Science.gov

Sample records for liina hussar rein

  1. Reines-Cowan team discovery of the electron neutrino

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kruse, Herald W.

    2011-12-01

    Personal perspective and recollections by the author discuss the Reines-Cowan team discovery of the electron neutrino at a Savannah River reactor in 1956. First presented at the Neutrino Santa Fe 2006 Conference.

  2. Relationship between serum cortisol levels and some physiological parameters following reining training session in horse.

    PubMed

    Casella, Stefania; Vazzana, Irene; Giudice, Elisabetta; Fazio, Francesco; Piccione, Giuseppe

    2016-05-01

    The changes of cortisol, red blood cells (RBC), hemoglobin (Hb), hematocrit (Hct), heart rate (HR), respiratory rate (RR) and rectal temperature (RT) were evaluated after a reining training session in eight Quarter Horses. All parameters were measured before exercise (T0), immediately after exercise (T1), 1 h after exercise (T2), 2 h after exercise (T3) and 24 h after exercise (T4). One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) for repeated measures, followed Bonferroni's post hoc test, showed a significant effect of the reining training session (P < 0.0001) on cortisol, RBC, Hb, Hct, HR, RR and RT. Simple linear regression analysis showed the positive correlation (P < 0.05) between cortisol changes and variations of studied parameters in T1, T3 and T4. Exercise-induced cortisol concentrations reflect the physiological response of reining training, suggesting that the changes observed are useful to assess the performance in reining horses and their reining training adaptability. PMID:26419874

  3. Rein and Zheng Elected to American Academy of Microbiology | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    By Nancy Parrish, Staff Writer Earlier this year, Alan Rein, Ph.D., and Zhi-Ming (Thomas) Zheng, M.D., Ph.D., were elected to fellowship in the American Academy of Microbiology, the honorific leadership group within the American Society for Microbiology (ASM). They were among 88 microbiologists who were elected to the academy “through a highly selective, peer-review process, based on their records of scientific achievement and original contributions that have advanced microbiology,” according to the society’s website.

  4. Rein and Zheng Elected to American Academy of Microbiology | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    By Nancy Parrish, Staff Writer Earlier this year, Alan Rein, Ph.D., and Zhi-Ming (Thomas) Zheng, M.D., Ph.D., were elected to fellowship in the American Academy of Microbiology, the honorific leadership group within the American Society for Microbiology (ASM). They were among 88 microbiologists who were elected to the academy “through a highly selective, peer-review process, based on their records of scientific achievement and original contributions that have advanced microbiology,” according to the society’s website.

  5. Identification of Haptic Based Guiding Using Hard Reins.

    PubMed

    Ranasinghe, Anuradha; Dasgupta, Prokar; Althoefer, Kaspar; Nanayakkara, Thrishantha

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents identifications of human-human interaction in which one person with limited auditory and visual perception of the environment (a follower) is guided by an agent with full perceptual capabilities (a guider) via a hard rein along a given path. We investigate several identifications of the interaction between the guider and the follower such as computational models that map states of the follower to actions of the guider and the computational basis of the guider to modulate the force on the rein in response to the trust level of the follower. Based on experimental identification systems on human demonstrations show that the guider and the follower experience learning for an optimal stable state-dependent novel 3rd and 2nd order auto-regressive predictive and reactive control policies respectively. By modeling the follower's dynamics using a time varying virtual damped inertial system, we found that the coefficient of virtual damping is most appropriate to explain the trust level of the follower at any given time. Moreover, we present the stability of the extracted guiding policy when it was implemented on a planar 1-DoF robotic arm. Our findings provide a theoretical basis to design advanced human-robot interaction algorithms applicable to a variety of situations where a human requires the assistance of a robot to perceive the environment. PMID:26201076

  6. Identification of Haptic Based Guiding Using Hard Reins

    PubMed Central

    Ranasinghe, Anuradha; Dasgupta, Prokar; Althoefer, Kaspar; Nanayakkara, Thrishantha

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents identifications of human-human interaction in which one person with limited auditory and visual perception of the environment (a follower) is guided by an agent with full perceptual capabilities (a guider) via a hard rein along a given path. We investigate several identifications of the interaction between the guider and the follower such as computational models that map states of the follower to actions of the guider and the computational basis of the guider to modulate the force on the rein in response to the trust level of the follower. Based on experimental identification systems on human demonstrations show that the guider and the follower experience learning for an optimal stable state-dependent novel 3rd and 2nd order auto-regressive predictive and reactive control policies respectively. By modeling the follower’s dynamics using a time varying virtual damped inertial system, we found that the coefficient of virtual damping is most appropriate to explain the trust level of the follower at any given time. Moreover, we present the stability of the extracted guiding policy when it was implemented on a planar 1-DoF robotic arm. Our findings provide a theoretical basis to design advanced human-robot interaction algorithms applicable to a variety of situations where a human requires the assistance of a robot to perceive the environment. PMID:26201076

  7. Prise en charge des traumatismes graves du rein

    PubMed Central

    Lakmichi, Mohamed Amine; Jarir, Redouane; Sadiki, Bader; Zehraoui; Bentani; Wakrim, Bader; Dahami, Zakaria; Moudouni; Sarf, Ismail

    2015-01-01

    Les traumatismes graves du rein de grade III, IV et V selon la classification de l'Amercan Society for Surgery For Trauma (ASST) sont plus rares et se retrouvent dans 5% des cas en moyenne. Leur prise en charge est souvent délicate, nécessitant alors des centres expérimentés dotés de moyen adéquats d'imagerie (scanner spiralé). Cependant, durant ces dernières années, la prise en charge de ces traumatismes a évolué vers une attitude de moins en moins chirurgicale grâce à l’évolution des techniques de la radiologie interventionnelle, de l'endourologie et des moyens de surveillance aux urgences et de réanimation. L'objectif de cette étude est d’évaluer notre expérience dans la prise en charge des traumatismes rénaux de haut grade. Notre étude rétrospective porte sur 25 cas de traumatismes grave du rein de grade III, IV et V selon la classification de l'ASST, colligés entre Janvier 2002 et Juin 2009 au service d'urologie du centre Hospitalier Universitaire Mohammed VI, Université Cadi Ayyad de Marrakech, Maroc. Nous avons étudié les données épidémiologiques, les signes cliniques et biologiques à l'admission (état de choc hémorragique, taux d'hémoglobine), les données radiologiques (échographie et scanner), les lésions associées, la prise en charge thérapeutique et les complications. L’âge moyen de nos patients était de 24,9 ans 15 et 58 ans, avec une prédominance masculine (sex-ratio = 7, 3). Le rein droit était intéressé dans 15 cas (60%). Le traumatisme rénal était fermé dans 15 cas, et ouvert par arme blanche dans 10 cas. Huit patients se sont présentés en état de choc hémorragique (32%). Une anémie inférieur à 10g /100ml a été observée dans 10 cas (40%). L'uroscanner fait systématiquement à l'admission a retrouvé un grade III (10 cas), grade IV (13 cas) et grade V (2 cas). La prise en charge a consisté en une exploration chirurgicale avec néphrectomie chez 2 cas de Grade IV pour une instabilité h

  8. Conclusions and future directions for the REiNS International Collaboration.

    PubMed

    Widemann, Brigitte C; Blakeley, Jaishri O; Dombi, Eva; Fisher, Michael J; Hanemann, Clemens O; Walsh, Karin S; Wolters, Pamela L; Plotkin, Scott R

    2013-11-19

    The Response Evaluation in Neurofibromatosis and Schwannomatosis (REiNS) International Collaboration was established with the goal to develop consensus recommendations for the use of endpoints in neurofibromatosis (NF) clinical trials. This supplement includes the first series of REiNS recommendations for the use of patient-reported, functional, and visual outcomes, and for the evaluation of imaging response in NF clinical trials. Recommendations for neurocognitive outcome measures, the use of whole-body MRI in NF, the evaluation of potential biomarkers of disease, and the comprehensive evaluation of functional and patient-reported outcomes in NF are in development. The REiNS recommendations are made based on current knowledge. Experience with the use of the recommended endpoints in clinical trials, development of new tools and technologies, new knowledge of the natural history of NF, and advances in the methods used to analyze endpoints will likely lead to modifications of the currently proposed guidelines, which will be shared with the NF research community through the REiNS Web site www.reinscollaboration.org. Due to the clinical complexity of NF, there is a need to seek expertise from multiple medical disciplines, regulatory agencies, and industry to develop trial endpoints and designs, which will lead to the identification and approval of effective treatments for NF tumor and nontumor manifestations. The REiNS Collaboration welcomes anyone interested in providing his or her expertise toward this effort. PMID:24249805

  9. Achieving consensus for clinical trials: the REiNS International Collaboration.

    PubMed

    Plotkin, Scott R; Blakeley, Jaishri O; Dombi, Eva; Fisher, Michael J; Hanemann, C Oliver; Walsh, Karin S; Wolters, Pamela L; Widemann, Brigitte C

    2013-11-19

    The neurofibromatoses (NF)--including neurofibromatosis 1 (NF1), neurofibromatosis 2 (NF2), and schwannomatosis--are related tumor-suppressor syndromes characterized by a predisposition to multiple tumor types and other disease manifestations, which often result in functional disability, reduced quality of life, pain, and, in some cases, malignancy. With increasing knowledge of the biology and pathogenesis of NF, clinical trials with targeted agents directed at NF tumors have become available. Most clinical trials for patients with NF have used designs and endpoints similar to oncology trials. However, differences in the disease manifestations and natural history of NF (compared to cancers) require the development of new designs and endpoints to perform meaningful NF clinical trials. The Response Evaluation in Neurofibromatosis and Schwannomatosis (REiNS) International Collaboration was established in 2011 at the Children's Tumor Foundation meeting to achieve consensus within the NF community about the design of future clinical trials, with a specific emphasis on endpoints. The REiNS Collaboration includes 7 working groups that focus on imaging of tumor response; functional, visual, patient-reported, and neurocognitive outcomes; whole-body MRI; and disease biomarkers. This supplement includes the first series of recommendations by the REiNS Collaboration. The hope is that these recommendations will be used by members of the group and by researchers outside of the REiNS International Collaboration to standardize the measurement of outcomes and thus improve clinical trials for patients with NF. Ultimately, we plan to engage industry partners and national regulatory agencies in this process to facilitate the approval of drugs for patients with NF. PMID:24249801

  10. Carcinoïde primitif du rein métastasant après 12 ans

    PubMed Central

    Bacha, Dhouha; Lahmar, Ahlem; Gharbi, Lassad; Slama, Sana Ben; Bouraoui, Saadia; Chatti, Samia; Regaya, Sabeh Mzabi

    2016-01-01

    Les carcinoïdes primitifs du rein sont rares avec une centaine de cas rapportés dans la littérature. Sur le plan histologique, il s'agit d'une tumeur bien différenciée dont la morphologie rejoint souvent celle des carcinoïdes dans les autres localisations. Nous rapportons un cas de carcinoïde primitif du rein survenant chez un homme de 41 ans, découvert à la suite de métastases hépatiques. La tumeur était particulière par son architecture tubulo-papillaire, suggérant à tort le diagnostic de carcinome papillaire du rein. Ce diagnostic a été redressé 12 ans après, à la suite de l'apparition d'autres métastases hépatiques, osseuses et pulmonaires. PMID:27217899

  11. [The development of Rein van Bemmelens (1904-1983) undation theory: forty years of Dutch geology].

    PubMed

    Barzilay, Willemjan

    2009-01-01

    The Dutch geologist Rein van Bemmelen was the greatest opponent of plate tectonics in The Netherlands. He lived and worked during an important period in the history of earth sciences. He had studied geology when Wegeners theory was introduced and enthusiastically received in the Netherlands and he worked as a geologists during the period in which, after Wegeners theory was rejected in The Netherlands, several Dutch geologists came with their own theories to explain the origin of continents and oceans and in which plate tectonics was introduced in The Netherlands. He had proposed his own theory, the undation theory, at the beginning of the 1930s and kept on developing it during the following years. He continued to do so until his death in 1983. The history of the undation theory thus sheds light on the history of geology in The Netherlands. I will trace the history of geology in The Netherlands using Rein van Bemmelen and his undation theory as a lens. PMID:22586775

  12. Free Rein

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galley, Michelle

    2004-01-01

    This article presents Fairhaven School, located in a still-bucolic area near Washington, which operates in a way that would baffle many educators, much less the public. Known as a "free school," Fairhaven offers students a radical alternative to the demands of traditional education since it was founded in 1998. In this article, the author…

  13. REINS Act

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Sen. Paul, Rand [R-KY

    2011-02-07

    07/20/2011 Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs. Hearings held. Hearings printed: S.Hrg. 112-220. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  14. REINS Act

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Sen. Paul, Rand [R-KY

    2013-02-26

    02/26/2013 Read twice and referred to the Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  15. Les traumatismes fermés du rein: à propos de 55 observations

    PubMed Central

    Ksiri, Khalid; Goultein, Issam; Aboutaeib, Rachid; Dakir, Mohamed; Rabii, Redouaune; Debbagh, Adil; Bennani, Saad; Meziane, Fathi

    2014-01-01

    Le rein est l'organe le plus fréquemment atteint lors des traumatismes urologiques. Actuellement la prise en charge des traumatismes rénaux est de plus en plus conservatrice. Nous avons réalisé une étude rétrospective portant sur 55 cas de traumatisme fermé du rein, colligés au service d'urologie au CHU Ibn Rochd de Casablanca sur une période de 6 ans étalée entre 2006 et 2012. Le but de ce travail est d'analyser notre prise en charge thérapeutique et les résultats obtenus en les comparants à différentes séries de la littérature. Le but final étant d'améliorer la prise en charge des traumatismes fermés du rein au sein de notre établissement sanitaire. L’âge moyen était de 26 ans. Le sexe ratio (H/F) était de 10. Les étiologies étaient dominées par les accidents de la voie publique (27 cas), et les chutes (11cas). Cinq patients se sont présentés en état de choc et opérés en urgence. Tous nos patients ont eu une tomodensitométrie rénale permettant de classer les traumatismes selon l'AAST (American Association for the Surgery of Trauma): 25% de lésions grade I, 9% de lésions grade II, 38,6% de lésions grade III, 22,7% de lésions grade IV, et 4,5% de lésions grade V. Le traitement conservateur était efficace chez 40 cas, dont 6 ont bénéficié d'une montée de sonde JJ. Le traitement chirurgical était nécessaire chez 15 cas, 5 en urgence immédiate et 10 en urgences différées après une attitude conservatrice initiale. Après un recul moyen de 11 mois les patients traités de façon conservatrice ont évolué favorablement. Devant l’évolution favorable de nos patients ayant eu une simple surveillance et tenant compte des résultats de la littérature, nous pensons qu'en l'absence de lésions intra-abdominales associées ou d'instabilité hémodynamique, la simple surveillance reste la méthode thérapeutique de choix. PMID:25374632

  16. Kyste hydatique du rein : Étude monocentrique de 15 cas

    PubMed Central

    Harrech, Youness El; Abakka, Najib; Anzaoui, Jihad El; Ghoundale, Omar; Touiti, Driss

    2014-01-01

    Objectif : Étudier le profil épidémiologique ainsi que les caractéristiques cliniques, radiologiques, et thérapeutiques du kyste hydatique du rein (KHR). Méthodologie : Quinze cas de KHR colligés de 2004 à 2010 ont été revus. Les données cliniques, radiologiques (arbre urinaire sans préparation, échographie, tomodensitométrie [TDM]) et biologiques (éosinophilie et sérologie hydatique) ont été analysées, et le traitement instauré. L’évolution et les complications ont fait l’objet d’un suivi attentif. Résultats : L’âge moyen de découverte du KHR est de 56,13 ans, avec une prédominance masculine (12 hommes, 3 femmes). La symptomatologie clinique est dominée par les lombalgies (60 % des cas). Une analyse de la sérologie hydatique a été demandée pour six patients et s’est révélée positive pour trois d’entre eux. L’abstention thérapeutique a été l’attitude adoptée par deux malades ayant un kyste hydatique de type 5. Aucun patient n’a reçu de traitement médical seul. Treize patients (86,66 %) ont subi une intervention chirurgicale, dont une résection du dôme saillant pour 11 patients, une néphrectomie partielle pour 1 patient et une néphrectomie totale pour 1 autre patient dont le rein était totalement détruit. Aucune complication peropératoire ou postopératoire n’a été signalée, qu’il s’agisse de fistule urinaire ou d’infection de la cavité résiduelle. Aucune récidive n’a été constatée sur une période moyenne de deux ans. Conclusion : Le KHR est une pathologie rare sans sémiologie spécifique. Si la chirurgie occupe une place primordiale dans le traitement de ces kystes, de nouvelles perspectives mini-invasives restent à explorer, tout particulièrement les traitements percutané et laparoscopique. PMID:25210557

  17. The French Chronic Kidney Disease-Renal Epidemiology and Information Network (CKD-REIN) cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Stengel, Bénédicte; Combe, Christian; Jacquelinet, Christian; Briançon, Serge; Fouque, Denis; Laville, Maurice; Frimat, Luc; Pascal, Christophe; Herpe, Yves-Edouard; Deleuze, Jean-François; Schanstra, Joost; Pisoni, Ron L.; Robinson, Bruce M.; Massy, Ziad A.

    2014-01-01

    Background While much has been learned about the epidemiology and treatment of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in the last 30 years, chronic kidney disease (CKD) before the end-stage has been less investigated. Not enough is known about factors associated with CKD progression and complications, as well as its transition to ESRD. We designed the CKD-renal epidemiology and information network (REIN) cohort to provide a research platform to address these key questions and to assess clinical practices and costs in patients with moderate or advanced CKD. Methods A total of 46 clinic sites and 4 renal care networks participate in the cohort. A stratified selection of clinic sites yields a sample that represents a diversity of settings, e.g. geographic region, and public versus for-profit and non-for-profit private clinics. In each site, 60–90 patients with CKD are enrolled at a routine clinic visit during a 12-month enrolment phase: 3600 total, including 1800 with Stage 3 and 1800 with Stage 4 CKD. Follow-up will continue for 5 years, including after initiation of renal replacement therapy. Data will be collected from medical records at inclusion and at yearly intervals, as well as from self-administered patient questionnaires and provider-level questionnaires. Patients will also be interviewed at baseline, and at 1, 3 and 5 years. Healthcare costs will also be determined. Blood and urine samples will be collected and stored for future studies on all patients at enrolment and at study end, and at 1 and 3 years in a subsample of 1200. Conclusions The CKD-REIN cohort will serve to improve our understanding of the biological, clinical and healthcare system determinants associated with CKD progression and adverse outcomes as well as of international variations in collaboration with the CKD Outcome and Practice Pattern Study (CKDopps). It will foster CKD epidemiology and outcomes research and provide evidence to improve the health and quality of life of patients with CKD and

  18. Salient Feature of Haptic-Based Guidance of People in Low Visibility Environments Using Hard Reins.

    PubMed

    Ranasinghe, Anuradha; Sornkarn, Nantachai; Dasgupta, Prokar; Althoefer, Kaspar; Penders, Jacques; Nanayakkara, Thrishantha

    2016-02-01

    This paper presents salient features of human-human interaction where one person with limited auditory and visual perception of the environment (a follower) is guided by an agent with full perceptual capabilities (a guider) via a hard rein along a given path. We investigate several salient features of the interaction between the guider and follower such as: 1) the order of an autoregressive (AR) control policy that maps states of the follower to actions of the guider; 2) how the guider may modulate the pulling force in response to the trust level of the follower; and 3) how learning may successively apportion the responsibility of control across different muscles of the guider. Based on experimental systems identification on human demonstrations from ten pairs of naive subjects, we show that guiders tend to adopt a third-order AR predictive control policy and followers tend to adopt second-order reactive control policy. Moreover, the extracted guider's control policy was implemented and validated by human-robot interaction experiments. By modeling the follower's dynamics with a time varying virtual damped inertial system, we found that it is the coefficient of virtual damping which is most sensitive to the trust level of the follower. We used these experimental insights to derive a novel controller that integrates an optimal order control policy with a push/pull force modulator in response to the trust level of the follower monitored using a time varying virtual damped inertial model. PMID:26080390

  19. [Data collection about the case management of end-stage renal insufficiency. Feasibility study. Nephrology Epidemiologic and information Network (REIN)].

    PubMed

    Stengel, B; Landais, P

    1999-01-01

    End-stage renal failure (ESRD) is an important public health issue, because of both the increasing number of patients requiring renal replacement therapy and the cost of treatment. The need for a reliable data system, capable of describing the patient care network as a whole, including dialysis or transplantation, has often been reiterated. The Direction Générale de la Santé (the French Department of Health) commissioned INSERM (the National Institute of Health and Medical Research) to "study the feasibility of different scenarios of data collection about ESRD patient care in order to meet the priority needs of health care administration, physicians, and researchers". Analysis of these needs allowed the goals to be defined: to provide an accurate picture of ESRD patient care in order to guide and evaluate health care policy, to inform clinicians, and to provide a tool for more focused special studies in renal research issues. Three scenarios were studied: the first would use data systems of both the government and the National Health Insurance system for planning health care services, upon EfG (The French Transplant Agency) network to evaluate transplantation, and upon a few regional registries for epidemiology and research; the second is based on repeated cross-sectional surveys; the third would rely upon the organization of an information system, the Renal Epidemiology and Information Network (REIN). Regional centers and a national coordinating office would register and follow-up ESRD patients, principally to evaluate health care supply and quality. The REIN database would also be a resource for research. The advantage of the first scenario is its low cost; its principal drawback is that evaluations will not be possible in the regions without registries. The second suggestion is inadequate. The last project would fulfil the goals that were defined. The REIN data system would be a true public health project of interest to all the participants and institutions

  20. Workload and stress in horses: comparison in horses ridden deep and round ('rollkur') with a draw rein and horses ridden in a natural frame with only light rein contact.

    PubMed

    Sloet van Oldruitenborgh-Oosterbaan, M M; Blok, M B; Begeman, L; Kamphuis, M C D; Lameris, M C; Spierenburg, A J; Lashley, M J J O

    2006-03-01

    'Rollkur' or 'overbending' is the low and deep riding of a dressage horse during training or warming up. Lately, this technique has been criticized, and not necessarily objectively, on welfare grounds. To be able to evaluate these criticisms, more needs to be known about the workload and stress of horses being ridden 'rollkur'. The aim of the present study was to compare the workload of eight riding-school horses when being ridden deep and round with a draw rein ('rollkur') and when being ridden in a natural frame with only light rein contact ('free'). Workload (as measured by heart rate and blood lactate concentration) was slightly higher when horses were ridden 'rollkur' than when they were ridden 'free'. There were no differences in packed cell volume, or glucose and cortisol concentrations. No signs of uneasiness or stress could be determined when the horses were ridden 'rollkur'. Subjectively, all horses improved their way of moving during 'rollkur' and were more responsive to their rider. PMID:16532786

  1. Léiomyome vésical entraînant la destruction d'un rein

    PubMed Central

    Kehila, Mehdi; Mekni, Karima; Abouda, Hassine Saber; Chtourou, Maher; Zeghal, Dorra; Chanoufi, Mohamed Badis

    2016-01-01

    Le léiomyome de la vessie est une tumeur bénigne rare réputée avoir un bon pronostic après traitement chirurgical. Ceci n'est malheureusement pas toujours vrai. Nous rapportons le cas d'une patiente âgée de 33 ans qui a consulté pour des douleurs lombaires droites. Les explorations réalisées ont conclu à une tumeur solide du plancher vésical avec, en amont, un rein droit non fonctionnel et des voies urinaires gauches dilatées. La cystoscopie a objectivé une tumeur solide de la vessie périméatique droite. Des biopsies tumorales ont été faites en même temps qu'une montée de sonde double J gauche. L’étude anatomopathologique a conclu à un léiomyome vésical. Elle a eu une myomectomie par voie transvésicale. Les suites opératoires étaient simples. La patiente a toutefois gardé comme séquelle un rein totalement détruit.

  2. Congress Likely to Rein In 340B Drug Discount Program: The HRSA's Draft Guidance and a Proposed Rule Give Legislators an Opening.

    PubMed

    Barlas, Stephen

    2015-10-01

    Congress may be about to rein in the 340B drug program, which lets safety-net hospitals and community clinics use outpatient prescription sales to generate revenue. The Health Resources and Services Administration, which runs the program, has published draft guidance to clarify issues raised by federal watchdog agencies. PMID:26535022

  3. Sarcome à cellules claires du rein : À propos d’un cas chez un jeune de 17 ans

    PubMed Central

    Mazdar, Adil; Sakel, Adil Ait; Essatara, Younes; Beddouche, Ali; Elsayegh, Hachem; Iken, Ali; Benslimane, Lounis; Nouini, Yassine

    2014-01-01

    Résumé Le sarcome à cellules claires du rein (SCCR) se voit très rarement chez les jeunes. Il est caractérisé par une évolution agressive marquée par un taux élevé de récidive et de mortalité. Nous rapportons le cas d’un SCCR chez un patient de 17 ans et nous discutons de son apport et de son intérêt médical en vue d’une bonne prise en charge thérapeutique. L’agressivité du SCCR et la prolifération de métastases surtout osseuses impliquent qu’il ne faut pas méconnaître ce diagnostic afin de mettre en place un traitement adapté. PMID:24940474

  4. Evolution of lattice dynamics in ferroelectric hexagonal REInO3 (RE = Ho, Dy, Tb, Gd, Eu, Sm) perovskites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, Barnita; Chatterjee, Swastika; Gop, Sumana; Roy, Anushree; Grover, Vinita; Shukla, Rakesh; Tyagi, A. K.

    2016-07-01

    Rare-earth indates emerge as one of the efficient geometric ferroelectric materials, in which the spontaneous polarization can be tuned by varying their crystal structure along the 4f rare-earth series. We report a systematic study of structural changes in hexagonal REInO3 perovskite (RE = Ho3+, Dy3+, Tb3+, Gd3+, Eu3+, Sm3+) and YInO3 of P63 cm space group by powder x-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman scattering measurements. The crystal structure of these materials could be investigated by the Rietveld refinement of their XRD patterns. We have calculated density of states of phonons using density functional theory and examined the atomic displacements corresponding to observed Raman modes. The evolution of lattice dynamics of REInO3 has been probed by correlating various Raman modes with the structural distortion of the unit cell and the characteristics of the rare-earth ions. We report the appearance of the coupled mode in the phonon spectra. We have estimated spontaneous polarization from the structural distortion in this system and shown that it can be modulated by varying RE3+ ions in REInO3. We also report the appearance of a ferroelectric soft Raman mode, a unique characteristic of these materials.

  5. Absence of population asymmetry in the American Quarter Horse (Equus ferus caballus) performing skilled left and right manoeuvres in reining competition.

    PubMed

    Whishaw, Ian Q

    2015-01-01

    Use of the right hand by humans for speech-related hand gestures, writing and throwing exemplifies motoric asymmetry. There are reports of asymmetry in many other animal species, including reports of left preference in emotional responsivity, spontaneous behaviour and the trained performance of the horse, Equus ferus caballus. The present study used the novel approach of using judges' scores to examine asymmetry in an equestrian event. The study analysed the scores of five judges evaluating the reining performance of 482, three-year-old American Quarter Horses competing in a major competition. Reining requires that the horses perform the manoeuvres of spin, circle and stop directed to either the left or right and symmetrical performance is featured in the judging criteria. The scores were sensitive to performance level, sex and manoeuvre, but there was no evidence of a population asymmetry in the left vs. right direction of the manoeuvres. The results are discussed in relation to need of using a large number of subjects in measuring asymmetry, the expression of individual vs. population asymmetry as a function of morphological and behavioural measures, and the influence of behavioural training on asymmetry. PMID:25861972

  6. Professionalism: Teachers Taking the Reins

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helterbran, Valeri R.

    2008-01-01

    It is essential that teachers take a proactive look at their profession and themselves to strengthen areas of professionalism over which they have control. In this article, the author suggests strategies that include collaborative planning, reflectivity, growth in the profession, and the examination of certain personal characteristics.

  7. Place du traitement chirurgical sous circulation extracorporelle à cœur battant dans les cancers du rein avec envahissement cave supra-diaphragmatique: à propos de sept cas

    PubMed Central

    Lahyani, Mounir; Karmouni, Tarik; Elkhader, Khalid; Koutani, Abdellatif; Andaloussi, Ahmed Ibn Attya

    2014-01-01

    Ce travail vise à analyser les résultats de la néphrectomie avec thrombectomie atrio-cave sous circulation extracorporelle (CEC) chez sept patients ayant un cancer du rein avec envahissement cave supra-diaphragmatique et de discuter les indications opératoires. Sept patients, six hommes et une femme dont l’âge varie entre 46ans et 65ans, ont été opérés d'un cancer du rein avec extension atrio-cave. L’écho-doppler a toujours permis la mise en évidence de l'extension veineuse mais la limite supérieure du thrombus était formellement identifiée par l'examen tomodensitométrique quatre fois, et par la résonance magnétique nucléaire dans tous les cas. Tous les patients ont été opérés sous CEC à cœur battant en normothermie. Un seul décès postopératoire est survenu. La durée du séjour en réanimation a été de 4,5 jours. Cinq patients ont eu à distance une dissémination métastatique. Cinq malades ont eu une médiane de survie de 11,5 mois (de 7 à16). Un malade a subi une métastasectomie pulmonaire 6 mois après la néphrectomie. L'exérèse des thrombi atrio-caves a été facilitée par la CEC avec une mortalité et une morbidité postopératoires acceptables mais les résultats à distance ont été décevants. Cette intervention ne peut être proposée qu'aux patients n'ayant aucune extension locorégionale et générale décelable, ce qui souligne l'importance des examens morphologiques préopératoires. PMID:25995777

  8. States Eye Looser Rein on Districts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobson, Linda

    2008-01-01

    The push to give school districts greater operating flexibility--a grassroots rallying cry eclipsed in recent years by the charter school movement--is seeing a resurgence, as states seek to spur innovation that will help raise student achievement. In Georgia, Governor Sonny Perdue is proposing "performance contracts" that would free administrators…

  9. Taking the Reins: Preservice Teachers Practicing Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunlap, Karen; Hansen-Thomas, Holly

    2011-01-01

    What makes the difference between a good teacher and a great one? Knowing one's content is important, but having strong leadership skills can tip the scales from mediocrity to excellence. The best time to begin practicing being a teacher leader is during the preservice years. By practicing leadership skills, one can begin to view oneself not only…

  10. National Equine Forum: Taking up the reins on equine issues.

    PubMed

    2015-04-01

    Gill Harris reports from this year's National Equine Forum, where one of the main themes was the horse industry and government. The forum, held in London on March 5, was attended by more than 200 people with a connection to the equestrian industry. Lord de Mauley, parliamentary undersecretary of state for natural environment and science at Defra, set the course of the proceedings. PMID:25837945

  11. Porter Takes Reins of the FNL Green Team | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    Courtesy of the FNL Green Team Melissa Porter, who recently joined the staff of Craig Reynolds, Ph.D., director, Office of Scientific Operations, as administrative manager, has stepped forward to lead the Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research (FNL) Green Team in its efforts to promote a “green” work environment. “I am excited to lead the FNL Green Team and have been impressed by the enthusiasm and commitment of the FNL Green Team,” Porter said.

  12. Leading Change to Improve Student Achievement: Novice Leaders Take the Reins

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brazer, S. David; Bauer, Scott C.

    2011-01-01

    This article addresses the effects of education leadership candidates' experiences taking a non-traditional research course in which they identify a specific instructional performance gap in their school sites, then engage in action research, consult published literature, and develop an action plan to address the gap. Candidates are required to…

  13. Amid Fiscal Crisis, L.A. Gives Site Councils Budget Reins

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawchuk, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    At Jefferson High School, a governing body made up of teachers, nonclassroom-based educators, parents, and Principal Michael Taft appears to be living the dream, to the extent such a thing is possible during a staggering fiscal crisis. The leadership team, officially known as a "school site council," has mainly used an infusion of federal stimulus…

  14. Executive Director Fred Spilhaus Steps Down; Interim Leader Takes AGU Reins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiss, Peter

    2009-02-01

    After 39 years as AGU executive director, Fred Spilhaus has stepped down from his post; he will become executive director emeritus. At a 27 January 2009 staff meeting at AGU headquarters, in Washington, D. C., three of the Union officers introduced Robert T. Van Hook, who will serve as interim executive director while AGU conducts a worldwide search for a new executive director. The search is expected to start in the summer of 2009 and to take from 6 to 18 months. ``AGU is a growing, vibrant organization that wishes to thoughtfully chart its course for the coming decades,'' Van Hook said. ``I am a professional interim executive, here to build on Fred Spilhaus's legacy. I want to help this extraordinary Union of researchers, teachers, and students take careful stock of where it is today, where it wants to go tomorrow, and what kind of staff leader it needs to help it get there,'' he said. ``My job is to get you ready for the next executive director,'' Van Hook told AGU staff, noting that he is not a candidate for the position himself.

  15. New Therapeutic Targets in Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis. Aiming to Rein in Runaway Wound-Healing Responses

    PubMed Central

    Ahluwalia, Neil; Shea, Barry S.

    2014-01-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a devastating disease, with a median survival as short as 3 years from the time of diagnosis and no pharmacological therapies yet approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. To address the great unmet need for effective IPF therapy, a number of new drugs have recently been, or are now being, evaluated in clinical trials. The rationales for most of these therapeutic candidates are based on the current paradigm of IPF pathogenesis, in which recurrent injury to the alveolar epithelium is believed to drive aberrant wound healing responses, resulting in fibrosis rather than repair. Here we discuss drugs in recently completed or currently ongoing phase II and III IPF clinical trials in the context of their putative mechanisms of action and the aberrant repair processes they are believed to target: innate immune activation and polarization, fibroblast accumulation and myofibroblast differentiation, or extracellular matrix deposition and stiffening. Placed in this context, the positive results of recently completed trials of pirfenidone and nintedanib, and results that will come from ongoing trials of other agents, should provide valuable insights into the still-enigmatic pathogenesis of this disease, in addition to providing benefits to patients with IPF. PMID:25090037

  16. Reining in agency action: the rejected proposal rule and Section 1011 of the 2003 Medicare Act.

    PubMed

    Charles, Sabrina

    2006-01-01

    Section 1011 of the 2003 Medicare Act authorized the disbursement of over one billion dollars to healthcare providers that provide uncompensated emergency medical care to undocumented immigrants. In 2005, the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) issued its final interpretation of the statute. Despite previous statementsto the contrary, CMS conditioned eligibilityfor Section 1011 funds on the collection of certain immigration status-related information from patients seeking emergency care. Prior to the issuance of CMS' final guidance, the House defeated House Resolution 3722, which was substantially similar to the CMS final guidance. This Article argues that the House's rejection of H.R. 3722 renders CMS's final guidance invalid under the analysis set forth in Chevron, U.S.A. Inc. v. National Resources Defense Council, Inc. PMID:17260547

  17. Taking the Reins: Institutional Transformation in Higher Education. The ACE Series on Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckel, Peter D.; Kezar, Adrianna

    2011-01-01

    Peter Eckel and Adrianna Kezar have written this book to offer insight to campus leaders who face transformational change--to help them mount a proactive, rather than a reactive, process to effect transformation. They believe that most institutional leaders have little to no experience with implementing large-scale change and lack a solid…

  18. Keeping a tight grip on the reins: donor control over aid coordination and management in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Buse, K

    1999-09-01

    A long-standing consensus that aid coordination should be owned by recipient authorities has been eclipsed by accord on the desirability of recipient management of aid along-side domestic resources. Nonetheless, in many low and lower-middle income countries, donors remain remarkably uncoordinated; where attempts at coordination are made, they are often donor-driven, and only a small proportion of aid is directly managed by recipients. This paper draws on evidence from an in-depth review of aid to the health sector in Bangladesh to analyze the systems by which external resources are managed. Based on interviews with key stakeholders, a questionnaire survey and analysis of documentary sources, the factors constraining the government from assuming a more active role in aid management are explored. The results suggest that donor perceptions of weak government capacity, inadequate accountability and compromised integrity only partially account for the propensity for donor leadership. Equally important is the consideration that aid coordination has a markedly political dimension. Stakeholders are well aware of the power, influence and leverage which aid coordination confers, an awareness which colours the desire of some stakeholders to lead aid coordination processes, and conditions the extent and manner by which others wish to be involved. It is argued that recipient management of external aid is dependent on major changes in the attitudes and behaviours of recipients and donors alike. PMID:10621239

  19. Take the Reins on Model Quality with ModelCHECK and Gatekeeper

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Corey

    2012-01-01

    Model quality and consistency has been an issue for us due to the diverse experience level and imaginative modeling techniques of our users. Fortunately, setting up ModelCHECK and Gatekeeper to enforce our best practices has helped greatly, but it wasn't easy. There were many challenges associated with setting up ModelCHECK and Gatekeeper including: limited documentation, restrictions within ModelCHECK, and resistance from end users. However, we consider ours a success story. In this presentation we will describe how we overcame these obstacles and present some of the details of how we configured them to work for us.

  20. Chromosomes rein back the spindle pole body during horsetail movement in fission yeast meiosis.

    PubMed

    Chikashige, Yuji; Yamane, Miho; Okamasa, Kasumi; Mori, Chie; Fukuta, Noriko; Matsuda, Atsushi; Haraguchi, Tokuko; Hiraoka, Yasushi

    2014-01-01

    In meiosis, pairing and recombination of homologous chromosomes are crucial for the correct segregation of chromosomes, and substantial movements of chromosomes are required to achieve homolog pairing. During this process, it is known that telomeres cluster to form a bouquet arrangement of chromosomes. The fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe provides a striking example of bouquet formation, after which the entire nucleus oscillates between the cell poles (these oscillations are generally called horsetail nuclear movements) while the telomeres remain clustered to the spindle pole body (SPB; a centrosome-equivalent structure in fungi) at the leading edge of the moving nucleus. S. pombe mutants defective in telomere clustering frequently form aberrant spindles, such as monopolar or nonpolar spindles, leading to missegregation of the chromosomes at the subsequent meiotic divisions. Here we demonstrate that such defects in meiotic spindle formation caused by loss of meiotic telomere clustering are rescued when nuclear movement is prevented. On the other hand, stopping nuclear movement does not rescue defects in telomere clustering, nor chromosome missgregation even in cells that have formed a bipolar spindle. These results suggest that movement of the SPB without attachment of telomeres leads to the formation of aberrant spindles, but that recovering bipolar spindles is not sufficient for rescue of chromosome missegregation in mutants lacking telomere clustering. PMID:24954111

  1. Taking the reins: the effects of new leader status and leadership style on team performance.

    PubMed

    Sauer, Stephen J

    2011-05-01

    New leaders face a challenging task when they take charge of their teams. They have to determine how best to guide the work process, and they must understand how their behaviors will affect the members of their team. This research examines how a newly assigned team leader's status moderates subordinates' reactions to different leadership styles to affect assessments of the leader's self-confidence and effectiveness, and how this impacts team performance. Across 2 experimental studies, results demonstrate that low-status leaders are rated as more effective when they use a directive style, whereas high-status leaders are viewed as more effective when they use a participative style, and this relationship is mediated by perceptions of self-confidence. In addition, teams whose leaders are viewed more favorably perform better on a complex group task. These findings imply that low-status individuals are able to enhance their level of personal power by drawing on whatever positional power they hold, whereas high-status individuals are better off relying solely on their personal power to influence others. This research also provides a clear demonstration that assessments of new leaders' behaviors are subject to an appraisal that is clouded by observers' status perceptions and attributions. PMID:21319878

  2. Putting reins on the brain. How the body and environment use it

    PubMed Central

    Dotov, Dobromir G.

    2014-01-01

    Radical embodied cognitive neuroscience (RECN) will probably rely on dynamical systems theory (DST) and complex systems theory for methods and formalism. Yet, there have been plenty of non-radical neurodynamicists out there for quite some time. How much of their work fits with radical embodied cognitive science, what do they need RECN for, and what are the inconsistencies between RECN and established neurodynamics that would have to be resolved? This paper is both theoretical hypothesis and review. First, it provides a brief overview of the typical, purely structural considerations why the central nervous systems (CNS) should be treated as a nonlinear dynamical system and what this entails. The reader will learn about the circular causality enclosing brain and behavior and different attempts to formalize this circularity. Then, three different attempts at linking dynamics and theory of brain function are described in more detail and criticized. A fourth method based on ecological psychology could fix some of the issues that the others encounter. It is argued that studying self-organization of the brain without taking its ecological embedding into account is insufficient. Finally, based on existing theoretical work we propose two roles that the CNS has to be fulfilling in order to allow an animal to behave adequately in its niche. In its first role the CNS has to be enslaved easily by patterns of behavior that guide the animal through its environment. In the second role the brain has to flexibly switch among patterns, what can be called the metastable circuit breaker. The relevance of this idea is supported using certain motor symptoms of Parkinson’s disease (PD). These symptoms can be explained as consequent to an excessive stability of the (metastable) circuit breaker. PMID:25346675

  3. Keeping the senescence secretome under control: Molecular reins on the senescence-associated secretory phenotype.

    PubMed

    Malaquin, Nicolas; Martinez, Aurélie; Rodier, Francis

    2016-09-01

    Cellular senescence is historically associated with cancer suppression and aging. Recently, the reach of the senescence genetic program has been extended to include the ability of senescent cells to actively participate in tissue remodelling during many physiological processes, including placental biology, embryonic patterning, wound healing, and tissue stress responses caused by cancer therapy. Besides growth arrest, a significant feature of senescent cells is their ability to modify their immediate microenvironment using a senescence-associated (SA) secretome, commonly termed the SA secretory phenotype (SASP). Among others, the SASP contains growth factors, cytokines, and extracellular proteases that modulate the majority of both the beneficial and detrimental microenvironmental phenotypes caused by senescent cells. The SASP is thus becoming an obvious pharmaceutical target to manipulate SA effects. Herein, we review known signalling pathways underlying the SASP, including the DNA damage response (DDR), stress kinases, inflammasome, alarmin, inflammation- and cell survival-related transcription factors, miRNAs, RNA stability, autophagy, chromatin components, and metabolic regulators. We also describe the SASP as a temporally regulated dynamic sub-program of senescence that can be divided into a rapid DDR-associated phase, an early self-amplification phase, and a late "mature" phase, the late phase currently being the most widely studied SASP signature. Finally, we discuss how deciphering the signalling pathways regulating the SASP reveal targets that can be manipulated to harness the SA effects to benefit therapies for cancer and other age-related pathologies. PMID:27235851

  4. Putting reins on the brain. How the body and environment use it.

    PubMed

    Dotov, Dobromir G

    2014-01-01

    Radical embodied cognitive neuroscience (RECN) will probably rely on dynamical systems theory (DST) and complex systems theory for methods and formalism. Yet, there have been plenty of non-radical neurodynamicists out there for quite some time. How much of their work fits with radical embodied cognitive science, what do they need RECN for, and what are the inconsistencies between RECN and established neurodynamics that would have to be resolved? This paper is both theoretical hypothesis and review. First, it provides a brief overview of the typical, purely structural considerations why the central nervous systems (CNS) should be treated as a nonlinear dynamical system and what this entails. The reader will learn about the circular causality enclosing brain and behavior and different attempts to formalize this circularity. Then, three different attempts at linking dynamics and theory of brain function are described in more detail and criticized. A fourth method based on ecological psychology could fix some of the issues that the others encounter. It is argued that studying self-organization of the brain without taking its ecological embedding into account is insufficient. Finally, based on existing theoretical work we propose two roles that the CNS has to be fulfilling in order to allow an animal to behave adequately in its niche. In its first role the CNS has to be enslaved easily by patterns of behavior that guide the animal through its environment. In the second role the brain has to flexibly switch among patterns, what can be called the metastable circuit breaker. The relevance of this idea is supported using certain motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD). These symptoms can be explained as consequent to an excessive stability of the (metastable) circuit breaker. PMID:25346675

  5. One Way to Rein in the Cost of Textbooks: Make Them Free

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delespinasse, Paul F.

    2008-01-01

    The prices for college texts have soared way beyond inflation for the last quarter-century. As such, they have become a burden on today's financially strapped students. From the point of students and of faculty members who are concerned about their students' welfare, the important question is what can be done to drive text prices back down. In…

  6. Understanding differences between high- and low-price hospitals: implications for efforts to rein in costs.

    PubMed

    White, Chapin; Reschovsky, James D; Bond, Amelia M

    2014-02-01

    Private insurers pay widely varying prices for inpatient care across hospitals. Previous research indicates that certain hospitals use market clout to obtain higher payment rates, but there have been few in-depth examinations of the relationship between hospital characteristics and pricing power. This study used private insurance claims data to identify hospitals receiving inpatient prices significantly higher or lower than the median in their market. High-price hospitals, compared to other hospitals, tend to be larger; be major teaching hospitals; belong to systems with large market shares; and provide specialized services, such as heart transplants and Level I trauma care. High-price hospitals also receive significant revenues from nonpatient sources, such as state Medicaid disproportionate-share hospital funds, and they enjoy healthy total financial margins. Quality indicators for high-price hospitals were mixed: High-price hospitals fared much better than low-price hospitals did in U.S. News & World Report rankings, which are largely based on reputation, while generally scoring worse on objective measures of quality, such as postsurgical mortality rates. Thus, insurers may face resistance if they attempt to steer patients away from high-price hospitals because these facilities have good reputations and offer specialized services that may be unique in their markets. PMID:24476706

  7. Auβ Quecksilber und Schwefel Rein: Johann Mathesius (1504-65) and Sulfur-Mercurius in the Silver Mines of Joachimstal.

    PubMed

    Norris, John A

    2014-01-01

    The Sarepta, oder Bergpostill (1562) by Johann Mathesius is a book of sermons on mining and mineral subjects in which the composition and generation of metals in ore veins are discussed in terms of the sulfur-mercurius theory. Gur was an embodiment of mercurius or of sulfur and mercurius. Sulfur was evident in the sulfurous odor of the mines, in the supposed effects of subterranean heat, and in the deposition of mineral sulfur during the roasting of the ores. The toxic smoke given off during smelting was considered to be an additional manifestation of mercurius. Mathesius's sermons offer a glimpse of the ways miners' understanding of ores overlapped with alchemists' theories. PMID:26103746

  8. Getting back in the race. Retired healthcare executives are being lured back into the office as organizations look for experienced leaders to take the reins.

    PubMed

    Jaklevic, Mary Chris

    2003-09-15

    All the young whippersnappers better look out--the veterans are coming back to show how it's done. More and more as of late, executives who chucked the 80-hour workweek grind are coming out of retirement to take the helm at beleaguered healthcare systems. MedCath Corp. board Chairman Steve Puckett, at left, says experience counts for a lot when handing over such responsibility. PMID:14520917

  9. Station Change of Command Ceremony

    NASA Video Gallery

    The reins of the International Space Station were passed from Expedition 29 Commander Mike Fossum of NASA to his NASA colleague, newly arrived Expedition 30 Commander Dan Burbank in a ceremony on t...

  10. Flow and heat transfer of petal shaped double tube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shakouchi, Toshihiko; Kawashima, Yuki; Tsujimoto, Koichi; Ando, Toshitake

    2014-06-01

    In this study, the flow and heat transfer characteristics of petal-shaped double tube with 6 petals are examined experimentally for a compact heat exchanger. As results, the heat transfer rate, Q, of the 6 petal shaped double tube (6-p tube) is much larger than that, Qp, of conventional circular double tube in all Reynolds number Rein,h (where, the reference length is hydraulic diameter) ranges. For example, at Rein,h =(0.5~1.0)× 104 it is about 4 times of Qp. The heat transfer enhancement of 6-p tube is by the increase of heat transfer area, wetting perimeter, and a highly fluctuating flow, and Q of the 6-p tube can be expressed by Q [kW/m] = 0.54Rein,h + 2245.

  11. [The mammals of Guinea as reservoirs and carriers of arboviruses].

    PubMed

    Konstantinov, O K; Diallo, S M; Inapogi, A P; Ba, A; Kamara, S K

    2006-01-01

    A great body of data on the fauna and ecology of wild mammals and their participation in the circulation of arboviruses were collected when the ecology of the latter of the Republic of Guinea was studied in 1978 to 1989. A hundred and eighteen species belonging to 10 orders were identified. Over 2,000 biological specimens were virologically and serologically examined. Six arboviruses were isolated. These included Dugbe virus (from the hussar monkey Cercopithecus (Erythrocebus patas) and 5 viruses from chiropters: Rift valley fever, from Micropteropus pusillus, Miniopterus schreibersi, and Hipposideros caffer, Saboya, Fomede, and Ank 6909 from Nycteris gambiensis and Kolenter from Hipposideros sp. Fomede, Kolente, and Ank 6909 viruses turned out to be new species for science. Rodents were found to have viral antigens of Lass fever (Mastomys natalensis, Tatera valida kempi and Rattus rattus), Dugbe and Chikungunya fevers (M. natalensis) and West Nile fever (Mus sp.). A serological survey of mammals revealed that the latter had antibodies to 12 arboviruses. Thus, the mammals of Guinea participate in the circulation of 18 arboviruses, 13 of them are pathogenic for man. PMID:16562748

  12. Linking Costs and Postsecondary Degrees: Key Issues for Policymakers. Working Paper 2011-03

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Nate

    2011-01-01

    In this paper the author offers practical advice for decision-makers who are struggling to rein in college costs while improving productivity. He provides a step-by-step guide to different approaches for calculating costs, highlights the tremendous variability in cost across programs within institutions, and documents some of the "hidden costs" of…

  13. Enterprising Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robelen, Erik W.

    2006-01-01

    A master's-degree program blends courses in education and business to prepare leaders for the entrepreneurial world of charter schooling. Verree D. Laughlin wants to launch a network of small, community-oriented charter schools, starting with one near the Mexican border in Yuma, Arizona. Katheryn Crayton-Shay recently took the reins of a…

  14. In Iowa, a Life of the Mind, Heart, and Soul

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selingo, Jefery

    2005-01-01

    When Dr. Skorton was tapped as Iowa's president, in 2003, his appointment was widely favored by faculty and staff members. Unlike most academics who give up their day jobs when they become college presidents, Dr. David J. Skorton 55, kept his when he took the reins at Iowa two years ago. A cardiologist by training, he still sees patients with…

  15. N-{Delta} weak transition

    SciTech Connect

    Graczyk, Krzysztof M.

    2011-11-23

    A short review of the Rein-Sehgal and isobar models is presented. The attention is focused on the nucleon-{Delta}(1232) weak transition form-factors. The results of the recent re-analyses of the ANL and BNL bubble chamber neutrino-deuteron scattering data are discussed.

  16. Early Retirement Payoff

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzpatrick, Maria D.; Lovenheim, Michael F.

    2014-01-01

    As public budgets have grown tighter over the past decade, states and school districts have sought ways to control the growth of spending. One increasingly common strategy employed to rein in costs is to offer experienced teachers with high salaries financial incentives to retire early. Although early retirement incentive (ERI) programs have been…

  17. Using Design-Based Research in Informal Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reisman, Molly

    2008-01-01

    Design-Based Research (DBR) has been a tool of the learning sciences since the early 1990s, used as a way to improve and study learning environments. Using an iterative process of design with the goal of reining theories of learning, researchers and educators now use DBR seek to identify "how" to make a learning environment work. They then draw…

  18. Dissident Youth's Appeal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohlsen, Merle M.

    This paper is designed to help youth's significant others harness dissident youth's energy into the reins of society's problems. Included is a comparison between healthy rebellion (arising out of love for something) and neurotic rebellion (having no purpose except to fight conformity or the establishment). The author classifies secondary and…

  19. Hung out to Dry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pluviose, David

    2006-01-01

    It was only three years ago that Dr. R. Wayne Branch was tapped to take over the reins at Clark College, a 70-year-old private college in Vancouver, Washington. As president of the Community College of Baltimore County-Essex, Branch oversaw the reorganization of the college after it was folded into a three-college system. Those organizational…

  20. 76 FR 4827 - High-Cost Universal Service Support and Federal-State Joint Board on Universal Service

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-27

    ... relinquishes its ETC status. As discussed in the September 2010 NPRM, 75 FR 56494, September 16, 2010, the goal of the Interim Cap Order, 73 FR 37882, July 2, 2008, is to rein in high-cost universal service... business status. 24. In 2007, the Commission adopted the 700 MHz Second Report and Order, 72 FR...

  1. You're a CEO--Now What? Veteran Advice for a New Generation of Community College Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ullman, Ellen

    2013-01-01

    What does it take to be an effective leader? That's a question 146 first-time community college presidents will be attempting to answer as they take the reins at their respective institutions this fall. Whether it's figuring out how to be a better listener or how to form relationships with trustees and board members and other stakeholders in the…

  2. Can We Choose a Management Style?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Thomas O.

    1985-01-01

    Options in management style from corporate administration literature available to educational institutions include the choices of Theory X vs. Theory Y, the managerial vs. academic grid, management by objectives, autocratic vs. bureaucratic vs. participative vs. free-rein leadership styles, situational leadership, presidential role, leadership…

  3. Vertical head and trunk movement adaptations of sound horses trotting in a circle on a hard surface.

    PubMed

    Starke, Sandra D; Willems, Egbert; May, Stephen A; Pfau, Thilo

    2012-07-01

    Trotting a horse in circles is a standard and important part of the subjective equine lameness examination, yet objective data on this form of locomotion are sparse. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of trotting in a circle on head and trunk movement symmetry. Vertical movements of the head, withers, os sacrum and left and right tuber coxae were measured using inertial sensors as 12 sound horses were trotted on a hard surface in a straight line and in a circle on both reins. Seven asymmetry measures and hip hike were calculated for each horse for at least nine strides of comparable stride duration across the three conditions (deviation on horse level ≤3.7% stride duration). Trotting in a circle introduced systematic changes to the movement pattern of all five body landmarks, affecting most asymmetry measures. On average the asymmetry magnitude was comparable for midline locations between reins and for the tuber coxae on opposite reins with few exceptions, although individual horses showed unsystematic differences between the two reins. The results from this study showed that the thresholds for objective discrimination between lame and non-lame horses will need adjustment on the circle due to the observed asymmetry bias. PMID:22104508

  4. Fuller Employment with Less Inflation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegel, Irving H.

    This series of 10 essays, written at various times since the mid-1960s, explores the U.S. economy's proneness to both high inflation and high unemployment during this period. The essays present ideas that the author believes could have reined in price increases in the early stages, and that presently could speed the reduction of inflation and…

  5. A Fine Reach Home: Excerpts from a Sailor's Wind Journal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fels, Lynn

    2008-01-01

    Sailing, a harnessing of wind with canvas to propel a sailboat across distances of water, in winds shaped by landforms, airflow and temperature, requires constant renegotiation by skipper and crew in response to the wind's changeable presence. In a choreography of movement, sails secured by sheets are loosened or reined in by hand to allow wind…

  6. Schools in the New Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Mike

    2011-01-01

    Schools and universities across the United States have been forced to cope with a grim financial situation that has left them without adequate resources. Administrators are cutting programs, reining in salaries and jettisoning employees to keep operating budgets in line. Education institutions also have had to shutter facilities or postpone,…

  7. Affirmative Action Redux: Who Is behind the Latest Effort to End the Consideration of Race in College Admissions?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Susan

    2012-01-01

    The homepage of the Project on Fair Representation (POFR) features a smiling photo of Abigail Fisher, the young White woman at the center of "Fisher v. the University of Texas," which could end race as a criterion in university admissions. Edward Blum, founder of POFR, a conservative advocacy group, connected Fisher with Wiley Rein LLP, the…

  8. Prospective Health: Duke's Approach to Improving Employee Health and Managing Health Care Costs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidson, H. Clint, Jr.

    2004-01-01

    If developing a healthy workforce is critical to reining in the skyrocketing cost of health care, then why have so many attempts at preventive health or disease management fallen short? How can employers connect with employees to engage them in changing unhealthy habits or lifestyles? Duke University has launched an innovative new approach called…

  9. "Finger Kits:" An Interactive Demonstration of Biomaterials and Engineering for Elementary School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canavan, Heather E.; Stanton, Michael; Lopez, Kaori; Grubin, Catherine; Graham, Daniel J.

    2008-01-01

    This article describes a hands-on activity and demonstration developed at the University of Washington and further reined at the University of New Mexico. In this activity, the authors present a real-world problem to the student: Someone has an injured finger joint, and the students in the class need to design an implant to replace it. After…

  10. Changing Course: Thurgood Marshall College Fund President Johnny Taylor Seeks New Partnerships and Avenues of Support for Public HBCUs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuart, Reginald

    2011-01-01

    When veteran educator Dr. N. Joyce Payne handed the reins of the organization she founded, the Thurgood Marshall College Fund, to entertainment lawyer and board member Johnny Taylor, Taylor began pursuing a remake of the prestigious group that has turned it on its head in just a matter of months. Today, with just more than a year of leading the…

  11. Mayoral School Leadership and Integrated Governance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for the Study of Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The past two decades have seen an emerging trend in urban school governance: mayors taking the reins of school district leadership. The impetus for putting the mayor in charge of a city's schools usually stems from at least one of the following being documented or generally perceived about an urban school district: (1) Lack of accountability; (2)…

  12. Prescriptions for Change: Can Ideas from Health Care Cure Higher Education's Ills?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckel, Peter D.

    2012-01-01

    Higher education is facing a series of tough questions: (1) Is its business model broken beyond repair?; (2) How can costs that are fast outpacing median family income be reined in?; (3) How can higher education demonstrate that students are getting the quality education they expect and deserve?; and (4) Is higher education competing in ways that…

  13. Tightening the Purchasing Process: Superintendents Get More Involved in Buying Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivero, Victor

    2009-01-01

    Over the last 18 months, school district purchasing offices across the country have been tightening the reins like never before while more top-level administrators get involved in the budget process. "When the economy really hit the skids, states got hit hard, so a lot of school districts were forced to make severe budget cuts," says John Musso,…

  14. A Good Fit?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Violino, Bob

    2010-01-01

    Outsourcing has evolved into a strategic imperative at a growing number of community colleges, especially as administrators rein in spending and streamline operations in the face of shrinking budgets. Across the country, more colleges are outsourcing a range of functions, including information technology (IT), course instruction, food service,…

  15. Beating Swords into . . . Chips?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Eliot

    1991-01-01

    Discussed are the efforts of the Pentagon to help U.S. companies remain competitive in high-tech civilian markets. The tug-of-war for these companies between Congress, which has come to view them as a vehicle for pork-barrel funding, and the administration, which is trying to rein them in, is described. (KR)

  16. A Critical Feminist and Race Critique of Thomas Piketty's "Capital in the Twenty-First Century"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moeller, Kathryn

    2016-01-01

    Thomas Piketty's "Capital in the Twenty-first Century" documents the foreboding nature of rising wealth inequality in the twenty-first century. In an effort to promote a more just and democratic global society and rein in the unfettered accumulation of wealth by the few, Piketty calls for a global progressive annual tax on corporate…

  17. Philosophieren als Unterrichtsprinzip im Mathematikunterricht

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meerwaldt, Diana

    Philosophieren und Mathematik scheinen zunächst gegensätzliche Bereiche zu sein, die sich kaum vereinbaren lassen. Dies trifft für eine Auffassung zu, die Philosophieren als "Gerede" disqualifiziert und Mathematik als eine reine "Formelwissenschaft" begreift. Beide Auffassungen werden den Gegenständen nicht gerecht.

  18. Charters as a Solution?: So Far, States and Districts Have Opted for Anything But

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Nelson

    2007-01-01

    "Reopening the school as a public charter school" is Option #1 on the list of NCLB's restructuring alternatives for failing schools. But this has not proved a popular choice. NCLB made the bold assumption that states and districts would voluntarily turn over the reins to charter operators. The authors of the legislation must have thought, with so…

  19. The Election of 1800: Teaching about a Critical Moment in the History of American Constitutional Democracy. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nixon, William A.

    In 1800 the U.S. democracy faced a challenge when Republican Thomas Jefferson defeated Federalist President John Adams. The Federalists handed over the reins of power to their hated rivals, setting a precedent that has guided U.S. politics ever since. This precedent established the tradition of the peaceful transfer of power. The bicentennial of…

  20. Unintended Consequences: An Uncertain Future for Distance Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halfond, Jay A.

    2011-01-01

    While most in the academic community know about the attempt to rein in the for-profits, few are aware of its collateral damage. In October, the Department of Education (DOE) issued its Program Integrity Rules, intended to protect federal funds especially from those for-profit institutions with high student loan default rates. Well-intentioned…

  1. Report on Spending Trends Highlights Inequities in Model for Financing Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blumenstyk, Goldie

    2009-01-01

    An analysis of spending trends that is designed to discourage policy makers' focus on finding new revenue rather than reining in spending suggests that the model for financing colleges has reinforced educational inequities and failed to increase the rate at which students graduate. According to the analysis, "serious fault lines" in the current…

  2. In Canada: Under the Rainbow

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, Heather-jane

    2005-01-01

    Inclusive education seeks to provide a welcoming environment for all students, not by ignoring gender, race, disability, or sexual identities, but by recognizing and validating difference. It is precisely this validation that alarms those who are attempting to rein in schools that have initiated anti-heterosexist programs. But no one is satisfied…

  3. Introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belrose, John S.

    1993-05-01

    An introduction and welcome to the Specialists' Meeting on 'ELF/VLF/LF Radio Propagation and System Aspects' given at the Electromagnetic Wave Propagation Panel Symposium, held at the Quartier Reine Elisabeth, Brussels, Belgium, 28 Sep. - 2 Oct. 1992, is presented. The following topics are discussed: the early history of radio communications, NATO interest in ELF/VLF/LF, propagation mode, effect of the finite conductivity of the ground, and VLF antennas.

  4. Theory institute appoints new head

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnston, Hamish

    2008-06-01

    The cosmologist Neil Turok has been appointed as the next executive director of the Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics in Waterloo, Canada. Turok, who is currently chair of mathematical physics at the University of Cambridge in the UK, will take over the reins in October. The 50- year-old cosmologist described the move as the "opportunity of a lifetime" and says he plans to make the institute "the leading centre in the world for theoretical physics".

  5. Caritas Norwood Hospital: back from the brink.

    PubMed

    Guyon, Robert E

    2003-07-01

    Caritas Norwood Hospital and its affiliates went from $17 million in the red to a $4 million profit after implementing comprehensive financial and operational strategies, which included reengineering the revenue cycle, outsourcing some services, and focusing on the hospital's core business. External pressures were out of the hospital's control, but a comprehensive analysis identified many internal problems that the hospital had to resolve. The new management team also uncovered many undisclosed problems when it took the reins. PMID:12866153

  6. 77 FR 13689 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Vision

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-07

    ..., 2008 (73 FR 3316), or you may visit http://edocket.access.gpo.gov/2008/pdf/E8-785.pdf . FOR FURTHER.... Leadbitter (PA) John L. Lewis (OK) Jonathan P. Lovel (IL) Tom A. McCarty (NM) Kent S. Reining (IL) Enrique G... exemption from the vision requirements (68 FR 74699; 69 FR 10503; 71 FR 6829; 73 FR 6242; 73 FR 16950; 73...

  7. Improving the sensitivity of J coupling measurements in solids with application to disordered materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerry, Paul; Brown, Steven P.; Smith, Mark E.

    2016-05-01

    It has been shown previously that for magic angle spinning (MAS) solid state NMR the refocused INADEQUATE spin-echo (REINE) experiment can usefully quantify scalar (J) couplings in disordered solids. This paper focuses on the two z filter components in the original REINE pulse sequence, and investigates by means of a product operator analysis and fits to density matrix simulations the effects that their removal has on the sensitivity of the experiment and on the accuracy of the extracted J couplings. The first z filter proves unnecessary in all the cases investigated here and removing it increases the sensitivity of the experiment by a factor ˜1.1-2.0. Furthermore, for systems with broad isotropic chemical shift distributions (namely whose full widths at half maximum are greater than 30 times the mean J coupling strength), the second z filter can also be removed, thus allowing whole-echo acquisition and providing an additional √2 gain in sensitivity. Considering both random and systematic errors in the values obtained, J couplings determined by fitting the intensity modulations of REINE experiments carry an uncertainty of 0.2-1.0 Hz (˜1-10 %).

  8. Experimental observations of direct laminar-turbulent transition in counter-rotating Taylor-Couette flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crowley, Christopher; Krygier, Michael; Borrero-Echeverry, Daniel; Grigoriev, Roman; Schatz, Michael

    2015-11-01

    The transition to turbulence in counter-rotating Taylor-Couette flow typically occurs through a sequence of supercritical bifurcations of stable flow states (e.g. spiral vortices, interpenetrating spirals (IPS), and wavy interpenetrating spirals). Coughlin and Marcus have proposed a mechanism by which these laminar spiral flows undergo a secondary instability that leads to turbulence. We report the discovery of a counter-rotating regime (Reout = - 1000 , Rein ~ 640) of small aspect ratio/large radius ratio Taylor-Couette flow (Γ = 5 . 26 / η = 0 . 91), where the system bypasses the primary instability to stable laminar spirals and instead undergoes a direct transition to turbulence as the inner cylinder rotation rate is slowly increased. This transition is mediated by an unstable IPS state. We study the transition experimentally using flow visualization and tomographic PIV, and show that it is both highly repeatable and that it shows hysteresis as the inner cylinder rotation rate is decreased. As Rein is decreased, the turbulent flow relaminarizes into an intermediate, stable IPS state. Decreasing Rein further returns the system back to circular Couette flow. This study was supported by NSF DMS-1125302 and NSF CMMI-1234436.

  9. Improved model for surface shunt resistance due to passivant for HgCdTe photoconductive detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhan, R. K.; Dhar, V.

    2003-12-01

    We present the results of calculations for surface shunt resistance due to the passivant fixed charge density (Qss) in n-HgCdTe photoconductive (PC) detectors. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first detailed calculation involving the actual majority carrier profile at the accumulated surface. The effect of surface field (or potential) due to heavily accumulated density of majority carriers on surface mobility (mus) has been investigated in detail by employing the Schrieffer and Goldstein models using random diffuse scattering. Additionally, the effect of lateral field (applied to these devices) on surface mobility is included by invoking the model of Yoo et al. The above effects were not taken into account in previous simplified models. For narrow-band, n-type HgCdTe the effects of carrier degeneracy and band non-parabolicity cannot be neglected. In this work, a one-dimensional model including these effects has been developed to evaluate the detector resistance and responsivity. A proper two-layer (bulk and surface) responsivity model is developed. The results are compared with the widely-used approximate one-layer model of Reine and with the step model proposed by Bhan and Gopal. It is shown that, for the Reine model, the agreement with the present model depends on the value of mus chosen. The trend of the step model agrees with the Reine model, but both models show disagreement with the present one-layer and two-layer profile models for Qss approx (1010-1012) cm-2.

  10. South America: Producers brace for hard times

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-08-01

    The outlook for South American petroleum development is the topic of this review. Observations include: Brazil confirms giant discovery, continues drive for deepwater production; Eastern Llanos fields propel Colombia into ranks of oil-exporting nations; Venezuela's PdVSA revamps, goes overseas in search of downstream integration; Production downturn in Argentina while YPF staggers under debt load, mismanagement; Peru renegotiates contracts, nationalizes one operator and asks others to join search; Sharp drilling decline in Trinidad, but production rises because of tax incentives; Ecuador breaks with Opec, adopts wide-open production strategy, flexible prices; Drilling, oil output increase in Bolivia, government moves to rein in YPFB.

  11. Measuring Neutrino Oscillations with Nuclear Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    McKeown, R. D.

    2007-10-26

    Since the first direct observations of antineutrino events by Reines and Cowan in the 1950's, nuclear reactors have been an important tool in the study of neutrino properties. More recently, the study of neutrino oscillations has been a very active area of research. The pioneering observation of oscillations by the KamLAND experiment has provided crucial information on the neutrino mixing matrix. New experiments to study the remaining unknown mixing angle are currently under development. These recent studies and potential future developments will be discussed.

  12. Los Alamos Science, Number 25 -- 1997: Celebrating the neutrino

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, N.G.

    1997-12-31

    This issue is devoted to the neutrino and its remaining mysteries. It is divided into the following areas: (1) The Reines-Cowan experiment -- detecting the poltergeist; (2) The oscillating neutrino -- an introduction to neutrino masses and mixing; (3) A brief history of neutrino experiments at LAMPF; (4) A thousand eyes -- the story of LSND (Los Alamos neutrino oscillation experiment); (5) The evidence for oscillations; (6) The nature of neutrinos in muon decay and physics beyond the Standard Model; (7) Exorcising ghosts -- in pursuit of the missing solar neutrinos; (8) MSW -- a possible solution to the solar neutrino problem; (8) Neutrinos and supernovae; and (9) Dark matter and massive neutrinos.

  13. Was leistet ein Sportler? Kraft, Leistung und Energie im Muskel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thaller, Sigrid; Mathelitsch, Leopold

    2006-01-01

    Der Leistungsbegriff ist im Sport weiter gefasst als in der Physik. In beiden Fällen liegt der Fokus jedoch auf einer pro Zeiteinheit erfolgten Energieumsetzung. Allerdings gibt die rein physikalische Leistung nicht immer Auskunft über den Energieumsatz der Muskeln. Die Muskelkraft hängt von der Kontraktionsgeschwindigkeit des Muskels ab. Ein Muskel verhält sich also anders als eine Feder. Für den Hochleistungssport müssen die Energieumsätze der Muskeln durch spezielle Trainings- und Nahrungsprogramme optimiert werden.

  14. Los Alamos Science, Number 25 -- 1997: Celebrating the Neutrino

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Cooper, N. G. ed.

    1997-01-01

    This issue is devoted to the neutrino and its remaining mysteries. It is divided into the following areas: (1) The Reines-Cowan experiment -- detecting the poltergeist; (2) The oscillating neutrino -- an introduction to neutrino masses and mixing; (3) A brief history of neutrino experiments at LAMPF; (4) A thousand eyes -- the story of LSND (Los Alamos neutrino oscillation experiment); (5) The evidence for oscillations; (6) The nature of neutrinos in muon decay and physics beyond the Standard Model; (7) Exorcising ghosts -- in pursuit of the missing solar neutrinos; (8) MSW -- a possible solution to the solar neutrino problem; (8) Neutrinos and supernovae; and (9) Dark matter and massive neutrinos.

  15. Netz ohne doppelten Boden: Internet-Sicherheit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fichtner, Johann

    2002-07-01

    Die Sicherheitslücken des heutigen Internets haben zwei Ursachen: sein ursprüngliches Design für rein militärische Zwecke sowie die gefährliche Sorglosigkeit der Entwickler und Betreiber von Internet-Komponenten. Dabei kann ein kleiner Kreis von Experten Angriffe auf die eigentlichen Netzknoten ausführen. Typische Hacker-Angriffe kommen von Endsystemen des Internets und richten sich auch gegen Endsysteme wie Firmen-Intranets oder einzelne PCs. Dagegen gibt es eine Reihe von Schutzmöglichkeiten. Es ist jedoch keine einfache Lösung zur Erhöhung der Internet-Sicherheit in Sicht.

  16. Neutrino-induced nuclear excitations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belusevic, R.

    1995-04-01

    We present an improved, compared to that of Belusevic and Rein, theoretical value of the cross section for the neutrino-induced nuclear excitation of iron. This result is based on a measurement of the photoabsorption cross section on the same nucleus, which can be related to the transverse part of the neutrino cross section via the conserved vector current hypothesis. The longitudinal part is related to the pion absorption cross section through the partial conservation of the axial-vector current, and thus reflects the spontaneous breaking of chiral symmetry. A general formula for the excitation cross section is derived, which is valid for both low and high incident neutrino energies. When caused by a weak neutral current, this process may play an important role in core-collapse supernovae. It can also be detected using low-temperature techniques with the purpose of cosmological and weak-interaction studies. A new estimate of the cross sections for neutrino-induced nonscaling processes described by Belusevic and Rein is discussed in the context of two experiments using iron targets, but at very different beam energies.

  17. Design and Evaluation of a Fully Implantable Control Unit for Blood Pumps

    PubMed Central

    Unthan, Kristin; Gräf, Felix; Laumen, Marco; Finocchiaro, Thomas; Sommer, Christoph; Lanmüller, Hermann; Steinseifer, Ulrich

    2015-01-01

    As the number of donor hearts is limited while more and more patients suffer from end stage biventricular heart failure, Total Artificial Hearts become a promising alternative to conventional treatment. While pneumatic devices sufficiently supply the patients with blood flow, the patient's quality of life is limited by the percutaneous pressure lines and the size of the external control unit. This paper describes the development of the control unit of the ReinHeart, a fully implantable Total Artificial Heart. General requirements for any implantable control unit are defined from a technical and medical point of view: necessity of a Transcutaneous Energy Transmission, autonomous operation, safety, geometry, and efficiency. Based on the requirements, a prototype is designed; it incorporates a LiFePo4 battery pack with charger, a rectifier for transcutaneous energy transmission, the motor's driver electronics, and a microcontroller which monitors and controls all functions. In validation tests, the control unit demonstrated a stable operation on TET and battery supply and a safe switching from one supply to the other. The overall mean efficiency is 14% on TET and 22% on battery supply. The control unit is suitable for chronic animal trials of the ReinHeart. PMID:26583095

  18. Gas Dynamics, Characterization, and Calibration of Fast Flow Flight Cascade Impactor Quartz Crystal Microbalances (QCM) for Aerosol Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grant, J.R.; Thorpe, A. N.; James, C.; Michael, A.; Ware, M.; Senftle, F.; Smith, S.

    1997-01-01

    During recent high altitude flights, we have tested the aerosol section of the fast flow flight cascade impactor quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) on loan to Howard University from NASA. The aerosol mass collected during these flights was disappointingly small. Increasing the flow through the QCM did not correct the problem. It was clear that the instrument was not being operated under proper conditions for aerosol collect ion primarily because the gas dynamics is not well understood. A laboratory study was therefore undertaken using two different fast flow QCM's in an attempt to establish the gas flow characteristics of the aerosol sections and its effect on particle collection, Some tests were made at low temperatures but most of the work reported here was carried out at room temperature. The QCM is a cascade type impactor originally designed by May (1945) and later modified by Anderson (1966) and Mercer et al (1970) for chemical gas analysis. The QCM has been used extensively for collecting and sizing stratospheric aerosol particles. In this paper all flow rates are given or corrected and referred to in terms of air at STP. All of the flow meters were kept at STP. Although there have been several calibration and evaluation studies of moderate flow cascade impactors of less than or equal to 1 L/rein., there is little experimental information on the gas flow characteristics for fast flow rates greater than 1 L/rein.

  19. Design and Evaluation of a Fully Implantable Control Unit for Blood Pumps.

    PubMed

    Unthan, Kristin; Gräf, Felix; Laumen, Marco; Finocchiaro, Thomas; Sommer, Christoph; Lanmüller, Hermann; Steinseifer, Ulrich

    2015-01-01

    As the number of donor hearts is limited while more and more patients suffer from end stage biventricular heart failure, Total Artificial Hearts become a promising alternative to conventional treatment. While pneumatic devices sufficiently supply the patients with blood flow, the patient's quality of life is limited by the percutaneous pressure lines and the size of the external control unit. This paper describes the development of the control unit of the ReinHeart, a fully implantable Total Artificial Heart. General requirements for any implantable control unit are defined from a technical and medical point of view: necessity of a Transcutaneous Energy Transmission, autonomous operation, safety, geometry, and efficiency. Based on the requirements, a prototype is designed; it incorporates a LiFePo4 battery pack with charger, a rectifier for transcutaneous energy transmission, the motor's driver electronics, and a microcontroller which monitors and controls all functions. In validation tests, the control unit demonstrated a stable operation on TET and battery supply and a safe switching from one supply to the other. The overall mean efficiency is 14% on TET and 22% on battery supply. The control unit is suitable for chronic animal trials of the ReinHeart. PMID:26583095

  20. Clinical effects of immunotherapy of DC-CIK combined with chemotherapy in treating patients with metastatic breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Mao, Qixin; Li, Lianfang; Zhang, Chongjian; Sun, Yadong; Liu, Shanqing; Cui, Shude

    2015-05-01

    This study aimed to analyze the clinical effects of dendritic cell (DC) and cytokine-induced killer (CIK) immunotherapy combined with chemotherapy on patients with metastatic breast cancer. Twenty patients were included into this study who were diagnosed as metastatic breast cancer (MBC). DC and CIK were augmented by in vitro culture and then rein fused into body through vein.The pain relief rate (RR), toxic and side effects of chemotherapy, immunity functions and living quality of patients were observed. DC and CIK cells were induced by the autologous peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Meanwhile, flow cytometry was used to measure T cell subsets and natural killer T (NKT) cells in patients in the two groups before and after the biological treatment. After DC and CIK were rein fused into the patients body, no severe side-effect was found. It was also found that cellular immunotherapy combined with chemotherapy the immunotherapy of cells improved the immunity, the living quality of patients and the disease control rate (DCR). In conclusion, cellular immunotherapy produces small side effects; it combined with chemotherapyis able to improve the DCR and living quality of patients and prolong their lives. PMID:26051718

  1. Gravitational Instability in Planetesimal Disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolin, Bryce T.; Lithwick, Yoram; Pan, Margaret; Rein, Hanno; Wu, Yanqin

    2014-11-01

    Gravitational instability (GI) has been proposed as a method of forming giant gas planets enhanced by disk thermodynamics in a protoplanetary disk (Boss, 1997, Science 276; Durisen et al., 2007, Protostars and Planets V) and as a method of forming planetesimals through the focusing of boulders by the interaction between solids and gases in a turbulent circumstellar disk (Johansen et al., 2007, Nature 448; Youdin & Goodman, 2005, Astrophys. J. 620). GI is mediated through a gaseous circumstellar disk in each each of these scenarios. We explore the possibility of GI occurring in a planetesimal disk devoid of gas. In this regime, mutual collisions between planetesimals are required to dissipate their orbital shear and velocity dispersion enough for collapse to occur as described by the Toomre stability criterion (Toomre, 1964, Astrophys. J. 139; Toomre, 1981, Structure and Evolution of Normal Galaxies). How frequent must collisions be between planetesimals in a gravitationally stable planetesimal disk for GI to occur? Are there collisional rates where GI is postponed indefinitely in an equilibrium state between gravitational stirring and collisional cooling? We present 3D shearing sheet simulations using the REBOUND N-body code with the symplectic epicyclic integrator (Rein & Liu, 2011, A&A 537; Rein & Tremaine, 2011, MNRAS 415) in which the candidate collision rates are within a few orders of magnitude of the disk dynamical lifetime. Our simulations suggest that collisions rate directly controls disk cooling. The shape of the disk cooling curve is independent of the collision rate when scaled to the collision time.

  2. Assessment of the impact of Aluminum on germination, early growth and free proline content in Lactuca sativa L.

    PubMed

    Silva, Patrícia; Matos, Manuela

    2016-09-01

    Aluminum (Al) toxicity is a major problem in crop production on acid soils. The use of industrial or municipal wastewaters, which may be contaminated with metals, for irrigation in agriculture is common over the world. This action can increase the concentration of these agents in the soil and decrease crops yields. In order to evaluate the toxicological effects of recommended Al levels in irrigation water, under acidic conditions, on lettuce, seeds of two cultivars ("cv Reine de Mai" and "cv White Boston") were exposed to five different Al concentrations (0, 0.05, 0.5, 5 and 20mg/L) and germination percentage, root and shoot lengths were measured. Also, the germination rate and the vigor index were calculated, and the proline content was estimated for all concentrations. Results showed that seed germination was not negatively affected by Al, but the germination rate decreased in both cultivars. For the other factors analyzed, with the exception of 20mg/L concentration for "cv White Boston", Al induced, in general, negative effects including the content of proline that increased in the seeds that were exposed to this metal. The "cv Reine de Mai" was more sensitive for the analyzed concentrations than the other cultivar.. The results indicated that even recommended Al concentrations for irrigation, under acidic conditions, can interfere negatively in seed germination and seedling establishment and possibly with crop production. PMID:27229755

  3. Multispectral Digital Image Analysis of Varved Sediments in Thin Sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jäger, K.; Rein, B.; Dietrich, S.

    2006-12-01

    An update of the recently developed method COMPONENTS (Rein, 2003, Rein & Jäger, subm.) for the discrimination of sediment components in thin sections is presented here. COMPONENTS uses a 6-band (multispectral) image analysis. To derive six-band spectral information of the sediments, thin sections are scanned with a digital camera mounted on a polarizing microscope. The thin sections are scanned twice, under polarized and under unpolarized plain light. During each run RGB images are acquired which are subsequently stacked to a six-band file. The first three bands (Blue=1, Green=2, Red=3) result from the spectral behaviour in the blue, green and red band with unpolarized light conditions, and the bands 4 to 6 (Blue=4, Green=5, Red=6) from the polarized light run. The next step is the discrimination of the sediment components by their transmission behaviour. Automatic classification algorithms broadly used in remote sensing applications cannot be used due to unavoidable variations of sediment particle or thin section thicknesses that change absolute grey values of the sediment components. Thus, we use an approach based on band ratios, also known as indices. By using band ratios, the grey values measured in different bands are normalized against each other and illumination variations (e.g. thickness variations) are eliminated. By combining specific ratios we are able to detect all seven major components in the investigated sediments (carbonates, diatoms, fine clastic material, plant rests, pyrite, quartz and resin). Then, the classification results (compositional maps) are validated. Although the automatic classification and the analogous classification show high concordances, some systematic errors could be identified. For example, the transition zone between the sediment and resin filled cracks is classified as fine clastic material and very coarse carbonates are partly classified as quartz because coarse carbonates can be very bright and spectra are partly

  4. Measurement of Neutral Current Neutral Pion Production on Carbon in a Few-GeV Neutrino Beam

    SciTech Connect

    Kurimoto, Yoshinori

    2010-01-01

    Understanding of the π0 production via neutrino-nucleus neutral current interaction in the neutrino energy region of a few GeV is essential for the neutrino oscillation experiments. In this thesis, we present a study of neutral current π0 production from muon neutrinos scattering on a polystyrene (C8H8) target in the SciBooNE experiment. All neutrino beam data corresponding to 0.99 × 1020 protons on target have been analyzed. We have measured the cross section ratio of the neutral current π0 production to the total charge current interaction and the π0 kinematic distribution such as momentum and direction. We obtain [7.7 ± 0.5(stat.) ± 0.5(sys.)] × 10-2 as the ratio of the neutral current neutral pion production to total charged current cross section; the mean energy of neutrinos producing detected neutral pions is 1.1 GeV. The result agrees with the Rein- Sehgal model, which is generally used for the Monte Carlo simulation by many neutrino oscillation experiments. We achieve less than 10 % uncertainty which is required for the next generation search for νµ → νe oscillation. The spectrum shape of the π0 momentum and the distribution of the π0 emitted angle agree with the prediction, which means that not only the Rein-Sehgal model but also the intra-nuclear interaction models describe our data well. We also measure the ratio of the neutral current coherent pion production to total charged current cross section to be (1.17 ± 0.23 ) × 10-2 based on the Rein and Sehgal model. The result gives the evidence for non-zero coherent pion production via neutral current interaction at the mean neutrino energy of 1.0 GeV.

  5. Tracking the implementation of green credit policy in China: top-down perspective and bottom-up reform.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bing; Yang, Yan; Bi, Jun

    2011-04-01

    The Chinese government has introduced the green credit policy to mitigate the environmental impact of industrialization by reining in credit loans to companies and projects with poor environmental performance. This research investigated the implementation of the green credit policy both at the national and provincial levels. Our results show that the green credit policy is not fully implemented. The wide-ranging impact on high-polluting and high energy-consuming industries, vague policy details unclear implementing standards, and lack of environmental information are the main problems in the implementation of the green credit policy in China. On the other hand, the practice at local level (Jiangsu Province) is more practical by integrating green credit policy with the environmental performance rating system. Finally, suggestions are outlined to improve China's green credit policy. PMID:21220183

  6. Culture, social organization, and patterns of violence.

    PubMed

    Cohen, D

    1998-08-01

    Traditional social theorizing holds that strong and cohesive family, community, and religious institutions rein in violence. However, in cultures where certain types of violence are condoned, this should not be true. Specifically, in the U.S. South and West, where culture-of-honor traditions persist, greater social organization should be associated with more violence. This pattern was confirmed in examinations of argument-related homicide rates (Study 1); mass consumption patterns for violence in entertainment, recreation, and vocational pursuits (Study 2); and voting patterns of political elites on gun control and national defense issues (Study 3). Across the 3 studies, social organization was associated with effects in the South and West opposite of what they were in the North. Implications for general theories of cultural evolution, suggesting a cycle in the way societies crystallize and change, are discussed. PMID:9731316

  7. Neutrino induced coherent pion production

    SciTech Connect

    Hernandez, E.; Nieves, J.; Valverde, M.; Vicente-Vacas, M. J.

    2010-03-30

    We discuss different parameterizations of the C{sub 5}{sup A}(q{sup 2}) NDELTA form factor, fitted to the old Argonne bubble chamber data for pion production by neutrinos, and we use coherent pion production to test their low q{sup 2} behavior. We find moderate effects that will be difficult to observe with the accuracy of present experiments. We also discuss the use of the Rein-Sehgal model for low energy coherent pion production. By comparison to a microscopic calculation, we show the weaknesses some of the approximations in that model that lead to very large cross sections as well as to the wrong shapes for differential ones. Finally we show that models based on the partial conservation of the axial current hypothesis are not fully reliable for differential cross sections that depend on the angle formed by the pion and the incident neutrino.

  8. KSC-04PD-0158

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. Armando Oliu, Final Inspection Team lead for the Shuttle program, speaks to reporters about the aid the Image Analysis Lab is giving the FBI in a kidnapping case. Behind him at right is Mike Rein, External Affairs division chief. Oliu oversees the image lab that is using an advanced SGI TP9500 data management system to review the tape of the kidnapping in progress in Sarasota, Fla. KSC installed the new $3.2 million system in preparation for Return to Flight of the Space Shuttle fleet. The lab is studying the Sarasota kidnapping video to provide any new information possible to law enforcement officers. KSC is joining NASAs Marshall Space Flight Center in Alabama in reviewing the tape.

  9. Prescription Drug Monitoring Programs Are Associated With Sustained Reductions In Opioid Prescribing By Physicians.

    PubMed

    Bao, Yuhua; Pan, Yijun; Taylor, Aryn; Radakrishnan, Sharmini; Luo, Feijun; Pincus, Harold Alan; Schackman, Bruce R

    2016-06-01

    State prescription drug monitoring programs are promising tools to rein in the epidemic of prescription opioid overdose. We used data from a national survey to assess the effects of these programs on the prescribing of opioid analgesics and other pain medications in ambulatory care settings at the point of care in twenty-four states from 2001 to 2010. We found that the implementation of a prescription drug monitoring program was associated with more than a 30 percent reduction in the rate of prescribing of Schedule II opioids. This reduction was seen immediately following the launch of the program and was maintained in the second and third years afterward. Effects on overall opioid prescribing and prescribing of non-opioid analgesics were limited. Increased use of these programs and the adoption of new policies and practices governing their use may have contributed to sustained effectiveness. Future studies are needed to evaluate the policies' comparative effectiveness. PMID:27269021

  10. {open_quotes}Super{close_quotes} Japanese site gears up to sole neutrino puzzle

    SciTech Connect

    Normile, D.

    1995-11-03

    Ever since Wolfgang Pauli proposed the existence of neutrinos in 1930 to explain some puzzling features of the radioactive decay of certain atoms, expermentalists have labored hard to detect enough of the elusive particles to determine their properties. It took 26 years to prove that Pauli`s particle even exits-a feat for which Frederick Reines of the University of California (UC), Irvine, won the Nobel Prize last month. Soon, however, physicists will be capturing neutrinos in unprecedented numbers in a 50,000-metric-ton tank that will fill with water starting next month. Researchers hope that this colossal waterbath will yield an answer to one of the most pressing questions is cosmology and high-energy physics: Do neutrinos have mass?The $100 million experiment, called Super-Kamiokande, in located in a lead mine west of Tokyo. This article describes the work to be conducted.

  11. Detecting the Neutrino

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arns, Robert G.

    In 1930 Wolfgang Pauli suggested that a new particle might be required to make sense of the radioactive-disintegration mode known as beta decay. This conjecture initially seemed impossible to verify since the new particle, which became known as the neutrino, was uncharged, had zero or small mass, and interacted only insignificantly with other matter. In 1951 Frederick Reines and Clyde L. Cowan, Jr., of the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory undertook the difficult task of detecting the free neutrino by observing its inverse beta-decay interaction with matter. They succeeded in 1956. The neutrino was accepted rapidly as a fundamental particle despite discrepancies in reported details of the experiments and despite the absence of independent verification of the result. This paper describes the experiments, examines the nature of the discrepancies, and discusses the circumstances of the acceptance of the neutrino's detection by the physics community.

  12. A Blended Learning Course Design in Clinical Pharmacology for Post-graduate Dental Students.

    PubMed

    Rosenbaum, Paul-Erik Lillholm; Mikalsen, Oyvind; Lygre, Henning; Solheim, Einar; Schjøtt, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Postgraduate courses in clinical pharmacology are important for dentists to be updated on drug therapy and information related to their clinical practice, as well as knowledge of relevant adverse effects and interactions. A traditional approach with classroom delivery as the only method to teaching and learning has shortcomings regarding flexibility, individual learning preferences, and problem based learning (PBL) activities compared to online environments. This study examines a five week postgraduate course in clinical pharmacology with 15 hours of lectures and online learning activities, i.e. blended course design. Six postgraduate dental students participated and at the end of the course they were interviewed. Our findings emphasize that a blended learning course design can be successfully used in postgraduate dental education. Key matters for discussion were time flexibility and location convenience, change in teacher's role, rein-forced learning strategies towards professional needs, scarcity in online communication, and proposed future utilization of e-learning components. PMID:23248716

  13. Congruences for the Andrews spt function.

    PubMed

    Ono, Ken

    2011-01-11

    Ramanujan-type congruences for the Andrews spt(n) partition function have been found for prime moduli 5 ≤ ℓ ≤ 37 in the work of Andrews [Andrews GE, (2008) J Reine Angew Math 624:133-142] and Garvan [Garvan F, (2010) Int J Number Theory 6:1-29]. We exhibit unexpectedly simple congruences for all ℓ≥5. Confirming a conjecture of Garvan, we show that if ℓ≥5 is prime and (-δ/ℓ) = 1, then spt[(ℓ2(ℓn+δ)+1)/24] ≡ 0 (mod ℓ). This congruence gives (ℓ - 1)/2 arithmetic progressions modulo ℓ(3) which support a mod ℓ congruence. This result follows from the surprising fact that the reduction of a certain mock theta function modulo ℓ, for every ℓ≥5, is an eigenform of the Hecke operator T(ℓ(2)). PMID:21177432

  14. KSC-05PD-0359

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. During an End-to-End (ETE) Mission Management Team (MMT) launch simulation at KSC, Mike Rein, division chief of Media Services, and Lisa Malone, director of External Relations and Business Development at KSC, work the consoles. In Firing Room 1 at KSC, Shuttle launch team members put the Shuttle system through an integrated simulation. The control room is set up with software used to simulate flight and ground systems in the launch configuration. The ETE MMT simulation included L-2 and L-1 day Prelaunch MMT meetings, an external tanking/weather briefing, and a launch countdown. The ETE transitioned to the Johnson Space Center for the flight portion of the simulation, with the STS-114 crew in a simulator at JSC. Such simulations are common before a launch to keep the Shuttle launch team sharp and ready for liftoff.

  15. Preventing Proximal Adjacent Level Kyphosis With Strap Stabilization.

    PubMed

    Zaghloul, Khaled M; Matoian, Brett J; Denardin, Nicholas B; Patel, Vikas V

    2016-07-01

    A substantial proportion of patients develop proximal junctional kyphosis following spinal surgery. To combat this postoperative change, several techniques have focused on maintaining the structural integrity of adjacent spinal levels and adapting the proximal end of the fusion construct to accommodate the increased mechanical stressors produced by long spinal fusion. The use of Mersilene tape (Ethicon, Somerville, New Jersey) for spine and orthopedic surgery is well documented, although considerably less is known about its use for preventing proximal junctional kyphosis. This article describes a proposed technique using Mersilene tape to provide a check-rein strap stabilization at the proximal end of fusion constructs. Initial data suggest that use of this technique may prevent formation of proximal junctional kyphosis. [Orthopedics. 2016; 39(4):e794-e799.]. PMID:27158827

  16. Military Wives' Transition and Coping: Deployment and the Return Home

    PubMed Central

    Marnocha, Suzanne

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this qualitative study is to explore the experiences of wives of deployed soldiers. Semistructured interviews were used to answer the research questions. Meleis' Transitions Theory was used to guide the understanding of the wives' experiences. Phase One: news of deployment, property of awareness, themes of emotional chaos and making preparations. Phase Two: during deployment, property of engagement, themes of taking the reins and placing focus elsewhere, along with the property of change and difference, with themes of emotional and physical turmoil, staying strong, and reaching out. Phase Three: after deployment, property of time span, themes of absence makes the heart grow fonder and reestablishing roles. The study concluded that the wife often feels forgotten during deployment. Nurses can give better care by understanding how the different phases of deployment and separation affect the wife's coping ability and her physical and emotional health. PMID:22844613

  17. Industry decries sharp decline in U. S. offshore activity

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-05-11

    Roadblocks to offshore activity in the U.S. drew much of the spotlight at the 24th Offshore Technology Conference last week in Houston. Among OTC highlights included in this paper are: Two panels reviewed how federal leasing moratoriums and regulatory restrictions are reining U.S. offshore development. Conoco Inc.'s manager of exploration and development in Russia detailed the allure of giant and supergiant fields in the Commonwealth of Independent States and reviewed the status of the company's efforts to negotiate E and D deals with Russian partners. Minerals Management Service officials reviewed environmental challenges facing operators on the U.S. Outer Continental Shelf and new MMS inspection strategies in the Gulf of Mexico. The 1992 OTC Distinguished Achievement Award for companies went to Brazil's Petroleo Brasileiro SA for deepwater development records set with the 3 Marlim well in the Campos basin off Brazil.

  18. Equivariant spectral asymptotics for h-pseudodifferential operators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weich, Tobias

    2014-10-01

    We prove equivariant spectral asymptotics for h-pseudodifferential operators for compact orthogonal group actions generalizing results of El Houakmi and Helffer ["Comportement semi-classique en présence de symétries: Action d'un groupe de Lie compact," Asymp. Anal. 5(2), 91-113 (1991)] and Cassanas ["Reduced Gutzwiller formula with symmetry: Case of a Lie group," J. Math. Pures Appl. 85(6), 719-742 (2006)]. Using recent results for certain oscillatory integrals with singular critical sets [P. Ramacher, "Singular equivariant asymptotics and Weyl's law: On the distribution of eigenvalues of an invariant elliptic operator," J. Reine Angew. Math. (Crelles J.) (to be published)], we can deduce a weak equivariant Weyl law. Furthermore, we can prove a complete asymptotic expansion for the Gutzwiller trace formula without any additional condition on the group action by a suitable generalization of the dynamical assumptions on the Hamilton flow.

  19. A Blended Learning Course Design in Clinical Pharmacology for Post-graduate Dental Students

    PubMed Central

    Rosenbaum, Paul-Erik Lillholm; Mikalsen, Øyvind; Lygre, Henning; Solheim, Einar; Schjøtt, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Postgraduate courses in clinical pharmacology are important for dentists to be updated on drug therapy and information related to their clinical practice, as well as knowledge of relevant adverse effects and interactions. A traditional approach with classroom delivery as the only method to teaching and learning has shortcomings regarding flexibility, individual learning preferences, and problem based learning (PBL) activities compared to online environments. This study examines a five week postgraduate course in clinical pharmacology with 15 hours of lectures and online learning activities, i.e. blended course design. Six postgraduate dental students participated and at the end of the course they were interviewed. Our findings emphasize that a blended learning course design can be successfully used in postgraduate dental education. Key matters for discussion were time flexibility and location convenience, change in teacher’s role, rein-forced learning strategies towards professional needs, scarcity in online communication, and proposed future utilization of e-learning components. PMID:23248716

  20. KSC-04PD-0280

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. NASA Administrator Sean OKeefe talks to the media at the Central Florida Research Park, near Orlando. He and government officials were at the park for a presentation about the assets of the research park as the site of NASAs new Shared Services Center. Behind OKeefe are (left to right) Pamella J. Dana, Ph.D., director, Office of Tourism, Trade, and Economic Development in Florida; Florida Congressman Tom Feeney; U.S. Representative Ric Keller; and Congressman Dave Weldon. At right is Mike Rein, division chief of KSC External Affairs. Six sites around the U.S. are under consideration for location of the Center, which would centralize NASAs payroll, accounting, human resources, facilities and procurement offices that are now handled at each field center. The consolidation is part of the One NASA focus. Others attending the presentation included U.S. Senator Bill Nelson and Center Director Jim Kennedy.

  1. KSC-04PD-0290

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. NASA Administrator Sean OKeefe talks to the media at the Central Florida Research Park, near Orlando. He and government officials were at the park for a presentation about the assets of the research park as the site of NASAs new Shared Services Center. Behind OKeefe are (left to right) Pamella J. Dana, Ph.D., director, Office of Tourism, Trade, and Economic Development in Florida; U.S. Representative Ric Keller; Florida Congressman Tom Feeney; and Congressman Dave Weldon. At right is Mike Rein, division chief of KSC External Affairs. Six sites around the U.S. are under consideration for location of the Center, which would centralize NASAs payroll, accounting, human resources, facilities and procurement offices that are now handled at each field center. The consolidation is part of the One NASA focus. Others attending the presentation included U.S. Senator Bill Nelson and Center Director Jim Kennedy.

  2. “Acceptation” et tolérance des allogreffes : nouveau concept

    PubMed Central

    STARZL, Thomas E.

    2010-01-01

    RÉSUMÉ La découverte du microchimérisme dans la transplantation de rein et de foie a permis de mieux comprendre « l’acceptation » des allogreffes, l’analyse des problèmes de conditionnement et la recherche de nouvelles orientations dans le traitement des greffes. En fonction de ce nouveau concept, seront ici discutées les relations avec les maladies infectieuses provoquées par des micro-organismes non cytopathologiques, les réponses aux questions autrefois posées, la réaction immunologique et les implications dans le domaine de l’immunologie générale. PMID:9622934

  3. Proceedings of the 1973 Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center Endocrine Program Conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Papers given at the conference are presented. Subjects covered include the following: biochemical changes during 28 days of space flight, modulating the pituitary-adrenal response to stress, the significance of biorhythms in space flight, the importance of the rein-angiotensin system in normal cardiovascular homeostasis, a progress report of stress-induced changes in corticosteroid metabolism, recent studies of physiological factors involved in the regulation of serotonin content and turnover in the brain, the role of brain biogenic amines in the control of pituitary-adrenocortical activity, application of the water immersion model to man by studies of acid-base homeostasis during simulated weightlessness, the present status of physiological studies and analysis of calcium homeostasis in the Apollo and Skylab programs, and endocrine considerations in the red-cell-mass and plasma-volume changes of Skylab 2 and 3 crews.

  4. The emotionally competent leader.

    PubMed

    Goleman, D

    1998-01-01

    Aristotle once challenged man "to be angry with the right person, to the right degree, at the right time, for the right purpose, and in the right way" (The Nicomachean Ethics). Daniel Goleman, Ph.D., a journalist for the New York Times, expands on this statement in his new book, "Emotional Intelligence." He defines emotional intelligence as the ability to rein in emotional impulses, to read another's innermost feelings and to handle relationships and conflict smoothly. This new model of intelligence puts emotions at the center of our aptitudes for living. Goleman asserts that these emotional aptitudes can preserve relationships, protect our health and improve our success at work. The following adaptation from "Emotional Intelligence" (Bantam Books, 1995) offers suggestions to managers and supervisors on how they can create a more cost-effective and healthier workplace for their employees by becoming more aware of their own emotional. intelligence. PMID:10177113

  5. Efficient calculation of the polarizability: a simplified effective-energy technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berger, J. A.; Reining, L.; Sottile, F.

    2012-09-01

    In a recent publication [J.A. Berger, L. Reining, F. Sottile, Phys. Rev. B 82, 041103(R) (2010)] we introduced the effective-energy technique to calculate in an accurate and numerically efficient manner the GW self-energy as well as the polarizability, which is required to evaluate the screened Coulomb interaction W. In this work we show that the effective-energy technique can be used to further simplify the expression for the polarizability without a significant loss of accuracy. In contrast to standard sum-over-state methods where huge summations over empty states are required, our approach only requires summations over occupied states. The three simplest approximations we obtain for the polarizability are explicit functionals of an independent- or quasi-particle one-body reduced density matrix. We provide evidence of the numerical accuracy of this simplified effective-energy technique as well as an analysis of our method.

  6. Henry Hutchinson Stewart (1798-1879): from page to philanthropist.

    PubMed

    Breathnach, C S

    1998-03-01

    Henry Hutchinson Stewart [1798-1879] began life as a page to the Vice-Reine and came to the study of medicine rather belatedly. After some years in general practice he was appointed Governor to the Hospitals of the Houses of Industry in Dublin. In 1856 he was responsible for the removal of forgotten, friendless mental patients from the Houses of Industry to a disused hotel at Lucan outside the city. Later on, when a committee proposed to provide a training institution for the menatlly handicapped, he handed over his premises in Lucan to them with its annual income in addition to a donation. In his will he bequeathed further substantial sums to the Institution which still bears his name, and money was also made available to the Irish Universities to found valuable scholarships. PMID:11620006

  7. Oil and gas resources on special federal lands: Wilderness and wildlife refuges

    SciTech Connect

    Stege, A.; Beyea, J.

    1986-01-01

    Based on the analysis presented in this paper, the authors expect that more than 94% of US oil and gas resources will eventually be available to energy companies. This does not, however, mean that energy exploitation can be given free rein in areas that are open for development. The ease with which ecosystems can be damaged by development necessitates careful vigilance over the environmental impacts of energy activities in all areas. Laudable progress has been made in the past decade by some of the larger oil companies that have accepted the need to seriously pursue mitigation methods. Nevertheless, oil and gas companies would be wise to expand their efforts to develop environmentally sound methods of exploration and extraction that are suitable for the great percentage of land, both public and private, on which such activities need not, or will not, be prohibited completely.

  8. Wie alles begann

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steger, Almut

    An deutschen Universitäten entstand die Statistik als selbständige Wissenschaft vor gut 250 Jahren. Sie war zunächst reine Staatenbeschreibung. Erst im 19. Jahrhundert bildete sich der heutige Begriff von Statistik heraus. In mehreren Ländern gründete man damals statistische Vereine und länderübergreifend das Internationale Statistische Institut (ISI). Die deutschen Statistiker waren zwar ebenfalls national und international sehr aktiv, doch zur Gründung der Deutschen Statistischen Gesellschaft kam es erst 1911. Das Kapitel beschreibt diese Entwicklung, besonders ausführlich den Gründungsprozess. Danach wird über die schon mit der Gründung beginnenden, äußerst regen und zum Teil kontrovers ausgetragenen wissenschaftlichen Diskussionen berichtet, die jedoch mit dem Kriegsausbruch 1914 weitgehend zum Erliegen kamen.

  9. [Nicolas and Camille Husson, chemists, archeologists, researchers ... in toul, during the second part of the 19th century].

    PubMed

    Labrude, P; Nodet, R

    1997-01-01

    Nicolas Husson (1814-1890) was chemist in Toul from 1843-1844 to 1875-1876. He was also a member of the town council and deputy of the mayor, in charge of questions interesting education and attendance. Collector, author of some 40 papers, he was very interested in archeology, geology and hygiene in the neighbourhood of Toul. He explored there holes such "Les Trous de Sainte-Reine" and "Le Trou des Celtes". His son Camille (1843-1886) was first a military chemist but he joined soon his father. He was essentially an independant researcher in chemical and alimentary analysis, toxicology and hygiene. Also the author of numerous papers and archeologist, he became national correspondent of the Academy of medicine and chairman of the "Société de pharmacie de Lorraine". PMID:11625174

  10. Neutrino-induced meson productions off nucleon at forward limit in nucleon resonance region

    SciTech Connect

    Nakamura, S. X.; Kamano, H.; Lee, T.-S. H.; Sato, T.

    2015-05-15

    We study forward neutrino-induced meson production off the nucleon in the resonance region. Our calculation is based on a dynamical coupled-channels (DCC) model that reasonably describes π(γ)N → πN, ηN, KΛ, KΣ data in the resonance region. We apply the PCAC hypothesis to the DCC model to relate the πN reaction amplitude to the forward neutrino reaction amplitude. In this way, we give a prediction for νN → πN, ππN, ηN, KΛ, KΣ reaction cross sections. The predicted νN → ππN, ηN, KΛ, KΣ cross sections are, for the first time, based on a model extensively tested by data. We compare our results with those from the Rein-Sehgal model that has been very often used in the existing Monte Carlo simulators for neutrino experiments. We find a significant difference between them.

  11. Measurement of Charged Pions from Neutrino-produced Nuclear Resonance

    SciTech Connect

    Simon, Clifford N.

    2014-01-01

    A method for identifying stopped pions in a high-resolution scintillator bar detector is presented. I apply my technique to measure the axial mass MΔAfor production of the Δ(1232) resonance by neutrino, with the result MΔA = 1.16±0.20 GeV (68% CL) (limited by statistics). The result is produced from the measured spectrum of reconstructed momentum-transfer Q2. I proceed by varying the value of MΔA in a Rein-Sehgal-based Monte Carlo to produce the best agreement, using shape only (not normalization). The consistency of this result with recent reanalyses of previous bubble-chamber experiments is discussed.

  12. Mock circulation loop to investigate hemolysis in a pulsatile total artificial heart.

    PubMed

    Gräf, Felix; Finocchiaro, Thomas; Laumen, Marco; Mager, Ilona; Steinseifer, Ulrich

    2015-05-01

    Hemocompatibility of blood pumps is a crucial parameter that has to be ensured prior to in vivo testing. In contrast to rotary blood pumps, a standard for testing a pulsatile total artificial heart (TAH) has not yet been established. Therefore, a new mock circulation loop was designed to investigate hemolysis in the left ventricle of the ReinHeart TAH. Its main features are a high hemocompatibility, physiological conditions, a low priming volume, and the conduction of blood through a closed tubing system. The mock circulation loop consists of a noninvasive pressure chamber, an aortic compliance chamber, and an atrium directly connected to the ventricle. As a control pump, the clinically approved Medos-HIA ventricular assist device (VAD) was used. The pumps were operated at 120 beats per minute with an aortic pressure of 120 to 80 mm Hg and a mean atrial pressure of 10 mm Hg, generating an output flow of about 5 L/min. Heparinized porcine blood was used. A series of six identical tests were performed. A test method was established that is comparable to ASTM F 1841, which is standard practice for the assessment of hemolysis in continuous-flow blood pumps. The average normalized index of hemolysis (NIH) values of the VAD and the ReinHeart TAH were 0.018 g/100 L and 0.03 g/100 L, respectively. The standard deviation of the NIH was 0.0033 for the VAD and 0.0034 for the TAH. Furthermore, a single test with a BPX-80 Bio-Pump was performed to verify that the hemolysis induced by the mock circulation loop was negligible. The performed tests showed a good reproducibility and statistical significance. The mock circulation loop and test protocol developed in this study are valid methods to investigate the hemolysis induced by a pulsatile blood pump. PMID:25586541

  13. A spiral galaxy's mass distribution uncovered through lensing and dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trick, Wilma H.; van de Ven, Glenn; Dutton, Aaron A.

    2016-09-01

    We investigate the matter distribution of a spiral galaxy with a counter-rotating stellar core, SDSS J1331+3628 (J1331), independently with gravitational lensing and stellar dynamical modelling. By fitting a gravitational potential model to a quadruplet of lensing images around J1331's bulge, we tightly constrain the mass inside the Einstein radius Rein = (0.91 ± 0.02)″( ≃ 1.83 ± 0.04~kpc) to within 4%: Mein = (7.8 ± 0.3) × 1010M⊙. We model observed long-slit major axis stellar kinematics in J1331's central regions by finding Multi-Gaussian Expansion (MGE) models for the stellar and dark matter distribution that solve the axisymmetric Jeans equations. The lens and dynamical model are independently derived, but in very good agreement with each other around ˜Rein. We find that J1331's center requires a steep total mass-to-light ratio gradient. A dynamical model including a NFW halo (with virial velocity v200 ≃ 240 ± 40~kms-1 and concentration c200 ≃ 8 ± 2) and moderate tangential velocity anisotropy (βz ≃ -0.4 ± 0.1) can reproduce the signatures of J1331's counter-rotating core and predict the stellar and gas rotation curve at larger radii. However, our models do not agree with the observed velocity dispersion at large radii. We speculate that the reason could be a non-trivial change in structure and kinematics due to a possible merger event in J1331's recent past.

  14. Implementation of a radiology electronic imaging network: the community teaching hospital experience.

    PubMed

    Arreola, M; Neiman, H L; Sugarman, A; Laurenti, L; Forys, R

    1997-08-01

    Because of their typically small in-house computer and network staff, non-university hospitals often hesitate to consider picture archiving and communication system (PACS) as a solution to the very demanding financial, clinical, and technological needs of today's Radiology Department. This article presents the experiences of the 3-year process for the design and implementation of the Radiology Electronic Imaging Network (REIN) in the Department of Radiology at The Western Pennsylvania Hospital (WPH). WPH embarked on this project in late 1994 to find a solution to the very pressing demands to reduce operating costs and improve service to primary care clinicians, both on-site and at WPH-affiliated clinics. A five-member committee consisting of in-house medical, administrative, information services, and medical physics staff was formed to design a network that would satisfy specific needs of WPH by using a phased mini-PACS approach and to select the various vendors to implement it. Suppliers for individual mini-PACS were selected to provide modality-specific solutions. For the backbone network, vendors were evaluated based on their technological progress, competence and resources, the commitment of the company to the imaging network business, and their willingness to embark on a mid-sized PACS project such as this. Based on patient volume, workflow patterns, and image quality requirements, the committee produced proposals detailing number and location of workstations, short- and long-term memory requirements, and so on. Computed tomography/magnetic resonance imaging, computer radiography, ultrasound, nuclear medicine, digital fluoroscopy, and angiography mini-PACS have been implemented over the past 2 years, and most of these are already integrated into the main REIN. This article presents detailed information concerning the design, selection and implementation processes, including storage requirement calculations. This indicates that PACS implementation is achievable

  15. FIELD DEMONSTRATION OF CARBON DIOXIDE MISCIBLE FLOODING IN THE LANSING-KANSAS CITY FORMATION, CENTRAL KANSAS

    SciTech Connect

    Alan P. Byrnes; G. Paul Willhite

    2003-01-01

    Progress is reported for the period from October 1, 2002 to December 31, 2002. On September 27, 2002 the US DOE approved the proposed modified plan to flood a 10+-acre pattern. On November 1, 2002 Murfin Drilling Company purchased the 70-acre pilot area and will continue as the operator of the pilot. Murfin is seeking working interest partners and meetings with local small independents were conducted. To date, White Eagle Resources and John O. Farmer Oil Company have committed to working interest in the project. Arrangements have been made with Rein Operating to test the Rein No. 7 water supply well on the neighboring lease. Based on review of wellbore conditions in the Colliver No. 9 and No. 16 it has been decided to use the No. 16 in the pilot. A new tank battery was installed near the Colliver No. 10 well and the existing producers plumbed to the new tank battery to isolate production from the pilot area. Reservoir simulations have indicated that the low-permeability interval in the Carter-Colliver CO2I No. 1 injection well below 2,900 ft does not exhibit sufficient injectivity to warrant special stimulation or conformance treatment programs at the present time. Discussions have been initiated with FLOCO2 and preliminary conditions have been agreed upon for the exchange of CO2 for the use of storage and pump equipment at the pilot. A short-term injection test and the well reworks have been scheduled. Proposed modifications to the project plan were reviewed in the previous quarterly technical progress report. A presentation was given at the DOE Class II Review Meeting in Midland, TX on December 12, 2002.

  16. Obituary: Glenn M. Frye (1926-2007)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fickinger, William

    2011-12-01

    Glenn M. Frye, professor emeritus of physics at Case Western Reserve University, died in January 2007. His research interests at Case centered on the detection and identification of cosmic rays at the top of the atmosphere. Glenn was born in Michigan in 1926. He completed both his undergraduate and graduate studies at the University of Michigan. After earning his doctorate in 1950, he joined the nuclear physics research staff at Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory. Frye's research changed direction when he joined Fred Reines, who was also at LASL, in a cosmic ray experiment. In 1959, Reines moved east to become chair of the Case Institute of Technology physics department, and the following year Frye joined him there. The first years at Case Tech were devoted to the development of the rather complex spark chamber detectors which were destined to be suspended from high altitude balloons. Frye s experiments would be carried by the winds for hundreds of miles at altitudes greater than thirty miles, in both the northern and southern hemispheres. The maiden flights were launched in 1965 from the Palestine, Texas National Center for Atmospheric Research Balloon Base. The object was to search for gammas in the 30 to 500 MeV range coming from discrete point sources. Three years later the Frye team, along with collaborators from the University of Melbourne, reported success in this search. In a later Texas flight, high energy gammas were observed to come from the direction of the Crab Nebula, and, much more significantly, they arrived in the correct one millisecond bin of the known thirty millisecond period of the responsible pulsar. In later flights, involving ever more sophisticated detection schemes, Frye and his team collected valuable data on energetic gamma rays emitted by a dozen other sources. Through the 1970s and 1980s, they employed detectors with improved sensitivity and directionality to determine the energy distribution of cosmic gammas. With the participation of

  17. The kidneys in the Bible: what happened?

    PubMed

    Eknoyan, Garabed

    2005-12-01

    The kidneys, always used in the plural (kelayot), are mentioned more than 30 times in the Bible. In the Pentateuch, the kidneys are cited 11 times in the detailed instructions given for the sacrificial offering of animals at the altar. Whereas those instructions were for purification ceremonies at the Temple, sacrificial offerings were made subsequently in seeking divine intervention for the relief of medical problems. In the books of the Bible that follow the Pentateuch, mostly in Jeremiah and Psalms, the human kidneys are cited figuratively as the site of temperament, emotions, prudence, vigor, and wisdom. In five instances, they are mentioned as the organs examined by God to judge an individual. They are cited either before or after but always in conjunction with the heart as mirrors of the psyche of the person examined. There is also reference to the kidneys as the site of divine punishment for misdemeanors, committed or perceived, particularly in the book of Job, whose suffering and ailments are legendary. In the first vernacular versions of the Bible in English, the translators elected to use the term "reins" instead of kidneys in differentiating the metaphoric uses of human kidneys from that of their mention as anatomic organs of sacrificial animals burned at the altar. This initial effort at linguistic purity or gentility has progressed further in recent versions of the Bible, in which the reins are now replaced by the soul or the mind. The erosion may have begun in the centuries that followed the writing of the Bible, when recognition of the kidneys as excretory organs deprived them of the ancient aura of mysterious organs hidden deep in the body but accessible to the look of God. At approximately the same time, Greek analytical philosophy argued that the brain, which is never mentioned in the Bible, was the most divine and sacred part of the body. This argument gained ground in the past century, when the functions of the brain were elucidated, and

  18. The Importance of Nebular Continuum and Line Emission in Observations of Young Massive Star Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reines, Amy E.; Nidever, David L.; Whelan, David G.; Johnson, Kelsey E.

    2010-01-01

    In this spectroscopic study of infant massive star clusters, we find that continuum emission from ionized gas rivals the stellar luminosity at optical wavelengths. In addition, we find that nebular line emission is significant in many commonly used broadband Hubble Space Telescope (HST) filters including the F814W I-band, the F555W V-band, and the F435W B-band. Two young massive clusters (YMCs) in the nearby starburst galaxy NGC 4449 were targeted for follow-up spectroscopic observations after Reines et al. discovered an F814W I-band excess in their photometric study of radio-detected clusters in the galaxy. The spectra were obtained with the Dual Imaging Spectrograph (DIS) on the 3.5 m Apache Point Observatory (APO) telescope and have a spectral range of ~3800-9800 Å. We supplement these data with HST and Sloan Digital Sky Survey photometry of the clusters. By comparing our data to the Starburst99 and GALEV evolutionary synthesis models, we find that nebular continuum emission competes with the stellar light in our observations and that the relative contribution from the nebular continuum is largest in the U- and I-bands, where the Balmer (3646 Å) and Paschen jumps (8207 Å) are located. The spectra also exhibit strong line emission including the [S III] λλ9069, 9532 lines in the HST F814W I-band. We find that the combination of nebular continuum and line emission can account for the F814W I-band excess previously found by Reines et al. In an effort to provide a benchmark for estimating the impact of ionized gas emission on photometric observations of young massive stellar populations, we compute the relative contributions of the stellar continuum, nebular continuum, and emission lines to the total observed flux of a 3 Myr old cluster through various HST filter/instrument combinations, including filters in the Wide Field Camera 3. We urge caution when comparing observations of YMCs to evolutionary synthesis models since nebular continuum and line emission can

  19. The period function of the generalized Lotka-Volterra centers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villadelprat, J.

    2008-05-01

    The present paper deals with the period function of the quadratic centers. In the literature different terminologies are used to classify these centers, but essentially there are four families: Hamiltonian, reversible , codimension four Q4 and generalized Lotka-Volterra systems . Chicone [C. Chicone, Review in MathSciNet, Ref. 94h:58072] conjectured that the reversible centers have at most two critical periods, and that the centers of the three other families have a monotonic period function. With regard to the second part of this conjecture, only the monotonicity of the Hamiltonian and Q4 families [W.A. Coppel, L. Gavrilov, The period function of a Hamiltonian quadratic system, Differential Integral Equations 6 (1993) 1357-1365; Y. Zhao, The monotonicity of period function for codimension four quadratic system Q4, J. Differential Equations 185 (2002) 370-387] has been proved. Concerning the family, no substantial progress has been made since the middle 80s, when several authors showed independently the monotonicity of the classical Lotka-Volterra centers [F. Rothe, The periods of the Volterra-Lokta system, J. Reine Angew. Math. 355 (1985) 129-138; R. Schaaf, Global behaviour of solution branches for some Neumann problems depending on one or several parameters, J. Reine Angew. Math. 346 (1984) 1-31; J. Waldvogel, The period in the Lotka-Volterra system is monotonic, J. Math. Anal. Appl. 114 (1986) 178-184]. By means of the first period constant one can easily conclude that the period function of the centers in the family is monotone increasing near the inner boundary of its period annulus (i.e., the center itself). Thus, according to Chicone's conjecture, it should be also monotone increasing near the outer boundary, which in the Poincaré disc is a polycycle. In this paper we show that this is true. In addition we prove that, except for a zero measure subset of the parameter plane, there is no bifurcation of critical periods from the outer boundary. Finally we

  20. Accidents with horses: what has changed in 20 years?

    PubMed

    Chitnavis, J P; Gibbons, C L; Hirigoyen, M; Lloyd Parry, J; Simpson, A H

    1996-03-01

    Horse riding is a dangerous pastime with more accidents occurring per hour than during motor-cycling. Since a prospective survey of horse-related injuries conducted at a major centre in 1971-1972, equestrian groups and the medical profession have encouraged improvements in training and protective riding wear. By conducting a similar study at the same centre 20 years later we hoped to assess the effects of these measures on the pattern of injuries resulting from contact with horses. Patient and injury details were recorded prospectively for all those presenting to the Accident Service at Oxford during the whole of 1991. Total admissions fell by 46 per cent on average. Most of the decrease was due to a near fivefold fall in those admitted with head injuries (P < 0.001). A reduction in the severity of such injuries was associated with an increased use of riding helmets. However, the most commonly injured group remained amateur young female riders suggesting the need for increasing awareness and training of this group. In seven cases, severe digital injuries were caused by the habit of entwining reins around the fingers. This practice should be discouraged. Up to 12 per cent of all injuries might have been prevented if adequate footwear had been worn. PMID:8730383

  1. The American Quarter Horse: population structure and relationship to the thoroughbred.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Jessica L; Mickelson, James R; Cleary, Kristen D; McCue, Molly E

    2014-01-01

    A breed known for its versatility, the American Quarter Horse (QH), is increasingly bred for performance in specific disciplines. The impact of selective breeding on the diversity and structure of the QH breed was evaluated using pedigree analysis and genome-wide SNP data from horses representing 6 performance groups (halter, western pleasure, reining, working cow, cutting, and racing). Genotype data (36 037 single nucleotide polymorphisms [SNPs]) from 36 Thoroughbreds were also evaluated with those from the 132 performing QHs to evaluate the Thoroughbred's influence on QH diversity. Results showed significant population structure among all QH performance groups excepting the comparison between the cutting and working cow horses; divergence was greatest between the cutting and racing QHs, the latter of which had a large contribution of Thoroughbred ancestry. Significant coancestry and the potential for inbreeding exist within performance groups, especially when considering the elite performers. Relatedness within performance groups is increasing with popular sires contributing disproportionate levels of variation to each discipline. Expected heterozygosity, inbreeding, F ST, cluster, and haplotype analyses suggest these QHs can be broadly classified into 3 categories: stock, racing, and pleasure/halter. Although the QH breed as a whole contains substantial genetic diversity, current breeding practices have resulted in this variation being sequestered into subpopulations. PMID:24293614

  2. Letter from Reykjavik.

    PubMed

    Jónsson, P V

    1998-06-01

    Medical care in Iceland can be viewed as an experiment of nature. This small island society has combined the Nordic social and welfare structures with advanced international medicine. The Vikings settled Iceland in the ninth century, and the population has remained biologically homogeneous because of its remote isolation. This homogeneity may provide a unique opportunity to contribute to the understanding of the genetics of common disorders. Iceland's isolation has also limited the resources that are available for clinical training. Therefore, it has been necessary for most physicians who graduate from the medical school at the University of Iceland to obtain postgraduate training abroad. This has been of enormous benefit to Icelandic medicine. Fewer opportunities for foreign medical graduates to train in the United States would have a substantial effect on the future practice of Icelandic medicine. The Icelandic health care system faces many challenges. Because health care spending has been reined in, priorities must be set more clearly than in the past, and heated discussions have erupted about gatekeeping and merging of hospitals. These have been "interesting times" for Icelandic medicine. Other countries may learn lessons from our medical situation: a microcosm, to be sure, but no longer an isolated one. PMID:9634434

  3. Bilski: assessing the impact of a newly invigorated patent-eligibility doctrine on the pharmaceutical industry and the future of personalized medicine.

    PubMed

    Holman, Christopher M

    2010-01-01

    The patent-eligibility doctrine serves a gatekeeper role in excluding from patent protection natural phenomena, principles of nature, abstract ideas, and mental processes. Beginning around 1980, the U.S. patent system embarked upon a pronounced expansion in its definition of patent-eligible subject matter, particularly with respect to software and business method inventions, but also in the life sciences. In recent years, however, we have seen a backlash, with many critics from the public and private sectors arguing that the threshold for patent-eligibility needs to be raised in order to ensure that patents fulfill their constitutional objective of encouraging innovation rather than impeding it. The courts and PTO appear to have heard these critics, and have begun to actively rein in the scope of patent-eligible subject matter. This shift in the swing of the patent-eligibility pendulum will likely have a profound impact on the patentability of innovations arising out of the pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries, particularly those relating to diagnostics and personalized medicine. In this article, I discuss the current status of the patent-eligibility doctrine, how it is that we got here, and what the future might hold, particularly for the life science industries. PMID:20615185

  4. Blockbusters and controlled substances: Miltown, Quaalude, and consumer demand for drugs in postwar America.

    PubMed

    Herzberg, David

    2011-12-01

    In 1955 Carter Products launched its new tranquilizer Miltown with a huge marketing blitz; Miltown soon became one of America's earliest "blockbuster" celebrity drugs. In 1981, federal agents shut down a network of "stress clinics" and arrested the owners, medical staff, and other personnel for illegally trafficking in the sedative Quaalude; Quaalude soon became a "Schedule I Controlled Substance." Both of these stories are familiar, indeed archetypal, moments from America's postwar medical system. As the Miltown example reminds us, this fundamentally commercial system was built on the creation and courting of consumer demand for medical products and services, particularly drugs. As the Quaalude example shows, however, this system also incorporated tools for reining in excessive consumer demand. Together the two episodes affirm an enduring irony of the American medical system: the need for regulatory campaigns to tame lively markets for drugs that had become popular, in part, because of advertising campaigns. This article uses the Miltown and Quaalude sagas to explore the issue of consumer demand for prescription medicines, arguing that efforts to stoke or quash that demand have shaped (and linked) America's medical system and its drug control regimes. PMID:22035715

  5. Snail nuclear transport: the gateways regulating epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition?

    PubMed

    Muqbil, Irfana; Wu, Jack; Aboukameel, Amro; Mohammad, Ramzi M; Azmi, Asfar S

    2014-08-01

    Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and the reverse process (MET) play central role in organ developmental biology. It is a fine tuned process that when disturbed leads to pathological conditions especially cancers with aggressive and metastatic behavior. Snail is an oncogene that has been well established to be a promoter of EMT through direct repression of epithelial morphology promoter E-cadherin. It can function in the nucleus, in the cytosol and as discovered recently, extracellularly through secretory vesicular structures. The intracellular transport of snail has for long been shown to be regulated by the nuclear pore complex. One of the Karyopherins, importin alpha, mediates snail import, while exportin 1 (Xpo1) also known as chromosome maintenance region 1 (CRM1) is its major nuclear exporter. A number of additional biological regulators are emerging that directly modulate Snail stability by altering its subcellular localization. These observations indicate that targeting the nuclear transport machinery could be an important and as of yet, unexplored avenue for therapeutic intervention against the EMT processes in cancer. In parallel, a number of novel agents that disrupt nuclear transport have recently been discovered and are being explored for their anti-cancer effects in the early clinical settings. Through this review we provide insights on the mechanisms regulating snail subcellular localization and how this impacts EMT. We discuss strategies on how the nuclear transport function can be harnessed to rein in EMT through modulation of snail signaling. PMID:24954011

  6. Snail Nuclear Transport: the Gateways Regulating Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition?

    PubMed Central

    Muqbil, Irfana; Wu, Jack; Aboukameel, Amro; Mohammad, Ramzi M.; Azmi, Asfar S.

    2014-01-01

    Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and the reverse process (MET) plays central role in organ developmental biology. It is a fine tuned process that when disturbed leads to pathological conditions especially cancers with aggressive and metastatic behavior. Snail is an oncogene that has been well established to be a promoter of EMT through direct repression of epithelial morphology promoter E-cadherin. It can function in the nucleus, in the cytosol and as discovered recently, extracellularly through secretory vesicular structures. The intracellular transport of snail has for long been shown to be regulated by the nuclear pore complex. One of the Karyopherins, importin alpha, mediates snail import, while importin beta/exportin 1 (Xpo1) or chromosome maintenance region 1 (CRM1) is its major nuclear exporter. A number of additional biological regulators are emerging that directly modulate Snail stability by altering its subcellular localization. These observations indicate that targeting the nuclear transport machinery could be an important and as of yet, unexplored avenue for therapeutic intervention against the EMT processes in cancer. In parallel, a number of novel agents that disrupt nuclear transport have recently been discovered and are being explored for their anti-cancer effects in the early clinical settings. Through this review we provide insights on the mechanisms regulating snail subcellular localization and how this impacts EMT. We discuss strategies on how the nuclear transport function can be harnessed to rein in EMT through modulation of snail signaling. PMID:24954011

  7. Estimation of Filling and Afterload Conditions by Pump Intrinsic Parameters in a Pulsatile Total Artificial Heart.

    PubMed

    Cuenca-Navalon, Elena; Laumen, Marco; Finocchiaro, Thomas; Steinseifer, Ulrich

    2016-07-01

    A physiological control algorithm is being developed to ensure an optimal physiological interaction between the ReinHeart total artificial heart (TAH) and the circulatory system. A key factor for that is the long-term, accurate determination of the hemodynamic state of the cardiovascular system. This study presents a method to determine estimation models for predicting hemodynamic parameters (pump chamber filling and afterload) from both left and right cardiovascular circulations. The estimation models are based on linear regression models that correlate filling and afterload values with pump intrinsic parameters derived from measured values of motor current and piston position. Predictions for filling lie in average within 5% from actual values, predictions for systemic afterload (AoPmean , AoPsys ) and mean pulmonary afterload (PAPmean ) lie in average within 9% from actual values. Predictions for systolic pulmonary afterload (PAPsys ) present an average deviation of 14%. The estimation models show satisfactory prediction and confidence intervals and are thus suitable to estimate hemodynamic parameters. This method and derived estimation models are a valuable alternative to implanted sensors and are an essential step for the development of a physiological control algorithm for a fully implantable TAH. PMID:26634983

  8. Insights into the structure-function relationship of Brugia malayi thymidylate kinase (BmTMK).

    PubMed

    Doharey, Pawan Kumar; Singh, Sudhir Kumar; Verma, Pravesh; Verma, Anita; Rathaur, Sushma; Saxena, Jitendra Kumar

    2016-07-01

    Lymphatic filariasis is a debilitating disease caused by lymph dwelling nematodal parasites like Wuchereria bancrofti, Brugia malayi and Brugia timori. Thymidylate kinase of B. malayi is a key enzyme in the de novo and salvage pathways for thymidine 5'-triphosphate (dTTP) synthesis. Therefore, B. malayi thymidylate kinase (BmTMK) is an essential enzyme for DNA biosynthesis and an important drug target to rein in filariasis. In the present study, the structural and functional changes associated with recombinant BmTMK, in the presence of protein denaturant GdnHCl, urea and pH were studied. GdnHCl and urea induced unfolding of BmTMK is non-cooperative and influence the functional property of the enzyme much lower than their Cm values. The study delineate that BmTMK is more prone to ionic perturbation. The dimeric assembly of BmTMK is an absolute requirement for enzymatic acitivity and any subtle change in dimeric conformation due to denaturation leads to loss of enzymatic activity. The pH induced changes on structure and activity suggests that selective modification of active site microenvironment pertains to difference in activity profile. This study also envisages that chemical moieties which acts by modulating oligomeric assembly, could be used for better designing of inhibitors against BmTMK enzyme. PMID:27044348

  9. When your star performer can't manage.

    PubMed

    Adler, G

    1997-01-01

    Vic, the CEO of a sporting goods company in this fictional case study, is pleased with the numbers. For several years now, they've gone steadily in one direction: up. But there's trouble in paradise Hidden from the public's view of industry-dominating winners--from the coolest snowboards to the hottest in-line skates--lies a product development department that may be ready to shatter like cheap fiberglass. There's one reason in particular for the dark rumblings that periodically reach Vic, and his name is Linus Carver. Carver, the company's chief of product development, is the workaholic mad genius who is responsible for most--he might say all--of the company's successful products. At the same time, he has managed to alienate the rest of his staff, including the two whizkid Generation Xers he brought in. He has been charged with everything from stealing ideas to squashing the initiative of the rest of the team. From his perch as CEO, Vic preaches "team". And he's even made a few stabs at reining Carver in--his latest move has been to recommend that his mercurial star get some coaching. But Vic also knows who butters his bread. In short, he's bewildered. Four commentators suggest how Vic can keep the company's product-development group intact and it sales growth strong. PMID:10168335

  10. The Emergence of Environmental Homeostasis in Complex Ecosystems

    PubMed Central

    Dyke, James G.; Weaver, Iain S.

    2013-01-01

    The Earth, with its core-driven magnetic field, convective mantle, mobile lid tectonics, oceans of liquid water, dynamic climate and abundant life is arguably the most complex system in the known universe. This system has exhibited stability in the sense of, bar a number of notable exceptions, surface temperature remaining within the bounds required for liquid water and so a significant biosphere. Explanations for this range from anthropic principles in which the Earth was essentially lucky, to homeostatic Gaia in which the abiotic and biotic components of the Earth system self-organise into homeostatic states that are robust to a wide range of external perturbations. Here we present results from a conceptual model that demonstrates the emergence of homeostasis as a consequence of the feedback loop operating between life and its environment. Formulating the model in terms of Gaussian processes allows the development of novel computational methods in order to provide solutions. We find that the stability of this system will typically increase then remain constant with an increase in biological diversity and that the number of attractors within the phase space exponentially increases with the number of environmental variables while the probability of the system being in an attractor that lies within prescribed boundaries decreases approximately linearly. We argue that the cybernetic concept of rein control provides insights into how this model system, and potentially any system that is comprised of biological to environmental feedback loops, self-organises into homeostatic states. PMID:23696719

  11. The effect of trotting speed on the evaluation of subtle lameness in horses.

    PubMed

    Starke, Sandra D; Raistrick, Kirsty J; May, Stephen A; Pfau, Thilo

    2013-08-01

    Equine lameness is a significant and challenging part of a veterinarian's workload, with subtle lameness inherently difficult to assess. This study investigated the influence of trotting speed on perceived and measured changes in movement asymmetry. Ten sound to mildly lame horses were trotted at a 'slow', 'preferred' and 'fast' speed on a hard surface, both on a straight line and in a circle on left and right reins. Video recordings of the horses were visually assessed by six experienced equine clinicians. Vertical movement of head, withers and pelvis was derived from inertial sensor data and several features calculated. On the straight line, more horses were subjectively declared sound at higher speeds, whilst different objective asymmetry measures showed only slight and inconsistent changes. On the circle, speed had no significant effect on the subjective assessment, with an increase in objectively measured asymmetry at higher speeds possibly balanced by a decrease in sensitivity of the observers for this asymmetry. Horses visually examined for subtle lameness on the straight should therefore be evaluated at a slow speed. Trotting speed should be consistent on repeated occasions, especially during objective gait analysis on the circle, to avoid the interaction of treatment effects and speed effects. PMID:23611486

  12. Four Momentum Transfer Discrepancy in the Charged Current pi+ Production in the MiniBooNE: Data versus Theory

    SciTech Connect

    Nowak, Jaroslaw A.; /Louisiana State U.

    2009-09-01

    The MiniBooNE experiment has collected what is currently the world's largest sample of {nu}{sub {mu}} charged current single charged pion (CCl{pi}{sup +}) interactions, roughly 46,000 events. The purity of the CCl{pi}{sup +} sample is 87% making this the purest event sample observed in the MiniBooNE detector. The average energy of neutrinos producing CC{pi}{sup +} interactions in MiniBooNE is about 1 GeV, therefore the study of these events can provide insight into both resonant and coherent pion production processes. In this talk, we will discuss the long-standing discrepancy in four-momentum transfer observed between CC{pi}{sup +} data and existing predictions. Several attempts to address this problem will be presented. Specifically, the Rein-Sehgal model has been extended to include muon mass terms for both resonant and coherent production. Using calculations from, an updated form for the vector form factor has also been adopted. The results of this improved description of CC{pi}{sup +} production will be compared to the high statistics MiniBooNE CC{pi}{sup +} data and several existing parametrizations of the axial vector form factor.

  13. Commentary: Sense and sensibility: the role of specialists in health care reform.

    PubMed

    Schwann, Nanette M; Nester, Brian A; McLoughlin, Thomas M

    2012-03-01

    How to redesign the incentives structure in the United States to reward effective coordinated care rather than production volume is a staggering public health policy challenge. In the mind of the public, there is a fine distinction between health care rationing and rational health care. Specialists have a vital but underappreciated role in reining in health care costs, but specific incentives to elicit behavior change with positive social outcomes remain ambiguous. It is imperative, therefore, that redesigning the incentives structure is thoughtfully considered, modeled, and tested prior to implementation, lest an inferior-quality model is inadvertently adopted and costs are only marginally contained. Quality metrics need to be universal and reflect real patient outcomes instead of the degree of investment by the institution in the reporting tools. Still, specialists should take immediate action to implement safe and efficient procedures and to assess their long-term impact on patients' quality of life. Scientific evaluations should guide both the assessment of the appropriateness and the safe delivery of care. Investment in high-quality data architecture and the science of health delivery implementation is an imperative if health care reform is to achieve its goals. Coordination and collaboration between specialists and primary care physicians is essential to this enterprise. Specialists can champion these efforts as they pertain to their areas of expertise by considering their care episodes in the context of the patient as a whole, working closely with generalists, and returning to the mindset of the specialist as a family doctor. PMID:22373614

  14. Motivating salespeople: what really works.

    PubMed

    Steenburgh, Thomas; Ahearne, Michael

    2012-01-01

    No sales force consists entirely of stars; sales staffs are usually made up mainly of solid perfomers, with smaller groups of laggards and rainmakers. Though most compensation plans approach these three groups as if they were the same, research shows that each is motivated by something different. By accounting for those differences in their incentive programs, companies can coax better performance from all their salespeople. As the largest cadre, core performers typically represent the greatest opportunity, but they're often ignored by incentive plans. Contests with prizes that vary in nature and value (and don't all go to stars) will inspire them to ramp up their efforts, and tiered targets will guide them up the performance curve. Laggards need quarterly bonuses to stay on track; when they have only annual bonuses, their revenues will drop 10%, studies show. This group is also motivated by social pressure-especially from new talent on the sales bench. Stars tend to get the most attention in comp plans, but companies often go astray by capping their commissions to control costs. If firms instead remove commission ceilings and pay extra for overachievement, they'll see the sales needle really jump. The key is to treat sales compensation not as an expense to rein in but as a portfolio of investments to manage. Companies that do this will be rewarded with much higher returns. PMID:22852450

  15. General topology meets model theory, on and

    PubMed Central

    Malliaris, Maryanthe; Shelah, Saharon

    2013-01-01

    Cantor proved in 1874 [Cantor G (1874) J Reine Angew Math 77:258–262] that the continuum is uncountable, and Hilbert’s first problem asks whether it is the smallest uncountable cardinal. A program arose to study cardinal invariants of the continuum, which measure the size of the continuum in various ways. By Gödel [Gödel K (1939) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 25(4):220–224] and Cohen [Cohen P (1963) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 50(6):1143–1148], Hilbert’s first problem is independent of ZFC (Zermelo-Fraenkel set theory with the axiom of choice). Much work both before and since has been done on inequalities between these cardinal invariants, but some basic questions have remained open despite Cohen’s introduction of forcing. The oldest and perhaps most famous of these is whether “,” which was proved in a special case by Rothberger [Rothberger F (1948) Fund Math 35:29–46], building on Hausdorff [Hausdorff (1936) Fund Math 26:241–255]. In this paper we explain how our work on the structure of Keisler’s order, a large-scale classification problem in model theory, led to the solution of this problem in ZFC as well as of an a priori unrelated open question in model theory. PMID:23836659

  16. Gauß and beyond: the making of Easter algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bien, Reinhold

    2004-07-01

    It is amazing to see how many webpages are devoted to the art of finding the date of Easter Sunday. Just for illustration, the reader may search for terms such as Gregorian calendar, date of Easter, or Easter algorithm. Sophisticated essays as well as less enlightening contributions are presented, and many a doubt is expressed about the reliability of some results obtained with some Easter algorithms. In short, there is still a great interest in those problems. Gregorian Easter algorithms exist for two centuries (or more?), but most of their history is rather obscure. Some reasons may be that some important sources are written in Latin or in the German of Goethe's time, or they are difficult to discover. Without being complete, the following paper is intended to shed light on how those techniques emerged and evolved. Like a microcosm, the history of Easter algorithms resembles the history of any science: it is a story of trials, errors, and successes, and, last but not least, a story of offended pride. A number of articles, published before 1910, are cited in: A. Fraenkel, Die Berechnung des Osterfestes. Journal für die reine und angewandte Mathematik, Volume 138 (1910), 133-146.

  17. [Belgian law on the Régime de l'alcool of 1919: from the individual measures to social well-being].

    PubMed

    Campos, R

    1993-01-01

    There was a tightening up of the fight against alcoholism in various European countries and the United States during the first world war. The individual and private initiatives were relegated to second place in Belgium during the period 1914-1918, and the state took the reins in the fight against alcoholism on behalf of the general interests of the health interests and general well-being of the population. The promulgation of "La loi sur le Régime de l'alcool" and "La loi concernant les débits des Boissons Fermentés" on August 29 1919 was the final step in this change in opinion. There were three factors which coincided during the armed conflict and which played a definitive part in the preparation of these laws: 1) the legislation against alcohol which the Belgian authorities promulgated during the war in order to keep order and discipline in the army; 2) the problems of national reconstruction and 3) the influence that Emile Vandervelde, the leader of the Belgian Workers Party had on his entry into the government of the "Union Sacreé". PMID:11625023

  18. Changes to intellectual property policy in South Africa: putting a stop to evergreening?

    PubMed

    Hill, Julia E

    2014-08-01

    South Africa is a middle-income country with the world's largest HIV patient cohort and a growing burden of communicable and non-communicable diseases - a prime location for pharmaceutical companies looking to expand their markets. Yet, 20 years after the country's first democratic elections, poor health indicators and an over-burdened public health system belie persistently stark levels of socioeconomic inequality. As the South African government revises national intellectual property (IP) policies, the pharmaceutical industry and global access to medicines movement are watching, aware of ramifications South Africa's actions will have on patent laws and the availability of generic medicines in other middle-income countries and across Africa. South Africa's draft IP policy is meeting fierce resistance from industry, although proposed reforms are compliant with the Agreement on trade related aspects of intellectual property (TRIPS) and in line with on-going policies and actions of both developing and developed countries. Could the establishment of a patent examination system and new patentability criteria rein in evergreening and lead to lower medicine prices? What will be the potential impact of reform on medical innovation? And why is it both necessary and urgent that the South African government seek a fairer balance between private and public interests? PMID:24965317

  19. Lehrbuch der Mathematischen Physik

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thirring, Walter

    Aus den Besprechungen der ersten Auflage: "... Das Buch wendet sich nicht nur an Studierende der Physik und Mathematik in höheren Semestern, sondern ist auch für fertige Physiker und Mathematiker äußerst anregend. Ein besonderes Lob möchte ich für die zahlreichen Illustrationen des Stoffes mit relevanten, anwendungsbezogenen Beispielen aussprechen." Zeitschrift für Angewandte Mathematik und Physik#1 "W. Thirring hat mit seinem Lehrbuch für Mathematische Physik das erstemal den Versuch unternommen, eine spezifische Bearbeitung der gesamten mathematischen Physik einzuleiten und damit ein "Lehrbuch" der wissenschaftlichen Fachwelt vorzulegen, das in seiner Art sicher als neuartig zu bezeichnen ist. Es zeigt neben der Klarheit und Übersichtlichkeit aber auch eine tiefe Kenntnis der Pädagogik, um ein so schwieriges und abstraktes Gebiet darzustellen." Acta Physica Austriaca#2 "Der Leser kann hier Mathematische Physik in einer Form kennenlernen, wie sie sich einem in der akutuellen Forschung stehenden theoretischen Physiker darstellt, der andererseits auch mit der Entwicklung der modernen mathematischen Methoden wohlvertraut ist. Trotz der anspruchsvollen mathematischen Fundierung gerät der Verfasser an keiner Stelle des Buches in die Gefahr, Mathematische Physik im Sinne einer rein mathematischen Disziplin zu verfremden ... Wer heute wissen will, was "Mathematische Physik" ist und sein soll, wird an diesem Buch nicht vorbeigehen können und Antwort und Gewinn davontragen..." ZAMM#3

  20. Lehrbuch der Mathematischen Physik

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thirring, Walter

    Aus den Besprechungen der ersten Auflage: "...Das Buch wendet sich nicht nur an Studierende der Physik und Mathematik in höheren Semestern, sondern ist auch für fertige Physiker und Mathematiker äußerst anregend. Ein besonderes Lob möchte ich für die zahlreichen Illustrationen des Stoffes mit relevanten, anwendungsbezogenen Beispielen aussprechen." Zeitschrift für Angewandte Mathematik und Physik#1 "...W. Thirring hat mit seinem Lehrbuch für mathematische Physik das erstemal den Versuch unternommen, eine spezifische Bearbeitung der gesamten mathematischen Physik einzuleiten und damit ein 'Lehrbuch' der wissenschaftlichen Fachwelt vorzulegen, das in seiner Art sicher als neuartig zu bezeichnen ist. Es zeigt neben der Klarheit und Übersichtlichkeit aber auch eine tiefe Kenntnis der Pädagogik, um ein so schwieriges und abstraktes Gebiet darzustellen..." Acta Physica Austriaca#2 "... Der Leser kann hier Mathematische Physik in einer Form kennenlernen, wie sie sich einem in der aktuellen Forschung stehenden theoretischen Physiker darstellt, der andererseits auch mit der Entwicklung der modernen mathematischen Methoden wohlvertraut ist. Trotz der anspruchsvollen mathematischen Fundierung gerät der Verfasser an keiner Stelle des Buches in die Gefahr, Mathematische Physik im Sinne einer rein mathematischen Disziplin zu verfremden...Wer heute wissen will, was 'Mathematische Physik'ist und sein soll, wird an diesem Buch nicht vorbeigehen können und Antwort und Gewinn davontragen..." ZAMM#3

  1. Kinetics of the forelimb in horses circling on different ground surfaces at the trot.

    PubMed

    Chateau, Henry; Camus, Mathieu; Holden-Douilly, Laurène; Falala, Sylvain; Ravary, Bérangère; Vergari, Claudio; Lepley, Justine; Denoix, Jean-Marie; Pourcelot, Philippe; Crevier-Denoix, Nathalie

    2013-12-01

    Circling increases the expression of distal forelimb lameness in the horse, depending on rein, diameter and surface properties of the circle. However, there is limited information about the kinetics of horses trotting on circles. The aim of this study was to quantify ground reaction force (GRF) and moments in the inside and outside forelimb of horses trotting on circles and to compare the results obtained on different ground surfaces. The right front hoof of six horses was equipped with a dynamometric horseshoe, allowing the measurement of 3-dimensional GRF, moments and trajectory of the centre of pressure. The horses were lunged at slow trot (3 m/s) on right and left 4 m radius circles on asphalt and on a fibre sand surface. During circling, the inside forelimb produced a smaller peak vertical force and the stance phase was longer in comparison with the outside forelimb. Both right and left circling produced a substantial transversal force directed outwards. On a soft surface (sand fibre), the peak transversal force and moments around the longitudinal and vertical axes of the hoof were significantly decreased in comparison with a hard surface (asphalt). Sinking of the lateral or medial part of the hoof in a more compliant surface enables reallocation of part of the transversal force into a proximo-distal force, aligned with the limb axis, thus limiting extrasagittal stress on the joints. PMID:24511634

  2. Show Horse Welfare: Horse Show Competitors' Understanding, Awareness, and Perceptions of Equine Welfare.

    PubMed

    Voigt, Melissa A; Hiney, Kristina; Richardson, Jennifer C; Waite, Karen; Borron, Abigail; Brady, Colleen M

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to gain a better understanding of stock-type horse show competitors' understanding of welfare and level of concern for stock-type show horses' welfare. Data were collected through an online questionnaire that included questions relating to (a) interest and general understanding of horse welfare, (b) welfare concerns of the horse show industry and specifically the stock-type horse show industry, (c) decision-making influences, and (d) level of empathic characteristics. The majority of respondents indicated they agree or strongly agree that physical metrics should be a factor when assessing horse welfare, while fewer agreed that behavioral and mental metrics should be a factor. Respondent empathy levels were moderate to high and were positively correlated with the belief that mental and behavioral metrics should be a factor in assessing horse welfare. Respondents indicated the inhumane practices that most often occur at stock-type shows include excessive jerking on reins, excessive spurring, and induced excessive unnatural movement. Additionally, respondents indicated association rules, hired trainers, and hired riding instructors are the most influential regarding the decisions they make related to their horses' care and treatment. PMID:27029609

  3. Differences in rider movement pattern between different degrees of collection at the trot in high-level dressage horses ridden on a treadmill.

    PubMed

    Byström, A; Roepstroff, L; Geser-von Peinen, K; Weishaupt, M A; Rhodin, M

    2015-06-01

    Collection is a central term in equine dressage, defined as a shortening of the horse's stride length with retained energy and hind limb activity. How collection is induced by the rider has yet not been investigated objectively. The aim of this study was therefore to compare the movement pattern of high-level dressage riders between free trot (loose reins), passage and a range of three speeds in collected trot. Both at higher speed in collected trot and in passage, the rider's pelvis became more caudally rotated and the rider's lumbar back became more flexed. However, in passage there was also a decrease in phase-shift between horse and rider movements, suggesting that the rider used the seat more actively. In free trot, the rider's pelvis was more cranially rotated, the lumbar back was more extended, the rider's body inclined more forwards, and the phase-shift between horse and rider was increased, compared to collected trot. The observed changes were partly explainable from changes in the horse's movement pattern. However, most differences in rider body position seemed unrelated to the horse's movements, but were in accordance with instructions in equestrian texts, suggesting that those changes were voluntarily adopted by the riders. PMID:25703543

  4. Plentiful natural gas headed for big growth in Mideast

    SciTech Connect

    Hamid, S.H.; Aitani, A.M. )

    1995-01-23

    Natural gas is increasingly becoming a major contributor in the industrial development of most Middle Eastern countries. Demand there will rise steeply in coming years. This is because of the abundant and growing natural gas resources in the region, the economic benefits of using local resources, as well as increased emphasis on a cleaner environment. Today, proved reserves of natural gas in the Middle East are 45 trillion cu meters (tcm), or 1,488 trillion cu ft (tcf). This is over 30% of the world's natural gas reserves. A table presents data on reserves and production of natural gas in the region. About 20% of this gross production is rein-injecting for oil field pressure maintenance, 13% is flared or vented, and 7% is accounted as losses. The remaining 60% represents consumption in power generation, water desalination, petrochemicals and fertilizers production, aluminum and copper smelting, and fuel for refineries and other industries. The use of natural gas in these various industries is discussed. Thirteen tables present data on gas consumption by country and sector, power generation capacity, major chemicals derived from natural gas, and petrochemical plant capacities.

  5. Molecular pathways to therapeutics: Paradigms and challenges in oncology meeting report: Carcinogenesis 2015

    PubMed Central

    Warawdekar, Ujjwala M.; Kowtal, Pradnya

    2015-01-01

    The search for the most effective therapy with minimum side effects has always been the goal of oncologists and efforts to develop such therapies through understanding disease mechanisms has been the focus of many basic scientists in cancer research, leading to a common interest of convergence. The 5th International Conference organized by the Carcinogenesis Foundation, USA and Advanced Centre for Treatment, Research and Education in Cancer (ACTREC), Tata Memorial Centre, India, was held between February 11th and 13th 2015, at ACTREC. During these proceedings, the scientific community engaged in oncology research discussed novel ideas emerging from the laboratory and their translation into improved clinical outcomes. However, the lack of major success in the genesis of novel cancer therapeutics that is safe and provides long-term relief to patients is a challenge that needs to be overcome. The focus of this meeting was to highlight these challenges and to encourage collaborations between scientists and clinicians and clearly a message through exemplary scientific contribution was conveyed to all the dedicated scientists and clinician that even if two decades of tireless work on a single idea does not generate a reliable and safe therapy, the combat to rein cancer must not cease. In this report we have communicated some of the outstanding work done in the areas of cancer therapeutics, biomarkers and prevention and described the salient observations associated with cancer stem cells in disease progression and some of the pathways implicated in tumor progression. PMID:26085817

  6. Reduced Investment in Science: An Examination of the Current Federal Budget and a Case Study on Its Impact on the Scientific Community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uhlenbrock, K.; Landau, E. A.; Hankin, E. R.

    2013-12-01

    Federally funded scientific research is one of the building blocks of technological advancement and economic growth. This research can also lead to transformational ideas and discoveries. In our current fiscal environment, strategies to rein in federal spending have become a priority, although they have proven to be complex. The possible deals and negotiations to reduce federal spending may hinder the work of the scientific community to serve society. Since 2005 federal investment in research and development has slowed. The average annual growth in federal funding for scientific research from 2004 - 2009 was 0.9% as compared to 3.3% over the previous 20 years. What does the current budget situation mean for science? It means reductions in basic and applied research, interruptions in long-term monitoring and data collection, an inability to repair or build infrastructure, and less federal grant support for current and future scientists. I will first provide an update on the current federal budget situation and examples of how current policies are impacting the scientific community. Second, I will present a case study of the effect of reduced federal investment in science. Specifically, I will discuss how investments in research and development have far-reaching impacts on society and examine how reduced funding impairs valuable research efforts.

  7. U.S. National Science Foundation Slated for Large Budget Increase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2010-03-01

    Although the Obama administration has promoted its proposed $3.8 trillion federal budget for fiscal year (FY) 2011 as one that works toward reining in budget deficits and living within the nation's means, research is among the areas slated for increases. The National Science Foundation (NSF) would receive $7.42 billion, an 8% increase above the FY 2010 enacted level of $6.87 billion, which pleases NSF administrators. This proposal would keep the agency on track for doubling its budget between about 2007 and 2017. “The president sees science as a way to build our economy. It’s a way to make the nation strong in the future. It’s a way of bringing change in society, and in addressing some of the global challenges that we are facing,” NSF director Arden Bement Jr. explained at a 1 February briefing. Bement, who has been at the helm of the agency for more than 6 years, announced in early February that he is leaving later this year to head up the Global Policy Research Institute at Purdue University.

  8. Not a slippery slope or sudden subversion: German medicine and national socialism in 1933.

    PubMed Central

    Hanauske-Abel, H. M.

    1996-01-01

    The history of medicine this century is darkened by the downfall of the German medical profession, exposed during the doctors' trial at Nuremberg in 1946. Relying largely on documents published during 1933 in German medical journals, this paper examines two widely accepted notions of those events, metaphorically termed "slippery slope" and "sudden subversion." The first connotes a gradual slide over infinitesimal steps until, suddenly, all footing is lost; the second conveys forced take over of the profession's leadership and values. Both concepts imply that the medical profession itself became the victim of circumstances. The slippery slope concept is a prominent figure of argument in the current debate on bioethics. The evidence presented here, however, strongly suggests that the German medical community set its own course in 1933. In some respects this course even outpaced the new government, which had to rein in the profession's eager pursuit of enforced eugenic sterilizations. In 1933 the convergence of political, scientific, and economic forces dramatically changed the relationship between the medical community and the government. That same convergence is occurring again and must be approached with great caution if medicine is to remain focused on the preservation of physical and medical integrity. Images p1456-a p1457-a p1457-b p1458-a p1459-a p1459-b Fig 1 PMID:8973235

  9. Follow the heart or the head? The interactive influence model of emotion and cognition

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Jiayi; Yu, Rongjun

    2015-01-01

    The experience of emotion has a powerful influence on daily-life decision making. Following Plato’s description of emotion and reason as two horses pulling us in opposite directions, modern dual-system models of decision making endorse the antagonism between reason and emotion. Decision making is perceived as the competition between an emotion system that is automatic but prone to error and a reason system that is slow but rational. The reason system (in “the head”) reins in our impulses (from “the heart”) and overrides our snap judgments. However, from Darwin’s evolutionary perspective, emotion is adaptive, guiding us to make sound decisions in uncertainty. Here, drawing findings from behavioral economics and neuroeconomics, we provide a new model, labeled “The interactive influence model of emotion and cognition,” to elaborate the relationship of emotion and reason in decision making. Specifically, in our model, we identify factors that determine when emotions override reason and delineate the type of contexts in which emotions help or hurt decision making. We then illustrate how cognition modulates emotion and how they cooperate to affect decision making. PMID:25999889

  10. Carcinome rénal à cellules chromophobes: à propos de quatre cas et revue de la literature

    PubMed Central

    Othmane, Yddoussalah; Mounir, Lahyani; Tarik, Karmouni; Khalid, Elkhader; Abdellatif, Koutani; Ahmed, Ibn Attya Andaloussi

    2015-01-01

    Nous rapportons dans cet article trois cas de carcinome rénal à cellules chromophobes. Le carcinome chromophobe se voit essentiellement à la cinquième décennie et représente 5% des tumeurs rénales. Il existe deux sous types de cancer à cellules chromophobes: le type clair (70%) et le type éosinophile. La variante à cellules éosinophiles doit être distinguée de l'oncocytome. Ce dernier se caractérise par une cicatrice fibreuse centrale d'aspect stellaire. Le carcinome chromophobe et l'oncocytome peuvent même coexister dans le cadre du syndrome de Birt-Hogg-Dubé. Certaines tumeurs appelées hybrides partagent des caractéristiques architecturales et cytologiques de ces deux tumeurs. Le pronostic du carcinome chromophobe est favorable. Il est le plus souvent limité au rein et de bas grade nucléaire. Il semblerait donc licite dans les cas ou un examen extemporané mettrait en évidence une tumeur chromophobe, de limiter l'intervention à une néphrectomie partielle si elle est techniquement réalisable. PMID:26889304

  11. Global Classical Solutions of the Relativistic Vlasov-Darwin System with Small Cauchy Data: The Generalized Variables Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sospedra-Alfonso, Reinel; Agueh, Martial; Illner, Reinhard

    2012-09-01

    We show that a smooth, small enough Cauchy datum launches a unique classical solution of the relativistic Vlasov-Darwin (RVD) system globally in time. A similar result is claimed in Seehafer (Commun Math Sci 6:749-769, 2008) following the work in Pallard (Int Mat Res Not 57191:1-31, 2006). Our proof does not require estimates derived from the conservation of the total energy, nor those previously given on the transversal component of the electric field. These estimates are crucial in the references cited above. Instead, we exploit the formulation of the RVD system in terms of the generalized space and momentum variables. By doing so, we produce a simple a priori estimate on the transversal component of the electric field. We widen the functional space required for the Cauchy datum to extend the solution globally in time, and we improve decay estimates given in Seehafer (2008) on the electromagnetic field and its space derivatives. Our method extends the constructive proof presented in Rein (Handbook of differential equations: evolutionary equations, vol 3. Elsevier, Amsterdam, 2007) to solve the Cauchy problem for the Vlasov-Poisson system with a small initial datum.

  12. Forecasting potential global environmental costs of livestock production 2000–2050

    PubMed Central

    Pelletier, Nathan; Tyedmers, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Food systems—in particular, livestock production—are key drivers of environmental change. Here, we compare the contributions of the global livestock sector in 2000 with estimated contributions of this sector in 2050 to three important environmental concerns: climate change, reactive nitrogen mobilization, and appropriation of plant biomass at planetary scales. Because environmental sustainability ultimately requires that human activities as a whole respect critical thresholds in each of these domains, we quantify the extent to which current and future livestock production contributes to published estimates of sustainability thresholds at projected production levels and under several alternative endpoint scenarios intended to illustrate the potential range of impacts associated with dietary choice. We suggest that, by 2050, the livestock sector alone may either occupy the majority of, or significantly overshoot, recently published estimates of humanity’s “safe operating space” in each of these domains. In light of the magnitude of estimated impacts relative to these proposed (albeit uncertain) sustainability boundary conditions, we suggest that reining in growth of this sector should be prioritized in environmental governance. PMID:20921375

  13. Selling space colonization and immortality: A psychosocial, anthropological critique of the rush to colonize Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slobodian, Rayna Elizabeth

    2015-08-01

    Extensive media coverage regarding the proposal to send four people to Mars by 2025 has exploded recently. Private enterprise has taken the reins to venture into space, which has typically only been reserved for government agencies. I argue, that with this new direction comes less regulation, raising questions regarding the ethics of sending people into outer space to colonize Mars within a decade. Marketers selling colonization to the public include perspectives such as biological drives, species survival, inclusiveness and utopian ideals. I challenge these narratives by suggesting that much of our desire to colonize space within the next decade is motivated by ego, money and romanticism. More specifically, I will examine the roles that fear and stories of immortality play within selling space and how those stories are marketed. I am passionate about space and hope that one day humanity will colonize other worlds, but the rush to settle is dangerous and careless. I assert that humanity should first gain more experience and knowledge before colonizing outer space, using this research to mitigate the risk to astronauts and proceed with careful consideration for the lives of potential astronauts.

  14. From HMOs to ACOs: the quest for the Holy Grail in U.S. health policy.

    PubMed

    Marmor, Theodore; Oberlander, Jonathan

    2012-09-01

    The United States has been singularly unsuccessful at controlling health care spending. During the past four decades, American policymakers and analysts have embraced an ever changing array of panaceas to control costs, including managed care, consumer-directed health care, and most recently, delivery system reform and value-based purchasing. Past panaceas have gone through a cycle of excessive hope followed by disappointment at their failure to rein in medical care spending. We argue that accountable care organizations, medical homes, and similar ideas in vogue today could repeat this pattern. We explain why the United States persistently pursues health policy fads--despite their poor record--and how the promotion of panaceas obscures critical debate about controlling health care costs. Americans spend too much time on the quest for the "holy grail"--a reform that will decisively curtail spending while simultaneously improving quality of care--and too little time learning from the experiences of others. Reliable cost control does not, contrary to conventional wisdom, require fundamental delivery system reform or an end to fee-for-service payment. It does require the U.S. to emulate the lessons of other nations that have been more successful at limiting spending through budgeting, system wide fee schedules, and concentrated purchasing. PMID:22411546

  15. Semi-exact concentric atomic density fitting: reduced cost and increased accuracy compared to standard density fitting.

    PubMed

    Hollman, David S; Schaefer, Henry F; Valeev, Edward F

    2014-02-14

    A local density fitting scheme is considered in which atomic orbital (AO) products are approximated using only auxiliary AOs located on one of the nuclei in that product. The possibility of variational collapse to an unphysical "attractive electron" state that can affect such density fitting [P. Merlot, T. Kjærgaard, T. Helgaker, R. Lindh, F. Aquilante, S. Reine, and T. B. Pedersen, J. Comput. Chem. 34, 1486 (2013)] is alleviated by including atom-wise semidiagonal integrals exactly. Our approach leads to a significant decrease in the computational cost of density fitting for Hartree-Fock theory while still producing results with errors 2-5 times smaller than standard, nonlocal density fitting. Our method allows for large Hartree-Fock and density functional theory computations with exact exchange to be carried out efficiently on large molecules, which we demonstrate by benchmarking our method on 200 of the most widely used prescription drug molecules. Our new fitting scheme leads to smooth and artifact-free potential energy surfaces and the possibility of relatively simple analytic gradients. PMID:24527902

  16. Neurocognitive outcomes in neurofibromatosis clinical trials: Recommendations for the domain of attention.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Karin S; Janusz, Jennifer; Wolters, Pamela L; Martin, Staci; Klein-Tasman, Bonita P; Toledo-Tamula, Mary Anne; Thompson, Heather L; Payne, Jonathan M; Hardy, Kristina K; de Blank, Peter; Semerjian, Claire; Gray, Laura Schaffner; Solomon, Sondra E; Ullrich, Nicole

    2016-08-16

    Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is associated with neurocognitive deficits that can impact everyday functioning of children, adolescents, and adults with this disease. However, there is little agreement regarding measures to use as cognitive endpoints in clinical trials. This article describes the work of the Neurocognitive Committee of the Response Evaluation in Neurofibromatosis and Schwannomatosis (REiNS) International Collaboration. The goal of this committee is to identify standardized and specific cognitive assessment tools for use in NF clinical trials. The committee first identified cognitive domains relevant to NF1 and prioritized attention as the first domain of focus given prior and current trends in NF1 cognitive clinical trials. Performance measures and behavioral rating questionnaires of attention were reviewed by the group using established criteria to assess patient characteristics, psychometric properties, and feasibility. The highest rated tests underwent side-by-side comparison. The Digit Span subtest from the Wechsler scales was given the highest ratings of the performance measures due to its good psychometrics, feasibility, utility across a wide age range, and extensive use in previous research. The Conners scales achieved the highest ratings of the behavioral questionnaires for similar reasons. Future articles will focus on other cognitive domains, with the ultimate goal of achieving agreement for cognitive endpoints that can be used across NF clinical trials. PMID:27527646

  17. The advent of equitation science.

    PubMed

    McGreevy, Paul D

    2007-11-01

    The lengthy association of humans with horses has established traditional equestrian techniques that have served military and transport needs well. Although effective, these techniques have by-passed the research findings of modern psychologists, who developed the fundamentals of learning theory. That said, the pools of equestrian debate are far from stagnant. The latest wave of horse whisperers has offered some refinements and some novel interpretations of the motivation of horses undergoing training. Additionally, the Fédération Equestre Internationale (FEI) has introduced the concept of the 'happy equine athlete' and, in the light of the hyperflexion (Rollkür) debate, recently examined the possible effects of some novel dressage modalities on equine 'happiness'. However, many still question the welfare of the ridden horse since it is largely trained using negative reinforcement, has to respond to pressure-based signals and is seldom asked to work for positive rewards. Science holds tremendous promise for removing emotiveness from the horse-riding welfare debate by establishing how much rein tension is too much; how much contact is neutral; how contact can be measured; how discomfort can be measured; how pain can be measured; and how learned helplessness manifests in horses. These are some of the topics addressed by equitation science, an emerging discipline that combines learning theory, physics and ethology to examine the salience and efficacy of horse-training techniques. PMID:17157542

  18. Loewner Theory in annulus II: Loewner chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Contreras, Manuel D.; Díaz-Madrigal, Santiago; Gumenyuk, Pavel

    2011-12-01

    Loewner Theory, based on dynamical viewpoint, proved itself to be a powerful tool in Complex Analysis and its applications. Recently Bracci et al. (J Reine Angew Math to appear, arXiv:0807.1594; Math Ann 344:947-962, 2009) and Contreras et al. (Revista Matemática Iberoamericana 26:975-1012, 2010) have proposed a new approach bringing together all the variants of the (deterministic) Loewner Evolution in a simply connected reference domain. This paper is devoted to the construction of a general version of Loewner Theory for the annulus launched in Contreras et al. (Trans Amer Math Soc to appear, arXiv:1011.4253). We introduce the general notion of a Loewner chain over a system of annuli and obtain a 1-to-1 correspondence between Loewner chains and evolution families in the doubly connected setting similar to that in the Loewner Theory for the unit disk. Furthermore, we establish a conformal classification of Loewner chains via the corresponding evolution families and via semicomplete weak holomorphic vector fields. Finally, we extend the explicit characterization of the semicomplete weak holomorphic vector fields obtained in Contreras et al. (Trans Amer Math Soc to appear, arXiv:1011.4253) to the general case.

  19. Self-referral of imaging and increased utilization: some practical perspectives on tackling the dilemma.

    PubMed

    Romano, Donald H

    2009-11-01

    Health care costs are higher in the United States than in any other country in the world, and imaging services have been growing much more rapidly than other services. Studies have shown a tendency for increased utilization of services, including imaging services, when referring physicians have ownership interest in the services. In recent years, the CMS has taken some action with respect to how it pays for imaging, including reducing physician payments when multiple images are taken on contiguous body parts during the same visit, establishing a cap on payments for certain imaging services, and imposing an antimarkup rule on diagnostic tests. In addition, CMS has made some changes to the Stark rules, which included adding nuclear medicine to the list of designated health services, prohibiting certain per-service or per-click leasing arrangements, and prohibiting physicians from owning entities that sell services to providers that then bill for them under arrangements. Because it is unclear whether these policy changes will have much effect on imaging utilization, CMS will continue to seek new ways to rein in utilization. In the near future, CMS and the US Department of Health and Human Services are likely to attempt to curb utilization not only through postpayment review and education but also through its various initiatives on improving the quality of services furnished to Medicare benificiaries. PMID:19878884

  20. Focus groups highlight that many patients object to clinicians' focusing on costs.

    PubMed

    Sommers, Roseanna; Goold, Susan Dorr; McGlynn, Elizabeth A; Pearson, Steven D; Danis, Marion

    2013-02-01

    Having patients weigh costs when making medical decisions has been proposed as a way to rein in health care spending. We convened twenty-two focus groups of people with insurance to examine their willingness to discuss health care costs with clinicians and consider costs when deciding among nearly comparable clinical options. We identified the following four barriers to patients' taking cost into account: a preference for what they perceive as the best care, regardless of expense; inexperience with making trade-offs between health and money; a lack of interest in costs borne by insurers and society as a whole; and noncooperative behavior characteristic of a "commons dilemma," in which people act in their own self-interest although they recognize that by doing so, they are depleting limited resources. Surmounting these barriers will require new research in patient education, comprehensive efforts to shift public attitudes about health care costs, and training to prepare clinicians to discuss costs with their patients. PMID:23381527

  1. 2011 Einstein Fellows Chosen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2011-03-01

    ASA has announced the selection of the 2011 Einstein Fellows who will conduct research related to NASA's Physics of the Cosmos program, which aims to expand our knowledge of the origin, evolution, and fate of the Universe. The Einstein Fellowship provides support to the awardees for three years, and the Fellows may pursue their research at a host university or research center of their choosing in the United States. The new Fellows will begin their programs in the fall of 2011. The new Einstein Fellows and their host institutions are listed below: * Akos Bogdan (Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, Cambridge, Mass.) * Samuel Gralla (University of Maryland, College Park, Md.) * Philip Hopkins (University of California at Berkeley) * Matthew Kunz (Princeton University, Princeton, N.J.) * Laura Lopez (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Mass.) * Amy Reines (National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Charlottesville, Virg.) * Rubens Reis (University of Michigan, Ann Arbor) * Ken Shen (Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, Calif.) * Jennifer Siegal-Gaskins (California Institute of Technology, Pasadena) * Lorenzo Sironi (Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass.) NASA has two other astrophysics theme-based fellowship programs: the Sagan Fellowship Program, which supports research into exoplanet exploration, and the Hubble Fellowship Program, which supports research into cosmic origins. More information on the Einstein Fellowships can be found at: http://cxc.harvard.edu/fellows/

  2. Regional Haze Evolved from Peat Fires - an Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Yuqi; Rein, Guillermo

    2016-04-01

    -fire-induced haze has become a regional seasonal phenomenon. Exposure to smoky haze results in deleterious physiologic responses, predominantly to the respiratory and cardiovascular systems. In 1997, an estimation of 100 million people in 5 countries in Southeast Asia were affected by Indonesia haze episode while 20 million people suffered from respiratory problems in Indonesia alone. Fine PM fraction generated from peat fires could penetrate into lower respiratory tracks and exacerbate respiratory diseases including chronic bronchitis, emphysema and asthma. Epidemiological studies show that direct exposure to haze pollution is associated with decreased pulmonary function and increased morbidity and mortality among individuals with pre-existent cardiovascular diseases. Reported cases of acute respiratory infection increased 3.8 times during the 1997 Indonesia haze episode (1,446,120 cases in total with 527 haze-related deaths). Collectively, peat fire and the resultant haze considerably affect the local society in many aspects, and more thorough research need to be carried out for further haze mitigation and governance. Corresponding author: Dr. Guillermo Rein: g.rein@imperial.ac.uk

  3. Organ preservation at low temperature: a physical and biological problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aussedat, J.; Boutron, P.; Coquilhat, P.; Descotes, J. L.; Faure, G.; Ferrari, M.; Kay, L.; Mazuer, J.; Monod, P.; Odin, J.; Ray, A.

    1993-02-01

    réalisée avec succès à l'échelle industrielle, ne peut se faire qu'en présence de substances plus ou moins toxiques dites cryoprotectrices, et à condition de respecter des vitesses de refroidissement et de réchauffement adaptées à chaque type de cellule. Nous montrons ensuite que l'extension de la cryopréservation au cas des organes entiers ne pourra se faire qu'au moyen de la vitrification, seule solution pour éviter toute formation de glace. Cette vitrification sera l'aboutissement de 2 axes de recherche, l'un sur l'élaboration de solutions cryoprotectrices les moins toxiques possibles, l'autre sur l'obtention de vitesses de refroidissement et de réchauffement suffisamment élevées et homogènes. Après avoir brièvement résumé l'état des recherches sur le coeur et le rein de petits mammifères, nous présentons les premiers résultats que nous avons obtenus sur la perfusion à 4 ^{circ}C et l'autotransplantation de reins de lapin, sur la toxicité sur le coeur de rat d'un nouveau cryoprotecteur le 2,3-butanediol, et sur le refroidissement de systèmes modèles expérimentaux d'organes.

  4. Cortisol release, heart rate and heart rate variability, and superficial body temperature, in horses lunged either with hyperflexion of the neck or with an extended head and neck position.

    PubMed

    Becker-Birck, M; Schmidt, A; Wulf, M; Aurich, J; von der Wense, A; Möstl, E; Berz, R; Aurich, C

    2013-04-01

    Bringing the head and neck of ridden horses into a position of hyperflexion is widely used in equestrian sports. In our study, the hypothesis was tested that hyperflexion is an acute stressor for horses. Salivary cortisol concentrations, heart rate, heart rate variability (HRV) and superficial body temperature were determined in horses (n = 16) lunged on two subsequent days. The head and neck of the horse was fixed with side reins in a position allowing forward extension on day A and fixed in hyperflexion on day B. The order of treatments alternated between horses. In response to lunging, cortisol concentration increased (day A from 0.73 ± 0.06 to 1.41 ± 0.13 ng/ml, p < 0.001; day B from 0.68 ± 0.07 to 1.38 ± 0.13 ng/ml, p < 0.001) but did not differ between days A and B. Beat-to-beat (RR) interval decreased in response to lunging on both days. HRV variables standard deviation of RR interval (SDRR) and RMSSD (root mean square of successive RR differences) decreased (p < 0.001) but did not differ between days. In the cranial region of the neck, the difference between maximum and minimum temperature was increased in hyperflexion (p < 0.01). In conclusion, physiological parameters do not indicate an acute stress response to hyperflexion of the head alone in horses lunged at moderate speed and not touched with the whip. However, if hyperflexion is combined with active intervention of a rider, a stressful experience for the horse cannot be excluded. PMID:22320155

  5. Similar patient survival following kidney allograft failure compared with non-transplanted patients.

    PubMed

    Mourad, Georges; Minguet, Johanna; Pernin, Vincent; Garrigue, Valérie; Peraldi, Marie-Noelle; Kessler, Michèle; Jacquelinet, Christian; Couchoud, Cécile; Duny, Yohan; Daurès, Jean-Pierre

    2014-07-01

    Data from the national French Renal Epidemiology and Information Network (REIN) registry were used to compare survival between transplant recipients under age 65 who resumed dialysis after graft failure during 2007-2009 and transplant-naïve incident dialysis patients matched for age, gender, diabetes mellitus, and year of starting dialysis. Among 911 transplant patients who returned to dialysis, 103 had died by 1 January 2011. Multivariate analysis showed that age over 48 years, coronary artery disease, peripheral artery disease, and inability to walk unassisted were significant predictors of death. In the case-control analysis, the observed mortality rates in 778 transplant failure and 778 transplant-naïve dialysis patients were 11.8 and 10.8%, respectively. Kaplan-Meier estimates of survival after transplant failure vs. the transplant-naïve controls were 95.2 vs. 94.1% at 1 year, 90.3 vs. 88.8% at 2 years, and 84.2 vs. 80.2% at 3 years (log rank P=0.197 overall). Dialysis in transplant failure vs. transplant-naïve patients was not associated with significantly increased mortality. At the start of dialysis, the serum creatinine levels and the rate of unplanned dialysis were significantly lower in transplant failure patients compared with transplant-naïve controls. Thus, in patients under 65 years of age in France, survival of dialysis patients after graft loss is similar to that of incident dialysis patients who have not undergone transplantation. PMID:24552850

  6. Inflationary freedom and cosmological neutrino constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Putter, Roland; Linder, Eric V.; Mishra, Abhilash

    2014-05-01

    The most stringent bounds on the absolute neutrino mass scale come from cosmological data. These bounds are made possible because massive relic neutrinos affect the expansion history of the universe and lead to a suppression of matter clustering on scales smaller than the associated free streaming length. However, the resulting effect on cosmological perturbations is relative to the primordial power spectrum of density perturbations from inflation, so freedom in the primordial power spectrum affects neutrino mass constraints. Using measurements of the cosmic microwave background (CMB), the galaxy power spectrum and the Hubble constant, we constrain neutrino mass and number of species for a model-independent primordial power spectrum. Describing the primordial power spectrum by a 20-node spline, we find that the neutrino mass upper limit is a factor 3 weaker than when a power law form is imposed, if only CMB data are used. The primordial power spectrum itself is constrained to better than 10% in the wave vector range k ≈0.01-0.25 Mpc-1. Galaxy clustering data and a determination of the Hubble constant play a key role in reining in the effects of inflationary freedom on neutrino constraints. The inclusion of both eliminates the inflationary freedom degradation of the neutrino mass bound, giving for the sum of neutrino masses Σmν<0.18 eV (at 95% confidence level, Planck+BOSS+H0), approximately independent of the assumed primordial power spectrum model. When allowing for a free effective number of species, Neff, the joint constraints on Σmν and Neff are loosened by a factor 1.7 when the power law form of the primordial power spectrum is abandoned in favor of the spline parametrization.

  7. The information architecture of behavior change websites.

    PubMed

    Danaher, Brian G; McKay, H Garth; Seeley, John R

    2005-01-01

    The extraordinary growth in Internet use offers researchers important new opportunities to identify and test new ways to deliver effective behavior change programs. The information architecture (IA)-the structure of website information--is an important but often overlooked factor to consider when adapting behavioral strategies developed in office-based settings for Web delivery. Using examples and relevant perspectives from multiple disciplines, we describe a continuum of website IA designs ranging from a matrix design to the tunnel design. The free-form matrix IA design allows users free rein to use multiple hyperlinks to explore available content according to their idiosyncratic interests. The more directive tunnel IA design (commonly used in e-learning courses) guides users step-by-step through a series of Web pages that are arranged in a particular order to improve the chances of achieving a goal that is measurable and consistent. Other IA designs are also discussed, including hierarchical IA and hybrid IA designs. In the hierarchical IA design, program content is arranged in a top-down manner, which helps the user find content of interest. The more complex hybrid IA design incorporates some combination of components that use matrix, tunnel, and/or hierarchical IA designs. Each of these IA designs is discussed in terms of usability, participant engagement, and program tailoring, as well as how they might best be matched with different behavior change goals (using Web-based smoking cessation interventions as examples). Our presentation underscores the role of considering and clearly reporting the use of IA designs when creating effective Web-based interventions. We also encourage the adoption of a multidisciplinary perspective as we move towards a more mature view of Internet intervention research. PMID:15914459

  8. Interactions between adipose tissue and the immune system in health and malnutrition.

    PubMed

    Wensveen, Felix M; Valentić, Sonja; Šestan, Marko; Wensveen, Tamara Turk; Polić, Bojan

    2015-09-01

    Adipose tissue provides the body with a storage depot of nutrients that is drained during times of starvation and replenished when food sources are abundant. As such, it is the primary sensor for nutrient availability in the milieu of an organism, which it communicates to the body through the excretion of hormones. Adipose tissue regulates a multitude of body functions associated with metabolism, such as gluconeogenesis, feeding and nutrient uptake. The immune system forms a vital layer of protection against micro-organisms that try to gain access to the nutrients contained in the body. Because infections need to be resolved as quickly as possible, speed is favored over energy-efficiency in an immune response. Especially when immune cells are activated, they switch to fast, but energy-inefficient anaerobic respiration to fulfill their energetic needs. Despite the necessity for an effective immune system, it is not given free rein in its energy expenditure. Signals derived from adipose tissue limit immune cell numbers and activity under conditions of nutrient shortage, whereas they allow proper immune cell activity when food sources are sufficiently available. When excessive fat accumulation occurs, such as in diet-induced obesity, adipose tissue becomes the site of pathological immune cell activation, causing chronic low-grade systemic inflammation. Obesity is therefore associated with a number of disorders in which the immune system plays a central role, such as atherosclerosis and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. In this review, we will discuss the way in which adipose tissue regulates activity of the immune system under healthy and pathological conditions. PMID:26603491

  9. Early changes in body weight and blood pressure are associated with mortality in incident dialysis patients

    PubMed Central

    Duranton, Flore; Duny, Yohan; Szwarc, Ilan; Deleuze, Sébastien; Rouanet, Catherine; Selcer, Isabelle; Maurice, François; Rivory, Jean-Pierre; Servel, Marie-Françoise; Jover, Bernard; Brunet, Philippe; Daurès, Jean-Pierre; Argilés, Àngel

    2016-01-01

    Background While much research is devoted to identifying novel biomarkers, addressing the prognostic value of routinely measured clinical parameters is of great interest. We studied early blood pressure (BP) and body weight (BW) trajectories in incident haemodialysis patients and their association with all-cause mortality. Methods In a cohort of 357 incident patients, we obtained all records of BP and BW during the first 90 days on dialysis (over 12 800 observations) and analysed trajectories using penalized B-splines and mixed linear regression models. Baseline comorbidities and all-cause mortality (median follow-up: 2.2 years) were obtained from the French Renal Epidemiology and Information Network (REIN) registry, and the association with mortality was assessed by Cox models adjusting for baseline comorbidities. Results During the initial 90 days on dialysis, there were non-linear decreases in BP and BW, with milder slopes after 15 days [systolic BP (SBP)] or 30 days [diastolic BP (DBP) and BW]. SBP or DBP levels at dialysis initiation and changes in BW occurring in the first month or during the following 2 months were significantly associated with survival. In multivariate models adjusting for baseline comorbidities and prescriptions, higher SBP value and BW slopes were independently associated with a lower risk of mortality. Hazard ratios of mortality and 95% confidence intervals were 0.92 (0.85–0.99) for a 10 mmHg higher SBP and 0.76 (0.66–0.88) for a 1 kg/month higher BW change on Days 30–90. Conclusions BW loss in the first weeks on dialysis is a strong and independent predictor of mortality. Low BP is also associated with mortality and is probably the consequence of underlying cardiovascular diseases. These early markers appear to be valuable prognostic factors. PMID:26985382

  10. Where will we find tomorrow's leaders?

    PubMed

    Hill, Linda A

    2008-01-01

    Unless we challenge long-held assumptions about how business leaders are supposed to act and where they're supposed to come from, many people who could become effective global leaders will remain invisible, warns Harvard Business School professor Hill. Instead of assuming that leaders must exhibit take-charge behavior, broaden the definition of leadership to include creating a context in which other people are willing and able to guide the organization. And instead of looking for the next generation of global leaders in huge Western corporations and elite business schools, expand the search to developing countries. In this conversation with HBR senior editor Paul Hemp, Hill describes the changing nature of leadership and what we can learn from parts of the world where people have not, until recently, had opportunities to become globally savvy executives. In South Africa, for instance, the African National Congress has provided rigorous leadership preparation for many black executives. Hill has also observed two approaches--in developed and developing economies alike--that she believes will be necessary in an increasingly complex business environment. The first, leading from behind, involves letting people hand off the reins to one another, depending on their strengths, as situations change. The second, leadership as collective genius, calls for both unleashing and harnessing individuals' collective talents, particularly to spur innovation. Through her descriptions of these approaches in such companies as Sekunjalo Investments, HCL Technologies, and IBM, Hill highlights the challenges of finding and preparing people who can lead by stepping back and letting others come forward to make their own judgments and take risks. PMID:18271324

  11. Quantitative determination of guggulsterone in existing natural populations of Commiphora wightii (Arn.) Bhandari for identification of germplasm having higher guggulsterone content.

    PubMed

    Kulhari, Alpana; Sheorayan, Arun; Chaudhury, Ashok; Sarkar, Susheel; Kalia, Rajwant K

    2015-01-01

    Guggulsterone is an aromatic steroidal ketonic compound obtained from vertical rein ducts and canals of bark of Commiphora wightii (Arn.) Bhandari (Family - Burseraceae). Owing to its multifarious medicinal and therapeutic values as well as its various other significant bioactivities, guggulsterone has high demand in pharmaceutical, perfumery and incense industries. More and more pharmaceutical and perfumery industries are showing interest in guggulsterone, therefore, there is a need for its quantitative determination in existing natural populations of C. wightii. Identification of elite germplasm having higher guggulsterone content can be multiplied through conventional or biotechnological means. In the present study an effort was made to estimate two isoforms of guggulsterone i.e. E and Z guggulsterone in raw exudates of 75 accessions of C. wightii collected from three states of North-western India viz. Rajasthan (19 districts), Haryana (4 districts) and Gujarat (3 districts). Extracted steroid rich fraction from stem samples was fractionated using reverse-phase preparative High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) coupled with UV/VIS detector operating at wavelength of 250 nm. HPLC analysis of stem samples of wild as well as cultivated plants showed that the concentration of E and Z isomers as well as total guggulsterone was highest in Rajasthan, as compared to Haryana and Gujarat states. Highest concentration of E guggulsterone (487.45 μg/g) and Z guggulsterone (487.68 μg/g) was found in samples collected from Devikot (Jaisalmer) and Palana (Bikaner) respectively, the two hyper-arid regions of Rajasthan, India. Quantitative assay was presented on the basis of calibration curve obtained from a mixture of standard E and Z guggulsterones with different validatory parameters including linearity, selectivity and specificity, accuracy, auto-injector, flow-rate, recoveries, limit of detection and limit of quantification (as per norms of International

  12. Androgen induced acceleration of functional recovery after rat sciatic nerve injury.

    PubMed

    Brown, Todd J.; Khan, Talat; Jones, Kathryn J.

    1999-01-01

    PURPOSE: Testosterone (T) treatment accelerates recovery from facial paralysis after facial nerve crush in hamsters. In this study, we extended those studies to another injury model and asked the following question: Will T treatment accelerate recovery from lower limb paralysis following sciatic nerve crush in the rat? METHODS: Castrated adult male rats received a right side sciatic nerve crush at the level of the sciatic notch, with the left side serving as control. Half the animals received a subcutaneous implant of a propionated form of T (TP), the others were sham-implanted. Weekly testing using the Sciatic Functional Index (SFI), a quantitative measure of locomotion, was done for 7 weeks postoperative (wpo). RESULTS: Between 3 and 5 weeks post-op, the average SFI score of the TP-treated group was higher than controls. This difference was significant at 4 wpo, indicating an accelerated degree of functional recovery. At these timepoints, the differences were attributable to the footprint or paw length and associated with calf muscle reinnervation rather than the toespreading component associated with intrinsic foot muscle rein-nervation. Beyond 5 wpo, there were no differences in the SFI scores. CONCLUSION: The results indicate that, as with facial nerve regeneration in the hamster, testosterone accelerates functional recovery from hind limb paralysis following sciatic nerve injury in the rat. While the responses of spinal motoneurons to injury can differ from those of cranial motoneurons, in this case it appears that they share a similar response to the trophic actions of androgen. This is important in the context of designing therapeutic strategies for dealing with direct trauma to motoneurons resulting from both peripheral and central nervous system trauma, such as spinal cord injury. PMID:12671219

  13. Pre-radiation lymphocyte harvesting and post-radiation reinfusion in patients with newly diagnosed high grade gliomas

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Xiaobu; Gladstone, Douglas E.; Ambady, Prakash; Nirschl, Thomas R.; Borrello, Ivan; Golightly, Marc; King, Karen E.; Holdhoff, Matthias; Karp, Judith; Drake, Charles G.; Grossman, Stuart A.

    2015-01-01

    Radiation (RT), temozolomide (TMZ), and dexamethasone in newly diagnosed high grade gliomas (HGG) produces severe treatment-related lymphopenia (TRL) that is associated with early cancer-related deaths. This TRL may result from inadvertent radiation to circulating lymphocytes. This study reinfused lymphocytes, harvested before chemo-radiation, and assessed safety, feasibility, and trends in lymphocyte counts. Patients with newly diagnosed HGG and total lymphocyte counts (TLC) ≥ 1000 cells/mm3 underwent apheresis. Cryopreserved autologous lymphocytes were reinfused once radiation was completed. Safety, feasibility, and trends in TLC, T cell subsets and cytokines were studied. Serial TLC were also compared with an unreinfused matched control group. Ten patients were harvested (median values: age 56 years, dexamethasone 3 mg/day, TLC/CD4 1980/772 cells/mm3). After 6 weeks of RT/TMZ, TLC fell 69 % (p < 0.0001) with similar reductions in CD4, CD8 and NK cells but not Tregs. Eight patients received lymphocyte reinfusions (median = 7.0 × 107 lymphocytes/kg) without adverse events. A post-reinfusion TLC rise of ≥300 cells/mm3 was noted in 3/8 patients at 4 weeks and 7/8 at 14 weeks which was similar to 23 matched controls. The reduced CD4/CD8 ratio was not restored by lymphocyte reinfusion. Severe lymphopenia was not accompanied by elevated serum interleukin-7 (IL-7) levels. This study confirms that severe TRL is common in HGG and is not associated with high plasma IL-7 levels. Although lymphocyte harvesting/rein-fusion is feasible and safe, serial lymphocyte counts are similar to unreinfused matched controls. Studies administering higher lymphocyte doses and/or IL-7 should be considered to restore severe treatment-related lymphopenia in HGG. PMID:26070554

  14. A Few Endpoint Geodesic Restriction Estimates for Eigenfunctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xuehua; Sogge, Christopher D.

    2014-07-01

    We prove a couple of new endpoint geodesic restriction estimates for eigenfunctions. In the case of general 3-dimensional compact manifolds, after a TT* argument, simply by using the L 2-boundedness of the Hilbert transform on , we are able to improve the corresponding L 2-restriction bounds of Burq, Gérard and Tzvetkov (Duke Math J 138:445-486, 2007) and Hu (Forum Math 6:1021-1052, 2009). Also, in the case of 2-dimensional compact manifolds with nonpositive curvature, we obtain improved L 4-estimates for restrictions to geodesics, which, by Hölder's inequality and interpolation, implies improved L p -bounds for all exponents p ≥ 2. We do this by using oscillatory integral theorems of Hörmander (Ark Mat 11:1-11, 1973), Greenleaf and Seeger (J Reine Angew Math 455:35-56, 1994) and Phong and Stein (Int Math Res Notices 4:49-60, 1991), along with a simple geometric lemma (Lemma 3.2) about properties of the mixed-Hessian of the Riemannian distance function restricted to pairs of geodesics in Riemannian surfaces. We are also able to get further improvements beyond our new results in three dimensions under the assumption of constant nonpositive curvature by exploiting the fact that, in this case, there are many totally geodesic submanifolds.

  15. Should this team be saved?

    PubMed

    Heimbouch, H

    2001-01-01

    As far as anyone could tell, Vigor Skin Care's star was rising, mostly on the strength of Ageless Vigor, its new line of enriched skin cleansers and cosmetics. In fact, this evening, the three employees responsible for developing the product line were slated to receive the parent company's highest award for performance. But CEO Peter Markles knew that despite the accolades, the business unit--and its "fearsome threesome"--had hit a rough patch in recent months. When Peter took the reins four years ago, Vigor Skin Care was the sleeping dog of the health-and-beauty industry; his challenge was to rejuvenate the maturing business. He knew a turnaround would require equal parts discipline, politics, and creativity--so he pulled together a team that could address those needs. Peter relied on Sandy Fryda, Vigor's longtime marketing director, to help him navigate the tricky political waters at headquarters. And he tapped 30-year-old Josh Bartola, a maverick contributor to Vigor Skin Care's research group, for his independent spirit and new product ideas. Their all-consuming, intensely collaborative efforts resulted in the successful Ageless Vigor line. Then reality set in. The team found the day-to-day operations of manufacturing Ageless Vigor, for all their necessity and urgency, a bit tedious. Peter felt relegated to troubleshooting distribution problems. Josh was having meetings with executives from another division who were actively recruiting the wunderkind. And Sandy was simply on the verge of burnout. Tonight, at the award ceremony, there would be speeches and applause and toasts. But tomorrow, Peter would have to face the question: Should he try to salvage the Ageless Vigor team? Four commentators offer their advice in this fictional case study. PMID:11447615

  16. Comparing and Reconciling Traditional Field and Photogeologic Mapping Techniques: Lessons from the San Francisco Volcanic Field, Arizona

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skinner, J. A., Jr.; Eppler, D. B.; Bleacher, J. E.; Evans, C. A.; Feng, W.; Gruener, J.; Hurwitz, D. M.; Janoiko, B.; Whitson, P.

    2014-01-01

    Cartographic products and - specifically - geologic maps provide critical assistance for establishing physical and temporal frameworks of planetary surfaces. The technical methods that result in the creation of geologic maps vary depending on how observations are made as well as the overall intent of the final products [1-3]. These methods tend to follow a common linear work flow, including the identification and delineation of spatially and temporally discrete materials (units), the documentation of their primary (emplacement) and secondary (erosional) characteristics, analysis of the relative and absolute age relationships between these materials, and the collation of observations and interpretations into an objective map product. The "objectivity" of a map is critical cross comparison with overlapping maps and topical studies as well as its relevance to scientific posterity. However, the "accuracy" and "correctness" of a geologic map is very subject to debate. This can be evidenced by comparison of existing geologic maps at various scales, particularly those compiled through field- and remote-based mapped efforts. Our study focuses on comparing the fidelity of (1) "Apollo-style" geologic investigations, where typically non-geologist crew members follow static traverse routes established through pre-mission planning, and (2) "traditional" field-based investigations, where geologists are given free rein to observe without preplanned routes. This abstract summarizes the regional geology wherein our study was conducted, presents the geologic map created from traditional field mapping techniques, and offers basic insights into how geologic maps created from different tactics can be reconciled in support of exploratory missions. Additional abstracts [4-6] from this study discuss various exploration and science results of these efforts.

  17. Health policy and the private sector. New vistas for nursing.

    PubMed

    Pulcini, J; Mason, D J; Cohen, S S; Kovner, C; Leavitt, J K

    2000-01-01

    During the past two decades, the drive to rein in rising health care costs has shifted some of the power in health care policy making from professional groups, government agencies, and not-for-profit health care organizations to large for-profit corporations (1-4). This has been a world-wide phenomenon, as the provision and financing of health care services is shifted from governments to private health care organizations (5,6). In the United States, the shift in power is manifested in profound ways. Market competition and bottom-line economics have permeated the health care system, creating powerful new incentives for mergers, other corporate restructuring, and the shift to for-profit status by formerly not-for-profit insurance companies and providers. Private sector health care is now increasingly influenced by for-profit organizations (3). Moreover, the health insurance industry has been transformed as traditional indemnity insurance is replaced by versions of managed care. The role of government, or the public sector, in setting parameters for health care financing and standards for the delivery of health care services is increasingly outpaced in cost cutting by organizations that directly face the bottom line. In addition, private foundations, many of which are under the auspices of managed care organizations, now fund a large proportion of health care research and demonstration projects, a task once largely within the realm of the government. Through education and experience, nurses have developed political sophistication and understanding of policy making in the public sector (7). The challenge now is to educate nurses to adapt their political and policy strategies to the new health care milieu. This challenge is particularly crucial for advanced practice nurses, who must survive in a managed care environment. PMID:11040670

  18. Toward green dialysis: focus on water savings.

    PubMed

    Ponson, Laurent; Arkouche, Walid; Laville, Maurice

    2014-01-01

    Hemodialysis is one of the most water and energy-hungry medical procedures, and thus represents a clear opportunity where improvements should be made concerning the consumption and wastage of water. Three levels were investigated on which there are potential savings: the precise adjustment of water production according to specific needs, the reuse of reverse osmosis rejected water, and finally the huge volumes of post-patient dialysate effluent. The "AURAL" (Association pour l'Utilisation du Rein Artificiel à Lyon), main unit in Lyon, was the site of investigation for this study, which cares for 173 chronic hemodialysis patients. Evaluation of the 3 levels described earlier was undertaken on this particular building, and on the water treatment currently used. Volumes of produced water can be improved by different hydraulic systems or by adjusting the pure water conductivity used for dialysis. Concerning the reject water, reuse for building sanitation became the focus of further attention. The technical feasibility, volume of saved water, and applicable work costs were considered. The results suggest that out of a possible 2834 m(3)/year of reject water, 1200 m(3)/year may be reused and return on investment recovered within 5.8 years. Finally, the reprocessing and feasibility of reuse of dialysate effluent were investigated. Initial calculations show that although technical solutions are available, such processing of the wastewater production is not profitable in the short term. Regarding the significant prior authorization and risk management analysis necessary for such a project, this avenue was pursued no further. From the perspective of a "green dialysis," the reuse of reject water into sanitation is both viable and profitable in our unit, and must be the next step of our project. More widely, improvements can be made by defining a more precise range of pure water conductivity for dialysis and by applying reuse water project to new or to be renovated units

  19. Health reform: setting the agenda for long term care.

    PubMed

    Hatch, O G; Wofford, H; Willging, P R; Pomeroy, E

    1993-06-01

    The White House Task Force on National Health Care Reform, headed by First Lady Hillary Rodham Clinton, is expected to release its prescription for health care reform this month. From the outset, Clinton's mandate was clear: to provide universal coverage while reining in costs for delivering quality health care. Before President Clinton was even sworn into office, he had outlined the major principles that would shape the health reform debate. Global budgeting would establish limits on all health care expenditures, thereby containing health costs. Under a system of managed competition, employers would form health alliances for consumers to negotiate for cost-effective health care at the community level. So far, a basic approach to health care reform has emerged. A key element is universal coverage--with an emphasis on acute, preventive, and mental health care. Other likely pieces are employer-employee contributions to health care plans, laws that guarantee continued coverage if an individual changes jobs or becomes ill, and health insurance alliances that would help assure individual access to low-cost health care. What still is not clear is the extent to which long term care will be included in the basic benefits package. A confidential report circulated by the task force last month includes four options for long term care: incremental Medicaid reform; a new federal/state program to replace Medicaid; a social insurance program for home and community-based services; or full social insurance for long term care. Some work group members have identified an additional option: prefunded long term care insurance.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:10126659

  20. PBL triggers in relation to students’ generated learning issues and predetermined faculty objectives: Study in a Malaysian public university

    PubMed Central

    Ruslai, Nurul Hidayati; Salam, Abdus

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Foundational elements of problem based learning (PBL) are triggers, tutors and students. Ineffective triggers are important issues for students’ inability to generate appropriate learning issues. The objective of this study was to evaluate PBL triggers and to determine similarities of students’ generated learning issues with predetermined faculty objectives. Methods: It was a retrospective study conducted in 2014 analyzing all 24 PBL-triggers used at Centre for Foundation Studies, International Islamic University Malaysia, in four semesters during two consecutive years 2011 and 2012. Triggers were used as textual and illustration format equally in each semester. Total 16 PBL-triggers with highest and lowest achieving similarities of learning issues with predetermined faculty objectives were selected equally from each semester and format. The trigger quality and learning issues related to predetermine faculty objectives were analyzed and presented as mean and percent distribution. Results: Mean similarities score of students’ generated learning issues were 3.4 over 5 predetermined faculty objectives which was 68%, varied from 58% to 79%. More than 70% similarities were generated from five textual and four illustrated triggers, while <70% similarities observed from four illustrated and three textual triggers. Conclusion: Whatever the trigger formats in PBL, it is the designing considering influential variables that influence higher outcomes. Triggers should have planned clues that lead students to generate issues correlate with faculty objectives. Educational institution should emphasize on training needs of faculty at regular interval to develop and re-in force teachers’ skills in trigger design, thereby to promote a sustainable educational and organizational development. PMID:27182232

  1. Bob's meltdown.

    PubMed

    Carr, Nicholas G

    2002-01-01

    Annette Innella is just coming into the lunchroom at Concord Machines when Bob Dunn starts screaming at her. After throwing his lunch tray against the wall, he stomps out, leaving Annette stunned. Naturally, Annette, the new senior VP for knowledge management, is beside herself. She knows her proposal to establish a cross-functional knowledge management committee is progressive thinking for this oldline manufacturer, but Bob's reaction is totally over the line. If Bob stays, she goes--that's all there is to it. Bob is contrite, but he's under a lot of pressure. The general manager of the Services Group, he's just returned from a two-week trip around the globe to gear up his troops to beat revenue targets again, despite shrinking budgets and hiring freezes. And what does he see when he gets back? An e-mail from Annette requesting that two of his best people devote half their time to what he calls her "idiotic" Knowledge Protocols Group. He's carrying the company on his back, and she's throwing this nonsense at him. Graphics specialist Paula Chancellor is surprised. Sure, Bob's gruff, but his staff loves him, and he's the only one of the big shots who ever talks to her. But HR director Nathan Singer is incensed; Bob's never been a team player, Singer complains, and it's time he learned a lesson. CEO Jay Nguyen is in a bind. Bob is his top manager; he brings in all the money. And even though future revenues are going to have to come from somewhere else, Jay is not totally behind Annette's initiative in the current business climate. He can't afford to lose Bob. But if he reins in Annette, it will look like he's condoning Bob's outburst. What should he do? Four commentators offer advice in this fictional case study. PMID:12964466

  2. Soil-to-root transfer and translocation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by vegetables grown on industrial contaminated soils.

    PubMed

    Fismes, Joëlle; Perrin-Ganier, Corinne; Empereur-Bissonnet, Pascal; Morel, Jean Louis

    2002-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are possible contaminants in some former industrial sites, representing a potential risk to human health if these sites are converted to residential areas. This work was conducted to determine whether PAHs present in contaminated soils are transferred to edible parts of selected vegetables. Soils were sampled from a former gasworks and a private garden, exhibiting a range of PAH concentrations (4 to 53 to 172 to 1263 and 2526 mg PAHs kg-1 of dry soil), and pot experiments were conducted in a greenhouse with lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. var. Reine de Mai), potato (Solanum tuberosum L. var. Belle de Fontenay), and carrot (Daucus carota L. var. Nantaise). At harvest, above- and below ground biomass were determined and the PAH concentrations in soil were measured. In parallel, plates were placed in the greenhouse to estimate the average PAH-dust deposition. Results showed that the presence of PAHs in soils had no detrimental effect on plant growth. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were detected in all plants grown in contaminated soils. However, their concentration was low compared with the initial soil concentration, and the bioconcentration factors were low (i.e., ranging from 13.4 x 10(-4) in potato and carrot pulp to 2 x 10(-2) in potato and carrot leaves). Except in peeled potatoes, the PAH concentration in vegetables increased with the PAH concentration in soils. The PAH distribution profiles in plant tissues and in soils suggested that root uptake was the main pathway for high molecular weight PAHs. On the opposite, lower molecular weight PAHs were probably taken up from the atmosphere through the leaves as well as by roots. PMID:12371182

  3. Reinnervation of Urethral and Anal Sphincters With Femoral Motor Nerve to Pudendal Nerve Transfer

    PubMed Central

    Ruggieri, Michael R.; Braverman, Alan S.; Bernal, Raymond M.; Lamarre, Neil S.; Brown, Justin M.; Barbe, Mary F.

    2012-01-01

    Aims Lower motor neuron damage to sacral roots or nerves can result in incontinence and a flaccid urinary bladder. We showed bladder reinnervation after transfer of coccygeal to sacral ventral roots, and genitofemoral nerves (L1, 2 origin) to pelvic nerves. This study assesses the feasibility of urethral and anal sphincter reinnervation using transfer of motor branches of the femoral nerve (L2–4 origin) to pudendal nerves (S1, 2 origin) that innervate the urethral and anal sphincters in a canine model. Methods Sacral ventral roots were selected by their ability to stimulate bladder, urethral sphincter, and anal sphincter contraction and transected. Bilaterally, branches of the femoral nerve, specifically, nervus saphenous pars muscularis [Evans HE. Miller’s anatomy of the dog. Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders; 1993], were transferred and end-to-end anastomosed to transected pudendal nerve branches in the perineum, then enclosed in unipolar nerve cuff electrodes with leads to implanted RF micro-stimulators. Results Nerve stimulation induced increased anal and urethral sphincter pressures in five of six transferred nerves. Retrograde neurotracing from the bladder, urethral sphincter, and anal sphincter using fluorogold, fast blue, and fluororuby, demonstrated urethral and anal sphincter labeled neurons in L2–4 cord segments (but not S1–3) in nerve transfer canines, consistent with rein-nervation by the transferred femoral nerve motor branches. Controls had labeled neurons only in S1–3 segments. Postmortem DiI and DiO labeling confirmed axonal regrowth across the nerve repair site. Conclusions These results show spinal cord reinnervation of urethral and anal sphincter targets after sacral ventral root transection and femoral nerve transfer (NT) to the denervated pudendal nerve. These surgical procedures may allow patients to regain continence. PMID:21953679

  4. [The cultural history of disease].

    PubMed

    Viniegra-Velázquez, Leonardo

    2008-01-01

    In this essay the concept of Cultural History of Disease (CHD) is proposed as an alternative to Natural History of Disease (NHD). A brief historic recapitulation of the concept of disease is made, and the present idea is given a detailed account which is the basis of the nosological theory of the health/disease paradigm. The main aspects of the NHD are specified, its limitations and restrictive consequences in health care are highlighted. It is proposed the idea of disease as particular and differential ways of being from human beings. It is showed how culture (everything that make us human) "takes the reins of evolution" in our species and determines, in every period, our ways of being, of living, and getting sick. Some distinctive qualities of life are showed to take a distance from the idea of machine and the dominant mechanism of health care in our time. The concept of CHD is developed as a proposal that "lightens" aspects ignored by NHD. An account is made of how, by cultural effect, a number of diseases no longer exist; others have appeared or increased their presence, have changed their features or varied their distribution. The every time more and more unsupported congenital/acquired dichotomy is discussed. It is showed how the epigenetic inheritance is a strong evidence against the separation between genetic and environmental. The mechanist causality, in its different characteristics, proper of the health/disease paradigm and of NHD, is contrasted to contextual causality proper of CHD. The implications of CHD in the way of approaching to diseases, in restating the patients', physicians' and health care institutions' role are discussed. As well as in recognizing that health care has no sense without life care in its different manifestations, from which derives the need to fight for more proper conditions and circumstances for a dignified, satisfactory, serene, fraternal life in including societies. PMID:19378839

  5. Simulation of a pulsatile total artificial heart: Development of a partitioned Fluid Structure Interaction model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sonntag, Simon J.; Kaufmann, Tim A. S.; Büsen, Martin R.; Laumen, Marco; Linde, Torsten; Schmitz-Rode, Thomas; Steinseifer, Ulrich

    2013-04-01

    Heart disease is one of the leading causes of death in the world. Due to a shortage in donor organs artificial hearts can be a bridge to transplantation or even serve as a destination therapy for patients with terminal heart insufficiency. A pusher plate driven pulsatile membrane pump, the Total Artificial Heart (TAH) ReinHeart, is currently under development at the Institute of Applied Medical Engineering of RWTH Aachen University.This paper presents the methodology of a fully coupled three-dimensional time-dependent Fluid Structure Interaction (FSI) simulation of the TAH using a commercial partitioned block-Gauss-Seidel coupling package. Partitioned coupling of the incompressible fluid with the slender flexible membrane as well as a high fluid/structure density ratio of about unity led inherently to a deterioration of the stability (‘artificial added mass instability’). The objective was to conduct a stable simulation with high accuracy of the pumping process. In order to achieve stability, a combined resistance and pressure outlet boundary condition as well as the interface artificial compressibility method was applied. An analysis of the contact algorithm and turbulence condition is presented. Independence tests are performed for the structural and the fluid mesh, the time step size and the number of pulse cycles. Because of the large deformation of the fluid domain, a variable mesh stiffness depending on certain mesh properties was specified for the fluid elements. Adaptive remeshing was avoided. Different approaches for the mesh stiffness function are compared with respect to convergence, preservation of mesh topology and mesh quality. The resulting mesh aspect ratios, mesh expansion factors and mesh orthogonalities are evaluated in detail. The membrane motion and flow distribution of the coupled simulations are compared with a top-view recording and stereo Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) measurements, respectively, of the actual pump.

  6. Revisiting Training and Verification Process Implementation for Risk Reduction on New Missions at NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryant, Larry W.; Fragoso, Ruth S.

    2007-01-01

    In 2003 we proposed an effort to develop a core program of standardized training and verification practices and standards against which the implementation of these practices could be measured. The purpose was to provide another means of risk reduction for deep space missions to preclude the likelihood of a repeat of the tragedies of the 1998 Mars missions. We identified six areas where the application of standards and standardization would benefit the overall readiness process for flight projects at JPL. These are Individual Training, Team Training, Interface and Procedure Development, Personnel Certification, Interface and procedure Verification, and Operations Readiness Testing. In this paper we will discuss the progress that has been made in the tasks of developing the proposed infrastructure in each of these areas. Specifically we will address the Position Training and Certification Standards that are now available for each operational position found on our Flight Operations Teams (FOT). We will also discuss the MGSS Baseline Flight Operations Team Training Plan which can be tailored for each new flight project at JPL. As these tasks have been progressing, the climate and emphasis for Training and for V and V at JPL has changed, and we have learned about the expansion, growth, and limitations in the roles of traditional positions at JPL such as the Project's Training Engineer, V and V Engineer, and Operations Engineer. The need to keep a tight rein on budgets has led to a merging and/or reduction in these positions which pose challenges to individual capacities and capabilities. We examine the evolution of these processes and the roles involved while taking a look at the impact or potential impact of our proposed training related infrastructure tasks. As we conclude our examination of the changes taking place for new flight projects, we see that the importance of proceeding with our proposed tasks and adapting them to the changing climate remains an important

  7. Leadership run amok. The destructive potential of overachievers.

    PubMed

    Spreier, Scott W; Fontaine, Mary H; Malloy, Ruth L

    2006-06-01

    The desire to achieve is a major source of strength in business, and it is on the rise. The authors' consulting firm has seen a steady increase in the extent to which achievement motivates managers. There's a dark side to the trend, however. By relentlessly focusing on tasks and goals, an executive or company can damage performance. Overachievers tend to command and coerce, stifling subordinates. Psychologist David McClelland identified three drivers of behavior: achievement, meeting a standard of excellence; affiliation, maintaining close relationships; and power, having an impact on others. He said the power motive comes in two forms: personalized, in which the leader draws strength from controlling people, and socialized, where the leader derives strength from empowering people. Studies show that great charismatic leaders are highly motivated by socialized power. To look at how motives and leadership style affect a group's work climate and performance, the authors studied 21 senior managers at IBM. The leaders who created high-performing and energizing climates got more lasting results by using a broad range of styles, choosing different ones for different circumstances. Rather than order people around, they provided vision, sought buy-in and commitment, and coached. If you're an overachiever seeking to broaden your range, you can study your actions and ask your team, peers, and manager to give you honest feedback. You can adopt specific new behaviors, such as engaging your team in a discussion of how to achieve goals, rather than issuing a set of directives. The company as a whole can play a part, too: Organizations must learn when to draw on the achievement drive and when to rein it in. PMID:16770895

  8. Human Preferences for Conformation Attributes and Head-And-Neck Positions in Horses.

    PubMed

    Caspar, Georgina L; Dhand, Navneet K; McGreevy, Paul D

    2015-01-01

    Human preferences for certain morphological attributes among domestic animals may be entirely individual or, more generally, may reflect evolutionary pressures that favor certain conformation. Artificial selection for attributes, such as short heads and crested necks of horses, may have functional and welfare implications because there is evidence from other species that skull shape co-varies with behaviour. Crested necks can be accentuated by flexion of the neck, a quality that is often manipulated in photographs vendors use when selling horses. Equine head-and-neck positions acquired through rein tension can compromise welfare. Our investigation was designed to identify conformations and postures that people are attracted to when choosing their 'ideal' horse. Participants of an internet survey were asked to rate their preference for horse silhouettes that illustrated three gradations of five variables: facial shape, crest height, ear length, ear position and head-and-neck carriage. There were 1,234 usable responses. The results show that overall preferences are for the intermediate, rather than extreme, morphological choices (p=<0.001). They also indicate that males are 2.5 times less likely to prefer thicker necks rather than the intermediate shape, and 4 times more likely to prefer the thinner neck shape. When compared to the novice participants, experienced participants were 1.9 times more likely to prefer a thicker neck shape than the intermediate neck shape and 2.8 times less likely to prefer a thinner neck shape than the intermediate neck shape. There was overall preference of 93% (n=939) for the category of head carriage 'In front of the vertical'. However, novice participants were 1.8 times more likely to choose 'behind the vertical' than 'in front of the vertical'. Our results suggest that people prefer a natural head carriage, concave facial profile (dished face), larger ears and thicker necks. From these survey data, it seems that some innate

  9. Confirming the First Supermassive Black Hole in a Dwarf Starburst Galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reines, Amy

    2011-10-01

    In the modern universe, supermassive black holes lie at the heart of most, if not all, galaxies with bulges. However, the birth and growth of the first "seed" black holes, back in the earlier universe, is observationally unconstrained. Reines et al. {2011} have recently discovered a candidate million-solar mass black hole in the bulgeless dwarf starburst galaxy Henize 2-10, offering the first opportunity to study a growing black hole in a nearby galaxy much like those in the infant universe. The case for an accreting black hole in Henize 2-10 is strong {e.g. co-spatial non-thermal radio and hard X-ray point sources}, but not watertight. Our proposal aims to confirm {or refute} the presence of this candidate black hole using STIS optical spectroscopy to trace the kinematics and ionization conditions in its immediate vicinity. Existing HST observations show a marginally resolved H-alpha knot coincident with the radio and X-ray point source, so our primary aim is to detect a compact rotating disk of ionized gas, directly yielding a black hole mass. Our secondary aim is to find evidence for AGN-related emission line signatures at the location of the H-alpha knot, and possibly along a narrow jet-like filament. Confirming the presence of a supermassive black hole in Henize 2-10 with these HST observations has immediate implications for our understanding of the birth and early evolution of the first black holes in the high-redshift universe.

  10. Inference of the cold dark matter substructure mass function at z = 0.2 using strong gravitational lenses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vegetti, S.; Koopmans, L. V. E.; Auger, M. W.; Treu, T.; Bolton, A. S.

    2014-08-01

    We present the results of a search for galaxy substructures in a sample of 11 gravitational lens galaxies from the Sloan Lens ACS Survey by Bolton et al. We find no significant detection of mass clumps, except for a luminous satellite in the system SDSS J0956+5110. We use these non-detections, in combination with a previous detection in the system SDSS J0946+1006, to derive constraints on the substructure mass function in massive early-type host galaxies with an average redshift ˜ 0.2 and an average velocity dispersion <σeff> ˜ 270 km s-1. We perform a Bayesian inference on the substructure mass function, within a median region of about 32 kpc2 around the Einstein radius (<Rein> ˜ 4.2 kpc). We infer a mean projected substructure mass fraction f = 0.0076_{-0.0052}^{+0.0208} at the 68 per cent confidence level and a substructure mass function slope α < 2.93 at the 95 per cent confidence level for a uniform prior probability density on α. For a Gaussian prior based on cold dark matter (CDM) simulations, we infer f = 0.0064^{+0.0080}_{-0.0042} and a slope of α = 1.90^{+0.098}_{-0.098} at the 68 per cent confidence level. Since only one substructure was detected in the full sample, we have little information on the mass function slope, which is therefore poorly constrained (i.e. the Bayes factor shows no positive preference for any of the two models). The inferred fraction is consistent with the expectations from CDM simulations and with inference from flux ratio anomalies at the 68 per cent confidence level.

  11. Sports drug testing--an analyst's perspective.

    PubMed

    Trout, Graham J; Kazlauskas, Rymantas

    2004-01-10

    Sport plays a major role in the lives of many people, both for active participation and as entertainment. Sport is now a huge nationally and internationally based industry. The desire to win has led some athletes to resort to the use of performance enhancing drugs. With huge financial rewards now available in some sports the pressure to excel has grown. Some have argued that drug use should be given free rein, however most people are of the view that it is athletic prowess that should be applauded not the efficacy of various performance enhancing drugs. Apart from the obvious aspects of equality and fair play, the use of drugs is associated with significant health risks. In the 1960's the use of stimulants in sports such as cycling led to the death of at least one cyclist. Since 1968 the International Olympic Committee (IOC) has required all Olympic Games' host cities to provide laboratory facilities for the analysis and detection of performance enhancing drugs. There are now 29 IOC accredited laboratories throughout the world that routinely test samples from athletes for the presence of such drugs. The purpose of this tutorial review is to give an overview of drug testing procedures, including those that were used at the last summer Olympic Games in Sydney 2000, and the incorporation of the latest developments in analytical chemistry technology in the drug testing process. More recently, developments in biotechnology mean that the use of whole new classes of drugs are banned in sport, often requiring new methodologies and techniques for their analysis. The contest between those who wish to cheat and those who wish to maintain fair play in sport is an ongoing one. PMID:14737504

  12. Obituary: Maurice M. Shapiro, 1915-2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yodh, Gaurang B.

    2009-01-01

    emulsions--to study cosmic-ray induced stars. Maury wrote definitive reviews on the emulsion technique (use of high-density visual detectors) in 1941 in Reviews of Modern Physics and then an article entitled "Nuclear Emulsions" in the Handbuch der Physik of 1958. He did many experimental investigations related to cosmic rays and particle properties after the war when he joined NRL. Using emulsion-chamber techniques and high-altitude exposures, Maury measured and verified saturation of relativistic rise in ionization, a measurement of helium and proton flux at high rigidity, and accurate measurements of secondary-to-primary ratio (Li, Be, B/CNO); with his colleagues he did one of the best measurements of neutral pion life time. He also did important measurements of properties of heavy baryons. My association with Maury started when I joined University of Maryland's High Energy group in 1961, a time when Maury had a very active group working in particle physics and cosmic rays using nuclear emulsions and was starting a bubble-chamber group. (Some of the members were Bernard Hildebrand, Bert Stiller, Rein Silberberg, C. H. Tsao, and Robert Glasser.) There was active interaction between George Snow (University of Maryland) and the NRL group, both studying properties of high-energy particles with nuclear emulsions and bubble chambers. I was a consultant with the NRL group for some ten years. In 1960s, Maury investigated the ramifications and limitations of supernova theories for the origin of cosmic rays and discussed the production of high-energy neutrinos and gamma rays from these sources. He was one of the active members of the DUMAND project to study high-energy neutrinos. With Rein Silberberg he explored the capabilities of such a project. Maury's group made seminal contributions on quantitatively exploring isotope ratios (using isotopes to determine the time lag between explosion and acceleration in supernova sources--to suggest the importance of FIP in injection), the

  13. Scientific habits of mind: A reform of structure and relationships

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mooney, Linda Beth

    This research was designed to broaden current elementary science reform efforts by including the voices of our young scientists. Ten high school students who were defined as possessing both coherent science knowledge and scientific habits of mind were selected for the study. Through a three-part series of in-depth, phenomenological interviews, these students revealed early childhood experiences from birth through age ten to which they attributed their development of science knowledge and scientific habits of mind. Educational connoisseurship and criticism provided the framework through which the experiences were analyzed. The research revealed the overwhelming role of scientific habits of mind in the current success of these young scientists. Scientific habits of mind were developed through the structures and relationships in the home. Parents of the participants provided a non-authoritarian, fun, playful, tolerant atmosphere in which messes and experimentation were the norm. Large blocks of uninterrupted, unstructured time and space that "belonged" to the child allowed these children to follow where curiosity led. Frequently, the parent modeled scientific habits of mind. Good discipline in the minds of these families had nothing to do with punishments, rewards, or rules. The parents gave the children responsibilities, "free rein," and their trust, and the children blossomed in that trust and mutual respect. Parents recognized and supported the uniqueness, autonomy, interests, and emotions of the child. Above all, the young scientists valued the time, freedom, patience, and emotional support provided by their parents. For girls, construction toys, hot wheels, sand boxes, and outdoor experiences were particularly important. Art classes, free access to art media, sewing, music, and physical activity facilitated observational skills and spatial relationship development. The girls knew that doing traditionally masculine and feminine activities were acceptable and

  14. PREFACE: 1st Franco-Algerian Workshop on Neutrino Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mebarki, N.; Mimouni, J.; Vanucci, F.; Aissaoui, H.

    2015-04-01

    The first Franco-Algerian workshop on neutrino physics was held on 22-23 October 2013 at the University of Mentouri, Constantine, Algeria. It was jointly organized by the Laboratory of Mathematical and Subatomic Physics (LPMS) and the Direction of Scientific Research (DGRSTD) for the Algerian side, and for the French part by the IN2P3, CNRS and CEA IRFU. It is one of a series of international scientific meetings organized every two years by the LPMS at Constantine on high energy physics (theoretical, nuclear physics, classical and quantum cosmology, astrophysics, mathematical physics and quantum computing etc...) to maintain a high quality in scientific research and education at Algerian universities. This specific meeting brought together experts in particle physics, astrophysics and cosmology from France and Algeria. It touched upon several theoretical, phenomenological as well as experimental aspects of the neutrinos. The workshop participants were mostly young researchers from many universities and research institutes in Algeria. The physics of neutrinos is a very active field in particle physics, hence the importance for the High Energy community in Algeria to gain expertise in this ''strategic'' area at the intersection of various topics in theoretical physics and high energy astrophysics (SM physics, CP violation, in general, SNe explosions, baryogenesis...). The neutrino proposed by Pauli back in 1930 as a ''desperate remedy'' to save the law of energy conservation in beta decay had a bright early history. Discovered in 1956 in the Cowan-Reines experiment despite all odds, this elusive particle which enabled us to understand the chiral nature of the weak interactions which later lead to the electro-weak unification finally appears to hold a key role in understanding subatomic physics as well as the structure and structuration of the Universe. It is also, after the discovery of the Higgs particle at the LHC in 2012, the only grey area left today in the

  15. Global modelling of climate processes at high resolution - from one model towards multi-model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, Malcolm J.; Mizielinski, Matthew; Strachan, Jane; Vidale, Pier Luigi; Demory, Marie-Estelle; Schiemann, Reinhard; Haarsma, Rein

    2015-04-01

    A traceable hierarchy of global climate models, with atmosphere resolutions (using the Met Office Unified Model) ranging from 130km to 12km, with a subset of these coupled to ¼˚ ocean (NEMO), have been developed in order to study the impact of improved representation of small scale processes on the mean climate, its variability and extremes. An ensemble of 25km atmosphere integrations, using time on the European PrACE supercomputer HERMIT, and integrations with the 12km atmosphere model in which the convective parameterization has been switched off, have also been completed. In addition, a 10 year global coupled simulation with an eddy-resolving 1/12˚ ocean has recently been completed. The UPSCALE project completed an ensemble of 25km atmosphere integrations for both present day and idealised future climate, together with lower resolution models for comparison. For an increasing range of processes, we are attempting to assess the resolution at which the process and their impact on the mean climate are adequately represented. Example processes include tropical cyclones, large-scale hydrological transports and tropical precipitation. Building on this work, several 12km simulations have been performed in which the convective parameterization has been either reduced in effect or switched off and replaced by a sub-grid scale turbulence model. The impact on aspects of the simulation, such as the diurnal cycle and propagation of convective systems, will be discussed. The recently completed coupled simulation with an eddy-resolving ocean is being analysed to understand aspects of coupling and flux exchanges, in particular whether the ocean has a stronger driving influence on the atmosphere once it is able to reasonably resolve its fundamental dynamical processes. The above work is primarily based on analysis from one model, whereas robust understanding comes from analysis of multi-model ensembles. The proposed HighResMIP inter-comparison as part of CMIP6 (led by Rein

  16. Hyper-spectral imaging: A promising tool for quantitative pigment analysis of varved lake sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butz, Christoph; Grosjean, Martin; Tylmann, Wojciech

    2015-04-01

    Varved lake sediments are good archives for past environmental and climate conditions from annual to multi-millennial scales. Among other proxies, concentrations of sedimentary photopigments have been used for temperature reconstructions. However, obtaining well calibrated annually resolved records from sediments still remains challenging. Most laboratory methods used to analyse lake sediments require physical subsampling and are destructive in the process. Hence, temporal resolution and number of data are limited by the amount of material available in the core. Furthermore, for very low sediment accumulation rates annual subsampling is often very difficult or even impossible. To address these problems we explore hyper-spectral imaging as a non-destructive method to analyse lake sediments based on their reflectance spectra in the visible and near infrared spectrum. In contrast to other scanning methods like X-ray fluorescence, VIS/NIR reflectance spectrometry distinguishes between biogeochemical substances rather than single elements. Among others Rein (2003) has shown that VIS-RS can be used to detect relative concentrations of sedimentary photopigments (e.g. chlorins, carotenoids) and clay minerals. In this study hyper-spectral imaging is used to infer ecological proxy data from reflectance spectra of varved lake sediments. Hyper-spectral imaging permits the measurement of an entire sediment core in a single run at high spatial (30x30µm/pixel) and spectral resolutions (~2.8nm) within the visual to near infrared spectrum (400-1000nm). This allows the analysis of data time series and spatial mapping of sedimentary substances (e.g. chlorophylls/bacterio-chlorophylls and diagenetic products) at sub-varve scales. The method is demonstrated on two varved lake sediments from northern Poland showing the distributions of relative concentrations of two types of sedimentary pigments (Chlorophyll-a + derivatives and Bacterio-pheophytin-a) within individual varve years. The

  17. Exploring the potential of hyper-spectral imaging for the biogeochemical analysis of varved lake sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butz, Christoph; Grosjean, Martin; Enters, Dirk; Tylmann, Wojciech

    2014-05-01

    Varved lake sediments have successfully been used to make inferences about past environmental and climate conditions from annual to multi-millennial scales. Among other proxies, concentrations of sedimentary photopigments have been used for temperature reconstructions. However, obtaining well calibrated annually resolved records from sediments still remains challenging. Most laboratory methods used to analyse lake sediments require physical subsampling and are destructive in the process. Hence, temporal resolution and number of data are limited by the amount of material available in the core. Furthermore, for very low sediment accumulation rates annual subsampling is often very difficult or even impossible. To address these problems we explore hyper-spectral imaging as a new method to analyse lake sediments based on their reflectance spectra in the visible and near infrared spectrum. In contrast to other fast and non-destructive methods like X-ray fluorescence, VIS/NIR reflectance spectrometry distinguishes between biogeochemical substances rather than single elements. Rein (2003) has shown that VIS-RS can be used to detect relative concentrations of sedimentary photopigments (e.g. chlorins, carotenoids) and clay minerals. This study presents an advanced approach using a hyper-spectral camera and remote sensing techniques to infer climate proxy data from reflectance spectra of varved lake sediments. Hyper-spectral imaging allows analysing an entire sediment core in a single measurement, producing a spectral dataset with very high spatial (30x30µm/pixel) and spectral resolutions (~1nm) and a higher spectral range (400-1000nm) compared to previously used spectrophotometers. This allows the analysis of data time series at sub-varve scales or spatial mapping of sedimentary substances (e.g. chlorophyll-a and diagenetic products) at very high resolution. The method is demonstrated on varved lake sediments from northern Poland showing the change of the relative

  18. Integration of data from censuses and remote sensing to measure the socio-economic and environmental evolution in urban areas: case of the city of Sherbrooke (1981-2006)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dari, Ouassini

    population is spread over the two cities. The aboriginal population is well distributed over the city of Sherbrooke. The population from Asian and Oceanic backgrounds are concentrated (sometimes on an exclusive basis) in the north and west-centre area of Jardins-Fleuris, in the eastern area of l'Assomption, the northeastern area of Sainte-Famille and the center area of Marie-Reine. We also find concentrations of immigrant populations from all backgrounds in areas such as in the southern part of the Immaculee-Conception and Saint-Joseph and in the south-eastern part of Sainte-Jeanne-d'Arc. This indicates that ethnic neighborhoods are taking roots in the city of Sherbrooke. Keywords : socio-economic and environmental, urban, remote sensing, multiple factor analysis, dissemination areas, the city of Sherbrooke, Lennoxville municipality.

  19. [Obstetrics--a gear in the machinery of history].

    PubMed

    Schaller, A

    1998-01-01

    It was not Julius Caesar who was born by Caesarean section, as generally assumed, but Scipio Cornelius Africanus, who subdued Spain 100 years before Caesar's time. In chambers with walls of porphyrite, the Byzantine empresses used to give birth to the heirs to the throne. In England, the infertility of Queen Anne, who suffered from porphyria, led to the succession of the Protestant House of Hannover following the Catholic Stuarts. Christina of Sweden, called 'queen of baroque, rebel and scholar', was born in the 'caul'. At the age of 39 years, Johanna of Pfirt, married to Albrecht the Lame, secured the continuation of the Habsburg dynasty by giving birth to Rudolf the Founder. Maria Theresia, who had 16 children, was called 'mother-in-law of Europe'. She was delivered of her first child at the age of 19. The death of her sister Maria-Anna in childbed was one of the reasons why Gerard van Swieten was called to Vienna. Elisabeth of Württemberg, first wife of Franz I of Austria, died, not as a consequence of. but after a forceps operation carried out by Johann Lukas Boër. In England, Princess Charlotte, daughter of George IV, and her baby son died at the delivery; Sir Richard Croft, who had not used the forceps, committed suicide after this tragic incident. Being the next in succession, Victoria ascended the throne. The term 'narcose au chloroforme' (first used by James Young Simpson) was changed to 'narcose à la reine' after this method had been used at the birth of Victoria's eighth child by John Snow. It was Queen Victoria, who passed on haemophilia in European dynasties. When Marie Louise of Habsburg had her first child, Napoleon's son, the later Duke of Reichstadt, Antoine Dubois had to perform a turning of the transverse presentation and use the forceps on the head following after. The birth of Napoleon himself was a case of precipitate labour. Johann Klein, the successor of Boër, applied the forceps when Archduchess Sophie was delivered of her first child

  20. Linear response approach to collective electronic excitations of solids and surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Zhe; Gao, Shiwu

    2009-03-01

    pseudopotential scheme [1]. The linear response theory combined with the time-dependent density functional theory is implemented for the investigation of excitation properties. Restrictions: The present version only handles 3D and 2D periodic systems. Unusual features: A mixing reciprocal/real-space basis is implemented in surface calculations in order to remove the intercell coupling in solving the Dyson equation. This treatment provides more reliable results, especially in the long-wavelength limit. Running time: The example included in the distribution takes a few minutes to complete. References: [1] G. Onida, L. Reining, A. Rubio, Rev. Mod. Phys. 74 (2002) 601.

  1. Symbiotic physiology promotes homeostasis in Daisyworld.

    PubMed

    Boyle, Richard A; Lenton, Timothy M; Watson, Andrew J

    2011-04-01

    A connection is hypothesized between the physiological consequences of mutualistic symbiosis and life's average long-term impact on certain highly biologically conserved environmental variables. This hypothesis is developed analytically and with a variant of the Daisyworld model. Biological homeostasis is frequently effective due to co-ordination between opposing physiological "rein" functions, which buffer an organism in response to an external (often environmental) perturbation. It is proposed that during evolutionary history the pooling of different species' physiological functions in mutualistic symbioses increased the range of suboptimal environmental conditions that could be buffered against--a mutual tolerance benefit sometimes sufficient to outweigh the cost of cooperation. A related argument is that for a small number of biologically-crucial physical variables (i) the difference between organism interiors and the life-environment interface is relatively low, and (ii) the biologically optimum level of that variable is relatively highly conserved across different species. For such variables, symbiosis tends to cause (at a cost) an increase in the number of environmental buffering functions per unit of selection, which in turn biases the overall impact of the biota on the state of the variable towards the biological optimum. When a costly but more temperature-tolerant and physiologically versatile symbiosis between one black (warming) and one white (cooling) "daisy" is added to the (otherwise unaltered) Daisyworld parable, four new results emerge: (1) The extension of habitability to a wider luminosity range, (2) resistance to the impact of "cheater" white daisies with cold optima, that derive short-term benefit from environmental destabilisation, (3) the capacity to maintain residual, oscillatory regulation in response to forcings that change more rapidly than allele frequencies and (crucially) (4) "succession"-type dynamics in which the tolerant symbiosis

  2. Ponction biopsies rénales dans le Service de Néphrologie de Fès: indications et résultats: à propos de 522 cas

    PubMed Central

    Mbarki, Houda; Belghiti, Khadija Alaoui; Harmouch, Taoufiq; Najdi, Adil; Arrayhani, Mohamed; Sqalli, Tarik

    2016-01-01

    L'apport de la ponction biopsie rénale (PBR) dans le diagnostic, le choix thérapeutique et l’évaluation pronostique des néphropathies est considérable. Aucune étude marocaine n'a évalué la pratique et l'apport de la PBR. Notre objectif est d’étudier les indications de la PBR, déterminer la fréquence des maladies rénales identifiées par PBR dans notre région et de faire une confrontation entre les données clinico-biologiques et le diagnostic historique. Notre étude menée entre Janvier 2009 et Décembre 2012, est rétrospective. Nous avons inclus tous les patients du service de Néphrologie du CHU Hassan II de Fès ayant bénéficié d'une biopsie de reins natifs. 522 PBR ont été réalisées. Nous avons exclu 8 biopsies devant le manque de renseignements et avons donc retenu 514. L’âge moyen des patients au moment de la PBR est de 39 ±17 ans (3-82 ans). Le sex ratio est de 0,9. Le syndrome néphrotique est le diagnostic clinique le plus fréquent à tous les âges (58,2%). Les néphropathies glomérulaires représentent 94,2% des maladies rénales diagnostiquées, leur distribution varie selon l’âge des patients. La PBR a confirmé le premier diagnostic suspecté cliniquement dans 40,65% des cas, alors qu'elle a révélé un diagnostic inattendu chez 22,5% d'entre eux. Le diagnostic syndromique permet d'orienter vers la maladie rénale la plus probable et de guider les thérapeutiques urgentes en attendant les résultats de la PBR. Mais il ne peut en aucun remplacer la PBR qui reste le gold standard.

  3. Comparison of Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) on Martian Meteorite NWA 7034 to ChemCam Observations at Gale Crater, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordon, S.; Newsom, H. E.; Agee, C. B.; Santos, A. R.; Clegg, S. M.; Wiens, R. C.; Lasue, J.; Sautter, V.

    2014-12-01

    The ChemCam instrument on board the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Curiosity rover uses laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) to analyze rock and soil targets on Mars from up to 7 m away. The Nd:KGW laser can shoot up to 1000 shots at one location and profile up to 1 mm depth into a rock. Identical LIBS instrumentation is located at Los Alamos National Laboratory and was used to analyze martian meteorite NWA 7034, a non-SNC basaltic breccia whose bulk composition matches the martian surface. Initial LIBS analysis of NWA 7034 included observations on two basaltic clasts in the meteorite. Electron microprobe analysis (EPMA) was performed on the two clasts for comparison with elemental compositions measured using LIBS. The two instruments give similar compositions of major oxides within the error of both techniques. EPMA analysis was also completed on three light-toned clasts and a dark-toned clast in the meteorite. The light-toned clasts have Al/Si vs. (Fe+Mg)/Si compositions ranging from felsic to mafic, and the dark-toned clast shows a mafic composition. A Sammon's map was created to compare LIBS data for NWA 7034 and ChemCam targets Stark, Crestaurum, Link, Portage, Jake_M, Mara, Thor_Lake, Coronation, Pearson, and Prebble. This nonlinear statistical mapping technique is used for clustering assessment of LIBS data in two dimensions. The map shows NWA 7034 clustering in its own location, and the closest similar ChemCam rock targets are La_Reine and Ashuamipi, which are both coarse grained targets that have a mafic component consistent with augite. The most similar ChemCam soil targets are the Crestaurum and Portage. Creation of maps with a greater number of targets will show more of the similarities between NWA 7034 and ChemCam target rocks and soils. Further analysis will compare NWA 7034 LIBS data, data from the paired meteorite NWA 7533, and a variety of ChemCam targets that are similar in morphology and texture.

  4. A giant elliptical galaxy with a lightweight initial mass function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Russell J.; Lucey, John R.

    2013-09-01

    We present new observations of the closest known strong-lensing galaxy, the σ ≈ 330 km s- 1 giant elliptical ESO325-G004, made with the ESO Very Large Telescope. The low redshift of the lens (zl = 0.035) results in arcs being formed at a small fraction of the effective radius (REin = 2.85 arcsec ≈ Reff/4). At such small radii, stars dominate the lensing mass, so that lensing provides a direct probe of the stellar mass-to-light ratio, with only small corrections needed for dark matter. However, the redshift of the galaxy lensed by ESO325-G004 was unknown until now, so the lensing mass was not securely determined. Using X-SHOOTER, we have detected multiple spectral lines, from two bright parts of the arc system, and measured a source redshift of zs = 2.141. Combined with lens modelling constraints, this yields a total mass inside the Einstein radius of 1.50 ± 0.06 × 1011 M⊙. We estimate the range of possible contribution of dark matter to the lensing mass, using halo profile statistics from cosmological N-body simulations. Subtracting this component yields a stellar mass-to-light ratio for the lens of M*/LF814W = 3.14^{+0.24}_{-0.42} (M/L)_{{odot }, F814W}. Using VIMOS, we have also obtained very high signal-to-noise spectroscopy for the lens galaxy. Fitting models to this spectrum confirms that ESO325-G004 has a very old stellar population. For a Milky-Way-like (Kroupa) initial mass function (IMF), the stellar population fit yields a predicted stellar mass-to-light ratio of ΥMW = 3.01 ± 0.25 (M/L)⊙, F814W. Hence, the mass attributable to stars with a Kroupa IMF is consistent with the lensing estimate. By contrast, a Salpeter (or heavier) IMF is disfavoured at the 99.8 per cent confidence level. A `heavyweight' IMF, with a mass twice as large as the Kroupa case, is firmly excluded for this galaxy. Such an IMF has been proposed for more distant elliptical lenses, and also to explain strong dwarf-star-sensitive spectral features, in particular the Na I

  5. The mobility of rock avalanches: disintegration, entrainment and deposition - a conceptual approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knapp, Sibylle; Mamot, Philipp; Krautblatter, Michael

    2015-04-01

    Massive rock slope failures cause more than 60% of all catastrophic landslide disasters. Failures usually progress through three consecutive phases: detachment, disintegration and flow. While significant advances have been achieved in modelling Rock Avalanche Phase 1 "Detachment" and Phase 3 "Flow", the crucial link between both during Phase 2 "Disintegration", is still poorly understood. Disintegration of the detached rock mass is often initiated by its first major impact with the ground surface. This is a preliminary setup of a PhD project in which we aim at understanding the importance of disintegration and on site conditions at the impact site on fluidization and mobilization. The TUM Landslides Group is experienced in near surface geophysics of rockwalls and under Alpine conditions and has also developed laboratory experience in testing resistivity and P-/S-wave velocity of anisotropic and fractured rocks in the laboratory. In addition, there is a more than ten year experience in the analysis of different magnitudes of rock slope failure. Many of these studies took part in the Wetterstein Mountains and close to the Zugspitze. In this project we plan to compare one very small (Steingerümpel, Rein valley, Germany, with 0.003 km³) and two larger test sites (Eibsee, Zugspitze area, Germany, with 0.3 km³ and Flims, Grisons, Switzerland, with 12 km³) situated in limestone rocks. From our preliminary work we know that the Steingerümpel bergsturz shows a low degree of fracturing in spite of a high impact; the latter ones are high-magnitude rock slope failures which both partially collapsed into a lake and were highly disintegrated and fluidized. We intend to use the smaller Eibsee rock avalanche as a training site where we can try to understand the full dynamics of the flow using sedimentology, geophysics and surface geomorphology which indicated compressive and extensional flow, superelevation and runups. Regarding entrainment processes, we will carry out a

  6. A Search for Neutrino Induced Coherent NC($\\pi^{0}$) Production in the MINOS Near Detector

    SciTech Connect

    Cherdack, Daniel David; /Tufts U.

    2010-11-01

    implementation of the model by Rein and Sehgal which is motived by the PCAC hypothesis.

  7. Comparing Apollo and Mars Exploration Rover (MER)/phoenix operations paradigms for human exploration during NASA Desert-RATS science operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yingst, R. A.; Cohen, B. A.; Ming, D. W.; Eppler, D. B.

    2013-10-01

    The Desert Research and Technology Studies (D-RATS) field tested two models of human-in-the-loop remote field geology: one based on the Apollo science backroom that integrated tactical and strategic decisions, and one that separated tactical and strategic processes as utilized during the Mars Exploration Rovers (MER) and Mars Phoenix Scout missions. The 2010 D-RATS field test was the first attempt at integrating best practices from these two models, to determine how best to maximize science return from future missions. The Apollo model was utilized in 2008 and 2009 as a way to integrate science into field analog studies; the model allowed for real time communications between the crew on the surface and the scientists in the backroom. This model greatly improved efficiency of field operations and scientific return, but did not allow sufficient time for hypotheses to mature to the point where they could inform operations. The MER/Phoenix model, adapted for the 2010 D-RATS test, divided the responsibilities and processes of tactical science and strategic science. This division provided opportunities to discuss science results in greater detail so that the overall planning of science observations could be iterative rather than static. However, because of the nearly complete separation of the two science teams, there was a great deal of repeated effort as the strategic team had no prior knowledge of the tactical process and the observations that led to certain tactical decisions. Lessons learned from 2010 D-RATS science operations include: (1) well-trained geologists on the crew and a science backroom with which that crew can interact are both critical components for maximizing science return; (2) sufficient time or another mechanism that increases time available to be spent on science analysis must be built into the system to allow free rein to the scientific process; (3) data flow must be improved so that time is not wasted in repetitive review of acquired datasets

  8. Making the GeoConnection: Web 2.0-based support for early-career geoscientists (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez, C. M.; Gonzales, L. M.; Keane, C. M.

    2010-12-01

    The US Bureau of Labor estimates that there will be an 18% increase in geoscience jobs between 2008 and 2018 in the United States, and demand for geoscientists is expected to rise worldwide as scientists tackle global challenges related to resources, hazards and climate. At the same time, the geoscience workforce is aging, with approximately half of the current workforce reaching retirement age within the next 10-15 years. A new generation of geoscientists must be ready to take the reins. To support this new generation, AGI’s geoscience workforce outreach programs were designed to help retain geoscience students through their degree programs and into careers in the field. These resources include support for early-career professional development and career planning. AGI’s GeoConnection Network for the Geosciences provides a venue for informal dissemination of career information and professional resources. The network links Web 2.0 platforms, including a Facebook page, YouTube Channel and Twitter feed, to build a robust geoscience community of geoscientists at all stages of their careers. Early-career geoscientists can participate in GeoConnection to network with other scientists, and to receive information about professional development and job opportunities. Through GeoConnection packets, students can join professional societies which will assist their transition from school to the workplace. AGI’s member societies provide professional development course work, field trips, career services, interviewing opportunities, and community meetings. As part of the GeoConnection Network, AGI hosts informational webinars to highlight new workforce data, discuss current affairs in the geosciences, and to provide information about geoscience careers. Between December 2009 and August 2010, AGI hosted 10 webinars, with more than 300 total participants for all the webinars, and 5 additional webinars are planned for the remainder of the year. The webinars offer early

  9. The Laboratoire Souterrain Bas Bruit (lsbb) In Rustrel-pays D'apt (france): A Unique Opportunity For Low-noise Underground Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waysand, G.; Gaffet, S.; Virieux, J.; Chwala, A.; Auguste, M.; Boyer, D.; Cavaillou, A.; Guglielmi, Y.; Rodrigues, D.

    The former underground lauching control room 1 of the ground based component of the french nuclear missile system has been decommissioned. This installation has been designed and built to remain operational even in case of a near-by nuclear blast. As a result it is robust to radioactive clouds, thermal and mechanical waves as well as electromagnetic pulses. The whole installation has been turned progressively into a cross disciplinary underground laboratory LSBB. LSBB is, so far, a unique low noise underground set-up because of its initial conception and its location in the regional parc of Luberon far from large cities, industries and heavy car traffic. The galleries of LSBB, horizontally accessible from the surface, are buried in the south of the Albion Plateau, northward Aix-en-Provence. Their ensemble is almost flat with a 2% slope and a total length larger than 3.5km under the karstic calcareous "Grande Montagne". The deepest point is 500m below the surface. At this depth, a huge and non conven- tional shielded cylindrical capsule with an horizontal axis was installed. It measures 28m long with 9m in diameter surrounded by 1cm of stainless steel plus 2m of rein- forced concrete. This is indeed a very large Faraday cage but with µmetal, 1250m3 no in volume with a residual electromagntic noise lower than 2fT/ Hz above 10Hz, the present limit of the residual noise of the SQUID magnetometer we have used. As a result, earth magnetic field fluctuations can be recorded even at a very low noise level with SQUIDS (superconducting quantum interferometric devices) at liquid he- lium temperature. Taking advantage of the "V" geometry of the main gallery, a broad- band underground seismic array has been designed with 5 STS2 sensors and is de- ployed since the beginning of 2001. Simultaneously, magnetic measurements are done with a low Tc SQUID magnetometer jointly to the seismic recordings. The spectral noise calibration of the LSBB will be presented and discussed as well

  10. Human Preferences for Conformation Attributes and Head-And-Neck Positions in Horses

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Human preferences for certain morphological attributes among domestic animals may be entirely individual or, more generally, may reflect evolutionary pressures that favor certain conformation. Artificial selection for attributes, such as short heads and crested necks of horses, may have functional and welfare implications because there is evidence from other species that skull shape co-varies with behaviour. Crested necks can be accentuated by flexion of the neck, a quality that is often manipulated in photographs vendors use when selling horses. Equine head-and-neck positions acquired through rein tension can compromise welfare. Our investigation was designed to identify conformations and postures that people are attracted to when choosing their ‘ideal’ horse. Participants of an internet survey were asked to rate their preference for horse silhouettes that illustrated three gradations of five variables: facial shape, crest height, ear length, ear position and head-and-neck carriage. There were 1,234 usable responses. The results show that overall preferences are for the intermediate, rather than extreme, morphological choices (p=<0.001). They also indicate that males are 2.5 times less likely to prefer thicker necks rather than the intermediate shape, and 4 times more likely to prefer the thinner neck shape. When compared to the novice participants, experienced participants were 1.9 times more likely to prefer a thicker neck shape than the intermediate neck shape and 2.8 times less likely to prefer a thinner neck shape than the intermediate neck shape. There was overall preference of 93% (n=939) for the category of head carriage ‘In front of the vertical’. However, novice participants were 1.8 times more likely to choose ‘behind the vertical’ than ‘in front of the vertical’. Our results suggest that people prefer a natural head carriage, concave facial profile (dished face), larger ears and thicker necks. From these survey data, it seems that some

  11. Tracing terrestrial carbon: a novel application of ∆14C in a humic lake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keaveney, Evelyn; Reimer, Paula J.; Foy, Robert H.

    2016-04-01

    stepped combustion allows the quantification of the pathways of terrestrial carbon in the system, which has implications for regional and global carbon burial. 1McGeehin, J., Burr, G.S., Jull, A.J.T., Reines, D., Gosse, J., Davis, P.T., Muhs, D., and Southon, J.R., 2001, Stepped-combustion C-14 dating of sediment: A comparison with established techniques: Radiocarbon, v. 43, p. 255-261.

  12. La mujer en la astronomía: pasado y presente

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubner, G.

    There exists a long and honorable tradition of participation of women in astronomy, affording many significant contributions to the field. Historically, however, many of these contributions have remained ignored, or recorded under the names of husbands, brothers or bosses. The present report includes an historical perspective, summarizing some of the most signicant contributions done along the last three centuries by female astronomers. Briefly: Catherina Hevelius (1646-1693), author of the largest and last stars catalog made without the aid of a telescope; Nicole-Reine Lepaute (1723-1788) extraordinary mathematician who predicted the path of Halley's Comet in 1757; Caroline Herschel (1750-1848) assistant of her brother William, discovered 8 comets, reduced the positions to a common epoch and published the catalog of 2500 nebulae observed by her brother, was elected honorary member of the Royal Astronomical Society (RAS); Maria Mitchell (1818-1889), professor of astronomy and director of the Vassar College Observatory, dedicated her life to women's education; Williamina Fleming (1857-1911)discovered 94 of the 107 Wolf-Rayet stars known at her time, the bulk of the first HD catalog was based on her spectral types classification; Annie Cannon (1863-1941) examined and classified nearly 500.000 stars, rearranged Fleming's spectral system, defining the OBAFGKM series; Henrietta Swan Leavitt (1868-1921) worked cataloging variable stars, discovered the period-luminosity relations in Cepheids; Cecilia Payne-Gaposhkin combined observations with theory to obtain a temperature scale for Cannon's spectral types; Ruby Payne-Scott (1912-1981), the first female radioastronomer in the world, developed the theory of aperture synthesis, in which most of the larger radio interferometers are based. The present trends are analized based on statistics of the International Astronomical Union (IAU): women represent 11.8% of the total of IAU members; in Argentina the percentage is 33

  13. [Medicine in ancient Mesopotamia--part 1].

    PubMed

    Martins E Silva, J

    2009-01-01

    The present work summarizes the more elucidating aspects on the foundations and the practice of the medicine in Antique Mesopotamia, since the invention of the writing, more than 5000 thousand years ago, and the beginning of our era. The first part of the article includes a brief perspective about the political and social evolution that characterized those archaic civilizations, as well as the inventions and knowledge further used by the following Humanity's generations. Most of what is known on the subject, as well as the history and political-social events that occurred in the region during that remote epoch, resulted of the laborious decoding of about half a million small clay plates or fragments with text engravings in cuneiform characters that were discovered since the middle of the XIX century in the ruins of the main cities of the Babylonian and Assyrian empires. The second part embraces exclusively the main characteristics of the medicine in Ancient Mesopotamia, in its main facets: concept of disease, healers and practice. The disease was considered a divine punishment or resultant from a malign influence. In that base, the medicine began by being preventive, by the use of appropriate amulets, or by offerings or sacrifices intending to pacify those malign forces. The treatment of the generality of the diseases privileged the expulsion of those spirits and malign influences from the patient body, purifying it, which was done by the specific intervention of an ãshipu (clergyman-exorcist); not having results, the treatment was continued by the asû (practical healer) that appealed to a group of physical manipulations, limited surgical acts and the administration or application of prescriptions, resultants of the mixture of organic and inorganic substances. In case of failing, the patients (as well as individuals or rein leaders) could fall back upon a priest diviner (bârû) who, by examination of the organs of an animal especially sacrificed for the effect

  14. EDITORIAL: Thank you and farewell from the Founding Editor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baskes, Mike

    2005-07-01

    I have been involved with Modelling and Simulation in Materials Science and Engineering (MSMSE) from the very beginning when it was merely an idea, over 14 years ago, to the current journal that is well supported by the community. During my time as Editor there have been many changes in the journal, including the introduction of electronic submissions, web-based services and free printed colour where it is essential to the article, as well as completely free colour online. The journal has seen excellent growth in the number and quality of submissions and the number of articles published continues to rise, enabling us to expand the journal to eight issues in 2005. Web accesses and downloads have greatly surpassed even my wildest dreams. In my opinion, the emergence of MSMSE as a top materials modelling journal has confirmed the vision of Institute of Physics Publishing (IOPP) and the Executive Board that this area of science and engineering was ripe for a specialized journal. I feel that, having seen the journal through the early years and watched it grow into a successful arena for multidisciplinary materials research, it is now an appropriate time for me to hand over the reins. The journal has a great foundation for future growth and development and is supported by an excellent Editorial Board, who have given me a great deal of help and advice over the years. I feel sure that they will continue to support the journal when Bill Curtin, Brown University, takes over on 1 July 2005. Bill has the diverse experience in modelling at the atomic, dislocation, and continuum levels to lead the journal to new heights. Finally I would like to thank all of the readers, authors and referees who have greatly contributed to MSMSE over the years. Thank you for your support and help, and I hope you will continue to support the journal. Last, but not least, I would like to thank the staff at IOPP. Without their expert assistance, the journal could not have been as successful as it is

  15. Obituary: Maurice M. Shapiro, 1915-2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yodh, Gaurang B.

    2009-01-01

    emulsions--to study cosmic-ray induced stars. Maury wrote definitive reviews on the emulsion technique (use of high-density visual detectors) in 1941 in Reviews of Modern Physics and then an article entitled "Nuclear Emulsions" in the Handbuch der Physik of 1958. He did many experimental investigations related to cosmic rays and particle properties after the war when he joined NRL. Using emulsion-chamber techniques and high-altitude exposures, Maury measured and verified saturation of relativistic rise in ionization, a measurement of helium and proton flux at high rigidity, and accurate measurements of secondary-to-primary ratio (Li, Be, B/CNO); with his colleagues he did one of the best measurements of neutral pion life time. He also did important measurements of properties of heavy baryons. My association with Maury started when I joined University of Maryland's High Energy group in 1961, a time when Maury had a very active group working in particle physics and cosmic rays using nuclear emulsions and was starting a bubble-chamber group. (Some of the members were Bernard Hildebrand, Bert Stiller, Rein Silberberg, C. H. Tsao, and Robert Glasser.) There was active interaction between George Snow (University of Maryland) and the NRL group, both studying properties of high-energy particles with nuclear emulsions and bubble chambers. I was a consultant with the NRL group for some ten years. In 1960s, Maury investigated the ramifications and limitations of supernova theories for the origin of cosmic rays and discussed the production of high-energy neutrinos and gamma rays from these sources. He was one of the active members of the DUMAND project to study high-energy neutrinos. With Rein Silberberg he explored the capabilities of such a project. Maury's group made seminal contributions on quantitatively exploring isotope ratios (using isotopes to determine the time lag between explosion and acceleration in supernova sources--to suggest the importance of FIP in injection), the

  16. Status and progress of the RERTR program in the year 2000.

    SciTech Connect

    Travelli, A.

    2000-09-28

    } dispersion fuel and on LEU conversion feasibility studies in the Russian RERTR program. Conversion of the BER-11reactor in Berlin, Germany, was completed and conversion of the La Reins reactor in Santiago, Chile, began. These are exciting times for the program. In the fuel development area, the RERTR program is aggressively pursuing qualification of high-density LEU U-Mo dispersion fuels, with the dual goal of enabling fi.uther conversions and of developing a substitute for LEU silicide fuels that can be more easily disposed of after expiration of the FRR SNF Acceptance Program. The {sup 99}Mo effort has reached the point where it appears feasible for all the {sup 99}Mo producers of the world to agree jointly to a common course of action leading to the elimination of HEU use in their processes. As in the past, the success of the RERTR program will depend on the international friendship and cooperation that has always been its trademark.

  17. Polymers at membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breidenich, Markus

    2000-11-01

    ätigen die perturbativ berechneten Resultate. Bei Hinzunahme eines attraktiven Potentials zwischen Polymer und Membran verringert sich die ursprünglich vom Polymer induzierte Krümmung. Im Limes starker Adsorption, in welchem das Polymer ganz auf der Membranoberfläche lokalisiert ist, verschwindet der Polymerdruck und die durch diesen induzierte Krümmung der Membran. Falls das Polymer nicht direkt auf der Membranoberfläche verankert ist, sondern in endlichem Ankerabstand, biegt sich die Membran im adsorbierten Fall zum Polymer hin. Im letzten Teil der Arbeit werden nicht verankerte Polymere in Lösung betrachtet. Untersucht wird der Einfluss einer solchen Polymerlösung auf die Krümmung der Membran. Im Grenzfall einer rein sterischen, repulsiven Wechselwirkung zwischen Polymeren und Membran biegt sich diese, im Gegensatz zur verankerten Situation, zur Lösung hin. Bei zunehmender Attraktion biegt sich die Membran im Limes starker Adsorption der Polymere von der Lösung weg.

  18. A Study of Charged Current Single Charged Pion Productions on Carbon in a Few-GeV Neutrino Beam

    SciTech Connect

    Hiraide, Katsuki

    2009-01-01

    current coherent pion production to the total charged current cross section at 0.67 x 10-2 at mean neutrino energy 1.1 GeV and 1.36 x 10-2 at mean neutrino energy 2.2 GeV. We reveal that the Rein-Sehgal model widely used in neutrino oscillation experiments breaks down at the neutrino energy region of a few GeV. This creates active controversies on the model of coherent pion production, and the understanding of coherent pion production is being progressed. In addition, future prospects of measurements of charged current single charged pion production in SciBooNE are discussed.

  19. Pions to Quarks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Laurie Mark; Dresden, Max; Hoddeson, Lillian

    2009-01-01

    neutrino Frederick Reines; 25. Recollections on the establishment of the weak-interaction notion Bruno M. Pontecorvo; 26. Symmetry and conservation laws in particle physics in the fifties Louis Michel; 27. A connection between the strong and weak interactions Sam B. Treiman; Part VII. Weak interactions and parity nonconservation; 29. The nondiscovery of parity nonconservation Allan Franklin; 30. K-meson decays and parity violation Richard H. Dalitz; 31. An Experimentalist's Perspective Val L. Fitch; 32. The early experiments leading to the V - A interaction Valentine L. Telegdi; 33. Midcentury adventures in particles physics E. C. G. Sudarshan; Part VIII. The particle physics community; 34. The postwar political economy of high-energy physics Robert Seidel; 35. The history of CERN during the early 1950s Edoardo Amaldi; 36. Arguments pro and contra the European laboratory in the participating countries Armin Hermann; 37. Physics and excellences of the life it brings Abdus Salam; 38. Social aspects of Japanese particle physics in the 1950s Michiji Konuma; Part IX. Theories of hadrons; 39. The early S-matrix theory and its propagation (1942-1952) Helmut Rechenberg; 40. From field theory to phenomenology: the history of dispersion relations Andy Pickering; 41. Particles as S-matrix poles: hadron democracy Geoffrey F. Chew; 42. The general theory of quantised fields in the 1950s Arthur S. Wrightman; 43. The classification and structure of hadrons Yuval Ne'eman; 44. Gauge principle, vector-meson dominance and spontaneous symmetry breaking Yoichiro Nambu; Part X. Personal overviews; 45. Scientific impact of the first decade of the Rochester conferences (1950-1960) Robert E. Marshak; 46. Some reflections on the history of particle physics in the 1950s Silvan S. Schweber; 47. Progress in elementary particle theory 1950-1964 Murray Gell-Mann.

  20. Stochastic Modeling based on Dictionary Approach for the Generation of Daily Precipitation Occurrences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panu, U. S.; Ng, W.; Rasmussen, P. F.

    2009-12-01

    The modeling of weather states (i.e., precipitation occurrences) is critical when the historical data are not long enough for the desired analysis. Stochastic models (e.g., Markov Chain and Alternating Renewal Process (ARP)) of the precipitation occurrence processes generally assume the existence of short-term temporal-dependency between the neighboring states while implying the existence of long-term independency (randomness) of states in precipitation records. Existing temporal-dependent models for the generation of precipitation occurrences are restricted either by the fixed-length memory (e.g., the order of a Markov chain model), or by the reining states in segments (e.g., persistency of homogenous states within dry/wet-spell lengths of an ARP). The modeling of variable segment lengths and states could be an arduous task and a flexible modeling approach is required for the preservation of various segmented patterns of precipitation data series. An innovative Dictionary approach has been developed in the field of genome pattern recognition for the identification of frequently occurring genome segments in DNA sequences. The genome segments delineate the biologically meaningful ``words" (i.e., segments with a specific patterns in a series of discrete states) that can be jointly modeled with variable lengths and states. A meaningful “word”, in hydrology, can be referred to a segment of precipitation occurrence comprising of wet or dry states. Such flexibility would provide a unique advantage over the traditional stochastic models for the generation of precipitation occurrences. Three stochastic models, namely, the alternating renewal process using Geometric distribution, the second-order Markov chain model, and the Dictionary approach have been assessed to evaluate their efficacy for the generation of daily precipitation sequences. Comparisons involved three guiding principles namely (i) the ability of models to preserve the short-term temporal-dependency in

  1. New rare earth metal-rich indides RE14Ni 3In 3 ( RE=Sc, Y, Gd-Tm, Lu)—synthesis and crystal chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lukachuk, Mar'yana; Galadzhun, Yaroslav V.; Zaremba, Roman I.; Dzevenko, Mariya V.; Kalychak, Yaroslav M.; Zaremba, Vasyl I.; Rodewald, Ute Ch.; Pöttgen, Rainer

    2005-09-01

    The rare earth-nickel-indides RE14Ni 3In 3 ( RE=Sc, Y, Gd-Tm, Lu) were synthesized from the elements by arc-melting and subsequent annealing. The compounds were investigated on the basis of X-ray powder and single crystal data: Lu 14Co 2In 3 type, P4 2/ nmc, Z=4, a=888.1(1), c=2134.7(4), wR2=0.0653, 1381 F2 values, 63 variables for Sc 13.89Ni 3.66In 2.45; a=961.2(1), c=2316.2(5), wR2=0.0633, 1741 F2 values, 64 variables for Y 13.84Ni 3.19In 2.97; a=965.3(1), c=2330.5(5), wR2=0.0620, 1765 F2 values, 63 variables for Gd 14Ni 3.29In 2.71; a=956.8(1), c=2298.4(5), wR2=0.0829, 1707 F2 values, 64 variables for Tb 13.82Ni 3.36In 2.82; a=951.7(1), c=2289.0(5), wR2=0.0838, 1794 F2 values, 64 variables for Dy 13.60Ni 3.34In 3.06; a=948.53(7), c=2270.6(1), wR2=0.1137, 1191 F2 values, 64 variables for Ho 13.35Ni 3.17In 3.48; a=943.5(1), c=2269.1(5), wR2=0.0552, 1646 F2 values, 64 variables for Er 13.53Ni 3.14In 3.33; a=938.42(7), c=2250.8(1), wR2=0.1051, 1611 F2 values, 64 variables for Tm 13.47Ni 3.28In 3.25; a=937.3(1), c=2249.6(5), wR2=0.0692, 1604 F2 values, 64 variables for Tm 13.80Ni 3.49In 2.71; and a=933.4(1), c=2263.0(5), wR2=0.0709, 1603 F2 values, 64 variables for Lu 13.94Ni 3.07In 2.99. The RE14Ni 3In 3 indides show significant Ni/In mixing on the 4 c In1 site. Except the gadolinium compound, the RE14Ni 3In 3 intermetallics also reveal RE/In mixing on the 4 c RE1 site, leading to the refined compositions. Due to the high rare earth metal content, the seven crystallographically independent RE sites have between 9 and 10 nearest RE neighbors. The RE14Ni 3In 3 structures can be described as a complex intergrowth of rare earth-based polyhedra. Both nickel sites have a distorted trigonal-prismatic rare earth coordination. An interesting feature is the In2-In2 dumb-bell at an In2-In2 distance of 304 pm (for Gd 14Ni 3.29In 2.71). The crystal chemical peculiarities of the RE14Ni 3In 3 indides are briefly discussed.

  2. What's the Kepler Spacecraft Been Up To?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-03-01

    includes:26 candidates with sizes between 1 and 4 Earth radii, orbiting bright stars. These are well suited for precise radial velocity follow-up.10 candidates with radii between 1.6 and 4 Earth radii that are likely to have gaseous envelopes. These are well suited for atmospheric characterization.8 sub-Earth sized candidates, the smallest of which are about 0.75 times the size of Earth.Vanderburg and collaborators make all of their data products (light curves, spectra, vetting diagnostics, etc.) publicly available. Their observations and data provide an excellent starting point for follow-up on the many potential planets discovered by K2 within the first year of its proposed three-year mission. And given this already long list of candidates, its clear that while Keplers power may have been reined in slightly, this telescope still has many more discoveries to show us.CitationAndrew Vanderburg et al 2016 ApJS 222 14. doi:10.3847/0067-0049/222/1/14

  3. Managing biological diversity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Samson, Fred B.; Knopf, Fritz L.

    1993-01-01

    Biological diversity is the variety of life and accompanying ecological processes (Off. Technol. Assess. 1987, Wilcove and Samson 1987, Keystone 1991). Conservation of biological diversity is a major environmental issue (Wilson 1988, Counc. Environ. Quality 1991). The health and future of the earth's ecological systems (Lubchenco et al. 1991), global climate change (Botkin 1990), and an ever-increasing rate in loss of species, communities, and ecological systems (Myers 1990) are among issues drawing biological diversity to the mainstream of conservation worldwide (Int. Union Conserv. Nat. and Nat. Resour. [IUCN] et al. 1991). The legal mandate for conserving biological diversity is now in place (Carlson 1988, Doremus 1991). More than 19 federal laws govern the use of biological resources in the United States (Rein 1991). The proposed National Biological Diversity Conservation and Environmental Research Act (H.R. 585 and S.58) notes the need for a national biological diversity policy, would create a national center for biological diversity research, and recommends a federal interagency strategy for ecosystem conservation. There are, however, hard choices ahead for the conservation of biological diversity, and biologists are grappling with how to set priorities in research and management (Roberts 1988). We sense disillusion among field biologists and managers relative to how to operationally approach the seemingly overwhelming charge of conserving biological diversity. Biologists also need to respond to critics like Hunt (1991) who suggest a tree farm has more biological diversity than an equal area of old-growth forest. At present, science has played only a minor role in the conservation of biological diversity (Weston 1992) with no unified approach available to evaluate strategies and programs that address the quality and quantity of biological diversity (Murphy 1990, Erwin 1992). Although actions to conserve biological diversity need to be clearly defined by

  4. [History of anaesthesia in Belgium].

    PubMed

    De Rood, M

    2012-01-01

    Man has for a long time searched means of fighting pain, by administration of plant extracts such as poppy seed, jimson weed, henbane, mandrake and alcohol. These substances were given in the form of cataplasms, potions or clysters. Somniferous sponges, applied on the face, were known since Antiquity and have been in use in some countries up to the 13th century. Surgery and pain were inseparable till mid 19th century. Indications for surgery were few, even though some patients could benefit from these sedative drugs. The anesthetic properties of ether and nitrous oxide (laughing gas), known since the 18th century, were only recognized in the 19th century. William Morton, a dentist, was the first to successfully provide general anesthesia with ether in 1846 in Boston. News spread to England shortly afterwards. On the European continent, the first use of ether was due to 2 Belgian surgeons. Next came chloroform as novel anesthetic. They were administered via either a gauze or a mask by the general practitioner, a medical student or a nurse. Unlike England, the use of these drugs for obstetrical anesthesia (called anesthesia "a la reine", alluding to Queen Victoria who benefited from chloroform during childbirth) was never very popular in Belgium. Since the years 1880, the use of cocaine, then of novocaine allowed to perform local anesthesia, then local nerve blocks and spinal anesthesia, installed by the surgeon prior to operating. Since then, surgery experienced rapid progress, Belgium included. During the 1914-1918 first World War, these advances saved many human lives. When general anesthesia was necessary, it was cared for by another physician or a nurse. The interwar period did not see significant advances in anesthesia, except in intravenous anesthesia with barbiturates, appeared in the late 1930's. Intra- and postoperative complications were frequent. Apart from sulfonamides, antibiotics were non-existent. During the war 1940-45, there was no progress in

  5. MicroRNA-19b-3p Modulates Japanese Encephalitis Virus-Mediated Inflammation via Targeting RNF11

    PubMed Central

    Ashraf, Usama; Zhu, Bibo; Ye, Jing; Wan, Shengfeng; Nie, Yanru; Chen, Zheng; Cui, Min; Wang, Chong; Duan, Xiaodong; Zhang, Hao; Chen, Huanchun

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) can invade the central nervous system and consequently induce neuroinflammation, which is characterized by profound neuronal cell damage accompanied by astrogliosis and microgliosis. Albeit microRNAs (miRNAs) have emerged as major regulatory noncoding RNAs with profound effects on inflammatory response, it is unknown how astrocytic miRNAs regulate JEV-induced inflammation. Here, we found the involvement of miR-19b-3p in regulating the JEV-induced inflammatory response in vitro and in vivo. The data demonstrated that miR-19b-3p is upregulated in cultured cells and mouse brain tissues during JEV infection. Overexpression of miR-19b-3p led to increased production of inflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin-6, interleukin-1β, and chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 5, after JEV infection, whereas knockdown of miR-19b-3p had completely opposite effects. Mechanistically, miR-19b-3p modulated the JEV-induced inflammatory response via targeting ring finger protein 11, a negative regulator of nuclear factor kappa B signaling. We also found that inhibition of ring finger protein 11 by miR-19b-3p resulted in accumulation of nuclear factor kappa B in the nucleus, which in turn led to higher production of inflammatory cytokines. In vivo silencing of miR-19b-3p by a specific antagomir reinvigorates the expression level of RNF11, which in turn reduces the production of inflammatory cytokines, abrogates gliosis and neuronal cell death, and eventually improves the survival rate in the mouse model. Collectively, our results demonstrate that miR-19b-3p positively regulates the JEV-induced inflammatory response. Thus, miR-19b-3p targeting may constitute a thought-provoking approach to rein in JEV-induced inflammation. IMPORTANCE Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is one of the major causes of acute encephalitis in humans worldwide. The pathological features of JEV-induced encephalitis are inflammatory reactions and

  6. Microbial Rhodopsin Optogenetic Tools: Application for Analyses of Synaptic Transmission and of Neuronal Network Activity in Behavior.

    PubMed

    Glock, Caspar; Nagpal, Jatin; Gottschalk, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Optogenetics was introduced as a new technology in the neurosciences about a decade ago (Zemelman et al., Neuron 33:15-22, 2002; Boyden et al., Nat Neurosci 8:1263-1268, 2005; Nagel et al., Curr Biol 15:2279-2284, 2005; Zemelman et al., Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 100:1352-1357, 2003). It combines optics, genetics, and bioengineering to render neurons sensitive to light, in order to achieve a precise, exogenous, and noninvasive control of membrane potential, intracellular signaling, network activity, or behavior (Rein and Deussing, Mol Genet Genomics 287:95-109, 2012; Yizhar et al., Neuron 71:9-34, 2011). As C. elegans is transparent, genetically amenable, has a small nervous system mapped with synapse resolution, and exhibits a rich behavioral repertoire, it is especially open to optogenetic methods (White et al., Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 314:1-340, 1986; De Bono et al., Optogenetic actuation, inhibition, modulation and readout for neuronal networks generating behavior in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, In: Hegemann P, Sigrist SJ (eds) Optogenetics, De Gruyter, Berlin, 2013; Husson et al., Biol Cell 105:235-250, 2013; Xu and Kim, Nat Rev Genet 12:793-801, 2011). Optogenetics, by now an "exploding" field, comprises a repertoire of different tools ranging from transgenically expressed photo-sensor proteins (Boyden et al., Nat Neurosci 8:1263-1268, 2005; Nagel et al., Curr Biol 15:2279-2284, 2005) or cascades (Zemelman et al., Neuron 33:15-22, 2002) to chemical biology approaches, using photochromic ligands of endogenous channels (Szobota et al., Neuron 54:535-545, 2007). Here, we will focus only on optogenetics utilizing microbial rhodopsins, as these are most easily and most widely applied in C. elegans. For other optogenetic tools, for example the photoactivated adenylyl cyclases (PACs, that drive neuronal activity by increasing synaptic vesicle priming, thus exaggerating rather than overriding the intrinsic activity of a neuron, as occurs with

  7. PREFACE: Special section on vortex rings Special section on vortex rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukumoto, Yasuhide

    2009-10-01

    . Their formation is a problem of vortex sheet dynamics, the steady state is a problem of existence, their duration is a problem of stability, and if there are several we have the problem of vortex interactions. Helmholtz himself, in the same paper (1858), devoted a few pages to an analysis of the motion of a vortex ring, and made substantial contributions. Since then, theoretical, experimental and numerical treatments of vortex rings have been developing continuously, yet we encounter mysteries and novel phenomena, with which vortex rings find new applications in, say, bio-fluid mechanics. Recently vortex rings have enlarged their scope beyond classical fluids to encompass super-fluids and Bose-Einstein condensates. On the occasion of the 150th anniversary of Helmholtz's theory on a vortex ring, it is worthwhile to bring together, in one issue, the latest understandings of and open problems in vortex rings from various aspects. The topics in this issue include development of theories and experiments for motion of vortex rings and their interaction with other vortex rings, flows and boundaries, with application to vortex-ring manipulation for flow control, original experiments on collision of vortex rings with a porous boundary, a novel numerical technique to simulate three-dimensional motion of vortex rings and new theories of dynamics of quantum vortex rings governed by nonlinear Schrödinger equations. I hope that this special section gives a sketch, in some proportion, of the current frontier of the field and provides a means to tackle future problems. References Saffman P G 1981 Dynamics of vorticity J. Fluid Mech. 106 49-58 von Helmholtz H 1858 Über Integrale der hydrodynamischen Gleichungen welche den Wirbelbewegungen entsprechen J. Reine Angew. Math. 55 25-55 (Engl. transl.: Tait P G 1867 On the integrals of the hydrodynamical equations which express vortex-motion Phil. Mag. 33 (4) 485-512)

  8. EDITORIAL: Deeper, broader, higher, better?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobson, Ken

    1998-07-01

    Honorary Editor The standard of educational achievement in England and Wales is frequently criticized, and it seems to be an axiom of government that schools and teachers need to be shaken up, kept on a tight rein, copiously inspected, shamed and blamed as required: in general, subjected to the good old approach of: ' Find out what Johnny is doing and tell him to stop.' About the only exception to this somewhat severe attitude is at A-level, where the standard is simply golden. Often, comparisons are made between the performance of, say, English children and that of their coevals in other countries, with different customs, systems, aims and languages. But there has been a recent comparison of standards at A-level with a non-A-level system of pre-university education, in an English-speaking country that both sends students to English universities and accepts theirs into its own, and is, indeed, represented in the UK government at well above the level expected from its ethnical weighting in the population. This semi-foreign country is Scotland. The conclusions of the study are interesting. Scotland has had its own educational system, with `traditional breadth', and managed to escape much of the centralized authoritarianism that we have been through south of the border. It is interesting to note that, while for the past dozen years or so the trend in A-level Physics entries has been downwards, there has been an increase in the take-up of Scottish `Highers'. Highers is a one-year course. Is its popularity due to its being easier than A-level? Scottish students keen enough to do more can move on to the Certificate of Sixth Year Studies, and will shortly be able to upgrade a Higher Level into an Advanced Higher Level. A comparability study [ Comparability Study of Scottish Qualifications and GCE Advanced Levels: Report on Physics January 1998 (free from SQA)] was carried out by the Scottish Qualifications Authority (SQA) with the aim (amongst others) of helping

  9. Asia Rice Crop Estimation and Monitoring (Asia-RiCE) for GEOGLAM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oyoshi, K.; Tomiyama, N.; Okumura, T.; Sobue, S.

    2013-12-01

    Food security is a critical issue for the international community because of rapid population and economic growth, and climate change. In June 2011, the meeting of G20 agriculture ministers was held to discuss food security and food price volatility, and they agreed on an 'Action Plan on Food Price Volatility and Agriculture'. This plan includes a GEO Global Agricultural Monitoring (GEOGLAM) initiative. The aim of GEOGLAM is to reinforce the international community's ability to produce and disseminate relevant, timely, and accurate forecasts of agricultural production on regional, national, and global scales by utilizing remote sensing technology. GEOGLAM focused on four major grain crops, wheat, maize, soybeans and rice. In particular, Asian countries are responsible for approximately 90% of the world rice production and consumption, rice is the most significant cereal crop in Asian region. Hence, Asian space and agricultural agencies with an interest in the development of rice crop monitoring technology launched an Asia-Rice Crop Estimation & Monitoring (Asia-RiCE) component for the GEOGLAM initiative. In Asian region, rice is mainly cultivated in rainy season, and a large amount of cloud limits rice crop monitoring with optical sensors. But, Synthetic Aperture RADAR (SAR) is all-weather sensor and can observe land surface even if the area is covered by cloud. Therefore, SAR technology would be powerful tool to monitor rice crop in Asian region. Asia-RiCE team required mainly SAR observation data including ALOS-2, RISAT-1, Sentinel-1 and RADARSAT, TerraSAR-X, COSMO-SkyMed for Asia-RiCE GEOGLAM Phase 1 implementation (2013-2015) to the Committee on Earth Observations (CEOS) in the GEOGLAM-CEOS Global Agricultural Monitoring Co-community Meeting held in June 2013. And also, rice crop has complicated cropping systems such as rein-fed or irrigated cultivation, single, double or sometimes triple cropping. In addition, each agricultural field is smaller than that of

  10. Europe's Neogene and Quaternary lake gastropod diversity - a statistical approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neubauer, Thomas A.; Georgopoulou, Elisavet; Harzhauser, Mathias; Mandic, Oleg; Kroh, Andreas

    2014-05-01

    - and planorbid-dominated lakes. Nevertheless, several pre-Holocene lakes, such as the early Middle Miocene Lake Rein (Styrian Basin, Austria), several Middle Miocene lakes in Hungary and some Pliocene ones in France, are strikingly "modern" in their generic inventory and genus/species relations. This suggests that the modern composition is not necessarily a young pattern, explained only by the glacial bottleneck. Nevertheless, an overall turnover from melanopsid-pyrgulid-dominated faunas towards planorbid-viviparid-dominated lake faunas from Miocene to Pliocene seems to be reflected in the data on central Europe. This rule of thumb, however, is contradicted by melanopsid-dominated faunas on the Aegean islands during the Pliocene. The FreshGEN project (Freshwater Gastropods of the European Neogene) is currently collecting data for providing the first detailed assessment of the composition of the European freshwater gastropod fauna during the Neogene and Quaternary at species level, with emphasis on lake faunas. This includes revealing shifts in the overall γ-biodiversity, changing evolutionary hotspots, faunal gradients, and the evolution of endemic radiations. The results will be discussed in terms of regional and global patterns and will be related to regional and large-scale climatic changes during the Neogene.