity WG data with the kd-490 MODIS product, which provide information about the diffuse attenuation coefficient in water at 490 nm and it is directly related to the presence of scattering particles, either organic or inorganic, in the water column and thus it is an indication of water clarity or of the water column turbidity. The absence of correlation seems to indicate, for

  10. Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances in the Western Mediterranean Sea waters.

    PubMed

    Brumovský, Miroslav; Karásková, Pavlína; Borghini, Mireno; Nizzetto, Luca

    2016-09-01

    The spatial and temporal distribution of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in the open Western Mediterranean Sea waters was investigated in this study for the first time. In addition to surface water samples, a deep water sample (1390 m depth) collected in the center of the western basin was analyzed. Perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA), perfluoroheptanoic acid (PFHpA), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorohexanesulfonate (PFHxS) and perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) were detected in all samples and were the dominant PFASs found. The sum of PFAS concentrations (ΣPFASs) ranged 246-515 pg/L for surface water samples. PFASs in surface water had a relatively homogeneous distribution with levels similar to those previously measured in the Atlantic near the Strait of Gibraltar, in water masses feeding the inflow to the Mediterranean Sea. Higher concentrations of PFHxA, PFHpA and PFHxS were, however, found in the present study. Inflowing Atlantic water and river/coastal discharges are likely the major sources of PFASs to the Western Mediterranean basin. Slightly lower (factor of 2) ΣPFASs was found in the deep water sample (141 pg/L). Such a relatively high contamination of deep water is likely to be linked to recurring deep water renewal fed by downwelling events in the Gulf of Lion and/or Ligurian Sea. PMID:27314632

  11. Gestalt psychology in Italy.

    PubMed

    Verstegen, I

    2000-01-01

    Graz gestalt psychology was introduced into Italy after World War I with Vittorio Benussi's emigration to Padua. His earliest adherent, Cesare Musatti, defended Graz theory, but after Benussi's premature death became an adherent of the Berlin gestalt psychology of Wertheimer-Köhler-Koffka. He trained his two most important students, Fabio Metelli and Gaetano Kanizsa, in orthodox Berlin theory. They established rigid "schools" in Padua and Trieste. The structure of Italian academics allowed for such strict orthodoxy, quite unlike the situation in America, where scientific objectivity mitigated against schools. In the 1960s, some of the students of Metelli and Kanizsa (above all Bozzi) initiated a realist movement-felt in Kanizsa's late work-that was quite independent of that of J. J. Gibson. Finally, more recently, Benussi and Graz theorizing have been embraced again, sentimentally, as a predecedent to Kanizsa-Bozzi. PMID:10653614

  12. A multidisciplinary approach to reveal floodplain palaeohydrography in the surrounding of ancient Luna archaeological site (lower Magra River valley, NW Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bini, Monica; Bisson, Marina; Chelli, Alessandro; Pappalardo, Marta

    2010-05-01

    The Magra floodplain (NW Italy) is a coastal plain that was created during the last 2.5 millennia by the River Magra itself and by minor streams draining the southern slope of the Apuan Alps. The coastline progressively migrated from the mountain foothills to its present position, 2.5 km seaward. Available stratigraphical data suggest that the marine gulf that occupied the area before Bronze age gradually changed into a lagoon; this was finally separated from the open sea and became a complex of marshes that were finally silted up. All these environments provided opportunities for settlement and land use: early settlement is accounted for in the Iron Age by Ligurian people that were finally defeated by the Romans. In the 2nd century bC the roman colony of Luna (today Luni) was founded in the area. After the Imperial Age Luni gradually decayed and was finally abandoned in 1204. Post-Roman alluviation is thought to be partly responsible for the city decline and the survival of only scattered farmsteads in its surroundings. Settlement and land use history from Iron Age onward are thus tightly dependant from drainage network evolution in the area. Although historical maps provide some chronological constraints about the advance of the Magra floodplain it is still unknown how and when precisely the transformation of a lagoon environment into a dry land occurred. In particular no data are available about the position of the mouths of the Magra River and of the minor streams at Roman Times and little is known about channel migration since the Early Middle Ages and information about land reclamation are difficult to find because dispersed. In order to identify abandoned fluvial channels, a series of digital elaborations were applied to different types of Remotely-Sensed Images. In detail, the used data consist of satellite images (Landsat 7 - ETM) and airborne orthophotos (AIMA) covering a temporal interval of five years (from 1998 to 2002) and characterized by a spatial

  13. Italy: health system review.

    PubMed

    Ferre, Francesca; de Belvis, Antonio Giulio; Valerio, Luca; Longhi, Silvia; Lazzari, Agnese; Fattore, Giovanni; Ricciardi, Walter; Maresso, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Italy is the sixth largest country in Europe and has the second highest average life expectancy, reaching 79.4 years for men and 84.5 years for women in 2011. There are marked regional differences for both men and women in most health indicators, reflecting the economic and social imbalance between the north and south of the country. The main diseases affecting the population are circulatory diseases, malignant tumours and respiratory diseases. Italy's health care system is a regionally based national health service that provides universal coverage largely free of charge at the point of delivery. The main source of financing is national and regional taxes, supplemented by copayments for pharmaceuticals and outpatient care. In 2012, total health expenditure accounted for 9.2 percent of GDP (slightly below the EU average of 9.6 percent). Public sources made up 78.2 percent of total health care spending. While the central government provides a stewardship role, setting the fundamental principles and goals of the health system and determining the core benefit package of health services available to all citizens, the regions are responsible for organizing and delivering primary, secondary and tertiary health care services as well as preventive and health promotion services. Faced with the current economic constraints of having to contain or even reduce health expenditure, the largest challenge facing the health system is to achieve budgetary goals without reducing the provision of health services to patients. This is related to the other key challenge of ensuring equity across regions, where gaps in service provision and health system performance persist. Other issues include ensuring the quality of professionals managing facilities, promoting group practice and other integrated care organizational models in primary care, and ensuring that the concentration of organizational control by regions of health-care providers does not stifle innovation. PMID:25471543

  14. Italy INAF Data Center Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Negusini, M.; Sarti, P.

    2013-01-01

    This report summarizes the activities of the Italian INAF VLBI Data Center. Our Data Center is located in Bologna, Italy and belongs to the Institute of Radioastronomy, which is part of the National Institute of Astrophysics.

  15. Lake Garda, Italy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This ASTER image was acquired on July 29, 2000 and covers an area of 30 by 57 km in northern Italy. Lake Garda was formed by glaciers during the last Ice Age, and is Italy's largest lake. Lago di Garda lies in the provinces of Verona, Brescia, and Trento, and is 51 kilometers (32 miles) long and from 3 to 18 kilometers (2 to 11 miles) wide. The Sarca is its chief affluent, and the lake is drained southward by the Mincio, which discharges into the Po River. Many villas are situated on its shores. On the peninsula of Sirmione, at the southern end of the lake, are the ruins of a Roman villa and a castle of the Scaligers, an Italian family of the 16th century. The RIGHT image has the land area masked out, and a harsh stretch was applied to the lake values to display variations in sediment load. Also visible are hundreds of boats and their wakes, criss-crossing the lake.

    The image is centered at 45.6 degrees north latitude, 10.6 degrees east longitude.

    Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., is the U.S. Science team leader; Moshe Pniel of JPL is the project manager. ASTER is the only high resolution imaging sensor on Terra. The primary goal of the ASTER mission is to obtain high-resolution image data in 14 channels over the entire land surface, as well as black and white stereo images. With revisit time of between 4 and 16 days, ASTER will provide the capability for repeat coverage of changing areas on Earth's surface.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for

  16. A facies distribution model controlled by a tectonically inherited sea bottom topography in the carbonate rimmed shelf of the Upper Tithonian-Valanginian Southern Tethyan continental margin (NW Sicily, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basilone, Luca; Sulli, Attilio

    2016-08-01

    The Upper Tithonian-Valanginian shallow-water carbonates outcropping in the Palermo Mts (NW Sicily) consist of several facies associations reflecting different depositional environments of a carbonate rimmed shelf, pertaining to the Southern Tethyan continental margin. The reconstructed depositional model, based on the sedimentological features, cyclic facies arrangement and biota distribution, shows that a wide protected lagoon, dominated by algae, molluscs and scattered patch reefs, was bordered landward by a tidal flat, where stromatolitic algal mats were cyclically subaerial exposed, and seaward by a marine sand belt and reef complex. Oolitic packstone-grainstone lithofacies, cyclically subjected to subaerial exposure, suggests the occurrence of a barrier island, located nearly to the lagoonal carbonate shoreline, allowing the development of narrow embayments with restricted circulation. In the outer platform, the oolitic lithofacies of the marine sand belt pass landward into the protected lagoon, where washover oolite sands occur, and seaward into a high-energy zone (back-reef apron) gradually merging in the reef complex. In the latter, coral framestone occupied the inner sector (reef flat), while the facies association dominated by boundstone with Ellipsactinia sp. developed in the outer sectors (reef wall), adjacent to the fore-reef and upper slope environments. Stratigraphic evidence, associated with the recognized facies associations, helped to reconstruct the geo-tectonic setting of the carbonate platform, where the distribution of the depositional facies along the shelf and their extension were influenced by the tectonically-inherited sea bottom topography. In a regime of extensional tectonics, localized and thin succession of high-energy prograding oolite sand belt depositional facies occupied structural highs (footwall uplift), while the largely diffused and thick low energy aggrading peritidal-to-lagoonal depositional facies developed in subsiding

  17. Geochemistry and habitat of oils in Italy

    SciTech Connect

    Novelli, L.; Mattavelli, L.

    1988-02-01

    Most of the onshore and offshore oil occurrences found in Italy have been systematically analyzed by different techniques, i.e., capillary gas chromatography, biological markers, and stable isotopes composition. On the basis of the above analyses, ten different groups of oil have been identified and geographically located. Subsequently, the influence of the various geological settings on generation and migration of these different groups of oils was investigated and is discussed here. In a foredeep regime, the remarkably fast heating rates, due to the rapid burial during late Tertiary, caused a rapid generation of oil mainly in the Triassic carbonate source rocks. Such generation, combined with the high over-burden pressure and a contemporaneous development of an intense tectonic compression, resulted in the expulsion of immature, heavy oils. Examples of this are evident in the central Adriatic Sea, southern Italy, and southeastern Sicily. Due to its complex geological and tectonic history, the Alpine-Apennine chain behaved differently with regard to oil generation and migration in different areas. In fact, the high temperatures reached by the Mesozoic source rocks underneath a stack of allochthonous thrust sheets and the insulating thermal blanket effect exerted by the same sheets on other younger source rocks above gave rise to generally light oils. Furthermore, in this unique geological setting, the most external thrust sheets locally acted as reservoirs of the foredeep regime. Foreland sequences acted as both reservoirs of the foredeep oils and as generative kitchens of liquid hydrocarbons if suitable source rocks were present and adequate burial was reached.

  18. Productivity improvement by frontier horizontal drilling in Italy

    SciTech Connect

    Schenato, A.

    1995-12-31

    Italian domestic activity on horizontal wells has been specially addressed to carbonate reservoir and specifically targeted to re-entry in existing wells. The speech will focus on the specific experience matured in frontier applications in Italy, from 1989 with the short radius drain holes in Sicily, throughout world record deep water short radius in the southern part of Adriatic sea and depth world record medium radius in a HP/HT reservoir in the Po Valley. Production results will be reported as well as the achieved technological aspects.

  19. Italy's Intelligent Educational Training Station

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ponti, Giorgio

    2005-01-01

    The Intelligent Educational Training Station has been developed in Italy to meet emerging school building needs. The project, for schools from the primary to upper secondary level, proposes flexible architecture for an "intelligent school" network, and was developed by CISEM, the Centre for Educational Innovation and Experimentation of Milan.

  20. Red Sea

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    article title:  The Red Sea     View Larger Image ... Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) image of the Red Sea was acquired on August 13, 2000. Located between the East African coast and the Saudi Arabian peninsula, the Red Sea got its name because the blooms of a type of algae,  Trichodesmium ...

  1. Bering Sea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Much of the Bering Sea is clear in this SeaWiFS image. The large expanse of bright aquamarine water is clearly visible. Credit: Provided by the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, and ORBIMAGE

  2. Bering Sea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The skies of the Bering Sea were relatively clear again in this SeaWiFS image showing a band of aquamarine colored water. Credit: Provided by the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, and ORBIMAGE

  3. Sedimentological and geochimical features of chaotic deposits in the Ventimiglia Flysch (Roya-Argentina valley- NW Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perotti, Elena; Bertok, Carlo; D'Atri, Anna; Martire, Luca; Musso, Alessia; Piana, Fabrizio; Varrone, Dario

    2010-05-01

    cross-cut by a network of crumpled and broken veins, 10's mm to cm-large, filled with orange luminescing calcite and locally with quartz. Their complex cross-cutting relationships with clasts and matrix show that several systems of veins are present, that may be referred to different fracturing events. Some clasts are crossed or bordered by veins that end at the edge of the clasts. These veins show the same features as those that crosscut the whole rock. This indicates reworking of plastic sediments crossed by calcite-filled veins by mass gravity flows. Polyphase debris flow processes, proceeding along with fluid expulsion and veining, are thus documented. Ellipsoidal, dm-large concretions of cemented pelites also occur. They represent a previous phase of concretionary growth within homogenous pelites subsequently involved in the mass gravity flow. Stable O and C isotope analyses, performed on matrix, clasts, concretions and veins, show: - δ13C close to normal marine values (-3 to 0 δ13C ‰ PDB) - δ18O markedly negative (-9 to -7 δ18O ‰ PDB) that could be related to precipitation from relatively hot waters (60-70 ° C). The block-in-matrix fabric and the variable composition and size of blocks show that these sediments are a sedimentary mélange related to mass wasting processes involving both extrabasinal and intrabasinal sediments. These gravitational movements took place along slopes of submarine tectonic ridges created by transpressional faults (Piana et al., 2009) that juxtaposed tectonic slices of different paleogeographic domains (Dauphinois, Briançonnais, Ligurian Units) in Late Eocene times, and involved both rock fall processes of huge blocks of lithified, older formations, and debris flows of unlithified intrabasinal sediment. Faults also acted as conduits for an upward flow of hot fluids supersaturated in calcium carbonate. These fluids crossed unlithified sediments close to the sea floor resulting in localized concretionary cementation and formation

  4. Renaissance Neurosurgery: Italy's Iconic Contributions.

    PubMed

    Nanda, Anil; Khan, Imad Saeed; Apuzzo, Michael L

    2016-03-01

    Various changes in the sociopolitical milieu of Italy led to the increasing tolerance of the study of cadavers in the late Middle Ages. The efforts of Mondino de Liuzzi (1276-1326) and Guido da Vigevano (1280-1349) led to an explosion of cadaver-centric studies in centers such as Bologna, Florence, and Padua during the Renaissance period. Legendary scientists from this era, including Leonardo Da Vinci, Andreas Vesalius, Bartolomeo Eustachio, and Costanzo Varolio, furthered the study of neuroanatomy. The various texts produced during this period not only helped increase the understanding of neuroanatomy and neurophysiology but also led to the formalization of medical education. With increased understanding came new techniques to address various neurosurgical problems from skull fractures to severed peripheral nerves. The present study aims to review the major developments in Italy during the vibrant Renaissance period that led to major progress in the field of neurosurgery. PMID:26585723

  5. Overview of plasmapheresis in Italy.

    PubMed

    Tomasini, I

    1993-12-01

    The national law, concerning Blood Transfusion and Blood derivatives in Italy, aims at achieving self-sufficiency and assuring safety of blood, plasma and plasma derivatives, according to EEC ((EE-Directive 89/381) and to the Council of Europe (R-88/4)). According to this law it is the task of the Central National Authority, (ie Istituto Superiore di Sanità (ISS)), to coordinate the transfusion system nationwide. The adoption and the transmission to the ISS of Regional Blood Registers containing information about the local use of blood and blood derivatives is in progress. Up to now the data are collected from a network among Blood Centers by Società italiana di Immunoematologia e Trasufusione del Sangue-Associazione Italiana Centri Trasfusionali (SIITS-AICT) and these results show that in Italy the incorrect use of plasma and albumin and the insufficient practice of plasmapheresis are the major obstacles to the achievement of self-sufficiency. PMID:8013975

  6. Cowpox Virus in Llama, Italy

    PubMed Central

    Brozzi, Alberto; Eleni, Claudia; Polici, Nicola; D’Alterio, Gianlorenzo; Carletti, Fabrizio; Scicluna, Maria Teresa; Castilletti, Concetta; Capobianchi, Maria R.; Di Caro, Antonino; Autorino, Gian Luca; Amaddeo, Demetrio

    2011-01-01

    Cowpox virus (CPXV) was isolated from skin lesions of a llama on a farm in Italy. Transmission electron microscopy showed brick-shaped particles consistent with orthopoxviruses. CPXV-antibodies were detected in llama and human serum samples; a CPXV isolate had a hemagglutinin sequence identical to CPXV-MonKre08/1–2-3 strains isolated from banded mongooses in Germany. PMID:21801638

  7. Italy INAF Analysis Center Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Negusini, M.; Sarti, P.

    2013-01-01

    This report summarizes the activity of the Italian INAF VLBI Analysis Center. Our Analysis Center is located in Bologna, Italy and belongs to the Institute of Radioastronomy, which is part of the National Institute of Astrophysics. IRA runs the observatories of Medicina and Noto, where two 32-m VLBI AZ-EL telescopes are situated. This report contains the AC's VLBI data analysis activities and shortly outlines the investigations into the co-locations of space geodetic instruments.

  8. Seismic risk perception in Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crescimbene, Massimo; La Longa, Federica; Camassi, Romano; Pino, Nicola Alessandro; Peruzza, Laura

    2014-05-01

    Risk perception is a fundamental element in the definition and the adoption of preventive counter-measures. In order to develop effective information and risk communication strategies, the perception of risks and the influencing factors should be known. This paper presents results of a survey on seismic risk perception in Italy conducted from January 2013 to present . The research design combines a psychometric and a cultural theoretic approach. More than 7,000 on-line tests have been compiled. The data collected show that in Italy seismic risk perception is strongly underestimated; 86 on 100 Italian citizens, living in the most dangerous zone (namely Zone 1), do not have a correct perception of seismic hazard. From these observations we deem that extremely urgent measures are required in Italy to reach an effective way to communicate seismic risk. Finally, the research presents a comparison between groups on seismic risk perception: a group involved in campaigns of information and education on seismic risk and a control group.

  9. Resolving Mantle Flow Beneath Italy: The Scientific Goals of the RETREAT Seismological Deployment, Northern Apennines, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, J.; Margheriti, L.; Levin, V.; Pondrelli, S.; Plomerova, J.; Lucente, P.; Okaya, D.; Babuska, V.; Amato, A.; Brandon, M. T.; Vecsey, L.; Piana Agostinetti, N.; Piccininni, D.

    2004-12-01

    The Apennines mountains in Italy are associated with subduction by many researchers, motivated by uplift beside thick accretions of sediments in the Po River valley and the Adriatic Sea; deep earthquakes and volcanism in southern Italy, and a long tabular high-wavespeed feature that is observed in mantle tomography from the base of the Apennines to the transition zone. The objective of the RETREAT seismic array is to resolve the pattern of mantle flow associated with the inferred rollback of the Adriatic slab. Because both sides of the active orogen are continental, the Apennines differ from typical oceanic subduction zones. The descent of lithosphere has not, in the historical record, been accompanied by great thrust earthquakes. GPS estimates of convergence are small, no more than a few mm/year. It is not known how much of the crust of the downgoing plate descends with the mantle lithosphere, and how much accretes to the upper crust of the overriding plate. Our seismic results will allow us to resolve the Moho beneath the Apennines and the transition into the actively flowing asthenospheric mantle. Many researchers have argued that subduction of the Adriatic slab has induced a corner flow in the asthenosphere above the slab. Geodynamic modelling suggests that a complex double-cell corner flow is necessary to generate the observed extension of the overriding plate. RETREAT includes broadband seismometers in both 2-D- and linear-arrays that straddle the Apennines and its mantle high-velocity features. In several subduction zones (Kamchatka, Cascadia, Alaska) receiver functions detect P-to-S converted waves from both top and bottom of the subducted oceanic crust. Anisotropy near the top of the slab enhances the P-to-S conversion and suggests the presence of hydrous minerals. If subduction of the full lithosphere is occurring beneath Italy, we expect to observe P-to-S converted phases, with an anisotropic signature, from crust within the subducted lithosphere. Weak

  10. Mercury speciation in the Adriatic Sea.

    PubMed

    Kotnik, Jože; Horvat, Milena; Ogrinc, Nives; Fajon, Vesna; Žagar, Dušan; Cossa, Daniel; Sprovieri, Francesca; Pirrone, Nicola

    2015-07-15

    Mercury and its speciation were studied in surface and deep waters of the Adriatic Sea. Several mercury species (i.e. DGM – dissolved gaseous Hg, RHg – reactive Hg, THg – total Hg, MeHg – monomethyl Hg and DMeHg – dimethylmercury) together with other water parameters were measured in coastal and open sea deep water profiles. THg concentrations in the water column, as well as in sediments and pore waters, were the highest in the northern, most polluted part of the Adriatic Sea as the consequence of Hg mining in Idrija and the heavy industry of northern Italy. Certain profiles in the South Adriatic Pit exhibit an increase of DGM just over the bottom due to its diffusion from sediment as a consequence of microbial and/or tectonic activity. Furthermore, a Hg mass balance for the Adriatic Sea was calculated based on measurements and literature data. PMID:26013591

  11. Organic carbon dynamics in the Mediterranean Sea: An integrated study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santinelli, Chiara; SempéRé, Richard; van Wambeke, France; Charriere, Bruno; Seritti, Alfredo

    2012-12-01

    Total (TOC) and dissolved (DOC) organic carbon vertical profiles were analyzed from 11 stations located in various regions of the Mediterranean Sea, together with the distribution of other physical, chemical and biological parameters. TOC showed the highest concentrations (68-83 μM) above the pycnocline, followed by a marked decrease to values of 45-48 μM at 100-200 m. Below 200 m, values of 40-45 μM were observed. The excess TOC and DOC occurring at each station was calculated by subtracting 48 μM from the observed concentrations. The stock of the excess TOC and DOC increased eastward; while surface DOC mineralization rates decreased from 1.5 μM d-1 to 0.26 μM d-1 eastward. The integrated average of the biological parameters in the above-pycnocline layer showed a bacterial production versus particulate primary production (BP/PPP) ratio ranging from 22% in the Ionian Sea (MIO station) to 31% in the Ligurian Sea (Dyfamed station), while bacterial carbon demand versus PPP was higher than 100%, considering a bacterial growth efficiency of both 15% and 30%. The data here reported indicate various scenarios of carbon dynamics. At the stations west of the Sardinian Channel, the microbial loop was very active, and a high flux of carbon to the microbial loop (large bacterial and protist abundance) may be hypothesized, which would result in a low DOC concentration. At the stations east of the Sardinian Channel, no significant longitudinal variation was found in DOC and BP. DOC accumulated at these stations, possibly due to bacteria P-limitation, to DOC chemical composition and/or to the occurrence of different prokaryotic populations with a different ability to consume the available DOC.

  12. Italy: An Open Air Museum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pizzorusso, Ann

    2016-04-01

    Imagine if you could see the River Styx, bathe in the Fountain of Youth, collect water which enhances fertility, wear a gem that heals bodily ailments, understand how our health is affected by geomagnetic fields, venture close to the flames of Hell on Earth and much, much, more. Know something? These things exist - on Earth - today - in Italy and you can visit them because Italy is an open air museum. Ann C. Pizzorusso, in her recent book, reveals how Italy's geology has affected its art, literature, architecture, religion, medicine and just about everything else. She explores the geologic birth of the land, describing the formation of the Alps and Apennines, romantic bays of Tuscany and Lazio, volcanoes of the south and Caribbean-like beaches of Puglia. But that's not all, from the first pages of this visually stunning book, the reader has the impression of being in an art museum, where one can wander from page to page to satisfy one's curiosity-- guided from time to time by the Etruscan priests, Virgil, Dante, Goethe or Leonardo da Vinci himself. Pizzorusso stitches together widely diverse topics - such as gemology, folk remedies, grottoes, painting, literature, physics and religion - using geology as a thread. Quoting everyone from Pliny the Elder to NASA physicist Friedemann Freund, the work is solidly backed scholarship that reads as easily as a summer novel. Wonderfully illustrated with many photos licensed from Italian museums, HRH Elizabeth II and the Ministero Beni Culturali the book highlights the best works in Italian museums and those outside in the "open air museums." This approach can be used in any other country in the world and can be used for cultural tourism (a tour following the book has been organized for cultural and university groups), an ideal way of linking museums to the surrounding landscape.

  13. Hazards in the coastal karst of Balai (NW Sardinia, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanna, Laura; Uda, Michele; Pascucci, Vincenzo

    2016-04-01

    The coastal karst area of Balai headland is located in the central part of the Gulf of Asinara (North-West Sardinia, Italy) near the city of Porto Torres, comprised between the homonymous harbour and Platamona beach. This karst plateau has a monocline geometry truncated by the coastal escarpment, up to 40 m-high, that in the last decades has been affected by slope instability related to human activities and/or climate change. The area is characterised by a flat morphology constituted of Miocene limestone gently dipping towards the North-West. Its altitude ranges from 0 to 50 m asl. The 3 km-long cliff is locally interrupted by some small gravelly coves. Along the longitudinal profile of the headland, three main morphological steps have been identified at 15, 8 and 6.5 m asl. They represent past wave cut platforms. The shoreline is well marked and the coves cut into the land up to 50 m in length, perpendicularly to the coast. They follow the direction of a series of parallel NE-facing fractures. The modern tidal notch is well exposed along the carbonate cliff at the present sea level. Along the limestone cliff, notch development is amplified by mixing of sea and fresh water coming from submerged springs. Moreover, this marine erosion feature is a good sea level marker in microtidal conditions, such as Mediterranean Sea, and an indicator of tectonic stability, of the Sardinian microplate. In some coves, two generations of fossil notches have been observed at 6.5 m asl and -1 m bsl, respectively, along with lithophaga boreholes up to 8 m asl. Both indicate the past eustatic conditions. All these geomorphic features make Balai promontory an interesting geological spot for studying past sea level fluctuations and present slope movements, trying to distinguish hazards due to climate change from those directly related to anthropogenic forces such as wave-induced damage due to waterborne navigation.

  14. AlpArray-Italy: Site description and noise characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Govoni, Aladino; D'Alema, Ezio; Capello, Marco; Cavaliere, Stefania Danesi, Adriano; Margheriti, Lucia; Massa, Marco; Mazza, Salvatore; Mazzarini, Francesco; Monna, Stephen; Moretti, Milena; Nardi, Anna; Piccinini, Davide; Piromallo, Claudia; Pondrelli, Silvia; Salimbeni, Simone; Serpelloni, Enrico; Solarino, Stefano; Vallocchia, Massimiliano; Lovati, Sara; Santulin, Marco

    2016-04-01

    Within the framework of the European joint research initiative AlpArray (http://www.alparray.ethz.ch/), we deployed overall 20 seismic broad-band stations in Northern Italy and on two islands in the Tyrrhenian Sea (Capraia and Montecristo) during Fall-Winter 2015. All the stations, connected in real-time, were installed at sites selected according to the AlpArray Seismic Network plan: 16 temporary stations running for two to three years and 4 new permanent stations in sites already occupied by accelerometers of the INGV national network. Most temporary stations are equipped with REF TEK 130S digitizers and Nanometrics Trillium Compact 120s sensors (a couple have Nanometrics Trillium 120P and one Streckeisen STS2). For each site we describe the settings and discuss the noise levels, the site effects and the preliminary sensitivity analysis.

  15. Excess of (236)U in the northwest Mediterranean Sea.

    PubMed

    Chamizo, E; López-Lora, M; Bressac, M; Levy, I; Pham, M K

    2016-09-15

    In this work, we present first (236)U results in the northwestern Mediterranean. (236)U is studied in a seawater column sampled at DYFAMED (Dynamics of Atmospheric Fluxes in the Mediterranean Sea) station (Ligurian Sea, 43°25'N, 07°52'E). The obtained (236)U/(238)U atom ratios in the dissolved phase, ranging from about 2×10(-9) at 100m depth to about 1.5×10(-9) at 2350m depth, indicate that anthropogenic (236)U dominates the whole seawater column. The corresponding deep-water column inventory (12.6ng/m(2) or 32.1×10(12) atoms/m(2)) exceeds by a factor of 2.5 the expected one for global fallout at similar latitudes (5ng/m(2) or 13×10(12) atoms/m(2)), evidencing the influence of local or regional (236)U sources in the western Mediterranean basin. On the other hand, the input of (236)U associated to Saharan dust outbreaks is evaluated. An additional (236)U annual deposition of about 0.2pg/m(2) based on the study of atmospheric particles collected in Monaco during different Saharan dust intrusions is estimated. The obtained results in the corresponding suspended solids collected at DYFAMED station indicate that about 64% of that (236)U stays in solution in seawater. Overall, this source accounts for about 0.1% of the (236)U inventory excess observed at DYFAMED station. The influence of the so-called Chernobyl fallout and the radioactive effluents produced by the different nuclear installations allocated to the Mediterranean basin, might explain the inventory gap, however, further studies are necessary to come to a conclusion about its origin. PMID:27262827

  16. Origin and pathways of Winter Intermediate Water in the Northwestern Mediterranean Sea using observations and numerical simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juza, Mélanie; Renault, Lionel; Ruiz, Simon; Tintoré, Joaquin

    2013-12-01

    The study of water masses worldwide (their formation, spreading, mixing, and impact on general circulation) is essential for a better understanding of the ocean circulation and variability. In this paper, the formation and main pathways of Winter Intermediate Water (WIW) in the Northwestern Mediterranean Sea (NWMED) are investigated during the winter-spring 2011 using observations and numerical simulation. The main results show that the WIW, formed along the continental shelves of the Gulf of Lion and Balearic Sea, circulates southward following five preferential pathways depending on the WIW formation site location and the oceanic conditions. WIW joins the northeastern part of the Balearic Sea, or flows along the continental shelves until joining the Balearic Current (maximum of 0.33 Sv in early-April) or further south until the Ibiza Channel entrance. Two additional trajectories, contributing to water mass exchanges with the southern part of the Western Mediterranean Sea, bring the WIW through the Ibiza and Mallorca Channels (maxima of 0.26 Sv in late-March and 0.1 Sv in early-April, respectively). The circulation of WIW over the NWMED at 50-200 m depth, its mixing and spreading over the Western Mediterranean Sea (reaching the south of the Balearic Islands, the Algero-Provencal basin, the Ligurian and the Alboran Seas) suggest that the WIW may have an impact on the ocean circulation by eddy blocking effect, exchange of water masses between north and south subbasins of Western Mediterranean Sea through the Ibiza Channel or modification of the ocean stratification.

  17. Sea Legs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macdonald, Kenneth C.

    Forty-foot, storm-swept seas, Spitzbergen polar bears roaming vast expanses of Arctic ice, furtive exchanges of forbidden manuscripts in Cold War Moscow, the New York city fashion scene, diving in mini-subs to the sea floor hot srings, life with the astronauts, romance and heartbreak, and invading the last bastions of male exclusivity: all are present in this fast-moving, non-fiction account of one woman' fascinating adventures in the world of marine geology and oceanography.

  18. Rites of passage in Italy.

    PubMed

    Field, Carol

    2010-01-01

    Unlike the vast number of public celebrations in Italy that are almost always associated with specific foods, rites of passage in that country are focused on pivotal private moments after the ceremonial crossing of a threshold; and food may or may not be a primary focus of the event. Recognition of birth, marriage, and death—the three major turning points in the intimate life of a family—may still be observed with dishes or ingredients traceable to the Renaissance, but many older traditions have been modified or forgotten entirely in the last thirty years. Financial constraints once preserved many customs, especially in the south, but regional borders have become porous, and new food trends may no longer reflect the authentic tradition. Can new movements, such as Slow Food, promote ancient values as the form and food of traditional events continue to change? PMID:21495289

  19. Structure and interactions within the pelagic microbial food web (from viruses to microplankton) across environmental gradients in the Mediterranean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Poi, E.; Blason, C.; Corinaldesi, C.; Danovaro, R.; Malisana, E.; Fonda-Umani, S.

    2013-12-01

    We have investigated here the structure of the pelagic microbial food web and quantified the carbon fluxes from viruses to microplankton along trophic gradients in the Mediterranean Sea. To explore the complex trophic pathways of the pelagic food web, we conducted independent and replicated experiments to measure (i) predation on prokaryotes by microzooplankton, (ii) predation on prokaryotes by heterotrophic nanoflagellates, (iii) virus-induced prokaryotic mortality, and (iv) microzooplankton grazing on nanoplankton and microphytoplankton. Our study covered more than 5000 km, from the Atlantic Ocean to the Levantine basin, and from conditions of high primary production and nutrient availability to ultraoligotrophic and phosphate-limited waters. Microphytoplankton abundance and biomass were typically scarce across the entire Mediterranean basin, with almost negligible levels in the eastern part. Also, nanoplankton biomass was typically low. Conversely, prokaryotes, and particularly the heterotrophic components, were abundant and represented the only significant food source for both nanoplankton and microplankton grazers. Viral infections were not the primary agents of prokaryotic mortality, but in some areas, such as the Ligurian Sea, they had a key role in prokaryotic dynamics. The scenario depicted in this study in summer reveals the pivotal role of microzooplankton in the pelagic food web of the Mediterranean Sea, with a key role in the potential transfer of biomass to higher trophic levels. We also show that converse to theoretical expectations, the microbial food web was relatively complex under the mesotrophic conditions (Atlantic and western Mediterranean) and was much more simplified in the ultraoligotrophic conditions of the eastern Mediterranean.

  20. Demoiselles and Drafts from Italy and France.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Picard, M. Dane

    1988-01-01

    Recounts the adventures of a journey taken through France and Italy. Makes an analogy of this trip to that of the one Charles Dickens took in 1844. Describes silicified horizons of the southern Paris Basin, moraines, outcrops, and "Hoodoos." (RT)

  1. [Rosenfeld in Italy (1978 to 1985)].

    PubMed

    de Masi, Franco

    2015-01-01

    In this paper I try to throw some light on Rosenfeld's thought and his way of working when he came to Italy. I would like to show, in a sketchy way, the evolution of his thought and in particular the new way he looked at clinical practice at that time. My point is that the Rosenfeld we met in Italy was able to open new horizons in clinical practice, implicitly questioning some of his own or his circle's previous viewpoints. PMID:26595987

  2. Black Sea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The Black Sea in eastern Russia is experiencing an ongoing phytoplankton bloom. This image, the most recent in a series that began in early may, shows the waters to be even more colorful than before. part of the increased brightness may be due to the presence of sun glint , especially in the center of the sea. However, more organisms appear to be present as well, their photosynthetic pigments reflecting different wavelengths of light.This Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) image was captured on June 15, 2002.

  3. Sea Ice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perovich, D.; Gerland, S.; Hendricks, S.; Meier, Walter N.; Nicolaus, M.; Richter-Menge, J.; Tschudi, M.

    2013-01-01

    During 2013, Arctic sea ice extent remained well below normal, but the September 2013 minimum extent was substantially higher than the record-breaking minimum in 2012. Nonetheless, the minimum was still much lower than normal and the long-term trend Arctic September extent is -13.7 per decade relative to the 1981-2010 average. The less extreme conditions this year compared to 2012 were due to cooler temperatures and wind patterns that favored retention of ice through the summer. Sea ice thickness and volume remained near record-low levels, though indications are of slightly thicker ice compared to the record low of 2012.

  4. Aral Sea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This series of MODIS images shows the dwindling Aral Sea. Once one of the world's largest freshwater lakes, the Aral Sea has decreased by as much as 60% over the past few decades due to diversion of the water to grow cotton and rice. These diversion have dropped the lake levels, increased salinity, and nearly decimated the fishing industry. The previous extent of the lake is clearly visible as a whitish perimeter in these image from April 16, May 18, and June 3, 2002. s. Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

  5. HP-LT metamorphism in Elba Island: Implications for the geodynamic evolution of the inner Northern Apennines (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bianco, Caterina; Brogi, Andrea; Caggianelli, Alfredo; Giorgetti, Giovanna; Liotta, Domenico; Meccheri, Marco

    2015-11-01

    The inner Northern Apennines belt (i.e., northern Tyrrhenian Sea and Tuscany) is an Alpine chain affected by high-P metamorphic conditions during its evolution. Although Elba Island is structurally located close to the Adria-Europe suture zone, for several authors it represents a sector of the orogen affected by low-P metamorphism. The involvement of Elba Island tectonic units in high-P metamorphism was only suspected for the sparse presence of phengitic white mica in the metasedimentary rocks. This paper presents the first clear evidence of high-P and low-T metamorphism found in metabasite rocks embedded in the Cretaceous calcschist of eastern Elba Island. Mineral composition of metabasite includes Gln + Cpx + Ep + Ab + Act + Qtz + Ilm ± Ti-oxide ± Spn and is indicative of a former equilibration in the epidote blueschist subfacies and subsequent retrogression in the greenschist facies. Recorded metamorphic conditions are P = 0.9-1.0 GPa and T = 330-350 °C. Tectonic discrimination using immobile elements in the metabasite does not point to an oceanic setting. As a consequence, the metasedimentary succession containing metabasite is explained as belonging to the Tuscan continental domain and not to the Ligurian-Piedmont Ocean, as previously interpreted. Our results have two significant implications: (i) it is confirmed and strengthened that the tectonic stacking of the Elba Island units did not occur in a low-pressure context; (ii) Elba Island is now completely reconciled in the tectonic and metamorphic evolution of the inner Northern Apennines.

  6. Health workforce governance in Italy.

    PubMed

    Vicarelli, Giovanna; Pavolini, Emmanuele

    2015-12-01

    More precise health workforce governance has become a prominent issue in healthcare systems. This issue is particularly important in Italy, given its strongly doctor-centered healthcare system and the dramatic aging of its physicians' labor force. Using different sources of information (statistical data, official planning documents and interviews with key informants), the article attempts to answer two questions. Why has the Italian healthcare systems found itself in the situation of a potential drastic reduction in the amount of doctors in the medium term without a rebalancing through a different mix of skills and professionals? How good is the capacity of the Italian healthcare system to plan healthcare workforce needs? The widespread presence of 'older' physicians is the result of the strong entry of doctors into the Italian healthcare system in the 1970s and 1980s. Institutional fragmentation, difficulties in drafting broad healthcare reforms, political instability and austerity measures explain why Italian health workforce forecasting and planning are still unsatisfactory, although recent developments indicate that changes are under way. In order to tackle these problems it is necessary to foster closer cooperation among a wide range of stakeholders, to move from uni-professional to multi-professional health workforce planning, and to partially re-centralise decision making. PMID:26470643

  7. Malaria epidemiological trends in Italy.

    PubMed

    Sabatinelli, G; Majori, G; D'Ancona, F; Romi, R

    1994-08-01

    Based on the official reports received from local health laboratories, an epidemiological analysis of malaria cases reported in Italy from 1989 to 1992 is presented. A total of 1,941 cases were reported, 1,287 among Italians and 654 among foreigners. The incidence of cases was on average 500 per year with a maximum in 1990. A slight, but constant decrease of incidence of malaria cases was recorded in this period among Italian citizens (-21.5%), while the incidence among foreigners increased (+80%). Plasmodium falciparum accounted for 74.2% of total infections, followed by P. vivax (19%). The highest number of cases was imported from Africa (86.5%), followed by Asia, South America, and Oceania. 11 cases were contracted in Europe (transfusion, airport and cryptic malaria). 26 people died from malaria during the four years, with a fatality rate of 2.3% among Italians. Other epidemiological features concerning incidence in the different categories of travellers, countries of infection, clinical and therapeutic aspects of cases, are also discussed. PMID:7843343

  8. New CALLISTO Station in Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monstein, Chr.

    2013-10-01

    A new CALLISTO station is now active in Triest/Italy at the Astronomical Observatory premises located in Basovizza. It has been recently installed and set into operation on the 6th September 2013. The antenna has been installed on an old bunker named "Sissi" and is based on a commercial log-periodic antenna from RKB(http://www.rkb./articoli.asp?id=26), operating frequency 130-1000 MHz, gain of about 6-7 dBi. Beam&-width is of 103 degrees in the V plane and of 61 degrees in the H plane. Considering the site location, sun path variations during the year and beam-width, the antenna is installed fixed-mounted pointing towards South with an angle of 45 degrees in the V plane. This should cover all declination of solar path throughout the year with about 7 hours observation time centered around 12.00, local time. The front-end aerial is connected to a low noise preamplifier Mini-Circuits ZX60-33LN with 20dB of gain and 1.1dB of noise figure.

  9. Fukushima fallout at Milano, Italy.

    PubMed

    Ioannidou, Alexandra; Manenti, Simone; Gini, Luigi; Groppi, Flavia

    2012-12-01

    The radionuclides (131)I, (137)Cs and (134)Cs were observed in the Milano region (45°) of Italy early after the nuclear accident in Fukushima, Japan. Increased atmospheric radioactivity was observed on an air filter taken on 30 March 2011, while the maximum activity of 467 μBq m(-3) for (131)I was recorded at April 3-4, 2011. The first evidence of Fukushima fallout was confirmed with (131)I and (137)Cs measured in precipitation at two sampling sites at Milano on 28 March, 2011, with the concentrations of (131)I and (137)Cs in the rainwater equal to 0.89 Bq L(-1) and 0.12 Bq L(-1), respectively. A sample of dry deposition that was collected 9 days after the first rainfall event of 27-28 March, 2011 showed that the dry deposition was more effective in the case of (137)Cs than it was for (131)I, probably because iodine was mainly in gaseous form whereas caesium was rapidly bound to aerosols and thus highly subject to dry deposition. The relatively high observed values of (137)Cs in grass, soil and fresh goat and cow milk samples were probably from Chernobyl fallout and global fallout from past nuclear tests rather than from the Fukushima accident. Finally, a dose assessment for the region of investigation showed clearly that the detected activities in all environmental samples were very far below levels of concern. PMID:22300481

  10. CBRN mobile laboratories in Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mari, Giorgio; Giraudi, Giampaolo; Bellino, Mariarosa; Pazienza, Michele; Garibaldi, Claudio; Lancia, Corrado

    2009-05-01

    The paper describes the experiences in Italy with the CBRN (Chemical Biological Radiological Nuclear) defense mobile laboratories. These laboratories were constructed by the Italian Army and the Italian Fire Brigades. The purpose of these mobile laboratories is to allow quick transport of the labs to the area of crisis in order to support emergency response in case of CBRN events. The differences between two alternative solutions will be developed in the paper. The first solution is when the lab is to be located in the "dangerous area" (this solution was chosen by the Italian Army) and the alternative approach is to place the mobile lab just outside the dangerous area (this approach was selected by the Italian Fire Brigades). One of the most important devices inside the lab is the isolator (also called "glove box") which allows safe ingress and handling of the "suspicious" samples from the external environment. The isolator has a special chamber for transfer of the sample from the outside. The pressure of the isolator is permanently kept below the air pressure inside the lab by means of one (or more) fan. The operators perform the sample preparations or part of the analysis by handling the sample with the gloves. The material flow inside the lab will be described depending on the kind of identification analysis to be done on the samples. Other devices installed on the mobile CBRN laboratories are: biohazard hood (UE regulation, containment level 2); autoclave; freezer; cleaning skid (tanks, pumps, etc.).

  11. Ross Sea

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    article title:  Icebergs in the Ross Sea     View Larger Image Two large icebergs, designated B-15A and C-16, are captured in this Multi-angle Imaging ... the longitudinal quadrant in which it is first seen, and new icebergs sighted in that quadrant are sequentially numbered. B-15 divided from ...

  12. Non-susceptible landslide areas in Italy and in the Mediterranean region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchesini, I.; Ardizzone, F.; Alvioli, M.; Rossi, M.; Guzzetti, F.

    2014-04-01

    We used landslide information for 13 study areas in Italy and morphometric information obtained from the 3 arc-second SRTM DEM to determine areas where landslide susceptibility is expected to be null or negligible in Italy, and in the landmasses surrounding the Mediterranean Sea. The morphometric information consisted in the local terrain slope computed in a square 3 × 3 cell moving window, and in the regional relative relief computed in a circular 15 × 15 cell moving window. We tested three different models to determine the non-susceptible landslide areas, including a linear model (LR), a quantile linear model (QLR), and a quantile non-linear model (QNL). We tested the performance of the three models using independent landslide information represented by the Italian Landslide Inventory (Inventario Fenomeni Franosi in Italia - IFFI). Best results were obtained using the QNL model. The corresponding zonation of non-susceptible landslide areas was intersected in a GIS with geographical census data for Italy. The result allowed determining that 57.5% of the population of Italy (in 2001) was located in areas where landslide susceptibility is expected to be null or negligible, and that the remaining 42.5% was located in areas where some landslide susceptibility is expected. We applied the QNL model to the landmasses surrounding the Mediterranean Sea, and we tested the synoptic non-susceptibility zonation using independent landslide information for three study areas in Spain. Results proved that the QNL model was capable of determining where landslide susceptibility is expected to be negligible in the Mediterranean area. We expect our results to be applicable in similar study areas, facilitating the identification of non-susceptible and susceptible landslide areas, at the synoptic scale.

  13. Non-susceptible landslide areas in Italy and in the Mediterranean region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchesini, I.; Ardizzone, F.; Alvioli, M.; Rossi, M.; Guzzetti, F.

    2014-08-01

    We used landslide information for 13 study areas in Italy and morphometric information obtained from the 3-arcseconds shuttle radar topography mission digital elevation model (SRTM DEM) to determine areas where landslide susceptibility is expected to be negligible in Italy and in the landmasses surrounding the Mediterranean Sea. The morphometric information consisted of the local terrain slope which was computed in a square 3 × 3-cell moving window, and in the regional relative relief computed in a circular 15 × 15-cell moving window. We tested three different models to classify the "non-susceptible" landslide areas, including a linear model (LNR), a quantile linear model (QLR), and a quantile, non-linear model (QNL). We tested the performance of the three models using independent landslide information presented by the Italian Landslide Inventory (Inventario Fenomeni Franosi in Italia - IFFI). Best results were obtained using the QNL model. The corresponding zonation of non-susceptible landslide areas was intersected in a geographic information system (GIS) with geographical census data for Italy. The result determined that 57.5% of the population of Italy (in 2001) was located in areas where landslide susceptibility is expected to be negligible. We applied the QNL model to the landmasses surrounding the Mediterranean Sea, and we tested the synoptic non-susceptibility zonation using independent landslide information for three study areas in Spain. Results showed that the QNL model was capable of determining where landslide susceptibility is expected to be negligible in the validation areas in Spain. We expect our results to be applicable in similar study areas, facilitating the identification of non-susceptible landslide areas, at the synoptic scale.

  14. Numerical modeling of the central Black Sea ecosystem functioning during the eutrophication phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grégoire, M.; Raick, C.; Soetaert, K.

    2008-03-01

    experiments and of the Ligurian sea ecosystem [Raick, C., Delhez, E., Soetaert, K., Gregoire, M., 2005. Study of the seasonal cycle of the biogeochemical processes in the Ligurian sea using an 1D interdisciplinary model. Journal of Marine Systems 55 (3-4) 177-203]. This model has been extended to simulate the development of top predators, the aggregation of detritus as well as the degradation and chemical processes in suboxic/anoxic conditions (e.g. denitrification, anoxic remineralization, redox reactions). The coupled model extends down to the sediments ( ≃2000 m depth) and is forced at the air-sea interface by the 6 hourly ERA-40 reanalysis of ECMWF data. The model has been calibrated and validated using a large set of data available in the Black Sea TU Ocean Base. The biogeochemical model involves some hundred parameters which are first calibrated by hand using published values. Then, an identifiability analysis has been performed in order to determine a subset of identifiable parameters (i.e. ensemble of parameters that can be together estimated from the amount of data we have at our disposal, see later in the text). Also a subset of 10 identifiable parameters was isolated and an automatic calibration subroutine (Levenberg Marquart) has been used to fine tune these parameters. Additionally, in order to assess the sensitivity of model results to the parameterization of the two gelatinous groups, Monte Carlo simulations were performed perturbing all the parameters governing their dynamics. In order to calibrate the particle dynamics and export, the chemical model was run off-line with the particle and microbial loop model in order to check its capacity of simulating anoxic waters. After a 104 year run, the model simulated NH and HS profiles similar to observations but steady state was not reached suggesting that the Black Sea deep waters are not at steady state. The fully coupled model was then used to simulate the period 1988-1992 of the Black Sea ecosystem. The model

  15. Tuberculosis and leprosy in Italy: new skeletal evidence.

    PubMed

    Rubini, Mauro; Zaio, Paola; Roberts, Charlotte

    2014-02-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) and leprosy are infections caused by Mycobacteria. This paper documents new skeletal evidence in Italy from the Iron Age site of Corvaro (Central Italy; 5th century BCE) and the Roman site of Palombara (Central Italy; 4th-5th century CE), and briefly reviews the extant evidence for these infections in Italy. The skeletal evidence for TB in Italy is more ancient than for leprosy, and is more common. The oldest evidence for both mycobacterial diseases is in the North of Italy, but this could be by chance, even if biomolecular models suggest a land route from the East to central Europe, especially for leprosy. PMID:24129278

  16. Coastal hydrogeological system of Mar Piccolo (Taranto, Italy).

    PubMed

    Zuffianò, L E; Basso, A; Casarano, D; Dragone, V; Limoni, P P; Romanazzi, A; Santaloia, F; Polemio, M

    2016-07-01

    The Mar Piccolo basin is an internal sea basin located along the Ionian coast (Southern Italy), and it is surrounded primarily by fractured carbonate karstic environment. Because of the karstic features, the main continental water inflow is from groundwater discharge. The Mar Piccolo basin represents a peculiar and sensitive environment and a social emergency because of sea water and sediment pollution. This pollution appears to be caused by the overlapping effects of dangerous anthropogenic activities, including heavy industries and commercial and navy dockyards. The paper aims to define the contribution of subaerial and submarine coastal springs to the hydrological dynamic equilibrium of this internal sea basin. A general approach was defined, including a hydrogeological basin border assessment to detect inflowing springs, detailed geological and hydrogeological conceptualisation, in situ submarine and subaerial spring measurements, and flow numerical modelling. Multiple sources of data were obtained to define a relevant geodatabase, and it contained information on approximately 2000 wells, located in the study area (1600 km(2)). The conceptualisation of the hydrogeological basin, which is 978 km(2) wide, was supported by a 3D geological model that interpolated 716 stratigraphic logs. The variability in hydraulic conductivity was determined using hundreds of pumping tests. Five surveys were performed to acquire hydro-geochemical data and spring flow-yield measurements; the isotope groundwater age was assessed and used for model validation. The mean annual volume exchanged by the hydrogeological basin was assessed equal to 106.93 10(6) m(3). The numerical modelling permitted an assessment of the mean monthly yield of each spring outflow (surveyed or not), travel time, and main path flow. PMID:26201653

  17. From Sea to Shining Sea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Beverly

    2005-01-01

    Deep down in the depths of the sea, beautiful fish, mysterious ocean life, and unusual plants glimmer and glow in the eerie atmosphere of an ever-changing ocean. This article describes how, with this vision and a purpose in mind, three teachers pulled open classroom walls and joined forces so their second graders could create a mammoth 30 x 75"…

  18. Spatial decision support for strategic environmental assessment of land use plans. A case study in southern Italy

    SciTech Connect

    Geneletti, Davide . E-mail: davide.geneletti@ing.unitn.it; Bagli, Stefano . E-mail: home@gecosistema.it; Napolitano, Paola . E-mail: home@gecosistema.it

    2007-07-15

    This paper presents and discusses the construction of a spatial decision-support tool for the Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) of a land use plan: the spatial coordination plan of the Province of Naples, in southern Italy. The decision-support tool organises the relevant information, spatially resolves the actions of the plan, predicts their environmental impacts, and generates overall performance maps. Its final goal is to provide a suitable technical support to a formal SEA procedure. The expected implications of the plan, such as changes in land use and traffic flows and urban expansion, were modelled and assessed against a set of environmental criteria using SWOT (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats) analysis and mapping. It was found that the SWOT analysis provided a good basis for assessment and strategy formulation. The paper also intends to contribute to the topic of data and scale issues in SEA, by exemplifying the role played by spatial data and spatial analyses to support informative SEA.

  19. Applications of remote sensing for the evaluation of Adriatic Sea environmental conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Vitiello, F.; Borfecchia, F.; De Cecco, L.; Martini, S.

    1997-08-01

    The paper shows the remote sensing activities that ENEA is carrying out for the evaluation of Adriatic Sea environmental conditions and their modifications over the last fifteen years. The activities were requested by the Italian Research Ministry to gain knowledge of the circulation model of the Adriatic Sea and to understand what caused algae blooms in some of the last years. The Adriatic Sea is a high environmental risk sea, because its depth is low and a strong pollutant charge is coming into the sea from the Po river and from many other rivers of the NE coast of Italy. Processing of satellite images has covered the period from 1980 up to now and has allowed the reconstruction of modifications of the environmental conditions of the sea. The paper shows the first results obtained by remote sensing images processing that will be utilized for the database of the Adriatic Sea.

  20. Middle Pleistocene ostracod assemblages from Lake Trasimeno, Perugia (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchegiano, Marta; Gliozzi, Elsa; Buratti, Nicoletta; Ariztegui, Daniel; Cirilli, Simonetta

    2014-05-01

    Lake Trasimeno is a meso-eutrophic, shallow (<6 m deep) and large lake (~120km2) located in central Italy, at 259 m above sea level. A preliminary age model based on pollen data for a core retrieved along the present southern shore of the lake (north of the Panicarola town) suggests that the record may be as old as Middle Pleistocene. An ongoing multidisciplinary study of a 175 m long sedimentary core includes magnetic properties, sedimentary microfacies, paleontology, palynology and bulk elemental geochemistry. This contribution focus on the paleoenvironmental reconstruction of the topmost 30 m of the core using ostracods. A total of 245 samples have been taken at a 13 cm sampling interval. On the whole, 13 species referable to 10 genera were collected (Ilyocypris gibba, Candona neglecta, Candona angulata, Cypridopsis vidua, Heterocypris salina, Limnocythere sp.1, Limnocythere stationis, Darwinula stevensoni, Cyprideis sp., Leptocythere spp., Fabaeformiscandona fabaeformis, Cyclocypris ovum). Abrupt changes in the abundance of the assemblages were found along the studied core alternating sections with very abundant ostracod remains with others with scant (or even null) individuals. Moreover, the changes observed in the composition of the ostracod assemblages are interpreted as recording environmental variations. In particular, two intervals are significant for the paleoenvironmental reconstruction of this sedimentary succession: 1) the section from 25.60 m to 23.50 m is characterized by a rich ostracod fauna (dominated by Cyprideis sp., Candona angulata and Leptocythere spp.). These assemblages possibly indicate an increase in salinity or alkalinity of the water body; 2) the interval from 21.05 m to 17.60 m contains Ilyocypris gibba, Candona neglecta, Cypridopsis vidua, Heterocypris salina, Limnocythere sp. 1, Limnocythere stationis and Darwinula stevensoni. Limnocythere stationis is a central European species, until now in Italy only described in the Holocene of

  1. A unique lower mantle source for Southern Italy volcanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cadoux, Anita; Blichert-Toft, Janne; Pinti, Daniele L.; Albarède, Francis

    2007-07-01

    The Southern Italy volcanism is characterized by the unusual occurrence of volcanic rocks with ocean-island basalt (OIB)-like characteristics, in particular at Etna and Iblean Mts in Sicily. The geochemical properties of the source of the Italian magmatism are usually explained by a north-south binary mixing between a mantle- and a crustally-derived end-members. The nature of the mantle end-member is, however, not agreed upon. One type of interpretation invokes a mixture of depleted mantle (DMM) and high U/Pb (HIMU) end-members [Gasperini, D., Blichert-Toft, J., Bosch, D., Del Moro, A., Macera, P., Albarède, F., 2002. Upwelling of deep mantle material through a plate window: Evidence from the geochemistry of Italian basaltic volcanics, J. Geophys. Res. 107, 2367-2386], whereas an alternative view holds that the mantle end-member is unique and homogeneous, and similar to the FOZO- or C-type end-member identified in oceanic basalts [Bell, K., Castorina, F., Lavecchia, G., Rosatelli, G., Stoppa, F., 2004. Is there a mantle plume below Italy? EOS 85, 541-547]. Because mixing does not produce linear relationships between the isotopic compositions of different elements, we applied Principal Component Analysis (PCA) to the Pb isotope compositions of the Italian volcanics inclusive 36 of Sicily volcanoes. We demonstrate that HIMU cannot be an end-member of the Italian volcanics, but rather that the common component C (˜FOZO), which we interpret as reflecting the lower mantle, best represents the mantle source of the Italian magmatism. Our PCA calculation shows that the first principal component alone, which we take to be a mixture of two geochemical end-members, C and a crustally-derived component, explains 99.4% of the whole data variability. In contrast, the DMM end-member (the second principal component) is only present in the volcanics from the Tyrrhenian Sea floor. The C-like end-member, well represented by the Etna and Iblean Mts (Sicily), has relatively low 3He/ 4

  2. A case study of the mesoscale dynamics in the North-Western Mediterranean Sea: a combined data-model approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guihou, Karen; Marmain, Julien; Ourmières, Yann; Molcard, Anne; Zakardjian, Bruno; Forget, Philippe

    2013-07-01

    The Northern current is the main circulation feature of the North-Western Mediterranean Sea. While the large-scale to mesoscale variability of the northern current (NC) is well known and widely documented for the Ligurian region, off Nice or along the Gulf of Lions shelf, few is known about the current instabilities and its associated mesoscale dynamics in the intermediate area, off Toulon. Here, we took advantage of an oceanographic cruise of opportunity, the start of a HF radar monitoring programme in the Toulon area and the availability of regular satellite sea surface temperature and chlorophyll a data, to evaluate the realism of a NEMO-based regional high-resolution model and the added value brought by HF radar. The combined analysis of a 1/64° configuration, named GLAZUR64, and of all data sets revealed the occurrence of an anticyclonic coastal trapped eddy, generated inside a NC meander and passing the Toulon area during the field campaign. We show that this anticyclonic eddy is advected downstream along the French Riviera up to the study region and disturbs the Northern current flow. This study aims to show the importance of combining observations and modelling when dealing with mesoscale processes, as well as the importance of high-resolution modelling.

  3. Substitution and phase shift within the Posidonia oceanica seagrass meadows of NW Mediterranean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montefalcone, M.; Morri, C.; Peirano, A.; Albertelli, G.; Bianchi, C. N.

    2007-10-01

    We investigated the conservation status and ecosystem substitution in six Posidonia oceanica (L.) Delile meadows in 2002 along 300 km of the Ligurian coast (NW Mediterranean Sea). We studied the meadows by scuba transects and we compared the meadows state of health through in situ shoot density counts and computing the Conservation Index (CI), the latter measuring the proportional amount of dead matte relative to live P. oceanica. Both measures evidenced a generalised state of regression for most of the six meadows. We also reported the occurrence, within the meadows, of the other common Mediterranean seagrass Cymodocea nodosa, the Mediterranean green alga Caulerpa prolifera, and the invasive green algae Caulerpa taxifolia and Caulerpa racemosa. We measured the replacement of P. oceanica by these species using the Substitution Index (SI), related to the proportional cover of each substitutes. These were ranked in order of their colonisation potential with respect to P. oceanica. We identified and measured a community "phase shift" occurring within the Mediterranean seagrass meadows using a combined index, the Phase-Shift Index (PSI). The analysis of the three environmental indices (CI, SI and PSI) at regional scale allowed to introduce three "regional" ordinal scales to classify the conservation status, the degree of substitution and the level of phase shift in P. oceanica meadows.

  4. John Ray in Italy: lost manuscripts rediscovered

    PubMed Central

    Hunter, Michael

    2014-01-01

    This paper discloses the content of two manuscripts of John Ray that have hitherto been unknown to Ray scholars. The manuscripts survive in the Hampshire Record Office, having descended through the Prideaux-Brune family. They record information about Ray's tour of Italy in the 1660s that does not appear in his Observations … made in a journey through … the Low-countries, Germany, Italy and France (1673), including a visit to the museum of Athanasius Kircher in Rome, and provide clues concerning the composition of Ray's 1673 book. PMID:24921104

  5. Foreign children with cancer in Italy

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background There has been a noticeable annual increase in the number of children coming to Italy for medical treatment, just like it has happened in the rest of the European Union. In Italy, the assistance to children suffering from cancer is assured by the current network of 54 centres members of the Italian Association of Paediatric Haematology and Oncology (AIEOP), which has kept records of all demographic and clinical data in the database of Mod.1.01 Registry since 1989. Methods We used the information stored in the already mentioned database to assess the impact of immigration of foreign children with cancer on centres' activity, with the scope of drawing a map of the assistance to these cases. Results Out of 14,738 cases recorded by all centres in the period from 1999 to 2008, 92.2% were born and resident in Italy, 4.1% (608) were born abroad and living abroad and 3.7% (538) were born abroad and living in Italy. Foreign children cases have increased over the years from 2.5% in 1999 to. 8.1% in 2008. Most immigrant children came from Europe (65.7%), whereas patients who came from America, Asia and Oceania amounted to 13.2%, 10.1%, 0.2%, respectively. The immigrant survival rate was lower compared to that of children who were born in Italy. This is especially true for acute lymphoblastic leukaemia patients entered an AIEOP protocol, who showed a 10-years survival rate of 71.0% vs. 80.7% (p < 0.001) for immigrants and patients born in Italy, respectively. Conclusions Children and adolescents are an increasingly important part of the immigration phenomenon, which occurs in many parts of the world. In Italy the vast majority of children affected by malignancies are treated in AIEOP centres. Since immigrant children are predominantly treated in northern Italy, these centres have developed a special expertise in treating immigrant patients, which is certainly very useful for the entire AIEOP network. PMID:21923939

  6. Gridded monthly temperatures over Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fioravanti, G.; Toreti, A.; Fraschetti, P.; Perconti, W.; Desiato, F.

    2010-09-01

    Temperature data represent a relevant source of information for environmental modelling, which usually relies on the availability of regularly distributed datasets. The CRU and the E-OBS archives are two examples of large-scale gridded products available for temperature. In order to fill the gap of having such a dataset freely available at national level, a high resolution (1 km) dataset for the whole Italian territory has been realized, made up of gridded monthly mean temperatures over Italy from 1961 to 2008. Available temperature data are provided by several national and regional networks and are consequently rather discontinuous in time and inhomogeneous in space. For this reason, our approach is based on the use of all data available for each month; this choice limits the consistency of gridded temperatures as time series but guarantees the best possible spatial estimate for each time period. The space interpolation was implemented by means of regression-kriging, a well-known geostatistical approach. Regression kriging is a variant of kriging interpolation which allows to exploit the auxiliary information provided by external variables. In this work, altitude and latitude of the input weather stations were found to be strongly correlated with temperature data and used as independent variables in the regression model. Ordinary kriging was then applied to describe the spatial correlation structure of the regression residuals. For each map, the most appropriate variogram function was estimated by means of an objective algorithm. In order to evaluate the quality of each interpolated surface, a cross validation analysis was performed, whose results were evaluated in terms of root mean square error, mean absolute error and mean squared deviation ratio. RMSE ranges between 1.0 and 1.5 °C, and improves, as expected, over the last years when a greater number of stations are available. The RMSE as function of the season was investigated as well. The monthly maps were

  7. 48 CFR 252.229-7003 - Tax Exemptions (Italy).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tax Exemptions (Italy... of Provisions And Clauses 252.229-7003 Tax Exemptions (Italy). As prescribed in 229.402-70(c), use the following clause: Tax Exemptions (Italy) (JAN 2002) (a) The Contractor represents that...

  8. Campland: Racial Segregation of Roma in Italy. Country Reports Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cahn, Claude; Carlisle, Kathryn D.; Fregoli, Claudia; Kiuranov, Deyan; Petrova, Dimitrina

    This report addresses racial segregation and human rights abuses against Roma in Italy, focusing on: "Anti-Gypsyism in Italy"; "Roma in Italy: Racial Segregation"; "Abuses by Police and Judicial Authorities" (e.g., abusive raids and evictions, abusive use of firearms, torture and physical abuse, discriminatory targeting of Roma by police, theft by…

  9. [Inequalities in health in Italy].

    PubMed

    Caiazzo, Antonio; Cardano, Mario; Cois, Ester; Costa, Giuseppe; Marinacci, Chiara; Spadea, Teresa; Vannoni, Francesca; Venturini, Lorenzo

    2004-01-01

    Socioeconomic inequality and its impact on health is a growing concern in the European public health debate. In many countries, the issue is moving away from description towards the identification of the determinants of inequalities and the development of policies explicitly aimed at reducing inequalities in health. In Italy, ten years after the publication of the first report on inequalities in health, this topic is seldom present on the agenda of public policy makers. The purpose of this report is to update the Italian profile of social variation in health and health care in order to stimulate the debate on ways to tackle inequalities in health that are preventable. In the first section of this book, the threefold objective is to describe the principal mechanisms involved in the generation of social inequalities in health (Introduction); to report Italian data on the distribution and magnitude of this phenomenon in the last decade; and to evaluate policies and interventions in both the social (chapter 1.9, Section I) and the health sector (chapter 2.3, Section I), which are potentially useful to reduce health inequalities. It is intended for anyone who is in a position to contribute t o decision-making that will benefit the health of communities. For this reason, chapters are organized by specific determinants of inequalities on which interentions may have an impact. The methodological approach in the second section focuses on the best methods to monitor social inequalities including recommendations on social indicators, sources of information and study models, based on European guidelines revised for the Italian situation. According to data from national and local studies, mortality increases linearly with social disadvantage for a wide range of indicators at both the individual (education, social class, income, quality of housing) and the geographical level (deprivation indexes computed at different levels of aggregation). This positive correlation is evident

  10. Essential Oils from Anthemis maritima Flowers: Infraspecific Variability along the Adriatic Coast (Italy).

    PubMed

    Ciccarelli, Daniela; Giovanelli, Silvia; Pistelli, Luisa

    2016-05-01

    The hydrodistilled essential oils (EOs) from flowers of five Adriatic populations of Anthemis maritima were analyzed by GC-FID and GC/MS. Anthemis maritima is a psammophilous plant living generally on coastal sand dunes but occasionally on sea cliffs and shingle beaches. A total of 163 chemical compounds were identified, accounting for 90.5% of the oils. The main classes of compounds represented in the EOs were monoterpene hydrocarbons, oxygenated monoterpenes, sesquiterpene hydrocarbons, oxygenated sesquiterpenes, and terpene esters.The multivariate chemometric techniques, in particular cluster analysis and principal coordinate analysis, used to classify the samples, highlighted three different chemotypes linked to a geographic origin. One group living in northern Italy was characterized by the highest content of β-pinene, γ-terpinene, and β-caryophyllene, a second chemotype was in central Italy with the highest amount of trans-chrysanthenyl acetate and a third group living in southern Italy with a more heterogeneous volatile profile was characterized by the highest values of cis-chrysanthenyl acetate, trans-chrysanthenyl isobutyrate, cis-carveol propionate, α-zingiberene, and cubenol. Moreover, the comparison of the Adriatic populations with the Tyrrhenian samples, analyzed in a previous research, showed that cubenol (absent in all the Tyrrhenian populations) and (E)-β-farnesene (absent in all the Adriatic samples) play a crucial role in discriminating the Italian populations. PMID:27114258

  11. "Intelligent" Primary School Project in Italy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ponti, Giorgio

    2007-01-01

    Construction work is about to begin on a new "intelligent" primary school for 300 students (later to be expanded for 600) in the Municipality of Solaro in the province of Milan. This is the first primary school building in Italy designed according to the principles of the "intelligent school" as defined by the Centre for Educational Innovation and…

  12. Linguistic Classification in Italy: Problems and Predictions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joseph, John Earl

    1980-01-01

    The schema generally used to describe the linguistic situation in Italy includes two categories: dialetto regionale (regional dialect) and italiano regionale (regional Italian). These stand apart from the widely accepted sociolinguistic model "variety--dialect--language." It is demonstrated that both these categories should be treated simply as…

  13. An Urban Renewal School Project in Italy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ponti, Giorgio

    2005-01-01

    The restoration of an historic school building in Battipaglia, Italy, will provide new public facilities and is hoped to boost urban renewal. The municipality of Battipaglia, in the province of Salerno, held an architectural competition for renovating the E. De Amicis Primary School and the surrounding area. The winning project, submitted by a…

  14. Italy's Treasures Are in Their Hands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rocca, Francis X.

    2007-01-01

    Each year more than 300 applicants vie for 18 slots at the Central Institute of Restoration, the program responsible for the restoration of many of Italy's greatest works of art, and the training of experts in the repair of objects of artistic and/or cultural significance. Successful candidates must demonstrate knowledge of art history, chemistry,…

  15. Is There an America in Italy's Future?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilpatrick, William K.

    2005-01-01

    When the author first heard that Italy wants to adopt the American model of education, his immediate reaction was, "Why would you want to do that?" American schools can scarcely teach students to read and write. American students are abysmally ignorant about history, geography, and world affairs. In international assessments of achievement,…

  16. School Quality and Family Background in Italy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brunello, G.; Checchi, D.

    2005-01-01

    We study whether the combined significant reduction in the pupil-teacher ratio and increase in parental education observed in Italy between the end of the second World War and the end of the 1980s have had a significant impact on the educational attainment and the labor market returns of a representative sample of Italians born between 1941 and…

  17. Education in Italy. Bulletin, 1919, No. 36

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montgomery, Walter A.

    1919-01-01

    The economic and social exigencies brought about for Italy by her entrance into the war in May, 1915, inevitably led her educational thinkers to submit her traditional system of education to more careful scrutiny than ever before, and to recognize how inadequate it was along certain lines to meet the demands thrust upon it by the new conditions.…

  18. SeaWIFS Postlaunch Technical Report Series. Volume 13; The SeaWiFS Photometer Revision for Incident Surface Measurement (SeaPRISM) Field Commissioning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hooker, Stanford B. (Editor); Zibordi, Giuseppe; Berthon, Jean-Francois; Bailey, Sean W.; Pietras, Christophe M.; Firestone, Elaine R. (Editor)

    2000-01-01

    This report documents the scientific activities that took place at the Acqua Alta Oceanographic Tower (AAOT) in the northern Adriatic Sea off the coast of Italy from 2-6 August 1999. The ultimate objective of the field campaign was to evaluate the capabilities of a new instrument called the SeaWiFS Photometer Revision for Incident Surface Measurements (SeaPRISM). SeaPRISM is based on a CE-318 sun photometer made by CIMEL Electronique (Paris, France). The CE-318 is an automated, robotic system which measures the direct sun irradiance plus the sky radiance in the sun plane and in the almucantar plane. The data are transmitted over a satellite link, and this remote operation capability has made the device very useful for atmospheric measurements. The revision to the CE-318 that makes the instrument potentially useful for SeaWiFS calibration and validation activities is to include a capability for measuring the radiance leaving the sea surface in wavelengths suitable for the determination of chlorophyll a concentration. The initial evaluation of this new capability involved above- and in-water measurement protocols. An intercomparison of the water-leaving radiances derived from SeaPRISM and an in-water system showed the overall spectral agreement was approximately 8.6%, but the blue-green channels intercompared at the 5% level. A blue-green band ratio comparison was at the 4% level.

  19. Sea Ice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parkinson, Claire L.; Cavalieri, Donald J.

    2005-01-01

    Sea ice covers vast areas of the polar oceans, with ice extent in the Northern Hemisphere ranging from approximately 7 x 10(exp 6) sq km in September to approximately 15 x 10(exp 6) sq km in March and ice extent in the Southern Hemisphere ranging from approximately 3 x 10(exp 6) sq km in February to approximately 18 x 10(exp 6) sq km in September. These ice covers have major impacts on the atmosphere, oceans, and ecosystems of the polar regions, and so as changes occur in them there are potential widespread consequences. Satellite data reveal considerable interannual variability in both polar sea ice covers, and many studies suggest possible connections between the ice and various oscillations within the climate system, such as the Arctic Oscillation, North Atlantic Oscillation, and Antarctic Oscillation, or Southern Annular Mode. Nonetheless, statistically significant long-term trends are also apparent, including overall trends of decreased ice coverage in the Arctic and increased ice coverage in the Antarctic from late 1978 through the end of 2003, with the Antarctic ice increases following marked decreases in the Antarctic ice during the 1970s. For a detailed picture of the seasonally varying ice cover at the start of the 21st century, this chapter includes ice concentration maps for each month of 2001 for both the Arctic and the Antarctic, as well as an overview of what the satellite record has revealed about the two polar ice covers from the 1970s through 2003.

  20. Mammals of the Sea.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naturescope, 1986

    1986-01-01

    Presents information on sea mammals, including definitions and characteristics of cetaceans, pinnipeds, and sirenians. Contains descriptions of the teaching activities "Whale Music,""Draw A Whale to Scale,""Adopt a Sea Mammal," and "Sea Mammal Sleuths." (TW)

  1. Melting Ice, Rising Seas

    NASA Video Gallery

    Sea level rise is an indicator that our planet is warming. Much of the world's population lives on or near the coast, and rising seas are something worth watching. Sea level can rise for two reason...

  2. Non-Susceptible Landslide Areas in Italy and in the Mediterranean Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvioli, Massimiliano; Ardizzone, Francesca; Guzzetti, Fausto; Marchesini, Ivan; Rossi, Mauro

    2014-05-01

    Landslide susceptibility is the likelihood of a landslide occurring in a given area. Over the past three decades, researchers, and planning and environmental organisations have worked to assess landslide susceptibility at different geographical scales, and to produce maps portraying landslide susceptibility zonation. Little effort was made to determine where landslides are not expected, where susceptibility is null, or negligible. This is surprising because planners and decision makers are also interesting in knowing where landslides are not foreseen, or cannot occur in an area. We propose a method for the definition of non-susceptible landslide areas, at the synoptic scale. We applied the method in Italy and to the territory surrounding the Mediterranean Sea and we produced two synoptic-scale maps showing areas where landslides are not expected in Italy and in the Mediterranean area. To construct the method we used digital terrain elevation and landslide information. The digital terrain consisted in the 3-arc-second SRTM DEM, the landslide information was obtained for 13 areas in Italy where landslide inventory maps were available to us. We tested three different models to determine the non-susceptible landslide areas, including a linear model (LR), a quantile linear model (QLR), and a quantile non-linear model (QNL). Model performances have been evaluated using independent landslide information represented by the Italian Landslide Inventory (Inventario Fenomeni Franosi in Italia - IFFI). Best results were obtained using the QNL model. The corresponding zonation of non- susceptible landslide areas was intersected in a GIS with geographical census data for Italy. The results show that the 57.5% of the population of Italy (in 2001) was located in areas where landslide susceptibility was expected to be null or negligible, while the remaining 42.5% in areas where some landslide susceptibility was significant or not negligible. We applied the QNL model to the

  3. Preliminary Seismic Probabilistic Tsunami Hazard Map for Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorito, Stefano; Selva, Jacopo; Basili, Roberto; Grezio, Anita; Molinari, Irene; Piatanesi, Alessio; Romano, Fabrizio; Tiberti, Mara Monica; Tonini, Roberto; Bonini, Lorenzo; Michelini, Alberto; Macias, Jorge; Castro, Manuel J.; González-Vida, José Manuel; de la Asunción, Marc

    2015-04-01

    We present a preliminary release of the first seismic probabilistic tsunami hazard map for Italy. The map aims to become an important tool for the Italian Department of Civil Protection (DPC), as well as a support tool for the NEAMTWS Tsunami Service Provider, the Centro Allerta Tsunami (CAT) at INGV, Rome. The map shows the offshore maximum tsunami elevation expected for several average return periods. Both crustal and subduction earthquakes are considered. The probability for each scenario (location, depth, mechanism, source size, magnitude and temporal rate) is defined on a uniform grid covering the entire Mediterranean for crustal earthquakes and on the plate interface for subduction earthquakes. Activity rates are assigned from seismic catalogues and basing on a tectonic regionalization of the Mediterranean area. The methodology explores the associated aleatory uncertainty through the innovative application of an Event Tree. Main sources of epistemic uncertainty are also addressed although in preliminary way. The whole procedure relies on a database of pre-calculated Gaussian-shaped Green's functions for the sea level elevation, to be used also as a real time hazard assessment tool by CAT. Tsunami simulations are performed using the non-linear shallow water multi-GPU code HySEA, over a 30 arcsec bathymetry (from the SRTM30+ dataset) and the maximum elevations are stored at the 50-meter isobath and then extrapolated through the Green's law at 1 meter depth. This work is partially funded by project ASTARTE - Assessment, Strategy And Risk Reduction for Tsunamis in Europe - FP7-ENV2013 6.4-3, Grant 603839, and by the Italian flagship project RITMARE.

  4. Towards Tsunami Hazard Assessment for the Coasts of Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorito, S.; Romano, F.; Piatanesi, A.; Basili, R.; Kastelic, V.; Tiberti, M.; Valensise, G.; Selva, J.

    2011-12-01

    A reliable Probabilistic Tsunami Hazard Assessment (PTHA) requires an enormous computational effort. We are developing an approach for limiting the computational burden while trying to preserve the variability of the tsunamigenic seismic sources. We split the PTHA into two stages: linear PTHA and nonlinear PTHA. In the first stage, we explore a large variety of seismic sources, representing the most likely complete set of potential sources, and estimate the tsunami propagation in the linear approximation for all the considered target coastlines. We then sample the most hazardous sub-regions of the source parameters/target sites space, by assuming zero probability of hazard threshold exceedance for the remainder. With this subset, which forms the basis for the second stage, we generate probabilistic inundation maps for several damage metrics. We present preliminary results of PTHA for the coasts of Italy. To take into account the different levels of knowledge of potential earthquake sources in different areas of the Mediterranean Sea, we define a logic tree that mainly represents the uncertainties related to seismic source existence. We then use an event tree approach for describing the variability of earthquake parameters.

  5. Marine Sediments Remotely Unveil Long-Term Climatic Variability Over Northern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taricco, Carla; Alessio, Silvia; Rubinetti, Sara; Zanchettin, Davide; Cosoli, Simone; Gačić, Miroslav; Mancuso, Salvatore; Rubino, Angelo

    2015-07-01

    A deep understanding of natural decadal variability is pivotal to discuss recently observed climate trends. Paleoclimate proxies allow reconstructing natural variations before the instrumental period. Typically, regional-scale reconstructions depend on factors like dating, multi-proxy weighting and calibration, which may lead to non-robust reconstructions. Riverine records inherently integrate information about regional climate variability, partly overcoming the above mentioned limitation. The Po River provides major freshwater input to Eastern Mediterranean, as its catchment encompasses a large part of Northern Italy. Here, using historical discharge data and oceanographic measurements, we show that Po River discharge undergo robust decadal fluctuations that reach the Ionian Sea, ~1,000 km South of Po River delta, through propagating salinity anomalies. Based on this propagation, we use a high-resolution foraminiferal δ18O record from a sediment core in the Ionian Sea to reconstruct North Italian hydrological variability on millennial-scale for the first time. The reconstruction reveals highly significant decadal variability that persists over the last 2,000 years. Many reconstructed extremes correspond to documented catastrophic events. Our study provides the first millennial-scale reconstruction of the strength of decadal hydrological variability over Northern Italy. It paves the way to assess the persistence of large-scale circulation fingerprints on the North Italian climate.

  6. Marine Sediments Remotely Unveil Long-Term Climatic Variability Over Northern Italy.

    PubMed

    Taricco, Carla; Alessio, Silvia; Rubinetti, Sara; Zanchettin, Davide; Cosoli, Simone; Gačić, Miroslav; Mancuso, Salvatore; Rubino, Angelo

    2015-01-01

    A deep understanding of natural decadal variability is pivotal to discuss recently observed climate trends. Paleoclimate proxies allow reconstructing natural variations before the instrumental period. Typically, regional-scale reconstructions depend on factors like dating, multi-proxy weighting and calibration, which may lead to non-robust reconstructions. Riverine records inherently integrate information about regional climate variability, partly overcoming the above mentioned limitation. The Po River provides major freshwater input to Eastern Mediterranean, as its catchment encompasses a large part of Northern Italy. Here, using historical discharge data and oceanographic measurements, we show that Po River discharge undergo robust decadal fluctuations that reach the Ionian Sea, ~1,000 km South of Po River delta, through propagating salinity anomalies. Based on this propagation, we use a high-resolution foraminiferal δ(18)O record from a sediment core in the Ionian Sea to reconstruct North Italian hydrological variability on millennial-scale for the first time. The reconstruction reveals highly significant decadal variability that persists over the last 2,000 years. Many reconstructed extremes correspond to documented catastrophic events. Our study provides the first millennial-scale reconstruction of the strength of decadal hydrological variability over Northern Italy. It paves the way to assess the persistence of large-scale circulation fingerprints on the North Italian climate. PMID:26227092

  7. Marine Sediments Remotely Unveil Long-Term Climatic Variability Over Northern Italy

    PubMed Central

    Taricco, Carla; Alessio, Silvia; Rubinetti, Sara; Zanchettin, Davide; Cosoli, Simone; Gačić, Miroslav; Mancuso, Salvatore; Rubino, Angelo

    2015-01-01

    A deep understanding of natural decadal variability is pivotal to discuss recently observed climate trends. Paleoclimate proxies allow reconstructing natural variations before the instrumental period. Typically, regional-scale reconstructions depend on factors like dating, multi-proxy weighting and calibration, which may lead to non-robust reconstructions. Riverine records inherently integrate information about regional climate variability, partly overcoming the above mentioned limitation. The Po River provides major freshwater input to Eastern Mediterranean, as its catchment encompasses a large part of Northern Italy. Here, using historical discharge data and oceanographic measurements, we show that Po River discharge undergo robust decadal fluctuations that reach the Ionian Sea, ~1,000 km South of Po River delta, through propagating salinity anomalies. Based on this propagation, we use a high-resolution foraminiferal δ18O record from a sediment core in the Ionian Sea to reconstruct North Italian hydrological variability on millennial-scale for the first time. The reconstruction reveals highly significant decadal variability that persists over the last 2,000 years. Many reconstructed extremes correspond to documented catastrophic events. Our study provides the first millennial-scale reconstruction of the strength of decadal hydrological variability over Northern Italy. It paves the way to assess the persistence of large-scale circulation fingerprints on the North Italian climate. PMID:26227092

  8. The effect of climate on the presence of Culicoides imicola in Italy.

    PubMed

    Conte, A; Giovannini, A; Savini, L; Goffredo, M; Calistri, P; Meiswinkel, R

    2003-04-01

    A model was developed to classify the Italian territories in relation to their suitability to harbour populations of Culicoides imicola and, as a consequence, also able to sustain a bluetongue (BT) epidemic. Italy was subdivided into 3507 10 x 10 km cells. In 546 cells at least one collection was made. The cell was considered the unit for all subsequent analyses. Culicoides were collected using Onderstepoort-type blacklight traps. Some traps were operated weekly at chosen sites; the remainder were moved almost daily to new sites. Only the results obtained during the peak August-November period were used, to exclude bias caused by the seasonality of C. imicola. Climate data for the period 1999-2001 were obtained from 80 weather stations. Multiple logistic regression was performed using the presence or absence of C. imicola in a specific cell as the dependent variable. Annual means of daily values for minimum temperature and minimum relative humidity, and the mean altitude above sea level, were the independent variables. The probability of occurrence of C. imicola in each grid cell was used to create a prediction map for Italy. The model was able to correctly classify 77.5% of the 546 grid cells in which at least one collection had been made. Culicoides imicola was found frequently through much of Sardinia, in parts of southern Italy, and further north along the Tyrrhenian coast, but was absent from along most of the Adriatic coast, and the internal mainland, and from most of Sicily. Six detailed maps are provided. Also mapped are areas where the probability of the occurrence of C. imicola is lower than 5%. This identification of possible mountainous C. imicola-free areas in central Italy could facilitate safer animal trade and transhumance, even if BT infections in traded animals or moving stock, were to go undetected. Needless to say this depends upon no cool-adapted species of Culicoides being involved in the transmission of BT disease. PMID:12667192

  9. The continental Etirol-Levaz slice (Western Alps, Italy): Tectonometamorphic evolution of an extensional allochthon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ewerling, Kathrin; Obermüller, Gerrit; Kirst, Frederik; Froitzheim, Nikolaus; Nagel, Thorsten; Sandmann, Sascha

    2013-04-01

    The Etirol-Levaz slice (ELS) in the western Valtournenche of Italy is a continental fragment trapped between two oceanic units, the eclogite-facies Zermatt-Saas Zone in the footwall and the greenschist-facies Combin Zone in the hanging wall. It has been interpreted as an extensional allochthon derived from the Adriatic continental margin and stranded inside the Piemont-Ligurian oceanic domain during Jurassic rifting (Dal Piaz et al., 2001; Beltrando et al., 2010). The slice consists of Variscan high-grade gneisses, micaschists and metabasics overprinted under eclogite-facies conditions during Early Tertiary Alpine subduction. Eclogites generally consist of garnet + omphacite ± epidote ± amphibole ± phengite ± quartz. We investigate their metamorphic history using equilibrium phase diagrams, mineral compositions, and textural relations between prograde, peak, and retrograde phases. In sample FD328, garnets have compositions of Alm52-61 Grs18-41 Prp5-22 Sps0.5-2 and typical growth zoning. Some garnet grains are brittlely fractured, strongly corroded and overgrown by epidote. Amphibole occurs as a major phase in the matrix and shows a progressive evolution from glaucophane in the core to pargasitic hornblende towards the rim. Sample FD329 with a particular Ca-rich bulk composition (18.3 wt% Ca) displays two distinct garnet generations. Perfectly euhedral cores show compositions of Grs42-45 Alm47-51 Prp3-6 Sps2-7 and typical prograde growth zoning. These cores are overgrown by irregularly shaped rims characterised by an initial rise in Mn and the Fe-Mg ratio. Omphacite in this sample with jadeite-contents of 19-28 mol% apparently has been fractured and annealed by jadeite-poor (7-12 mol%) omphacite suggesting brittle behaviour at eclogite-facies conditions or two high-pressure stages with lower metamorphic conditions in between. We discuss whether the ELS experienced the same monocyclic metamorphic history as the Zermatt-Saas Zone or not. Some of our observations

  10. La marge européenne de la Téthys jurassique en Corse : datation de trondhjémites de Balagne et indices de croûte continentale sous le domaine Balano-LigureThe European margin of the Jurassic Tethys in Corsica: dating of Balagne trondhjemites and evidence to support a continental crust beneath the Balagne-Ligurian domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossi, Philippe; Cocherie, Alain; Lahondère, Didier; Fanning, C. Mark

    Vein trondhjemite in gabbro of the Carnispola Bridge has been dated to 169±3 Ma (UPb on zircon). This date indicates that E-MORB-type ophiolites were emplaced in the marginal Balagne part of the Ligurian Jurassic basin about some 10 Ma before the emplacement of N-MORB ophiolites in the most central part of the ocean. In addition, the presence of inherited zircons with Ordovician (431±8 Ma) and Archean (2693±12 Ma) ages reveals that the Balagne ophiolites were emplaced on a thinned continental crust. Finally, the 298±4 Ma age of zircons from eclogitised meta-arkose in the eclogitic Morteda-Farinole unit ('Schistes lustrés' zone) confirms the attribution of these rocks to a palaeogeographic area that laid between continent and ocean, along the edge of the Hercynian granite batholith in Corsica. To cite this article: P. Rossi et al., C. R. Geoscience 334 (2002) 313-322.

  11. Report on religious slaughter practices in Italy.

    PubMed

    Novelli, Sara

    2016-01-01

    The term 'religious slaughter' commonly refers to the practice of killing animals without stunning, according to the precepts of Jewish and Muslim religions. The aim of this paper is to assess the situation concerning ritual slaughtering in not-stun bovines, small ruminants, and poultry in Italy in 2012. The study was divided into 2 phases. During the rst phase, preliminary data about all slaughterhouses authorized for ritual slaughter in Italy in 2012 are collected through the compilation of a questionnaire sent to each plants. The second step involved a sampling of not-stun animals religiously slaughtered in 5 selected plants. Authors collected and compiled all informations about management, restrain system and rite taking into account in particular animal welfare. PMID:27033526

  12. Colorful Underwater Sea Creatures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCutcheon, Heather

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a project wherein students created colorful underwater sea creatures. This project began with a discussion about underwater sea creatures and how they live. The first step was making the multi-colored tissue paper that would become sea creatures and seaweed. Once students had the shapes of their sea creatures…

  13. Temporal variability of nutrient concentrations in the northwestern Mediterranean sea (DYFAMED time-series station)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasqueron de Fommervault, Orens; Migon, Christophe; D`Ortenzio, Fabrizio; Ribera d'Alcalà, Maurizio; Coppola, Laurent

    2015-06-01

    Nitrate, phosphate, and silicate concentration profiles were measured at monthly frequency at the DYFAMED time-series station (central Ligurian Sea) between 1991 and 2011. The resulting data set, which constitutes the longest open-ocean time-series in the Mediterranean Sea, underwent quality control. A reproducible climatological pattern was observed with an unprecedented resolution, confirming the typical seasonal cycle of mid-latitudes. In summer and autumn, when the water mass is well stratified, i.e. the mixed layer depth (MLD) is shallow, nutrient concentrations in surface are very low or under the detection limit. In winter, as a result of the MLD extent, nutrients are supplied to the surface layer. Then, nutrient concentrations progressively decrease during spring. MLD appears to play a key role in controlling nutrient availability in the surface layer, but a direct, quantitative relationship between MLD and nutrient concentrations is difficult to establish due to undersampling. Regarding nutrient molar ratios (N:P, Si:N, and Si:P), results show anomalous values compared to those of other oceanic regions, presumably due to strong influence of external sources. As a consequence, nutrient molar ratios exhibit a seasonal pattern, with, in particular, an increase of the N:P ratio in condition of stratification. Over the period 1991-2011, the DYFAMED data set reveals decadal trends in nitrate and phosphate concentrations in deep waters (+0.23% and -0.62%, respectively) resulting in increasing N:P and Si:P ratios (+1.14% and +0.85% per year, respectively). Such a long-term variability is presumably related to changes in water mass and/or changes in external sources, even if it is difficult to assess due to not enough concomitant data from atmospheric and riverine inputs.

  14. Beaufort Sea: information update

    SciTech Connect

    Becker, P.R.

    1988-04-01

    The report is based on a multi-disciplinary meeting held March 6-7, 1985, as part of preparations for the Beaufort Sea Sale 97. The chapters are based on presentations given: The causeway effect: Modification of nearshore thermal regime resulting from causeways; Summertime sea ice intrusions in the Chukchi Sea; The deepwater limit of ice gouging on the Beaufort Sea shelf; Distribution, abundance, migration, harvest, and stock identity of Belukha Whales in the Beaufort Sea; Ringed seals in the Beaufort Sea; Beaufort Sea socioeconomics; The Baffin Island Oil Spill, (BIOS) Project.

  15. Twenty years of paleoseismology in Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galli, Paolo; Galadini, Fabrizio; Pantosti, Daniela

    2008-05-01

    Italy has one of the most complete and historically extensive seismic catalogues in the World due to a unique and uninterrupted flow of written sources that have narrated its seismic history since about the end of the Iron Age. Seismic hazard studies have therefore always been mainly based upon this huge mass of data. Nevertheless, the Italian catalogue probably "lacks" many M ≥ 6.5 events, the seismogenetic structures responsible for which are characterized by recurrence times that are longer than the time span covered by our historical sources. For these reasons, and as in other countries, earthquake data that in Italy have been derived from paleoseismological studies should finally become a necessary ingredient in seismic risk assessment. Indeed, over the past 20 years, some hundred trenches have been excavated, supplying reliable and conclusive data on the recent activities of many faults. Through to many robust datings of surface fault events, these studies have provided the ages of several unknown or poorly known M ≥ 6.5 earthquakes. Here, we summarize the state of the art of paleoseismology in Italy, and present a first catalogue of 56 paleoearthquakes (PCI) that occurred mainly in the past 6 kyr. The PCI integrates the historical/instrumental seismic catalogue, and extends it beyond the recurrence time of the seismogenetic faults (2000 ± 1000 yr). We feel confident that the use of the PCI will enhance future probabilistic seismic hazard assessment, and thus contribute to more reliable seismic risk mitigation programs.

  16. [Consistency and dynamics of immigration in Italy].

    PubMed

    Blangiardo, G C; Terzera, L

    2011-01-01

    According to recent data, foreign population currently in Italy is estimated to be 5,3 million, 550,000 irregular. Migration from Eastern Europe has progressively assumed leading position in the Italian panorama, downsizing other origins: betweenn 2005 and 2010, this component passed from 46% to 50,8% of the total immigrants, whereas all the other macro-areas have lost relative importance. Perspectives of slowing down of migration toward Italy could be real only when significant changes would happen in the areas at the origin of migration flow. In fact, if it is true that the demographic surplus from East Europe is bound to decrease through the process of local turnover of work supply, other great regions will show enormous excess of manpower. In North Africa, 3 million new workplaces will yearly be needed just to absorb excess of young workforce; in Latin America, the new workplaces to create will be almost twice as many. The sub Saharan Africa will however be under special observation, with 15-20 million places to create annually to absorb excess of offer. Italy could play as one of the safety valves of emigration. PMID:22187914

  17. Culture and the environment in Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexander, David

    1985-03-01

    This essay evaluates the historical development and current background of human-environment relationships in Italy. The Italian landscape consists of very varied terrain, and periodically suffers from all kinds of natural hazard, especially earthquakes, landslides, floods, and accelerated soil erosion. Some measure of environmental conservation was achieved by the Etruscans and Romans, but the Classical period also marked the beginning of serious lowland waterlogging, malarial infestation, upland soil erosion, and deforestation, which all increased during the Middle Ages. From the Renaissance to the 18th century, there was a diffusion of planned landscapes and carefully managed estates; but by the 20th century, many rural areas could not support growing populations and much land was in need of improvement. Underdevelopment and latifundium agriculture increased the vulnerability to environmental hazards of the Mezzogiorno (Italian South), while the subsequent disappearance of the peasant culture seems not to have led to greatly improved conservation or land management. Poorly farmed or managed landscapes and poorly maintained historic towns have undergone some virtually irreversible degradation, especially with respect to landslides and earthquake damage. Elsewhere in Italy, unchecked urbanization, weak planning laws, and their inadequate enforcement have helped both to reduce environmental quality, by overdevelopment of valued landscapes, and to increase natural disaster vulnerability, by encouraging occupance of natural hazard zones. Although there are signs that the government is beginning to respond to the cumulative effect of environmental degradation, the measures are insufficient to reverse the overall trend toward decadence that characterizes human-land relationships in Italy.

  18. Health Impact Assessment Practice and Potential for Integration within Environmental Impact and Strategic Environmental Assessments in Italy

    PubMed Central

    Linzalone, Nunzia; Assennato, Giorgio; Ballarini, Adele; Cadum, Ennio; Cirillo, Mario; Cori, Liliana; De Maio, Francesca; Musmeci, Loredana; Natali, Marinella; Rieti, Sabrina; Soggiu, Maria Eleonora; Bianchi, Fabrizio

    2014-01-01

    Avoiding or minimizing potential environmental impact is the driving idea behind protecting a population’s health via Environmental Impact Assessments (EIAs) and Strategic Environmental Assessments (SEAs). However, both are often carried out without any systematic approach. This paper describes the findings of a review of HIA, EIA and SEA experiences carried out by the authors, who act as institutional competent subjects at the national and regional levels in Italy. The analysis of how health is tackled in EIA and SEA procedures could support the definition of a protocol for the integration of HIA with EIA and SEA. Although EIA and SEA approaches include the aim of protecting health, significant technical and methodological gaps are present when assessing health systematically, and their basic principles regarding assessment are unsatisfactory for promoting and addressing healthcare concepts stated by the WHO. HIA is still poorly integrated into the decision-making process, screening and monitoring phases are only occasionally implemented, and operational details are not well-defined. The collaborative approach of institutions involved in environment and health is a core element in a systematic advancement toward supporting effective decisions and effective protection of the environment and health. At the Italian national level, the definition of guidelines and tools for HIA, also in relation with EIA and SEA, is of great interest. PMID:25493391

  19. ShakeMap® implementation in Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michelini, A.; Quintiliani, M.; Lauciani, V.; Olivieri, M.; Malagnini, L.; Akinci, A.; Moro, M.; Milana, G.; Faenza, L.

    2007-12-01

    Italy is a seismically active country which has been site of several large and extremely damaging earthquakes causing hundreds to tens of thousands of casualties since historical times. In recent years, the "Dipartimento per la Protezione Civile" (DPC; Italian Civil Protection - an office dependent directly from the prime minister) has supported the project S4 driven specifically toward fast assessment of ground motion shaking in Italy in order to organize the emergency and direct the rescue teams. The Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV) has implemented the software package USGS-ShakeMap® to obtain maps of the peak ground motion parameters (PGM), and of the instrumentally derived intensities. The calculation of shakemaps at INGV relies mainly on broadband and strong motion data acquired by the Italian seismic network. Shakemap PGM data feeding relies on two concurrent seismic acquisition systems and maps are be determined as quickly as 5 minutes from origin time automatically or within 30 minutes using manually revised locations for earthquakes occurring on the national territory. In Italy, attenuation has been found to vary between different regions. For the smaller events (up to M 5.5) we have implemented a six-areas regionalized model (three separate sets of equations) following the relations of Malagnini and co-workers (Malagnini, et al., 2000; Malagnini, et al., 2002; Morasca, et al., 2006), the same used by the National Seismic Hazard Working Group (2004) for the compilation of the national hazard map; for larger earthquakes, the strong-motion-based equations by Ambraseys et al. (1996) are used. For the site corrections, we have implemented a classification based on the 1:100,000 geology map of Italy compiled and published by the "Servizio Geologico Nazionale". In this case, the geologic units have been gathered into five different classes A, B, C, D and E according to the EuroCode8 provisions, EC8, after Draft 6 of January 2003 on the base

  20. A Permanent Automated Real-Time Passive Acoustic Monitoring System for Bottlenose Dolphin Conservation in the Mediterranean Sea

    PubMed Central

    Brunoldi, Marco; Bozzini, Giorgio; Casale, Alessandra; Corvisiero, Pietro; Grosso, Daniele; Magnoli, Nicodemo; Alessi, Jessica; Bianchi, Carlo Nike; Mandich, Alberta; Morri, Carla; Povero, Paolo; Wurtz, Maurizio; Melchiorre, Christian; Viano, Gianni; Cappanera, Valentina; Fanciulli, Giorgio; Bei, Massimiliano; Stasi, Nicola; Taiuti, Mauro

    2016-01-01

    Within the framework of the EU Life+ project named LIFE09 NAT/IT/000190 ARION, a permanent automated real-time passive acoustic monitoring system for the improvement of the conservation status of the transient and resident population of bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) has been implemented and installed in the Portofino Marine Protected Area (MPA), Ligurian Sea. The system is able to detect the simultaneous presence of dolphins and boats in the area and to give their position in real time. This information is used to prevent collisions by diffusing warning messages to all the categories involved (tourists, professional fishermen and so on). The system consists of two gps-synchronized acoustic units, based on a particular type of marine buoy (elastic beacon), deployed about 1 km off the Portofino headland. Each one is equipped with a four-hydrophone array and an onboard acquisition system which can record the typical social communication whistles emitted by the dolphins and the sound emitted by boat engines. Signals are pre-filtered, digitized and then broadcast to the ground station via wi-fi. The raw data are elaborated to get the direction of the acoustic target to each unit, and hence the position of dolphins and boats in real time by triangulation. PMID:26789265

  1. A Permanent Automated Real-Time Passive Acoustic Monitoring System for Bottlenose Dolphin Conservation in the Mediterranean Sea.

    PubMed

    Brunoldi, Marco; Bozzini, Giorgio; Casale, Alessandra; Corvisiero, Pietro; Grosso, Daniele; Magnoli, Nicodemo; Alessi, Jessica; Bianchi, Carlo Nike; Mandich, Alberta; Morri, Carla; Povero, Paolo; Wurtz, Maurizio; Melchiorre, Christian; Viano, Gianni; Cappanera, Valentina; Fanciulli, Giorgio; Bei, Massimiliano; Stasi, Nicola; Taiuti, Mauro

    2016-01-01

    Within the framework of the EU Life+ project named LIFE09 NAT/IT/000190 ARION, a permanent automated real-time passive acoustic monitoring system for the improvement of the conservation status of the transient and resident population of bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) has been implemented and installed in the Portofino Marine Protected Area (MPA), Ligurian Sea. The system is able to detect the simultaneous presence of dolphins and boats in the area and to give their position in real time. This information is used to prevent collisions by diffusing warning messages to all the categories involved (tourists, professional fishermen and so on). The system consists of two gps-synchronized acoustic units, based on a particular type of marine buoy (elastic beacon), deployed about 1 km off the Portofino headland. Each one is equipped with a four-hydrophone array and an onboard acquisition system which can record the typical social communication whistles emitted by the dolphins and the sound emitted by boat engines. Signals are pre-filtered, digitized and then broadcast to the ground station via wi-fi. The raw data are elaborated to get the direction of the acoustic target to each unit, and hence the position of dolphins and boats in real time by triangulation. PMID:26789265

  2. A medium-term, stochastic forecast model to support sustainable, mixed fisheries management in the Mediterranean Sea.

    PubMed

    Rätz, H-J; Charef, A; Abella, A J; Colloca, F; Ligas, A; Mannini, A; Lloret, J

    2013-10-01

    A medium-term (10 year) stochastic forecast model is developed and presented for mixed fisheries that can provide estimations of age-specific parameters for a maximum of 10 stocks and 10 fisheries. Designed to support fishery managers dealing with complex, multi-annual management plans, the model can be used to quantitatively test the consequences of various stock-specific and fishery-specific decisions, using non-equilibrium stock dynamics. Such decisions include fishing restrictions and other strategies aimed at achieving sustainable mixed fisheries consistent with the concept of maximum sustainable yield (MSY). In order to test the model, recently gathered data on seven stocks and four fisheries operating in the Ligurian and North Tyrrhenian Seas are used to generate quantitative, 10 year predictions of biomass and catch trends under four different management scenarios. The results show that using the fishing mortality at MSY as the biological reference point for the management of all stocks would be a strong incentive to reduce the technical interactions among concurrent fishing strategies. This would optimize the stock-specific exploitation and be consistent with sustainability criteria. PMID:24090555

  3. Mixed layer warming-deepening in the Mediterranean Sea and its effect on the marine environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivetti, Irene; Boero, Ferdinando; Fraschetti, Simonetta; Zambianchi, Enrico; Lionello, Piero

    2015-04-01

    This work aims at investigating the evolution of the ocean mixed layer in the Mediterranean Sea and linking it to the occurrence of mass mortalities of benthic invertebrates. The temporal evolution of selected parameters describing the mixed layer and the seasonal thermocline is provided for the whole Mediterranean Sea for spring, summer and autumn and for the period 1945-2011. For this analysis all temperature profiles collected in the basin with bottles, Mechanical Bathy-Thermographs (MBT), eXpendable Bathy-Thermographs (XBT), and Conductivity-Temperature-Depth (CTD) have been used (166,990). These data have been extracted from three public sources: the MEDAR-MEDATLAS, the World Ocean Database 2013 and the MFS-VOS program. Five different methods for estimating the mixed layer depth are compared using temperature profiles collected at the DYFAMED station in the Ligurian Sea and one method, the so-called three-segment method, has been selected for a systematic analysis of the evolution of the uppermost part of the whole Mediterranean Sea. This method approximates the upper water column with three segments representing mixed layer, thermocline and deep layer and has shown to be the most suitable method for capturing the mixed layer depth for most shapes of temperature profiles. Mass mortalities events of benthic invertebrates have been identified by an extensive search of all data bases in ISI Web of Knowledge considering studies published from 1945 to 2011. Studies reporting the geographical coordinates, the timing of the events, the species involved and the depth at which signs of stress occurred have been considered. Results show a general increase of thickness and temperature of the mixed layer, deepening and cooling of the thermocline base in summer and autumn. Possible impacts of these changes are mass mortalities events of benthic invertebrates that have been documented since 1983 mainly in summer and autumn. It is also shown that most mass mortalities

  4. Sea urchin granuloma.

    PubMed

    Rossetto, André Luiz; de Macedo Mora, Jamesson; Haddad Junior, Vidal

    2006-01-01

    Injuries caused by venomous and poisonous aquatic animals may provoke important morbidity in humans. The phylum Echinoderma include more than 6000 species of starfish, sea urchins, sand dollars, and sea cucumbers some of which have been found responsible for injuries to humans. Initial injuries by sea urchins are associated with trauma and envenomation, but later effects can be observed. Sea urchin granuloma is a chronic granulomatous skin disease caused by frequent and successive penetration of sea urchin spines which have not been removed from wounds. The authors report a typical case of sea urchin granuloma in a fisherman and its therapeutic implications. PMID:17086323

  5. Italie: Parier sur la formation a distance (Italy: Betting on Distance Teacher Education).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Begioni, Louis

    1993-01-01

    An Italian program providing professional training at a distance for French second-language teachers in Italy is described briefly. The program used teleconferencing to link regional programs for instructional sessions on specific themes. Because of positive response, the program will be continued. (MSE)

  6. Prevalence of prelingual deafness in Italy.

    PubMed

    Bubbico, L; Rosano, A; Spagnolo, A

    2007-02-01

    Neonatal hearing loss is the most frequent sensorial congenital defect in newborns. No data are available on worldwide prevalence of congenital deafness. World Health Organization (WHO) data indicate 1-4 cases per 1000 individuals, with a considerable increase in developing countries. A prevalence exceeding 1 per 1000 however, indicates a serious public health problem calling for urgent attention. Aim of the study was the evaluate the prevalence of prelingual deafness in the Italian population and determine the socio-demographic characteristics of the condition. Data were provided by the National Institute of Social Insurance (INPS) and the Italian Central Statistics Institute (ISTAT) and were collected in 18 out of the 20 Italian regions (98.2% of total population). All subjects recognized as deaf-mute by a special medical committee were included. According to law No. 509/1988, they had to present a mean bilateral sensorineural-hearing impairment, detected in neonatal age, which caused the damage in speech development and equal to 60 dB or more for 500-, 1000- and 2000-Hz frequency tones in the better ear. Prevalence rates were calculated according to region and age bracket using updated population data from census 2001. Statistical analyses were performed using the SPSS statistical software package. A total of 40,887 cases of prelingual profound sensorineural hearing loss > or =60 dB were detected in Italy in 2003, for a total prevalence rate of 0.72 per 1000. The hearing impairment prevalence differs according to sex. The overall prevalence is 0.78 per 1000 for males and 0.69 per 1000 for females (p < 0.001). The hearing impairment prevalence differs according to region of residence (p < 0.001). The geographic distribution of prelingual deafness was found to be: North 15,644 cases (0.63 per 1000), Central Italy 7111 cases (0.64 per 1000), South and Islands 18,132 (0.87 per 1000). The prelingual hearing loss is highly prevalent in South Italy (Basilicata

  7. Prevalence of prelingual deafness in Italy

    PubMed Central

    Bubbico, L; Rosano, A; Spagnolo, A

    2007-01-01

    Summary Neonatal hearing loss is the most frequent sensorial congenital defect in newborns. No data are available on worldwide prevalence of congenital deafness. World Health Organization (WHO) data indicate 1-4 cases per 1,000 individuals, with a considerable increase in developing countries. A prevalence exceeding 1 per 1,000 however, indicates a serious public health problem calling for urgent attention. Aim of the study was the evaluate the prevalence of prelingual deafness in the Italian population and determine the socio-demographic characteristics of the condition. Data were provided by the National Institute of Social Insurance (INPS) and the Italian Central Statistics Institute (ISTAT) and were collected in 18 out of the 20 Italian regions (98.2% of total population). All subjects recognized as deaf-mute by a special medical committee were included. According to law No. 509/1988, they had to present a mean bilateral sensorineural-hearing impairment, detected in neonatal age, which caused the damage in speech development and equal to 60 dB or more for 500-, 1,000- and 2,000-Hz frequency tones in the better ear. Prevalence rates were calculated according to region and age bracket using updated population data from census 2001. Statistical analyses were performed using the SPSS statistical software package. A total of 40,887 cases of prelingual profound sensorineural hearing loss ≥ 60 dB were detected in Italy in 2003, for a total prevalence rate of 0.72 per 1,000. The hearing impairment prevalence differs according to sex. The overall prevalence is 0.78 per 1,000 for males and 0.69 per 1,000 for females (p < 0.001). The hearing impairment prevalence differs according to region of residence (p < 0.001). The geographic distribution of prelingual deafness was found to be: North 15,644 cases (0.63 per 1,000), Central Italy 7,111 cases (0.64 per 1,000), South and Islands 18,132 (0.87 per 1,000). The prelingual hearing loss is highly prevalent in South Italy

  8. Gypsum karst in Italy: a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Waele, Jo; Chiarini, Veronica; Columbu, Andrea; D'Angeli, Ilenia M.; Madonia, Giuliana; Parise, Mario; Piccini, Leonardo; Vattano, Marco; Vigna, Bartolomeo; Zini, Luca; Forti, Paolo

    2016-04-01

    Although outcropping only rarely in Italy, gypsum karst has been described in detail since the early XXth century (Marinelli, 1917). Gypsum caves are now known from almost all Italian regions (Madonia & Forti, 2003), but are mainly localised along the northern border of the Apennine chain (Emilia Romagna and Marche regions), Calabria, and Sicily, where the major outcrops occur. Recently, important caves have also been discovered in the underground gypsum quarries in Piedmont (Vigna et al., 2010). During the late 80s and 90s several multidisciplinary studies have been carried out in many gypsum areas. All this work converged into a comprehensive overview in 2003 (Madonia & Forti, 2003). Further detailed studies focused on the gypsum areas of Emilia Romagna (Chiesi et al., 2010; Forti & Lucci, 2010; Demaria et al., 2012; De Waele & Pasini, 2013; Ercolani et al., 2013; Columbu et al., 2015; Lucci & Piastra, 2015; Tedeschi et al., 2015) and of Sicily (Madonia & Vattano, 2011). Sinkholes related to Permo-Triassic gypsum have been studied in Friuli Venezia Giulia (Zini et al., 2015). This presentation will review the state of the art regarding different aspects of evaporite karst in Italy focusing on the main new results. References Chiesi M., et al. (2010) - Origin and evolution of a salty gypsum/anhydrite karst spring: the case of Poiano (Northern Apennines, Italy). Hydrogeology Journal, 18, pp. 1111-1124. Columbu A. et al. (2015) - Gypsum caves as indicators of climate-driven river incision and aggradation in a rapidly uplifting region. Geology, 43(6), 539-542. Demaria D. et al. (Eds.) (2012), Le Grotte Bolognesi, GSB-USB, 431 p. De Waele J., Pasini G. (2013) - Intra-messinian gypsum palaeokarst in the northern Apennines and its palaeogeographic implications. Terra Nova 25, pp. 199-205. Ercolani M., et al. (Eds.) (2013), I Gessi e la Cave i Monte Tondo. Studio multidisciplinare di un'area carsica nella Vena del Gesso Romagnola. Memorie Ist. It. Spel. II(26), 559 p

  9. Radioactivity in honey of the central Italy.

    PubMed

    Meli, Maria Assunta; Desideri, Donatella; Roselli, Carla; Feduzi, Laura; Benedetti, Claudio

    2016-07-01

    Natural radionuclides and (137)Cs in twenty seven honeys produced in a region of the Central Italy were determined by alpha ((235)U, (238)U, (210)Po, (232)Th and (228)Th) and gamma spectrometry ((137)Cs, (40)K, (226)Ra and (228)Ra). The study was carried out in order to estimate the background levels of natural ((40)K, (238)U and (232)Th and their progeny) and artificial radionuclides ((137)Cs) in various honey samples, as well as to compile a data base for radioactivity levels in that region. (40)K showed a mean activity of 28.1±23.0Bqkg(-1) with a range of 7.28-101Bqkg(-1). The mean of (210)Po activity resulted 0.40±0.46Bqkg(-1) with a range of 0.03-1.98Bqkg(-1). The mean of (238)U activity resulted 0.020±0.010Bqkg(-1). (226)Ra and (228)Ra resulted always <0.34 and <0.57Bqkg(-1) respectively, (235)U, (228)Th and (232)Th were always <0.007Bqkg(-1). (137)Cs resulted <0.10Bqkg(-1) in all samples. The committed effective doses due to (210)Po from ingestion of honey for infants, children and adults account for 0.002-5.13% of the natural radiation exposure in Italy. The honeys produced in Central Italy were of good quality in relation to the studied parameters, confirming the general image of a genuine and healthy food associated to this traditional products. PMID:26920304

  10. Respiratory nematodes in cat populations of Italy.

    PubMed

    Di Cesare, Angela; Veronesi, Fabrizia; Grillotti, Eleonora; Manzocchi, Simone; Perrucci, Stefania; Beraldo, Paola; Cazzin, Stefania; De Liberato, Claudio; Barros, Luciano A; Simonato, Giulia; Traversa, Donato

    2015-12-01

    The occurrence of common respiratory parasites of domestic cats (the metastrongyloid "cat lungworm" Aelurostrongylus abstrusus and the trichuroid Capillaria aerophila) and of neglected respiratory nematodes of felids (Troglostrongylus brevior, Angiostrongylus chabaudi and Oslerus rostratus) was here evaluated in two and three geographical sites of Northern and Central Italy, respectively. In 2014-2015, individual fecal samples of 868 domestic cats were examined microscopically and genetically, and epidemiological data related to parasitic infections were evaluated as possible risk factors by binary logistic regression models. The most common parasite was A. abstrusus in both mono- and poli-specific infections, followed by T. brevior and C. aerophila, while cats scored negative for other parasites. Cats positive for A. abstrusus (1.9-17 % infection rate) and C. aerophila (0.9-4.8 % infection rate) were found in all examined sites, while cats scored positive for T. brevior (1-14.3 % infection rate) in four sites. Also, T. brevior was here found for the first time in a domestic cat from a mountainous area of Northern Italy. The occurrence of lungworms was statistically related to the presence of respiratory signs and more significant in cats with mixed infection by other lungworms and/or intestinal parasites. Cats living in site C of Central Italy resulted statistically more at risk of infection for lungworms than cats living in the other study sites, while animals ageing less than 1 year were at more risk for troglostrongylosis. Finally, the presence of lungworms was more significant in cats with mixed infection by other lungworms and/or intestinal parasites. These results are discussed under epidemiological and clinical points of views. PMID:26319524

  11. Aral Sea basin: a sea dies, a sea also rises.

    PubMed

    Glantz, Michael H

    2007-06-01

    The thesis of this article is quite different from many other theses of papers, books, and articles on the Aral Sea. It is meant to purposely highlight the reality of the situation in Central Asia: the Aral Sea that was once a thriving body of water is no more. That sea is dead. What does exist in its place are the Aral seas: there are in essence three bodies of water, one of which is being purposefully restored and its level is rising (the Little Aral), and two others which are still marginally connected, although they continue to decline in level (the Big Aral West and the Big Aral East). In 1960 the level of the sea was about 53 m above sea level. By 2006 the level had dropped by 23 m to 30 m above sea level. This was not a scenario generated by a computer model. It was a process of environmental degradation played out in real life in a matter of a few decades, primarily as a result of human activities. Despite wishes and words to the contrary, it will take a heroic global effort to save what remains of the Big Aral. It would also take a significant degree of sacrifice by people and governments in the region to restore the Big Aral to an acceptable level, given that the annual rate of flow reaching the Amudarya River delta is less than a 10th of what it was several decades ago. Conferring World Heritage status to the Aral Sea(s) could spark restoration efforts for the Big Aral. PMID:17626470

  12. Influenza vaccination among the elderly in Italy.

    PubMed Central

    Pregliasco, F.; Sodano, L.; Mensi, C.; Selvaggi, M. T.; Adamo, B.; D'Argenio, P.; Giussani, F.; Simonetti, A.; Carosella, M. R.; Simeone, R.; Dentizi, C.; Montanaro, C.; Ponzio, G.

    1999-01-01

    This article surveys the attitudes and perceptions of a random sample of the elderly population in three regions of Italy on the use and efficacy of influenza vaccine. The data were collected by direct interviews using a standard questionnaire. The results show that vaccination coverage against influenza is inadequate (26-48.6%). The major reasons for nonvaccination were lack of faith in the vaccine and disbelief that influenza is a dangerous illness. These data emphasize the need for a systematic education programme targeted at the elderly and the provision of influenza vaccination, with the increased cooperation of general practitioners. PMID:10083710

  13. Italy: abortion and nationalized health care.

    PubMed

    Mori, M

    1984-12-01

    Most of the recent public and scholarly interest in Italy concerning bioethical issues has centered on abortion, general reform of the health care system, and deinstitutionalization of the mentally ill. Medical decisions are thought to concern technical rather than moral issues, and are generally left to physicians. Although ethics is a formal part of the medical curriculum only in Catholic universities, physicians have recently shown more of an interest in bioethical issues, as have philosophers. At present, however, the author is aware of only one non-Catholic institution that is devoted to the study of ethical questions in medicine. PMID:6511373

  14. Urinary capillariosis in six dogs from Italy

    PubMed Central

    Mariacher, A.; Millanta, F.; Guidi, G.; Perrucci, S.

    2016-01-01

    Canine urinary capillariosis is caused by the nematode Pearsonema plica. P. plica infection is seldomly detected in clinical practice mainly due to diagnostic limitations. This report describes six cases of urinary capillariosis in dogs from Italy. Recurrent cystitis was observed in one dog, whereas another patient was affected by glomerular amyloidosis. In the remaining animals, the infection was considered an incidental finding. Immature eggs of the parasite were observed with urine sediment examination in 3/6 patients. Increased awareness of the potential pathogenic role of P. plica and clinical disease presentation could help identify infected animals. PMID:27354971

  15. Genome characterization of feline morbillivirus from Italy.

    PubMed

    Marcacci, Maurilia; De Luca, Eliana; Zaccaria, Guendalina; Di Tommaso, Morena; Mangone, Iolanda; Aste, Giovanni; Savini, Giovanni; Boari, Andrea; Lorusso, Alessio

    2016-08-01

    Feline morbillivirus (FeMV) has been recently identified by RT-PCR in the urine sample of a nephropathic cat in Italy. In this report, we describe the whole genome sequence of strain Piuma/2015 obtained by combination of sequence independent single primer amplification method (SISPA) and next generation sequencing (NGS) starting from RNA purified from the infected urine sample. The existence in Germany and Turkey of FeMVs from cats divergent from Piuma/2015, suggests the presence of FeMV heterogeneity in Europe as it has been described previously in Japan and China. PMID:27155238

  16. Structural social capital and health in Italy.

    PubMed

    Fiorillo, Damiano; Sabatini, Fabio

    2015-04-01

    This paper presents the first empirical assessment of the causal relationship between social capital and health in Italy. The analysis draws on the 2000 wave of the Multipurpose Survey on Household conducted by the Italian Institute of Statistics on a representative sample of the population (n=46,868). Our measure of social capital is the frequency of meetings with friends. Based on IV and bivariate probit estimates, we find that individuals who meet friends every day or more time times a week are approximately 11-16% more likely to report good health. PMID:25805101

  17. 75 FR 67105 - Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin From Italy and Japan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-01

    ... granular polytetrafluoroethylene resin from Japan (53 FR 32267). On August 30, 1988, Commerce issued an... from Italy and Japan (65 FR 6147, February 8, 2000). Following second five-year reviews by Commerce and... orders on imports of granular polytetrafluoroethylene resin from Italy and Japan (70 FR 76026)....

  18. Louseborne Relapsing Fever among East African Refugees, Italy, 2015

    PubMed Central

    Lipani, Filippo; Costa, Cecilia; Scarvaglieri, Mariaelisabetta; Balbiano, Rosanna; Carosella, Sinibaldo; Calcagno, Andrea; Audagnotto, Sabrina; Barbui, Anna Maria; Brossa, Silvia; Ghisetti, Valeria; Dal Conte, Ivano; Caramello, Pietro; Di Perri, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    During June 9–September 30, 2015, five cases of louseborne relapsing fever were identified in Turin, Italy. All 5 cases were in young refugees from Somalia, 2 of whom had lived in Italy since 2011. Our report seems to confirm the possibility of local transmission of louse-borne relapsing fever. PMID:26812354

  19. The US Mission in Italy's "Partnership for Growth"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spogli, Ronald P.; Truhn, J. Patrick

    2008-01-01

    This paper first examines key differences between the traditional approaches of the USA and Italy in relation to innovation and entrepreneurship. The authors then turn to the specific example of southern Italy, which has experienced higher rates of unemployment, lower US investment and fewer educational and cultural exchanges than the rest of the…

  20. Hepatitis E Virus Genotype 4 Outbreak, Italy, 2011

    PubMed Central

    Garbuglia, Anna R.; Scognamiglio, Paola; Petrosillo, Nicola; Mastroianni, Claudio Maria; Sordillo, Pasquale; Gentile, Daniele; La Scala, Patrizia; Girardi, Enrico

    2013-01-01

    During 2011, 5 persons in the area of Lazio, Italy were infected with a monophyletic strain of hepatitis E virus that showed high sequence homology with isolates from swine in China. Detection of this genotype in Italy parallels findings in other countries in Europe, signaling the possible spread of strains new to Western countries. PMID:23260079

  1. Young People and Alcohol in Italy: An Evolving Relationship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beccaria, Franca; Prina, Franco

    2010-01-01

    In Italy, commonly held opinions and interpretations about the relationship between young people and alcohol are often expressed as generalizations and approximations. In order to further understanding of the relationship between young people and alcohol in contemporary Italy, we have gathered, compared and discussed all the available data, both…

  2. Reflections of a Lifelong Learner Teaching in Italy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kroth, Michael

    2014-01-01

    This article describes and summarizes the author's experience of teaching in Italy for three months and the impact it had on him and his learning. The author, at the age of 61, lived in Italy for three months and here he reflects on what he learned and how it relates to adult learning theory concepts.

  3. A critical review of seismotectonic setting of the Campanian Plain (Southern Italy) in GIS environment.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaudiosi, Germana; Alessio, Giuliana; Luiso, Paola; Nappi, Rosa; Ricciolino, Patrizia

    2010-05-01

    The Plio-Pleistocene Campanian Plain is a structural depression of the Southern Italy located between the eastern side of the Tyrrhenian Sea and the Southern Apennine chain. It is surrounded to the North, East and South by the Mesozoic carbonate massifs of the Apennine chain and, to the West, by the Tyrrhenian Sea. The graben origin is similar to other peri-Tyrrhenian regions and is related to a stretching and thinning of the continental crust by the counterclockwise rotation of the Italian peninsula and the contemporaneous opening of the Tyrrhenian sea. The consequent subsidence of the Campanian carbonate platform took place along the Tyrrhenian coast during the Plio-Pleistocene with a maximum vertical extent of 5 km. The plain is filled by volcanic and clastic, continental and marine deposits. Voluminous volcanic activity of Roccamonfina, Campi Flegrei, Ischia, Procida and Vesuvio occurred in the Plain during the Quaternary. In the middle of the plain lies the city of Naples, bordered by the two active volcanoes of Campi Flegrei and Vesuvio. It is a very densely inhabited area that is exposed to high potential volcanic risk. The stress field acting in the Campanian area is poorly known. Structural observations on the Pleistocene faults suggest normal to sinistral movements for the NW- SE-trending faults and normal to dextral for the NE-SW-trending structures. These movements are consistent with those of the structures affecting the inner margin of the Southern Apennines. The Campanian Plain is characterized by seismicity of energy lower than the seismic activity of the Southern Apennine chain. The earthquakes mainly occur along the margin of the plain, in the volcanic areas and a minor seismicity spreads out inside the Plain. The aim of this paper is an attempt to identify active, outcropping and buried fault systems of the Campanian plain through the correlation between seismicity and tectonic structures. Seismic, geologic and geomorphologic data have been

  4. Sea ice transports in the Weddell Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harms, Sabine; Fahrbach, Eberhard; Strass, Volker H.

    2001-05-01

    Time series of sea ice draft in the Weddell Sea are evaluated together with hydrographic observations, satellite passive microwave data, and ice drift for estimation of the freshwater fluxes into and out of the Weddell Sea. Ice draft is measured with moored upward looking sonars since 1990 along two transects across the Weddell Gyre. One transect, extending from the tip of the Antarctic Peninsula to Kapp Norvegia, was sampled between 1990 and 1994 and covers the flow into and out of the southern Weddell Sea. The other transect, sampled since 1996 and extending from the Antarctic continent northward along the Greenwich meridian, covers the exchange of water masses between the eastern and the western Weddell Sea. In order to relate results obtained during the different time periods, empirical relationships are established between the length of the sea ice season, derived from the satellite passive microwave data and defined as the number of days per year with the sea ice concentration exceeding 15%, and (1) the annual mean ice draft and (2) the annual mean ice volume transport. By using these empirical relationships, estimates of annual mean ice drafts and ice volume transports are derived at all mooring sites for the period February 1979 through February 1999. Wind and current force a westward ice transport in the coastal areas of the eastern Weddell Sea and a northward ice transport in the west. During the 2-year period 1991/1992 the mean ice volume export from the Weddell Sea is (50 ± 19) × 103 m3 s-1. This freshwater export is representative for a longer-term (20-year) mean and exceeds the average amount of freshwater gained by precipitation and ice shelf melt by about 19×103 m3 s-1, yielding an upper bound for the formation rate of newly ventilated bottom water in the Weddell Sea of 2.6 Sv.

  5. All That Unplowed Sea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MOSAIC, 1975

    1975-01-01

    Hunting and gathering at sea may fast be approaching their productive limits. Aquaculture - farming at sea - linked to conservation represents the sea's promise. If the system works, it might prove to be the key to supplying large amounts of food and fresh water at no cost in nonrenewable energy resources. (BT)

  6. Mortality from alcohol related disease in Italy.

    PubMed Central

    La Vecchia, C; Decarli, A; Mezzanotte, G; Cislaghi, C

    1986-01-01

    Trends in death certification rates from the five major alcohol related causes of death in Italy (cancers of the mouth or pharynx, oesophagus, larynx, liver and cirrhosis of the liver) were analysed over a period (1955-79) in which per capita alcohol consumption almost trebled. Age standardised mortality from liver cirrhosis almost doubled in males and increased over 70% in females. In males, mortality from cancers of the upper digestive or respiratory tract showed increases of between 27% and 44%, and liver cancer increased by over 100%. In the late 1970s, the four alcohol related cancer sites accounted for about 12% of all cancer deaths in males and 4.5% in females. Mortality from liver cirrhosis alone accounted for 4.8% of all deaths in males (9.2% of manpower years lost) and 2.3% in females (6.3% manpower years lost) in females. These figures were even higher in selected areas of north eastern Italy, where alcohol consumption is greater. In absolute terms, the upward trends observed correspond to about 10,000 excess deaths per year in the late 1970s compared with rates observed two decades earlier and are thus second only to the increase in tobacco related causes of death over the same calendar period. PMID:3772284

  7. [Health conditions of immigrant women in Italy].

    PubMed

    Spinelli, A; Baglio, G; Lispi, L; Guasticchi, G

    2005-01-01

    The number of immigrant women in Italy has increased from 260,000 in 1991 to at least 750,000 in 2003. This article describes the health situation of these women, in particular it deals with reproductive health. Immigrant women are generally young, in good health and they go to the health services mainly for pregnancy, delivery, spontaneous and induced abortion. Forty-eight per cent of acute hospital admissions and 56 per cent of day hospital admissions in 2002 were related to reproduction. Among foreign citizens, the induced abortion rate is three times higher than that reported among Italians, while the risk of spontaneous abortion is similar (97 per thousand and 101 per thousand, respectively). In general, the data show that immigrant women in Italy live in deprived social conditions, which can influence their reproductive choices and their access to health services. In order to take account of their particular needs, it is necessary to modify the health services and plan public health interventions especially for the prevention of induced abortion. PMID:16041925

  8. Improving Flood Damage Assessment Models in Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amadio, M.; Mysiak, J.; Carrera, L.; Koks, E.

    2015-12-01

    The use of Stage-Damage Curve (SDC) models is prevalent in ex-ante assessments of flood risk. To assess the potential damage of a flood event, SDCs describe a relation between water depth and the associated potential economic damage over land use. This relation is normally developed and calibrated through site-specific analysis based on ex-post damage observations. In some cases (e.g. Italy) SDCs are transferred from other countries, undermining the accuracy and reliability of simulation results. Against this background, we developed a refined SDC model for Northern Italy, underpinned by damage compensation records from a recent flood event. Our analysis considers both damage to physical assets and production losses from business interruptions. While the first is calculated based on land use information, production losses are measured through the spatial distribution of Gross Value Added (GVA). An additional component of the model assesses crop-specific agricultural losses as a function of flood seasonality. Our results show an overestimation of asset damage from non-calibrated SDC values up to a factor of 4.5 for tested land use categories. Furthermore, we estimate that production losses amount to around 6 per cent of the annual GVA. Also, maximum yield losses are less than a half of the amount predicted by the standard SDC methods.

  9. Medical Malpractice: The Experience in Italy

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    At the present time, legal actions against physicians in Italy number about 15,000 per year, and hospitals spend over €10 billion (~US$15.5 billion) to compensate patients injured from therapeutic and diagnostic errors. In a survey summary issued by the Italian Court for the Rights of the Patient, between 1996 and 2000 orthopaedic surgery was the highest-ranked specialty for the number of complaints alleging medical malpractice. Today among European countries, Italy has the highest number of physicians subject to criminal proceedings related to medical malpractice, a fact that is profoundly changing physicians’ approach to medical practice. The national health system has paid increasingly higher insurance premiums and is having difficulty finding insurance companies willing to bear the risk of monetary claims alleging medical malpractice. Healthcare costs will likely worsen as Italian physicians increasingly practice defensive medicine, thereby overutilizing resources with the goal of documenting diligence, prudence, and skill as defenses against potential litigation, rather than aimed at any patient benefit. To reduce the practice of defensive medicine and healthcare costs, a possible solution could be the introduction of an extrajudicial litigation resolution, as in other civil law countries, and a reform of the Italian judicial system on matters of medical malpractice litigation. PMID:18985423

  10. Human visceral leishmaniasis: a picture from Italy.

    PubMed

    Abdalmaula, Giuma Harun; Barbadoro, Pamela; Marigliano, Anna; Illuminati, Diego; Di Stanislao, Francesco; D'Errico, Marcello Mario; Prospero, Emilia

    2013-12-01

    The aim of our study was to describe the distribution of Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL) in Italy, focusing on HIV-infected patients, to estimate the burden of the disease and the public health actions that should be undertaken. A review of official notifications and hospitalization data has been performed. From 2006 to 2008, a total of 289 cases of VL were notified; the overall notification rate was 1.63/1,000,000 (95% CI 1.45-1.83). In total, 1192 VL-associated hospitalizations were detected, with a hospitalization rate of 6.71/1,000,000 (95% CI 6.34-7.10). For the age group "≤ 24 years", a statistically significant increase was detected (p<0.05). A total of 68.9% (n = 821) of hospitalizations were detected in HIV-positive patients. The geographic distribution of rates revealed a significant increase in the north-eastern area of the country. Our study confirms that the epidemiological pattern of VL is changing and that, in Italy, control measures and preventive strategies should be based on not only the official notification system but also hospital data. This would lead to the identification of areas of parasite spread and to the creation of awareness campaigns geared toward general practitioners in the affected areas. Easy case detection would allow for timely public health actions and strategies for the implementation of more effective interventions for reservoir control. PMID:23999330

  11. Recommendations for pediatric tuberculosis vaccination in Italy.

    PubMed

    Montagnani, Carlotta; Esposito, Susanna; Galli, Luisa; Chiappini, Elena; Principi, Nicola; de Martino, Maurizio

    2016-03-01

    Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine is still the only vaccine approved for the prevention of tuberculosis (TB), and is widely used in highly endemic countries, where all newborns receive a single intradermal dose immediately after birth; however, the recommendations concerning its use in Europe vary widely from country to country. This document describes the recommendations of a group of Italian scientific societies concerning its pediatric use in Italy, the persistence of the protection it provides, its safety, its interference with tuberculin skin test (TST) responses, and the children who should be vaccinated. The experts conclude that BCG vaccination provides a good level of protection against tuberculous meningitis and disseminated forms, and a fair level of protection against pulmonary disease; the protective effective lasts at least 10 years, and revaccination offers no advantages over a single administration. The vaccine is safe in immunocompetent subjects, and affects the response to a TST for at least 6 y On the basis of these observations, we recommend its use in Italy in all TST-negative immunocompetent newborns and breastfeeding infants aged <6 months, and all TST-negative children aged between 6 months and 5 y who come from highly epidemic areas, or whose parents come from highly endemic areas, or who have been in contact with a family member with active TB without contracting the disease themselves. PMID:26587764

  12. Energy issues and policies in Italy

    SciTech Connect

    Colombo, U.

    1984-01-01

    Italy's energy system, in both its present structure and its evolution following the 1973 energy crisis, bears similarities to those of other Western industrialized countries. However, significant differences underlie these similarities. To understand the Italian energy system and its response to the challenges of the energy crisis of the 1970s, we must view it in historical perspective, with the following factors in mind: the scarcity of domestic natural resources, in particular energy resources; a geographical location at the center of the Mediterranean basin; the belated industrialization of the country; and a strongly centralized system of government decision-making counterpoised by a de facto economic and cultural decentralization. Italy's own energy resources are indeed meager: 205 Mtoe of oil and gas, modest reserves of low calorific value-high sulphur coal, at present hardly exploitable in economic terms, and some hydro/geo/nuclear electric capacity. The contribution of domestic sources to Italian energy supply in the last ten years has always been below 20% (18% in 1983).

  13. Comparative analysis of medicinal plants used in traditional medicine in Italy and Tunisia

    PubMed Central

    Leporatti, Maria Lucia; Ghedira, Kamel

    2009-01-01

    Background Italy and Tunisia (Africa for the Romans), facing each other on the opposite sides of the Mediterranean Sea, have been historically linked since the ancient times. Over the centuries both countries were mutually dominated so the vestiges and traces of a mutual influence are still present. The aim of the present study is to conduct a comparative analysis of the medicinal species present in the respective Floras in order to explore potential analogies and differences in popular phytotherapy that have come out from those reciprocal exchanges having taken place over the centuries Methods The comparative analysis based on the respective floras of both countries takes into consideration the bulk of medicinal species mutually present in Italy and Tunisia, but it focuses on the species growing in areas which are similar in climate. The medicinal uses of these species are considered in accordance with the ethnobotanical literature. Results A list of 153 medicinal species belonging to 60 families, present in both floras and used in traditional medicine, was drawn. A considerable convergence in therapeutic uses of many species emerged from these data. Conclusion This comparative analysis strengthens the firm belief that ethno-botanical findings represent not only an important shared heritage, developed over the centuries, but also a considerable mass of data that should be exploited in order to provide new and useful knowledge. PMID:19857257

  14. Lichens as sentinels for air pollution at remote alpine areas (Italy).

    PubMed

    Loppi, Stefano

    2014-02-01

    The present study was undertaken with the aim of using epiphytic lichens as sentinels for air pollution at two remote alpine sites (1,400 and 1,800 m above sea level (asl)) of NW Italy. The results indicated that the site at 1,800 m prompted for early warning indications of biological changes. Although levels of the many elements assayed in samples of the lichen Pseudevernia furfuracea (L.) Zopf, ranging from minor elements (e.g., Al) to ultra-trace (e.g., Pt), were at normal levels, indications of a slowly worsening environment were given by the lichen biodiversity and by damage to cell membranes. The analysis of Pb isotopic ratios suggested that the origin of Pb accumulated in lichens is not local, but linked to the long-range transport by air masses. It was concluded that the origin of pollutants is from air mass coming from the Po plain of Italy and from densely populated areas of Switzerland and France. PMID:24197967

  15. RUSICA initial implementations: Simulation results of sandy shore evolution in Porto Cesareo, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calidonna, Claudia Roberta; Di Gregorio, Salvatore; Gullace, Francesco; Gullı, Daniel; Lupiano, Valeria

    2016-06-01

    Beach recession is spreading in Mediterranean by effects of climatic change. RUSICA is a Cellular Automata model, that is in developing phase for simulating such a complex phenomenon, considering its main mechanisms: loose particles (sand, gravel, silt, clay, etc.) mobilization, suspension, deposit and transport, triggered by waves and currents. A simplified version of the model was implemented and applied to data, related to the sandy shore of Torre Lapillo (Porto Cesareo, Italy), in August 2010, where shore evolution was monitored, even if data quality and quantity aren't ideal in order to feed RUSICA. Simulations of different scenarios of stormy sea in that area evidenced the adequate performance of the model in capturing the main emergent features of the phenomenon in despite of the simplified approach.

  16. Marine litter in Mediterranean sandy littorals: Spatial distribution patterns along central Italy coastal dunes.

    PubMed

    Poeta, Gianluca; Battisti, Corrado; Acosta, Alicia T R

    2014-12-15

    Sandy shores are generally considered important sinks for marine litter and the presence of this litter may represent a serious threat to biotic communities and dune integrity mostly due to cleaning activities carried out through mechanical equipment. In spring (April-May) 2012 we sampled 153 2×2m random plots to assess the spatial distribution patterns of litter on Central Italy sandy shores. We analysed the relationship between the presence of litter and coastal dune habitats along the sea-inland gradient. Our results showed that the most frequent litter items were plastic and polystyrene. Differences of marine litter spatial distribution were found between upper beach and fore dune habitats and fixed dune habitats: embryo dune and mobile dune habitats show the highest frequency of litter, but, surprisingly, marine litter did not impact fixed dune habitats, these possibly acting as a natural barrier protecting the inner part of the coast from marine litter dispersion. PMID:25455823

  17. Regional sea level variability in the Bohai Sea, Yellow Sea, and East China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Yongcun; Plag, Hans-Peter; Hamlington, Benjamin D.; Xu, Qing; He, Yijun

    2015-12-01

    The regional sea level variability in the Bohai Sea (BS), Yellow Sea (YS) and East China Sea (ECS) is investigated based on tide gauge, satellite altimeter data and an independent oceanic general circulation model for the Earth Simulator (OFES) model outputs. It is found that atmospheric forcing significantly affects local sea level variability in the BS and YS and local sea level variability at the Southern ECS is highly correlated with along-shore currents. Particularly, the annual sea level fluctuations potentially change inundation risk and the frequency and magnitude of flooding in regions with high annual sea level. Hence, the cyclostationary empirical orthogonal function (CSEOF) analysis is carried out to investigate the variations of annual sea level cycle amplitude. Similar spatial distribution characteristics of annual sea level amplitude fluctuations are presented from satellite altimeter data and model outputs. The variability of annual sea level amplitude estimated from the satellite altimeter data agrees well with that from the tide gauge data, and positively (negatively) correlates with Southern Oscillation Index (Pacific Decadal Oscillation). The OFES model, however, underestimates the fluctuation of the annual cycle. After removing the annual signal, the low-passed (i.e., 13-month running mean) tide gauge data shows high correlations with SOI and PDO on time scales over 8 years in the BS and ECS.

  18. Dust Storm, Aral Sea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The Aral Sea has shrunk to less than half its size since 1985. The Aral Sea receives little water (sometimes no water) from the two major rivers that empty into it-the Syr Darya and Amu Darya. Instead, the river water is diverted to support irrigation for the region's extensive cotton fields. Recently, water scarcity has increased due to a prolonged drought in Central Asia. As the Aral Sea recedes, its former sea bed is exposed. The Aral's sea bed is composed of fine sediments-including fertilizers and other agricultural chemicals-that are easily picked up by the region's strong winds, creating thick dust storms. The International Space Station crew observed and recorded a large dust storm blowing eastward from the Aral Sea in late June 2001. This image illustrates the strong coupling between human activities (water diversions and irrigation), and rapidly changing land, sea and atmospheric processes-the winds blow across the

  19. Mid-Pliocene (~3 Ma) relative sea level markers around the world: searching for eustasy.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rovere, Alessio; Raymo, Maureen; Hearty, Paul; MItrovica, Jerry; Austermann, Jacqueline; O'Leary, Michael; Sandstrom, Michael

    2014-05-01

    PLIOMAX (PLIOcene MAXimum sea level) is a five-year research project that aims to increase the accuracy of global sea level estimates for the mid-Pliocene warm period. To achieve its goals, PLIOMAX has organized several field expeditions to identify, measure and date relative sea level markers of mid-Pliocene age from around the globe, and built a network of collaborators expert in different geographic areas and disciplines. In this work we present field data obtained from South Africa, Australia, Italy, Argentina and the US East Coast. In these areas we sampled, measured and dated geological facies related to mid-Pliocene sea level. Most areas yield information on 3 Ma sea levels with an accuracy of few decimeters. In presenting our dataset, we will show how we address the following questions, including: how can we obtain accurate measurements in the field? What is the accuracy of the markers we measure in indicating past relative sea levels? To which point can we trust older literature data? We then show how the elevations of relative sea level markers obtained in the field must be corrected to obtain an estimate of eustatic sea level. These corrections use models of glacial isostatic adjustment and dynamic topography. We discuss uncertainties linked to these models as well as the main issues that are still separating us from obtaining a robust estimate of maximum eustatic sea level during the mid-Pliocene warm period.

  20. Italy: illegal construction hampers basic services.

    PubMed

    1981-12-01

    Rome illustrates the contradictions in the economic development in Italy. The city is located midway between Italy's most developed region and its southern regions, which lag behind the rest of the country in economic development. The population of Rome is now 3 million. It is the largest city and has the largest land area. Rome accounts for only 5.6% of the total urban population of the country due to the distribution of large and medium-sized cities throughout Italy. In 1964, a public housing construction plan was drafted to meet the needs of lower income groups. It provided for the development, over 10 years, of about 740,000 units distributed throughout 64 new working districts. At the end of the 10-year period allotted for the program, only 25% of the projects were completed or underway. This was due to the lack of government funds for public housing and the lack of political commitment to allocate what little monies were available. This meant that large numbers of immigrants had no chance to obtain housing unless they moved into the illegal buildings located outside the construction zones circumscribed by the Urban Plan, or moved into zones intended for agricultural use. The sale prices of these zones were much lower than the price of the construction zones stipulated by law. The most dangerous consequence of illegal construction is the lack of services. Roads are unpaved and constitute a major source of dust pollution. Other areas of concern are the lack of a public sewer system, solid waste disposal, and the location of worksites near residential areas. After 1978, Rome experienced a marked decline in its growth rate, from 3.2% per year between 1951-1961 to 2.7% per year between 1971-1979. This trend is no longer due to immigration. It is a result of the displacement of people from the inner city. At this time an effort is being made to accommodate the rapid growth of the past while working to improve the quality of life for all residents. PMID:12311449

  1. Km3Net Italy - Seafloor network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papaleo, Riccardo

    2016-04-01

    The KM3NeT European project aims to construct a large volume underwater neutrino telescope in the depths of the Mediterranean Sea. INFN and KM3NeT collaboration, thanks to a dedicated funding of 21.000.000 € (PON 2007-2013), are committed to build and deploy the Phase 1 of the telescope, composed of a network of detection units: 8 towers, equipped with single photomultiplier optical modules, and 24 strings, equipped with multi-photomultipliers optical modules. All the towers and strings are connected to the main electro optical cable by means of a network of junction boxes and electro optical interlink cables. Each junction box is an active node able to provide all the necessary power to the detection units and to guarantee the data transmission between the detector and the on-shore control station. The KM3NeT Italia project foresees the realization and the installation of the first part of the deep sea network, composed of three junction boxes, one for the towers and two for the strings. In July 2015, two junction boxes have been deployed and connected to the new cable termination frame installed during the same sea campaign. The third and last one will be installed in November 2015. The status of the deep sea network is presented together with technical details of the project.

  2. [Murder. Italy-USA comparative profiles].

    PubMed

    Palermo, George B; Mastronardi, Vincenzo

    2012-01-01

    This paper, through illustrative cases of homicidal typologies, examines the generally accepted theories on the subject: 1) sociological ones by Lorenz to Sutherland and Cressey, by Berkowitz to Wolfgang and Ferracuti and others; 2) neurobiological ones, which include the involvement of the limbic, hippocampal and parietal lobes of the brain; 3) the psychological (psychodynamic) ones which are not disjoint from the types of individual criminal homicide and related aspects. In the discussion of the types of murders, family and extrafamilial murders are then taken into consideration, with the various meanings of revenge, challenge, other reasons linked to robbery, theft, settling scores leading to youth gangs and drive-by-shootings of marginalized adolescents, crimes related to drugs and to mental disorders. Infanticide and multiple murder, including mass murder and serial killer, conclude the work together with the statistics of murders and family murders in Italy compared to USA, specifically to the crime clock. PMID:23023117

  3. Women and botany in Risorgimento Italy.

    PubMed

    Logan, Gabriella Berti

    2004-01-01

    The first Italian women described as botanists by their male peers were active during the Risorgimento. They were few in numbers and only one of them, Elisabetta Fiorini, was recognized for her extensive contributions to the field of cryptogams in Italy by being nominated to important Italian scientific academies. No such recognition was ever alloted to the other female botanists who acted as collectors, correspondents and/or patrons to male botanists, had their own garden of exotic plants, or discovered a new species of phanerogams, and occasionally published on the subject. This study will show that a woman could still belong to Italian scientific academies in the nineteenth century, if like Fiorini, she chose to practice science in a way that was considered at par with that of male scientists. PMID:16021769

  4. GPR Activities in Italy: a Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tosti, Fabio; Ambrosanio, Michele; Battaglia, Enzo; Bianchini Ciampoli, Luca; De Carlo, Lorenzo; Matera, Loredana; Prontera, Santo; Sileo, Maria

    2015-04-01

    Ground-penetrating radar has been increasingly played an important role over the last 15 years in Italy due to its high reliability in assisting the assessment of the built environment for civil engineering purposes, and in being used for geophysical investigations within many other fields of application. In line with this, original works involving fundamental aspects of this technique and implementing its use more practically in a number of interesting projects have been developed over years, both under a research and an enterprise point of view. This paper will endeavour to review the current status of ground-penetrating radar activities in Italy. Efforts have been devoted to single out the most interesting national research projects, both recent and ongoing, involving ground-penetrating radar in Italy, such as the ARCHEO project in the 90s, funded by the Italian Ministry for Universities, wherein a stepped frequency ultra-wide band radar suited for archaeological surveys was manufactured. In this framework, it is worth citing another important and more recent project, European Community funded, namely, ORFEUS, which started in the late 2006 with the overall aim of providing the capability to locate buried infrastructure accurately and reliably by means of a bore-head ground-penetrating radar for horizontal directional drilling. A review on the main use of this non-destructive technique in management activities of national resources and infrastructures has been also performed, ranging from the applications made by Anas S.p.A., i.e., the main management authority for the Italian road and motorway network, up to private enterprises specialized in both services providing and ground-penetrating radar manufacturing such as, to cite a few, Sineco S.p.A. and IDS Ingegneria dei Sistemi S.p.A., respectively. Current national guidelines, rules or protocols to be followed during radar surveys have been also reviewed. Unlike well-established international standards such as

  5. Space Radar Image of Florence, Italy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This radar image shows land use patterns in and around the city of Florence, Italy, shown here in the center of the image. Florence is situated on a plain in the Chianti Hill region of Central Italy. The Arno River flows through town and is visible as the dark line running from the upper right to the bottom center of the image. The city is home to some of the world's most famous art museums. The bridges seen crossing the Arno, shown as faint red lines in the upper right portion of the image, were all sacked during World War II with the exception of the Ponte Vecchio, which remains as Florence's only covered bridge. The large, black V-shaped feature near the center of the image is the Florence Railroad Station. This image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) onboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour on April 14, 1994. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian, and United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. This image is centered at 43.7 degrees north latitude and 11.15 degrees east longitude with North toward the upper left of the image. The area shown measures 20 kilometers by 17 kilometers (12.4 miles by 10.6 miles). The colors in the image are assigned to different frequencies and polarizations of the radar as follows: red is L-band horizontally transmitted, horizontally received; green is L-band horizontally transmitted, vertically received; blue is C-band horizontally transmitted, vertically received.

  6. Monitoring the Pollino Earthquake Swarm (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roessler, D.; Passarelli, L.; Govoni, A.; Rivalta, E.

    2014-12-01

    The Mercure Basin (MB) and the Castrovillari Fault (CF) in the Pollino range (southern Apennines, Italy) representone of the most prominent seismic gaps in the Italian seismic catalog, with no M>6 earthquakes during the lastcenturies. In recent times, the MB has been repeatedly interested by seismic swarms.The most energetic swarm started in 2010 and still active in 2014. The seismicity culminated in autumn 2012 with a M=5 event on October 25. In contrast, the CF appears aseismic. Only the northern part of the CF has experienced microseismicity.The range host a number of additional sub-parallel faults.Their rheology is unclear. Current debates include the potential of the MB and the CF to host largeearthquakes and the level and the style of deformation.Understanding the seismicity and the behaviour of the faultsis therefore necessary to assess the seismic hazard. The GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences and INGV, Italy, have been jointly monitoring the ongoing seismicity using a small-aperture seismic array, integrated in a temporary seismic network. Using the array, we automatically detect about ten times more earthquakes than currently included inlocal catalogues corresponding to completeness above M~0.5.In the course of the swarm, seismicity has mainly migrated within the Mercure Basin.However, the eastward spread towards the northern tio of the CF in 2013 marksa phase with seismicity located outside of the Mercure Basin.The event locations indicate spatially distinct clusters with different mechanisms across the E-W trending Pollino Fault.The clusters differ in strike and dip.Calibration of the local magnitude scale confirms earlier studies further north in the Apennines. The station corrections show N-S variation indicating that the Pollino Fault forms an important structural boundary.

  7. Bangladeshi immigrants in Italy: from geopolitics to micropolitics.

    PubMed

    Knights, M

    1996-01-01

    "Bangladeshis are one of a wide variety of recently established immigrant groups in Italy, analysed here as an example of the interaction of geopolitics, employment and survival strategies, and the micropolitics of the community's organization in Italy. The geopolitics involves events in Bangladesh (change of government), Italy (the Martelli Law and other legislation), Europe (EU and other European policies, and the opening of eastern Europe as a routeway) and the Gulf. The micropolitics concerns mechanisms of immigration, migration sponsorship, connections to Italian political groups and clientelistic relationships within the community. Micropolitics also governs to a large extent the types of mostly informal work done by Bangladeshis in Rome." PMID:12157827

  8. Management of karstic coastal groundwater in a changing environment (Salento, southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polemio, Maurizio; Romanazzi, Andrea

    2014-05-01

    Keywords: groundwater management, numerical modelling, MODFLOW, SEAWAT, climate change, coastal karst aquifer We have been witness, during the second half of the 20th century, of an increase of groundwater discharge. Today a great number of aquifers are overexploited in the world. Problems ties to overexploitation, as piezometric decline and increase of seawater intrusion, are so more amplify in the coastal aquifers, and in particular, in karst coastal aquifers. Seawater intrusion, in fact, is a pervasive problem affecting coastal aquifer, where the concentration of population and the increasing water demand creates risks of overexploitation, especially in those areas where is the only resource of drinking and irrigation water. The whole effect could be a groundwater quality and quantity degradation. This is very often the case of coastal karst aquifers of Mediterranean countries. The general purpose of this paper is to prove the capability of large-scale numerical models in management of groundwater, in particular for achieve forecast scenarios to evaluate the impacts of climate change on groundwater resources. Study area is the karst coastal aquifer of Salento (Southern Italy), largely utilized to satisfy the agricultural demand and drinking demand with huge effects in terms of reduced availability and increasing salinity. The computer codes selected for numerical groundwater modelling were MODFLOW and SEAWAT. Groundwater flow modelling is based on the concept of a equivalent homogeneous porous medium. Three forecast transient scenarios, referred to 2001-2020, 2021-2040 and 2041-2060, were implemented, on the basis of calibrated and validated model, with the aim to predicting the evolution of piezometric level and seawater intrusion. The scenarios were discussed considering the effects of climate change, sea level rise and change of sea salinity. Some irrigation discharge scenarios were considered in the discussion . Results shows qualitative and quantitative

  9. Tephra layers along the southern Tyrrhenian coast of Italy: Links to the X-5 & X-6 using volcanic glass geochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donato, P.; Albert, P. G.; Crocitti, M.; De Rosa, R.; Menzies, M. A.

    2016-05-01

    We present the geochemistry of glass fragments from three visible tephra layers outcropping in Southern Italy. Two tephra deposits (LeS1 and LeS2), outcropping in the Palinuro area (Cilento, Southern Italy), correspond stratigraphically to the CIL1 and CIL2 tephra units (Giaccio et al., 2012), respectively; in turn these are correlated with the X-5 (ca. 105 ka) and X-6 (ca. 108 ka) marine tephra markers on the basis of their major element glass compositions. In order to reinforce these tephra correlations we examine both their major and trace element glass compositions. LeS1 compositions were compared with other correlatives of the X-5 tephra layer (POP3 [Sulmona basin], TM-25 [Lago Grande di Monticchio (LGdM)], CIL1 [Palinuro]) from the central Mediterranean. Our data validate a correlation of the Palinuro tephra layer, LeS1, to the X-5 correlatives. The Palinuro tephra deposit, LeS2, has glass compositions which correspond precisely with correlatives of the X-6 marker tephra (CIL2 [Palinuro], TM-27 [LGdM], I-9 [Ionian Sea] and PRAD 2812 [PRAD1-2, Adriatic Sea]). A tephra in the Valle del Crati (Calabria) appears to overlap in composition with the LeS2 tephra, indicating a probable correlation with the X-6 marker. These new data provide a detailed geochemical characterisation of two widespread marker horizons and are crucial for establishing precise correlations of sedimentary archives across the central Mediterranean region.

  10. Short term changes in zooplankton community during the summer-autumn transition in the open NW Mediterranean Sea: species composition, abundance and diversity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raybaud, V.; Nival, P.; Mousseau, L.; Gubanova, A.; Altukhov, D.; Khvorov, S.; Ibañez, F.; Andersen, V.

    2008-05-01

    Short term changes in zooplankton community were investigated at a fixed station in offshore waters of the Ligurian Sea (Dynaproc 2 cruise, September-October 2004). Mesozooplankton was sampled with vertical WP2 hauls (200 µm mesh-size) and large mesozooplankton, macrozooplankton and micronekton with a BIONESS multinet sampler (500 µm mesh-size). Temporal variations of total biomass, species composition and abundance of major taxa were studied. Intrusions of low salinity water masses were observed two times during the cruise. The first one, which was the most important, was associated with changes in zooplankton community composition. Among copepods, the abundance of Calocalanus, Euchaeta, Heterorhabdus, Mesocalanus, Nannocalanus, Neocalanus, Pleuromamma and also calanoid copepodites increased markedly. Among non-copepod taxa, only small ostracods abundance increased. After this low salinity event, abundance of all taxa nearly returned to their initial values. The influence of salinity on each zooplankton taxon was confirmed by a statistical analysis (Perry's method). Shannon diversity index, Pielou evenness and species richness were used to describe temporal variations of large copepod (>500 µm) diversity. Shannon index and Pielou evenness decreased at the beginning of the low salinity water intrusions, but not species richness. We suggest that low salinity water masses contained its own zooplankton community and passed through the sampling area, thus causing the replacement of zooplankton population.

  11. Short term changes in zooplankton community during the summer-autumn transition in the open NW Mediterranean Sea: species composition, abundance and diversity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raybaud, V.; Nival, P.; Mousseau, L.; Gubanova, A.; Altukhov, D.; Khvorov, S.; Ibañez, F.; Andersen, V.

    2008-12-01

    Short term changes in zooplankton community were investigated at a fixed station in offshore waters of the Ligurian Sea (DYNAPROC 2 cruise, September-October 2004). Mesozooplankton were sampled with vertical WP-II hauls (200 μm mesh-size) and large mesozooplankton, macrozooplankton and micronekton with a BIONESS multinet sampler (500 μm mesh-size). Temporal variations of total biomass, species composition and abundance of major taxa were studied. Intrusions of low salinity water masses were observed two times during the cruise. The first one, which was the most intense, was associated with changes in zooplankton community composition. Among copepods, the abundance of Calocalanus, Euchaeta, Heterorhabdus, Mesocalanus, Nannocalanus, Neocalanus, Pleuromammaand also calanoid copepodites increased markedly. Among non-copepod taxa, only small ostracods abundance increased. After this low salinity event, abundance of all taxa nearly returned to their initial values. The influence of salinity on each zooplankton taxon was confirmed by a statistical analysis (Perry's method). The Shannon diversity index, Pielou evenness and species richness were used to describe temporal variations of large copepod (>500 μm) diversity. The Shannon index and Pielou evenness decreased at the beginning of the low salinity water intrusions, but not species richness. We suggest that low salinity water masses contained its own zooplankton community and passed through the sampling area, thus causing a replacement of the zooplankton population.

  12. Predictive models applied to groundwater level forecasting: a preliminary experience on the alluvial aquifer of the Magra River (Italy).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brozzo, Gianpiero; Doveri, Marco; Lelli, Matteo; Scozzari, Andrea

    2010-05-01

    Computer-based decision support systems are getting a growing interest for water managing authorities and water distribution companies. This work discusses a preliminary experience in the application of computational intelligence in a hydrological modeling framework, regarding the study area of the alluvial aquifer of the Magra River (Italy). Two sites in the studied area, corresponding to two distinct groups of wells (Battifollo and Fornola) are managed by the local drinkable water distribution company (ACAM Acque), which serves the area of La Spezia, on the Ligurian coast. Battifollo has 9 wells with a total extraction rate of about 240 liters per second, while Fornola has 44 wells with an extraction rate of about 900 liters per second. Objective of this work is to make use of time series coming from long-term monitoring activities in order to assess the trend of the groundwater level with respect to a set of environmental and exploitation parameters; this is accomplished by the experimentation of a suitable model, eligible to be used as a predictor. This activity moves on from the modeling of the system behavior, based on a set of Input/Output data, in order to characterize it without necessarily a prior knowledge of any deterministic mechanism (system identification). In this context, data series collected by continuous hydrological monitoring instrumentation installed in the studied sites, together with meteorological and water extraction data, have been analyzed in order to assess the applicability and performance of a predictive model of the groundwater level. A mixed approach (both data driven and process-based) has been experimented on the whole dataset relating to the last ten years of continuous monitoring activity. The system identification approach presented here is based on the integration of an adaptive technique based on Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) and a blind deterministic identification approach. According to this concept, the behavior of

  13. Environmental rehabilitation of dismissed quarry areas in the Emilia Apennines (Italy) based on the exploitation of geosites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soldati, Mauro; Coratza, Paola; Vandelli, Vittoria

    2016-04-01

    The landscape modifications induced by human activity in the past 50 years, due to quarrying in the catchment of Rio della Rocca (Province of Reggio Emilia, northern Italy) and plans for its environmental rehabilitation, are illustrated. The study area is located in the northern Apennines margin, specifically in the municipality of Castellarano, and is characterised by a great variety of abiotic environments and high biodiversity. As regards the geological aspects of the area, the main lithological outcrops consists of yellow sandstones belonging to the Epi-Ligurian Sequence (Upper Eocene - Lower Oligocene) and grey clays (Lower Pliocene - Lower Pleistocene) of the marine units of the Apennine margin. From a geomorphological viewpoint, the landscape evolution of this valley has been deeply influenced by the presence of rocks with different mechanical behaviour, gravitational and rainwash processes and, more recently, human activities. The latter have played a fundamental role in modelling the physical landscape of the area in recent times. In the Sassuolo area (Province of Modena), very close to the study area, there is the largest tile making district in the world, which was developed during the '60s and '70s of the 20th century, partly thanks to the wide availability of clayey raw materials with suitable technological properties. Since the mid-1950s the study area has been affected by intense quarrying activities which have largely modified its environmental and, in particular, geomorphological features. In the 1970s, three clay pits and four sandstone quarries were active in the area. The clay pits were used for tile production whereas the sandstone materials were utilised in large part for the building industry. This production scenario has radically changed during the past twenty years, with the progressive abandonment of quarries due to the introduction of ever-more restrictive environmental policies, imposing rigorous planning on mining activities

  14. East Siberian Sea, Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The winter sea ice in the east Siberian Sea is looking a bit like a cracked windshield in these true-color Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) images from June 16 and 23, 2002. North of the thawing tundra, the sea ice takes on its cracked, bright blue appearance as it thins, which allows the reflection of the water to show through. Numerous still-frozen lakes dot the tundra. Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

  15. [Chagas disease: an emerging public health problem in Italy?].

    PubMed

    Guerri-Guttenberg, R A; Ciannameo, A; Di Girolamo, C; Milei, J J

    2009-03-01

    Chagas' disease is an endemic parasitic illness in the American continent, affecting around 16 to 18 million people. Given that 9.5% of immigrants to Italy are from Latin America and that the infection can be transmitted in non-endemic countries congenitally by organ donations and blood transfusions, Chagas disease should be regarded as an emerging public health problem in Italy. Clinical guidelines as well as health protocols are needed to deal with this rarely recognized disease. PMID:19359818

  16. The state of art of shotcrete in Italy

    SciTech Connect

    Pelizza, S.; Tesio, G.G.

    1995-12-31

    The paper reports the large experience of use of shotcrete in Italy, both in tunnels and above ground. In tunnelling, for more than 30 years, shotcrete has been used for many hundreds of kilometers of tunnel construction. Technical rules for shotcrete use in Italy do not yet exist. SIG-Italian Tunnelling Society- has formed the Working Group Use of Shotcrete. This working group, operating since 1988, has the specific task to adapt the use of shotcrete to international standards.

  17. SeaWiFS Postlaunch Technical Report Series. Volume 3; The SeaBOARR-98 Field Campaign

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zibordi, Giuseppe; Lazin, Gordana; McLean, Scott; Firestone, Elaine R. (Editor); Hooker, Stanford B. (Editor)

    1999-01-01

    This report documents the scientific activities during the first Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) Bio-Optical Algorithm Round-Robin (SeaBOARR-98) experiment, which took place from 5-17 July 1998, at the Acqua Alta Oceanographic Tower (AAOT) in the northern Adriatic Sea off the coast of Italy. The ultimate objective of the SeaBOARR activity is to evaluate the effect of different measurement protocols on bio-optical algorithms using data from a variety of field campaigns. The SeaBOARR-98 field campaign was concerned with collecting a high quality data set of simultaneous in-water and above-water radiometric measurements. The deployment goals documented in this report were to: a) use four different surface glint correction methods to compute water-leaving radiances, L W (lambda), from above-water data; b) use two different in-water profiling systems and three different methods to compute L W (lambda) from in-water data (one making measurements at a fixed distance from the tower, 7.5 m, and the other at variable distances up to 29 m away); c) use instruments with a common calibration history to minimize intercalibration uncertainties; d) monitor the calibration drift of the instruments in the field with a second generation SeaWiFS Quality Monitor (SQM-II), to separate differences in methods from changes in instrument performance; and e) compare the L W (lambda) values estimated from the above-water and in-water measurements. In addition to describing the instruments deployed and the data collected, a preliminary analysis of the data is presented, and the kind of follow-on work that is needed to completely assess the estimation of L W (lambda) from above-water and in-water measurements is discussed.

  18. The concept of hydropower certification in Italy and Slovenia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smolar-Zvanut, Natasa; Goltara, Andrea; Conte, Gulio

    2010-05-01

    River regulation by building a hydropower plants (HPPs) is one of the most stressful factor influencing the aquatic and riparian ecosystem. In many countries a development of HPPs is often opposed by public bodies and NGOs, worried about the risk of adverse effects on the "good status" of water bodies, that, according to the Water Framework Directive (2000/60/EC, WFD), has to be reached by year 2015. The paper describes a technically and economically feasible certification procedure for existing hydro power generation facilities of higher environmental standard, being explicitly coherent with the requirements of the WFD, to be implemented in "green labelled" electricity products, and being integrated, as much as possible, with existing EU tools, such as Ecolabel, EMAS, EIA and SEA. The methodology was developed for Italy and Slovenia and it will be tested in different types of HPPs in both countries. In order to be certified, a given HPP has to commit to carry out appropriate measures in order to mitigate its impacts on specified environmental objectives, in such a way to fulfil predefined environmental targets and prescriptions. These measures have to be described through a specific management programme, based upon a dedicated environmental study, supported mainly by existing data, but complemented by ad-hoc assessment/monitoring when necessary. The realization of both the environmental study and the management programme must be supported by public consultation; both documents must be approved through an auditing process. For some types of HPPs, operating in totally artificial networks and not entailing direct or indirect impact on water related ecosystems, a simplified procedure is foreseen, where detailed environmental analysis, related management programme and stakeholders involvement are not requested, but just a description of the system and proof of fulfilment of the conditions and of specific prescriptions. HPPs impacting water bodies defined as Artificial

  19. High frequency seismic waves and slab structures beneath Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Daoyuan; Miller, Meghan S.; Piana Agostinetti, Nicola; Asimow, Paul D.; Li, Dunzhu

    2014-04-01

    Tomographic images indicate a complicated subducted slab structure beneath the central Mediterranean where gaps in fast velocity anomalies in the upper mantle are interpreted as slab tears. The detailed shape and location of these tears are important for kinematic reconstructions and understanding the evolution of the subduction system. However, tomographic images, which are produced by smoothed, damped inversions, will underestimate the sharpness of the structures. Here, we use the records from the Italian National Seismic Network (IV) to study the detailed slab structure. The waveform records for stations in Calabria show large amplitude, high frequency (f>5 Hz) late arrivals with long coda after a relatively low-frequency onset for both P and S waves. In contrast, the stations in the southern and central Apennines lack such high frequency arrivals, which correlate spatially with the central Apennines slab window inferred from tomography and receiver function studies. Thus, studying the high frequency arrivals provides an effective way to investigate the structure of slab and detect possible slab tears. The observed high frequency arrivals in the southern Italy are the strongest for events from 300 km depth and greater whose hypocenters are located within the slab inferred from fast P-wave velocity perturbations. This characteristic behavior agrees with previous studies from other tectonic regions, suggesting the high frequency energy is generated by small scale heterogeneities within the slab which act as scatterers. Furthermore, using a 2-D finite difference (FD) code, we calculate synthetic seismograms to search for the scale, shape and velocity perturbations of the heterogeneities that may explain features observed in the data. Our preferred model of the slab heterogeneities beneath the Tyrrhenian Sea has laminar structure parallel to the slab dip and can be described by a von Kármán function with a down-dip correlation length of 10 km and 0.5 km in

  20. Polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides in seafood from the Gulf of Naples (Italy).

    PubMed

    Ferrante, Maria Carmela; Cirillo, Teresa; Naso, Barbara; Clausi, Maria Teresa; Lucisano, Antonia; Cocchieri, Renata Amodio

    2007-03-01

    Seven target polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs; IUPAC nos. 28, 52, 101, 118, 138, 153, and 180) and the organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and its related metabolites (p,p'-DDT, p,p'-DDE, and p,p'-DDD) were quantified in edible tissues from seven marine species (European hake, red mullet, blue whiting, Atlantic mackerel, blue and red shrimp, European flying squid, and Mediterranean mussel) from the Gulf of Naples in the southern Tyrrhenian Sea (Italy). PCBs 118, 138, and 153 were the dominant congeners in all the species examined. The concentrations of all PCBs (from not detectable to 15,427 ng g(-1) fat weight) exceeded those of all the DDTs (from not detectable to 1,769 ng g(-1) fat weight) and HCB (not detectable to 150.60 ng g(-1) fat weight) in the samples analyzed. The OCP concentrations were below the maximum residue limits established for fish and aquatic products by the Decreto Ministerale 13 May 2005 in all the samples analyzed; therefore the OCPs in the southern Tyrrhenian Sea species are unlikely to be a significant health hazard. Conversely, the mean concentrations of PCBs exceeded (greatly in some cases) the current limits (200 ng(-1) fat weight) set by the European Union for terrestrial foods. Although the manufacture and use of PCBs are banned or highly restricted, these compounds still are important persistent chemical contaminants in the Gulf of Naples. PMID:17388063

  1. A potential early middle Pleistocene tephrostratotype for the Mediterranean basin: the Vallo Di Diano, Campania, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karner, D. B.; Juvigne, E.; Brancaccio, L.; Cinque, A.; Russo Ermolli, E.; Santangelo, N.; Bernasconi, S.; Lirer, L.

    1999-07-01

    A 207-m-long core was taken from the deposits of a paleolake formed in the Vallo di Diano tectonic basin of the southern Apennines, Italy. Fourteen major tephra beds were identified and distributed into three groups based on stratigraphic position, and chemical and mineralogical compositions. In a pilot dating program, glass ages were determined for three of these layers using the 40Ar/ 39Ar method; two of those layers produced discordant step-heating spectra and provided anomalously old ages. A third layer produced a well-defined plateau age of 0.596±0.006 Ma (2 σ) and from its stratigraphic position, is correlated to oxygen isotope (δ 18O) stage 15 of the deep-sea record. The climatic history of the paleolake can be interpreted from down-core pollen and δ 18O variations, which show a succession of two glacial-interglacial cycles. Extrapolation of ages from the astronomically tuned deep-sea δ 18O record to that of the paleolake indicates that the lake existed for almost 0.2 Ma. Potential eruptive source regions for the tephra layers include the Roman Volcanic Province, Roccamonfina and perhaps Mt. Vulture. While further dating is needed, the Vallo di Diano section provides valuable information on Middle Pleistocene climate history for the central Mediterranean region and offers a comparison of terrestrial environmental history to those preserved in marine records.

  2. Geoelectric monitoring of the Bagnaschino landslide (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jochum, Birgit; Supper, Robert; Ottowitz, David; Pfeiler, Stefan; Kim, Jung-Ho; Lovisolo, Mario

    2013-04-01

    Landslides are one of the major natural threats to human lives, settlements and infrastructure. Permanent geoelectrical monitoring using the GEOMON4D instrumentation in combination with high resolution displacement monitoring by means of the DMS system was performed at an active landslide area in Italy (Bagnaschino). These sites are part of a geoelectrical monitoring network of the Geological Survey of Austria, which currently comprises six permanently monitored landslides in Europe. The Bagnaschino site represents a landslide/earthflow reactivated within an old landslide mass. The old landslide is situated on the slopes of the Val Casotto about 4 km SE of Torre Mondovì (NW Italy). Evident indications of deep-seated gravitational deformation suggest that the current slopes are in a condition of limit-equilibrium and are predisposed to slow instability, triggered most probably by rain and/or snow melting and river erosion at the foot. The recent landslide was activated during 1994 rainfall event. It covers an estimated area of 150,000 m² and comprises a displaced material of 1.2 million m³. It endangers a regional road and potential formation of a dam. For the purpose of early warning a DMS monitoring column with 60 m length was installed in October 2008. Total displacement recorded by DMS during the events between 2008 and 2010 was 600 mm. Subsequently, the GEOMON4D geoelectric monitoring system was installed there in 2010. Resistivity measurements are performed along a 224 m long profile, which is oriented parallel to the main movement direction. Its midpoint is next to the DMS station. One set of data comprising around 4000 gradient-type measurements is taken every 4 hours. For power supply a combination of a fuel cell and a solar panel is used. Within the observation interval one distinct displacement event was monitored. This event was accompanied by a decrease of electric resistivity. In addition to our standard analysis of resistivity data (e.g. time

  3. Ethnobotanical remarks on Central and Southern Italy

    PubMed Central

    Guarrera, Paolo Maria; Lucia, Leporatti Maria

    2007-01-01

    Background The present paper is a brief survey on the ethnobotanical works published by the Authors since 1981, concerning the research carried out in some southern and central Italian regions. Before Roman domination these territories were first inhabited by local people, while the southern areas were colonized by the Greeks. These different cultural contributions left certain traces, both in the toponyms and in the vernacular names of the plants and, more generally, in the culture as a whole. Methods Field data were collected through open interviews, mainly of farmers, shepherds and elderly people, born or living in these areas for a long time. Voucher specimens of collected plants are preserved in the respective herbaria of the Authors and in the herbarium of "Roma Tre" University. Important contributions have been made by several students native to the areas under consideration. A comparative analysis with local specific ethnobotanical literature was carried out. Results The paper reports several examples concerning human and veterinary popular medicine and in addition some anti-parasitic, nutraceutic, dye and miscellaneous uses are also described. Moreover vernacular names and toponyms are cited. Eight regions of central and southern Italy (particularly Latium, Abruzzo, Marche and Basilicata) were investigated and the data obtained are presented in 32 papers. Most of the species of ethnobotanical interest have been listed in Latium (368 species), Marche (274) and Abruzzo (203). The paper also highlights particularly interesting aspects or uses not previously described in the specific ethnobotanical literature. Conclusion Phyto-therapy in central and southern Italy is nowadays practised by a few elderly people who resort to medicinal plants only for mild complaints (on the contrary food uses are still commonly practised). Nowadays therapeutic uses, unlike in the past, are less closely or not at all linked to ritual aspects. Several plants deserve to be taken

  4. Coccolithophorids in the Bering Sea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This clear SeaWiFS image shows the bright blooms of coccolithophores in the Bering Sea off the coast of Alaska.. Credit: Provided by the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, and ORBIMAGE

  5. Sea Anemone: Investigations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunt, John D.

    1982-01-01

    Several investigations can be undertaken with live sea anemones. A sea anemone's feeding response, fighting power, color, and symbiotic relationships to other invertebrates (such as a marine hermit crab) can be investigated in the high school classroom. Background information and laboratory procedures are provided. (Author/JN)

  6. Getting Your Sea Legs

    PubMed Central

    Stoffregen, Thomas A.; Chen, Fu-Chen; Varlet, Manuel; Alcantara, Cristina; Bardy, Benoît G.

    2013-01-01

    Sea travel mandates changes in the control of the body. The process by which we adapt bodily control to life at sea is known as getting one's sea legs. We conducted the first experimental study of bodily control as maritime novices adapted to motion of a ship at sea. We evaluated postural activity (stance width, stance angle, and the kinematics of body sway) before and during a sea voyage. In addition, we evaluated the role of the visible horizon in the control of body sway. Finally, we related data on postural activity to two subjective experiences that are associated with sea travel; seasickness, and mal de debarquement. Our results revealed rapid changes in postural activity among novices at sea. Before the beginning of the voyage, the temporal dynamics of body sway differed among participants as a function of their (subsequent) severity of seasickness. Body sway measured at sea differed among participants as a function of their (subsequent) experience of mal de debarquement. We discuss implications of these results for general theories of the perception and control of bodily orientation, for the etiology of motion sickness, and for general phenomena of perceptual-motor adaptation and learning. PMID:23840560

  7. White Sea - Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    At bottom center of this true-color Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) image from April 13, 2001, the White Sea in western Russia is becoming free of ice in its southern extent. Meanwhile, the blue-green waters along the coast of the peninsula jutting out into the Barents Sea to the northeast could be due to a phytoplankton bloom.

  8. Black Sea in Bloom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This true-color image shows bright, turquoise-colored swirls across the surface of the Black Sea, signifying the presence of a large phytoplankton bloom. Scientists have observed similar blooms recurring annually, roughly this same time of year. The Sea of Azov, which is the smaller body of water located just north of the Black Sea in this image, also shows a high level of biological activity currently ongoing. The brownish pixels in the Azov are probably sediments carried in from high waters upstream. This scene was acquired by the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS), flying aboard the OrbView-2 satellite, on May 4, 2002. According to the Black Sea Environment Programme's Marine Hydrophysical Institute, the Black Sea is 'one of the marine areas of the world most damaged by human activities.' The coastal zone around these Eastern European inland water bodies is densely populated-supporting a permanent population of roughly 16 million people and another 4 million tourists each year. Six countries border with the Black Sea, including Ukraine to the north, Russia and Georgia to the east, Turkey to the south, and Bulgaria and Romania to the west. Because it is isolated from the world's oceans, and because there is an extensive drainage network of rivers that empty into it, the Black Sea has a unique and delicate water balance which is very important for supporting its marine ecosystem. Of particular concern to scientists is the salinity, water level, and nutrient levels of the Black Sea's waters, all of which are, unfortunately, being impacted by human activities. Within the last three decades the combination of increased nutrient loads from human sources together with pollution and over-harvesting of fisheries has resulted in a sharp decline in water quality. Scientists from each of the Black Sea's bordering nations are currently working together to study the issues and formulate a joint, international strategy for saving this unique marine ecosystem

  9. Ionospheric precursors for crustal earthquakes in Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perrone, L.; Korsunova, L. P.; Mikhailov, A. V.

    2010-04-01

    Crustal earthquakes with magnitude 6.0>M≥5.5 observed in Italy for the period 1979-2009 including the last one at L'Aquila on 6 April 2009 were considered to check if the earlier obtained relationships for ionospheric precursors for strong Japanese earthquakes are valid for the Italian moderate earthquakes. The ionospheric precursors are based on the observed variations of the sporadic E-layer parameters (h'Es, fbEs) and foF2 at the ionospheric station Rome. Empirical dependencies for the seismo-ionospheric disturbances relating the earthquake magnitude and the epicenter distance are obtained and they have been shown to be similar to those obtained earlier for Japanese earthquakes. The dependences indicate the process of spreading the disturbance from the epicenter towards periphery during the earthquake preparation process. Large lead times for the precursor occurrence (up to 34 days for M=5.8-5.9) tells about a prolong preparation period. A possibility of using the obtained relationships for the earthquakes prediction is discussed.

  10. Legal abortion in Italy: 1980-1981.

    PubMed

    Tosi, S L; Grandolfo, M E; Spinelli, A; O'Reilly, K R; Hogue, C J

    1985-01-01

    In 1980 and 1981, there were 446,430 legal abortions performed in Italy. There were about 345 legal abortions per 1,000 live births in 1980 and 363 in 1981. About 1.6 percent of women aged 15-49 obtained abortions in both years. An analysis of the characteristics of Italian women who obtained abortions indicates that most were married (about 70 percent), aged 18-36 (74 percent), had had less than a high school education (74 percent) and had had at least one previous live birth (70-75 percent). In 1981, 88 percent of abortions were obtained in public hospitals; 58 percent were carried out at eight or fewer weeks of gestation; and 78 percent were performed under general anesthesia. Only 20 percent were performed without an overnight stay in the hospital; and over 40 percent of women were hospitalized for two days or longer. Infection after the abortion was reported in only 0.03 percent of cases in 1981, and hemorrhage was reported in only 0.27 percent. In 1981, between 43 percent and 84 percent of gynecologists (depending on the region of the country) declined to perform abortions on grounds of conscience. PMID:3872230

  11. Canine kobuviruses in diarrhoeic dogs in Italy.

    PubMed

    Di Martino, Barbara; Di Felice, Elisabetta; Ceci, Chiara; Di Profio, Federica; Marsilio, Fulvio

    2013-09-27

    Canine kobuviruses (CaKVs) are newly recognized picornaviruses recently detected in dogs in the US. By molecular analysis of the whole genome, CaKV that appeared genetically closest to the murine kobuvirus (MuKV) and to the human Aichi virus (AiV), may be classified in the Kobuvirus genus as new genotype (CaKV type 1) within the species Aichivirus A. To date, there are no information on the epidemiology of these novel viruses in other continents. In this study, by screening a collection of 256 dog fecal samples either from diarrhoeic or asymptomatic animals, CaKV was identified in six specimens with an overall prevalence of 2.34% (6/256). All the positive dogs presented diarrhea and were found to be infected by CaKV alone or in mixed infections with canine coronavirus (CCoV) and/or canine parvovirus type 2 (CPV-2). By molecular analysis of the partial 3D gene, all the strains detected displayed a close relatedness with the CaKVs recently identified in the US. This study provides evidence that CaKVs circulate in diarrhoeic dogs in Italy and are not geographically restricted to the North American continent, where they were first signaled. PMID:23806200

  12. Prevalence of congenital muscular dystrophy in Italy

    PubMed Central

    Graziano, Alessandra; Bianco, Flaviana; D'Amico, Adele; Moroni, Isabella; Messina, Sonia; Bruno, Claudio; Pegoraro, Elena; Mora, Marina; Astrea, Guja; Magri, Francesca; Comi, Giacomo P.; Berardinelli, Angela; Moggio, Maurizio; Morandi, Lucia; Pini, Antonella; Petillo, Roberta; Tasca, Giorgio; Monforte, Mauro; Minetti, Carlo; Mongini, Tiziana; Ricci, Enzo; Gorni, Ksenija; Battini, Roberta; Villanova, Marcello; Politano, Luisa; Gualandi, Francesca; Ferlini, Alessandra; Muntoni, Francesco; Santorelli, Filippo Maria; Bertini, Enrico; Pane, Marika

    2015-01-01

    Objective: We provide a nationwide population study of patients with congenital muscular dystrophy in Italy. Methods: Cases were ascertained from the databases in all the tertiary referral centers for pediatric neuromuscular disorders and from all the genetic diagnostic centers in which diagnostic tests for these forms are performed. Results: The study includes 336 patients with a point prevalence of 0.563 per 100,000. Mutations were identified in 220 of the 336 (65.5%). The cohort was subdivided into diagnostic categories based on the most recent classifications on congenital muscular dystrophies. The most common forms were those with α-dystroglycan glycosylation deficiency (40.18%) followed by those with laminin α2 deficiency (24.11%) and collagen VI deficiency (20.24%). The forms of congenital muscular dystrophy related to mutations in SEPN1 and LMNA were less frequent (6.25% and 5.95%, respectively). Conclusions: Our study provides for the first time comprehensive epidemiologic information and point prevalence figures for each of the major diagnostic categories on a large cohort of congenital muscular dystrophies. The study also reflects the diagnostic progress in this field with an accurate classification of the cases according to the most recent gene discoveries. PMID:25653289

  13. Actinides AMS at CIRCE in Caserta (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Cesare, M.; Gialanella, L.; Rogalla, D.; Petraglia, A.; Guan, Y.; De Cesare, N.; D'Onofrio, A.; Quinto, F.; Roca, V.; Sabbarese, C.; Terrasi, F.

    2010-04-01

    The operation of Nuclear Power Plants and atmospheric tests of nuclear weapons performed in the past, together with production, transport and reprocessing of nuclear fuel, lead to the release into the environment of a wide range of radioactive nuclides, such as uranium, plutonium, fission and activation products. These nuclides are present in the environment at ultra trace levels. Their detection requires sensitive techniques like AMS (Accelerator Mass Spectrometry). In order to perform isotopic ratio measurements of the longer-lived actinides, e.g., of 236U relative to the primary 238U and various Pu isotopes relative to 239Pu, an upgrade of the CIRCE accelerator (Center for Isotopic Research on Cultural and Environmental Heritage) in Caserta, Italy, is underway. In this paper we report on the results of simulations aiming to define the best ion optics and to understand the origin of possible measurement background. The design of a high resolution TOF- E (Time of Flight-Energy) detector system is described, which will be used to identify the rare isotopes among interfering background signals.

  14. Underestimation of Invasive Meningococcal Disease in Italy

    PubMed Central

    Nieddu, Francesco; Moriondo, Maria; Indolfi, Giuseppe; Canessa, Clementina; Ricci, Silvia; Bianchi, Leila; Serranti, Daniele; Poggi, Giovanni Maria; Resti, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    Knowing the incidence of invasive meningococcal disease (IMD) is essential for planning appropriate vaccination policies. However, IMD may be underestimated because of misdiagnosis or insufficiently sensitive laboratory methods. Using a national molecular surveillance register, we assessed the number of cases misdiagnosed and diagnoses obtained postmortem with real-time PCR (rPCR), and we compared sensitivity of rPCR versus culture-based testing. A total of 222 IMD cases were identified: 11 (42%) of 26 fatal cases had been misdiagnosed or undiagnosed and were reclassified as IMD after rPCR showed meningococcal DNA in all available specimens taken postmortem. Of the samples tested with both rPCR and culture, 58% were diagnosed by using rPCR alone. The underestimation factor associated with the use of culture alone was 3.28. In countries such as Italy, where rPCR is in limited use, IMD incidence may be largely underestimated; thus, assessments of benefits of meningococcal vaccination may be prone to error. PMID:26890305

  15. Bacterial and Archaeal Community Dynamics at CO2-RICH Shallow-Sea Hydrothermal Vents (panarea, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schubotz, F.; Huang, C.; Meyerdierks, A.; Amend, J.; Price, R. E.; Amann, R.; Hinrichs, K.; Summons, R. E.

    2013-12-01

    Shallow marine hydrothermal vents are highly dynamic systems with unique habitats that can support both chemosynthetic and photosynthetic communities at steep temperature and geochemical gradients. Here, we present a combined organic geochemical and microbiological approach to describe the microbial community composition and their metabolism at the CO2-rich shallow hydrothermal vents off Panarea Island, in Sicily. We investigated two contrasting hydrothermal environments: Hot Lake, a depression filled with hydrothermal fluids diffusing gradually out of the seafloor, with temperatures ranging from 40 to 70°C, and Blackpoint, a site with vigorous venting of hydrothermal gasses and fluids with temperatures as high as 135°C. At Hot Lake, Bacteria dominate the microbial community composition in the sediments. 16S rRNA clone libraries revealed Bacteriodetes-, Epsilonproteobacteria- and Deltaproteobacteria-related sequences as the most abundant members. Bacterial intact polar membrane lipids (IPLs) were dominated by the non-phosphorous containing ornithine lipids throughout all depths, indicating an important role of this aminolipid at elevated temperatures and/or low pH. At Hot Lake, archaeal IPLs were comprised mainly of glycosidic tetraethers and increased up to 20% of total IPLs with increasing temperature and depth. At the same site, archaeal 16S rRNA clone libraries were mainly comprised of Euryarchaea-affiliated sequences; crenarchaeotal sequences were only found in deeper sediment layers with temperatures of ca. 70°C. In contrast to Hot Lake, Archaea dominated sediments at the much hotter site at Blackpoint. Here, novel methylated H-shaped archaeal tetraethers, with multiple sugars as head groups, were the most abundant membrane lipids. Reports on these lipids in cultures are very limited, but their abundant occurrence at elevated temperatures suggests an important role in membrane homeostastis in thermophilic Archaea. Stable carbon isotope values of -35‰ to -10‰ for bacterial fatty acids and archaeal ether lipids indicate that microbial communities at both Hot Lake and Blackpoint are primarily autotrophic (δ13CTOC ~ -20‰, δ13CDIC ~ +3‰). We will discuss potential carbon fixation pathways in light of known isotopic fractionations for lipids, and accompanying metagenome investigations, which suggests the reductive tricaboxylic acid cycle as important carbon fixation pathway at Hot Lake.

  16. Italy - Adriatic Sea - Barbara - A giant gas field marked by seismic velocity anomaly - A subtle trap

    SciTech Connect

    Ianniello, A.; Bolelli, W.; Di Scala, L. )

    1990-09-01

    Barbara gas field, discovered in 1971, is located in the northern sector of the Adriatic offshore. The field is a gentle anticline involving Quaternary clastic sediments and shaped by carbonate Mesozoic morphology. The presence of shallow gas pockets at the crest of the structure distort the seismic signal to such an extent that structural reconstruction using seismic data is not possible. Moreover, time delays and ray-path anomalies do not allow the use of staking velocities for the depth conversion. Seismic attribute analysis, instead of velocities, and time delays on the isochrone maps are providing a key to the understanding of seismic anomalies and are an indirect tool for reconstructing the real structural configuration of the field. The appraisal story of the field illustrates how the previously mentioned complications influenced its delineation and how an understanding of these complications helped in upgrading the reserves from an initial value of 10 billion ECM of gas to 40 billion ECM. Additional data acquired with the development wells tend to increase the estimate. Therefore, Barbara field is the most important Italian gas field of the decade. The producing formation is composed of very thin-bedded sandstone and shale intercalations, representing the peculiarity of this reservoir. Development of the field is being achieved with six production platforms and 72 wells.

  17. Numerical modeling of the central Black Sea ecosystem functioning during the eutrophication phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grégoire, M.; Raick, C.; Soetaert, K.

    2008-03-01

    experiments and of the Ligurian sea ecosystem [Raick, C., Delhez, E., Soetaert, K., Gregoire, M., 2005. Study of the seasonal cycle of the biogeochemical processes in the Ligurian sea using an 1D interdisciplinary model. Journal of Marine Systems 55 (3-4) 177-203]. This model has been extended to simulate the development of top predators, the aggregation of detritus as well as the degradation and chemical processes in suboxic/anoxic conditions (e.g. denitrification, anoxic remineralization, redox reactions). The coupled model extends down to the sediments ( ≃2000 m depth) and is forced at the air-sea interface by the 6 hourly ERA-40 reanalysis of ECMWF data. The model has been calibrated and validated using a large set of data available in the Black Sea TU Ocean Base. The biogeochemical model involves some hundred parameters which are first calibrated by hand using published values. Then, an identifiability analysis has been performed in order to determine a subset of identifiable parameters (i.e. ensemble of parameters that can be together estimated from the amount of data we have at our disposal, see later in the text). Also a subset of 10 identifiable parameters was isolated and an automatic calibration subroutine (Levenberg Marquart) has been used to fine tune these parameters. Additionally, in order to assess the sensitivity of model results to the parameterization of the two gelatinous groups, Monte Carlo simulations were performed perturbing all the parameters governing their dynamics. In order to calibrate the particle dynamics and export, the chemical model was run off-line with the particle and microbial loop model in order to check its capacity of simulating anoxic waters. After a 104 year run, the model simulated NH and HS profiles similar to observations but steady state was not reached suggesting that the Black Sea deep waters are not at steady state. The fully coupled model was then used to simulate the period 1988-1992 of the Black Sea ecosystem. The model

  18. Global sea level rise

    SciTech Connect

    Douglas, B.C. )

    1991-04-15

    Published values for the long-term, global mean sea level rise determined from tide gauge records exhibit considerable scatter, from about 1 mm to 3 mm/yr. This disparity is not attributable to instrument error; long-term trends computed at adjacent sites often agree to within a few tenths of a millimeter per year. Instead, the differing estimates of global sea level rise appear to be in large part due to authors' using data from gauges located at convergent tectonic plate boundaries, where changes of land elevation give fictitious sea level trends. In addition, virtually all gauges undergo subsidence or uplift due to postglacial rebound (PGR) from the last deglaciation at a rate comparable to or greater than the secular rise of sea level. Modeling PGR by the ICE-3G model of Tushingham and Peltier (1991) and avoiding tide gauge records in areas of converging tectonic plates produces a highly consistent set of long sea level records. The value for mean sea level rise obtained from a global set of 21 such stations in nine oceanic regions with an average record length of 76 years during the period 1880-1980 is 1.8 mm/yr {plus minus} 0.1. This result provides confidence that carefully selected long tide gauge records measure the same underlying trend of sea level and that many old tide gauge records are of very high quality.

  19. Tsunami Early Warning System in Italy and involvement of local communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tinti, Stefano; Armigliato, Alberto; Zaniboni, Filippo

    2010-05-01

    Italy is characterized by a great coastal extension, and by a series of possible tsunamigenic sources: many active faults, onshore and offshore, also near the shoreline and in shallow water, active volcanoes (Etna, Stromboli, Campi Flegrei for example), continental margins where landslides can occur. All these threats justify the establishment of a tsunami early warning system (TEWS), especially in Southern Italy where most of the sources capable of large disastrous tsunamis are located. One of the main characteristics of such sources, that however is common to other countries in not only in the Mediterranean, is their vicinity to the coast, which means that the tsunami lead time for attacking the coastal system is expected to be within 10-15 minutes in several cases. This constraint of time imposes to conceive and adopt specific plans aiming at a quick tsunami detection and alert dissemination for the TEWS, since obviously the TEWS alert must precede and not follow the tsunami first arrival. The need to be quick introduces the specific problem of uncertainty that is though inherent to any forecast system, but it is a very big issue especially when time available is short, since crucial decisions have to be taken in presence of incomplete data and incomplete processing. This is just the big problem that has to be faced by a system like the a TEWS in Italy. Uncertainties can be reduced by increasing the capabilities of the tsunami monitoring system by densifying the traditional instrumental networks (e.g. by empowering seismic and especially coastal and offshore sea-level observation systems) in the identified tsunamigenic source areas. However, uncertainties, though are expected to have a decreasing trend as time passes after the tsunami initiation, cannot be eliminated and have to be appropriately dealt with: uncertainties lead to under- and overestimation of the tsunami size and arrival times, and to missing or to false alerts, or in other terms they degrade the

  20. Tsunami hazard in the Black Sea and the Azov Sea: a new tsunami catalogue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papadopoulos, G. A.; Diakogianni, G.; Fokaefs, A.; Ranguelov, B.

    2011-03-01

    Data on tsunamis occurring in the Black Sea and the Azov Sea from antiquity up to the present were updated, critically evaluated and compiled in the standard format developed since the 90's for the New European Tsunami Catalogue. Twenty nine events were examined but three of them, supposedly occurring in 557 AD, 815 AD and 1341 or 1343, were very likely falsely reported. Most of the remaining 26 events were generated in Crimea, offshore Bulgaria as well as offshore North Anatolia. For each of the 26 events examined, 22 events were classified as reliable ones receiving a score of 3 or 4 on a 4-grade reliability scale. Most of them were caused by earthquakes, such as the key event 544/545 of offshore Varna, but a few others were attributed either to aseismic earth slumps or to unknown causes. The tsunami intensity was estimated using the traditional 6-grade scale and the new 12-grade scale introduced by Papadopoulos and Imamura (2001). From 544/545 up to now, only two reliable events of high intensity K ≥ 7 have been reported, which very roughly indicates that the mean repeat time is ∼ 750 years. Five reliable tsunamis of moderate intensity 4 ≤ K < 7 have been observed from 1650 up to the present, which implies a recurrence of 72 years on the average. Although these calculations were based on a very small statistical sample of tsunami events, the repeat times found are consistent with the theoretical expectations from size-frequency relations. However, in the Black Sea there is no evidence of tsunamis of very high intensity (K ∼ 10) such as the AD 365, 1303 and 1956 ones associated with large earthquakes occurring along the Hellenic arc and trench, Greece, or the 1908 one in Messina strait, Italy. This observation, along with the relatively low tsunami frequency, indicates that the tsunami hazard in the Black Sea is low to moderate but not negligible. The tsunami hazard in the Azov Sea is very low because of the very low seismicity but also because of the

  1. Viscosity of Campi Flregrei (Italy) magmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misiti, Valeria; Vetere, Francesco; Scarlato, Piergiorgio; Behrens, Harald; Mangiacapra, Annarita; Freda, Carmela

    2010-05-01

    Viscosity is an important factor governing both intrusive and volcanic processes. The most important parameters governing silicate melts viscosity are bulk composition of melt and temperature. Pressure has only minor effect at crustal depths, whereas crystals and bubbles have significant influence. Among compositional parameters, the water content is critical above all in terms of rheological behaviour of melts and explosive style of an eruption. Consequently, without an appropriate knowledge of magma viscosity depending on the amount of dissolved volatiles, it is not possible to model the processes (i.e., magma ascent, fragmentation, and dispersion) required to predict realistic volcanic scenarios and thus forecast volcanic hazards. The Campi Flegrei are a large volcanic complex (~150 km2) located west of the city of Naples, Italy, that has been the site of volcanic activity for more than 60 ka and represents a potential volcanic hazard owing to the large local population. In the frame of a INGV-DPC (Department of Civil Protection) project devoted to design a multidisciplinary system for short-term volcano hazard evaluation, we performed viscosity measurements, under dry and hydrous conditions, of primitive melt compositions representative of two Campi Flegrei eruptions (Minopoli-shoshonite and Fondo Riccio-latite). Viscosity of the two melts have been investigated in the high temperature/low viscosity range at atmospheric pressure in dry samples and at 0.5 GPa in runs having water content from nominally anhydrous to about 3 wt%. Data in the low temperature/high viscosity range were obtained near the glass transition temperature at atmospheric pressure on samples whose water contents vary from 0.3 up to 2.43 wt%. The combination of high- and low-viscosity data permits a general description of the viscosity as a function of temperature and water content using a modified Tamman-Vogel-Fulcher equation. logν = a+ --b--+ --d--×exp(g × w-) (T - c) (T - e) T (1) where

  2. Second-hand smoke in Italy.

    PubMed

    Gallus, S

    2015-12-01

    Second-hand smoke (SHS) has been classified as carcinogenic to humans by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) of the World Health Organization (WHO) [IARC, 2004]. Of the 5.7 million deaths attributable each year to tobacco smoking, more than 600,000 (i.e., around 1% of all deaths worldwide) refer to subjects who never smoked and that prematurely die due to their lifetime exposure to SHS [WHO, 2012]. Italy has been one of the pioneering countries - and the first large country worldwide - to enact a comprehensive smoke-free legislation in 2005. The law, introduced in order to reduce SHS exposure, banned smoking in indoor public places, including restaurants and bars, and in all workplaces [Gallus et al., 2006]. This legislation has had an undisputed success from a public health perspective: it was widely supported and strongly observed, restaurant and bar owners did not experience any dreaded decline in their business, and tobacco smoking (and its detrimental health effects) substantially decreased [Gallus et al., 2006; Gorini et al., 2007]. More importantly, the regulation has been effective in dramatically reducing SHS exposure [Gorini et al., 2007; Martinez-Sanchez et al., 2012]. Most high- income countries followed Italy in the adoption of similar comprehensive smoking ban legislations over the last decade [IARC, 2009]. These regulations and the information campaigns conducted for their enforcement had also the effect to increase the social unacceptability of SHS and consequently the adoption of voluntary home smoking bans [Ferketich et al., 2014; Martinez-Sanchez et al., 2014]. This notwithstanding, in 2010 specific Italian subpopulations were still frequently exposed to SHS, both in public and private places. In particular, 54% of the young (i.e., age 15-24 years) were still exposed to SHS in any settings, 27% in private houses, and 33% in private cars [Martinez-Sanchez et al., 2012]. The relatively high SHS exposure in private cars is of

  3. Sea Perch Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2010-01-01

    David Lalejini, an employee of the Naval Research Laboratory at NASA's John C. Stennis Space Center, helps a pair of teachers deploy a remotely-operated underwater Sea Perch robot during workshop activities Dec. 11. The Stennis Education Office teamed with Naval Research Laboratory counterparts to conduct a two-day workshop Dec. 10-11 for Louisiana and Mississippi teachers. During the no-cost workshop, teachers learned to build and operate Sea Perch robots. The teachers now can take the Sea Perch Program back to students.

  4. Sea level variation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Douglas, Bruce C.

    1992-01-01

    Published values for the long-term, global mean sea level rise determined from tide gauge records range from about one to three mm per year. The scatter of the estimates appears to arise largely from the use of data from gauges located at convergent tectonic plate boundaries where changes of land elevation give fictitious sea level trends, and the effects of large interdecadal and longer sea level variations on short (less than 50+ years) or sappy records. In addition, virtually all gauges undergo subsidence or uplift due to isostatic rebound from the last deglaciation at a rate comparable to or greater than the secular rise of sea level. Modeling rebound by the ICE-3G model of Tushingham and Peltier (1990) and avoiding tide gauge records in areas of converging tectonic plates produces a highly consistent set of long sea level records. A global set of 21 such stations in nine oceanic regions with an average record length of 76 years during the period 1880-1980 yields the global sea level rise value 1.8 mm/year +/- 0.1. Greenhouse warming scenarios commonly forecast an additional acceleration of global sea level in the next 5 or 6+ decades in the range 0.1-0.2 mm/yr2. Because of the large power at low frequencies in the sea level spectrum, very long tide gauge records (75 years minimum) have been examined for past apparent sea level acceleration. For the 80-year period 1905-1985, 23 essentially complete tide gauge records in 10 geographic groups are available for analysis. These yielded the apparent global acceleration -0.011 (+/- 0.012) mm/yr2. A larger, less uniform set of 37 records in the same 10 groups with 92 years average length covering the 141 years from 1850-1991 gave 0.001 (+/- 0.008) mm/yr2. Thus there is no evidence for an apparent acceleration in the past 100+ years that is significant either statistically, or in comparison to values associated with global warming. Unfortunately, the large interdecadal fluctuations of sea level severely affect

  5. Analyzing wildfire exposure on Sardinia, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salis, Michele; Ager, Alan A.; Arca, Bachisio; Finney, Mark A.; Alcasena, Fermin; Bacciu, Valentina; Duce, Pierpaolo; Munoz Lozano, Olga; Spano, Donatella

    2014-05-01

    We used simulation modeling based on the minimum travel time algorithm (MTT) to analyze wildfire exposure of key ecological, social and economic features on Sardinia, Italy. Sardinia is the second largest island of the Mediterranean Basin, and in the last fifty years experienced large and dramatic wildfires, which caused losses and threatened urban interfaces, forests and natural areas, and agricultural productions. Historical fires and environmental data for the period 1995-2009 were used as input to estimate fine scale burn probability, conditional flame length, and potential fire size in the study area. With this purpose, we simulated 100,000 wildfire events within the study area, randomly drawing from the observed frequency distribution of burn periods and wind directions for each fire. Estimates of burn probability, excluding non-burnable fuels, ranged from 0 to 1.92x10-3, with a mean value of 6.48x10-5. Overall, the outputs provided a quantitative assessment of wildfire exposure at the landscape scale and captured landscape properties of wildfire exposure. We then examined how the exposure profiles varied among and within selected features and assets located on the island. Spatial variation in modeled outputs resulted in a strong effect of fuel models, coupled with slope and weather. In particular, the combined effect of Mediterranean maquis, woodland areas and complex topography on flame length was relevant, mainly in north-east Sardinia, whereas areas with herbaceous fuels and flat areas were in general characterized by lower fire intensity but higher burn probability. The simulation modeling proposed in this work provides a quantitative approach to inform wildfire risk management activities, and represents one of the first applications of burn probability modeling to capture fire risk and exposure profiles in the Mediterranean basin.

  6. Thermoregulation of alpacas bred in Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mattiello, Silvana; Formis, Elena; Barbieri, Sara

    2011-03-01

    The present study monitored daily and seasonal variations of rectal temperature in response to different environmental temperatures in alpacas bred in the Italian Apennines at 300 m a.s.l. In each season, the rectal temperature of 33 clinically healthy alpacas was measured three times/day (morning, midday, afternoon). Ambient temperatures were also recorded. Rectal temperatures ranged from a minimum value of 35.1 to a maximum of 39.4°C, with a maximum daily thermal excursion (ΔTrec) of 3.2°C. Temperatures increased throughout the day, with highly significant differences recorded in both young and adult animals between all the time bands ( P < 0.001). These differences were particularly dramatic for adults in summer, when the mean rectal temperature in the morning was 36.3 ± 0.13°C, probably as a consequence of recent shearing. Significant ΔTrec differences were recorded depending on the season in both young and adult animals ( P < 0.001), with the highest ΔTrec values recorded in summer (although the highest daily ambient excursion value was recorded in winter). In conclusion, similarly to alpacas bred in their natural environment, alpacas bred in Italy show a wide thermal neutrality zone, which is probably an adaptive response, that allows the animals to save energy. In the Italian Apennines, in order to prevent situations of hypothermia, with possible detrimental effects on alpacas' health and welfare, shearing should be carried out only in warm seasons.

  7. Trends in endodontic claims in Italy.

    PubMed

    Pinchi, Vilma; Pradella, Francesco; Gasparetto, Laura; Norelli, Gian-Aristide

    2013-02-01

    According to the scant data available in the literature, endodontic claims are common among dental professional liability cases and the second most common type of claim. This study aimed to describe the characteristics of endodontic claims in Italy and the most frequently disputed errors, and the discussion below includes consideration of ethical and medico-legal aspects thereof. We retrospectively analysed 120 technical reports written on cases of professional malpractice in endodontics in the last 5 years. The complainant patients were males in 22.5% of the cases, while females made up the remaining 77.5%. In the dentist sample, male operators were more often involved in litigation cases (80%) than female operators. The most frequently claimed technical errors were: lack of a complete filling of root canal/s (71.7%), the perforation of tooth structure (12.7%), extrusion of sealing materials beyond the apex of the tooth (9.6%) and the fracture of an endodontic instrument (5.9%). In 1.7% of cases it was found that the expert did not make any errors performing the endodontic therapy. In only very few cases (2.7%) no therapy was considered necessary, while the most common therapeutic solution involved in endodontic misconduct was tooth extraction (53.0%). In many cases the dentist preferred to extract the endodontically undertreated tooth and substitute it prosthetically rather than trying to re-treat it. The discrepancy between the total number of cases examined and those that eventually go to court leads us to believe that the majority of endodontic malpractice cases are resolved in out-of-court settlements. PMID:23410021

  8. Update on the epidemiology of tuberculosis in Italy.

    PubMed

    Conversano, Michele

    2014-05-01

    As in many countries in Western Europe, in Italy tuberculosis (TB) is a relatively rare disease. In the last decade its incidence has remained constant at under 10 cases/100,000 inhabitants, the threshold considered to define a country as low prevalence. The epidemiological picture, however, is very different in the countries of Eastern Europe and in Africa, Asia, and Latin America, where the incidence of TB continues to increase and in some cases is accompanied by the emergence and spread of multidrug-resistant TB. The present review describes the epidemiology of TB in Italy. In 2008, the incidence rate was 3.8 cases per 100,000 for people born in Italy, and 50-60 cases per 100,000 for those born abroad. There was an increase in cases from Eastern Europe. The crude mortality rate for TB in 2006 was 0.7 deaths per 100,000 residents. Although TB is a low-prevalence disease in Italy, its epidemiology is changing. Since 1955, more than 160,000 people in Italy have died from this potentially preventable and curable disease. PMID:24788994

  9. A model for northern Vermont's Acadian magmatism with insight from Italy's Tuscan magmatic province

    SciTech Connect

    Westerman, D.S. . Dept. of Geology)

    1993-03-01

    S-type Devonian acidic intrusives in northern Vermont occur scattered throughout the turbiditic flysch sequence and pervasive horizon of mafic Standing Pond Volcanics of the Connecticut Valley--Gaspe Trough (CVGT). These granitoids formed in a successor basin that opened over the stalled Taconic subduction zone located between the Bronson Hill--Boundary Mountain Volcanic arc (east) and the ophiolite-bearing accretionary complex of the Green Mountains (west). Contact aureoles surrounding the granitoids are superimposed over low-pressure facies series metamorphic isograds that have concentric pattern correlated with the centers of intrusion. Italy's Tuscan Magmatic Province, also dominated by S-type acidic intrusives, developed between 7 and 2 Ma in a successor basin over an extinct subduction zone. In that case, the basin and its plutons developed when the Corsica-Sardinia plate pulled back to form the Tyrrhenian Sea after having collided with Italy to form the Apennine range approximately 10 m.y. earlier. In this model for northern Vermont, a volcanic arc and accretionary complex developed during Ordovician subduction, perhaps with continuing trench--arc separation due to shallow subduction. When the leading edge of continental North America entered the subduction zone, the process stalled and the subducted Iapetus slab continued to lose heat and increase density, promoting its separation from the overlying plate. Upwelling under the former forearc region rifted the crust to form the CVGT. The mantle-derived mafic melts rose, transferring heat to metamorphose and partially melt the basin fill. The Standing Pond Volcanics represent this melt that reached the surface at one stage and flooded the basin. Northern Vermont's granitoids rose, penetrating the domed strata above their source region, as extensional tectonism was replaced by Acadian compression.

  10. The fate of threatened coastal dune habitats in Italy under climate change scenarios.

    PubMed

    Prisco, Irene; Carboni, Marta; Acosta, Alicia T R

    2013-01-01

    Coastal dunes worldwide harbor threatened habitats characterized by high diversity in terms of plant communities. In Italy, recent assessments have highlighted the insufficient state of conservation of these habitats as defined by the EU Habitats Directive. The effects of predicted climate change could have dramatic consequences for coastal environments in the near future. An assessment of the efficacy of protection measures under climate change is thus a priority. Here, we have developed environmental envelope models for the most widespread dune habitats in Italy, following two complementary approaches: an "indirect" plant-species-based one and a simple "direct" one. We analyzed how habitats distribution will be altered under the effects of two climate change scenarios and evaluated if the current Italian network of protected areas will be effective in the future after distribution shifts. While modeling dune habitats with the "direct" approach was unsatisfactory, "indirect" models had a good predictive performance, highlighting the importance of using species' responses to climate change for modeling these habitats. The results showed that habitats closer to the sea may even increase their geographical distribution in the near future. The transition dune habitat is projected to remain stable, although mobile and fixed dune habitats are projected to lose most of their actual geographical distribution, the latter being more sensitive to climate change effects. Gap analysis highlighted that the habitats' distribution is currently adequately covered by protected areas, achieving the conservation target. However, according to predictions, protection level for mobile and fixed dune habitats is predicted to drop drastically under the climate change scenarios which we examined. Our results provide useful insights for setting management priorities and better addressing conservation efforts to preserve these threatened habitats in future. PMID:23874787

  11. The Fate of Threatened Coastal Dune Habitats in Italy under Climate Change Scenarios

    PubMed Central

    Prisco, Irene; Carboni, Marta; Acosta, Alicia T. R.

    2013-01-01

    Coastal dunes worldwide harbor threatened habitats characterized by high diversity in terms of plant communities. In Italy, recent assessments have highlighted the insufficient state of conservation of these habitats as defined by the EU Habitats Directive. The effects of predicted climate change could have dramatic consequences for coastal environments in the near future. An assessment of the efficacy of protection measures under climate change is thus a priority. Here, we have developed environmental envelope models for the most widespread dune habitats in Italy, following two complementary approaches: an “indirect” plant-species-based one and a simple “direct” one. We analyzed how habitats distribution will be altered under the effects of two climate change scenarios and evaluated if the current Italian network of protected areas will be effective in the future after distribution shifts. While modeling dune habitats with the “direct” approach was unsatisfactory, “indirect” models had a good predictive performance, highlighting the importance of using species’ responses to climate change for modeling these habitats. The results showed that habitats closer to the sea may even increase their geographical distribution in the near future. The transition dune habitat is projected to remain stable, although mobile and fixed dune habitats are projected to lose most of their actual geographical distribution, the latter being more sensitive to climate change effects. Gap analysis highlighted that the habitats’ distribution is currently adequately covered by protected areas, achieving the conservation target. However, according to predictions, protection level for mobile and fixed dune habitats is predicted to drop drastically under the climate change scenarios which we examined. Our results provide useful insights for setting management priorities and better addressing conservation efforts to preserve these threatened habitats in future. PMID:23874787

  12. Recharging the phreatic aquifer in the upper Friuli plain, Italy, by a large infiltration basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nieto, Daniel; Affatato, Alessandro; Carvalho, Tiago; Ziska Gutz, Anna; Carvalho, Jose Martin; Mattassi, Giorgio; Brandolin, Davide; Canali, Massimo; Bongiovanni, Stefano; Castelletto, Nicola; Teatini, Pietro

    2013-04-01

    Even though the Friuli Region, northern Italy, is one of Italy's rainiest areas with an average yearly rainfall that ranges between 1300 mm along the cost up to 3000 mm at the Alps foothills, the groundwater level is continuously decreasing over the last years. To cope with this reduction of water availability and increase the subsurface storage of high-quality surficial waters that usually are lost during winter flowing into the northern Adriatic Sea, an artificial recharge project is ongoing within the WARBO LIFE+ Project funded by EU. WARBO is aimed at implementing large-scale use of artificial recharge in Italy where water directives still strongly limit its application. The project involves regional authorities and public and private stakeholders operating in the field of water management and treatment with the aim of guaranteeing the future application of the defined methods and the development of specific experimental protocols to overcome the boundaries posed by the current legislation. In this context, the Mereto recharge site selected in the upper Fruili plain is emblematic. Here a large infiltration basin, about 6 m deep and 45×7 m2 wide, was built in the early 2000s but the use was prohibited by law soon after the construction. Only recently, within the WARBO Project, the possibility of implementing the recharge has been allowed. The site is characterized by an elevation of 105 m above msl and the depth to the water table averages 50 m. Below a few meter-thick organic soil, the aquifer is composed by coarse deposits with an estimated thickness of 225 m and an average vertical hydraulic conductivity equal to 10-4 m/s. A 0.1 m3/s infiltration flow has been preliminary estimated (corresponding to an infiltration rate of 60 cm/h), with the water availability that is guaranteed during winter period by an irrigation channel connected to the Tagliamento and Ledra River. The contribution describes the geophysical investigations and in-situ tests carried out to

  13. 2011 Sea Ice Minimum

    NASA Video Gallery

    This video shows Arctic sea ice from March 7, 2011, to Sept. 9, 2011, ending with a comparison of the 30-year average minimum extent, shown in yellow, and the Northwest Passage, in red. (no audio) ...

  14. Sensing the sea bed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2009-07-01

    William Wilcock and a team of scientists and engineers drilled holes in the sea floor, and inadvertently provided a breeding ground for octopuses, in their attempt to understand deep-ocean hydrothermal venting.

  15. Sea level change

    SciTech Connect

    Meier, M.F.

    1996-12-31

    The IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) 1995 Scientific Assessment, Chapter 7. Sea Level Change, presents a modest revision of the similar chapter in the 1990 Assessment. Principal conclusions on observed sea-level change and the principal terms in the sea-level equation (ocean thermal expansion, glaciers, ice sheets, and land hydrology), including our knowledge of the present-day (defined as the 20th Century) components of sea-level rise, and projections of these for the future, are presented here. Some of the interesting glaciological problems which are involved in these studies are discussed in more detail. The emphasis here is on trends over decades to a century, not on shorter variations nor on those of the geologic past. Unfortunately, some of the IPCC projections had not been agreed at the time of writing of this paper, and these projections will not be given here. 15 refs., 2 figs.

  16. Teacher at Sea.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beighley, Karl

    1998-01-01

    Outlines the experiences of a teacher in the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) Teacher At Sea Program in which teachers are placed on NOAA vessels to work with professional scientists doing critical, real world research. (DDR)

  17. Dead Sea Scrolls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    A consortium of researchers from Jet Propulsion Laboratory and three other organizations used charged coupled devices (CCDs) and other imaging enhancement technology to decipher previously unreadable portions of the Dead Sea Scrolls. The technique has potentially important implications for archeology.

  18. Sea Raiders of Acadia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickason, Olive Patricia

    1976-01-01

    One of the French allies, the Micmac, waged much of the war against the English on the sea. This article discusses the determined stand by the Micmac seamen of the eastern coasts for their lands and way of life. (NQ)

  19. Sea ice ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Arrigo, Kevin R

    2014-01-01

    Polar sea ice is one of the largest ecosystems on Earth. The liquid brine fraction of the ice matrix is home to a diverse array of organisms, ranging from tiny archaea to larger fish and invertebrates. These organisms can tolerate high brine salinity and low temperature but do best when conditions are milder. Thriving ice algal communities, generally dominated by diatoms, live at the ice/water interface and in recently flooded surface and interior layers, especially during spring, when temperatures begin to rise. Although protists dominate the sea ice biomass, heterotrophic bacteria are also abundant. The sea ice ecosystem provides food for a host of animals, with crustaceans being the most conspicuous. Uneaten organic matter from the ice sinks through the water column and feeds benthic ecosystems. As sea ice extent declines, ice algae likely contribute a shrinking fraction of the total amount of organic matter produced in polar waters. PMID:24015900

  20. Science at Sea.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Mary Nied

    2001-01-01

    Describes a three-week inservice teacher education program that involves two sessions of preparatory classes ashore in nautical science and oceanography, and concludes with a nine-day sea voyage. (ASK)

  1. Record Sea Ice Minimum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Arctic sea ice reached a record low in September 2007, below the previous record set in 2005 and substantially below the long-term average. This image shows the Arctic as observed by the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer for EOS (AMSR-E) aboard NASA's Aqua satellite on September 16, 2007. In this image, blue indicates open water, white indicates high sea ice concentration, and turquoise indicates loosely packed sea ice. The black circle at the North Pole results from an absence of data as the satellite does not make observations that far north. Three contour lines appear on this image. The red line is the 2007 minimum, as of September 15, about the same time the record low was reached, and it almost exactly fits the sea ice observed by AMSR-E. The green line indicates the 2005 minimum, the previous record low. The yellow line indicates the median minimum from 1979 to 2000.

  2. Mediterranean sea level variations.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vigo, I.; Sánchez Reales, J. M.; García, D.; Chao, B. F.

    2009-04-01

    In this work we report an updated study of the sea level variations for the Mediterranean sea for the period from October 1992 to January 2008. The study addresses two mayor issues: (i)The analysis of the spatial and temporal variability of sea surface height (SSH) from radar altimetry measurements (from TOPEX/Poseidon (T/P) + Jason-1, etc.). We use EOF analysis to explain most of its interannual variation, and how the different basins interact. (ii) The analysis of dynamics and balance of water mass transport for the whole period. We estimate the steric SSH by combining the steric SSH estimated from temperature and salt profiles simulated by the ECCO model with time-variable gravity (TVG) data (from GRACE) for the Mediterranean Sea. The estimated steric SSH together with the SSH obtained from altimetry allow for a more realistic estimation of the water mass variations in the Mediterranean for the whole period.

  3. A Sea Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glickstein, Neil

    1989-01-01

    Described is a teacher education program organized by the Sea Education Association in Woods Hole (Massachusetts). The experience, including activities and examples of studies conducted, is discussed. Contact information for future cruises is included. (CW)

  4. South China Sea.

    PubMed

    Morton, B; Blackmore, G

    2001-12-01

    The South China Sea is poorly understood in terms of its marine biota, ecology and the human impacts upon it. What is known is most often contained in reports and workshop and conference documents that are not available to the wider scientific community. The South China Sea has an area of some 3.3 million km2 and depths range from the shallowest coastal fringe to 5377 m in the Manila Trench. It is also studded with numerous islets, atolls and reefs many of which are just awash at low tide. It is largely confined within the Tropic of Cancer and, therefore, experiences a monsoonal climate being influenced by the Southwest Monsoon in summer and the Northeast Monsoon in winter. The South China Sea is a marginal sea and, therefore, largely surrounded by land. Countries that have a major influence on and claims to the sea include China, Malaysia, the Philippines and Vietnam, although Thailand, Indonesia and Taiwan have some too. The coastal fringes of the South China Sea are home to about 270 million people that have had some of the fastest developing and most vibrant economies on the globe. Consequently, anthropogenic impacts, such as over-exploitation of resources and pollution, are anticipated to be huge although, in reality, relatively little is known about them. The Indo-West Pacific biogeographic province, at the centre of which the South China Sea lies, is probably the world's most diverse shallow-water marine area. Of three major nearshore habitat types, i.e., coral reefs, mangroves and seagrasses, 45 mangrove species out of a global total of 51, most of the currently recognised 70 coral genera and 20 of 50 known seagrass species have been recorded from the South China Sea. The island groups of the South China Sea are all disputed and sovereignty is claimed over them by a number of countries. Conflicts have in recent decades arisen over them because of perceived national rights. It is perhaps because of this that so little research has been undertaken on the

  5. Black Sea Becomes Turquoise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This true-color image shows bright, turquoise-colored swirls across the surface of the Black Sea, signifying the presence of a large phytoplankton bloom. Scientists have observed similar blooms recurring annually, roughly this same time of year. The Sea of Azov, which is the smaller body of water located just north of the Black Sea in this image, also shows a high level of color variance. The brownish pixels in the Azov are probably due to sediments carried in from high waters and snowmelt from upstream. This scene was acquired by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer, flying aboard NASA's Terra satellite, on May 14, 2002. According to the Black Sea Environment Programme's Marine Hydrophysical Institute, the Black Sea is ?one of the marine areas of the world most damaged by human activities.? The coastal zone around these Eastern European inland water bodies is densely populated'supporting a permanent population of roughly 16 million people and another 4 million tourists each year. Six countries border with the Black Sea, including Ukraine to the north, Russia and Georgia to the east, Turkey to the south, and Bulgaria and Romania to the west. Because it is isolated from the world's oceans, and because there is an extensive drainage network of rivers that empty into it, the Black Sea has a unique and delicate water balance which is very important for supporting its marine ecosystem. Of particular concern to scientists is the salinity, water level, and nutrient levels of the Black Sea's waters, all of which are, unfortunately, being impacted by human activities. Within the last three decades the combination of increased nutrient loads from human sources together with pollution and over-harvesting of fisheries has resulted in a sharp decline in water quality. Scientists from each of the Black Sea's bordering nations are currently working together to study the issues and formulate a joint, international strategy for saving this unique marine ecosystem

  6. Long-period sea-level variations in the Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zerbini, Susanna; Raicich, Fabio; Bruni, Sara; del Conte, Sara; Errico, Maddalena; Prati, Claudio; Santi, Efisio

    2016-04-01

    Since the beginning of its long-lasting lifetime, the Wegener initiative has devoted careful consideration to studying sea-level variations/changes across the Mediterranean Sea. Our study focuses on several long-period sea-level time series (from end of 1800 to 2012) acquired in the Mediterranean by tide gauge stations. In general, the analysis and interpretation of these data sets can provide an important contribution to research on climate change and its impacts. We have analyzed the centennial sea-level time series of six fairly well documented tide gauges. They are: Marseille, in France, Alicante in Spain, Genoa, Trieste, Venice and Marina di Ravenna (formerly Porto Corsini), in Italy. The data of the Italian stations of Marina di Ravenna and Venice clearly indicate that land subsidence is responsible for most of the observed rate of relative sea level rise. It is well known that, in the two areas, subsidence is caused by both natural processes and human activities. For these two stations, using levelling data of benchmarks at, and/or close to, the tide gauges, and for the recent years, also GPS and InSAR height time series, modelling of the long-period non-linear behavior of subsidence was successfully accomplished. After removing the land vertical motions, the estimate of the linear long-period sea-level rise at all six stations yielded remarkably consistent values, between +1,2 and +1,3 mm/yr, with associated errors ranging from ±0,2 to ±0,3 mm/yr (95% confidence interval), which also account for the statistical autocorrelation of the time series. These trends in the Mediterranean area are lower than the global mean rate of 1,7±0,2 mm/yr (1901-2010) presented by the IPCC in its 5th Assessment Report; however, they are in full agreement with a global mean sea-level rise estimate, over the period 1901-1990, recently published by Hay et al. (2015, doi:10.1038/nature14093) and obtained using probabilistic techniques that combine sea-level records with physics

  7. Immigrants’ children’s transition to secondary school in Italy

    PubMed Central

    Barban, Nicola; White, Michael J

    2014-01-01

    Choosing a secondary school represents an important step in the lives of students in Italy, in that it has a strong bearing on their ultimate educational achievement and labor force trajectory. In this paper, we analyze the effect of generational status and length of residence on the transition to secondary school among immigrants living in Italy. Using data from the ITAGEN2 follow-up, we analyze scholastic results from the middle school final exam and the choice of secondary school among the adolescents in Italy. Children of immigrants are more likely to have inferior outcomes on the middle school exam and to enroll in vocational and polytechnic schools. Our multivariate results indicate that, after controlling for the family’s human capital and other key background factors, immigrant students show greater propensity to choose a vocational path. Differences between immigrants and natives in secondary school tracks are also manifest when previous scholastic results are taken into account. PMID:25587204

  8. [Aedes albopictus in Italy: an underestimated health problem].

    PubMed

    Romi, R

    2001-01-01

    Since 1990, Ae. albopictus has spread in 9 regions and 30 provinces of the country. This species was introduced in Italy in shipments of scrap tires form the USA. In Italy, Ae. albopictus is the major biting pest throughout much of its range and, although there is no evidence that this mosquito is the vector of human disease in the country, the species might be involved in the transmission of some arboviruses which have been reported in the Mediterranean Basin. Aim of this paper is to provide an update on the distribution of Ae. albopictus in Italy and to renew the interest in a problem frequently underestimated. Public health implications after a ten-year presence of the species are also discussed. PMID:11758282

  9. A high resolution Adriatic-Ionian Sea circulation model for operational forecasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciliberti, Stefania Angela; Pinardi, Nadia; Coppini, Giovanni; Oddo, Paolo; Vukicevic, Tomislava; Lecci, Rita; Verri, Giorgia; Kumkar, Yogesh; Creti', Sergio

    2015-04-01

    A new numerical regional ocean model for the Italian Seas, with focus on the Adriatic-Ionian basin, has been implemented within the framework of Technologies for Situational Sea Awareness (TESSA) Project. The Adriatic-Ionian regional model (AIREG) represents the core of the new Adriatic-Ionian Forecasting System (AIFS), maintained operational by CMCC since November 2014. The spatial domain covers the Adriatic and the Ionian Seas, extending eastward until the Peloponnesus until the Libyan coasts; it includes also the Tyrrhenian Sea and extends westward, including the Ligurian Sea, the Sardinia Sea and part of the Algerian basin. The model is based on the NEMO-OPA (Nucleus for European Modeling of the Ocean - Ocean PArallelise), version 3.4 (Madec et al. 2008). NEMO has been implemented for AIREG at 1/45° resolution model in horizontal using 121 vertical levels with partial steps. It solves the primitive equations using the time-splitting technique for solving explicitly the external gravity waves. The model is forced by momentum, water and heat fluxes interactively computed by bulk formulae using the 6h-0.25° horizontal-resolution operational analysis and forecast fields from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecast (ECMWF) (Tonani et al. 2008, Oddo et al. 2009). The atmospheric pressure effect is included as surface forcing for the model hydrodynamics. The evaporation is derived from the latent heat flux, while the precipitation is provided by the Climate Prediction Centre Merged Analysis of Precipitation (CMAP) data. Concerning the runoff contribution, the model considers the estimate of the inflow discharge of 75 rivers that flow into the Adriatic-Ionian basin, collected by using monthly means datasets. Because of its importance as freshwater input in the Adriatic basin, the Po River contribution is provided using daily average observations from ARPA Emilia Romagna observational network. AIREG is one-way nested into the Mediterranean Forecasting

  10. Palaeoenvironmental history of the Holocene volcanic crater lake Lago d'Averno (central southern Italy) inferred from aquatic mollusc deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welter-Schultes, F. W.; Richling, I.

    2000-12-01

    The mollusc record from Lago d'Averno, central southern Italy, provides a detailed 1600-yr record of changes in water quality in response to bradyseismic movements and salinity fluctuations. Bradyseismic vertical land movements and human impact in Roman times led to several transgressions from the Mediterranean Sea, 1 km distant, making the lake a valuable resource for documenting the effect of episodic marine transgressions of a freshwater lake. Low-oxygen-tolerant freshwater molluscs suggest that, at around 900-500 bc the lake had a slowly decreasing medium freshwater quality, resulting from contamination of volcanic origin. Disappearance of the obligate freshwater snails and transgression of low-salinity-tolerant marine species indicate that, after 500 bc, continuous subsidence resulted in episodic marine transgressions from the nearby sea. The construction of a canal that connected the lake with the sea, in 37 bc, is marked by a considerable increase in the number of shells and by arrival of brackish-water-intolerant marine species. Species diversity increased considerably when the area was partly depopulated towards the end of the Roman Empire around ad 400. When the land was slightly uplifted around ad 600-750, the water quality of the lake became less favourable for marine molluscs.

  11. Contemporary sea level rise.

    PubMed

    Cazenave, Anny; Llovel, William

    2010-01-01

    Measuring sea level change and understanding its causes has considerably improved in the recent years, essentially because new in situ and remote sensing observations have become available. Here we report on most recent results on contemporary sea level rise. We first present sea level observations from tide gauges over the twentieth century and from satellite altimetry since the early 1990s. We next discuss the most recent progress made in quantifying the processes causing sea level change on timescales ranging from years to decades, i.e., thermal expansion of the oceans, land ice mass loss, and land water-storage change. We show that for the 1993-2007 time span, the sum of climate-related contributions (2.85 +/- 0.35 mm year(-1)) is only slightly less than altimetry-based sea level rise (3.3 +/- 0.4 mm year(-1)): approximately 30% of the observed rate of rise is due to ocean thermal expansion and approximately 55% results from land ice melt. Recent acceleration in glacier melting and ice mass loss from the ice sheets increases the latter contribution up to 80% for the past five years. We also review the main causes of regional variability in sea level trends: The dominant contribution results from nonuniform changes in ocean thermal expansion. PMID:21141661

  12. Analysis of sea level and sea surface temperature changes in the Black Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Betul Avsar, Nevin; Jin, Shuanggen; Kutoglu, Hakan; Erol, Bihter

    2016-07-01

    The Black Sea is a nearly closed sea with limited interaction with the Mediterranean Sea through the Turkish Straits. Measurement of sea level change will provide constraints on the water mass balance and thermal expansion of seawaters in response to climate change. In this paper, sea level changes in the Black Sea are investigated between January 1993 and December 2014 using multi-mission satellite altimetry data and sea surface temperature (SST) data. Here, the daily Maps of Sea Level Anomaly (MSLA) gridded with a 1/8°x1/8° spatial resolution from AVISO and the NOAA 1/4° daily Optimum Interpolation Sea Surface Temperature (OISST) Anomaly data set are used. The annual cycles of sea level and sea surface temperature changes reach the maximum values in November and January, respectively. The trend is 3.16±0.77 mm/yr for sea level change and -0.06±0.01°C/yr for sea surface temperature during the same 22-year period. The observed sea level rise is highly correlated with sea surface warming for the same time periods. In addition, the geographical distribution of the rates of the Black Sea level and SST changes between January 1993 and December 2014 are further analyzed, showing a good agreement in the eastern Black Sea. The rates of sea level rise and sea surface warming are larger in the eastern part than in the western part except in the northwestern Black Sea. Finally, the temporal correlation between sea level and SST time series are presented based on the Empirical Orthogonal Function (EOF) analysis.

  13. New species and new records of trichomycetes from Italy.

    PubMed

    Valle, Laia Guardia; Rossi, Walter; Santamaria, Sergi

    2013-01-01

    We present the results obtained from a short survey in central Italy to broaden the poorly known diversity of trichomycetous gut symbionts, members of the Kickxellomycotina, in this country. Among the reported fungi, two new species of Harpellales are described: Harpellomyces aprutinus and Orphella italica, as well as 14 other species that are new for Italy. Among these, the remarkable and rare species Gauthieromyces microsporus is included, previously known only from the type locality in France. One species of Asellariales, Asellaria gramenei, also is reported. Taxonomic and biogeographic implications of these records are discussed. PMID:23233514

  14. [Current status of robotic urologic surgery in Italy].

    PubMed

    Sacco, Emilio; Bientinesi, Riccardo; Bassi, Pier Francesco

    2015-10-01

    The introduction of robot-assisted surgery represents a milestone in the history of surgery. Today, many surgical disciplines make use of the DaVinci robotic system in performing surgery, even complex ones. Italy stands as one of the countries with a greater diffusion of robotics in surgery, particularly in urological surgery. In Italy, every year, numerous urological surgeries are performed with the DaVinci robot; however, costs of this technology are high and, although likely to decrease, constitute a limit to the spread of the same and restricting its use to shared areas. PMID:26429391

  15. Projecting future sea level

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cayan, Daniel R.; Bromirski, Peter; Hayhoe, Katharine; Tyree, Mary; Dettinger, Mike; Flick, Reinhard

    2006-01-01

    California’s coastal observations and global model projections indicate that California’s open coast and estuaries will experience increasing sea levels over the next century. Sea level rise has affected much of the coast of California, including the Southern California coast, the Central California open coast, and the San Francisco Bay and upper estuary. These trends, quantified from a small set of California tide gages, have ranged from 10–20 centimeters (cm) (3.9–7.9 inches) per century, quite similar to that estimated for global mean sea level. So far, there is little evidence that the rate of rise has accelerated, and the rate of rise at California tide gages has actually flattened since 1980, but projections suggest substantial sea level rise may occur over the next century. Climate change simulations project a substantial rate of global sea level rise over the next century due to thermal expansion as the oceans warm and runoff from melting land-based snow and ice accelerates. Sea level rise projected from the models increases with the amount of warming. Relative to sea levels in 2000, by the 2070–2099 period, sea level rise projections range from 11–54 cm (4.3–21 in) for simulations following the lower (B1) greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions scenario, from 14–61 cm (5.5–24 in) for the middle-upper (A2) emission scenario, and from 17–72 cm (6.7–28 in) for the highest (A1fi) scenario. In addition to relatively steady secular trends, sea levels along the California coast undergo shorter period variability above or below predicted tide levels and changes associated with long-term trends. These variations are caused by weather events and by seasonal to decadal climate fluctuations over the Pacific Ocean that in turn affect the Pacific coast. Highest coastal sea levels have occurred when winter storms and Pacific climate disturbances, such as El Niño, have coincided with high astronomical tides. This study considers a range of projected future

  16. Educational Geophysics at INGV, Rome (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dida Working Group Ingv,.

    2002-12-01

    Italy is a country prone to Earth phenomena such as earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, floods and landslides that left a trace in the memory of people. About 60% of the Italian territory is classified in the current seismic hazard maps, and large cities as Neaples and Catania are located close to the two largest active volcanoes of Europe (Mt. Vesuvius and Mt. Etna, respectively). Nevertheless, school programs are often inadequate about the natural hazards of the country. For this reason there are many requests from schoolteachers to visit with their classes the academic Institutions and to attend geophysical talks. The working group for educational activities of the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica and Vulcanologia promotes and realizes Earth science outreach programs devoted to increase the knowledge of geophysical topics. The educational activity is one of the most important tasks of our Institution together with the research activities and the 24-hours survey of the Italian Seismic Network. The INGV hosts in its headquarter of Rome many visits of primary, secondary and high schools with an increasing demand year by year. Every year about 3,000 students visit our Institute over more than 60 open-days, and we participate to exhibitions and outreach projects organized by several Institutions. We show here what has been done at INGV for the geophysical education, underlining the problems and the successes of these activities. We describe also an educational project developed together with a teacher's team of secondary-school. Aim of this experience was to stimulate the interest of 12-year-old kids to unfamiliar arguments like seismology. The class was introduced to physical topics as waves and wave propagation by means of simple experiments. Then they visited the INGV were the research activities were shown, with emphasis on seismological studies; they were also thought how the Italian Seismic Network monitors earthquakes and how to use the P and S waves for their

  17. Real Time Seismic Loss Estimation in Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goretti, A.; Sabetta, F.

    2009-04-01

    By more than 15 years the Seismic Risk Office is able to perform a real-time evaluation of the earthquake potential loss in any part of Italy. Once the epicentre and the magnitude of the earthquake are made available by the National Institute for Geophysiscs and Volca-nology, the model, based on the Italian Geographic Information Sys-tems, is able to evaluate the extent of the damaged area and the consequences on the built environment. In recent years the model has been significantly improved with new methodologies able to conditioning the uncertainties using observa-tions coming from the fields during the first days after the event. However it is reputed that the main challenges in loss analysis are related to the input data, more than to methodologies. Unlike the ur-ban scenario, where the missing data can be collected with enough accuracy, the country-wise analysis requires the use of existing data bases, often collected for other purposed than seismic scenario evaluation, and hence in some way lacking of completeness and homogeneity. Soil properties, building inventory and population dis-tribution are the main input data that are to be known in any site of the whole Italian territory. To this end the National Census on Popu-lation and Dwellings has provided information on the residential building types and the population that lives in that building types. The critical buildings, such as Hospital, Fire Brigade Stations, Schools, are not included in the inventory, since the national plan for seismic risk assessment of critical buildings is still under way. The choice of a proper soil motion parameter, its attenuation with distance and the building type fragility are important ingredients of the model as well. The presentation will focus on the above mentioned issues, highlight-ing the different data sets used and their accuracy, and comparing the model, input data and results when geographical areas with dif-ferent extent are considered: from the urban scenarios

  18. Annual sea ice. An air-sea gas exchange moderator

    SciTech Connect

    Gosink, T.A.; Kelley, J.J.

    1982-01-01

    Arctic annual sea ice, particularly when it is relatively warm (> -15/sup 0/C) permits significant gas exchange between the sea and air throughout the entire year. Sea ice, particularly annual sea ice, differs from freshwater ice with respect to its permeability to gases. The presence of brine allows for significant air-sea-ice exchange of CO/sub 2/ throughout the winter, which may significantly affect the global carbon dioxide balance. Other trace gases are also noted to be enriched in sea ice, but less is known about their importance to air-sea-interactions at this time. Both physical and biological factors cause and modify evolution of gases from the surface of sea ice. Quantitative and qualitative descriptions of the nature and physical behavior of sea ice with respect to brine and gases are discussed.

  19. Changes in extreme sea levels in the Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dieterich, Christian; Gröger, Matthias; Andersson, Helén; Nerheim, Signild; Jönsson, Anette

    2016-04-01

    A newly developed shallow water model for the Baltic Sea and North Sea is presented. The model is validated by means of a comparison with hindcast simulations with observational data sets. The aim of the development is to provide and apply a modelling tool to model extreme sea levels in the Baltic Sea, Kattegat and Skagerrak. The model approach will support the direct analysis of extreme sea level observations in the past and provide the possibility to extend the statistical data base by producing very long time series or very large ensembles of coastal sea levels. This effort is intended to contribute to an assessment of risks due to storm surges and coastal flooding in the 21st century along the coast of Sweden. By using different RCP climate scenarios downscaled with a regional, coupled climate model atmospheric forcing is available to project possible changes in extreme sea levels into the future. Projected sea level rise, changes in dynamical sea level in the North East Atlantic and tidal forcing in the northern North Sea are applied as boundary condition which allows to investigate their impact on the dynamics of regional sea level variability. Initial experiments focus on the impact of model resolution, resolution in the atmospheric forcing and the amount of details necessary in the bathymetry to faithfully model coastal sea level in the Baltic Sea and North Sea.

  20. 78 FR 57129 - Certain Pasta From Italy and Turkey: Continuation of Antidumping and Countervailing Duty Orders

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-17

    ... of Five-Year Sunset Review, 77 FR 53867 (September 4, 2012); Certain Pasta from Italy and Turkey; and... from Italy and Turkey, 77 FR 53909 (September 4, 2012). \\2\\ See Certain Pasta From Italy and Turkey... Order, 78 FR 693 (January 4, 2013); and Certain Pasta From Turkey: Final Results of the Expedited...

  1. Structural Setting of Western Monferrato (Alps-Apennines Junction Zone, NW Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piana, Fabrizio

    2000-10-01

    New data on the structural setting of the Torino Hill and Western Monferrato domains provide a clearer picture of the kinematic evolution of the Alps-Apennines junction zone. In the Alps-Apennines junction, left-lateral underthrusting of Ligurian units below Alpine crust has often been invoked to explain the underthrusting of the Insubric domain and the NW-ward movement of the Adriatic indenter. A transpressive fault system (Rio Freddo Fault Zone) developed in the Monferrato epi-Ligurian succession is here understood as the surficial expression of a deep-seated thrust along which the Alpine metamorphic basement of the Torino Hill has overridden the Apenninic Ligurian nappes since the Paleogene up to Burdigalian. In the Western Monferrato the regional sinistral transpression differentiated separated crustal blocks during the Oligocene-early Miocene, and kilometer-thick successions were steepened by NNW-SSE faults that acted as reverse and/or left-lateral faults. Double-vergent (SE-NW) low-angle shear zones then cut the Rio Freddo Fault Zone in post-Langhian times. They have been here related with the eastward tectonic transport of the Torino Hill and relative Alpine crust toward the Monferrato domain, which occurred before the seismic line scale middle Miocene unconformity was established. This poses the problem of the exact age of this regional unconformity, which in our case should be at least Serravallian. Finally, the Monferrato and Torino Hill domains were coupled, and both were NW-ward translated by the Padan Thrust Front in the Pliocene. The youngest strike-slip and reverse faults of the Western Monferrato may be tear or compartmental faults that partitioned the Padan Thrust motion, whose propagation could be controlled by pre-middle-Miocene tectonic structures. The structural complexity of the study area is here understood as the inheritance of deep crosscutting regional structures that forced the convergent structural units of the Alpine and Insubric

  2. The White Sea, Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Editor's Note: The caption below, published on May 10, 2001, is incorrect. According to Masha Vorontsova, director of the International Fund for Animal Welfare in Moscow, the situation with the seal pups in the White Sea is normal. There is no disaster and there never was. For more details, refer to the article entitled 'No Danger' on the New Scientist home page. The Earth Observatory regrets the earlier errant report. Original Caption According to the Russian Polar Research Institute for Fisheries and Oceanography, between 250,000 and 300,000 Greenland seal pups face death by starvation over the next two months due to a cruel trick by mother nature. The seals, most of them less than two months old, are trapped on ice sheets that remain locked in the White Sea, located near Archangel in Northern Russia. Typically, during the spring thaw the ice sheets break up and flow with the currents northward into the Barents Sea, the seals' spring feeding grounds. The seal pups hitch a ride on the ice floes, living on their own individual stores of fat until they arrive in the Barents Sea. Their mothers departed for the Barents Sea weeks ago. In a normal year, the seal pups' trip from the White Sea out to the Barents takes about six weeks and the seals have adapted to rely upon this mechanism of mother nature. During their yearly migration, the mother seals usually stay with their pups and feed them until their pelts turn from white to grey--a sign that the pups are mature enough to swim and feed themselves. Unfortunately, this year unusually strong northerly winds created a bottleneck of ice near the mouth of the white sea, thus blocking the flow of ice and trapping the pups. These true-color images of the White Sea were acquired by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra spacecraft. This image, taken May 2, 2000 that there is usually much less ice in the White Sea this time of year as most of it is typically en route to the

  3. Risk analysis and perception of an hypothetic volcanogenic tsunami along the Tyrrhenian coast of Calabria (Southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mari, Nicola; Gravina, Teresita

    2016-04-01

    The Marsili volcano is the largest and active seamount in Europe, located in the Marsili Basin back-arc basin (Aeolian Arc, Italy). Its flanks are unstables and a large collapse could originate a disastrous tsunami that will strike the tyrrhenian coasts of Southern Italy. In this work we used a GIS methodology in order to calculate the tsunami travel time starting from Marsili volcano, in particular the time that the wave needs to arrive on the tyrrhenian coasts of Calabria (South Italy). Although, we made a qualitative risk perception analysis by distributing a questionnaire at the population from different parts of Calabria. As a result, we obtained a tsunami travel time of 20-25 minutes for almost all the Calabria coasts and a tsunami celerity above the normal because of the great sea depth near the analysed coasts. The majority of the population declare to know the meaning of "tsunami" and a great number of them retain to be affected by a tsunami risk in the place where they live, but they are no instructed about this risk. A great quantity of people links the tsunami generation to a submarine volcanic eruption. In conclusion, by looking at the tsunami travel time calculated through GIS, the installation of an alert system need along the tyrrhenian coast of Calabria, with an alert advise of around 10 minutes and an evacuation plan of 10 minutes. More integration within GIS and the questionnaire data needs in order to create right evacuation plans and to conduct formative activities for each area.

  4. The "Mud-volcanoes route" (Emilia Apennines, northern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coratza, Paola; Castaldini, Doriano

    2016-04-01

    In the present paper the "Mud-volcanoes route" (MVR), an itinerary unfolds across the districts of Viano, Sassuolo, Fiorano Modenese and Maranello, in which part of the Emilia mud volcanoes fields are located, is presented. The Mud-volanoes route represents an emotional journey that connects places and excellences through the geological phenomenon of mud volcanoes, known with the local name "Salse". The Mud Volcanoes are created by the surfacing of salt water and mud mixed with gaseous and liquid hydrocarbons along faults and fractures of the ground. The name "Salsa"- from Latin salsus - results from the"salt" content of these muddy waters, ancient heritage of the sea that about a million years ago was occupying the current Po Plain. The "Salse" may take the shape of a cone or a level-pool according to the density of the mud. The Salse of Nirano, in the district of Fiorano Modenese, is one of the most important in Italy and among the most complex in Europe. Less extensive but equally charming and spectacular, are the "Salse" located in the districts of Maranello (locality Puianello), Sassuolo (locality Montegibbio) and Viano (locality Casola Querciola and Regnano). These fascinating lunar landscapes have always attracted the interest of researchers and tourist.The presence on the MVR territory of ancient settlements, Roman furnaces and mansions, fortification systems and castles, besides historic and rural buildings, proves the lasting bond between this land and its men. In these places, where the culture of good food has become a resource, we can find wine cellars, dairy farms and Balsamic vinegar factories that enable us to appreciate unique worldwide products. This land gave also birth to some personalities who created unique worldwide famous values, such as the myth of the Ferrrari, the ceramic industry and the mechatronics. The MVR is represented in a leaflet containing, short explanation, photos and a map in which are located areas with mud volcanoes, castles

  5. Farmland productivity under stress conditions: a field scale monitoring and modeling study on the Venice coastland, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manoli, Gabriele; Scudiero, Elia; Putti, Mario; Morari, Francesco; Teatini, Pietro

    2014-05-01

    The Venice coastland, Italy, is a precarious environment jeopardized by both natural and anthropogenic factors. Due to a land elevation below sea level and the presence of sandy paleo-channels, salinization of soil and shallow groundwater is posing a serious threat to the agricultural productivity of the region. In order to identify and quantify the impacts of the saltwater contamination on crop productivity an integrated monitoring and modeling approach is used. A representative 21 ha basin cultivated with maize crop has been extensively studied by soil sampling, geophysical surveys, continuous hydrological monitoring and crop yield distribution. Based on field observations a field-scale model of soil moisture dynamics coupled with plant transpiration, photosynthesis and growth has been developed and applied at the site.

  6. The Dead Sea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    The Dead Sea is the lowest point on Earth at 418 meters below sea level, and also one of the saltiest bodies of water on Earth with a salinity of about 300 parts-per-thousand (nine times greater than ocean salinity). It is located on the border between Jordan and Israel, and is fed by the Jordan River. The Dead Sea is located in the Dead Sea Rift, formed as a result of the Arabian tectonic plate moving northward away from the African Plate. The mineral content of the Dead Sea is significantly different from that of ocean water, consisting of approximately 53% magnesium chloride, 37% potassium chloride and 8% sodium chloride. In the early part of the 20th century, the Dead Sea began to attract interest from chemists who deduced that the Sea was a natural deposit of potash and bromine. From the Dead Sea brine, Israel and Jordan produce 3.8 million tons potash, 200,000 tons elemental bromine, 45,000 tons caustic soda, 25, 000 tons magnesium metal, and sodium chloride. Both countries use extensive salt evaporation pans that have essentially diked the entire southern end of the Dead Sea.

    With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER provides scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop

  7. Earthquakes and tidal records in the Mediterranean sea: case studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vecchio, A.; Anzidei, M.; Carbone, V.; Capparelli, V.; Guerra, I.; Arena, G.

    2012-12-01

    We show and discuss the analysis of tidal data from some selected tide gauge stations located in the Mediterranean sea, including the Italian tide gauge network consisting in 30 stations. Our goal is to study the effects of large and moderate magnitude earthquakes on tidal oscillations. We focus on three seismic events: i) the March 11th, 2011, M 9.0 Tohoku-Oki earthquake, generating a giant tsunami offshore the Honshu island (Japan) that propagated in the Oceans. We show that the tidal stations located in the Mediterranean have recorded a weak signal that disturbed the daily tidal trends; ii) the May 21th, 2003, M 6.8 Boumerdès earthquake in northern Algeria, that generated a small tsunami event that reached the coast of Southern Europe; iii) the Dicember 17th, 2008, M 5.3 earthquake located in the Tyrrhenian sea. Finally, we also analyzed a sea level data set containing an anomalous tidal signal not related to earthquakes, felt along Thyrrhenian coast of Italy on July 2012. Tidal data were reduced for inverse barometric correction and analyzed by an advanced filtering technique that decomposes the records through oscillating modes, identifying the contributions at different timescales. In particular we focused on the dynamical behavior of the main tidal components (24 and 12 hours) and of low-frequency processes and trends.

  8. A Flexible School for Early Childhood Education in Italy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ponti, Giorgio

    2008-01-01

    This article describes the design of a flexible school for childhood education in Milan, Italy. The architecture of this school takes into account children's development and the different ways they experience space according to their age. The facilities will include not only a nursery school and kindergarten, but also a drop-in day-care centre, a…

  9. The English National Curriculum Assessment System: A Commentary from Italy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nardi, Emma

    2009-01-01

    In Italian secondary schools, it is not literature that is studied but the history of literature; it is not philosophy that is studied but the history of philosophy. Similarly, in higher education, history students even have to take an exam in the history of historiography. This is to say that in Italy, history plays a key cultural role. That is…

  10. Student Politics in Italy: From Utopia to Terrorism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Statera, Gianni

    1979-01-01

    The Italian student movement's move from libertarian utopia to political terrorism is analyzed in terms of the social and economic crisis in Italy. This is characterized by the collapse of representative student institutions, the rise of dogmatism and sectarianism, and the glorification of violence as a means of social change. (JMF)

  11. The (Adverse) Effects of Expanding Higher Education: Evidence from Italy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oppedisano, Veruska

    2011-01-01

    Over the period 1995-1998 Italy experienced an expansion of its higher education supply with the aim of reducing regional differences in educational attainment. This paper evaluates the effects of this policy on enrolment, drop out and academic performance. The paper combines differences across provinces in the number of campuses constructed with…

  12. Quality of Life in Ageing Societies: Italy, Portugal, and Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arun, Ozgur; Cevik, Aylin Cakiroglu

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare and analyze the quality of life of the elderly in three aging countries: Italy, Portugal, and Turkey. This was done by using data provided by the European Quality of Life Survey completed in 2004. By doing so, we could then operationalize the conditions of the elderly in Turkey who have a rapid aging process…

  13. World Perspective Case Descriptions on Educational Programs for Adults: Italy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federighi, Paolo; And Others

    Nine adult education programs being conducted in Italy are described in the case studies in this packet. The courses range from adult basic education to continuing education courses in languages and management. Most are described in connection with the area of the country in which they are offered. The following programs are profiled: (1) public…

  14. Wound botulism after traumatic open fracture in Italy.

    PubMed

    De Rosa, Francesco Giuseppe; Stella, Maria Laura; Astegiano, Sara; Corcione, Silvia; Motta, Ilaria; Decastelli, Lucia; Di Perri, Giovanni

    2015-09-01

    Seventeen days after a traumatic open fracture, a Clostridium botulinum wound infection was diagnosed, with self-limiting symptoms. This is the first report of wound botulism in Italy and the authors discuss the possible role of aerosolized contamination of the wound prior to hospital admission. PMID:26397301

  15. [Migration, work flexibility and early retirement of nurses in Italy].

    PubMed

    Valenti, A; Boccuni, F; Rondinone, B M; Vonesch, N; Iavicoli, S

    2007-01-01

    Several work organizational changes have been occurring in the health sector in the last years. Workforce is rapidly changing and particularly nurses. In Italy there is a growing shortage of nurses (5,4/1000 inhabitants versus 9,26 in EU25) due mainly to early retirement and insufficient turnover of nurses coming from educational programmes. Work flexibility and facilitation of migration flow of foreigner nurses have been introduced in Italy to face the problem. The present study is aimed at investigating the impact of such a change in the nursing sector in Italy and its possible impact on occupational safety and health. In view of this, the main institutional and category Sources were used. According to IPASVI estimates, the shortage of nurses in Italy is 99,000. Out of a total of 342,000 active professional nurses, 20,000 are foreign, mainly from European countries. Nurses are specially affected by accidents at work, mainly musculoskeletal disorders. The study shows a higher vulnerability of migrated nurses and nurses hired through cooperatives. Therefore urgent measures are needed to promote their integration and assess educational and training needs in the field of health and safety at work. PMID:18409916

  16. HIV Infection among Illegal Migrants, Italy, 2004–2007

    PubMed Central

    Pezzoli, Maria Chiara; El Hamad, Issa; Scarcella, Carmelo; Vassallo, Francesco; Speziani, Fabrizio; Cristini, Graziella; Scolari, Carla; Suligoi, Barbara; Luzi, Anna Maria; Bernasconi, Daniela; Lichtner, Miriam; Manca, Nino; Carosi, Giampiero

    2009-01-01

    To determine HIV prevalence and place of exposure for illegal migrants in Italy, we tested 3,003 illegal adult migrants for HIV; 29 (0.97%) were HIV positive. Antibody avidity index results (indicators of time of infection) were available for 27 of those persons and showed that 6 (22.2%) presumably acquired their infection after migration. PMID:19891869

  17. Old diseases for new nightmares: distemper strikes back in Italy.

    PubMed

    Lorusso, Alessio; Savini, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    This article analyses the distemper outbreak that affected the population of Apennine wolves (Canis lupus) in Italy during 2013. Distemper, as rabies, is a well-known viral infectious disease that concerns the canine population worldwide and represents a threat for wild species too. Implementation of vaccination and legislation for compulsory vaccination strategies should be achieved in areas with endangered wild species. PMID:24817331

  18. SYMPOSIUM IN ITALY: FISH PHYSIOLOGY, TOXICOLOGY, AND WATER QUALITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Scientists from Europe, North America and South America convened in Capri, Italy, April 24-28, 2006 for the Ninth International Symposium on Fish Physiology, Toxicology, and Water Quality. The subject of the meeting was Eutrophication: The toxic effects of ammonia, nitrite and th...

  19. Continuing Training in Firms and Trainer Development in Italy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villa, Paola; Marchetti, Aldo

    In Italy, all responsibility for vocational training has been delegated to the regions. At the regional level, three types of training are available: training for work, on-the-job training, and training under special state legislation. No obligation is placed on employers to train the work force. Most worker training is informal and conducted…

  20. The "Accademia della Crusca" in Italy: Past and Present

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tosi, Arturo

    2011-01-01

    An informal organisation that is becoming quite influential in the spread of Italian in Italy, as well as abroad, is the "Accademia della Crusca" which began its activities during the Renaissance, under quite different auspices. Founded in Florence in 1582-1583, this Academy was inspired by the theories of Pietro Bembo (1470-1547), a Venetian who…

  1. Research on inverse methods and optimization in Italy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larocca, Francesco

    1991-01-01

    The research activities in Italy on inverse design and optimization are reviewed. The review is focused on aerodynamic aspects in turbomachinery and wing section design. Inverse design of blade rows and ducts of turbomachinery in subsonic and transonic regime are illustrated by the Politecnico di Torino and turbomachinery industry (FIAT AVIO).

  2. Attitudes Toward the Spread of English in Italy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pulcini, Virginia

    1997-01-01

    Chronicles attitudes toward the spread of English usage in Italy during the twentieth century, focusing on the Americanization of Italian society. Finds two radically different reactions to the penetration of American culture: hostility and xenophobia during the first half of the century, and accommodation and acceptance after World War II. Also…

  3. Psychological Reactions to Crime in Italy: 2002-2004

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amerio, Piero; Roccato, Michele

    2007-01-01

    We performed a secondary analysis of the data collected by the Observatory of the North-West (a mail panel representative of the Italian population over 18), describing the trends in the distribution of fear of crime (FC) and of concern about crime as a social problem (CC) in Italy between the end of 2002 and the beginning of 2004. After analyzing…

  4. Italy Presses Forward in Educating Students with Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giangreco, Michael F.; Doyle, Mary Beth

    2015-01-01

    Italy has a long history of including students with disabilities in general education classes. Their efforts offer unique perspectives and practices from which other countries may benefit. The article highlights four notable attributes about the Italian approach and discusses implications for American schools.

  5. Standpoints on Quality: Listening to Children in Verona, Italy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harcourt, Deborah; Mazzoni, Valentina

    2012-01-01

    Early childhood research and policy, globally, are focusing increasingly on issues of "quality" in early childhood education. However, much of the focus to date has been on adult notions of quality, with little attention being devoted to children's accounts. Conducted in the context of early childhood education in Verona, Italy, this study offers…

  6. Preschool Handicapped in Italy: A Research-Based Developmental Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cecchini, Marco; McCleary, Iva Dene

    1985-01-01

    Integration practices of handicapped children at preschool level and the service model for therapeutic and social assistance in Arezzo, Italy are examined. Case studies of three severely handicapped integrated preschoolers illustrate the model's functionings. Theory and research supporting the model are noted, as is continuing research through…

  7. Teacher Education in Italy, Germany, England, Sweden and Finland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ostinelli, Giorgio

    2009-01-01

    This article presents a brief analysis of teacher education in five European countries: Italy, Germany, England, Sweden and Finland. In the post-industrial world, the sense of teaching has profoundly changed, influenced by a rapidly evolving socio-economic context. The responses given by each country are different, but two tendencies emerge: on…

  8. School Evaluation and Consultancy in Italy. Sliding Doors towards Privatisation?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serpieri, Roberto; Grimaldi, Emiliano; Vatrella, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    This article focuses on the increasing centrality assumed by non-educational consultants in the processes of policy design and knowledge production about education in Italy. We identify the recent establishment of the National School Evaluation System as a key policy trajectory and we focus on the case of the last policies to evaluate Italian…

  9. Changes in University Governance in France and in Italy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boffo, Stefano; Dubois, Pierre; Moscati, Roberto

    2008-01-01

    The transformation of higher education systems under the pressure of new needs required by the "society of knowledge" in France and Italy has had a deep effect on the relationship between state and university, and therefore a direct impact on university governance. This article sums up the main results of a research carried out on university…

  10. 75 FR 8114 - Pressure Sensitive Plastic Tape From Italy

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-23

    ..., 2009, the Commission established a schedule for the conduct of the review (74 FR 43155, August 26, 2009... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Pressure Sensitive Plastic Tape From Italy AGENCY: United States International Trade...

  11. Employment Problems and the Educational System in Italy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birtig, Guido

    1976-01-01

    This article looks at the unemployment problem in Italy and examines the attunement of the educational system to the economy's manpower needs. The journal is available in English, French, and Spanish editions from the International Labour Office Publications, International Labour Office, CH-1211 Geneva 22, Switzerland. (Author/RM)

  12. Living in Italy. Intercultural Exchange Series. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkinson, Annie

    The guide provides a brief introduction to the culture and language of Italy, and is designed for visitors, students, and business travelers. It offers practical information on various aspects of daily living, including: money; food; restaurants; hotels; postal and telecommunications services; transportation; shopping; health and medical care;…

  13. Inclusive Education in Italy: Description and Reflections on Full Inclusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anastasiou, Dimitris; Kauffman, James M.; Di Nuovo, Santo

    2015-01-01

    Inclusion of students with disabilities when appropriate is an important goal of special education for students with special needs. Full inclusion, meaning no education for any child in a separate setting, is held to be desirable by some, and Italy is likely the nation with an education system most closely approximating full inclusion on the…

  14. Anisakiasis and Gastroallergic Reactions Associated with Anisakis pegreffii Infection, Italy

    PubMed Central

    Fazii, Paolo; De Rosa, Alba; Paoletti, Michela; Megna, Angelo Salomone; Glielmo, Antonio; De Angelis, Maurizio; Costa, Antonella; Meucci, Costantino; Calvaruso, Vito; Sorrentini, Italo; Palma, Giuseppe; Bruschi, Fabrizio; Nascetti, Giuseppe

    2013-01-01

    Human cases of gastric anisakiasis caused by the zoonotic parasite Anisakis pegreffii are increasing in Italy. The disease is caused by ingestion of larval nematodes in lightly cooked or raw seafood. Because symptoms are vague and serodiagnosis is difficult, the disease is often misdiagnosed and cases are understimated. PMID:23621984

  15. Racism, "Race" and Ethnographic Research in Multicultural Italy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gobbo, Francesca

    2011-01-01

    This article is divided into two parts: in the first one, after mentioning episodes of violence against immigrants, the author discusses the issues of "race" and racism within the debate on immigration and diversity taking place in Italy. Pointing out a number of relevant indications and reflections that qualify such debate, she argues that the…

  16. Introducing the advanced burn life support (ABLS) course in Italy.

    PubMed

    D'Asta, F; Homsi, J; Clark, P; Buffalo, M C; Melandri, D; Carboni, A; Pinzauti, E; Graziano, A; Masellis, A; Bussolin, L; Messineo, A

    2014-05-01

    Systematic education based on internationally standardized programs is a well-established practice in Italy, especially in the emergency health care system. However, until recently, a specific program to treat burns was not available to guide emergency physicians, nurses, or volunteers acting as first responders. In 2010, two national faculty members, acting as ABA observers, and one Italian course coordinator, trained and certified in the United States, conducted a week-long training program which fully certified 10 Italian instructors. Authorized ABLS provider courses were conducted in Italy between 2010 and 2012, including one organized prior to the 20th annual meeting of the Italian Society of Burns (SIUst). In order to increase the effectiveness and diffusion of the course in Italy, changes were approved by the ABA to accommodate societal differences, including the translation of the manual into Italian. The ABA has also approved the creation and publication of a bilingual ABLS Italian website for the purpose of promoting the ABLS course in Italy. In response to high demand, a second ABLS Instructor course was organized in 2012 and has been attended by physicians and nurses from several Italian burn centers. In the following discourse the experiences of the first 15 Italian ABLS courses will be discussed. PMID:23992873

  17. Interactions between climate change, hydrology and soil erosion in different climatic zones in Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capra, A.; Pavanelli, D.

    2010-03-01

    In Italy, during last century the mean annual temperature (Tym) increased by 0.4°C/100 years in Northern areas (N) (continental zone) and by 0.7°C/100 years in Central (C) and Southern (S) parts (peninsular zones). A negative trend of annual rainfall (Py) was evident in both N and S areas. Extreme events had different tendencies, corresponding to increases in rainfall intensity and in drought conditions in both N and S areas. Climate change affects both vegetation water availability and runoff and erosion. Different results on climatic trends were obtained for smaller sub-regions of Southern Italy. Therefore, climate change studies at a regional level should also account for geographical factors (e.g. distance from the sea, elevation, aspect). In the current study trend in precipitation recorded during last century in three different climatic zones in Italy were investigated and compared. The three zones are: a typical Tuscan-Emilian Apennines watershed (the Reno river) located in the continental area, the Calabria region located in the peninsular zone, and the Sicily region, an island located in the South of Italy. For Reno river mountain watershed (2.597 km2), an attempt was made to gain some knowledge about the changes in the 20th century of the land use and of the climate, connected to the erosion soil risk. The Italian Apennines, from the 16th century, were exploited for farming and for agro forestry and pastoral activities. This human activities encouraged intense erosive processes, but an important factor controlling the intense morphodynamics is the contemporary increase of rainfall in the "Little Ice Age". From the beginning of the 1900, have been led two conflicting and simultaneous phenomena: population moving both to cities and valley bottoms and agricultural mechanization. Their consequences have been evident on land use: abandonment of unproductive fields, of forestry practices and enlargement of the remaining plots. The Calabria region is a long

  18. Caribbean Sea Level Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Hillebrandt-Andrade, C.; Crespo Jones, H.

    2012-12-01

    Over the past 500 years almost 100 tsunamis have been observed in the Caribbean and Western Atlantic, with at least 3510 people having lost their lives to this hazard since 1842. Furthermore, with the dramatic increase in population and infrastructure along the Caribbean coasts, today, millions of coastal residents, workers and visitors are vulnerable to tsunamis. The UNESCO IOC Intergovernmental Coordination Group for Tsunamis and other Coastal Hazards for the Caribbean and Adjacent Regions (CARIBE EWS) was established in 2005 to coordinate and advance the regional tsunami warning system. The CARIBE EWS focuses on four areas/working groups: (1) Monitoring and Warning, (2) Hazard and Risk Assessment, (3) Communication and (4) Education, Preparedness and Readiness. The sea level monitoring component is under Working Group 1. Although in the current system, it's the seismic data and information that generate the initial tsunami bulletins, it is the data from deep ocean buoys (DARTS) and the coastal sea level gauges that are critical for the actual detection and forecasting of tsunamis impact. Despite multiple efforts and investments in the installation of sea level stations in the region, in 2004 there were only a handful of sea level stations operational in the region (Puerto Rico, US Virgin Islands, Bermuda, Bahamas). Over the past 5 years there has been a steady increase in the number of stations operating in the Caribbean region. As of mid 2012 there were 7 DARTS and 37 coastal gauges with additional ones being installed or funded. In order to reach the goal of 100 operational coastal sea level stations in the Caribbean, the CARIBE EWS recognizes also the importance of maintaining the current stations. For this, a trained workforce in the region for the installation, operation and data analysis and quality control is considered to be critical. Since 2008, three training courses have been offered to the sea level station operators and data analysts. Other

  19. Geology of Barents Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Riis, F.; Vollset, J.

    1984-09-01

    The Barents Sea is situated on the continental shelf between Norway, the Spitsbergen Islands, and Novaya Zemlya. The main structural framework of the area was formed during the Caledonian and Hercynian orogenies, whereas the western parts were reactivated by the Kimmerian and Alpine orogenies. Because of the complex opening of the Greenland Norwegian Sea, important tertiary reactivation of Mesozoic normal faults occurred along southwest-northeast-trending systems of wrench faults. Owing to substantial erosion in the late Tertiary, the subsidence history and thermal development are more difficult to unravel in this area than in other places along the Norwegian Shelf. The erosion products were deposited in a huge sedimentary wedge extending onto the oceanic crust. The hydrocarbon discoveries in the Troms area in the southern part of the Barents Sea are encouraging for further exploration. However, the petroleum potential for large areas is not well known at this stage.

  20. Coastline shifts and probable ship landing site submerged off ancient Locri-Epizefiri, southern Italy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tennent, J.M.; Stanley, J.-D.; Hart, P.E.; Bernasconi, M.P.

    2009-01-01

    A geophysical survey provides new information on marine features located seaward of Locri-Epizefiri (Locri), an ancient Greek settlement on the Ionian coastal margin in southern Italy. The study supplements previous work by archaeologists who long searched for the site's harbor and recently identified what was once a marine basin that is now on land next to the city walls of Locri. Profiles obtained offshore, between the present coast and outer shelf, made with a high-resolution, seismic subbottom-profiling system, record spatial and temporal variations of buried Holocene deposits. Two of these submerged features are part of a probable now-submerged ship landing facility. The offshore features can be linked to coastline displacements that occurred off Locri: a sea-to-land shift before Greek settlement, followed by a shoreline reversal from the archaeological site back to sea, and more recently, a return landward. The seaward directed coastal shift that occurred after Locri's occupation by Greeks was likely caused by land uplift near the coastal margin and tectonic seaward shift of the coast, as documented along this geologically active sector of the Calabrian Arc. The seismic survey records an angular, hook-shaped, low rise that extends from the present shore and is now buried on the inner shelf. The rise, enclosing a core lens of poorly stratified to transparent acoustic layers, bounds a broad, low-elevation zone positioned immediately seaward of the shoreline. Close proximity of the raised feature to the low-elevation area suggests it may have been a fabricated structure that functioned as a wave-break for a ship-landing site. The study indicates that the basin extended offshore as a function of the coastline's seaward migration during and/or after Greek occupation of Locri.

  1. Changes in flood seasonality in Northern Italy during the past 2000 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wirth, Stefanie B.; Gilli, Adrian; Simonneau, Anaëlle; Ariztegui, Daniel; Vannière, Boris; Glur, Lukas; Chapron, Emmanuel; Magny, Michel; Anselmetti, Flavio S.

    2014-05-01

    The hydro-climate of the Mediterranean area is expected to experience strong impacts with climate change, a prognosis that was corroborated by the cyclone Cleopatra and its devastating effects in November 2013. In order to investigate the occurrence and the controlling climatic factors of such extreme hydrological events in the past, we investigated the frequency and seasonality of floods in Northern Italy during the past 2000 years using an annually laminated (i.e. varved) lake-sediment record (Lake Ledro, Trentino). The past flood occurrence is traced by characteristic flood deposits intercalated within the regular lacustrine sediments. The seasonality information is retrieved from the stratigraphic position of these flood deposits within the annual sedimentary cycle. Overall, the reconstructed flood signal reveals a dominance of summer (26.2%) and autumn (63.4%) events, while winter (3.7%) and spring (6.7%) events are rare, yet, the seasonal distribution varies over time. With regard to climatic forcing, periods of increased flood frequency, in particular in summer, correlate with solar minima (including Dalton, Maunder, Spörer). This correlation indicates a strong influence of variations in solar irradiance on the atmospheric circulation over the North Atlantic and thus on the latitudinal position of the westerly storm tracks. Furthermore, the comparison of our data with a sea-surface temperature (SST) reconstruction based on foraminiferal oxygen isotopes from the Mediterranean suggests that intense autumn floods more often occurred during periods of warm Mediterranean sea-surface temperature, in particular from 500 to 1000 AD. However, the intensity aspect of paleofloods requires more research, for instance by comparison with instrumental and historic data sets. The outcome of this paleoclimate study agrees with modern weather patterns in the Southern Alps. On this basis, our data set thus supports the assessment of precipitation forcing on a timescale that

  2. Morphometric analysis of the thrust front of the Lucanian Apennine, southern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivo Giano, Salvatore; Mecca, Luciana; Pascale, Stefania; Schiattarella, Marcello

    2016-04-01

    The thrust front of the southern Apennines, Italy, is formed by a north-east verging imbricate fan, transversally cut by several major rivers draining to the Ionian Sea. In the Lucanian segment of this orogen, the tectonic stack is composed by Cretaceous-Oligocene deep-sea water clayey successions and Miocene siliciclastic units, emplaced during Pliocene and Pleistocene times. It is still debated if the contractional deformation of this external part of the south-Italian orogen continues until now, because clear field evidences of recent shortening does not overcome the Middle Pleistocene. On the other hand, geomorphological features clearly indicate that the whole area suffered a significant uplift in more recent times. The present study will try to discriminate the different components of the recent and active tectonic deformation in the light of an accurate morphotectonic analysis, based on both the study of terraced surfaces and morphometric indices. The analysis of fluvial terraces arrangement and their longitudinal profiles revealed that the study area underwent a diffused rising during the Late Pleistocene. In the Holocene, the same area seems to be affected by differential uplift due to tectonic tilting toward south-east, as also supported by the increasing of the sinuosity index of the Bradano River. The tectonic mobility has been adequately proved by other indices such as the asymmetry index and the stream length-gradient index. The mapping of the SLk values has also shown that the anomalies follow NW-SE trends, suggesting a very recent activity of the ridges previously produced by contractional tectonics. Similar results have been obtained by swath profile analysis, showing peaks in coincidence of the main outcropping thrust and of more external buried structures located in the foredeep. In conclusion, all the data and geomorphic parameters led to consider the frontal portion of the Lucanian Apennines as still tectonically active, even if its recent

  3. Ionian marine terraces of southern Italy: Insights into the Quaternary tectonic evolution of the area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caputo, R.; Bianca, M.; D'Onofrio, R.

    2010-08-01

    New detailed morphotectonic analyses of a well exposed flight of marine terraces along the Ionian coast of southern Italy has been carried out. The area represents a key transect for investigating the middle-late Quaternary evolution of the Southern Apennines chain-foredeep-foreland geodynamic system. A major result of the research is the reconstruction of a virtually complete 3D geometry of the marine surfaces along a coastal sector of ca. 70 km, which (1) documents the occurrence of 18 paleo-shorelines and (2) provides evidence for a strong regional uplift affecting the investigated area. Following a systematic critical review of literature relating to geochronological data, integrated with a morphogenetic model based on the interaction between tectonic uplift and eustatic sea level changes, the different terraces are correlated to as many highstand sea level peaks, dating the highest/oldest terrace to ca. 600 ka (MIS 15). The vertical and horizontal distribution of the terraces show a general convergence of the paleo-shorelines toward NNE, which indicates a decreasing trend in differential uplift in that direction ranging from almost 2 mm/a in the southwestern sector to about 0.2 mm/a in the northeastern sector. Detailed mapping and 3D reconstruction also emphasize the partitioning of the area into three distinct sectors characterized by different tilting rates. This behavior is likely caused by the combined role and activity of three major tectonic structures working at different scales and rates including (1) the reactivation of an out-of-sequence thrust, (2) sliding along the basal detachment of the external Apennines wedge and (3) a lithospheric-scale duplexing (crustal or deeper). As a major conclusion, within the external sector of the Southern Apennines chain and its foredeep, regional shortening and a contractional tectonic regime persisted throughout the whole Quaternary and it is probably still active.

  4. Understanding Sea Level Changes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chao, Benjamin F.

    2004-01-01

    Today more than 100 million people worldwide live on coastlines within one meter of mean sea level; any short-term or long-term sea level change relative to vertical ground motion is of great societal and economic concern. As palm-environment and historical data have clearly indicated the existence and prevalence of such changes in the past, new scientific information regarding to the nature and causes and a prediction capability are of utmost importance for the future. The 10-20 cm global sea-level rise recorded over the last century has been broadly attributed to two effects: (1) the steric effect (thermal expansion and salinity-density compensation of sea water) following global climate; (2) mass-budget changes due to a number of competing geophysical and hydrological processes in the Earth-atmosphere-hydrosphere-cryosphere system, including water exchange from polar ice sheets and mountain glaciers to the ocean, atmospheric water vapor and land hydrological variations, and anthropogenic effects such as water impoundment in artificial reservoirs and extraction of groundwater, all superimposed on the vertical motions of solid Earth due to tectonics, rebound of the mantle from past and present deglaciation, and other local ground motions. As remote-sensing tools, a number of space geodetic measurements of sea surface topography (e.g., TOPEX/Poseidon, Jason), ice mass (e.g., ICESat), time-variable gravity (e.g. GRACE), and ground motions (SLR, VLBI, GPS, InSAR, Laser altimetry, etc.) become directly relevant. Understanding sea level changes "anywhere, anytime" in a well-defined terrestrial reference frame in terms of climate change and interactions among ice masses, oceans, and the solid Earth, and being able to predict them, emerge as one of the scientific challenges in the Solid Earth Science Working Group (SESWG, 2003) conclusions.

  5. Sea-level fluctuations and deep-sea sedimentation rates.

    PubMed

    Worsley, T R; Davies, T A

    1979-02-01

    Sediment accumulation rate curves from 95 drilled cores from the Pacific basin and sea-level curves derived from continental margin seismic stratigraphy show that high biogenous sediment accumulation rates correspond to low eustatic sea levels for at least the last 48 million years. This relationship fits a simple model of high sea levels producing lower land/sea ratios and hence slower chemical erosion of the continents, and vice versa. PMID:17734144

  6. Dynamics of sea level variations in the coastal Red Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Churchill, James; Abulnaja, Yasser; Nellayaputhenpeedika, Mohammedali; Limeburner, Richard; Lentz, Steven

    2016-04-01

    Sea level variations in the central Red Sea coastal zone span a range of roughly 1.2 m. Though relatively small, these water level changes can significantly impact the environment over the shallow reef tops prevalent in the central Red Sea, altering the water depth by a factor or two or more. While considerable scientific work has been directed at tidal and seasonal variations of Red Sea water level, very little attention has been given to elevation changes in an 'intermediate' frequency band, with periods of 2-30 d, even though motions in this band account for roughly half of the sea level variance in central Red Sea. We examined the sea level signal in this band using AVISO sea level anomaly (SLA) data, COARDAS wind data and measurements from pressure sensors maintained for more than five years at a number of locations in Saudi Arabian coastal waters. Empirical orthogonal function analysis of the SLA data indicates that longer-period (10-30 d) sea level variations in the intermediate band are dominated by coherent motions in a single mode that extends over most of the Red Sea axis. Idealized model results indicate that this large-scale mode of sea level motion is principally due to variations in the large-scale gradient of the along-axis wind. Our analysis indicates that coastal sea level motions at shorter periods (2-10 d) are principally generated by a combination of direct forcing by the local wind stress and forcing associated with large-scale wind stress gradients. However, also contributing to coastal sea level variations in the intermediate frequency band are mesoscale eddies, which are prevalent throughout the Red Sea basin, have a sea level signal of 10's of cm and produce relatively small-scale (order 50 km) changes in coastal sea level.

  7. Law of the Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Borgese, E.M.

    1983-03-01

    Seabed development will proceed even though the US declined to join 119 nations signing the Law of the Sea Treaty. The new law replaces laissez faire development with management of the seas. The US, Soviet Union, and 15 other countries, while withholding their signatures from the convention, did sign the Final Act of the Conference and can sign as full participants in the future if they choose. The new management approach considers global socio-economic and resource needs. It emphasizes international cooperation in the areas of economic development, disarmament, and in establishing rules and regulations for exploring the seabed. (DCK)

  8. Skin disorders at sea.

    PubMed

    Lucas, Ray; Boniface, Keith; Hite, Michael

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to characterize the types of skin disorders occurring at sea requiring acute treatment. The case logs of a tele-medicine service for US flagged ships at sea were reviewed from March 1, 2006 until March 1, 2009. Of 1844 total cases, 10% (n = 183) were for skin disorders. Sixty-eight percent (n = 125) were infections, 14% (n = 25) were inflammatory, 7% (n = 13) were environmental, and 11% (n = 20) were non-specific rashes. Cutaneous abscesses and cellulitis (n = 84) were the most common acute skin disorders encountered. In some cases (n = 81), still digital photographs aided in the diagnosis. PMID:20496321

  9. Italy SimSmoke: the effect of tobacco control policies on smoking prevalence and smoking attributable deaths in Italy

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background While Italy has implemented some tobacco control policies over the last few decades, which resulted in a decreased smoking prevalence, there is still considerable scope to strengthen tobacco control policies consistent with the World Health Organization (WHO) policy guidelines. The present study aims to evaluate the effect of past and project the effect of future tobacco control policies on smoking prevalence and associated premature mortality in Italy. Methods To assess, individually and in combination, the effect of seven types of policies, we used the SimSmoke simulation model of tobacco control policy. The model uses population, smoking rates and tobacco control policy data for Italy. Results Significant reductions of smoking prevalence and premature mortality can be achieved through tobacco price increases, high intensity media campaigns, comprehensive cessation treatment program, strong health warnings, stricter smoke-free air regulations and advertising bans, and youth access laws. With a comprehensive approach, the smoking prevalence can be decreased by as much as 12% soon after the policies are in place, increasing to a 30% reduction in the next twenty years and a 34% reduction by 30 years in 2040. Without effective tobacco control policies, a total of almost 300 thousand lives will be prematurely lost due to smoking by the year 2040. Conclusion Besides presenting the benefits of a comprehensive tobacco control strategy, the model helps identify information gaps in surveillance and evaluation schemes that will promote the effectiveness of future tobacco control policy in Italy. PMID:22931428

  10. Independent 40Ar/39Ar and 14C age constraints on the last five glacial terminations from the aggradational successions of the Tiber River, Rome (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marra, F.; Rohling, E. J.; Florindo, F.; Jicha, B.; Nomade, S.; Pereira, A.; Renne, P. R.

    2016-09-01

    We use 13 new 40Ar/39Ar and 4 new 14C datings of volcanic deposits and organic material found within near-coastal aggradational successions deposited by the Tiber River near Rome, Italy, to integrate a larger dataset previously achieved in order to offer independent age constraints to the sea-level fluctuations associated with Late Quaternary glacial cycles during the last 450 ka. Results are compared with the chronologically independently constrained Red Sea relative sea-level curve, and with the astronomically tuned deep-sea benthic δ18O record. We find good agreements for the timings of change, and in several cases for both the amplitudes and timings of change during glacial terminations T-1, T-2, T-3, and T-5. There is one striking exception, namely for glacial termination T-4 that led into interglacial Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 9. T-4 in our results is dated a full 18 ka earlier than in the Red Sea and deep-sea benthic δ18O records (which are in good agreement with each other in spite of their independent chronological constraints). The observed discrepancy is beyond the scale of the combined age uncertainties. One possible explanation is that the documented aggradation represents an early phase, triggered by a smaller event in the sea-level record, but the thickness of the aggradational sediment sequence then suggests that the amplitude of this earlier sea-level rise is underestimated in the Red Sea and benthic δ18O records. Also, this would imply that the aggradational succession of the main T-4 deglaciation has not yet been located in the study region, which is hard to reconcile with our extensive fieldwork and borehole coverage, unless unlikely non-deposition or complete erosion. Resolving this discrepancy will improve understanding of the timing of deglaciations relative to the orbitally modulated insolation forcing of climate and will require further focused research, both into the nature and chronology of the Tiber sequences of this period, and into

  11. Numerical modeling of groundwater flow in the coastal aquifer system of Taranto (southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Filippis, Giovanna; Giudici, Mauro; Negri, Sergio; Margiotta, Stefano; Cattaneo, Laura; Vassena, Chiara

    2014-05-01

    The Mediterranean region is characterized by a strong development of coastal areas with a high concentration of water-demanding human activities, resulting in weakly controlled withdrawals of groundwater which accentuate the saltwater intrusion phenomenon. The worsening of groundwater quality is a huge problem especially for those regions, like Salento (southern Italy), where a karst aquifer system represents the most important water resource because of the deficiency of a well developed superficial water supply. In this frame, the first 2D numerical model describing the groundwater flow in the karst aquifer of Salento peninsula was developed by Giudici et al. [1] at the regional scale and then improved by De Filippis et al. [2]. In particular, the estimate of the saturated thickness of the deep aquifer highlighted that the Taranto area is particularly sensitive to the phenomenon of seawater intrusion, both for the specific hydrostratigraphic configuration and for the presence of highly water-demanding industrial activities. These remarks motivate a research project which is part of the research program RITMARE (The Italian Research for the Sea), within which a subprogram is specifically dedicated to the problem of the protection and preservation of groundwater quality in Italian coastal aquifers and in particular, among the others, in the Taranto area. In this context, the CINFAI operative unit aims at providing a contribution to the characterization of groundwater in the study area. The specific objectives are: a. the reconstruction of the groundwater dynamic (i.e., the preliminary identification of a conceptual model for the aquifer system and the subsequent modeling of groundwater flow in a multilayered system which is very complex from the hydrostratigraphical point of view); b. the characterization of groundwater outflows through submarine and subaerial springs and the water exchanges with the shallow coastal water bodies (e.g. Mar Piccolo) and the off

  12. Arctic Sea Ice Maximum 2011

    NASA Video Gallery

    AMSR-E Arctic Sea Ice: September 2010 to March 2011: Scientists tracking the annual maximum extent of Arctic sea ice said that 2011 was among the lowest ice extents measured since satellites began ...

  13. Mediterranean storms and impact analysis on people of Calabria region (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrucci, O.; Polemio, M.; Pasqua, A. A.

    2010-09-01

    Mediterranean storms are a source of multiple hazards because they can trigger several types of damaging phenomena which may cause different types of impacts on a complex of natural and manmade elements in an incredible wide range of circumstances. Phenomena which occur during and after Mediterranean storms can be roughly sorted in some main groups: landslides, floods, erosion processes and sea storms. Each type of phenomenon is characterized by a proper dynamic and, according to the social and economical framework in which develops, it can cause different impacts. Despite during Mediterranean storms all these phenomena occur at the same time (or in a short while), often strongly amplifying damage and hinting emergency management, studies available in literature tend to analyze each type of phenomenon (and its impact) separately, supplying a fragmentary framework of effects. In the present work, basing on a 40-year dataset concerning effects of storms in Calabria (southern Italy), a classification of effects on people affected by the different types of phenomena triggered by rainfall is carried out. The results is a schematization of main circumstances during which the different types of phenomenon triggered by storms can hit, in some way, people, and the amount of damage reported. This kind of result can be useful in education programs for people living in risk prone areas, in order promote more conscious life-style and to avoid unnecessary risk-taking behavior.

  14. Geochemistry of selected lavas of the Panarea volcanic group, Aeolian Arc, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doherty, A. L.; Cannatelli, C.; Raia, F.; Belkin, H. E.; Albanese, S.; Lima, A.; De Vivo, B.

    2015-10-01

    The Panarea Volcanic Group (PVG) is a group of emergent islands rising from the truncated cone of an underwater edifice in the eastern sector of the Aeolian Island Arc in the Tyrrhenian Sea, Italy. Selected lava units from the main island of Panarea and some of the nearby islets were analysed for their major and trace element compositions to the dataset available in the literature. Major mineral phases were identified as plagioclase ± clinopyroxene ± orthopyroxene ± olivine ± amphibole ± mica. The lavas of this study range from andesite to rhyolite with major element compositions equivalent to previously published data. Pyroxene geobarometry suggests a polybaric distribution to crystal fractionation, beginning at the Moho, and continuing to a shallow magma reservoir, at approximately 0.8 km depth. A plot of Nd143/Nd144 vs. Sr87/Sr86 show the compositions of Panarea overlap with the compositions of the eastern and central Aeolian Arc, while Pb208/Pb204 vs. Pb206/Pb204 do not overlap, but fall between the central and eastern arc values. As major and trace element concentrations, and isotope compositions of the lavas of this study overlap most consistently with lava compositions from the central and eastern Aeolian Arc, indicating Panarea should be considered an "intermediate" volcano in the arc.

  15. Diversity and taphonomy of micromollusk assemblages from the Isola del Giglio, Tuscany, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buck, Alexandra; Nebelsick, James; Sievers, Diedrich; Grun, Tobias

    2015-04-01

    Mollusks represent important study objects for the palaeobiological and taphonomic research with respect to species reaction to anthropogenic and environmental change. This study investigates quantitative patterns of shallow water benthic mollusk assemblages from the Island of Giglio (Tyrrhenian Sea, Italy). The samples derive from 12 sites collected along two transects and two additional points from different coastal environments (carbonates and granites) and depths (from 5m to 30 m). Sample sites range from coarse to fine sands as well as from sediments within Posidonia meadows. Extracted mollusks originate from samples taken with a suction pipe as well as from bulk samples, sieved at a size larger than 1 mm. Molluscs were identified to species level and analyzed for taphonomic features (abrasion, fragmentation, encrustation and bioerosion) as well as for the presence of predatory bore holes. The mollusks are mostly small than < 3 mm. Gastropods are more abundant than bivalves in all samples. The gastropod genera Bittium, Jujubinus, Rissoa and Alvania are the most common and widely distributed, followed by the bivalve genera Striarca, Chamelea, Cardita and Parvicardium. The highest diversity was found in soft sediment of the carbonate coast and Posidonia meadows. Substrate type and exposure has a high influence on taxonomic make up. Similar habitats off the carbonate and granite coasts display different mollusc composition showing the high influence of substrate type on diversity and abundance. Species also differ along depth gradients. Taphonomic patterns are dominated by abrasion and fragmentation. Encrustation and bioerosion are subordinate, except for samples from the Posidonia meadows.

  16. Ribosomal RNA gene fragments from fossilized cyanobacteria identified in primary gypsum from the late Miocene, Italy.

    PubMed

    Panieri, G; Lugli, S; Manzi, V; Roveri, M; Schreiber, B C; Palinska, K A

    2010-03-01

    Earth scientists have searched for signs of microscopic life in ancient samples of permafrost, ice, deep-sea sediments, amber, salt and chert. Until now, evidence of cyanobacteria has not been reported in any studies of ancient DNA older than a few thousand years. Here, we investigate morphologically, biochemically and genetically primary evaporites deposited in situ during the late Miocene (Messinian) Salinity Crisis from the north-eastern Apennines of Italy. The evaporites contain fossilized bacterial structures having identical morphological forms as modern microbes. We successfully extracted and amplified genetic material belonging to ancient cyanobacteria from gypsum crystals dating back to 5.910-5.816 Ma, when the Mediterranean became a giant hypersaline brine pool. This finding represents the oldest ancient cyanobacterial DNA to date. Our clone library and its phylogenetic comparison with present cyanobacterial populations point to a marine origin for the depositional basin. This investigation opens the possibility of including fossil cyanobacterial DNA into the palaeo-reconstruction of various environments and could also be used to quantify the ecological importance of cyanobacteria through geological time. These genetic markers serve as biosignatures providing important clues about ancient life and begin a new discussion concerning the debate on the origin of late Miocene evaporites in the Mediterranean. PMID:20059556

  17. Circulation in a Southern Italy coastal basin: Modelling and field measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Serio, Francesca; Malcangio, Daniela; Mossa, Michele

    2007-03-01

    The purpose of the present work is to study the hydrodynamic aspects in the Mar Piccolo, a coastal basin located on the northern side of the Gulf of Taranto in the Ionian Sea (Italy), by means of mathematical modelling and field measurements. The latter were assessed during three surveys carried out in the spring-summer of 2002. Collected data have been utilized as input by the 3-D Princeton Ocean Model, which is a sigma coordinate, free surface ocean model which was developed in the late 1970s by Blumberg and Mellor. Simulations in baroclinic condition were forced by a homogeneous and stationary wind field, a simple tidal wave, a constant outflow and vertical stratification of temperature and salinity. A comparison was made between the mathematical modelling results and the field measurements collected during the surveys, in terms of velocity. It was observed that during small tides, when the wind effect prevails over the stratification effect, the best model results were obtained for the most superficial layer and that superficial patterns reproduced by the model are more sensitive to wind direction than to stratification. On the contrary, when the wind effect decreases or the thermohaline effect rises, best results occurred in deeper layers.

  18. Chemical characterization of indoor and outdoor fine particulate matter in an occupied apartment in Rome, Italy.

    PubMed

    Perrino, C; Tofful, L; Canepari, S

    2016-08-01

    The daily concentration and chemical composition of PM2.5 was determined in indoor and outdoor 24-h samples simultaneously collected for a total of 5 weeks during a winter and a summer period in an apartment sited in Rome, Italy. The use of a specifically developed very quiet sampler (<35 dB) allowed the execution of the study while the family living in the apartment led its normal life. The indoor concentration of PM2.5 showed a small seasonal variation, while outdoor values were much higher during the winter study. Outdoor sources were found to contribute significantly to indoor PM concentration especially during the summer, when the apartment was naturally ventilated by opening the windows. During the winter the infiltration of outdoor PM components was lower and mostly regulated by the particle dimensions. Organics displayed In/Out ratios higher than unity during both periods; their indoor production increased significantly during the weekends, where the family stayed mostly at home. PM components were grouped into macrosources (soil, sea, secondary inorganics, traffic, organics). During the summer the main contributions to outdoor PM2.5 came from soil (30%), secondary inorganics (29%) and organics (22%). Organics dominated both indoor PM2.5 during the summer (60%) and outdoor and indoor PM2.5 during the winter (51% and 66%, respectively). PMID:26184798

  19. Groundwater freshening following coastal progradation and land reclamation of the Po Plain, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonellini, M.; Allen, D. M.; Mollema, P. N.; Capo, D.; Greggio, N.

    2015-08-01

    Many coastal areas historically were inundated by seawater, but have since undergone land reclamation to enable settlements and farming. This study focuses on the coastal unconfined aquifer in the Po Plain near Ravenna, Italy. Freshwater is present as isolated thin (1-5 m) lenses on top of brackish to saline water. Historical maps show large areas of sea inundation until approximately 150-200 years ago when coastal progradation and construction of the drainage canals began. Since then, the aquifer has been freshening from recharge. A three-dimensional SEAWAT model is used to simulate a 200-year freshening history, starting with a model domain that is saturated with seawater, and applying recharge across the top model layer. Calibration to the observed concentrations for discrete depths within many monitoring wells is remarkably good. The current distribution of freshwater is largely controlled by the drainage network. Within and adjacent to the drains, the groundwater has high salinity due to up-coning of salt water. Between drains, the surface layers of the aquifer are fresh due to the flushing action of recharge. The modeling results are consistent with cation exchange processes revealed in the groundwater chemistry and with freshwater lenses identified in electrical resistivity soundings.

  20. Volcanic conduit migration over a basement landslide at Mount Etna (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicolosi, I.; Caracciolo, F. D'ajello; Branca, S.; Ventura, G.; Chiappini, M.

    2014-06-01

    The flanks of volcanoes may slide in response to the loading of the edifice on a weak basement, magma push, and/or to tectonic stress. However, examples of stratovolcanoes emplaced on active landslides are lacking and the possible effects on the volcano dynamics unknown. Here, we use aeromagnetic data to construct a three-dimensional model of the clay-rich basement of Etna volcano (Italy). We provide evidence for a large stratovolcano growing on a pre-existing basement landslide and show that the eastern Etna flank, which slides toward the sea irrespective of volcanic activity, moves coherently with the underlying landslide. The filling of the landslide depression by lava flows through time allows the formation of a stiffness barrier, which is responsible for the long-term migration of the magma pathways from the coast to the present-day Etna summit. These unexpected results provide a new interpretation clue on the causes of the volcanic instability processes and of the mechanisms of deflection and migration of volcanic conduits.

  1. Pb, Cu and Cd distribution in five estuary systems of Marche, central Italy.

    PubMed

    Annibaldi, Anna; Illuminati, Silvia; Truzzi, Cristina; Libani, Giulia; Scarponi, Giuseppe

    2015-07-15

    Heavy metals are subjected to monitoring in estuarine and marine water by the European Union Water Framework Directive, which requires water body health to be achieved by 2021. This is the first survey of heavy metals content in five estuaries of Marche, a region in central Italy. Results showed that total Pb and Cu concentrations decreased by 70-80%, from 1000-2000 to 100-200 ng L(-1) (Pb) and from 2000-3000 to 500-1000 ng L(-1) (Cu) from river to sea. Cd was consistently 20-40 ng L(-1). Dissolved Pb and Cu concentrations declined by 50% and 70% respectively passing from oligohaline to euhaline water, from 150 to 70 ng L(-1) and from 2000-1000 to 600-400 ng L(-1). Cd decreased slightly from ∼20 to ∼10 ng L(-1). Although such concentrations are in the range allowed by the Water Framework Directive, they far exceed (up to 10×) the ground content ceiling set for 2021. PMID:25960271

  2. Interaction of marine and fluvial clastic sedimentation, central Italy, Tyrrhenian coast

    SciTech Connect

    Evangelista, S.; Full, W.E.; Tortora, P.

    1989-03-01

    An integrated approach was used to study the interaction of fluvial, beach, and marine processes on sedimentation at the west-central coast of Italy along the Tyrrhenian Sea. The study area, 120 km northwest of Rome, is bounded on the north by Mt. Argentario, on the east by Pleistocene volcanics, on the south by the St. Augustine River, and on the west by the 50-mn bathymetric isopleth. The primary tools used included field work, textural analysis, high-resolution marine seismic, SEM, and Fourier shape analysis. Field work revealed incised streams, potentially relict beach ridges and lagoons, and relatively steep nearshore marine slopes in the northern portions of the study area. The result of the shape analysis performed on 56 samples was the definition of four end members. Each end member reflects a sedimentation process. Three end members were directly associated with fluvial sedimentation, and the fourth reflected marine processes. The seismic data along with the SEM analysis strongly supported the interpretation of four processes that dominate the recent sedimentation history. The sand interpreted to be associated with marine processes was found to represent the smoothest end member. SEM analysis suggests that the smoothing is not due to abrasion but to plastering associated with biologic processes (digestion.) and/or with silica precipitation associated with clay alteration at the freshwater/saltwater interface.

  3. Volcanic conduit migration over a basement landslide at Mount Etna (Italy).

    PubMed

    Nicolosi, I; Caracciolo, F D'Ajello; Branca, S; Ventura, G; Chiappini, M

    2014-01-01

    The flanks of volcanoes may slide in response to the loading of the edifice on a weak basement, magma push, and/or to tectonic stress. However, examples of stratovolcanoes emplaced on active landslides are lacking and the possible effects on the volcano dynamics unknown. Here, we use aeromagnetic data to construct a three-dimensional model of the clay-rich basement of Etna volcano (Italy). We provide evidence for a large stratovolcano growing on a pre-existing basement landslide and show that the eastern Etna flank, which slides toward the sea irrespective of volcanic activity, moves coherently with the underlying landslide. The filling of the landslide depression by lava flows through time allows the formation of a stiffness barrier, which is responsible for the long-term migration of the magma pathways from the coast to the present-day Etna summit. These unexpected results provide a new interpretation clue on the causes of the volcanic instability processes and of the mechanisms of deflection and migration of volcanic conduits. PMID:24924784

  4. Volcanic conduit migration over a basement landslide at Mount Etna (Italy)

    PubMed Central

    Nicolosi, I.; Caracciolo, F. D'Ajello; Branca, S.; Ventura, G.; Chiappini, M.

    2014-01-01

    The flanks of volcanoes may slide in response to the loading of the edifice on a weak basement, magma push, and/or to tectonic stress. However, examples of stratovolcanoes emplaced on active landslides are lacking and the possible effects on the volcano dynamics unknown. Here, we use aeromagnetic data to construct a three-dimensional model of the clay-rich basement of Etna volcano (Italy). We provide evidence for a large stratovolcano growing on a pre-existing basement landslide and show that the eastern Etna flank, which slides toward the sea irrespective of volcanic activity, moves coherently with the underlying landslide. The filling of the landslide depression by lava flows through time allows the formation of a stiffness barrier, which is responsible for the long-term migration of the magma pathways from the coast to the present-day Etna summit. These unexpected results provide a new interpretation clue on the causes of the volcanic instability processes and of the mechanisms of deflection and migration of volcanic conduits. PMID:24924784

  5. The crustal velocity field mosaic of the Alpine Mediterranean area (Italy): Insights from new geodetic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farolfi, Gregorio; Del Ventisette, Chiara

    2016-04-01

    A new horizontal crustal velocity field of Alpine Mediterranean area was determined by continuous long time series (6.5 years) of 113 Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) permanent stations. The processing was performed using state-of-the-art absolute antenna phase center correction model and recomputed precise IGS orbits available since April 2014. Moreover, a new more accurate tropospheric mapping function for geodetic applications was adopted. Results provide a new detailed map of the kinematics throughout the entire study area. This area is characterized by a complex tectonic setting driven by the interaction of Eurasian and African plates. The eastern Alps, Corsica, Sardinia and the Tyrrhenian Sea (which is covered only by interpolation data) show small velocity residuals with respect to the Eurasian plate. The whole Apennines axis discriminates two different velocity patterns, the Adriatic and the Tyrrhenian area. The area around Messina Strait, which separates peninsular Italy and Sicily, represents a poorly understood region. Results identify an important boundary zone between two different domains, Calabria and Sicily, which are characterized by different crustal motions. The northeastern part of Sicily and Calabria move like Adriatic area, whilst the rest of Sicily, Malta and Lampedusa are dominated by African motion.

  6. Pattern of geochemical variations within the volcanic system of Mt Etna, Italy, from 1995 to 2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corsaro, Rosa Anna; Falsaperla, Susanna; Langer, Horst

    2016-04-01

    Dynamic and evolution of magma in the plumbing system are key aspects in the evaluation of volcanic hazard. Eruptive phenomena involve indeed processes of magma upraise and storage, which may change in time and space, and mirror in the composition of volcanic products. In this study, we analyze the pattern of geochemical variations at Etna, Italy, from 1995 to 2013. In this time span, volcanic activity affected all the four craters close to the summit of the volcano (located at about 3300 m above the sea level), and fed eruptive fissures along its upper flanks. In addition, a new crater formed and rapidly built up, giving rise to spectacular lava fountains from 2011 on. Based on a dataset containing the geochemical composition of volcanic products collected over 18 years, we explored the application of data mining methods in the framework of the European MEDiterrranean Supersite Volcanoes (MED­-SUV) project. In the present application, we discuss the relationships among the composition of volcanic products sampled from all the afore-mentioned eruptive centers. Our results highlight differences in magma evolution, dynamic and eruptive style even within a single eruptive center.

  7. Salinization and freshening of coastal aquifers with land reclamation, in the SE Po plain (Italy), the Netherlands and Belgium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mollema, P. N.; Antonellini, M. A.; Dinelli, E.; Greggio, N.; Stuyfzand, P. J.; Vandenbohede, A.

    2012-12-01

    The coastal aquifers of the Southern Po plain in Italy, the Netherlands and Belgium have a similar setting. All three areas are characterized by one or more dune belts parallel to the coast and low lying, mechanically drained polders and formed during the Holocene resulting in a comparable geology. Nonetheless, the salinization and freshening trends of the groundwater are different resulting in a different hydrochemical signature. This is due to differences in climate, recharge areas and human interference. Impoldering started in the 1960's in Italy. The coastal aquifer of the southern Po plain currently contains mostly brackish to saline NaCl type groundwater. Calcium rich water is found only in the rivers, in the irrigation channels and in a few wells. Cation, anion, stable isotopes and the analysis of tracers such as SO4/Cl- and 18O/Cl- show that most ground water samples are a mix between fresh water and Adriatic Sea water. Six hydrosomes were recognized: Holocene transgression, Po River, Apennine River, new coastal dune, paleodunes, and current lagoon water. As the sea regressed 30 km eastwards in the past 6000 yrs, fresh water infiltrated into the beach sand deposits but because of the small recharge areas and small amount of recharge, there was never enough fresh water to expel the Holocene seawater. Land reclamation dried the original marshes and lagoons. The location of pumping stations far from the coast caused the formation of hydraulic gradients enhancing saltwater intrusion inland. Land reclamation and impoldering started very early (10th century) in the Belgian and Dutch case and was completed in the 12th century in Belgium and in the Netherlands not until 1967. The aquifer system in the Netherlands is thicker than in Belgium. Complex Holocene evolution with mudflats alternating with peat bogs resulted in a current day complex fresh-saltwater distribution in the Belgian and Dutch coastal plain. Young fresh water lenses occur above older brackish water

  8. Seafloor Control on Sea Ice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nghiem, S. V.; Clemente-Colon, P.; Rigor, I. G.; Hall, D. K.; Neumann, G.

    2011-01-01

    The seafloor has a profound role in Arctic sea ice formation and seasonal evolution. Ocean bathymetry controls the distribution and mixing of warm and cold waters, which may originate from different sources, thereby dictating the pattern of sea ice on the ocean surface. Sea ice dynamics, forced by surface winds, are also guided by seafloor features in preferential directions. Here, satellite mapping of sea ice together with buoy measurements are used to reveal the bathymetric control on sea ice growth and dynamics. Bathymetric effects on sea ice formation are clearly observed in the conformation between sea ice patterns and bathymetric characteristics in the peripheral seas. Beyond local features, bathymetric control appears over extensive ice-prone regions across the Arctic Ocean. The large-scale conformation between bathymetry and patterns of different synoptic sea ice classes, including seasonal and perennial sea ice, is identified. An implication of the bathymetric influence is that the maximum extent of the total sea ice cover is relatively stable, as observed by scatterometer data in the decade of the 2000s, while the minimum ice extent has decreased drastically. Because of the geologic control, the sea ice cover can expand only as far as it reaches the seashore, the continental shelf break, or other pronounced bathymetric features in the peripheral seas. Since the seafloor does not change significantly for decades or centuries, sea ice patterns can be recurrent around certain bathymetric features, which, once identified, may help improve short-term forecast and seasonal outlook of the sea ice cover. Moreover, the seafloor can indirectly influence cloud cover by its control on sea ice distribution, which differentially modulates the latent heat flux through ice covered and open water areas.

  9. A preliminary attempt to determine the landslide hazard in Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parise, Mario

    2013-04-01

    Determining landslide hazard at the national scale remains a difficult task. However, such a complex task needs to be accomplished to mitigate the landslide consequences, including loss of lives and economic and environmental damages. For administrative purposes, the Italian territory (303,000 km sq.) is subdivided in 20 regions that cover a large variety of natural environments, most of which are subject to landslide hazards. To determine landslide hazard in such a complex and diversified territory, the many natural and anthropogenic variables, and their variations, must be considered. In Italy, the Italian national Civil Protection Department (DPC), an office of the Prime Minister, is in charge of managing natural and human-made hazards, and the associated risk. For landslide (and flood) hazards, the DPC has subdivided the Italian territory into 134 "alert zones" (AZ), decided based on administrative and hydrological criteria. Here, we describe the results of a preliminary effort made by our research group - in the framework of a larger effort to forecast landslide hazard and risk in Italy - to describe landslide hazard in each AZ. For the purpose, we summarized in a specifically designed form the geographical, morphological, geological and landslide information available for each AZ. The form also contains general information on past landslide events and on the vulnerability to landslides of the AZ. We obtained the morphological information from the SRTM DEM with a grid resolution of 90 m × 90 m, and the geological and lithological information from the Geological Map of Italy, at the 1:500,000 scale, published by the Italian Istituto Superiore per la Protezione e la Ricerca Ambientale (ISPRA). We used the morphological (terrain elevation and terrain gradient) and the lithological information to subdivide the Italian territory in three main morphological domains (plains, hills and mountains), and we computed the proportion of the three domains in each AZ. We

  10. Alaska and Bering Sea Bloom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Alaska was relatively clear as was part of the Bering Sea where the aquamarine bloom is still visible in this SeaWiFS image. Credit: Provided by the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, and ORBIMAGE

  11. Egyptian Sea Cave

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of College Science Teaching, 2005

    2005-01-01

    This brief article describes an archaeological expedition to the Red Sea coast area of Egypt in 2004. Kathryn Bard, an associate professor of archaeology at Boston University, along with her team, discovered the well-preserved cedar timbers of an ancient Egyptian seafaring vessel near the entrance to a large man-made cave. Limestone tablets with…

  12. Solomon's Sea and [Pi

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simoson, Andrew J.

    2009-01-01

    This paper is a whimsical survey of the various explanations which might account for the biblical passage in I Kings 7:23 that describes a round object--a bronze basin called Solomon's Sea--as having diameter ten cubits and circumference thirty cubits. Can the biblical pi be any number other than 3? We offer seven different perspectives on this…

  13. Ships to the Sea.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of the Navy, Washington, DC.

    This lesson contains materials for the U.S. Navy Museum's "Ships to the Sea" program. The program is appropriate for students in grades 2-4 and was designed in accordance with local and national social studies standards. The materials introduce students to the world of ship technology and naval terminology. The lesson is presented in five…

  14. Classroom of the Sea.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hupper, Mary Laporta; Monte, Denise; Scheifele, Peter

    2000-01-01

    Introduces the Sea Program in which participant students were deaf and collaborated with a bioacoustician. Studies the underwater noise levels of the Gulf of Maine and the possible impacts on marine life. Explains implementing this project in the science curriculum. (YDS)

  15. Solar Sea Power

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zener, Clarence

    1976-01-01

    In their preoccupation with highly complex new energy systems, scientists and statesmen may be overlooking the possibilities of Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC). That is the view of a Carnegie-Mellon University physicist who is in the forefront of solar sea power investigation. (Author/BT)

  16. Farming the Sea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, William

    1971-01-01

    Florida has initiated a training program in an entirely new dimension--Sea Farming. Presented is a description of the vocational agriculture program designed to teach propagation, cultivation, harvesting, marketing, and conservation practices related to production of oysters, shrimp, scallops, crabs, and fin fishes. (Editor/GB)

  17. Modern sea power

    SciTech Connect

    Till, G.

    1987-01-01

    This book provides discussions of political, technical and military aspects of nuclear power. The contents include naval warfare in the nuclear age; politics, money, law and technology; a technological change; implications of technology; sea control; strategic deterrents; amphibious operations, maritime interdiction; inshore operations, naval diplomacy and conclusion.

  18. S.E.A.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkins, Richard H.

    1976-01-01

    Sea Semester combines a six-week apprenticeship on a sailing ship with an intensive shore preparation component. Through Boston University, students learn marine and nautical sciences before putting some of this information to practice. Students, having completed the shore and sailing components, can enroll in more advanced shore component…

  19. Virtual sea border

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferriere, D.; Rucinski, A.; Jankowski, T.

    2007-04-01

    Establishing a Virtual Sea Border by performing a real-time, satellite-accessible Internet-based bio-metric supported threat assessment of arriving foreign-flagged cargo ships, their management and ownership, their arrival terminal operator and owner, and rewarding proven legitimate operators with an economic incentive for their transparency will simultaneously improve port security and maritime transportation efficiencies.

  20. The Provident Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cushing, David H.

    1988-09-01

    The Provident Sea describes the history of fish stock management (including whales and seals). The book traces, on the basis of the original scientific material, the history of the management of "the provident sea" up to recent times when problems of over-exploitation have had dramatic effects upon stocks. The need for management arose mainly from the increasing industrialization of capture. Hence the preindustrial fisheries are covered, in particular the old cod fishery on the Grand Bank and the herring fishery in the North Sea, as an essential background to current problems. The origins of fisheries and whaling science are described, as is the development up to 1965 of the science and institution in fisheries, whaling, and sealing. In the sixties and seventies, certain major fishing nations took a heavy harvest of fish stocks using sophisticated and efficient gathering methods. This in turn led to conflict and one consequence was the "Law of the Sea" conference set up to try and resolve these issues.

  1. Characterisation of natural organic matter (NOM) in depth profile of Mediterranean Sea by 3D-Fluorescence following with PARAFAC treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huiyu, Z.; Durrieu, G.; Redon, R.; Heimbuerger, L.; Mounier, S.

    2009-12-01

    A periodic series of samplings have made during one year(2008) organized by Ifremer into the central Ligurian Sea(DYFAMED site, 43°25’N, 07°52’E, Mediterranean Sea). Spectra were mesured by spectrofluorimetry(HITACHI 4500) at excitation wavelengths from 250nm to 500nm and emission wavelengths from 200nm to 550nm, both wavelength slits for 5nm, scan speed is 2400nm/min. Parallel factors analysis(PARAFAC) software is a powerful statistical technique to treat the 3D-fluorescence spectra leading to the decomposition by a number of independent fluorescent compounds 1 and 2. Found 4 fluorescent components representing the fluorescence maxima of previously identified moieties: [Tyr] maximal excitation wavelength and emission wavelength 265nm/305nm (tyrosine-like); [Trp] maximal λEX/λEM=280nm/340nm(Peak T, tryptophan-like group); [M] maximal λEX/λEM=295nm/410nm(Peak M, marine humic-like substance) and a double maximum component [CA] with maximal λEX/λEM=335nm/445nm(Peak C, visible humic-like group) and λEX/λEM=250nm/445nm(Peak A, UV humic-like substance). Fluorescence contribution of each component at different logarithmic depths(Fig.2) shows that the most concentrated fluorophores zone is deeper than 100m, which is different from the results of dissolved organic carbon(DOC) concentration which the most concentrated zone is on the seasurface(B.Avril,2002).The humic-like substances are generally less fluorescent, particularly the M compound. An important peak contribution of marine humic-like substance has appeared in May at the profound 100m and 2200m, although the other fluorophores kept their values reasonable. The intensity maxima was closed to 100m, while an augmentation of protein substances in the deep sea(about 400 m) following by a shut immediate at 600 m in the months July, August and September. It is probably due to the sufficient heat from the sea surface; micro-organism could modify their position in the depth profile in the seawater. Thanks to

  2. The Weddell Sea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Several large, irregularly shaped icebergs are floating in the Weddell Sea, east of the Antarctic Peninsula, in this true-color MODIS image from February 17, 2002. The location of several of the bergs has changed little over the last three months. Compared to an image acquired on November 13, 2001, the berg at the upper right of the image has spun around, but is still hanging around in the same general location. Similar slow-movers can be seen just to the east of the Larsen Ice Shelf, which hugs the eastern coast of the Peninsula. The northernmost of those two bergs is designated A38b; the southernmost one is A38a. These bergs were once part of an iceberg greater than 2,700 square miles that broke off the Ronne Ice Shelf (to the south) back in 1998. While the waters of the Weddell Sea in the area ought to be deep enough to float those bergs, it is possible that they have run aground on a topographic high, or ridge, in the sea floor. However, little is known about the underwater topography of that region, and it is also possible that the bergs are simply so massive that they resist being moved by surface wind or ocean currents. While four years might seem like a long time for an iceberg to hang around, these are certainly no record holders. A berg that broke off the Ross Ice Shelf (on the other side of Antarctica) drifted north and went aground south of Australia. That berg calved in 1987, and hasn't really moved in ten years. While the big bergs have not moved much in the span of time between these images, there is a big difference in the amount of sea ice present in the two images. In general, the rounder chunks of ice are more likely to be seasonal sea ice that forms from the freezing of sea water, while the larger, jagged-edged pieces of ice are more likely to be bergs that broke off an ice shelf at the margin of the continent. It's the height of summer in Antarctica in the February image, and much of the sea ice has melted or drifted away, leaving a relatively

  3. The influence of particle composition on Thorium scavenging in the Mediterranean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy-Barman, M.; Lemaître, C.; Ayrault, S.; Jeandel, C.; Souhaut, M.; Miquel, J.-C.

    2009-09-01

    Sediment trap data are crucial for the study of marine biochemical cycles but they need careful validation by Thorium (Th) isotopes. In the present study, 230Th, 232Th, Uranium (U), Aluminum (Al), Barium (Ba) and Manganese (Mn) were analyzed in sinking particles collected by moored sediment traps in the Ligurian sea (DYFAMED site) in order to determine the collection efficiency of the traps and to constrain which particulate phase(s) carries Th isotopes in a region with strong lithogenic inputs. The 230Th xs evaluation was based on the U content of each sample rather than on the 232Th content of each sample and the average 238U/ 232Th ratio of the continental crust because the latter method introduced too much uncertainty in the calculation. High trapping efficiencies (187 ± 85% at 200 m and 87 ± 11% at 1000 m) indicated no evidence of particle under-collection by the traps. The lack of correlation between 230Th xs and the carbonate or the organic matter fraction suggests that these phases are not major 230Th xs-carrying phases in the deep ocean. For most samples of the time series, the 230Th xs concentration is correlated with the lithogenic fraction and the Mn concentration, but pulses of particles with high lithogenic and Mn content and low 230Th xs concentration occur in winter. Assuming that 230Th xs is only carried by lithogenic particles, we estimate Kd_lithoTh ranges from (0.42 ± 0.04) × 10 7 ml/g to (0.8 ± 0.2) × 10 7 ml/g . Assuming that 230Th xs is only carried by authigenic Mn oxide precipitates (MnO 2), we estimate that Kd_MnO2Th ranges from (0.6 ± 0.1) × 10 10 ml/g to (1.1 ±0.4) × 10 10 ml/g . The relative variation of Kd_MnO2Th (a factor 7) between different oceanic sites is significantly lower than the relative variation of Kd_lithoTh (a factor 50), suggesting that 230Th xs has a tighter link with MnO 2 rather than with lithogenic particles and hence that 230Th xs may be more likely scavenged by MnO 2 than by lithogenic particles. The

  4. Northern Sand Sea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Our topic for the weeks of April 4 and April 11 is dunes on Mars. We will look at the north polar sand sea and at isolated dune fields at lower latitudes. Sand seas on Earth are often called 'ergs,' an Arabic name for dune field. A sand sea differs from a dune field in two ways: 1) a sand sea has a large regional extent, and 2) the individual dunes are large in size and complex in form.

    This VIS image was taken at 82 degrees North latitude during Northern spring. The image is completely dominated by dunes. In sand seas, it is very common for a single type of dune to occur, and for a single predominate wind to control the alignment of the dunes.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 82.2, Longitude 152.5 East (207.5 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  5. Microbial Geochemistry in Shallow-Sea Hydrothermal Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amend, J. P.; Pichler, T.

    2006-12-01

    Shallow-sea hydrothermal systems are far more ubiquitous than generally recognized. Approximately 50-60 systems are currently known, occurring world-wide in areas of high heat flow, such as, volcanic island arcs, near-surface mid-ocean ridges, and intraplate oceanic volcanoes. In contrast to deep-sea systems, shallow- sea vent fluids generally include a meteoric component, they experience phase separation near the sediment- water interface, and they discharge into the photic zone (<200 m). They also are characterized by wide ranges in chemical composition, hundreds of redox disequilibria that translate to potential metabolisms, and broad phylogenetic diversity among the thermophilic bacteria and archaea. Perhaps because deep-sea smokers and continental hot springs are visually more stunning, shallow-sea systems are often overlooked study sites. We will discuss their particular features that afford unique opportunities in microbial geochemistry. Two of the better studied examples are at Vulcano Island (Italy) and Ambitle Island (Papua New Guinea). The vents and sediment seeps at Vulcano are the "type locality" for numerous cultured hyperthermophiles, including the bacteria Aquifex and Thermotoga, the crenarchaeon Pyrodictium, and the Euryarchaeota Archaeoglobus and Pyrococcus. Isotope-labeled incubation experiments of heated sediments and an array of culturing studies have shown that simple organic compounds are predominantly fermented or anaerobically respired with sulfate. 16S rRNA gene surveys, together with fluorescent in situ hybridization studies, demonstrated the dominance of key thermophilic bacteria and archaea (e.g., Aquificales, Thermotogales, Thermococcales, Archaeoglobales) in the sediments and the presence of a broad spectrum of mostly uncultured crenarchaeota in several vent waters, sediment samples, and geothermal wells. Thermodynamic modeling quantified potential energy yields from aerobic and anaerobic respiration reactions and fermentation

  6. Sea-Level Projections from the SeaRISE Initiative

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nowicki, Sophie; Bindschadler, Robert

    2011-01-01

    SeaRISE (Sea-level Response to Ice Sheet Evolution) is a community organized modeling effort, whose goal is to inform the fifth IPCC of the potential sea-level contribution from the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets in the 21st and 22nd century. SeaRISE seeks to determine the most likely ice sheet response to imposed climatic forcing by initializing an ensemble of models with common datasets and applying the same forcing to each model. Sensitivity experiments were designed to quantify the sea-level rise associated with a change in: 1) surface mass balance, 2) basal lubrication, and 3) ocean induced basal melt. The range of responses, resulting from the multi-model approach, is interpreted as a proxy of uncertainty in our sea-level projections. http://websrv.cs .umt.edu/isis/index.php/SeaRISE_Assessment.

  7. A contribution for predicting Tsunami inundation induced by rock fall along the Gaeta cliff (Central Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    di Manna, P.; Vittori, E.; Comerci, V.; Amanti, M.; Cesi, C.

    2009-04-01

    Many sectors of Italian coasts are characterized by tall scarps, close to large or pocket beaches that display ramp shape with moderate to low acclivity profile. During the summer, all these beaches are densely populated by sunbathers. Moreover, Italian coastal areas are often intensely urbanized even at a short distance from the sea and very close to sea level. Being cliffs often affected by gravity processes, the impact on the water of a falling volume of rock, depending on size and height of fall, may represent a potential source of tsunami-type hazard for adjacent beaches and boats. In this work we present an attempt to evaluate the run-up and ingression values in the Serapo beach (Gaeta, Tyrrhenian Sea coast of Central Italy) of an anomalous wave induced by a potential rock fall along the contiguous more than 100 meters high limestone cliff (the so-called Montagna Spaccata, "cleft mountain"). Detailed geological and geomorphological field analyses are being carried out, including geomechanical analyses and geodetic monitoring, in order to recognize the sectors with the most critical stability conditions. Preliminarily, the major potential volume of instable block and its most likely kinematics have been estimated with the purpose of characterizing the rock fall process. The first water rise produced by the impact of the rock on the sea surface has been estimated according to two approaches: a) the Murty (2003) equation, that gives the relation between water elevation and volume of fallen material; b) the Glasstone and Dolan method (Hills & Mader, 1997), comparing the carbonate rock fall to a meteoritic impact on the sea surface. The rockfall kinematics suggests that the Glasstone and Dolan equation, despite it was developed for a different environment, is better applicable than Murty's (valid for slides) to the case under discussion. On the basis of the Green's law (1837) we defined the shoaling component of the run-up values. Our results show that the impact

  8. The First SeaWiFS HPLC Analysis Round-Robin Experiment (SeaHARRE-1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hooker, Stanford B. (Editor); Firestone, Elaine R. (Editor); Claustre, Herve; Ras, Josephine; VanHeukelem, Laurie; Berthon, Jean-Francois; Targa, Cristina; vanderLinde, Dirk; Barlow, Ray; Sessions, Heather

    2001-01-01

    Four laboratories, which had contributed to various aspects of SeaWiFS calibration and validation activities, participated in the first SeaWiFS HPLC Analysis Round-Robin Experiment (SeaHARRE-1): Horn Point Laboratory (USA), the Joint Research Centre (Italy), the Laboratoire de Physique et Chimie Marines (France), and the Marine and Coastal Management group (South Africa). The analyses of the data are presented in Chapter 1 and the individual methods of the four groups are presented in Chapters 2-5. The average (or overall) conclusions of the round-robin are derived from 12 in situ stations occupied during a cruise in the Mediterranean Sea, although, only 11 stations are used in the analyses. The data set is composed of 12 replicates taken during each sampling opportunity with 3 replicates going to each of the 4 laboratories. The average (or overall) results from the intercomparison of 15 pigments or pigment associations are as follows (in some cases, data subsets that exclude pigments which were not analyzed by all the laboratories, or that had unusually large variances, are used to exclude a variety of problematic pigments): a) the accuracy of the four methods in determining the concentration of total chlorophyll a is 7.9%, (one method did not separate mono- and divinyl chlorophyll a, and if the samples containing significant divinyl chlorophyll a concentrations are ignored, the four methods have an accuracy of 6.7%); b) the accuracy in determining the full set of pigments is 19.1%; c) there is a reduction in accuracy of approximately - 12.2% for every decade (factor of 10) decrease in concentration (based on a data subset); d) the precision of the four methods using a subset data is 8.617( 6.2% for an edited subset); e) the repeatability of the four methods using the subset data is 9.2% (7.2%; for an edited subset, and f) the reproducibility of the four methods using the subset data is 21.31% (15.0% for an edited subset).

  9. Sea ice radiative forcing, sea ice area, and climate sensitivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caldeira, Ken; Cvijanovic, Ivana

    2014-05-01

    Changes in sea ice cover affect climate sensitivity by modifying albedo and surface heat flux exchange, which in turn affect the absorbed solar radiation at the surface as well as cloud cover, atmospheric water content and poleward atmospheric heat transport. Here, we use a configuration of the Community Earth System Model 1.0.4 with a slab ocean model and a thermodynamic-dynamic sea ice model to investigate the overall net effect of feedbacks associated with the sea ice loss. We analyze the strength of the overall sea ice feedback in terms of two factors: the sensitivity of sea ice area to changes in temperature, and the sensitivity of sea ice radiative forcing to changes in sea ice area. In this model configuration, sea ice area decreases by ~3 × 1012 m2 per K of global warming, while the effective global radiative forcing per square meter of sea ice loss is ~0.1 × 10-12 W m-2. The product of these two terms (~0.3 W m-2 K-1) approximately equals the difference in climate feedback parameter found in simulations with sea ice response (1.05 W m-2 K-1) and simulations without sea ice response (1.31 W m-2 K-1 or 1.35 W m-2 K-1, depending on the method used to disable changes in sea ice cover). Thus, we find that in our model simulations, sea ice response accounts for about 20% to 22% of the climate sensitivity to an imposed change in radiative forcing. In our model, the additional radiative forcing resulting from a loss of all sea ice in the 'pre-industrial' state is comparable to but somewhat less than the radiative forcing from a doubling of atmospheric CO2 content.

  10. Sea Ice Radiative Forcing, Sea Ice Area, and Climate Sensitivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caldeira, K.; Cvijanovic, I.

    2014-12-01

    Changes in sea ice cover affect climate sensitivity by modifying albedo and surface heat flux exchange, which in turn affect the absorbed solar radiation at the surface as well as cloud cover, atmospheric water content and poleward atmospheric heat transport. Here, we use a configuration of the Community Earth System Model 1.0.4 with a slab ocean model and a thermodynamic-dynamic sea ice model to investigate the overall net effect of feedbacks associated with the sea ice loss. We analyze the strength of the overall sea ice feedback in terms of two factors: the sensitivity of sea ice area to changes in temperature, and the sensitivity of sea ice radiative forcing to changes in sea ice area. In this model configuration, sea ice area decreases by ~3 × 1012 m2 per K of global warming, while the effective global radiative forcing per unit area of sea ice loss is ~0.1 × 10-12 W m-2. The product of these two terms (~0.3 W m-2 K-1) approximately equals the difference in climate feedback parameter found in simulations with sea ice response (1.05 W m-2 K-1) and simulations without sea ice response (1.31 W m-2 K-1 or 1.35 W m-2 K-1, depending on the method used to disable the changes in sea ice cover). Thus, we find that in our model simulations, sea ice response accounts for about 20% to 22% of the climate sensitivity to an imposed change in radiative forcing. In our model, the additional radiative forcing resulting from a loss of all sea-ice in the "pre-industrial" state is comparable to but somewhat less than the radiative forcing from a doubling of atmospheric CO2 content.

  11. Interplay between regional uplift and glacio-eustasy in the Crotone Basin (Calabria, southern Italy) since 0.45 Ma: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zecchin, Massimo; Caffau, Mauro; Ceramicola, Silvia

    2016-08-01

    During the last 0.45 Ma, the Crotone Basin, a forearc basin located on the Ionian side of Calabria, southern Italy, experienced a phase of uplift that persists today. The transition from subsidence to uplift occurred close to the Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 11 (ca. 0.4 Ma). The subsequent progressive emergence of the area was punctuated by several marine transgressions linked to high-frequency, high-magnitude glacio-eustatic changes, which are recorded as coastal terraces. These high-frequency sequences show a variable stacking pattern due to the interplay between glacio-eustasy, uplift and local physiography. In particular, a progressive SE-ward migration of the shoreline is documented in the study area since MIS 11. This trend was enhanced during the MIS 5.5 to MIS 2 time interval, due to the combined effect of uplift and lowering glacio-eustatic sea level until the Last Glacial Maximum. Moreover, the regional uplift also led to a physiographic change from relatively low-gradient to high-gradient settings between MIS 7.1 and MIS 5.5. A comparison between the late Quaternary geological record of the Crotone Basin and that of other basins is crucial to improve the present knowledge on past sea levels related to MISs. This ultimately will help to better understand the Holocene sea-level history and the human contribution to sea-level change, in order to predict future scenarios.

  12. Structure analysis of an Aspergillus flavus kernels population in North Italy. First analysis of an Aspergillus flavus kernels population based on vegetative compatibility groups in Northern Italy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In order to gain insight into the causal agents of aflatoxin contamination of maize in Italy, populations of Aspergillus flavus on maize produced in the most affected area were characterized. Forty-six percent of A. flavus, isolated from maize kernels collected in 5 districts of northern Italy betwe...

  13. Sea ice/climate studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parkinson, C. L.

    1988-01-01

    The objectives were to determine and analyze the annual cycle of sea ice extents in the Arctic Ocean and peripheral seas and bays over the period 1973 to 1986, looking in particular for any long term trends; to examine the relationship between local sea ice covers and the surrounding atmosphere and ocean; and to examine sea ice as a potential early indicator of climate change. The work involves creating regional and hemispheric time series of sea ice variables from satellite passive microwave data and analyzing these through various intercomparisons amongst themselves and with oceanographic and atmospheric fields.

  14. Aeromagnetic constraints on the subsurface structure of Stromboli Volcano, Aeolian Islands, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okuma, Shigeo; Stotter, Christian; Supper, Robert; Nakatsuka, Tadashi; Furukawa, Ryuta; Motschka, Klaus

    2009-12-01

    Two helicopter-borne magnetic surveys were conducted over Stromboli Volcano and its surrounding areas on the Aeolian Islands, southern Italy in 2002 and 2004 to better understand the subsurface structure of the area. Observed data from those surveys were merged and aeromagnetic anomalies for Stromboli Island and its vicinity were reduced onto a smoothed surface, assuming equivalent anomalies below the observed surface. The magnetic terrain effects were calculated for the magnetic anomalies of the study area, assuming the magnetic structure comprised of an ensemble of prisms extending from the ground surface to a depth of 3000 m below sea level: the average magnetization intensity was calculated to be 2.2 A/m for the edifice of Stromboli shallower than 1200 m below sea level by comparing the observed and synthetic data. Next, apparent magnetization intensity mapping was applied to the observed anomalies using a uniform magnetization of 2.2 A/m as the initial value. The apparent magnetization intensity map indicates magnetic heterogeneities among volcanic rocks which constitute the edifice of the volcano. The most remarkable feature of the magnetization intensity map is a magnetization low which occupies the center of the island where the summit craters reside, suggesting demagnetization caused by the heat of conduits and/or hydrothermal activity in addition to the thick accumulation of less magnetic pyroclastic rocks. By comparing topographic and geologic maps, it can be seen that magnetization highs are distributed on the exposures of basaltic-andesite to andesite lavas (Paleostromboli I), shoshonitic lavas with an eccentric vent and a shield volcano (Neostromboli), on the south, north and west coasts of the volcano, respectively. These magnetization highs further extend offshore, implying the seaward continuation of these volcanic rocks. 3-D magnetic imaging was preliminarily applied to the same magnetic anomalies as well as for the magnetization intensity mapping

  15. Assessment of sediment toxicity in the Lagoon of Venice (Italy) using a multi-species set of bioassays.

    PubMed

    Picone, Marco; Bergamin, Martina; Losso, Chiara; Delaney, Eugenia; Arizzi Novelli, Alessandra; Ghirardini, Annamaria Volpi

    2016-01-01

    Within the framework of a Weight of Evidence (WoE) approach, a set of four toxicity bioassays involving the amphipod Corophium volutator (10 d lethality test on whole sediment), the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus (fertilization and embryo toxicity tests on elutriate) and the pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas (embryo toxicity test on elutriate) was applied to sediments from 10 sampling sites of the Venice Lagoon (Italy). Sediments were collected during three campaigns carried out in May 2004 (spring campaign), October 2004 (autumn campaign) and February 2005 (winter campaign). Toxicity tests were performed on all sediment samples. Sediment grain-size and chemistry were measured during spring and autumn campaigns. This research investigated (i) the ability of toxicity tests in discriminating among sites with different contamination level, (ii) the occurrence of a gradient of effect among sampling sites, (iii) the possible correlation among toxicity tests, sediment chemistry, grain size and organic carbon, and (iv) the possible occurrence of toxicity seasonal variability. Sediment contamination levels were from low to moderate. No acute toxicity toward amphipods was observed, while sea urchin fertilization was affected only in few sites in just a single campaign. Short-term effects on larval development of sea urchin and oyster evidenced a clear spatial trend among sites, with increasing effects along the axis connecting the sea-inlets with the industrial area. The set of bioassays allowed the identification of a spatial gradient of effect, with decreasing toxicity from the industrial area toward the sea-inlets. Multivariate data analysis showed that the malformations of oyster embryos were significantly correlated to the industrial contamination (metals, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, hexachlorobenzene and polychlorinated biphenyls), while sea urchin development to sediment concentrations of As, Cr and organic carbon. Both embryo toxicity tests were

  16. Resolving the atmospheric pressure influence on watertable level fluctuations in the coastal aquifer south of Ravenna, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balugani, E.; Antonellini, M.

    2009-04-01

    Knowledge of water table fluctuations in coastal zones is important to obtain information on the aquifers hydraulic properties. In order to uniquely interpret this information, it is important to quantify the contribution of each process causing the fluctuations. We recorded two long-period time series of watertable level variations in two piezometers of the coastal phreatic aquifer at Cervia (south of Ravenna), Italy. The piezometers were located on a transect normal to the shoreline, one at 40 m and the other at 70 m from the coast. The dataset has been cleaned for input from rain events, pressure loading and tide-induced fluctuations. The eliminations of fluctuations with frequency 12-24 hours has been particular difficult, because no analytical solution can simulate the observed real fluctuation behaviour. The best solution among those tested has been the one from Li et al., 2000 (c) for spring-neap tides. Despite the fact that this solution predicts only groundwater waves generated by bichromatic signals, and that the boundary conditions require a steep beach slope (not always the case for this stretch of the adriatic sea), the results that we obtained are encouraging. As simplifying assumptions we used a beach slope set to the minimum acceptable value in the solution and no further interaction between the two bichromatic signals when added together. The Adriatic tide, in fact, is defined as "mixed" with dominant semidiurnal type, so that in order to model sea level variations properly we used four harmonic components as recommended from other authors (references). In enclosed or partially enclosed seas, seiches and tides could have similar frequencies, but they are caused by different processes. Seiches could, in fact, interfere with tide waves resulting in a change in amplitude and phase of sea level in response to wind and pressure. Seiches episodes have been extracted and filtered via power spectra and harmonic analysis in both dataset for sea level and

  17. A review of recent studies of goitre in Italy

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Aurelio; Mortara, Marcello

    1960-01-01

    The prevalence and distribution of both epidemic and endemic goitre in Italy since 1940 are reviewed and the main results of recent research into these two forms of the disease are specified. A number of epidemic outbreaks occurred between 1940 and 1948, all originally in areas of endemic goitre but sometimes spreading to localities from which endemic goitre had pract