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Sample records for liik kertu lts

  1. The Evolution of LTS at DOE's Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    Moren, Richard J.; Grindstaff, Keith D.

    2013-11-12

    Hanford's Long-Term Stewardship (LTS) Program has evolved from a small, informal process, with minimal support, to a robust program that provides comprehensive transitions from cleanup contractors to long-term stewardship for post-cleanup requirements specified in the associated cleanup decision documents. The LTS Program has the responsibility for almost 100,000 acres of land, along with over 200 waste sites and will soon have six cocooned reactors. Close to 2,600 documents have been identified and tagged for storage in the LTS document library. The program has successfully completed six consecutive transitions over the last two years in support of the U.S. DOE Richland Operations Office's (DOE-RL) near-term cleanup objectives of significantly reducing the footprint of active cleanup operations for the River Corridor. The program has evolved from one that was initially responsible for defining and measuring Institutional Controls for the Hanford Site, to a comprehensive, post remediation surveillance and maintenance program that begins early in the transition process. In 2013, the first reactor area -- the cocooned 105-F Reactor and its surrounding 1,100 acres, called the F Area was transitioned. In another first, the program is expected to transition the five remaining cocooned reactors into the program through using a Transition and Turnover Package (TTP). As Hanford's LTS Program moves into the next few years, it will continue to build on a collaborative approach. The program has built strong relationships between contractors, regulators, tribes and stakeholders and with the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Legacy Management (LM). The LTS Program has been working with LM since its inception. The transition process utilized LM's Site Transition Framework as one of the initial requirement documents and the Hanford Program continues to collaborate with LM today. One example of this collaboration is the development of the LTS Program's records management

  2. A 1.3-GHz LTS/HTS NMR Magnet–A Progress Report

    PubMed Central

    Bascuñán, Juan; Hahn, Seungyong; Park, Dong Keun; Iwasa, Yukikazu

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we present details of a 600 MHz HTS insert (H600) double pancake (DP) windings. It will first be operated in the bore of a 500 MHz LTS magnet, achieving a frequency of 1.1 GHz. Upon completion of H600, we will embark on the final phase (Phase 3B) of a 3-Phase program began in 2000: completion of a high resolution 1.3 GHz LTS/HTS magnet. In Phase 3B, the H600 will be coupled to a 700 MHz LTS magnet to achieve the ultimate frequency of 1.3 GHz. The HTS insert is composed of two concentric stacks of double pancakes, one wound with high strength BSCCO-2223 tape, the other with YBCO coated conductor. Details include conductor and coil parameters, winding procedure, DPs mechanical support and integration to the background 500 MHz LTS magnet. Test results of individual DPs in LN2 are also presented. PMID:22081752

  3. A 1.3-GHz LTS/HTS NMR Magnet-A Progress Report.

    PubMed

    Bascuñán, Juan; Hahn, Seungyong; Park, Dong Keun; Iwasa, Yukikazu

    2011-06-01

    In this paper we present details of a 600 MHz HTS insert (H600) double pancake (DP) windings. It will first be operated in the bore of a 500 MHz LTS magnet, achieving a frequency of 1.1 GHz. Upon completion of H600, we will embark on the final phase (Phase 3B) of a 3-Phase program began in 2000: completion of a high resolution 1.3 GHz LTS/HTS magnet. In Phase 3B, the H600 will be coupled to a 700 MHz LTS magnet to achieve the ultimate frequency of 1.3 GHz. The HTS insert is composed of two concentric stacks of double pancakes, one wound with high strength BSCCO-2223 tape, the other with YBCO coated conductor. Details include conductor and coil parameters, winding procedure, DPs mechanical support and integration to the background 500 MHz LTS magnet. Test results of individual DPs in LN2 are also presented. PMID:22081752

  4. Stability test of conduction-cooled LTS/HTS composite coil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Ying Min; Wang, Yin Shun; Lv, Gang; Pi, Wei

    2016-06-01

    A small LTS/HTS composite coil made of NbTi/Cu and YBCO, with an inner diameter of 80 mm, an outer diameter of 88mm, a height of 50 mm, and an inductance of 5.5 μH, was designed to test its heat disturbance performance in a GM cryocooler. For comparison, a conventional LTS coil of a similar size made of NbTi/Cu wire was also tested. Transport current was applied from 50 A to 700 A at 8 K and 8.5 K, respectively. The two coils’ heat disturbance, minimum quench energy and quench propagation velocity performance were investigated and simulated. The results indicate that the LTS/HTS composite coil shows better thermal stability and is more fit for operation in conductive cryocooler systems compared to LTS coils.

  5. Secondary Voice Restoration After Laryngotracheal Separation (LTS) for Dysphagia with Intractable Aspiration.

    PubMed

    Bonte, Katrien; Huvenne, Wouter; De Loof, Marie; Deron, Philippe; Viaene, Annick; Duprez, Fréderic; Vermeersch, Hubert

    2015-12-01

    Intractable aspiration is a serious, often life-threatening condition due to its potential impact on pulmonary function. Aspiration requires therapeutic measures, starting with conservative management but often necessitating surgical treatment. The basic surgical principle is to separate the alimentary and respiratory tracts through a variety of procedures which, unfortunately, nearly all result in the loss of phonation, with the exception of total laryngectomy (TL) which includes the placement of an indwelling voice prosthesis. In this study, we present a modified laryngotracheal separation (LTS) technique that, we believe, offers multiple advantages compared to standard TL. After reviewing the medical records of 35 patients with intractable aspiration who have undergone LTS, we describe the surgical technique and present the postoperative result. In a second surgical procedure about two months following LTS, we aimed to achieve voice restoration by placement of an indwelling voice prosthesis. Intractable aspiration was successfully treated in all patients. Placement of an indwelling voice prosthesis during a second operation was successful in 15 patients, representing the largest reported cohort thus far. LTS is a reliable surgical technique to treat intractable aspiration, with restoration of oral intake, thereby improving the general condition and quality of life of these unfortunate patients. Furthermore, voice restoration can be achieved in selected patients, by placement of a voice prosthesis. PMID:26264593

  6. The Logistical Tracking System (LTS) Five Years Later: What Has Been Accomplished?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valcik, Nicolas A.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to discuss development of the Logistical Tracking System (LTS)1 and evaluate the changes in processes and procedures at the University of Texas-Dallas (UT-Dallas) that were due to implementation of a new type of technology. The chapter elaborates on the positive and negative aspects of designing and constructing a…

  7. Strategic Program Planning Lessons Learned in Developing the LTS S&T Roadmap

    SciTech Connect

    Duane Hanson; Brent Dixon; Gretchen Matthern

    2003-07-01

    Technology roadmapping is a strategic planning method used by companies to identify and plan the development of technologies necessary for new products. The U.S. Department of Energy’s Office of Environmental Management has used this same method to refine requirements and identify knowledge and tools needed for completion of defined missions. This paper describes the process of applying roadmapping to clarify mission requirements and identify enhancing technologies for the Long-Term Stewardship (LTS) of polluted sites after site cleanup has been completed. The nature of some contamination problems is such that full cleanup is not achievable with current technologies and some residual hazards remain. LTS maintains engineered contaminant barriers and land use restriction controls, and monitors residual contaminants until they no longer pose a risk to the public or the environment. Roadmapping was used to clarify the breadth of the LTS mission, to identify capability enhancements needed to improve mission effectiveness and efficiency, and to chart out the research and development efforts to provide those enhancements. This paper is a case study of the application of roadmapping for program planning and technical risk management. Differences between the planned and actual application of the roadmapping process are presented along with lessons learned. Both the process used and lessons learned should be of interest for anyone contemplating a similar technology based planning effort.

  8. Hypospadias repair using laser tissue soldering (LTS): preliminary results of a prospective randomized study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirsch, Andrew J.; Cooper, Christopher S.; Canning, Douglas A.; Snyder, Howard M., III; Zderic, Stephen A.

    1998-07-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate laser tissue soldering using an 808 nm diode laser and wavelength- matched human albumin solder for urethral surgery in children. Methods: Currently, 30 boys, ages 3 months to 8 years were randomized to standard suturing (n equals 22) or 'sutureless' laser hypospadias repair (n equals 18). Laser soldering was performed with a human albumin solder doped with indocyanine green dye (2.5 mg/ml) using a laser power output of 0.5 W, pulse duration of 0.5 sec, and interval of 0.1 sec. Power density was approximately 16 W/cm2. In the laser group, sutures were used for tissue alignment only. At the time of surgery, neourethral and penile lengths, operative time for urethral repair, and number of sutures/throws were measured. Postoperatively, patients were examined for complications of wound healing, stricture, or fistula formation. Results: Mean age, severity of urethral defect, type of repair, and neourethra length were equivalent between the two groups. Operative time was significantly faster for laser soldering in both simple (1.6 plus or minus 0.21 min, p less than 0.001) and complex (5.4 plus or minus 0.28 min, p less than 0.0001) hypospadias repairs compared to controls (10.6 plus or minus 1.4 min and 27.8 plus or minus 2.9 min, respectively). The mean number of sutures used in the laser group for simple and complex repairs (3.3 plus or minus 0.3 and 8.1 plus or minus 0.64, respectively) were significantly (p less than 0.0001) less than for controls (8.2 plus or minus 0.84 and 20 plus or minus 2.3, respectively). Followup was between 3 months and 14 months. The overall complication rate in the laser group (11%) was lower than the controls (23%). However, statistical significance (p less than 0.05) was achieved only for the subgroup of patients undergoing simple repairs (LTS, 100% success versus suturing, 69% success). Conclusions: These preliminary results indicate that laser tissue soldering for hypospadias repair

  9. The LTS timing analysis program : user%3CU%2B2019%3Es manual and description of the methods of analysis.

    SciTech Connect

    Armstrong, Darrell Jewell; Schwarz, Jens

    2013-08-01

    The LTS Timing Analysis program described in this report uses signals from the Tempest Lasers, Pulse Forming Lines, and Laser Spark Detectors to carry out calculations to quantify and monitor the performance of the the Z-Accelerator's laser triggered SF6 switches. The program analyzes Z-shots beginning with Z2457, when Laser Spark Detector data became available for all lines.

  10. Measurement of the cooling capacity of an RMC-Cryosystems Model LTS 4.5-025 closed-cycle helium refrigerator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    De Zafra, R. L.; Mallison, W. H.; Emmons, L. K.; Koller, D.

    1991-01-01

    The cooling capacity of a recently purchased RMC-Cryosystems Model LTS 4.5-025 closed-cycle He refrigerator was measured over the range 4-35 K. It is found that the nominal cooling capacity of 250 mW is only met or exceeded over a narrow temperature range around 4.3 + or - 0.5 K, and that, above this range, there exists a considerable region of much lower cooling capacity, not exceeding about 100 mW. It is believed that this behavior results from use of a fixed-aperture Joule-Thompson expansion valve, and might be alleviated if the J-T valve could be adjusted to compensate for changing flow within the 5-20 K temperature range. Present performance may severely limit or prevent effective use in applications where an irreducible heat inflow exists which is greater than about 100 mW, yet substantially less than the quoted capacity at about 4 K.

  11. Minocycline attenuates HIV-1 infection and suppresses chronic immune activation in humanized NOD/LtsZ-scidIL-2Rγnull mice

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Maneesh; Singh, Pratibha; Vaira, Dolores; Amand, Mathieu; Rahmouni, Souad; Moutschen, Michel

    2014-01-01

    More than a quarter of a century of research has established chronic immune activation and dysfunctional T cells as central features of chronic HIV infection and subsequent immunodeficiency. Consequently, the search for a new immunomodulatory therapy that could reduce immune activation and improve T-cell function has been increased. However, the lack of small animal models for in vivo HIV study has hampered progress. In the current study, we have investigated a model of cord blood haematopoietic progenitor cells (CB-HPCs) -transplanted humanized NOD/LtsZ-scidIL-2Rγnull mice in which progression of HIV infection is associated with widespread chronic immune activation and inflammation. Indeed, HIV infection in humanized NSG mice caused up-regulation of several T-cell immune activation markers such as CD38, HLA-DR, CD69 and co-receptor CCR5. T-cell exhaustion markers PD-1 and CTLA-4 were found to be significantly up-regulated on T cells. Moreover, increased plasmatic levels of lipopolysaccharide, sCD14 and interleukin-10 were also observed in infected mice. Treatment with minocycline resulted in a significant decrease of expression of cellular and plasma immune activation markers, inhibition of HIV replication and improved T-cell counts in HIV-infected humanized NSG mice. The study demonstrates that minocycline could be an effective, low-cost adjunctive treatment to regulate chronic immune activation and replication of HIV. PMID:24409837

  12. High Resolution LTS-SQUID Microscopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baudenbacher, Franz; Peters, Nicholas; Wikswo, John

    2000-03-01

    We have developed a scanning superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) microscope for imaging magnetic fields of room-temperature samples with sub-millimeter resolution. In our design, hand wound niobium pickup coils were coupled to commercially available low-temperature SQUID sensors. The SQUID sensor and the pickup coil are in the vacuum space of the cryostat separated typically less than 50μm by a thin sapphire window from the room-temperature sample. A computerized non-magnetic scanning stage with sub-micron resolution in combination with a tripod leveling system allows samples to be scanned within 10μm of the sapphire window. For a 20-turn 500μm diameter pickup coil, we achieved a field sensitivity of 350fT\\cdotHz-1/2 for frequencies above 1 Hz, and 1pT\\cdotHz-1/2 for a 10-turn 250mm coil. The SQUID microscope was used to image the distribution of time-dependent stimulus and action currents in anisotropic cardiac tissue, the remanent magnetization of the Martian meteorite ALH84001 during thermal demagnetisation, and the magnetic susceptibility of biogenic magnetite in the beak of homing pigeons.

  13. LTS Gradiometers Based-On Superconducting Imaging Surface Design

    SciTech Connect

    Matlachov, A.N.; Kraus, R.H., Jr.; Espy, M.A.

    1999-06-21

    Gradiometer-like devices can be built using a superconducting imaging surface design. Such devices behave similarly to conventional wire-wound gradiometers for nearby magnetic sources. A large gradiometer array can be built by placing SQUID magnetometers close to the surface of a large superconducting plane. The most attractive advantage of such a gradiometer array is the ability to change a baseline for all channels simultaneously by mechanically moving the superconducting imaging surface relative to the sensor array. This can easily be accomplished even when the gradiometer array is cold. We built, experimentally tested, and simulated both first- and second-order gradiometer-like devices with adjustable baseline using the superconducting imaging surface design. First-order radial gradiometer sensors were made by placing planar magnetometers parallel to and near the superconducting imaging surface. A second-order electronic gradiometer was realized by subtracting the output from two of the first-order gradiometers described above.

  14. Demography and Socio-Economic Characteristics of South Dakota and lts Economic Regions. Bulletin Number 120.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergman, W. H.

    The information about South Dakota presented in this booklet is intended for use by both private and government sector planners and decisionmakers at every level who would profit from knowledge of the character of the underlying trends and forces at work within the State. The first half of the booklet is devoted to the State in general: History…

  15. V-1 TRANSITION AND N-VALUE OF MULTIFILAMENTARY LTS AND HTS WIRES AND CABLES.

    SciTech Connect

    GHOSH,A.K.

    2003-05-25

    For low T, multifilamentary conductors like NbTi and Nb{sub 3}Sn, the V-I transition to the normal state is typically quantified by the parameter, n, defined by ({rho}/{rho}{sub c})= (I/I{sub c}){sup n}. For NbTi, this parameterization has been very useful in the development of high Jc wires, where the n-value is regarded as an index of the filament quality. In copper-matrix wires with undistorted filaments, the n-value at 5T is {approx} 40-60, and drops monotonically with increasing field. However, n can vary significantly in conductors with higher resistivity matrices and those with a low copper fraction. Usually high n-values are associated with unstable resistive behavior and premature quenching. The n-value in NbTi Rutherford cables, when compared to that in the wires is useful in evaluating cabling degradation of the critical current due to compaction at the edges of the cable. In Nb{sub 3}Sn wires, n-value has been a less useful tool, since often the resistive transition shows small voltages {approx} a few {mu}V prior to quenching. However, in ''well behaved'' wires, n is {approx} 30-40 at 12T and also shows a monotonic behavior with field. Strain induced I{sub c} degradation in these wires is usually associated with lower n-values. For high T{sub c} multifilamentary wires and tapes, a similar power law often describes the resistive transition. At 4.2K, Bi-2223 tapes as well as Bi-2212 wires exhibit n-values {approx} 15-20. In either case, n does not change appreciably with field. Rutherford cables of Bi-2212 wire show lower values of n than the virgin wire.

  16. 76 FR 20231 - Airworthiness Directives; Honeywell International Inc. LTS101 Series Turboshaft Engines and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-12

    ... SNPRM published in the Federal Register on December 17, 2010 (75 FR 78937). The original notice of proposed rulemaking (74 FR 67829, December 21, 2009) proposed to require removing power turbine blades... not a ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February...

  17. 75 FR 78937 - Airworthiness Directives; Honeywell International LTS101 Series Turboshaft Engines and LTP101...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-17

    ... in the Federal Register published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477-78). Examining the AD Docket You may... the Federal Register on December 21, 2009 (74 FR 67829). That action proposed to require removing... Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); and 3. Would not have a significant economic impact, positive...

  18. Method to reduce low temperature stress (LTS) in red raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In Norway and other Nordic regions, the floricanes of red raspberries often suffer 20 to 30 percent injury from exposures to extremely low temperatures. We studied from 2011 to 2014 to determine the effect of bending the floricanes of ‘Glen Ample’, ‘Stiora’ and KV91-39-7 red raspberries close to th...

  19. High resolution imaging of biomagnetic fields generated by action currents in cardiac tissue using a LTS-SQUID microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baudenbacher, F.; Peters, N. T.; Baudenbacher, P.; Wikswo, J. P.

    2002-03-01

    We have developed a scanning superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) microscope for imaging magnetic fields of room-temperature samples with sub-millimeter resolution. In our design, we use hand-wound niobium pickup coils coupled to commercially available low temperature SQUID sensors. The SQUID sensor and the pickup coil are located in the vacuum space of the cryostat and are separated by a 25 μm sapphire window from the room-temperature sample. The spacing between the tip of the pickup coil and the sample is typically <100 μm. We have used pickup coil diameters of 250 and 500 μm with various numbers of turns depending on the desired spatial resolution. For a 500 μm diameter pickup coil we achieved a field sensitivity of 330 fT Hz -1/2 for frequencies above 1 Hz. This allows us to record magnetocardiograms (MCGs) on the surface of an isolated Langendorff perfused rabbit heart. We recorded MCGs at 1600 locations on a 16×16 mm 2 grid on the surface of an isolated rabbit heart stimulated with a point electrode in the center of the grid. The MCGs were combined to produce a time series of two-dimensional magnetic field maps, which show a clear, octopolar pattern during the current injection, a similar pattern with a reversal in currents immediately after current injection, and the generation and propagation of an elliptical action-current wave front.

  20. Educational Technology Program. Quarterly Technical Summary Report, March 31 through May 31, 1971.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frick, Frederick C.

    The report describes hardware and software development for Lincoln Training System #3 (LTS-3) at M.I.T.'s Lincoln Laboratory. The report provides specifications of an LTS-3 student console, and describes refinements of LTS-3 teaching techniques and lesson materials resulting from a test of the system at a U. S. Air Force technical training school.…

  1. Educational Technology Program. Quarterly Technical Summary, Period Ending 31 May 1970.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frick, Frederick C.

    An overview of the Lincoln Training System (LTS) and descriptions of the hardward and software of the LTS-1 and LTS-2 systems are provided. The overall program seeks to develop, test, and evaluate technical aids to vocational training systems. These are appropriate to this field because the high costs need to be reduced and because there are clear…

  2. Effects of Aversive Stimuli beyond Defensive Neural Circuits: Reduced Excitability in an Identified Neuron Critical for Feeding in "Aplysia"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shields-Johnson, Maria E.; Hernandez, John S.; Torno, Cody; Adams, Katherine M.; Wainwright, Marcy L.; Mozzachiodi, Riccardo

    2013-01-01

    In "Aplysia," repeated trials of aversive stimuli produce long-term sensitization (LTS) of defensive reflexes and suppression of feeding. Whereas the cellular underpinnings of LTS have been characterized, the mechanisms of feeding suppression remained unknown. Here, we report that LTS training induced a long-term decrease in the excitability of…

  3. Applying a decision process for long-term stewardship planning at a US Department of Energy site.

    SciTech Connect

    Hocking, E. K.; Smiley, S. L.

    2002-05-14

    Long-term stewardship (LTS) can be defined as the system of activities needed to protect human health and the environment from hazards left remaining at a site as a result of a cleanup decision. Although the general consensus has been that remediation decisions and LTS decisions should be made conjointly, the general practice has been to separate them. This bifurcation can result in LTS plans that are difficult to implement and enforce and disproportionately costly for the benefit they provide. Worse still, they can be ineffective and result in harmful exposures to humans and the environment. Sites that have not yet made cleanup decisions and that can still integrate LTS planning into that decision making would benefit from a process built on a systematic review of the LTS risks and costs associated with remedial alternatives that include allowing on-site residual contamination. Sites that must develop LTS plans in response to previously determined cleanup decisions are even more in need of a process that involves close scrutiny of the risks and costs of possible LTS plan components. An LTS planning decision process usable by both categories of sites has been developed and is being used at the US Department of Energy (DOE) Mound site. In addition to facilitating LTS planning, the process demonstrated the need to integrate the work of LTS planners, remediation decision makers, and LTS technology developers and deployers.

  4. Effects of aversive stimuli beyond defensive neural circuits: reduced excitability in an identified neuron critical for feeding in Aplysia.

    PubMed

    Shields-Johnson, Maria E; Hernandez, John S; Torno, Cody; Adams, Katherine M; Wainwright, Marcy L; Mozzachiodi, Riccardo

    2013-01-01

    In Aplysia, repeated trials of aversive stimuli produce long-term sensitization (LTS) of defensive reflexes and suppression of feeding. Whereas the cellular underpinnings of LTS have been characterized, the mechanisms of feeding suppression remained unknown. Here, we report that LTS training induced a long-term decrease in the excitability of B51 (a decision-making neuron in the feeding circuit) that recovered at a time point in which LTS is no longer observed (72 h post-treatment). These findings indicate B51 as a locus of plasticity underlying feeding suppression. Finally, treatment with serotonin to induce LTS failed to alter feeding and B51 excitability, suggesting that serotonin does not mediate the effects of LTS training on the feeding circuit. PMID:23242417

  5. Role of Leukotrienes on Protozoan and Helminth Infections

    PubMed Central

    Rogerio, Alexandre P.; Anibal, Fernanda F.

    2012-01-01

    Leukotrienes (LTs), formed by the 5-lipoxygenase-(5-LO-) catalyzed oxidation of arachidonic acid, are lipid mediators that have potent proinflammatory activities. Pharmacologic or genetic inhibition of 5-LO biosynthesis in animals is associated with increased mortality and impaired clearance of bacteria, fungi, and parasites. LTs play a role in the control of helminth and protozoan infections by modulating the immune system and/or through direct cytotoxicity to parasites; however, LTs may also be associated with pathogenesis, such as in cerebral malaria and schistosomal granuloma. Interestingly, some proteins from the saliva of insect vectors that transmit protozoans and secreted protein from helminth could bind LTs and may consequently modulate the course of infection or pathogenesis. In addition, the decreased production of LTs in immunocompromised individuals might modulate the pathophysiology of helminth and protozoan infections. Herein, in this paper, we showed the immunomodulatory and pathogenic roles of LTs during the helminth and protozoan infections. PMID:22577251

  6. Testing of the line element of special relativity with rotating systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vargas, Jose G.; Torr, Douglas G.

    1989-01-01

    Experiments with rotating systems are examined from the point of view of a test theory of the Lorentz transformations (LTs), permitting, in principle, the verification of the simultaneity relation. The significance of the experiments involved in the testing of the LTs can be determined using Robertson's test theory (RTT). A revised RTT is discussed, and attention is given to the Ehrenfest paradox in connection with the testing of the LTs.

  7. Molecular Predictors of Long-Term Survival in Glioblastoma Multiforme Patients

    PubMed Central

    Cowperthwaite, Matthew C.; Burnett, Mark G.; Shpak, Max

    2016-01-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common and aggressive adult primary brain cancer, with <10% of patients surviving for more than 3 years. Demographic and clinical factors (e.g. age) and individual molecular biomarkers have been associated with prolonged survival in GBM patients. However, comprehensive systems-level analyses of molecular profiles associated with long-term survival (LTS) in GBM patients are still lacking. We present an integrative study of molecular data and clinical variables in these long-term survivors (LTSs, patients surviving >3 years) to identify biomarkers associated with prolonged survival, and to assess the possible similarity of molecular characteristics between LGG and LTS GBM. We analyzed the relationship between multivariable molecular data and LTS in GBM patients from the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), including germline and somatic point mutation, gene expression, DNA methylation, copy number variation (CNV) and microRNA (miRNA) expression using logistic regression models. The molecular relationship between GBM LTS and LGG tumors was examined through cluster analysis. We identified 13, 94, 43, 29, and 1 significant predictors of LTS using Lasso logistic regression from the somatic point mutation, gene expression, DNA methylation, CNV, and miRNA expression data sets, respectively. Individually, DNA methylation provided the best prediction performance (AUC = 0.84). Combining multiple classes of molecular data into joint regression models did not improve prediction accuracy, but did identify additional genes that were not significantly predictive in individual models. PCA and clustering analyses showed that GBM LTS typically had gene expression profiles similar to non-LTS GBM. Furthermore, cluster analysis did not identify a close affinity between LTS GBM and LGG, nor did we find a significant association between LTS and secondary GBM. The absence of unique LTS profiles and the lack of similarity between LTS GBM and LGG, indicates

  8. Characteristics associated with low treatment satisfaction in patients with implanted cardioverter defibrillators: results from the LICAD study.

    PubMed

    Ladwig, Karl-Heinz; Deisenhofer, Isabelle; Simon, Heidi; Schmitt, Claus; Baumert, Jens J

    2005-06-01

    The evaluation of low treatment satisfaction (LTS) with an implanted cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) remains a neglected area of clinical research. However, a trustful attitude toward an ICD is crucial. Within the scope of ICD health technology assessment, we searched for predictors of LTS. Of 195 ICD patients enrolled (mean 59.8 years, standard deviation 12.6), 163 (83.6%) were men and 26 (16.4%) were women. We measured anxiety, helplessness, and depression with standardized instruments and LTS with 11 dichotomous items concerning a mistrustful attitude, a negative body image, and low appraisal. A total of 47 (24.1%) patients were considered as LTS patients. Multivariate logistic regression was used for assessment of LTS. Adjusted for age and survey, LTS was significantly more prevalent in depressed, anxious, and phobic patients. Multivariate logistic regression including medical and psychological covariates revealed the experience of > or =5 shocks with an odds ratio (OR) of 10.17 (95% CI 3.57-29.00, P < or = 0.001), being employed with an OR of 8.07 (95% CI 2.39-27.19, P < or = 0.001), and feelings of helplessness (OR 4.61, 95% CI 1.79-11.90, P < or = 0.002) as the most important predictors for LTS. Women had a slightly not significant effect on LTS. Age, educational status, and depression were not significant. LTS patients required more support for living with the ICD (P < or = 0.001). Thus, LTS serves as surrogate measure for deteriorated psychic health. Clinicians should be advised to identify LTS patients and to consider psychotherapeutic counseling for them. PMID:15955182

  9. Long-term environmental stewardship.

    SciTech Connect

    Nagy, Michael David

    2010-08-01

    The purpose of this Supplemental Information Source Document is to effectively describe Long-Term Environmental Stewardship (LTES) at Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico (SNL/NM). More specifically, this document describes the LTES and Long-Term Stewardship (LTS) Programs, distinguishes between the LTES and LTS Programs, and summarizes the current status of the Environmental Restoration (ER) Project.

  10. Another route to the Lorentz transformations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bessonov, E. G.

    2016-05-01

    This paper uses the Galilean relativity principle and the dependence of the rate of a clock on its velocity to derive the Lorentz transformations (LTs). Analyzing different ways of deriving the LTs provides different perspectives on them and their implications, as well as making them more accessible to a wide range of readers with an interest in relativistic physics.

  11. Educational Technology Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frick, Frederick C.

    Recent work on the development and testing of various components of the Lincoln Training System (LTS) is reported. Plans were further developed for the testing of the LTS-1 terminal at the Keeler Technical Training Center in order to prove that this type of terminal can function as the main medium of teaching in a self-paced training environment.…

  12. Defining Assessment Literacy: Is it Different for Language Testers and Non-Language Testers?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeong, Heejeong

    2013-01-01

    Language assessment courses (LACs) are taught by professionals who have majored in the area of language testing (language testers or LTs), but also by others who come from different language-related majors (non-language testers, non-LTs). Different language assessment courses may be developed, depending on who teaches the course and the…

  13. Transcriptomic response of Listeria monocytogenes during the transition to the long-term-survival phase.

    PubMed

    Wen, Jia; Deng, Xiangyu; Li, Zengxin; Dudley, Edward G; Anantheswaran, Ramaswamy C; Knabel, Stephen J; Zhang, Wei

    2011-09-01

    Listeria monocytogenes can change its cellular morphology from bacilli to cocci during the transition to the long-term-survival (LTS) phase. The LTS cells demonstrated increased baro- and thermotolerance compared to their vegetative counterparts. So far, the underlying mechanisms that trigger this morphological and physiological transition remain largely unknown. In this study, we compared the transcriptomic profiles of L. monocytogenes serotype 4b strain F2365 at different growth stages in tryptic soy broth with yeast extract (TSBYE) using a whole-genome DNA chip approach. We identified a total of 225 differentially expressed genes (≥4-fold; P < 0.05) during the transition to the LTS phase in TSBYE. Genes related to cell envelope structure, energy metabolism, and transport were most significantly upregulated in the LTS phase. The upregulation of compatible solute transporters may lead to the accumulation of cellular solutes, lowering intracellular water activity and thus increasing bacterial stress resistance during the transition to the LTS phase. The downregulation of genes associated with protein synthesis may indicate a status of metabolic dormancy of the LTS cells. The transcriptomic profiles of resuscitated LTS cells in fresh TSBYE resembled those of log-phase cells (r=0.94), as the LTS cells rapidly resume metabolic activities and transit back to log phase with decreased baro- and thermotolerance. PMID:21764970

  14. Scaffolding High School Students' Reading of Complex Texts Using Linked Text Sets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elish-Piper, Laurie; Wold, Linda S.; Schwingendorf, Kathy

    2014-01-01

    Linked text sets (LTS) offer a promising approach to bring together adolescent students and complex texts, such as those required by the Common Core State Standards, using strategic scaffolding. LTS include a variety of print and media texts that address a guiding question that is meaningful to students such as, "Why is growing up so…

  15. 76 FR 70334 - Airworthiness Directives; Honeywell International Inc. Turboshaft Engines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-14

    ... Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979), (3) Will not affect intrastate aviation in Alaska... International Inc. Turboshaft Engines AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule... International Inc. LTS101-600A-2, -3, -3A, and LTS101-700D-2 turboshaft engines with certain power...

  16. Learning Trajectory Based Instruction: Toward a Theory of Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sztajn, Paola; Confrey, Jere; Wilson, P. Holt; Edgington, Cynthia

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we propose a theoretical connection between research on learning and research on teaching through recent research on students' learning trajectories (LTs). We define learning trajectory based instruction (LTBI) as teaching that uses students' LTs as the basis for instructional decisions. We use mathematics as the context for our…

  17. Statistical Treatment of Looking-Time Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Csibra, Gergely; Hernik, Mikolaj; Mascaro, Olivier; Tatone, Denis; Lengyel, Máté

    2016-01-01

    Looking times (LTs) are frequently measured in empirical research on infant cognition. We analyzed the statistical distribution of LTs across participants to develop recommendations for their treatment in infancy research. Our analyses focused on a common within-subject experimental design, in which longer looking to novel or unexpected stimuli is…

  18. The Impact of Phonological Neighborhood Density on Typical and Atypical Emerging Lexicons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stokes, Stephanie F.

    2014-01-01

    According to the Extended Statistical Learning account (ExSL; Stokes, Kern & dos Santos, 2012) late talkers (LTs) continue to use neighborhood density (ND) as a cue for word learning when their peers no longer use a density learning mechanism. In the current article, LTs expressive ("active") lexicon ND values differed from those of…

  19. Taiwanese Science and Life Technology Curriculum Standards and Earth Systems Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Chun-Yen

    2005-01-01

    In the past several years, curriculum reform has received increasing attention from educators in many countries around the world. Recently, Taiwan has developed new Science and Life Technology Curriculum Standards (SaLTS) for grades 1-9. SaLTS features a systematic way for developing students' understanding and appreciation of…

  20. Educational Technology Program. Quarterly Technical Summary Report 1 June - 31 August 1970.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frick, Frederick C.

    Although the principal goal of the Lincoln Training System (LTS) is to develop prototypical hardware and lesson materials for military technical training, the computer-assisted instructional system is being studied for possible application in various areas of special education in the public sector. The LTS-1 terminal was prepared for testing.…

  1. Educational Technology Program. Quarterly Technical Summary, 1 December 1972 through 28 February 1973.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frick, Frederick C.

    Work on the Lincoln Training System (LTS) conducted during the period covered by this report focused upon 1) applications research for the LTS and 2) on the implementation of a series of experimental design studies. Test results showed that pairs of students could share terminals, with feedback and remediation based on only one student's response,…

  2. The impact of phonological neighborhood density on typical and atypical emerging lexicons*.

    PubMed

    Stokes, Stephanie F; Stokes, Stephanie L

    2014-05-01

    According to the Extended Statistical Learning account (ExSL; Stokes, Kern & dos Santos, 2012) late talkers (LTs) continue to use neighborhood density (ND) as a cue for word learning when their peers no longer use a density learning mechanism. In the current article, LTs expressive (active) lexicon ND values differed from those of their age-matched, but not language-matched, TD peers, a finding that provided support for the ExSL account. Stokes (2010) claimed that LTs had difficulty abstracting sparse words, but not dense, from the ambient language. If true, then LTs' receptive (passive), as well as active lexicons should be comprised of words of high ND. However, in the current research only active lexicons were of high ND. LTs' expressive lexicons may be small not because of an abstraction deficit, but because they are unable to develop sufficiently strong phonological representations to support word production. PMID:23651703

  3. Microstructure and Phase Transformation of a Sinter Bearing Low Ti During Reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jianliang; Zhang, Yapeng; Li, Kejiang; Wang, Yaozu; Liu, Zhengjian; Wang, Guangwei

    2016-07-01

    To discuss the reduction behaviors and the transformation mechanism of the Fe containing phases and slag phases of low Ti-bearing sinter (LTS), reduction experiments of the LTS were conducted. The reduction of the LTS was divided into four stages based on the reduction rate, deformation quantity of LTS particle column, phase changes, and microstructural changes. The reduction process could be explained with quasi unreacted core model as three stratifications with different phases and microstructures were observed clearly in the medium-temperature reducing stage. For the reduction of Ti-SFCA, a middle phase of the reduction was found and the phase was surrounded by metallic iron. According to the composites of the reduced Ti-SFCA, the middle phase was a solid solution and difficult to be reduced which consisted mainly of brownmillerite-perovskite and monocalcium silicate. The phase transformation and microstructure changes were mutual coupling in the complicated reduction process of the LTS.

  4. Central effects of leukotriene C4 and D4 in rats and mice.

    PubMed

    Brus, R; Krzeminski, T; Juraszczyk, Z; Kurcok, A; Felinska, W; Kozik, W

    1986-01-01

    Leukotrienes (LTs) C4 or D4 in a dose of 12 nmoles were administered into the lateral ventricle (i.c.v.) of the rat brain under urethane anaesthesia, and the changes in the blood pressure, heart and respiratory rate were investigated. In other animals the behaviour was evaluated by means of the open field test, and the rectal body temperature was measured. Besides, the content of noradrenaline, 5-hydroxytryptamine and 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid was estimated in different parts of the brain following i.c.v. application of LTs. In mice the antinociceptive effect of LTs in a dose of 1.5 nmoles was examined in the hot plate test; furthermore, the effect of LTs on chlorpromazine catalepsy was measured. Only LTC4 caused a slight rise of the peripheral blood pressure, a decreased respiratory rate and affected the behaviour of rats. Both LTs decreased the rectal body temperature but did not alter the content of biogenic amines in the brain of rats. In mice both LTs did not change the reactivity to thermic pain stimulus; only LTC4 intensified chlorpromazine catalepsy. The results indicate that both LTs exert slight biological effects upon the central nervous system; however, it should be emphasized that LTC4 has a stronger effect. PMID:3814105

  5. Mutual Control of Cholinergic and Low-Threshold Spike Interneurons in the Striatum

    PubMed Central

    Elghaba, Rasha; Vautrelle, Nicolas; Bracci, Enrico

    2016-01-01

    The striatum is the largest nucleus of the basal ganglia and is crucially involved in action selection and reward processing. Cortical and thalamic inputs to the striatum are processed by local networks in which several classes of interneurons play an important, but still poorly understood role. Here we investigated the interactions between cholinergic and low-threshold spike (LTS) interneurons. LTS interneurons were hyperpolarized by co-application of muscarinic and nicotinic receptor antagonists (atropine and mecamylamine, respectively). Mecamylamine alone also caused hyperpolarizations, while atropine alone caused depolarizations and increased firing. LTS interneurons were also under control of tonic GABA, as application of the GABAA receptor antagonist picrotoxin caused depolarizations and increased firing. Frequency of spontaneous GABAergic events in LTS interneurons was increased by co-application of atropine and mecamylamine or by atropine alone, but reduced by mecamylamine alone. In the presence of picrotoxin and tetrodotoxin (TTX), atropine and mecamylamine depolarized the LTS interneurons. We concluded that part of the excitatory effects of tonic acetylcholine (ACh) on LTS interneurons were due to cholinergic modulation of tonic GABA. We then studied the influence of LTS interneurons on cholinergic interneurons. Application of antagonists of somatostatin or neuropeptide Y (NPY) receptors or of an inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase (L-NAME) did not cause detectable effects in cholinergic interneurons. However, prolonged synchronized depolarizations of LTS interneurons (elicited with optogenetics tools) caused slow-onset depolarizations in cholinergic interneurons, which were often accompanied by strong action potential firing and were fully abolished by L-NAME. Thus, a mutual excitatory influence exists between LTS and cholinergic interneurons in the striatum, providing an opportunity for sustained activation of the two cell types. This activation may

  6. A space transportation system for early lunar exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andrews, Dana G.; Hodge, John R.; Frost, Cynthia L.

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents a Lunar Transportation System (LTS) based on existing technology and liberal use of existing or planned national and international space infrastructure. The objective of the studies described herein was to define a LTS capable of delivering and servicing a manned lunar outpost shortly after the turn of the century. Alternative approaches examined used derivatives of elements from the planned National Launch System or existing international assets to reduce development and launch costs. This study incorporates many design features determined by contracted NASA efforts to reduce nonrecurring and recurring costs for a LTS.

  7. The use of cumulative area curves in biological conservation: A cautionary note

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fattorini, Simone

    2010-03-01

    Small-to-large (STL) and large-to-small (LTS) cumulative curves are used in conservation biology to investigate how species accumulate with area. A common result from application of STL and LTS curves to conservation biology is that a collection of small islands/fragments host more species than a few large islands/fragments with the same total area. However, when there is little overlap between the STL and LTS curves, this graphical method may be of little practical use because a very large number of small islands would need to be protected if one is basing a decision on the shape of the curves. An exercise with the tenebrionid beetles (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae) of the Aegean Islands (Greece) shows there is no evidence of a clearly preferable design strategy with respect to single large or several small sites, indicating that no obvious recommendation about species conservation can be inferred from STL and LTS curves.

  8. Articulated Arm Coordinate Measuring Machine Calibration by Laser Tracker Multilateration

    PubMed Central

    Majarena, Ana C.; Brau, Agustín; Velázquez, Jesús

    2014-01-01

    A new procedure for the calibration of an articulated arm coordinate measuring machine (AACMM) is presented in this paper. First, a self-calibration algorithm of four laser trackers (LTs) is developed. The spatial localization of a retroreflector target, placed in different positions within the workspace, is determined by means of a geometric multilateration system constructed from the four LTs. Next, a nonlinear optimization algorithm for the identification procedure of the AACMM is explained. An objective function based on Euclidean distances and standard deviations is developed. This function is obtained from the captured nominal data (given by the LTs used as a gauge instrument) and the data obtained by the AACMM and compares the measured and calculated coordinates of the target to obtain the identified model parameters that minimize this difference. Finally, results show that the procedure presented, using the measurements of the LTs as a gauge instrument, is very effective by improving the AACMM precision. PMID:24688418

  9. Origin of low-temperature shoulder internal friction peak of Snoek-Köster peak in a medium carbon high alloyed steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Xianwen; Jin, Mingjiang; Zhao, Hongshan; Li, Wei; Jin, Xuejun

    2014-10-01

    A distinct internal friction peak located at the low-temperature shoulder of Snoek-Köster peak (LTS-SK) was found in Fe-0.39C-9.8Ni-1.56Si-2.0Mn steel and its evolution with respect to various aging treatments was investigated. The LTS-SK internal friction peak was found to occur when aged below 373 K. TEM observation confirmed that the ε-carbide precipitated beyond 373 K, providing an evidence that the LTS-SK peak cannot be caused by ε-carbide precipitation. The corresponding evolution on the S-K peak and thermoelectric power (TEP) illustrated that the carbon content in the solid solution decreases due to carbon atoms segregation on the surrounding dislocations during low-temperature aging. The origin of the LTS-SK peak is likely attributed to the interaction between the carbon atoms and twin boundaries in martensite.

  10. Articulated arm coordinate measuring machine calibration by laser tracker multilateration.

    PubMed

    Santolaria, Jorge; Majarena, Ana C; Samper, David; Brau, Agustín; Velázquez, Jesús

    2014-01-01

    A new procedure for the calibration of an articulated arm coordinate measuring machine (AACMM) is presented in this paper. First, a self-calibration algorithm of four laser trackers (LTs) is developed. The spatial localization of a retroreflector target, placed in different positions within the workspace, is determined by means of a geometric multilateration system constructed from the four LTs. Next, a nonlinear optimization algorithm for the identification procedure of the AACMM is explained. An objective function based on Euclidean distances and standard deviations is developed. This function is obtained from the captured nominal data (given by the LTs used as a gauge instrument) and the data obtained by the AACMM and compares the measured and calculated coordinates of the target to obtain the identified model parameters that minimize this difference. Finally, results show that the procedure presented, using the measurements of the LTs as a gauge instrument, is very effective by improving the AACMM precision. PMID:24688418

  11. In-season heat stress compromises postharvest quality and low-temperature sweetening resistance in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.).

    PubMed

    Zommick, Daniel H; Knowles, Lisa O; Pavek, Mark J; Knowles, N Richard

    2014-06-01

    The effects of soil temperature during tuber development on physiological processes affecting retention of postharvest quality in low-temperature sweetening (LTS) resistant and susceptible potato cultivars were investigated. 'Premier Russet' (LTS resistant), AO02183-2 (LTS resistant) and 'Ranger Russet' (LTS susceptible) tubers were grown at 16 (ambient), 23 and 29 °C during bulking (111-164 DAP) and maturation (151-180 DAP). Bulking at 29 °C virtually eliminated yield despite vigorous vine growth. Tuber specific gravity decreased as soil temperature increased during bulking, but was not affected by temperature during maturation. Bulking at 23 °C and maturation at 29 °C induced higher reducing sugar levels in the proximal (basal) ends of tubers, resulting in non-uniform fry color at harvest, and abolished the LTS-resistant phenotype of 'Premier Russet' tubers. AO02183-2 tubers were more tolerant of heat for retention of LTS resistance. Higher bulking and maturation temperatures also accelerated LTS and loss of process quality of 'Ranger Russet' tubers, consistent with increased invertase and lower invertase inhibitor activities. During LTS, tuber respiration fell rapidly to a minimum as temperature decreased from 9 to 4 °C, followed by an increase to a maximum as tubers acclimated to 4 °C; respiration then declined over the remaining storage period. The magnitude of this cold-induced acclimation response correlated directly with the extent of buildup in sugars over the 24-day LTS period and thus reflected the effects of in-season heat stress on propensity of tubers to sweeten and lose process quality at 4 °C. While morphologically indistinguishable from control tubers, tubers grown at elevated temperature had different basal metabolic (respiration) rates at harvest and during cold acclimation, reduced dormancy during storage, greater increases in sucrose and reducing sugars and associated loss of process quality during LTS, and reduced ability to improve

  12. Detection and molecular characterization of astroviruses in turkeys.

    PubMed

    Singh, Azad; Mor, Sunil K; Jindal, Naresh; Patnayak, Devi; Sobhy, Nader M; Luong, Nhungoc Ti; Goyal, Sagar M

    2016-04-01

    This study was conducted to determine the prevalence and molecular characteristics of turkey astrovirus 1 (TAstV-1) and avian nephritis virus (ANV) in turkeys with light turkey syndrome (LTS), which is characterized by lower body weight in market-age turkeys than their standard breed character. We collected pools of fecal samples from four LTS and two non-LTS turkey flocks in Minnesota at 2, 3, 5 and 8 weeks of age. Of the 80 LTS pools tested, 16 (20.0 %) and 11 (13.8 %) were positive for TAstV-1 and ANV, respectively. For non-LTS flocks, these numbers were 8 (20.0 %) and 5 (12.5 %), respectively. The maximum number of birds was positive at five weeks of age. We also tested 130 fecal samples of poult enteritis syndrome (PES) cases submitted to the Minnesota Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory and found 19 and 11 positive for TAstV-1 and ANV, respectively. RdRp gene sequences were determined for a total of 29 TAstV-1 and 22 ANV samples. Phylogenetic analysis of the RdRp gene revealed 92-100 % and 88-100 % nucleotide sequence identity among TAstV-1 and ANV sequences, respectively. A large number of nucleotide and amino acid substitutions were observed in LTS and PES flocks than in non-LTS flocks. One of the PES sequences grouped with ANV-like sequences detected in chickens, indicating that regular screening of birds should be continued. Further, complete genome analysis should be conducted to determine whether this virus is a novel divergent strain or a recombinant of chicken and turkey ANV-like viruses. The detection of TAstV-1 and ANV in a considerable number of non-LTS cases emphasizes the need for further studies on the transmission pattern and pathogenesis of these viruses to determine their role as pathogens of turkeys. PMID:26780891

  13. Overview of low temperature sensitization

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, M.J.; McCright, R.D.

    1983-12-01

    A review of the literature on low temperature sensitization (LTS) has been conducted to determine if LTS-related microstructural changes can occur in Type 304L stainless steel within the times and temperatures associated with nuclear waste storage. It was found that Type 304L stainless steel is susceptible to sensitization and LTS, and that cold work plays an important role in determining the rate of LTS. Severely cold worked Type 304L stainless steel would clearly develop LTS-related microstructural changes within the times and temperatures associated with nuclear waste storage. These changes could lead to increased susceptibility to corrosion. Significant improvements in the long-term resistance to sensitization, LTS and corrosion can be achieved by modest changes in alloy composition and fabrication practices. Therefore, Type 304L would not be the preferred alloy of construction for nuclear waste storage canisters. The final qualification of an alternate canister alloy should involve corrosion experiments on actual canisters. Suggestions for alternate canister alloys are 316L, 316LN, 316ELC, 347, and XM-19. 47 references, 4 figures.

  14. Early prediction of language and literacy problems: is 18 months too early?

    PubMed

    Duff, Fiona J; Nation, Kate; Plunkett, Kim; Bishop, Dvm

    2015-01-01

    There is a lack of stability in language difficulties across early childhood: most late talkers (LTs) resolve their difficulties by pre-school; and a significant number of children who were not LTs subsequently manifest language difficulties. Greater reliability in predicting individual outcomes is needed, which might be achieved by waiting until later in development when language is more stable. At 18 months, productive vocabulary scores on the Oxford Communicative Developmental Inventory were used to classify children as LTs or average talkers (ATs). Thirty matched-pairs of LTs and ATs were followed up at school-age (average age 7 years), when language and literacy outcomes were assessed. For 18 children, intermediate testing at age 4 had classified them as showing typical development (TD) or specific language impairment (SLI). After correcting for multiple comparisons, there were no significant differences between the LTs and ATs on any outcome measure, and the LTs were performing in the average range. However, there were large-sized effects on all outcomes when comparing the TD and SLI groups. LT status on its own is not determinative of language and literacy difficulties. It would therefore not be appropriate to use expressive vocabulary measures alone to screen for language difficulties at 18 months. However, children with language impairment at age 4 are at risk of enduring difficulties. PMID:26244110

  15. The Global Spike: Conserved Dendritic Properties Enable Unique Ca2+ Spike Generation in Low-Threshold Spiking Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Connelly, William M.; Crunelli, Vincenzo

    2015-01-01

    Low-threshold Ca2+ spikes (LTS) are an indispensible signaling mechanism for neurons in areas including the cortex, cerebellum, basal ganglia, and thalamus. They have critical physiological roles and have been strongly associated with disorders including epilepsy, Parkinson's disease, and schizophrenia. However, although dendritic T-type Ca2+ channels have been implicated in LTS generation, because the properties of low-threshold spiking neuron dendrites are unknown, the precise mechanism has remained elusive. Here, combining data from fluorescence-targeted dendritic recordings and Ca2+ imaging from low-threshold spiking cells in rat brain slices with computational modeling, the cellular mechanism responsible for LTS generation is established. Our data demonstrate that key somatodendritic electrical conduction properties are highly conserved between glutamatergic thalamocortical neurons and GABAergic thalamic reticular nucleus neurons and that these properties are critical for LTS generation. In particular, the efficiency of soma to dendrite voltage transfer is highly asymmetric in low-threshold spiking cells, and in the somatofugal direction, these neurons are particularly electrotonically compact. Our data demonstrate that LTS have remarkably similar amplitudes and occur synchronously throughout the dendritic tree. In fact, these Ca2+ spikes cannot occur locally in any part of the cell, and hence we reveal that LTS are generated by a unique whole-cell mechanism that means they always occur as spatially global spikes. This all-or-none, global electrical and biochemical signaling mechanism clearly distinguishes LTS from other signals, including backpropagating action potentials and dendritic Ca2+/NMDA spikes, and has important consequences for dendritic function in low-threshold spiking neurons. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Low-threshold Ca2+ spikes (LTS) are critical for important physiological processes, including generation of sleep-related oscillations, and are

  16. Comparison of visual analogue and Likert scales in evaluation of an emergency department bedside teaching programme.

    PubMed

    Celenza, Antonio; Rogers, Ian R

    2011-02-01

    The present study compares visual analogue scale (VAS) to Likert-type scale (LTS) instruments in evaluating perceptions of an ED bedside clinical teaching programme. A prospective study was conducted in the ED of an urban, adult tertiary hospital. Prospective pairing occurred of a teaching consultant and registrar who were relatively quarantined from normal clinical duties. Registrars received 3 months of the teaching intervention, and 3 months without the intervention in a cross-over fashion. Evaluation questionnaires were completed using both the LTS and 100 mm horizontal VAS for each question. Correlation between VAS and LTS gave a measure of validity, and test-retest stability and internal consistency gave measures of reliability. Registrar perceptions of the teaching programme were positive, but no differences were found between the pre- and post-intervention groups. The test-retest reliabilities (intraclass correlation coefficient) for the questionnaires were 0.51 and 0.54 for the VAS, and 0.58 and 0.58 for the LTS. Cronbach's alpha varied between 0.79 and 0.91 for the VAS, and 0.79 and 0.81 for the LTS. Correlations between the two methods varied from 0.35 to 0.94 for each question. A linear regression equation describing the relationship approximated VAS = 19.5 × LTS-9 with overall r= 0.89. An ED bedside teaching programme is perceived to be a beneficial educational intervention. The VAS is a reliable and valid alternative to the LTS for educational evaluation and might provide advantages in educational measurement. Further research into the significance of extreme values and educationally important changes in scores is required. PMID:21284816

  17. DNA-based species detection capabilities using laser transmission spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Mahon, A. R.; Barnes, M. A.; Li, F.; Egan, S. P.; Tanner, C. E.; Ruggiero, S. T.; Feder, J. L.; Lodge, D. M.

    2013-01-01

    Early detection of invasive species is critical for effective biocontrol to mitigate potential ecological and economic damage. Laser transmission spectroscopy (LTS) is a powerful solution offering real-time, DNA-based species detection in the field. LTS can measure the size, shape and number of nanoparticles in a solution and was used here to detect size shifts resulting from hybridization of the polymerase chain reaction product to nanoparticles functionalized with species-specific oligonucleotide probes or with the species-specific oligonucleotide probes alone. We carried out a series of DNA detection experiments using the invasive freshwater quagga mussel (Dreissena bugensis) to evaluate the capability of the LTS platform for invasive species detection. Specifically, we tested LTS sensitivity to (i) DNA concentrations of a single target species, (ii) the presence of a target species within a mixed sample of other closely related species, (iii) species-specific functionalized nanoparticles versus species-specific oligonucleotide probes alone, and (iv) amplified DNA fragments versus unamplified genomic DNA. We demonstrate that LTS is a highly sensitive technique for rapid target species detection, with detection limits in the picomolar range, capable of successful identification in multispecies samples containing target and non-target species DNA. These results indicate that the LTS DNA detection platform will be useful for field application of target species. Additionally, we find that LTS detection is effective with species-specific oligonucleotide tags alone or when they are attached to polystyrene nanobeads and with both amplified and unamplified DNA, indicating that the technique may also have versatility for broader applications. PMID:23015524

  18. Diaminopimelic Acid Amidation in Corynebacteriales

    PubMed Central

    Levefaudes, Marjorie; Patin, Delphine; de Sousa-d'Auria, Célia; Chami, Mohamed; Blanot, Didier; Hervé, Mireille; Arthur, Michel; Houssin, Christine; Mengin-Lecreulx, Dominique

    2015-01-01

    A gene named ltsA was earlier identified in Rhodococcus and Corynebacterium species while screening for mutations leading to increased cell susceptibility to lysozyme. The encoded protein belonged to a huge family of glutamine amidotransferases whose members catalyze amide nitrogen transfer from glutamine to various specific acceptor substrates. We here describe detailed physiological and biochemical investigations demonstrating the specific role of LtsA protein from Corynebacterium glutamicum (LtsACg) in the modification by amidation of cell wall peptidoglycan diaminopimelic acid (DAP) residues. A morphologically altered but viable ΔltsA mutant was generated, which displays a high susceptibility to lysozyme and β-lactam antibiotics. Analysis of its peptidoglycan structure revealed a total loss of DAP amidation, a modification that was found in 80% of DAP residues in the wild-type polymer. The cell peptidoglycan content and cross-linking were otherwise not modified in the mutant. Heterologous expression of LtsACg in Escherichia coli yielded a massive and toxic incorporation of amidated DAP into the peptidoglycan that ultimately led to cell lysis. In vitro assays confirmed the amidotransferase activity of LtsACg and showed that this enzyme used the peptidoglycan lipid intermediates I and II but not, or only marginally, the UDP-MurNAc pentapeptide nucleotide precursor as acceptor substrates. As is generally the case for glutamine amidotransferases, either glutamine or NH4+ could serve as the donor substrate for LtsACg. The enzyme did not amidate tripeptide- and tetrapeptide-truncated versions of lipid I, indicating a strict specificity for a pentapeptide chain length. PMID:25847251

  19. LONG-TERM STEWARDSHIP AT DOE HANFORD SITE - 12575

    SciTech Connect

    MOREN RJ; GRINDSTAFF KD

    2012-01-11

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site is located in southeast Washington and consists of 1,518 square kilometers (586 square miles) of land. Established in 1943 as part of the Manhattan Project, Hanford workers produced plutonium for our nation's nuclear defense program until the mid 1980's. Since then, the site has been in cleanup mode that is being accomplished in phases. As we achieve remedial objectives and complete active cleanup, DOE will manage Hanford land under the Long-Term Stewardship (LTS) Program until completion of cleanup and the site becomes ready for transfer to the post cleanup landlord - currently planned for DOE's Office of Legacy Management (LM). We define Hanford's LTS Program in the ''Hanford Long-Term Stewardship Program Plan,'' (DOE/RL-201 0-35)[1], which describes the scope including the relationship between the cleanup projects and the LTS Program. DOE designed the LTS Program to manage and provide surveillance and maintenance (S&M) of institutional controls and associated monitoring of closed waste sites to ensure the protection of human health and the environment. DOE's Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL) and Hanford cleanup and operations contractors collaboratively developed this program over several years. The program's scope also includes 15 key activities that are identified in the DOE Program Plan (DOE/RL-2010-35). The LTS Program will transition 14 land segments through 2016. The combined land mass is approximately 570 square kilometers (220 square miles), with over 1,300 active and inactive waste sites and 3,363 wells. Land segments vary from buffer zone property with no known contamination to cocooned reactor buildings, demolished support facilities, and remediated cribs and trenches. DOE-RL will transition land management responsibilities from cleanup contractors to the Mission Support Contract (MSC), who will then administer the LTS Program for DOE-RL. This process requires an environment of cooperation between

  20. Collaboration in long-term stewardship at DOE Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    Moren, R. J.; Zeisloft, J. H.; Feist, E. T.; Brown, D.; Grindstaff, K. D.

    2013-01-10

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site comprises approximately 1,517 km{sup 2} (586 mi{sup 2}) of land in southeastern Washington. The site was established in 1943 as part of the Manhattan Project to produce plutonium for the nation's nuclear weapons program. As the Cold War era came to an end, the mission of the site transitioned from weapons production to environmental cleanup. As the River Corridor area of the site cleanup is completed, the mission for that portion of the site will transition from active cleanup to continued protection of environment through the Long-Term Stewardship (LTS) Program. The key to successful transition from cleanup to LTS is the unique collaboration among three (3) different DOE Programs and three (3) different prime contractors with each contractor having different contracts. The LTS Program at the site is a successful model of collaboration resulting in efficient resolution of issues and accelerated progress that supports DOE's Richland Office 2015 Vision for the Hanford Site. The 2015 Vision for the Hanford Site involves shrinking the active cleanup footprint of the surface area of the site to approximately 20 mi{sup 2} on the Central Plateau. Hanford's LTS Program is defined in DOE's planning document, Hanford Long-Term Stewardship Program Plan, DOE/RL-2010-35 Rev 1. The Plan defines the relationship and respective responsibilities between the federal cleanup projects and the LTS Program along with their respective contractors. The LTS Program involves these different parties (cleanup program and contractors) who must work together to achieve the objective for transition of land parcels. Through the collaborative efforts with the prime contractors on site over the past two years, 253.8 km{sup 2} (98 mi{sup 2}) of property has been successfully transitioned from the cleanup program to the LTS Program upon completion of active surface cleanup. Upcoming efforts in the near term will include transitioning another large

  1. Comparison of Propofol and Ketamine-Propofol Mixture (Ketofol) on Laryngeal Tube-Suction II Conditions and Hemodynamics: A Randomized, Prospective, Double-Blind Trial☆

    PubMed Central

    Ozgul, Ulku; Begec, Zekine; Karahan, Kalender; Ali Erdogan, Mehmet; Said Aydogan, Mustafa; Colak, Cemil; Durmus, Mahmut; Ozcan Ersoy, M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective The aim of our study is to compare the effect of ketamine–propofol mixture (ketofol) and propofol on the laryngeal tube-Suction II (LTS II) insertion conditions and hemodynamics. Methods Eighty American Society of Anesthesiologists class 1 and 2 patients were divided into 2 random groups to receive either 1 µg/kg remifentanil and propofol 2 mg/kg in Group P (n = 40), or 1 µg/kg remifentanil and ketofol (using a 1:1 single syringe mixture of 5 mg/mL ketamine and 5 mg/mL propofol) in Group K (n = 40) before induction of anesthesia. After induction, LTS II was inserted. Heart rate and noninvasive blood pressure were recorded before induction of anesthesia (t0); immediately following induction (t1); immediately after LTS II insertion (t2); and 3 minutes (t3), 5 minutes (t4), and 10 (t5) minutes after LTS II insertion. Conditions of insertion of LTS II were assessed and scored 1 to 3 using 6 variables as follows: mouth opening, swallowing, coughing, head and body movements, laryngospasm, and ease of LTS II insertion by the same experienced anesthesiologist who did not know the agents. LTS II insertion summed score was prepared depending upon these variables. Results In regard to LTS II insertion summed score, Group K was more favorable than Group P (P < 0.05). Apnea duration was longer in Group P (385.0 seconds [range = 195.0–840.0 seconds]) compared with Group K (325.50 seconds [range = 60.0–840.0 seconds]) but this was not statically significant. The heart rate values were significantly lower at all measurement intervals in both groups compared with the baseline values (P < 0.05). There was no difference in heart rate between Group P and Group K. The mean arterial pressure values were significantly lower at all measurement intervals in Group P compared with baseline values (P < 0.05). In Group K, the mean arterial pressure values were significantly lower at all measurement intervals compared with the baseline values, except t2 (P < 0.05). There was a

  2. Down-Regulation of a Nicotinate Phosphoribosyltransferase Gene, OsNaPRT1, Leads to Withered Leaf Tips1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Deyong; Li, Gengmi; Jiang, Liang; Hu, Xingming; Ye, Weijun; Zhu, Li; Hu, Jiang; Zhang, Guangheng; Gao, Zhenyu; Guo, Longbiao

    2016-01-01

    Premature leaf senescence affects plant growth and yield in rice. NAD plays critical roles in cellular redox reactions and remains at a sufficient level in the cell to prevent cell death. Although numerous factors affecting leaf senescence have been identified, few involving NAD biosynthetic pathways have been described for plants. Here, we report the cloning and characterization of Leaf Tip Senescence 1 (LTS1) in rice (Oryza sativa), a recessive mutation in the gene encoding O. sativa nicotinate phosphoribosyltransferase (OsNaPRT1) in the NAD salvage pathway. A point mutation in OsNaPRT1 leads to dwarfism and the withered leaf tip phenotype, and the lts1 mutant displays early leaf senescence compared to the wild type. Leaf nicotinate and nicotinamide contents are elevated in lts1, while NAD levels are reduced. Leaf tissue of lts1 exhibited significant DNA fragmentation and H2O2 accumulation, along with up-regulation of genes associated with senescence. The lts1 mutant also showed reduced expression of SIR2-like genes (OsSRT1 and OsSRT2) and increased acetylation of histone H3K9. Down-regulation of OsSRTs induced histone H3K9 acetylation of senescence-related genes. These results suggest that deficiency in the NAD salvage pathway can trigger premature leaf senescence due to transcriptional activation of senescence-related genes. PMID:27208230

  3. Planning for the Transition to Long-Term Stewardship at Three U.S. Department of Energy-Chicago Operations Office Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Moos, L. P.; Ditmars, J. D.; Heston, S. L.; Granzen, G. A.; Holzemer, M. J.; Bennett, D. B.

    2003-02-26

    This paper describes a pilot study that resulted in the generation of draft planning documents for the upcoming transition from remediation construction to long-term stewardship at three national laboratories managed by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)-Chicago Operations Office (CH). The remediation construction work at these facilities is being completed under the DOE's Office of Environmental Management (EM) Program. Once the remediation is complete, the responsibility for long-term stewardship (LTS) of the closed waste sites is expected to be transferred to the DOE organization responsible for managing each of the three facilities (i.e., the site landlord). To prepare for this transfer, an extensive planning effort is required. This pilot study utilized the DOE guidance in effect at the time to (1) develop a series of documents identifying applicable requirements that the LTS Programs will need to satisfy, issues that need to be resolved before the transfer can proceed, and criteria to be used to determine when active remediation is complete and a given site is ready for transfer to the LTS Program; (2) examine alternate structures for possible LTS Programs; and (3) develop draft LTS Implementation Plans. This advanced planning effort yielded a number of observations and lessons learned that are applicable to any facility approaching the end of its remediation construction phase.

  4. The long term storage of radioactive waste and spent fuel: safety and policy considerations

    SciTech Connect

    Rowat, J.; Metcalf, P.

    2007-07-01

    Storage is a necessary step in the overall management of radioactive waste. In recent years, due to the unavailability of disposal facilities, storage facilities intended originally as temporary, have had their lifetimes extended and consideration has been given, in some countries, to the use of long term storage (LTS) as a management option. In 2003, the IAEA published a position paper titled 'The Long Term Storage of Radioactive Waste: Safety and Sustainability'. The position paper, which written for a non-specialist audience, focused on seven key factors for safety and sustainability of LTS, namely: safety, maintenance/institutional control, retrieval, security, costs, community attitudes and retention of information. The Agency is preparing a follow-up report to the position paper that elaborates in a more technical manner upon the issues raised in the position paper and issues important for implementation of LTS. It also provides some discussion of the reasons for implementing a LTS option and contrasts LTS with aspects of other management options. The present paper provides an overview of the draft follow-up report. (authors)

  5. Autocrine activity of cysteinyl leukotrienes in human vascular endothelial cells: Signaling through the CysLT₂ receptor.

    PubMed

    Capra, Valérie; Carnini, Chiara; Accomazzo, Maria Rosa; Di Gennaro, Antonio; Fiumicelli, Marco; Borroni, Emanuele; Brivio, Ivan; Buccellati, Carola; Mangano, Paolo; Carnevali, Silvia; Rovati, Gianenrico; Sala, Angelo

    2015-07-01

    We evaluated the autocrine activities of cysteinyl leukotrienes (cysteinyl-LTs) in HUVEC and studied the signaling and the pharmacological profile of the CysLT2 receptor (CysLT2R) expressed by ECs, finally assessing the role of the CysLT2R in permeability alterations in a model of isolated brain. Cysteinyl-LTs and their precursor LTA4 contracted HUVEC and increased permeability to macromolecules, increasing the formation of stress fibers through the phosphorylation of myosin light-chain (MLC) following Rho and PKC activation. Accordingly, in an organ model of cerebral vasculature with an intact intima, neutrophils challenge leaded to significant formation of cysteinyl-LTs and edema. Pretreatment with a selective CysLT2R antagonist prevented cytoskeleton rearrangement and HUVEC contraction, along with edema formation in the brain preparation, while leaving the synthesis of cysteinyl-LTs unaffected. We also demonstrate here that the CysLT1R antagonist zafirlukast, pranlukast, pobilukast and iralukast also possess CysLT2R antagonistic activity, which could help in reconsidering previous data on the role of cysteinyl-LTs in the cardiovascular system. The results obtained are further supporting a potential role for CysLT2R in cardiovascular disease. PMID:25839425

  6. Down-Regulation of a Nicotinate Phosphoribosyltransferase Gene, OsNaPRT1, Leads to Withered Leaf Tips.

    PubMed

    Wu, Liwen; Ren, Deyong; Hu, Shikai; Li, Gengmi; Dong, Guojun; Jiang, Liang; Hu, Xingming; Ye, Weijun; Cui, Yongtao; Zhu, Li; Hu, Jiang; Zhang, Guangheng; Gao, Zhenyu; Zeng, Dali; Qian, Qian; Guo, Longbiao

    2016-06-01

    Premature leaf senescence affects plant growth and yield in rice. NAD plays critical roles in cellular redox reactions and remains at a sufficient level in the cell to prevent cell death. Although numerous factors affecting leaf senescence have been identified, few involving NAD biosynthetic pathways have been described for plants. Here, we report the cloning and characterization of Leaf Tip Senescence 1 (LTS1) in rice (Oryza sativa), a recessive mutation in the gene encoding O. sativa nicotinate phosphoribosyltransferase (OsNaPRT1) in the NAD salvage pathway. A point mutation in OsNaPRT1 leads to dwarfism and the withered leaf tip phenotype, and the lts1 mutant displays early leaf senescence compared to the wild type. Leaf nicotinate and nicotinamide contents are elevated in lts1, while NAD levels are reduced. Leaf tissue of lts1 exhibited significant DNA fragmentation and H2O2 accumulation, along with up-regulation of genes associated with senescence. The lts1 mutant also showed reduced expression of SIR2-like genes (OsSRT1 and OsSRT2) and increased acetylation of histone H3K9. Down-regulation of OsSRTs induced histone H3K9 acetylation of senescence-related genes. These results suggest that deficiency in the NAD salvage pathway can trigger premature leaf senescence due to transcriptional activation of senescence-related genes. PMID:27208230

  7. Design analysis of a solid nitrogen cooled ''permanent'' high-temperature superconducting magnet system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haid, Benjamin J.; Lee, Haigun; Iwasa, Yukikazu; Oh, Sang-Soo; Kwon, Young-Kil; Ryu, Kang-Sik

    2002-10-01

    Potential performance advantages of a solid nitrogen cooled "permanent" high-temperature superconducting (SN2/HTS) magnet system over a liquid helium cooled low-temperature superconducting (LHe/LTS) system are explored. The SN2/HTS system design includes a second solid heat capacitor that cools a radiation shield. Recooling of the heat capacitors is performed with a demountable cryocooler. The SN2/HTS system offers both enhanced stability and improved portability over a LHe/LTS system. Design codes are constructed to compare the SN2/HTS system design with a LHe/LTS design for a general permanent superconducting magnet system employing a room temperature bore. The codes predict the system volume and mass that should be expected for a given set of design requirements, i.e. field strength and bore size, and a given set of conductor properties. The results indicate that present HTS conductor critical current and index are not yet sufficient for producing SN2/HTS systems of a size that is comparable with that expected for a LHe/LTS system; however, the conductor properties of Bi2223/Ag have been consistently improving, and new HTS conductors are expected to be developed in the near future. The codes are used to determine the minimum Bi2223/Ag conductor performance required for a SN2/HTS system to be competitive with a LHe/LTS system.

  8. High resolution NMR measurements using a 400 MHz NMR with an (RE)Ba2Cu3O7-x high-temperature superconducting inner coil: Towards a compact super-high-field NMR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piao, R.; Iguchi, S.; Hamada, M.; Matsumoto, S.; Suematsu, H.; Saito, A. T.; Li, J.; Nakagome, H.; Takao, T.; Takahashi, M.; Maeda, H.; Yanagisawa, Y.

    2016-02-01

    Use of high-temperature superconducting (HTS) inner coils in combination with conventional low-temperature superconducting (LTS) outer coils for an NMR magnet, i.e. a LTS/HTS NMR magnet, is a suitable option to realize a high-resolution NMR spectrometer with operating frequency >1 GHz. From the standpoint of creating a compact magnet, (RE: Rare earth) Ba2Cu3O7-x (REBCO) HTS inner coils which can tolerate a strong hoop stress caused by a Lorentz force are preferred. However, in our previous work on a first-generation 400 MHz LTS/REBCO NMR magnet, the NMR resolution and sensitivity were about ten times worse than that of a conventional LTS NMR magnet. The result was caused by a large field inhomogeneity in the REBCO coil itself and the shielding effect of a screening current induced in that coil. In the present paper, we describe the operation of a modified 400 MHz LTS/REBCO NMR magnet with an advanced field compensation technology using a combination of novel ferromagnetic shimming and an appropriate procedure for NMR spectrum line shape optimization. We succeeded in obtaining a good NMR line shape and 2D NOESY spectrum for a lysozyme aqueous sample. We believe that this technology is indispensable for the realization of a compact super-high-field high-resolution NMR.

  9. Comment on "Origin of low-temperature shoulder internal friction peak of Snoek-Köster peak in a medium carbon high alloyed steel" by Lu et al. [Solid State Communications 195 (2014) 31

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoyos, J. J.; Mari, D.

    2016-01-01

    We want to discuss the interpretation of low-temperature shoulder internal friction peak of Snoek-Köster peak (LTS-SK). Lu et al. (2015) [1] attributed it to the interaction between the carbon atoms and twin boundaries in martensite. Nevertheless, the decrease of the amplitude of LTS-SK peak due to carbon segregation is correlated with the interstitial carbon content in solid solution in martensite (Hoyos et al., 2015 [2]). Therefore, this peak can also be attributed to the presence of an internal friction athermal background, which is proportional to the concentration of interstitial carbon in solid solution (Tkalcec et al., 2015 [2,3]). In addition, they used an alloyed steel, in which ε carbide precipitated above of the LTS-SK peak temperature. As this behavior cannot be generalized for carbon and high alloyed steels, the carbide precipitates could made an additional contribution to the internal friction.

  10. Performance of a 14-T CuNb/Nb3Sn Rutherford coil with a 300 mm wide cold bore

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oguro, Hidetoshi; Watanabe, Kazuo; Awaji, Satoshi; Hanai, Satoshi; Ioka, Shigeru; Sugimoto, Masahiro; Tsubouchi, Hirokazu

    2016-08-01

    A large-bore 14-T CuNb/Nb3Sn Rutherford coil was developed for a 25 T cryogen-free superconducting magnet. The magnet consisted of a low-temperature superconducting (LTS) magnet of NbTi and Nb3Sn Rutherford coils, and a high-temperature superconducting magnet. The Nb3Sn Rutherford coil was fabricated by the react-and-wind method for the first time. The LTS magnet reached the designed operation current of 854 A without a training quench at a 1 h ramp rate. The central magnetic field generated by the LTS magnet was measured by a Hall sensor to be 14.0 T at 854 A in a 300 mm cold bore.

  11. Parameters of lung inflammation in asthmatic as compared to healthy children in a contaminated city

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The impact of air pollution on the respiratory system has been estimated on the basis of respiratory symptoms and lung function. However; few studies have compared lung inflammation in healthy and asthmatics children exposed to high levels of air pollution. The aim of the study was to elucidate the modulatory effect of air pollution on Cysteinyl-leukotrienes (Cys-LTs) levels in exhaled breath condensate (EBC) among healthy and asthmatic children. Methods We performed a cross-sectional comparative study. Children between 7–12 years of age, asthmatics and non-asthmatics, residents of a city with high levels of PM10 were included. In all cases, forced spirometry, Cys-LTs levels in EBC, and the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood questionnaire were evaluated. We also obtained average of PM10, CO, SO2 and O3 levels during the period of the study by the State Institute of Ecology. Results We studied 103 children (51 asthmatics and 52 non-asthmatics). Cys-LTs levels were higher in asthmatics than in non-asthmatics (77.3 ± 21.6 versus 60.3 ± 26.8 pg/ml; p = 0.0005). Also, Cys-LTs levels in children with intermittent asthma were lower than in children with persistent asthma (60.4 ± 20.4 versus 84.7 ± 19.2 pg/ml; p = 0.0001). In the multiple regression model, factors associated with levels of Cys-LTs were passive smoking (β = 13.1, p 0.04) and to be asthmatic (β = 11.5, p 0.03). Conclusions Cys-LTs levels are higher in asthmatic children than in healthy children in a contaminated city and its levels are also associated with passive smoking. PMID:25000942

  12. Failed intubation of an unanticipated postintubation tracheal stenosis: a case report.

    PubMed

    Youn, Ann Misun; Yoon, Seok-Hwa; Park, Soo-Yong

    2016-04-01

    Encountering a patient with unanticipated laryngotracheal stenosis (LTS) during anesthetic induction is challenging for an anesthesiologist. Because routine history taking and pre-anesthetic evaluation cannot rule out the possibility of LTS, other measures should be taken. Perioperative airway maintenance is considered crucial for avoiding complications such as airway edema, bleeding, obstruction, collapse, and ultimately respiratory failure and arrest. We report an unanticipated tracheal stenosis discovered during anesthetic induction that hindered endotracheal intubation. Because airway maintenance was difficult, we postponed surgery until determining the cause of the difficult entry, considered possible therapeutic approaches (both anesthetic and surgical), and provided successful surgery with a continuous epidural block. PMID:27064682

  13. Space transfer vehicle concepts and requirements. Volume 3: Program cost estimates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The Space Transfer Vehicle (STV) Concepts and Requirements Study has been an eighteen-month study effort to develop and analyze concepts for a family of vehicles to evolve from an initial STV system into a Lunar Transportation System (LTS) for use with the Heavy Lift Launch Vehicle (HLLV). The study defined vehicle configurations, facility concepts, and ground and flight operations concepts. This volume reports the program cost estimates results for this portion of the study. The STV Reference Concept described within this document provides a complete LTS system that performs both cargo and piloted Lunar missions.

  14. IMPROVED NUMERICAL METHODS FOR MODELING RIVER-AQUIFER INTERACTION.

    SciTech Connect

    Tidwell, Vincent C.; Sue Tillery; Phillip King

    2008-09-01

    A new option for Local Time-Stepping (LTS) was developed to use in conjunction with the multiple-refined-area grid capability of the U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) groundwater modeling program, MODFLOW-LGR (MF-LGR). The LTS option allows each local, refined-area grid to simulate multiple stress periods within each stress period of a coarser, regional grid. This option is an alternative to the current method of MF-LGR whereby the refined grids are required to have the same stress period and time-step structure as the coarse grid. The MF-LGR method for simulating multiple-refined grids essentially defines each grid as a complete model, then for each coarse grid time-step, iteratively runs each model until the head and flux changes at the interfacing boundaries of the models are less than some specified tolerances. Use of the LTS option is illustrated in two hypothetical test cases consisting of a dual well pumping system and a hydraulically connected stream-aquifer system, and one field application. Each of the hypothetical test cases was simulated with multiple scenarios including an LTS scenario, which combined a monthly stress period for a coarse grid model with a daily stress period for a refined grid model. The other scenarios simulated various combinations of grid spacing and temporal refinement using standard MODFLOW model constructs. The field application simulated an irrigated corridor along the Lower Rio Grande River in New Mexico, with refinement of a small agricultural area in the irrigated corridor.The results from the LTS scenarios for the hypothetical test cases closely replicated the results from the true scenarios in the refined areas of interest. The head errors of the LTS scenarios were much smaller than from the other scenarios in relation to the true solution, and the run times for the LTS models were three to six times faster than the true models for the dual well and stream-aquifer test cases, respectively. The results of the field application

  15. Creating Lecture Tutorials for the Introductory Geoscience Classroom with Data Found on the Digital Library for Earth System Education (DLESE) Website

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kortz, K. M.; Jager, J. M.

    2006-05-01

    Lecture Tutorials (LTs) are short, interactive materials used during lectures that guide student learning and challenge students to think about their own misconceptions. They are designed to be used by instructors as a simple way to increase the amount of interactive learning in their classroom. We developed several geoscience LTs, using data sets found on the Digital Library for Earth System Education (DLESE) website when possible, in order to address the problems of student misconceptions and lack of appreciation of science. After a short lecture, the students were given 3 to 4 multiple choice questions about the material covered. They then worked in groups on an LT, participated in a class discussion and answered a second similar question set to test for additional learning. Based on the results of one author's students, the materials were revised and retested with the other's students. Student interviews were conducted to determine the role data sets played in changing student attitudes toward science. LTs in this study were written with two different purposes. One set focused on data interpretation and scientific methods using real-world data sets found on DLESE. We found little to no increase in pre-LT and post-LT performance on the question sets when these LTs were used. The other set of LTs specifically tackled misconceptions about a single geologic topic. Students showed a significant increase in pre-LT and post-LT learning based on the questions sets when these LTs were used. LTs that successfully decreased student misconceptions did not require the use of real-world data sets. We identified several factors influencing student performance on the pre- and post-LT questions, in addition to whether or not the LT focused on including data sets or tackling misconceptions. The distracters in the questions need to include the student misconceptions to verify the students have changed their understanding. This demonstrates a need for a large database of well

  16. Evaluating, Migrating, and Consolidating Databases and Applications for Long-Term Surveillance and Maintenance Activities at the Rocky Flats Site

    SciTech Connect

    Surovchak, S.; Marutzky, S.; Thompson, B.; Miller, K.; Labonte, E.

    2006-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management (LM) is assuming responsibilities for long-term surveillance and maintenance (LTS and M) activities at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) during fiscal year 2006. During the transition, LM is consolidating databases and applications that support these various functions into a few applications which will streamline future management and retrieval of data. This paper discussed the process of evaluating, migrating, and consolidating these databases and applications for LTS and M activities and provides lessons learned that will benefit future transitions. (authors)

  17. Collaboration in Long-Term Stewardship at DOE's Hanford Site - 13019

    SciTech Connect

    Moren, Rick; Brown, David; Feist, Ella; Grindstaff, Keith; Zeisloft, Jamie

    2013-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site comprises approximately 1,517 km{sup 2} (586 mi{sup 2}) of land in southeastern Washington. The site was established in 1943 as part of the Manhattan Project to produce plutonium for the nation's nuclear weapons program. As the Cold War era came to an end, the mission of the site transitioned from weapons production to environmental cleanup. As the River Corridor area of the site cleanup is completed, the mission for that portion of the site will transition from active cleanup to continued protection of environment through the Long-Term Stewardship (LTS) Program. The key to successful transition from cleanup to LTS is the unique collaboration among three (3) different DOE Programs and three (3) different prime contractors with each contractor having different contracts. The LTS Program at the site is a successful model of collaboration resulting in efficient resolution of issues and accelerated progress that supports DOE's Richland Office 2015 Vision for the Hanford Site. The 2015 Vision for the Hanford Site involves shrinking the active cleanup footprint of the surface area of the site to approximately 20 mi{sup 2} on the Central Plateau. Hanford's LTS Program is defined in DOE's planning document, Hanford Long-Term Stewardship Program Plan [1]. The Plan defines the relationship and respective responsibilities between the federal cleanup projects and the LTS Program along with their respective contractors. The LTS Program involves these different parties (cleanup program and contractors) who must work together to achieve the objective for transition of land parcels. Through the collaborative efforts with the prime contractors on site over the past two years,, 253.8 km{sup 2} (98 mi{sup 2}) of property has been successfully transitioned from the cleanup program to the LTS Program upon completion of active surface cleanup. Upcoming efforts in the near term will include transitioning another large parcel that

  18. Failed intubation of an unanticipated postintubation tracheal stenosis: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Park, Soo-Yong

    2016-01-01

    Encountering a patient with unanticipated laryngotracheal stenosis (LTS) during anesthetic induction is challenging for an anesthesiologist. Because routine history taking and pre-anesthetic evaluation cannot rule out the possibility of LTS, other measures should be taken. Perioperative airway maintenance is considered crucial for avoiding complications such as airway edema, bleeding, obstruction, collapse, and ultimately respiratory failure and arrest. We report an unanticipated tracheal stenosis discovered during anesthetic induction that hindered endotracheal intubation. Because airway maintenance was difficult, we postponed surgery until determining the cause of the difficult entry, considered possible therapeutic approaches (both anesthetic and surgical), and provided successful surgery with a continuous epidural block. PMID:27064682

  19. The Last Place to Look: The Place of Pupil Councils within Citizen Participation in Scottish Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cross, Beth; Hulme, Moira; McKinney, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    This article critically examines pupil councils as a means of developing pupils' citizenship participation. It draws on findings across two research projects. The first study is a mixed method study commissioned by Learning and Teaching Scotland (LTS) that reviews the range of participatory activities in Scottish schools and their…

  20. US Navy superconductivity program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gubser, Donald U.

    1991-01-01

    Both the new high temperature superconductors (HTS) and the low temperature superconductors (LTS) are important components of the Navy's total plan to integrate superconductivity into field operational systems. Fundamental research is an important component of the total Navy program and focuses on the HTS materials. Power applications (ship propulsion) use LTS materials while space applications (millimeter wave electronics) use HTS materials. The Space Experiment to be conducted at NRL will involve space flight testing of HTS devices built by industry and will demonstrate the ability to engineer and space qualify these devices for systems use. Another important component of the Navy's effort is the development of Superconducting Quantum Interference Device (SQUID) magnetometers. This program will use LTS materials initially, but plans to implement HTS materials as soon as possible. Hybrid HTS/LTS systems are probable in many applications. A review of the status of the Navy's HTS materials research is given as well as an update on the Navy's development efforts in superconductivity.

  1. Navy superconductivity efforts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gubser, D. U.

    1990-01-01

    Both the new high temperature superconductors (HTS) and the low temperature superconductors (LTS) are important components of Navy's total plan to integrate superconductivity into field operational systems. Fundamental research is an important component of the total Navy program and focuses on the HTS materials. Power applications (ship propulsion, etc.) use LTS materials while space applications (MMW electronics, etc.) use HTS materials. The Space Experiment being conducted at NRL will involve space flight testing of HTS devices built by industry and will demonstrate the ability to engineer and space qualify these devices for systems use. Another important component of the Navy's effort is the development of Superconducting Quantum Interference Device (SQUID) magnetometers. This program will use LTS materials initially, but plans to implement HTS materials as soon as possible. Hybrid HTS/LTS systems are probable in many applications. A review of the status of the Navy's HTS materials research is given as well as an update on the Navy's development efforts in superconductivity, with particular emphasis on the related SDIO sponsored program on HTS applications.

  2. Evening primrose oil and borage oil in rheumatologic conditions.

    PubMed

    Belch, J J; Hill, A

    2000-01-01

    Diets rich in arachidonic acid (20:4n-6) lead to the formation of 2-series prostaglandins (PGs) and 4-series leukotrienes (LTs), with proinflammatory effects. Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs are used in rheumatoid arthritis to inhibit cyclooxygenase (prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase), thereby decreasing production of 2-series PGs. Lipoxygenase activity remains intact, however, allowing LT production (eg, synthesis of LTB(4), a potent inflammatory mediator) to continue. Altering the essential fatty acid (EFA) content of the diet can modify some of these effects. Ingestion of a diet rich in evening primrose oil elevates concentrations of dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid (DGLA; 20:3n-6), which results in the production of 1-series PGs, eg, PGE(1). DGLA itself cannot be converted to LTs but can form a 15-hydroxyl derivative that blocks the transformation of arachidonic acid to LTs. Increasing DGLA intake may allow DGLA to act as a competitive inhibitor of 2-series PGs and 4-series LTs and thus suppress inflammation. The results of in vitro and animal work evaluating EFAs in inflammatory situations are encouraging, which has stimulated clinical workers to evaluate these compounds in rheumatoid arthritis. Several well-controlled, randomized clinical studies have now been completed in which various EFAs were evaluated as treatments. The results of most of these studies suggest some clinical benefit to these treatments; these data are reviewed here. PMID:10617996

  3. Overview of the U.S. Department of Energy Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program - 12189

    SciTech Connect

    Clayton, Christopher; Kothari, Vijendra; Starr, Ken; Gillespie, Joey; Widdop, Michael; none,

    2012-02-26

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) was established in 1974 to address residual radiological contamination at sites where work was performed for the Manhattan Engineer District and U.S. Atomic Energy Commission. Initially, FUSRAP activities began with a records search for sites that had the potential to contain residual radiological contamination; 46 sites were identified that were eligible for and required remediation. Remedial action began in 1979. In 1997, Congress assigned responsibility for the remediation of FUSRAP sites to the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE). DOE retains responsibility for determining if sites are eligible for FUSRAP remediation and for providing long-term surveillance and maintenance (LTS&M) of remediated FUSRAP sites. DOE LTS&M activities are designed to ensure that FUSRAP sites remain protective of human health and the environment and to preserve knowledge regarding FUSRAP sites. Additional elements include eligibility determinations, transition of remediated sites from USACE to DOE, LTS&M operations such as inspections and institutional controls management, stakeholder support, preservation of records, and real property and reuse. DOE maintains close coordination with USACE and regulators to ensure there is no loss of protectiveness when sites transition to DOE for LTS&M.

  4. Creative Learning Environments in Education--A Systematic Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, Dan; Jindal-Snape, Divya; Collier, Chris; Digby, Rebecca; Hay, Penny; Howe, Alan

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports on a systematic review of 210 pieces of educational research, policy and professional literature relating to creative environments for learning in schools, commissioned by Learning and Teaching Scotland (LTS). Despite the volume of academic literature in this field, the team of six reviewers found comparatively few empirical…

  5. Laser Thomson Scattering, Raman Scattering and laser-absorption diagnostics of high pressure microdischarges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donnelly, Vincent M.; Belostotskiy, Sergey G.; Economou, Demetre J.; Sadeghi, Nader

    2010-05-01

    Laser scattering experiments were performed in high pressure (100s of Torr) parallel-plate, slot-type DC microdischarges operating in argon or nitrogen. Laser Thomson Scattering (LTS) and Rotational Raman Scattering were employed in a novel, backscattering, confocal configuration. LTS allows direct and simultaneous measurement of both electron density (ne) and electron temperature (Te). For 50 mA current and over the pressure range of 300 - 700 Torr, LTS yielded Te = 0.9 ± 0.3 eV and ne = (6 ± 3)·1013 cm-3, in reasonable agreement with the predictions of a mathematical model. Rotational Raman spectroscopy (RRS) was employed for absolute calibration of the LTS signal. RRS was also applied to measure the 3D gas temperature (Tg) in nitrogen DC microdischarges. In addition, diode laser absorption spectroscopy was employed to measure the density of argon metastables (1s5 in Paschen notations) in argon microdischarges. The gas temperature, extracted from the width of the absorption profile, was compared with Tg values obtained by optical emission spectroscopy.

  6. Educational Technology Program. Quarterly Technical Summary, 1 December 1970 through 28 February 1971.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frick, Frederick C.

    The decision to employ direct rather than diffraction recording in the Lincoln Training System (LTS) is reported. This resulted from the findings that direct recording was practical at higher densities than previously thought possible and that rapid access to a number of fiche would compensate for the limited number of frames per fiche realized…

  7. Effects of Lycopersicon esculentum extract on hair growth and alopecia prevention.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jae-Suk; Jung, Sung Kyu; Jeon, Min-Hee; Moon, Jin-Nam; Moon, Woi-Sook; Ji, Yi-Hwa; Choi, In Soon; Wook Son, Sang

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the potential hair growth-promoting activity and the expression of cell growth factors of Lycopersicon esculentum extracts, each 3% (w/w) of ethyl acetate extract (EAE), and supercritical CO2 extract (SCE) of L. esculentum and isolated lycopene Tween 80 solution (LTS) and test hair tonic (THT) containing LTS were applied on the dorsal skin of C57BL/6 mice, once a day for 4 weeks. At week 4, LTS and THT exhibited hair growth-promoting potential similar to that of 3% minoxidil as a positive control (PC). Further, in the LTS group, a significant increase of mRNA expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), keratinocyte growth factor, and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) was observed than PC, as well as the negative control (NC). In the THT group, increases in IGF-1 and decrease in VEGF and transforming growth factor-β expression were significant over the NC. In a histological examination in the THT group, the induction of anagen stage of hair follicles was faster than that of NC. In the Draize skin irritation study for THT, no observable edema or erythema was observed on all four sectors in the back skin after exposure for 24 or 72 h for any rabbit. Therefore, this study provides reasonable evidence that L. esculentum extracts promote hair growth and suggests that applications could be found in hair loss treatments without skin irritation at moderate doses. PMID:24397881

  8. Laser Thomson Scattering Diagnostics of Pulsed Filamentary Discharge Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolouki, Nima

    2012-10-01

    Laser Thomson scattering (LTS) has been applied to measure spatiotemporal evolution of electron density and electron temperature in a pulsed filamentary discharge. The light source of LTS is the second harmonics Nd:YAG laser with a energy of 8 mJ. Also a triple grating spectrometer (TGS) having high rejection rate for stray light is used to measure LTS spectra. In our experimental conditions, non-thermal and non-equilibrium micro-plasmas are generated at round atmospheric pressure. Moreover, the electrode set in this experiment is consisted of a needle electrode and a hemispherical electrode with an inter-electrode gap of 0.5 mm. The total electric charge that flows through the discharge channel vary from 20 nC to 850 nC by changing capacitance in electrical circuit. We could show that the total charge variation leads to increase in electron density from 10^22 m-3 to 10^23 m-3. However, the electron temperature remains almost constant at the main discharge. In order to investigate the streamer phase, we changed the gap up to 16mm, and then performed the LTS method to measure the electron density and electron temperature.

  9. The Impact of Listening Strategy Training on the Meta-Cognitive Listening Strategies Awareness of Different Learner Types

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zarrabi, Fatemeh

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated the effectiveness of listening strategy instruction on the metacognitive listening strategies awareness of different EFL learner types (LTs). To achieve this goal, 150 EFL students took part in the study and were taught based on a guided lesson plan regarding listening strategies and a pre-test/post-test design was…

  10. Characterization of silicon micro-strip sensors with a pulsed infra-red laser system for the CBM experiment at FAIR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, P.

    2015-03-01

    The Compressed Baryonic Matter (CBM) experiment at FAIR is composed of 8 tracking stations consisting of 1292 double sided silicon micro-strip sensors. For the quality assurance of produced prototype sensors a laser test system (LTS) has been developed. The aim of the LTS is to scan sensors with a pulsed infra-red laser driven by step motor to determine the charge sharing in-between strips and to measure qualitative uniformity of the sensor response over the whole active area. The prototype sensors which are tested with the LTS so far have 256 strips with a pitch of 50 μm on each side. They are read-out using a self-triggering prototype read-out electronic ASIC called n-XYTER. The LTS is designed to measure sensor response in an automatized procedure at several thousand positions across the sensor with focused infra-red laser light (spot size ≈ 12 μm , wavelength = 1060 nm). The pulse with duration (≈ 10 ns) and power (≈ 5 mW) of the laser pulses is selected such, that the absorption of the laser light in the 300 μm thick silicon sensors produces a number of about 24000 electrons, which is similar to the charge created by minimum ionizing particles (MIP) in these sensors. Laser scans different prototype sensors is reported.

  11. Laryngo-tracheal profile: a new method for assessing laryngo-tracheal stenoses.

    PubMed

    Kiesler, Karl; Gugatschka, Markus; Sorantin, Erich; Friedrich, Gerhard

    2007-03-01

    We present the clinical application of a new method for objective assessment of both grade and length of laryngo-tracheal stenoses (LTS) on a CT-based skeletonization algorithm, called laryngo-tracheal profile (LTP). Extraction of the laryngo-tracheal tract (LTT)-medial axis was performed after S-CT scanning. Orthogonal to the medial axis, the LTT cross-profile was computed, and the length and degree of LTS were presented as line charts. Clinical application of this newly developed method is demonstrated on three patients who had to undergo preoperative assessment before surgical treatment of tracheal stenoses. LTP provides an objective method of assessment of both the length and degree of tracheal stenoses in precise correlation to defined anatomical landmarks. This method provides important additive information for preoperative evaluation as well as for monitoring of therapeutical success. Current methods used so far are able to evaluate the severity of LTS, but do not provide exact quantitative assessment of complex LTS. Especially in CT-scans of strong curved passages, where an overestimation of the cross-sectional area results by an oblique cut of the tubular structure, LTP may overcome this problem by a simple post processing skeletonization algorithm. PMID:17031659

  12. Contextualizing Learning Scenarios According to Different Learning Management Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drira, R.; Laroussi, M.; Le Pallec, X.; Warin, B.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we first demonstrate that an instructional design process of Technology Enhanced Learning (TEL) systems based on a Model Driven Approach (MDA) addresses the limits of Learning Technology Standards (LTS), such as SCORM and IMS-LD. Although these standards ensure the interoperability of TEL systems across different Learning Management…

  13. Hearing loss differentially affects thalamic drive to two cortical interneuron subtypes

    PubMed Central

    Kotak, Vibhakar C.; Sharma, Neeti; Sanes, Dan H.

    2013-01-01

    Sensory deprivation, such as developmental hearing loss, leads to an adjustment of synaptic and membrane properties throughout the central nervous system. These changes are thought to compensate for diminished sound-evoked activity. This model predicts that compensatory changes should be synergistic with one another along each functional pathway. To test this idea, we examined the excitatory thalamic drive to two types of cortical inhibitory interneurons that display differential effects in response to developmental hearing loss. The inhibitory synapses made by fast-spiking (FS) cells are weakened by hearing loss, whereas those made by low threshold-spiking (LTS) cells remain strong but display greater short-term depression (Takesian et al. 2010). Whole-cell recordings were made from FS or LTS interneurons in a thalamocortical brain slice, and medial geniculate (MG)-evoked postsynaptic potentials were analyzed. Following hearing loss, MG-evoked net excitatory potentials were smaller than normal at FS cells but larger than normal at LTS cells. Furthermore, MG-evoked excitatory potentials displayed less short-term depression at FS cells and greater short-term depression at LTS cells. Thus deprivation-induced adjustments of excitatory synapses onto inhibitory interneurons are cell-type specific and parallel the changes made by the inhibitory afferents. PMID:23719211

  14. Paediatric obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS) is associated with tonsil colonisation by Streptococcus pyogenes

    PubMed Central

    Viciani, Elisa; Montagnani, Francesca; Tavarini, Simona; Tordini, Giacinta; Maccari, Silvia; Morandi, Matteo; Faenzi, Elisa; Biagini, Cesare; Romano, Antonio; Salerni, Lorenzo; Finco, Oretta; Lazzi, Stefano; Ruggiero, Paolo; De Luca, Andrea; Barocchi, Michèle A.; Manetti, Andrea G. O.

    2016-01-01

    The involvement of pathogenic bacteria in obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS) has yet to be elucidated. We investigated the possible role of group A streptococcus (GAS) in OSAS pathogenesis. In 40 tonsillectomized patients affected by OSAS and 80 healthy controls, significant (p < 0.0001) association of GAS with paediatric OSAS was found. Supernatant from streptolysin O (SLO)-producing GAS induced production of cysteinyl leukotrienes (CysLTs) in tonsil mononuclear cells (TMCs). CysLTs-treated TMCs showed significant (p < 0.05) proliferation of CD4+ T, CD19+ and CD19+CD27+CD38+ B lymphocytes. We discovered a SLO-dependent activation of CysLTs production through a pathway involving TOLL-like receptor 4 (TLR4), TIR-domain-containing adapter-inducing interferon-β (TRIF), Myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 (MyD88), and p38 MAP Kinase. In conclusion, we hypothesise that GAS may contribute to paediatric tonsillar hyperplasia through CysLTs production induced by SLO, and this might explain its association with OSAS. PMID:26860261

  15. Convective Mixing, Lower Tropospheric Stability and Low Cloud Feedback

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, H.; Jiang, J. H.; Zhai, C.; Shen, T. P. J.

    2014-12-01

    A recently published study by Sherwood et al. (2014) suggested that convective mixing is a key process that determines the inter-model spread in low cloud feedback and equilibrium climate sensitivity (ECS). The parameterized sub-grid scale convective mixing (S) is represented by the temperature and humidity differences between the lower free troposphere, 700 hPa, and the boundary layer, 850 hPa. Although a strong correlation between convective mixing strengths averaged over a deep convective region and ECSs among the models was shown, how convective mixing relates to the distribution and variation of low clouds was not examined in the study. Lower tropospheric stability (LTS, the potential temperature difference between 700 hPa and 1000 hPa) is known to have a strong correlation with low cloud fraction (Klein and Hartmann 1993). How S is related to LTS and whether model simulations of LTS contribute to the model spread in low cloud feedback are of great scientific interest. Combined AIRS and CloudSat/CALIPSO observations along with CMIP5 model simulations are analyzed to address the relationships between S, LTS, and cloud variations in the past decade and in the future climate model projections under the doubling of CO2. The implications for climate sensitivity are explored.

  16. 77 FR 50611 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; State of Oregon; Regional Haze State...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-22

    ... retrofit technology (BART). 76 FR 38997. On May 23, 2012, EPA proposed approving the remaining portion of... Long-Term Strategy (LTS) to achieve these goals. 77 FR 30454. In this Federal Register notice EPA... toward improving visibility in mandatory Class I Federal areas \\1\\ (Class I areas). 64 FR 35714 (July...

  17. Educational Technology Program. Quarterly Technical Summary, 1 March through 31 May 1973.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frick, Frederick C.

    During this quarter further investigations of alternative designs for the Lincoln Training System LTS-4 project's features and subsystems continued. Software efforts proceeded concurrently in three areas: 1) system architecture, monitor, and input/output programs; 2) a new version of the Lincoln Terminal Language, LTL-2; and 3) programs to apply…

  18. Immune-protected xenogeneic bioartificial livers with liver-specific microarchitecture and hydrogel-encapsulated cells.

    PubMed

    No, Da Yoon; Jeong, Gi Seok; Lee, Sang-Hoon

    2014-10-01

    Development of a xenogeneic biological liver support is important in providing a bridge to transplantation or liver regeneration, thus helping to overcome the chronic shortage of liver donors. Among the critical factors in developing biological liver support are the creation of in vivo mimetic micro liver tissue (mLT), especially mLTs containing liver-specific ultrastructure, and an encapsulation method that can package massive numbers of cells while providing immune-protection from the host immune system. We describe here the development of mLTs that include liver microarchitecture and their in situ encapsulation in hydrogel composites. Concave microwells and the tri-culture of three types of primary liver cells were applied for the construction of mLTs showing excellent liver functions and long-term (>1 month) viability in vitro. Large quantities of rat mLTs were encapsulated in collagen-alginate composites, implanted into hepatic failure mice and sustained their survival during regeneration of the remaining liver. The proposed liver support system offers xenogeneic hepatic assistance by mimicking native liver microarchitecture and providing immune-protection without the need for complicated devices or processes, and as such represents a promising system for recovery of organ function. PMID:25088727

  19. Laser Thomson Scattering Diagnostics in the Low-Temperature Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woo, Hyun-Jong; Chung, Kyu-Sun

    2008-10-01

    Laser Thomson Scattering (LTS) is the non-invasive method for measuring the electron temperature and its density, which can be used for the calibrations of electric probes within collisional and magnetized plasmas. For LTS diagnostics in the low-temperature plasmas, one need to special optics for detection of the scattered light with restricting the Rayleigh and Stray lights. For this, one uses the Triple Grating Spectrometer (TGS), which is composed of Rayleigh block (notch filter for Rayleigh light) and double grating filter (DGF). All focusing lenses are used with achromatic doublet configuration for reducing the non-linear optical effects such as spherical aberration, coma, etc. The specifications of the grating and achromatic doublet lens are 1800 gr/mm with the dimensions of 84 mm x 84 mm and 400 mm of focal length with the diameter of 100 mm, respectively. In this configurations, the linear dispersion is given as 1.006 nm/mm. Considering the dimension of Charged Coupled Device (CCD) with the linear dispersion, the LTS system can be measure the electron temperatures of less than 10 eV (in most laboratory plasmas). The initial measurement of LTS measurement and comparative study with single probe are done in Divertor Plasma Simulator (DiPS) with the following plasma parameters; plasma density of 10^11-10^13 cm-3, electron temperature of 1-4 eV, and the magnetic field of 0.2-1 kG, respectively.

  20. Statistical Treatment of Looking-Time Data

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Looking times (LTs) are frequently measured in empirical research on infant cognition. We analyzed the statistical distribution of LTs across participants to develop recommendations for their treatment in infancy research. Our analyses focused on a common within-subject experimental design, in which longer looking to novel or unexpected stimuli is predicted. We analyzed data from 2 sources: an in-house set of LTs that included data from individual participants (47 experiments, 1,584 observations), and a representative set of published articles reporting group-level LT statistics (149 experiments from 33 articles). We established that LTs are log-normally distributed across participants, and therefore, should always be log-transformed before parametric statistical analyses. We estimated the typical size of significant effects in LT studies, which allowed us to make recommendations about setting sample sizes. We show how our estimate of the distribution of effect sizes of LT studies can be used to design experiments to be analyzed by Bayesian statistics, where the experimenter is required to determine in advance the predicted effect size rather than the sample size. We demonstrate the robustness of this method in both sets of LT experiments. PMID:26845505

  1. A least trimmed square regression method for second level FMRI effective connectivity analysis.

    PubMed

    Li, Xingfeng; Coyle, Damien; Maguire, Liam; McGinnity, Thomas Martin

    2013-01-01

    We present a least trimmed square (LTS) robust regression method to combine different runs/subjects for second/high level effective connectivity analysis. The basic idea of this method is to treat the extreme nonlinear model variability as outliers if they exceed a certain threshold. A bootstrap method for the LTS estimation is employed to detect model outliers. We compared the LTS robust method with a non-robust method using simulated and real datasets. The difference between LTS and the non-robust method for second level effective connectivity analysis is significant, suggesting the conventional non-robust method is easily affected by the model variability from the first level analysis. In addition, after these outliers are detected and excluded for the high level analysis, the model coefficients of the second level are combined within the framework of a mixed model. The variance of the mixed model is estimated using the Newton-Raphson (NR) type Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm. Three sets of real data are adopted to compare conventional methods which do not include random effects in the analysis with a mixed model for second level effective connectivity analysis. The results show that the conventional method is significantly different from the mixed model when greater model variability exists, suggesting there is a strong random effect, and the mixed model should be employed for the second level effective connectivity analysis. PMID:23093379

  2. Extended Statistical Learning as an Account for Slow Vocabulary Growth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stokes, Stephanie F.; Kern, Sophie; dos Santos, Christophe

    2012-01-01

    Stokes (2010) compared the lexicons of English-speaking late talkers (LT) with those of their typically developing (TD) peers on neighborhood density (ND) and word frequency (WF) characteristics and suggested that LTs employed learning strategies that differed from those of their TD peers. This research sought to explore the cross-linguistic…

  3. Long-Term Sensitization Training Primes "Aplysia" for Further Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cleary, Leonard J.; Byrne, John H.; Antzoulatos, Evangelos G.; Wainwright, Marcy L.

    2006-01-01

    Repetitive, unilateral stimulation of "Aplysia" induces long-term sensitization (LTS) of ipsilaterally elicited siphon-withdrawal responses. Whereas some morphological effects of training appear only on ipsilateral sensory neurons, others appear bilaterally. We tested the possibility that contralateral morphological modifications may have…

  4. A class of large time step Godunov schemes for hyperbolic conservation laws and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, ZhanSen; Lee, Chun-Hian

    2011-08-01

    A large time step (LTS) Godunov scheme firstly proposed by LeVeque is further developed in the present work and applied to Euler equations. Based on the analysis of the computational performances of LeVeque's linear approximation on wave interactions, a multi-wave approximation on rarefaction fan is proposed to avoid the occurrences of rarefaction shocks in computations. The developed LTS scheme is validated using 1-D test cases, manifesting high resolution for discontinuities and the capability of maintaining computational stability when large CFL numbers are imposed. The scheme is then extended to multidimensional problems using dimensional splitting technique; the treatment of boundary condition for this multidimensional LTS scheme is also proposed. As for demonstration problems, inviscid flows over NACA0012 airfoil and ONERA M6 wing with given swept angle are simulated using the developed LTS scheme. The numerical results reveal the high resolution nature of the scheme, where the shock can be captured within 1-2 grid points. The resolution of the scheme would improve gradually along with the increasing of CFL number under an upper bound where the solution becomes severely oscillating across the shock. Computational efficiency comparisons show that the developed scheme is capable of reducing the computational time effectively with increasing the time step (CFL number).

  5. Characterizing Learning-through-Service Students in Engineering by Gender and Academic Year

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carberry, Adam Robert

    2010-01-01

    Service is increasingly being viewed as an integral part of education nationwide. Service-based courses and programs are growing in popularity as opportunities for students to learn and experience their discipline. Widespread adoption of learning-through-service (LTS) in engineering is stymied by a lack of a body of rigorous research supporting…

  6. The Rationale/Benefits of Nuclear Thermal Rocket Propulsion for NASA's Lunar Space Transportation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borowski, Stanley K.

    1994-01-01

    The solid core nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) represents the next major evolutionary step in propulsion technology. With its attractive operating characteristics, which include high specific impulse (approximately 850-1000 s) and engine thrust-to-weight (approximately 4-20), the NTR can form the basis for an efficient lunar space transportation system (LTS) capable of supporting both piloted and cargo missions. Studies conducted at the NASA Lewis Research Center indicate that an NTR-based LTS could transport a fully-fueled, cargo-laden, lunar excursion vehicle to the Moon, and return it to low Earth orbit (LEO) after mission completion, for less initial mass in LEO than an aerobraked chemical system of the type studied by NASA during its '90-Day Study.' The all-propulsive NTR-powered LTS would also be 'fully reusable' and would have a 'return payload' mass fraction of approximately 23 percent--twice that of the 'partially reusable' aerobraked chemical system. Two NTR technology options are examined--one derived from the graphite-moderated reactor concept developed by NASA and the AEC under the Rover/NERVA (Nuclear Engine for Rocket Vehicle Application) programs, and a second concept, the Particle Bed Reactor (PBR). The paper also summarizes NASA's lunar outpost scenario, compares relative performance provided by different LTS concepts, and discusses important operational issues (e.g., reusability, engine 'end-of life' disposal, etc.) associated with using this important propulsion technology.

  7. What Will It Take To Ensure Implementation? A Content Literacy Dilemma.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rafferty, Cathleen D.

    A study attempted to determine a variety of facilitating and militating elements that influence Content Area Literacy/Learning Teaching Strategies (CAL/LTS) implementation. It investigated the impact of various contextual or ecological features embedded within the student teaching experience on student teachers' ability to implement various…

  8. Educational Technology Program. Quarterly Technical Summary, 1 September Through 30 November 1972.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frick, Frederick C.

    Several on-goint activities were conducted during this quarter. Field trials of the Lincoln Training System-3 (LTS-3) at Keesler Air Force Base were extended to include high-aptitude students previously excluded. Results showed such students scored significantly higher on achievement tests and learned substantially faster when they received LTS…

  9. Statistical treatment of looking-time data.

    PubMed

    Csibra, Gergely; Hernik, Mikołaj; Mascaro, Olivier; Tatone, Denis; Lengyel, Máté

    2016-04-01

    Looking times (LTs) are frequently measured in empirical research on infant cognition. We analyzed the statistical distribution of LTs across participants to develop recommendations for their treatment in infancy research. Our analyses focused on a common within-subject experimental design, in which longer looking to novel or unexpected stimuli is predicted. We analyzed data from 2 sources: an in-house set of LTs that included data from individual participants (47 experiments, 1,584 observations), and a representative set of published articles reporting group-level LT statistics (149 experiments from 33 articles). We established that LTs are log-normally distributed across participants, and therefore, should always be log-transformed before parametric statistical analyses. We estimated the typical size of significant effects in LT studies, which allowed us to make recommendations about setting sample sizes. We show how our estimate of the distribution of effect sizes of LT studies can be used to design experiments to be analyzed by Bayesian statistics, where the experimenter is required to determine in advance the predicted effect size rather than the sample size. We demonstrate the robustness of this method in both sets of LT experiments. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26845505

  10. Leukotrienes Are Upregulated and Associated with Human T-Lymphotropic Virus Type 1 (HTLV-1)-Associated Neuroinflammatory Disease

    PubMed Central

    Trindade, Bruno Caetano; Sorgi, Carlos Artério; Nicolete, Larissa Deadame de Figueiredo; Malta, Tathiane Maistro; Pinto, Mariana Tomazini; Takayanagui, Osvaldo Massaiti; Covas, Dimas Tadeu; Filho, Olindo Assis Martins; Kashima, Simone; Faccioli, Lúcia Helena

    2012-01-01

    Leukotrienes (LTs) are lipid mediators involved in several inflammatory disorders. We investigated the LT pathway in human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) infection by evaluating LT levels in HTLV-1-infected patients classified according to the clinical status as asymptomatic carriers (HACs) and HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) patients. Bioactive LTB4 and CysLTs were both increased in the plasma and in the supernatant of peripheral blood mononuclear cell cultures of HTLV-1-infected when compared to non-infected. Interestingly, CysLT concentrations were increased in HAM/TSP patients. Also, the concentration of plasma LTB4 and LTC4 positively correlated with the HTLV-1 proviral load in HTLV-1-infected individuals. The gene expression levels of LT receptors were differentially modulated in CD4+ and CD8+ T cells of HTLV-1-infected patients. Analysis of the overall plasma signature of immune mediators demonstrated that LT and chemokine amounts were elevated during HTLV-1 infection. Importantly, in addition to CysLTs, IP-10 was also identified as a biomarker for HAM/TSP activity. These data suggest that LTs are likely to be associated with HTLV-1 infection and HAM/TSP development, suggesting their putative use for clinical monitoring. PMID:23284797

  11. GE-03GENOMIC CHARACTERIZATION OF SURVIVAL OUTLIERS IN GLIOBLASTOMA MULTIFORME

    PubMed Central

    Berens, Michael; Armstrong, Brock; Peng, Sen; Ross, Julianna; Salhia, Bodour; Byron, Sara; Virk, Selene; Dhruv, Harshil; Tran, Nhan; Sloan, Andrew; Ostrom, Quinn; Barnholtz-Sloan, Jill

    2014-01-01

    Despite the general poor prognosis for patients with GBM, a proportion survives well beyond the median survival of 12-14 months following diagnosis. To elucidate molecular features associated with disproportionately protracted survival, we conducted deep genomic comparative analysis of a cohort of patients receiving standard therapy (surgery plus concurrent radiation and temozolomide) wherein "GBM outliers" were identified: patients who responded (long-term survivor, LTS) versus those who failed rapidly (short-term survivor, STS). The datasets enabled interrogation for signatures indicative of tumor vulnerability. Whole genomic, epigenetic and transcriptomic analyses of 18 patients, including 8 LTS with an average 30 months overall survival (OS) and 10 STS with an average of 7 months OS were performed to capture single nucleotide variants (SNVs), indels, translocations, intra-chromosomal rearrangements, copy number variants, along with DNA methylation and mRNA expression. LTS and STS cases showed equal proportion of 7p11.2 (EGFR) amplification and 9p21.3 (CDKN2A) deletion. However, LTS GBM showed frequent chromosomal gains in 4q12 (PDGFRA and KIT) and 12q14.1 (CDK4) and deletion in 19q13.33 (BAX, BCAT2 and CD33), whereas, STS GBM showed frequent deletion in 9p11.2 (FOXD4L2 and AQP7P3) and 22q11.21 (HIC2). In addition, LTS GBM showed a 2-fold increased chromosomal instability as compared to STS GBM. By gene expression analysis, supervised clustering using the CIN70 chromosomal instability signature showed a decreased expression of these markers in LTS GBM, corroborating the genomic analysis. Finally, integrating DNA methylation data with gene expression revealed in STS GBM hypermethylation and downregulation of EPHA3, MEG, and PPP1R9A, linked to defective cell migration and adhesion. In contrast, LTS GBM showed hypomethylation and an increased gene expression of KIT. We posit that genomic instability predicts vulnerability of GBM to standard therapy and coupled with

  12. The hallucinogenic diterpene salvinorin A inhibits leukotriene synthesis in experimental models of inflammation.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Antonietta; Pace, Simona; Tedesco, Federica; Pagano, Ester; Guerra, Germano; Troisi, Fabiana; Werner, Markus; Roviezzo, Fiorentina; Zjawiony, Jordan K; Werz, Oliver; Izzo, Angelo A; Capasso, Raffaele

    2016-04-01

    Leukotrienes (LTs) are lipid mediators derived from arachidonic acid (AA) involved in a number of autoimmune/inflammatory disorders including asthma, allergic rhinitis and cardiovascular diseases. Salvinorin A (SA), a diterpene isolated from the hallucinogenic plant Salvia divinorum, is a well-established analgesic compound, but its anti-inflammatory properties are under-researched and its effects on LT production is unknown to date. Here, we studied the possible effect of SA on LT production and verified its actions on experimental models of inflammation in which LTs play a prominent role. Peritoneal macrophages (PM) stimulated by calcium ionophore A23187 were chosen as in vitro system to evaluate the effect of SA on LT production. Zymosan-induced peritonitis in mice and carrageenan-induced pleurisy in rats were selected as LT-related models to evaluate the effect of SA on inflammation as well as on LT biosynthesis. SA inhibited, in a concentration-dependent manner, A23187-induced LTB4 biosynthesis in isolated PM. In zymosan-induced peritonitis, SA inhibited cell infiltration, myeloperoxidase activity, vascular permeability and LTC4 production in the peritoneal cavity without decreasing the production of prostaglandin E2. In carrageenan-induced pleurisy in rats, a more sophisticated model of acute inflammation related to LTs, SA significantly inhibited LTB4 production in the inflammatory exudates, along with reducing the phlogistic process in the lung. In conclusion, SA inhibited LT production and it was effective in experimental models of inflammation in which LTs play a pivotal role. SA might be considered as a lead compound for the development of drugs useful in LTs-related diseases. PMID:26859523

  13. Leukotriene B4 mediates macrophage influx and pulmonary hypertension in bleomycin-induced chronic neonatal lung injury.

    PubMed

    Ee, Mong Tieng; Kantores, Crystal; Ivanovska, Julijana; Wong, Mathew J; Jain, Amish; Jankov, Robert P

    2016-08-01

    Systemically-administered bleomycin causes inflammation, arrested lung growth, and pulmonary hypertension (PHT) in the neonatal rat, similar to human infants with severe bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). Leukotrienes (LTs) are inflammatory lipid mediators produced by multiple cell types in the lung. The major LTs, LTB4 and cysteinyl LTs, are suggested to contribute to BPD, but their specific roles remain largely unexplored in experimental models. We hypothesized that LTs are increased in bleomycin-induced BPD-like injury, and that inhibition of LT production would prevent inflammatory cell influx and thereby ameliorate lung injury. Rat pups were exposed to bleomycin (1 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1) ip) or vehicle (control) from postnatal days 1-14 and were treated with either zileuton (5-lipoxygenase inhibitor), montelukast (cysteinyl LT1 receptor antagonist), or SC57461A (LTA4 hydrolase inhibitor) 10 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1) ip. Bleomycin led to increased lung content of LTB4, but not cysteinyl LTs. Bleomycin-induced increases in tissue neutrophils and macrophages and lung contents of LTB4 and tumor necrosis factor-α were all prevented by treatment with zileuton. Treatment with zileuton or SC57461A also prevented the hemodynamic and structural markers of chronic PHT, including raised pulmonary vascular resistance, increased Fulton index, and arterial wall remodeling. However, neither treatment prevented impaired alveolarization or vascular hypoplasia secondary to bleomycin. Treatment with montelukast had no effect on macrophage influx, PHT, or on abnormal lung structure. We conclude that LTB4 plays a crucial role in lung inflammation and PHT in experimental BPD. Agents targeting LTB4 or LTB4-mediated signaling may have utility in infants at risk of developing BPD-associated PHT. PMID:27317685

  14. Endocannabinoid 2-AG and intracellular cannabinoid receptors modulate a low-threshold calcium spike-induced slow depolarizing afterpotential in rat thalamic paraventricular nucleus neurons.

    PubMed

    Zhang, L; Kolaj, M; Renaud, L P

    2016-05-13

    In rat paraventricular thalamic nucleus (PVT) neurons, activation of low-threshold calcium (Ca(2+)) channels triggers a low-threshold spike (LTS) which may be followed by slow afterpotentials that can dramatically influence action potential patterning. Using gluconate-based internal recording solutions, we investigated the properties of a LTS-induced slow afterdepolarization (sADP) observed in a subpopulation of PVT neurons recorded in brain slice preparations. This LTS-induced sADP required T-type Ca(2+) channel opening, exhibited variable magnitudes between neurons and a voltage dependency with a maximum near -50mV. The area under the sADP remained stable during control monitoring, but displayed gradual suppression in media where strontium replaced Ca(2+). The sADP was suppressed following bath application of 2-APB or ML204, suggesting engagement of transient receptor potential canonical (TRPC)-like channels. Further investigation revealed a reversible suppression during bath applications of membrane permeable cannabinoid receptor (CBR) blockers rimonabant, AM630 or SR144528 suggesting the presence of both CB1Rs and CB2Rs. Similar results were achieved by intracellular, but not bath application of the membrane impermeant CB1R blocker hemopressin, suggesting an intracellular localization of CB1Rs. Data from pharmacologic manipulation of endocannabinoid biosynthetic pathways suggested 2-arachidonlyglycerol (2-AG) as the endogenous cannabinoid ligand, derived via hydrolysis of diacylglycerol (DAG), with the latter formed from the pathway involving phosphatidylcholine-specific phospholipase D and phosphatic acid phosphohydrolase. The sADP suppression observed during recordings with pipettes containing LY294002, a PI3-kinase inhibitor, suggested a role for PI3kinase in the translocation of these TRPC-like channels to the plasma membrane. Drug-induced attenuation of the availability of 2-AG influences the number of action potentials that surmount the LTS evoked in PVT

  15. Leukotriene E4 activates human Th2 cells for exaggerated proinflammatory cytokine production in response to prostaglandin D2.

    PubMed

    Xue, Luzheng; Barrow, Anna; Fleming, Vicki M; Hunter, Michael G; Ogg, Graham; Klenerman, Paul; Pettipher, Roy

    2012-01-15

    PGD(2) exerts a number of proinflammatory responses through a high-affinity interaction with chemoattractant receptor-homologous molecule expressed on Th2 cells (CRTH2) and has been detected at high concentrations at sites of allergic inflammation. Because cysteinyl leukotrienes (cysLTs) are also produced during the allergic response, we investigated the possibility that cysLTs may modulate the response of human Th2 cells to PGD(2). PGD(2) induced concentration-dependent Th2 cytokine production in the absence of TCR stimulation. Leukotrienes D(4) and E(4) (LTE(4)) also stimulated the cytokine production but were much less active than PGD(2). However, when combined with PGD(2), cysLTs caused a greater than additive enhancement of the response, with LTE(4) being most effective in activating Th2 cells. LTE(4) enhanced calcium mobilization in response to PGD(2) in Th2 cells without affecting endogenous PGD(2) production or CRTH2 receptor expression. The effect of LTE(4) was inhibited by montelukast but not by the P2Y(12) antagonist methylthioadenosine 5'-monophosphate. The enhancing effect was also evident with endogenous cysLTs produced from immunologically activated mast cells because inhibition of cysLT action by montelukast or cysLT synthesis by MK886, an inhibitor of 5-lipoxygenase-activating protein, reduced the response of Th2 cells to the levels produced by PGD(2) alone. These findings reveal that cysLTs, in particular LTE(4), have a significant proinflammatory impact on T cells and demonstrate their effects on Th2 cells are mediated by a montelukast-sensitive receptor. PMID:22174450

  16. Overview of the U.S. Department of Energy Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program - 12189

    SciTech Connect

    Clayton, Christopher; Kothari, Vijendra; Starr, Ken; Gillespie, Joey; Widdop, Michael

    2012-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) was established in 1974 to address residual radiological contamination at sites where work was performed for the Manhattan Engineer District and U.S. Atomic Energy Commission. Initially, FUSRAP activities began with a records search for sites that had the potential to contain residual radiological contamination; 46 sites were identified that were eligible for and required remediation. Remedial action began in 1979. In 1997, Congress assigned responsibility for the remediation of FUSRAP sites to the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE). DOE retains responsibility for determining if sites are eligible for FUSRAP remediation and for providing long-term surveillance and maintenance (LTS and M) of remediated FUSRAP sites. DOE LTS and M activities are designed to ensure that FUSRAP sites remain protective of human health and the environment and to preserve knowledge regarding FUSRAP sites. Additional elements include eligibility determinations, transition of remediated sites from USACE to DOE, LTS and M operations such as inspections and institutional controls management, stakeholder support, preservation of records, and real property and reuse. DOE maintains close coordination with USACE and regulators to ensure there is no loss of protectiveness when sites transition to DOE for LTS and M. Over the life of the FUSRAP program from 1974 to the present, DOE's primary mission and responsibility has been to ensure that FUSRAP sites remain protective of human health and the environment. In fulfilling this mission, the DOE program includes the following key elements: eligibility determinations, transition of remediated sites from USACE to DOE, LTS and M operations such as inspections and institutional controls management, stakeholder support, preservation of records, and real property and reuse. DOE maintains close communication stakeholders as well as state and federal regulators. DOE

  17. The star formation histories of Hickson compact group galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plauchu-Frayn, I.; Del Olmo, A.; Coziol, R.; Torres-Papaqui, J. P.

    2012-10-01

    Aims: We study the star formation fistory (SFH) of 210 galaxy members of 55 Hickson compact groups (HCG) and 309 galaxies from the Catalog of Isolated Galaxies (CIG). The SFH traces the variation of star formation over the lifetime of a galaxy, and consequently yields a snapshot picture of its formation. Comparing the SFHs in these extremes in galaxy density allows us to determine the main effects of compact groups (CG) on the formation of galaxies. Methods: We fit our spectra using the spectral synthesis code STARLIGHT and obtained the stellar population contents and mean stellar ages of HCG and CIG galaxies in three different morphological classes: early-type galaxies (EtG), early-type spirals (EtS), and late-type spirals (LtS). Results: We find that EtG and EtS galaxies in HCG show higher contents of old and intermediate stellar populations as well as an important deficit of the young stellar population, which clearly implies an older average stellar age in early galaxies in HCG. For LtS galaxies we find similar mean values for the stellar content and age in the two samples. However, we note that LtS can be split into two subclasses, namely old and young LtS. In HCG we find a higher fraction of young LtS than in the CIG sample, in addition, most of these galaxies belong to groups in which most of the galaxies are also young and actively forming stars. The specific star formation rate (SSFR) of spiral galaxies in the two samples differ. The EtS in HCG show lower SSFR values, while LtS peak at higher values compared with their counterparts in isolation. We also measured the shorter star formation time scale (SFTS) in HCG galaxies, which indicates that they have a shorter star formation activity than CIG galaxies. We take these observations as evidence that galaxies in CG have evolved more rapidly than galaxies in isolation, regardless of their morphology. Our observations are consistent with the hierarchical galaxy formation model, which states that CGs are

  18. Mantle Sources, Mantle Melting and the Genesis of the Central East Greenland Plateau Lavas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, E. L.; Barfod, G. H.; Lesher, C. E.

    2006-12-01

    The Central East Greenland (CEG) plateau lavas (56-54 Ma) contain a very complete geochemical record of the opening of the North Atlantic basin in response to the breakup of Pangaea. This record provides an unique opportunity for identifying the mantle source compositions and melting processes involved in the genesis of the North Atlantic Igneous Province (NAIP). The plateau lavas consist of three compositional suites: the volumetrically dominant high-Ti suite (TiO2 ca. 1.67 - 4 wt. %) (HTS) and the minor low-Ti (TiO2 < 1.96 wt. %) and very high-Ti (TiO2 ca. 4 - 6 wt. %) suites (LTS and VHTS, respectively). We present detailed Hf-Nd-Sr data and trace element data for VHTS and LTS lavas closely associated within the lava succession. These uncontaminated lava suites represent the extreme compositional ranges of the plateau lavas and show limited variability in ɛHf (9.58 - 10.96 [VHTS] and 14.39 - 14.68 [LTS]) and a somewhat broader variation in ɛNd (5.42 - 6.73 [VHTS] and 8.29 - 9.68 [LTS]). The LTS and VHTS source compositions bracket the chemical range observed for the HTS lavas. Drawing from the model of [1], we propose that the mantle sources for the VHTS and LTS were intimately associated within the mantle melting regime beneath CEG and were present throughout the generation of the plateau lavas. Correlations between trace element and isotopic data can be accounted for by a forward melting model involving a heterogeneous source containing fusible eclogite and refractory peridotite. These findings are in contrast to the model of [2] proposing that temporal sampling of three distinct and isolated mantle domains within a zoned plume is the dominant control on plateau lava chemistry. Our study highlights the importance of combining isotope and trace element data in understanding melt production in the NAIP and elsewhere. (1) Tegner et al., 1998, Nature, v 395, p 591-594; (2) Barker et al., 2006, Geology, v 34, p 481-484

  19. Long-term Stress with Hyperglucocorticoidemia-induced Hepatic Steatosis with VLDL Overproduction Is Dependent on both 5-HT2 Receptor and 5-HT Synthesis in Liver

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Jihua; Ma, Shaoxin; Li, Xin; An, Shanshan; Li, Tao; Guo, Keke; Lin, Min; Qu, Wei; Wang, Shanshan; Dong, Xinyue; Han, Xiaoyu; Fu, Ting; Huang, Xinping; Wang, Tianying; He, Siyu

    2016-01-01

    Hepatic triglycerides production and adipose lipolysis are pivotal for long-term stress (LTS) or hyperglucocorticoidemia-induced insulin resistance. 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) has been demonstrated to induce hepatic lipid metabolic abnormality by activating mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). In present study, we explored whether 5-HT is involved in LTS effects in liver using restraint stress-exposed rats and cultured primary rat hepatocytes and HepG2 cells. LTS with hyperglucocorticoidemia induced hepatic 5-HT synthetic increase with tryptophan hydroxylase 1 (Tph1) up-regulation, and 5-HT2 receptor (5-HT2R, including 5-HT2A, 2B receptor) up-regulation in liver and visceral adipose, as well as hepatic mTOR activation with triglycerides and VLDL overproduction with steatosis, and visceral adipose lipolytic increase with high blood free fatty acids (FFAs) level. 5-HT exposure exhibited LTS-like effects in both tissues, and both LTS and 5-HT effects could be abolished significantly by blocking 5-HT2R. In HepG2 cells dexamethasone or palmitate-induced mTOR activation with triglycerides and VLDL overproduction were accompanied by up-regulations of 5-HT synthesis and 5-HT2R, which were significantly abolished by gene silencing Tph1 or 5-HT2R and were almost fully abolished by co-silencing of both, especially on VLDL overproduction. Chemical inhibition of Tph1 or/and 5-HT2R in both hepatocytes exhibited similar abolishment with genetic inhibition on dexamethason-induced effects. 5-HT-stimulated effects in both hepatocytes were fully abolished by blocking 5-HT2R, while 5-HT itself also up-regulated 5-HT2R. In conclusion, up-regulated hepatic 5-HT synthesis and 5-HT2R induced by both glucocorticoid and FFAs are crucial for LTS-induced hepatic steatosis with VLDL overproduction, while 5-HT by acting on 5-HT2R mediates mTOR activation in liver. PMID:26884719

  20. Low inductance gas switching.

    SciTech Connect

    Chavez, Ray; Harjes, Henry Charles III; Wallace, Zachariah; Elizondo, Juan E.

    2007-10-01

    The laser trigger switch (LTS) is a key component in ZR-type pulsed power systems. In ZR, the pulse rise time through the LTS is > 200 ns and additional stages of pulse compression are required to achieve the desired <100 ns rise time. The inductance of the LTS ({approx}500nH) in large part determines the energy transfer time through the switch and there is much to be gained in improving system performance and reducing system costs by reducing this inductance. The current path through the cascade section of the ZR LTS is at a diameter of {approx} 6-inches which is certainly not optimal from an inductance point of view. The LTS connects components of much greater diameter (typically 4-5 feet). In this LDRD the viability of switch concepts in which the diameter of cascade section is greatly increased have been investigated. The key technical question to be answered was, will the desired multi-channel behavior be maintained in a cascade section of larger diameter. This LDRD proceeded in 2 distinct phases. The original plan for the LDRD was to develop a promising switch concept and then design, build, and test a moderate scale switch which would demonstrate the key features of the concept. In phase I, a switch concept which meet all electrical design criteria and had a calculated inductance of 150 nH was developed. A 1.5 MV test switch was designed and fabrication was initiated. The LDRD was then redirected due to budgetary concerns. The fabrication of the switch was halted and the focus of the LDRD was shifted to small scale experiments designed to answer the key technical question concerning multi-channel behavior. In phase II, the Multi-channel switch test bed (MCST) was designed and constructed. The purpose of MCST was to provide a versatile, fast turn around facility for the study the multi-channel electrical breakdown behavior of a ZR type cascade switch gap in a parameter space near that of a ZR LTS. Parameter scans on source impedance, gap tilt, gap spacing and

  1. Activation of Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxins by native and recombinant adenosine diphosphate-ribosylation factors, 20-kD guanine nucleotide-binding proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Lee, C M; Chang, P P; Tsai, S C; Adamik, R; Price, S R; Kunz, B C; Moss, J; Twiddy, E M; Holmes, R K

    1991-01-01

    Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxins (LT) are responsible in part for "traveler's diarrhea" and related diarrheal illnesses. The family of LTs comprises two serogroups termed LT-I and LT-II; each serogroup includes two or more antigenic variants. The effects of LTs result from ADP ribosylation of Gs alpha, a stimulatory component of adenylyl cyclase; the mechanism of action is identical to that of cholera toxin (CT). The ADP-ribosyltransferase activity of CT is enhanced by 20-kD guanine nucleotide-binding proteins, known as ADP-ribosylation factors or ARFs. These proteins directly activate the CTA1 catalytic unit and stimulate its ADP ribosylation of Gs alpha, other proteins, and simple guanidino compounds (e.g., agmatine). Because of the similarities between CT and LTs, we investigated the effects of purified bovine brain ARF and a recombinant form of bovine ARF synthesized in Escherichia coli on LT activity. ARF enhanced the LT-I-, LT-IIa-, and LT-IIb-catalyzed ADP ribosylation of agmatine, as well as the auto-ADP ribosylation of the toxin catalytic unit. Stimulation of ADP-ribosylagmatine formation by LTs and CT in the presence of ARF was GTP dependent and enhanced by sodium dodecyl sulfate. With agmatine as substrate, LT-IIa and LT-IIb exhibited less than 1% the activity of CT and LT-Ih. CT and LTs catalyzed ADP-ribosyl-Gs alpha formation in a reaction dependent on ARF, GTP, and dimyristoyl phosphatidylcholine/cholate. With Gs alpha as substrate, the ADP-ribosyltransferase activities of the toxins were similar, although CT and LT-Ih appeared to be slightly more active than LT-IIa and LT-IIb. Thus, LT-IIa and LT-IIb appear to differ somewhat from CT and LT-Ih in substrate specificity. Responsiveness to stimulation by ARF, GTP, and phospholipid/detergent as well as the specificity of ADP-ribosyltransferase activity are functions of LTs from serogroups LT-I and LT-II that are shared with CT. Images PMID:1902492

  2. Defining Science and Technology (S&T) Needs for Long-Term Stewardship of U.S. Department of Energy Sites and Development of an S&T Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Mayes, Roger Allen; Kostelnik, Kevin Michael; Kearns, Paul Kenneth; Nitschke, Robert Leon; Melton, William James

    2001-09-01

    A definition of Long-Term Stewardship (LTS) is: "all activities required to protect human health and the environment from hazards remaining after cleanup is complete". "Cleanup" in this sense may mean completion of a prescribed remedy for contaminated soil or buried waste, or it could mean entombment of a nuclear facility or placing nuclear materials in safe, long-term storage. Among the activities included in this definition are long-term monitoring and surveillance, maintenance of engineered barriers, operation and maintenance of long-term remedies (such as groundwater pump and treat operations), institutional controls (e.g., deed restrictions, land use restrictions, permanent markers, etc.), and information management (including intergenerational transfer of data on residual hazards). The magnitude of the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) LTS commitments, in terms of scope, cost, and time, is beginning to be better understood.

  3. Liver Transplantation in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Bittencourt, Paulo Lisboa; Farias, Alberto Queiroz; Couto, Claudia Alves

    2016-09-01

    Over 1700 liver transplantations (LTs) are performed annually in Brazil. In absolute terms, the country performs more LT surgeries than anywhere else in Latin America and is third worldwide. However, due to its increasing population and inadequate donor organ supply, the country averages 5-10 LTs per million population, far lower than required. There is a marked heterogeneity in organ donation and LT activity throughout the country. Access to LT in the underprivileged North, Midwest, and Northeast regions of Brazil is scarce. Major challenges for the future of LT in Brazil will be to increase organ donation and access to LT. The reduction of those geographical disparities in donation, organ procurement, and LT due to political and financial constraints is of utmost importance. Liver Transplantation 22 1254-1258 2016 AASLD. PMID:27228568

  4. Modelling and calibration technique of laser triangulation sensors for integration in robot arms and articulated arm coordinate measuring machines.

    PubMed

    Santolaria, Jorge; Guillomía, David; Cajal, Carlos; Albajez, José A; Aguilar, Juan J

    2009-01-01

    A technique for intrinsic and extrinsic calibration of a laser triangulation sensor (LTS) integrated in an articulated arm coordinate measuring machine (AACMM) is presented in this paper. After applying a novel approach to the AACMM kinematic parameter identification problem, by means of a single calibration gauge object, a one-step calibration method to obtain both intrinsic-laser plane, CCD sensor and camera geometry-and extrinsic parameters related to the AACMM main frame has been developed. This allows the integration of LTS and AACMM mathematical models without the need of additional optimization methods after the prior sensor calibration, usually done in a coordinate measuring machine (CMM) before the assembly of the sensor in the arm. The experimental tests results for accuracy and repeatability show the suitable performance of this technique, resulting in a reliable, quick and friendly calibration method for the AACMM final user. The presented method is also valid for sensor integration in robot arms and CMMs. PMID:22400001

  5. Nanoparticle analysis of cancer cells by light transmission spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Sun, N; Johnson, J; Stack, M S; Szajko, J; Sander, C; Rebuyon, R; Deatsch, A; Easton, J; Tanner, C E; Ruggiero, S T

    2015-09-01

    We have measured the optical properties of cancer and normal whole cells and lysates using light transmission spectroscopy (LTS). LTS provides both the optical extinction coefficient in the wavelength range from 220 to 1100nm and (by spectral inversion using a Mie model) the particle distribution density in the size range from 1 to 3000nm. Our current work involves whole cells and lysates of cultured human oral cells in liquid suspension. We found systematic differences in the optical extinction between cancer and normal whole cells and lysates, which translate to different particle size distributions (PSDs) for these materials. Specifically, we found that cancer cells have distinctly lower concentrations of nanoparticles with diameters less than 100nm and have higher concentrations of particles with diameters from 100 to 1000nm-results that hold for both whole cells and lysates. We also found a power-law dependence of particle density with diameter over several orders of magnitude. PMID:25981981

  6. On the Sensitivity of the Diurnal Cycle in the Amazon to Convective Intensity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Itterly, Kyle; Taylor, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    This presentation uses publicly available CERES and radiosonde data to investigate the sensitivity of thetropical convective diurnal cycle to atmosphere state. Averaging surface observations into regimes of convective intensitydefined by satellite shows great promise for physical understandingof convection.• Convective processes in the Amazon are highly variable seasonallyand locally.• Buoyancy/CIN more important JJA– Mesoscale/synoptic features easier to separate– Length/depth of buoyancy layer very important in DJF (EL).• Moisture more important DJF, esp. UTH– Humidity of lower atmosphere significantly impacts LTS, LCL and abilityfor parcels to reach LFC.• Lower level jet strength/direction important• Convective initiation correlated with LTS, LR, LTH, EL• Duration/Phase better correlated with humidity variables• Surface Flux amplitude well correlated with convection

  7. Nanoparticle Distributions in Cancer and other Cells from Light Transmission Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deatsch, Alison; Sun, Nan; Johnson, Jeffery; Stack, Sharon; Tanner, Carol; Ruggiero, Steven

    We have measured the optical properties of whole cells and lysates using light transmission spectroscopy (LTS). LTS provides both the optical extinction coefficient in the wavelength range from 220 to 1100 nm and (by spectral inversion using a Mie model) the particle distribution density in the size range from 1 to 3000 nm. Our current work involves whole cells and lysates of cultured human oral cells and other plant and animal cells. We have found systematic differences in the optical extinction between cancer and normal whole cells and lysates, which translate to different particle size distributions (PSDs) for these materials. We have also found specific power-law dependences of particle density with particle diameter for cell lysates. This suggests a universality of the packing distribution in cells that can be compared to ideal Apollonian packing, with the cell modeled as a fractal body comprised of spheres on all size scales.

  8. Extension of Alvis compiler front-end

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wypych, Michał; Szpyrka, Marcin; Matyasik, Piotr

    2015-12-01

    Alvis is a formal modelling language that enables possibility of verification of distributed concurrent systems. An Alvis model semantics finds expression in an LTS graph (labelled transition system). Execution of any language statement is expressed as a transition between formally defined states of such a model. An LTS graph is generated using a middle-stage Haskell representation of an Alvis model. Moreover, Haskell is used as a part of the Alvis language and is used to define parameters' types and operations on them. Thanks to the compiler's modular construction many aspects of compilation of an Alvis model may be modified. Providing new plugins for Alvis Compiler that support languages like Java or C makes possible using these languages as a part of Alvis instead of Haskell. The paper presents the compiler internal model and describes how the default specification language can be altered by new plugins.

  9. Low-temperature solute segregation and crack age studies. Final report. [BWR

    SciTech Connect

    Lumsden, J.B.

    1981-06-01

    This work led to a better understanding of the composition changes that occur in grain boundaries which lead to low-temperature sensitization (LTS) of type-304 stainless steel (T304SS) and explored analytic techniques for determining the age of stress corrosion cracks in components removed from BWRs. Grain boundary compositions of the weld-heat-affected zones in several LTS conditions were determined using Auger electron spectroscopy. It was found that chromium depletion and phosphorous segregation progressed with aging time until equilibrium concentrations were reached. The equilibrium phosphorous concentration increased as the sensitizing temperature was decreased. Chromium concentrations as low as 8 at% and phosphorous coverages as high as 26 at% were measured. These results suggest further investigations for determining susceptible grain boundary compositions as a function of temperature and time.

  10. Extension of Alvis compiler front-end

    SciTech Connect

    Wypych, Michał; Szpyrka, Marcin; Matyasik, Piotr E-mail: mszpyrka@agh.edu.pl

    2015-12-31

    Alvis is a formal modelling language that enables possibility of verification of distributed concurrent systems. An Alvis model semantics finds expression in an LTS graph (labelled transition system). Execution of any language statement is expressed as a transition between formally defined states of such a model. An LTS graph is generated using a middle-stage Haskell representation of an Alvis model. Moreover, Haskell is used as a part of the Alvis language and is used to define parameters’ types and operations on them. Thanks to the compiler’s modular construction many aspects of compilation of an Alvis model may be modified. Providing new plugins for Alvis Compiler that support languages like Java or C makes possible using these languages as a part of Alvis instead of Haskell. The paper presents the compiler internal model and describes how the default specification language can be altered by new plugins.

  11. Korea's activities for the development of ITER tritium storage and delivery systems

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, H.; Shim, M.; Ahn, D. H.; Lee, M.; Hong, C.; Yoshida, H.; Song, K. M.; Kim, D. J.

    2008-07-15

    The ITER fuel cycle plant is composed of various subsystems such as a long term tritium storage system (LTS), a fuel storage and delivery system (SDS), a tokamak exhaust processing system, a hydrogen isotope separation system, and a tritium plant analytical system. Korea shares in the construction of the ITER fuel cycle plant with the EU (Japan)) and US, and is responsible for the development and supply of the SDS and LTS. The authors thus present details on the development status of the tritium transport container, the long term tritium storage beds, the short-term delivery system T{sub 2}, DT, and the D{sub 2} storage beds, the calorimetry system, and the associated He-3 recovery loop, the over pressure protection systems, and the gas analysis manifold connected to the tritium plant's analytical systems. (authors)

  12. Non-invasive characterization and quality assurance of silicon micro-strip detectors using pulsed infrared laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, P.

    2016-01-01

    The Compressed Baryonic Matter (CBM) experiment at FAIR is composed of 8 tracking stations consisting of roughly 1300 double sided silicon micro-strip detectors of 3 different dimensions. For the quality assurance of prototype micro-strip detectors a non-invasive detector charaterization is developed. The test system is using a pulsed infrared laser for charge injection and characterization, called Laser Test System (LTS). The system is aimed to develop a set of characterization procedures which are non-invasive (non-destructive) in nature and could be used for quality assurances of several silicon micro-strip detectors in an efficient, reliable and reproducible way. The procedures developed (as reported here) uses the LTS to scan sensors with a pulsed infra-red laser driven by step motor to determine the charge sharing in-between strips and to measure qualitative uniformity of the sensor response over the whole active area. The prototype detector modules which are tested with the LTS so far have 1024 strips with a pitch of 58 μm on each side. They are read-out using a self-triggering prototype read-out electronic ASIC called n-XYTER. The LTS is designed to measure sensor response in an automatized procedure at several thousand positions across the sensor with focused infra-red laser light (spot size ≈ 12 μm, wavelength = 1060 nm). The pulse with a duration of ≈ 10 ns and power ≈ 5 mW of the laser pulse is selected such, that the absorption of the laser light in the 300 μm thick silicon sensor produces ≈ 24000 electrons, which is similar to the charge created by minimum ionizing particles (MIP) in these sensors. The laser scans different prototype sensors and various non-invasive techniques to determine characteristics of the detector modules for the quality assurance is reported.

  13. Genomic DNA extraction from whole blood stored from 15- to 30-years at -20 °C by rapid phenol-chloroform protocol: a useful tool for genetic epidemiology studies.

    PubMed

    Di Pietro, Fabio; Ortenzi, Francesco; Tilio, Martina; Concetti, Fabio; Napolioni, Valerio

    2011-02-01

    Long-term stored (LTS) whole blood collection can be an important source of DNA without collection costs, but there is a lack of information on methods useful to extract genomic DNA from such type of biological material. Here we report a simple and fast revisited phenol/chloroform extraction method from LTS whole blood. Protocol reliability was assessed by comparison with proteinase K and silica-gel membrane spin column-based DNA extraction methods using LTS -20 °C whole blood from 1980, and by testing it on 82 whole blood samples, collected from 1980 to 1995, with high quality (A(260/280) = 1.79 ± 0.32 O.D., A(260/230) = 1.45 ± 0.52 O.D.) and quantity results. Genotyping efficiency was also checked by performing RFLP-PCR and ASP-PCR of p53 Pro72Arg (rs1042522) SNP and hTERT MNS16A VNTR, respectively, resulting in 100% of samples successfully typed. In addition to the goodness and the efficiency of method proposed here, this protocol achieves working time reduction combining extraction and purification steps, allowing to work at room temperature. Furthermore, phenol is able to inactivate any potential nuclease and potential infective sources from the first step on. Based on these results we also conclude that LTS -20 °C whole blood samples may be considered a reliable and potential resource for future genotyping studies and retrospective analysis in a genetic epidemiological setting. PMID:21029772

  14. Generation of Java code from Alvis model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matyasik, Piotr; Szpyrka, Marcin; Wypych, Michał

    2015-12-01

    Alvis is a formal language that combines graphical modelling of interconnections between system entities (called agents) and a high level programming language to describe behaviour of any individual agent. An Alvis model can be verified formally with model checking techniques applied to the model LTS graph that represents the model state space. This paper presents transformation of an Alvis model into executable Java code. Thus, the approach provides a method of automatic generation of a Java application from formally verified Alvis model.

  15. Characterizing Forest Change Using Community-Based Monitoring Data and Landsat Time Series

    PubMed Central

    DeVries, Ben; Pratihast, Arun Kumar; Verbesselt, Jan; Kooistra, Lammert; Herold, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Increasing awareness of the issue of deforestation and degradation in the tropics has resulted in efforts to monitor forest resources in tropical countries. Advances in satellite-based remote sensing and ground-based technologies have allowed for monitoring of forests with high spatial, temporal and thematic detail. Despite these advances, there is a need to engage communities in monitoring activities and include these stakeholders in national forest monitoring systems. In this study, we analyzed activity data (deforestation and forest degradation) collected by local forest experts over a 3-year period in an Afro-montane forest area in southwestern Ethiopia and corresponding Landsat Time Series (LTS). Local expert data included forest change attributes, geo-location and photo evidence recorded using mobile phones with integrated GPS and photo capabilities. We also assembled LTS using all available data from all spectral bands and a suite of additional indices and temporal metrics based on time series trajectory analysis. We predicted deforestation, degradation or stable forests using random forest models trained with data from local experts and LTS spectral-temporal metrics as model covariates. Resulting models predicted deforestation and degradation with an out of bag (OOB) error estimate of 29% overall, and 26% and 31% for the deforestation and degradation classes, respectively. By dividing the local expert data into training and operational phases corresponding to local monitoring activities, we found that forest change models improved as more local expert data were used. Finally, we produced maps of deforestation and degradation using the most important spectral bands. The results in this study represent some of the first to combine local expert based forest change data and dense LTS, demonstrating the complementary value of both continuous data streams. Our results underpin the utility of both datasets and provide a useful foundation for integrated forest

  16. LOC283731 promoter hypermethylation prognosticates survival after radiochemotherapy in IDH1 wild-type glioblastoma patients.

    PubMed

    Mock, Andreas; Geisenberger, Christoph; Orlik, Christian; Warta, Rolf; Schwager, Christian; Jungk, Christine; Dutruel, Céline; Geiselhart, Lea; Weichenhan, Dieter; Zucknick, Manuela; Nied, Ann-Katrin; Friauf, Sara; Exner, Janina; Capper, David; Hartmann, Christian; Lahrmann, Bernd; Grabe, Niels; Debus, Jürgen; von Deimling, Andreas; Popanda, Odilia; Plass, Christoph; Unterberg, Andreas; Abdollahi, Amir; Schmezer, Peter; Herold-Mende, Christel

    2016-07-15

    MGMT promoter methylation status is currently the only established molecular prognosticator in IDH wild-type glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). Therefore, we aimed to discover novel therapy-associated epigenetic biomarkers. After enrichment for hypermethylated fractions using methyl-CpG-immunoprecipitation (MCIp), we performed global DNA methylation profiling for 14 long-term (LTS; >36 months) and 15 short-term (STS; 6-10 months) surviving GBM patients. Even after exclusion of the G-CIMP phenotype, we observed marked differences between the LTS and STS methylome. A total of 1,247 probes in 706 genes were hypermethylated in LTS and 463 probes in 305 genes were found to be hypermethylated in STS patients (p values < 0.05, log2 fold change ± 0.5). We identified 13 differentially methylated regions (DMRs) with a minimum of four differentially methylated probes per gene. Indeed, we were able to validate a subset of these DMRs through a second, independent method (MassARRAY) in our LTS/STS training set (ADCY1, GPC3, LOC283731/ISLR2). These DMRs were further assessed for their prognostic capability in an independent validation cohort (n = 62) of non-G-CIMP GBMs from the TCGA. Hypermethylation of multiple CpGs mapping to the promoter region of LOC283731 correlated with improved patient outcome (p = 0.03). The prognostic performance of LOC283731 promoter hypermethylation was confirmed in a third independent study cohort (n = 89), and was independent of gender, performance (KPS) and MGMT status (p = 0.0485, HR = 0.63). Intriguingly, the prediction was most pronounced in younger GBM patients (<60 years). In conclusion, we provide compelling evidence that promoter methylation status of this novel gene is a prognostic biomarker in IDH1 wild-type/non-G-CIMP GBMs. PMID:26934681

  17. Leukotriene production profiles and actions in the bovine endometrium during the oestrous cycle.

    PubMed

    Korzekwa, Anna J; Milewski, Robert; Łupicka, Martyna; Skarzynski, Dariusz J

    2016-04-01

    We have previously shown the influence of leukotrienes (LTs) on reproductive functions in vivo: LTB4 is luteotrophic and supports corpus luteum function inducing PGE2 and progesterone (P4) secretion, whereas LTC4 is luteolytic and stimulates PGF2α secretion in cattle. The aim of this study was to examine expression and production profiles of LTs and their actions in the endometrium. LT receptors (LTB4R for LTB4 and CysLTR2 for LTC4), 5-lipoxygenase (LO), 12-LO synthase (LTCS) and LTA4 hydrolase (LTAH) mRNA and protein expression, as well as LT production were measured in bovine endometrial tissue during the luteal phases of the oestrous cycle. The action of LTs on uterine function was studied by measuring the level of PGs after stimulating uterine slices with LTs on Days 8-10 of the cycle. Expression of 5-LO and LTB4R mRNA and protein were highest on Days 2-4 of the cycle, while CysLTR2 and LTCS were highest on Days 16-18 (P<0.05). LTB4 concentration was highest on Days 2-4 of the cycle, whereas the greatest LTC4 level was on Days 16-18 (P<0.05). Both LTB4 and C4 increased the content of PGE2 and F2α in endometrial slices at a dose of 10(-7)M (P<0.05). In summary, mRNA expression and activation of receptors for LTB4 and production occur in the first part of the cycle, whereas LTC4 and its receptors predominate at the end of the cycle. The 12-LO and 5-LO pathways are complementary routes of LT production in the bovine uterus. PMID:25483008

  18. Cold Mass Issues in the MICE Coupling Magnet

    SciTech Connect

    Green, Michael A.

    2011-01-19

    I have identified two potential issues in the design of the attachments to the MICE coupling magnet cold mass. One of these attachment issues may extend into the cold mass. Both issues came to light during the analysis of what happened to the spectrometer solenoids. We must not make the same mistakes that were made on the spectrometer solenoids. The two questions that result from the identified issues are; 1) Are the superconducting low temperature superconducting leads between the coupling coil and the lower end of the high temperature superconducting (LTS) leads robust enough not quench and burn out? In the spectrometer solenoid one part of the LTS lead was not robust enough to prevent quenching and a burn out of the LTS lead and ; 2) Will there be problems with the quench protection resistors and diodes when the magnet quenches as a result of an HTS lead burning out or a disconnect of the magnet from its power supply? The second question is very important because the coupling coil has a large stored energy and inductance. As result, when current flows through the diodes and the resistors, both can be over heated. We observed resistor overheating in spectrometer magnet 2. This heating probably happened when the HTS lead the LTS lead burned out during the tests of magnet 2A and 2B respectively. (See MICE Note 324.) The answer to the first question is simple and straightforward. This is the issue that is primarily dealt with in MICE Note 324. If the resistance across the coil sub-divisions is high enough, the whole magnet will turn normal through quench-back. Making the resistance across a coil sub-division high enough is not simple.

  19. Characterizing Forest Change Using Community-Based Monitoring Data and Landsat Time Series.

    PubMed

    DeVries, Ben; Pratihast, Arun Kumar; Verbesselt, Jan; Kooistra, Lammert; Herold, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Increasing awareness of the issue of deforestation and degradation in the tropics has resulted in efforts to monitor forest resources in tropical countries. Advances in satellite-based remote sensing and ground-based technologies have allowed for monitoring of forests with high spatial, temporal and thematic detail. Despite these advances, there is a need to engage communities in monitoring activities and include these stakeholders in national forest monitoring systems. In this study, we analyzed activity data (deforestation and forest degradation) collected by local forest experts over a 3-year period in an Afro-montane forest area in southwestern Ethiopia and corresponding Landsat Time Series (LTS). Local expert data included forest change attributes, geo-location and photo evidence recorded using mobile phones with integrated GPS and photo capabilities. We also assembled LTS using all available data from all spectral bands and a suite of additional indices and temporal metrics based on time series trajectory analysis. We predicted deforestation, degradation or stable forests using random forest models trained with data from local experts and LTS spectral-temporal metrics as model covariates. Resulting models predicted deforestation and degradation with an out of bag (OOB) error estimate of 29% overall, and 26% and 31% for the deforestation and degradation classes, respectively. By dividing the local expert data into training and operational phases corresponding to local monitoring activities, we found that forest change models improved as more local expert data were used. Finally, we produced maps of deforestation and degradation using the most important spectral bands. The results in this study represent some of the first to combine local expert based forest change data and dense LTS, demonstrating the complementary value of both continuous data streams. Our results underpin the utility of both datasets and provide a useful foundation for integrated forest

  20. Studies of Austfonna Ice Cap (Svalbard) Using Radar Altimetry in Andother Satellite Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kouraev, A. V.; Legresy, B.; Remy, F.

    2006-07-01

    We presen t resu lts of application of radar altimetry and other satellite techniqu es for studies of th e Austfonna ice cap (Svalbard). We assess spatial and temporal d ata availab ility over Austfonna. Th en we d iscuss temporal variab ility of ENVISA T altimetr ic and radio metric measures. We also discuss potential of combination of altimetry and Dig ital Elev ation Models (D EM) for DEM improvement and interpretation of altimeter measurements.

  1. Geographic Information System Tools for Management of US DOE Sites - 13489

    SciTech Connect

    Carpenter, Cliff; Pilz, Elaine; Pawel, Steve

    2013-07-01

    The DOE Office of Legacy Management (LM) uses a variety of GIS tools to support long-term surveillance and maintenance (LTS and M) activities at DOE closure sites. These geo-spatial applications provide access to data both for external public viewing and for internal analysis and decision making. LM uses a custom geo-spatial application called geo-spatial Environmental Mapping System (GEMS) that draws validated information from a database of 4.6 million analytical results and 232,000 water level measurements for 58 LTS and M sites. These data were collected from transferred sites over a period of 40 years. The database is used to capture and store historical environmental information such as analytical chemistry data, groundwater depths and elevations, well logs, well construction data, geo-referenced boundaries, site physical features, and sampling locations from LTS and M sites. Stakeholders, regulators, and project personnel can use this Web-based application and data to display information in several forms, such as a tabular report, a graph, and a geo-spatial display, or the data can be labeled or highlighted in a map view. Institutional controls, with their LTS and M requirements and documentation, have recently been incorporated into a prototype GEMS Web page for the Weldon Spring, Missouri, Site. LM uses multiple internal GIS viewers to help ensure the future protection of human health and the environment. For example, at the Rocky Flats, Colorado, Site, LM uses a GIS application to display real property interests on authoritative maps. Another project is used to facilitate discussions at stakeholder meetings for the Rocky Flats site's Original Landfill. The Uranium Leasing Program uses multiple interactive maps that assist in ongoing monitoring and the oversight of lease-holders' activities. (authors)

  2. Eicosanoids in Exhaled Breath Condensate and Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid of Patients with Primary Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ciebiada, Maciej; Górski, Paweł; Antczak, Adam

    2012-01-01

    Although eicosanoids are involved in lung carcinogenesis they were poorly investigated in exhaled breath condensate (EBC) and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALf) in patients with primary lung cancer. In this study 17 patients with diagnosed non-small cell lung cancer, 10 healthy smokers and 12 healthy nonsmokers were included. The levels of cys-LTs, 8-isoprostane, LTB4 and PGE2 were measured before any treatment in the EBC of all patients and in BALf of patients with lung cancer by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. 8-isoprostane, LTB4, cys-LTs and PGE2 were detectable in the EBC and BALf. There were no significant differences between healthy smokers and nonsmokers in concentrations of all measured mediators. Compared with both healthy controls, patients with diagnosed lung cancer displayed higher concentrations of cys-LTs (p < 0.05) and LTB4 (p < 0.05) in EBC. In patients with lung cancer, the mean concentrations of all measured mediators were significantly higher in BALf compared with EBC and there was a significant, positive correlation between concentration of cys-LTs, LTB4 and 8-isoprostane in BALf and their concentrations in the EBC (r = 0.64, p < 0.05, r = 0.59, p < 0.05, r = 0.53, p < 0.05 respectively). Since cys-LT, LTB4 and 8-isoprostane concentrations in EBC from patients with lung cancer reflect their concentrations in BALf, they may serve as a possible non-invasive method to monitor the disease and to assess the effectiveness of therapy. PMID:22674413

  3. Antileukotrienes in upper airway inflammatory diseases.

    PubMed

    Cingi, Cemal; Muluk, Nuray Bayar; Ipci, Kagan; Şahin, Ethem

    2015-11-01

    Leukotrienes (LTs) are a family of inflammatory mediators including LTA4, LTB4, LTC4, LTD4, and LTE4. By competitive binding to the cysteinyl LT1 (CysLT1) receptor, LT receptor antagonist drugs, such as montelukast, zafirlukast, and pranlukast, block the effects of CysLTs, improving the symptoms of some chronic respiratory diseases, particularly bronchial asthma and allergic rhinitis. We reviewed the efficacy of antileukotrienes in upper airway inflammatory diseases. An update on the use of antileukotrienes in upper airway diseases in children and adults is presented with a detailed literature survey. Data on LTs, antileukotrienes, and antileukotrienes in chronic rhinosinusitis and nasal polyps, asthma, and allergic rhinitis are presented. Antileukotriene drugs are classified into two groups: CysLT receptor antagonists (zafirlukast, pranlukast, and montelukast) and LT synthesis inhibitors (5-lipoxygenase inhibitors such as zileuton, ZD2138, Bay X 1005, and MK-0591). CysLTs have important proinflammatory and profibrotic effects that contribute to the extensive hyperplastic rhinosinusitis and nasal polyposis (NP) that characterise these disorders. Patients who receive zafirlukast or zileuton tend to show objective improvements in, or at least stabilisation of, NP. Montelukast treatment may lead to clinical subjective improvement in NP. Montelukast treatment after sinus surgery can lead to a significant reduction in eosinophilic cationic protein levels in serum, with a beneficial effect on nasal and pulmonary symptoms and less impact in NP. Combined inhaled corticosteroids and long-acting β-agonists treatments are most effective for preventing exacerbations among paediatric asthma patients. Treatments with medium- or high-dose inhaled corticosteroids, combined inhaled corticosteroids and LT receptor antagonists, and low-dose inhaled corticosteroids have been reported to be equally effective. Antileukotrienes have also been reported to be effective for allergic

  4. miR-340 predicts glioblastoma survival and modulates key cancer hallmarks through down-regulation of NRAS.

    PubMed

    Fiore, Danilo; Donnarumma, Elvira; Roscigno, Giuseppina; Iaboni, Margherita; Russo, Valentina; Affinito, Alessandra; Adamo, Assunta; De Martino, Fabio; Quintavalle, Cristina; Romano, Giulia; Greco, Adelaide; Soini, Ylermi; Brunetti, Arturo; Croce, Carlo M; Condorelli, Gerolama

    2016-04-12

    Glioblastoma is the most common primary brain tumor in adults; with a survival rate of 12 months from diagnosis. However, a small subgroup of patients, termed long-term survivors (LTS), has a survival rate longer then 12-14 months. There is thus increasing interest in the identification of molecular signatures predicting glioblastoma prognosis and in how to improve the therapeutic approach. Here, we report miR-340 as prognostic tumor-suppressor microRNA for glioblastoma. We analyzed microRNA expression in > 500 glioblastoma patients and found that although miR-340 is strongly down-regulated in glioblastoma overall, it is up-regulated in LTS patients compared to short-term survivors (STS). Indeed, miR-340 expression predicted better prognosis in glioblastoma patients. Coherently, overexpression of miR-340 in glioblastoma cells was found to produce a tumor-suppressive activity. We identified NRAS mRNA as a critical, direct target of miR-340: in fact, miR-340 negatively influenced multiple aspects of glioblastoma tumorigenesis by down-regulating NRAS and downstream AKT and ERK pathways. Thus, we demonstrate that expression of miR-340 in glioblastoma is responsible for a strong tumor-suppressive effect in LTS patients by down-regulating NRAS. miR-340 may thus represent a novel marker for glioblastoma diagnosis and prognosis, and may be developed into a tool to improve treatment of glioblastoma. PMID:26799668

  5. Cavity Enhanced Thomson Scattering for Low Temperature Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yalin, Azer; Friss, Adam; Lee, Brian; Franka, Isaiah

    2013-09-01

    This contribution describes the design, simulation, and initial experimental development of a novel laser Thomson scattering (LTS) system for measurement of weakly-ionized low temperature plasmas. The LTS approach uses a high power intra-cavity beam of power ~10-100 kW to provide increased scattered photon counts and sensitivity as compared to conventional LTS experiments that use light sources with orders of magnitude lower average power. The high power intra-cavity beam is generated by locking a narrow linewidth source laser to a high-finesse optical cavity via Pound-Drever-Hall locking. The plasma (to be studied) is housed with the high-finesse optical cavity. The high-power source is combined with a detection system comprised of a high-suppression triple monochromator and a low-noise photomultiplier tube used in photon counting mode. We present simulations of signal strengths and scattering spectra including elastic scatter background, detector dark counts, and random (counting) noise contributions. Expected experimental performance is assessed from fits to the simulated data. The number density and electron temperature of a 1010 cm-3 plasma should be accurately measurable with standard deviation of <5% in a measurement time of 5 minutes per wavelength channel. We also present experimental development including characterization of laser locking, and initial Rayleigh and Raman signals which will be used to calibrate the Thomson system.

  6. Alleviation of low temperature sweetening in potato by expressing Arabidopsis pyruvate decarboxylase gene and stress-inducible rd29A : A preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Pinhero, Reena; Pazhekattu, Rinu; Marangoni, Alejandro G; Liu, Qiang; Yada, Rickey Y

    2011-04-01

    The acceptability of potatoes for processing chips and French fries is largely dependent on the color of the finished product. Most potato cultivars and varieties stored at temperatures below 9-10 °C are subjected to low temperature sweetening (LTS) which result in the production of bitter-tasting, dark colored chips and French fries which are unacceptable to consumers. However, storing tubers at low temperatures (i.e., <10 °C) has many advantages such as lowered weight loss during storage, natural control of sprouting, and reduction/elimination of chemical sprout inhibitors. Our earlier research results on LTS suggested a role for pyruvate decarboxylase (PDC) in LTS-tolerance. In the present study, the role of PDC was examined whereby the potato variety Snowden was transformed with Arabidopsis cold-inducible pyruvate decarboxylase gene 1 (AtPDC1) under the control of promoter rd29A. Two transgenic plants were selected and storage studies were conducted on tubers harvested from one of the transgenic lines grown under green house conditions. Transgenic tubers showed higher Agtron chip color score indicating lighter chip and lower reducing sugar and sucrose concentrations compared to the untransformed tubers during the storage periods studied at 12 °C and 5 °C. These results suggest that overexpression of pyruvate decarboxylase gene resulted in low temperature sweetening tolerance in the transgenic Snowden. PMID:23573000

  7. The ultrastructure of a Chlamydomonas reinhardtii mutant strain lacking phytoene synthase resembles that of a colorless alga.

    PubMed

    Inwood, William; Yoshihara, Corinne; Zalpuri, Reena; Kim, Kwang-Seo; Kustu, Sydney

    2008-11-01

    Chlamydomonas reinhardtii strains lacking phytoene synthase, the first enzyme of carotenoid biosynthesis, are white. They lack carotenoid pigments, have very low levels of chlorophyll, and can grow only heterotrophically in the dark. Our electron and fluorescence microscopic studies showed that such a mutant strain (lts1-204) had a proliferated plastid envelope membrane but no stacks of thylakoid membranes within the plastid. It accumulated cytoplasmic compartments that appeared to be autophagous vacuoles filled with membranous material. The lts1 mutants apparently lacked pyrenoid bodies, which normally house ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase-oxygenase (Rubisco), and accumulated many starch granules. Although these mutant strains cannot synthesize the carotenoid and carotenoid-derived pigments present in the phototactic organelle (eyespot), the mutant we examined made a vestigial eyespot that was disorganized and often mislocalized to the posterior end of the cell. The absence of a pyrenoid body, the accumulation of starch, and the disorganization of the eyespot may all result from the absence of thylakoids. The ultrastructure of lts1 mutant strains is similar to but distinct from that of previously described white and yellow mutant strains of C. reinhardtii and is similar to that of naturally colorless algae of the Polytoma group. PMID:19825593

  8. Development of a Thrust Stand to Meet LISA Mission Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willis, William D., III; Zakrzwski, Charles M.; Merkowitz, Stephen M.

    2002-01-01

    A thrust stand has been built to measure the force-noise produced by electrostatic micro-Newton (muN) thrusters. The LISA mission's Disturbance Reduction System (DRS) requires thrusters that are capable of producing continuous thrust levels between 1-100 muN with a resolution of 0.1 muN. The stationary force-noise produced by these thrusters must not exceed 0.1 muN/dHz in the measurement bandwidth 10(exp -4) to 1 Hz. The LISA Thrust Stand (LTS) is a torsion-balance type thrust stand designed to meet the following requirements: stationary force-noise measurements from l0( -4) to 1 Hz with 0.1 muN/dHz sensitivity, absolute thrust measurements from 1-100 muN with better than 0.1 muN resolution, and dynamic thruster response from to 10 Hz. The LTS employs a unique vertical configuration, autocollimator for angular position measurements, and electrostatic actuators that are used for dynamic pendulum control and null-mode measurements. Force-noise levels are measured indirectly by characterizing the thrust stand as a spring-mass system. The LTS was initially designed to test the indium FEEP thruster developed by the Austrian Research Center in Seibersdorf (ARCS), but can be modified for testing other thrusters of this type.

  9. Computational modeling of distinct neocortical oscillations driven by cell-type selective optogenetic drive: separable resonant circuits controlled by low-threshold spiking and fast-spiking interneurons.

    PubMed

    Vierling-Claassen, Dorea; Cardin, Jessica A; Moore, Christopher I; Jones, Stephanie R

    2010-01-01

    Selective optogenetic drive of fast-spiking (FS) interneurons (INs) leads to enhanced local field potential (LFP) power across the traditional "gamma" frequency band (20-80 Hz; Cardin et al., 2009). In contrast, drive to regular-spiking (RS) pyramidal cells enhances power at lower frequencies, with a peak at 8 Hz. The first result is consistent with previous computational studies emphasizing the role of FS and the time constant of GABA(A) synaptic inhibition in gamma rhythmicity. However, the same theoretical models do not typically predict low-frequency LFP enhancement with RS drive. To develop hypotheses as to how the same network can support these contrasting behaviors, we constructed a biophysically principled network model of primary somatosensory neocortex containing FS, RS, and low-threshold spiking (LTS) INs. Cells were modeled with detailed cell anatomy and physiology, multiple dendritic compartments, and included active somatic and dendritic ionic currents. Consistent with prior studies, the model demonstrated gamma resonance during FS drive, dependent on the time constant of GABA(A) inhibition induced by synchronous FS activity. Lower-frequency enhancement during RS drive was replicated only on inclusion of an inhibitory LTS population, whose activation was critically dependent on RS synchrony and evoked longer-lasting inhibition. Our results predict that differential recruitment of FS and LTS inhibitory populations is essential to the observed cortical dynamics and may provide a means for amplifying the natural expression of distinct oscillations in normal cortical processing. PMID:21152338

  10. Computational Modeling of Distinct Neocortical Oscillations Driven by Cell-Type Selective Optogenetic Drive: Separable Resonant Circuits Controlled by Low-Threshold Spiking and Fast-Spiking Interneurons

    PubMed Central

    Vierling-Claassen, Dorea; Cardin, Jessica A.; Moore, Christopher I.; Jones, Stephanie R.

    2010-01-01

    Selective optogenetic drive of fast-spiking (FS) interneurons (INs) leads to enhanced local field potential (LFP) power across the traditional “gamma” frequency band (20–80 Hz; Cardin et al., 2009). In contrast, drive to regular-spiking (RS) pyramidal cells enhances power at lower frequencies, with a peak at 8 Hz. The first result is consistent with previous computational studies emphasizing the role of FS and the time constant of GABAA synaptic inhibition in gamma rhythmicity. However, the same theoretical models do not typically predict low-frequency LFP enhancement with RS drive. To develop hypotheses as to how the same network can support these contrasting behaviors, we constructed a biophysically principled network model of primary somatosensory neocortex containing FS, RS, and low-threshold spiking (LTS) INs. Cells were modeled with detailed cell anatomy and physiology, multiple dendritic compartments, and included active somatic and dendritic ionic currents. Consistent with prior studies, the model demonstrated gamma resonance during FS drive, dependent on the time constant of GABAA inhibition induced by synchronous FS activity. Lower-frequency enhancement during RS drive was replicated only on inclusion of an inhibitory LTS population, whose activation was critically dependent on RS synchrony and evoked longer-lasting inhibition. Our results predict that differential recruitment of FS and LTS inhibitory populations is essential to the observed cortical dynamics and may provide a means for amplifying the natural expression of distinct oscillations in normal cortical processing. PMID:21152338

  11. Strategic Program Planning Lessons Learned In Developing The Long-Term Stewardship Science and Technology Roadmap

    SciTech Connect

    Dixon, B.W.; Hanson, D.J.; Matthern, G.E.

    2003-04-24

    Technology roadmapping is a strategic planning method used by companies to identify and plan the development of technologies necessary for new products. The U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Environmental Management has used this same method to refine requirements and identify knowledge and tools needed for completion of defined missions. This paper describes the process of applying roadmapping to clarify mission requirements and identify enhancing technologies for the Long-Term Stewardship (LTS) of polluted sites after site cleanup has been completed. The nature of some contamination problems is such that full cleanup is not achievable with current technologies and some residual hazards remain. LTS maintains engineered contaminant barriers and land use restriction controls, and monitors residual contaminants until they no longer pose a risk to the public or the environment. Roadmapping was used to clarify the breadth of the LTS mission, to identify capability enhancements needed to improve mission effectiveness and efficiency, and to chart out the research and development efforts to provide those enhancements. This paper is a case study of the application of roadmapping for program planning and technical risk management. Differences between the planned and actual application of the roadmapping process are presented along with lessons learned. Both the process used and lessons learned should be of interest for anyone contemplating a similar technology based planning effort.

  12. Cysteinyl Leukotriene Receptor-1 Antagonists as Modulators of Innate Immune Cell Function

    PubMed Central

    Theron, A. J.; Steel, H. C.; Tintinger, G. R.; Gravett, C. M.; Anderson, R.; Feldman, C.

    2014-01-01

    Cysteinyl leukotrienes (cysLTs) are produced predominantly by cells of the innate immune system, especially basophils, eosinophils, mast cells, and monocytes/macrophages. Notwithstanding potent bronchoconstrictor activity, cysLTs are also proinflammatory consequent to their autocrine and paracrine interactions with G-protein-coupled receptors expressed not only on the aforementioned cell types, but also on Th2 lymphocytes, as well as structural cells, and to a lesser extent neutrophils and CD8+ cells. Recognition of the involvement of cysLTs in the immunopathogenesis of various types of acute and chronic inflammatory disorders, especially bronchial asthma, prompted the development of selective cysLT receptor-1 (cysLTR1) antagonists, specifically montelukast, pranlukast, and zafirlukast. More recently these agents have also been reported to possess secondary anti-inflammatory activities, distinct from cysLTR1 antagonism, which appear to be particularly effective in targeting neutrophils and monocytes/macrophages. Underlying mechanisms include interference with cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases, 5′-lipoxygenase, and the proinflammatory transcription factor, nuclear factor kappa B. These and other secondary anti-inflammatory mechanisms of the commonly used cysLTR1 antagonists are the major focus of the current review, which also includes a comparison of the anti-inflammatory effects of montelukast, pranlukast, and zafirlukast on human neutrophils in vitro, as well as an overview of both the current clinical applications of these agents and potential future applications based on preclinical and early clinical studies. PMID:24971371

  13. Developing a national strategy to prevent dementia: Leon Thal Symposium 2009

    PubMed Central

    Khachaturian, Zaven S.; Barnes, Deborah; Einstein, Richard; Johnson, Sterling; Lee, Virginia; Roses, Allen; Sager, Mark A.; Shankle, William R.; Snyder, Peter J.; Petersen, Ronald C.; Schellenberg, Gerard; Trojanowski, John; Aisen, Paul; Albert, Marilyn S.; Breitner, John C. S.; Buckholtz, Neil; Carrillo, Maria; Ferris, Steven; Greenberg, Barry D.; Grundman, Michael; Khachaturian, Ara S.; Kuller, Lewis H.; Lopez, Oscar L.; Maruff, Paul; Mohs, Richard C.; Morrison-Bogorad, Marcelle; Phelps, Creighton; Reiman, Eric; Sabbagh, Marwan; Sano, Mary; Schneider, Lon S.; Siemers, Eric; Tariot, Pierre; Touchon, Jacques; Vellas, Bruno; Bain, Lisa J.

    2015-01-01

    Among the major impediments to the design of clinical trials for the prevention of Alzheimer's disease (AD), the most critical is the lack of validated biomarkers, assessment tools, and algorithms that would facilitate identification of asymptomatic individuals with elevated risk who might be recruited as study volunteers. Thus, the Leon Thal Symposium 2009 (LTS'09), on October 27–28, 2009 in Las Vegas, Nevada, was convened to explore strategies to surmount the barriers in designing a multisite, comparative study to evaluate and validate various approaches for detecting and selecting asymptomatic people at risk for cognitive disorders/dementia. The deliberations of LTS'09 included presentations and reviews of different approaches (algorithms, biomarkers, or measures) for identifying asymptomatic individuals at elevated risk for AD who would be candidates for longitudinal or prevention studies. The key nested recommendations of LTS'09 included: (1) establishment of a National Database for Longitudinal Studies as a shared research core resource; (2) launch of a large collaborative study that will compare multiple screening approaches and biomarkers to determine the best method for identifying asymptomatic people at risk for AD; (3) initiation of a Global Database that extends the concept of the National Database for Longitudinal Studies for longitudinal studies beyond the United States; and (4) development of an educational campaign that will address public misconceptions about AD and promote healthy brain aging. PMID:20298968

  14. Application of maximum likelihood methods to laser Thomson scattering measurements of low density plasmas.

    PubMed

    Washeleski, Robert L; Meyer, Edmond J; King, Lyon B

    2013-10-01

    Laser Thomson scattering (LTS) is an established plasma diagnostic technique that has seen recent application to low density plasmas. It is difficult to perform LTS measurements when the scattered signal is weak as a result of low electron number density, poor optical access to the plasma, or both. Photon counting methods are often implemented in order to perform measurements in these low signal conditions. However, photon counting measurements performed with photo-multiplier tubes are time consuming and multi-photon arrivals are incorrectly recorded. In order to overcome these shortcomings a new data analysis method based on maximum likelihood estimation was developed. The key feature of this new data processing method is the inclusion of non-arrival events in determining the scattered Thomson signal. Maximum likelihood estimation and its application to Thomson scattering at low signal levels is presented and application of the new processing method to LTS measurements performed in the plume of a 2-kW Hall-effect thruster is discussed. PMID:24182157

  15. Angle and Context Free Grammar Based Precarious Node Detection and Secure Data Transmission in MANETs

    PubMed Central

    Veerasamy, Anitha; Madane, Srinivasa Rao; Sivakumar, K.; Sivaraman, Audithan

    2016-01-01

    Growing attractiveness of Mobile Ad Hoc Networks (MANETs), its features, and usage has led to the launching of threats and attacks to bring negative consequences in the society. The typical features of MANETs, especially with dynamic topology and open wireless medium, may leave MANETs vulnerable. Trust management using uncertain reasoning scheme has previously attempted to solve this problem. However, it produces additional overhead while securing the network. Hence, a Location and Trust-based secure communication scheme (L&TS) is proposed to overcome this limitation. Since the design securing requires more than two data algorithms, the cost of the system goes up. Another mechanism proposed in this paper, Angle and Context Free Grammar (ACFG) based precarious node elimination and secure communication in MANETs, intends to secure data transmission and detect precarious nodes in a MANET at a comparatively lower cost. The Elliptic Curve function is used to isolate a malicious node, thereby incorporating secure data transfer. Simulation results show that the dynamic estimation of the metrics improves throughput by 26% in L&TS when compared to the TMUR. ACFG achieves 33% and 51% throughput increase when compared to L&TS and TMUR mechanisms, respectively. PMID:26881268

  16. Discordance in lymphoid tissue recovery following stem cell transplantation in rhesus macaques: an in vivo imaging study.

    PubMed

    Donahue, Robert E; Srinivasula, Sharat; Uchida, Naoya; Kim, Insook; St Claire, Alexis; Duralde, Gorka; DeGrange, Paula; St Claire, Marisa; Reba, Richard C; Bonifacino, Aylin C; Krouse, Allen E; Metzger, Mark E; Paik, Chang H; Lane, H Clifford; Tisdale, John F; Di Mascio, Michele

    2015-12-10

    Ionizing irradiation is used routinely to induce myeloablation and immunosuppression. However, it has not been possible to evaluate the extent of ablation without invasive biopsy. For lymphoid recovery, peripheral blood (PB) lymphocytes (PBLs) have been used for analysis, but they represent <2% of cells in lymphoid tissues (LTs). Using a combination of single-photon emission computed tomography imaging and a radiotracer ((99m)Tc-labeled rhesus immunoglobulin G1 anti-CD4R1 (Fab')2), we sequentially imaged CD4(+) cell recovery in rhesus macaques following total body irradiation (TBI) and reinfusion of vector-transduced, autologous CD34(+) cells. Our results present for the first time a sequential, real-time, noninvasive method to evaluate CD4(+) cell recovery. Importantly, despite myeloablation of circulating leukocytes following TBI, total depletion of CD4(+) lymphocytes in LTs such as the spleen is not achieved. The impact of TBI on LTs and PBLs is discordant, in which as few as 32.4% of CD4(+) cells were depleted from the spleen. In addition, despite full lymphocyte recovery in the spleen and PB, lymph nodes have suboptimal recovery. This highlights concerns about residual disease, endogenous contributions to recovery, and residual LT damage following ionizing irradiation. Such methodologies also have direct application to immunosuppressive therapy and other immunosuppressive disorders, such as those associated with viral monitoring. PMID:26492933

  17. Eyespot-dependent determination of the phototactic sign in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    PubMed

    Ueki, Noriko; Ide, Takahiro; Mochiji, Shota; Kobayashi, Yuki; Tokutsu, Ryutaro; Ohnishi, Norikazu; Yamaguchi, Katsushi; Shigenobu, Shuji; Tanaka, Kan; Minagawa, Jun; Hisabori, Toru; Hirono, Masafumi; Wakabayashi, Ken-Ichi

    2016-05-10

    The biflagellate green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii exhibits both positive and negative phototaxis to inhabit areas with proper light conditions. It has been shown that treatment of cells with reactive oxygen species (ROS) reagents biases the phototactic sign to positive, whereas that with ROS scavengers biases it to negative. Taking advantage of this property, we isolated a mutant, lts1-211, which displays a reduction-oxidation (redox) dependent phototactic sign opposite to that of the wild type. This mutant has a single amino acid substitution in phytoene synthase, an enzyme that functions in the carotenoid-biosynthesis pathway. The eyespot contains large amounts of carotenoids and is crucial for phototaxis. Most lts1-211 cells have no detectable eyespot and reduced carotenoid levels. Interestingly, the reversed phototactic-sign phenotype of lts1-211 is shared by other eyespot-less mutants. In addition, we directly showed that the cell body acts as a convex lens. The lens effect of the cell body condenses the light coming from the rear onto the photoreceptor in the absence of carotenoid layers, which can account for the reversed-phototactic-sign phenotype of the mutants. These results suggest that light-shielding property of the eyespot is essential for determination of phototactic sign. PMID:27122315

  18. The Influence of Humidity on Assessing Irritation Threshold of Ammonia.

    PubMed

    Monsé, Christian; Sucker, Kirsten; Hoffmeyer, Frank; Jettkant, Birger; Berresheim, Hans; Bünger, Jürgen; Brüning, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    A large number of occupational exposure limit values (OELs) are based on avoiding of sensory irritation of the eyes and the upper respiratory tract. In order to investigate the chemosensory effect range of a chemical, odor and sensory irritation thresholds (lateralization thresholds, LTs) can be assessed. Humidity affects olfactory function and thus influences odor thresholds; however, a similar effect has not been shown for sensory irritation thresholds. The purpose of the present study was to explore whether LTs for ammonia vapor vary depending on the water vapor content of the inspired stimulus. Eight healthy nonsmoking volunteers were simultaneously exposed to ammonia vapor through one nostril and clean air through the other and were asked to determine which nostril received the chemical. Within experimental runs, ascending ammonia concentrations (60-350 ppm) that were either dry or humidified were administered at fixed time intervals. Geometric mean LTs obtained at wet (181 ppm) or dry (172 ppm) conditions did not differ significantly (P = 0.19) and were within the range of those reported by previous studies. These results suggest that humidity is not a critical factor in determining sensory irritation thresholds for ammonia, and future studies will examine if these findings are transferable to sensory irritation thresholds for other chemicals. PMID:27379250

  19. Declining liver graft quality threatens the future of liver transplantation in the United States.

    PubMed

    Orman, Eric S; Mayorga, Maria E; Wheeler, Stephanie B; Townsley, Rachel M; Toro-Diaz, Hector H; Hayashi, Paul H; Barritt, A Sidney

    2015-08-01

    National liver transplantation (LT) volume has declined since 2006, in part because of worsening donor organ quality. Trends that degrade organ quality are expected to continue over the next 2 decades. We used the United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS) database to inform a 20-year discrete event simulation estimating LT volume from 2010 to 2030. Data to inform the model were obtained from deceased organ donors between 2000 and 2009. If donor liver utilization practices remain constant, utilization will fall from 78% to 44% by 2030, resulting in 2230 fewer LTs. If transplant centers increase their risk tolerance for marginal grafts, utilization would decrease to 48%. The institution of "opt-out" organ donation policies to increase the donor pool would still result in 1380 to 1866 fewer transplants. Ex vivo perfusion techniques that increase the use of marginal donor livers may stabilize LT volume. Otherwise, the number of LTs in the United States will decrease substantially over the next 15 years. In conclusion, the transplant community will need to accept inferior grafts and potentially worse posttransplant outcomes and/or develop new strategies for increasing organ donation and utilization in order to maintain the number of LTs at the current level. PMID:25939487

  20. Low temperature sensitization of type 304 stainless steel pipe weld heat affected zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Charles G.; Caligiuri, Robert D.; Eiselstein, Lawrence E.; Wing, Sharon S.; Cubicciotti, Daniel

    1987-08-01

    Large-diameter Type 304 stainless steel pipe weld heat-affected zone (HAZ) was investigated to determine the rate at which low temperature sensitization (LTS) can occur in weld HAZ at nuclear reactor operating temperatures and to determine the effects of LTS on the initiation and propagation of intergranular stress corrosion cracks (IGSCC). The level of sensitization was determined with the electrochemical potentiokinetic reactivation (EPR) test, and IGSCC susceptibility was determined with constant extension rate tests (CERT) and actively loaded compact tension (CT) tests. Substructural changes and carbide compositions were analyzed by electron microscopy. Weld HAZ was found to be susceptible to IGSCC in the as-welded condition for tests conducted in 8-ppm-oxygen, high-purity water at 288 °C. For low oxygen environments ( i.e., 288 °C/0.2 ppm O2 or 180 °C/1.0 ppm O2), IGSCC susceptibility was detected only in weld HAZ that had been sensitized at temperatures from 385 °C to 500 °C. Lower temperature heat treatments did not produce IGSCC. The microscopy studies indicate that the lack of IGSCC susceptibility from LTS heat treatments below 385 °C is a result of the low chromium-to-iron ratio in the carbide particles formed at grain boundaries. Without chromium enrichment of carbides, no chromium depleted zone is produced to enhance IGSCC susceptibility.

  1. Laser Truss Sensor for Segmented Telescope Phasing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Duncan T.; Lay, Oliver P.; Azizi, Alireza; Erlig, Herman; Dorsky, Leonard I.; Asbury, Cheryl G.; Zhao, Feng

    2011-01-01

    A paper describes the laser truss sensor (LTS) for detecting piston motion between two adjacent telescope segment edges. LTS is formed by two point-to-point laser metrology gauges in a crossed geometry. A high-resolution (<30 nm) LTS can be implemented with existing laser metrology gauges. The distance change between the reference plane and the target plane is measured as a function of the phase change between the reference and target beams. To ease the bandwidth requirements for phase detection electronics (or phase meter), homodyne or heterodyne detection techniques have been used. The phase of the target beam also changes with the refractive index of air, which changes with the air pressure, temperature, and humidity. This error can be minimized by enclosing the metrology beams in baffles. For longer-term (weeks) tracking at the micron level accuracy, the same gauge can be operated in the absolute metrology mode with an accuracy of microns; to implement absolute metrology, two laser frequencies will be used on the same gauge. Absolute metrology using heterodyne laser gauges is a demonstrated technology. Complexity of laser source fiber distribution can be optimized using the range-gated metrology (RGM) approach.

  2. Application of maximum likelihood methods to laser Thomson scattering measurements of low density plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Washeleski, Robert L.; Meyer, Edmond J.; King, Lyon B.

    2013-10-01

    Laser Thomson scattering (LTS) is an established plasma diagnostic technique that has seen recent application to low density plasmas. It is difficult to perform LTS measurements when the scattered signal is weak as a result of low electron number density, poor optical access to the plasma, or both. Photon counting methods are often implemented in order to perform measurements in these low signal conditions. However, photon counting measurements performed with photo-multiplier tubes are time consuming and multi-photon arrivals are incorrectly recorded. In order to overcome these shortcomings a new data analysis method based on maximum likelihood estimation was developed. The key feature of this new data processing method is the inclusion of non-arrival events in determining the scattered Thomson signal. Maximum likelihood estimation and its application to Thomson scattering at low signal levels is presented and application of the new processing method to LTS measurements performed in the plume of a 2-kW Hall-effect thruster is discussed.

  3. Rapid molecular detection of invasive species in ballast and harbor water by integrating environmental DNA and light transmission spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Egan, Scott P; Grey, Erin; Olds, Brett; Feder, Jeffery L; Ruggiero, Steven T; Tanner, Carol E; Lodge, David M

    2015-04-01

    Invasive species introduced via the ballast water of commercial ships cause enormous environmental and economic damage worldwide. Accurate monitoring for these often microscopic and morphologically indistinguishable species is challenging but critical for mitigating damages. We apply eDNA sampling, which involves the filtering and subsequent DNA extraction of microscopic bits of tissue suspended in water, to ballast and harbor water sampled during a commercial ship's 1400 km voyage through the North American Great Lakes. Using a lab-based gel electrophoresis assay and a rapid, field-ready light transmission spectroscopy (LTS) assay, we test for the presence of two invasive species: quagga (Dreissena bugensis) and zebra (D. polymorpha) mussels. Furthermore, we spiked a set of uninfested ballast and harbor samples with zebra mussel tissue to further test each assay's detection capabilities. In unmanipulated samples, zebra mussel was not detected, while quagga mussel was detected in all samples at a rate of 85% for the gel assay and 100% for the LTS assay. In the spiked experimental samples, both assays detected zebra mussel in 94% of spiked samples and 0% of negative controls. Overall, these results demonstrate that eDNA sampling is effective for monitoring ballast-mediated invasions and that LTS has the potential for rapid, field-based detection. PMID:25686279

  4. Assessing Insecticide Susceptibility of Laboratory Lutzomyia longipalpis and Phlebotomus papatasi Sand Flies (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae)

    PubMed Central

    Denlinger, David S.; Lozano-Fuentes, Saul; Lawyer, Phillip G.; Black, William C.; Bernhardt, Scott A.

    2015-01-01

    Chemical insecticides are effective for controlling Lutzomyia and Phlebotomus sand fly (Diptera: Psychodidae) vectors of Leishmania parasites. However, repeated use of certain insecticides has led to tolerance and resistance. The objective of this study was to determine lethal concentrations (LCs) and lethal exposure times (LTs) to assess levels of susceptibility of laboratory Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz and Nieva) and Phlebotomus papatasi (Scopoli) to 10 insecticides using a modified version of the World Health Organization (WHO) exposure kit assay and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) bottle bioassay. Sand flies were exposed to insecticides coated on the interior of 0.5-gallon and 1,000-ml glass bottles. Following exposure, the flies were allowed to recover for 24 h, after which mortality was recorded. From dose–response survival curves for L. longipalpis and P. papatasi generated with the QCal software, LCs causing 50, 90, and 95% mortality were determined for each insecticide. The LCs and LTs from this study will be useful as baseline reference points for future studies using the CDC bottle bioassays to assess insecticide susceptibility of sand fly populations in the field. There is a need for a larger repository of sand fly insecticide susceptibility data from the CDC bottle bioassays, including a range of LCs and LTs for more sand fly species with more insecticides. Such a repository would be a valuable tool for vector management. PMID:26336231

  5. Construction of a 25-T cryogen-free superconducting magnet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, K.; Awaji, S.; Oguro, H.; Tsuchiya, Y.; Hanai, S.; Miyazaki, H.; Tosaka, T.; Takahashi, M.; Ioka, S.

    2014-12-01

    The construction of a 25-T cryogen-free superconducting magnet (25T-CSM) has started in 2013 at the High Field Laboratory for Superconducting Materials, Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University. The 25T-CSM consists of a low-T superconducting (LTS) coil and a high-Tc superconducting (HTS) coil. A high-strength CuNb/Nb3Sn Rutherford cable with the reinforcing stabilizer CuNb composite is adopted for the middle LTS section coil. The characteristic feature of the new technology using a CuNb/Nb3Sn Rutherford cable is a react-and-wind method for the coil-winding process. The LTS coil of 300-mm winding inner diameter is fabricated, and a central magnetic field of 14 T is generated at an operation current of 851 A. The HTS insert coil wound with GdBa2Cu3Oy (Gd123) tape has a 52-mm experimental room temperature bore, and a central magnetic field of 25.5 T will be generated at an operation current of 150 A in a background field of 14 T.

  6. Cell-type Specific Development of NMDA Receptors in the Interneurons of Rat Prefrontal Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Huai-Xing; Gao, Wen-Jun

    2009-01-01

    In the prefrontal cortex, N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptors are critical not only for normal prefrontal functions but also for the pathological processes of schizophrenia. Little is known, however, about the developmental properties of NMDA receptors in the functionally diverse subpopulations of interneurons. We investigated the developmental changes of NMDA receptors in rat prefrontal interneurons using patch clamp recording in cortical slices. We found that fast-spiking (FS) interneurons exhibited properties of α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) and NMDA currents distinct from those in regular spiking (RS) and low-threshold spiking (LTS) interneurons, particularly during the adolescent period. In juvenile animals, most (73%) of the FS cells demonstrated both AMPA and NMDA currents. The NMDA currents, however, gradually became undetectable during cortical development, with most (74%) of the FS cells exhibiting no NMDA current in adults. In contrast, AMPA and NMDA currents in RS and LTS interneurons were relatively stable, without significant changes from juveniles to adults. Moreover, even in FS cells with NMDA currents, the NMDA/AMPA ratio dramatically decreased during the adolescent period but returned to juvenile level in adults, compared to the relatively stable ratios in RS and LTS interneurons. These data suggest that FS interneurons in the PFC undergo dramatic changes in glutamatergic receptors during the adolescent period. These properties may make FS cells particularly sensitive and vulnerable to epigenetic stimulation, thus contributing to the onset of many psychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia. PMID:19242405

  7. Application of maximum likelihood methods to laser Thomson scattering measurements of low density plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Washeleski, Robert L.; Meyer, Edmond J. IV; King, Lyon B.

    2013-10-15

    Laser Thomson scattering (LTS) is an established plasma diagnostic technique that has seen recent application to low density plasmas. It is difficult to perform LTS measurements when the scattered signal is weak as a result of low electron number density, poor optical access to the plasma, or both. Photon counting methods are often implemented in order to perform measurements in these low signal conditions. However, photon counting measurements performed with photo-multiplier tubes are time consuming and multi-photon arrivals are incorrectly recorded. In order to overcome these shortcomings a new data analysis method based on maximum likelihood estimation was developed. The key feature of this new data processing method is the inclusion of non-arrival events in determining the scattered Thomson signal. Maximum likelihood estimation and its application to Thomson scattering at low signal levels is presented and application of the new processing method to LTS measurements performed in the plume of a 2-kW Hall-effect thruster is discussed.

  8. Thomson scattering diagnostics of atmospheric pressure plasmas - Pulsed filament discharges and plasma jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomita, Kentaro

    2015-09-01

    Recently, non-thermal atmospheric-pressure plasmas have received much attention. Because the characteristics of the plasmas are governed by free electrons, measurements of the electron density (ne) and electron temperature (Te) are a prerequisite for understanding plasma behavior. To contribute to the understanding of non-thermal atmospheric-pressure plasmas, we have been developing a laser Thomson scattering (LTS) technique as a diagnostic method for measuring ne and Te of two types of plasmas; a pulsed-filament discharge and He flow plasma jet. The pulsed filament discharge has a short current width (a few tens of ns) and a small size. In order to apply LTS to such plasmas, reproducibility of time and space of the plasmas were improved using a high-speed semiconductor switch. Spatiotemporal evolutions of ne and Te of a main discharge have been obtained. Now we try to apply LTS at a time of primary streamer. Regarding to the He flow plasma jet, the discharge was generated with He gas flow with N2/O2(20%) or N2 shielding gas. It was confirmed that the ne at the center of the plasma with N2/O2 shielding gas was around 50% higher than that with the N2 shielding gas. In collaboration with Keiichiro Urabe, The University of Tokyo; Naoki Shirai, Tokyo Metropolitan University; Safwat Hassaballa, Al-Azhar University; Nima Bolouki, Munehiro Yoneda, Takahiro Shimizu, Yuta Sato, and Kiichiro Uchino, Kyushu University.

  9. Mesh type tradeoffs in 2D hydrodynamic modeling of flooding with a Godunov-based flow solver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Byunghyun; Sanders, Brett F.; Schubert, Jochen E.; Famiglietti, James S.

    2014-06-01

    The effect of mesh type on the accuracy and computational demands of a two-dimensional Godunov-type flood inundation model is critically examined. Cartesian grids, constrained and unconstrained triangular grids, constrained quadrilateral grids, and mixed meshes are considered, with and without local time stepping (LTS), to determine the approach that maximizes computational efficiency defined as accuracy relative to computational effort. A mixed-mesh numerical scheme is introduced so all grids are processed by the same solver. Analysis focuses on a wide range of dam-break type test cases, where Godunov-type flood models have proven very successful. Results show that different mesh types excel under different circumstances. Cartesian grids are 2-3 times more efficient with relatively simple terrain features such as rectilinear channels that call for a uniform grid resolution, while unstructured grids are about twice as efficient in complex domains with irregular terrain features that call for localized refinements. The superior efficiency of locally refined, unstructured grids in complex terrain is attributable to LTS; the locally refined unstructured grid becomes less efficient using global time stepping. These results point to mesh-type tradeoffs that should be considered in flood modeling applications. A mixed mesh model formulation with LTS is recommended as a general purpose solver because the mesh type can be adapted to maximize computational efficiency.

  10. Angle and Context Free Grammar Based Precarious Node Detection and Secure Data Transmission in MANETs.

    PubMed

    Veerasamy, Anitha; Madane, Srinivasa Rao; Sivakumar, K; Sivaraman, Audithan

    2016-01-01

    Growing attractiveness of Mobile Ad Hoc Networks (MANETs), its features, and usage has led to the launching of threats and attacks to bring negative consequences in the society. The typical features of MANETs, especially with dynamic topology and open wireless medium, may leave MANETs vulnerable. Trust management using uncertain reasoning scheme has previously attempted to solve this problem. However, it produces additional overhead while securing the network. Hence, a Location and Trust-based secure communication scheme (L&TS) is proposed to overcome this limitation. Since the design securing requires more than two data algorithms, the cost of the system goes up. Another mechanism proposed in this paper, Angle and Context Free Grammar (ACFG) based precarious node elimination and secure communication in MANETs, intends to secure data transmission and detect precarious nodes in a MANET at a comparatively lower cost. The Elliptic Curve function is used to isolate a malicious node, thereby incorporating secure data transfer. Simulation results show that the dynamic estimation of the metrics improves throughput by 26% in L&TS when compared to the TMUR. ACFG achieves 33% and 51% throughput increase when compared to L&TS and TMUR mechanisms, respectively. PMID:26881268

  11. Lipoxin Inhibits Fungal Uptake by Macrophages and Reduces the Severity of Acute Pulmonary Infection Caused by Paracoccidioides brasiliensis

    PubMed Central

    Ribeiro, Laura R. R.; Loures, Flávio V.; de Araújo, Eliseu F.; Feriotti, Cláudia; Costa, Tânia A.; Serezani, Carlos Henrique; Jancar, Sonia; Calich, Vera L. G.

    2015-01-01

    Cysteinyl leukotrienes (CysLTs) and lipoxins (LXs) are lipid mediators that control inflammation, with the former inducing and the latter inhibiting this process. Because the role played by these mediators in paracoccidioidomycosis was not investigated, we aimed to characterize the role of CysLT in the pulmonary infection developed by resistant (A/J) and susceptible (B10.A) mice. 48 h after infection, elevated levels of pulmonary LTC4 and LXA4 were produced by both mouse strains, but higher levels were found in the lungs of susceptible mice. Blocking the CysLTs receptor by MTL reduced fungal loads in B10.A, but not in A/J mice. In susceptible mice, MLT treatment led to reduced influx of PMN leukocytes, increased recruitment of monocytes, predominant synthesis of anti-inflammatory cytokines, and augmented expression of 5- and 15-lipoxygenase mRNA, suggesting a prevalent LXA4 activity. In agreement, MTL-treated macrophages showed reduced fungal burdens associated with decreased ingestion of fungal cells. Furthermore, the addition of exogenous LX reduced, and the specific blockade of the LX receptor increased the fungal loads of B10.A macrophages. This study showed for the first time that inhibition of CysLTs signaling results in less severe pulmonary paracoccidioidomycosis that occurs in parallel with elevated LX activity and reduced infection of macrophages. PMID:26635449

  12. Hydrocarbon traps within a seismic sequence framework, Stevens turbidites, southern San Joaquin Valley, CA

    SciTech Connect

    Hewlett, J.S.; Jordan, D.W. ); Crebs, T.J.; Moorefield, T.P. )

    1991-02-01

    Interpretation of the seismic sequence framework and log and lithologic character of upper Miocene Stevens turbidites on the Bakersfield arch has led to an improved understanding of the expression of stratigraphic trapping that should reduce exploration risk in the basin, and may aid exploration efforts in similar sand-rich systems globally. These deepwater sandstones are contained within three lowstand turbidite systems (LTS) that were deposited in a narrow deepwater basin adjacent to the ancestral Sierra Nevada. the oldest LTS, the Coulter, was transported through several submarine canyons incised into the Fruitvale Shale. In contrast, numerous smaller scale erosional features located on the high-relief slopes of the highstand Santa Margarita deltas, fed the overlying Gosford and Bellevue LTS. The systems consist of sandy, high-density (primarily) and low-density turbidites that were deposited within channel-lobe complexes. On the arch, 472 MMBO and 1.3 tcf have been produced from four seismically detectable traps with strong stratigraphic components: (1) sandstone permeability changes within turbidite wedges that thin rapidly onto structure (2) confined (channelized) turbidites that lap out on a structure (e.g., F-1 sand, South Coles levee), (3) channelized turbidites that pinch out within slope gullies, and (4) depositional compaction anticlines occurring in conjunction with low-gradient regional structure. Condensed section sediments form regional and reservoir-scale seals. Rapid lateral facies changes and grain size variations provide additional seal facies.

  13. The Influence of Humidity on Assessing Irritation Threshold of Ammonia

    PubMed Central

    Sucker, Kirsten; Jettkant, Birger; Berresheim, Hans; Brüning, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    A large number of occupational exposure limit values (OELs) are based on avoiding of sensory irritation of the eyes and the upper respiratory tract. In order to investigate the chemosensory effect range of a chemical, odor and sensory irritation thresholds (lateralization thresholds, LTs) can be assessed. Humidity affects olfactory function and thus influences odor thresholds; however, a similar effect has not been shown for sensory irritation thresholds. The purpose of the present study was to explore whether LTs for ammonia vapor vary depending on the water vapor content of the inspired stimulus. Eight healthy nonsmoking volunteers were simultaneously exposed to ammonia vapor through one nostril and clean air through the other and were asked to determine which nostril received the chemical. Within experimental runs, ascending ammonia concentrations (60–350 ppm) that were either dry or humidified were administered at fixed time intervals. Geometric mean LTs obtained at wet (181 ppm) or dry (172 ppm) conditions did not differ significantly (P = 0.19) and were within the range of those reported by previous studies. These results suggest that humidity is not a critical factor in determining sensory irritation thresholds for ammonia, and future studies will examine if these findings are transferable to sensory irritation thresholds for other chemicals. PMID:27379250

  14. Ultrahigh field NMR and MRI: Science at a crossroads. Report on a jointly-funded NSF, NIH and DOE workshop, held on November 12-13, 2015 in Bethesda, Maryland, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polenova, Tatyana; Budinger, Thomas F.

    2016-05-01

    Magnetic resonance plays a central role in academic, industrial and medical research. NMR is widely used for characterizing the structure, chemistry and dynamic properties of new materials, chemicals and pharmaceuticals, in both the liquid and solid phases. NMR also provides detailed functional information on biological macromolecules and their assemblies, in vitro, in membranes and even in whole cells. In vivo, MRI/S are used for clinical diagnosis and prognosis of disease, for non-invasive studies of human physiology and metabolism in general, and for evaluating brain function, in particular. MRI/S is also a key technology for imaging small organisms at the cellular level, monitoring catalysis in chemical reactors and other scientific areas where non-destructive characterizations of structure and dynamics in complex systems are needed. At the heart of all the MR methods are strong, stable and homogeneous magnets built from low-temperature superconductors (LTS), which are essential to these experiments. Further developments in NMR/MRI are hampered because the ultimate limit of the attainable field strengths of persistent LTS magnets has now been reached. Fortunately, recent breakthroughs in new high-temperature superconductors (HTS) and hybrid LTS/HTS magnet technologies promise to greatly increase the achievable field strength of NMR magnets and to decrease the operational complexity of high field human MRI infrastructures, thereby enabling new applications at the forefront of modern multidisciplinary research.

  15. Conceptual design and selection of a biodiesel fuel processor for a vehicle fuel cell auxiliary power unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Specchia, S.; Tillemans, F. W. A.; van den Oosterkamp, P. F.; Saracco, G.

    Within the European project BIOFEAT (biodiesel fuel processor for a fuel cell auxiliary power unit for a vehicle), a complete modular 10 kW e biodiesel fuel processor capable of feeding a PEMFC will be developed, built and tested to generate electricity for a vehicle auxiliary power unit (APU). Tail pipe emissions reduction, increased use of renewable fuels, increase of hydrogen-fuel economy and efficient supply of present and future APU for road vehicles are the main project goals. Biodiesel is the chosen feedstock because it is a completely natural and thus renewable fuel. Three fuel processing options were taken into account at a conceptual design level and compared for hydrogen production: (i) autothermal reformer (ATR) with high and low temperature shift (HTS/LTS) reactors; (ii) autothermal reformer (ATR) with a single medium temperature shift (MTS) reactor; (iii) thermal cracker (TC) with high and low temperature shift (HTS/LTS) reactors. Based on a number of simulations (with the AspenPlus® software), the best operating conditions were determined (steam-to-carbon and O 2/C ratios, operating temperatures and pressures) for each process alternative. The selection of the preferential fuel processing option was consequently carried out, based on a number of criteria (efficiency, complexity, compactness, safety, controllability, emissions, etc.); the ATR with both HTS and LTS reactors shows the most promising results, with a net electrical efficiency of 29% (LHV).

  16. miR-340 predicts glioblastoma survival and modulates key cancer hallmarks through down-regulation of NRAS

    PubMed Central

    Fiore, Danilo; Donnarumma, Elvira; Roscigno, Giuseppina; Iaboni, Margherita; Russo, Valentina; Affinito, Alessandra; Adamo, Assunta; De Martino, Fabio; Quintavalle, Cristina; Romano, Giulia; Greco, Adelaide; Soini, Ylermi; Brunetti, Arturo; Croce, Carlo M.; Condorelli, Gerolama

    2016-01-01

    Glioblastoma is the most common primary brain tumor in adults; with a survival rate of 12 months from diagnosis. However, a small subgroup of patients, termed long-term survivors (LTS), has a survival rate longer then 12–14 months. There is thus increasing interest in the identification of molecular signatures predicting glioblastoma prognosis and in how to improve the therapeutic approach. Here, we report miR-340 as prognostic tumor-suppressor microRNA for glioblastoma. We analyzed microRNA expression in > 500 glioblastoma patients and found that although miR-340 is strongly down-regulated in glioblastoma overall, it is up-regulated in LTS patients compared to short-term survivors (STS). Indeed, miR-340 expression predicted better prognosis in glioblastoma patients. Coherently, overexpression of miR-340 in glioblastoma cells was found to produce a tumor-suppressive activity. We identified NRAS mRNA as a critical, direct target of miR-340: in fact, miR-340 negatively influenced multiple aspects of glioblastoma tumorigenesis by down-regulating NRAS and downstream AKT and ERK pathways. Thus, we demonstrate that expression of miR-340 in glioblastoma is responsible for a strong tumor-suppressive effect in LTS patients by down-regulating NRAS. miR-340 may thus represent a novel marker for glioblastoma diagnosis and prognosis, and may be developed into a tool to improve treatment of glioblastoma. PMID:26799668

  17. A conservative finite volume scheme with time-accurate local time stepping for scalar transport on unstructured grids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavalcanti, José Rafael; Dumbser, Michael; Motta-Marques, David da; Fragoso Junior, Carlos Ruberto

    2015-12-01

    In this article we propose a new conservative high resolution TVD (total variation diminishing) finite volume scheme with time-accurate local time stepping (LTS) on unstructured grids for the solution of scalar transport problems, which are typical in the context of water quality simulations. To keep the presentation of the new method as simple as possible, the algorithm is only derived in two space dimensions and for purely convective transport problems, hence neglecting diffusion and reaction terms. The new numerical method for the solution of the scalar transport is directly coupled to the hydrodynamic model of Casulli and Walters (2000) that provides the dynamics of the free surface and the velocity vector field based on a semi-implicit discretization of the shallow water equations. Wetting and drying is handled rigorously by the nonlinear algorithm proposed by Casulli (2009). The new time-accurate LTS algorithm allows a different time step size for each element of the unstructured grid, based on an element-local Courant-Friedrichs-Lewy (CFL) stability condition. The proposed method does not need any synchronization between different time steps of different elements and is by construction locally and globally conservative. The LTS scheme is based on a piecewise linear polynomial reconstruction in space-time using the MUSCL-Hancock method, to obtain second order of accuracy in both space and time. The new algorithm is first validated on some classical test cases for pure advection problems, for which exact solutions are known. In all cases we obtain a very good level of accuracy, showing also numerical convergence results; we furthermore confirm mass conservation up to machine precision and observe an improved computational efficiency compared to a standard second order TVD scheme for scalar transport with global time stepping (GTS). Then, the new LTS method is applied to some more complex problems, where the new scalar transport scheme has also been coupled to

  18. Characterizing learning-through-service students in engineering by gender and academic year

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carberry, Adam Robert

    Service is increasingly being viewed as an integral part of education nationwide. Service-based courses and programs are growing in popularity as opportunities for students to learn and experience their discipline. Widespread adoption of learning-through-service (LTS) in engineering is stymied by a lack of a body of rigorous research supporting the effectiveness of these experiences. In this study, I examine learning-through-service through a nationwide survey of engineering undergraduate and graduate students participating in a variety of LTS experiences. Students (N = 322) participating in some form of service -- service-learning courses or extra-curricular service programs -- from eighty-seven different institutions across the United States completed a survey measuring demographic information (institution, gender, academic year, age, major, and grade point average), self-perceived sources of learning (service and traditional coursework), engineering epistemological beliefs, personality traits, and self-concepts (self-efficacy, motivation, expectancy, and anxiety) toward engineering design. Responses to the survey were used to characterize engineering LTS students and identify differences in these variables in terms of gender and academic year. The overall findings were that LTS students perceived their service experience to be a beneficial source for learning professional skills and, to a lesser degree, technical skills, held moderately sophisticated engineering epistemological beliefs, and were generally outgoing, compassionate, and adventurous. Self-perceived sources of learning, epistemological beliefs, and personality traits were shown to be poor predictors of student engineering achievement. Self-efficacy, motivation, and outcome expectancy toward engineering design were generally high for all LTS students; most possessed rather low anxiety levels toward engineering design. These trends were generally consistent between genders and across the five academic

  19. Next-Generation mRNA Sequencing Reveals Pyroptosis-Induced CD4+ T Cell Death in Early Simian Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Lymphoid Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Wuxun; Demers, Andrew J.; Ma, Fangrui; Kang, Guobin; Yuan, Zhe; Wan, Yanmin; Li, Yue; Xu, Jianqing; Lewis, Mark

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Lymphoid tissues (LTs) are the principal sites where human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) replicates and virus-host interactions take place, resulting in immunopathology in the form of inflammation, immune activation, and CD4+ T cell death. The HIV-1 pathogenesis in LTs has been extensively studied; however, our understanding of the virus-host interactions in the very early stages of infection remains incomplete. We investigated virus-host interactions in the rectal draining lymph nodes (dLNs) of rhesus macaques at different times after intrarectal inoculation (days postinoculation [dpi]) with simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV). At 3 dpi, 103 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were detected using next-generation mRNA sequencing (RNA-seq). At 6 and 10 dpi, concomitant with increased SIV replication, 366 and 1,350 DEGs were detected, respectively, including upregulation of genes encoding proteins that play a role in innate antiviral immune responses, inflammation, and immune activation. Notably, genes (IFI16, caspase-1, and interleukin 1β [IL-1β]) in the canonical pyroptosis pathway were significantly upregulated in expression. We further validated increased pyroptosis using flow cytometry and found that the number of CD4+ T cells expressing activated caspase-1 protein, the hallmark of ongoing pyroptosis, were significantly increased, which is correlated with decreased CD4+ T cells in dLNs. Our results demonstrated that pyroptosis contributes to the CD4+ T cell death in vivo in early SIV infection, which suggests that pyroptosis may play a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of SIV, and by extension, that of HIV-1, since pyroptosis not only induces CD4+ T cell death but also amplifies inflammation and immune activation. Thus, blocking CD4+ T cell pyroptosis could be a complementary treatment to antiretroviral therapy. IMPORTANCE Although secondary lymphoid tissues (LTs) are principal sites of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) replication

  20. Pharmacodynamic properties of leukotriene receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Nicosia, S

    1999-06-01

    Leukotrienes (LTs) are among the most important mediators of asthma; cysteine-containing LTs (cysteinyl-LTs, i.e. LTC4, LTD4 and LTE4) are very potent bronchoconstrictors and participate in the inflammatory component of asthma by inducing mucus hypersecretion, plasma extravasation, mucosal oedema and eosinophil recruitment. Therefore, compounds able to inhibit either the formation or the action of LTs are potential antiasthma drugs and, at present, the cysteinyl-LT receptor antagonists (LTRAs) appear to be the most promising. The receptors for cysteinyl-LTs, termed CysLT receptors, are heterogeneous; at least two different classes have so far been recognized, named CysLT1 (blocked by the so-called classical antagonists, such as FPL 55712, ICI 198,615, ICI 204,219, SK&F 104353, MK-476 and others) and CysLT2 (insensitive to the classical antagonists, but sensitive to BAY u9773). The authors' results indicate that even more receptor subclasses might exist in human airways, which discriminate between LTC4 and LTD4, both asthma mediators. Among the many LTRAs, zafirlukast (Accolate, ICI 204,219), montelukast (Singulair, MK-476) and pranlukast (Onon, ONO-1078) are available for clinical use. All the LTRAs are able to inhibit LTD4-induced bronchoconstriction in humans, albeit with different potencies. With respect to antigen challenge, all of them inhibit the early phase of response, whereas only the most recently developed and potent ones are effective in the late phase. LTRAs are effective in asthma triggered by exercise, cold or aspirin. Furthermore, although they are not bronchodilators per se, they increase basal forced expiratory volume in one second in patients with mild-to-moderate asthma, indicating that, in these individuals, constant cysteinyl-LT release contributes to maintaining increased bronchial tone. Finally, the effect of LTRAs is additive to that of beta-agonists and is potentiated by antihistamine compounds. In conclusion, the available results clearly

  1. Drivers of Intra-Summer Seasonality and Daily Variability of Coastal Low Cloudiness in California Subregions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwartz, R. E.; Iacobellis, S.; Gershunov, A.; Williams, P.; Cayan, D. R.

    2014-12-01

    Summertime low cloud intrusion into the terrestrial west coast of North America impacts human, ecological, and logistical systems. Over a broad region of the West Coast, summer (May - September) coastal low cloudiness (CLC) varies coherently on interannual to interdecadal timescales and has been found to be organized by North Pacific sea surface temperature. Broad-scale studies of low stratiform cloudiness over ocean basins also find that the season of maximum low stratus corresponds to the season of maximum lower tropospheric stability (LTS) or estimated inversion strength. We utilize a 18-summer record of CLC derived from NASA/NOAA Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) at 4km resolution over California (CA) to make a more nuanced spatial and temporal examination of intra-summer variability in CLC and its drivers. We find that uniform spatial coherency over CA is not apparent for intra-summer variability in CLC. On monthly to daily timescales, at least two distinct subregions of coastal California (CA) can be identified, where relationships between meteorology and stratus variability appear to change throughout summer in each subregion. While north of Point Conception and offshore the timing of maximum CLC is closely coincident with maximum LTS, in the Southern CA Bight and northern Baja region, maximum CLC occurs up to about a month before maximum LTS. It appears that summertime CLC in this southern region is not as strongly related as in the northern region to LTS. In particular, although the relationship is strong in May and June, starting in July the daily relationship between LTS and CLC in the south begins to deteriorate. Preliminary results indicate a moderate association between decreased CLC in the south and increased precipitable water content above 850 hPa on daily time scales beginning in July. Relationships between daily CLC variability and meteorological variables including winds, inland temperatures, relative humidity, and

  2. Increased exhaled cysteinyl-leukotrienes and 8-isoprostane in aspirin-induced asthma.

    PubMed

    Antczak, Adam; Montuschi, Paolo; Kharitonov, Sergei; Gorski, Pawel; Barnes, Peter J

    2002-08-01

    The pathogenesis of aspirin-induced asthma (AIA) has not yet been clearly elucidated, although eicosanoid metabolites appear to play an important role. We hypothesized that levels of eicosanoids in exhaled air condensate are abnormal in patients with AIA and that they change in patients receiving steroid therapy. We measured cysteinyl-leukotrienes (cys-LTs), prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)), and leukotriene B(4) (LTB(4)), and also 8-isoprostane as a marker of oxidative stress, by enzyme immunoassay in exhaled breath condensate from patients with AIA (17 steroid naive; mean age, 41 +/- 23 years; FEV(1), 63%pred), 26 patients with aspirin-tolerant asthma (ATA) (11 steroid naive; mean age, 47 +/- 18 years; FEV(1), 69%pred), and 16 healthy subjects (mean age, 45 +/- 17 years; FEV(1), 93%pred). Cys-LTs were significantly higher in steroid-naive patients with AIA compared with steroid-naive patients with ATA and healthy subjects (152.3 +/- 30.4 and 36.6 +/- 7.1 versus 19.4 +/- 2.8 pg/ml; p < 0.05 and p < 0.05, respectively). Steroid-naive patients with AIA also had higher levels of 8-isoprostane than normal subjects (131.8 +/- 31.0 versus 21.9 +/- 4.5 pg/ml; p < 0.05). There were significantly lower levels of both cys-LTs and 8-isoprostanes in steroid-treated patients with AIA. There was no difference in either the PGE(2) or LTB(4) level between the patient groups. This is the first study to show that cys-LTs and 8-isoprostanes are elevated in expired breath condensate of steroid-naive patients with AIA, and that cys-LTs are decreased in steroid-treated patients. Exhaled PGE(2) levels are not reduced, so that it is unlikely that a deficiency of PGE(2) is an important mechanism, whereas exhaled LTB(4) levels are unchanged, indicating an abnormality beyond 5-lipoxygenase. PMID:12153961

  3. P2Y1 and cysteinyl leukotriene receptors mediate purine and cysteinyl leukotriene co-release in primary cultures of rat microglia.

    PubMed

    Ballerini, P; Di Iorio, P; Ciccarelli, R; Caciagli, F; Poli, A; Beraudi, A; Buccella, S; D'Alimonte, I; D'Auro, M; Nargi, E; Patricelli, P; Visini, D; Traversa, U

    2005-01-01

    Inflammation is widely recognized as contributing to the pathology of acute and chronic neurodegenerative conditions. Microglial cells are pathologic sensors in the brain and activated microglia have been viewed as detrimental. Leukotriene, including cysteinyl leukotrienes (CysLTs) are suggested to be involved in brain inflammation and neurological diseases and ATP, by its receptors is a candidate for microglia activation. A23187 (10 microM) stimulated microglia to co-release CysLTs and [3H] adenine based purines ([3H] ABPs), mainly ATP. The biosynthetic production of CysLTs was abolished by 10 microM MK-886, an inhibitor of 5-lipoxygenase-activating protein activity. RT-PCR analysis showed that microglia expressed both CysLT1 / CysLT2 receptors, P2Y1ATP receptors and several members of the ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporters including MRP1, MRP4 and Pgp. The increase in [Ca2+]i elicited by LTD4 (0.1 microM) and 2MeSATP (100 microM), agonists for CysLT- and P2Y1-receptors, was abolished by the respective antagonists, BAYu9773 (0.5 microM) and suramin (50 microM). The stimulation of both receptor subtypes, induced a concomitant increase in the release of both [3H] ABPs and CysLTs that was blocked by the antagonists and significantly reduced by a cocktail of ABC transporter inhibitors, BAPTA/AM (intracellular Ca2+ chelator) and staurosporine (0.1 microM, PKC blocker). P2Y antagonist was unable to antagonise the effects of LTD4 and BAYu9773 did not reduce the effects of 2MeSATP. These data suggest that: i) the efflux of purines and cysteinyl-leukotrienes is specifically and independently controlled by the two receptor types, ii) calcium, PKC and the ABC transporter system can reasonably be considered common mechanisms underlying the release of ABPs and CysLTs from microglia. The blockade of P2Y1 or CysLT1/CysLT2 receptors by specific antagonists that abolished the raise in [Ca2+]i and drastically reduced the concomitant efflux of both compounds, as well as the

  4. 2003 Long-Term Surveillance and Maintenance Program Report

    SciTech Connect

    2004-07-01

    are part of long-term site management. In response to post-closure care requirements set forth in UMTRCA, DOE Headquarters established the Long-Term Surveillance and Maintenance (LTS&M) Program in 1988 at the DOE office in Grand Junction, Colorado. The program assumed long-term management responsibility for sites remediated under UMTRCA and other programs. Since its inception, the LTS&M Program has evolved in response to changing stakeholder needs, improvements in technology, and the addition of more DOE sites as remediation is completed. The mission of the LTS&M Program was to fulfill DOE’s responsibility to implement all activities necessary to ensure regulatory compliance and to protect the public and the environment from long-lived wastes associated with the nation’s nuclear energy, weapons, and research activities. Key components of the LTS&M Program included stakeholder participation, site monitoring and maintenance, records and information management, and research and technology transfer. This report presents summaries of activities conducted in 2003 in fulfillment of the LTS&M Program mission. On December 15, 2003, DOE established the Office of Legacy Management (LM) to allow for optimum management of DOE’s legacy responsibilities. Offices are located in Washington, DC, Grand Junction, Colorado, Morgantown, West Virginia, and Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, to perform long-term site management, land management, site transition support, records management, and other related tasks. All activities formerly conducted under the LTS&M Program have been incorporated into the Office of Land and Site Management (LM–50), as well as management of remedies involving ground water and surface water contaminated by former processing activities.

  5. Maturation of neuronal form and function in a mouse thalamo-cortical circuit.

    PubMed

    Warren, R A; Jones, E G

    1997-01-01

    Postnatal development of physiological properties underlying slow intrathalamic oscillations was studied by whole-cell recording from synaptically coupled neurons of the reticular nucleus (RTN) and ventral posterior nucleus (VPN) of mouse brain slices in vitro and compared with the morphological development of dye-injected cells. Between postnatal days 3 and 11 (P3-P11), progressive changes in RTN and VPN neurons included shortening of the membrane time constant, decreasing input resistance, and lowering of the resting membrane potential (RMP). Low-threshold Ca2+ spikes (LTS) were present from P3, but their capacity to sustain multispike bursts was limited before P11. Synaptic responses were evoked in RTN and VPN neurons by electrical stimulation of the internal capsule from P3. Younger RTN neurons responded with a single spike, but their capacity to fire bursts gradually improved as the RMP reached levels below the LTS activation potential. Concomitantly, as the reversal potential of the inhibitory postsynaptic potential in VPN neurons became more negative, its capacity to deinactivate the LTS increased, and rebound bursts that could maintain oscillations were produced; sustained oscillations became the typical response to internal capsule stimulation at P12. The functional maturation of the intrathalamic circuitry, particularly between P10 and P14, occurs in parallel with the morphological maturation (size, dendritic growth, and dendritic field structure) of individual RTN and VPN neurons, as studied by confocal microscopy. Maturation of RTN cells led that of VPN cells by 2-3 d. The appearance of intrathalamic oscillations is probably correlated with the appearance of slow-wave sleep in postnatal animals. PMID:8987755

  6. Intranasal Immunization with SAG1 and Nontoxic Mutant Heat-Labile Enterotoxins Protects Mice against Toxoplasma gondii

    PubMed Central

    Bonenfant, C.; Dimier-Poisson, I.; Velge-Roussel, F.; Buzoni-Gatel, D.; Del Giudice, G.; Rappuoli, R.; Bout, D.

    2001-01-01

    Effective protection against intestinal pathogens requires both mucosal and systemic immune responses. Intranasal administration of antigens induces these responses but generally fails to trigger a strong protective immunity. Mucosal adjuvants can significantly enhance the immunogenicities of intranasally administered antigens. Cholera toxin (CT) and heat-labile enterotoxin (LT) are strong mucosal adjuvants with a variety of antigens. Moreover, the toxicities of CT and LT do not permit their use in humans. Two nontoxic mutant LTs, LTR72 and LTK63, were tested with Toxoplasma gondii SAG1 protein in intranasal vaccination of CBA/J mice. Vaccination with SAG1 plus LTR72 or LTK63 induced strong systemic (immunoglobulin G [IgG]) and mucosal (IgA) humoral responses. Splenocytes and mesenteric lymph node cells from mice immunized with LTR72 plus SAG1, but not those from mice immunized with LTK63 plus SAG1, responded to restimulation with a T. gondii lysate antigen in vitro. Gamma interferon and interleukin 2 (IL-2) production by splenocytes and IL-2 production by mesenteric lymph node cells were observed in vitro after antigen restimulation, underlying a Th1-like response. High-level protection as assessed by the decreased load of cerebral cysts after a challenge with the 76K strain of T. gondii was obtained in the group immunized with LTR72 plus SAG1 and LTK63 plus SAG1. They were as well protected as the mice immunized with the antigen plus native toxins. This is the first report showing protection against a parasite by using combinations of nontoxic mutant LTs and SAG1 antigen. These nontoxic mutant LTs are now attractive candidates for the development of mucosally delivered vaccines. PMID:11179334

  7. Thalamic Burst Firing Propensity: a Comparison of the Dorsal Lateral Geniculate and Pulvinar Nuclei in the Tree Shrew

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Haiyang; Bonjean, Maxime; Petry, Heywood M.; Sejnowski, Terrence J.; Bickford, Martha E.

    2011-01-01

    Relay neurons in dorsal thalamic nuclei can fire high frequency bursts of action potentials that ride the crest of voltage-dependent transient (T-type) calcium currents (low threshold spike; LTS). To explore potential nucleus-specific burst features, we compared the membrane properties of dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN) and pulvinar nucleus relay neurons using in vitro whole cell recording in juvenile and adult tree shrew (Tupaia) tissue slices. We injected current ramps of variable slope into neurons that were sufficiently hyperpolarized to de-inactivate T-type calcium channels. In a small percentage of juvenile pulvinar and dLGN neurons, an LTS could not be evoked. In the remaining juvenile neurons, and in all adult dLGN neurons, a single LTS could be evoked by current ramps. However, in the adult pulvinar, current ramps evoked multiple LTSs in over 70% of recorded neurons. Using immunohistochemistry, western blot techniques, unbiased stereology, confocal and electron microscopy, we found that pulvinar neurons expressed more T-type calcium channels (Cav 3.2) and more small conductance potassium channels (SK2) than dLGN neurons and that the pulvinar nucleus contained a higher glia-to-neuron ratio than the dLGN. Hodgkin-Huxley type compartmental models revealed that the distinct firing modes could be replicated by manipulating T-type calcium and SK2 channel density, distribution, and kinetics. The intrinsic properties of pulvinar neurons that promote burst firing in the adult may be relevant to the treatment of conditions that involve the adult onset of aberrant thalamocortical interactions. PMID:22114295

  8. Petrogenesis of greenstones from the Mino Tamba belt, SW Japan: Evidence for an accreted Permian oceanic plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ichiyama, Yuji; Ishiwatari, Akira; Koizumi, Kazuto

    2008-01-01

    Permian greenstones in the Jurassic Mino-Tamba accretionary complex, southwest Japan, are divided into three distinct series on the basis of their geological occurrence, mineralogy, and geochemistry. A low-Ti series (LTS) is associated with Lower Permian chert and limestone, and is the most voluminous of the three series. The LTS shows slightly more enriched geochemical and isotopic characteristics than MORB. A transition series (TS) is mainly associated with Lower Permian chert, and has more enriched geochemical signatures than MORB. Its isotopic characteristics are divided into enriched and depleted types. A high-Ti series (HTS) occurs as sills and hyaloclastites within Middle Permian chert and as dikes intruding the TS. Some HTS rocks have high MgO contents. The HTS is characterized by enrichment in incompatible trace elements and an isotopic composition comparable to HIMU-type basalt. The geochemistry of the voluminous LTS is similar to that of the oceanic basalt series of the Kerguelen plateau, suggesting production by partial melting of a shallow mantle plume head below thick oceanic lithosphere in Early Permian time. We infer that the TS formed simultaneously at the margins of the mantle plume head. In contrast, the HTS may have resulted from partial melting of a deep mantle plume tail in Middle Permian time. Permian greenstones in the Mino-Tamba belt may have thus formed by superplume activity in an intra-oceanic setting. Given the presence of two known contemporary continental flood basalt provinces (Siberia and Emeishan) and some accreted oceanic plateau basalts, the vast magmatism of the Mino-Tamba oceanic plateau suggests a large-scale superplume pulse in Permian time. Accretion of oceanic plateaux may have played an important role in the growth of continental margins and island arcs in Japan and elsewhere in the circum-Pacific region.

  9. Increase of Th17 Cell Phenotype in Kidney Transplant Recipients with Chronic Allograft Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Bo-Mi; Doh, Kyoung Chan; Cho, Mi-La; Yang, Chul Woo

    2015-01-01

    This study was performed to determine the association of Th17 cell phenotype with chronic allograft dysfunction in kidney transplant recipients (KTRs). We compared the expression of Th17 cell phenotype in KTRs with chronic allograft dysfunction group (CAD, n = 52) with four control groups (long-term stable KTRs (LTS, n = 67), early stable KTRs (ES, n = 28), end stage renal disease (ESRD, n = 45), and healthy control (HC, n = 26). We also performed in vitro study using human proximal renal tubular epithelial cell line (HPRTEpiC) to evaluate the effect of IL-17 on human renal tubular epithelial cells. The CAD group showed increased percentage of Th17 cells out of CD4+ T cells and also increased proportion of IL-17 producing cells out of effector memory T cells or out of CCR4+CCR6+/CD4+ T cells compared to the LTS group and other control groups. Also, the serum level of IL-17, IL-33, and RAGE, and the expression of IL-1beta, RAGE, and HMGB1 mRNA showed an increase in the CAD group compared to the LTS group. In vitro study revealed that IL-17 increased production of IL-6 and IL-8 and up-regulated profibrotic gene expression such as ACTA-2 and CTGF in HPRTEpiC in a dose-dependent manner, which suggests that IL-17 has a role in the development of renal tubular cell injury. The results of our study may suggest that increase of Th17 cell phenotype could be a marker for the chronic allograft injury; hence there is a need to develop diagnostic and therapeutic tools targeting the Th17 cells pathway. PMID:26717145

  10. 5-Lypoxygenase Products Are Involved in Renal Tubulointerstitial Injury Induced by Albumin Overload in Proximal Tubules in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Landgraf, Sharon Schilling; Silva, Leandro Souza; Peruchetti, Diogo Barros; Sirtoli, Gabriela Modenesi; Moraes-Santos, Felipe; Portella, Viviane Gomes; Silva-Filho, João Luiz; Pinheiro, Carla Silva; Abreu, Thiago Pereira; Takiya, Christina Maeda; Benjamin, Claudia Farias; Pinheiro, Ana Acacia Sá; Canetti, Claudio; Caruso-Neves, Celso

    2014-01-01

    The role of albumin overload in proximal tubules (PT) in the development of tubulointerstitial injury and, consequently, in the progression of renal disease has become more relevant in recent years. Despite the importance of leukotrienes (LTs) in renal disease, little is known about their role in tubulointerstitial injury. The aim of the present work was to investigate the possible role of LTs on tubulointerstitial injury induced by albumin overload. An animal model of tubulointerstitial injury challenged by bovine serum albumin was developed in SV129 mice (wild-type) and 5-lipoxygenase-deficient mice (5-LO–/–). The changes in glomerular morphology and nestin expression observed in wild-type mice subjected to kidney insult were also observed in 5-LO–/– mice. The levels of urinary protein observed in the 5-LO–/– mice subjected or not to kidney insult were lower than those observed in respective wild-type mice. Furthermore, the increase in lactate dehydrogenase activity, a marker of tubule damage, observed in wild-type mice subjected to kidney insult did not occur in 5-LO–/– mice. LTB4 and LTD4, 5-LO products, decreased the uptake of albumin in LLC-PK1 cells, a well-characterized porcine PT cell line. This effect correlated with activation of protein kinase C and inhibition of protein kinase B. The level of proinflammatory cytokines, tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin (IL)-6, increased in mice subjected to kidney insult but this effect was not modified in 5-LO–/– mice. However, 5-LO–/– mice subjected to kidney insult presented lower macrophage infiltration and higher levels of IL-10 than wild-type mice. Our results reveal that LTs have an important role in tubulointerstitial disease induced by albumin overload. PMID:25302946

  11. Sequencer-Based Capillary Gel Electrophoresis (SCGE) Targeting the rDNA Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) Regions for Accurate Identification of Clinically Important Yeast Species

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Sharon C.-A.; Wang, He; Zhang, Li; Fan, Xin; Xu, Zhi-Peng; Cheng, Jing-Wei; Kong, Fanrong; Zhao, Yu-Pei; Xu, Ying-Chun

    2016-01-01

    Accurate species identification of Candida, Cryptococcus, Trichosporon and other yeast pathogens is important for clinical management. In the present study, we developed and evaluated a yeast species identification scheme by determining the rDNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region length types (LTs) using a sequencer-based capillary gel electrophoresis (SCGE) approach. A total of 156 yeast isolates encompassing 32 species were first used to establish a reference SCGE ITS LT database. Evaluation of the ITS LT database was then performed on (i) a separate set of (n = 97) clinical isolates by SCGE, and (ii) 41 isolates of 41 additional yeast species from GenBank by in silico analysis. Of 156 isolates used to build the reference database, 41 ITS LTs were identified, which correctly identified 29 of the 32 (90.6%) species, with the exception of Trichosporon asahii, Trichosporon japonicum and Trichosporon asteroides. In addition, eight of the 32 species revealed different electropherograms and were subtyped into 2–3 different ITS LTs each. Of the 97 test isolates used to evaluate the ITS LT scheme, 96 (99.0%) were correctly identified to species level, with the remaining isolate having a novel ITS LT. Of the additional 41 isolates for in silico analysis, none was misidentified by the ITS LT database except for Trichosporon mucoides whose ITS LT profile was identical to that of Trichosporon dermatis. In conclusion, yeast identification by the present SCGE ITS LT assay is a fast, reproducible and accurate alternative for the identification of clinically important yeasts with the exception of Trichosporon species. PMID:27105313

  12. CysLT1 Receptor Is Protective against Oxidative Stress in a Model of Irritant-Induced Asthma.

    PubMed

    McGovern, Toby; Goldberger, Madison; Chen, Michael; Allard, Benoit; Hamamoto, Yoichiro; Kanaoka, Yoshihide; Austen, K Frank; Powell, William S; Martin, James G

    2016-07-01

    The bronchoconstrictive and proinflammatory properties of cysteinyl leukotrienes (cysLTs) in allergic asthma mediate their effects predominantly through the cysLT1 receptor (cysLT1R). However, the role of cysLTs and cysLT1R in innate immune-triggered asthma is largely unexplored. We explored the synthesis of cysLTs and cysLT1R as determinants of airway responses in an oxidative stress-induced model of irritant asthma. Wild-type (WT) mice exposed to 100 ppm Cl2 for 5 min had airway neutrophilia, increased cysLT production, and pulmonary expression of cysLT-related biosynthetic genes. CysLT1R-deficient (CysLTr1(-/-)) mice that were exposed to Cl2 demonstrated airway hyperresponsiveness to inhaled methacholine significantly greater than in WT BALB/c mice. Compared to WT mice, airway neutrophilia and keratinocyte chemoattractant production levels were higher in CysLTr1(-/-) mice and airway hyperresponsiveness was ameliorated using a granulocyte depletion Ab. CysLTr1(-/-) mice also demonstrated prolonged bronchial epithelial cell apoptosis following Cl2 WT mice showed increased antioxidant and NF erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) gene expression, Nrf2 nuclear translocation in bronchial epithelial cells, and increased reduced glutathione/oxidized glutathione following Cl2 exposure whereas CysLTr1(-/-) mice did not. Furthermore, CysLTr1(-/-) mice demonstrated increased pulmonary E-cadherin expression and soluble E-cadherin shedding compared with WT mice. Loss of a functional cysLT1R results in aberrant antioxidant response and increased susceptibility to oxidative injury, apparently via a cysLT1R-dependent impairment of Nrf2 function. PMID:27226094

  13. Combining mapping of physiological quantitative trait loci and transcriptome for cold tolerance for counteracting male sterility induced by low temperatures during reproductive stage in rice.

    PubMed

    Shimono, Hiroyuki; Abe, Akira; Aoki, Naohiro; Koumoto, Takemasa; Sato, Masahiro; Yokoi, Shuji; Kuroda, Eiki; Endo, Takashi; Saeki, Ken-Ich; Nagano, Kuniaki

    2016-06-01

    Male sterility induced by low temperatures (LTs) during the reproductive stage is a major constraint for temperate zone rice. To detect physiological quantitative trait loci (QTLs), we modeled genotypic variation in the physiological processes involved in low temperature spikelet sterility on the basis of anther length (AL), a proxy for microspore and pollen grain number per anther. The model accounted for 83% of the genotypic variation in potential AL at normal temperature and the ability to maintain AL at LT. We tested the model on 208 recombinant inbred lines of cold-tolerant 'Tohoku-PL3' (PL3) × cold-sensitive 'Akihikari' (AH) for 2 years. QTLs for spikelet fertility (FRT) at LT were detected on chromosomes 5 (QTL for Cold Tolerance at Reproductive stage, qCTR5) and 12 (qCTR12). qCTR12 was annotated with the ability to maintain AL under LTs. qCTR5 was in a region shared with QTLs for culm length and heading date. Genome-wide expression analysis showed 798 genes differentially expressed in the spikelets between the parents at LTs. Of these, 12 were near qCTR5 and 23 were near qCTR12. Gene expression analysis confirmed two candidate genes for qCTR5 (O-methyltransferase ZRP4, Os05g0515600; beta-1,3-glucanase-like protein, Os05g0535100) and one for qCTR12 (conserved hypothetical protein, Os12g0550600). Nucleotide polymorphisms (21 deletions, 2 insertions and 10 single nucleotide polymorphisms) in PL3 were found near the candidate conserved hypothetical protein (Os12g0550600) and upstream in PL3, but not in AH. Haplotype analysis revealed that this gene came from 'Kuchum'. The combination of mapping physiological QTLs with gene expression analysis can be extended to identify other genes for abiotic stress response in cereals. PMID:26607766

  14. High Leverage Space Transportation System Technologies for Human Exploration Missions to the Moon and Beyond

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borowski, Stanley K.; Dudzinski, Leonard A.

    1996-01-01

    The feasibility of returning humans to the Moon by 2004, the 35th anniversary of the Apollo 11 landing, is examined assuming the use of existing launch vehicles (the Space Shuttle and Titan 4B), a near term, advanced technology space transportation system, and extraterrestrial propellant--specifically 'lunar-derived' liquid oxygen or LUNOX. The lunar transportation system (LTS) elements consist of an expendable, nuclear thermal rocket (NTR)-powered translunar injection (TLI) stage and a combination lunar lander/Earth return vehicle (LERV) using cryogenic liquid oxygen and hydrogen (LOX/LH2) chemical propulsion. The 'wet' LERV, carrying a crew of 2, is configured to fit within the Shuttle orbiter cargo bay and requires only modest assembly in low Earth orbit. After Earth orbit rendezvous and docking of the LERV with the Titan 4B-launched NTR TLI stage, the initial mass in low Earth orbit (IMLEO) is approx. 40 t. To maximize mission performance at minimum mass, the LERV carries no return LOX but uses approx. 7 t of LUNOX to 'reoxidize' itself for a 'direct return' flight to Earth followed by an 'Apollo-style' capsule recovery. Without LUNOX, mission capability is constrained and the total LTS mass approaches the combined Shuttle-Titan 4B IMLEO limit of approx. 45 t even with enhanced NTR and chemical engine performance. Key technologies are discussed, lunar mission scenarios described, and LTS vehicle designs and characteristics are presented. Mission versatility provided by using a small 'all LH2' NTR engine or a 'LOX-augmented' derivative, either individually or in clusters, for outer planet robotic orbiter, small Mars cargo, lunar 'commuter', and human Mars exploration class missions is also briefly discussed.

  15. Do Long-Term Survivor Primary Glioblastoma Patients Harbor IDH1 Mutations?

    PubMed

    Sarmiento, J Manuel; Mukherjee, Debraj; Black, Keith L; Fan, Xuemo; Hu, Jethro L; Nuno, Miriam Aracely; Patil, Chirag G

    2016-05-01

    Background Approximately 3 to 16% of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) patients are considered long-term survivors (LTS: 3+ years). Objective Given the improved survival conferred by IDH1 mutations and the fact that these mutations are detected in 12% of newly diagnosed GBM cases, could long-term survivorship be explained by IDH1 mutation status? Our aim was to describe GBM LTS with IDH1 mutations and explore its association with overall survival (OS). Methods Records of 453 newly diagnosed adult GBM patients treated at a single institution from 2004 to 2010 were reviewed retrospectively for patients who survived at least 36 months postsurgery. Descriptive statistics for clinical characteristics, treatments received, and tumor biomarkers were reported. Estimates for progression-free survival (PFS) and OS were provided. Results Forty (8.8%) LTS GBM patients were identified, with a median age of 50 years and a median preoperative Karnofsky Performance Score (KPS) of 80. Most patients underwent near-total/gross-total resection (72.5%), postoperative radiation (97.5%), and adjuvant temozolomide (95%). PFS rates at 12, 36, 48, and 72 months were 67.5%, 40%, 32.7%, and 26.2%, respectively. Median OS has not yet been reached; however, the survival rate at 48 months was 62.1%. Among 35 patients with available tumor samples, only 8 (22.9%) had IDH1 mutations. No significant difference in median PFS was found between IDH1 mutation and wild-type patients (46.6 versus 26.3 months; p =0.45). Conclusions Less than a quarter of our patients' long-term survivorship was associated with favorable IDH1 status. Therefore, IDH1 status does not explain most of the long-term survivorship in the temozolomide era. PMID:26935296

  16. Montelukast, a cysteinyl leukotriene receptor-1 antagonist protects against hippocampal injury induced by transient global cerebral ischemia and reperfusion in rats.

    PubMed

    Saad, M A; Abdelsalam, R M; Kenawy, S A; Attia, A S

    2015-01-01

    Cysteinyl leukotrienes (CysLTs) are potent pro-inflammatory and immune modulating lipid mediators involved in inflammatory diseases and were boosted in human brain after acute phase of cerebral ischemia. The antagonism of CysLTs receptors may offer protection against ischemic damage. Therefore it seemed interesting to study the possible neuroprotective effect of Montelukast, a CysLTR1 antagonist in global cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (IR) injury in rats. Global cerebral ischemia-reperfusion was induced by bilateral carotid artery occlusion for 15 min followed by 60 min reperfusion period. Animals were randomly allocated into three groups (n = 30 per group): Sham operated, I/R control and rats treated with montelukast (0.5 mg/kg, po) daily for 7 days then I/R was induced 1 h after the last dose of montelukast. After reperfusion rats were killed by decapitation, brains were removed and both hippocampi separated and the following biochemical parameters were estimated; lactate dehydrogenase activity, oxidative stress markers (lipid peroxides, nitric oxide and reduced glutathione), inflammatory markers (myeloperoxidase, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, nuclear factor kappa-B, interleukin-6 and interleukin-10), apoptotic biomarkers (caspase 3 and cytochrome C), neurotransmitters (glutamate, gamma aminobutyric acid), Cys-LTs contents and CysLT1 receptor expression; as well as total brain infarct size and histopathological examination of the hippocampus were assessed. Montelukast protected hippocampal tissue by reducing oxidative stress, inflammatory and apoptotic markers. Furthermore, it reduced glutamate and lactate dehydrogenase activity as well as infarct size elevated by I/R. These results were consistent with the histopathological findings. Montelukast showed a neuroprotective effects through antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antiapoptotic mechanisms. PMID:25403620

  17. The relevance of leukotrienes for bone resorption induced by mechanical loading.

    PubMed

    Moura, A P; Taddei, S R A; Queiroz-Junior, C M; Madeira, M F M; Rodrigues, L F D; Garlet, G P; Souza, D G; Machado, F S; Andrade, I; Teixeira, M M; Silva, T A

    2014-12-01

    5-Lipoxygenase (5-LO) metabolites are important pro-inflammatory lipid mediators. However, much still remains to be understood about the role of such mediators in bone remodeling. This study aimed to investigate the effect of 5-LO metabolites, LTB4 and CysLTs, in a model of mechanical loading-induced bone remodeling. Strain-induced tooth movement and consequently alveolar bone resorption/apposition was achieved by using a coil spring placed on molar and attached to incisors of C57BL6 (wild-type-WT), 5-LO deficient mice (5-LO(-/-)) and mice treated with 5-LO inhibitor (zileuton-ZN) or with antagonist of CysLTs receptor (montelukast-MT). The amount of bone resorption and the number of osteoclasts were determined morphometrically. The expression of inflammatory and bone remodeling markers in periodontium was analyzed by qPCR. Osteoclast differentiation and TNF-α production were evaluated in vitro using RAW 264.7 cells treated with LTB4 or LTD4. Bone resorption, TRAP(+) cells and expression of Tnfa, Il10 and Runx2 were significantly diminished in 5-LO(-/-), ZN- and MT-treated mice. The expression of Rank was also reduced in 5-LO(-/-) and MT-treated mice. Accordingly, LTB4 and LTD4 in association with RANKL promoted osteoclast differentiation and increased TNF-α release in vitro. These data demonstrate that the absence of 5-LO metabolites, LTB4 and CysLTs reduces osteoclast recruitment and differentiation, consequently diminishing bone resorption induced by mechanical loading. Thus, 5-LO might be a potential target for controlling bone resorption in physiological and pathological conditions. PMID:25270168

  18. Cysteinyl-leukotrienes are released from astrocytes and increase astrocyte proliferation and glial fibrillary acidic protein via cys-LT1 receptors and mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway.

    PubMed

    Ciccarelli, Renata; D'Alimonte, Iolanda; Santavenere, Clara; D'Auro, Mariagrazia; Ballerini, Patrizia; Nargi, Eleonora; Buccella, Silvana; Nicosia, Simonetta; Folco, Giancarlo; Caciagli, Francesco; Di Iorio, Patrizia

    2004-09-01

    Cysteinyl-leukotrienes (cys-LTs), potent mediators in inflammatory diseases, are produced by nervous tissue, but their cellular source and role in the brain are not very well known. In this report we have demonstrated that rat cultured astrocytes express the enzymes (5'-lipoxygenase and LTC(4) synthase) required for cys-LT production, and release cys-LTs in resting condition and, to a greater extent, in response to calcium ionophore A23187, 1 h combined oxygen-glucose deprivation or 2-methyl-thioATP, a selective P2Y(1)/ATP receptor agonist. MK-886, a LT synthesis inhibitor, prevented basal and evoked cys-LT release. In addition, 2-methyl-thioATP-induced cys-LT release was abolished by suramin, a P2 receptor antagonist, or by inhibitors of ATP binding cassette proteins involved in cys-LT release. We also showed that astrocytes express cys-LT(1) and not cys-LT(2) receptors. The stimulation of these receptors by LTD(4) activated the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. This effect was: (i) insensitive to inhibitors of receptor-coupled Gi protein (pertussis toxin) or tyrosine kinase receptors (genistein); (ii) abolished by MK-571, a cys-LT(1) selective receptor antagonist, or PD98059, a MAPK inhibitor; (iii) reduced by inhibitors of calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinase II (KN-93), Ca(2+)-dependent and -independent (GF102903X) or Ca(2+)-dependent (Gö6976) protein kinase C isoforms. LTD(4) also increased astrocyte proliferation and glial fibrillary acidic protein content, which are considered hallmarks of reactive astrogliosis. Both effects were counteracted by cell pretreatment with MK-571 or PD98059. Thus, cys-LTs released from astrocytes might play an autocrine role in the induction of reactive astrogliosis that, in brain injuries, contributes to the formation of a reparative glial scar. PMID:15355318

  19. Convergent Rhythm Generation from Divergent Cellular Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, Jason C.; Blitz, Dawn M.

    2013-01-01

    Different modulatory inputs commonly elicit distinct rhythmic motor patterns from a central pattern generator (CPG), but they can instead elicit the same pattern. We are determining the rhythm-generating mechanisms in this latter situation, using the gastric mill (chewing) CPG in the crab (Cancer borealis) stomatogastric ganglion, where stimulating the projection neuron MCN1 (modulatory commissural neuron 1) or bath applying CabPK (C. borealis pyrokinin) peptide elicits the same gastric mill motor pattern, despite configuring different gastric mill circuits. In both cases, the core rhythm generator includes the same reciprocally inhibitory neurons LG (lateral gastric) and Int1 (interneuron 1), but the pyloric (food-filtering) circuit pacemaker neuron AB (anterior burster) is additionally necessary only for CabPK rhythm generation. MCN1 drives this rhythm generator by activating in the LG neuron the modulator-activated inward current (IMI), which waxes and wanes periodically due to phasic feedback inhibition of MCN1 transmitter release. Each buildup of IMI enables the LG neuron to generate a self-terminating burst and thereby alternate with Int1 activity. Here we establish that CabPK drives gastric mill rhythm generation by activating in the LG neuron IMI plus a slowly activating transient, low-threshold inward current (ITrans-LTS) that is voltage, time, and Ca2+ dependent. Unlike MCN1, CabPK maintains a steady IMI activation, causing a subthreshold depolarization in LG that facilitates a periodic postinhibitory rebound burst caused by the regular buildup and decay of the availability of ITrans-LTS. Thus, different modulatory inputs can use different rhythm-generating mechanisms to drive the same neuronal rhythm. Additionally, the same ionic current (IMI) can play different roles under these different conditions, while different currents (IMI, ITrans-LTS) can play the same role. PMID:24227716

  20. Community college biology majors: The dynamics of the successful community college transfer program. A comparative analysis of the program determinants which lead to high transfer success in community college biology transfer programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harlan, Ronald Keith

    1997-09-01

    Community Colleges in California have long been asked to fulfill a number of the state's different needs in higher education including the first two years of preparation for students who plan to transfer to universities and receive their baccalaureate. Transfer rates published since the 60's suggest that community colleges in the state have largely been failures at transferring students. Current data, however, show that biology majors programs at area colleges surrounding UCLA, the primary goal of biology majors, varied widely in their transfer success. This study compared two biology majors programs with high transfer success (HTS) with two programs with low transfer success (LTS). Qualitative methods were used in the analysis to establish common themes which existed at both the HTS and LTS programs. Methodology involved: site descriptions, participant-observation, document analysis, questionnaires, and interviews of faculty, staff, and students involved with the majors program. It was concluded that the HTS institutions shared many characteristics in common. Since California abolished district boundaries, eliminated guaranteed enrollment for colleges and created a free-flow situation, colleges have competed for students. In this study, students free-flowed from colleges in higher SES communities from inner city colleges in lower SES communities. Both HTS programs were at colleges in higher SES communities. They were responsive to the articulation demands of UCLA, had firm chemistry prerequisites, and were taught as two sequential courses. Programs had one faculty member who was clearly the head of the program and had been instrumental in the evolution of the program. HTS programs had high academic rigor and included a lab portion which was instrumental in bringing the students together with each other and with the faculty. Student collaboration involved academics, transfer information, and career information and lead to transfer momentum for the class. Faculty

  1. The Impact of Different Regimes in Estimating the Effects of Aerosols on Clouds. A Case Study over the Baltic Sea Countries.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saponaro, G.

    2015-12-01

    The present study investigates the use of long-term satellite data to assess the influence of aerosols upon cloud parameters over the Baltic Sea region. This particular area offers the contrast of a very clean environment (Fennoscandia) against a more polluted one (Germany, Poland). The datasets used in this study consist of Collection 6 Level 3 daily observations from 2002 to 2014 retrieved from observations by the NASA's Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) instrument on-board the Aqua platform. The MODIS aerosol optical depth (AOD) and aerosol index (AI) products are used as a proxy for the number concentration of aerosol particles while the cloud effective radius (CER) and cloud optical thickness (COT) describe cloud microphysical and optical properties respectively. Through the analysis of a 12-years dataset, distribution maps provide information on a regional scale about the first aerosol indirect effect (AIE) by determining the aerosol-cloud interaction (ACI). The ACI is defined as the change in cloud optical depth or effective radius as a function of aerosol load, for which AI is used as a proxy, for a fixed liquid water path (LWP). Reanalysis data from ECMWF, namely ERA-Interim, are used to estimate meteorological settings on a regional scale. The relative humidity (RH) and specific humidity (SH) are chosen at the pressure level of 950 hPa and they are linearly interpolated to match MODIS resolution of 1 x 1 deg. The Lower Tropospheric Stability (LTS) is computed from the ERA- Interim reanalysis data as the difference between the potential temperature at 700hPa and the surface. In order to better identify and interpret the AIE, this study proposes a framework where the interactions between aerosols and clouds are estimated by dividing the dataset into different regimes. Regimes are defined by: Liquid Water Path (LWP). The discrimination by LWP allows assessing the Twomey effect. The AIE is more evident when the LWP is lower. Aerosol loading

  2. Design Considerations of Fast-cycling Synchrotrons Based on Superconducting Transmission Line Magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Piekarz, H.; Hays, S.; Huang, Y.; Shiltsev, V.; /Fermilab

    2008-06-01

    Fast-cycling synchrotrons are key instruments for accelerator based nuclear and high-energy physics programs. We explore a possibility to construct fast-cycling synchrotrons by using super-ferric, {approx}2 Tesla B-field dipole magnets powered with a superconducting transmission line. We outline both the low temperature (LTS) and the high temperature (HTS) superconductor design options and consider dynamic power losses for an accelerator with operation cycle of 0.5 Hz. We also briefly outline possible power supply system for such accelerator, and discuss the quench protection system for the magnet string powered by a transmission line conductor.

  3. Leukotrienes in exhaled breath condensate and fractional exhaled nitric oxide in workers exposed to TiO2 nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Pelclova, Daniela; Zdimal, Vladimir; Kacer, Petr; Fenclova, Zdenka; Vlckova, Stepanka; Komarc, Martin; Navratil, Tomas; Schwarz, Jaroslav; Zikova, Nadezda; Makes, Otakar; Syslova, Kamila; Belacek, Jaroslav; Zakharov, Sergey

    2016-01-01

    Human health data regarding exposure to nanoparticles are extremely scarce and biomonitoring of exposure is lacking in spite of rodent pathological experimental data. Potential markers of the health-effects of engineered nanoparticles were examined in 30 workers exposed to TiO2 aerosol, 22 office employees of the same plant, and 45 unexposed controls. Leukotrienes (LT) B4, C4, E4, and D4 were analysed in the exhaled breath condensate (EBC) and urine via liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS). Fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) and spirometry was also measured. The median particle number concentration of the aerosol in the production ranged from 1.98  ×  10(4) to 2.32  ×  10(4) particles cm(-3); about 80% of the particles were  <100 nm in diameter. Median total mass concentration varied between 0.4 and 0.65 mg m(-3). All LT levels in workers' EBC were elevated relative to the controls (p  <  0.01). LTs in the EBC sample were correlated with titanium levels. Urinary LTs were not elevated in the workers and office employees. Office workers had higher LTB4 in EBC (p  <  0.05), and higher levels of FeNO (p  <  0.01). FeNO was higher in office employees with allergic diseases and was negatively correlated with smoking (p  <  0.01). In spirometry significant impairment in the workers was seen only for %VCIN and %PEF (both p  <  0.01). Multiple regression analysis confirmed a significant association between production of TiO2 and all cysteinyl LTs in EBC (p  <  0.01) and impaired %VCIN and %PEF (both p  <  0.01). LTB4 was also associated with smoking (p  <  0.01). LT levels complemented our earlier findings of DNA, protein, and lipid damage in the EBC of workers with nanoTiO2 exposures. Cysteinyl LTs in EBC analysis suggest inflammation and potential fibrotic changes in the lungs; they may be helpful for monitoring the biological

  4. NASA Quiet, Clean General Aviation Turbofan /QCGAT/ program status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bresnahan, D. L.; Sievers, G. K.

    1977-01-01

    Emissions pollution studies, noise studies, and engine performance studies and their place in QCGAT developmental program status are reported. The Lycoming TFE 731 turbofan engine, the GE T700-GE-700 high bypass ratio turbofan, and the AVCO-Lycoming LTS 101 turboshaft engine are prominent candidates in the tests for urban quiet turbofan service. Two phases in the program are characterized. Engine quieting, polluting emissions abatement, and fuel economies are particularly important for the anticipated rise in number of jet propulsion craft using smaller airports adjacent to communities accustomed to low noise/pollution backgrounds.

  5. Avco Lycoming QCGAT program design cycle, demonstrated performance and emissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fogel, P.; Koschier, A.

    1980-01-01

    A high bypass ratio, twin spool turbofan engine of modular design which incorporates a front fan module driven by a modified LTS101 core engine was tested. The engine is housed in a nacelle incorporating full length fan ducting with sound treatment in both the inlet and fan discharge flow paths. Design goals of components and results of component tests are presented together with full engine test results. The rationale behind the combustor design selected for the engine is presented as well as the emissions test results. Total system (engine and nacelle) test results are included.

  6. Detection and characterization of flaws in CFRP by SQUID gradiometer using evolutionary computation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kojima, F.; Kawai, R.; Kasai, N.; Hatsukade, H.

    2002-05-01

    This paper is concerned with a quantitative nondestructive evaluation of a carbon fiberglass reinforced plastic (CFRP) using the low temperature superconductor (LTS) SQUID gradiometer. The evaluation can be implemented by applying the alternative current injection to the CFRP with a defect. A 3D finite element code is developed for analyzing the SQUID based nondestructive system. Using the evolutionary programming, an efficient inverse scheme is proposed for recovering flaws in CFRP. The proposed algorithm is tested for the detection and characterization of flaws in the CFRP samples.

  7. Magnesium Diboride Flexible Flat Cables for Cryogenic Electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yung, Chris S.; Moeckly, Brian H.

    2011-06-01

    Magnesium diboride (MgB2) thin films are a potential alternative to low-temperature superconductors (LTS) due to a higher critical temperature (Tc) of approximately 39 K. The reactive evaporation deposition technique also affords relatively simple growth of MgB2 films on flexible substrates compared to high-temperature superconductors (HTS). We have designed and fabricated a cable architecture consisting of MgB2 traces on flexible yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) compatible with commercially available connectors or direct wirebonds. Key performance metrics such as critical current density (Jc) and Tc are measured and compared. We discuss thermal conductivity and passivation schemes for these cables.

  8. Social stress-induced hypothyroidism is attenuated by antidepressant treatment in rats.

    PubMed

    Olivares, Emerson L; Silva-Almeida, Cláudio; Pestana, Fernanda M; Sonoda-Côrtes, Rafael; Araujo, Iracema G; Rodrigues, Nayana C; Mecawi, André S; Côrtes, Wellington S; Marassi, Michelle P; Reis, Luis Carlos; Rocha, Fábio F

    2012-01-01

    Although serotonergic system has been classically implicated in mood modulation, there has been relatively little study on the relationship between this system and thyroid hormones (TH) economy in stress models. When TH are studied, the effects of stress on thyroid function seems to be complex and depend on the kind and time of stress which counts for the elusiveness of mechanisms underlying changes in TH economy. Herein, we hypothesized that serum TH are affected in a time-dependent fashion after repeated social stressful stimuli and serotonergic system is implicated in these changes. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the possible alterations in thyroid hormone economy and type 1 (D1) and type 2 (D2) deiodinase activity in a model of social defeat stress. Thereafter, we tested the responsiveness of these changes to fluoxetine treatment. Both short (STS) and a long-term (LTS) stress were performed. Blood samples were drawn just before and 1 (STS) or 4 and 8 weeks (LTS) after the beginning of stress to assess serum T4, T3 and corticosterone. Deiodinases activity was assessed at the end of each protocol. Stress-induced behavior studied in open field arena and hypercorticosteronemia were mainly observed in LTS (week 4). Stress-induced behavior was associated to hypothyroidism which occurred before, since week 1 in stressed group. Serum TH was restored to control levels in week 8, when behavior changes were not observed anymore, and was mainly associated with high brown adipose tissue D2 activity since thyroid and liver D1 activity were low or normal in the STS and LTS respectively in stressed rats compared to control. Antidepressant study revealed that fluoxetine treatment (10mg/kg po during four weeks) fully reversed stress-induced behavior and normalized serum T4, but not T3 levels and hypercorticosteronemia in stressed group compared to control. The current work adds new concepts concerning TH metabolism changes induced by social stress and suggests that

  9. Design of a Probe for Strain Sensitivity Studies of Critical Current Densities in SC Wires and Tapes

    SciTech Connect

    Dhanaraj, N.; Barzi, E.; Turrioni, D.; Rusy, A.; Lombardo, V.; /Fermilab

    2011-07-01

    The design of a variable-temperature probe used to perform strain sensitivity measurements on LTS wires and HTS wires and tapes is described. The measurements are intended to be performed at liquid helium temperatures (4.2 K). The wire or tape to be measured is wound and soldered on to a helical spring device, which is fixed at one end and subjected to a torque at the free end. The design goal is to be able to achieve {+-} 0.8 % strain in the wire and tape. The probe is designed to carry a current of 2000A.

  10. Accelerating spectral-element simulations of seismic wave propagation using local time stepping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peter, D. B.; Rietmann, M.; Galvez, P.; Nissen-Meyer, T.; Grote, M.; Schenk, O.

    2013-12-01

    Seismic tomography using full-waveform inversion requires accurate simulations of seismic wave propagation in complex 3D media. However, finite element meshing in complex media often leads to areas of local refinement, generating small elements that accurately capture e.g. strong topography and/or low-velocity sediment basins. For explicit time schemes, this dramatically reduces the global time-step for wave-propagation problems due to numerical stability conditions, ultimately making seismic inversions prohibitively expensive. To alleviate this problem, local time stepping (LTS) algorithms allow an explicit time-stepping scheme to adapt the time-step to the element size, allowing near-optimal time-steps everywhere in the mesh. Numerical simulations are thus liberated of global time-step constraints potentially speeding up simulation runtimes significantly. We present here a new, efficient multi-level LTS-Newmark scheme for general use with spectral-element methods (SEM) with applications in seismic wave propagation. We fit the implementation of our scheme onto the package SPECFEM3D_Cartesian, which is a widely used community code, simulating seismic and acoustic wave propagation in earth-science applications. Our new LTS scheme extends the 2nd-order accurate Newmark time-stepping scheme, and leads to an efficient implementation, producing real-world speedup of multi-resolution seismic applications. Furthermore, we generalize the method to utilize many refinement levels with a design specifically for continuous finite elements. We demonstrate performance speedup using a state-of-the-art dynamic earthquake rupture model for the Tohoku-Oki event, which is currently limited by small elements along the rupture fault. Utilizing our new algorithmic LTS implementation together with advances in exploiting graphic processing units (GPUs), numerical seismic wave propagation simulations in complex media will dramatically reduce computation times, empowering high

  11. Coupling potential of ICESat/GLAS and SRTM for the discrimination of forest landscape types in French Guiana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fayad, I.; Baghdadi, N.; Gond, V.; Bailly, J. S.; Barbier, N.; El Hajj, M.; Fabre, F.

    2014-12-01

    The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) has produced the most accurate nearly global elevation dataset to date. Over vegetated areas, the measured SRTM elevations are the result of a complex interaction between radar waves and tree crowns. In this study, waveforms acquired by the Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) were combined with SRTM elevations to discriminate the five forest landscape types (LTs) in French Guiana. Two differences were calculated: (1) penetration depth, defined as the GLAS highest elevations minus the SRTM elevations and (2) the GLAS centroid elevations minus the SRTM elevations. The results show that these differences were similar for the five LTs, and they increased as a function of the GLAS canopy height and of the SRTM roughness index. Next, a Random Forest (RF) classifier was used to analyze the coupling potential of GLAS and SRTM in the discrimination of forest landscape types in French Guiana. The parameters used in the RF classification were the GLAS canopy height, the SRTM roughness index, the difference between the GLAS highest elevations and the SRTM elevations and the difference between the GLAS centroid elevations and the SRTM elevations. Discrimination of the five forest landscape types in French Guiana was possible, with an overall classification accuracy of 81.3% and a kappa coefficient of 0.75. All forest LTs were well classified with an accuracy varying from 78.4% to 97.5%. Finally, differences of near coincident GLAS waveforms, one from the wet season and one from the dry season, were analyzed. The results showed that the open forest LT (LT12), in some locations, contains trees that lose leaves during the dry season. These trees allow LT12 to be easily discriminated from the other LTs that retain their leaves using the following three criteria: (1) difference between the GLAS centroid elevations and the SRTM elevations, (2) ratio of top energy in the wet season to top energy in the dry season, or (3) ratio of ground

  12. Electrophysiological characterization of neurons in the dorsolateral pontine REM sleep induction zone of the rat: intrinsic membrane properties and responses to carbachol and orexins

    PubMed Central

    Brown§, Ritchie E.; Winston, Stuart; Basheer, Radhika; Thakkar, Mahesh M; McCarley, Robert W.

    2006-01-01

    Pharmacological, lesion and single-unit recording techniques in several animal species have identified a region of the pontine reticular formation (Subcoeruleus, SubC) just ventral to the locus coeruleus as critically involved in the generation of rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep. However, the intrinsic membrane properties and responses of SubC neurons to neurotransmitters important in REM sleep control, such as acetylcholine and orexins/hypocretins, have not previously been examined in any animal species and thus were targeted in this study. We obtained whole-cell patch-clamp recordings from visually identified SubC neurons in rat brain slices in vitro. Two groups of large neurons (mean diameter 30 and 27μm) were tentatively identified as cholinergic (rostral SubC) and noradrenergic (caudal SubC) neurons. SubC reticular neurons (non-cholinergic, non-noradrenergic) showed a medium-sized depolarizing sag during hyperpolarizing current pulses and often had a rebound depolarization (low-threshold spike, LTS). During depolarizing current pulses they exhibited little adaptation and fired maximally at 30–90 Hz. Those SubC reticular neurons excited by carbachol (n=27) fired spontaneously at 6 Hz, often exhibited a moderately sized LTS, and varied widely in size (17–42 μm). Carbachol-inhibited SubC reticular neurons were medium-sized (15–25 μm) and constituted two groups. The larger group (n=22) was silent at rest and possessed a prominent LTS and associated 1–4 action potentials. The second, smaller group (n=8) had a delayed return to baseline at the offset of hyperpolarizing pulses. Orexins excited both carbachol excited and carbachol inhibited SubC reticular neurons. SubC reticular neurons had intrinsic membrane properties and responses to carbachol similar to those described for other reticular neurons but a larger number of carbachol inhibited neurons were found (> 50 %), the majority of which demonstrated a prominent LTS and may correspond to PGO-on neurons

  13. Digitizing the Administrative Records of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Environmental Management (Em) and Office of Legacy Management (LM) Ohio Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Powell, J.; Williams, K.; Walpole, S.; McKinney, R.

    2007-07-01

    As former weapons sites close and are transitioned to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management (LM), continued public involvement is essential for the successful turnover of long-term surveillance and maintenance (LTS and M) activities. During the environmental remediation process, public participation was a key factor in cleanup completion. The same level of commitment to encourage active public participation is true for the LTS and M activities at the LM sites, such as the Miamisburg Closure Project and the Fernald Closure Project. Community members participate in the transition and the decision-making processes for LTS and M as they did for the selection of response actions under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) cleanup process. [1] A key part of the post-closure activities for the Ohio Sites transitioning to LM from the DOE Office of Environmental Management (EM) is the preservation of site history and stakeholder involvement in the LTS and M activities that will continue during post-closure. In meeting the regulatory requirements of providing the CERCLA Administrative Record Reading Room for public access and to ensure that appropriate records are retrievable and available for all stakeholders, a decision was made to digitize the Miamisburg Closure Project and the Fernald Closure Project Administrative Records. This decision was, in part, based on the information and lessons learned from the digitization of the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) CERCLA Administrative Records (AR). The Ohio Sites effort was expanded to include the Living History Project from the Fernald Closure Project. In most cases, the CERCLA AR maintained by EM closure sites and transitioned to LM will provide adequate baselines for identifying and capturing the information required by LM for post-closure stewardship of the sites. The AR established under Section 113(k) [2] of CERCLA serves two primary

  14. Design and evaluation of an integrated Quiet, Clean General Aviation Turbofan (QCGAT) engine and aircraft propulsion system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    German, J.; Fogel, P.; Wilson, C.

    1980-01-01

    The design was based on the LTS-101 engine family for the core engine. A high bypass fan design (BPR=9.4) was incorporated to provide reduced fuel consumption for the design mission. All acoustic and pollutant emissions goals were achieved. A discussion of the preliminary design of a business jet suitable for the developed propulsion system is included. It is concluded that large engine technology can be successfully applied to small turbofans, and noise or pollutant levels need not be constraints for the design of future small general aviation turbofan engines.

  15. Compensation of kinematic geometric parameters error and comparative study of accuracy testing for robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Liang; Shi, Guangming; Guan, Weibin; Zhong, Yuansheng; Li, Jin

    2014-12-01

    Geometric error is the main error of the industrial robot, and it plays a more significantly important fact than other error facts for robot. The compensation model of kinematic error is proposed in this article. Many methods can be used to test the robot accuracy, therefore, how to compare which method is better one. In this article, a method is used to compare two methods for robot accuracy testing. It used Laser Tracker System (LTS) and Three Coordinate Measuring instrument (TCM) to test the robot accuracy according to standard. According to the compensation result, it gets the better method which can improve the robot accuracy apparently.

  16. Revisiting the Effect of Nicotine on Interval Timing

    PubMed Central

    Daniels, Carter W.; Watterson, Elizabeth; Garcia, Raul; Mazur, Gabriel J.; Brackney, Ryan J.; Sanabria, Federico

    2015-01-01

    This paper reviews the evidence for nicotine-induced acceleration of the internal clock when timing in the seconds-to-minutes timescale, and proposes an alternative explanation to this evidence: that nicotine reduces the threshold for responses that result in more reinforcement. These two hypotheses were tested in male Wistar rats using a novel timing task. In this task, rats were trained to seek food at one location after 8 s since trial onset and at a different location after 16 s. Some rats received the same reward at both times (group SAME); some received a larger reward at 16 s (group DIFF). Steady baseline performance was followed by 3 days of subcutaneous nicotine administration (0.3 mg/kg), baseline recovery, and an antagonist challenge (mecamylamine, 1.0 mg/kg). Nicotine induced a larger, immediate reduction in latencies to switch (LTS) in group DIFF than in group SAME. This effect was sustained throughout nicotine administration. Mecamylamine administration and discontinuation of nicotine rapidly recovered baseline performance. These results support a response-threshold account of nicotinic disruption of timing performance, possibly mediated by nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. A detailed analysis of the distribution of LTSs suggests that anomalous effects of nicotine on LTS dispersion may be due to loss of temporal control of behavior. PMID:25637907

  17. Update on leukotriene, lipoxin and oxoeicosanoid receptors: IUPHAR Review 7

    PubMed Central

    Bäck, Magnus; Powell, William S; Dahlén, Sven-Erik; Drazen, Jeffrey M; Evans, Jilly F; Serhan, Charles N; Shimizu, Takao; Yokomizo, Takehiko; Rovati, G Enrico

    2014-01-01

    The endogenous ligands for the LT, lipoxin (LX) and oxoeicosanoid receptors are bioactive products produced by the action of the lipoxygenase family of enzymes. The LT receptors BLT1 and BLT2, are activated by LTB4 and the CysLT1 and CysLT2 receptors are activated by the cysteinyl-LTs, whereas oxoeicosanoids exert their action through the OXE receptor. In contrast to these pro-inflammatory mediators, LXA4 transduces responses associated with the resolution of inflammation through the receptor FPR2/ALX (ALX/FPR2). The aim of the present review is to give a state of the field on these receptors, with focus on recent important findings. For example, BLT1 receptor signalling in cancer and the dual role of the BLT2 receptor in pro- and anti-inflammatory actions have added more complexity to lipid mediator signalling. Furthermore, a cross-talk between the CysLT and P2Y receptor systems has been described, and also the presence of novel receptors for cysteinyl-LTs, such as GPR17 and GPR99. Finally, lipoxygenase metabolites derived from ω-3 essential polyunsaturated acids, the resolvins, activate the receptors GPR32 and ChemR23. In conclusion, the receptors for the lipoxygenase products make up a sophisticated and tightly controlled system of endogenous pro- and anti-inflammatory signalling in physiology and pathology. PMID:24588652

  18. The appropriate parameter retrieval algorithm for feature-based SAR image registration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Dong; Zhang, Yunhua

    2012-09-01

    This paper is dedicated to investigate the appropriate parameter retrieval algorithm for feature-based synthetic aperture radar (SAR) image registration. The widely-used random sample consensus (RANSAC) is observed to be instable for its inappropriate estimation strategy and loss function for SAR images. In order to enable a stable and robust registration for SAR, an extended fast least trimmed squares (EF-LTS) is proposed which conducts the registration by least squares fitting at least half of the correspondences to minimize the squared polynomial residuals instead of fitting the minimal sampling set to maximize the cardinality of the consensus set as RANSAC. Experiment on interferometric SAR image pair demonstrates that the proposed algorithm behaves very stably and the obtained registration is averagely better than that by RANSAC in terms of cross-correlation and spectral SNR. By this algorithm, a stable estimation for any kind of 2D polynomial warp model with high robustness and accuracy can be efficiently achieved. Thus EF-LTS is more appropriate for SAR image registration.

  19. Analytical derivation of DC SQUID response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soloviev, I. I.; Klenov, N. V.; Schegolev, A. E.; Bakurskiy, S. V.; Kupriyanov, M. Yu

    2016-09-01

    We consider voltage and current response formation in DC superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) with overdamped Josephson junctions in resistive and superconducting state in the context of a resistively shunted junction (RSJ) model. For simplicity we neglect the junction capacitance and the noise effect. Explicit expressions for the responses in resistive state were obtained for a SQUID which is symmetrical with respect to bias current injection point. Normalized SQUID inductance l=2{{eI}}{{c}}L/{\\hslash } (where I c is the critical current of Josephson junction, L is the SQUID inductance, e is the electron charge and ℏ is the Planck constant) was assumed to be within the range l ≤ 1, subsequently expanded up to l≈ 7 using two fitting parameters. SQUID current response in the superconducting state was considered for arbitrary value of the inductance. The impact of small technological spread of parameters relevant to low-temperature superconductor (LTS) technology was studied, using a generalization of the developed analytical approach, for the case of a small difference of critical currents and shunt resistances of the Josephson junctions, and inequality of SQUID inductive shoulders for both resistive and superconducting states. Comparison with numerical calculation results shows that developed analytical expressions can be used in practical LTS SQUIDs and SQUID-based circuits design, e.g. large serial SQIF, drastically decreasing the time of simulation.

  20. The highs and lows of cloud radiative feedback: Comparing observational data and CMIP5 models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenney, A.; Randall, D. A.

    2014-12-01

    Clouds play a complex role in the climate system, and remain one of the more difficult aspects of the future climate to predict. Over subtropical eastern ocean basins, particularly next to California, Peru, and Southwest Africa, low marine stratocumulus clouds (MSC) help to reduce the amount of solar radiation that reaches the surface by reflecting incident sunlight. The climate feedback associated with these clouds is thought to be positive. This project looks at CMIP5 models and compares them to observational data from CERES and ERA-Interim to try and find observational evidence and model agreement for low, marine stratocumulus cloud feedback. Although current evidence suggests that the low cloud feedback is positive (IPCC, 2014), an analysis of the simulated relationship between July lower tropospheric stability (LTS) and shortwave cloud forcing in MSC regions suggests that this feedback is not due to changes in LTS. IPCC, 2013: Climate Change 2013: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Stocker, T.F., D. Qin, G.-K. Plattner, M. Tignor, S.K. Allen, J. Boschung, A. Nauels, Y. Xia, V. Bex and P.M. Midgley (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA, 1535 pp.

  1. A Multi-Period Optimization Model for Service Providers Using Online Reservation Systems: An Application to Hotels.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ming; Jiao, Yan; Li, Xiaoming; Cao, Qingfeng; Wang, Xiaoyang

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a multi-period optimization model for high margin and zero salvage products in online distribution channels with classifying customers based on number of products required. Taking hotel customers as an example, one is regular customers who reserve rooms for one day, and the other is long term stay (LTS) customers who reserve rooms for a number of days. LTS may guarantee a specific amount of demand and generate opportunity income for a certain number of periods, meanwhile with risk of punishment incurred by overselling. By developing an operational optimization model and exploring the effects of parameters on optimal decisions, we suggest that service providers should make decisions based on the types of customers, number of products required, and duration of multi-period to reduce the loss of reputation and obtain more profit; at the same time, multi-period buying customers should buy products early. Finally, the paper conducts a numerical experiment, and the results are consistent with prevailing situations. PMID:26147663

  2. Exhaled Eicosanoids following Bronchial Aspirin Challenge in Asthma Patients with and without Aspirin Hypersensitivity: The Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Mastalerz, L.; Sanak, M.; Kumik, J.; Gawlewicz-Mroczka, A.; Celejewska-Wójcik, N.; Ćmiel, A.; Szczeklik, A.

    2012-01-01

    Background. Special regulatory role of eicosanoids has been postulated in aspirin-induced asthma. Objective. To investigate effects of aspirin on exhaled breath condensate (EBC) levels of eicosanoids in patients with asthma. Methods. We determined EBC eicosanoid concentrations using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and high-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS2) or both. Determinations were performed at baseline and following bronchial aspirin challenge, in two well-defined phenotypes of asthma: aspirin-sensitive and aspirin-tolerant patients. Results. Aspirin precipitated bronchial reactions in all aspirin-sensitive, but in none of aspirin-tolerant patients (ATAs). At baseline, eicosanoids profile did not differ between both asthma groups except for lipoxygenation products: 5- and 15-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (5-, 15-HETE) which were higher in aspirin-induced asthma (AIA) than inaspirin-tolerant subjects. Following aspirin challenge the total levels of cysteinyl-leukotrienes (cys-LTs) remained unchanged in both groups. The dose of aspirin had an effect on magnitude of the response of the exhaled cys-LTs and prostanoids levels only in AIA subjects. Conclusion. The high baseline eicosanoid profiling of lipoxygenation products 5- and 15-HETE in EBC makes it possible to detect alterations in aspirin-sensitive asthma. Cysteinyl-leukotrienes, and eoxins levels in EBC after bronchial aspirin administration in stable asthma patients cannot be used as a reliable diagnostic index for aspirin hypersensitivity. PMID:22291720

  3. Bypass during Liver Transplantation: Anachronism or Revival? Liver Transplantation Using a Combined Venovenous/Portal Venous Bypass-Experiences with 163 Liver Transplants in a Newly Established Liver Transplantation Program.

    PubMed

    Mossdorf, Anne; Ulmer, Florian; Junge, Karsten; Heidenhain, Christoph; Hein, Marc; Temizel, Ilknur; Neumann, Ulf Peter; Schöning, Wenzel; Schmeding, Maximilian

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. The venovenous/portal venous (VVP) bypass technique has generally become obsolete in liver transplantation (LT) today. We evaluated our experience with 163 consecutive LTs that used a VVP bypass. Patients and Methods. The liver transplant program was started in our center in 2010. LTs were performed using an extracorporal bypass device. Results. Mean operative time was 269 minutes and warm ischemic time 43 minutes. The median number of transfusion of packed cells and plasma was 7 and 14. There was no intraoperative death, and the 30-day mortality was 3%. Severe bypass-induced complications did not occur. Discussion. The introduction of a new LT program requires maximum safety measures for all of the parties involved. Both surgical and anaesthesiological management (reperfusion) can be controlled very reliably using a VVP bypass device. Particularly when using marginal grafts, this approach helps to minimise both surgical and anaesthesiological complications in terms of less volume overload, less use of vasopressive drugs, less myocardial injury, and better peripheral blood circulation. Conclusion. Based on our experiences while establishing a new liver transplantation program, we advocate the reappraisal of the extracorporeal VVP bypass. PMID:25821462

  4. Bypass during Liver Transplantation: Anachronism or Revival? Liver Transplantation Using a Combined Venovenous/Portal Venous Bypass—Experiences with 163 Liver Transplants in a Newly Established Liver Transplantation Program

    PubMed Central

    Mossdorf, Anne; Ulmer, Florian; Junge, Karsten; Heidenhain, Christoph; Hein, Marc; Temizel, Ilknur; Neumann, Ulf Peter; Schöning, Wenzel; Schmeding, Maximilian

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. The venovenous/portal venous (VVP) bypass technique has generally become obsolete in liver transplantation (LT) today. We evaluated our experience with 163 consecutive LTs that used a VVP bypass. Patients and Methods. The liver transplant program was started in our center in 2010. LTs were performed using an extracorporal bypass device. Results. Mean operative time was 269 minutes and warm ischemic time 43 minutes. The median number of transfusion of packed cells and plasma was 7 and 14. There was no intraoperative death, and the 30-day mortality was 3%. Severe bypass-induced complications did not occur. Discussion. The introduction of a new LT program requires maximum safety measures for all of the parties involved. Both surgical and anaesthesiological management (reperfusion) can be controlled very reliably using a VVP bypass device. Particularly when using marginal grafts, this approach helps to minimise both surgical and anaesthesiological complications in terms of less volume overload, less use of vasopressive drugs, less myocardial injury, and better peripheral blood circulation. Conclusion. Based on our experiences while establishing a new liver transplantation program, we advocate the reappraisal of the extracorporeal VVP bypass. PMID:25821462

  5. Targeted deep resequencing of ALOX5 and ALOX5AP in patients with diabetes and association of rare variants with leukotriene pathways

    PubMed Central

    POSTULA, MAREK; JANICKI, PIOTR KAZIMIERZ; ROSIAK, MAREK; EYILETEN, CEREN; ZAREMBA, MAŁGORZATA; KAPLON-CIESLICKA, AGNIESZKA; SUGINO, SHIGEKAZU; KOSIOR, DARIUSZ ARTUR; OPOLSKI, GRZEGORZ; FILIPIAK, KRZYSZTOF JERZY; MIROWSKA-GUZEL, DAGMARA

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate a possible association between the accumulation of rare coding variants in the genes for arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase (ALOX5) and ALOX5-activating protein (ALOX5AP), and corresponding production of leukotrienes (LTs) in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) receiving acetylsalicylic therapy. Twenty exons and corresponding introns of the selected genes were resequenced in 303 DNA samples from patients with T2DM using pooled polymerase chain reaction amplification and next-generation sequencing, using an Illumina HiSeq 2000 sequencing system. The observed non-synonymous variants were further confirmed by individual genotyping of DNA samples comprising of all individuals from the original discovery pools. The association between the investigated phenotypes was based on LTB4 and LTE4 concentrations, and the accumulation of rare missense variants (genetic burden) in investigated genes was evaluated using statistical collapsing tests. A total of 10 exonic variants were identified for each resequenced gene, including 5 missense and 5 synonymous variants. The rare missense variants did not exhibit statistically significant differences in the accumulation pattern between the patients with low and high LTs concentrations. As the present study only included patients with T2DM, it is unclear whether the absence of observed association between the accumulation of rare missense variants in investigated genes and LT production is associated with diabetic populations only or may also be applied to other populations. PMID:27347071

  6. Space transfer vehicle concepts and requirements, volume 2, book 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The objective of the systems engineering task was to develop and implement an approach that would generate the required study products as defined by program directives. This product list included a set of system and subsystem requirements, a complete set of optimized trade studies and analyses resulting in a recommended system configuration, and the definition of an integrated system/technology and advanced development growth path. A primary ingredient in the approach was the TQM philosophy stressing job quality from the inception. Included throughout the Systems Engineering, Programmatics, Concepts, Flight Design, and Technology sections are data supporting the original objectives as well as supplemental information resulting from program activities. The primary result of the analyses and studies was the recommendation of a single propulsion stage Lunar Transportation System (LTS) configuration that supports several different operations scenarios with minor element changes. This concept has the potential to support two additional scenarios with complex element changes. The space based LTS concept consists of three primary configurations--Piloted, Reusable Cargo, and Expendable Cargo.

  7. Different kinetic properties of two T-type Ca2+ currents of rat reticular thalamic neurones and their modulation by enflurane

    PubMed Central

    Joksovic, Pavle M; Bayliss, Douglas A; Todorovic, Slobodan M

    2005-01-01

    Currents arising from T-type Ca2+ channels in nucleus reticularis thalami (nRT) play a critical role in generation of low-amplitude oscillatory bursting involving mutually interconnected cortical and thalamic neurones, and are implicated in the state of arousal and sleep, as well as seizures. Here we show in brain slices from young rats that two kinetically different T-type Ca2+ currents exist in nRT neurones, with a slowly inactivating current expressed only on proximal dendrites, and fast inactivating current predominantly expressed on soma. Nickel was about twofold more potent in blocking fast (IC50 64 μm) than slow current (IC50 107 μm). The halogenated volatile anaesthetic enflurane blocked both currents, but only the slowly inactivating current was affected in voltage-dependent fashion. Slow dendritic current was essential for generation of low-threshold Ca2+ spikes (LTS), and both enflurane and nickel also suppressed LTS and neuronal burst firing at concentrations that blocked isolated T currents. Differential kinetic properties of T currents expressed in cell soma and proximal dendrites of nRT neurones indicate that various subcellular compartments may exhibit different membrane properties in response to small membrane depolarizations. Furthermore, since blockade of two different T currents in nRT neurones by enflurane and other volatile anaesthetics occurs within concentrations that are relevant during clinical anaesthesia, our findings suggest that these actions could contribute to some important clinical effects of anaesthetics. PMID:15845580

  8. State Event Models for the Formal Analysis of Human-Machine Interactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Combefis, Sebastien; Giannakopoulou, Dimitra; Pecheur, Charles

    2014-01-01

    The work described in this paper was motivated by our experience with applying a framework for formal analysis of human-machine interactions (HMI) to a realistic model of an autopilot. The framework is built around a formally defined conformance relation called "fullcontrol" between an actual system and the mental model according to which the system is operated. Systems are well-designed if they can be described by relatively simple, full-control, mental models for their human operators. For this reason, our framework supports automated generation of minimal full-control mental models for HMI systems, where both the system and the mental models are described as labelled transition systems (LTS). The autopilot that we analysed has been developed in the NASA Ames HMI prototyping tool ADEPT. In this paper, we describe how we extended the models that our HMI analysis framework handles to allow adequate representation of ADEPT models. We then provide a property-preserving reduction from these extended models to LTSs, to enable application of our LTS-based formal analysis algorithms. Finally, we briefly discuss the analyses we were able to perform on the autopilot model with our extended framework.

  9. Legendre transform structure and extremal properties of the relative Fisher information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venkatesan, R. C.; Plastino, A.

    2014-04-01

    Variational extremization of the relative Fisher information (RFI, hereafter) is performed. Reciprocity relations, akin to those of thermodynamics are derived, employing the extremal results of the RFI expressed in terms of probability amplitudes. A time independent Schrödinger-like equation (Schrödinger-like link) for the RFI is derived. The concomitant Legendre transform structure (LTS, hereafter) is developed by utilizing a generalized RFI-Euler theorem, which shows that the entire mathematical structure of thermodynamics translates into the RFI framework, both for equilibrium and non-equilibrium cases. The qualitatively distinct nature of the present results vis-á-vis those of prior studies utilizing the Shannon entropy and/or the Fisher information measure (FIM, hereafter) is discussed. A principled relationship between the RFI and the FIM frameworks is derived. The utility of this relationship is demonstrated by an example wherein the energy eigenvalues of the Schrödinger-like link for the RFI are inferred solely using the quantum mechanical virial theorem and the LTS of the RFI.

  10. Printed peptide arrays identify prognostic TNC serumantibodies in glioblastoma patients

    PubMed Central

    Mock, Andreas; Warta, Rolf; Geisenberger, Christoph; Bischoff, Ralf; Schulte, Alexander; Lamszus, Katrin; Stadler, Volker; Felgenhauer, Thomas; Schichor, Christian; Schwartz, Christoph; Matschke, Jakob; Jungk, Christine; Ahmadi, Rezvan; Sahm, Felix; Capper, David; Glass, Rainer; Tonn, Jörg-Christian; Westphal, Manfred; von Deimling, Andreas; Unterberg, Andreas; Bermejo, Justo Lorenzo; Herold-Mende, Christel

    2015-01-01

    Liquid biopsies come of age offering unexploited potential to monitor and react to tumor evolution. We developed a cost-effective assay to non-invasively determine the immune status of glioblastoma (GBM) patients. Employing newly developed printed peptide microarrays we assessed the B-cell response against tumor-associated antigens (TAAs) in 214 patients. Firstly, sera of long-term (36+ months, LTS, n=10) and short-term (6-10 months, STS, n=14) surviving patients were screened for prognostic antibodies against 1745 13-mer peptides covering known TAAs (TNC, EGFR, GLEA2, PHF3, FABP5, MAGEA3). Next, survival associations were investigated in two retrospective independent multicenter validation sets (n=61, n=129, all IDH1-wildtype). Reliability of measurements was tested using a second array technology (spotted arrays). LTS/STS screening analyses identified 106 differential antibody responses. Evaluating the Top30 peptides in validation set 1 revealed three prognostic peptides. Prediction of TNC peptide VCEDGFTGPDCAE was confirmed in a second set (p=0.043, HR=0.66 [0.44-0.99]) and was unrelated to TNC protein expression. Median signals of printed arrays correlated with pre-synthesized spotted microarrays (p<0.0002, R=0.33). Multiple survival analysis revealed independence of age, gender, KPI and MGMT status. We present a novel peptide microarray immune assay that identified increased anti-TNC VCEDGFTGPDCAE serum antibody titer as a promising non-invasive biomarker for prolonged survival. PMID:25944688

  11. Towards a beyond 1 GHz solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance: External lock operation in an external current mode for a 500 MHz nuclear magnetic resonance

    SciTech Connect

    Takahashi, Masato; Maeda, Hideaki; Ebisawa, Yusuke; Tennmei, Konosuke; Yanagisawa, Yoshinori; Nakagome, Hideki; Hosono, Masami; Takasugi, Kenji; Hase, Takashi; Miyazaki, Takayoshi; Fujito, Teruaki; Kiyoshi, Tsukasa; Yamazaki, Toshio

    2012-10-15

    Achieving a higher magnetic field is important for solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). But a conventional low temperature superconducting (LTS) magnet cannot exceed 1 GHz (23.5 T) due to the critical magnetic field. Thus, we started a project to replace the Nb{sub 3}Sn innermost coil of an existing 920 MHz NMR (21.6 T) with a Bi-2223 high temperature superconducting (HTS) innermost coil. Unfortunately, the HTS magnet cannot be operated in persistent current mode; an external dc power supply is required to operate the NMR magnet, causing magnetic field fluctuations. These fluctuations can be stabilized by a field-frequency lock system based on an external NMR detection coil. We demonstrate here such a field-frequency lock system in a 500 MHz LTS NMR magnet operated in an external current mode. The system uses a {sup 7}Li sample in a microcoil as external NMR detection system. The required field compensation is calculated from the frequency of the FID as measured with a frequency counter. The system detects the FID signal, determining the FID frequency, and calculates the required compensation coil current to stabilize the sample magnetic field. The magnetic field was stabilized at 0.05 ppm/3 h for magnetic field fluctuations of around 10 ppm. This method is especially effective for a magnet with large magnetic field fluctuations. The magnetic field of the compensation coil is relatively inhomogeneous in these cases and the inhomogeneity of the compensation coil can be taken into account.

  12. Hellmann–Feynman connection for the relative Fisher information

    SciTech Connect

    Venkatesan, R.C.; Plastino, A.

    2015-08-15

    The (i) reciprocity relations for the relative Fisher information (RFI, hereafter) and (ii) a generalized RFI–Euler theorem are self-consistently derived from the Hellmann–Feynman theorem. These new reciprocity relations generalize the RFI–Euler theorem and constitute the basis for building up a mathematical Legendre transform structure (LTS, hereafter), akin to that of thermodynamics, that underlies the RFI scenario. This demonstrates the possibility of translating the entire mathematical structure of thermodynamics into a RFI-based theoretical framework. Virial theorems play a prominent role in this endeavor, as a Schrödinger-like equation can be associated to the RFI. Lagrange multipliers are determined invoking the RFI–LTS link and the quantum mechanical virial theorem. An appropriate ansatz allows for the inference of probability density functions (pdf’s, hereafter) and energy-eigenvalues of the above mentioned Schrödinger-like equation. The energy-eigenvalues obtained here via inference are benchmarked against established theoretical and numerical results. A principled theoretical basis to reconstruct the RFI-framework from the FIM framework is established. Numerical examples for exemplary cases are provided. - Highlights: • Legendre transform structure for the RFI is obtained with the Hellmann–Feynman theorem. • Inference of the energy-eigenvalues of the SWE-like equation for the RFI is accomplished. • Basis for reconstruction of the RFI framework from the FIM-case is established. • Substantial qualitative and quantitative distinctions with prior studies are discussed.

  13. The Philae Science Mission - A Preview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boehnhardt, H.; Bibring, J.-P.

    2014-04-01

    The PHILAE Science Mission is based on measurements from 10 scientific instruments, i.e. the α-particle and X-ray spectrometer APXS, the visible camera and near-infrared spectrometer CIVA, the radio sounding experiment CONSERT, the molecule mass spectrometer and gas chromatograph COSAC, the accelerometer and thermal probe MUPUS, the light elements and isotope mass spectrometer and gas chromatograph PTOLEMY, the down-looking camera ROLIS, the magnetometer and plasma package ROMAP, the drill system SD2, and the acoustic and electric probe and dust impact sensor SESAME. The measurements are performed during 4 mission phase, i.e. during the pre-landing phase (PDCS) while the lander is still attached to the ROSETTA orbiter, during the separation, descent and landing phase (SDL), during the First Science Sequence (FSS) within about 3 days after landing and during a Long-Term Science phase (LTS) which follows the FSS immediately or after a short hibernation period depending on the landing site and the related power situation of the lander. The PDCS and SDL phase only a subset of the lander instruments will be active with scientific measurements, i.e. CIVA, CONSERT, PTOLEMY, ROMAP and SESAME during PDCS and CIVA, CONSERT, ROLIS, and ROMAP during SDL. The FSS and LTS phases will utilize all 10 PHILAE instruments for science. The presentations provides an overview of the PHILAE observations during the various mission phases, outlines the expected results and comments on the impact of the landing sites for the PHILAE science.

  14. Detection of sputum eicosanoids in cystic fibrosis and in normal saliva by bioassay and radioimmunoassay.

    PubMed Central

    Zakrzewski, J T; Barnes, N C; Piper, P J; Costello, J F

    1987-01-01

    We have measured arachidonic acid (AA) metabolites, leukotrienes (LTs) and prostanoids (Ps), in sputum of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) and in normal saliva using bioassay and radioimmunoassay (RIA). Almost three times as much LTB4 is present in CF extracts compared with slow reacting substances (SRSs). Leukotrienes were not detected in normal saliva. In CF sputum there is a three-fold increase in the level of the vasodilator prostanoid prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and the stable metabolite of prostacyclin, 6-oxo PGF1 alpha compared with the vasoconstrictor prostaglandin F2 alpha (PGF2 alpha) and thromboxane B2 (TxB2), a hydrolysis product of thromboxane A2. Experiments with BW755c (25 micrograms ml-1, n = 3) indicated that the majority of this activity was not produced during the extraction procedure. The detection of LTs and Ps in sputum of CF patients shows that these substances are present at biologically active concentrations and may contribute to the pathophysiology of this disease. PMID:3028454

  15. Stable amorphous georgeite as a precursor to a high-activity catalyst.

    PubMed

    Kondrat, Simon A; Smith, Paul J; Wells, Peter P; Chater, Philip A; Carter, James H; Morgan, David J; Fiordaliso, Elisabetta M; Wagner, Jakob B; Davies, Thomas E; Lu, Li; Bartley, Jonathan K; Taylor, Stuart H; Spencer, Michael S; Kiely, Christopher J; Kelly, Gordon J; Park, Colin W; Rosseinsky, Matthew J; Hutchings, Graham J

    2016-03-01

    Copper and zinc form an important group of hydroxycarbonate minerals that include zincian malachite, aurichalcite, rosasite and the exceptionally rare and unstable--and hence little known and largely ignored--georgeite. The first three of these minerals are widely used as catalyst precursors for the industrially important methanol-synthesis and low-temperature water-gas shift (LTS) reactions, with the choice of precursor phase strongly influencing the activity of the final catalyst. The preferred phase is usually zincian malachite. This is prepared by a co-precipitation method that involves the transient formation of georgeite; with few exceptions it uses sodium carbonate as the carbonate source, but this also introduces sodium ions--a potential catalyst poison. Here we show that supercritical antisolvent (SAS) precipitation using carbon dioxide (refs 13, 14), a process that exploits the high diffusion rates and solvation power of supercritical carbon dioxide to rapidly expand and supersaturate solutions, can be used to prepare copper/zinc hydroxycarbonate precursors with low sodium content. These include stable georgeite, which we find to be a precursor to highly active methanol-synthesis and superior LTS catalysts. Our findings highlight the value of advanced synthesis methods in accessing unusual mineral phases, and show that there is room for exploring improvements to established industrial catalysts. PMID:26878237

  16. Stable amorphous georgeite as a precursor to a high-activity catalyst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondrat, Simon A.; Smith, Paul J.; Wells, Peter P.; Chater, Philip A.; Carter, James H.; Morgan, David J.; Fiordaliso, Elisabetta M.; Wagner, Jakob B.; Davies, Thomas E.; Lu, Li; Bartley, Jonathan K.; Taylor, Stuart H.; Spencer, Michael S.; Kiely, Christopher J.; Kelly, Gordon J.; Park, Colin W.; Rosseinsky, Matthew J.; Hutchings, Graham J.

    2016-03-01

    Copper and zinc form an important group of hydroxycarbonate minerals that include zincian malachite, aurichalcite, rosasite and the exceptionally rare and unstable—and hence little known and largely ignored—georgeite. The first three of these minerals are widely used as catalyst precursors for the industrially important methanol-synthesis and low-temperature water-gas shift (LTS) reactions, with the choice of precursor phase strongly influencing the activity of the final catalyst. The preferred phase is usually zincian malachite. This is prepared by a co-precipitation method that involves the transient formation of georgeite; with few exceptions it uses sodium carbonate as the carbonate source, but this also introduces sodium ions—a potential catalyst poison. Here we show that supercritical antisolvent (SAS) precipitation using carbon dioxide (refs 13, 14), a process that exploits the high diffusion rates and solvation power of supercritical carbon dioxide to rapidly expand and supersaturate solutions, can be used to prepare copper/zinc hydroxycarbonate precursors with low sodium content. These include stable georgeite, which we find to be a precursor to highly active methanol-synthesis and superior LTS catalysts. Our findings highlight the value of advanced synthesis methods in accessing unusual mineral phases, and show that there is room for exploring improvements to established industrial catalysts.

  17. Coherent and intermittent ensemble oscillations emerge from networks of irregular spiking neurons.

    PubMed

    Hoseini, Mahmood S; Wessel, Ralf

    2016-01-01

    Local field potential (LFP) recordings from spatially distant cortical circuits reveal episodes of coherent gamma oscillations that are intermittent, and of variable peak frequency and duration. Concurrently, single neuron spiking remains largely irregular and of low rate. The underlying potential mechanisms of this emergent network activity have long been debated. Here we reproduce such intermittent ensemble oscillations in a model network, consisting of excitatory and inhibitory model neurons with the characteristics of regular-spiking (RS) pyramidal neurons, and fast-spiking (FS) and low-threshold spiking (LTS) interneurons. We find that fluctuations in the external inputs trigger reciprocally connected and irregularly spiking RS and FS neurons in episodes of ensemble oscillations, which are terminated by the recruitment of the LTS population with concurrent accumulation of inhibitory conductance in both RS and FS neurons. The model qualitatively reproduces experimentally observed phase drift, oscillation episode duration distributions, variation in the peak frequency, and the concurrent irregular single-neuron spiking at low rate. Furthermore, consistent with previous experimental studies using optogenetic manipulation, periodic activation of FS, but not RS, model neurons causes enhancement of gamma oscillations. In addition, increasing the coupling between two model networks from low to high reveals a transition from independent intermittent oscillations to coherent intermittent oscillations. In conclusion, the model network suggests biologically plausible mechanisms for the generation of episodes of coherent intermittent ensemble oscillations with irregular spiking neurons in cortical circuits. PMID:26561602

  18. Development of A Thrust Stand to Meet LISA Mission Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willis, William D., III; Zakrzwski, C. M.; Bauer, Frank H. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    A thrust stand has been built and tested that is capable of measuring the force-noise produced by electrostatic micro-Newton (micro-Newton) thrusters. The LISA mission's Disturbance Reduction System (DRS) requires thrusters that are capable of producing continuous thrust levels between 1-100 micro-Newton with a resolution of 0.1 micro-Newton. The stationary force-noise produced by these thrusters must not exceed 0.1 pN/4Hz in a 10 Hz bandwidth. The LISA Thrust Stand (LTS) is a torsion-balance type thrust stand designed to meet the following requirements: stationary force-noise measurements from 10(exp-4) to 1 Hz with 0.1 micro-Newton resolution, absolute thrust measurements from 1-100 micro-Newton with better than 0.1 micro-Newton resolution, and dynamic thruster response from 10(exp -4) to 10 Hz. The ITS employs a unique vertical configuration, autocollimator for angular position measurements, and electrostatic actuators that are used for dynamic pendulum control and null-mode measurements. Force-noise levels are measured indirectly by characterizing the thrust stand as a spring-mass system. The LTS was initially designed to test the indium FEEP thruster developed by the Austrian Research Center in Seibersdorf (ARCS), but can be modified for testing other thrusters of this type.

  19. Leukotriene E(4) in urine in patients with asthma and COPD--the effect of smoking habit.

    PubMed

    Gaki, E; Papatheodorou, G; Ischaki, E; Grammenou, V; Papa, I; Loukides, S

    2007-04-01

    Leukotriene E(4) (LTE(4)) is implicated in asthma pathophysiology and possibly in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) as one of the causes of persistent bronchoconstriction and mucus hypersecretion. Cigarette smoking stimulates cysteinyl leukotrienes (CysLTs) production. We investigated whether LTE(4) is equally increased in asthma and COPD and whether smoking significantly affects LTE(4) levels. Secondary outcomes involved correlations with inflammatory and functional parameters. We studied 40 patients with COPD [20 smokers], 40 asthmatics [20 smokers] and 30 healthy subjects [15 smokers]. Spirometry (FEV(1)% pred., FEV(1)/FVC) was performed, urine was collected for measurement of LTE(4) and creatinine, induced sputum was collected for differential cell counts and serum for ECP. LTE(4)/creatinine levels (pg/mg) [mean (sd)] were increased in asthmatic patients compared to COPD and controls, [125.6(54.5) vs. 54.5(19) vs. 55.9(18.9)pg/mg, respectively, P<0.0001 for asthma]. Smoking significantly affects LTE(4) levels only in asthmatic patients [164 (48) vs. 87 (26.3), P<0.0001 for smokers]. The only significant correlation was between eosinophils in induced sputum and LTE(4)/creatinine levels in asthmatics. In conclusion, patients with asthma presented higher LTE(4) values compared to normals and patients with COPD. Smoking significantly affects LTE(4) values only in asthmatics indicating a different underlying CysLTs inflammatory process in this condition. PMID:16965907

  20. Genetic and Environmental Contributions to Behavioral Stability and Change in Children 6-36 months of Age Using Louisville Twin Study Data.

    PubMed

    Davis, Deborah Winders; Finkel, Deborah; Turkheimer, Eric; Dickens, William

    2015-11-01

    The Infant Behavior Record (IBR) from the Bayley Scales of Infant Development has been used to study behavioral development since the 1960s. Matheny (1983) examined behavioral development at 6, 12, 18, and 24 months from the Louisville Twin Study (LTS). The extracted temperament scales included Task Orientation, Affect-Extraversion, and Activity. He concluded that monozygotic twins were more similar than same-sex dizygotic twins on these dimensions. Since this seminal work was published, a larger LTS sample and more advanced analytical methods are available. In the current analyses, Choleksy decomposition was applied to behavioral data (n = 1231) from twins 6-36 months. Different patterns of genetic continuity vs genetic innovations were identified for each IBR scale. Single common genetic and shared environmental factors explained cross-age twin similarity in the Activity scale. Multiple shared environmental factors and a single genetic factor coming on line at age 18 months contributed to Affect-Extraversion. A single shared environmental factor and multiple genetic factors explained cross-age twin similarity in Task Orientation. PMID:26477572

  1. HLA-A11 is associated with poor prognosis in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL).

    PubMed

    Orgad, S; Cohen, I J; Neumann, Y; Vogel, R; Kende, G; Ramot, B; Zaizov, R; Gazit, E

    1988-12-01

    A possible association between HLA antigens, susceptibility or resistance to leukemia, and responsiveness to treatment has been studied in 144 patients with childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and compared to other prognostic factors, i.e. white blood cell (WBC) counts, age at onset, sex, ethnic origin, and cell surface markers. All sequentially newly diagnosed children (97) comprised the group for the prospective study (PSG) and were followed for 6 years. The group included 37 patients classified as T-ALL, 41 as CALLA+, 27 as NULL, 12 as B and pre-B, and 27 unclassified patients, who were diagnosed before 1980. During the follow-up period, 45 patients of the PSG died. Forty-seven patients designated long-term survivors (LTS) have been followed 6-20 years after diagnosis, having completed a 3-5 year course of anti-leukemia therapy, and having remained disease free thereafter. High WBC counts at diagnosis and T-cell-surface markers were associated with poor prognosis, as were enthnic origin and specific HLA antigens. Thus, there was one (1) a significant increase in HLA-A30 and a decrease in HLA B-14 in the PSG Jewish patients; and (2) a complete absence of HLA-ALL in LTS while, in the PSG, 8 of 9 HLA-All-positive patients died during the follow-up period. This suggests that HLA-All is associated with poor prognosis in childhood ALL. PMID:3199882

  2. Printed peptide arrays identify prognostic TNC serumantibodies in glioblastoma patients.

    PubMed

    Mock, Andreas; Warta, Rolf; Geisenberger, Christoph; Bischoff, Ralf; Schulte, Alexander; Lamszus, Katrin; Stadler, Volker; Felgenhauer, Thomas; Schichor, Christian; Schwartz, Christoph; Matschke, Jakob; Jungk, Christine; Ahmadi, Rezvan; Sahm, Felix; Capper, David; Glass, Rainer; Tonn, Jörg-Christian; Westphal, Manfred; von Deimling, Andreas; Unterberg, Andreas; Bermejo, Justo Lorenzo; Herold-Mende, Christel

    2015-05-30

    Liquid biopsies come of age offering unexploited potential to monitor and react to tumor evolution. We developed a cost-effective assay to non-invasively determine the immune status of glioblastoma (GBM) patients. Employing newly developed printed peptide microarrays we assessed the B-cell response against tumor-associated antigens (TAAs) in 214 patients. Firstly, sera of long-term (36+ months, LTS, n=10) and short-term (6-10 months, STS, n=14) surviving patients were screened for prognostic antibodies against 1745 13-mer peptides covering known TAAs (TNC, EGFR, GLEA2, PHF3, FABP5, MAGEA3). Next, survival associations were investigated in two retrospective independent multicenter validation sets (n=61, n=129, all IDH1-wildtype). Reliability of measurements was tested using a second array technology (spotted arrays). LTS/STS screening analyses identified 106 differential antibody responses. Evaluating the Top30 peptides in validation set 1 revealed three prognostic peptides. Prediction of TNC peptide VCEDGFTGPDCAE was confirmed in a second set (p=0.043, HR=0.66 [0.44-0.99]) and was unrelated to TNC protein expression. Median signals of printed arrays correlated with pre-synthesized spotted microarrays (p<0.0002, R=0.33). Multiple survival analysis revealed independence of age, gender, KPI and MGMT status. We present a novel peptide microarray immune assay that identified increased anti-TNC VCEDGFTGPDCAE serum antibody titer as a promising non-invasive biomarker for prolonged survival. PMID:25944688

  3. Aspirin-Exacerbated Respiratory Disease Involves a Cysteinyl Leukotriene-Driven IL-33-Mediated Mast Cell Activation Pathway.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tao; Kanaoka, Yoshihide; Barrett, Nora A; Feng, Chunli; Garofalo, Denise; Lai, Juying; Buchheit, Kathleen; Bhattacharya, Neil; Laidlaw, Tanya M; Katz, Howard R; Boyce, Joshua A

    2015-10-15

    Aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease (AERD), a severe eosinophilic inflammatory disorder of the airways, involves overproduction of cysteinyl leukotrienes (cysLTs), activation of airway mast cells (MCs), and bronchoconstriction in response to nonselective cyclooxygenase inhibitors that deplete homeostatic PGE2. The mechanistic basis for MC activation in this disorder is unknown. We now demonstrate that patients with AERD have markedly increased epithelial expression of the alarmin-like cytokine IL-33 in nasal polyps, as compared with polyps from aspirin-tolerant control subjects. The murine model of AERD, generated by dust mite priming of mice lacking microsomal PGE2 synthase (ptges(-/-) mice), shows a similar upregulation of IL-33 protein in the airway epithelium, along with marked eosinophilic bronchovascular inflammation. Deletion of leukotriene C4 synthase, the terminal enzyme needed to generate cysLTs, eliminates the increased IL-33 content of the ptges(-/-) lungs and sharply reduces pulmonary eosinophilia and basal secretion of MC products. Challenges of dust mite-primed ptges(-/-) mice with lysine aspirin induce IL-33-dependent MC activation and bronchoconstriction. Thus, IL-33 is a component of a cysLT-driven innate type 2 immune response that drives pathogenic MC activation and contributes substantially to AERD pathogenesis. PMID:26342029

  4. A Multi-Period Optimization Model for Service Providers Using Online Reservation Systems: An Application to Hotels

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Ming; Jiao, Yan; Li, Xiaoming; Cao, Qingfeng; Wang, Xiaoyang

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a multi-period optimization model for high margin and zero salvage products in online distribution channels with classifying customers based on number of products required. Taking hotel customers as an example, one is regular customers who reserve rooms for one day, and the other is long term stay (LTS) customers who reserve rooms for a number of days. LTS may guarantee a specific amount of demand and generate opportunity income for a certain number of periods, meanwhile with risk of punishment incurred by overselling. By developing an operational optimization model and exploring the effects of parameters on optimal decisions, we suggest that service providers should make decisions based on the types of customers, number of products required, and duration of multi-period to reduce the loss of reputation and obtain more profit; at the same time, multi-period buying customers should buy products early. Finally, the paper conducts a numerical experiment, and the results are consistent with prevailing situations. PMID:26147663

  5. Recent Developments in DOE FUSRAP - 13014

    SciTech Connect

    Clayton, Christopher; Kothari, Vijendra; Hooten, Gwen; Starr, Ken; Bahrke, Cheri; Gillespie, Joey; Widdop, Michael; Darr, Bob

    2013-07-01

    The DOE Office of Legacy Management assumed responsibility for the DOE FUSRAP in 2003. Since then, DOE has evaluated existing guidance and program needs to ensure that the program will remain effective in maintaining protectiveness at remediated FUSRAP sites. DOE has identified crucial elements that must be addressed to meet this goal. Knowledge of the sites and the program must be preserved and accessible to future custodians. Program processes must be defined and coordinated with other agencies. Long-term surveillance and maintenance (LTS and M) requirements for the sites must be based on human health risk and regulatory compliance, and those requirements must be well defined. Useful and accurate program information must be available to stakeholders. DOE has addressed these needs through development of a comprehensive program plan, an LTS and M plan for each completed FUSRAP site, a records finding aid, and a public information web site. These developments help ensure that the current knowledge is preserved and passed on to future custodians and stakeholders. (authors)

  6. Visible, Durable, Enforceable Institutional Controls: Weldon Spring Site - A 10-Year Journey - 13190

    SciTech Connect

    Uhlmeyer, Terri; Thompson, Randy; Starr, Ken

    2013-07-01

    The DOE Office of Legacy Management's (LM's) mission is to manage the DOE's post-closure responsibilities and ensure the future protection of human health and the environment. LM has control and custody of legacy land, structures, and facilities and is responsible for maintaining them at levels suitable for their long-term use. This includes all engineered and institutional controls (ICs) designed as another level of assurance to prevent exposure to residual contamination and waste. The development and management of ICs has been, and continues to be, a critical component to the success of LM surveillance and maintenance activities. Many major federal laws, Executive Orders, regulations, and various other drivers influence the establishment and use of ICs at LM sites. LM uses a wide range of ICs to appropriately limit access to, or uses of, land, facilities, and other real and personal properties; protect the environment; maintain the physical safety and security of DOE facilities; and prevent or limit inadvertent human and environmental exposure to residual contaminants and other hazards. The ICs at the Weldon Spring, Missouri, Site were developed in close coordination with federal and state regulators. An Explanation of Significant Differences (ESD) was issued in February 2005, which clarified the use restrictions necessary for the remedial actions specified in the Records of Decision for the separate operable units to remain protective over the long-term. The operable units included the Chemical Plant Operable Unit, the Chemical Plant Groundwater Operable Unit, and the Quarry Residuals Operable Unit. The ESD clarified specific requirements for each site area that needed use restrictions and established how DOE would implement, maintain, and monitor the specific requirements. DOE developed the Long-Term Surveillance and Maintenance Plan for the U.S. Department of Energy Weldon Spring, Missouri, Site (LTS and M Plan) that addressed the full scope of the site

  7. Tannin is a key factor in the determination and prediction of energy content in sorghum grains fed to growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Pan, L; Li, P; Ma, X K; Xu, Y T; Tian, Q Y; Liu, L; Li, D F; Piao, X S

    2016-07-01

    This study was conducted to determine and compare the DE and ME content as well as the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of GE in 28 samples of sorghum grain fed to growing pigs and to generate prediction equations for DE, ME, and the ATTD of GE based on chemical analysis. The 28 samples included 8 low-tannin sorghum cultivars (LTS; tannin ≤ 0.16%), 10 medium-tannin sorghum cultivars (MTS: 0.67% ≤ tannin ≤ 0.98%), and 10 high-tannin sorghum cultivars (HTS; 1.11% ≤ tannin ≤ 1.51%) obtained from 9 provinces in China and 3 samples of LTS cultivars were obtained internationally. The 28 diets were formulated to contain 96.9% of 1 of the 28 sorghum grains and 3.1% of vitamins and minerals. Eighty-four barrows (36.5 ± 3.4 kg initial BW) were used in a randomized complete block design conducted during 2 consecutive periods ( = 6 per treatment) with the pigs fed different diets during the 2 periods. For each period, pigs were placed in metabolic crates for a 5-d total collection of feces and urine following 7 d of adaptation to the diets. Among the 28 samples, GE, CP, and ADF content (DM basis) ranged from 4,363 to 4,496 kcal/kg, 8.26 to 13.41%, and 3.26 to 5.78%, respectively. The average tannin content was 0.08, 0.84, and 1.29% in the LTS, MTS, and HTS samples, respectively. The DE and ME content (DM basis) ranged from 3,861 to 3,989 and from 3,784 to 3,905 kcal/kg, respectively, in LTS; from 3,646 to 3,740 and from 3,588 to 3,669 kcal/kg, respectively, in MTS; and from 3,481 to 3,617 and from 3,418 to 3,538 kcal/kg, respectively, in HTS. The mean DE, ME, DE/GE, ME/GE, and ATTD of GE in MTS were less than those in LTS ( < 0.05) and greater than those in HTS ( < 0.05). The correlation coefficients between DE, ME, or the ATTD of GE and tannin content were all -0.96 ( < 0.01). The best-fit equations for DE and ME (kcal/kg DM) for the complete set of 28 sorghum grains were 6,974 - (236 × % tannin) - (43.27 × % ADF) + (24.96 × % CP) - (0.71 × % GE) for

  8. Electrophysiology of the mammillary complex in vitro. II. Medial mammillary neurons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alonso, A.; Llinas, R. R.

    1992-01-01

    1. The electrophysiological properties of guinea pig medial mammillary body (MMB) neurons were studied using an in vitro slice preparation. 2. The neurons (n = 80) had an average resting potential of -57 +/- 5.5 (SD) mV, an input resistance of 176 +/- 83 M omega, and a spike amplitude of 58 +/- 15.7 mV. Most of the neurons were silent at rest (n = 52), but some fired spontaneous single spikes (n = 16) or spike bursts (n = 14). 3. The main electrophysiological characteristic of MMB neurons was the ability to generate Ca(2+)-dependent regenerative events, which resulted in very robust burst responses. However, this regenerative event was not the same for all neurons, ranging from typical low-threshold Ca2+ spikes (LTSs) to intermediate-threshold plateau potentials (ITPs). 4. The ITPs were distinct from the LTSs in that they lasted > or = 100 ms and were not inactivated at membrane potentials at or positive to -55 mV. 5. Some cells with a prominent ITP and no LTS (n = 36) displayed repetitive, usually rhythmic, bursting (n = 14). This ITP could be powerful enough to maintain rhythmic membrane potential oscillations after pharmacological block of Na+ conductances. 6. A group of 32 MMB neurons displayed complex bursting that was generated by activation of both LTSs and ITPs. This was established on the basis of their distinct time- and voltage-dependent characteristics. In a group of neurons (n = 14), the burst responses were exclusively generated by an LTS; however, a Ca(2+)-dependent plateau potential contributed to the generation of rebound-triggered oscillatory firing. 7. In addition to the Ca(2+)-dependent LTS and/or ITP, MMB neurons always displayed high-threshold Ca2+ spikes after reduction of K+ conductances with tetraethylammonium. 8. MMB neurons display one of the richer varieties of voltage-dependent Ca2+ conductances so far encountered in mammalian CNS. We propose that the very prominent endogenous bursting and oscillatory properties of MB neurons allow this

  9. Low-Level Cloud Variability over the Equatorial Cold Tongue in Observations and Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mansbach, David K.; Norris, Joel R.

    2007-01-01

    A fourth paper now in press is, Low-level cloud variability over the equatorial cold tongue in observations and models, by D. K. Mansbach and J. R. Norris (2007, J. Climate). This study examined cloud and meteorological observations from satellite, surface, and reanalysis datasets and fount that monthly anomalies in low-level cloud amount and near-surface temperature advection are strongly negatively correlated on the southern side of the equatorial Pacific cold tongue. This inverse correlation occurs independently of relationships between cloud amount and sea surface temperature (SST) or lower tropospheric static stability (LTS) and the combination of advection plus SST or LTS explains significantly more interannual cloud variability in a multilinear regression than does SST or LTS alone. Warm anomalous advection occurs when the equatorial cold tongue is well defined and the southeastern Pacific trade winds bring relatively warm air over colder water. Ship meteorological reports and soundings show that the atmospheric surface layer becomes stratified under these conditions, thus inhibiting the upward mixing of moisture needed to sustain cloudiness against subsidence and entrainment drying. Cold anomalous advection primarily occurs when the equatorial cold tongue is weak or absent and the air-sea temperature difference is substantially negative. These conditions favor a more convective atmospheric boundary layer, greater cloud amount, and less frequent occurrence of clear sky. Examination of output from global climate models developed by the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL) and the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) indicates that both models generally fail to simulate the cloud-advection relationships observed on the northern and southern sides of the equatorial cold tongue. Although the GFDL atmosphere model does reproduce the expected signs of cloud-advection correlations when forced with prescribed historical SST variations, it does not

  10. Screw insertion in trabecular bone causes peri-implant bone damage.

    PubMed

    Steiner, Juri A; Ferguson, Stephen J; van Lenthe, G Harry

    2016-04-01

    Secure fracture fixation is still a major challenge in orthopedic surgery, especially in osteoporotic bone. While numerous studies have investigated the effect of implant loading on the peri-implant bone after screw insertion, less focus has been put on bone damage that may occur due to the screw insertion process itself. Therefore, the aim of this study was to localize and quantify peri-implant bone damage caused by screw insertion. We used non-invasive three-dimensional micro-computed tomography to scan twenty human femoral bone cores before and after screw insertion. After image registration of the pre- and post-insertion scans, changes in the bone micro-architecture were identified and quantified. This procedure was performed for screws with a small thread size of 0.3mm (STS, N=10) and large thread size of 0.6mm (LTS, N=10). Most bone damage occurred within a 0.3mm radial distance of the screws. Further bone damage was observed up to 0.6mm and 0.9mm radial distance from the screw, for the STS and LTS groups, respectively. While a similar amount of bone damage was found within a 0.3mm radial distance for the two screw groups, there was significantly more bone damage for the LTS group than the STS group in volumes of interest between 0.3-0.6mm and 0.6-0.9mm. In conclusion, this is the first study to localize and quantify peri-implant bone damage caused by screw insertion based on a non-invasive, three-dimensional, micro-CT imaging technique. We demonstrated that peri-implant bone damage already occurs during screw insertion. This should be taken into consideration to further improve primary implant stability, especially in low quality osteoporotic bone. We believe that this technique could be a promising method to assess more systematically the effect of peri-implant bone damage on primary implant stability. Furthermore, including peri-implant bone damage due to screw insertion into patient-specific in silico models of implant-bone systems could improve the

  11. Aggressive Locoregional Treatment Improves the Outcome of Liver Metastases from Grade 3 Gastroenteropancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors.

    PubMed

    Du, Shunda; Ni, Jianjiao; Weng, Linqian; Ma, Fei; Li, Shaohua; Wang, Wenze; Sang, Xinting; Lu, Xin; Zhong, Shouxian; Mao, Yilei

    2015-08-01

    Grade 3 (G3) gastroenteropancreatic (GEP) neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) are rare, and there is no report specifically dealing with patients of liver metastases from G3 GEP NETs.From January 2004 to January 2014, 36 conservative patients with G3 GEP NET liver metastases were retrospectively identified from 3 hepatobiliary centers in China. The clinical features and treatment outcomes were analyzed.Aggressive locoregional treatments (LT, including cytoreductive surgery, radiofrequency ablation, and liver-directed intra-arterial intervention) and systemic therapy (ST) were introduced separately or combined, with 26 (72%) patients receiving resection of primary tumor and/or hepatic metastases, 12 patients receiving non-surgical locoregional interventions (NSLRIs), and 22 patients receiving certain kind of STs. Median overall survival (OS) was 20.0 months (95% confidence interval [CI]: 8.9-31.1 months) and survival rates were 62.6%, 30.1%, and 19.8%, at 1, 3, and 5 years, respectively. The median OS was 9.0 months (95%CI: 3.3-14.7 months) for patients receiving only STs (n = 6), 19 months (95%CI: 1.3-36.8 months) for patients receiving LT followed by STs (n = 16), and 101 months (95%CI: 0.0-210.2 months) for patients receiving only LT (n = 12). Moreover, compared with those receiving only ST or best supportive care, patients given certain types of LTs had higher rates of symptom alleviation (3/8 versus 20/23). On univariate analysis, positive prognostic factors of survival were pancreatic primary tumor (P = 0.013), normal total bilirubin level (P = 0.035), receiving surgery (P = 0.034), receiving NSLRI (P = 0.014), and sum of diameters of remnant tumor < 5 cm (P = 0.008). On multivariate analyses, pancreatic primary tumor (P = 0.015), normal total bilirubin level (P = 0.002), and sum of diameters of remnant tumor < 5 cm (P = 0.001) remained to be independent prognostic factors.For patients with G3 GEP NET liver

  12. Small Space Launch: Origins & Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freeman, T.; Delarosa, J.

    2010-09-01

    The United States Space Situational Awareness capability continues to be a key element in obtaining and maintaining the high ground in space. Space Situational Awareness satellites are critical enablers for integrated air, ground and sea operations, and play an essential role in fighting and winning conflicts. The United States leads the world space community in spacecraft payload systems from the component level into spacecraft, and in the development of constellations of spacecraft. In the area of launch systems that support Space Situational Awareness, despite the recent development of small launch vehicles, the United States launch capability is dominated by an old, unresponsive and relatively expensive set of launchers in the Expandable, Expendable Launch Vehicles (EELV) platforms; Delta IV and Atlas V. The United States directed Air Force Space Command to develop the capability for operationally responsive access to space and use of space to support national security, including the ability to provide critical space capabilities in the event of a failure of launch or on-orbit capabilities. On 1 Aug 06, Air Force Space Command activated the Space Development & Test Wing (SDTW) to perform development, test and evaluation of Air Force space systems and to execute advanced space deployment and demonstration projects to exploit new concepts and technologies, and rapidly migrate capabilities to the warfighter. The SDTW charged the Launch Test Squadron (LTS) with the mission to develop the capability of small space launch, supporting government research and development space launches and missile defense target missions, with operationally responsive spacelift for Low-Earth-Orbit Space Situational Awareness assets as a future mission. This new mission created new challenges for LTS. The LTS mission tenets of developing space launches and missile defense target vehicles were an evolution from the squadrons previous mission of providing sounding rockets under the Rocket

  13. Prostaglandin D2 and leukotriene E4 synergize to stimulate diverse TH2 functions and TH2 cell/neutrophil crosstalk

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Luzheng; Fergusson, Joannah; Salimi, Maryam; Panse, Isabel; Ussher, James E.; Hegazy, Ahmed N.; Vinall, Shân L.; Jackson, David G.; Hunter, Michael G.; Pettipher, Roy; Ogg, Graham; Klenerman, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Background Prostaglandin D2 (PGD2) and cysteinyl leukotrienes (cysLTs) are lipid mediators derived from mast cells, which activate TH2 cells. The combination of PGD2 and cysLTs (notably cysteinyl leukotriene E4 [LTE4]) enhances TH2 cytokine production. However, the synergistic interaction of cysLTs with PGD2 in promoting TH2 cell activation is still poorly understood. The receptors for these mediators are drug targets in the treatment of allergic diseases, and hence understanding their interaction is likely to have clinical implications. Objective We aimed to comprehensively define the roles of PGD2, LTE4, and their combination in activating human TH2 cells and how such activation might allow the TH2 cells to engage downstream effectors, such as neutrophils, which contribute to the pathology of allergic responses. Methods The effects of PGD2, LTE4, and their combination on human TH2 cell gene expression were defined by using a microarray, and changes in specific inflammatory pathways were confirmed by means of PCR array, quantitative RT-PCR, ELISA, Luminex, flow cytometry, and functional assays, including analysis of downstream neutrophil activation. Blockade of PGD2 and LTE4 was tested by using TM30089, an antagonist of chemoattractant receptor-homologous molecule expressed on TH2 cells, and montelukast, an antagonist of cysteinyl leukotriene receptor 1. Results PGD2 and LTE4 altered the transcription of a wide range of genes and induced diverse functional responses in TH2 cells, including cell adhesion, migration, and survival and cytokine production. The combination of these lipids synergistically or additively enhanced TH2 responses and, strikingly, induced marked production of diverse nonclassical TH2 inflammatory mediators, including IL-22, IL-8, and GM-CSF, at concentrations sufficient to affect neutrophil activation. Conclusions PGD2 and LTE4 activate TH2 cells through different pathways but act synergistically to promote multiple downstream effector

  14. Regulation of leukotrienes in the management of asthma: biology and clinical therapy.

    PubMed

    Leff, A R

    2001-01-01

    Leukotrienes (LTs) are the ultimate synthetic product resulting from the intracellular hydrolysis of membrane phospholipid at the nuclear envelope in inflammatory cells. Activated cytosolic phospholipase (cPLA2) catalyzes the production of arachidonic acid, which is converted by cyclooxygenases into leukotriene A4 (LTA4) and subsequently into the chemotaxin LTB4, which has no direct bronchoconstrictor activity. In certain inflammatory cells, LTA4 is converted into the cysteinyl leukotriene (cysLT) LTC4, which is converted into LTD4 and finally to LTE4 after extracellular transport. All cysLTs occupy the same receptors and are extremely potent bronchoconstricting agents that are pathogenetic in both asthma and allergy. With the identification of the structure of the cysLT receptor, antileukotriene therapies have been developed that either (a) inhibit synthesis of leukotriene (through 5-lipoxygenase inhibition) or (b) block the cysLT receptor. Preliminary investigations indicate that corticosteroids also may partially block the synthesis of cysLT and that cysLTs may be chemotactic for other inflammatory cells, e.g. eosinophils, by a mechanism that has not yet been defined. Currently, anti-LT therapies are approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) only for patients with asthma. These drugs generally are moderately efficacious agents, although they are highly efficacious in aspirin-induced asthma (AIA). In other forms of asthma, inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) therapy has been more effective than anti-LT therapy in improving air flow obstruction. However, anti-LT agents are additive to beta-adrenoceptor and ICS in their effects. Accordingly, anti-LT therapies are used frequently as supplemental treatments in asthmatic patients whose asthma is not optimally controlled by a combination of other drugs, including long-acting beta-adrenoceptor drugs and ICS agents. The growth of leukotriene receptor antagonists (LTRAs) has been extraordinary in the United States

  15. Regulation of rotenone-induced microglial activation by 5-lipoxygenase and cysteinyl leukotriene receptor 1.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiao-Yan; Chen, Lu; Yang, Yi; Xu, Dong-Min; Zhang, Si-Ran; Li, Chen-Tan; Zheng, Wei; Yu, Shu-Ying; Wei, Er-Qing; Zhang, Li-Hui

    2014-07-14

    The 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX) products cysteinyl leukotrienes (CysLTs) are potent pro-inflammatory mediators. CysLTs mediate their biological actions through activating CysLT receptors (CysLT(1)R and CysLT(2)R). We have recently reported that 5-LOX and CysLT(1)R mediated PC12 cell injury induced by high concentrations of rotenone (0.3-10 μM), which was reduced by the selective 5-LOX inhibitor zileuton and CysLT(1)R antagonist montelukast. The purpose of this study was to examine the regulatory roles of the 5-LOX/CysLT(1)R pathway in microglial activation induced by low concentration rotenone. After mouse microglial BV2 cells were stimulated with rotenone (0.3-3 nM), phagocytosis and release of pro-inflammatory cytokine were assayed as indicators of microglial activation. We found that rotenone (1 and 3 nM) increased BV2 microglial phagocytosis and the release of the pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). Zileuton and montelukast prevented rotenone (3 nM)-induced phagocytosis and cytokine release. Furthermore, rotenone significantly up-regulated 5-LOX expression, induced 5-LOX translocation to the nuclear envelope, and increased the production of CysLTs. These responses were inhibited by zileuton. Rotenone also increased CysLT(1)R expression and induced nuclear translocation of CysLT(1)R. In primary rat microglia, rotenone (10 nM) increased release of IL-1β and TNF-α, whereas zileuton (0.1 μΜ) and montelukast (0.01 μΜ) significantly inhibited this response. These results indicated that 5-LOX and CysLT(1)R might be key regulators of microglial activation induced by low concentration of rotenone. Interference of 5-LOX/CysLT(1)R pathway may be an effective therapeutic strategy for microglial inflammation. PMID:24858057

  16. Exploring Best Practices for Research Data Management in Earth Science through Collaborating with University Libraries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, T.; Branch, B. D.

    2013-12-01

    Earth Science research data, its data management, informatics processing and its data curation are valuable in allowing earth scientists to make new discoveries. But how to actively manage these research assets to ensure them safe and secure, accessible and reusable for long term is a big challenge. Nowadays, the data deluge makes this challenge become even more difficult. To address the growing demand for managing earth science data, the Council on Library and Information Resources (CLIR) partners with the Library and Technology Services (LTS) of Lehigh University and Purdue University Libraries (PUL) on hosting postdoctoral fellows in data curation activity. This inter-disciplinary fellowship program funded by the SLOAN Foundation innovatively connects university libraries and earth science departments and provides earth science Ph.D.'s opportunities to use their research experiences in earth science and data curation trainings received during their fellowship to explore best practices for research data management in earth science. In the process of exploring best practices for data curation in earth science, the CLIR Data Curation Fellows have accumulated rich experiences and insights on the data management behaviors and needs of earth scientists. Specifically, Ting Wang, the postdoctoral fellow at Lehigh University has worked together with the LTS support team for the College of Arts and Sciences, Web Specialists and the High Performance Computing Team, to assess and meet the data management needs of researchers at the Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences (EES). By interviewing the faculty members and graduate students at EES, the fellow has identified a variety of data-related challenges at different research fields of earth science, such as climate, ecology, geochemistry, geomorphology, etc. The investigation findings of the fellow also support the LTS for developing campus infrastructure for long-term data management in the sciences. Likewise

  17. CO2 SELECTIVE CERAMIC MEMBRANE FOR WATER-GAS-SHIFT REACTION WITH CONCOMITANT RECOVERY OF CO2

    SciTech Connect

    Paul K.T. Liu

    2005-07-15

    A high temperature membrane reactor (MR) has been developed to enhance the water-gas-shift (WGS) reaction efficiency with concomitant CO{sub 2} removal for sequestration. This improved WGS-MR with CO{sub 2} recovery capability is ideally suitable for integration into the Integrated Gasification Combined-Cycle (IGCC) power generation system. Two different CO{sub 2}-affinity materials were selected in this study. The Mg-Al-CO{sub 3}-layered double hydroxide (LDH) was investigated as an adsorbent or a membrane for CO{sub 2} separation. The adsorption isotherm and intraparticle diffusivity for the LDH-based adsorbent were experimentally determined, and suitable for low temperature shift (LTS) of WGS. The LDH-based membranes were synthesized using our commercial ceramic membranes as substrate. These experimental membranes were characterized comprehensively in terms of their morphology, and CO{sub 2} permeance and selectivity to demonstrate the technical feasibility. In parallel, an alternative material-base membrane, carbonaceous membrane developed by us, was characterized, which also demonstrated enhanced CO{sub 2} selectivity at the LTS-WGS condition. With optimization on membrane defect reduction, these two types of membrane could be used commercially as CO{sub 2}-affinity membranes for the proposed application. Based upon the unique CO{sub 2} affinity of the LDHs at the LTS/WGS environment, we developed an innovative membrane reactor, Hybrid Adsorption and Membrane Reactor (HAMR), to achieve {approx}100% CO conversion, produce a high purity hydrogen product and deliver a concentrated CO{sub 2} stream for disposal. A mathematical model was developed to simulate this unique one -step process. Finally a benchtop reactor was employed to generate experimental data, which were consistent with the prediction from the HAMR mathematical model. In summary, the project objective, enhancing WGS efficiency for hydrogen production with concomitant CO{sub 2} removal for

  18. Final Report Spacially-Resolved Diagnostics and Modeling of Micro-Discharges

    SciTech Connect

    Vincent M. Donnelly; Demetre J. Economou

    2012-08-09

    measurements were in good agreement with simulation predictions. Finally, laser scattering experiments were performed at pressures of 100s of Torr in argon or nitrogen. Laser Thomson Scattering (LTS) and Rotational Raman Scattering were employed in a novel, backscattering, confocal configuration. LTS allows direct and simultaneous measurement of both electron density (ne) and electron temperature (Te). For 50 mA current and over the pressure range of 300-700 Torr, LTS yielded Te = 0.9 {+-} 0.3 eV and ne = (6 {+-} 3) 1013 cm-3, in reasonable agreement with the predictions of a mathematical model. Rotational Raman spectroscopy (RRS) was employed for absolute calibration of the LTS signal. RRS was also applied to measure the 3D gas temperature (Tg) in nitrogen DC microdischarges. In addition, diode laser absorption spectroscopy was employed to measure the density of argon metastables (1s5 in Paschen notations) in argon microdischarges. The gas temperature, extracted from the width of the absorption profile, was compared with Tg values obtained by optical emission spectroscopy.

  19. Design considerations for fast-cycling superconducting accelerator magnets of 2 T B-field generated by a transmission line conductor of up to 100 kA current

    SciTech Connect

    Piekarz, Henryk; Hays, Steven; Huang, Yuenian; Kashikhin, Vadim; de Rijk, Gijsbert; Rossi, Lucio; /CERN

    2007-08-01

    Recently proposed synchrotrons, SF-SPS at CERN and DSF-MR at Fermilab, would operate with a 0.5 Hz cycle (or 2 second time period) while accelerating protons to 480 GeV. We examine possibilities of superconducting magnet technology that would allow for an accelerator quality magnetic field sweep of 2 T/s. For superconducting magnets the cryogenic cooling power demand due to AC losses in the superconductor leads to a high operational cost. We outline a novel magnet technology based on HTS superconductors that may allow to reduce AC losses in the magnet coil possibly up to an order of magnitude as compared to similar applications based on LTS type superconductors.

  20. Syngas Conditioning

    SciTech Connect

    Dagle, Robert A.; Karim, Ayman M.; Li, Guosheng; Su, Yu; King, David L.

    2011-04-29

    A brief review of water gas shift (WGS) catalysis is provided. An overview of the four general classes of WGS catalysts is presented, which include: 1) high temperature shift (HTS), 2) low temperature shift (LTS), 3) sulfur-tolerant shift catalysts, and 4) precious metal-based shift catalysts. A review of WGS utilizing monoliths or other reactor technologies that pertain to fuel cell applications, an area of increasing interest over the past several years, is also presented. Ratnasamy and Wagner have recently provided an outstanding and comprehensive review of WGS catalysis. A particular emphasis of that work is “catalyst surface structures, active sites, reaction intermediates, and mechanisms”, particularly for noble metal-based catalysts1. The summary provided here is a succinct review of water gas shift catalysis and reactors, with an emphasis on fuel processing applications for fuel cells, and is not intended to provide a comprehensive review of WGS technology.

  1. Laser-tracking interferometer system based on trilateration and a restriction on the position of its laser trackers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takatsuji, Toshiyuki; Koseki, Yoshihiko; Goto, Mitsuo; Kurosawa, Tomizo; Tanimura, Yoshihisa

    1998-07-01

    To measure three dimensional coordinate we have been developing a laser tracking interferometer system (LTS). Four laser interferometers chase the movement of a target cat's eye and measure the change in distance between them. The position of the cat's eye is determined from the measured distances based on the principle of trilateration. Taking advantage of measurement redundancy produced by the fourth tracker, the position of the trackers and the initial position of the cat's eye can be estimated by a self-calibration algorithm. A restriction on the arrangement of the laser trackers to perform the self-calibration algorithm is theoretically studied. Finally a preliminary experiment was made to show the measurement error of about 40 micrometers for a 1 m measurement.

  2. An optimized rotating helium-recondensing system using Roebuck refrigerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Sangkw. O. O. N.; Lee, C.

    1999-09-01

    This paper describes an optimized design of the helium-recondensing system utilizing cascade Roebuck refrigerators. A superconducting generator or motor has a superconducting field winding in its rotor that should be continuously cooled by cryogen. Liquid helium transfer from the stationary system to the rotor of the LTS (Low Temperature Superconductor) superconducting generator has been problematic, cumbersome, and inefficient. The novel concept of a rotating helium-recondensing system is contrived. The vaporized cold helium inside the rotor is isothermally compressed by centrifugal force and recondensed to 4.2 K reservoir through the expansion process. There is no helium coupling between the rotor and the stationary liquid helium storage. Thermodynamic analysis of the cascade refrigeration system is performed to determine the optimum key design parameters. The loss mechanisms are also described to point out the sources that might reduce the system performance.

  3. Shortening the Defrost Time on a Heat Pump Air Conditioner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuwahara, Eiji; Yamazaki, Masaya; Kawamura, Toshiaki

    Methods to shorten the defrost time have been studied on a heat pump air conditioner. The experiment has been carried out using a 0.75kW heat pump and the energy balance during defrosting has been analyzed. We have found that the following methods are effective to shorten the defrost time; (1) Increase in power inqut to the compressor during defrosting, (2) Utilization of the compressor for thermal energy storage, (3) Reduction of the water left on the outdoor heat exchanger fins. The heat pump with the new defrosting system has been made on an experimental basis. lts defrost time is 1 minute and 55 seconds under the defrost condition of the Japanese Industrial Standard. The defrost time of a conventional heat pump is about 4 or 5 minutes.

  4. Poisoning of 'binthamburu' (Ipomoea asarifolia) due to misidentification as 'kankun' (Ipomoea aquatica).

    PubMed

    Ratnatilaka, A; Yakandawala, D; Rupasinghe, N; Ratnayake, K

    2010-06-01

    Ingestion of 'Binthamburu' (Ipomoea asarifolia) by misidentification as 'kankun' (Ipomoea aquatica) as a leafy vegetable causes acute gastrointestinal symptoms and confusion. The authors have encountered four such cases in the past. All cases have been recorded from the dry zone of the country. Both plants are two trailing vines similar in their appearance and preferring the wet habitats. During the course of the day when exposed to sunlight, 'binthamburu' leaves mimic 'kankun' leaves by folding the leaf margins making it difficult to separate the two during harvest and only a closer examination will reveal the difference in their leaf shapes. Ipomoea asarifolia toxicity in human has not been recorded but animal toxicity in North Brazil due to ingestion of Ipomoea asarifolia had been investigated and linked to a toxic substance identified as lectin or LTS. PMID:20645546

  5. Immunomodulatory treatments for aspirin exacerbated respiratory disease

    PubMed Central

    Moebus, Rachel G.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Aspirin triad is a subclass of chronic sinusitis characterized by nasal polyposis, nonallergic induced asthma, and aspirin sensitivity. Also known as Samter's triad or aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease, aspirin triad commonly affects the adult population and is seldom found in pediatric patients. Methods: This rhinosinusitis has multiple layers of pathological process, but the ultimate predicament is caused by cysteinyl leukotrienes (cysLTs). Results: Pharmacotherapies include oral steroid, lipoxygenase inhibitor, and cysLT receptor inhibitor drugs, which can provide some relief for these patients. Conclusion: Immunomodulation via aspirin desensitization is considered when pharmacotherapy has failed. When aspirin triad is unmanageable with medical treatment alone, endoscopic sinus surgery with polypectomy can alleviate the patient's symptoms, allowing for a better response to postoperative medical management such as topical medication as well as delivery of topical medications. PMID:22487291

  6. A three-axis SQUID-based absolute vector magnetometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schönau, T.; Zakosarenko, V.; Schmelz, M.; Stolz, R.; Anders, S.; Linzen, S.; Meyer, M.; Meyer, H.-G.

    2015-10-01

    We report on the development of a three-axis absolute vector magnetometer suited for mobile operation in the Earth's magnetic field. It is based on low critical temperature dc superconducting quantum interference devices (LTS dc SQUIDs) with sub-micrometer sized cross-type Josephson junctions and exhibits a white noise level of about 10 fT/Hz1/2. The width of superconducting strip lines is restricted to less than 6 μm in order to avoid flux trapping during cool-down in magnetically unshielded environment. The long-term stability of the flux-to-voltage transfer coefficients of the SQUID electronics is investigated in detail and a method is presented to significantly increase their reproducibility. We further demonstrate the long-term operation of the setup in a magnetic field varying by about 200 μT amplitude without the need for recalibration.

  7. The 2013 Workshop on Electromagnetic and Mechanical Effects in Superconductors (MEM13) The 2013 Workshop on Electromagnetic and Mechanical Effects in Superconductors (MEM13)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, Neil

    2013-11-01

    The 2013 MEM workshop is the sixth in the series and proved to be one of the largest, with over 60 participants and over 40 presentations. Only a small selection of these presentations have progressed from PowerPoint to a reviewed paper accepted for publication in Superconductor Science and Technology (SUST). However, the dynamics of a good workshop should not be judged solely by the output of high quality papers. The interplay between electromagnetic and mechanical effects in superconductors is proving to be one of the critical issues in understanding the factors that dominate the practical application of not only the more traditional low temperature superconductors (LTS) but also, perhaps surprisingly, the high temperature superconductors (HTS) materials too. The lessons learned in the design and the diagnostic techniques which have been developed for LTS now overlap into the HTS field. The MEM13 workshop provided an opportunity for informal discussion across these fields, to the benefit of all. The topics of the workshop were selected to allow, as far as practically possible, co-presentation of LTS and HTS materials, as follows: Electro-mechanical effects on practical conductor performance. Analysis of electro-mechanical effects. Diagnosis of electro-mechanical effects. Strain dependence. Simulations and standardized tests for electro-mechanical effects. Microstructure, properties and sensitivity. Coated conductors. Manufacture of LTS and HTS conductors. The papers were wide ranging, covering basic manufacturing issues through to sophisticated testing and advanced diagnosis tools. The MEM13 workshop provided many papers based on the ITER construction, and diagnoses using the large quantity of data available from the industrial scale fabrication and testing of ITER conductors, as well as papers on the frontiers of HTS industrial technologies. It was clear that the huge industrial fabrication of Nb3Sn conductors for ITER, and the associated test programmes, have

  8. Causal-Path Local Time-Stepping in the discontinuous Galerkin method for Maxwell's equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angulo, L. D.; Alvarez, J.; Teixeira, F. L.; Pantoja, M. F.; Garcia, S. G.

    2014-01-01

    We introduce a novel local time-stepping technique for marching-in-time algorithms. The technique is denoted as Causal-Path Local Time-Stepping (CPLTS) and it is applied for two time integration techniques: fourth-order low-storage explicit Runge-Kutta (LSERK4) and second-order Leap-Frog (LF2). The CPLTS method is applied to evolve Maxwell's curl equations using a Discontinuous Galerkin (DG) scheme for the spatial discretization. Numerical results for LF2 and LSERK4 are compared with analytical solutions and the Montseny's LF2 technique. The results show that the CPLTS technique improves the dispersive and dissipative properties of LF2-LTS scheme.

  9. Infrared readout electronics; Proceedings of the Meeting, Orlando, FL, Apr. 21, 22, 1992

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fossum, Eric R.

    The present volume on IR readout electronics discusses cryogenic readout using silicon devices, cryogenic readout using III-V and LTS devices, multiplexers for higher temperatures, and focal-plane signal processing electronics. Attention is given to the optimization of cryogenic CMOS processes for sub-10-K applications, cryogenic measurements of aerojet GaAs n-JFETs, inP-based heterostructure device technology for ultracold readout applications, and a three-terminal semiconductor-superconductor transimpedance amplifier. Topics addressed include unfulfilled needs in IR astronomy focal-plane readout electronics, IR readout integrated circuit technology for tactical missile systems, and radiation-hardened 10-bit A/D for FPA signal processing. Also discussed are the implementation of a noise reduction circuit for spaceflight IR spectrometers, a real-time processor for staring receivers, and a fiber-optic link design for INMOS transputers.

  10. Current status and actual need for pediatric liver transplantation in Southern Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Tu Cam; Robert, Annie; Nguyen, Phuong Van Ngoc; Nguyen, Ngoc Minh; Truong, Dinh Quang; Goyens, Philippe; Reding, Raymond

    2016-03-01

    Liver transplantation (LT) has considerably improved the outcome of patients with end-stage liver disease, especially in children. The first pediatric LT in Vietnam was performed in 2004. To assess the current need for pediatric LT in Southern Vietnam, a total of 280 patients with chronic liver disease followed at Children's Hospital 2 (Ho Chi Minh City), the only pediatric LT center in this region, were evaluated from January 2009 to June 2014. Sixty-seven patients satisfied criteria for LT but only one transplant surgery occurred since 2009. Parental consent for LT was obtained only in 28.4% of patients. The main reasons for the small number of LTs were financial costs, far distance from home, lifelong follow-up and treatment, and shortage of organ donors. We conclude that the current need for pediatric LT in Southern Vietnam is high. Efforts should be made to develop the liver transplant program in this developing country. PMID:26715071

  11. Montelukast reduces seizures in pentylenetetrazol-kindled mice

    PubMed Central

    Fleck, J.; Temp, F.R.; Marafiga, J.R.; Jesse, A.C.; Milanesi, L.H.; Rambo, L.M.; Mello, C.F.

    2016-01-01

    Cysteinyl leukotrienes (CysLTs) have been implicated in seizures and kindling; however, the effect of CysLT receptor antagonists on seizure frequency in kindled animals and changes in CysLT receptor expression after pentylenetetrazol (PTZ)-induced kindling have not been investigated. In this study, we evaluated whether the CysLT1 inverse agonist montelukast, and a classical anticonvulsant, phenobarbital, were able to reduce seizures in PTZ-kindled mice and alter CysLT receptor expression. Montelukast (10 mg/kg, sc) and phenobarbital (20 mg/kg, sc) increased the latency to generalized seizures in kindled mice. Montelukast increased CysLT1 immunoreactivity only in non-kindled, PTZ-challenged mice. Interestingly, PTZ challenge decreased CysLT2 immunoreactivity only in kindled mice. CysLT1 antagonists appear to emerge as a promising adjunctive treatment for refractory seizures. Nevertheless, additional studies are necessary to evaluate the clinical implications of this research. PMID:26909785

  12. Circuit modeling of multimode semiconductor lasers and the effect of fiber dispersion on the intensity modulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamath, K. K.; Vaya, P. R.

    1992-12-01

    A c irclAl: L mode 1 for Laser diodes based ort nu I C z. mode ra t e eqtiat tons i. s presert t ed hre. be I ay 1 i ries are cornec t ed aL the outpt nodes iduch provide de Lays corresponding to reLative propaation de 1 ays D7i for L aser Lorii LILdZ. ia I modes L!. . ) . n w optical fiber. Th(s modeL s(iruLat. d lASCfl3 th* c(reut s(nwLa LLOTt pacha6e SPICE2. The results were compared with those resuLts by the dtrect rtv soLution of th muLti mode rate equations.

  13. Optical Properties of Human Cancer and Normal Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sander, Christopher; Sun, Nan; Johnson, Jeffrey; Stack, Sharon; Tanner, Carol; Ruggiero, Steven

    2014-03-01

    We have investigated the optical properties of human oral and ovarian cancer and normal cells. Specifically, we have measured the absolute optical extinction for both whole cells and intra-cellular material in aqueous suspension. Measurements were conducted over a wavelength range of 250 to 1000nm with 1 nm resolution using Light Transmission Spectroscopy (LTS). This provides both the absolute extinction of materials under study and, with Mie inversion, the absolute number of particles of a given diameter as a function of diameter in the range of 1 to 3000 nm. Our preliminary studies show significant differences in both the extinction and particle size distributions associated with cancer versus normal cells, which appear to be correlated with differences in the particle size distribution in the range of ~ 50 to 250 nm.

  14. Development of high magnetic field superconducting magnet technology and applications in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qiuliang; Dai, Yingming; Zhao, Baozhi; Song, Shouseng; Lei, Yuanzhong; Wang, Houseng; Ye, Bai; Hu, Xinning; Huang, Tianbing; Wang, Hui; He, Chu; Shang, Muxi; Wang, Chao; Cui, Chunyan; Zhao, Shangwu; Zhang, Quan; Diao, Yanhua; Peng, Yan; Xu, Guoxin; Deng, Fanping; Weng, Peide; Kuang, Guangli; Gao, Bingjun; Lin, Liangzhen; Yan, Luguang

    2007-07-01

    High magnetic field superconducting magnet technology has been developed in the recent years for all kinds of applications in China. The superconducting magnets on the basis of the conduction-cooled high (HTS) and lower temperature superconductor (LTS) through GM cryocooler are designed, fabricated and operated for the magnetic separator, superconducting magnet energy storage system (SMES), material processing, gyrotron, electromagnetic launcher, space anti-matter detection, magnetic surgery system (MSS), heavy ion accelerator dipole magnet and test bed for characteristics of superconducting material in Institute of Electrical Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences (IEECAS). The EAST superconducting Tokamak is being fabricated in Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences. In the paper, we report the successful development of high magnetic field superconducting magnet technology in China. Some new research projects, such as 40 T hybrid magnet, 25 T high magnetic field superconducting magnet, split-pair magnets for the pallation Neutron Source, high temperature superconducting coils for MSS and MRI are introduced.

  15. FINAL REPORT. DOE Grant Award Number DE-SC0004062

    SciTech Connect

    Chiesa, Luisa

    2015-07-15

    With the support of the DOE-OFES Early Career Award and the Tufts startup support the PI has developed experimental and analytical expertise on the electromechanical characterization of Low Temperature Superconductor (LTS) and High Temperature Superconductor (HTS) for high magnetic field applications. These superconducting wires and cables are used in fusion and high-energy physics magnet applications. In a short period of time, the PI has built a laboratory and research group with unique capabilities that include both experimental and numerical modeling effort to improve the design and performance of superconducting cables and magnets. All the projects in the PI’s laboratory explore the fundamental electromechanical behavior of superconductors but the types of materials, geometries and operating conditions are chosen to be directly relevant to real machines, in particular fusion machines like ITER.

  16. Space Weather - Current Capabilities, Future Requirements, and the Path to Improved Forecasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mann, Ian

    2016-07-01

    We present an overview of Space Weather activities and future opportunities including assessments of current status and capabilities, knowledge gaps, and future directions in relation to both observations and modeling. The review includes input from the scientific community including from SCOSTEP scientific discipline representatives (SDRs), COSPAR Main Scientific Organizers (MSOs), and SCOSTEP/VarSITI leaders. The presentation also draws on results from the recent activities related to the production of the COSPAR-ILWS Space Weather Roadmap "Understanding Space Weather to Shield Society" [Schrijver et al., Advances in Space Research 55, 2745 (2015) http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.asr.2015.03.023], from the activities related to the United Nations (UN) Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space (COPUOS) actions in relation to the Long-term Sustainability of Outer Space (LTS), and most recently from the newly formed and ongoing efforts of the UN COPUOS Expert Group on Space Weather.

  17. Advanced Manufacturing of Superconducting Magnets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Senti, Mark W.

    1996-01-01

    The development of specialized materials, processes, and robotics technology allows for the rapid prototype and manufacture of superconducting and normal magnets which can be used for magnetic suspension applications. Presented are highlights of the Direct Conductor Placement System (DCPS) which enables automatic design and assembly of 3-dimensional coils and conductor patterns using LTS and HTS conductors. The system enables engineers to place conductors in complex patterns with greater efficiency and accuracy, and without the need for hard tooling. It may also allow researchers to create new types of coils and patterns which were never practical before the development of DCPS. The DCPS includes a custom designed eight-axis robot, patented end effector, CoilCAD(trademark) design software, RoboWire(trademark) control software, and automatic inspection.

  18. Bipolar affective disorder and Parkinson's disease: a rare, insidious and often unrecognized association.

    PubMed

    Cannas, A; Spissu, A; Floris, G L; Congia, S; Saddi, M V; Melis, M; Mascia, M M; Pinna, F; Tuveri, A; Solla, P; Milia, A; Giagheddu, M; Tacconi, P

    2002-09-01

    Five patients (4 women) with Parkinson's disease (PD) and primary major psychiatric disorder (PMPD) meeting DSM-IV criteria for the diagnosis of bipolar affective disorder (BAD) were studied. Four patients had early onset PD. Four developed a severe psychiatric disorder a few years after starting dopaminergic therapy in presence of a mild motor disability and a mild cognitive impairment, with no evidence of cerebral atrophy at CT or MRI. Two patients developed a clear manic episode; the other three presented a severe depressive episode (in one case featuring a Cotard syndrome). None showed previous signs of long term L-dopa treatment syndrome (LTS), hallucinosis or other minor psychiatric disorders. The two manic episodes occurred shortly after an increase of dopaminergic therapy and in one case rapid cyclic mood fluctuations were observed. At the onset of psychiatric symptoms, all patients had an unspecific diagnosis of chronic delusional hallucinatory psychosis (CDHP). PMID:12548347

  19. The Lethality Test System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parsons, W. M.; Sims, J. R.; Parker, J. V.

    1986-11-01

    The Lethality Test System (LTS) under construction at Los Alamos is an electromagnetic launcher facility designed to perform impact experiments at velocities up to 15 km/sec. The launcher is a 25 mm round bore, plasma armature railgun 22 m in length. Preinjection is accomplished with a two-stage light gas gun capable of 7 km/sec. The railgun power supply utilizes traction motors, vacuum interrupters, and pulse transformers. An assembly of 28 traction motors, equipped with flywheels, stores approximately 80 MJ at 92 percent of full speed and energizes the primary windings of three pulse transformers at a current of 50 kA. At peak current an array of vacuum interrupters disconnects the transformer primary windings and forces the current to flow in the secondary windings. The secondary windings are connected to the railgun, and by staging the vacuum interrupter openings, a 1-1.3 MA ramped current waveform will be delivered to the railgun.

  20. Lethality test system

    SciTech Connect

    Parsons, W.M.; Sims, J.R.; Parker, J.V.

    1986-01-01

    The Lethality Test System (LTS), presently under construction at Los Alamos, is an electromagnetic launcher facility designed to perform impact experiments at velocities up to 15 km/s. The launcher is a 25 mm round bore, plasma armature railgun extending 22 m in length. Preinjection is accomplished with a two-stage gas gun capable of 7 km/s. The railgun power supply utilizes traction motors, vacuum interrupters, and pulse transformers. An assembly of 28 traction motors, equipped with flywheels, stores approximately 80 MJ at 92% of full speed and energizes the primary windings of three pulse transformers at a current of 50 kA. At peak current an array of vacuum interrupters disconnects the transformer primary windings and forces the current to flow in the secondary windings. The secondary windings are connected to the railgun, and by staging the vacuum interrupter openings, a 1 MA to 1.3 MA ramped current waveform will be delivered to the railgun.

  1. Infrared readout electronics; Proceedings of the Meeting, Orlando, FL, Apr. 21, 22, 1992

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fossum, Eric R. (Editor)

    1992-01-01

    The present volume on IR readout electronics discusses cryogenic readout using silicon devices, cryogenic readout using III-V and LTS devices, multiplexers for higher temperatures, and focal-plane signal processing electronics. Attention is given to the optimization of cryogenic CMOS processes for sub-10-K applications, cryogenic measurements of aerojet GaAs n-JFETs, inP-based heterostructure device technology for ultracold readout applications, and a three-terminal semiconductor-superconductor transimpedance amplifier. Topics addressed include unfulfilled needs in IR astronomy focal-plane readout electronics, IR readout integrated circuit technology for tactical missile systems, and radiation-hardened 10-bit A/D for FPA signal processing. Also discussed are the implementation of a noise reduction circuit for spaceflight IR spectrometers, a real-time processor for staring receivers, and a fiber-optic link design for INMOS transputers.

  2. [LIGHT-DEPENDENT SYNTHESIS OF CELL MEMBRANES IN THE Brc-1 MUTANT OF CHLAMYDOMONAS REINHARDTII].

    PubMed

    Semenova, G A; Chekunova, E M; Ladygin, V G

    2015-01-01

    The structural organization of cells of the Brc-1 mutant of the unicellular green algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii grown in the light and in the dark has been studied. The Brc-1 mutant contains the brc-1 mutation in the nucleus gene LTS3. In the light, all membrane structures in mutant cells form normally and are well developed. In the dark under heterotrophic conditions, the mutant cells grew and divided well, however, all its cell membranes: plasmalemma, tonoplast, mitochondrial membranes, membranes of the nucleus shell and chloroplast, thylakoids, and the membranes of dictiosomes of the Golgi apparatus were not detected. In the dark under heterotrophic conditions, mutant cells well grow and divide. It were shown that a short-term (1-10 min) exposure of Brc-1 mutant cells to light leads to the restoration of all above-mentioned membrane structures. Possible reasons for the alterations of membrane structures are discussed. PMID:26281212

  3. The Activity Chain Safety and Liveness Specification of Composite Web Services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Bo; Huang, Xiaomei

    Web service composition is most impressing method for development and deployment of e-business. Description and modeling the behavior requirements of composite Web services for users and verifying composite Web service compliance to specific requirements is an important key in design of services. But most work does not address the issue of how to model the requirements that the BPEL4WS processes are supposed to satisfy. The specifications in verification works are general temporal relation based on activity or scenario in essence. Distinguish with these work, we propose a novel concept of behavior specification based on activity chain in which granularity is between activity and scenario. Chain existence mode, chain absence mode are designed to express such behavioral requirements based on activity chain that is similar with safety or liveness specification based on activity respectively. Encode them on Labeled Transition System LTS and then give them exact operation semantics. Finally, an example is illustrated.

  4. Effect of gold migration on the morphology of germanium nanowires grown by a two-step growth method with temperature modulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Zhengyu; Usami, Koichi; Simanullang, Marolop; Noguchi, Tomohiro; Kawano, Yukio; Oda, Shunri

    2016-08-01

    Germanium nanowires (Ge NWs) grown at high temperatures (HTs) are investigated because of the demand for impurity doping. However, gold agglomeration, which occurs at HTs, results in undesired moundlike structures. A two-step growth technique with temperature modulation from low temperatures (LTs) to HTs was adopted to prevent gold agglomeration, thus revealing high-yield HT Ge NWs on top of LT Ge NWs. These Ge NWs can be classified into two groups on the basis of their shape. The timing of gold migration plays a crucial role in determining the shape of these NWs. Fat core–shell-like Ge NWs, where gold migration occurs as temperature increases, are due to the enhanced radial growth at HTs generated from the migrated gold nanoparticles on the NW sidewalls. However, for thin NWs, because Au seeds were stabilized on top of NWs until synthesis ended, the axial growth of Ge NWs continued at HTs.

  5. A Test of HTS Power Cable in a Sweeping Magnetic Field

    SciTech Connect

    Piekarz, H.; Hays, S.; Blowers, J.; Shiltsev, V.; /Fermilab

    2011-11-29

    Short sample HTS power cable composed of multiple 344C-2G strands and designed to energize a fast-cycling dipole magnet was exposed to a sweeping magnetic field in the (2-20) T/s ramping rate. The B-field orientation toward the HTS strands wide surface was varied from 0{sup 0} to 10{sup 0}, in steps of 1{sup 0}. The test arrangement allowed measurement of the combined hysteresis and eddy current power losses. For the validity of these measurements, the power losses of a short sample cable composed of multiple LTS wire strands were also performed to compare with the known data. The test arrangement of the power cable is described, and the test results are compared with the projections for the eddy and hysteresis power losses using the fine details of the test cable structures.

  6. Montelukast reduces seizures in pentylenetetrazol-kindled mice.

    PubMed

    Fleck, J; Temp, F R; Marafiga, J R; Jesse, A C; Milanesi, L H; Rambo, L M; Mello, C F

    2016-01-01

    Cysteinyl leukotrienes (CysLTs) have been implicated in seizures and kindling; however, the effect of CysLT receptor antagonists on seizure frequency in kindled animals and changes in CysLT receptor expression after pentylenetetrazol (PTZ)-induced kindling have not been investigated. In this study, we evaluated whether the CysLT1 inverse agonist montelukast, and a classical anticonvulsant, phenobarbital, were able to reduce seizures in PTZ-kindled mice and alter CysLT receptor expression. Montelukast (10 mg/kg, sc) and phenobarbital (20 mg/kg, sc) increased the latency to generalized seizures in kindled mice. Montelukast increased CysLT1 immunoreactivity only in non-kindled, PTZ-challenged mice. Interestingly, PTZ challenge decreased CysLT2 immunoreactivity only in kindled mice. CysLT1 antagonists appear to emerge as a promising adjunctive treatment for refractory seizures. Nevertheless, additional studies are necessary to evaluate the clinical implications of this research. PMID:26909785

  7. Superconductor Requirements and Characterization for High Field Accelerator Magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Barzi, E.; Zlobin, A. V.

    2015-05-01

    The 2014 Particle Physics Project Prioritization Panel (P5) strategic plan for U.S. High Energy Physics (HEP) endorses a continued world leadership role in superconducting magnet technology for future Energy Frontier Programs. This includes 10 to 15 T Nb3Sn accelerator magnets for LHC upgrades and a future 100 TeV scale pp collider, and as ultimate goal that of developing magnet technologies above 20 T based on both High Temperature Superconductors (HTS) and Low Temperature Superconductors (LTS) for accelerator magnets. To achieve these objectives, a sound conductor development and characterization program is needed and is herein described. This program is intended to be conducted in close collaboration with U.S. and International labs, Universities and Industry.

  8. A three-axis SQUID-based absolute vector magnetometer

    SciTech Connect

    Schönau, T.; Schmelz, M.; Stolz, R.; Anders, S.; Linzen, S.; Meyer, H.-G.; Zakosarenko, V.; Meyer, M.

    2015-10-15

    We report on the development of a three-axis absolute vector magnetometer suited for mobile operation in the Earth’s magnetic field. It is based on low critical temperature dc superconducting quantum interference devices (LTS dc SQUIDs) with sub-micrometer sized cross-type Josephson junctions and exhibits a white noise level of about 10 fT/Hz{sup 1/2}. The width of superconducting strip lines is restricted to less than 6 μm in order to avoid flux trapping during cool-down in magnetically unshielded environment. The long-term stability of the flux-to-voltage transfer coefficients of the SQUID electronics is investigated in detail and a method is presented to significantly increase their reproducibility. We further demonstrate the long-term operation of the setup in a magnetic field varying by about 200 μT amplitude without the need for recalibration.

  9. RADIAL VELOCITY CONFIRMATION OF A BINARY DETECTED FROM PULSE TIMINGS

    SciTech Connect

    Barlow, B. N.; Dunlap, B. H.; Clemens, J. C.

    2011-08-10

    A periodic variation in the pulse timings of the pulsating hot subdwarf B (sdB) star CS 1246 was recently discovered via the observed minus calculated (O-C) diagram and suggests the presence of a binary companion with an orbital period of two weeks. Fits to this phase variation, when interpreted as orbital reflex motion, imply CS 1246 orbits a barycenter 11 lt-s away with a velocity of 16.6 km s{sup -1}. Using the Goodman spectrograph on the SOAR telescope, we decided to confirm this hypothesis by obtaining radial velocity measurements of the system over several months. Our spectra reveal a velocity variation with amplitude, period, and phase in accordance with the O-C diagram predictions. This corroboration demonstrates that the rapid pulsations of hot sdB stars can be adequate clocks for the discovery of binary companions via the pulse timing method.

  10. Critical currents of YBCO tapes and Bi-2212 wires at different temperatures and magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect

    Lombardo, V.; Barzi, e.; Turrioni, D.; Zlobin, A.V.; /Fermilab

    2010-08-01

    Design studies for the cooling channel of a Muon Collider call for straight and helical solenoids generating field well in excess of the critical fields of state of the art Low Temperature Superconductors (LTS) such as Nb{sub 3}Sn or NbTi. Therefore, High Temperature Superconductors (HTS) will need to be used for the manufacturing of all or certain sections of such magnets to be able to generate and withstand the field levels at the cryogenic temperatures required by the new machine. In this work, two major High Temperature Superconductors - Bi2212 round wires and YBCO coated conductor tapes - are investigated to understand how critical current density of such conductors scales as a function of external field and operating temperature. This is vital information to make conductor choices depending on the application and to proceed with the design of such magnets.

  11. Study of YBCO tape anisotropy as a function of field, field orientation and operating temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Lombardo, v.; Barzi, E.; Turrioni, D.; Zlobin, A.V.

    2011-06-01

    Superconducting magnets with magnetic fields above 20 T will be needed for a Muon Collider and possible LHC energy upgrade. This field level exceeds the possibilities of traditional Low Temperature Superconductors (LTS) such as Nb{sub 3}Sn and Nb{sub 3}Al. Presently the use of high field high temperature superconductors (HTS) is the only option available for achieving such field levels. Commercially available YBCO comes in tapes and shows noticeable anisotropy with respect to field orientation, which needs to be accounted for during magnet design. In the present work, critical current test results are presented for YBCO tape manufactured by Bruker. Short sample measurements results are presented up to 14 T, assessing the level of anisotropy as a function of field, field orientation and operating temperature.

  12. Rhinosinusitis and Aspirin-Exacerbated Respiratory Disease

    PubMed Central

    Garcia Cruz, Maria L.; Jimenez-Chobillon, M. Alejandro; Teran, Luis M.

    2012-01-01

    Rhinosinusitis is a feature of aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease (AERD), which in the initial phase is manifested as nasal congestion, mostly affecting females at the age of around 30 years on average. Subsequently, nasal inflammation progresses to chronic eosinophilic rhinosinusitis, asthma, nasal polyposis, and intolerance to aspirin and to other NSAIDs. While it has been long established that NSAIDs cause inhibition of cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1), leading to excessive metabolism of arachidonic acid (AA) to cysteinyl-leukotrienes (cys-LTs), there is now evidence that both cytokines and staphylococcus superantigens amplify the inflammatory process exacerbating the disease. This paper gives a brief overview of the development of chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) in sensitive patients, and we share our experience in the diagnosis and management of CRS in AERD. PMID:22829846

  13. Operation of a 400 MHz NMR magnet using a (RE:Rare Earth)Ba2Cu3O7-x high-temperature superconducting coil: Towards an ultra-compact super-high field NMR spectrometer operated beyond 1 GHz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanagisawa, Y.; Piao, R.; Iguchi, S.; Nakagome, H.; Takao, T.; Kominato, K.; Hamada, M.; Matsumoto, S.; Suematsu, H.; Jin, X.; Takahashi, M.; Yamazaki, T.; Maeda, H.

    2014-12-01

    High-temperature superconductors (HTS) are the key technology to achieve super-high magnetic field nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectrometers with an operating frequency far beyond 1 GHz (23.5 T). (RE)Ba2Cu3O7-x (REBCO, RE: rare earth) conductors have an advantage over Bi2Sr2Ca2Cu3O10-x (Bi-2223) and Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8-x (Bi-2212) conductors in that they have very high tensile strengths and tolerate strong electromagnetic hoop stress, thereby having the potential to act as an ultra-compact super-high field NMR magnet. As a first step, we developed the world's first NMR magnet comprising an inner REBCO coil and outer low-temperature superconducting (LTS) coils. The magnet was successfully charged without degradation and mainly operated at 400 MHz (9.39 T). Technical problems for the NMR magnet due to screening current in the REBCO coil were clarified and solved as follows: (i) A remarkable temporal drift of the central magnetic field was suppressed by a current sweep reversal method utilizing ∼10% of the peak current. (ii) A Z2 field error harmonic of the main coil cannot be compensated by an outer correction coil and therefore an additional ferromagnetic shim was used. (iii) Large tesseral harmonics emerged that could not be corrected by cryoshim coils. Due to those harmonics, the resolution and sensitivity of NMR spectra are ten-fold lower than those for a conventional LTS NMR magnet. As a result, a HSQC spectrum could be achieved for a protein sample, while a NOESY spectrum could not be obtained. An ultra-compact 1.2 GHz NMR magnet could be realized if we effectively take advantage of REBCO conductors, although this will require further research to suppress the effect of the screening current.

  14. Bronchopulmonary Carcinoids causing Cushing Syndrome: Results from a Multicentric Study Suggesting a More Aggressive Behavior.

    PubMed

    Lococo, Filippo; Margaritora, Stefano; Cardillo, Giuseppe; Filosso, Perluigi; Novellis, Pierluigi; Rapicetta, Cristian; Carleo, Francesco; Bora, Giulia; Cesario, Alfredo; Stefani, Alessandro; Rossi, Giulio; Paci, Massimiliano

    2016-03-01

    Objective Cushing syndrome (CS) caused by bronchopulmonary carcinoids (BCs) is a very rare entity. The aim of this study was to revisit the features of a multicenter clinical series to identify significant prognostic factors. Methods From January 2002 to December 2013, the clinical and pathological data of 23 patients (treated in five different institutions) were retrospectively reviewed. Survival analysis was performed to explore the relative weight of potential prognostic factors. Results Median age and male/female ratio were 48 years and 14/9, respectively. Most (> 80%) of the patients presented with CS-related symptoms at diagnosis. Tumor location was peripheral in 13 patients (57%) and central in 10 (43%). All patients but two (treated with chemotherapy) underwent surgical resection with curative intent. Definitive cyto/histology was indicative of typical carcinoid (TC) in 16 cases (70%) and atypical carcinoid (AC) in 7 cases (30%). A complete remission of CS was obtained in 16 cases (70%). Lymph nodal involvement was detected in 11 cases (48%), with N2 disease occurring in 7 (∼ 30% of all cases). Four patients (22%) experienced a relapse of the disease after radical surgery. Overall 5-year survival (long-term survival, LTS) was 60%, better in TCs when compared with AC (LTS: 66 v s. 48%, p = 0.28). Log-rank analysis identified ECOG performance status, cTNM and cN staging, pTNM and pN staging, persistence of CS and relapses (local p = 0.006; distant p = 0.001) as significant prognostic factors in this cohort of patients. Conclusion BCs causing CS are characterized by a high rate of lymph-nodal involvement, a suboptimal prognosis (5-year survival = 60%, 66% in TCs) and a remarkable risk of relapse even after radical resection. Advanced stage, lymph-nodal involvement and the persisting of the CS after treatment correlate with a poor prognosis. PMID:26220696

  15. Parenteral Adjuvant Effects of an Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli Natural Heat-Labile Toxin Variant

    PubMed Central

    Braga, Catarina J. M.; Rodrigues, Juliana F.; Medina-Armenteros, Yordanka; Farinha-Arcieri, Luís E.; Ventura, Armando M.; Boscardin, Silvia B.; Sbrogio-Almeida, Maria E.; Ferreira, Luís C. S.

    2014-01-01

    Native type I heat-labile toxins (LTs) produced by enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) strains exert strong adjuvant effects on both antibody and T cell responses to soluble and particulate antigens following co-administration via mucosal routes. However, inherent enterotoxicity and neurotoxicity (following intra-nasal delivery) had reduced the interest in the use of these toxins as mucosal adjuvants. LTs can also behave as powerful and safe adjuvants following delivery via parenteral routes, particularly for activation of cytotoxic lymphocytes. In the present study, we evaluated the adjuvant effects of a new natural LT polymorphic form (LT2), after delivery via intradermal (i.d.) and subcutaneous (s.c.) routes, with regard to both antibody and T cell responses. A recombinant HIV-1 p24 protein was employed as a model antigen for determination of antigen-specific immune responses while the reference LT (LT1), produced by the ETEC H10407 strain, and a non-toxigenic LT form (LTK63) were employed as previously characterized LT types. LT-treated mice submitted to a four dose-base immunization regimen elicited similar p24-specific serum IgG responses and CD4+ T cell activation. Nonetheless, mice immunized with LT1 or LT2 induced higher numbers of antigen-specific CD8+ T cells and in vivo cytotoxic responses compared to mice immunized with the non-toxic LT derivative. These effects were correlated with stronger activation of local dendritic cell populations. In addition, mice immunized with LT1 and LT2, but not with LTK63, via s.c. or i.d. routes developed local inflammatory reactions. Altogether, the present results confirmed that the two most prevalent natural polymorphic LT variants (LT1 or LT2) display similar and strong adjuvant effects for subunit vaccines administered via i.d. or s.c. routes. PMID:24432018

  16. Willingness to Pay for Quality of Life Technologies to Enhance Independent Functioning Among Baby Boomers and the Elderly Adults

    PubMed Central

    Schulz, Richard; Beach, Scott R.; Matthews, Judith T.; Courtney, Karen; Devito Dabbs, Annette; Person Mecca, Laurel; Sankey, Steadman Scott

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: We report the results of a study designed to assess whether and how much potential individual end users are willing to pay for Quality of Life Technologies (QoLTs) designed to enhance functioning and independence. Design and Methods: We carried out a web survey of a nationally representative sample of U.S. baby boomers (aged 45–64; N = 416) and older adults (aged 65 and greater, N = 114). Respondents were first instructed to assume that they needed help with kitchen activities/personal care and that technology was available to help with things like meal preparation/dressing, and then they were asked the most they would be willing to pay each month out of pocket for these technologies. Results: We modeled willingness to pay some (72% of respondents) versus none (28%), and the most people were willing to pay. Those willing to pay something were on average willing to pay a maximum of $40.30 and $45.00 per month for kitchen and personal care technology assistance, respectively. Respondents concerned about privacy or who were currently using assistive technology were less willing to pay. Respondents with higher incomes, who were Hispanic, or who perceived a higher likelihood of needing help in the future were more willing to pay. Implications: Consumers’ willingness to pay out of pocket for technologies to improve their well-being and independence is limited. In order to be widely adopted, QoLTs will have to be highly cost effective so that third party payers such as Medicare and private insurance companies are willing to pay for them. PMID:23528289

  17. Effects of long-range aerosol transport on the microphysical properties of low-level liquid clouds in the Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coopman, Q.; Garrett, T. J.; Riedi, J.; Eckhardt, S.; Stohl, A.

    2015-11-01

    The properties of clouds in the Arctic can be altered by long-range aerosol transport to the region. The goal of this study is to use satellite, tracer transport model, and meteorological data sets to determine the effects of pollution on cloud microphysics due only to pollution itself and not to the meteorological state. Here, A-Train, POLDER-3 and MODIS satellite instruments are used to retrieve low-level liquid cloud microphysical properties over the Arctic between 2008 and 2010. Cloud retrievals are co-located with simulated pollution represented by carbon-monoxide concentrations from the FLEXPART tracer transport model. The sensitivity of clouds to pollution plumes - including aerosols - is constrained for cloud liquid water path, temperature, altitude, specific humidity, and lower tropospheric stability (LTS). We define an Indirect Effect (IE) parameter from the ratio of relative changes in cloud microphysical properties to relative variations in pollution concentrations. Retrievals indicate that, depending on the meteorological regime, IE parameters range between 0 and 0.34 for the cloud droplet effective radius, and between -0.10 and 0.35 for the optical depth, with average values of 0.12 ± 0.02 and 0.15 ± 0.02 respectively. The IE parameter increases with increasing specific humidity and LTS. Further, the results suggest that for a given set of meteorological conditions, the liquid water path of arctic clouds does not respond strongly to pollution. Or, not constraining sufficiently for meteorology may lead to artifacts that exaggerate the magnitude of the aerosol indirect effect. The converse is that the response of arctic clouds to pollution does depend on the meteorologic state. Finally, we find that IE values are highest when pollution concentrations are low, and that they depend on the source of pollution.

  18. Alpha-Synuclein Pathology in Sensory Nerve Terminals of the Upper Aerodigestive Tract of Parkinson’s Disease Patients

    PubMed Central

    Mu, Liancai; Chen, Jingming; Sobotka, Stanislaw; Nyirenda, Themba; Benson, Brian; Gupta, Fiona; Sanders, Ira; Adler, Charles H.; Caviness, John N.; Shill, Holly A.; Sabbagh, Marwan; Samanta, Johan E.; Sue, Lucia I.; Beach, Thomas G.

    2015-01-01

    Dysphagia is common in Parkinson’s disease (PD) and causes significant morbidity and mortality. PD dysphagia has usually been explained as dysfunction of central motor control, much like other motor symptoms that are characteristic of the disease. However, PD dysphagia does not correlate with severity of motor symptoms nor does it respond to motor therapies. It is known that PD patients have sensory deficits in the pharynx, and that impaired sensation may contribute to dysphagia. However, the underlying cause of the pharyngeal sensory deficits in PD is not known. We hypothesized that PD dysphagia with sensory deficits may be due to degeneration of the sensory nerve terminals in the upper aerodigestive tract (UAT). We have previously shown that Lewy-type synucleinopathy (LTS) is present in the main pharyngeal sensory nerves of PD patients, but not in controls. In this study, the sensory terminals in UAT mucosa were studied to discern the presence and distribution of LTS. Whole-mount specimens (tongue-pharynx-larynx-upper esophagus) were obtained from 10 deceased human subjects with clinically diagnosed and neuropathologically confirmed PD (five with dysphagia and five without) and four age-matched healthy controls. Samples were taken from six sites and immunostained for phosphorylated α-synuclein (PAS). The results showed the presence of PAS-immunoreactive (PAS-ir) axons in all the PD subjects and in none of the controls. Notably, PD patients with dysphagia had more PAS-ir axons in the regions that are critical for initiating the swallowing reflex. These findings suggest that Lewy pathology affects mucosal sensory axons in specific regions of the UAT and may be related to PD dysphagia. PMID:26041249

  19. Secretory Phospholipases A2 Are Secreted From Ciliated Cells and Increase Mucin and Eicosanoid Secretion From Goblet Cells

    PubMed Central

    Shimokawaji, Tadasuke; Kanoh, Soichiro; Rubin, Bruce K.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Secretory phospholipases A2 (sPLA2) initiate the biosynthesis of eicosanoids, are increased in the airways of people with severe asthma, and induce mucin hypersecretion. We used IL-13-transformed, highly enriched goblet cells and differentiated (ciliary cell-enriched) human bronchial epithelial cell culture to evaluate the relative contribution of ciliated and goblet cells to airway sPLA2 generation and response. We wished to determine the primary source(s) of sPLA2 and leukotrienes in human airway epithelial cells. METHODS: Human bronchial epithelial cells from subjects without lung disease were differentiated to a ciliated-enriched or goblet-enriched cell phenotype. Synthesis of sPLA2, cysteinyl leukotrienes (cysLTs), and airway mucin messenger RNA and protein was measured by real-time-polymerase chain reaction and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and the localization of mucin and sPLA2 to specific cells types was confirmed by confocal microscopy. RESULTS: sPLA2 group IIa, V, and X messenger RNA expression was increased in ciliated-enriched cells (P < .001) but not in goblet-enriched cells. sPLA2 were secreted from the apical (air) side of ciliated-enriched cells but not goblet-enriched cells (P < .001). Immunostaining of sPLA2 V was strongly positive in ciliated-enriched cells but not in goblet-enriched cells. sPLA2 released cysLTs from goblet-enriched cells but not from ciliated-enriched cells, and this result was greatest with sPLA2 V (P < .05). sPLA2 V increased goblet-enriched cell mucin secretion, which was inhibited by inhibitors of lipoxygenase or cyclooxygenase (P < .02). CONCLUSIONS: sPLA2 are secreted from ciliated cells and appear to induce mucin and cysLT secretion from goblet cells, strongly suggesting that airway goblet cells are proinflammatory effector cells. PMID:25429648

  20. Increased expression of leukotriene C4 synthase and predominant formation of cysteinyl-leukotrienes in human abdominal aortic aneurysm

    PubMed Central

    Di Gennaro, Antonio; Wågsäter, Dick; Mäyränpää, Mikko I.; Gabrielsen, Anders; Swedenborg, Jesper; Hamsten, Anders; Samuelsson, Bengt; Eriksson, Per; Haeggström, Jesper Z.

    2010-01-01

    Leukotrienes (LTs) are arachidonic acid-derived lipid mediators involved in the pathogenesis and progression of diverse inflammatory disorders. The cysteinyl-leukotrienes LTC4, LTD4, and LTE4 are important mediators of asthma, and LTB4 has recently been implicated in atherosclerosis. Here we report that mRNA levels for the three key enzymes/proteins in the biosynthesis of cysteinyl-leukotrienes, 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO), 5-LO-activating protein (FLAP), and LTC4 synthase (LTC4S), are significantly increased in the wall of human abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs). In contrast, mRNA levels of LTA4 hydrolase, the enzyme responsible for the biosynthesis of LTB4, are not increased. Immunohistochemical staining of AAA wall revealed focal expression of 5-LO, FLAP, and LTC4S proteins in the media and adventitia, localized in areas rich in inflammatory cells, including macrophages, neutrophils, and mast cells. Human AAA wall tissue converts arachidonic acid and the unstable epoxide LTA4 into significant amounts of cysteinyl-leukotrienes and to a lesser extent LTB4. Furthermore, challenge of AAA wall tissue with exogenous LTD4 increases the release of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) 2 and 9, and selective inhibition of the CysLT1 receptor by montelukast blocks this effect. The increased expression of LTC4S, together with the predominant formation of cysteinyl-leukotrienes and effects on MMPs production, suggests a mechanism by which LTs may promote matrix degradation in the AAA wall and identify the components of the cysteinyl-leukotriene pathway as potential targets for prevention and treatment of AAA. PMID:21078989

  1. Magnet design considerations for Fusion Nuclear Science Facility

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Zhai, Yuhu; Kessel, Chuck; El-guebaly, Laila; Titus, Peter

    2016-02-25

    The Fusion Nuclear Science Facility (FNSF) is a nuclear confinement facility to provide a fusion environment with components of the reactor integrated together to bridge the technical gaps of burning plasma and nuclear science between ITER and the demonstration power plant (DEMO). Compared to ITER, the FNSF is smaller in size but generates much higher magnetic field, 30 times higher neutron fluence with 3 orders of magnitude longer plasma operation at higher operating temperatures for structures surrounding the plasma. Input parameters to the magnet design from system code analysis include magnetic field of 7.5 T at the plasma center withmore » plasma major radius of 4.8 m and minor radius of 1.2 m, and a peak field of 15.5 T on the TF coils for FNSF. Both low temperature superconductor (LTS) and high temperature superconductor (HTS) are considered for the FNSF magnet design based on the state-of-the-art fusion magnet technology. The higher magnetic field can be achieved by using the high performance ternary Restack Rod Process (RRP) Nb3Sn strands for toroidal field (TF) magnets. The circular cable-in-conduit conductor (CICC) design similar to ITER magnets and a high aspect ratio rectangular CICC design are evaluated for FNSF magnets but low activation jacket materials may need to be selected. The conductor design concept and TF coil winding pack composition and dimension based on the horizontal maintenance schemes are discussed. Neutron radiation limits for the LTS and HTS superconductors and electrical insulation materials are also reviewed based on the available materials previously tested. As a result, the material radiation limits for FNSF magnets are defined as part of the conceptual design studies for FNSF magnets.« less

  2. Current-carrying element based on second-generation high-temperature superconductor for the magnet system of a fusion neutron source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novikov, M. S.; Ivanov, D. P.; Novikov, S. I.; Shuvaev, S. A.

    2015-12-01

    Application of current-carrying elements (CCEs) made of second-generation high-temperature superconductor (2G HTS) in magnet systems of a fusion neutron source (FNS) and other fusion devices will allow their magnetic field and thermodynamic stability to be increased substantially in comparison with those of low-temperature superconductor (LTS) magnets. For a toroidal magnet of the FNS, a design of a helical (partially transposed) CCE made of 2G HTS is under development with forced-flow cooling by helium gas, a current of 20-30 kA, an operating temperature of 10-20 K, and a magnetic field on the winding of 12-15 T (prospectively ~20 T). Short-sized samples of the helical flexible heavy-current CCE are being fabricated and investigated; a pilot-line unit for production of long-sized CCE pieces is under construction. The applied fabrication technique allows the CCE to be produced which combines a high operating current, thermal and mechanical stability, manufacturability, and low losses in the alternating modes. The possibility of fabricating the CCE with the outer dimensions and values of the operating parameter required for the FNS (and with a significant margin) using already available serial 2G HTS tapes is substantiated. The maximum field of toroidal magnets with CCEs made of 2G HTS will be limited only by mechanical properties of the magnet's casing and structure, while the thermal stability will be approximately two orders of magnitude higher than that of toroidal magnets with LTS-based CCEs. The helical CCE made of 2G HTS is very promising for fusion and hybrid electric power plants, and its design and technologies of production, as well as the prototype coils made of it for the FNS and other tokamaks, are worth developing now.

  3. The novel benzimidazole derivative BRP-7 inhibits leukotriene biosynthesis in vitro and in vivo by targeting 5-lipoxygenase-activating protein (FLAP)

    PubMed Central

    Pergola, C; Gerstmeier, J; Mönch, B; Çalışkan, B; Luderer, S; Weinigel, C; Barz, D; Maczewsky, J; Pace, S; Rossi, A; Sautebin, L; Banoglu, E; Werz, O

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Leukotrienes (LTs) are inflammatory mediators produced via the 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX) pathway and are linked to diverse disorders, including asthma, allergic rhinitis and cardiovascular diseases. We recently identified the benzimidazole derivative BRP-7 as chemotype for anti-LT agents by virtual screening targeting 5-LOX-activating protein (FLAP). Here, we aimed to reveal the in vitro and in vivo pharmacology of BRP-7 as an inhibitor of LT biosynthesis. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH We analysed LT formation and performed mechanistic studies in human neutrophils and monocytes, in human whole blood (HWB) and in cell-free assays. The effectiveness of BRP-7 in vivo was evaluated in rat carrageenan-induced pleurisy and mouse zymosan-induced peritonitis. KEY RESULTS BRP-7 potently suppressed LT formation in neutrophils and monocytes and this was accompanied by impaired 5-LOX co-localization with FLAP. Neither the cellular viability nor the activity of 5-LOX in cell-free assays was affected by BRP-7, indicating that a functional FLAP is needed for BRP-7 to inhibit LTs, and FLAP bound to BRP-7 linked to a solid matrix. Compared with the FLAP inhibitor MK-886, BRP-7 did not significantly inhibit COX-1 or microsomal prostaglandin E2 synthase-1, implying the selectivity of BRP-7 for FLAP. Finally, BRP-7 was effective in HWB and impaired inflammation in vivo, in rat pleurisy and mouse peritonitis, along with reducing LT levels. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS BRP-7 potently suppresses LT biosynthesis by interacting with FLAP and exhibits anti-inflammatory effectiveness in vivo, with promising potential for further development. PMID:24641614

  4. Endothelial cysteinyl leukotriene 2 receptor expression mediates myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Wei; Hall, Sean R; Moos, Michael P W; Cao, Richard Yang; Ishii, Satoshi; Ogunyankin, Kofo O; Melo, Luis G; Funk, Colin D

    2008-03-01

    Cysteinyl leukotrienes (CysLTs) have been implicated as inflammatory mediators of cardiovascular disease. Three distinct CysLT receptor subtypes transduce the actions of CysLTs but the role of the endothelial CysLT2 receptor (CysLT2R) in cardiac function is unknown. Here, we investigated the role of CysLT2R in myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury using transgenic (tg) mice overexpressing human CysLT2R in vascular endothelium and nontransgenic (ntg) littermates. Infarction size in tg mice increased 114% compared with ntg mice 48 hours after I/R; this increase was blocked by the CysLT receptor antagonist BAY-u9773. Injection of 125 I-albumin into the systemic circulation revealed significantly enhanced extravasation of the label in tg mice, indicating increased leakage of the coronary endothelium, combined with increased incidence of hemorrhage and cardiomyocyte apoptosis. Expression of proinflammatory genes such as Egr-1, VCAM-1, and ICAM was significantly increased in tg mice relative to ntg controls. Echocardiographic assessment 2 weeks after I/R revealed decreased anterior wall thickness in tg mice. Furthermore, the postreperfusion time constant tau of isovolumic relaxation was significantly increased in tg animals, indicating diastolic dysfunction. These results reveal that endothelium-targeted overexpression of CysLT2R aggravates myocardial I/R injury by increasing endothelial permeability and exacerbating inflammatory gene expression, leading to accelerated left ventricular remodeling, induction of peri-infarct zone cellular apoptosis, and impaired cardiac performance. PMID:18276782

  5. Endothelial Cysteinyl Leukotriene 2 Receptor Expression Mediates Myocardial Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Wei; Hall, Sean R.; Moos, Michael P.W.; Cao, Richard Yang; Ishii, Satoshi; Ogunyankin, Kofo O.; Melo, Luis G.; Funk, Colin D.

    2008-01-01

    Cysteinyl leukotrienes (CysLTs) have been implicated as inflammatory mediators of cardiovascular disease. Three distinct CysLT receptor subtypes transduce the actions of CysLTs but the role of the endothelial CysLT2 receptor (CysLT2R) in cardiac function is unknown. Here, we investigated the role of CysLT2R in myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury using transgenic (tg) mice overexpressing human CysLT2R in vascular endothelium and nontransgenic (ntg) littermates. Infarction size in tg mice increased 114% compared with ntg mice 48 hours after I/R; this increase was blocked by the CysLT receptor antagonist BAY-u9773. Injection of 125I-albumin into the systemic circulation revealed significantly enhanced extravasation of the label in tg mice, indicating increased leakage of the coronary endothelium, combined with increased incidence of hemorrhage and cardiomyocyte apoptosis. Expression of proinflammatory genes such as Egr-1, VCAM-1, and ICAM was significantly increased in tg mice relative to ntg controls. Echocardiographic assessment 2 weeks after I/R revealed decreased anterior wall thickness in tg mice. Furthermore, the postreperfusion time constant τ of isovolumic relaxation was significantly increased in tg animals, indicating diastolic dysfunction. These results reveal that endothelium-targeted overexpression of CysLT2R aggravates myocardial I/R injury by increasing endothelial permeability and exacerbating inflammatory gene expression, leading to accelerated left ventricular remodeling, induction of peri-infarct zone cellular apoptosis, and impaired cardiac performance. PMID:18276782

  6. Availability analysis of a 100 kWh superconducting magnetic energy storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maekinen, H.; Mikkonen, R.

    Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES) is one of the possible and useful applications of modern superconducting technology. It is known that some loads on electricity distribution networks are particularly sensitive to short power interruptions and voltage sags. Different ranges of SMES applications have been widely discussed for large scale units (1 MWh - 1 GWh) as well as for small and medium scale units (1 kWh - 1 MWh). The major components of a SMES system are the superconducting magnet winding, the cryogenic refrigeration system and the power conditioning system, which interfaces the coil to the utility grid and applied load. The SMES winding is cooled by a cryogenic coolant: liquid helium for LTS (low temperature superconductor) wires; gaseous helium, liquid hydrogen or liquid nitrogen for HTS (high temperature superconductor) wires. In addition the higher operating temperature of HTS materials also means higher refrigeration efficiencies, greater reliability and easier acceptance within the utility community. It has been estimated that applying HTS materials in a SMES system will reduce the capital costs some 14-26 %. In this calculation it has been assumed that the price of HTS material is equivalent to that of LTS material. This report deals with the availability aspects of a 100 kWh SMES. A conceptual design of a reference unit has been used as a basis of the study. Therefore the lack of the detailed design leads to uncertainty in evaluating the failure data for single components. The failure rate data are mainly adopted from fusion data sources. This extrapolation is problematic, but in most cases the only way to get results at all. The method used is based on the failure modes, effects and criticality analysis, FMECA. Fault trees describe the outage logic based on the functional analysis. Event trees clarify the consequences of the primary events and the criticality of these consequences are expressed as system down times.

  7. Phospholipase A2 in Experimental Allergic Bronchitis: A Lesson from Mouse and Rat Models

    PubMed Central

    Mruwat, Rufayda; Yedgar, Saul; Lavon, Iris; Ariel, Amiram; Krimsky, Miron; Shoseyov, David

    2013-01-01

    Background Phospholipases A2 (PLA2) hydrolyzes phospholipids, initiating the production of inflammatory lipid mediators. We have previously shown that in rats, sPLA2 and cPLA2 play opposing roles in the pathophysiology of ovalbumin (OVA)-induced experimental allergic bronchitis (OVA-EAB), an asthma model: Upon disease induction sPLA2 expression and production of the broncho-constricting CysLTs are elevated, whereas cPLA2 expression and the broncho-dilating PGE2 production are suppressed. These were reversed upon disease amelioration by treatment with an sPLA2 inhibitor. However, studies in mice reported the involvement of both sPLA2 and cPLA2 in EAB induction. Objectives To examine the relevance of mouse and rat models to understanding asthma pathophysiology. Methods OVA-EAB was induced in mice using the same methodology applied in rats. Disease and biochemical markers in mice were compared with those in rats. Results As in rats, EAB in mice was associated with increased mRNA of sPLA2, specifically sPLA2gX, in the lungs, and production of the broncho-constricting eicosanoids CysLTs, PGD2 and TBX2 in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL). In contrast, EAB in mice was associated also with elevated cPLA2 mRNA and PGE2 production. Yet, treatment with an sPLA2 inhibitor ameliorated the EAB concomitantly with reverting the expression of both cPLA2 and sPLA2, and eicosanoid production. Conclusions In both mice and rats sPLA2 is pivotal in OVA-induced EAB. Yet, amelioration of asthma markers in mouse models, and human tissues, was observed also upon cPLA2 inhibition. It is plausible that airway conditions, involving multiple cell types and organs, require the combined action of more than one, essential, PLA2s. PMID:24204651

  8. Operation of a 400MHz NMR magnet using a (RE:Rare Earth)Ba2Cu3O7-x high-temperature superconducting coil: Towards an ultra-compact super-high field NMR spectrometer operated beyond 1GHz.

    PubMed

    Yanagisawa, Y; Piao, R; Iguchi, S; Nakagome, H; Takao, T; Kominato, K; Hamada, M; Matsumoto, S; Suematsu, H; Jin, X; Takahashi, M; Yamazaki, T; Maeda, H

    2014-10-18

    High-temperature superconductors (HTS) are the key technology to achieve super-high magnetic field nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectrometers with an operating frequency far beyond 1GHz (23.5T). (RE)Ba2Cu3O7-x (REBCO, RE: rare earth) conductors have an advantage over Bi2Sr2Ca2Cu3O10-x (Bi-2223) and Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8-x (Bi-2212) conductors in that they have very high tensile strengths and tolerate strong electromagnetic hoop stress, thereby having the potential to act as an ultra-compact super-high field NMR magnet. As a first step, we developed the world's first NMR magnet comprising an inner REBCO coil and outer low-temperature superconducting (LTS) coils. The magnet was successfully charged without degradation and mainly operated at 400MHz (9.39T). Technical problems for the NMR magnet due to screening current in the REBCO coil were clarified and solved as follows: (i) A remarkable temporal drift of the central magnetic field was suppressed by a current sweep reversal method utilizing ∼10% of the peak current. (ii) A Z2 field error harmonic of the main coil cannot be compensated by an outer correction coil and therefore an additional ferromagnetic shim was used. (iii) Large tesseral harmonics emerged that could not be corrected by cryoshim coils. Due to those harmonics, the resolution and sensitivity of NMR spectra are ten-fold lower than those for a conventional LTS NMR magnet. As a result, a HSQC spectrum could be achieved for a protein sample, while a NOESY spectrum could not be obtained. An ultra-compact 1.2GHz NMR magnet could be realized if we effectively take advantage of REBCO conductors, although this will require further research to suppress the effect of the screening current. PMID:25462945

  9. A comparative study of job satisfaction among regular and staff on contract in the primary health care system in Delhi, India

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Pawan; Khan, Abdul M.; Inder, Deep; Mehra, Anu

    2014-01-01

    Background: Job satisfaction is a pleasant emotional state associated with the appreciation of one's work and contributes immensely to performance in an organization. The purpose of this study was to assess the comparative job satisfaction among regular and staff on contract in Government Primary Urban Health Centers in Delhi, India. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in 2013, on a sample of 333 health care providers who were selected using a multistage random sampling technique. The sample included medical officers (MOs), auxiliary nurses and midwives (ANMs), pharmacists and laboratory technicians (LTs)/laboratory assistants (LAs) among regular and staff on contract. Analysis was done using SPSS version 18, and appropriate statistical tests were applied. Results: The job satisfaction for all the regular staff that is, MOs, ANMs, pharmacists, LAs, and LTs were relatively higher (3.3 ± 0.44) than the contract staff (2.7 ± 0.45) with ‘t’value 10.54 (P < 0.01). The mean score for regular and contract MOs was 3.2 ± 0.46 and 2.7 ± 0.56, respectively, and the same trends were found between regular and ANMs on the contract which was 3.4 ± 0.30 and 2.7 ± 0.38, regular and pharmacists on the contract was 3.3 ± 0.50 and 2.8 ± 0.41, respectively. The differences between groups were significant with a P < 0.01. Conclusion: Overall job satisfaction level was relatively low in both regular and contract staff. The factors contributing to satisfaction level were privileges, interpersonal relations, working-environment, patient relationship, the organization's facilities, career development, and the scarcity of human resources (HRs). Therefore, specific recommendations are suggested to policy makers to take cognizance of the scarcity of HRs and the on-going experimentation with different models under primary health care system. PMID:24987280

  10. Role of Cysteinyl Leukotrienes in Allergic Rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Shirasaki, Hideaki; Himi, Tetsuo

    2016-01-01

    Cysteinyl leukotrienes (CysLTs) are lipid mediators that have been implicated in the pathogenesis of allergic rhinitis. Pharmacological studies using CysLTs indicate that two classes of receptor exist: CysLT1 receptor (CysLT1R) and CysLT2 receptor (CysLT2R). The CysLT1R is a high-affinity leukotriene D4 receptor with lower affinity for leukotriene C4 that is sensitive to the CysLT1R antagonist currently used to treat asthma and allergic rhinitis. Our previous immunohistochemical and autoradiographic studies have demonstrated the presence of anti-CysLT1R antibodies labeled in eosinophils, mast cells, macrophages, neutrophils and vascular endothelial cells in human nasal mucosa. Furthermore, we have revealed that the novel radioactive CysLT1R antagonist [3H]-pranlukast bound specifically to CysLT1R in human inferior turbinates and its binding sites were localized to vascular endothelium and the interstitial cells. These data suggest that the major targets of CysLT1R antagonists in allergic rhinitis are the vascular bed and infiltrated leukocytes such as mast cells, eosinophils and macrophages. Clinical trials have demonstrated that CysLT1R antagonists are as effective as antihistamines for the treatment of allergic rhinitis; however, they are less effective than intranasal steroids. The use of CysLT1R antagonists in combination with antihistamines has generally resulted in greater efficacy than when these agents were used alone. PMID:27115997

  11. Mucosal immunization of mice using CpG DNA and/or mutants of the heat-labile enterotoxin of Escherichia coli as adjuvants.

    PubMed

    McCluskie, M J; Weeratna, R D; Clements, J D; Davis, H L

    2001-06-14

    Cholera toxin (CT) and the Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin (LT) are potent mucosal adjuvants in animals associated, at least in part, with their ability to induce cAMP. While toxicity generally precludes their use in humans, a number of different subunit or genetically detoxified mutants of CT and LT have been developed. Another type of adjuvant that has been shown to be effective at mucosal surfaces comprises synthetic oligodeoxynucleotides (ODN) containing immunostimulatory CpG motifs (CpG ODN). We have previously demonstrated a synergy between CpG ODN and native toxins after intranasal (IN) administration to mice, and herein have examined whether this synergy is linked to the cAMP activity. The adjuvanticity of CpG ODN was evaluated with IN and oral delivery of tetanus toxoid or the hepatitis B surface antigen, relative to and in combination with native LT holotoxin (LTh), three active site mutants (LTS61F, LTA69G, LTE112K), a protease site mutant (LTR192G), and the B subunit of LT (LTB). At an equivalent dose, the adjuvants could generally be divided into two groups: one that included CpG ODN, LTh, LTR192G, and LTA69G which acted as strong adjuvants; and the second which comprised LTB, LTS61F, and LTE112K, which produced significantly weaker immune responses. When CpG ODN was co-administered with bacterial toxin-derivatives, in most cases, no synergy between CpG and the LT derivatives was found for strength of the humoral response. Nevertheless, for both routes and antigens, CpG ODN combined with any LT derivative induced a more Type 1-like response than LT derivative alone. These results suggest that while the synergy seen previously with native toxins may have been due in part to inherent cAMP activity, it may have also depended on the particular antigen used and the route of immunization. PMID:11395211

  12. Current-carrying element based on second-generation high-temperature superconductor for the magnet system of a fusion neutron source

    SciTech Connect

    Novikov, M. S. Ivanov, D. P. E-mail: denis.ivanov30@mail.ru; Novikov, S. I. Shuvaev, S. A. E-mail: sergey.shuvaev@phystech.edu

    2015-12-15

    Application of current-carrying elements (CCEs) made of second-generation high-temperature superconductor (2G HTS) in magnet systems of a fusion neutron source (FNS) and other fusion devices will allow their magnetic field and thermodynamic stability to be increased substantially in comparison with those of low-temperature superconductor (LTS) magnets. For a toroidal magnet of the FNS, a design of a helical (partially transposed) CCE made of 2G HTS is under development with forced-flow cooling by helium gas, a current of 20–30 kA, an operating temperature of 10–20 K, and a magnetic field on the winding of 12–15 T (prospectively ∼20 T). Short-sized samples of the helical flexible heavy-current CCE are being fabricated and investigated; a pilot-line unit for production of long-sized CCE pieces is under construction. The applied fabrication technique allows the CCE to be produced which combines a high operating current, thermal and mechanical stability, manufacturability, and low losses in the alternating modes. The possibility of fabricating the CCE with the outer dimensions and values of the operating parameter required for the FNS (and with a significant margin) using already available serial 2G HTS tapes is substantiated. The maximum field of toroidal magnets with CCEs made of 2G HTS will be limited only by mechanical properties of the magnet’s casing and structure, while the thermal stability will be approximately two orders of magnitude higher than that of toroidal magnets with LTS-based CCEs. The helical CCE made of 2G HTS is very promising for fusion and hybrid electric power plants, and its design and technologies of production, as well as the prototype coils made of it for the FNS and other tokamaks, are worth developing now.

  13. Assessment of performing an MST strike in Tank 21H

    SciTech Connect

    Poirier, Michael R.

    2014-09-29

    Previous Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) tank mixing studies performed for the Small Column Ion Exchange (SCIX) project have shown that 3 Submersible Mixer Pumps (SMPs) installed in Tank 41 are sufficient to support actinide removal by MST sorption as well as subsequent resuspension and removal of settled solids. Savannah River Remediation (SRR) is pursuing MST addition into Tank 21 as part of the Large Tank Strike (LTS) project. The preliminary scope for LTS involves the use of three standard slurry pumps (installed in N, SE, and SW risers) in a Type IV tank. Due to the differences in tank size, internal interferences, and pump design, a separate mixing evaluation is required to determine if the proposed configuration will allow for MST suspension and strontium and actinide sorption. The author performed the analysis by reviewing drawings for Tank 21 [W231023] and determining the required cleaning radius or zone of influence for the pumps. This requirement was compared with previous pilot-scale MST suspension data collected for SCIX that determined the cleaning radius, or zone of influence, as a function of pump operating parameters. The author also reviewed a previous Tank 50 mixing analysis that examined the ability of standard slurry pumps to suspend sludge particles. Based on a review of the pilot-scale SCIX mixing tests and Tank 50 pump operating experience, three standard slurry pumps should be able to suspend sludge and MST to effectively sorb strontium and actinides onto the MST. Using the SCIX data requires an assumption about the impact of cooling coils on slurry pump mixing. The basis for this assumption is described in this report. Using the Tank 50 operating experience shows three standard slurry pumps should be able to suspend solids if the shear strength of the settled solids is less than 160 Pa. Because Tank 21 does not contain cooling coils, the shear strength could be larger.

  14. Final Technical Report HFC Concrete: A Low­Energy, Carbon-Dioxide­Negative Solution for reducing Industrial Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Larry McCandlish, Principal Investigator; Dr. Richard Riman, Co-Principal Investigator

    2012-05-14

    Solidia/CCSM received funding for further research and development of its Low Temperature Solidification Process (LTS), which is used to create hydrate-free concrete (HFC). LTS/HFC is a technology/materials platform that offers wide applicability in the built infrastructure. Most importantly, it provides a means of making concrete without Portland cement. Cement and concrete production is a major consumer of energy and source of industrial greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The primary goal of this project was to develop and commercialize a novel material, HFC, which by replacing traditional concrete and cement, reduces both energy use and GHG emissions in the built infrastructure. Traditional concrete uses Portland Cement (PC) as a binder. PC production involves calcination of limestone at {approx}1450 C, which releases significant amounts of CO{sub 2} gas to the atmosphere and consumes a large amount of energy due to the high temperature required. In contrast, HFC is a carbonate-based hydrate-free concrete (HFC) that consumes CO{sub 2} gas in its production. HFC is made by reaction of silicate minerals with CO{sub 2} at temperatures below 100 C, more than an order-of-magnitude below the temperature required to make PC. Because of this significant difference in temperature, it is estimated that we will be able to reduce energy use in the cement and concrete industry by up to 30 trillion Btu by 2020. Because of the insulating properties of HFC, we believe we will also be able to significantly reduce energy use in the Building sector, though the extent of this saving is not yet quantified. It is estimated that production of a tonne of PC-based concrete requires about 6.2 million Btu of energy and produces over 1 tonne of CO{sub 2} emissions (Choate, 2003). These can be reduced to 1.9 million Btu and 0.025 tonnes of CO{sub 2} emissions per tonne of HFC (with overall CO{sub 2}-negativity possible by increasing carbonation yield). In this way, by replacing PC

  15. Obituary: John Louis Africano III, 1951-2006

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barker, Edwin, S.

    2007-12-01

    The orbital debris, space surveillance, and astronomical communities lost a valued and beloved friend when John L. Africano passed away on July 27, 2006, at the young age of 55. John passed away in Honolulu, Hawaii, from complications following a heart attack suffered while playing racquetball, which was his avocation in life. Born on February 8, 1951, in Saint Louis, Missouri, John graduated with a B.S. in Physics from the University of Missouri at Saint Louis in 1973, and received a Master's degree in Astronomy from Vanderbilt University in 1974. John had a real love for astronomical observing and for conveying his many years of experience to others. He encouraged many young astronomers and mentored them in the basics of photometry and astronomical instrumentation. John was author or co-author on nearly one-hundred refereed publications ranging from analyses of cool stars to the timing of occultations to space surveillance. He was honored for his contributions to minor planet research when the Jet Propulsion Laboratory named Minor Planet 6391 (Africano) after him. John held operational staff positions at several major observatories including McDonald Observatory in Texas, Kitt Peak National Observatory in Arizona, and the Cloudcroft Telescope Facility in New Mexico. He observed at numerous observatories worldwide, including Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory (CTIO) in Chile, developing a world-wide network of friends and colleagues. John's ability to build diverse teams through his managerial and technical skills, not to mention his smiling personality, resulted in numerous successes in the observational astronomy and space surveillance arenas. As an astronomer for Boeing LTS Inc., he worked for many years at the Advanced Maui Optical and Space Surveillance site (AMOS) on Maui, Hawaii, where he contributed his operational and instrumental expertise to both the astronomy and space surveillance communities. He was also the co-organizer of the annual AMOS

  16. Operationally Responsive Space Launch for Space Situational Awareness Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freeman, T.

    Command researched and identified a course of action that has maximized operationally responsive space for Low-Earth-Orbit Space Situational Awareness assets. On 1 Aug 06, Air Force Space Command activated the Space Development and Test Wing (SDTW) to perform development, test and evaluation of Air Force space systems and to execute advanced space deployment and demonstration projects to exploit new concepts and technologies, and rapidly migrate capabilities to the warfighter. The SDTW charged the Launch Test Squadron (LTS) to develop the operationally responsive spacelift capability for Low-Earth-Orbit Space Situational Awareness assets. The LTS created and executed a space enterprise strategy to place small payloads (1500 pounds), at low cost (less than 28M to 30M per launch), repeatable and rapidly into 100 - 255 nautical miles orbits. In doing so, the squadron provides scalable launch support services including program management support, engineering support, payload integration, and post-test evaluation for space systems. The Air Force, through the SDTW/LTS, will continue to evolve as the spacelift execution arm for Space Situational Awareness by creating small, less-expensive, repeatable and operationally responsive space launch capability.

  17. Aerosol-Cloud Interactions in the South-East Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersen, Hendrik; Cermak, Jan

    2014-05-01

    thus not very credible (aerosols and cloud fraction correlate with the same meteorological parameters). The markedness of ACI is strongly dependent on the weather type. Of the examined meteorological parameters, lower tropospheric stability (LTS) seems to have the biggest impact on the statistical relationships between aerosol and cloud properties. A low LTS and the accompanied enhanced vertical transport of air masses seems to cause stronger ACI. Aerosol loading also impacts the strength of ACI, with low aerosol loadings generally associated with stronger cloud adjustments. This implies a saturation of ACI with high aerosol concentration.

  18. Amchitka Island, Alaska, Biological Monitoring Report 2011 Sampling Results

    SciTech Connect

    2013-09-01

    The Long-Term Surveillance and Maintenance (LTS&M) Plan for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management (LM) Amchitka Island sites describes how LM plans to conduct its mission to protect human health and the environment at the three nuclear test sites located on Amchitka Island, Alaska. Amchitka Island, near the western end of the Aleutian Islands, is approximately 1,340 miles west-southwest of Anchorage, Alaska. Amchitka is part of the Aleutian Island Unit of the Alaska Maritime National Wildlife Refuge, which is administered by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). Since World War II, Amchitka has been used by multiple U.S. government agencies for various military and research activities. From 1943 to 1950, it was used as a forward air base for the U.S. Armed Forces. During the middle 1960s and early 1970s, the U.S. Department of Defense (DOD) and the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) used a portion of the island as a site for underground nuclear tests. During the late 1980s and early 1990s, the U.S. Navy constructed and operated a radar station on the island. Three underground nuclear tests were conducted on Amchitka Island. DOD, in conjunction with AEC, conducted the first nuclear test (named Long Shot) in 1965 to provide data that would improve the United States' capability of detecting underground nuclear explosions. The second nuclear test (Milrow) was a weapons-related test conducted by AEC in 1969 as a means to study the feasibility of detonating a much larger device. Cannikin, the third nuclear test on Amchitka, was a weapons-related test detonated on November 6, 1971. With the exception of small concentrations of tritium detected in surface water shortly after the Long Shot test, radioactive fission products from the tests remain in the subsurface at each test location As a continuation of the environmental monitoring that has taken place on Amchitka Island since before 1965, LM in the summer of 2011 collected biological and

  19. California Coastal Low Clouds: Variability and Influences across Climate to Weather and Continental to Local Scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwartz, Rachel E.

    Low coastal stratiform clouds (stratus, stratocumulus, and fog), referred to here as coastal low cloudiness (CLC), are a persistent seasonal feature of continental west coasts, including California. The importance of CLC ranges across fields, with applications ranging from solar resource forecasting, growth of endemic species, and heat wave expression and related health impacts. This dissertation improves our understanding of California's summertime CLC by describing its variability and influences on a range of scales from multidecadal to daily and continental to local. A novel achievement is the development of a new 19-year satellite-derived low cloud record. Trained on airport observations, this high resolution record plays a critical role in the description of CLC at finer spatial and shorter timescales. Observations at coastal airports from Alaska to southern California reveal coherent interannual to interdecadal variation of CLC. The leading mode of CLC variability, accounting for nearly 40% of the total variance, and the majority of individual airports, exhibit decreasing low cloudiness from 1950 to 2012. The coherent patterns of CLC variability are organized by North Pacific Sea Surface Temperature (SST) anomalies, linked to the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO). The new satellite-derived low cloud retrieval reveals, in rich spatial texture, considerable variability in CLC within May-September. The average maximum cloudiness moves northward along the coast, from northern Baja, Mexico to northern California, from May to early August. Both component parts of lower tropospheric stability (LTS), SST and free-troposphere temperature, control this seasonal movement. The peak timing of cloudiness and daytime maximum temperatures are most closely aligned in northern California. On weather timescales, daily CLC anomalies are most strongly related to stability anomalies to the north (climatologically upwind) of the CLC region. CLC is strongly linked to stability in

  20. Coastal fog along subtropical western South America (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garreaud, R.

    2013-12-01

    The coastal mountains of semiarid Chile, along the western coast of subtropical South America, are punctuated by patches of fog-dependent evergreen forests. Fog episodes often occur when the prominent coastal topography intercepts a well developed deck of stratocumulus (Sc) off north-central Chile. In this work we document the annual cycle and interannual variability of fog frequency in this region, based on a 22-year record of ground-based fog observations at Fray Jorge Biosphere Reserve (FJBR, 30°S), atmospheric reanalysis and satellite derived low cloud amount. The number of foggy days minimizes during austral winter and then increases rapidly to reach a maximum in spring (the growing season of FJBR trees). The comparison of the lifting condensation level and the inversion base height gives a useful framework to understand the fluctuations in cloud frequency at several time scales. The mean annual cycle of the fog-frequency follows closely the annual cycle of the nearby marine Sc amount and lower tropospheric stability (LTS). The springtime fog frequency, nearby marine cloud amount and LTS are also well correlated at interannual timescales. Colder than normal sea surface temperatures and warmer than normal air temperatures aloft near 30°S strengthen the temperature inversion and lead to a more persistent cloud deck and higher than normal fog frequency at FJBR. La Niña years produce temperature anomalies very similar to the pattern described before and consequently they are associated with higher than normal springtime fog frequency at FJBR. Conversely, El Niño years are associated with less foggy conditions at FJBR. Interestingly, ENSO-related rainfall anomalies in north-central Chile are opposite to ENSO-related anomalies in fog-frequency. We also discuss the overall impact of ENSO in FJBR ecosystems as well as the prospects of FJBR in future climate scenarios driven by increased greenhouse gases. Alongshore variations of rainfall, cloud frequency

  1. Direct and semidirect aerosol effects of Southern African biomass burning aerosol

    SciTech Connect

    Sakaeda, Naoko; Wood, Robert; Rasch, Philip J.

    2011-06-21

    The direct and semi-direct radiative effects of biomass burning aerosols from Southern African fires during July-October are investigated using 20 year runs of the Community Atmospheric Model (CAM) coupled to a slab ocean model. The aerosol optical depth is constrained using observations in clear skies from MODIS and for aerosol layers above clouds from CALIPSO. Over the ocean, where the absorbing biomass burning aerosol layers are primarily located above cloud, negative top of atmosphere (TOA) semi-direct radiative effects associated with increased low cloud cover dominate over a weaker positive all-sky direct radiative effect (DRE). In contrast, over the land where the aerosols are often below or within cloud layers, reductions in cloud liquid water path (LWP) lead to a positive semi-direct radiative effect that dominates over a near-zero DRE. Over the ocean, the cloud response can be understood as a response to increased lower tropospheric stability (LTS) which is caused both by aerosol absorptive warming in overlying layers and surface cooling in response to direct aerosol forcing. The ocean cloud changes are robust to changes in the cloud parameterization (removal of the hard-wired dependence of clouds on LTS), suggesting that they are physically realistic. Over land where cloud cover changes are minimal, decreased LWP is consistent with weaker convection driven by increased static stability. Over the entire region the overall TOA radiative effect from the biomass burning aerosols is almost zero due to opposing effects over the land and ocean. However, the surface forcing is strongly negative requiring a reduction in precipitation. This is primarily realized through reductions in convective precipitation on both the southern and northern flanks of the convective precipitation region spanning the equatorial rainforest and the ITCZ in the southern Sahel. The changes are consistent with the low-level aerosol forced cooling pattern. The results highlight the

  2. "Poker" association of weekly alternating 5-fluorouracil, irinotecan, bevacizumab and oxaliplatin (FIr-B/FOx) in first line treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer: a phase II study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background This phase II study investigated efficacy and safety of weekly alternating Bevacizumab (BEV)/Irinotecan (CPT-11) or Oxaliplatin (OHP) associated to weekly 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) in first line treatment of metastatic colorectal carcinoma (MCRC). Methods Simon two-step design: delta 20% (p0 50%, p1 70%), power 80%, α 5%, β 20%. Projected objective responses (ORR): I step, 8/15 patients (pts); II step 26/43 pts. Schedule: weekly 12 h-timed-flat-infusion/5-FU 900 mg/m2, days 1-2, 8-9, 15-16, 22-23; CPT-11 160 mg/m2 plus BEV 5 mg/kg, days 1,15; OHP at three dose-levels, 60-70-80 mg/m2, days 8, 22; every 4 weeks. Results Fifty consecutive, unselected pts < 75 years were enrolled: median age 63; young-elderly (yE) 24 (48%); liver metastases (LM) 33 pts, 66% Achieved OHP recommended dose, 80 mg/m2. ORR 82% intent-to-treat and 84% as-treated analysis. Median progression-free survival 12 months. Equivalent efficacy was obtained in yE pts. Liver metastasectomies were performed in 26% of all pts and in 39% of pts with LM. After a median follow-up of 21 months, median overall survival was 28 months. Cumulative G3-4 toxicities per patient: diarrhea 28%, mucositis 6%, neutropenia 10%, hypertension 2%. They were equivalent in yE pts. Limiting toxicity syndromes (LTS), consisting of the dose-limiting toxicity, associated or not to G2 or limiting toxicities: 44% overall, 46% in yE. Multiple versus single site LTS, respectively: overall, 24% versus 20%; yE pts, 37.5% versus 8%. Conclusion Poker combination shows high activity and efficacy in first line treatment of MCRC. It increases liver metastasectomies rate and can be safely administered. Trial registration Osservatorio Nazionale sulla Sperimentazione Clinica dei Medicinali (OsSC) Agenzia Italiana del Farmaco (AIFA) Numero EudraCT 2007-004946-34 PMID:20958992

  3. Quantification of continual anthropogenic pollutants released in swimming pools.

    PubMed

    Keuten, M G A; Peters, M C F M; Daanen, H A M; de Kreuk, M K; Rietveld, L C; van Dijk, J C

    2014-04-15

    Disinfection in swimming pools is often performed by chlorination, However, anthropogenic pollutants from swimmers will react with chlorine and form disinfection by-products (DBPs). DBPs are unwanted from a health point of view, because some are irritating, while others might be carcinogenic. The reduction of anthropogenic pollutants will lead to a reduction in DBPs. This paper investigates the continual release of anthropogenic pollutants by means of controlled sweat experiments in a pool tank during laboratory time-series experiments (LTS experiments) and also during on-site experiments (OS experiments) in a swimming pool. The sweat released during the OS and LTS experiments was very similar. The sweat rate found was 0.1-0.2 L/m(2)/h at water temperatures below 29 °C and increased linearly with increasing water temperatures to 0.8 L/m(2)/h at 35 °C. The continual anthropogenic pollutant release (CAPR) not only consisted of sweat, particles (mainly skin fragments and hair) and micro-organisms, but also sebum (skin lipids) has to be considered. The release of most components can be explained by the composition of sweat. The average release during 30 min of exercise is 250 mg/bather non-purgeable organic carbon (NPOC), 77.3 mg/bather total nitrogen (TN), 37.1 mg/bather urea and 10.1 mg/bather ammonium. The release of NPOC cannot be explained by the composition of sweat and is most probably a result of sebum release. The average release of other components was 1.31 × 10(9) # particles/bather (2-50 μm), 5.2 μg/bather intracellular adenosine triphosphate (cATP) and 9.3 × 10(6) intact cell count/bather (iCC). The pool water temperature was the main parameter to restrain the CAPR. This study showed that a significant amount of the total anthropogenic pollutants release is due to unhygienic behaviour of bathers. PMID:24530546

  4. Combination of anti-VEGF therapy and temozolomide in two experimental human glioma models.

    PubMed

    Grossman, Rachel; Brastianos, Harry; Blakeley, Jaishri O; Mangraviti, Antonella; Lal, Bachchu; Zadnik, Patti; Hwang, Lee; Wicks, Robert T; Goodwin, Rory C; Brem, Henry; Tyler, Betty

    2014-01-01

    Anti-angiogenic agents, such as bevacizumab (BEV), can induce normalization of the blood brain barrier, which may influence the penetration and activity of a co-administered cytotoxic drug. However, it is unknown whether this effect is associated with a benefit in overall survival. This study employed intracranial human glioma models to evaluate the effect of BEV alone and in combination with temozolomide (TMZ) and/or radiation therapy (XRT) on overall survival. One hundred eight male athymic rats were intracranially injected with either U251 or U87 human glioma. Ten or eleven days after tumor inoculation, animals bearing U251 and U87, respectively, were treated with: TMZ alone (50 mg/kg for 5 consecutive days, P.O.), BEV alone (15 mg/kg, I.V.), a combination of TMZ and BEV, or a combination of TMZ, BEV, and a single fraction of XRT (20 Gy). Controls received no treatment. The U87 experiment was repeated and the relationship between survival and the extent of anti-angiogenesis via anti-laminin antibodies for the detection of blood vessels was assessed. In both U87 glioma experiments, all of the treatment groups had a statistically significant increase in survival as compared to the control groups. Also, for both U87 experiments the combination groups of TMZ and BEV had significantly better survival when compared to either treatment administered alone, with 75% of animals demonstrating long-term survival (LTS) (defined as animals alive 120 days after tumor implantation) in one experiment and 25% LTS in the repeat experiment. In the U251 glioma experiment, all treated groups (except BEV alone) had significantly improved survival as compared to controls with minimal statistical variance among groups. The percent vessel area was lowest in the group of animals treated with BEV alone. The addition of BEV to TMZ and/or XRT had variable effect on prolonging survival in the two human glioma models tested with reduced tumor vascularity in groups treated with BEV. These

  5. Effects of maintenance immunosuppression with sirolimus after liver transplant for hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Yanik, Elizabeth L; Chinnakotla, Srinath; Gustafson, Sally K; Snyder, Jon J; Israni, Ajay K; Segev, Dorry L; Engels, Eric A

    2016-05-01

    For recipients of liver transplantations (LTs) for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), HCC recurrence after transplantation remains a major concern. Sirolimus (SRL), an immunosuppressant with anticarcinogenic properties, may reduce HCC recurrence and improve survival. In our study, the US Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients was linked to pharmacy claims. For liver recipients transplanted for HCC, Cox regression was used to estimate associations of early SRL use with recurrence, cancer-specific mortality, and all-cause mortality, adjusting for recipient ethnicity, calendar year of transplant, total tumor volume, alpha-fetoprotein, transplant center size, use of interleukin 2 induction therapy, and allocated and calculated Model for End-Stage Liver Disease score. We performed stratified analyses among recipients who met Milan criteria, among those without renal failure, among those with deceased liver donors, by age at transplantation, and by tumor size. Among the 3936 included HCC LTs, 234 (6%) were SRL users. In total, there were 242 recurrences and 879 deaths, including 261 cancer-related deaths. All-cause mortality was similar in SRL users and nonusers (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 1.01; 95% CI, 0.73-1.39). HCC recurrence and cancer-specific mortality rates appeared lower in SRL users, but associations were not statistically significant (recurrence aHR, 0.86; 95% CI, 0.45-1.65; cancer-specific mortality aHR, 0.80; 95% CI, 0.43-1.50). Among recipients >55 years old, associations were suggestive of better outcomes for SRL users (all-cause mortality aHR, 0.62; 95% CI, 0.38-1.01; recurrence aHR, 0.52; 95% CI, 0.19-1.44; cancer-specific mortality aHR, 0.34; 95% CI, 0.11-1.09), whereas among recipients ≤55 years old, SRL users had worse outcomes (all-cause mortality aHR, 1.76; 95% CI, 1.12-2.75; recurrence aHR, 1.49; 95% CI, 0.62-3.61; cancer-specific mortality aHR, 1.54; 95% CI, 0.71-3.32). In conclusion, among HCC liver recipients overall, SRL did not appear

  6. P2X7 receptor activation in rat brain cultured astrocytes increases the biosynthetic release of cysteinyl leukotrienes.

    PubMed

    Ballerini, P; Ciccarelli, R; Caciagli, F; Rathbone, M P; Werstiuk, E S; Traversa, U; Buccella, S; Giuliani, P; Jang, S; Nargi, E; Visini, D; Santavenere, C; Di Iorio, P

    2005-01-01

    Astrocytes have been recognized as important elements in controlling inflammatory as well as immune processes in the central nervous system (CNS). Recently, glial cells have been shown to produce cysteinyl leukotrienes (CysLTs) which are known lipid mediators of inflammation and whose extracellular concentrations rise under different pathological conditions in the brain. In the same conditions also extracellular concentrations of ATP dramatically increase reaching levels able to activate P2X7 ionotropic receptors for which an emerging role in neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration has been claimed. RTPCR analysis showed that primary cultures of rat brain astrocytes express P2X7 receptors. Application of the selective P2X7 agonist benzoyl benzoly ATP (BzATP) markedly increased [Ca2+]i which was mediated by a calcium influx from the extracellular milieu. The P2X7 antagonist, oATP, suppressed the BzATP-induced calcium increase. Consistent with the evidence that increased calcium levels activate the leukotriene biosynthetic pathway, challenge of astrocytes with either the calcium ionophore A23187 or BzATP significantly increased CysLT production and the cell pre-treatment with EGTA abolished these effects. Again the P2X7 antagonist prevented the BzATP-mediated CysLT efflux, whereas the astrocyte pretreatment with MK-571, a CysLT1 receptor antagonist, was ineffective. The astrocyte pre-treatment with a cocktail of inhibitors of ATP binding cassette (ABC) proteins reduced the BzATP-mediated CysLT production confirming that ABC transporters are involved in the release of CysLTs. The astrocyte P2X7- evoked rise of CysLT efflux was abolished in the presence of MK-886, an inhibitor of 5-lipoxygenase activating protein (FLAP) whose expression, along with that of 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO) was reported by Northern Blot analysis. The stimulation of P2X7 induced an up-regulation of FLAPmRNA that was reduced by the antagonist oATP. These data suggest that in rat brain cultured

  7. Activity and stability of nanostructured gold-cerium oxide catalysts for the water-gas shift reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Qi

    Advanced low-temperature water-gas shift (LTS) catalysts of high activity and stability are under development to produce essentially CO-free hydrogen to feed PEM fuel cells for power generation. Materials based on nanocrystalline cerium oxide (ceria) are among the most promising LTS catalysts. Understanding the structural properties relationship with the WGS activity is fundamentally important in order to rational design the catalysts. Various gold structures, such as metallic gold nanoparticles, cluster and cations were found in gold-ceria sample containing 4--8 at% gold. To discriminate between the various gold species, leaching of the gold-ceria in sodium cyanide was conducted. The metallic gold and all other gold species not in close association with ceria were removed by leaching. A small amount of gold remained in the leached samples. The exact content of non-leachable gold was a function of the parent catalyst properties. Similar data were collected from Pt-ceria samples. STEM or HRTEM, coupled with EDX showed no gold or platinum particles remaining; only what appeared to be very fine clusters or atomically dispersed gold or platinum. Cationic gold or platinum was identified in these samples by XPS. The unexpected finding was that the catalytic activity of the leached samples was similar or slightly better than that of the parent catalyst after removal of the metallic gold or platinum particles by cyanide leaching. Thus, metallic nanoparticles are not necessary; they are mere spectators in the water-gas shift reaction. Nonmetallic gold or platinum species strongly associated with surface cerium-oxygen groups are responsible for the activity, since the extra gold or platinum present in the parent material does not increase the reaction rate; nor does it change the activation energy of the reaction. The importance of the oxide support properties became clear by this work. The amount of gold or platinum retained in active form depends on the surface properties

  8. Repairing and upgrading of the HTS insert in the 18T cryogen-free superconducting magnet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Awaji, S.; Oguro, H.; Watanabe, K.; Hanai, S.; Ioka, S.; Miyazaki, H.; Daibo, M.; Iijima, Y.; Saito, T.; Itoh, M.

    2014-01-01

    Since the development of the 18T cryogen-free superconducting magnet (18T-CSM) at the High Field Laboratory for Superconducting Materials (HFLSM), IMR, Tohoku University, it has been routinely utilized for the various high field researches such as the in-field materials processing and so on. After the Great East Japan Disaster, however, the 18T-CSM is under the repairing due to the serious damages of the system. At this time, a part of the middle Nb3Sn section coil and the Bi2223 inner most coil were renewed. The bronze-route Nb3Sn coil with a low ac-loss was adopted instead of the previous internal-Sn Nb3Sn coil for the reduction of the heat-generation during a field ramping. The new Bi2223 coil will generate the central field of 4.5 T under the background field of 15.5 T by the LTS outer coils, although the previous Bi2223 coil generated 2.5 T. Hence the 18T-CSM was successfully upgraded to the 20T-CSM. In addition to the Bi2223 insert, the Gd123 insert coil is being constructed as well. When the Gd123 insert coil is installed instead of the Bi2223 coil, it will be upgraded to the 22T-CSM from the 20T-CSM.

  9. Ultra-low-drift and very fast dc SQUID readout electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oukhanski, N.; Stolz, R.; Meyer, H.-G.

    2006-06-01

    High-slew rate and thermo-stable readout electronics for dc superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs) is presented. This electronics represents an optimum combination of the most important parameters for the SQUID-system user. In the new flux-locked loop (FLL) - unit design we have decreased a voltage white noise level down to the 0.32 nV/Hz{1/2}, with a flicker noise corner frequency of 0.1 Hz. By making use of electro-thermal feedback in the first stage amplifier, and multi-loop conventional feedback throughout the whole amplifier we have achieved a very low thermal drift <10 nV/K for T = 20 - 65 °C. FLL gain stability is improved down to 1% for the temperature range 10 - 60 °C and for 5 V (peak-peak) ± 30% of the power supplier voltage range. The maximum gain bandwidth product of the FLL-unit was increased 10 times up to 5 GHz. In turn, we could reach more than 10 Mphi0/s slew rate while using a conventional LTS SQUID (connected to the FLL by a 1.2 meterlength twisted pair), with a maximum voltage of the field-to-flux transfer function of >=60 µV (peak-peak). At the same time, we reduced by 40% the number of chips used in the FLL unit.

  10. Experimental investigation of 20 K two-stage layered active magnetic regenerative refrigerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Inmyong; Jeong, Sangkwon

    2015-12-01

    The performance of a two-stage layered AMRR is experimentally investigated. The test apparatus includes two-stage layered AMRs, low temperature superconducting (LTS) magnet which generates maximum magnetic field of 4 T, and the helium gas flow system. The helium compressor with the tandem rotary valve is employed to generate the oscillating flow of the helium gas minimizing the pressure swing effect. The mass flow rate of working fluid is controlled separately at the first and second stages of the AMR by solenoid valves. The mass flow rate of the AMRs is measured by the mass flow meter and the cryogenic hot-film sensor which is calibrated at cryogenic temperature range from 20 K to 77 K. In order to reduce the heat leak by shuttle heat transfer of the working fluid, void volumes have been implemented and connected to the cold ends of the AMR1 and AMR2. The temperature span of the AMR is recorded as 52 K and the performance of the AMR with the variation of the mass flow rate is analysed. The results show that the mass flow rate and the heat leak due to the shuttle heat transfer by oscillating working fluid are crucial factors in the AMR performance.

  11. Managements of recurrent hepatocellular carcinoma after liver transplantation: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    de’Angelis, Nicola; Landi, Filippo; Carra, Maria Clotilde; Azoulay, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the efficacy (survival) and safety of treatments for recurrent hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in liver transplantation (LT) patients. METHODS: Literature search was performed on available online databases without a time limit until January 2015. Clinical studies describing survival after HCC recurrence in LT patients were retrieved for a full-text evaluation. A total of 61 studies were selected: 13 case reports, 41 retrospective case series, and 7 retrospective comparative studies. RESULTS: Based on all included studies, the mean HCC recurrence rate was 16% of all LTs for HCC. A total of 1021 LT patients experienced HCC recurrence. The median time from LT to HCC recurrence was 13 mo (range 2-132 mo). The majority of patients (67%) presented with HCC extra-hepatic recurrences, involving lung, bone, adrenal gland, peritoneal lymph nodes, and rarely the brain. Overall survival after HCC recurrence was 12.97 mo. Surgical resection of localized HCC recurrence and Sorafenib for controlling systemic spread of HCC recurrence were associated with the higher survival rates (42 and 18 mo, respectively). However, Sorafenib, especially when combined with mTOR, was frequently associated with severe side effects that required dose reduction or discontinuation CONCLUSION: Management of recurrent HCC in LT patients is challenging and associated with poor prognosis independently of the type of treatment. PMID:26494973

  12. Physical meat quality and chemical composition of the Longissimus thoracis of entire and immunocastrated pigs fed varying dietary protein levels with and without ractopamine hydrochloride.

    PubMed

    Needham, T; Hoffman, L C

    2015-12-01

    Physical and chemical attributes of the Longissimus thoracis (LT) of 96 PIC(©) entire (E) and immunocastrated (C) pigs were evaluated. The study followed a 2 × 2 × 3 factorial design where three diets of low, medium and high proteins (7.50, 9.79 and 12.07 g digestible lysine/kg) were fed either with (10mg/kg) or without ractopamine (RAC) for the last 28 days of growth. Vaccination of C occurred at 16 and 20 weeks and slaughtering at 24 weeks of age. The LTs were analysed for moisture, protein, fat and ash contents as well as CIE L*, a*, b* colour, drip loss, cooking loss and Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF). Various sex and protein interactions were observed for LT protein content, L* values and WBSF. Cooking loss was decreased in C and by the medium protein diet. Feeding RAC increased WBSF values, whilst decreasing a* and b* values. However, the differences observed are minor and might be considered negligible when evaluated by a consumer. PMID:26201695

  13. Intrinsic properties of nucleus reticularis thalami neurones of the rat studied in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Avanzini, G; de Curtis, M; Panzica, F; Spreafico, R

    1989-01-01

    1. Neurones of the nucleus reticularis thalami of the rat were studied by intracellular recordings from in vitro slices. The resting membrane potential was -56.28 +/- 5.86 mV (mean value +/- S.D.); input resistance was 43.09 +/- 9.74 M omega; the time constant tau was 16.51 +/- 3.99 ms. At the resting membrane potential tonic firing is present, while at membrane potentials more negative than -60 mV a burst firing mode gradually prevails. 2. Prolonged depolarizing current pulses superimposed on a steady hyperpolarization consistently activated sequences of burst-after-hyperpolarization complexes. The all-or-none burst response consisted of Na+-mediated, TTX-sensitive fast action potentials superimposed on a low threshold spike (LTS). The burst was followed by a stereotyped after-hyperpolarization lasting 100-120 ms (BAHP), with a maxima -85 mV. The BAHP was blocked by Cd2+ and apamine but not by 8-Br cyclic AMP. The early component of BAHP was significantly attenuated by TEA. The oscillatory rhythmic discharges were abolished by agents which blocked the BAHP. 3. The presence of strong after-hyperpolarizing potentials (SAHP and BAHP) in RTN neurones plays a significant role in determining two different functional states, defined as tonic and oscillatory burst firing modes, respectively. PMID:2558172

  14. Pulmonary epithelial cancer cells and their exosomes metabolize myeloid cell-derived leukotriene C4 to leukotriene D4.

    PubMed

    Lukic, Ana; Ji, Jie; Idborg, Helena; Samuelsson, Bengt; Palmberg, Lena; Gabrielsson, Susanne; Rådmark, Olof

    2016-09-01

    Leukotrienes (LTs) play major roles in lung immune responses, and LTD4 is the most potent agonist for cysteinyl LT1, leading to bronchoconstriction and tissue remodeling. Here, we studied LT crosstalk between myeloid cells and pulmonary epithelial cells. Monocytic cells (Mono Mac 6 cell line, primary dendritic cells) and eosinophils produced primarily LTC4 In coincubations of these myeloid cells and epithelial cells, LTD4 became a prominent product. LTC4 released from the myeloid cells was further transformed by the epithelial cells in a transcellular manner. Formation of LTD4 was rapid when catalyzed by γ-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT)1 in the A549 epithelial lung cancer cell line, but considerably slower when catalyzed by GGT5 in primary bronchial epithelial cells. When A549 cells were cultured in the presence of IL-1β, GGT1 expression increased about 2-fold. Also exosomes from A549 cells contained GGT1 and augmented LTD4 formation. Serine-borate complex (SBC), an inhibitor of GGT, inhibited conversion of LTC4 to LTD4 Unexpectedly, SBC also upregulated translocation of 5-lipoxygenase (LO) to the nucleus in Mono Mac 6 cells, and 5-LO activity. Our results demonstrate an active role for epithelial cells in biosynthesis of LTD4, which may be of particular relevance in the lung. PMID:27436590

  15. Leukotriene E4 is a full functional agonist for human cysteinyl leukotriene type 1 receptor-dependent gene expression

    PubMed Central

    Foster, Holly R.; Fuerst, Elisabeth; Branchett, William; Lee, Tak H.; Cousins, David J.; Woszczek, Grzegorz

    2016-01-01

    Leukotriene E4 (LTE4) the most stable of the cysteinyl leukotrienes (cysLTs) binds poorly to classical type 1 (CysLT1) and 2 (CysLT2) receptors although it induces potent responses in human airways in vivo, such as bronchoconstriction, airway hyperresponsiveness and inflammatory cell influx suggesting the presence of a novel receptor that preferentially responds to LTE4. To identify such a receptor two human mast cell lines, LAD2 and LUVA, were selected that differentially responded to LTE4 when analysed by intracellular signalling and gene expression. Comparative transcriptome analysis and recombinant gene overexpression experiments revealed CysLT1 as a receptor responsible for potent LTE4-induced response in LAD2 but not in LUVA cells, an observation confirmed further by gene knockdown and selective inhibitors. Lentiviral overexpression of CysLT1 in LUVA cells augmented intracellular calcium signalling induced by LTE4 but did not restore full agonist responses at the gene expression level. Our data support a model where both an increased expression of Gαq-coupled CysLT1, and sustained intracellular calcium mobilisation and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (Erk) activation, are required for LTE4-mediated regulation of gene expression in human cells. Our study shows for the first time that CysLT1 expression is critically important for responsiveness to LTE4 within a human cell system. PMID:26830450

  16. Magnetic and Fluorescent Imaging of Wave Front Propagation in Cardiac Tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holzer, Jenny R.; Chancellor, Eric; Sidorov, Veniamin; Fong, Luis; Baudenbacher, Franz

    2002-03-01

    To investigate the origin of the magnetocardiogram (MCG), we mapped excitation wave fronts on the left ventricle of a Langendorff perfused isolated rabbit heart using high-resolution LTS-SQUID microscopy and epi-fluorescent imaging with sub-millimeter resolution. The combination of the two methods allows us to map the transmembrane potential and the magnetic field over the same area of the left ventricle. The leading edge of the action potential can be defined as the wave front and identified in the magnetic data as a border between areas of opposite polarity. Calculating the current from the magnetic field shows a strong component parallel to the wave front. Therefore, the MCG on the surface of the heart is mainly generated by a propagating three-dimensional sheet of current. The shape and the size of the MCG depend strongly on the direction of the currents relative to the fiber orientation. These observations are in qualitative agreement with predictions using a two-dimensional bidomain model by Roth et al (1999). However, due to imhomogenities in the tissue properties, the wave front propagates at different angles relative to the fiber orientation and can only be identified as planar over small localized areas of, typically, a few millimeters. This explains the variations in the MCG over the scan area and confirms the sensitivity of the MCG to the angle between current flow and fiber orientation.

  17. Effect of High Dietary Tryptophan on Intestinal Morphology and Tight Junction Protein of Weaned Pig

    PubMed Central

    Tossou, Myrlene Carine B.; Bai, Miaomiao; Chen, Shuai; Cai, Yinghua; Duraipandiyan, Veeramuthu; Liu, Hongbin; Adebowale, Tolulope O.; Al-Dhabi, Naif Abdullah; Long, Lina; Tarique, Hussain; Oso, Abimbola O.; Liu, Gang; Yin, Yulong

    2016-01-01

    Tryptophan (Trp) plays an essential role in pig behavior and growth performances. However, little is known about Trp's effects on tight junction barrier and intestinal health in weaned pigs. In the present study, twenty-four (24) weaned pigs were randomly assigned to one of the three treatments with 8 piglets/treatments. The piglets were fed different amounts of L-tryptophan (L-Trp) as follows: 0.0%, 0.15, and 0.75%, respectively, named zero Trp (ZTS), low Trp (LTS), and high Trp (HTS), respectively. No significant differences were observed in average daily gain (ADG), average daily feed intake (ADFI), and gain: feed (G/F) ratio between the groups. After 21 days of the feeding trial, results showed that dietary Trp significantly increased (P < 0.05) crypt depth and significantly decreased (P < 0.05) villus height to crypt depth ratio (VH/CD) in the jejunum of pig fed HTS. In addition, pig fed HTS had higher (P < 0.05) serum diamine oxidase (DAO) and D-lactate. Furthermore, pig fed HTS significantly decreased mRNA expression of tight junction proteins occludin and ZO-1 but not claudin-1 in the jejunum. The number of intraepithelial lymphocytes and goblet cells were not significantly different (P > 0.05) between the groups. Collectively, these data suggest that dietary Trp supplementation at a certain level (0.75%) may negatively affect the small intestinal structure in weaned pig. PMID:27366740

  18. How the Performance of a Superconducting Magnet is affected by theConnection between a small cooler and the Magnet

    SciTech Connect

    Green, Michael A.

    2005-09-08

    As low temperature cryocoolers become more frequently used to cool superconducting magnets, it becomes increasingly apparent that the connection between the cooler and the magnet has an effect on the design and performance of the magnet. In general, the use of small coolers can be considered in two different temperature ranges; (1) from 3.8 to 4.8 K for magnet fabricated with LTS conductor and (2) from 18 to 35 K for magnets fabricated using HTS conductor. In general, both temperature ranges call for the use of a two-stage cooler. The best method for connecting a cooler to the magnet depends on a number of factors. The factors include: (1) whether the cooler must be used to cool down the magnet from room temperature, (2) whether the magnet must have one or more reservoirs of liquid cryogen to keep the magnet cold during a loss of cooling, and (3) constraints on the distance from the cooler cold heads and the magnet and its shield. Two methods for connecting low temperature coolers to superconducting magnets have been studied. The first method uses a cold strap to connect the cold heads directly to the loads. This method is commonly used for cryogen-free magnets. The second method uses a thermal siphon and liquid cryogens to make the connection between the load being cooled and the cold head. The two methods of transferring heat from the magnet to the cooler low temperature cold head are compared for the two temperature ranges given above.

  19. Measurement of Electron Temperature and Plasma Density via Thomson Scattering and Electric Probe in Low Temperature Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woo, Hyun-Jong; Chung, Kyu-Sun; Lho, Taihyeop

    2011-10-01

    Laser Thomson scattering system has been developed for the measurements of electron temperature and plasma density in low temperature plasma by means of the Q-switched Nd:YAG laser with 2nd Harmonics (250 mJ at 532 nm, repetition rate of 20 Hz), triple grating spectrometer and ICCD camera. The triple grating spectrometer is composed of 3 grating (1800 gr/mm and 100 x 100 mm dimensions), 6 achromatic doublet lens (f=400 mm and 100 mm diameter) for reducing the abbreviation effect, two slits (entrance and exitance), opto- mechanical instruments, etc. The alignment and calibration of TGS system were performed by a diode laser and diffraction optics, Ne lamp (wavelength) and metal halide lamp (intensity), respectively. The LTS measurements were done wide ranges of 1

  20. Current Status of Divertor Plasma Simulator (DiPS-2) for Dust Interactions with Plasma and Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, In Je; Cho, Soon-Gook; Bae, Min Keun; Lee, Dong-Han; Kim, Sang-You; Hong, Sung-Hoon; Choi, Heung-Gyoon; Lho, Tae-Hyup; Chung, Kyu-Sun

    2015-09-01

    The divertor plasma simulator (DiPS-2) which is a linear plasma machine with ~ 8 MW/m2 power density emitted from a DC plasma discharge source with a LaB6 cathode is under installation for experiments of dust interactions with plasma and surfaces in fusion research fields. Specifications of DiPS-2 have weakly magnetized helium plasmas (density ~ 1013 cm3, electron temperature ~ 1 - 10 eV, particle flux ~ 1023/(sec .m2), which are of the order of plasma parameters in a typical divertor. Currently, a vacuum chamber with the diameter of 560 mm and the length of 800 mm called as ``dust interaction with surface chamber (DiSC)'' is being setup to an end flange of DiPS-2. The DiSC has a load-lock system for easily changing material targets and plasma diagnostics systems such as laser induced fluorescence (LIF), laser Thomson scattering (LTS), thermocouples and fast scanning probes (FSP) with SP, TP and MP. Using the measured dust and plasma parameters, SOL heat flux width (λq) and sheath heat transmission factor (γs) will be experimentally deduced for the analysis of the dust effects to plasmas. Initial probe data will be addressed.

  1. Removal of a small C-terminal region of JCV and SV40 large T antigens has differential effects on transformation

    PubMed Central

    Seneca, Nicole TM; Robles, Maria Teresa Sáenz; Pipas, James M

    2014-01-01

    The large T antigen (LT) protein of JCV and SV40 polyomaviruses is required to induce tumors in rodents and transform cells in culture. When both LTs are compared side-by-side in cell culture assays, SV40 shows a more robust transformation phenotype even though the LT sequences are highly conserved. A complete understanding of SV40’s enhanced transforming capabilities relative to JCV is lacking. When the least conserved region of the LT proteins, the variable linker and host range region (VHR), was removed, changes in T antigen expression and cellular p53 post-translational modifications occurred, but interaction with the pRB pathway was unaffected. Transformation assessed by growth in low serum was reduced after VHR truncation of the SV40, but not the JCV, T antigen. Conversely, anchorage independent transformation was enhanced only by truncation of the JCV VHR. This is the first report to link the SV40 or JCV VHR region to transformation potential. PMID:25129438

  2. Cellular, molecular, and epigenetic mechanisms in non-associative conditioning: implications for pain and memory.

    PubMed

    Rahn, Elizabeth J; Guzman-Karlsson, Mikael C; David Sweatt, J

    2013-10-01

    Sensitization is a form of non-associative conditioning in which amplification of behavioral responses can occur following presentation of an aversive or noxious stimulus. Understanding the cellular and molecular underpinnings of sensitization has been an overarching theme spanning the field of learning and memory as well as that of pain research. In this review we examine how sensitization, both in the context of learning as well as pain processing, shares evolutionarily conserved behavioral, cellular/synaptic, and epigenetic mechanisms across phyla. First, we characterize the behavioral phenomenon of sensitization both in invertebrates and vertebrates. Particular emphasis is placed on long-term sensitization (LTS) of withdrawal reflexes in Aplysia following aversive stimulation or injury, although additional invertebrate models are also covered. In the context of vertebrates, sensitization of mammalian hyperarousal in a model of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), as well as mammalian models of inflammatory and neuropathic pain is characterized. Second, we investigate the cellular and synaptic mechanisms underlying these behaviors. We focus our discussion on serotonin-mediated long-term facilitation (LTF) and axotomy-mediated long-term hyperexcitability (LTH) in reduced Aplysia systems, as well as mammalian spinal plasticity mechanisms of central sensitization. Third, we explore recent evidence implicating epigenetic mechanisms in learning- and pain-related sensitization. This review illustrates the fundamental and functional overlay of the learning and memory field with the pain field which argues for homologous persistent plasticity mechanisms in response to sensitizing stimuli or injury across phyla. PMID:23796633

  3. Multichannel SQUID system for measurement of spinal cord evoked magnetic field for supine subjects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adachi, Y.; Kawai, J.; Miyamoto, M.; Uehara, G.; Ogata, H.; Kawabata, S.

    2008-02-01

    A SQUID biomagnetometer system for cervical spinal cord evoked field (SCEF) was developed to investigate a non-invasive diagnosis of function of the spinal cord. The measurement system was characterized by a uniquely shaped cryostat designed for supine subjects. The cryostat has a vertical cylindrical main body whose dimensions are 500 mm in diameter and 940 mm in height and a horizontal protrusion from the side surface with 390 mm of length. The sensor array of 35 LTS-SQUID vector gradiometers directed vertically upward is installed in the end of the protruded part. Subjects lie on a bed in supine position with the head running off the edge of the bed and the back of the neck supported on the upper surface of the protruded part of the cryostat standing beside the bed. This structure readily enables the sensor array to approach close to the neck of the supine subject. The subjects can keep their posture stable during the measurement. We demonstrated the cervical SCEF was successfully detected from a healthy subject who was given electric stimulation to the median nerve at the wrist. The intensity of the evoked magnetic field was 40-70 fT in amplitude. The neural signal propagating along the spinal cord was magnetically observed from the investigation of the transition of the magnetic field distribution.

  4. DISCOVERY OF AN ACCRETING MILLISECOND PULSAR IN THE ECLIPSING BINARY SYSTEM SWIFT J1749.4-2807

    SciTech Connect

    Altamirano, D.; Cavecchi, Y.; Patruno, A.; Watts, A.; Degenaar, N.; Kalamkar, M.; Van der Klis, M.; Armas Padilla, M.; Kaur, R.; Yang, Y. J.; Wijnands, R.; Linares, M.; Rea, N.; Casella, P.; Soleri, P.

    2011-01-20

    We report on the discovery and the timing analysis of the first eclipsing accretion-powered millisecond X-ray pulsar (AMXP): SWIFT J1749.4-2807. The neutron star rotates at a frequency of {approx}517.9 Hz and is in a binary system with an orbital period of 8.8 hr and a projected semimajor axis of {approx}1.90 lt-s. Assuming a neutron star between 0.8 and 2.2 M{sub sun} and using the mass function of the system and the eclipse half-angle, we constrain the mass of the companion and the inclination of the system to be in the {approx}0.46-0.81 M{sub sun} and {approx} 74.{sup 0}4-77.{sup 0}3 range, respectively. To date, this is the tightest constraint on the orbital inclination of any AMXP. As in other AMXPs, the pulse profile shows harmonic content up to the third overtone. However, this is the first AMXP to show a first overtone with rms amplitudes between {approx}6% and {approx}23%, which is the strongest ever seen and which can be more than two times stronger than the fundamental. The fact that SWIFT J1749.4-2807 is an eclipsing system that shows uncommonly strong harmonic content suggests that it might be the best source to date to set constraints on neutron star properties including compactness and geometry.

  5. The 5-lipoxygenase inhibitor RF-22c potently suppresses leukotriene biosynthesis in cellulo and blocks bronchoconstriction and inflammation in vivo.

    PubMed

    Schaible, Anja M; Filosa, Rosanna; Krauth, Verena; Temml, Veronika; Pace, Simona; Garscha, Ulrike; Liening, Stefanie; Weinigel, Christina; Rummler, Silke; Schieferdecker, Sebastian; Nett, Markus; Peduto, Antonella; Collarile, Selene; Scuotto, Maria; Roviezzo, Fioretina; Spaziano, Giuseppe; de Rosa, Mario; Stuppner, Hermann; Schuster, Daniela; D'Agostino, Bruno; Werz, Oliver

    2016-07-15

    5-Lipoxygenase (5-LO) catalyzes the first two steps in leukotriene (LT) biosynthesis. Because LTs play pivotal roles in allergy and inflammation, 5-LO represents a valuable target for anti-inflammatory drugs. Here, we investigated the molecular mechanism, the pharmacological profile, and the in vivo effectiveness of the novel 1,2-benzoquinone-featured 5-LO inhibitor RF-22c. Compound RF-22c potently inhibited 5-LO product synthesis in neutrophils and monocytes (IC50⩾22nM) and in cell-free assays (IC50⩾140nM) without affecting 12/15-LOs, cyclooxygenase (COX)-1/2, or arachidonic acid release, in a specific and reversible manner, supported by molecular docking data. Antioxidant or iron-chelating properties were not evident for RF-22c and 5-LO-regulatory cofactors like Ca(2+) mobilization, ERK-1/2 activation, and 5-LO nuclear membrane translocation and interaction with 5-LO-activating protein (FLAP) were unaffected. RF-22c (0.1mg/kg; i.p.) impaired (I) bronchoconstriction in ovalbumin-sensitized mice challenged with acetylcholine, (II) exudate formation in carrageenan-induced paw edema, and (III) zymosan-induced leukocyte infiltration in air pouches. Taken together, RF-22c is a highly selective and potent 5-LO inhibitor in intact human leukocytes with pronounced effectiveness in different models of inflammation that warrants further preclinical analysis of this agent as anti-inflammatory drug. PMID:27157409

  6. Is liver transplantation safe and effective in elderly (≥70 years) recipients? A case-controlled analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Gregory C; Quillin, R Cutler; Wima, Koffi; Sutton, Jeffrey M; Hoehn, Richard S; Hanseman, Dennis J; Paquette, Ian M; Paterno, Flavio; Woodle, E Steve; Abbott, Daniel E; Shah, Shimul A

    2014-01-01

    Background Elderly patients are evaluated for liver transplantation (LT) with increasing frequency, but outcomes in this group have not been well defined. Methods A linkage of the Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients (SRTR) and the University HealthSystem Consortium (UHC) databases identified 12 445 patients who underwent LT during 2007–2011. Two cohorts were created consisting of, respectively, elderly recipients aged ≥70 years (n = 323) and recipients aged 18–69 years (n = 12 122). A 1:1 case-matched analysis was performed based on propensity scores. Results Elderly recipients had lower Model for End-stage Liver Disease (MELD) scores at LT (median 15 versus 19; P < 0.0001), more often underwent transplantation at high-volume centres (46% versus 33%; P < 0.0001) and more often received grafts from donors aged >60 years (24% versus 15%; P < 0.0001). The two cohorts had similar hospital lengths of stay, in-hospital mortality, hospital costs and 30-day readmission rates. There were no differences in graft survival between the two cohorts (P = 0.10), but elderly recipients had worse longterm overall survival (P = 0.009). However, a case-controlled analysis confirmed similar perioperative hospital outcomes, graft survival and longterm patient survival in the two matched cohorts. Conclusions Elderly LT recipients accounted for <3% of all LTs performed during 2007–2011. Selected elderly recipients have perioperative outcomes and survival similar to those in younger adults. PMID:25099347

  7. Screening and characterization of molecules that modulate the biological activity of IFNs-I.

    PubMed

    Bürgi, Milagros; Zapol'skii, Viktor A; Hinkelmann, Bettina; Köster, Mario; Kaufmann, Dieter E; Sasse, Florenz; Hauser, Hansjörg; Etcheverrigaray, Marina; Kratje, Ricardo; Bollati-Fogolín, Mariela; Oggero, Marcos

    2016-09-10

    Type I Interferons (IFNs-I) are species-specific glycoproteins which play an important role as primary defence against viral infections and that can also modulate the adaptive immune system. In some autoimmune diseases, interferons (IFNs) are over-produced. IFNs are widely used as biopharmaceuticals for a variety of cancer indications, chronic viral diseases, and for their immuno-modulatory action in patients with multiple sclerosis; therefore, increasing their therapeutic efficiency and decreasing their side effects is of high clinical value. In this sense, it is interesting to find molecules that can modulate the activity of IFNs. In order to achieve that, it was necessary to establish a simple, fast and robust assay to analyze numerous compounds simultaneously. We developed four reporter gene assays (RGAs) to identify IFN activity modulator compounds by using WISH-Mx2/EGFP, HeLa-Mx2/EGFP, A549-Mx2/EGFP, and HEp2-Mx2/EGFP reporter cell lines (RCLs). All of them present a Z' factor higher than 0.7. By using these RGAs, natural and synthetic compounds were analyzed simultaneously. A total of 442 compounds were studied by the Low Throughput Screening (LTS) assay using the four RCLs to discriminate between their inhibitory or enhancing effects on IFN activity. Some of them were characterized and 15 leads were identified. Finally, one promising candidate with enhancing effect on IFN-α/-β activity and five compounds with inhibitory effect were described. PMID:27346232

  8. Modelling an experimental methane fuel processor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Shi-Tin; Chen, Yih-Hang; Yu, Cheng-Ching; Liu, Yen-Chun; Lee, Chiou-Hwang

    Steady-state models are developed to describe an experimental methane fuel processor that is intended to provide hydrogen for a fuel cell system for power generation (2-3 kW). First-principle reactor models are constructed to describe a series of reactions, i.e., steam and autothermal reforming (SR/ATR), high- and low-temperature water-gas shift (HTS/LTS) reactions and preferential oxidation (PROX) reactions, at different sectors of the reactor system for methane reforming as well as gas cleaning. The pre-exponential factors of the rate constants are adjusted to fit the experimental data and the resultant reactor model provides a reasonably good description of steady-state behaviour. Next, sensitivity analyses are performed to locate the optimum operating point of the fuel processor. The objective function of the optimization is fuel processor efficiency. The dominating optimization variables include: the ratios of water and oxygen to the hydrocarbon feed to the autothermal reforming reactor and the inlet temperature of the reactor. The results indicate that further improvement in fuel processor efficiency can be made with a reliable process model.

  9. [Contribution and role of important biochemic factors in cerebral ischemia].

    PubMed

    Miller, Elzbieta; Rutkowski, Maciej

    2006-03-01

    After an ischemic insult, a multi-faceted complex cascade of biochemical reactions occurs that ultimately causes neurons death. Above reactions exert an influence on: immunological changes (activation of the complement system and the generation of antibodies), increased inflammation (actions of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines), the production of reactive oxygen species leading to oxidative stress, diminished mitochondrial function and activation of apoptotic pathways. There is also intensive release and wrong reversible escapement many of neurotransmitters. The last one throught oxidative desamination are one of the main sources most of free radicals. Central nervous system is particularly susceptible to ROS-induced damage due to the high oxygen demands of the brain and low concentration of endogenous antioxidants. lts refer both enzymatic antioxidants: catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, superoxide dismutase and nonenzymatic antioxidants glutathione, vitamin a, c, e, coenzym Q, uric acid etc. Presently there are no neuroprotective treatments and prevention. One way of treatment testing in clinical trials is hypothermia inhibits above-mentioned processes. PMID:16780250

  10. Globus Pallidus Externus Neurons Expressing parvalbumin Interconnect the Subthalamic Nucleus and Striatal Interneurons

    PubMed Central

    Saunders, Arpiar; Huang, Kee Wui; Sabatini, Bernardo Luis

    2016-01-01

    The globus pallidus externus (GP) is a nucleus of the basal ganglia (BG), containing GABAergic projection neurons that arborize widely throughout the BG, thalamus and cortex. Ongoing work seeks to map axonal projection patterns from GP cell types, as defined by their electrophysiological and molecular properties. Here we use transgenic mice and recombinant viruses to characterize parvalbumin expressing (PV+) GP neurons within the BG circuit. We confirm that PV+ neurons 1) make up ~40% of the GP neurons 2) exhibit fast-firing spontaneous activity and 3) provide the major axonal arborization to the STN and substantia nigra reticulata/compacta (SNr/c). PV+ neurons also innervate the striatum. Retrograde labeling identifies ~17% of pallidostriatal neurons as PV+, at least a subset of which also innervate the STN and SNr. Optogenetic experiments in acute brain slices demonstrate that the PV+ pallidostriatal axons make potent inhibitory synapses on low threshold spiking (LTS) and fast-spiking interneurons (FS) in the striatum, but rarely on spiny projection neurons (SPNs). Thus PV+ GP neurons are synaptically positioned to directly coordinate activity between BG input nuclei, the striatum and STN, and thalamic-output from the SNr. PMID:26905595

  11. Allocation procedure has no impact on patient and graft outcome after liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Mossdorf, Anne; Kalverkamp, Sebastian; Langenbrinck, Luise; Ulmer, Tom Florian; Temizel, Ilknur; Neumann, Ulf; Heidenhain, Christoph

    2013-09-01

    The aim of our study was to compare the postoperative outcome after liver transplantation (LT) in patients who received a donor liver via standard or rescue allocation (RA). Special emphasize was laid on the effect extended donor criteria might have on the outcome. One hundred and ten LTs have been performed at the University Hospital Aachen, Germany. A total of 49 patients were included in the standard allocation (SA) group and 53 patients in the RA group. The outcome of LT in both groups was evaluated by the length of stay on the intensive care unit (ICU), duration of hospitalization, 1-year patient survival, 1-year graft survival, incidence of primary nonfunction and major complications. Patients in group RA had a significant shorter ICU and overall hospital stay. The 1-year graft survival was 87.8% in group SA and 88.7% in group RA. The 1-year patient survival was 87.9% in group SA and 96.2% in group RA. The number of re-LT was 2% in group SA and 7.5% in group RA. Organs that were rejected for transplantation several times can successfully be transplanted through the RA procedure, thereby enlarging the donor pool without negative effects on the quality of LT. PMID:23834494

  12. Solution and Study of the Two-Dimensional Nodal Neutron Transport Equation

    SciTech Connect

    Panta Pazos, Ruben; Biasotto Hauser, Eliete; Tullio de Vilhena, Marco

    2002-07-01

    In the last decade Vilhena and coworkers reported an analytical solution to the two-dimensional nodal discrete-ordinates approximations of the neutron transport equation in a convex domain. The key feature of these works was the application of the combined collocation method of the angular variable and nodal approach in the spatial variables. By nodal approach we mean the transverse integration of the SN equations. This procedure leads to a set of one-dimensional S{sub N} equations for the average angular fluxes in the variables x and y. These equations were solved by the old version of the LTS{sub N} method, which consists in the application of the Laplace transform to the set of nodal S{sub N} equations and solution of the resulting linear system by symbolic computation. It is important to recall that this procedure allow us to increase N the order of S{sub N} up to 16. To overcome this drawback we step forward performing a spectral painstaking analysis of the nodal S{sub N} equations for N up to 16 and we begin the convergence of the S{sub N} nodal equations defining an error for the angular flux and estimating the error in terms of the truncation error of the quadrature approximations of the integral term. Furthermore, we compare numerical results of this approach with those of other techniques used to solve the two-dimensional discrete approximations of the neutron transport equation. (authors)

  13. From dilute isovalent substitution to alloying in CdSeTe nanoplatelets.

    PubMed

    Tenne, Ron; Pedetti, Silvia; Kazes, Miri; Ithurria, Sandrine; Houben, Lothar; Nadal, Brice; Oron, Dan; Dubertret, Benoit

    2016-06-01

    Cadmium chalcogenide nanoplatelet (NPL) synthesis has recently witnessed a significant advance in the production of more elaborate structures such as core/shell and core/crown NPLs. However, controlled doping in these structures has proved difficult because of the restrictive synthetic conditions required for 2D anisotropic growth. Here, we explore the incorporation of tellurium (Te) within CdSe NPLs with Te concentrations ranging from doping to alloying. For Te concentrations higher than ∼30%, the CdSexTe(1-x) NPLs show emission properties characteristic of an alloyed material with a bowing of the band gap for increased concentrations of Te. This behavior is in line with observations in bulk samples and can be put in the context of the transition from a pure material to an alloy. In the dilute doping regime, CdSe:Te NPLs, in comparison to CdSe NPLs, show a distinct photoluminescence (PL) red shift and prolonged emission lifetimes (LTs) associated with Te hole traps which are much deeper than in bulk samples. Furthermore, single particle spectroscopy reveals dramatic modifications in PL properties. In particular, doped NPLs exhibit photon antibunching and emission dynamics significantly modified compared to undoped or alloyed NPLs. PMID:27211113

  14. CELLULAR, MOLECULAR, AND EPIGENETIC MECHANISMS IN NON-ASSOCIATIVE CONDITIONING: IMPLICATIONS FOR PAIN AND MEMORY

    PubMed Central

    Rahn, Elizabeth J.; Guzman-Karlsson, Mikael C.; Sweatt, J. David

    2013-01-01

    Sensitization is a form of non-associative conditioning in which amplification of behavioral responses can occur following presentation of an aversive or noxious stimulus. Understanding the cellular and molecular underpinnings of sensitization has been an overarching theme spanning the field of learning and memory as well as that of pain research. In this review we examine how sensitization, both in the context of learning as well as pain processing, shares evolutionarily conserved behavioral, cellular/synaptic, and epigenetic mechanisms across phyla. First, we characterize the behavioral phenomenon of sensitization both in invertebrates and vertebrates. Particular emphasis is placed on long-term sensitization (LTS) of withdrawal reflexes in Aplysia following aversive stimulation or injury, although additional invertebrate models are also covered. In the context of vertebrates, sensitization of mammalian hyperarousal in a model of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), as well as mammalian models of inflammatory and neuropathic pain is characterized. Second, we investigate the cellular and synaptic mechanisms underlying these behaviors. We focus our discussion on serotonin-mediated long-term facilitation (LTF) and axotomy-mediated long-term hyperexcitability (LTH) in reduced Aplysia systems, as well as mammalian spinal plasticity mechanisms of central sensitization. Third, we explore recent evidence implicating epigenetic mechanisms in learning-and pain- related sensitization. This review illustrates the fundamental and functional overlay of the learning and memory field with the pain field which argues for homologous persistent plasticity mechanisms in response to sensitizing stimuli or injury across phyla. PMID:23796633

  15. Large variations in ocular dimensions in a multiethnic population with similar genetic background

    PubMed Central

    Niu, Zhiqiang; Li, Jun; Zhong, Hua; Yuan, Zhonghua; Zhou, Hua; Zhang, Yang; Yuan, Yuansheng; Chen, Qin; Pan, Chen-Wei

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to describe the ethnic variations in ocular dimensions among three ethnic groups with similar genetic ancestry from mainland of China. We included 2119 ethnic Bai, 2202 ethnic Yi and 2183 ethnic Han adults aged 50 years or older in the study. Ocular dimensions including axial length (AL), anterior chamber depth (ACD), vitreous chamber depth (VCD) and lens thickness (LT) were measured using A-scan ultrasonography. Bai Chinese had longer ALs (P < 0.001), deeper ACDs (P < 0.001) but shallower VCDs (P < 0.001) compared with the other two ethnic groups. There were no ethnic variations in LTs. Diabetes was associated with shallower ACDs and this association was stronger in Bai Chinese compared with Yi or Han Chinese (P for interaction = 0.02). Thicker lenses were associated with younger age (P = 0.04), male gender (P < 0.001), smoking history (P = 0.01), alcohol intake (P = 0.03), the presence of cataract (P < 0.001), and the presence of diabetes (P < 0.001). There were significant differences in ocular dimensions among different ethnic groups with small differences in genetics but large variations in cultures and lifestyles. PMID:26947903

  16. Structure and Ligand Based Drug Design Strategies in the Development of Novel 5-LOX Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Aparoy, Polamarasetty; Kumar Reddy, Kakularam; Reddanna, Pallu

    2012-01-01

    Lipoxygenases (LOXs) are non-heme iron containing dioxygenases involved in the oxygenation of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) such as arachidonic acid (AA). Depending on the position of insertion of oxygen, LOXs are classified into 5-, 8-, 9-, 12- and 15-LOX. Among these, 5-LOX is the most predominant isoform associated with the formation of 5-hydroperoxyeicosatetraenoic acid (5-HpETE), the precursor of non-peptido (LTB4) and peptido (LTC4, LTD4, and LTE4) leukotrienes. LTs are involved in inflammatory and allergic diseases like asthma, ulcerative colitis, rhinitis and also in cancer. Consequently 5-LOX has become target for the development of therapeutic molecules for treatment of various inflammatory disorders. Zileuton is one such inhibitor of 5-LOX approved for the treatment of asthma. In the recent times, computer aided drug design (CADD) strategies have been applied successfully in drug development processes. A comprehensive review on structure based drug design strategies in the development of novel 5-LOX inhibitors is presented in this article. Since the crystal structure of 5-LOX has been recently solved, efforts to develop 5-LOX inhibitors have mostly relied on ligand based rational approaches. The present review provides a comprehensive survey on these strategies in the development of 5-LOX inhibitors. PMID:22680930

  17. OpenMP-accelerated SWAT simulation using Intel C and FORTRAN compilers: Development and benchmark

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ki, Seo Jin; Sugimura, Tak; Kim, Albert S.

    2015-02-01

    We developed a practical method to accelerate execution of Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) using open (free) computational resources. The SWAT source code (rev 622) was recompiled using a non-commercial Intel FORTRAN compiler in Ubuntu 12.04 LTS Linux platform, and newly named iOMP-SWAT in this study. GNU utilities of make, gprof, and diff were used to develop the iOMP-SWAT package, profile memory usage, and check identicalness of parallel and serial simulations. Among 302 SWAT subroutines, the slowest routines were identified using GNU gprof, and later modified using Open Multiple Processing (OpenMP) library in an 8-core shared memory system. In addition, a C wrapping function was used to rapidly set large arrays to zero by cross compiling with the original SWAT FORTRAN package. A universal speedup ratio of 2.3 was achieved using input data sets of a large number of hydrological response units. As we specifically focus on acceleration of a single SWAT run, the use of iOMP-SWAT for parameter calibrations will significantly improve the performance of SWAT optimization.

  18. Diagnosis and Management of Drug-Induced Liver Injury (DILI) in Patients with Pre-Existing Liver Disease.

    PubMed

    Teschke, Rolf; Danan, Gaby

    2016-08-01

    The relationship between drugs and pre-existing liver disease is complex, particularly when increased liver tests (LTs) or new symptoms emerge in patients with pre-existing liver disease during drug therapy. This requires two strategies to assess whether these changes are due to drug-induced liver injury (DILI) as a new event or due to flares of the underlying liver disease. Lacking a valid diagnostic biomarker, DILI is a diagnosis of exclusion and requires causality assessment by RUCAM, the Roussel Uclaf Causality Assessment Method, to establish an individual causality grading of the suspected drug(s). Flares of pre-existing liver disease can reliably be assessed in some hepatotropic virus infections by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and antibody titers at the beginning and in the clinical course to ascertain flares during the natural course of the disease. Unfortunately, flares cannot be verified in many other liver diseases such as alcoholic liver disease, since specific tests are unavailable. However, such a diagnostic approach using RUCAM applied to suspected DILI cases includes clinical and biological markers of pre-existing liver diseases and would determine whether drugs or underlying liver diseases caused the LT abnormalities or the new symptoms. More importantly, a clear diagnosis is essential to ensure effective disease management by drug cessation or specific treatment of the flare up due to the underlying disease. PMID:27091053

  19. Development of ex situ processed MgB 2 wires and their applications to magnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braccini, Valeria; Nardelli, Davide; Penco, Roberto; Grasso, Giovanni

    2007-06-01

    In spite of the relatively short time dedicated to the development of magnesium diboride conductors since its discovery in early 2001, a substantial improvement was soon achieved in their manufacture and use. Unlike many others HTS and LTS materials, the MgB 2 conductor processing is more open to a number of improvements and modifications that help in making it more attractive for several DC and AC applications. Many kilometres of conductors were already produced throughout the world and it is now possible to start seriously thinking about a systematic industrial production of this material, as it is already possible to purchase it in reasonable lengths on the free market. These remarkable lengths of conductor were also wound in coils and their performance continuously improved in the past years. Here we will present a review of the recent results and a perspective for the future development of this “new” superconductor, starting from the optimisation of the precursor powders needed to improve the magnetic field behaviour of the tapes, to the conductor development, i.e. the production of multifilamentary Cu-stabilized tapes in lengths up to 1.78 km, to the realization of the first large-scale application devices such as MRI magnets and fault current limiters.

  20. 5-Lipoxygenase/cyclooxygenase-2 cross-talk through cysteinyl leukotriene receptor 2 in endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Lötzer, Katharina; Jahn, Steffen; Kramer, Cornelia; Hildner, Markus; Nüsing, Rolf; Funk, Colin D; Habenicht, Andreas J R

    2007-11-01

    The 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO) pathway generates lipid mediators, i.e. the cysteinyl leukotrienes (cysLTs) LTC(4)/LTD(4) and LTB(4). CysLT receptors are expressed in endothelial cells (EC) and EC cysLT(2)-R activation induces diverse pro-inflammatory genes in vitro. We now report that LTD(4) promotes formation of an atherosclerosis-protective and anti-thrombotic eicosanoid by markedly up-regulating EC cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). CysLT-induced COX-2 transcripts were transiently up-regulated as determined by microarray and QRT-PCR analyses though COX-2 protein remained elevated for several hours. Prostacyclin formation, measured as its stable metabolite 6-keto-PGF(1alpha), was increased several fold in LTD(4)-stimulated ECs, and was inhibited by the COX-2-specific inhibitor, NS-398. COX-2 up-regulation was Ca(2+)-dependent and was partially blocked by cyclosporin A indicating that the 5-LO/COX-2 cross-talk involved signaling through a nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) dependent pathway. Since prostacyclin is a major blood vessel-protective and anti-thrombotic eicosanoid, the EC cysLT(2)-R may limit its otherwise pro-inflammatory actions through a protective Ca(2+)/calcineurin/NFAT-dependent COX-2 feedback loop. PMID:17991613

  1. Leukotriene D4 receptor-mediated hydrolysis of phosphoinositide and mobilization of calcium in sheep tracheal smooth muscle cells

    SciTech Connect

    Mong, S.; Miller, J.; Wu, H.L.; Crooke, S.T.

    1988-02-01

    A sheep tracheal smooth muscle primary culture cell system was developed to characterize leukotriene D4 (LTD4) receptor-mediated biochemical and pharmacological effects. (/sup 3/H)LTD4 binding to the enriched plasma membrane receptor was specific, stereoselective and saturable. LTE4 and high affinity receptor antagonists bound to the receptors with a rank-order potency that was expected from previous smooth muscle contraction studies. In the (/sup 3/H)myoinositol labeled cells, LTD4 and LTE4 induced phosphoinositide hydrolysis. The biosynthesis of (/sup 3/H)inositol-trisphosphate was rapid and the induction of biosynthesis of (/sup 3/H)inositol-monophosphate by LTs was stereoselective and specific and was inhibited specifically by a receptor antagonist, SKF 104353. In the fura-2 loaded smooth muscle cells, LTD4 and LTE4 induced transient intracellular Ca++ mobilization. The fura-2/Ca++ transient was stereoselective and specific and was inhibited by receptor antagonist, SKF 104353. These results suggest that the cultured sheep tracheal smooth muscle cells have plasma membrane receptors for LTD4. These receptors were coupled to a phospholipase C that, when activated by agonists, induced hydrolysis of inositol containing phospholipids. The hydrolysis products, e.g. diacylglycerol and inositol-trisphosphate, may serve as intracellular messengers that trigger or contribute to the contractile effect in sheep tracheal smooth muscle.

  2. The Arachidonic Acid Metabolome Serves as a Conserved Regulator of Cholesterol Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Demetz, Egon; Schroll, Andrea; Auer, Kristina; Heim, Christiane; Patsch, Josef R.; Eller, Philipp; Theurl, Markus; Theurl, Igor; Theurl, Milan; Seifert, Markus; Lener, Daniela; Stanzl, Ursula; Haschka, David; Asshoff, Malte; Dichtl, Stefanie; Nairz, Manfred; Huber, Eva; Stadlinger, Martin; Moschen, Alexander R.; Li, Xiaorong; Pallweber, Petra; Scharnagl, Hubert; Stojakovic, Tatjana; März, Winfried; Kleber, Marcus E.; Garlaschelli, Katia; Uboldi, Patrizia; Catapano, Alberico L.; Stellaard, Frans; Rudling, Mats; Kuba, Keiji; Imai, Yumiko; Arita, Makoto; Schuetz, John D.; Pramstaller, Peter P.; Tietge, Uwe J.F.; Trauner, Michael; Norata, Giuseppe D.; Claudel, Thierry; Hicks, Andrew A.; Weiss, Guenter; Tancevski, Ivan

    2014-01-01

    Summary Cholesterol metabolism is closely interrelated with cardiovascular disease in humans. Dietary supplementation with omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids including arachidonic acid (AA) was shown to favorably affect plasma LDL-C and HDL-C. However, the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. By combining data from a GWAS screening in >100,000 individuals of European ancestry, mediator lipidomics, and functional validation studies in mice, we identify the AA metabolome as an important regulator of cholesterol homeostasis. Pharmacological modulation of AA metabolism by aspirin induced hepatic generation of leukotrienes (LTs) and lipoxins (LXs), thereby increasing hepatic expression of the bile salt export pump Abcb11. Induction of Abcb11 translated in enhanced reverse cholesterol transport, one key function of HDL. Further characterization of the bioactive AA-derivatives identified LX mimetics to lower plasma LDL-C. Our results define the AA metabolome as conserved regulator of cholesterol metabolism, and identify AA derivatives as promising therapeutics to treat cardiovascular disease in humans. PMID:25444678

  3. Cysteinyl leukotriene overproduction in aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease is driven by platelet-adherent leukocytes

    PubMed Central

    Laidlaw, Tanya M.; Kidder, Molly S.; Bhattacharyya, Neil; Xing, Wei; Shen, Shiliang; Milne, Ginger L.; Castells, Mariana C.; Chhay, Heng

    2012-01-01

    Cysteinyl leukotriene (cysLT) overproduction is a hallmark of aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease (AERD), but its mechanism is poorly understood. Because adherent platelets can convert the leukocyte-derived precursor leukotriene (LT)A4 to LTC4, the parent cysLT, through the terminal enzyme LTC4 synthase, we investigated the contribution of platelet-dependent transcellular cysLT production in AERD. Nasal polyps from subjects with AERD contained many extravascular platelets that colocalized with leukocytes, and the percentages of circulating neutrophils, eosinophils, and monocytes with adherent platelets were markedly higher in the blood of subjects with AERD than in aspirin-tolerant controls. Platelet-adherent subsets of leukocytes had higher expression of several adhesion markers than did platelet nonadherent subsets. Adherent platelets contributed more than half of the total LTC4 synthase activity of peripheral blood granulocytes, and they accounted for the higher level of LTC4 generation by activated granulocytes from subjects with AERD compared with aspirin-tolerant controls. Urinary LTE4 levels, a measure of systemic cysLT production, correlated strongly with percentages of circulating platelet-adherent granulocytes. Because platelet adherence to leukocytes allows for both firm adhesion to endothelial cells and augmented transcellular conversion of leukotrienes, a disturbance in platelet-leukocyte interactions may be partly responsible for the respiratory tissue inflammation and the overproduction of cysLTs that characterize AERD. PMID:22262771

  4. Optical and Nanoparticle Analysis of Normal and Cancer Cells by Light Transmission Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deatsch, Alison; Sun, Nan; Johnson, Jeffery; Stack, Sharon; Szajko, John; Sander, Christopher; Rebuyon, Roland; Easton, Judah; Tanner, Carol; Ruggiero, Steven

    2015-03-01

    We have investigated the optical properties of human oral and ovarian cancer and normal cells. Specifically, we have measured the absolute optical extinction for intra-cellular material (lysates) in aqueous suspension. Measurements were conducted over a wavelength range of 250 to 1000 nm with 1 nm resolution using Light Transmission Spectroscopy (LTS). This provides both the absolute extinction of materials under study and, with Mie inversion, the absolute number of particles of a given diameter as a function of diameter in the range of 1 to 3000 nm. Our preliminary studies show significant differences in both the extinction and particle size distributions associated with cancer versus normal cells, which appear to be correlated with differences in the particle size distribution in the range of approximately 50 to 250 nm. Especially significant is a clearly higher density of particles at about 100 nm and smaller for normal cells. Department of Physics, Harper Cancer Research Institute, and the Office of Research at the University of Notre Dame.

  5. Mechanisms of aspirin sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Picado, César

    2006-05-01

    In some asthma patients, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) induce bronchospasm, rhinorrhea, and nasal obstruction. NSAID-induced reactions appear to be caused by the inhibition of cyclooxygenase-1 (Cox-1); this in turn activates the lipoxygenase pathway, which eventually increases the release of cysteinyl leukotrienes (Cys-LTs) that induces bronchospasm and nasal obstruction. With regard to the metabolism of arachidonic acid (AA) in NSAID-intolerant asthmatic patients, the following changes have been observed: 1) A low production of prostaglandin E2, seemingly due to deficient Cox-2 regulation; 2) an increased expression of leukotriene-C4 synthase; and 3) a reduced production of metabolites (lipoxins) released through the transcellular metabolism of AA. NSAID-intolerant asthmatics have higher basal levels of Cys-LT than NSAID-tolerant asthmatics. Moreover, Cys-LT levels in NSAID-intolerant asthmatics increase remarkably following NSAID provocation testing. There has been no explanation to date that connects all these findings, although an anomaly in the regulation of Cox-2 is probably accountable. PMID:16579869

  6. Large variations in ocular dimensions in a multiethnic population with similar genetic background.

    PubMed

    Niu, Zhiqiang; Li, Jun; Zhong, Hua; Yuan, Zhonghua; Zhou, Hua; Zhang, Yang; Yuan, Yuansheng; Chen, Qin; Pan, Chen-Wei

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to describe the ethnic variations in ocular dimensions among three ethnic groups with similar genetic ancestry from mainland of China. We included 2119 ethnic Bai, 2202 ethnic Yi and 2183 ethnic Han adults aged 50 years or older in the study. Ocular dimensions including axial length (AL), anterior chamber depth (ACD), vitreous chamber depth (VCD) and lens thickness (LT) were measured using A-scan ultrasonography. Bai Chinese had longer ALs (P < 0.001), deeper ACDs (P < 0.001) but shallower VCDs (P < 0.001) compared with the other two ethnic groups. There were no ethnic variations in LTs. Diabetes was associated with shallower ACDs and this association was stronger in Bai Chinese compared with Yi or Han Chinese (P for interaction = 0.02). Thicker lenses were associated with younger age (P = 0.04), male gender (P < 0.001), smoking history (P = 0.01), alcohol intake (P = 0.03), the presence of cataract (P < 0.001), and the presence of diabetes (P < 0.001). There were significant differences in ocular dimensions among different ethnic groups with small differences in genetics but large variations in cultures and lifestyles. PMID:26947903

  7. The Leukotriene B4/BLT1 Axis Is a Key Determinant in Susceptibility and Resistance to Histoplasmosis

    PubMed Central

    Secatto, Adriana; Soares, Elyara Maria; Locachevic, Gisele Aparecida; Assis, Patricia Aparecida; Paula-Silva, Francisco Wanderlei Garcia; Serezani, Carlos Henrique; de Medeiros, Alexandra Ivo; Faccioli, Lúcia Helena

    2014-01-01

    The bioactive lipid mediator leukotriene B4 (LTB4) greatly enhances phagocyte antimicrobial functions against a myriad of pathogens. In murine histoplasmosis, inhibition of the LT-generating enzyme 5-lypoxigenase (5-LO) increases the susceptibility of the host to infection. In this study, we investigated whether murine resistance or susceptibility to Histoplasma capsulatum infection is associated with leukotriene production and an enhancement of in vivo and/or in vitro antimicrobial effector function. We show that susceptible C57BL/6 mice exhibit a higher fungal burden in the lung and spleen, increased mortality, lower expression levels of 5-LO and leukotriene B4 receptor 1 (BLT1) and decreased LTB4 production compared to the resistant 129/Sv mice. Moreover, we demonstrate that endogenous and exogenous LTs are required for the optimal phagocytosis of H. capsulatum by macrophages from both murine strains, although C57BL/6 macrophages are more sensitive to the effects of LTB4 than 129/Sv macrophages. Therefore, our results provide novel evidence that LTB4 production and BLT1 signaling are required for a histoplasmosis-resistant phenotype. PMID:24465479

  8. Multifunctionality and mechanism of ligand binding in a mosquito antiinflammatory protein

    SciTech Connect

    Calvo, Eric; Mans, Ben J.; Ribeiro, José M.C.; Andersen, John F.

    2009-04-07

    The mosquito D7 salivary proteins are encoded by a multigene family related to the arthropod odorant-binding protein (OBP) superfamily. Forms having either one or two OBP domains are found in mosquito saliva. Four single-domain and one two-domain D7 proteins from Anopheles gambiae and Aedes aegypti (AeD7), respectively, were shown to bind biogenic amines with high affinity and with a stoichiometry of one ligand per protein molecule. Sequence comparisons indicated that only the C-terminal domain of AeD7 is homologous to the single-domain proteins from A. gambiae, suggesting that the N-terminal domain may bind a different class of ligands. Here, we describe the 3D structure of AeD7 and examine the ligand-binding characteristics of the N- and C-terminal domains. Isothermal titration calorimetry and ligand complex crystal structures show that the N-terminal domain binds cysteinyl leukotrienes (cysLTs) with high affinities (50-60 nM) whereas the C-terminal domain binds biogenic amines. The lipid chain of the cysLT binds in a hydrophobic pocket of the N-terminal domain, whereas binding of norepinephrine leads to an ordering of the C-terminal portion of the C-terminal domain into an alpha-helix that, along with rotations of Arg-176 and Glu-268 side chains, acts to bury the bound ligand.

  9. SQUIDs: microscopes and nondestructive evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mück, Michael

    2005-03-01

    SQUIDs (Superconducting Quantum Interference Devices) are magnetic field sensores with unsurpassed sensitivity. They are amazingly versatile, being able to measure all physical quantities which can be converted to magnetic flux. They are routinely fabricated in thin film technology from two classes of superconducting materials: high-temperature superconductors (HTS) which are usually cooled to 77 K, and low-temperature superconductors (LTS), which have to be cooled to 4.2 K. SQUIDs have many applications, two of which shall be discussed in this paper. In SQUID microscopy, a SQUID scans a sample, which preferrably is at room temperature, and measures the two-dimensional magnetic field distribution at the surface of the sample. In order to achieve a relatively high spatial resolution, the stand-off distance between the sample and the SQUID is made as small as possible. SQUIDs show also promising results in the field of nondestructive testing of various materials. For example, ferromagnetic impurities in stainless steel formed by aging processes in the material can be detected with high probability, and cracks in conducting materials, for example aircraft parts, can be located using eddy current methods. Especially for the case of thick, highly conductive, or ferromagnetic materials, as well as sintered materials, it can be shown that a SQUID-based NDE system exhibits a much higher sensitivity compared to conventional eddy current NDE and ultrasonic testing.

  10. Repeated allergen exposure reduce early phase airway response and leukotriene release despite upregulation of 5-lipoxygenase pathways

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Allergen induced early phase airway response and airway plasma exudation are predominantly mediated by inflammatory mast cell mediators including histamine, cysteinyl leukotrienes (cysLTs) and thromboxane A2 (TXA2). The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether repeated allergen exposure affects early phase airway response to allergen challenge. Methods A trimellitic anhydride (TMA) sensitized guinea pig model was used to investigate the effects of low dose repeated allergen exposure on cholinergic airway responsiveness, early phase airway response and plasma exudation, as well as local airway production of mast cell derived cysteinyl leukotrienes and thromboxane B2 (TXB2) after allergen challenge. Results Repeated low dose allergen exposure increased cholinergic airway responsiveness. In contrast, early phase airway response and plasma exudation in response to a high-dose allergen challenge were strongly attenuated after repeated low dose allergen exposure. Inhibition of the airway response was unspecific to exposed allergen and independent of histamine receptor blocking. Furthermore, a significant reduction of cysteinyl leukotrienes and TXB2 was found in the airways of animals repeatedly exposed to a low dose allergen. However, in vitro stimulation of airway tissue from animals repeatedly exposed to a low dose allergen with arachidonic acid and calcium ionophore (A23187) induced production of cysteinyl leukotrienes and TXB2, suggesting enhanced activity of 5-lipoxygenase and cyclooxygenase pathways. Conclusions The inhibition of the early phase airway response, cysteinyl leukotriene and TXB2 production after repeated allergen exposure may result from unresponsive effector cells. PMID:22439792

  11. Early and late complications after liver transplantation for propionic acidemia in children: a two centers study.

    PubMed

    Charbit-Henrion, F; Lacaille, F; McKiernan, P; Girard, M; de Lonlay, P; Valayannopoulos, V; Ottolenghi, C; Chakrapani, A; Preece, M; Sharif, K; Chardot, C; Hubert, P; Dupic, L

    2015-03-01

    Propionic acidemia (PA) is a severe metabolic disorder with cardiac and neurologic complications and a poor quality of life. Liver transplantation (LT) was thus proposed in PA to increase enzyme activity. We studied retrospectively LT in PA in two European centers. Twelve patients underwent 17 LTs between 1991 and 2013. They developed severe, unusual and unexpected complications, with high mortality (58%). When present, the cardiomyopathy resolved and no acute metabolic decompensation occurred allowing dietary relaxation. Renal failure was present in half of the patients before LT and worsened in all of them. We suggest that cardiac and renal functions should be assessed before LT and monitored closely afterward. A renal sparing immunosuppression should be used. We speculate that some complications may be related to accumulated toxicity of the disease and that earlier LT could prevent some of these consequences. As kidney transplantation has been performed successfully in methylmalonic acidemia, a metabolic disease in the same biochemical pathway, the choice of the organ to transplant could be further discussed. PMID:25683683

  12. To what extent does variability of historical rainfall series influence extreme event statistics of sewer system surcharge and overflows?

    PubMed

    Schaarup-Jensen, K; Rasmussen, M R; Thorndahl, S

    2009-01-01

    In urban drainage modelling long-term extreme statistics has become an important basis for decision-making e.g. in connection with renovation projects. Therefore it is of great importance to minimize the uncertainties with regards to long-term prediction of maximum water levels and combined sewer overflow (CSO) in drainage systems. These uncertainties originate from large uncertainties regarding rainfall inputs, parameters, and assessment of return periods. This paper investigates how the choice of rainfall time series influences the extreme events statistics of max water levels in manholes and CSO volumes. Traditionally, long-term rainfall series, from a local rain gauge, are unavailable. In the present case study, however, long and local rain series are available. 2 rainfall gauges have recorded events for approximately 9 years at 2 locations within the catchment. Beside these 2 gauges another 7 gauges are located at a distance of max 20 kilometers from the catchment. All gauges are included in the Danish national rain gauge system which was launched in 1976. The paper describes to what extent the extreme events statistics based on these 9 series diverge from each other and how this diversity can be handled, e.g. by introducing an "averaging procedure" based on the variability within the set of statistics. All simulations are performed by means of the MOUSE LTS model. PMID:19587406

  13. Mechanical reinforcement for RACC cables in high magnetic background fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayer, C. M.; Gade, P. V.; Barth, C.; Preuß, A.; Jung, A.; Weiß, K. P.

    2016-02-01

    Operable in liquid helium, liquid hydrogen or liquid nitrogen, high temperature superconductor (HTS) cables are investigated as future alternatives to low temperature superconductor (LTS) cables in magnet applications. Different high current HTS cable concepts have been developed and optimized in the last years—each coming with its own benefits and challenges. As the Roebel assembled coated conductor (RACC) is the only fully transposed HTS cable investigated so far, it is attractive for large scale magnet and accelerator magnet applications when field quality and alternating current (AC) losses are of highest importance. However, due to its filamentary character, the RACC is very sensitive to Lorentz forces. In order to increase the mechanical strength of the RACC, each of the HTS strands was covered by an additional copper tape. After investigating the maximum applicable transverse pressure on the strand composition, the cable was clamped into a stainless steel structure to reinforce it against Lorentz forces. A comprehensive test has been carried out in the FBI facility at 4.2 K in a magnetic field of up to 12 T. This publication discusses the maximum applicable pressure as well as the behaviour of the RACC cable as a function of an external magnetic field.

  14. On the characteristics of aerosol indirect effect based on dynamic regimes in global climate models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, S.; Wang, M.; Ghan, S. J.; Ding, A.; Wang, H.; Zhang, K.; Neubauer, D.; Lohmann, U.; Ferrachat, S.; Takeamura, T.; Gettelman, A.; Morrison, H.; Lee, Y. H.; Shindell, D. T.; Partridge, D. G.; Stier, P.; Kipling, Z.; Fu, C.

    2015-09-01

    Aerosol-cloud interactions continue to constitute a major source of uncertainty for the estimate of climate radiative forcing. The variation of aerosol indirect effects (AIE) in climate models is investigated across different dynamical regimes, determined by monthly mean 500 hPa vertical pressure velocity (ω500), lower-tropospheric stability (LTS) and large-scale surface precipitation rate derived from several global climate models (GCMs), with a focus on liquid water path (LWP) response to cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) concentrations. The LWP sensitivity to aerosol perturbation within dynamic regimes is found to exhibit a large spread among these GCMs. It is in regimes of strong large-scale ascend (ω500 < -25 hPa d-1) and low clouds (stratocumulus and trade wind cumulus) where the models differ most. Shortwave aerosol indirect forcing is also found to differ significantly among different regimes. Shortwave aerosol indirect forcing in ascending regimes is as large as that in stratocumulus regimes, which indicates that regimes with strong large-scale ascend are as important as stratocumulus regimes in studying AIE. It is further shown that shortwave aerosol indirect forcing over regions with high monthly large-scale surface precipitation rate (> 0.1 mm d-1) contributes the most to the total aerosol indirect forcing (from 64 to nearly 100 %). Results show that the uncertainty in AIE is even larger within specific dynamical regimes than that globally, pointing to the need to reduce the uncertainty in AIE in different dynamical regimes.

  15. On the characteristics of aerosol indirect effect based on dynamic regimes in global climate models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shipeng; Wang, Minghuai; Ghan, Steven J.; Ding, Aijun; Wang, Hailong; Zhang, Kai; Neubauer, David; Lohmann, Ulrike; Ferrachat, Sylvaine; Takeamura, Toshihiko; Gettelman, Andrew; Morrison, Hugh; Lee, Yunha; Shindell, Drew T.; Partridge, Daniel G.; Stier, Philip; Kipling, Zak; Fu, Congbin

    2016-03-01

    Aerosol-cloud interactions continue to constitute a major source of uncertainty for the estimate of climate radiative forcing. The variation of aerosol indirect effects (AIE) in climate models is investigated across different dynamical regimes, determined by monthly mean 500 hPa vertical pressure velocity (ω500), lower-tropospheric stability (LTS) and large-scale surface precipitation rate derived from several global climate models (GCMs), with a focus on liquid water path (LWP) response to cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) concentrations. The LWP sensitivity to aerosol perturbation within dynamic regimes is found to exhibit a large spread among these GCMs. It is in regimes of strong large-scale ascent (ω500 < -25 hPa day-1) and low clouds (stratocumulus and trade wind cumulus) where the models differ most. Shortwave aerosol indirect forcing is also found to differ significantly among different regimes. Shortwave aerosol indirect forcing in ascending regimes is close to that in subsidence regimes, which indicates that regimes with strong large-scale ascent are as important as stratocumulus regimes in studying AIE. It is further shown that shortwave aerosol indirect forcing over regions with high monthly large-scale surface precipitation rate (> 0.1 mm day-1) contributes the most to the total aerosol indirect forcing (from 64 to nearly 100 %). Results show that the uncertainty in AIE is even larger within specific dynamical regimes compared to the uncertainty in its global mean values, pointing to the need to reduce the uncertainty in AIE in different dynamical regimes.

  16. Comparison of broad band time series recorded parallel by FGI type interferometric water level and Lippmann type pendulum tilt meters at Conrad observatory, Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruotsalainen, Hannu; Papp, Gabor; Leonhardt, Roman; Ban, Dora; Szücs, Eszter; Benedek, Judith

    2016-04-01

    The Finnish Geodetic Institute (FGI) the progenitor of Finnish Geospatial Research Institute of NLS designed and built a 5.5m long prototype of interferometric water level tiltmeter (iWT) in early 2014. Geodetic and Geophysical Institute (GGI), Sopron, Hungary bought the instrument and started tilt measurement in August 2014 at the Conrad observatory (COBS), Austria to monitor geodynamical phenomena like microseisms, free oscillations of the Earth, earth tides, mass loading effects and crustal deformations in cooperation with Austrian Central Institute for Meteorology and Geodynamics (ZAMG) and the FGI. On the July 16 2015 a Lippmann-type 2D tilt sensor (LTS) was also installed by GGI on the 6 m long pier where iWT was set up previously. This situation opens a possibility to do broad band (from secular to seismic variations up to 15 Hz) geophysical signal analysis comparing the responses of long (several meters) and short (a few decimeters) base instruments implementing different physical principles (relative height change of a level surface and inclination change of the plumb line). The characteristics of the sensors are studied by the evaluation of the spectra of recorded signals dominated by microseisms. The iWT has internal interferometric calibration and it can be compared to Lippmanns tilt meter one. Both instruments show good long term ( > 1 day) stability when earth tides and ocean and air mass loading tilts are modelled.

  17. Efficacy and cost-effectiveness of voriconazole prophylaxis for prevention of invasive aspergillosis in high-risk liver transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Balogh, Julius; Gordon Burroughs, Sherilyn; Boktour, Maha; Patel, Samir; Saharia, Ashish; Ochoa, Robert A; McFadden, Robert; Victor, David W; Ankoma-Sey, Victor; Galati, Joseph; Monsour, Howard P; Fainstein, Victor; Li, Xian C; Grimes, Kevin A; Gaber, A Osama; Aloia, Thomas; Ghobrial, R Mark

    2016-02-01

    Aspergillus infection remains a significant and deadly complication after liver transplantation (LT). We sought to determine whether the antifungal prophylactic use of voriconazole reduces the incidence of invasive aspergillosis (IA) in high-risk LT recipients without prohibitively increasing cost. During the study era (April 2008 to April 2014), 339 deceased donor LTs were performed. Of those patients, 174 high-risk recipients were administered antifungal prophylaxis with voriconazole. The median biological Model for End-Stage Liver Disease score at the time of LT was 33 (range, 18-49) with 56% requiring continuous renal replacement therapy and 50% requiring ventilatory support immediately before transplantation. Diagnosis of IA was stratified as proven, probable, or possible according to previously published definitions. No IA was documented in patients receiving voriconazole prophylaxis. At 90 days after LT, the institutional cost of prophylaxis was $5324 or 5.6% of the predicted cost associated with post-LT aspergillosis. There was no documentation of resistant strains isolated from any recipient who received voriconazole. In conclusion, these data suggest that voriconazole prophylaxis is safe, clinically effective, and cost-effective in high-risk LT recipients. PMID:26515643

  18. Manufacturing of a REBCO racetrack coil using thermoplastic resin aiming at Maglev application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizuno, Katsutoshi; Ogata, Masafumi; Hasegawa, Hitoshi

    2015-11-01

    The REBCO coated conductor is a promising technology for the Maglev application in terms of its high critical temperature. The operating temperature of the on-board magnets can be around 40-50 K with the coated conductor. The REBCO coils are cooled by cryocoolers directly, and hence the thermal design of the REBCO coils significantly changes from that of LTS coils. We have developed a novel REBCO coil structure using thermoplastic resin. The coil is not impregnated and the thermoplastic resin is used to bond the coil winding and the heat transfer members, e.g. copper and aluminum plates. The viscosity of the thermoplastic resin is high enough for the thermoplastic resin not to permeate between the turns in the coil. Therefore, the thermal stress does not occur and the risk of degradation is removed. This paper contains the following three topics. First, the thermal resistance of the thermoplastic resin was measured at cryogenic temperature. Then, a small round REBCO coil was experimentally produced. It has been confirmed that the thermoplastic resin does not cause the degradation and, the adhesion between the coil winding and copper plates withstands the thermal stress. Finally, we successfully produced a full-scale racetrack REBCO coil applying the coil structure with the thermoplastic resin.

  19. Parametric studies of next-step spherical tokamaks using high-temperature superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menard, Jonathan; Brown, Tom; El-Guebaly, Laila; Zhai, Yuhu

    2015-11-01

    High-temperature superconducting (HTS) magnets are potentially attractive for compact spherical tokamak (ST) applications due to higher operating temperature which could reduce thermal shielding requirements and reduce device size relative to configurations that utilize low-temperature superconductors (LTS). HTS conductors can also operate with very high current densities and high magnetic fields. Recent studies have shown that for elongation and kink stability dependencies on aspect ratio consistent with NSTX data, accounting for the engineering limits of HTS magnets, and having only a modest central solenoid, the optimal aspect ratio for an HTS tokamak pilot plant is between A = 1.7 and 2.3 depending on inboard shielding thickness. These results point to the interesting finding that the optimal aspect ratio for a compact HTS pilot plant may be near A = 2 which is an unexplored configuration in the present fusion program. The potential implications for required energy confinement, plasma formation and sustainment, power exhaust, and other performance parameters will be discussed. Work Supported by U.S.D.O.E. Contract No. DE-AC02-09CH11466.

  20. Lunar transportation system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The University Space Research Association (USRA) requested the University of Minnesota Spacecraft Design Team to design a lunar transportation infrastructure. This task was a year long design effort culminating in a complete conceptual design and presentation at Johnson Space Center. The mission objective of the design group was to design a system of vehicles to bring a habitation module, cargo, and crew to the lunar surface from LEO and return either or both crew and cargo safely to LEO while emphasizing component commonality, reusability, and cost effectiveness. During the course of the design, the lunar transportation system (LTS) has taken on many forms. The final design of the system is composed of two vehicles, a lunar transfer vehicle (LTV) and a lunar excursion vehicle (LEV). The LTV serves as an efficient orbital transfer vehicle between the earth and the moon while the LEV carries crew and cargo to the lunar surface. Presented in the report are the mission analysis, systems layout, orbital mechanics, propulsion systems, structural and thermal analysis, and crew systems, avionics, and power systems for this lunar transportation concept.

  1. Genetic evidence for a product of the Fv-1 locus that transfers resistance to mouse leukemia viruses.

    PubMed Central

    Tennant, R W; Schluter, B; Myer, F E; Otten, J A; Yang, W K; Brown, A

    1976-01-01

    Extracts of mouse cells have been shown to transfer to N- or B-trophic host range types of mouse leukemia viruses. The genetic specificity of the inhibition was tested in two ways: (i) by correlating the Fv-1 genotype of a number of mouse strains with the restriction-transferring activity of extracts of the respective embryo cell cultures, and (ii) by correlating the Fv-1 genotype of BLC3F2 (C57BL/6 female [Fv-1bb] by C3H male [Fv-1nn] parental strains) mouse embryos, which segregate the Fv-1 alleles in a 12:1 ratio, with the inhibitor activity of extracts of the cells from each embryo. Five independent matings, totaling 45 individual embryos, were tested. Each embryo was cultured, and the Fv-1 genotype was determined independently by titration of N- and B-tropic viruses; the extracts of replicate secondary cultures were tested for their effect on infection of permissive cells by N- and B-tropic viruses. The specific-restriction-transferring activity of the embryos was found to segregate with the appropriate Fv-1 genotype. These res-lts confirm the suggestion that the inhibitor of the leukemia virus host range types in the cellular extracts is a product of the Fv-1 locus. PMID:186636

  2. Leukotriene receptor antagonists--risks and benefits for use in paediatric asthma.

    PubMed

    Spahr, Jonathan E; Krawiec, Marzena E

    2004-05-01

    Leukotrienes (LTs) are important mediators of the pathophysiology of asthma, specifically, bronchoconstriction, airway inflammation and oedema and mucus hypersecretion. The LT receptor antagonists (LTRAs) inhibit these potent effects by selectively blocking the cysteinyl LT 1 receptor. These are the first novel therapies for asthma since the introduction of inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) in 1972. Unlike generalised inhibition of airway inflammation by ICS, the LTRAs target inhibition of specific mediators. In general, paediatric data concerning these agents remain quite limited. However, they have demonstrated efficacy against allergen- and exercise-induced bronchospasm in both adults and children. Recently, their potential role for the treatment of viral-induced wheeze in young children has been explored. In multiple, placebo-controlled trials, the LTRAs have demonstrated efficacy for the treatment of mild persistent asthma, additive benefit in the management of symptomatic moderate asthmatics on maintenance ICS and evidence of significant steroid-sparing. Findings from these clinical trials and real-world experience support the use of the LTRAs as controller agents for persistent asthma. Based on their excellent safety profiles, tolerance and ease of administration (including once daily dosing with montelukast), this drug class may offer several important features for use as controller therapy, particularly in asthmatic children as young as 1 year of age, however, this must continue to be reviewed as new paediatric data become available. PMID:15155146

  3. The leukotriene B₄/BLT₁ axis is a key determinant in susceptibility and resistance to histoplasmosis.

    PubMed

    Secatto, Adriana; Soares, Elyara Maria; Locachevic, Gisele Aparecida; Assis, Patricia Aparecida; Paula-Silva, Francisco Wanderlei Garcia; Serezani, Carlos Henrique; de Medeiros, Alexandra Ivo; Faccioli, Lúcia Helena

    2014-01-01

    The bioactive lipid mediator leukotriene B4 (LTB4) greatly enhances phagocyte antimicrobial functions against a myriad of pathogens. In murine histoplasmosis, inhibition of the LT-generating enzyme 5-lypoxigenase (5-LO) increases the susceptibility of the host to infection. In this study, we investigated whether murine resistance or susceptibility to Histoplasma capsulatum infection is associated with leukotriene production and an enhancement of in vivo and/or in vitro antimicrobial effector function. We show that susceptible C57BL/6 mice exhibit a higher fungal burden in the lung and spleen, increased mortality, lower expression levels of 5-LO and leukotriene B4 receptor 1 (BLT1) and decreased LTB4 production compared to the resistant 129/Sv mice. Moreover, we demonstrate that endogenous and exogenous LTs are required for the optimal phagocytosis of H. capsulatum by macrophages from both murine strains, although C57BL/6 macrophages are more sensitive to the effects of LTB4 than 129/Sv macrophages. Therefore, our results provide novel evidence that LTB4 production and BLT1 signaling are required for a histoplasmosis-resistant phenotype. PMID:24465479

  4. Identification of endogenous surrogate ligands for human P2Y{sub 12} receptors by in silico and in vitro methods

    SciTech Connect

    Nonaka, Yosuke; Hiramoto, Takeshi; Fujita, Norihisa . E-mail: nori@is.ritsumei.ac.jp

    2005-11-11

    Endogenous ligands acting on a human P2Y{sub 12} receptor, one of the G-protein coupled receptors, were searched by in silico screening against our own database, which contains more than 500 animal metabolites. The in silico screening using the docking software AutoDock resulted in selection of cysteinylleukotrienes (CysLTs) and 5-phosphoribosyl 1-pyrophosphate (PRPP), with high free energy changes, in addition to the known P2Y{sub 12} ligands such as 2MeSADP and ADP. These candidates were subjected to an in vitro Ca{sup 2+} assay using the CHO cells stably expressing P2Y{sub 12}-G{sub 16}{alpha} fusion proteins. We found that CysLTE4 and PRPP acted on the P2Y{sub 12} receptor as agonists with the EC{sub 50} values of 1.3 and 7.8 nM, respectively. Furthermore, we analyzed the phylogenetic relationship of the P2Y, P2Y-like, and CysLT receptors based on sequence alignment followed by evolutionary analyses. The analyses showed that the P2Y{sub 12}, P2Y{sub 13}, P2Y{sub 14}, GPR87, CysLT-1, and CysLT-2 receptors formed a P2Y-related receptor subfamily with common sequence motifs in the transmembrane regions.

  5. Role of cysteinyl leukotriene signaling in a mouse model of noise-induced cochlear injury.

    PubMed

    Park, Jung-Sub; Kang, Seo-Jun; Seo, Mi-Kyoung; Jou, Ilo; Woo, Hyun Goo; Park, Sang Myun

    2014-07-01

    Noise-induced hearing loss is one of the most common types of sensorineural hearing loss. In this study, we examined the expression and localization of leukotriene receptors and their respective changes in the cochlea after hazardous noise exposure. We found that the expression of cysteinyl leukotriene type 1 receptor (CysLTR1) was increased until 3 d after noise exposure and enhanced CysLTR1 expression was mainly observed in the spiral ligament and the organ of Corti. Expression of 5-lipoxygenase was increased similar to that of CysLTR1, and there was an accompanying elevation of CysLT concentration. Posttreatment with leukotriene receptor antagonist (LTRA), montelukast, for 4 consecutive days after noise exposure significantly decreased the permanent threshold shift and also reduced the hair cell death in the cochlea. Using RNA-sequencing, we found that the expression of matrix metalloproteinase-3 (MMP-3) was up-regulated after noise exposure, and it was significantly inhibited by montelukast. Posttreatment with a MMP-3 inhibitor also protected the hair cells and reduced the permanent threshold shift. These findings suggest that acoustic injury up-regulated CysLT signaling in the cochlea and cochlear injury could be attenuated by LTRA through regulation of MMP-3 expression. This study provides mechanistic insights into the role of CysLTs signaling in noise-induced hearing loss and the therapeutic benefit of LTRA. PMID:24958862

  6. Anti-CD40 Ab- or 8-oxo-dG-enhanced Treg cells reduce development of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis via down-regulating migration and activation of mast cells.

    PubMed

    Hong, Gwan Ui; Kim, Nam Goo; Jeoung, Dooil; Ro, Jai Youl

    2013-07-15

    This study investigated whether anti-CD40 Ab and 8-oxo-dG attenuate mast cell migration and EAE development. Anti-CD40 Ab and 8-oxo-dG reduced EAE scores, mast cell numbers, expression of adhesion molecules, OX40L and Act1, levels of TNF-α, LTs, expression of cytokines, and co-localization of Treg cells and mast cells, all of which are increased in EAE-brain tissues. Each treatment enhanced Treg cells, expression of OX40, and cytokines related to suppressive function of Treg cells in EAE brain tissues. Act-BMMCs with Treg cells reduced expression of OX40L and CCL2/CCR2, VCAM-1, PECAM-1, [Ca²⁺]i levels, release of mediators, various signaling molecules, Act1 related to IL-17a signals versus those in act-BMMCs without Treg cells. The data suggest that IL-10- and IL-35-producing Foxp3⁺-Treg cells, enhanced by anti-CD40 Ab or 8-oxo-dG, suppress migration of mast cells through down-regulating the expression of adhesion molecules, and suppress mast cell activation through cell-to-cell cross-talk via OX40/OX40L in EAE development. PMID:23622820

  7. Imaging of action currents reveals the origin of biomagnetic fields in cardiac tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holzer, Jenny R.; Sidorov, Veniamin; Fong, Luis; Baudenbacher, Franz

    2003-03-01

    The origin of the magnetocardiogram (MCG) and the relative information content between the MCG and the electrocardiogram (ECG) remain central questions in biomagnetism. To provide key insights to this question, we mapped excitation wave fronts in a thin layer of cardiac tissue of an isolated rabbit heart using high-resolution LTS-SQUID microscopy and epi-fluorescent imaging with sub-millimeter resolution. The combination of the two methods allows us to map the transmembrane potential (Vm) and the magnetic field over the same area. The leading edge of a propagating action potential can be defined as the wave front and can be identified by the difference in relative intensities of resting and depolarized tissue in the epi-fluorescence data. The corresponding magnetic field pattern was used to calculate the net action current, which shows a strong current component parallel to and overlying the Vm wave front. These electrically silent currents are a direct consequence of the cardiac bidomain with unequal anisotropies in the intra- and extracellular space and depend strongly on the angle of the wave front relative to the fiber orientation. We provide evidence that the MCG contains information not present in the ECG, and that it is necessary to reexamine the modeling and interpretation of the MCG.

  8. Long-Term Surveillance and Maintenance Records: Maintaining Access to the Knowledge - 13122

    SciTech Connect

    Montgomery, John; Gueretta, Jeanie; McKinney, Ruth; Anglim, Cliff

    2013-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management (LM) is an integral part of DOE's strategy to ensure that legacy liabilities of former nuclear weapons production sites are properly managed following the completion of environmental cleanup activities. In the area of environmental legacy management, records management is crucial to the protection of health, environmental, and legal interests of the Department and the public. LM is responsible for maintaining long-term surveillance and maintenance (LTS and M) records in performance of its mission. Maintaining access to the knowledge contained in these record collections is one of LM's primary responsibilities. To fulfill this responsibility, LM established a consolidated records management facility, the LM Business Center (LMBC), to house physical media records and electronic records. A new electronic record keeping system (ERKS) was needed to replace an obsolete system while helping to ensure LM is able to meet ongoing responsibilities to maintain access to knowledge and control the life cycle management of records. (authors)

  9. ARECIBO PALFA SURVEY AND EINSTEIN-HOME: BINARY PULSAR DISCOVERY BY VOLUNTEER COMPUTING

    SciTech Connect

    Knispel, B.; Allen, B.; Aulbert, C.; Bock, O.; Fehrmann, H.; Lazarus, P.; Bogdanov, S.; Anderson, D.; Bhat, N. D. R.; Brazier, A.; Chatterjee, S.; Cordes, J. M.; Camilo, F.; Crawford, F.; Deneva, J. S.; Desvignes, G.; Freire, P. C. C.; Hammer, D.; Hessels, J. W. T.; Jenet, F. A.

    2011-05-01

    We report the discovery of the 20.7 ms binary pulsar J1952+2630, made using the distributed computing project Einstein-Home in Pulsar ALFA survey observations with the Arecibo telescope. Follow-up observations with the Arecibo telescope confirm the binary nature of the system. We obtain a circular orbital solution with an orbital period of 9.4 hr, a projected orbital radius of 2.8 lt-s, and a mass function of f = 0.15 M{sub sun} by analysis of spin period measurements. No evidence of orbital eccentricity is apparent; we set a 2{sigma} upper limit e {approx}< 1.7 x 10{sup -3}. The orbital parameters suggest a massive white dwarf companion with a minimum mass of 0.95 M{sub sun}, assuming a pulsar mass of 1.4 M{sub sun}. Most likely, this pulsar belongs to the rare class of intermediate-mass binary pulsars. Future timing observations will aim to determine the parameters of this system further, measure relativistic effects, and elucidate the nature of the companion star.

  10. Lecithins enhance leukotriene production from white cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, H C; Ikeda, T; Koike, H; Haruyama, Y; Miyakawa, I; Mori, N

    1990-10-01

    36 x 10(7) WBC were isolated from 120 ml heparinized venous blood by 5% dextran T-500 sedimentation. 20 mg egg lecithin and 20 mg dipalmitoyl lecithin were respectively pretreated in 2 ml 0.15 M Tris buffer by vibration and sonication. WBC were incubated with the pretreated lecithins for 20 min. Leukotrienes (LTs) were identified by HPLC and bioassay, and quantified with an RIA Kit. Crude incubation medium of both lecithin groups caused guinea pig ileum contractions which were antagonized with FPL55712. Incubation media were partially purified with Bond elut C18. Purified samples of both lecithin groups showed LTC4 and LTD4 peaks on HPLC. LTC4 production (pg/10(7) WBC, M +/- SD) was 194.5 +/- 61.7 (n = 5) in control group, 348.9 +/- 95.4 (n = 6) in dipalmitoyl lecithin group, 543.8 +/- 105.6 (n = 6) in egg lecithin group and 105.62 +/- 63.2 (n = 6) in AA-861 + dipalmitoyl lecithin group. LTC4 production of both lecithin groups was significantly higher than that of control group (P less than 0.01 in dipalmitoyl lecithin group and P less than 0.001 in egg lecithin group). Both egg lecithin and dipalmitoyl lecithin enhanced LT production from WBC. LT production was suppressed in the presence of AA-861. The mechanism of the enhancement in LT production is unclear, but these lecithins are apparently not substrates because dipalmitoyl lecithin contains no arachidonic acid. PMID:2177200

  11. Liver transplantation with deceased ABO-incompatible donors is life-saving but associated with increased risk of rejection and post-transplant complications.

    PubMed

    Thorsen, Trygve; Dahlgren, Ulrika S; Aandahl, Einar Martin; Grzyb, Krzysztof; Karlsen, Tom H; Boberg, Kirsten M; Rydberg, Lennart; Naper, Christian; Foss, Aksel; Bennet, William

    2015-07-01

    ABO-incompatible (ABOi) liver transplantation (LT) with deceased donor organs is performed occasionally when no ABO-compatible (ABOc) graft is available. From 1996 to 2011, 61 ABOi LTs were performed in Oslo and Gothenburg. Median patient age was 51 years (range 13-75); 33 patients were transplanted on urgent indications, 13 had malignancy-related indications, and eight received ABOi grafts for urgent retransplantations. Median donor age was 55 years (range 10-86). Forty-four patients received standard triple immunosuppression with steroids, tacrolimus, and mycophenolate mofetil, and forty-four patients received induction with IL-2 antagonist or anti-CD20 antibody. Median follow-up time was 29 months (range 0-200). The 1-, 3-, 5-, and 10-year Kaplan-Meier estimates of patient survival (PS) and graft survival (GS) were 85/71%, 79/57%, 75/55%, and 59/51%, respectively, compared to 90/87%, 84/79%, 79/73%, and 65/60% for all other LT recipients in the same period. The 1-, 3-, 5-, and 10-year GS for A2 grafts were 81%, 67%, 62%, and 57%, respectively. In conclusion, ABOi LT performed with non-A2 grafts is associated with inferior graft survival and increased risk of rejection, vascular and biliary complications. ABOi LT with A2 grafts is associated with acceptable graft survival and can be used safely in urgent cases. PMID:25736519

  12. HTS magnetometers for fetal magnetocardiography.

    PubMed

    Li, Z; Wakai, R T; Paulson, D N; Schwartz, B

    2004-01-01

    High temperature superconducting (HTS) SQUID sensors have adequate magnetic field sensitivity for adult magnetocardiography (MCG) measurements, but it remains to be seen how well they perform for fetal MCG (fMCG), where the heart signals are typically ten times smaller than the adult signals. In this study, we assess the performance of a prototype HTS SQUID system; namely, a three-SQUID gradiometer formed from three vertically-aligned HTS dc-SQUID magnetometers integrated into a fiberglass liquid nitrogen dewar of diameter 12.5 cm and height 30 cm. Axial gradiometers with short or long baseline, as well as a second order gradiometer, can be formed out of these magnetometers via electronic subtraction. The calibrated magnetometer sensitivities at 1 kHz are 109 fT/square root of Hz, 155 fT/square root of Hz and 51 fT/square root of Hz. Direct comparison is made between the HTS SQUID system and a LTS SQUID system by making recordings with both systems during the same session on adult and fetal subjects. Although the fMCG could be resolved with the HTS SQUID system in most near-term subjects, the signal-to-noise ratio was relatively low and the system could not be operated outside of a shielded room. PMID:16012655

  13. Experiences on Altimeter Calibration at Ibiza Island and Cape of Begur (Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez Benjamin, J. J.; Martinez Harcia, M.; Ortiz Castello, M. A.; Talaya, J.; Baron, A.; Rodriguez Velasco, G.; Martín Davila, J.; Garate, J.; Bonnefond, P.; Garcia, C.

    2006-07-01

    Three preliminary camp aigns for TOPEX /POSEIDON (T/P) wer e made in March 1999 and July 2000 and for JASON-1 in August 2002, in the NW Mediterran ean Sea at th e Begur Cape area. Dir ect abso lute altimeter calibration , and mapping of the sea surface, w ere made in these camp aigns from dir ect overflights using GPS buoys with a toroidal design performed at the I CC based in the orig inal design of the Univ ersity of Colorado at Boulder and a estimation of the TOPEX A lt- B bias w as made. A Spanish JASON-1 geoid gradien t campaign with Fench support has been made in June 2003 at the Ibiza island in the NW Mediterr anean Sea. Th e main objectiv e has b een to map w ith a new d esign ed, builded and calibrated GPS catamar an, the lo cal geoid gradien t in three ar eas around Ibiza island under the ascending (187) and descending (248) Jason-1ground tracks. The catamaran equ ipped with two GPS antennas to perform continuous sea lev el measur ements was towed by the Patro l Dev a from th e Span ish N avy. Five GPS reference stations were dep loyed on Ibiza island: one in Portinatx, two in San Anton io and two in Ibiza. The marin e geo id has been used to relate the coastal tide gauge data from Ibiza and San An tonio h arbours to off- shore altimetric data. In th e framework of the campaign, the levelling of the Ibiza and San Anton io tide gauges to the r espective GPS mark ers w as p erformed. We present synth esis of the resu lts obtained from Topex/Poseidon and th e first r esults on Jason-1 altimeter calibration using the direct measurements from GPS buoys and the derived marin e geoid. Th e Ibiza results agree relativ ely w ell with resu lts ob tained at Corsica, Harvest and Bass Strait calibration permanen t sites. Moreov er, the geod etic activities (e.g., GPS, levelling) has p ermitted to build a very accurate (few mm) local n etwork link ed to th e European one, w ith a reference frame compatible with th e satellite altimetry missions (ITRF2000). The GPS

  14. Aspirin-triggered lipoxins (15-epi-LX) are generated by the human lung adenocarcinoma cell line (A549)-neutrophil interactions and are potent inhibitors of cell proliferation.

    PubMed Central

    Clària, J.; Lee, M. H.; Serhan, C. N.

    1996-01-01

    . In addition to LXs, stimulation of A549 cells and PMN also liberated substantial amounts (77.2 +/- 8.2 ng/10(7) A549 cells) of peptidoleukotrienes (pLTs), which were not generated by either cell type alone. Addition of ASA to these co-incubations led to an increase in the amounts of LXs generated that was paralleled by a decrease in pLTs. LXA4, LXB4, 15-epi-LXA4 and 15-epi-LXB4, as well as dexamethasone, inhibited cell proliferation at 100 nM range with a rank order of activity of 15-epi-LXB4 >>> LXB4 > dexamethasone > or = 15-epi-LXA4 > LXA4. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that ASA promotes the formation of antiproliferative 15-epi-LXs by epithelial cell-leukocyte interactions. Moreover, they suggest that these novel eicosanoids, when generated within the microenvironment of tissues, may contribute to ASA's therapeutic role in decreasing the risk of human cancer. Images FIG. 2 FIG. 5 FIG. 7 PMID:8898374

  15. Tonically Active Inhibition Selectively Controls Feedforward Circuits in Mouse Barrel Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Krook-Magnuson, Esther I.; Li, Peijun; Paluszkiewicz, Scott M.; Huntsman, Molly M.

    2008-01-01

    Tonic inhibition mediated by extrasynaptic γ-aminobutyric acid type A (GABAA) receptors is a powerful conductance that controls cell excitability. Throughout the CNS, tonic inhibition is expressed at varying degrees across different cell types. Despite a rich history of cortical interneuron diversity, little is known about tonic inhibition in the different classes of cells in the cerebral cortex. We therefore examined the cell-type specificity and functional significance of tonic inhibition in layer 4 of the mouse somatosensory barrel cortex. In situ hybridization and immunocytochemistry showed moderate δ-subunit expression across the barrel structures. Whole cell patch-clamp recordings additionally indicated that significant levels of tonic inhibition can be found across cell types, with differences in the magnitude of inhibition between cell types. To activate tonic currents, we used 4,5,6,7-tetrahydroisoxazolo[5,4-c]pyridin-3-ol (THIP, a superagonist at δ-subunit–containing GABAA receptors) at a concentration that did not affect synaptic decay kinetics. THIP produced greater shifts in baseline holding current in inhibitory cells (low-threshold spiking [LTS], 109 ± 17 pA; fast spiking [FS], 111 ± 15 pA) than in excitatory cells (39 ± 10 pA; P < 0.001). In addition to these differences across cell types, there was also variability within inhibitory cells. FS cells with faster action potentials had larger baseline shifts. Because FS cells are known mediators of feedforward inhibition, we tested whether THIP-induced tonic conductance selectively controls feedforward circuits. THIP application resulted in the abolishment of the inhibitory postsynaptic potential in thalamic-evoked disynaptic responses in a subset of excitatory neurons. These data suggest multiple feedforward circuits can be differentiated by the inhibitory control of the presynaptic inhibitory neuron. PMID:18509076

  16. First experience of liver transplantation with type 2 donation after cardiac death in France.

    PubMed

    Savier, Eric; Dondero, Federica; Vibert, Eric; Eyraud, Daniel; Brisson, Hélène; Riou, Bruno; Fieux, Fabienne; Naili-Kortaia, Salima; Castaing, Denis; Rouby, Jean-Jacques; Langeron, Olivier; Dokmak, Safi; Hannoun, Laurent; Vaillant, Jean-Christophe

    2015-05-01

    Organ donation after unexpected cardiac death [type 2 donation after cardiac death (DCD)] is currently authorized in France and has been since 2006. Following the Spanish experience, a national protocol was established to perform liver transplantation (LT) with type 2 DCD donors. After the declaration of death, abdominal normothermic oxygenated recirculation was used to perfuse and oxygenate the abdominal organs until harvesting and cold storage. Such grafts were proposed to consenting patients < 65 years old with liver cancer and without any hepatic insufficiency. Between 2010 and 2013, 13 LTs were performed in 3 French centers. Six patients had a rapid and uneventful postoperative recovery. However, primary nonfunction occurred in 3 patients, with each requiring urgent retransplantation, and 4 early allograft dysfunctions were observed. One patient developed a nonanastomotic biliary stricture after 3 months, whereas 8 patients showed no sign of ischemic cholangiopathy at their 1-year follow-up. In comparison with a control group of patients receiving grafts from brain-dead donors (n = 41), donor age and cold ischemia time were significantly lower in the type 2 DCD group. Time spent on the national organ wait list tended to be shorter in the type 2 DCD group: 7.5 months [interquartile range (IQR), 4.0-11.0 months] versus 12.0 months (IQR, 6.8-16.7 months; P = 0.08. The 1-year patient survival rates were similar (85% in the type 2 DCD group versus 93% in the control group), but the 1-year graft survival rate was significantly lower in the type 2 DCD group (69% versus 93%; P = 0.03). In conclusion, to treat borderline hepatocellular carcinoma, LT with type 2 DCD donors is possible as long as strict donor selection is observed. PMID:25865077

  17. Ts6 and Ts2 from Tityus serrulatus venom induce inflammation by mechanisms dependent on lipid mediators and cytokine production.

    PubMed

    Zoccal, Karina Furlani; Bitencourt, Claudia da Silva; Sorgi, Carlos Artério; Bordon, Karla de Castro Figueiredo; Sampaio, Suely Vilela; Arantes, Eliane Candiani; Faccioli, Lúcia Helena

    2013-01-01

    Inflammatory mediators are thought to be involved in the systemic and local immune response induced by the Tityus serrulatus scorpion envenomation. New functional aspects of lipid mediators have recently been described. Here, we examine the unreported role of lipid mediators in cell recruitment to the peritoneal cavity after an injection with Ts2 or Ts6 toxins isolated from the T. serrulatus scorpion venom. In this report, we demonstrate that following a single intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of Ts2 or Ts6 (250 μg/kg) in mice, there was an induction of leukocytosis with a predominance of neutrophils observed at 4, 24, 48 and 96 h. Moreover, total protein, leukotriene (LT)B(4), prostaglandin (PG)E(2) and pro-inflammatory cytokine levels were increased. We also observed an increase of regulatory cytokines, including interleukin (IL)-10, after the Ts2 injection. Finally, we observed that Ts2 or Ts6 injection in 5-lipoxygenase (LO) deficient mice and in wild type (WT) 129sv mice pre-treated with LTs and PGs inhibitors (MK-886 and celecoxib, respectively) a reduction the influx of leukocytes occurs in comparison to WT. The recruitment of these cells demonstrated a phenotype characteristic of neutrophils, macrophages, CD4 and CD8 lymphocytes expressing GR1+, F4/80+, CD3+/CD4+ and CD3+/CD8+, respectively. In conclusion, our data demonstrate that Ts2 and Ts6 induce inflammation by mechanisms dependent on lipid mediators and cytokine production. Ts2 may play a regulatory role whereas Ts6 exhibits pro-inflammatory activity exclusively. PMID:23085190

  18. The role of mast cells in citric acid-induced airway constriction and cough.

    PubMed

    Lai, Yih-Loong; Wu, Li-Ling; Lin, Tai-Yin; Lin, Chien-He

    2009-11-30

    Inhalation of citric acid (CA) causes airway constriction and coughing. To investigate the role of mast cells in CA-induced airway constriction and cough, three experiments using guinea pigs were carried out. In the first experiment, we used compound 48/80 to deplete mast cells, cromolyn sodium to stabilize mast cells, MK-886 to inhibit synthesis of leukotrienes, pyrilamine to antagonize histamine H1 receptor, methysergide to antagonize serotonin receptor, and indomethacin to inhibit cyclooxygenase. In the second experiment, compound 48/80-pretreated animals were divided into 2 parts; the first one was used to test the role of exogenous leukotriene (LT) C4, while the second one to test the role of exogenous histamine. Decreases in respiratory compliance (Crs) and forced expiratory volume in 0.1 sec (FEV0.1) were used as indicators for airway constriction in anesthetized guinea pigs. CA-induced cough was recorded for 12 min using a barometric body plethysmograph in conscious animals. In the third experiment, the activation of mast cells upon CA inhalation was investigated by determining lung tissue or arterial plasma histamine concentration in animals. Exposure to CA induced marked airway constriction and increase in cough number. Compound 48/80, cromolyn sodium, MK-886 and pyrilamine, but not indomethacin or methysergide, significantly attenuated CA-induced airway constriction and cough. Injection of LTC4 or histamine caused a significant increase in CA-induced airway constriction and cough in compound 48/80-pretreated animals. In addition, CA inhalation caused significant increase in lung tissue and plasma histamine concentrations, which were blocked by compound 48/80 pretreatment. These results suggest that mast cells play an important role in CA aerosol inhalation-induced airway constriction and cough via perhaps mediators including LTs and histamine. PMID:20359123

  19. High voltage breakdown studies of sol-gel MgO-ZrO 2 insulation coatings under various pressures at 298 K and 77 K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cakiroglu, O.; Arda, L.; Hascicek, Y. S.

    2005-06-01

    High voltage breakdown (HV bd) tests were performed to investigate electrical properties of high temperature MgO-ZrO 2 insulation coatings on long-length stainless steel (SS) tapes under various pressures at room temperature (298 K) and liquid nitrogen temperature (77 K) for applications of HTS/LTS coils and magnets. After solutions were prepared from Mg and Zr based precursors, solvent and chelating agent, the coating were fabricated on SS substrates using reel-to-reel sol-gel technique. Coating thicknesses for 4, 8, and 9 dippings were about 7, 12, and 13 μm, respectively, and thickness of epoxy-impregnated samples (stycast 2850 FT/24 LV) were measured to be 32 μm. The pressure from 0 GPa to 0.54 GPa was applied on to test couples, the stycast thicknesses between the layers were varied 32-20 μm. Thickness of the coatings and epoxy-impregnated using stycast were determined by using environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM). The resistance, capacitance, and HV bd of the samples were measured by using standard machines HP 439 a high resistance meter, 161 analog digital capacitance meter and model 200-02R high voltage power supply, respectively. Electric strength and dielectric constant were calculated at 298 and 77 K under various pressures. The high HV bd, and electric strength values of the samples were 2.84 kV and 45.91 kV/mm, respectively. ESEM observation revealed that arcing spots in the insulation coatings become larger and deeper for higher HV bd’s.

  20. Investigation on the two-stage active magnetic regenerative refrigerator for liquefaction of hydrogen

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Inmyong; Park, Jiho; Jeong, Sangkwon; Kim, Youngkwon

    2014-01-29

    An active magnetic regenerative refrigerator (AMRR) is expected to be useful for hydrogen liquefaction due to its inherent high thermodynamic efficiency. Because the temperature of the cold end of the refrigerator has to be approximately liquid temperature, a large temperature span of the active magnetic regenerator (AMR) is indispensable when the heat sink temperature is liquid nitrogen temperature or higher. Since magnetic refrigerants are only effective in the vicinity of their own transition temperatures, which limit the temperature span of the AMR, an innovative structure is needed to increase the temperature span. The AMR must be a layered structure and the thermophysical matching of magnetic field and flow convection effects is very important. In order to design an AMR for liquefaction of hydrogen, the implementation of multi-layered AMR with different magnetic refrigerants is explored with multi-staging. In this paper, the performance of the multi-layered AMR using four rare-earth compounds (GdNi{sub 2}, Gd{sub 0.1}Dy{sub 0.9}Ni{sub 2}, Dy{sub 0.85}Er{sub 0.15}Al{sub 2}, Dy{sub 0.5}Er{sub 0.5}Al{sub 2}) is investigated. The experimental apparatus includes two-stage active magnetic regenerator containing two different magnetic refrigerants each. A liquid nitrogen reservoir connected to the warm end of the AMR maintains the temperature of the warm end around 77 K. High-pressure helium gas is employed as a heat transfer fluid in the AMR and the maximum magnetic field of 4 T is supplied by the low temperature superconducting (LTS) magnet. The temperature span with the variation of parameters such as phase difference between magnetic field and mass flow rate of magnetic refrigerants in AMR is investigated. The maximum temperature span in the experiment is recorded as 50 K and several performance issues have been discussed in this paper.

  1. Role of cysteinyl-leukotrienes for portal pressure regulation and liver damage in cholestatic rat livers.

    PubMed

    op den Winkel, Mark; Gmelin, Leonore; Schewe, Julia; Leistner, Natalie; Bilzer, Manfred; Göke, Burkhard; Gerbes, Alexander L; Steib, Christian J

    2013-12-01

    Kupffer cells (KCs) have a major role in liver injury, and cysteinyl-leukotrienes (Cys-LTs) are known to be involved as well. The KC-mediated pathways for the production and secretion of Cys-LT in cholestatic liver injury have not yet been elucidated. Here, we hypothesized that KC activation by Toll-like receptor ligands results in Cys-LT-mediated microcirculatory alterations and liver injury in acute cholestasis. We hypothesized further that this situation is associated with changes in the secretion and production of Cys-LT. One week after bile duct ligation (BDL), livers showed typical histological signs of cholestatic liver injury. Associated microcirculatory disturbances caused increased basal and maximal portal pressure following KC activation. These differences were determined in BDL livers compared with sham-operated livers in vivo (KC activation by LPS 4 mg/kg b.w.) and in isolated perfused organs (KC activation by Zymosan A, 150 μg/ml). Treatment with the 5-lipoxygenase inhibitor MK-886 alone did not alter portal perfusion pressure, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) efflux, or bile duct proliferation in BDL animals. Following KC activation, portal perfusion pressure increased. The degree of cell injury was attenuated by MK-886 (3 μM) treatment as estimated by LDH efflux. In normal rats, a large amount of Cys-LT efflux was found in the bile. Only a minor amount was found in the effluent perfusate. In BDL livers, the KC-mediated Cys-LT efflux into the sinusoidal system increased, although the absolute Cys-LT level was still grossly lower than the biliary excretion in sham-operated livers. In conclusion, our results indicate that treatment with Cys-LT inhibitors might be a relevant target for attenuating cholestatic liver damage. PMID:24061287

  2. Drug repositioning in SLE: crowd-sourcing, literature-mining and Big Data analysis.

    PubMed

    Grammer, A C; Ryals, M M; Heuer, S E; Robl, R D; Madamanchi, S; Davis, L S; Lauwerys, B; Catalina, M D; Lipsky, P E

    2016-09-01

    Lupus patients are in need of modern drugs to treat specific manifestations of their disease effectively and safely. In the past half century, only one new treatment has been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). In 2014-2015, the FDA approved 71 new drugs, only one of which targeted a rheumatic disease and none of which was approved for use in SLE. Repositioning/repurposing drugs approved for other diseases using multiple approaches is one possible means to find new treatment options for lupus patients. "Big Data" analysis approaches this challenge from an unbiased standpoint whereas literature mining and crowd sourcing for candidates assessed by the CoLTs (Combined Lupus Treatment Scoring) system provide a hypothesis-based approach to rank potential therapeutic candidates for possible clinical application. Both approaches mitigate risk since the candidates assessed have largely been extensively tested in clinical trials for other indications. The usefulness of a multi-pronged approach to drug repositioning in lupus is highlighted by orthogonal confirmation of hypothesis-based drug repositioning predictions by "Big Data" analysis of differentially expressed genes from lupus patient samples. The goal is to identify novel therapies that have the potential to affect disease processes specifically. Involvement of SLE patients and the scientists that study this disease in thinking about new drugs that may be effective in lupus though crowd-sourcing sites such as LRxL-STAT (www.linkedin.com/in/lrxlstat) is important in stimulating the momentum needed to test these novel drug targets for efficacy in lupus rapidly in small, proof-of-concept trials conducted by LuCIN, the Lupus Clinical Investigators Network (www.linkedin.com/in/lucinstat). PMID:27497259

  3. 5-lipoxygenase activation is involved in the mechanisms of chronic hepatic injury in a rat model of chronic aluminum overload exposure.

    PubMed

    Mai, Shaoshan; He, Qin; Wang, Hong; Hu, Xinyue; Luo, Ying; Yang, Yang; Kuang, Shengnan; Tian, Xiaoyan; Ma, Jie; Yang, Junqing

    2016-08-15

    We previously confirmed that rats overloaded with aluminum exhibited hepatic function damage and increased susceptibility to hepatic inflammation. However, the mechanism of liver toxicity by chronic aluminum overload is poorly understood. In this study, we investigated changes in the 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO) signaling pathway and its effect on liver injury in aluminum-overloaded rats. A rat hepatic injury model of chronic aluminum injury was established via the intragastric administration of aluminum gluconate (Al(3+) 200mg/kg per day, 5days a week for 20weeks). The 5-LO inhibitor, caffeic acid (10 and 30mg/kg), was intragastrically administered 1h after aluminum administration. Hematoxylin and eosin staining was used to visualize pathological changes in rat liver tissue. A series of biochemical indicators were measured with biochemistry assay or ELISAs. Immunochemistry and RT-PCR methods were used to detect 5-LO protein and mRNA expression in the liver, respectively. Caffeic acid administration protected livers against histopathological injury, decreased plasma ALT, AST, and ALP levels, decreased TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β and LTs levels, increased the reactive oxygen species content, and down-regulated the mRNA and protein expressions of 5-LO in aluminum overloaded rats. Our results indicate that 5-lipoxygenase activation is mechanistically involved in chronic hepatic injury in a rat model of chronic aluminum overload exposure and that the 5-LO signaling pathway, which associated with inflammation and oxidative stress, is a potential therapeutic target for chronic non-infection liver diseases. PMID:27368151

  4. Liver transplantation for children with acute liver failure associated with secondary hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis.

    PubMed

    Amir, Achiya Z; Ling, Simon C; Naqvi, Ahmed; Weitzman, Sheila; Fecteau, Annie; Grant, David; Ghanekar, Anand; Cattral, Mark; Nalli, Nadya; Cutz, Ernest; Kamath, Binita; Jones, Nicola; De Angelis, Maria; Ng, Vicky; Avitzur, Yaron

    2016-09-01

    Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a rare life-threatening systemic disease, characterized by overwhelming stimulation of the immune system and categorized as primary or secondary types. Occasionally, acute liver failure (ALF) may dominate the clinical presentation. Given the systemic nature of HLH and risk of recurrence, HLH is considered by many a contraindication to liver transplantation (LT). The aim of this study is to review our single-center experience with LT in children with secondary HLH and ALF (HLH-ALF). This is a cross-sectional, retrospective study of children with secondary HLH-ALF that underwent LT in 2005-2014. Of 246 LTs, 9 patients (3 males; median age, 5 years; range, 0.7-15.4 years) underwent LT for secondary HLH-ALF. Disease progression was rapid with median 14 days (range, 6-27 days) between first symptoms and LT. Low fibrinogen/high triglycerides, elevated ferritin, hemophagocytosis on liver biopsy, and soluble interleukin 2 receptor levels were the most commonly fulfilled diagnostic criteria; HLH genetic studies were negative in all patients. Immunosuppressive therapy after LT included corticosteroids adjusted to HLH treatment protocol and tacrolimus. Thymoglobulin (n = 5), etoposide (n = 4), and alemtuzumab (n = 2) were used in cases of recurrence. Five (56%) patients experienced HLH recurrence, 1 requiring repeat LT, and 3 died. Overall graft and patient survival were 60% and 67%, respectively. Six patients are alive and well at a median of 24 months (range, 15-72 months) after transplantation. In conclusion, LT can be beneficial in selected patients with secondary HLH-ALF and can restore good health in an otherwise lethal condition. Liver Transplantation 22 1245-1253 2016 AASLD. PMID:27216884

  5. Toxicity and immunogenicity of Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli heat-labile and heat-stable toxoid fusion 3xSTa(A14Q)-LT(S63K/R192G/L211A) in a murine model.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chengxian; Knudsen, David E; Liu, Mei; Robertson, Donald C; Zhang, Weiping

    2013-01-01

    Diarrhea is the second leading cause of death to young children. Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) are the most common bacteria causing diarrhea. Adhesins and enterotoxins are the virulence determinants in ETEC diarrhea. Adhesins mediate bacterial attachment and colonization, and enterotoxins including heat-labile (LT) and heat-stable type Ib toxin (STa) disrupt fluid homeostasis in host cells that leads to fluid hyper-secretion and diarrhea. Thus, adhesins and enterotoxins have been primarily targeted in ETEC vaccine development. A recent study reported toxoid fusions with STa toxoid (STa(P13F)) fused at the N- or C-terminus, or inside the A subunit of LT(R192G) elicited neutralizing antitoxin antibodies, and suggested application of toxoid fusions in ETEC vaccine development (Liu et al., Infect. Immun. 79:4002-4009, 2011). In this study, we generated a different STa toxoid (STa(A14Q)) and a triple-mutant LT toxoid (LT(S63K/R192G/L211A), tmLT), constructed a toxoid fusion (3xSTa(A14Q)-tmLT) that carried 3 copies of STa(A14Q) for further facilitation of anti-STa immunogenicity, and assessed antigen safety and immunogenicity in a murine model to explore its potential for ETEC vaccine development. Mice immunized with this fusion antigen showed no adverse effects, and developed antitoxin antibodies particularly through the IP route. Anti-LT antibodies were detected and were shown neutralizing against CT in vitro. Anti-STa antibodies were also detected in the immunized mice, and serum from the IP immunized mice neutralized STa toxin in vitro. Data from this study indicated that toxoid fusion 3xSTa(A14Q)-tmLT is safe and can induce neutralizing antitoxin antibodies, and provided helpful information for vaccine development against ETEC diarrhea. PMID:24146989

  6. A novel enhancing effect of platelet activating factor (PAF) on glucose oxidation in uteri from pregnant rats. Participation of prostaglandins and leukotrienes.

    PubMed

    González, E; Gimeno, A L; Gimeno, M A

    1990-05-01

    The effects of platelet activating factor (PAF) on glucose oxidation in uterine strips isolated from rats in the 4 th and 5 th day of pregnancy, were explored. PAF, at a concentration of 10(-10) and 10(-8) M, augmented significantly the generation of 14CO2 from labelled glucose in uteri from pregnant rats in the 4 th day of pregnancy. When the tissue was obtained from 5 days pregnant rats, the addition of PAF at 10(-8) increased significantly more than PAF at 10(-10) M the metabolism of glucose. On the other hand, PAF at 10(-8) M failed to alter the uterine basal production of 14CO2 from labelled glucose in animals at estrus. BN52021, a specific PAF antagonist employed at 10(-5) M, blocked completely the action of PAF in the pregnant rat uterus. PGE1, PGE2 and PGF2 alpha enhanced significantly the formation of 14CO2 from labelled glucose in uteri from 5 days pregnant rats. Indomethacin, a well known inhibitor of prostaglandin synthesis, did not alter the basal glucose metabolism in uteri from 5 days pregnant rats, but antagonized completely the stimulating action of PAF on 14CO2 production from labelled glucose an effect that was partially reverted by the addition of PGE1, PGE2 or PGF2 alpha (10(-7) M). Furthermore, nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDHGA), a specific inhibitor of 5-lipoxygenase at 10(-5) M, as well as FPL-55712, an antagonist of leukotrienes (LTs), at the same concentration, blocked the action of PAF on the metabolism of glucose. The action of NDHGA was partially counteracted by the addition of LTC4 at 10(-7) M.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2399270

  7. Global gene expression profiles of ischemic preconditioning in deceased donor liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Raza, Ali; Dikdan, George; Desai, Kunj K; Shareef, Asif; Fernandes, Helen; Aris, Virginie; de la Torre, Andrew N; Wilson, Dorian; Fisher, Adrian; Soteropoulos, Patricia; Koneru, Baburao

    2010-05-01

    The benefits of ischemic preconditioning (IPC) in reducing ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI) remain indistinct in human liver transplantation (LT). To further understand mechanistic aspects of IPC, we performed microarray analyses as a nested substudy in a randomized trial of 10-minute IPC in 101 deceased donor LTs. Liver biopsies were performed after cold storage and at 90 minutes postreperfusion in 40 of 101 subjects. Global gene expression profiles in 6 biopsy pairs in IPC and work standard organ recovery groups at both time points were compared using the Affymetrix GeneChip Human Gene 1.0 ST array. Transcripts with >1.5-fold change and P < 0.05 were considered significant. IPC altered expression of 82 transcripts in antioxidant, immunological, lipid biosynthesis, cell development and growth, and other groups. Real-time polymerase chain reaction and immunoblotting validated our microarray data. IPC-induced overexpression of glutathione S-transferase mu transcripts (GSTM1, GSTM3, GSTM4, and GSTM5) was accompanied by increased protein expression and may contribute to a decrease in oxidative stress. However, the increased expression of fatty acid synthase may increase oxidative stress, and tumor necrosis factor ligand superfamily member 10 may promote apoptosis. These changes, in combination with decreased expression of heparin-binding epidermal growth factor-like growth factor and insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1, both of which inhibit apoptosis, may increase IRI. In our study of deceased donor LT, IPC induces changes in gene expression, some of which are potentially beneficial but some which are potentially injurious. Thus, our findings of changes in gene expression mirror the outcomes in our clinical trial. PMID:20440768

  8. Inhibition by Somatostatin Interneurons in Olfactory Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Large, Adam M.; Kunz, Nicholas A.; Mielo, Samantha L.; Oswald, Anne-Marie M.

    2016-01-01

    Inhibitory circuitry plays an integral role in cortical network activity. The development of transgenic mouse lines targeting unique interneuron classes has significantly advanced our understanding of the functional roles of specific inhibitory circuits in neocortical sensory processing. In contrast, considerably less is known about the circuitry and function of interneuron classes in piriform cortex, a paleocortex responsible for olfactory processing. In this study, we sought to utilize transgenic technology to investigate inhibition mediated by somatostatin (SST) interneurons onto pyramidal cells (PCs), parvalbumin (PV) interneurons, and other interneuron classes. As a first step, we characterized the anatomical distributions and intrinsic properties of SST and PV interneurons in four transgenic lines (SST-cre, GIN, PV-cre, and G42) that are commonly interbred to investigate inhibitory connectivity. Surprisingly, the distributions SST and PV cell subtypes targeted in the GIN and G42 lines were sparse in piriform cortex compared to neocortex. Moreover, two-thirds of interneurons recorded in the SST-cre line had electrophysiological properties similar to fast spiking (FS) interneurons rather than regular (RS) or low threshold spiking (LTS) phenotypes. Nonetheless, like neocortex, we find that SST-cells broadly inhibit a number of unidentified interneuron classes including putatively identified PV cells and surprisingly, other SST cells. We also confirm that SST-cells inhibit pyramidal cell dendrites and thus, influence dendritic integration of afferent and recurrent inputs to the piriform cortex. Altogether, our findings suggest that SST interneurons play an important role in regulating both excitation and the global inhibitory network during olfactory processing. PMID:27582691

  9. [Sperm or oocyte donation: the dynamics of making the decision regarding the method and timing of disclosure of information to the sibling].

    PubMed

    Eitan-Schiller, Yael; Seidman, Daniel S

    2009-04-01

    A dramatic increase in the number of children born as a result of gamete donation has occurred worldwide over the past decade. Concurrent to the acceleration in the use of gamete donation there has been a growing movement advocating non-anonymity in donor programs and disclosure to the offspring of donor gamete conceptions. The fact that current recommendations concerning gamete donation differ widely among various countries reflects the Lack of consensus around the world, especially in regard to two major issues: donor anonymity and the disclosure decision. In the past, the donors' identity was always kept anonymous, and they were ensured full secrecy. Recently, a 'double track' policy has become increasingly popular. Under this policy, the donor has the choice to enter the program as either an anonymous or an identifiable donor, while the recipient can choose between these two types of donors. This scheme allows the recipients to decide in the future the degree of disclosure that best meets their interest in involving the donor in their lives. The parent's decision regarding disclosure of gamete donation before the child reflects their general philosophy and their individual values regarding the way they manage their Lives, and specifically how they desire to fulfill their role as parents. Study resuLts show that individual counseling appeared to be helpfuL and appreciated by study participants. This is particuLarLy true when delivered without judgment or directive personal opinion. Peer support, often in the form of professionally-led groups, was most highly valued. It seems likely that peer support, not only reduces the sense of isolation and stigma by normalizing the donor experience, but facilitates information acquisition derived from the shared, personal, lived experiences of other parents in the same unique life situation. PMID:19630349

  10. NOVEL CRYOGENIC ENGINEERING SOLUTIONS FOR THE NEW AUSTRALIAN RESEARCH REACTOR OPAL

    SciTech Connect

    Olsen, S. R.; Kennedy, S. J.; Kim, S.; Schulz, J. C.; Thiering, R.; Gilbert, E. P.; Lu, W.; James, M.; Robinson, R. A.

    2008-03-16

    In August 2006 the new 20MW low enriched uranium research reactor OPAL went critical. The reactor has 3 main functions, radio pharmaceutical production, silicon irradiation and as a neutron source. Commissioning on 7 neutron scattering instruments began in December 2006. Three of these instruments (Small Angle Neutron Scattering, Reflectometer and Time-of-flight Spectrometer) utilize cold neutrons.The OPAL Cold Neutron Source, located inside the reactor, is a 20L liquid deuterium moderated source operating at 20K, 330kPa with a nominal refrigeration capacity of 5 kW and a peak flux at 4.2meV (equivalent to a wavelength of 0.4nm). The Thermosiphon and Moderator Chamber are cooled by helium gas delivered at 19.8K using the Brayton cycle. The helium is compressed by two 250kW compressors (one with a variable frequency drive to lower power consumption).A 5 Tesla BSCCO (2223) horizontal field HTS magnet will be delivered in the 2{sup nd} half of 2007 for use on all the cold neutron instruments. The magnet is cooled by a pulse tube cryocooler operating at 20K. The magnet design allows for the neutron beam to pass both axially and transverse to the field. Samples will be mounted in a 4K to 800K Gifford-McMahon (GM) cryofurnace, with the ability to apply a variable electric field in-situ. The magnet is mounted onto a tilt stage. The sample can thus be studied under a wide variety of conditions.A cryogen free 7.4 Tesla Nb-Ti vertical field LTS magnet, commissioned in 2005 will be used on neutron diffraction experiments. It is cooled by a standard GM cryocooler operating at 4.2K. The sample is mounted in a 2{sup nd} GM cryocooler (4K-300K) and a variable electric field can be applied.

  11. CONFERENCE SUMMARY: Summary and comment on superconducting analogue electronics research, including materials and fabrication, as presented at ISEC 07

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foley, C. P.

    2007-11-01

    The main theme at ISEC 2007 for superconducting materials, fabrication and analogue electronics was the description of incremental developments, including a few new directions that indicate breakthroughs in this area of research. The work on applications focused on their cost-benefit analysis (in order to improve their appeal), the development of simpler systems, making more of the data collected, improving packaging and being responsive to the power handling requirements for commercial systems. All papers presenting this level of research highlighted the importance of obtaining all the necessary details in order to investigate analogue devices and the effectiveness and commercial viability of their systems. This stage of development is important if we are to achieve the transition of superconducting electronics from the laboratory to commercial use. There were some exciting disruptive breakthroughs reported. These were in the areas of nano-SQUIDs, rotating gradiometers, superconducting scanning tunnelling microscopy (Hayashi et al) and the potential of superconducting photonics using optical interfaces with superconducting vortex flow transistors, for example. The materials research in low (LTS), high (HTS) and medium (MTS) critical temperature superconductors was reported. In LTS, nitrides emerged as important materials for use as new tunnel barriers, either insulating or semiconducting. Papers on BaN, NbN, TaN, GaN and Nb-Si superconducting materials were also presented. The MTS material of MgB2 is still under development (Zhao et al). There were also new research groups from South Africa and Turkey attending the conference. The fabrication research presented covered the areas of critical current Ic spread, which is still an issue in reducing the reproducibility of Josephson junctions, a 150 mm process for Nb/Al-AlOx/Nb and methods to improve barrier layers using both new materials and smooth surfaces at thin film interfaces (Du et al). New methods to make sub

  12. Carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii acquired before liver transplantation: Impact on recipient outcomes.

    PubMed

    Freire, Maristela Pinheiro; Pierrotti, Ligia Câmera; Oshiro, Isabel Cristina Villela Soares; Bonazzi, Patrícia Rodrigues; Oliveira, Larissa Marques de; Machado, Anna Silva; Van Der Heijden, Inneke Marie; Rossi, Flavia; Costa, Silvia Figueiredo; D'Albuquerque, Luiz Augusto Carneiro; Abdala, Edson

    2016-05-01

    Infection with carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (CRAB) after liver transplantation (LT) is associated with high mortality. This study aimed to identify risk factors for post-LT CRAB infection, as well as to evaluate the impact of pre-LT CRAB acquisition on the incidence of post-LT CRAB infection. This was a prospective cohort study of all patients undergoing LT at our facility between October 2009 and October 2011. Surveillance cultures (SCs) were collected immediately before LT and weekly thereafter, until discharge. We analyzed 196 patients who were submitted to 222 LTs. CRAB was identified in 105 (53.6%); 24 (22.9%) of these patients were found to have acquired CRAB before LT, and 85 (81.0%) tested positive on SCs. Post-LT CRAB infection occurred in 56 (28.6%), the most common site being the surgical wound. Multivariate analysis showed that the risk factors for developing CRAB infection were prolonged cold ischemia, post-LT dialysis, LT due to fulminant hepatitis, and pre-LT CRAB acquisition with pre-LT CRAB acquisition showing a considerable trend toward significance (P = 0.06). Among the recipients with CRAB infection, 60-day mortality was 46.4%, significantly higher than among those without (P < 0.001). Mortality risk factors were post-LT infection with multidrug-resistant bacteria, LT performed because of fulminant hepatitis, retransplantation, prolonged cold ischemia, longer LT surgical time, and pre-LT CRAB acquisition, the last showing a trend toward significance (P = 0.08). In conclusion, pre-LT CRAB acquisition appears to increase the risk of post-LT CRAB infection, which has a negative impact on recipient survival. Liver Transplantation 22 615-626 2016 AASLD. PMID:26684547

  13. RSFQ: Ultrafast Logic Based on Magnetic Flux Quantization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Likharev, Konstantin

    2000-03-01

    I will review the progress and prospects of Rapid Single-Flux-Quantum (RSFQ) logic family, the newest generation of ultrafast superconductor digital circuits. Elementary cells of this family, based on overdamped Josephson junctions, store and process digital bits in the form of single quanta of magnetic flux, while intercell signaling is provided by picosecond pulses transferred along superconductor microstrip lines, with a speed approaching speed of light. RSFQ integrated circuits may provide the highest speed available in superconductor digital electronics: simple devices like digital frequency dividers have been demonstrated to operate at frequencies up to 770 GHz. Simultaneously, power consumption of RSFQ devices is extremely low (at helium temperatures, about 10-18 Joule per bit), allowing very compact chip packaging, and hence dramatic cuts in the interchip communication latency. Finally, the technology of fabrication of the niobium-based RSFQ circuits is considerably simpler than the standard silicon CMOS process. As a result of the recent work at Stony Brook, HYPRES and elsewhere, relatively complex RSFQ circuits (with thousands of Josephson junctions), including notably the world's fastest analog-to-digital and digital-to-analog converters and digital autocorrelators, have been designed, fabricated, and successfully tested. The main problem with the practical introduction of RSFQ circuits is the necessity of their deep refrigeration. Helium-range closed-cycle refrigerators are still costly and bulky, while HTS RSFQ circuits run into fabrication yield and layout problems. However, for several important applications (including A/D and D/A conversion, digital SQUIDs, RF voltage standards and calibrators, digital correlators, and possibly high-performance computing), the unparalleled performance of LTS RSFQ devices may overweigh the inconvenience of their helium cooling. I will describe the recent advances in these directions, with a special emphasis on the

  14. Eurotransplant donor-risk-index and recipient factors: influence on long-term outcome after liver transplantation - A large single-center experience.

    PubMed

    Schoening, Wenzel; Helbig, Michael; Buescher, Niklas; Andreou, Andreas; Schmitz, Volker; Bahra, Marcus; Puhl, Gero; Pascher, Andreas; Pratschke, Johann; Seehofer, Daniel

    2016-05-01

    The organ shortage has led to increased use of marginal organs. The Eurotransplant Donor-Risk-Index (ET-DRI) was established to estimate outcome after Liver Transplantation (LT). Currently, data on impact of ET-DRI on long-term outcome for different indications and recipient conditions are missing. Retrospective, single-center analysis of long-term graft survival (GS) of 1767 adult primary LTs according to indication, labMELDcategory (1: ≤18; 2: >18-25; 3: >25-35; 4: >35), and ET-DRI. Mean ET-DRI in our cohort was 1.63 (±0.43). One-, 10, and 15-yr GS was 83.5%, 63.3%, and 54.8%. Long-term GS was significantly influenced by ET-DRI. Accordingly, four ET-DRI categories were defined and analyzed with respect to underlying disease. Significant impact of these categories was observed for: Alcohol, cholestatic/autoimmune diseases (CD/AIH), and HCV, but not for HCC, HBV, cryptogenic cirrhosis, and acute liver failure. labMELD categories showed no significant influence on graft, but on patient survival. Matching ET-DRI categories with labMELD revealed significant differences in long-term GS for labMELDcategories 1, 2, and 3, but not 4. In multivariate analysis, HCV combined with ET-DRI > 2 and labMELDcategory 3 combined with ET-DRI > 2 emerged as negative predictors. To achieve excellent long-term graft survival, higher risk organs (ET-DRI > 1.4) should be used restrictively for patients with CD/AIH or HCV. Organs with ET-DRI > 2 should be avoided in patients with a labMELD of >25-35. PMID:26854873

  15. Two-wavelength approach for control of coagulation depth during laser tissue soldering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wehner, Martin; Aden, Mirko; Toedter, Nina; Rosenkranz, Beate

    2015-03-01

    In laser tissue soldering (LTS) protein solutions are used for closing of incisions or fixation of wound dressings. During coagulation and thermal denaturation of the protein solutions their morphology changes significantly such that light is strongly scattered. When scattering becomes major component extinction increases and the optical penetration depth shrinks which could lead to unsufficient coagulation and bonding. For adaption of extinction during coagulation we are investigating a two-wavelength approach. A strongly absorbed laser wavelength (1540 nm) and weakly absorbed wavelength (980 nm) can be applied simultaneously. Simulation of beam propagation is performed in natural and coagulated state of the solder. The model describes a three-layer system consisting of membrane, solder and phantom. The optical properties are determined by spectrometric measurements both in natural and coagulated state. The absorption coefficient μa, scattering coefficient μs and anisotropy factor γ are determined by numerical analysis from the spectrometric data. Beam propagation is simulated for 980 nm and 1540 nm radiation with ZEMAX® software based on the Monte Carlo method. For both wavelengths the beginning of the process with a clear solder layer, and the final state characterized by a coagulated solder layer are examined. The optical penetration depth depends mainly on the optical properties of the solder, which change in the course of coagulation process. The coagulation depth can be varied between 1.5 mm to 3.5 mm by changing the proportion of both laser sources. This leads to concepts for minimizing heat input while maintaining a constant coagulation depth.

  16. Conserved epitopes on HIV-1, FIV and SIV p24 proteins are recognized by HIV-1 infected subjects

    PubMed Central

    Roff, Shannon R; Sanou, Missa P; Rathore, Mobeen H; Levy, Jay A; Yamamoto, Janet K

    2015-01-01

    Cross-reactive peptides on HIV-1 and FIV p24 protein sequences were studied using peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from untreated HIV-1-infected long-term survivors (LTS; >10 y of infection without antiretroviral therapy, ART), short-term HIV-1 infected subjects not on ART, and ART-treated HIV-1 infected subjects. IFNγ-ELISpot and CFSE-proliferation analyses were performed with PBMC using overlapping HIV-1 and FIV p24 peptides. Over half of the HIV-1 infected subjects tested (22/31 or 71%) responded to one or more FIV p24 peptide pools by either IFNγ or T-cell proliferation analysis. PBMC and T cells from infected subjects in all 3 HIV+ groups predominantly recognized one FIV p24 peptide pool (Fp14) by IFNγ production and one additional FIV p24 peptide pool (Fp9) by T-cell proliferation analysis. Furthermore, evaluation of overlapping SIV p24 peptide sequences identified conserved epitope(s) on the Fp14/Hp15-counterpart of SIV, Sp14, but none on Fp9-counterpart of SIV, Sp9. The responses to these FIV peptide pools were highly reproducible and persisted throughout 2–4 y of monitoring. Intracellular staining analysis for cytotoxins and phenotyping for CD107a determined that peptide epitopes from Fp9 and Fp14 pools induced cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated molecules including perforin, granzyme B, granzyme A, and/or expression of CD107a. Selected FIV and corresponding SIV epitopes recognized by HIV-1 infected patients indicate that these protein sequences are evolutionarily conserved on both SIV and HIV-1 (e.g., Hp15:Fp14:Sp14). These studies demonstrate that comparative immunogenicity analysis of HIV-1, FIV, and SIV can identify evolutionarily-conserved T cell-associated lentiviral epitopes, which could be used as a vaccine for prophylaxis or immunotherapy. PMID:25844718

  17. Bisphenol A at concentrations relevant to human exposure enhances histamine and cysteinyl leukotriene release from bone marrow-derived mast cells.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Edmund; Dolinoy, Dana C; Mancuso, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA), a monomer of polycarbonate plastics and epoxide resin, acts as an endocrine-active compound and has been shown to enhance the inflammatory response to allergen challenge. Previous reports in rodents have demonstrated that perinatal BPA exposure alters airway inflammation following sensitization and challenge to ovalbumin in juvenile and adult offspring. Additionally, a high concentration of BPA has been shown to enhance mediator release in mast cell lines. This study aimed to determine if short-term BPA exposure, at levels relevant to human exposure, enhances mast cell release of histamine and cysteinyl leukotrienes (CysLTs). Primary murine bone marrow-derived mast cells (BMMC) produced from the femurs of female C57BL/6 mice were stimulated with BPA or estradiol (E2) in vitro. It was observed that both BPA and E2 increased BMMC histamine release over a range of nanomolar concentrations (1-1000 nM). The estrogen receptor (ER) antagonist ICI 182,780 partially blocked the ability of E2, but not BPA, to elevate histamine release. BPA also increased CysLT release, which was not abrogated by ER inhibition. It was also observed that the ability of BPA to enhance histamine and CysLT release was inhibited by blocking the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway with U0126 or by chelating extracellular calcium (Ca(2+)) using EGTA. In summary, these experiments are the first to demonstrate that acute BPA exposure enhances mast cell histamine and CysLT release in vitro--an effect that is not dependent on an ER-mediated mechanism. Instead, BPA-induced mast cell histamine and CysLT release may be mediated, in part, by the ERK pathway and extracellular Ca(2+) concentrations. These data suggest that exposure to BPA at levels relevant to human exposure may provoke an acute inflammatory response in atopic individuals via enhanced mast cell activation. PMID:23782309

  18. Development and evaluation of chitosan and chitosan/Kollicoat® Smartseal 30 D film-coated tablets for colon targeting.

    PubMed

    Drechsler, Michael; Garbacz, Grzegorz; Thomann, Ralf; Schubert, Rolf

    2014-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to develop film-coated tablets which release a minor amount of the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) into the stomach and small intestine, yet show a sharp increase of drug release in the colon. Tablets containing the model drug Diclofenac-Na, microcrystalline cellulose as a filler (MT), as well as tablets consisting of Ludiflash® (LT), both were used as tablet cores, respectively. Either chitosan (CHI) alone or different ratios of chitosan and Kollicoat® Smartseal 30 D (KCSS) were applied onto these cores. The resulting film-coated tablets were analyzed for swelling, drug dissolution and stability. In order to clarify whether the colon release is mainly enzyme-driven or pressure-controlled, the coated tablets were both tested in the colon microflora test (CMT), which simulates the enzyme environment within the colon, and using a bio-relevant dissolution apparatus mimicking the intraluminal pressures and stress conditions present in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). CHI/KCSS (25:75) coated LTs showed a pressure-controlled site-specific drug release in the large intestine, while remaining intact in the upper GIT. CHI as well as CHI/KCSS (25:75) applied onto MTs, remained stable during the entire simulated bio-relevant dissolution transit of the GIT, but showed enzymatically controlled colon targeting in the CMT. These results could be confirmed for CHI/KCSS (25:75) film-coated MTs top-coated with an additional hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC) layer and an Eudragit L 30 D-55 (EUL) layer to avoid the dissolution in the fasting stomach. PMID:25301294

  19. Evaluation of Final Radiological Conditions at Areas of the Niagara Falls Storage Site Remediated under the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program -12184

    SciTech Connect

    Clayton, Christopher; Kothari, Vijendra; Starr, Ken; Widdop, Michael; Gillespie, Joey

    2012-02-26

    The U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) methods and protocols allow evaluation of remediation and final site conditions to determine if remediated sites remain protective. Two case studies are presented that involve the Niagara Falls Storage Site (NFSS) and associated vicinity properties (VPs), which are being remediated under the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP). These properties are a part of the former Lake Ontario Ordnance Works (LOOW). In response to stakeholders concerns about whether certain remediated NFSS VPs were putting them at risk, DOE met with stakeholders and agreed to evaluate protectiveness. Documentation in the DOE records collection adequately described assessed and final radiological conditions at the completed VPs. All FUSRAP wastes at the completed sites were cleaned up to meet DOE guidelines for unrestricted use. DOE compiled the results of the investigation in a report that was released for public comment. In conducting the review of site conditions, DOE found that stakeholders were also concerned about waste from the Separations Process Research Unit (SPRU) at the Knolls Atomic Power Laboratory (KAPL) that was handled at LOOW. DOE agreed to determine if SPRU waste remained at that needed to be remediated. DOE reviewed records of waste characterization, historical handling locations and methods, and assessment and remediation data. DOE concluded that the SPRU waste was remediated on the LOOW to levels that pose no unacceptable risk and allow unrestricted use and unlimited exposure. This work confirms the following points as tenets of an effective long-term surveillance and maintenance (LTS&M) program:  Stakeholder interaction must be open and transparent, and DOE must respond promptly to stakeholder concerns.  DOE, as the long-term custodian, must collect and preserve site records in order to demonstrate that remediated sites pose no unacceptable risk.  DOE must continue to maintain constructive relationships

  20. Causes and Consequences of Adult Laryngotracheal Stenosis

    PubMed Central

    Gelbard, Alexander; Francis, David O.; Sandulache, Vlad C.; Simmons, John C.; Donovan, Donald T.; Ongkasuwan, Julina

    2015-01-01

    Objective Laryngotracheal stenosis is largely considered a structural entity, defined on anatomic terms (i.e. percent stenosis, distance from vocal folds, overall length). This has significant implications for identifying at-risk populations, devising systems-based preventive strategies, and promoting patient-centered treatment. The present study was undertaken to test the hypothesis that LTS is heterogeneous in regard to etiology, natural history, and clinical outcome. Study Design Retrospective cohort study of consecutive adult tracheal stenosis patients from 1998–2013. Methods Subjects diagnosed with laryngotracheal stenosis (ICD-9: 478.74, 519.19) between January 1, 1998 and January 1, 2013 were identified. Patient characteristics (age, gender, race, follow-up duration), and comorbidities were extracted. Records were reviewed for etiology of stenosis, treatment approach, and surgical dates. Stenosis morphology was derived from intraoperative measurements. The presence of tracheostomy at last follow-up was recorded. Results 150 patients met inclusion criteria. 54.7% had an iatrogenic etiology followed by idiopathic (18.5%), autoimmune (18.5%), and traumatic (8%). Tracheostomy dependence differed based on etiology (p<0.001). Significantly more patients with iatrogenic (66%) and autoimmune (54%) etiologies remained tracheostomy dependent compared to traumatic (33%) or idiopathic (0%) groups. On multivariate regression analysis, each additional point on Charlson Comorbidity Index was associated with a 67% increased odds of tracheostomy dependence (OR 1.67, 95% CI 1.04 – 2.69; p=0.04). Conclusions Laryngotracheal stenosis is not a homogeneous clinical entity. It has multiple distinct etiologies that demonstrate disparate rates of long-term tracheostomy dependence. Understanding the mechanism of injury and contribution of comorbid illnesses is critical to systems-based preventive strategies and patient-centered treatment. PMID:25290987

  1. On the characteristics of aerosol indirect effect based on dynamic regimes in global climate models

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Zhang, Shipeng; Wang, Minghuai; Ghan, Steven J.; Ding, Aijun; Wang, Hailong; Zhang, Kai; Neubauer, David; Lohmann, Ulrike; Ferrachat, Sylvaine; Takeamura, Toshihiko; et al

    2016-03-04

    Aerosol–cloud interactions continue to constitute a major source of uncertainty for the estimate of climate radiative forcing. The variation of aerosol indirect effects (AIE) in climate models is investigated across different dynamical regimes, determined by monthly mean 500 hPa vertical pressure velocity (ω500), lower-tropospheric stability (LTS) and large-scale surface precipitation rate derived from several global climate models (GCMs), with a focus on liquid water path (LWP) response to cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) concentrations. The LWP sensitivity to aerosol perturbation within dynamic regimes is found to exhibit a large spread among these GCMs. It is in regimes of strong large-scale ascentmore » (ω500  <  −25 hPa day−1) and low clouds (stratocumulus and trade wind cumulus) where the models differ most. Shortwave aerosol indirect forcing is also found to differ significantly among different regimes. Shortwave aerosol indirect forcing in ascending regimes is close to that in subsidence regimes, which indicates that regimes with strong large-scale ascent are as important as stratocumulus regimes in studying AIE. It is further shown that shortwave aerosol indirect forcing over regions with high monthly large-scale surface precipitation rate (> 0.1 mm day−1) contributes the most to the total aerosol indirect forcing (from 64 to nearly 100 %). Results show that the uncertainty in AIE is even larger within specific dynamical regimes compared to the uncertainty in its global mean values, pointing to the need to reduce the uncertainty in AIE in different dynamical regimes.« less

  2. Covariability in the Monthly Mean Convective and Radiative Diurnal Cycles in the Amazon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dodson, Jason B.; Taylor, Patrick C.

    2015-01-01

    The diurnal cycle of convective clouds greatly influences the radiative energy balance in convectively active regions of Earth, through both direct presence, and the production of anvil and stratiform clouds. Previous studies show that the frequency and properties of convective clouds can vary on monthly timescales as a result of variability in the monthly mean atmospheric state. Furthermore, the radiative budget in convectively active regions also varies by up to 7 Wm-2 in convectively active regions. These facts suggest that convective clouds connect atmospheric state variability and radiation variability beyond clear sky effects alone. Previous research has identified monthly covariability between the diurnal cycle of CERES-observed top-of-atmosphere radiative fluxes and multiple atmospheric state variables from reanalysis over the Amazon region. ASVs that enhance (reduce) deep convection, such as CAPE (LTS), tend to shift the daily OLR and cloud albedo maxima earlier (later) in the day by 2-3 hr. We first test the analysis method using multiple reanalysis products for both the dry and wet seasons to further investigate the robustness of the preliminary results. We then use CloudSat data as an independent cloud observing system to further evaluate the relationships of cloud properties to variability in radiation and atmospheric states. While CERES can decompose OLR variability into clear sky and cloud effects, it cannot determine what variability in cloud properties lead to variability in the radiative cloud effects. Cloud frequency, cloud top height, and cloud microphysics all contribute to the cloud radiative effect, all of which are observable by CloudSat. In addition, CloudSat can also observe the presence and variability of deep convective cores responsible for the production of anvil clouds. We use these capabilities to determine the covariability of convective cloud properties and the radiative diurnal cycle.

  3. The Development of the Puerto Rico Lightning Detection Network for Meteorological Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Legault, Marc D.; Miranda, Carmelo; Medin, J.; Ojeda, L. J.; Blakeslee, Richard J.

    2011-01-01

    A land-based Puerto Rico Lightning Detection Network (PR-LDN) dedicated to the academic research of meteorological phenomena has being developed. Five Boltek StormTracker PCI-Receivers with LTS-2 Timestamp Cards with GPS and lightning detectors were integrated to Pentium III PC-workstations running the CentOS linux operating system. The Boltek detector linux driver was compiled under CentOS, modified, and thoroughly tested. These PC-workstations with integrated lightning detectors were installed at five of the University of Puerto Rico (UPR) campuses distributed around the island of PR. The PC-workstations are left on permanently in order to monitor lightning activity at all times. Each is networked to their campus network-backbone permitting quasi-instantaneous data transfer to a central server at the UPR-Bayam n campus. Information generated by each lightning detector is managed by a C-program developed by us called the LDN-client. The LDN-client maintains an open connection to the central server operating the LDN-server program where data is sent real-time for analysis and archival. The LDN-client also manages the storing of data on the PC-workstation hard disk. The LDN-server software (also an in-house effort) analyses the data from each client and performs event triangulations. Time-of-arrival (TOA) and related hybrid algorithms, lightning-type and event discriminating routines are also implemented in the LDN-server software. We also have developed software to visually monitor lightning events in real-time from all clients and the triangulated events. We are currently monitoring and studying the spatial, temporal, and type distribution of lightning strikes associated with electrical storms and tropical cyclones in the vicinity of Puerto Rico.

  4. Leukotriene B4 enhances innate immune defense against the puerperal sepsis agent Streptococcus pyogenes.

    PubMed

    Soares, Elyara M; Mason, Katie L; Rogers, Lisa M; Serezani, Carlos H; Faccioli, Lucia H; Aronoff, David M

    2013-02-15

    Puerperal sepsis is a leading cause of maternal mortality worldwide. Streptococcus pyogenes [group A Streptococcus; (GAS)] is a major etiologic agent of severe postpartum sepsis, yet little is known regarding the pathogenesis of these infections. Tissue macrophages provide innate defense against GAS, and their actions are highly regulated. The intracellular second messenger cAMP can negatively regulate macrophage actions against GAS. Because leukotriene (LT) B(4) has been shown to suppress intracellular cAMP in macrophages, we hypothesized that it could enhance innate defenses against GAS. We assessed the capacity of LTB(4) to modulate antistreptococcal actions of human macrophages, including placental and decidual macrophages and used a novel intrauterine infection model of GAS in mice lacking the 5-lipoxygenase enzyme to determine the role of endogenous LTs in host defense against this pathogen. Animals lacking 5-lipoxygenase were significantly more vulnerable to intrauterine GAS infection than were wild-type mice and showed enhanced dissemination of bacteria out of the uterus and a more robust inflammatory response than did wild-type mice. In addition, LTB(4) reduced intracellular cAMP levels via the BLT1 receptor and was a potent stimulant of macrophage phagocytosis and NADPH oxidase-dependent intracellular killing of GAS. Importantly, interference was observed between the macrophage immunomodulatory actions of LTB(4) and the cAMP-inducing lipid PGE(2), suggesting that interplay between pro- and anti-inflammatory compounds may be important in vivo. This work underscores the potential for pharmacological targeting of lipid mediator signaling cascades in the treatment of invasive GAS infections. PMID:23325886

  5. Liver transplantation in the United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Neuberger, James

    2016-08-01

    Liver transplantation (LT) services in the United Kingdom are provided by 7 designated transplant centers for a population of approximately 64 million. The number of deceased organ donors has grown, and in 2014-2015 it was 1282 (570 donation after circulatory death and 772 donation after brain death). Donor risk is increasing. In 2014-2015, there were 829 LTs from deceased and 38 from living donors. The common causes for transplantation are liver cell cancer, viral hepatitis, and alcohol-related liver disease. Livers are allocated first nationally to super-urgent listed patients and then on a zonal basis. The United Kingdom will be moving toward a national allocation scheme. The median interval between listing and transplantation is 152 days for adults awaiting their first elective transplant. Of the adults listed for the first elective transplant, 68% underwent transplantation at < 1 year; 17% are waiting; and 4% and 11% were removed or died, respectively. The 1- and 5-year adult patient survival rate from listing is 81% and 68%, respectively, and from transplantation is 92% and 80%, respectively. The transplant program is funded through general taxation and is free at the point of care to those who are eligible for National Health Service (NHS) treatment; some have to pay for medication (up to a maximum payment of US $151/year). The competent authority is the Human Tissue Authority which licenses donor characterization, retrieval, and implantation; transplant units are commissioned by NHS England and NHS Scotland. National Health Service Blood and Transplant (NHSBT) promotes organ donation, maintains the organ donor register, obtains consent, and undertakes donor characterization and offering. NHSBT also maintains the national waiting list, develops and applies selection and allocation policies, monitors outcomes, and maintains the UK National Transplant Registry and commissions a national organ retrieval service. Liver Transplantation 22 1129-1135 2016 AASLD

  6. High-sensitivity detection of breast tumors in vivo by use of a pH-sensitive near-infrared fluorescence probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathejczyk, Julia Eva; Pauli, Jutta; Dullin, Christian; Resch-Genger, Ute; Alves, Frauke; Napp, Joanna

    2012-07-01

    We investigated the potential of the pH-sensitive dye, CypHer5E, conjugated to Herceptin (pH-Her) for the sensitive detection of breast tumors in mice using noninvasive time-domain near-infrared fluorescence imaging and different methods of data analysis. First, the fluorescence properties of pH-Her were analyzed as function of pH and/or dye-to-protein ratio, and binding specificity was confirmed in cell-based assays. Subsequently, the performance of pH-Her in nude mice bearing orthotopic HER2-positive (KPL-4) and HER2-negative (MDA-MB-231) breast carcinoma xenografts was compared to that of an always-on fluorescent conjugate Alexa Fluor 647-Herceptin (Alexa-Her). Subtraction of autofluorescence and lifetime (LT)-gated image analyses were performed for background fluorescence suppression. In mice bearing HER2-positive tumors, autofluorescence subtraction together with the selective fluorescence enhancement of pH-Her solely in the tumor's acidic environment provided high contrast-to-noise ratios (CNRs). This led to an improved sensitivity of tumor detection compared to Alexa-Her. In contrast, LT-gated imaging using LTs determined in model systems did not improve tumor-detection sensitivity in vivo for either probe. In conclusion, pH-Her is suitable for sensitive in vivo monitoring of HER2-expressing breast tumors with imaging in the intensity domain and represents a promising tool for detection of weak fluorescent signals deriving from small tumors or metastases.

  7. Inhibition by Somatostatin Interneurons in Olfactory Cortex.

    PubMed

    Large, Adam M; Kunz, Nicholas A; Mielo, Samantha L; Oswald, Anne-Marie M

    2016-01-01

    Inhibitory circuitry plays an integral role in cortical network activity. The development of transgenic mouse lines targeting unique interneuron classes has significantly advanced our understanding of the functional roles of specific inhibitory circuits in neocortical sensory processing. In contrast, considerably less is known about the circuitry and function of interneuron classes in piriform cortex, a paleocortex responsible for olfactory processing. In this study, we sought to utilize transgenic technology to investigate inhibition mediated by somatostatin (SST) interneurons onto pyramidal cells (PCs), parvalbumin (PV) interneurons, and other interneuron classes. As a first step, we characterized the anatomical distributions and intrinsic properties of SST and PV interneurons in four transgenic lines (SST-cre, GIN, PV-cre, and G42) that are commonly interbred to investigate inhibitory connectivity. Surprisingly, the distributions SST and PV cell subtypes targeted in the GIN and G42 lines were sparse in piriform cortex compared to neocortex. Moreover, two-thirds of interneurons recorded in the SST-cre line had electrophysiological properties similar to fast spiking (FS) interneurons rather than regular (RS) or low threshold spiking (LTS) phenotypes. Nonetheless, like neocortex, we find that SST-cells broadly inhibit a number of unidentified interneuron classes including putatively identified PV cells and surprisingly, other SST cells. We also confirm that SST-cells inhibit pyramidal cell dendrites and thus, influence dendritic integration of afferent and recurrent inputs to the piriform cortex. Altogether, our findings suggest that SST interneurons play an important role in regulating both excitation and the global inhibitory network during olfactory processing. PMID:27582691

  8. Multi-segment analysis of spinal kinematics during sit-to-stand in patients with chronic low back pain.

    PubMed

    Christe, Guillaume; Redhead, Lucy; Legrand, Thomas; Jolles, Brigitte M; Favre, Julien

    2016-07-01

    While alterations in spinal kinematics have been frequently reported in patients with chronic low back pain (CLBP), a better characterization of the kinematics during functional activities is needed to improve our understanding and therapeutic solutions for this condition. Recent studies on healthy subjects showed the value of analyzing the spine during sit-to-stand transition (STST) using multi-segment models, suggesting that additional knowledge could be gained by conducting similar assessments in CLBP patients. The objectives of this study were to characterize three dimensional kinematics at the lower lumbar (LLS), upper lumbar (ULS), lower thoracic (LTS) and upper thoracic (UTS) joints during STST, and to test the hypothesis that CLBP patients perform this movement with smaller angle and angular velocity compared to asymptomatic controls. Ten CLBP patients (with minimal to moderate disability) and 11 asymptomatic controls with comparable demographics (52% male, 37.4±5.6 years old, 22.5±2.8kg/m(2)) were tested using a three-dimensional camera-based system following previously proposed protocols. Characteristic patterns of movement were identified at the LLS, ULS and UTS joints in the sagittal plane only. Significant differences in the form of smaller sagittal-plane angle and smaller angular velocity in the patient group compared to the control group were observed at these three joints. This indicated a more rigid spine in the patient group and suggested that CLBP rehabilitation could potentially be enhanced by targeting movement deficits in functional activities. The results further recommended the analysis of STST kinematics using a pelvis-lumbar-thoracic model including lower and upper lumbar and thoracic segments. PMID:27262182

  9. Testing the Gamma-Ray Burst Energy Relationships

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Band, David L.; Preece, Robert D.

    2005-01-01

    Building on Nakar & Piran's analysis of the Amati relation relating gamma-ray burst peak energies E(sub p) and isotropic energies E(sub iso ) we test the consistency of a large sample of BATSE bursts with the Amati and Ghirlanda (which relates peak energies and actual gamma-ray energies E(sub gamma)) relations. Each of these relations can be exp ressed as a ratio of the different energies that is a function of red shift (for both the Amati and Ghirlanda relations) and beaming fraction f(sub B) (for the Ghirlanda relation). The most rigorous test, whic h allows bursts to be at any redshift, corroborates Nakar & Piran's r esult - 88% of the BATSE bursts are inconsistent with the Amati relat ion - while only l.6% of the bursts are inconsistent with the Ghirlan da relation if f(sub B) = 1. Modelling the redshift distribution resu lts in an energy ratio distribution for the Amati relation that is sh ifted by an order of magnitude relative to the observed distributions; any sub-population satisfying the Amati relation can comprise at mos t approx. 18% of our burst sample. A similar analysis of the Ghirland a relation depends sensitively on the beaming fraction distribution f or small values of f(sub B); for reasonable estimates of this distrib ution about a third of the burst sample is inconsistent with the Ghir landa relation. Our results indicate that these relations are an artifact of the selection effects of the burst sample in which they were f ound; these selection effects may favor sub-populations for which the se relations are valid.

  10. Technical manual: description and operation Slaved Tracking System

    SciTech Connect

    Bauhs, K.C.

    1984-08-01

    This manual contains physical and functional descriptions, operating procedures, and safety precautions for the Slaved Tracking System (STS). The STS is a mobile unit designed to provide close-up, high-quality motion pictures and video tapes of laydown bombs and rockets during the final phase of their trajectory to impact point. Radiometer devices mounted with the optics can also be used to track rocket exhaust emissions. The STS receives binary range and encoder information from Sandia's Laser Tracker System (LTS) to provide the STS with steering signals to track vehicle. These signals are transmitted by microwave or hard-wire communications lines. The communications link is shown in Figure 1-1. The STS yields optimum photographic coverage with a field-of-view of +-5 ft on targets traveling up to 2000 f/s at a cross range of 1500 ft. The boresight of the fixed optics points directly at a 12-in. gimballed tracking mirror that provides satisfactory photographic lighting under most conditions. A 75-mm-square flat-plate beamsplitter is used on the optical table to divide the gimbal mirror view between a 500-frame-per-second (FPS) motion picture camera and a shuttered, color, 60-field-per-second (fps) television camera. A video cassette recorder provides for immediate posttest analysis. The gimbal mirror and optical table are mounted on a steel pedestal weighing approx. 2 tons for maximum stability. The pedestal is leveled with three motor-driven screw jacks with lifting speed resolution of 0.002 to 0.05 in.-per-second.

  11. Incorporating CLIPS into a personal-computer-based Intelligent Tutoring System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mueller, Stephen J.

    1990-01-01

    A large number of Intelligent Tutoring Systems (ITS's) have been built since they were first proposed in the early 1970's. Research conducted on the use of the best of these systems has demonstrated their effectiveness in tutoring in selected domains. Computer Sciences Corporation, Applied Technology Division, Houston Operations has been tasked by the Spacecraft Software Division at NASA/Johnson Space Center (NASA/JSC) to develop a number of lTS's in a variety of domains and on many different platforms. This paper will address issues facing the development of an ITS on a personal computer using the CLIPS (C Language Integrated Production System) language. For an ITS to be widely accepted, not only must it be effective, flexible, and very responsive, it must also be capable of functioning on readily available computers. There are many issues to consider when using CLIPS to develop an ITS on a personal computer. Some of these issues are the following: when to use CLIPS and when to use a procedural language such as C, how to maximize speed and minimize memory usage, and how to decrease the time required to load your rule base once you are ready to deliver the system. Based on experiences in developing the CLIPS Intelligent Tutoring System (CLIPSITS) on an IBM PC clone and an intelligent Physics Tutor on a Macintosh 2, this paper reports results on how to address some of these issues. It also suggests approaches for maintaining a powerful learning environment while delivering robust performance within the speed and memory constraints of the personal computer.

  12. Management of Post-traumatic Laryngotracheal Stenosis: Our Experience.

    PubMed

    Kandakure, Vinod T; Mishra, Swati; Lahane, Vaibhav J

    2015-09-01

    To describe our experience in management of post-traumatic laryngo-tracheal stenosis by study of various surgical methods. To compare our results with different studies. To find out best surgical procedure. Retrospective study. 13 patients of LTS were analyzed within the period of 2009-2013 highlighting the important causes of stenosis, management based on type and severity of stenosis and outcome following the treatment given. Cases were diagnosed in detail with help of flexible laryngoscopy. Finer details of stenosis like site, length, associated injuries were studied with help of CT scan. Various modalities of treatment were used and outcome was assessed. There were 13 patients 9 males and 4 females. Of these 54 % had iatrogenic stenosis and 46 % had traumatic stenosis. 46 % had true stenosis, remaining cases suffered from either soft stenosis or had associated injuries rendering the stenosis as a complex one. The patients underwent a combined surgical approach which included treatment modalities like T-tube insertion, endoscopic dilatation, laser, and open surgical intervention (tracheal resection and anastomosis). Of all the patient treated 69.2 % were successfully decannulated and recovered well with a satisfactory airway outcome, (23.07 %) cases remained T-tube dependent, 8 % case died due to septicemia. It was evident that prolonged intubation remained most common cause of tracheal stenosis and the management varied depending on the type of stenosis. Simple soft stenosis could be managed well by endoscopic dilatation and laser while complete, complex stenosis required surgical intervention in form of T-tube stenting or open surgical intervention. Tracheal stenosis is a life threatening complication and difficult to manage. It requires multiple approaches and the successful outcome is assessed by patent airway and voice quality. PMID:26405660

  13. [Effect of lysine clonixinate and indomethacin on lipoxygenase and cyclooxygenase activity in colon isolated from cancer patients].

    PubMed

    Franchi, A; Di Girolamo, G; de los Santos, A R; Marti, M L; Gimeno, M A

    1998-01-01

    The non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS) induced ulcerations in the gastrointestinal tract are possibly associated with the reduction in prostaglandin (PGs) synthesis due to the inhibition of cyclooxygenase. On the other hand, it has been shown that 5-lipooxygenase products (5-LO) are ulcerogenic agents. In some cases, the utilization of NSAIDS stimulates 5-LO pathway to an excess of arachidonic acid because of cyclooxygenase inhibition. In these cases, the damage produced by NSAIDS is greater, since not only the cytoprotective PGs decrease but also the products of 5-LO are increased. The object of the present paper was to study the effects of lysine clonixinate (LC) and indomethacin (INDO) on PGs and 5-HETE synthesis. The concentrations used of LC (4 and 6 micrograms/ml) and INDO (0.035 micrograms/ml and 0.35 micrograms/ml) correspond to the plasmatic values reached with oral therapeutic doses for both drugs. The results show that in no case did LC reduce the production of PGE2. On the contrary INDO inhibited significantly the synthesis of PGe2. It is interesting to mention that LC 4 and 6 micrograms/ml inhibited drastically the production of 5-HETE. Only with the higher concentration of INDO did we observe a similar effect. These results may indicate an inhibitory action on 5-LO, the first enzyme in the metabolic pathway of arachidonic acid in the production of HETEs and LTS. We conclude that LC in therapeutic doses has a mechanism of action different from the classical NSAIDS. The data obtained in this study could explain the low incidence in gastrointestinal lesions with LC. PMID:9713099

  14. ARDEC transition armature study. Progress report No. 3, October 1--November 30, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Hawke, R.S.

    1992-05-13

    This third report covers the period October 1 to November 30, 1991. During this period the authors: (1) fabricated a test fixture for studying hybrid armature brush behavior, (2) reactivated a 140kJ, 1MA capacitor bank, (3) reactivated 25 channels digital data acquisition and reduction system and (4) concluded the use of a DNA funded railgun would serve as the most expedient means to acquire a railgun test bed. Fabrication of a plasma brush test fixture for studying the formation, evolution and stability of plasma brushes was completed. The fixture will serve to study plasma brush parameters, such as brush length and voltage drop, as a function of initial solid foil mass, gap size and current concentration. A 4OkV, 168{mu}f, 140kJ capacitor bank capable of providing more than 1MA of current was reactivated. (The LLNL bank had been developed for opening switch research which was successfully completed.) The bank will be used to power the test fixture with 10{mu}s, flat top current pulses. A 25 channel LeCroy digital data acquisition system interfaced to an LSI-11 and a Mini VAX computer was reactivated and brought on line to record the B-dot signals, voltages and current data from the test fixture. An evaluation of the most expedient means of obtaining a small bore railgun test bed for armature studies led to the conclusion that a portion of the DNA funded, LANL fabricated, LTS (Lethality Test System) railgun which was loaned to SNL, would be the best choice. A request to borrow the equipment for 3 years was initiated.

  15. 5-Lipoxygenase Deficiency Reduces Acetaminophen-Induced Hepatotoxicity and Lethality

    PubMed Central

    Hohmann, Miriam S. N.; Cardoso, Renato D. R.; Pinho-Ribeiro, Felipe A.; Crespigio, Jefferson; Cunha, Thiago M.; Alves-Filho, José C.; da Silva, Rosiane V.; Pinge-Filho, Phileno; Ferreira, Sergio H.; Cunha, Fernando Q.; Casagrande, Rubia; Verri, Waldiceu A.

    2013-01-01

    5-Lipoxygenase (5-LO) converts arachidonic acid into leukotrienes (LTs) and is involved in inflammation. At present, the participation of 5-LO in acetaminophen (APAP)-induced hepatotoxicity and liver damage has not been addressed. 5-LO deficient (5-LO−/−) mice and background wild type mice were challenged with APAP (0.3–6 g/kg) or saline. The lethality, liver damage, neutrophil and macrophage recruitment, LTB4, cytokine production, and oxidative stress were assessed. APAP induced a dose-dependent mortality, and the dose of 3 g/kg was selected for next experiments. APAP induced LTB4 production in the liver, the primary target organ in APAP toxicity. Histopathological analysis revealed that 5-LO−/− mice presented reduced APAP-induced liver necrosis and inflammation compared with WT mice. APAP-induced lethality, increase of plasma levels of aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase, liver cytokine (IL-1β, TNF-α, IFN-γ, and IL-10), superoxide anion, and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances production, myeloperoxidase and N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase activity, Nrf2 and gp91phox mRNA expression, and decrease of reduced glutathione and antioxidant capacity measured by 2,2′-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline 6-sulfonate) assay were prevented in 5-LO−/− mice compared to WT mice. Therefore, 5-LO deficiency resulted in reduced mortality due to reduced liver inflammatory and oxidative damage, suggesting 5-LO is a promising target to reduce APAP-induced lethality and liver inflammatory/oxidative damage. PMID:24288682

  16. A geranyl acetophenone targeting cysteinyl leukotriene synthesis prevents allergic airway inflammation in ovalbumin-sensitized mice.

    PubMed

    Ismail, Norazren; Jambari, Nuzul Nurahya; Zareen, Seema; Akhtar, Mohamad Nadeem; Shaari, Khozirah; Zamri-Saad, Mohamad; Tham, Chau Ling; Sulaiman, Mohd Roslan; Lajis, Nordin Hj; Israf, Daud Ahmad

    2012-03-01

    Asthma is associated with increased pulmonary inflammation and airway hyperresponsiveness. The current use of corticosteroids in the management of asthma has recently raised issues regarding safety and lack of responsiveness in 5-10% of asthmatic individuals. The aim of the present study was to investigate the therapeutic effect of a non-steroidal small molecule that has cysteinyl leukotriene (cysLT) inhibitory activity, upon attenuation of allergic lung inflammation in an acute murine model. Mice were sensitized with ovalbumin (OVA) and treated with several intraperitoneal doses (100, 20, 2 and 0.2mg/kg) of 2,4,6,-trihydroxy-3-geranylacetophenone (tHGA). Bronchoalveolar lavage was performed, blood and lung samples were obtained and respiratory function was measured. OVA sensitization increased pulmonary inflammation and pulmonary allergic inflammation was significantly reduced at doses of 100, 20 and 2mg/kg with no effect at the lowest dose of 0.2mg/kg. The beneficial effects in the lung were associated with reduced eosinophilic infiltration and reduced secretion of Th2 cytokines and cysLTs. Peripheral blood reduction of total IgE was also a prominent feature. Treatment with tHGA significantly attenuated altered airway hyperresponsiveness as measured by the enhanced pause (Penh) response to incremental doses of methacholine. These data demonstrate that tHGA, a synthetic non-steroidal small molecule, can prevent acute allergic inflammation. This proof of concept opens further avenues of research and development of tHGA as an additional option to the current armamentarium of anti-asthma therapeutics. PMID:22266348

  17. Medicaid enrollment after liver transplantation: Effects of medicaid expansion.

    PubMed

    Tumin, Dmitry; Hayes, Don; Washburn, W Kenneth; Tobias, Joseph D; Black, Sylvester M

    2016-08-01

    Liver transplantation (LT) recipients in the United States have low rates of paid employment, making some eligible for Medicaid public health insurance after transplant. We test whether recent expansions of Medicaid eligibility increased Medicaid enrollment and insurance coverage in this population. Patients of ages 18-59 years receiving first-time LTs in 2009-2013 were identified in the United Network for Organ Sharing registry and stratified according to insurance at transplantation (private versus Medicaid/Medicare). Posttransplant insurance status was assessed through June 2015. Difference-in-difference multivariate competing-risks models stratified on state of residence estimated effects of Medicaid expansion on Medicaid enrollment or use of uninsured care after LT. Of 12,837 patients meeting inclusion criteria, 6554 (51%) lived in a state that expanded Medicaid eligibility. Medicaid participation after LT was more common in Medicaid-expansion states (25%) compared to nonexpansion states (19%; P < 0.001). Multivariate analysis of 7279 patients with private insurance at transplantation demonstrated that after the effective date of Medicaid expansion (January 1, 2014), the hazard of posttransplant Medicaid enrollment increased in states participating in Medicaid expansion (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.5; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.1-2.0; P = 0.01), but not in states opting out of Medicaid expansion (HR = 0.8; 95% CI = 0.5-1.3; P = 0.37), controlling for individual characteristics and time-invariant state-level factors. No effects of Medicaid expansion on the use of posttransplant uninsured care were found, regardless of private or government insurance status at transplantation. Medicaid expansion increased posttransplant Medicaid enrollment among patients who had private insurance at transplantation, but it did not improve overall access to health insurance among LT recipients. Liver Transplantation 22 1075-1084 2016 AASLD. PMID:27152888

  18. Liver transplantation in Germany.

    PubMed

    Tacke, Frank; Kroy, Daniela C; Barreiros, Ana Paula; Neumann, Ulf P

    2016-08-01

    Liver transplantation (LT) is a well-accepted procedure for end-stage liver disease in Germany. In 2015, 1489 patients were admitted to the waiting list (including 1308 new admissions), with the leading etiologies being fibrosis and cirrhosis (n = 349), alcoholic liver disease (n = 302), and hepatobiliary malignancies (n = 220). Organ allocation in Germany is regulated within the Eurotransplant system based on urgency as expressed by the Model for End-Stage Liver Disease score. In 2015, only 894 LTs (n = 48 from living donors) were performed at 23 German transplant centers, reflecting a shortage of organs. Several factors may contribute to the low number of organ donations. The German transplant legislation only accepts donation after brain death (not cardiac death), whereas advances in neurosurgery and a more frequently requested "palliative care" approach render fewer patients suitable as potential donors. The legislation further requires the active consent of the donor or first-degree relatives before donation. Ongoing debates within the German transplant field address the optimal management of patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), and cholangiocarcinoma and measures to increase living donor transplantations. As a result of irregularities at mainly 4 German transplant centers that were exposed in 2012, guiding principles updated by the German authorities have since implemented strict rules (including internal and external auditing, the 8-eyes principle, mandatory repeated testing for alcohol consumption) to prohibit any manipulations in organ allocation. In conclusion, we will summarize important aspects on the management of LT in Germany, discuss legal and organizational aspects, and highlight challenges mainly related to the relative lack of organ donations, increasing numbers of extended criteria donors, and the peculiarities of the recipient patients. Liver Transplantation 22 1136-1142 2016 AASLD. PMID:27082951

  19. Transition and closeout of the Fernald Closure Project

    SciTech Connect

    Bilson, H.E.; Terry, T.; Reising, J.; Powell, J.; Miller, M.

    2007-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and Fluor Fernald have completed the majority of the cleanup of the Fernald Site. The over 1,000 acre complex for processing uranium has been demolished and soil contamination has been remediated. With acres of wetlands and prairies replacing the buildings and waste pits. At the end of the project the focus shifted to developing demonstrating the completion of the project and the contract, as well as ensuring a smooth transition of the facility from the DOE's Environmental Management (EM) Program to the DOE's Legacy Management (LM) Program. Working with the DOE, each portion of the closure contract was examined for specific closure definition. From this negotiation effort the Comprehensive Exit and Transition Plan (CE/T Plan) was written. The CE/T Plan is intended to assist DOE in the analysis that the site is ready for transfer into long-term stewardship (LTS) (also referred to as legacy management) and that Fluor Fernald, Inc. has satisfactorily completed the closure contract statement of work elements. Following the Lessons Learned from the closure of the Rocky Flats Site, the DOE's Legacy Management Program created a matrix of Transition Elements required to ensure adequate information was in place to allow the new prime contractor to perform the Legacy Management scope of work. The transition plan included over 1,000 elements broken down into functional areas and relied on specific Fernald Responsibility Transition Packages (RTPs) for detailed transition actions. The template for Closure and Transition Planning used at the Fernald Site was developed using the best Lessons Learned from across the DOE Complex. The template could be used for other sites, and lessons learned from this closure and transition will be appropriate for all closure projects. (authors)

  20. Eoxins are proinflammatory arachidonic acid metabolites produced via the 15-lipoxygenase-1 pathway in human eosinophils and mast cells.

    PubMed

    Feltenmark, Stina; Gautam, Narinder; Brunnström, Asa; Griffiths, William; Backman, Linda; Edenius, Charlotte; Lindbom, Lennart; Björkholm, Magnus; Claesson, Hans-Erik

    2008-01-15

    Human eosinophils contain abundant amounts of 15-lipoxygenase (LO)-1. The biological role of 15-LO-1 in humans, however, is unclear. Incubation of eosinophils with arachidonic acid led to formation of a product with a UV absorbance maximum at 282 nm and shorter retention time than leukotriene (LT)C4 in reverse-phase HPLC. Analysis with positive-ion electrospray tandem MS identified this eosinophil metabolite as 14,15-LTC4. This metabolite could be metabolized to 14,15-LTD4 and 14,15-LTE4 in eosinophils. Because eosinophils are such an abundant source of these metabolites and to avoid confusion with 5-LO-derived LTs, we suggest the names eoxin (EX)C4, -D4, and -E4 instead of 14,15-LTC4, -D4, and -E4, respectively. Cord blood-derived mast cells and surgically removed nasal polyps from allergic subjects also produced EXC4. Incubation of eosinophils with arachidonic acid favored the production of EXC4, whereas challenge with calcium ionophore led to exclusive formation of LTC4. Eosinophils produced EXC4 after challenge with the proinflammatory agents LTC4, prostaglandin D2, and IL-5, demonstrating that EXC4 can be synthesized from the endogenous pool of arachidonic acid. EXs induced increased permeability of endothelial cell monolayer in vitro, indicating that EXs can modulate and enhance vascular permeability, a hallmark of inflammation. In this model system, EXs were 100 times more potent than histamine and almost as potent as LTC4 and LTD4. Taken together, this article describes the formation of proinflammatory EXs, in particular in human eosinophils but also in human mast cells and nasal polyps. PMID:18184802

  1. Inflammatory chemoreceptor cross-talk suppresses leukotriene B4 receptor 1-mediated neutrophil calcium mobilization and chemotaxis after trauma.

    PubMed

    Tarlowe, Michael H; Kannan, K B; Itagaki, Kiyoshi; Adams, John M; Livingston, David H; Hauser, Carl J

    2003-08-15

    G protein-coupled chemoattractants recruit neutrophils (PMN) to sites of injury and infection. The leukotrienes (LT) and CXC chemokines (CXC) and their receptors (BLT1/BLT2 and CXCR1/CXCR2) are all known to play roles in these responses. Each system has been studied separately in vitro, but in vivo they act concurrently, and the clinical interactions between the two systems are unstudied. We prospectively studied calcium mobilization and chemotactic responses to LTB(4) in PMN from major trauma patients. The responses of the high affinity BLT1 receptor were suppressed at the 3-day postinjury time point, but recovered by 1 wk. Trauma patients had transient elevations of plasma LT and CXC levels. Functional deficits identical with those in trauma PMN were reproduced in vitro by exposing healthy PMN to CXCs at the elevated plasma concentrations found. Functional responses to LTB(4) were suppressed by cross-talk with CXC and BLT2 receptors that desensitize BLT1. Since the suppression of intracellular calcium mobilization was prominent, we also studied the role of suppressed cell calcium mobilization in the defective chemotactic responses to LTB(4). We noted that PMN chemotaxis to LTB(4) showed far more dependence on store-operated calcium entry than on the release of cellular calcium stores, and that store-operated calcium responses to BLT1 activation were markedly inhibited during the same time period as was chemotaxis. The intermittent release of inflammatory mediators after injury can blunt PMN responses to LTs by suppressing BLT1 as well as downstream calcium entry. Diminished LT receptor activity due to cross-talk with CXC receptors can inhibit PMN recruitment to infective sites. This may predispose injured patients to septic complications. PMID:12902512

  2. Formation of sulphidopeptide-leukotrienes by cell-cell interaction causes coronary vasoconstriction in isolated, cell-perfused heart of rabbit.

    PubMed Central

    Sala, A.; Rossoni, G.; Buccellati, C.; Berti, F.; Folco, G.; Maclouf, J.

    1993-01-01

    1. We have studied the transcellular biosynthesis of bioactive leukotrienes (LTs), generated upon blood cell-vascular wall interactions and their functional consequences, in the spontaneously beating, cell-perfused, heart of the rabbit. Rabbit isolated hearts were perfused under recirculating conditions (50 ml) with 5 x 10(6) cells of unpurified (buffy coat) or purified human neutrophils (PMNL), and challenged with 0.5 microM A23187 for 30 min. Coronary perfusion pressure (CPP), heart rate (HR), left ventricular end-diastolic pressure (LVEDP) and left ventricular pressure (LVP) were monitored continuously. Leukotriene formation was measured by specific enzyme-immunoassay and confirmed by reversed phase h.p.l.c. and u.v. spectral analysis. 2. Basal CPP values averaged 44 +/- 1.4 mmHg; A23187 triggered a marked increase in CPP both in the presence of buffy coat cells (+100% above basal) and PMNL (+270% above basal); the latter change in CPP was accompanied by a rise in LVEDP (+138% above basal). 3. The increase in CPP was preceded by a statistically significant rise in iLTC4-D4 concentration in the circulating buffer. Pretreatment with two structurally unrelated LTD4 receptor antagonists, LY171883 and SKF104353 (10 microM), fully prevented the increase in CPP and LVEDP. A similar protection was also observed when the rabbit heart was perfused with PMNL that had been pretreated with MK886 (1 microM), a potent inhibitor of leukotriene biosynthesis. 4. The increased coronary tone was accompanied by a marked release of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), a marker of ischaemic damage; pretreatment of the heart with the LTD4 receptor antagonists as well as of the PMNL with MK886 resulted in a complete suppression of LDH activity release.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8298810

  3. Recovery of the orbital parameters and pulse evolution of V0332+53 during a huge outburst

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, S; Qu, J L; Song, L M; Torres, D F

    2005-05-05

    The high mass X-ray binary (HMXB) V0332+53 became active at the end of 2004, with the outburst being monitored by RXTE and INTEGRAL at hard X-rays. Here, the orbital parameters are measured with the hard X-ray data through the fitting of the Doppler-shifted spin periods. The derived orbital period and the eccentricity are consistent with those reported by Stella et al. (1985) from earlier EXOSAT observations, whereas the projected semimajor axis and the periastron longitude are found to differ, from 48 {+-} 4 to 86{sub -10}{sup +6} lt-s and from 313{sup o} {+-} 10 to 282{sup o} {+-} 14, respectively. This would indicate an angular speed of {ge} 1.6 {sup o} {+-} 0.9 yr{sup -1} for the orbit over the past 20 years. The periastron passage time, TJD 13367 {+-} 1, is just around the time when the intensity reached the maximum and, an orbital period earlier is the time when the outburst occurred. This correlation resembles the behavior of a Type I outburst. During the outburst the source spun up with {dot P}{sub spin} = 8.01{sub -1.14}{sup 1.00} x 10{sup -6} s day{sup -1}. The evolution of the pulse profile is highly intensity dependent. The separation of the double pulses kept almost constant ({approx} 0.47) when the source was bright, and dropped to 0.37 within {le}3 days as the source became weaker. The pulse evolution of V0332+53 may correlate to the change in the dominance of emission between fan-beam and pencil-beam mechanisms.

  4. Mast cells in citric acid-induced cough of guinea pigs

    SciTech Connect

    Lai, Y.-L. . E-mail: tiger@ha.mc.ntu.edu.tw; Lin, T.-Y.

    2005-01-01

    It was demonstrated previously that mast cells play an important role in citric acid (CA)-induced airway constriction. To investigate the role of mast cells in CA-induced cough, three experiments were carried out in this study. In the first experiment, 59 guinea pigs were employed and we used compound 48/80 to deplete mast cells, cromolyn sodium to stabilize mast cells, MK-886 to inhibit leukotriene synthesis, pyrilamine to antagonize histamine H{sub 1} receptor, methysergide to antagonize serotonin receptor, and indomethacin to inhibit cyclooxygenase. In the second experiment, 56 compound 48/80-pretreated animals were divided into two parts; the first one was used to test the role of exogenous leukotriene (LT) C{sub 4}, while the second one to test the role of exogenous histamine in CA-induced cough. Each animal with one of the above pretreatments was exposed sequentially to saline (baseline) and CA (0.6 M) aerosol, each for 3 min. Then, cough was recorded for 12 min using a barometric body plethysmograph. In the third experiment, the activation of mast cells upon CA inhalation was investigated by determining arterial plasma histamine concentration in 17 animals. Exposure to CA induced a marked increase in cough number. Compound 48/80, cromolyn sodium, MK-886 and pyrilamine, but not indomethacin or methysergide, significantly attenuated CA-induced cough. Injection of LTC{sub 4} or histamine caused a significant increase in CA-induced cough in compound 48/80-pretreated animals. In addition, CA inhalation caused significant increase in plasma histamine concentration, which was blocked by compound 48/80 pretreatment. These results suggest that mast cells play an important role in CA aerosol inhalation-induced cough via perhaps mediators LTs and histamine.

  5. CONFERENCE SUMMARY: Summary and comment on superconducting analogue electronics research, including materials and fabrication, as presented at ISEC 07

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foley, C. P.

    2007-11-01

    The main theme at ISEC 2007 for superconducting materials, fabrication and analogue electronics was the description of incremental developments, including a few new directions that indicate breakthroughs in this area of research. The work on applications focused on their cost-benefit analysis (in order to improve their appeal), the development of simpler systems, making more of the data collected, improving packaging and being responsive to the power handling requirements for commercial systems. All papers presenting this level of research highlighted the importance of obtaining all the necessary details in order to investigate analogue devices and the effectiveness and commercial viability of their systems. This stage of development is important if we are to achieve the transition of superconducting electronics from the laboratory to commercial use. There were some exciting disruptive breakthroughs reported. These were in the areas of nano-SQUIDs, rotating gradiometers, superconducting scanning tunnelling microscopy (Hayashi et al) and the potential of superconducting photonics using optical interfaces with superconducting vortex flow transistors, for example. The materials research in low (LTS), high (HTS) and medium (MTS) critical temperature superconductors was reported. In LTS, nitrides emerged as important materials for use as new tunnel barriers, either insulating or semiconducting. Papers on BaN, NbN, TaN, GaN and Nb-Si superconducting materials were also presented. The MTS material of MgB2 is still under development (Zhao et al). There were also new research groups from South Africa and Turkey attending the conference. The fabrication research presented covered the areas of critical current Ic spread, which is still an issue in reducing the reproducibility of Josephson junctions, a 150 mm process for Nb/Al-AlOx/Nb and methods to improve barrier layers using both new materials and smooth surfaces at thin film interfaces (Du et al). New methods to make sub

  6. Pharmacological evidence for a novel cysteinyl-leukotriene receptor subtype in human pulmonary artery smooth muscle

    PubMed Central

    Walch, Laurence; Norel, Xavier; Bäck, Magnus; Gascard, Jean-Pierre; Dahlén, Sven-Erik; Brink, Charles

    2002-01-01

    To characterize the cysteinyl-leukotriene receptors (CysLT receptors) in isolated human pulmonary arteries, ring preparations were contracted with leukotriene C4 (LTC4) and leukotriene D4 (LTD4) in either the absence or presence of the selective CysLT1 receptor antagonists, ICI 198615, MK 571 or the dual CysLT1/CysLT2 receptor antagonist, BAY u9773. Since the contractions induced by the cysteinyl-leukotrienes (cysLTs) in intact preparations failed to attain a plateau response over the concentration range studied, the endothelium was removed and the tissue treated continuously with indomethacin (Rubbed+INDO). In these latter preparations, the pEC50 for LTC4 and LTD4 were not significantly different (7.61±0.07, n=20 and 7.96±0.09, n=22, respectively). However, the LTC4 and LTD4 contractions were markedly potentiated when compared with data from intact tissues. Leukotriene E4 (LTE4) did not contract human isolated pulmonary arterial preparations. In addition, treatment of preparations with LTE4 (1 μM; 30 min) did not modify either the LTC4 or LTD4 contractions. Treatment of preparations with the S-conjugated glutathione (S-hexyl-GSH; 100 μM, 30 min), an inhibitor of the metabolism of LTC4 to LTD4, did not modify LTC4 contractions. The pEC50 values for LTC4 were significantly reduced by treatment of the preparations with either ICI 198615, MK 571 or BAY u9773 and the pKB values were: 7.20, 7.02 and 6.26, respectively. In contrast, these antagonists did not modify the LTD4 pEC50 values. These findings suggest the presence of two CysLT receptors on human pulmonary arterial vascular smooth muscle. A CysLT1 receptor with a low affinity for CysLT1 antagonists and a novel CysLT receptor subtype, both responsible for vasoconstriction. Activation of this latter receptor by LTC4 and LTD4 induced a contractile response which was resistant to the selective CysLT1 antagonists (ICI 198615 and MK 571) as well as the non-selective (CysLT1/CysLT2) antagonist, BAY u9773. PMID

  7. GMES: A Python package for solving Maxwell’s equations using the FDTD method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chun, Kyungwon; Kim, Huioon; Kim, Hyounggyu; Jung, Kil Su; Chung, Youngjoo

    2013-04-01

    This paper describes GMES, a free Python package for solving Maxwell’s equations using the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method. The design of GMES follows the object-oriented programming (OOP) approach and adopts a unique design strategy where the voxels in the computational domain are grouped and then updated according to its material type. This piecewise updating scheme ensures that GMES can adopt OOP without losing its simple structure and time-stepping speed. The users can easily add various material types, sources, and boundary conditions into their code using the Python programming language. The key design features, along with the supported material types, excitation sources, boundary conditions and parallel calculations employed in GMES are also described in detail. Catalog identifier: AEOK_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEOK_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen’s University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: GNU General Public License v3.0 No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 17700 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 89878 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: C++, Python. Computer: Any computer with a Unix-like system with a C++ compiler, and a Python interpreter; developed on 2.53 GHz Intel CoreTM i3. Operating system: Any Unix-like system; developed under Ubuntu 12.04 LTS 64 bit. Has the code been vectorized or parallelized?: Yes. Parallelized with MPI directives (optional). RAM: Problem dependent (a simulation with real valued electromagnetic field uses roughly 0.18 KB per Yee cell.) Classification: 10. External routines: SWIG [1], Cython [2], NumPy [3], SciPy [4], matplotlib [5], MPI for Python [6] Nature of problem: Classical electrodynamics Solution method: Finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method Additional comments: This article describes version 0.9.5. The most recent version can be downloaded at the GMES

  8. Molecular Characterization of Oxysterol Binding to the Epstein-Barr Virus-induced Gene 2 (GPR183)*

    PubMed Central

    Benned-Jensen, Tau; Norn, Christoffer; Laurent, Stephane; Madsen, Christian M.; Larsen, Hjalte M.; Arfelt, Kristine N.; Wolf, Romain M.; Frimurer, Thomas; Sailer, Andreas W.; Rosenkilde, Mette M.

    2012-01-01

    Oxysterols are oxygenated cholesterol derivates that are emerging as a physiologically important group of molecules. Although they regulate a range of cellular processes, only few oxysterol-binding effector proteins have been identified, and the knowledge of their binding mode is limited. Recently, the family of G protein-coupled seven transmembrane-spanning receptors (7TM receptors) was added to this group. Specifically, the Epstein-Barr virus-induced gene 2 (EBI2 or GPR183) was shown to be activated by several oxysterols, most potently by 7α,25-dihydroxycholesterol (7α,25-OHC). Nothing is known about the binding mode, however. Using mutational analysis, we identify here four key residues for 7α,25-OHC binding: Arg-87 in TM-II (position II:20/2.60), Tyr-112 and Tyr-116 (positions III:09/3.33 and III:13/3.37) in TM-III, and Tyr-260 in TM-VI (position VI:16/6.51). Substituting these residues with Ala and/or Phe results in a severe decrease in agonist binding and receptor activation. Docking simulations suggest that Tyr-116 interacts with the 3β-OH group in the agonist, Tyr-260 with the 7α-OH group, and Arg-87, either directly or indirectly, with the 25-OH group, although nearby residues likely also contribute. In addition, Tyr-112 is involved in 7α,25-OHC binding but via hydrophobic interactions. Finally, we show that II:20/2.60 constitutes an important residue for ligand binding in receptors carrying a positively charged residue at this position. This group is dominated by lipid- and nucleotide-activated receptors, here exemplified by the CysLTs, P2Y12, and P2Y14. In conclusion, we present the first molecular characterization of oxysterol binding to a 7TM receptor and identify position II:20/2.60 as a generally important residue for ligand binding in certain 7TM receptors. PMID:22875855

  9. Lung and heart-lung transplantation. Evolution and new applications.

    PubMed Central

    Bolman, R M; Shumway, S J; Estrin, J A; Hertz, M I

    1991-01-01

    Heart-lung transplantation (HLT) and lung transplantation (LT) are effective treatment modalities for patients with advanced pulmonary parenchymal or vascular disease. Lung transplantation offers potential advantages over HLT, including reduced pretransplant waiting time and improved efficiency of organ utilization, and is currently being offered to patients formerly treated by HLT. To explore the relative merits of these procedures, the authors examined the results in 44 procedures (23 HLT and 21 LT) in 42 patients transplanted at their institution. Heart-lung transplant recipients included 20 adults and three children (ages 5,5 and 3). Most HLT patients had primary pulmonary hypertension (PPH) (n = 9) or Eisenmenger's syndrome (ES) (n = 8). Twenty-two of twenty-three patients have been long-term survivors (mean follow-up = 17.8 months, Kapaln-Meier survival at 12 months = 85%). Obliterative bronchiolitis (OB) has occurred in five patients (22%), and all have died. Of 21 LTs in 19 patients, nine had obstructive and eight had restrictive lung diseases. Three single-LT (SLT) patients had PPH, and one had ES secondary to a ventricular septal defect. Mean pulmonary artery pressures fell from 55 +/- 6 mm Hg before SLT to 21 +/- 3 mm Hg after SLT; p less than 0.001. Three pediatric patients (ages 4, 10, 17, and 17[re-transplant]) have undergone four SLTs. With mean follow-up of 6.4 months, LT patients have survival at 12 months of 80% (Kaplan-Meier). Lung transplant patients wait a far shorter time for their transplant than do HLT patients (166 vs. 384 days, p less than 0.03). Three patients (19%) have evidence of OB after SLT, with one death. By virtue of equal intermediate-term outcomes, shorter waiting times, and better use of donor organs in comparison with HLT, LT should be offered whenever possible to patients with end-stage pulmonary parenchymal or vascular disease. The authors' pediatric LT and HLT experience (7 treatments in 6 patients) is the largest reported

  10. Imaging X-Ray, Optical, and Infrared Observations of the Transient Anomalous X-Ray Pulsar XTE J1810-197

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gotthelf, E. V.; Halpern, J. P.; Buxton, M.; Bailyn, C.

    2004-04-01

    We report X-ray imaging, timing, and spectral studies of XTE J1810-197, a 5.54 s pulsar discovered by Ibrahim and coworkers in recent Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) observations. In a set of short exposures with the High Resolution Camera on board the Chandra X-Ray Observatory, we detect a strongly modulated signal (55%+/-4% pulsed fraction) with the expected period located at (J2000) 18h09m51s08, -19deg43'51.7", with a uncertainty radius of 0.6" (90% confidence level). Spectra obtained with XMM-Newton are well fitted by a two-component model that typically describes anomalous X-ray pulsars (AXPs), an absorbed blackbody plus power law with parameters kT=0.67+/-0.01 keV, Γ=3.7+/-0.2, NH=(1.05+/-0.05)×1022 cm-2, and FX(0.5-10keV)=3.98×10-11 ergs cm-2 s-1. Alternatively, a two-temperature blackbody fit is just as acceptable. The location of CXOU J180951.0-194351 is consistent with a point source seen in archival Einstein, ROSAT, and ASCA images, when its flux was nearly 2 orders of magnitude fainter, and from which no pulsations are found. The spectrum changed dramatically between the ``quiescent'' and ``active'' states; the former can be modeled as a softer blackbody. Using XMM-Newton timing data, we place an upper limit of 0.03 lt-s on any orbital motion in the period range 10 minutes-8 hr. Optical and infrared images obtained on the SMARTS 1.3 m telescope at the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory (CTIO) show no object in the Chandra error circle to limits V=22.5, I=21.3, J=18.9, and K=17.5. Together, these results argue that CXOU J180951.0-194351 is an isolated neutron star, one most similar to the transient AXP AX J1844.8-0256. Continuing study of XTE J1810-197 in various states of luminosity is important for understanding and possibly unifying a growing class of isolated, young neutron stars that are not powered by rotation.

  11. Anion substitution effects on the structure and magnetism of the chromium chalcogenide Cr{sub 5}Te{sub 8}-Part III: Structures and magnetism of the high-temperature modification Cr{sub (1+x)}Q{sub 2} and the low-temperature modification Cr{sub (5+x)}Q{sub 8} (Q=Te, Se; Te:Se=5:3)

    SciTech Connect

    Wontcheu, Joseph; Bensch, Wolfgang Mankovsky, Sergiy; Polesya, Svitlana; Ebert, Hubert; Kremer, Reinhard K.; Bruecher, Eva

    2008-06-15

    The title compounds were synthesized via the high-temperature (HT) route. The materials are characterized by Rietveld analysis, magnetic measurements, and electronic band-structure calculations. Two different structural modifications depending on the synthesis conditions are observed: a HT modification with trigonal basic cells (space group: P-3m1) for Cr{sub (1+x)}Q{sub 2} ((1+x)=1.25, 1.28, 1.34, 1.37, 1.41, 1.43) and a low-temperature (LT) modification with trigonal super-cell (space group: P-3m1) for Cr{sub (5+x)}Q{sub 8} ((5+x)=5.00, 5.12, 5.36, 5.48, 5.64, 5.72). The crystal structures are closely related to the NiAs-type structure with metal vacancies in every second metal layer. The substitution of Te by Se and the change of the Cr concentration induce significant alterations of the magnetic properties. With increasing Cr content the Weiss constant {theta} changes drastically from negative to strong positive values, i.e., with increasing Cr concentration a shift from predominant antiferromagnetic exchange to ferromagnetic exchange occurs. At LTs a complex magnetic behavior is observed. For some members a spin-glass (SG) behavior is found with the freezing temperature T{sub f} following the Vogel-Fulcher law. At the highest Cr concentrations ferromagnetic characteristics dominate with spontaneous magnetizations below the Curie temperatures. The differences of the magnetic properties of the LT and HT phases can be explained on the basis of interatomic distances and angles. For a deeper understanding of the experimental results, they have been compared with the results of spin polarized relativistic Korringa-Kohn-Rostoker electronic band-structure calculations and both results are consistent. To explain the features of temperature-dependent magnetization of the compounds, Monte Carlo (MC) simulations based on the Heisenberg model have been performed with the exchange coupling parameters obtained within the ab-initio calculations of the electronic structure

  12. A geranyl acetophenone targeting cysteinyl leukotriene synthesis prevents allergic airway inflammation in ovalbumin-sensitized mice

    SciTech Connect

    Ismail, Norazren; Jambari, Nuzul Nurahya; Zareen, Seema; Akhtar, Mohamad Nadeem; Shaari, Khozirah; Zamri-Saad, Mohamad; Tham, Chau Ling; Sulaiman, Mohd Roslan; Lajis, Nordin Hj; Israf, Daud Ahmad

    2012-03-01

    Asthma is associated with increased pulmonary inflammation and airway hyperresponsiveness. The current use of corticosteroids in the management of asthma has recently raised issues regarding safety and lack of responsiveness in 5–10% of asthmatic individuals. The aim of the present study was to investigate the therapeutic effect of a non-steroidal small molecule that has cysteinyl leukotriene (cysLT) inhibitory activity, upon attenuation of allergic lung inflammation in an acute murine model. Mice were sensitized with ovalbumin (OVA) and treated with several intraperitoneal doses (100, 20, 2 and 0.2 mg/kg) of 2,4,6,-trihydroxy-3-geranylacetophenone (tHGA). Bronchoalveolar lavage was performed, blood and lung samples were obtained and respiratory function was measured. OVA sensitization increased pulmonary inflammation and pulmonary allergic inflammation was significantly reduced at doses of 100, 20 and 2 mg/kg with no effect at the lowest dose of 0.2 mg/kg. The beneficial effects in the lung were associated with reduced eosinophilic infiltration and reduced secretion of Th2 cytokines and cysLTs. Peripheral blood reduction of total IgE was also a prominent feature. Treatment with tHGA significantly attenuated altered airway hyperresponsiveness as measured by the enhanced pause (Penh) response to incremental doses of methacholine. These data demonstrate that tHGA, a synthetic non-steroidal small molecule, can prevent acute allergic inflammation. This proof of concept opens further avenues of research and development of tHGA as an additional option to the current armamentarium of anti-asthma therapeutics. -- Highlights: ► Safer and effective anti-asthmatic drugs are in great demand. ► tHGA is a new 5-LO/cysLT inhibitor that inhibits allergic asthma in mice. ► tHGA is a natural compound that can be synthesized. ► Doses as low as 2 mg/kg alleviate lung pathology in experimental asthma. ► tHGA is a potential drug lead for the treatment of allergic asthma.

  13. Locomotor Adaptation Improves Balance Control, Multitasking Ability and Reduces the Metabolic Cost of Postural Instability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bloomberg, J. J.; Peters, B. T.; Mulavara, A. P.; Brady, R. A.; Batson, C. D.; Miller, C. A.; Ploutz-Snyder, R. J.; Guined, J. R.; Buxton, R. E.; Cohen, H. S.

    2011-01-01

    decreased following an initial increase after the onset of support surface motion. DISCUSSION: Resu lts confirmed that walking in discordant conditions not only compromises locomotor stability and the ability to multi-task, but comes at a quantifiable metabolic cost. Importantly, like locomotor stability and multi-tasking ability, metabolic expenditure while walking in discordant sensory conditions improved during adaptation. This confirms that sensorimotor adaptability training can benefit multiple performance parameters central to the successful completion of critical mission tasks.

  14. A revolutionary lunar space transportation system architecture using extraterrestrial LOX-augmented NTR propulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borowski, Stanley K.; Corban, Robert R.; Culver, Donald W.; Bulman, Melvin J.; McIlwain, Mel C.

    1994-08-01

    The concept of a liquid oxygen (LOX)-augmented nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) engine is introduced, and its potential for revolutionizing lunar space transportation system (LTS) performance using extraterrestrial 'lunar-derived' liquid oxygen (LUNOX) is outlined. The LOX-augmented NTR (LANTR) represents the marriage of conventional liquid hydrogen (LH2)-cooled NTR and airbreathing engine technologies. The large divergent section of the NTR nozzle functions as an 'afterburner' into which oxygen is injected and supersonically combusted with nuclear preheated hydrogen emerging from the NTR's choked sonic throat: 'scramjet propulsion in reverse.' By varying the oxygen-to-fuel mixture ratio (MR), the LANTR concept can provide variable thrust and specific impulse (Isp) capability with a LH2-cooled NTR operating at relatively constant power output. For example, at a MR = 3, the thrust per engine can be increased by a factor of 2.75 while the Isp decreases by only 30 percent. With this thrust augmentation option, smaller, 'easier to develop' NTR's become more acceptable from a mission performance standpoint (e.g., earth escape gravity losses are reduced and perigee propulsion requirements are eliminated). Hydrogen mass and volume is also reduced resulting in smaller space vehicles. An evolutionary NTR-based lunar architecture requiring only Shuttle C and/or 'in-line' shuttle-derived launch vehicles (SDV's) would operate initially in an 'expandable mode' with NTR lunar transfer vehicles (LTV's) delivering 80 percent more payload on piloted missions than their LOX/LH2 chemical propulsion counterparts. With the establishment of LUNOX production facilities on the lunar surface and 'fuel/oxidizer' depot in low lunar orbit (LLO), monopropellant NTR's would be outfitted with an oxygen propellant module, feed system, and afterburner nozzle for 'bipropellant' operation. The LANTR cislunar LTV now transitions to a reusable mode with smaller vehicle and payload doubling benefits on

  15. 5-Lipoxygenase-activating protein rescues activity of 5-lipoxygenase mutations that delay nuclear membrane association and disrupt product formation.

    PubMed

    Gerstmeier, Jana; Newcomer, Marcia E; Dennhardt, Sophie; Romp, Erik; Fischer, Jana; Werz, Oliver; Garscha, Ulrike

    2016-05-01

    Leukotrienes (LTs) are proinflammatory lipid mediators formed from arachidonic acid in a 2-step reaction catalyzed by 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX) requiring the formation of 5-HPETE [5(S)-hydroperoxy-6-trans-8,11,14-cis-eicosatetraenoic acid] and its subsequent transformation to LTA4 5-LOX is thought to receive arachidonic acid from the nuclear membrane-embedded 5-LOX-activating protein (FLAP). The crystal structure of 5-LOX revealed an active site concealed by F177 and Y181 (FY cork). We examined the influence of the FY cork on 5-LOX activity and membrane binding in HEK293 cells in the absence and presence of FLAP. Uncapping the 5-LOX active site by mutation of F177 and/or Y181 to alanine (5-LOX-F177A, 5-LOX-Y181A, 5-LOX-F177/Y181A) resulted in delayed and diminished 5-LOX membrane association in A23187-stimulated cells. For 5-LOX-F177A and 5-LOX-F177/Y181A, formation of 5-LOX products was dramatically reduced relative to 5-LOX-wild type (wt). Strikingly, coexpression of FLAP in A23187-activated HEK293 cells effectively restored formation of 5-H(p)ETE (5-hydroxy- and 5-peroxy-6-trans-8,11,14-cis-eicosatetraenoic acid) by these same 5-LOX mutants (≈60-70% 5-LOX-wt levels) but not of LTA4 hydrolysis products. Yet 5-LOX-Y181A generated 5-H(p)ETE at levels comparable to 5-LOX-wt but reduced LTA4 hydrolysis products. Coexpression of FLAP partially restored LTA4 hydrolysis product formation by 5-LOX-Y181A. Together, the data suggest that the concealed FY cork impacts membrane association and that FLAP may help shield an uncapped active site.-Gerstmeier, J., Newcomer, M. E., Dennhardt, S., Romp, E., Fischer, J., Werz, O., Garscha, U. 5-Lipoxygenase-activating protein rescues activity of 5-lipoxygenase mutations that delay nuclear membrane association and disrupt product formation. PMID:26842853

  16. 2010 Remediation Effectiveness Report for the U.S. Department of Energy Oak Ridge Reservation, Oak Ridge, Tennessee - Data and Evaluations

    SciTech Connect

    Bechtel Jacobs

    2010-09-01

    scale, such as contaminant trends at surface water integration points (IPs). Long-term stewardship (LTS) information used in this report is collected, compiled, and tracked by the WRRP in conjunction with the Bechtel Jacobs Company LLC (BJC) Surveillance and Maintenance (S&M) program, the BJC Radiation Protection Organization at East Tennessee Technology Park (ETTP), and the ETTP Environmental Compliance Program. Additionally, documentation verifying the implementation of administrative land use controls (LUCs) [i.e., property record restrictions, property record notices, zoning notices, and excavation/penetration permit (EPP) program] is also obtained from many sources throughout the fiscal year (FY), including County Register of Deeds offices for property record restrictions and property record notices, City Planning Commission for zoning notices, and BJC project engineers for EPP program verification. Copies of this documentation are obtained by the WRRP and maintained with the project RER files.

  17. GEO Population Estimates using Optical Survey Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barker, Edwin S.; Matney, Mark J.

    2007-01-01

    /CTIO, Astronomical Institute University of Bern, Boeing LTS / AMOS, Keldysh Institute of Applied Mathematics) at different longitudes. Complete observational coverage over periods of days to months will provide a better understanding of the properties, such as solar radiation pressure effects on orbital elements, size, shape, attitude, color variations, and spectral characteristics. Results from recent observational programs will be summarized, and includes a description of the orbit elements prediction processes, a summary of the metric tracking performance, and some photometric characteristics of this class of debris.

  18. A Revolutionary Lunar Space Transportation System Architecture Using Extraterrestrial Lox-augmented NTR Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borowski, Stanley K.; Corban, Robert R.; Culver, Donald W.; Bulman, Melvin J.; Mcilwain, Mel C.

    1994-01-01

    The concept of a liquid oxygen (LOX)-augmented nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) engine is introduced, and its potential for revolutionizing lunar space transportation system (LTS) performance using extraterrestrial 'lunar-derived' liquid oxygen (LUNOX) is outlined. The LOX-augmented NTR (LANTR) represents the marriage of conventional liquid hydrogen (LH2)-cooled NTR and airbreathing engine technologies. The large divergent section of the NTR nozzle functions as an 'afterburner' into which oxygen is injected and supersonically combusted with nuclear preheated hydrogen emerging from the NTR's choked sonic throat: 'scramjet propulsion in reverse.' By varying the oxygen-to-fuel mixture ratio (MR), the LANTR concept can provide variable thrust and specific impulse (Isp) capability with a LH2-cooled NTR operating at relatively constant power output. For example, at a MR = 3, the thrust per engine can be increased by a factor of 2.75 while the Isp decreases by only 30 percent. With this thrust augmentation option, smaller, 'easier to develop' NTR's become more acceptable from a mission performance standpoint (e.g., earth escape gravity losses are reduced and perigee propulsion requirements are eliminated). Hydrogen mass and volume is also reduced resulting in smaller space vehicles. An evolutionary NTR-based lunar architecture requiring only Shuttle C and/or 'in-line' shuttle-derived launch vehicles (SDV's) would operate initially in an 'expandable mode' with NTR lunar transfer vehicles (LTV's) delivering 80 percent more payload on piloted missions than their LOX/LH2 chemical propulsion counterparts. With the establishment of LUNOX production facilities on the lunar surface and 'fuel/oxidizer' depot in low lunar orbit (LLO), monopropellant NTR's would be outfitted with an oxygen propellant module, feed system, and afterburner nozzle for 'bipropellant' operation. The LANTR cislunar LTV now transitions to a reusable mode with smaller vehicle and payload doubling benefits on

  19. Systematic review of montelukast's efficacy for preventing post-bronchiolitis wheezing.

    PubMed

    Peng, Wan-Sheng; Chen, Xin; Yang, Xiao-Yun; Liu, En-Mei

    2014-03-01

    Infants often develop reactive airway diseases subsequent to respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) bronchiolitis. Cysteinyl leukotrienes (cysLTs), a class of lipid mediators that have been implicated in the pathogenesis of allergic rhinitis and asthma, are released during RSV infection, thereby contributing to the pathogenic changes in airway inflammation. Many pediatric patients, especially those of very young age, continue to have recurrent episodes of lower airway obstruction after bronchiolitis treatment. This study was to systematically review and assessed the efficacy of montelukast for preventing wheezing in patients with post-bronchiolitis. The Cochrane library, PubMed, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) periodical databases were screened for studies related to use of montelukast for preventing post-bronchiolitis wheezing published up to 31 December 2012. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-RCTs using montelukast alone as an active intervention in infants up to 24 months of age with post-bronchiolitis were selected. Two authors independently extracted data and assessed trial quality using the recommendations published by the Cochrane Collaboration. The meta-analyses were performed using the Cochrane statistical package RevMan5.0.0. Four trials, containing 1430 infants with confirmed diagnosis of acute bronchiolitis, were analyzed. Patients were administered montelukast at post-bronchiolitis. Three trials showed no effects of montelukast on reducing the incidence of recurrent wheezing risk ratios (RR = 0.78, 95% CI: 0.55-1.12, p = 0.17), while two trials found that montelukast did reduce the frequency of recurrent wheezing and another two trials demonstrated no effects of montelukast on symptom-free days. The pooled montelukast treatment group showed no significant effect on reducing the usage of corticosteroids, as compared to the placebo group (RR = 1.11, 95% CI: 0.85-1.44, p = 0.45). Two trials showed that montelukast

  20. Combined Lung-Kidney Transplantation: An Analysis of the UNOS/OPTN Database.

    PubMed

    Reich, Heidi J; Chan, Joshua L; Czer, Lawrence S C; Mirocha, James; Annamalai, Alagappan A; Cheng, Wen; Jordan, Stanley C; Chaux, George; Ramzy, Danny

    2015-10-01

    Poor outcomes after thoracic transplantation with concurrent renal dysfunction are well described: without transplantation or with thoracic-only transplantation, patients face unacceptably high mortality. Outcomes after combined lung-kidney transplantation (LKT) remain largely uninvestigated. The United Network for Organ Sharing/Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network database was queried to identify all LKTs, lung transplantations (LTs), and kidney transplantations (KTs) performed in the United States from 1995 to 2013. Survival was calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method and compared using log-rank tests or Cox regression models. Thirty-one LKTs were performed. Mean recipient age was 45.4 ± 13.5 years; 48.3 per cent were male. Retransplantation for graft failure was the leading indication for LT (n = 13) and the most common renal indication was calcineurin inhibitor nephrotoxicity (n = 11). Mean lung allocation score was 46.6 ± 14.4, mean creatinine was 3.7 ± 2.8 g/dL, and glomerular filtration rate was 23.1 (interquartile range 11.9, 38.3) mL/min/1.7 m(2), and 11 (35.5%) were dialysis dependent. Patient survival after LKT was 92.9 per cent, 71.0 per cent, and 71.0 per cent at one month, six months, and one year, with a median survival of 95.2 months. One- and five-year survival after LKT, 71.0 per cent and 59.9 per cent, were similar to LT (n = 23,913), 81.7 per cent and 51.4 per cent (P = 0.061 and 0.55), and inferior to KT (n = 175,269), 94.9 per cent and 82.8 per cent (P < 0.0001), respectively. Patient survival after LKT was similar to isolated LT, and these results suggest that LKT is a feasible therapeutic option for LT candidates with significant renal dysfunction. PMID:26463306

  1. Synergistic effects of LTB4 and LTD4 on leukocyte emigration into the guinea pig conjunctiva.

    PubMed

    Spada, C S; Woodward, D F; Hawley, S B; Nieves, A L; Williams, L S; Feldmann, B J

    1988-02-01

    Leukotrienes (LT) B4 and D4, alone and in combination, were topically applied to the eyes of guinea pigs, and their effects on conjunctival leukocyte infiltration studied. LTD4 potentiated the neutrophil response to LTB4, even though no neutrophil emigration was evoked by LTD4 itself over a dose range of 10-1000 ng. LTB4 alone at the 1-ng and 10-ng doses failed to evoke any leukocyte emigration, but significant numbers of neutrophils were observed at these concentrations when LTD4 (1-1000 ng) was present. Although a dose-dependent increase in neutrophil infiltration was observed for the 100-ng and 1000-ng doses of LTB4, cell counts were substantially higher with these doses in the presence of LTD4. Eosinophil numbers increased in a dose-related manner in response to LTB4 and LTD4 alone, with a greater response to LTD4. The addition of either 10 ng or 100 ng of LTB4 to graded doses of LTD4 (10-1000 ng) caused increased eosinophil numbers, the lower dose of LTB4 potentiating the response to LTD4 and the higher LTB4 dose showing no significant effect. The effects on leukocyte infiltration that were evoked by the LT combinations could not be explained simply on the basis of an increase in vascular permeability. Bradykinin (BK), a potent conjunctival microvascular permeability factor that does not elicit any leukocyte infiltration, did not significantly potentiate LTB4-induced eosinophil or neutrophil emigration. The synergistic effects of LTs on leukocyte emigration are also difficult to ascribe to hyperemia (ie, increased blood volume in the conjunctiva), because both LTB4 and LTD4 caused only very modest increases in conjunctival blood content, and BK, which did not potentiate the leukocytic responses to LTB4, caused marked increases in tissue blood content. High-dose LT combinations caused eosinophils, but not neutrophils, to migrate into the conjunctival epithelium and fragment, resulting in overt tissue damage. These results further suggest a synergistic

  2. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and structural analysis of amorphous SiOxNy films deposited at low temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cova, P.; Poulin, S.; Masut, R. A.

    2005-11-01

    We establish, using a tetrahedral model, the bonding properties of amorphous silicon oxynitride (a-SiOxNy) films deposited at low temperatures (LTs) by electron-cyclotron resonance chemical-vapor deposition (ECRCVD) on several substrates and under various conditions of gas flows and total gas pressure in a dilute mixture of SiH4+N2 in Ar. The atomic percentage of each tetrahedral unit incorporated in the film network is calculated from the deconvolution of the high-resolution x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) spectra in the Si 2p3/2 region and corroborated by the results obtained from both survey scans and the high-resolution XPS spectra in the N 1s region. The Si3N4 phase is the most important one and the only bonding unit which is incorporated in all our LT ECRCVD SiOxNy films. The incorporation of all the other component tetrahedrons depends strongly on growth conditions. The threshold values of the N/Si atomic ratio for which intrinsic defects, such as Si-Si bonds, are not incorporated in the network depend on the O/Si ratio incorporated in the films, mainly due to the competition between oxygen and nitrogen atoms in their reaction with silicon dangling bonds. The effect of the total gas pressure on the atomic percentages of the oxidation states present in the LT ECRCVD SiOxNy films is qualitatively similar to the effect of the ion bombarding energy or the plasma density. O-N bonds are present only in samples having high amount of oxygen and nitrogen in their networks. For these films, our results show unambiguously the presence of the N-Si2O tetrahedron and suggest that N-Si3-νOν tetrahedrons with ν>=2 are not incorporated in their networks. A correlation is observed between the N-Si2O and the Si-O3(ON) tetrahedrons whose component peak is localized at (104.0+/-0.2) eV in the Si 2p3/2 region of the XPS data, which suggests that both bonding units coexist in these films as some sort of complex bonding configuration.

  3. Multi-technique combination of space geodesy observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zoulida, Myriam; Pollet, Arnaud; Coulot, David; Biancale, Richard; Rebischung, Paul; Collilieux, Xavier

    2014-05-01

    Over the last few years, combination at the observation level (COL) of the different space geodesy techniques has been thoroughly studied. Various studies have shown that this type of combination can take advantage of common parameters. Some of these parameters, such as Zenithal Tropospheric Delays (ZTD), are available on co-location sites, where more than one technique is present. Local ties (LT) are provided for these sites, and act as intra-technique links and allow resulting terrestrial reference frames (TRF) to be homogeneous. However the use of LT can be problematic on weekly calculations, where their geographical distribution can be poor, and there are often differences observed between available LTs and space geodesy results. Similar co-locations can be found on multi-technique satellites, where more than one technique receiver is featured. A great advantage of these space ties (STs) is the densification of co-locations as the orbiting satellite acts as a moving station. The challenge of using space ties relies in the accurate knowledge or estimation of their values, as officially provided values are sometimes not reaching the required level of precision for the solution, due to receivers' or acting forces mismodelings and other factors. Thus, the necessity of an estimation and/or weighting strategy for the STs is introduced. To this day, on subsets of available data, using STs has shown promising results regarding the TRF determination through the stations' positions estimation, on the orbit determination of the GPS constellation and on the GPS antenna Phase Center Offsets and Variations (PCO and PCV) . In this study, results from a multi-technique combination including the Jason-2 satellite and its effect on the GNSS orbit determination during the CONT2011 period are presented, as well as some preliminary results on station positions' determination. Comparing resulting orbits with official solutions provides an assessment of the effect on the orbit

  4. [Community Structure of Aquatic Community and Evaluation of Water Quality in Laovingyan Section of Dadu River].

    PubMed

    Huang, You-you; Zeng, Yu; Liu, Shou-jiang; Ma, Yong-hong; Xu, Xiao

    2016-01-15

    In order to understand the aquatic community structure in the Laoyingyan section of the Dadu River, we collected samples from 9 aquatic sampling points along that section, and studied the phycophyta, zooplankton, benthic invertebrate and fish in them; we also used expert scoring method based on the actual situation of the river to weigh different biome. The water quality was evaluated using comprehensive evaluation of water quality index ( CEWI). The results showed that: (1) there were a total of 105 phycophyta species, belonging to 6 phyla,31 families, and 56 genera in the Laoyingyan section of the Dadu River, among which, diatom species had a higher richness than the others. The mean cell density of the phycophyta was 17.997 8 x 10(4) ind x L(-1), the mean biomass was 0.4463 mg x L(-1), and the highest population density sites were LTS, LYH and XSH. (2) there were a total of 26 zooplankton species, belonging to 3 phyla, 11 families, and 12 genera, among which, Protozoa had a higher richness than the others, accounting for 80.77% of all the zooplankton species; The mean density of the phycophyta was 40.89 ind x L(-1), and the mean biomass was 13.26 x 10(-3) mg x L(-1). The whole community composition was simple, characterized by few species and small population size. (3) there were a total of 14 benthic invertebrate species, belonging to 6 phyla,14 families, and 14 genera, among which, insecta had a higher richness than the others, accounting for 57.16% of the benthic invertebrate species. Benthic invertebrate had higher population densities in LYH and XSH. (4) The mean CEWI of the whole river water was 2. 698 28, characterized by slightly polluted water quality. The CEWI value between every collection point and the individual water quality evaluation index showed a significant positive correlation, manifesting a high consistency. In addition, the water quality of SLH and NYH was mesosaprobic (1 < CEWI < or = 2), and the water quality of LYH and LYY1 was clean

  5. Longterm results of liver transplantation from donation after circulatory death.

    PubMed

    Blok, Joris J; Detry, Olivier; Putter, Hein; Rogiers, Xavier; Porte, Robert J; van Hoek, Bart; Pirenne, Jacques; Metselaar, Herold J; Lerut, Jan P; Ysebaert, Dirk K; Lucidi, Valerio; Troisi, Roberto I; Samuel, Undine; den Dulk, A Claire; Ringers, Jan; Braat, Andries E

    2016-08-01

    Donation after circulatory death (DCD) liver transplantation (LT) may imply a risk for decreased graft survival, caused by posttransplantation complications such as primary nonfunction or ischemic-type biliary lesions. However, similar survival rates for DCD and donation after brain death (DBD) LT have been reported. The objective of this study is to determine the longterm outcome of DCD LT in the Eurotransplant region corrected for the Eurotransplant donor risk index (ET-DRI). Transplants performed in Belgium and the Netherlands (January 1, 2003 to December 31, 2007) in adult recipients were included. Graft failure was defined as either the date of recipient death or retransplantation whichever occurred first (death-uncensored graft survival). Mean follow-up was 7.2 years. In total, 126 DCD and 1264 DBD LTs were performed. Kaplan-Meier survival analyses showed different graft survival for DBD and DCD at 1 year (77.7% versus 74.8%, respectively; P = 0.71), 5 years (65.6% versus 54.4%, respectively; P = 0.02), and 10 years (47.3% versus 44.2%, respectively; P = 0.55; log-rank P = 0.038). Although there was an overall significant difference, the survival curves almost reach each other after 10 years, which is most likely caused by other risk factors being less in DCD livers. Patient survival was not significantly different (P = 0.59). Multivariate Cox regression analysis showed a hazard ratio of 1.7 (P < 0.001) for DCD (corrected for ET-DRI and recipient factors). First warm ischemia time (WIT), which is the time from the end of circulation until aortic cold perfusion, over 25 minutes was associated with a lower graft survival in univariate analysis of all DCD transplants (P = 0.002). In conclusion, DCD LT has an increased risk for diminished graft survival compared to DBD. There was no significant difference in patient survival. DCD allografts with a first WIT > 25 minutes have an increased risk for a decrease in graft survival. Liver Transplantation 22 1107

  6. Analysis of BWR OPRM plant data and detection algorithms with DSSPP

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, J.; Vedovi, J.; Chung, A. K.; Zino, J. F.

    2012-07-01

    All U.S. BWRs are required to have licensed stability solutions that satisfy General Design Criteria (GDC) 10 and 12 of 10 CFR 50 Appendix A. Implemented solutions are either detect and suppress or preventive in nature. Detection and suppression of power oscillations is accomplished by specialized hardware and software such as the Oscillation Power Range Monitor (OPRM) utilized in Option III and Detect and Suppress Solution - Confirmation Density (DSS-CD) stability Long-Term Solutions (LTSs). The detection algorithms are designed to recognize a Thermal-Hydraulic Instability (THI) event and initiate control rod insertion before the power oscillations increase much higher above the noise level that may threaten the fuel integrity. Option III is the most widely used long-term stability solution in the US and has more than 200 reactor years of operational history. DSS-CD represents an evolutionary step from the stability LTS Option III and its licensed domain envelopes the Maximum Extended Load Line Limit Analysis Plus (MELLLA +) domain. In order to enhance the capability to investigate the sensitivity of key parameters of stability detection algorithms, GEH has developed a new engineering analysis code, namely DSSPP (Detect and Suppress Solution Post Processor), which is introduced in this paper. The DSSPP analysis tool represents a major advancement in the method for diagnosing the design of stability detection algorithms that enables designers to perform parametric studies of the key parameters relevant for THI events and to fine tune these system parameters such that a potential spurious scram might be avoided. Demonstrations of DSSPPs application are also presented in this paper utilizing actual plant THI data. A BWR/6 plant had a plant transient that included unplanned recirculation pump transfer from fast to slow speed resulting in about 100% to {approx}40% rated power decrease and about 99% to {approx}30% rated core flow decrease. As the feedwater temperature

  7. Leukotriene D4 nasal provocation test: Rationale, methodology and diagnostic value

    PubMed Central

    ZHU, ZHENG; XIE, YANQING; GUAN, WEIJIE; GAO, YI; XIA, SHU; LIANG, JIANXIN; ZHENG, JINPING

    2016-01-01

    Cysteinyl leukotrienes (LT) play a vital role in the pathogenesis of allergic rhinitis (AR), but few studies have investigated the nasal mucosal physiological response to LTs in AR patients. The aim of the present study was to establish the methodology and investigate the diagnostic value and safety of a leukotriene D4 (LTD4) nasal provocation test. LTD4 nasal provocation tests were performed in 26 AR patients and 16 normal control subjects. Nasal airway responsiveness was assessed by calculating the concentration of LTD4 required to cause a 60% increase in nasal airway resistance (PC60NAR-LTD4), which was measured using rhinomanometry and a composite symptom score. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was applied to evaluate the diagnostic value of LTD4 nasal provocation test, and adverse events were recorded. The study protocol was registered with the U.S. National Institutes of Health (https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01963741). PC60NAR-LTD4 in AR was significantly lower compared with that of normal controls [8.36 (IQR, 10.00) vs. 17.00 (IQR, 0.00) µg/ml, P=0.005]. Composite symptom score was higher in AR as compared with normal controls (1.19±0.94 vs. 0.12±0.50, P<0.001). The symptom scores included sneezing (0.12±0.34 vs. 0.00±0.00, P=0.149), rhinorrhea (0.79±0.66 vs. 0.06±0.25, P<0.001) and chemosis or itching of the eyes (0.06±0.25 vs. 0.21±0.42, P=0.216). High diagnostic value was indicated by the ROC [AUC: 0.822, 95%CI (0.665, 0.961)]. No serious adverse events were observed. Thus, the present results indicate that AR patients exhibited nasal hyperactivity to LTD4, and the established procedure of LTD4 nasal provocation testing is effective and safe for use in the diagnosis of AR. PMID:27347089

  8. Pharmacological characterization of the cysteinyl-leukotriene antagonists CGP 45715A (iralukast) and CGP 57698 in human airways in vitro.

    PubMed

    Capra, V; Bolla, M; Belloni, P A; Mezzetti, M; Folco, G C; Nicosia, S; Rovati, G E

    1998-02-01

    1. Cysteinyl-leukotrienes (cysteinyl-LTs) are important mediators in the pathogenesis of asthma. They cause bronchoconstriction, mucus hypersecretion, increase in microvascular permeability, plasma extravasation and eosinophil recruitment. 2. We investigated the pharmacological profile of the cysteinyl-LT antagonists CGP 45715A (iralukast), a structural analogue of LTD4 and CGP 57698, a quinoline type antagonist, in human airways in vitro, by performing binding studies on human lung parenchyma membranes and functional studies on human isolated bronchial strips. 3. Competition curves vs [3H]-LTD4 on human lung parenchyma membranes demonstrated that: (a) both antagonists were able to compete for the two sites labelled by [3H]-LTD4; (b) as in all the G-protein coupled receptors, iralukast and CGP 57698 did not discriminate between the high and the low affinity states of the CysLT receptor labelled by LTD4 (Ki1=Ki2= 16.6 nM+/-36% CV and Ki1= Ki2 = 5.7 nM+/-19% CV, respectively); (c) iralukast, but not CGP 57698, displayed a slow binding kinetic, because preincubation (15 min) increased its antagonist potency. 4. In functional studies: (a) iralukast and CGP 57698 antagonized LTD4-induced contraction of human bronchi, with pA2 values of 7.77+/-4.3% CV and 8.51+/-1.6% CV, respectively, and slopes not significantly different from unity; (b) the maximal LTD4 response in the presence of CGP 57698 was actually increased, thus clearly deviating from apparent simple competition. 5. Both antagonists significantly inhibited antigen-induced contraction of human isolated bronchial strips in a concentration-dependent manner, lowering the upper plateau of the anti-IgE curves. 6. In conclusion, the results of the present in vitro investigation indicate that iralukast and CGP 57698 are potent antagonists of LTD4 in human airways, with affinities in the nanomolar range, similar to those obtained for ICI 204,219 and ONO 1078, two of the most clinically advanced CysLT receptor antagonists

  9. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and structural analysis of amorphous SiO{sub x}N{sub y} films deposited at low temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Cova, P.; Poulin, S.; Masut, R.A.

    2005-11-01

    We establish, using a tetrahedral model, the bonding properties of amorphous silicon oxynitride (a-SiO{sub x}N{sub y}) films deposited at low temperatures (LTs) by electron-cyclotron resonance chemical-vapor deposition (ECRCVD) on several substrates and under various conditions of gas flows and total gas pressure in a dilute mixture of SiH{sub 4}+N{sub 2} in Ar. The atomic percentage of each tetrahedral unit incorporated in the film network is calculated from the deconvolution of the high-resolution x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) spectra in the Si 2p{sub 3/2} region and corroborated by the results obtained from both survey scans and the high-resolution XPS spectra in the N 1s region. The Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} phase is the most important one and the only bonding unit which is incorporated in all our LT ECRCVD SiO{sub x}N{sub y} films. The incorporation of all the other component tetrahedrons depends strongly on growth conditions. The threshold values of the N/Si atomic ratio for which intrinsic defects, such as Si-Si bonds, are not incorporated in the network depend on the O/Si ratio incorporated in the films, mainly due to the competition between oxygen and nitrogen atoms in their reaction with silicon dangling bonds. The effect of the total gas pressure on the atomic percentages of the oxidation states present in the LT ECRCVD SiO{sub x}N{sub y} films is qualitatively similar to the effect of the ion bombarding energy or the plasma density. O-N bonds are present only in samples having high amount of oxygen and nitrogen in their networks. For these films, our results show unambiguously the presence of the N-Si{sub 2}O tetrahedron and suggest that N-Si{sub 3-{nu}}O{sub {nu}} tetrahedrons with {nu}{>=}2 are not incorporated in their networks. A correlation is observed between the N-Si{sub 2}O and the Si-O{sub 3}(ON) tetrahedrons whose component peak is localized at (104.0{+-}0.2) eV in the Si 2p{sub 3/2} region of the XPS data, which suggests that both bonding

  10. Potential aerospace applications of high temperature superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selim, Raouf

    1994-12-01

    The recent discovery of High Temperature Superconductors (HTS) with superconducting transition temperature, T(sub c), above the boiling point of liquid nitrogen has opened the door for using these materials in new and practical applications. These materials have zero resistance to electric current, have the capability of carrying large currents and as such have the potential to be used in high magnetic field applications. One of the space applications that can use superconductors is electromagnetic launch of payloads to low-earth-orbit. An electromagnetic gun-type launcher can be used in small payload systems that are launched at very high velocity, while sled-type magnetically levitated launcher can be used to launch larger payloads at smaller velocities. Both types of launchers are being studied by NASA and the aerospace industry. The use of superconductors will be essential in any of these types of launchers in order to produce the large magnetic fields required to obtain large thrust forces. Low Temperature Superconductor (LTS) technology is mature enough and can be easily integrated in such systems. As for the HTS, many leading companies are currently producing HTS coils and magnets that potentially can be mass-produced for these launchers. It seems that designing and building a small-scale electromagnetic launcher is the next logical step toward seriously considering this method for launching payloads into low-earth-orbit. A second potential application is the use of HTS to build sensitive portable devices for the use in Non Destructive Evaluation (NDE). Superconducting Quantum Interference Devices (SQUID's) are the most sensitive instruments for measuring changes in magnetic flux. By using HTS in SQUID's, one will be able to design a portable unit that uses liquid nitrogen or a cryocooler pump to explore the use of gradiometers or magnetometers to detect deep cracks or corrosion in structures. A third use is the replacement of Infra-Red (IR) sensor leads on

  11. Elemental Analysis of the Surface of Comet 67p/Churyumov-Gerasimenko with the Alpha Particle X-Ray Spectrometer APXS on the Rosetta Lander Philae: Preliminary Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klingelhoefer, G.; Schmanke, D.; Girones-Lopez, J.; Brueckner, J.; d'Uston, C.; Economou, T.; Gellert, R.; Markovski, C.

    2014-12-01

    After a 10 years cruise the Rosetta probe has reached its final target, the comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko. The main objectives of the mission are to gain more knowledge of the composition, the origin and formation of comets and the solar system. After extensive remote exploration of the comet the lander Philae will be separated to land on the comet surface, starting immediately examining its landing site with its scientific payload. Part of this payload is the APXS (Alpha Particle X-Ray Spectrometer). It will measure in situ the chemical composition of the comet's surface and it's changes during the journey of the comet towards the sun. APXS is a combination of two spectrometers in one single instrument. It will irradiate the comet surface using Curium 244 sources, which are emitting alpha-particle and X-rays. In the alpha-mode the instrument uses alpha backscattering spectroscopy to detect lower Z elements like C, N and O and groups of elements with higher Z. In the X-ray mode alpha particle / X-ray induced X-ray spectroscopy (XRF) will allow the detection of most of the higher Z elements from Na up to Ni and above. Both modes will be always run in parallel allowing to determine lower and higher Z elements simultaneously. For 3 years the solar powered Rosetta probe had to pass a hibernation phase because of a long passage far away to the sun. After wakeup in January 2014 an extensive test phase of all instruments and subsystems has been performed, including the APXS. After landing on the comet an intense initial measurement phase of all instruments is planned, the First Science Sequence (FSS). It will be followed by a long term science phase (LTS). As long as possible APXS and the other instruments will continue to measure and monitor the changes and increasing activity of the comet during its journey towards the inner region of the solar system.The project is funded by the German Space Agency DLR under contracts 50 QP 0404 and 50 QP 0902. References: G

  12. Potential aerospace applications of high temperature superconductors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Selim, Raouf

    1994-01-01

    The recent discovery of High Temperature Superconductors (HTS) with superconducting transition temperature, T(sub c), above the boiling point of liquid nitrogen has opened the door for using these materials in new and practical applications. These materials have zero resistance to electric current, have the capability of carrying large currents and as such have the potential to be used in high magnetic field applications. One of the space applications that can use superconductors is electromagnetic launch of payloads to low-earth-orbit. An electromagnetic gun-type launcher can be used in small payload systems that are launched at very high velocity, while sled-type magnetically levitated launcher can be used to launch larger payloads at smaller velocities. Both types of launchers are being studied by NASA and the aerospace industry. The use of superconductors will be essential in any of these types of launchers in order to produce the large magnetic fields required to obtain large thrust forces. Low Temperature Superconductor (LTS) technology is mature enough and can be easily integrated in such systems. As for the HTS, many leading companies are currently producing HTS coils and magnets that potentially can be mass-produced for these launchers. It seems that designing and building a small-scale electromagnetic launcher is the next logical step toward seriously considering this method for launching payloads into low-earth-orbit. A second potential application is the use of HTS to build sensitive portable devices for the use in Non Destructive Evaluation (NDE). Superconducting Quantum Interference Devices (SQUID's) are the most sensitive instruments for measuring changes in magnetic flux. By using HTS in SQUID's, one will be able to design a portable unit that uses liquid nitrogen or a cryocooler pump to explore the use of gradiometers or magnetometers to detect deep cracks or corrosion in structures. A third use is the replacement of Infra-Red (IR) sensor leads on

  13. Growth Inhibitory Effect of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids (PUFAs) on Colon Cancer Cells via Their Growth Inhibitory Metabolites and Fatty Acid Composition Changes

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chengcheng; Yu, Haining; Ni, Xiaofeng; Shen, Shengrong; Das, Undurti N.

    2015-01-01

    Background Colorectal cancer is common. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) exert growth-inhibitory and pro-apoptotic effects on colon cancer cells. Metabolites of PUFAs such as prostaglandins (PGs), leukotrienes (LTs) and lipoxins (LXs) play a significant role in colon cancer. Methods Human colon cancer LoVo and RKO cells were cultured with different concentration of PUFAs and 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) in vitro. Cell morphological changes, fatty acid composition, formation of PGE2, LTB4 and LXA4 and expression of COX-2, ALOX5, PGD synthase (PGDS), microsomal prostaglandin E synthase (mPGES) were assessed in LoVo and RKO cells when supplemented with PUFAs and 5-FU. Results PUFAs and 5-FU inhibited growth of LoVo and RKO cells to the same extent at the doses used and produced significant alterations in their shape. As expected, higher concentrations of supplemented PUFAs were noted in the cells compared to control. LA, GLA, AA, ALA and EPA supplementation to LoVo cells suppressed production of PGE2, LTB4,and ALOX5, mPGES expression, but enhanced that of LXA4; whereas DHA enhanced PGE2 and LXA4 synthesis but decreased LTB4 formation and COX-2, ALOX5, mPGES expression. In contrast, 5-FU enhanced formation of PGE2, LTB4 and mPGES expression, but suppressed LXA4 synthesis and COX-2 expression. PGE2, LTB4 synthesis and ALOX5 expression was suppressed by LA, GLA, ALA and DHA; whereas AA, EPA and 5-FU enhanced PGE2 but paradoxically AA decreased and EPA and 5-FU enhanced LTB4 synthesis in RKO cells. All the PUFAs tested enhanced, while 5-FU decreased LXA4 formation in RKO cells; whereas GLA, AA, and 5-FU augmented while LA, ALA, EPA and DHA enhanced COX-2 expression in RKO cells. Conclusions Tumoricidal action of PUFAs on colorectal LoVo and RKO cancer cells in vitro was associated with increased formation of LXA4, decreased synthesis of PGE2 and LTB4 and suppressed expression of COX-2, ALOX5, mPGES, whereas 5-FU produced contrasting actions on these indices. PMID:25886460

  14. VTX-1463, a novel TLR-8 agonist, attenuates nasal congestion after ragweed challenge in sensitized beagle dogs.

    PubMed

    Royer, Christopher M; Rudolph, Karin; Dietsch, Gregory N; Hershberg, Robert M; Barrett, Edward G

    2016-03-01

    VTX-1463 is a selective toll-like receptor (TLR) 8 agonist that activates a subset of innate immune cells to produce a unique cytokine profile. Delivery of VTX-1463 via nasal spray may modulate the nasal response in allergic rhinitis. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of VTX-1463 on the nasal response in a dog model of allergic rhinitis. Ragweed (RW)-sensitized dogs were pretreated with increasing doses of VTX-1463 1 day prior to RW challenge or with two doses (4 or 8 days and 1 day prior to RW). Changes in nasal cavity volume (NV) were determined by acoustic rhinometry and nasal lavage fluid was assessed for histamine, lipid mediators, and cellular infiltrates at sequential times following RW challenge. VTX-1463 pretreatment significantly preserved NV during the acute response to RW challenge for all doses tested. The area under the curve (AUC) for NV over the 1.5 h assessment period in RW challenged vehicle controls averaged 51.5% (SEM: ±2.12%) of the baseline NV over all studies. A single 100 µg dose of VTX-1463 given 1 day prior to RW yielded an AUC for NV of 69.3% (±6.59%) of baseline, while a 1000 µg dose administered twice (8 days and 1 day prior to RW) resulted in an AUC for NV of 85.4% (±4.74%, P < 0.05) of baseline. For a single 1000 µg VTX-1463 dose 1 day prior to RW, multiple mediators produced by mast cells, including histamine, PGE2, PGD2, and cysteinyl LTs, were significantly reduced relative to the vehicle control. The selective TLR8 agonist, VTX-1463, preserved NV in a dose-dependent manner in the acute phase of a nasal allergic response. The therapeutic effect appears to result from attenuated mast cell mediator release. Modulating the local cytokine response via TLR8 agonism appears to have a therapeutic effect on the acute allergic nasal response. PMID:27042301

  15. Scaling and predicting solute transport processes in riverine ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez-Pinzon, R.; Haggerty, R.; Camacho Botero, L. A.

    2012-12-01

    In the last three decades, research on solute transport and nutrient processing has revealed complex interactions between landscapes and stream ecosystems, and numerous attempts to scale and predict these processes have been primarily limited by the difficulty of measuring and extrapolating hydrodynamic and geomorphic characteristics. We hypothesize that there should be predictable patterns in the way that streams interact with their landscapes, because those interactions are in the form of energy, mass and momentum, which are conservative and interrelated properties. Therefore, despite local hydrogeomorphic characteristics define the actual extent of solute transport processes in a given riverine ecosystem, the physical imprints marked-up in breakthrough curves (BTCs) should have scaling properties. To evaluate our hypothesis we created an extensive database that includes 133 BTCs from conservative tracer experiments conducted under different hydrologic conditions (1 lt/s to 1197 m3/s), different experimental conditions (10s of meters to 10s of kilometers), different geographic positions (South and North America, Europe, Australia, Antarctica), and different types of lotic environments, i.e., urban manmade channels, forested headwater streams, desert-like streams, hyporheic wells, and major rivers. We investigated the existence of patterns in conservative solute transport using a model-independent approach, i.e., temporal moments of the histories of tracer experiments. Our results show that the normalized first absolute moment is correlated with the second and third moments with R2>0.99 for all riverine ecosystems. Most importantly, the first central temporal moment of the distributions (mean travel time) is correlated with the second (variance) with an R2>0.93, and the correlation between the second central moment and the third central moment (skewness) takes the form of the coefficient of skewness (CSK) with an R2>0.98, defining a statistically averaged CSK= 1

  16. The Nature and Evolutionary History of GRO J1744-28

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rappaport, S.

    1997-01-01

    calculations yield the following values for the GRO J1744-28 system parameters (with 95% confidence limits in parentheses): donor star mass: 0.24 solar mass (0.2-0.7 solar mass); He core mass of the donor star: 0.22 solar mass (0.20-0.25 solar mass); neutron-star mass: 1.7 solar mass (1.39-1.96 solar mass); orbital inclination angle: 18deg (7deg-22deg); semi- major axis: 64 lt-s (60-67 lt-s); radius of the donor star: 6.2 solar radius(6-9 solar radius); luminosity of donor star: 23 solar luminosity (15-49 solar luminosity), and long-term mass transfer rate at the current epoch: 5 x 10(exp -10)solar mass/yr (2 x 10(exp -10) to 5 x 10(exp -9)solar mass/yr). We deduce that the magnetic field of the underlying neutron star lies in the range of approximately 1.8 x 10(exp 11)G to approximately 7 x 10(exp 11)G, with a most probable value of 2.7 x 10(exp 11)G. This is evidently sufficiently strong to funnel the accretion flow onto the magnetic polar caps and suppress the thermonuclear flashes that would otherwise give rise to the type 1 X-ray bursts observed in most X-ray bursters. We present a simple paradigm for magnetic accreting neutron stars where X-ray pulsars, GRO J1744-28, the Rapid Burster, and the type 1 X-ray bursters may form a continuum of possible behaviors among accreting neutron stars, with the strength of the neutron-star magnetic field serving as a crucial parameter that determines the mode of X-ray variability from a given object.

  17. 2011 Remediation Effectiveness Report for the U.S. Department of Energy Oak Ridge Reservation, Oak Ridge, Tennessee - Data and Evaluations

    SciTech Connect

    Bechtel Jacobs

    2011-03-01

    scale, such as contaminant trends at surface water integration points (IFs). Long-term stewardship (LTS) information used in this report is collected, compiled, and tracked by the WRRP in conjunction with the Bechtel Jacobs Company LLC (BJC) Surveillance and Maintenance (S&M) program, the BJC Radiation Protection Organization at East Tennessee Technology Park (ETTP), ETTP Environmental Compliance Program, B&W Y-12 Liquid Waste Treatment Operations, and UT Battelle Facilities Management Division. Additionally, documentation verifying the implementation of administrative land use controls (LUCs) [i.e., property record restrictions, property record notices, zoning notices, and excavation/penetration permit (EPP) program] is also obtained from many sources throughout the fiscal year (FY), including County Register of Deeds offices for property record restrictions and property record notices, City Planning Commission for zoning notices, and BJC project engineers for EPP program verification. Copies of this documentation are obtained by the WRRP and maintained with the project RER files.

  18. TacSat-2: Path finder for a Close Space Support Asset

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhopale, A.; Finley, C.

    2008-08-01

    that mak e it eff ectiv e and su itable for a Tactical Operator emp loying it as a Close Space Support asset. The TacSat-2 story was tru ly a story of survival in the low-budget, high-expectation spacecraft world . The mission su ccesses w ere signif icant and ground- breaking, but they w ere, almost w ithou t exception, compromised successes. Most importan tly, you w ill see an asset th at was unquestionably bo th effective and suitable for military operators, but only worth the investmen t if curren t responsiveness deficiencies dr ive leadership towards a so lution where Close Space Support platforms are a pursued alternativ e. This p aper w ill present the objective positive and negative r esults of the TacSat-2 system' s space/ground components and CONO PS and w ill use these resu lts to project th e co mplexion of an OpSat-X that could best fulfill the role of a Close Sp ace Support p latform directly employed by a front-lin e tactical oper ator to responsively return a product that meets an immediate need.

  19. Membrane properties of rat suprachiasmatic nucleus neurons receiving optic nerve input.

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Y I; Dudek, F E

    1993-01-01

    rectification (neurons with time-dependent and -independent rectification were combined) were more excitable (362 +/- 43 Hz/nA (n = 15) vs. 221 +/- 37 Hz/nA (n = 9), P < 0.05) and had a higher spontaneous firing rate (11.1 +/- 1.9 Hz (n = 19) vs. 3.9 +/- 1.5 Hz (n = 11), P < 0.02) than the neurons with no or negligible (i.e. < 3%) inward rectification. The two groups, however, were not significantly different in membrane time constant and input resistance. 6. When adequately hyperpolarized, twelve of seventeen (71%) neurons generated small low-threshold spike (LTS) potentials in response to depolarizing current pulses.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:8229799

  20. Earth Science Outreach: A Move in the Right Direction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLarty Halfkenny, B.; Schröder Adams, C.

    2009-05-01

    science and global issues such as climate science and stewardship of our natural resources. A new initiative for Science and Technology Week, 'Explore Geoheritage Day' introduced the public to the geological history of the National Capital Region. We have found collaborations with other agencies very effective. We work with PDAC's "Mining Matters", LTS, the Ottawa Gatineau Geoheritage Project, Ottawa Heritage, STAO, local school boards, naturalist groups, and other community organizations to promote Earth Science education. Our efforts over the last 5 years have brought tangible results in: a) a considerable increase in student enrolment at the university level in our department; b) increased teaching of the Grade 12 Earth and Space Sciences course at local high schools through teachers who were inspired by our workshops; c) a flourishing network of enthusiastic earth science educators sharing ideas with us to define each other's needs; and d) a growing interaction with the general public. Future initiatives need to consider lobbying for curriculum changes to give Earth Science a prominent place in the public education system. As well, only few university education departments currently allow Earth Science graduates into their programs, requiring them to first take additional courses in other "teachable" subjects. This must change. University graduates with an Earth Science degree and an interest in teaching must be permitted direct entry into these programs so that their skills will be passed on to the next generation of science students.

  1. OBITUARY: Eur.Ing. Professor David Dew-Hughes in memoriam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, Archie; Dew-Hughes, Denise; Donaldson, Gordon; Palmer, Richard

    2007-06-01

    much progress had been made in the study of the chemistry, phase relationships, crystallography, basic physics and materials science of the mixed-oxide systems and the physics of vortices, their configurations, dynamics and interactions with lattice defects. Writing from the perspective of one whose primary interest was in the applications of HTS, he compared the then situation with regard to the development of commercial applications of HTS to the commercial development of low-temperature superconductors. The main commercial application for HTS was yet to be identified, but if the comparison with LTS was accepted, the outlook was hopeful. At the 20th anniversary of high-Tc, now is perhaps a good time for a similar review, but most of David's conclusions still look valid ten years on. The superconductivity community laments his untimely passing and will sorely miss him.

  2. Elementary Analysis of a Cometary Surface - the Alpha Particle X-Ray Spectrometer APXS on the Rosetta Mission to Comet 67P/CHURYUMOV-GERASIMENKO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmanke, Dirk; Economou, Thanasis; Brueckner, Johannes; Gellert, Ralf; Rodionov, Daniel; Klingelhoefer, Goestar; Girones Lopez, Jordi; Uston, Lionel D.

    After a 10 years cruise the Rosetta probe will reach its final target in the middle of this year, the comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko. The main objectives of the mission are to gain more knowledge of the composition, the origin and formation of comets and the solar system. After extensive remote examination of the comet the lander Philae will be separated to land on the comet surface. It will start immediately examining the landing site with its scientific payload. A part of this payload is the APXS (Alpha Particle X-Ray Spectrometer), it will measure in situ the chemical composition of the comet's surface and its changes during the journey of the comet towards the sun. APXS is a combination of two spectrometers in one single instrument, being low in mass and power consumption. It will irradiate the cometary surface with Curium 244 sources, which are emitting alpha-particle and X-rays. In the alpha-mode the instrument uses alpha backscattering spectroscopy to detect lower Z elements like C, N and O and groups of elements with higher Z. In the X-ray mode alpha particle/X-ray induced X-ray spectroscopy (XRF) will allow the detection of most of the higher Z elements from Na up to Ni and above. Both modes will be always run in parallel allowing to determine lower and higher Z elements simultaneously. During the long duration travel to the comet checkouts and software updates of the Rosetta probe and its payload were performed at regular intervals. In recent 3 years the solar powered Rosetta probe had to pass a hibernation phase because of a long passage far away from the sun. After the successful wakeup in January 2014 an extensive test phase of all instruments and subsystems has to be performed, including the APXS. After the landing on the comet an intense long measurement phase of all instruments is planned, the First Science Sequence (FSS). It will be followed by a long term science phase (LTS), determined by periodical changes between measurements and forced breaks

  3. Evaluation of Final Radiological Conditions at Areas of the Niagara Falls Storage Site Remediated under the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program - 12184

    SciTech Connect

    Clayton, Christopher; Kothari, Vijendra; Starr, Ken; Widdop, Michael; Gillespie, Joey

    2012-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) methods and protocols allow evaluation of remediation and final site conditions to determine if remediated sites remain protective. Two case studie