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1

Designing a Likert Scale to Measure Chemistry Attitudes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article brings together the principles of designing Likert attitude scales and demonstrates the procedure through the development of a chemistry attitude scale. Design procedures and validity and reliability of the scale are each discussed, with a data summary for the 20-item chemistry scale. (MNS)

Hassan, Abdel Moneim Ahmed; Shrigley, Robert L.

1984-01-01

2

The Effects of Halo and Leniency on Cooperating Teacher Reports Using Likert-Type Rating Scales.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study evaluated the adequacy of a Likert-type scale cooperating teacher report. Results demonstrated a significant presence of leniency error and halo effect, leaving highly questionable the validity of the report as a whole. Findings are discussed. (Author/MT)

Phelps, LeAdelle; And Others

1986-01-01

3

Validation and Findings Comparing VAS vs. Likert Scales for Psychosocial Measurements  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Context: Psychosocial exposures commonly show large variation over time and are usually assessed using multi-item Likert indices. A construct requiring a five-item Likert index could possibly be replaced by a single visual analogue scale (VAS). Objective: To: a) evaluate validity and relative reliability of a single VAS compared to previously…

Hasson, Dan; Arnetz, Bengt B.

2005-01-01

4

Compressed ultrasound video image-quality evaluation using a Likert scale and Kappa statistical analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Experiments using NASA's Advanced Communications Technology Satellite were conducted to provide an estimate of the compressed video quality required for preservation of clinically relevant features for the detection of trauma. Bandwidth rates of 128, 256 and 384 kbps were used. A five point Likert scale (1 equals no useful information and 5 equals good diagnostic quality) was used for a subjective preference questionnaire to evaluate the quality of the compressed ultrasound imagery at the three compression rates for several anatomical regions of interest. At 384 kbps the Likert scores (mean plus or minus SD) were abdomen (4.45 plus or minus 0.71), carotid artery (4.70 plus or minus 0.36), kidney (5.0 plus or minus 0.0), liver (4.67 plus or minus 0.58) and thyroid (4.03 plus or minus 0.74). Due to the volatile nature of the H.320 compressed digital video stream, no statistically significant results can be derived through this methodology. As the MPEG standard has at its roots many of the same intraframe and motion vector compression algorithms as the H.261 (such as that used in the previous ACTS/AMT experiments), we are using the MPEG compressed video sequences to best gauge what minimum bandwidths are necessary for preservation of clinically relevant features for the detection of trauma. We have been using an MPEG codec board to collect losslessly compressed video clips from high quality S- VHS tapes and through direct digitization of S-video. Due to the large number of videoclips and questions to be presented to the radiologists and for ease of application, we have developed a web browser interface for this video visual perception study. Due to the large numbers of observations required to reach statistical significance in most ROC studies, Kappa statistical analysis is used to analyze the degree of agreement between observers and between viewing assessment. If the degree of agreement amongst readers is high, then there is a possibility that the ratings (i.e., average Likert score at each bandwidth) do in fact reflect the dimension they are purported to reflect (video quality versus bandwidth). It is then possible to make intelligent choice of bandwidth for streaming compressed video and compressed videoclips.

Stewart, Brent K.; Carter, Stephen J.; Langer, Steven G.; Andrew, Rex K.

1998-06-01

5

Designing a Likert-Type Scale to Assess Attitude Toward Energy Conservation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presented are results of a study attempting to design a reliable and valid instrument measuring the attitudes of teachers toward energy conservation. A 22-item scale is presented as a result of several administrations to preservice elementary teachers. Items were submitted to Likert Item Analysis and further validated by principle components…

Koballa, Thomas, Jr.

6

Attitudes of heterosexuals toward homosexuality: A Likert?type scale and construct validity  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reports on three phases of the development of a Likert?type scale measuring heterosexual attitudes toward homosexuality. Phase 1 describes the development of the scale. Item analysis yielded 20 statements with item?total correlations ranging from .57 to .74. In Phase 2 the 20?item Heterosexual Attitudes Toward Homosexuality (HATH) Scale was administered to 82 subjects. Analysis yielded a corrected split?half

Knud S. Larsen; Michael Reed; Susan Hoffman

1980-01-01

7

Evaluation of the MOS SF36 physical functioning scale (PF40): II. Comparison of relative precision using Likert and Rasch scoring methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the relative precision (RP) of two methods of scoring the 10-item Physical Functioning Scale (PF-10) from a large sample of patients (n = 3445) of the Medical Outcomes Study. Based on a Likert scaling model, the PF-10 summated scoring method was compared with a Rasch Item Response Theory (IRT) scaling model in which raw scores were transformed

Colleen A. McHorney; Stephen M. Haley; John E. Ware

1997-01-01

8

The five-point Likert scale for dyspnea can properly assess the degree of pulmonary congestion and predict adverse events in heart failure outpatients  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: Proper assessment of dyspnea is important in patients with heart failure. Our aim was to evaluate the use of the 5-point Likert scale for dyspnea to assess the degree of pulmonary congestion and to determine the prognostic value of this scale for predicting adverse events in heart failure outpatients. METHODS: We undertook a prospective study of outpatients with moderate to severe heart failure. The 5-point Likert scale was applied during regular outpatient visits, along with clinical assessments. Lung ultrasound with ?15 B-lines and an amino-terminal portion of pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) level >1000 pg/mL were used as a reference for pulmonary congestion. The patients were then assessed every 30 days during follow-up to identify adverse clinical outcomes. RESULTS: We included 58 patients (65.5% male, age 43.5±11 years) with a mean left ventricular ejection fraction of 27±6%. In total, 29.3% of these patients had heart failure with ischemic etiology. Additionally, pulmonary congestion, as diagnosed by lung ultrasound, was present in 58% of patients. A higher degree of dyspnea (3 or 4 points on the 5-point Likert scale) was significantly correlated with a higher number of B-lines (p?=?0.016). Patients stratified into Likert?=?3-4 were at increased risk of admission compared with those in class 1-2 after adjusting for age, left ventricular ejection fraction, New York Heart Association functional class and levels of NT-proBNP >1000 pg/mL (HR?=?4.9, 95% CI 1.33-18.64, p?=?0.017). CONCLUSION: In our series, higher baseline scores on the 5-point Likert scale were related to pulmonary congestion and were independently associated with adverse events during follow-up. This simple clinical tool can help to identify patients who are more likely to decompensate and whose treatment should be intensified.

Weber, Cristina K; Miglioranza, Marcelo H; de Moraes, Maria A P; Sant'anna, Roberto T; Rover, Marciane M; Kalil, Renato A K; Leiria, Tiago Luiz L

2014-01-01

9

Measuring Student Attitudes: Semantic Differential or Likert Instruments?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Following descriptions of a semantic differential (SD) and test of science-related attitudes (TOSRA)--a Likert-type scale--reports results of using the instruments with secondary school students in various Australian schools (N=1,049 for TOSRA and 1,116 for SD). Suggests SD for general attitude and Likert-type scales of specific attitude…

Schibeci, R. A.

1982-01-01

10

Scaling question answering to the Web  

Microsoft Academic Search

The wealth of information on the web makes it an attractive resource for seeking quick answers to simple, factual questions such as "e;who was the first American in space?"e; or "e;what is the second tallest mountain in the world?"e; Yet today's most advanced web search services (e.g., Google and AskJeeves) make it surprisingly tedious to locate answers to such questions.

Cody C. T. Kwok; Oren Etzioni; Daniel S. Weld

2001-01-01

11

An Analysis of the Meaning of the Question Mark Response Category in Attitude Scales  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although most scaling formats include an intermediate or neutral response category, little research has been devoted to the analysis of the meaning respondents attach to this category. Results obtained from ten different scales, across two types of item formats (Likert and Polar Choice) support the traditional method of scoring the\\

Bernard Dubois; John A. Burns

1975-01-01

12

A Question of Scale: Quarks to Quasars  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site consists of a series of pages, each depicting and describing an object(s) on a different order of magnitude. There are 42 pages of this in all, for 42 powers of ten, starting with quarks (10^-14 meters) and ending with 'near the limit of our knowledge' (10^25 meters). The pictures 'zoom out,' with the quarks being part of a proton being part of a nucleus, and so on. There are short descriptions for each of the physics-related objects (i.e. quarks, atoms, clusters) and some of the locations, as well as links to more extensive descriptions. Also included is a page on units and scales.

Bryson, Bruce

2004-07-17

13

Estimating Ordinal Reliability for Likert-Type and Ordinal Item Response Data: A Conceptual, Empirical, and Practical Guide  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper provides a conceptual, empirical, and practical guide for estimating ordinal reliability coefficients for ordinal item response data (also referred to as Likert, Likert-type, ordered categorical, or rating scale item responses). Conventionally, reliability coefficients, such as Cronbach's alpha, are calculated using a Pearson…

Gadermann, Anne M.; Guhn, Martin; Zumbo, Bruno D.

2012-01-01

14

Brief Questions to Identify Patients With Inadequate Health Literacy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and Objectives: No practical method for identifying patients with low heath literacy exists. We sought to develop screening questions for identifying patients with inadequate or marginal health literacy. Methods: Patients (n=332) at a VA preoperative clinic completed in-person interviews that in- cluded 16 health literacy screening questions on a 5-point Likert scale, followed by a validated health literacy measure,

Lisa D. Chew; Katharine A. Bradley; Edward J. Boyko

2004-01-01

15

A Two-Decision Model for Responses to Likert-Type Items  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Extreme response set, the tendency to prefer the lowest or highest response option when confronted with a Likert-type response scale, can lead to misfit of item response models such as the generalized partial credit model. Recently, a series of intrinsically multidimensional item response models have been hypothesized, wherein tendency toward…

Thissen-Roe, Anne; Thissen, David

2013-01-01

16

Ramsay Curve IRT for Likert-Type Data  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Ramsay curve item response theory (RC-IRT) was recently developed to detect and correct for nonnormal latent variables when unidimensional IRT models are fitted to data using maximum marginal likelihood estimation. The purpose of this research is to evaluate the performance of RC-IRT for Likert-type item responses with varying test lengths, sample…

Woods, Carol M.

2007-01-01

17

Ramsay Curve IRT for Likert-Type Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ramsay curve item response theory (RC-IRT) was recently developed to detect and correct for nonnormal latent variables when unidimensional IRT models are fitted to data using maximum marginal likelihood estimation. The purpose of this research is to evaluate the performance of RC-IRT for Likert-type item responses with varying test lengths, sample sizes, and latent variable distributions. Also, RC-IRT is compared

Carol M. Woods

2007-01-01

18

On Some Psychometric Properties of the Questions about Behavioral Function (QABF) Scale  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined certain psychometric properties of the questions about behavioral function (QABF) scale. The QABF was completed on 118 problem behaviours presented by 40 young people with severe intellectual disabilities, and measures of inter-rater reliability, internal consistency, and construct validity were calculated overall and for…

Nicholson, Joanne; Konstantinidi, Eva; Furniss, Frederick

2006-01-01

19

Psychometric Comparison of the Motivation Assessment Scale (MAS) and the Questions about Behavioral Function (QABF)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: The Motivation Assessment Scale (MAS) and the Questions About Behavioral Function (QABF) are frequently used to assess the learned function of challenging behaviour in people with intellectual disability (ID). The aim was to explore and compare the psychometric properties of the MAS and the QABF. Method: Seventy adults with ID and…

Koritsas, S.; Iacono, T.

2013-01-01

20

Quantitative analysis of scale of aeromagnetic data raises questions about geologic-map scale  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A recently published study has shown that small-scale geologic map data can reproduce mineral assessments made with considerably larger scale data. This result contradicts conventional wisdom about the importance of scale in mineral exploration, at least for regional studies. In order to formally investigate aspects of scale, a weights-of-evidence analysis using known gold occurrences and deposits in the Central Lapland Greenstone Belt of Finland as training sites provided a test of the predictive power of the aeromagnetic data. These orogenic-mesothermal-type gold occurrences and deposits have strong lithologic and structural controls associated with long (up to several kilometers), narrow (up to hundreds of meters) hydrothermal alteration zones with associated magnetic lows. The aeromagnetic data were processed using conventional geophysical methods of successive upward continuation simulating terrane clearance or 'flight height' from the original 30 m to an artificial 2000 m. The analyses show, as expected, that the predictive power of aeromagnetic data, as measured by the weights-of-evidence contrast, decreases with increasing flight height. Interestingly, the Moran autocorrelation of aeromagnetic data representing differing flight height, that is spatial scales, decreases with decreasing resolution of source data. The Moran autocorrelation coefficient scems to be another measure of the quality of the aeromagnetic data for predicting exploration targets. ?? Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2007.

Nykanen, V.; Raines, G. L.

2006-01-01

21

The Right Scale for the Question Asked: A Challenge for Great Lakes Hydrology and Restoration Forecasts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water is a primary metric for viewing Great Lakes health and restoration. Our ability to characterize and forecast hydrologic conditions continues to improve, but challenges remain. One notable issue is the scale of the Great Lakes system. Because of its size, constructing a tractable model that encompasses the entire watershed requires extensive simplification. Questions that require higher spatial and temporal resolution, however, often cannot be well-simulated using the coarse resolution of Great Lakes watershed-scale tools. In work conducted for the Great Lake Restoration Initiative, a regional Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System (PRMS) model has been constructed for the entire Lake Michigan watershed. The model was parameterized using Hydrologic Response Units of about 207 square kilometers, and 148 stream gages ranging in HUC 8-12 scales. This representation of the system is useful for annual and perhaps seasonal/monthly characterizations of water fluxes to Lake Michigan. Likewise, this scale of forecast can be useful for certain predictions, such as lake stage forecasts where Lake Michigan is the basinwide receptor - a receptor that is a natural integrator of large space and time. Many questions need a more refined characterization of the dynamics and processes operating within the system. For these, such a coarse representation of space and time is not appropriate. Many Great Lakes issues, such as localized Areas of Concern (AOCs) and Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs), are not well represented by basinwide averages. For example, annual flows are not useful for assessing the resilience of a sand-capping restoration activity to future climate variability. In this work, a spatially detailed PRMS model has been refined from the regional PRMS model to construct more representative forecasts for these types of questions. The sub-basin model needs to answer the smaller scale question, but must also be consistent with the conceptualization and parameterization of the regional framework. These issues underscore the need to use all the tools in the toolbox, and not direct inordinate effort to unrealistic goals, such as a single simulator that represents all spatial and temporal scales. That is, there can be no expectation of "the" model for a Great Lake, only a family of models tuned for constructing forecasts for specific questions.

Hunt, R.; Walker, J. F.; Christiansen, D.

2012-12-01

22

Relationships between rating scales, question stem wording, and community responses to railway noise  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two series of social surveys on community responses to railway noise were carried out in Japan to evaluate the relationships between two verbal scales and a numeric scale, and those among four base descriptors. In the first survey, two types of questionnaires were prepared in which a 0-10- point numeric scale was used in combination with either a four-point or a five-point verbal scale. The key questions concerned annoyance, activity disturbance and related effects caused by railway noise. Community responses were compared on the basis of the dose-response relationships. Regarding the percentages of respondents who answered, "highly annoyed," it was found that there were no systematic differences between the two verbal scales. It was also found that the extent of noise annoyance rated on the four-point or five-point verbal scale corresponded with that rated on the 11-point numeric scale by percentages of scale steps. In the second survey, four types of questionnaires were prepared, each using one of the four base descriptors. Community responses to general noise annoyance among the four base descriptors were compared. No systematic differences were found among the four base descriptors.

Sato, Tetsumi; Yano, Takashi; Morihara, Takashi; Masden, Kirk

2004-10-01

23

A mixed-binomial model for Likert-type personality measures.  

PubMed

Personality measurement is based on the idea that values on an unobservable latent variable determine the distribution of answers on a manifest response scale. Typically, it is assumed in the Item Response Theory (IRT) that latent variables are related to the observed responses through continuous normal or logistic functions, determining the probability with which one of the ordered response alternatives on a Likert-scale item is chosen. Based on an analysis of 1731 self- and other-rated responses on the 240 NEO PI-3 questionnaire items, it was proposed that a viable alternative is a finite number of latent events which are related to manifest responses through a binomial function which has only one parameter-the probability with which a given statement is approved. For the majority of items, the best fit was obtained with a mixed-binomial distribution, which assumes two different subpopulations who endorse items with two different probabilities. It was shown that the fit of the binomial IRT model can be improved by assuming that about 10% of random noise is contained in the answers and by taking into account response biases toward one of the response categories. It was concluded that the binomial response model for the measurement of personality traits may be a workable alternative to the more habitual normal and logistic IRT models. PMID:24847291

Allik, Jüri

2014-01-01

24

A mixed-binomial model for Likert-type personality measures  

PubMed Central

Personality measurement is based on the idea that values on an unobservable latent variable determine the distribution of answers on a manifest response scale. Typically, it is assumed in the Item Response Theory (IRT) that latent variables are related to the observed responses through continuous normal or logistic functions, determining the probability with which one of the ordered response alternatives on a Likert-scale item is chosen. Based on an analysis of 1731 self- and other-rated responses on the 240 NEO PI-3 questionnaire items, it was proposed that a viable alternative is a finite number of latent events which are related to manifest responses through a binomial function which has only one parameter—the probability with which a given statement is approved. For the majority of items, the best fit was obtained with a mixed-binomial distribution, which assumes two different subpopulations who endorse items with two different probabilities. It was shown that the fit of the binomial IRT model can be improved by assuming that about 10% of random noise is contained in the answers and by taking into account response biases toward one of the response categories. It was concluded that the binomial response model for the measurement of personality traits may be a workable alternative to the more habitual normal and logistic IRT models.

Allik, Juri

2014-01-01

25

Comparing two image research instruments: The Q-sort method versus the Likert attitude questionnaire  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the attention for corporate, brand and product images, only few studies focus on methodological comparisons of image research methods. This article presents a comparison of two current instruments: the Q-sort method and a Likert attitude questionnaire. The study applies both methods to measure the image of beef, using the same assertions in similar samples of consumers. The two methods

Klooster ten Peter M; Martijn Visser; Jong de Menno D. T

2008-01-01

26

THE DEVELOPMENT OF A COMPETENCE SCALE FOR LEARNING SCIENCE: INQUIRY AND COMMUNICATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to develop an instrument to measure school students’ competence in learning science as part\\u000a of a large research project in Taiwan. The instrument consisted of 29 self-report, Likert-type items divided into 2 scales:\\u000a Competence in Scientific Inquiry and Competence in Communication. The Competence in Scientific Inquiry scale contained 4 subscales:\\u000a presenting questions and hypothesis,

Huey-Por Chang; Chin-Chang Chen; Gwo-Jen Guo; Yeong-Jin Cheng; Chen-Yung Lin; Tsung-Hau Jen

2011-01-01

27

Questioning the Questions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Historical accounts of questioning used in the education process trace back to Socrates. One of the best examples of his use of questioning is found in Plato's "The Republic." Socrates used a series of strategic questions to help his student Glaucon come to understand the concept of justice. Socrates purposefully posed a series of questions to…

Tienken, Christopher H.; Goldberg, Stephanie; DiRocco, Dominic

2010-01-01

28

Toward a landscape approach in seagrass beds: using macroalgal accumulation to address questions of scale  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experimental investigation of drift macroalgal accumulation in seagrass beds was conducted to determine if the relationship between passively dispersed plant structure and the spatial arrangement of rooted macrophytes differed when examined across two spatial scales. Experiments were performed from December 1992 to April 1993 at four different sites in Tampa Bay, Florida, utilizing artificial seagrass units (ASUs) of uniform

Susan S. Bell; Margaret O. Hall; Bradley D. Robbins

1995-01-01

29

The $500 Million Question: Can Charter Management Organizations Deliver Quality Education at Scale?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Charter school management organizations (CMOs) have emerged as a popular means for bringing charter schooling to scale. Advocates credit CMOs with delivering a coherent model of charter schooling to a growing number of children across numerous sites. Skeptics have wondered whether CMOs constitute an effective management approach, whether they…

Hall, Kevin; Lake, Robin

2011-01-01

30

question_1296837100 — Provocative Questions  

Cancer.gov

While the causal mechanisms that link excess body weight to increased risk for certain cancers are largely unknown (as noted in other questions), we pose an associated question -- what are the causal mechanisms that link excess body weight to decreased risk of certain other cancers?

31

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60

A comparison of Rasch with Likert scoring to discriminate between patients' evaluations of total hip replacement surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to examine whether there are advantages in terms of outcome assessment of using Rasch methods of scoring the 12-item Oxford Hip Score (OHS) questionnaire over conventionally Likert scores. As part of a prospective cohort study of total hip replacements in five former regions of England the OHS was sent to patients pre-operatively, at 3

R. Fitzpatrick; J. M. Norquist; C. Jenkinson; B. C. Reeves; R. W. Morris; D. W. Murray; P. J. Gregg

2004-01-01

61

A Comparison of Anchor-Item Designs for the Concurrent Calibration of Large Banks of Likert-Type Items  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Current interest in measuring quality of life is generating interest in the construction of computerized adaptive tests (CATs) with Likert-type items. Calibration of an item bank for use in CAT requires collecting responses to a large number of candidate items. However, the number is usually too large to administer to each subject in the…

Garcia-Perez, Miguel A.; Alcala-Quintana, Rocio; Garcia-Cueto, Eduardo

2010-01-01

62

question_1332002134 — Provocative Questions  

Cancer.gov

Sequencing of natural human tumors is teaching us invaluable lessons. It is becoming clear that the new dogmas created in the post genome era are being questioned. The previously suspected genetic heterogeneity of tumors is now proven on the sequence level. The extreme genetic heterogeneity of individual tumors and the existence of multiple tumors (not metastases) pose fundamental doubt on the prevailing dogma of targeted drug(s) and personalized treatments.

63

Validating Five Questions of Antiretroviral Nonadherence in a Public-Sector Treatment Program in Rural South Africa  

PubMed Central

Abstract Simple questions are the most commonly used measures of antiretroviral treatment (ART) adherence in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), but rarely validated. We administered five adherence questions in a public-sector primary care clinic in rural South Africa: 7-day recall of missed doses, 7-day recall of late doses, a six-level Likert item, a 30-day visual analogue scale of the proportion of doses missed, and recall of the time when an ART dose was last missed. We estimated question sensitivity and specificity in detecting immunologic (or virologic) failure assessed within 45 days of the adherence question date. Of 165 individuals, 7% had immunologic failure; 137 individuals had viral loads with 9% failure detected. The Likert item performed best for immunologic failure with sensitivity/specificity of 100%/5% (when defining nonadherence as self-reported adherence less than “excellent”), 42%/55% (less than “very good”), and 25%/95% (less than “good”). The remaining questions had sensitivities ?17%, even when the least strict cutoffs defined nonadherence. When we stratified the analysis by gender, age, or education, question performance was not substantially better in any of the subsamples in comparison to the total sample. Five commonly used adherence questions performed poorly in identifying patients with treatment failure in a public-sector ART program in SSA. Valid adherence measurement instruments are urgently required to identify patients needing treatment support and those most at risk of treatment failure. Available estimates of ART adherence in SSA are mostly based on studies using adherence questions. It is thus unlikely that our understanding of ART adherence in the region is correct.

Chaiyachati, Krisda; Hirschhorn, Lisa R.; Tanser, Frank; Newell, Marie-Louise

2011-01-01

64

question_1303305591 — Provocative Questions  

Cancer.gov

This is an outstanding and intellectually-stimulating question which introduces a new way to translate more effectively metastasis research to the clinic. It is certainly worth exploring and badly needed. because, if positive, drugs could be immediately useful to help defined populations of patients. Per points, we agree that these are limited metastasis groups; however, results could at minimum justify moving forward to full adjuvant trials. Worthy cause given the "bottleneck" we experience nowadays since drugs are mostly not tested in metastasis prevention.

65

An Evaluation of Functional Variables Affecting Severe Problem Behaviors in Adults with Mental Retardation by Using the Questions about Behavioral Function Scale (QABF).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study used the Questions about Behavior Function Scale to examine the functions of five severe problem behaviors (self-injurious behavior, aggression, stereotypies, pica, and rumination) in 417 institutionalized persons with mental retardation. The most common function for all behaviors except aggression was nonsocial. Aggression was maintained…

Applegate, Heather; Matson, Johnny L.; Cherry, Katie E.

1999-01-01

66

The Convergent Validity of the Questions about Behavioral Function Scale and Functional Analysis for Problem Behavior Displayed by Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Only a few studies have compared the convergent validity of the Questions About Behavioral Function (QABF) scale to the results of functional analyses (FA). In the current study, six participants who emitted problem behaviors participated in either a brief, or a no-interaction-series FA, while each participant's parent completed the QABF. The…

Watkins, Nicholas; Rapp, John T.

2013-01-01

67

Four Questions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author is pleased to introduce a new section in "TAJ," Four Questions. The structure is simple: four questions are asked to teaching artists working in various media and locations. The questions are always the same, but because each teaching artist's approach is unique, their answers will provide an insight into particular methodologies that…

Hark-Weber, Amara G., Ed.

2013-01-01

68

Provocative Questions  

Cancer.gov

NCI’s Provocative Questions Project seeks to go beyond the questions that are self-evident or that have been studied for many years. NCI asked investigators to propose intriguing questions that need attention or have stumped us in the past.

69

Validating the Use of Anchoring Vignettes for the Correction of Response Scale Differences in Subjctive Questions1  

PubMed Central

Comparing self-assessed indicators of subjective outcomes such as health, work disability, political efficacy, job satisfaction, etc. across countries or socio-economic groups is often hampered by the fact that different groups use different response scales. This paper develops an integrated framework in which objective measurements are used to validate vignette-based corrections. The framework is applied to objective and subjective self-assessments of drinking behavior by students in Ireland. Model comparisons using the Akaike information criterion favor a specification with response consistency and vignette corrected response scales. Put differently, vignette based corrections appear quite effective in bringing objective and subjective measures closer together.

Van Soest, Arthur; Delaney, Liam; Harmon, Colm; Kapteyn, Arie; Smith, James P.

2013-01-01

70

About Provocative Questions — Provocative Questions  

Cancer.gov

The provocative questions initiative has assembled a list of 24 important questions from the research community to stimulate the NCI’s research communities to use laboratory, clinical and populations sciences in especially effective and imaginative ways to answer the questions. The questions are not simple restatements of long-term goals of the National Cancer Program, which are to improve the prevention, detection, diagnosis, and treatment of all forms of cancer.

71

Proposed Provocative Questions — Provocative Questions  

Cancer.gov

View all of the questions that have been submitted and see how they have been evaluated by peers. Submit your own evaluation of a submitted question, or leave a comment about a question (commenting requires log in or creation of your own PQ account).

72

Curiosity Questions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Have you ever found yourself lecturing a child, with the best of intentions, in an attempt to help him or her learn a lesson or process a situation in a manner that you feel will be productive? Curiosity questions, which the authors also call What and How questions, help children process an experience, event, or natural consequence so that they…

Nelsen, Jane; DeLorenzo, Chip

2010-01-01

73

Active Questions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study examined whether the technique of having students ask "active questions" (in the form of "I understand that...but I don't understand...") enhanced critical thinking and overall performance in the classroom. Subjects, 164 students in six tenth-grade biology sections and four junior-senior astronomy/geology sections, responded to a…

Williams, Steven F.

74

Questioning Styles  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author discusses a project involving the observation of 12 teachers in different schools, teaching pupils at Key Stage 3 of differing ages and abilities, noting both questioning techniques used and pupils' responses. The teachers involved were volunteers, chosen to give a range of experience, styles, and school, and included a…

Martin, Nikki

2003-01-01

75

Questor's Question  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Questor is a curious little bird whose four broad questions are helpful to anyone interested in making art or understanding the art of others. He was designed as a character in an online video for children, "Building on a River: Questor's Tale." The video is narrated by Questor, who relates the 2000 year history of architecture along the Salt…

Erickson, Mary; Dock, Michelle Nichols; Eldridge, Laurie

2009-01-01

76

101questions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website, created by math educator Dan Meyer, randomly displays photos and brief videos contributed by Meyer or visitors to the site. The photos and videos are in intended to be "perplexing" and to promote wondering. Visitors to the site are encouraged to post questions inspired by the images. Many of these can be used in the classroom to spark inquiry and initiate mathematics investigations. The page links to a related blog.

2012-03-01

77

Questions Submitted Online — Provocative Questions  

Cancer.gov

Sequencing of natural human tumors is teaching us invaluable lessons. It is becoming clear that the new dogmas created in the post genome era are being questioned. The previously suspected genetic heterogeneity of tumors is now proven on the sequence level. The extreme genetic heterogeneity of individual tumors and the existence of multiple tumors (not metastases) pose fundamental doubt on the prevailing dogma of targeted drug(s) and personalized treatments.

78

Insights and questions raised from a multi-tracer plot-scale sprinkler experiment with time-lapse 3D GPR in a structured forested soil.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stable isotopes appear as ideal tracer commonly applied in preferential flow analyses. At the same time, central assumptions about signature mixing and propagation are founded on effective parameters merging advective and diffusive flow domains. However, in structured soils conditions are often far from well-mixed and some established assumptions may need to be reconsidered. We conducted a multi-tracer sprinkler experiment at a forested hillslope in the Attert Basin in Luxembourg with prevailing geogenic and biogenic preferential flow structures. At plot scale of 1x1 m2 we sprinkled two plots with 50 mm and one plot with 30 mm Brilliant Blue and Bromide enriched water for 1 hour. The experiments were accompanied by a high resolution 3D time-lapse GPR (Ground-Penetrating Radar) survey scanning 3x3 m2 before, directly after sprinkling and before excavation one day after sprinkling. Soil moisture was monitored with a TDR tube probe. Soil profiles were excavated and recorded for dye flow paths and for one medium resolution Bromide profile. In addition one core for pore water stable isotope analysis was taken before the sprinkling as reference and at each plot after sprinkling. We present the results with focus on the found evidence of preferential flow and the signals of the different tracers - especially the stable isotopes. While all other methods clearly show that only minor proportions of the soil took part in the infiltration process and that the sprinkler water has largely advectively propagated to the saprolite layer at about 80-100 cm depth, the stable isotopes signals from the cores indicate more intense interaction between the soil matrix and macropores, especially in the top 50 cm. This leads to the question of how the isotope signal could mix well, when most of the pore-water did not directly interact with the infiltration-water. Further questions arise to the use of tracers in general, due to the known limitations of excavation itself and rather coarse sampling with sizes 1-2 orders of magnitude larger than most preferential flow structures - thus blurring the signal. Moreover, considerable uncertainty arises where intense staining may be due to slow water movement or large quantities of infiltrated water. Here time-lapse GPR provides promising insights identifying patterns and states. Moreover, we will discuss whether the use of multiple tracers instead of just one leads to additional information and better understanding of subsurface processes.

Jackisch, Conrad; Sprenger, Matthias; Allroggen, Niklas; van Schaik, Loes; Weiler, Markus; Zehe, Erwin

2014-05-01

79

Geomagnetic Field Frequently Asked Questions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

At this site the question and answer format is used to provide information about the Earth's magnetic field. Frequently asked questions are linked to detailed answers. Along with standard questions about the magnetic poles and how a compass works, there are sections about geomagnetic models, Space Weather Scales and magnetic field reversals. Links lead to a site to download the latest model as well as sites for more detailed information.

80

Cross-cultural adaptation and patients' judgments of a Question Prompt List for Italian-speaking cancer patients  

PubMed Central

Background Question Prompt Lists (QPLs) have proven very effective in encouraging cancer patients to ask questions, allowing them to take up a more active role during visits with the oncologist. As no such tool has yet been validated for Italian-speaking users, we carried out the cross-cultural adaptation and evaluation of an existing Australian Question Prompt List. Methods Cross-cultural adaptation was performed in accordance with the five steps described by Guillemin and Beaton. Forward and back translations of the original tool were carried out, and the products discussed by an Expert Committee who agreed on a prefinal version of the Italian QPL, which was submitted to 30 volunteer patients for evaluation. They rated each question's adequacy of content, clarity of wording, usefulness, and generated anxiety, on a 3-point Likert scale. Based on the analysis of patient ratings, the final version of the Italian QPL was produced. Results Few discrepancies between the two back translations and the original version of the instrument were noted, indicating that the Italian translation (synthesis of the 2 forward translations) was substantially accurate. Most volunteer patients felt that the questionnaire was adequate, easy to understand and useful. Only a few minor criticisms were expressed. Certain questions on diagnosis and prognosis generated the highest level of anxiety. Patient comments and ratings on clarity highlighted the need to clarify common health care terms which are not widely used by the public (i.e. guideline, multidisciplinary team and clinical trial) Conclusions This cross-cultural adaptation has produced an Italian Question Prompt List that is now available for multi-center international studies and can be safely used with Italian-speaking cancer patients.

2010-01-01

81

Further Empirical Results on Parametric Versus Non-Parametric IRT Modeling of Likert-Type Personality Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chernyshenko, Stark, Chan, Drasgow, and Williams (2001) investigated the fit of Samejima's logistic graded model and Levine's non-parametric MFS model to the scales of two personality questionnaires and found that the graded model did not fit well. We attribute the poor fit of the graded model to small amounts of multidimensionality present in their data. To verify this conjecture, we

Albert Maydeu-Olivares

2005-01-01

82

Further Empirical Results on Parametric Versus Non-Parametric IRT Modeling of Likert-Type Personality Data  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Chernyshenko, Stark, Chan, Drasgow, and Williams (2001) investigated the fit of Samejima's logistic graded model and Levine's non-parametric MFS model to the scales of two personality questionnaires and found that the graded model did not fit well. We attribute the poor fit of the graded model to small amounts of multidimensionality present in…

Maydeu-Olivares, Albert

2005-01-01

83

Development and Validation of the POSITIVES Scale (Postsecondary Information Technology Initiative Scale)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Data on how well information and communication technology (ICT) needs of 1354 Canadian college and university students with disabilities are met on and off campus were collected using the newly developed Positives Scale (Postsecondary Information Technology Initiative Scale). The measure contains 26 items which use a 6-point Likert scale (1 =…

Fichten, Catherine S.; Asuncion, Jennison V.; Nguyen, Mai N.; Wolforth, Joan; Budd, Jillian; Barile, Maria; Gaulin, Chris; Martiniello, Natalie; Tibbs, Anthony; Ferraro, Vittoria; Amsel, Rhonda

2009-01-01

84

Rating Scale Format as it Affects Ratings in Student Teaching.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To assess the impact of various rating scale formats in rating student teachers, a Likert-type scale (Highly agree/slightly agree/neither/slightly disagree/highly disagree) was derived from the graphic scale currently used by the cooperating teachers and university supervisors. They rated the music student teachers on an eight-point scale from…

Allison, Howard K., II

85

Designing the Nuclear Energy Attitude Scale.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a refined method for designing a valid and reliable Likert-type scale to test attitudes toward the generation of electricity from nuclear energy. Discusses various tests of validity that were used on the nuclear energy scale. Reports results of administration and concludes that the test is both reliable and valid. (CW)

Calhoun, Lawrence; And Others

1988-01-01

86

Question, Problem, Purpose  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Questions and question-formulating strategies are central to science. In many ways the formulation of a question forms the basis for high-quality instruction in science. Effective questioning has a strong connection to cognitive theory. The sentence start

Klentschy, Michael P.

2008-04-01

87

Further evidence on the validity of the MMPI-2 Restructured Clinical (RC) Scales: addressing questions raised by Rogers, Sewell, Harrison, and Jordan and Nichols.  

PubMed

The reviews by Rogers, Sewell, Harrison, and Jordan (2006/this issue), and by Nichols (2006/this issue) offer markedly contrasting appraisals of the MMPI-2 Restructured Clinical (RC) Scales introduced by Tellegen et al. (2003). The one common feature is that both reviews draw on the same atypical MMPI-2 (Butcher, Dahlstrom, Graham, Tellegen, & Kaemmer, 1989) data set for their empirical analyses, with results warranting critical scrutiny. Rogers et al.'s critique provides an evaluation of the RC Scales from the perspective of Jackson's (1970) method of test development. One significant issue in Rogers et al.'s review concerns social desirability, prompting us to clarify our own views on this topic. We also highlight and discuss problems associated with Rogers et al.'s use of the unrepresentative data set. Nichols's polemical critique neglects empirical and theoretical support for demoralization as a central construct and misconstrues as "construct drift" the purposeful process of developing the RC scales. Nichols's criticisms and proposals overlook requirements for assessing syndromes and for construct validation and even rudiments of scale development. Our reply incorporates evidence, including new findings, refuting his criticisms and confirming that demoralization is a pervasive MMPI dimension, that the RC Scales capture the major distinctive features of the original Clinical Scales, and that they generate correspondingly meaningful validity patterns. PMID:16972818

Tellegen, Auke; Ben-Porath, Yossef S; Sellbom, Martin; Arbisi, Paul A; McNulty, John L; Graham, John R

2006-10-01

88

Robustness and comparative power properties of Hotelling's T$\\\\sp2$ versus the rank transformation test using real pre-test\\/post-test Likert scale data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Parametric statistics have traditionally been considered the most powerful statistics available for hypotheses testing. The purpose of this study was to contribute to the existing robustness and power literature by examining the robustness and power properties of the two independent samples Hotelling's T$\\\\sp2$ (HT$\\\\sp2$) test and the Rank Transformation (RT) analog of HT$\\\\sp2$ using real data.^ The data sets selected

Michael Joseph Nanna

1997-01-01

89

The Multidisciplinary Hemodialysis Patient Satisfaction Scale: Reliability, Validity, and Scale Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The development and preliminary reliability and validity studies are reported for the Multidisciplinary Hemodialysis Patient Satisfaction Scale, a 110-item Likert scale that assesses satisfaction with team health care services. The methods used to construct subscales may have implications for other psychometric studies of satisfaction and quality…

Martin, Pamela Davis; Brantley, Philip J.; McKnight, G. Tipton; Jones, Glenn N.; Springer, Annette

1997-01-01

90

Eight Questions Frequently Asked about Questioning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Classroom teachers' engagement in dialogue with their students develops important skills and attitudes. Drawing from a series of inservice teacher education workshops, this paper addresses the following concerns with respect to acquiring and strengthening questioning techniques: (1) "Should all children be asked a variety of question types, or…

Supon, Viola; Wolf, Pat

91

Drawing on Questions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines observations and research on question-answer interaction between client and therapist, and teacher and student. Discusses Patton's six-question instrument which provides categories of question options, with application for the art therapist. Argues that effective formulation of questions provides the clinician, educator, and researcher…

Bloomgarden, Joan

2000-01-01

92

Question the Author  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web page describes the comprehension strategy of Question the Author (QtA), a strategy in which students pose questions while reading nonfiction text. Students pose questions about the author's purpose in including certain phrases or forms of information while reading. Sample questions are provided in a three-step instructional sequence. References are included.

2012-01-01

93

NAEP Questions Tool  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This tool from the National Center for Educational Statistics provides assessment questions used on the NAEP since 1990. Question searches may be limited by subject, grade, year, or type. Questions returned show their assessed difficulty and the percentage of students that answered correctly. Additionally, each question gives its scoring guide, a sample of student responses, and scoring demographics.

Tool, Naep A.

2006-10-30

94

Who Asks the Questions?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

From a very young age, children actively strive to make sense of their world through constant questioning. The ability to ask questions comes naturally for young children, but such natural inclination does not continue because it teachers who ask most of the questions. Sheena Hervey suggests that teaching students how to pose questions is a…

Hervey, Sheena

2006-01-01

95

A Turkish Version of the School Social Behavior Scales (SSBS)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Intended to enhance social skills instruction in Turkey, the present study highlights the process and outcome of creating a Turkish-language version of the School Social Behavior Scales (SSBS), originally developed by Merrell (1993). The social skills of the Turkish pre-and elementary school students were based on the Likert scale. The analyses of…

Yukay-Yuksel, Muge

2009-01-01

96

Reliability and Validity of the Transracial Adoption Parenting Scale  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study provides information on the reliability and validity of the Transracial Adoption Parenting Scale (TAPS), a multidimensional 36-item Likert-type scale that measures cultural competence among transracial adoptive (TRA) parents. The TAPS was theoretically developed and refined through feedback from experts in TRA adoption. A…

Massatti, Richard R.; Vonk, M. Elizabeth; Gregoire, Thomas K.

2004-01-01

97

Formulating a Research Question  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This tutorial discusses the conceptual development of a research goal, beginning with the formation of a research question. It also explains the links between a research question, specific aims, hypotheses, and long-term research goals.

The Research Assistant (Danya International, Inc.)

2003-08-12

98

Workshops & Outcomes — Provocative Questions  

Cancer.gov

The participants of the first Provocative Questions meeting supported the idea that the format of small workshops are a useful means to engage in conversations about questions that might stimulate innovative research on various aspects of cancer.

99

How To Ask Questions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This pamphlet is designed to aid teachers, particularly social studies teachers, in improving their classroom questioning techniques. An introductory section notes the importance of effective questioning in the stimulation of thinking and learning. A technique is suggested by which a teacher can measure his question-response patterns by…

Morgan, Jack C.; Schreiber, Joan E.

100

Exam Question Exchange.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Acceptable answers are provided for two chemistry questions. The first question is related to the prediction of the appearance of non-first-order proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra. The second question is related to extraterrestrial kinetic theory of gases. (JN)

Alexander, John J., Ed.

1983-01-01

101

Questions for Surveys  

PubMed Central

We begin with a look back at the field to identify themes of recent research that we expect to continue to occupy researchers in the future. As part of this overview, we characterize the themes and topics examined in research about measurement and survey questions published in Public Opinion Quarterly in the past decade. We then characterize the field more broadly by highlighting topics that we expect to continue or to grow in importance, including the relationship between survey questions and the total survey error perspective, cognitive versus interactional approaches, interviewing practices, mode and technology, visual aspects of question design, and culture. Considering avenues for future research, we advocate for a decision-oriented framework for thinking about survey questions and their characteristics. The approach we propose distinguishes among various aspects of question characteristics, including question topic, question type and response dimension, conceptualization and operationalization of the target object, question structure, question form, response categories, question implementation, and question wording. Thinking about question characteristics more systematically would allow study designs to take into account relationships among these characteristics and identify gaps in current knowledge.

Schaeffer, Nora Cate; Dykema, Jennifer

2011-01-01

102

The Question about Literature.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Offers a list of questions for teachers to ask their literature classes, including questions on the author, the style, the theme, the setting, and the plot. Notes how sequencing these questions can prepare students for other activities in literature appreciation. (RL)

Evans, Ronald

1982-01-01

103

Teachers' Classroom Questions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is a large body of literature on the types of questions asked by teachers. Questions are a way that teachers use to bring students around to the correct mathematical concepts and procedures through "the negotiation of meaning for necessary condition of learning" (Voigt, 1992, p. 43). Teachers ask many questions, but we are not sure what…

Sahin, Alpaslan

2007-01-01

104

The Questions of Curriculum  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

What are the basic things that compose curriculum, and what are the questions that may be posed about these things? Joseph Schwab's conception of curriculum is used to introduce a scheme of questions concerning the nature, elements, and practice of curriculum. Formulations of questions by other curriculum theorists are reviewed and analysed in…

Dillon, J. T.

2009-01-01

105

Improving Student Question Classification  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students in introductory programming classes often articulate their questions and information needs incompletely. Consequently, the automatic classification of student questions to provide automated tutorial responses is a challenging problem. This paper analyzes 411 questions from an introductory Java programming course by reducing the natural…

Heiner, Cecily; Zachary, Joseph L.

2009-01-01

106

Reading for Meaning: Questioning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An essential literacy skill is asking questions. Because reading comprehension strategies should be taught directly and explicitly, students need to be told that they should ask questions throughout their research and that all questions are valid. While library media specialists are not reading teachers, the work they do with students in the…

Trinkle, Catherine

2009-01-01

107

Why-Questions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The conditions that define correct answers to why-questions are discussed. Stated more precisely, a why-question is a question that can be put in English in the form of an interrogative sentence of which the following is true: (1) the sentence begins with...

S. Bromberger

1966-01-01

108

The Inappropriate Question.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Considers the inappropriate question in the particular context of the Modern Language Association (MLA) interview--interviews for academic positions which take place at the MLA convention. Mentions questions that are illegal as well as inappropriate. Encourages "planning" for inappropriate questions. (PA)

Kress, Susan

1998-01-01

109

Factor Analysis of the Omega Scale: A Scale Designed To Measure the Attitudes of College Students toward Their Own Deaths and the Disposition of Their Bodies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study was undertaken to provide a factor analysis of the Omega Scale, a 25-item, Likert-type scale developed in 1984 to assess attitudes toward death and funerals and other body disposition practices. The Omega Scale was administered to 250 students enrolled in introductory psychology classes at two higher education institutions in Alabama.…

Staik, Irene M.

110

Question-Asking and Question-Exploring  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Centre of Innovation Research at Greerton Early Childhood Centre was characterised as a dispositional milieu where working theories were explored through a narrative research methodology. As the research progressed, the teachers at Greerton strengthened the way we were listening to, and watching out for young children's questions to enable…

Sands, Lorraine; Carr, Margaret; Lee, Wendy

2012-01-01

111

The "Trickster" and the Questionability of Questions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Tricksters represent creativity and ingenuity in ways that are also integral to arts education. Like the tricksters, strong arts programs teach that a question can have many answers and there are multiple ways to interpret what is seen (Eisner, 2002). In this article, the author discusses how she applies lessons learned from the Trickster stories…

Stewart, Connie

2009-01-01

112

Attitudes toward old people: The development of a scale and an examination of correlates  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present paper reports on the development of a Likert scale for assessing attitudes toward old people and discusses empirical relations found between such attitudes and other attitudinal and personality variables. Three samples of college undergraduates served as subjects  a scale containing items making unfavorable reference to old people and a scale containing matched favorably worded items [were constructed]  no

N. Kogan

1961-01-01

113

The Comprehensive Quality of Life Scale-Intellectual Disability: An Instrument under Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Problems with assessment of the quality of life of individuals with intellectual disabilities are cited. The Comprehensive Quality of Life Scale-Intellectual Disability is described as a scale that measures both objective and subjective data, uses simple language, tests for competence in using Likert scales, and covers the full range of quality of…

Cummins, Robert A.

1991-01-01

114

When lawyers question children  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study assessed the impact of some complex question forms frequently used by attorneys who examine and cross-examine witnesses in the courtroom. Fifteen males and 15 females from each of four student populations (kindergarten, fourth grade, ninth grade, and college) viewed a videotaped incident and then responded to questions about the incident. Half the questions were asked in “law-yerese” (i.e.,

Nancy W. Perry; Bradley D. McAuliff; Paulette Tam; Linda Claycomb; Colleen Dostal; Cameron Flanagant

1995-01-01

115

The TREC8 Question Answering Track Evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The TREC-8 Question Answering track was the first large-scale evaluation of systems that returnanswers, as opposed to lists of documents, in response to a question. As a first evaluation, it is importantto examine the evaluation methodology itself to understand any limits on the conclusions that can bedrawn from the evaluation and possibly to find ways to improve subsequent evaluations. This

Ellen M. Voorhees; Dawn M. Tice

1999-01-01

116

It's about the Questions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The best coaching partnerships are built on conversation and listening, and they are not built on a coach giving answers to a mentee. Ronald Bearward explains how coaches can use questions to help mentees find answers for themselves. Effective questions lead to greater reflection and solutions that teachers can use now and in the future.

Bearwald, Ronald R.

2011-01-01

117

Math Questions Worth Asking  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article by Wendy Petti contains an updated version of Bloom's Taxonomy and sample questions that encourage dialogue with students. The article also includes suggestions for teachers about how to create questions that stimulate higher order thinking. Although there are advertisements on this webpage, the content of the freely available article is a valuable resource for teachers.

Petti, Wendy

2010-05-18

118

Problem of Questioning  

SciTech Connect

Le Prof.Leprince-Ringuet, chercheur sur le plan scientifique, artistique et humain, parle de la remise en question des hommes et la remise en question scientifique fondamentale ou exemplaire- plusieurs personnes prennent la parole p.ex Jeanmairet, Adam, Gregory. Le Prof.Gregory clot la soirée en remerciant le Prof.Leprince-Ringuet

None

2005-10-31

119

Questions in Instructional Materials.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide for the instructional development team provides an understanding of the educational value of using questions in instructional training materials. It also shows examples and illustrations for incorporating questions into instructional materials (print and video) produced by the Shipyard Training Modernization Program. Background…

Usova, George M.; Casteen, Dennis

120

Principal engineering design questions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The definition of principal questions is key to providing a common direction in the developing field of engineering design research. A general engineering framework can be utilized to identify these principal questions. This general framework rigorously defines variables and indicates relationships among the fundamental engineering variables of geometric form, material form, performance, behavior, environmental constraints, environmental conditions, space, and time.

Ronald Samuel LaFleur

1992-01-01

121

Problem of Questioning  

ScienceCinema

Le Prof.Leprince-Ringuet, chercheur sur le plan scientifique, artistique et humain, parle de la remise en question des hommes et la remise en question scientifique fondamentale ou exemplaire- plusieurs personnes prennent la parole p.ex Jeanmairet, Adam, Gregory. Le Prof.Gregory clot la soirée en remerciant le Prof.Leprince-Ringuet

None

2011-04-25

122

The Challenge Question  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students are introduced to the "Walk the Line" challenge question. They are asked to write journal responses to the question and brainstorm what information they need to answer the question. Ideas are shared with the class (or in pairs and then to the class, if class size is large). Students then read an interview with an engineer to gain a professional perspective on linear data sets and best-fit lines. Students brainstorm for any additional ideas and add them to the list they produced already. With the teacher's guidance, students organize the ideas into logical categories of needed knowledge.

VU Bioengineering RET Program, School of Engineering,

123

The Driving Question Board  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

"It was helpful to keep track of questions we had at the beginning so we knew what we were trying to find out." With these words, a student described the value of using a Driving Question Board (DQB) in a project-based science (PBS) unit. This instructional tool is designed to support inquiry and project-based learning by organizing and focusing students' questions and linking them to content learning goals. The authors have used this tool in both physics and chemistry classes, but it can be used with any subject matter. This article describes the purpose and process of DQB.

Weizman, Ayelet; Fortus, David; Schwartz, Yael

2008-11-01

124

Scales  

ScienceCinema

Musical scales involve notes that, sounded simultaneously (chords), sound good together. The result is the left brain meeting the right brain — a Pythagorean interval of overlapping notes. This synergy would suggest less difference between the working of the right brain and the left brain than common wisdom would dictate. The pleasing sound of harmony comes when two notes share a common harmonic, meaning that their frequencies are in simple integer ratios, such as 3/2 (G/C) or 5/4 (E/C).

125

Scales  

SciTech Connect

Musical scales involve notes that, sounded simultaneously (chords), sound good together. The result is the left brain meeting the right brain — a Pythagorean interval of overlapping notes. This synergy would suggest less difference between the working of the right brain and the left brain than common wisdom would dictate. The pleasing sound of harmony comes when two notes share a common harmonic, meaning that their frequencies are in simple integer ratios, such as 3/2 (G/C) or 5/4 (E/C).

Murray Gibson

2007-04-27

126

Scales  

ScienceCinema

Musical scales involve notes that, sounded simultaneously (chords), sound good together. The result is the left brain meeting the right brain ? a Pythagorean interval of overlapping notes. This synergy would suggest less difference between the working of the right brain and the left brain than common wisdom would dictate. The pleasing sound of harmony comes when two notes share a common harmonic, meaning that their frequencies are in simple integer ratios, such as 3/2 (G/C) or 5/4 (E/C).

Murray Gibson

2010-01-08

127

Developing a Scale on the Usage of Learner Control Strategy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this study was to develop a Likert-like scale in order to measure teachers' usage level of learner control strategy. This study was carried out with 219 State primary school teachers who were class teachers, Turkish teachers, English teachers, Mathematics teachers, Science teachers, Social Sciences teachers, Religion and Moral teachers…

Kutlu, M. Oguz

2012-01-01

128

Hecht, Toby — Provocative Questions  

Cancer.gov

Provocative Questions Skip to content. | Skip to navigation Personal tools Sign Up Log in Sections Home Home Current RFAs and PQs Cancer Prevention and Risk Mechanisms of Tumor Development or Recurrence Tumor Detection, Diagnosis, and Prognosis Cancer

129

Choice in Question Papers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Attempts to clarify the position concerning the giving of options in choosing questions on examination papers, and provokes thinking on the curricular and measurement problems associated with it. (Author/PG)

Singha, H. S.

1974-01-01

130

Questions about Biological Parents  

MedlinePLUS

... About Biological Parents Family Life Listen Questions About Biological Parents Article Body As you raise your adopted ... to her life—the fact that she has biological parents elsewhere—that may make it necessary for ...

131

Answering Essay Questions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Most of the homework I have assigned in physics courses has been of the problem-solving type, although I do assign a few essay questions for most chapters. I have also taught qualitative science courses in which most of the homework and exams involved either multiple-choice or essay questions. What I find surprising is that all physics textbooks go into detail on how to solve physics problems (determining what is asked, choosing the proper formula, showing the work clearly, and checking the results) but never say anything about answering essay questions. Teachers and authors might answer my criticism by saying, ``Isn't it obvious how to answer an essay question?'' Based on my experiences, I do not think it is obvious to a good number of students.

Debuvitz, William

2008-03-01

132

Endocrine System Clicker Questions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a set of clicker questions designed for first year nursing students in an Anatomy and Physiology course, used during the endocrine system. It can also be used for an undergraduate Physiology course.

DDS/DO Elizabeth J Kavran (Ursuline College Biology)

2009-05-01

133

Scardino, Peter — Provocative Questions  

Cancer.gov

Excellent question, made more provocative when we realize that the seminal vesicles and Cowper’s gland in the male, tissues adjacent to the prostate and under the same hormonal influences as the prostate, rarely if even harbor malignant tumors.

134

Griguer, Corinne — Provocative Questions  

Cancer.gov

Provocative Questions Skip to content. | Skip to navigation Personal tools Sign Up Log in Sections Home Home Current RFAs and PQs Cancer Prevention and Risk Mechanisms of Tumor Development or Recurrence Tumor Detection, Diagnosis, and Prognosis Cancer

135

Schneider, Thomas — Provocative Questions  

Cancer.gov

Provocative Questions Skip to content. | Skip to navigation Personal tools Sign Up Log in Sections Home Home Current RFAs and PQs Cancer Prevention and Risk Mechanisms of Tumor Development or Recurrence Tumor Detection, Diagnosis, and Prognosis Cancer

136

Frequently Asked Questions - FAQs  

Cancer.gov

Frequently Asked Questions - FAQs CTRP Program >> What is the purpose of the Clinical Trials Reporting Program (CTRP)? How will CTRP be connected to other databases within NCI and NIH? Will CTRP support the Cancer Centers Summary 4 Report? Will CTRP

137

Finn, Olivera — Provocative Questions  

Cancer.gov

An exciting development in this area that would be encouraged by attempting to answer this important question, is the connection between the observations of cancer risk modulation by epidemiologists and immune mechanisms that appear to be involved, described by immunologists.

138

Paternostro, Giovanni — Provocative Questions  

Cancer.gov

This question addresses a very important problem but could be slightly modified to be more provocative. For example, can we design combinatorial cancer therapies that use the same strategies as biological combinatorial control?

139

Redefining the Fundamental Questions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Every researcher must make some fundamental questions. A researcher's questions should include the following: (1) What is the nature of the reality that I wish to study? (2) How will I know it? (3) What must I do to know it? (4) Who am I? (5) Where is God in this? and (6) For religious educators--How does my research lead to a world of peace and…

Crain, Margaret Ann

2006-01-01

140

The Use of Question Types to Match Questions in FAQFinder  

Microsoft Academic Search

One useful way to find the answer to a question is to search a library of previously-answered questions. This is the idea behind FAQFinder, a Web-based natural language question- answering system which uses Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) files to answer users' questions. FAQFinder tries to answer a user's question by retrieving a similar FAQ ques- tion, if one exists, and

Steven L. Lytinen; Noriko Tomuro

2002-01-01

141

The Construct Validation of A Short-Form Attitudes Toward Feminism Scale  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The FEM Scale, a Likert-type measure of attitudes toward feminism, was validated via data from a heterogeneous sample which indicated the FEM Scale is highly reliable, contains a single factor accounting for 38 percent total variance, and correlates with measures of anti-black prejudice, dogmatism, and indentification with the Women's Movement.…

Singleton, Royce, Jr.; Christiansen, John B.

1977-01-01

142

Determination of Reliability and Validity for Myself as a Teacher Scale.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The reliability and validity of the Myself as a Teacher Scale (MTS), developed to assess the self-concept of teachers, were studied. Materials developed by David P. Butts and Robert Howe were used to construct a 62-item Likert-type scale asking individuals to rate themselves on certain criteria. After a pilot study with 92 preservice teachers and…

Handley, Herbert M.; Thomson, James R., Jr.

143

Comfortability Scale in Special Education: Determination of Construct Validity and Reliability.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines the development of the "Comfortability Scale in Special Education." This 44-item self-evaluation instrument measures special education teachers' perceptions of "comfort" (self-confidence) with their ability to use pertinent knowledge and skills. Each item is rated on a seven-point Likert-like scale. Two studies of special…

Norlander, Kay A.; Reich, Melvyn

144

Dimensions of the I-E Scale and Their Relationship to Other Personality Measures  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Internal-External Locus of Control Scale was modified to a Likert-type scale and subjected to a principal components analysis and varimax rotation on a sample of subjects. Four factors were extracted which were then related to other personality measures on the same sample. (JKS)

Zuckerman, Miron; Gerbasi, Kathleen Carrese

1977-01-01

145

The Development of an Objective Scale to Measure a Transpersonal Orientation to Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A 40-item Likert scale, Transpersonal Orientation to Learning, was developed to investigate transpersonal (spiritual or mystical) orientation. The scale was validated via administration to 166 graduate students in education to determine their beliefs about the development of spiritual potential in learning environments. Satisfactory reliability…

Shapiro, Stewart B.; Fitzgerald, Louise F.

1989-01-01

146

A Note Regarding the Reliability and Validity of Scores on Collins and Read's Adult Attachment Scale.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Attachment styles have been shown to be enduring and influential, and studies of attachment phenomena require scores that are reliable and valid. The present study investigated the psychometric integrity of scores on the Adult Attachment Scale using data from 283 college students. This instrument is an 18-item Likert scale that is an expansion of…

Chongruksa, Jiratha; Thompson, Bruce

147

Question Their Answers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Brenda Royce has been teaching high school chemistry and physics for nine years, and is currently science department chair at University High School in Fresno, CA, a college prep charter school on the CSU Fresno campus. She also enjoys coaching Science Olympiad, and working with science and math student teachers as a workshop leader and mentor teacher through the Science and Math Education Center at CSUF. Prior to teaching, she worked in analytical and environmental chemistry for several years. Brenda shares with us her strategy of answering students' questions by ``questioning their answers.''

Royce, Brenda

2004-10-01

148

Frequently Asked Questions  

Cancer.gov

Find answers to many common questions about CTRP and its use. The FAQs provide information about what CTRP is and how it works, registering trials and reporting accrual in CTRP, accessing CTRP data, and what resources are available to learn more.

149

Exam Question Exchange.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two exam questions are presented. One suitable for advanced undergraduate or beginning graduate courses in organic chemistry, is on equivalent expressions for the description of several pericyclic reactions. The second, for general chemistry students, asks for an estimation of the rate of decay of a million-year-old Uranium-238 sample. (BB)

Alexander, John J., Ed.

1978-01-01

150

Asking the Right Question  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

When it comes to teaching, learning, technology, and students, it is very easy to ask the wrong question. Because students in the current generation seem to be technologically savvy, we often want to know how they use technology. So as part of the NLII?s focus on the next generation of learners -- the Net Generation --NLII started talking to…

Oblinger, Diana G.

2005-01-01

151

A Question of Character  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

When intern placement veteran Jacqueline Perkins begins counseling students at Florida A&M University (FAMU) about their prospects for getting well-paying, security-related jobs with the federal government, she confronts the 800-pound gorilla in the room--the question of whether a student has been convicted of or pleaded guilty to a misdemeanor.…

Stuart, Reginald

2010-01-01

152

The Language Question  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The goal of total communication as the means to educational success for deaf persons is called into question on the basis of Jean Piaget's theory which is said to show that language does not play the major role in learning that traditional education has assigned to it. (GW)

Wolff, Sydney

1972-01-01

153

That Is the Question.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the author's evolution from a teacher set in his ways to one who adapted to students' voices. Contends that classrooms need to be environments where students are able to ask their own questions. Explains that key elements of such an environment include the following: interviews; mini-lessons; multi-genre projects; literature circles;…

Korsunsky, Syd

2002-01-01

154

Building a question answering test collection  

Microsoft Academic Search

The TREC-8 Question Answering (QA) Track was the first large-scale evaluation of domain-independent question answering systems. In addition to fostering research on the QA task, the track was used to investigate whether the evaluation methodology used for document retrieval is appropriate for a different natural language processing task. As with document relevance judging, assessors had legitimate differences of opinions as

Ellen M. Voorhees; Dawn M. Tice

2000-01-01

155

CDL Online Practice Questions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Aspiring truck drivers and those who seek a commercial driving license will appreciate this website a great deal, as it features a number of practice questions that may be found on the test that is required for such certifications. The site features over a dozen self-assessment modules that cover such topics as air brakes, hazardous materials, and of course, transporting passengers. Within each section, visitors will find both âÂÂtrue-falseâÂÂ-style questions and their equally well-known counterpart, the multiple choice query. Also, for those getting acquainted with teaching others how to prepare for this exam, this site may be most handy. Whether one is on their way to Bangor, Maine, or just in need of this certification to meet up with a midnight train, this site will get them on their way.

156

Finn, Olivera — Provocative Questions  

Cancer.gov

The importance of this question depends on what sort of research will be considered important to fund. If we prioritize research on the tumor cell and forget about the host response, we might miss the answer. This has in part been happening in many studies over many years that attempted to find the most effective chemotherapy by testing its effects on the growth of a xenograft in an immunocompromized mouse.

157

Neutrino Oscillations:. Hierarchy Question  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The only experimentally observed phenomenon that lies outside the standard model of the electroweak interaction is neutrino oscillations. A way to try to unify the extensive neutrino oscillation data is to add a phenomenological mass term to the Lagrangian that is not diagonal in the flavor basis. The goal is then to understand the world's data in terms of the parameters of the mixing matrix and the differences between the squares of the masses of the neutrinos. An outstanding question is what is the correct ordering of the masses, the hierarchy question. We point out a broken symmetry relevant to this question, the symmetry of the simultaneous interchange of hierarchy and the sign of ?13. We first present the results of an analysis of data that well determine the phenomenological parameters but are not sensitive to the hierarchy. We find ?13 = 0.152±0.014, ? 23 = 0.25{ - 0.05}{ + 0.03} ? and ?32 = 2.45±0.14×10-3 eV2, results consistent with others. We then include data that are sensitive to the hierarchy and the sign of ?13. We find, unlike others, four isolated minimum in the ?2-space as predicted by the symmetry. Now that Daya Bay and RENO have determined ?13 to be surprisingly large, the Super-K atmospheric data produce meaningful symmetry breaking such that the inverse hierarchy is preferred at the 97.2 % level.

Ernst, D. J.; Cogswell, B. K.; Burroughs, H. R.; Escamilla-Roa, J.; Latimer, D. L.

2014-09-01

158

An Ethics Primer: Ethical Questions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource is a PDF that provides a short introduction to ethical questions and strategies having to do with Ethics instruction. The PDF describes an overview of ethical questions and develops student understanding of ethical questions through three different worksheets.

2008-01-01

159

A New Method of Measurement for Question Difficulty.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Proposes a new technique for the evaluation of question difficulty. Suggests that question dispersion by multidimensional scaling models the question-response pattern required by test theory, but without the population density requirements of the traditional methods. Considers the effect on knowledge management functions, including library…

Rorvig, Mark

2000-01-01

160

A Question of Balance  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners explore how engineers use scales and measures when designing a manufacturing process to ensure that final products are uniform in weight or count. Learners explore different types of scales, and are challenged to design and build a system to deliver a uniform count or weight of marbles or paperclips into a series of four boxes or jars. They test their systems and evaluate the systems of other teams.

Ieee

2014-05-22

161

Antiretroviral treatment and the health workforce in South Africa: how have ART workers been affected by scaling up?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary objective To investigate the effect of scaling up antiretroviral treatment (ART) on the working environment and motivation of health workers in South Africa; and to suggest strategies to minimize negative effects and maximise positive effects. methods Exploratory interviews with health managers and senior clinical staff were used to identify locally relevant work environment indicators. A self -reported Likert scale

Patrick Tobi; Gavin George; Elena Schmidt; Adrian Renton

2008-01-01

162

Marchetti, Dario — Provocative Questions  

Cancer.gov

This is an outstanding and intellectually-stimulating question which introduces a new way to translate more effectively metastasis research to the clinic. It is certainly worth exploring and badly needed. because, if positive, drugs could be immediately useful to help defined populations of patients. Per points, we agree that these are limited metastasis groups; however, results could at minimum justify moving forward to full adjuvant trials. Worthy cause given the "bottleneck" we experience nowadays since drugs are mostly not tested in metastasis prevention.

163

The adolescent menstrual attitude questionnaire, part I: Scale construction  

Microsoft Academic Search

A valid, reliable, and age?appropriate instrument to measure adolescent responses to menarche was constructed. The Adolescent Menstrual Attitude Questionnaire is a 5?point Likert scale (with six subscales) with versions for pre? and postmenarcheal girls. Scale development included (a) content validation, (b) testing (with 860 premenarcheal and 1,013 postmenarcheal girls), (c) discriminant analysis (to identify items unique to the pre? and

Janice M. Morse; Dianne Kieren; Joan Bottorff

1993-01-01

164

Improving Multiple-Choice Questions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A MC (multiple-choice) question can be defined as a question in which students are asked to select one alternative from a given set of alternatives in response to a question stem. The objective of this paper is to analyse if MC questions may be considered as an interesting alternative for assessing knowledge, particularly in the mathematics area,…

Torres, Cristina; Lopes, Ana Paula; Babo, Lurdes; Azevedo, Jose

2011-01-01

165

Questioning Techniques for the Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Offers ideas for asking good questions in the classroom. Recommends that key questions be written down prior to class. Questions should clearly cue students to respond specifically and briefly. Presents examples of types of questions that have been found either to encourage or to inhibit thinking. (JS)

Karmos, Joseph S.; And Others

1990-01-01

166

The Early Years: Investigable Questions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Teachers may not need to teach children to ask questions, just develop that safe place where questions can be voiced, observe children to see the questions in their actions, and develop a culture that appreciates and records questions. An investigable que

Ashbrook, Peggy

2010-12-01

167

Fire Detection Organizing Questions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Verified models of fire precursor transport in low and partial gravity: a. Development of models for large-scale transport in reduced gravity. b. Validated CFD simulations of transport of fire precursors. c. Evaluation of the effect of scale on transport and reduced gravity fires. Advanced fire detection system for gaseous and particulate pre-fire and fire signaturesa: a. Quantification of pre-fire pyrolysis products in microgravity. b. Suite of gas and particulate sensors. c. Reduced gravity evaluation of candidate detector technologies. d. Reduced gravity verification of advanced fire detection system. e. Validated database of fire and pre-fire signatures in low and partial gravity.

2004-01-01

168

administration escolar process question Oscaloosa primaries process question educative pensamiento action process question escolar administration escolar process question Oscaloosa primaries process question educative pensamiento action process question escolar Haberman Argyris cruz Aristotle's  

EPA Pesticide Factsheets

Did you mean: administration escolar process question Oscaloosa primaries process question educative pensamiento action process question escolar administration escolar process question Oscaloosa primaries process question educative pensamiento action process question escolar Haberman Argyris cruz Aristotle's ?

169

The Development of a Competence Scale for Learning Science: Inquiry and Communication  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The objective of this study was to develop an instrument to measure school students' competence in learning science as part of a large research project in Taiwan. The instrument consisted of 29 self-report, Likert-type items divided into 2 scales: Competence in Scientific Inquiry and Competence in Communication. The Competence in Scientific…

Chang, Huey-Por; Chen, Chin-Chang; Guo, Gwo-Jen; Cheng, Yeong-Jin; Lin, Chen-Yung; Jen, Tsung-Hau

2011-01-01

170

Retrospective Assessment of Childhood Sexual and Physical Abuse: A Comparison of Scaled and Behaviorally Specific Approaches  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study compared retrospective reports of childhood sexual and physical abuse as assessed by two measures: the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ), which uses a Likert-type scaling approach, and the Computer Assisted Maltreatment Inventory (CAMI), which employs a behaviorally specific means of assessment. Participants included 1,195…

DiLillo, David; Fortier, Michelle A.; Hayes, Sarah A.; Trask, Emily; Perry, Andrea R.; Messman-Moore, Terri; Fauchier, Angele; Nash, Cindy

2006-01-01

171

Evaluation of Social Cognitive Scaling Response Options in the Physical Activity Domain  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to compare the reliability, variability, and predictive validity of two common scaling response formats (semantic differential, Likert-type) and two numbers of response options (5-point, 7-point) in the physical activity domain. Constructs of the theory of planned behavior were chosen in this analysis based on its…

Rhodes, Ryan E.; Matheson, Deborah Hunt; Mark, Rachel

2010-01-01

172

Developing an Attitude Scale for the Profession of Physical Education Teaching (ASPPET)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, the development of a Likert-type attitude scale for the profession of physical education teaching (ASPPET) was aimed. The group of the study was consisted of totally 556 pre-service physical education teachers. In order to determine the structural validity of ASPPET, an exploratory and confirmative factor analyses were performed. A…

Unlu, Huseyin

2011-01-01

173

Factor-Analytic Scales of a Normative Form of the EPPS  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The 135 items from the EPPS were arranged in 5 choice Likert format and presented to 315 subjects. Results suggested reliabile and meaningful measurement of each of four underlying dimensions in the normative form of the EPPS is possible with the four factor analytic scales developed. (Author)

Sherman, Richard C.; Poe, Charles A.

1970-01-01

174

Ten Questions about Emergence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Self-Organization is of growing importance for large distributed computing systems. In these systems, a central control and manual management is exceedingly difficult or even impossible. Emergence is widely recognized as the core principle behind self-organization. Therefore the idea to use both principles to control and organize large-scale distributed systems is very attractive and not so far off. Yet there are

Jochen Fromm

2005-01-01

175

Using Student Submitted Questions for Practice in Answering Reference Questions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Real questions, with no predetermined answers, were submitted by students in an introductory reference class and used to supplement instructor developed problems sets for practice in answering reference questions. The methodology and benefits are discussed. (Author/MBR)

Braunagel, Judith S.

1978-01-01

176

Question popularity analysis and prediction in community question answering services.  

PubMed

With the blooming of online social media applications, Community Question Answering (CQA) services have become one of the most important online resources for information and knowledge seekers. A large number of high quality question and answer pairs have been accumulated, which allow users to not only share their knowledge with others, but also interact with each other. Accordingly, volumes of efforts have been taken to explore the questions and answers retrieval in CQA services so as to help users to finding the similar questions or the right answers. However, to our knowledge, less attention has been paid so far to question popularity in CQA. Question popularity can reflect the attention and interest of users. Hence, predicting question popularity can better capture the users' interest so as to improve the users' experience. Meanwhile, it can also promote the development of the community. In this paper, we investigate the problem of predicting question popularity in CQA. We first explore the factors that have impact on question popularity by employing statistical analysis. We then propose a supervised machine learning approach to model these factors for question popularity prediction. The experimental results show that our proposed approach can effectively distinguish the popular questions from unpopular ones in the Yahoo! Answers question and answer repository. PMID:24837851

Liu, Ting; Zhang, Wei-Nan; Cao, Liujuan; Zhang, Yu

2014-01-01

177

Question Popularity Analysis and Prediction in Community Question Answering Services  

PubMed Central

With the blooming of online social media applications, Community Question Answering (CQA) services have become one of the most important online resources for information and knowledge seekers. A large number of high quality question and answer pairs have been accumulated, which allow users to not only share their knowledge with others, but also interact with each other. Accordingly, volumes of efforts have been taken to explore the questions and answers retrieval in CQA services so as to help users to finding the similar questions or the right answers. However, to our knowledge, less attention has been paid so far to question popularity in CQA. Question popularity can reflect the attention and interest of users. Hence, predicting question popularity can better capture the users’ interest so as to improve the users’ experience. Meanwhile, it can also promote the development of the community. In this paper, we investigate the problem of predicting question popularity in CQA. We first explore the factors that have impact on question popularity by employing statistical analysis. We then propose a supervised machine learning approach to model these factors for question popularity prediction. The experimental results show that our proposed approach can effectively distinguish the popular questions from unpopular ones in the Yahoo! Answers question and answer repository.

Liu, Ting; Zhang, Wei-Nan; Cao, Liujuan; Zhang, Yu

2014-01-01

178

Question of the Day: Weather  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

To answer the questions, refer to the map below and the wind belt map. The question refers to an imaginary continent named "Xeyna," which is populated by a fierce band of female warriors, which is ...

179

Instance-Based Question Answering.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

During recent years, question answering (QA) has grown from simple passage retrieval and information extraction to very complex approaches that incorporate deep question and document analysis, reasoning, planning, and sophisticated uses of knowledge resou...

L. V. Lita

2006-01-01

180

Questioning Mechanisms during Complex Learning.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This research investigated the psychological mechanisms that underlie human question asking and answering during comprehension and complex learning. We believe that questioning mechanisms are fundamental components of human cognition and must be integrate...

1992-01-01

181

Questioning Mechanisms during Complex Learning.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This research investigated human question asking and answering during comprehension and complex learning. The primary studies investigated questioning during tutoring. We collected and analyzed transcripts of tutoring sessions on research methods (college...

A. C. Graesser

1992-01-01

182

Gallery Walk Questions on Karst  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

created by Mark Francek, Central Michigan University The following are potential questions that could be used in a gallery walk activity about karst. The questions are organized according to the cognitive level at ...

183

Gallery Walk Questions on Rivers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

created by Mark Francek, Central Michigan University The following are potential questions that could be used in a gallery walk activity about rivers. The questions are organized according to the cognitive level ...

184

Question of the Day Examples  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Refine the Results Biosphere 2 matches Climate 2 matches Earth surface 1 match Ocean 4 matches Solid Earth 2 matches Results 1 - 10 of 11 matches Question of the Day: Efficiency of Food Production part of Question ...

185

The Questions of Liberal Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is a certain kind of liberal educator who bases his or her practice on a particular attitude toward the "Big Questions." The questions of fundamental literacy in K-12 education, or of expertise in vocational and professional education, may be just as important, but they are seen as quite different in kind. Indeed, the questions of liberal…

Arcilla, Rene V.

2007-01-01

186

Question Preference in Literature Studies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A 22-item question preference test was developed and administered to different age and ability groups in an attempt to identify "describer/explainer" question preferences. All groups preferred "explainer" questions, but there was a highly significant difference between low and high ability groups. Implications for the classroom are considered.…

Ellis, James

1979-01-01

187

Investigations of Human Question Answering.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The development and testing of QUEST, a model of human question answering, are reported. QUEST accounts for answers adults produce for different categories of open-class questions, identifying the information sources associated with the content words in questions. Each information source is organized in a conceptual graph structure. The model…

Graesser, Arthur C.

188

Pre-Lab Questions: Magnetism  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A series of simulation based interactive questions that were used as pre-lab questions at Kennesaw State University. The simulations in this case are based on Davidson's College Physlets. These particular questions focus on magnetism. Magnetism due to a bar magnet, a wire, a loop and a solenoid are explored.

Mzoughi, Taha

2008-07-19

189

Contemplative Pedagogy: Frequently Asked Questions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Contemplative Pedagogy is a new and sometimes controversial pedagogical practice. Faculty often have basic questions about how to implement the pedagogy in their classrooms, in addition to questions that challenge the educational value and appropriateness of the practice. Assembled here are the most frequently asked questions about Contemplative…

Coburn, Tom; Grace, Fran; Klein, Anne Carolyn; Komjathy, Louis; Roth, Harold; Simmer-Brown, Judith

2011-01-01

190

Factor Structure and Psychometric Properties of the Children's Scale for Hostility and Aggression: Reactive\\/Proactive (C-SHARP)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the problem of aggression in children with developmental disabilities is pervasive, there are currently no scales adequate for its measurement. This study explored the factor structure and psychometric characteristics of the Children's Scale for Hostility and Aggression, Reactive\\/Proactive (C-SHARP). The C-SHARP comprises 58 items with two Likert scales: (a) the Problem Scale, where frequency and severity are rated, and

Cristan A. Farmer

191

Can multiple-choice questions simulate free-response questions?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

We discuss a study to evaluate the extent to which free-response questions could be approximated by multiple-choice equivalents. Two carefully designed research-based multiple-choice questions were transformed into a free-response format and administered on the final exam in a calculus-based introductory physics course. The original multiple-choice questions were administered in another similar introductory physics course on final exam. Findings suggest that carefully designed multiple-choice questions can reflect the relative performance of the free-response questions while maintaining the benefits of ease of grading and quantitative analysis, especially if the different choices in the multiple-choice questions are weighted to reflect the different levels of understanding that students display.

Lin, Shih-Yin; Singh, Chandralekha

2012-04-24

192

Photo-based question answering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Photo-based question answering is a useful way of finding information about physical objects. Current question an- swering (QA) systems are text-based and can be difficult to use when a question involves an object with distinct vi- sual features. A photo-based QA system allows direct use of a photo to refer to the object. We develop a three-layer system architecture for

Tom Yeh; John J. Lee; Trevor Darrell

2008-01-01

193

The value of asking questions.  

PubMed

Science begins by asking questions and then seeking answers. Young children understand this intuitively as they explore and try to make sense of their surroundings. However, science education focuses upon the end game of "facts" rather than the exploratory root of the scientific process. Encouraging questioning helps to bring the true spirit of science into our educational system, and the art of asking good questions constitutes an important skill to foster for practicing scientists. PMID:23486404

Vale, Ronald D

2013-03-01

194

Reference Readiness for AV Questions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews 50 reference tools which librarians can use to answer almost any audiovisual question including queries on trivia, equipment selection, biographical information, and motion picture ratings. (LLS)

Drolet, Leon L., Jr.

1981-01-01

195

Asking Questions, All the Time  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The ability to ask and answer questions while reading is essential to comprehension. This article discusses instructional strategies used to teach questioning and provides many online resources. The article appears in the free, online magazine Beyond Weather and the Water Cycle, which explores the seven essential principles of the climate sciences for teachers in k-grade 5 classrooms.

Fries-Gaither, Jessica

2011-07-01

196

Exploiting redundancy in question answering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our goal is to automatically answer brief factual questions of the form ``When was the Battle of Hastings?'' or ``Who wrote The Wind in the Willows?''. Since the answer to nearly any such question can now be found somewhere on the Web, the problem reduces to finding potential answers in large volumes of data and validating their accuracy. We apply

Charles L. A. Clarke; Gordon V. Cormack; Thomas R. Lynam

2001-01-01

197

Test Pool Questions, Area III.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual contains multiple choice questions to be used in testing students on nurse training objectives. Each test includes several questions covering each concept. The concepts in section A, medical surgical nursing, are diseases of the following systems: musculoskeletal; central nervous; cardiovascular; gastrointestinal; urinary and male…

Sloan, Jamee Reid

198

Twenty Questions about Mathematical Reasoning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper poses and answers 20 questions about mathematical reasoning. Questions include: (1) Is mathematical reasoning mathematical? (2) Is mathematical reasoning useful? (3) Is mathematical reasoning an appropriate goal of school mathematics? (4) Can teachers teach mathematical reasoning? (5) Can mathematical reasoning be taught? (6) Do skills…

Steen, Lynn Arthur

199

Twenty Questions on Conference Leadership.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is a working handbook for supervisors, staff members, and managers at all levels who are looking for ways to improve their conference leadership skills. It is built around frequently asked questions on participant involvement, the nature of a guided conference, questioning and motivational techniques, amounts of presentation needed, effective…

Nathan, Ernest D.

200

The Geography of Virtual Questioning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article explores the geography of virtual questioning by using geographic information systems to study activity within the Florida Electronic Library "Ask a Librarian" collaborative chat service. Researchers mapped participating libraries throughout the state of Florida that served as virtual "entry portals" for users as they asked questions

Mon, Lorri; Bishop, Bradley Wade; McClure, Charles R.; McGilvray, Jessica; Most, Linda; Milas, Theodore Patrick; Snead, John T.

2009-01-01

201

Frequently Asked Questions in Cosmology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web page provides answers to common questions regarding cosmology. Questions include the Universe's age, its origin, its fate, and its physical properties. It is part of an in depth cosmology tutorial covering some of the history of scientific cosmology, observations, curvature, inflation, and the age of the universe.

Wright, Edward

2007-05-15

202

Diet, health and globalization: five key questions.  

PubMed

The present paper explores possible implications of the globalization of the food system for diet and health. The paper poses five key questions to clarify the relationship between food and globalization. The first question is what is globalization. The paper suggests that it is helpful to distinguish between economic, political, ideological and cultural processes. Globalization is also marked by internal oppositional dynamics: there are re-localization and regional tendencies which counter the global. The second question is whether there is anything new about globalization. Food has been a much traded commodity for millennia. The paper concludes that what is new about the current phases of globalization is the pace and scale of the change, and the fact that power is being concentrated into so few hands. New marketing techniques and supply-chain management consolidate these features. The third question is who is in control of the globalization era and who benefits and loses from the processes of globalization. It is argued that modern food economies are hypermarket rather than market economies, with power accruing to the distributor more than has been recognized. The fourth question concerns governance of the food system. Historically, systems of local and national government have regulated the food supply where appropriate. Now, new international systems are emerging, partly using existing bodies and partly creating new ones. The final question is of the future. Globalization is a value-laden area of study, yet its implications for dietary change and for health are considerable. The paper argues that dimensions of change can be discerned, although it would be rash to bet on which end of each dimension will emerge as dominant in the 21st century. PMID:10466175

Lang, T

1999-05-01

203

The Value Question in Metaphysics  

PubMed Central

Much seems to be at stake in metaphysical questions about, for example, God, free will or morality. One thing that could be at stake is the value of the universe we inhabit—how good or bad it is. We can think of competing philosophical positions as describing possibilities, ways the world might turn out to be, and to which value can be assigned. When, for example, people hope that God exists, or fear that we do not possess free will, they express attitudes towards these possibilities, attitudes that presuppose answers to questions about their comparative value. My aim in this paper is to distinguish these evaluative questions from related questions with which they can be confused, to identify structural constraints on their proper pursuit, and to address objections to their very coherence. Answers to such evaluative questions offer one measure of the importance of philosophical disputes.

Kahane, Guy

2012-01-01

204

Measuring attitude toward Judaism: The internal consistency reliability of the Katz–Francis Scale of Attitude toward Judaism  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes and discusses the development and empirical properties of the 24-item Likert-type Katz–Francis Scale of Attitude toward Judaism. The scale is designed to facilitate inter-faith comparisons within the psychology of religion alongside the well-established Francis Scale of Attitude toward Christianity. Data are provided from a sample of 618 Hebrew-speaking undergraduate students attending Bar-Ilan University. The findings confirm the

Leslie J. Francis; Y. J. Katz

2007-01-01

205

Sexual Self-Concept and Sexually Abused Males: Early Data on the Development of a Scale  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes the early development and psychometric piloting of the Sexual Self-Concept Scale for Sexually Abused Males, a one-dimensional measure assessing the gender-based self-perceptions of males with histories of childhood sexual abuse (CSA). A sample of 459 males with histories of CSA completed a demographic survey and responded to a pool of items using a Likert-type scale. Strong and

Jozef Wawrzyniec Spychala Spiegel

2008-01-01

206

The Early Years: Young Questioners  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Children are often described as natural scientists and their curiosity as a basic human trait. They amaze adults with perceptive questions and extended explorations of the environment. Asking questions is part of the National Science Education Teaching Standards B and E, and Content Standard A, Science as Inquiry, for grades K-4. Because asking questions is central to inquiry and learning in general, science teachers are especially investigated in having all their students use this process skill. A lesson is included with this article.

Ashbrook, Peggy

2006-09-01

207

Frequently Asked Questions - Research Bases  

Cancer.gov

NCI Community Oncology Research Program (NCORP) Updated Frequently Asked Questions on Research Bases Request for Application (RFA) Select a category by clicking on its title below. How to search the content of the FAQs: Click on the FAQ Category you

208

Analytical Division Questions CPT Criteria.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Analytical Division of the American Chemical Society (ACS) questions criteria established by the Committee on Professional Training of the same organization concerning the role of analytical chemistry in freshman level courses. (CP)

Hercules, David M.

1978-01-01

209

OSHA Frequently Asked Questions: HAZWOPER  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This OSHA web page provides answers to many of the more common questions regarding the Hazardous Waste Operations and Emergency Response (HAZWOPER) regulation. Many of the answers provided are regarding the HAZWOPER training requirements.

2007-09-21

210

Birds: Old Questions and New.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses questions such as how birds fly and the meaning of bird songs. Explains the relationship between birds and ecological activism and points out the excitement in research and observation of birds. (Contains 34 references.) (YDS)

Flannery, Maura C.

2002-01-01

211

Frequently Asked Questions - Community Sites  

Cancer.gov

NCI Community Oncology Research Program (NCORP) Updated Frequently Asked Questions on Community and Minority/ Underserved Community Sites Request for Application (RFA) Select a category by clicking on its title below. How to search the content of the

212

Questions to Ask Your Doctor  

MedlinePLUS

... ears. Our members living across the country in cities, towns, and rural areas suggested these questions. The ... presently have? Do you recommend I get a port (an implanted device, generally in the chest area, ...

213

Hepatitis B Frequently Asked Questions  

MedlinePLUS

... to... Añadir en... Favorites Delicious Digg Google Bookmarks Hepatitis B FAQs for the Public Index of Questions ± Overview ... C. What is the difference between Hepatitis A, Hepatitis B, and Hepatitis C? Hepatitis A , Hepatitis B , and ...

214

Common Prostate Cancer Questions Answered  

MedlinePLUS

... with Cancer , Prevention/Early Detection , Prostate Cancer Common Prostate Cancer Questions Answered Article date: August 29, 2009 ... your 50s, should you being getting screened for prostate cancer? Answer: Researchers still don’t know for ...

215

Legal Questions about Juveniles’ Capacities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Citation: Grisso, T. (2009). Legal questions about juveniles’ capacities. Module 4 in series: Toward developmentally appropriate practice: A juvenile court training curriculum. Washington, D.C.: National Juvenile Defender Center and MacArthur Foundation Models for Change Project.\\u000aOverview: Module 4 is designed to assist participants in: 1. Understanding legal questions in delinquency cases that require information about youth’s capacities; 2. Knowing about

Thomas Grisso

2009-01-01

216

Automatic Generation of Trivia Questions  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a (nearly) domain-independent approach to mining trivia questions from a database. Generated questions are ranked\\u000a and are more “interesting” if they have a modest number of solutions and may reasonably be solved (but are not too easy).\\u000a Our functional model and genetic approach have several advantages: they are tractable and scalable, the hypothesis space size\\u000a is limited, and

Matthew Merzbacher

2002-01-01

217

Development of the Chinese version of the Oro-facial Esthetic Scale.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to investigate the psychometric properties of the Oro-facial Esthetic Scale among Chinese-speaking patients. The original Oro-facial Esthetic Scale was cross-culturally adapted in accordance with the international standards to develop a Chinese version (OES-C). Unlike the original Oro-facial Esthetic Scale, the version employed in this study used a 5-point Likert scale with items rated from unsatisfactory to most satisfactory. Psychometric evaluation included the reliability and validity of the OES-C. The reliability of the OES-C was determined through internal consistency and test-retest methods. The validity of OES-C was analysed by content validity, discriminative validity, construct validity and convergent validity. The corrected item-total correlation coefficients of the OES-C ranged from 0·859 to 0·910. The inter-item correlation coefficients between each two of the eight items of the OES-C ranged from 0·766 to 0·922. The values of ICC ranged from 0·79 (95% CI = 0·54-0·98) to 0·93 (95% CI = 0·87-0·99), indicating an excellent agreement. Construct validity was proved by the presence of one-factor structure that accounted for 83·507% of the variance and fitted well into the model. Convergent validity was confirmed by the association between OES-C scores and self-reported oral aesthetics and three questions from the Oral Health Impact Profile related to aesthetics (correlation coefficients ranged from -0·830 to -0·702, P < 0·001). OES-C scores discriminated aesthetically impaired patients from healthy controls. This study provides preliminary evidence concerning the reliability and validity of the OES-C. The results show that the OES-C may be a useful tool for assessment of oro-facial esthetics in China. PMID:23829233

Zhao, Y; He, S L

2013-09-01

218

Quick Questions: Create a Survey  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners will conduct an open-ended survey, and then organize and analyze results. What languages does everyone speak? Whatâs the most common? the least common? Do you think weâd get the same results if we asked this question in a different neighborhood? Start out by posing an open-ended question. Everyone writes answers on stick-on notes and sticks them on a large piece of paper. Explore ways to organize the responses to make sense of them. For instance, if the question is about languages, one approach is to put all the stick-on notes with the same language together. A further step could involve grouping related languages (Eastern European, Southeast Asian, etc.). Available as a web page or downloadable pdf.

Terc

2010-01-01

219

Ten Practical Questions about Branding  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Marketing" and "branding" were once considered dirty words on campus but faculty, staff, and board members now appreciate the value of getting their message out and managing their reputation. The question is not so much whether to invest, but when, how, and most important, what's the return on investment? A roundtable of accomplished marketing…

Moore, Robert M.; Rattenbury, Jeanne

2004-01-01

220

Question 2: Gas procurement strategy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article is a collection of responses from natural gas distribution company representatives to questions on how the start-up of the natural gas futures market has changed gas procurement strategies, identification of procurement problems related to pipeline capacity, deliverability, or pregranted abandonment of firm transportation, the competition of separate utility subsidiaries with brokers, marketers, and other gas suppliers who sell

J. A. Carrigg; J. R. Crespo; E. B. Jr. Davis; R. D. Farman; R. C. Jr. Green; R. W. Hale; J. J. Howard; W. T. Jr. McCormick; T. A. Page; W. F. Ryan; T. F. Schrader; J. A. Schuchart; J. F. Smith; R. D. Stys; J. A. Thorpe

1990-01-01

221

Constructivism and Objectivism: Additional Questions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In past issues of "The Educational Forum," David Elkind (2004; 2005) and Jamin Carson (2005) have engaged in a dialogue about constructivism and objectivism as viable philosophies of education. In this issue, yet another author joins in the discussion by questioning the role of science and religion in objectivism.

Meltzer, Edmund S.

2006-01-01

222

Practice Questions for Business Statistics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site offers a list of sample questions that can be used when teaching basic probability concepts, probability distributions, data collection methods, inferential statistics, hypothesis testing, analysis of variance, regression analysis, or problem sensing related to descriptive statistics. Links to the answers are also provided. Application is not limited to business.

Schott, Brian

2009-08-20

223

Essay Questions in Social Studies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The major part of this article presents examples of representative social studies essay questions which are used in the New York State Regents' examination and discusses their evaluation. Fundamental purposes of evaluation and changes and trends which have influenced evaluation are also discussed. (Author/RM)

History and Social Science Teacher, 1977

1977-01-01

224

Lessons about Asking, Answering Questions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Using the web-based lessons highlighted in this article, students learn how to pose questions before, during, and after reading nonfiction, fiction, and diagrams. This reading comprehension strategy is included in the literacy column of the magazine Beyond Weather and the Water Cycle, a free, online publication for K-5 teachers.

Fries-Gaither, Jessica

2011-07-01

225

Questioning Centre-Periphery Platforms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

How much is hegemony and how much is self-determination in the higher education systems in Southeast Asia? This paper argues that while the question of centre and periphery is still relevant to the analysis of international university systems, the analytical frameworks from which it has arisen may lose viability in the long term. Southeast Asian…

Postiglione, Gerard A.

2005-01-01

226

Cloud Seeding Frequently Asked Questions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site is provided by North American Weather Consultants, Inc. The site briefly answers questions such as "when did application of modern cloud seeding technology begin?," "Is cloud seeding effective?," and "Do the commonly used seeding materials pose any direct health or environmental risks?"

Griffith, Don; Solak, Mark

2008-01-07

227

Kast, Wijbe Martin — Provocative Questions  

Cancer.gov

This is such a relevant question. Especially as evidence from animal models is mounting that therapeutic vaccines can be used very effectively in the cancer preventive setting while they do not work well in the cancer therapeutic setting. It is time to change the paradigm. Don't watchful wait, Vaccinate!

228

Explaining Errors in Children's Questions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The ability to explain the occurrence of errors in children's speech is an essential component of successful theories of language acquisition. The present study tested some generativist and constructivist predictions about error on the questions produced by ten English-learning children between 2 and 5 years of age. The analyses demonstrated that,…

Rowland, Caroline F.

2007-01-01

229

Looming Questions in Performance Pay  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

When proposing performance pay for teachers, reformers first must answer three questions: What is the definition of teacher performance? What is the definition of student performance? and What are the goals of schooling? Reformers also need to examine the assumptions that guide their proposals and prepare to deal with the implementation issues…

Gratz, Donald B.

2010-01-01

230

Questioning Trends in University Dance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article revisits ideas put forward at the beginning of an academic career and discusses the ways in which time and experience within academe has shifted the author's perspective. Specifically, focusing on the balance of artistic thinking with the widely perceived need to justify the arts in higher education, the author explores questions

Van Dyke, Jan

2012-01-01

231

Four Questions to Ask Yourself  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One's commitment to intellectual freedom is manifested not just in the creation of a strong and clear selection policy or the celebration of Banned Books Week but by his or her willingness to examine his or her practices openly with others. In this article, the author proposes four questions to explore in one's teaching and in professional…

Abilock, Debbie, Ed.

2007-01-01

232

Questions on Medicine for Scholars.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Historical Note on the 'Questions' and on its Role in the Later Development of Medicine and Its Teaching, by Paul Ghalioungui, M.D.; Preface to the English Translation, by Paul Ghalioungui, M.D.; Biographical Sketch of Hunayn Ibn Ishaq, by Galal...

H. I. Ishaq

1980-01-01

233

On Being a Naive Questioner  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Argues that the questioning and answering interaction provides a setting whereby adults can socialize naive children into communal views of reality. It is suggested, however, that this tradition acts both as a brake and as a springboard to the acquisition of new knowledge. (MS)

Krantz, David L.; Bacon, Penelope

1977-01-01

234

On a question of Gross  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using the notion of weighted sharing of sets we prove two uniqueness theorems which improve the results proved by Fang and Qiu [H. Qiu, M. Fang, A unicity theorem for meromorphic functions, Bull. Malaysian Math. Sci. Soc. 25 (2002) 31-38], Lahiri and Banerjee [I. Lahiri, A. Banerjee, Uniqueness of meromorphic functions with deficient poles, Kyungpook Math. J. 44 (2004) 575-584] and Yi and Lin [H.X. Yi, W.C. Lin, Uniqueness theorems concerning a question of Gross, Proc. Japan Acad. Ser. A 80 (2004) 136-140] and thus provide an answer to the question of Gross [F. Gross, Factorization of meromorphic functions and some open problems, in: Proc. Conf. Univ. Kentucky, Lexington, KY, 1976, in: Lecture Notes in Math., vol. 599, Springer, Berlin, 1977, pp. 51-69], under a weaker hypothesis.

Banerjee, Abhijit

2007-03-01

235

Mapping the Question Answering Domain  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a trend analysis of the question answering (QA) domain. Bibliometric mapping was used to sketch the boundary of\\u000a the domain by uncovering the topics central to and peripheral to QA research in the new millennium. This paper visualizes\\u000a the evolution of concepts in the QA domain by studying the dynamics of the QA research during the periods 2000

Mohan John Blooma; Alton Yeow-kuan Chua; Dion Hoe-lian Goh

2008-01-01

236

Questions to Ask about Radiation Safety  

MedlinePLUS

... During Treatment Questions to Ask Your Doctor Statistics Homepage Cancer Types Bladder Bone ... more information What Questions Should I Ask My Doctor? Quick Links Questions to Ask Your Doctor ...

237

Journal of Chemical Education: Conceptual Questions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site provides examples of conceptual questions, an introduction to several different types of conceptual questions, and a discussion of what constitutes a conceptual question. Links to definitions and discussions provide the details.

Education, Journal O.; Society, Division O.

238

Quick Questions: Learn About Data  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners will collect and analyze data to learn about the people around them. How many letters in everyoneâs first name? Whatâs the most common number of letters? Whatâs most or least? Start out by posing a multiple choice question. Everyone records answers on a large chart. Then, explore the data. This works well as a family activity or in a public areaâmuseum, library, school building. Post the chart and review answers after at least 100 people have responded. Available as a web page or downloadable pdf.

Terc

2010-01-01

239

Evaluative Conditioning: The "How" Question  

PubMed Central

Evaluative conditioning (EC) refers to attitude formation or change toward an object due to that object's mere co-occurrence with another valenced object or objects. This chapter focuses on the “how” question, that is, the question of what cognitive processes intervene between mere co-occurrence and attitude formation or change. Though EC has typically been thought of as occurring through a single, albeit contentious, mechanism, we begin by pointing out that both the heterogeneity of EC methodologies and the abundance of inconsistent results suggest that multiple processes with different characteristics can produce EC. We describe how the earliest posited process of EC, Pavlovian conditioning or signal learning, is a valid mechanism of EC that appears to have operated in some experiments but is unlikely to have operated in others and also cannot account for various EC findings. We describe other mechanisms of EC, when they can be expected to occur, and what characteristics they have. We particularly focus our attention on a process model of EC we have recently introduced, the implicit misattribution model. Finally, we describe the implications of a multi-process view of EC, which we argue can help resolve theoretical controversies and further the application of EC as a practical intervention for influencing attitudes in various domains.

Jones, Christopher R.; Olson, Michael A.; Fazio, Russell H.

2011-01-01

240

The Urban Institute: Five Questions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In the mid-1960s, President Johnson saw the need for independent nonpartisan analysis of the problems facing America's cities and their residents. The President created a blue-ribbon commission of civic leaders who recommended chartering a center to do that work and in 1968, the Urban Institute became that center. Today the Urban Institute analyzes policies, evaluates programs, and informs community development to "improve social, civic, and economic well-being." Working in all 50 states and abroad, the Institute shares its research with policymakers, business leaders, and academics. On this site, visitors can enjoy the Institute's series of interviews entitled "Five Questions For"" which poses five questions to the people behind the Urban Institute's research. Here, experts talk about the nature of their work and offer insights on what they've learned. The collection allows visitors to browse a chronological list of this series of interviews and each interview is easily emailed and is also available in a printer friendly format.

241

Two-Year-Old Children Differentiate Test Questions from Genuine Questions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Children are frequently confronted with so-called "test questions". While genuine questions are requests for missing information, test questions ask for information obviously already known to the questioner. In this study we explored whether two-year-old children respond differentially to one and the same question used as either a genuine question

Grosse, Gerlind; Tomasello, Michael

2012-01-01

242

Recognizing Digressive Questions During Interactive Generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In expository discourse, people sometimes ask ques- tions that digress from the purpose of the discussion. A system that provides interactive explanations and advice must be able to distinguish pertinent questions from questions that digress. It must also be able .to recognize questions that are incoherent. These types of questions require different treatment. Pertinent ques- tions must be answered to

Susan M. Hailer

243

Validation of an Empathy Scale in Pharmacy and Nursing Students  

PubMed Central

Objective. To validate an empathy scale to measure empathy in pharmacy and nursing students. Methods. A 15-item instrument comprised of the cognitive and affective empathy domains, was created. Each item was rated using a 7-point Likert scale, ranging from strongly disagree to strongly agree. Concurrent validity was demonstrated with the Jefferson Scale of Empathy – Health Professional Students (JSE-HPS). Results. Reliability analysis of data from 216 students (pharmacy, N=158; nursing, N=58) showed that scores on the empathy scale were positively associated with JSE-HPS scores (p<0.001). Factor analysis confirmed that 14 of the 15 items were significantly associated with their respective domain, but the overall instrument had limited goodness of fit. Conclusions. Results of this study demonstrate the reliability and validity of a new scale for evaluating student empathy. Further testing of the scale at other universities is needed to establish validity.

Chen, Aleda M. H.; Yehle, Karen S.; Plake, Kimberly S.

2013-01-01

244

The Effects of Role Exchange Questioning on Empathetic Perceptiveness.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to test the effects of subjects reading passages from the novel, "Under the Ribs of Death," by John Marlyn, and then being asked role exchange questions. Subjects were pre-tested with a dogmatism scale and post-tested with a measure of empathy. No significant treatment or interaction effects were found. (Author/RTS)

Kehoe, J. W.; Ungerleider, C.

1979-01-01

245

SNTEMP (In)frequently asked questions  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Here, you will find a series of questions and answers resulting from many years of technical assistance with SNTEMP and SSTEMP. These (in)frequently asked questions are presented here so that you may get a feel for the range of questions posed, learn from the questions and their 'answers,' and share in the discussions if you wish. I certainly didn't answer all the questions, nor do I feel like I've got the only answer for them all.

Bartholow, J.M.

2000-01-01

246

Science Sampler: Thinking about students' questions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Asking questions is a vital component in any classroom, but it is absolutely essential in a science classroom. As science teachers, we know that questioning plays a major role in the inquiry process and has a positive impact on students' learning. This article discusses the importance of questioning skills and current research on questioning techniques. In addition, this article will present a series of lessons that were implemented by the author to improve the questioning abilities of middle school students.

Turner, Jaclyn

2006-11-01

247

The assessment of dyspnea during the vigorous intensity exercise by three Dyspnea Rating Scales in inactive medical personnel.  

PubMed

It is well recognized that exercise is good for health especially as it's known to prevent metabolic syndromes such as diabetes, hypertension and heart disease. To reap the benefits from exercise the most appropriate level of intensity must be determined, the level of intensity ranging from low, low to moderate to hard (vigorous). This study is aimed to 1. To investigate and evaluate 3 subjective rating scales. The Borg scale, the Combined Numerical Rating Scale (NRS) + FACES Dyspnea Rating Scale (FACES) and the Likert scale, during hard (vigorous) exercise. 2. To compare the effectiveness of the Borg scale and Combined Numerical Rating Scale (NRS) + FACES Dyspnea Rating Scale during the hard (vigorous) intensity exercise. This study uses a descriptive methodology. The sample group was 73 medical personnel that were leading an inactive life style, volunteers from Phramongkutklao Hospital. Participants were randomly divided into 3 groups. Group 1, those to report using the Borg Scale, group 2 using NRS + FACES, and group 3 to subjectively assess the intensity of the exercise using the Likert scale during a treadmill Exercise Stress Test (EST) using the Bruce protocol. The upper limit of the intensity in the study was equal to 85% of the maximal heart rate of all participants. The subjective reporting of the experienced level of dyspnea was undertaken immediately after the completion of exercise. The average age of participants was 23.37 years old. The 26 participants reporting using the Borg scale had mean Borg scale score of 13.46+1.77, a mode score of 15. The 24 participants reporting intensity levels through NRS +FACES had a mean NRS + FACES score of 6.83+1.09 and mode on the NRS + FACES scale equal to 7. The Likert scale group evaluated 23 participants with a mean Likert scale score of 2.74. That is those choosing Levels 2 and 3 were 6 (26.9%) and 17 participants (73.95%), respectively. Comparing the two groups with the Borg scale at equal to or greater than 15 and NRS + FACES greater than or equal to 7 using a Chi-square test showed that there were no statistical significant differences at p = 0.084. Using Spearman's rank correlation coefficient it was found that the subjective rating of intensity in the 3 different groups was not statistically significantly related to heart rate at 85% of maximal heart rate (P>0.05). NRS + FACES, the evaluation of the intensity of exercise at the hard (vigorous) level, was not statistically significantly different from the Borg scale. PMID:24171870

Intarakamhang, Patrawut; Wangjongmeechaikul, Piyathida

2013-11-01

248

Lawyers' Questioning: The Effect of Confusing Questions on Witness Confidence and Accuracy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study investigated the effect on witness confidence and accuracy of confusing questions often used by attorneys in court. Participants viewed a videotaped film and were individually questioned about the incident 1 week later. Half the participants were asked questions using six categories of confusing questions (negatives, double negatives, leading, multiple questions, complex syntax, and complex vocabulary); the remaining

Mark R. Kebbell; Shane D. Johnson

2000-01-01

249

Living with Kidney Disease: Frequently Asked Questions  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... With Your Health Professionals Questions to Ask Your Health Care Professional Keep Your Kidneys Healthy Testing for Kidney ... Changes Medicines and Kidney Disease Working with Your Health Care Providers Questions to Ask Your Health Professional Kidney ...

250

Question Answering Based on Semantic Structures.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The ability to answer complex questions posed in Natural Language depends on (1) the depth of the available semantic representations and (2) the inferential mechanisms they Support. In this paper we describe a QA architecture where questions are analyzed ...

S. Harabagiu S. Narayanan

2004-01-01

251

Frequently Asked Questions (Palliative Care: Conversations Matter)  

MedlinePLUS

... Questions Frequently Asked Questions 1. What is palliative care and when is it provided? Palliative care is ... Does my child have to be in hospice care to receive palliative care? No, your child does ...

252

What Questions Should I Ask My Doctor?  

MedlinePLUS

... Our Blog Patient Education Pancreas News Basics of Pancreatic Cancer FAQs The Pancreas Types of Tumors Causes Hereditary ... Goldman Center Discussion Board Patient Education / Basics of Pancreatic Cancer Questions What questions should I ask my doctor? ...

253

Gallery Walk Questions on Atmospheric Moisture  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

created by Mark Francek, Central Michigan University The following are potential questions that could be used in a gallery walk activity about Atmospheric Mosture. The questions are organized according to the ...

254

Are Nanobacteria Alive: Sample Socratic Questions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This example Socratic questioning page provides an outline for leading a classroom discussion regarding whether or not nanobacteria exist. Sample questions, resources for background information, and tips and assessment information are provided.

By Monica Bruckner, Montana State University, Bozeman (based on MLER website:Nanobes and Nanobacteria).

255

Gallery Walk Questions on Map Reading  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

created by Mark Francek, Central Michigan University The following are potential questions that could be used in a gallery walk activity about map reading. The questions are organized according to the cognitive ...

256

HOW PEOPLE RESPOND TO CONTINGENT VALUATION QUESTIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

The purpose of the project is to understand better how individuals interpret and respond to contingent valuation (CV) questions. The research will address three issues: the reliability of the referendum questions format, the importance of reminding respondents about subst...

257

Gallery Walk Questions on Earth's Radiation Balance  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

created by Mark Francek, Central Michigan University The following are potential questions that could be used in a gallery walk activity about the Earth's Radiation Balance. The questions are organized ...

258

Multilingual Question\\/Answering: the DIOGENE System  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the DIOGENE question\\/answering system developed at ITC- Irst. The system is based on a rather standard architecture which includes three components for question processing, search and answer extraction. Linguistic processing strongly relies on MULTIWORDNET, an extended version of the English WORDNET. The system has been designed to address two promising directions: multilingual question\\/answering and question\\/answering on the

Bernardo Magnini; Matteo Negri; Roberto Prevete; Hristo Tanev

2001-01-01

259

The Physics Question of the Week  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The question of the week web site hosts questions about physics related to experiments and demonstrations. The answer to each question is posted at the end of the week along with a short video showing the experiment and a link to a page with more information about a related demonstration.

Berg, Richard E.

2007-11-10

260

Boston University Physics Applets: Test Charge Questions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This item contains two in-class questions relating to test charge. Given a uniform electric field, students decide which simulation shows a test charge. In the related question, students use the positive test charge to determine the signs of two simulated charges. This item is part of a larger collection of physics questions and simulations developed by the Boston University Physics Department.

Duffy, Andrew

2008-08-01

261

Questions That Science Teachers Find Difficult (II).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents some questions that science teachers find difficult. Focuses on three further questions relating to "simple" everyday situations that are normally explained in terms of the kinetic theory of matter. Identifies looking at the difference between chemical and physical changes as the most problematic question. (Author/YDS)

Goodwin, Alan

2003-01-01

262

Intelligent Question Bank and Examination System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Question bank can be described as the databank that keeps all the examination questions whether pre-existing or created by user while web based examination system is an online assessment tool that used to evaluate students' performance. In this paper, we develop and implement an online Intelligent Question Bank and Examination System (IQBAES), which make use of open source technology. This

ANG TAN FONG; HU HENG SIEW; LIP YEE; LIEW CHEE SUN

2006-01-01

263

Teaching Students to Form Effective Questions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The ability to question lies at the heart of human curiosity and is a necessary component of cognition. The author stresses that forming questions is essential to human thought and communication. As such, forming questions is a foundational process that cuts across curricular areas and is embedded in content standards across the nation, including…

Stafford, Tish

2009-01-01

264

Responding to Questions to Continue Classroom Participation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author discusses the importance of questioning techniques in the instruction of learning disabled students. Factors affecting students' responses to questions are the strengths and weaknesses of the learner and the type and difficulty of the question asked. A systematic method of providing or following up on students answers, termed…

Bachor, Dan G.

265

Teaching Culture: Questioning Perspectives on Our Practices  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite years of training, teaching experience, reading professional literature, attending conferences, and learning from expert colleagues, when it comes to the teaching of culture, the author wishes she knew more answers to many critical questions. Her questions are framed by the basic questions that all curricula seek to answer: WHAT is the…

Met, Myriam

2010-01-01

266

Doctors' questions as displays of understanding.  

PubMed

Based on German data from history-taking in doctor-patient interaction, the paper shows that the three basic syntactic types of questions (questions fronted by a question-word (w-questions), verb-first (V1) questions, and declarative questions) provide different opportunities for displaying understanding in medical interaction. Each syntactic question-format is predominantly used in a different stage of topical sequences in history taking: w-questions presuppose less knowledge and are thus used to open up topical sequences; declarative questions are used to check already achieved understandings and to close topical sequences. Still, the expected scope of answers to yes/no-questions and to declarative questions is less restricted than previously thought. The paper focuses in detail on the doctors' use of formulations as declarative questions, which are designed to make patients elaborate on already established topics, giving more details or accounting for a confirmation. Formulations often involve a shift to psychological aspects of the illness. Although patients confirm doctors' empathetic formulations, they, however, regularly do not align with this shift, returning to the description of symptoms and to biomedical accounts instead. The study shows how displays of understanding are responded to not only in terms of correctness, but also (and more importantly) in terms of their relevance for further action. PMID:23264976

Deppermann, Arnulf; Spranz-Fogasy, Thomas

2011-01-01

267

Developing Qualitative Research Questions: A Reflective Process  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The reflective and interrogative processes required for developing effective qualitative research questions can give shape and direction to a study in ways that are often underestimated. Good research questions do not necessarily produce good research, but poorly conceived or constructed questions will likely create problems that affect all…

Agee, Jane

2009-01-01

268

Questions and Answers About Nuclear Power Plants.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This pamphlet is designed to answer many of the questions that have arisen about nuclear power plants and the environment. It is organized into a question and answer format, with the questions taken from those most often asked by the public. Topics include regulation of nuclear power sources, potential dangers to people's health, whether nuclear…

Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

269

Better Questions and Answers Equal Success.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students with learning disabilities and behavior problems need instruction designed to increase active thinking and questioning skills. Described methods for teaching these skills include T. Raphael's question-answer relationships, A. Hahn's questioning strategy, reciprocal teaching, and the "ReQuest" procedure. Practice activities for student…

Swicegood, Philip R.; Parsons, James L.

1989-01-01

270

EXPOSURE FACTORS HANDBOOK - FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

This page provides a list of the most frequently asked questions and answers related to exposure factors. The following questions and answers have been compiled from inquiries made by users of the Exposure Factors Handbook. These questions and answers provide general information ...

271

Questioning Profiles in Secondary Science Classrooms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper, we are concerned with the role of both teachers and students' questioning in classroom interaction. Bearing in mind that the current guidelines point out to student centred teaching, our aim is to analyse and characterise the questioning patterns of contemporary secondary science classes and compare them to the questioning profiles…

Almeida, Patricia; de Souza, Francisle Neri

2010-01-01

272

Astronomical Scales  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson plan is part of the DiscoverySchool.com lesson plan library for grades 9-12. It focuses on scales and numbers used when representing distances and sizes in the science of astronomy. This involves developing equations and using scientific notation for large numbers. The Earth, Sun, Milky Way galaxy and universe are all used to develop understanding of this concept. It includes objectives, materials, procedures, discussion questions, evaluation ideas, suggested readings, and vocabulary. There are videos available to order which complement this lesson, and links to teaching tools for making custom quizzes, worksheets, puzzles and lesson plans.

273

Planetary protection - some legal questions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When we legally investigate the topic of Planetary Protection, we have to realise that there are primarily two very distinct parts of our juridical work: We have to study lexlata, theexistingapplicableLaw, especially Space Law, and also lexferenda, whatshouldbethe law . With this in mind, we have to deliberate the legal meaning of the notions "Planetary", and "Protection". About " Planetary": Our own Earth is our most important planet. At present only here do exist human beings, who are sensu strictu the only legal subjects. We make the law, we have to apply it, and we are to be protected as well as bound by it. But what is further meant by "Planetary"? Is it planets in an astronomical sense only, the nine planets which revolve around our fixed star, namely the sun, or is it also satellites, moving around most of these planets, as our own Moon circles Earth. "The Moon and other Celestial Bodies (C.B.)" are subject to Space Law, especially to International Treaties, Agreements, Resolutions of the UN, etc. I propose that they and not only the planets in an strictly astronomical sense are to be protected. But I do not think that the said notion also comprises asteroids, comets, meteorites, etc. although they too belong to our solar system. Our investigation comes to the result that such bodies have a different (lesser) legal quality. Also we have to ask Protectionfrom what ? From: Natural bodies - Meteorites, NEO Asteroids, Comets which could hit Earth or C.B.Artificial Objects: Space Debris threatening especially Earth and near Earth orbits.Terrestrial Life - no infection of other celestial bodies. Alien life forms which could bring about "harmful contamination" of Earth and the life, above all human life, there, etc. Here, astrobiological questions have to be discussed. Special realms on C.B. which should be protected from electronic "noise" such as craters SAHA or Deadalus on the Moon, also taking into account the "Common Heritage" Principle. Then, we have to examine: Protectionwhere, of whom andofwhat: On Earth: Humans, and nature, namely other life forms, air, water and soil, but also all man made things. On Other celestial bodies: Crew of manned Space Missions, Stations on C.B., possible alien life forms, or remnants of such, water, other environment on C.B. - even if completely barren? Protection of C.B. from becoming "an area of international conflict". Finally, we have to discuss overriding interests, such as deflection of Asteroids which threaten to hit Earth, then the legally permitted "Use" of C.B., also mining versus protection, then, too high costs of absolutely sterile Spacecraft, etc. With this, we have de lege ferenda to create an order of values of protection, whereby the protection of the higher category has priority over the lesser ones.

Fasan, E.

2004-01-01

274

Planetary protection - some legal questions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When we legally investigate the topic of Planetary Protection, we have to realise that there are primarily two very distinct parts of our juridical work: We have to study lex lata, the existing applicable Law, especially Space Law, and also lex ferenda, what should be the law. With this in mind, we have to deliberate the legal meaning of "Planetary", and of "Protection". About "Planetary": Our own Earth is the most important planet. At present only here do exist human beings, who are sensu strictu the only legal subjects. We make the law, we have to apply it, and we are to be protected as well as bound by it. Then, we have to discuss what is further meant by "Planetary": Is it planets in an astronomical sense only, the nine planets which revolve around our fixed star, namely the sun, or is it also satellites, moving around most of these planets, as our own Moon circles Earth. "The Moon and other Celestial Bodies (C.B)" are subject to Space Law, especially to International Treaties, Agreements, Resolutions of the UN etc. I propose that they and not only the planets in an strictly astronomical sense are to be protected. But I do not think that the said notion also comprises asteroids, comets, meteorites etc. although they too belong to our solar system. Our investigation comes to the result that such bodies have a different (lesser) legal quality. Also we have to ask Protection from what? From: Natural bodies - Meteorites, NEO Asteroids, Comets which could hit Earth or C.B. Artificial Objects: Space Debris threatening especially Earth and near Earth orbits. Terrestrial Life - no infection of other celestial bodies. Alien life forms which could bring about "harmful contamination" of Earth and the life, above all human life, there etc. Here, astrobiological questions have to be discussed. Special realms on C.B. which should be protected from Electronic "Noise" such as craters SAHA or Deadalus on the Moon, also taking into account the "Common Heritage" Principle. Then we have to examine: Protection where, of whom and of what: On Earth: Humans, other life forms, but also all man made things as well as air, water, soil. On Other celestial bodies: Crew of manned Space Missions, Stations on C.B., possible alien life forms, or remnants of such, water, other environment on C.B.- even if completely barren? Protection of C.B. from becoming "an area of international conflict" Finally we have to discuss overriding interests, such as deflection of Asteroids which threaten to hit Earth, then the legally permitted "Use" of C.B., also mining versus protection, and too high costs of absolutely sterile Spacecraft etc. With this we have de lege ferenda to create an order of values of protection as follows, whereby the protection of the higher category has priority over the lesser ones: 1)Human life, be it on Earth or beyond it, 2)Other terrestrial life, 3)Inanimate terrestrial environment, 4)Possible life forms or their remnants on the Moon or other C.B., 5)The natural environment of the Moon and other C.B., 6)Asteroids, Meteorites, Comets etc.

Fasan, E.

275

Personal knowledge questions for fallback authentication: security questions in the era of Facebook  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT Security questions (or challenge questions) are commonly used to authenticate users who,have lost their passwords. We examined the password retrieval mechanisms for a num- ber of personal banking websites, and found that many of them rely in part on security questions with serious usability and security weaknesses. We discuss patterns in the secu- rity questions we observed. We argue

Ariel Rabkin

2008-01-01

276

Science question level and its relationship to seventh graders' interest and achievement in science  

Microsoft Academic Search

Science question level and its relationship to science topic interest level and achievement in reading, mathematics, and science\\u000a were explored for eight classes of seventh graders (n=106). Each student completed a science topic interest rating scale,\\u000a wrote four science questions (two on least interesting topics, and two on most interesting topics), and completed scholastic\\u000a aptitude tests. The questions were rated

Santine Cuccio-Schirripa

1999-01-01

277

Children's questions: a mechanism for cognitive development.  

PubMed

Preschoolers' questions may play an important role in cognitive development. When children encounter a problem with their current knowledge state (a gap in their knowledge, some ambiguity they do not know how to resolve, some inconsistency they have detected), asking a question allows them to get targeted information exactly when they need it. This information is available to them when they are particularly receptive to it, and because it comes as the result of their own disequilibrium, it may have depth of processing benefits. In that questions allow children to get information they need to move their knowledge structures closer to adult-like states, the ability to ask questions to gather needed information constitutes an efficient mechanism for cognitive development (referred to in this paper as the Information Requesting Mechanism [IRM]; this term is used because it includes question-asking and other information recruiting behaviors such as gestures, expressions, and vocalizations). However, the role of children's questions in their cognitive development has been largely overlooked. If questions are a force in cognitive development, the following must be true: (1) children must actually ask questions that gather information; (2) children must receive informative answers to their questions if they are able to be of use to cognitive development; (3) children must be motivated to get the information they request, rather than asking questions for other purposes such as attention; (4) the questions children ask must be relevant and of potential use to their cognitive development; (5) we must see evidence that children's questions help them in some way-that is, that they can ask questions for a purpose, and use the information they receive purposefully to successfully achieve some change of knowledge state. This monograph reports data on these points. Study 1 analyzed questions taken from four children's transcripts in the CHILDES database (age 1;2-5;1). This methodology allowed detailed, veridical analysis of every question asked by the children during their recording sessions. Results indicate that children ask many information-seeking questions and get informative answers. When they do not get an informative response, they keep asking; attention is not enough. Results also indicate that the content of children's questions parallel their conceptual advances, and shift within an exchange and over the course of development to reflect the learning process. So, these data suggest that the components of the IRM are in place and are used by children from very early in development, and the information they seek changes with time. Study 2 asked whether preverbal children who are not yet asking linguistic questions can recruit information via gestures, expressions, and vocalizations, in addition to further investigating the linguistic questions of older children. This study analyzed questions from a cross-sectional diary study, kept by 68 parents of their children's questions (aged 1;0-5;0). Also, this methodology allowed for data collection over a large number of children, a large range of situational contexts, and allows for the collection of low frequency, high-salience events. Results from Study 2 suggest that all of the components of the IRM are in place, and extends these findings down to younger, preverbal children who recruit information using gesture and vocalizations. Study 3 investigated the questions asked in one specific domain, biological knowledge, and examined the impact that different stimulus types have on children's questions. This study gathered data from 112 parent/child dyads (children aged 2, 3, and 4 years) walking through one of three zoos (one with real animals, one with drawings of animals, and one with three-dimensional replicas of animals), looking at the animals together. Results from this study also suggest that all of the components of the IRM are in place from the earliest age, further supporting the findings from Studies 1 and 2. In addition, while children still ask many nonbiological questions a

Chouinard, Michael M

2007-01-01

278

How to... Ask the Right Questions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Questions, questions, questions! They are a large part of a teacher's stock-in-trade. We use questions to help students review, to check on comprehension, to stimulate critical thinking, to encourage creativity, to emphasize a point, to control classroom activities, reduce disruptive behavior, to help determine grades, to encourage discussion, to discourage inattentiveness, and for other reasons and purposes. Questioning style and content varies from teacher to teacher, student group to student group, and situation to situation. The aim of this "How to�" booklet is to help you focus on a common teaching activity--the asking of questions. To illustrate some of the classifications and concepts discussed, excerpts from a videotaped lesson to third graders on magnetism appears at the end of this booklet.

Blosser, Patricia E.

2000-01-01

279

Even -NPIs in YES\\/NO Questions  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been a long-standing puzzle that Negative Polarity Items appear to split into two subvarieties when their effect on the interpretation of questions is taken into account: while questions with any and ever can be used as unbiased requests of information, questions with so-called `minimizers', i.e. idioms like lift a finger and the faintest idea, are always biased towards

Elena Guerzoni

2004-01-01

280

Twenty Questions Games Always End With Yes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Huffman coding is often presented as the optimal solution to Twenty Questions. However, a caveat is that Twenty Questions games always end with a reply of Yes, whereas Huffman codewords need not obey this constraint. We bring resolution to this issue by showing that the average number of questions still lies between H(X) and H(X)+1. IPNPR Volume 42-187 Tagged File.txt

Wu, W.; Gill, J. T., III

2011-08-01

281

The Relationship between Teaching and Learning Conceptions, Preferred Teaching Approaches and Questioning Practices  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper focuses on the relationship between preferential teaching approach (PTA) and the concept of teachers' questioning practices (TQP), as part of a large-scale three-year project aimed at developing the scholarship of teaching and learning at one Portuguese university. In order to contribute to understandings of how teachers' questioning is…

Pedrosa-de-Jesus, Maria Helena; da Silva Lopes, Betina

2011-01-01

282

The development of a tool for gauging the demands of GCSE and A Level exam questions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two techniques from the psychological literature were used to identify demands in exam questions: Edwards' scale of cognitive demand (1981) and Kelly's Repertory Grid technique (1955). These two techniques were used to develop a tool for identifying and gauging the demands made in GCSE and A Level History, Chemistry and Geography questions. This paper reports on three phases of the

Sarah Hughes; Alastair Pollitt; Ayesha Ahmed

1998-01-01

283

The Use of Microteaching Techniques to Train Student-Teachers in Stimulating Learners' Questions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper deals with the use of microteaching techniques to train student teachers in stimulating learners' questions. Research was carried out at the Gordon Teachers Training College, Haifa, Israel. A rating scale, including teaching patterns stimulating learners' questions, was prepared from the existing literature and the analysis of pilot…

Perlberg, Arye; Kremer, Lya

284

Exam Question Exchange: Potential Energy Surfaces.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents three examination questions, graded in difficulty, that explore the topic of potential energy surfaces using a diagrammatic approach. Provides and discusses acceptable solutions including diagrams. (CW)

Alexander, John J., Ed.

1988-01-01

285

Conceptual questions in computer-assisted assignments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The computer-assisted personalized assignment system has been used to prepare and present conceptual, qualitative questions to students in large introductory classes. The questions appear to be effective in helping students to grasp concepts, as they stimulate dialogue and discussion among the students while they are seeking correct solutions, and provide the instructor with feedback on difficulties students encounter with certain concepts. No formal evaluation of the effectiveness of these questions has been made. Many conceptual, qualitative questions for introductory physics have been written with this system and used in assignments. Several examples are given and briefly discussed.

Kashy, E.; Gaff, S. J.; Pawley, N. H.; Stretch, W. L.; Wolfe, S. L.; Morrissey, D. J.; Tsai, Y.

1995-11-01

286

Earthquake Hazards Program: Frequently Asked Questions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This frequently-asked-questions feature deals with the relationship between earthquakes, faults, and plate tectonics; myths about earthquakes; effects and experiences; preparedness; and many other topics.

287

Casimir energies of cavities: The geometry question  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The question of how the Casimir effect relates to a system's geometry is of fundamental interest. In this thesis, we present new results for interior Casimir self-energies of various integrable geometries and show interesting systematic relations between these energies. In particular, we consider prisms with triangular cross sections (equilateral, hemiequilateral, and right isosceles triangles), triangular polygons of the same cross sections, and three tetrahedra. The triangular prisms are of infinite or finite lengths. These geometries are integrable and unique in the sense that the Laplacian eigenvalues may be found using the method of images. We obtain interior Casimir energies for these cavities subject to Dirichlet and Neumann boundary conditions. In addition to these boundary conditions, we also obtain electromagnetic Casimir energies for the infinite prisms. These energies are regularized using various consistent methods, one of which is regularization by point-splitting. Summing these modes explicitly using a cylinder kernel formulation, we show that the correct Weyl divergences are obtained. We also give closed-form results for the infinite triangular prisms. In order to understand the geometry dependence of these energies, we rederive well-known results for rectangular parallelepipeds (including the cube) and infinite rectangular prisms. The analysis of these self-energies yields intriguing results. By plotting the scaled energies against the appropriately chosen isoperimetric or isoareal quotients, we observe interesting patterns, which hint towards a systematic functional dependence. In addition to the calculation of new Casimir energies, this constitutes a significant contribution to the theoretical understanding of self-energies and has interesting implications.

Abalo, Iroko Komi Elom

288

Academic Oversight: Asking Questions, Building Bridges  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The best way for trustees to fully understand and fulfill their responsibility to ensure that their institution is providing quality education and meeting academic goals is by asking appropriate questions. Collaboration among trustees, faculty members, and administrators is essential to framing questions from a strategic perspective. Just the act…

Wilson, E. B.

2011-01-01

289

Mental Models of Research: Generating Authentic Questions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper, we question how we might disrupt positivist research paradigms that preclude students from engaging and experiencing ownership in the research process. We question what we, as professors, could do to facilitate the transition from traditional research reporting to a disposition of inquiry that allows for ambiguity and discovery in…

Donham, Jean; Heinrich, Jill A.; Bostwick, Kerry A.

2010-01-01

290

Questions to Ask Your Liability Insurance Broker  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper discusses some important questions to ask an insurance broker regarding liability insurance. The author based these questions on his interviews with Kathryn Hammerback, Craig Hammer, and Mike North: (1) Are centers covered when...?; (2) How can a center director cut costs on this policy?; (3) Is this an "occurrence" or a "claims-made"…

Neugebauer, Roger

2006-01-01

291

Lunar interferometric astronomy: Some basic questions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The author examines some basic questions as to why there should be astronomical facilities on the far side of the moon. The questions are ones of appropriateness, i.e., is this a proper use for human resources, what the real goals are, and are the present concepts the best match for the goals.

Woolf, Neville

1992-01-01

292

Questionnaire Design: Asking Questions with a Purpose  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This short document guides the user through the stages of creating and implementing an effective questionnaire. The types of questions and how they should be worded are addressed, and many good examples of the different types of questions that could go into a questionnaire are presented. This resource is intended for novice evaluators.

Taylor-Powell, Ellen

1998-05-01

293

Single-Concept Clicker Question Sequences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students typically use electronic polling systems, or clickers, to answer individual questions. Differing from this tradition, we have developed a new clicker methodology in which multiple clicker questions targeting the same underlying concept but with different surface features are grouped into a sequence. Here we present the creation,…

Lee, Albert; Ding, Lin; Reay, Neville W.; Bao, Lei

2011-01-01

294

Fixed-Response Questions with a Difference.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Offers three types of fixed-response questions that are designed to overcome drawbacks appearing in the conventional forms of fixed-response questions such as not allowing the examiner to investigate reasoning, background, or prevent guessing. (Contains 14 references.) (Author/YDS)

Johnstone, Alex H.; Ambusaidi, Abdullah

2002-01-01

295

Conscience in Childhood: Old Questions, New Answers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although conscience has been the focus of reflection for centuries, fundamental questions regarding its organization have not been fully answered. To address those questions, the authors applied structural equation modeling techniques to longitudinal data comprising multiple behavioral measures of children's conscience, obtained in parallel…

Aksan, Nazan; Kochanska, Grazyna

2005-01-01

296

Conscience in Childhood: Old Questions, New Answers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although conscience has been the focus of reflection for centuries, fundamental questions regarding its organization have not been fully answered. To address those questions, the authors applied structural equation modeling techniques to longitudinal data comprising multiple behavioral measures of children's conscience, obtained in parallel fashion at 33 and 45 months. The measures encompassed moral emotion (guilt and empathic distress) and

Nazan Aksan; Grazyna Kochanska

2005-01-01

297

Processing the Curriculum through Quality Questioning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this inquiry-based project, student-generated questions became the basis for student-directed individual and group projects that provided practice with problem solving, critical thinking, and research skills while digging deeper into the Earth science curriculum. The author used her students' high-level questions to provide relevance,…

Gregerson, Jessica

2011-01-01

298

Patterns and Punctuation: Learning to Question Language  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As teachers plan instruction--even instruction about punctuation--they have the opportunity to engage students' minds and create new labels: question-asking, problem-solving. How teachers teach embeds a vision of who they think kids are and what they think kids are capable of. Are they destined for a future of critical thinking, questioning,…

Schlessman, Elizabeth

2011-01-01

299

Children's Questions: A Mechanism for Cognitive Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Preschoolers' questions may play an important role in cognitive development. When children encounter a problem with their current knowledge state (a gap in their knowledge, some ambiguity they do not know how to resolve, some inconsistency they have detected), asking a question allows them to get targeted information exactly when they need it.…

Chouinard, Michelle M.

2007-01-01

300

Concealed Questions. In Search of Answers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This dissertation examines the semantic interpretation of various types of DPs in so-called concealed-question (CQ) constructions, as "Bill's phone number" in the sentence "John knows Bill's phone number". The peculiar characteristic of DP-CQs is that they are interpreted as having the meaning of an embedded question. So, for instance, the…

Frana, Ilaria

2010-01-01

301

Teaching Dystopias: The Value of Religious Questioning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Argues that a true general education should encourage the exploration of religious questions. Describes the author's use of works showing dystopian societies based on existing values, such as Huxley's "Brave New World," to encourage students to rethink their assumptions and develop openness toward the questions that religions address. (22…

Seabury, Marcia Bundy

1995-01-01

302

Self-Questioning Instructional Research: A Review.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Studies in self-questioning designed to improve students' prose processing are reviewed in the context of three theoretical perspectives: active processing perspective, metacognitive theory, and schema theory. The effects of self-questioning training on students' prose processing seem successful. Constraints of content knowledge and metacognitive…

Wong, Bernice Y. L.

1985-01-01

303

Questioning Skills Facilitate Online Synchronous Discussions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The results of this study show that effective questioning skills increase student intellectual moves that, in turn, facilitate the process of knowledge construction in online synchronous discussion (OSD). The open-ended questions elicited multiple perspectives by promoting student participation, while OSD enabled them to share and debate multiple…

Wang, C.-H.

2005-01-01

304

Can Teacher Questions Be "Too" Open?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many educators recommend using open-ended questions to encourage students to share their thinking. However, inexplicit open-ended questions can make it difficult for students to determine the teacher's intentions and to participate confidently in mathematical conversations. This article describes strategies teachers can use to make the language of…

Parks, Amy Noelle

2009-01-01

305

Probabilistic question answering on the web  

Microsoft Academic Search

Web-based search engines such as Google and NorthernLight return documents that are relevant to a user query, not answers to user questions. We have developed an architecture that augments existing search engines so that they support natural language question answering. The process entails five steps: query modulation, document retrieval, passage extraction, phrase extraction, and answer ranking. In this paper we

Dragomir R. Radev; Weiguo Fan; Hong Qi; Harris Wu; Amardeep Grewal

2002-01-01

306

The development of the Maternal Breastfeeding Evaluation Scale.  

PubMed

A Maternal Breastfeeding Evaluation Scale was developed from categories identified in qualitative research. Content validity was tested according to procedures described by Imle and Atwood and Lynn. A sample of 442 women who had breastfed completed an instrument of 56 Likert-scale items. A retest questionnaire was completed by a subsample of 28 women. Exploratory factor analysis resulted in three factors, accounting for 38.5 percent of the variance: Maternal Enjoyment/Role Attainment (29 percent), Infant Satisfaction/Growth (5 percent), and Lifestyle/Maternal Body Image (4 percent). A revised 30-item MBFES was developed using items loading strongly on these three factors. Cronbach's alphas for the revised scale and subscales were .93, .93, .88, and .80, respectively. Test-retest correlations (n = 28) were .93, .93, .94, and .82, respectively (p < .001 for all). PMID:7619250

Leff, E W; Jefferis, S C; Gagne, M P

1994-06-01

307

Development of a Community Commitment Scale with Cross-sectional Survey Validation for Preventing Social Isolation in Older Japanese People  

PubMed Central

Background Elderly social isolation could be prevented by facilitating communication or mutual helping at the neighborhood level. The helping of elderly neighbors by local volunteers may relate to their community commitment (CC), but ways to measure CC have not been identified. The aim of the present study was to develop a Community Commitment Scale (CCS) to measure psychological sense of belonging and socializing in the community among local volunteers, for research in prevention of elderly social isolation. We also tested the CCS in a general population of the elderly. Methods A pilot test of 266 Japanese urban residents was conducted to examine face validity for 24 identified items, of which 12 items were selected for the CCS, based on a 4-point Likert-type scale. The CCS was developed via self-report questionnaires to 859 local volunteers in two suburban cities and to 3484 randomly sampled general residents aged 55 years or older living in one of the cities. To assess concurrent validity, data were collected using the Brief Sense of Community Scale (Peterson; 2008) and two types of single questions on self-efficacy for helping elderly neighbors. Results Item analysis and factor analysis identified 8 items, which were classified between two datasets under the domains of “belonging” and “socializing” in the local volunteers and the general residents. Cronbach’s alpha (which conveyed the internal consistency of the CCS) was 0.75 in local volunteers and 0.78 in general residents. The correlation coefficients between the scores of the CCS and BSCS were 0.54 for local volunteers and 0.62 for general residents. ANOVA comparing the CCS between the confidence levels of the two types of single question of self-efficacy on helping elderly neighbors showed a strong relationship in the volunteers and residents. Conclusions These results demonstrate acceptable internal consistency and concurrent validity for the CCS, with the two dimensions “belonging” and “socializing”, among the local volunteers and general residents in urban Japanese areas. Community commitment measured by the CCS was related to the degree of confidence for self-efficacy in helping elderly neighbors to prevent elderly social isolation.

2012-01-01

308

Studies with pain rating scales  

Microsoft Academic Search

Good correlation has been shown between pain scores derived from 4 different rating scales. The correlation was maintained when presentation of the scales was separated by a series of questions and by physical examination. There is good evidence that the 4 scales are measuring the same underlying pain variable as they calibrate well. There is also evidence that an 11-point

W W Downie; P A Leatham; V M Rhind; V Wright; J A Branco; J A Anderson

1978-01-01

309

Human Resource Management Survey. Analysis of the Substance-Abuse Questions. Questions 75 through 82 Inclusive.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The substance-abuse questions of the Navy's Human Resource Management (HRM) survey were analyzed to determine if they are giving commanding officers valid information on substance-abuse problems in their commands. The responses to the questions concerning...

R. P. Peck

1984-01-01

310

Question Classification using Support Vector Machines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Question classification is very important for question\\u000a answering. This paper presents our research work on\\u000a automatic question classification through machine learning\\u000a approaches. We have experimented with five machine\\u000a learning algorithms: Nearest Neighbors (NN), Naive Bayes\\u000a (NB), Decision Tree (DT), Sparse Network of Winnows\\u000a (SNoW), and Support Vector Machines (SVM) using two kinds\\u000a of features: bag-of-words and bag-ofngrams. The experiment\\u000a results

Dell Zhang; Wee Sun Lee

2003-01-01

311

IMS Learning Design Frequently Asked Questions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This list of frequently asked questions was composed on the basis of questions asked of the Educational Technology Expertise Centrum. The questions addessed are:\\u000aWhere can I find the IMS Learning Design Specification?\\u000aWhat is meant by the phrase “Learning Design”?\\u000aWhat is the IMS LD Specification about, in a nutshell?\\u000aWhy is the IMS LD Specification important?\\u000aWhat problems

Colin Tattersall; Jocelyn Manderveld; Hans Hummel; Peter Sloep; Rob Koper; Fred De Vries

2004-01-01

312

31 CFR 501.731 - Depositions upon written questions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...TREASURY REPORTING, PROCEDURES AND PENALTIES REGULATIONS...731 Depositions upon written questions. (a...taken and submitted on written questions upon motion...730(b). (b) Procedure. Written questions shall...

2013-07-01

313

Beginning EFL Teachers' Beliefs about Quality Questions and Their Questioning Practices  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Motivated by the scarcity of research that examines the impact of teacher beliefs on their actual practices in Vietnam, this study investigated the relationship between teachers' beliefs about quality questions and their questioning behaviours in terms of questioning purposes, content focus, students' cognitive level, wording and syntax.…

Pham, Ly Ngoc Khanh; Hamid, M. Obaidul

2013-01-01

314

Questioning ‘Open questioning’ in early years science discourse from a social semiotic perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Received wisdom in Primary science classroom teaching advocates the use of open questions for elicitation. The socio-cultural perspective on discourse, however, leads one to question the usual classification of questioning by its grammatical formality and leads instead to an analysis of the discourse in the socio-cultural context which includes the background of the children. In this paper we develop this

Diane Harris; Julian Williams

2007-01-01

315

Frequently Asked Questions about Cicatricial (Scarring) Alopecia  

MedlinePLUS

Frequently Asked Questions What is cicatricial alopecia or scarring alopecia? Are there different kinds of cicatricial alopecia? What causes cicatricial alopecia? Who is affected by cicatricial alopecia? Are cicatricial ...

316

Dengue/Severe Dengue Frequently Asked Questions  

MedlinePLUS

... ??????? Español RSS Feed Youtube Twitter Facebook Google + Dengue control Menu Dengue Control strategies Monitoring and evaluation Other arbo-viral diseases Research Information resources Dengue/Severe dengue frequently asked questions What is dengue ...

317

A Response to the Question of Elitism.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Points out that Ralph Smith's article, "A Question of Elitism," offers useful distinctions for advancing the cause of elitism in education. Contends that excellence and democratic values are indeed compatible. (BSR)

Hausman, Jerome J.

1987-01-01

318

Roth 401(k): asking the right questions.  

PubMed

Roth 401(k) provisions are a newly available feature of 401(k) plans. Roth 401(k) provisions are after-tax savings that generally are tax-free at the time of distribution. Questions arise for plan sponsors about whether the new feature is beneficial, and to whom, and what needs to be done if the plan sponsor decides to offer this provision to its employees. This article tries to answer some of those common questions, including a simple computational analysis to try to answer the important question of how much an employee-participant genuinely benefits from this savings approach. Some practical issues of implementation are touched on, and some unanswered questions are identified. PMID:16833065

Joyner, James F

2006-01-01

319

Frequently Asked Questions about Genetic Counseling  

MedlinePLUS

... used on this page Frequently Asked Questions About Genetic Counseling What are genetic professionals and what do ... see a geneticist or other specialist? What are genetic professionals and what do they do? Genetics professionals ...

320

Frequently Asked Questions about Genetic Disorders  

MedlinePLUS

... used on this page Frequently Asked Questions About Genetic Disorders What are genetic disorders? A genetic disorder is a disease caused ... significant risk of developing the disease. . Geneticists group genetic disorders into three categories: Monogenetic disorders are caused ...

321

Similar Density Questions with Very Different Results  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

While developing a standardized fluids assessment covering buoyancy and pressure, we discovered deficiencies in student understanding of density. In particular, many college students do not recognize that density is a fixed property of a solid substance, such as aluminum or gold. We added questions to our diagnostic exam to probe the extent of student difficulties. In one of our questions, only 50-60% of students (depending upon class) recognize that the density of gold is a fixed value. When similar questions from an existing diagnostic¹ are used, however, 88-100% of students correctly identify the density of a piece of wood and of a diamond as fixed values. In this paper we discuss the differences between these questions and how those differences affect student responses. ¹ Yeendâs Density Survey.

Lindow, Ashley; Carbone, Elizabeth; Wagner, Doris J.

2014-02-01

322

The Geomagnetic Field: Frequently Asked Questions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a group of frequently asked questions and answers about Earth's magnetic field and poles, the magnetic compass, magnetic reversals, and geomagnetic models. Links to maps and illustrations are embedded in the text.

323

Alcohol and Public Health: Frequently Asked Questions  

MedlinePLUS

... visit this page: About CDC.gov . Alcohol and Public Health Share Compartir Frequently Asked Questions Introduction to alcohol ... 24: Changes from 1998 to 2001 . Annu Rev Public Health 2005;26:259–79. Levy DT, Mallonee S, Miller ...

324

Frequently Asked Questions about Health Reform  

MedlinePLUS

... or not and in advance of the penalty ever being applied. Share this question: Share on Twitter ... benefits, which include Ambulatory patient services Emergency services Hospitalization Maternity and newborn care Mental health and substance ...

325

Rash: Questions to Discuss with Your Doctor  

MedlinePLUS

... contact us Rash Questions to Discuss with Your Doctor: How long have you had the rash? Is ... Have you had any recent sun exposure? Your Doctor Might Examine the Following Body Structures or Functions: ...

326

Insomnia: Questions to Discuss with Your Doctor  

MedlinePLUS

... contact us Insomnia Questions to Discuss with Your Doctor: Are you particularly stressed at work or at ... Do you have worries about not sleeping? Your Doctor Might Examine the Following Body Structures or Functions: ...

327

Shingles: Questions to Discuss with Your Doctor  

MedlinePLUS

... contact us Shingles Questions to Discuss with Your Doctor: Do you have a history of chicken pox? ... p. 872)? Are you taking any medications? Your Doctor Might Examine the Following Body Structures or Functions: ...

328

Vaginitis: Questions to Discuss with Your Doctor  

MedlinePLUS

... contact us Vaginitis Questions to Discuss with Your Doctor: How long have you had this vaginal discomfort? ... abdominal pain, joint pain, or a rash? Your Doctor Might Examine the Following Body Structures or Functions: ...

329

Gallstones: Questions to Discuss with Your Doctor  

MedlinePLUS

... contact us Gallstones Questions to Discuss with Your Doctor: Do you have pain in the mid- or ... your urine or yellowing of the eyes? Your Doctor Might Examine the Following Body Structures or Functions: ...

330

Thrombocytopenia: Questions to Discuss with Your Doctor  

MedlinePLUS

... contact us Thrombocytopenia Questions to Discuss with Your Doctor: What medications do you take (including over-the- ... do you drink in an average week? Your Doctor Might Examine the Following Body Structures or Functions: ...

331

Questions and Answers about High Blood Pressure  

MedlinePLUS

... About High Blood Pressure Questions and Answers About High Blood Pressure What is high blood pressure? Blood pressure is the force of ... by a doctor. Am I at risk for high blood pressure? Anyone can develop high blood pressure. ...

332

Bechtel Hanford, Inc. Unreviewed Safety Question Process.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document describes the unreviewed safety question procedures used by Bechtel Hanford, Inc. to evaluate proposed changes and discoveries of potential inadequacies in the safety analyses and to document and report those evaluation.

A. R. Larson

2001-01-01

333

Response to Questions on Presentation to NAS  

SciTech Connect

Response to questions on the presentation 'Overview to Chamber and Power Plant Designs for IFE' made at the 1/29-31 meeting of the National Academies Committee on the Prospects for Inertial Confinement Fusion Energy Systems.

Meier, W R

2011-03-17

334

Women and Diabetes: Frequently Asked Questions  

MedlinePLUS

... Frequently Asked Questions Eating Disorders Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS) donate en -- 3 Summer Menus for Outdoor Dining - ... Email: Sign Up Thank you for signing up ' + ' '); $('.survey-form').show(); }, success: function (data) { $('#survey-errors').remove(); $('. ...

335

The Complex Nature of Opening Reference Questions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study is to review communication theory models and some of the literature from philosophy and linguistics in an attempt to supply a rational explanation for the generality of opening reference questions. (Author)

Eichman, Thomas Lee

1978-01-01

336

Current RFAs and PQs — Provocative Questions  

Cancer.gov

Provocative Questions Skip to content. | Skip to navigation Personal tools Sign Up Log in Sections Home Home Current RFAs and PQs Cancer Prevention and Risk Mechanisms of Tumor Development or Recurrence Tumor Detection, Diagnosis, and Prognosis Cancer

337

Get Answers to Common Questions About...  

Cancer.gov

Get Answers to Common Questions About... Biological Specimens Drug Availability, Labeling and Distribution Ethics Indemnity Insurance Planning Clinical Trials and Navigating Regulatory Requirements Protocols Quality Assurance and Monitoring Software

338

Different Questions, Different Methods of Study  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students will learn that scientists not only do controlled experiment but other forms of investigations. Different types of questions lead to different types of investigations. Not all scientific knowledge is obtained through experimentation.

Admin, Admin

2011-10-07

339

Report Questions Effectiveness of Flu Meds  

MedlinePLUS

... page, please enable JavaScript. Report Questions Effectiveness of Flu Meds 'Hidden' trial data reveals that some Tamiflu ... 2014) Thursday, April 10, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Pages Flu Medicines THURSDAY, April 10, 2014 (HealthDay News) -- No ...

340

Osteoarthritis: Questions to Discuss with Your Doctor  

MedlinePLUS

... Health Men’s Health Heart & Circulatory Health contact us Osteoarthritis Questions to Discuss with Your Doctor: How long ... function? What have you done to treat your osteoarthritis? Have you seen a physical therapist? Do you ...

341

Astronaut Jeff Williams Answers Your Questions  

NASA Video Gallery

Expedition 22 Commander Jeff Williams, aboard the International Space Station 220 miles above Earth, responds to questions posted on YouTube concerning the station's orientation, life in space and ...

342

Archived RFAs and PQs — Provocative Questions  

Cancer.gov

Provocative Questions Skip to content. | Skip to navigation Personal tools Sign Up Log in Sections Home Home Current RFAs and PQs Cancer Prevention and Risk Mechanisms of Tumor Development or Recurrence Tumor Detection, Diagnosis, and Prognosis Cancer

343

Learning Named Entity Hyponyms for Question Answering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lexical mismatch is a problem that con- founds automatic question answering sys- tems. While existing lexical ontologies such as WordNet have been successfully used to match verbal synonyms (e.g., beat and de- feat) and common nouns (tennis is-a sport), their coverage of proper nouns is less ex- tensive. Question answering depends sub- stantially on processing named entities, and thus it

Paul McNamee; Rion Snow; Patrick Schone; James Mayfield

344

Is question answering an acquired skill?  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a question answering (QA) system which learns how to detect and rank answer passages by analyzing questions and their answers (QA pairs) provided as training data. We built our system in only a few person-months using off-the-shelf components: a part-of-speech tagger, a shallow parser, a lexical network, and a few well-known supervised learning algorithms. In contrast, many of

Ganesh Ramakrishnan; Soumen Chakrabarti; Deepa Paranjpe; Pushpak Bhattacharyya

2004-01-01

345

La question charbonnière de William Stanley Jevons  

Microsoft Academic Search

[fre] La question charbonnière de William Stanley levons. . Dans La question charbonnière (1865), de W. S. Jevons, les ressources de charbon ressemblent au schéma de Malthus : une consommation croissante contrainte par des réserves fixes exploitées à rendements décroissants. La consommation de charbon suit une progression géométrique à 3,5 % l'an, l'exportation aussi. Cette croissance aboutit à l'épuisement des

Michel Robine

1990-01-01

346

The Effect of Question Order on Responses to Multiple-choice Questions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This paper, presented at the 2002 Physics Education Research Conference, investigates how the order of two related FCI questions (#13 and 14) affects students' responses. This study also investigates the effect an unrelated FCI question (#23) has on answers to the above problems. Four versions of a survey were administered before and after instruction to 243 students taking an algebra-based physics class. Versions 1 and 2 of the survey included the related physics questions in opposite order. Versions 3 and 4 included the unrelated physics question and one of the above questions. Student responses for the four versions were compared for both the pre- and post-instruction surveys.

Gray, Kara; Rebello, Sanjay; Zollman, Dean

2010-12-02

347

The Effect of Question Order on Responses to Multiple-choice Questions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This paper, presented at the 2002 Physics Education Research Conference, investigates how the order of two related FCI questions (#13 and 14) affects students' responses. This study also investigates the effect an unrelated FCI question (#23) has on answers to the above problems. Four versions of a survey were administered before and after instruction to 243 students taking an algebra-based physics class. Versions 1 and 2 of the survey included the related physics questions in opposite order. Versions 3 and 4 included the unrelated physics question and one of the above questions. Student responses for the four versions were compared for both the pre- and post-instruction surveys.

Gray, Kara E.; Rebello, N. S.; Zollman, Dean A.

2006-12-06

348

The Role of Scales in Student Ratings  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Questions used in course evaluations should mainly measure the quality of teaching, and students' answers to those questions should not be influenced by other factors. This paper investigates how seemingly neutral rating scales and multiple-choice questions might have an impact on the results of such evaluations. In several studies, it has been…

Sedlmeier, Peter

2006-01-01

349

From Question Answering to Visual Exploration  

SciTech Connect

Research in Question Answering has focused on the quality of information retrieval or extraction using the metrics of precision and recall to judge success; these metrics drive toward finding the specific best answer(s) and are best supportive of a lookup type of search. These do not address the opportunity that users? natural language questions present for exploratory interactions. In this paper, we present an integrated Question Answering environment that combines a visual analytics tool for unstructured text and a state-of-the-art query expansion tool designed to compliment the cognitive processes associated with an information analysts work flow. Analysts are seldom looking for factoid answers to simple questions; their information needs are much more complex in that they may be interested in patterns of answers over time, conflicting information, and even related non-answer data may be critical to learning about a problem or reaching prudent conclusions. In our visual analytics tool, questions result in a comprehensive answer space that allows users to explore the variety within the answers and spot related information in the rest of the data. The exploratory nature of the dialog between the user and this system requires tailored evaluation methods that better address the evolving user goals and counter cognitive biases inherent to exploratory search tasks.

McColgin, Dave W.; Gregory, Michelle L.; Hetzler, Elizabeth G.; Turner, Alan E.

2006-08-11

350

A Measurement Model for Likert Responses that Incorporates Response Time  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes a model for response times that is proposed as a supplement to the usual factor-analytic model for responses to graded or more continuous typical-response items. The use of the proposed model together with the factor model provides additional information about the respondent and can potentially increase the accuracy of the…

Ferrando, Pere J.; Lorenzo-Seva, Urbano

2007-01-01

351

Ian Hinchliffe Answers Your Higgs Boson Questions  

SciTech Connect

contingent with the ATLAS experiment at CERN, answers many of your questions about the Higgs boson. Ian invited viewers to send in questions about the Higgs via email, Twitter, Facebook, or YouTube in an "Ask a Scientist" video posted July 3: http://youtu.be/xhuA3wCg06s CERN's July 4 announcement that the ATLAS and CMS experiments at the Large Hadron Collider have discovered a particle "consistent with the Higgs boson" has raised questions about what scientists have found and what still remains to be found -- and what it all means. If you have suggestions for future "Ask a Scientist" videos, post them below or send ideas to askascientist@lbl.gov

Hinchliffe, Ian

2012-01-01

352

Ten key questions for the restructuring regulator  

SciTech Connect

In the terra incognita of restructuring, there are no adequate guidebooks. There are, however, a handful of questions that all stakeholders should address if the many restructuring debates are to be intelligently advanced. As the regulators consider signing on to this brave new world of electricity restructuring, it is becoming increasingly clear that there is no adequate guidebook. The purpose of this article is to help fill this gap by examining 10 key questions in the debate. Those questions are: Is the generation market potentially competitive? Is the market for electricity generation currently concentrated? Spot market power exchange vs. direct access - how should the transmission pool be structured? Should PBR be substituted for RBR in the distribution market? Can small residential customers be protected from price discrimination? Should utilities be allowed full recovery of stranded costs? How should stranded costs be valued? How should stranded costs be recovered? What about demand-side management and integrated resource planning? What about ratepayer assistance programs?

Navarro, P. [Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States)] [Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States)

1996-08-01

353

Ian Hinchliffe Answers Your Higgs Boson Questions  

ScienceCinema

contingent with the ATLAS experiment at CERN, answers many of your questions about the Higgs boson. Ian invited viewers to send in questions about the Higgs via email, Twitter, Facebook, or YouTube in an "Ask a Scientist" video posted July 3: http://youtu.be/xhuA3wCg06s CERN's July 4 announcement that the ATLAS and CMS experiments at the Large Hadron Collider have discovered a particle "consistent with the Higgs boson" has raised questions about what scientists have found and what still remains to be found -- and what it all means. If you have suggestions for future "Ask a Scientist" videos, post them below or send ideas to askascientist@lbl.gov

Hinchliffe, Ian

2013-05-29

354

In Praise of Questions: Elevating the Role of Questions for Inquiry in Secondary School Science  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

If scientific inquiry is to be part of the focus in secondary school science, teachers must develop learning situations in which question posing is essential and they must help students learn how to pose scientifically oriented questions. In focusing on questions, teachers and students both play an important role the classroom. Teachers provide rich inquiry-based opportunities for students, while students engage in exploring the phenomena they encounter in class.

Milne, Catherine

2008-01-01

355

Type and frequency of questions in processing textual material  

Microsoft Academic Search

While reading a prose passage, 80 undergraduates answered questions after every 2 or every 4 paragraphs of text. Moreover, Ss responded to meaningful-learning questions requiring subsumption of facts under given ideas, questions involving rote learning of facts, questions demanding rote learning of ideas, or task-irrelevant questions. When questions occurred more frequently, meaningful-learning questions resulted in recall of relevant and incidental

John P. Rickards; Francis J. Di Vesta

1974-01-01

356

Questioning the Founders--and Ourselves  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The question of the relation between liberal education and political liberty, perennially important, is driven for this forum by the Obama administration's endorsement of "A Crucible Moment: College Learning & Democracy's Future," according to which the chief ends of postsecondary civic education ought to include the promotion of sweeping…

Lindsay, Thomas K.

2012-01-01

357

Brain Training Draws Questions about Benefits  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

While programs to improve students' working memory are among the hottest new education interventions, new studies are calling into question whether exercises to improve this foundational skill can actually translate into greater intelligence, problem-solving ability, or academic achievement. Working memory is the system the mind uses to hold…

Sparks, Sarah D.

2012-01-01

358

Aging and Depression: Some Unanswered Questions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The subject of aging and depression leaves many unanswered questions which this author raises. Little is known regarding the differentiation of depressive illness from a melancholic response to the stressful aging process, and equally little regarding the natural history of depressions with onset in the teens, 20s, or 30s. (Author)

Jarvik, Lissy F.

1976-01-01

359

Do We Need the Census Race Question?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objects to the detailed classification of race on the U.S. Census, explaining that these questions are irrational, sending a message that the government considers race and ethnicity more important than anything else. Suggests that the Census is attempting to impose a fixed categorization on identities in flux. Recommends how to change the Census…

Glazer, Nathan

2002-01-01

360

Religion, Democratic Community, and Education: Two Questions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines the mediating role that education plays between religion and democratic community. The paper is situated in the Canadian context and examines this mediation through two questions: First, what is the relationship between religion and education and what is the contribution of this relationship to and within a pluralist society?…

D'Souza, Mario Osbert

2012-01-01

361

Indigenising Curriculum: Questions Posed by Baiga "Vidya."  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Baiga of central India are known for their extensive knowledge of the forest and healing. Healing knowledge is transmitted orally from male expert practitioners to novices. Features of this instruction, which is experiential and geared to the apprentice's levels of interest and ability, raise questions about the feasibility of including…

Sarangapani, Padma M.

2003-01-01

362

Frequently asked questions in composite restorative dentistry.  

PubMed

With an increasing number of dental practitioners using composite resins as the restorative material of choice, knowledge of terminology, handling properties and restorative techniques are important. Clinical Relevance: This paper addresses many of the questions raised by participants at lectures and courses given by the authors across Europe. PMID:22128632

McConnell, Robert J; Sabbagh, Joseph; de la Macorra, Jose C; Lund, Arne; Cassidy, Mike

2011-10-01

363

The AP Descriptive Chemistry Question: Student Errors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For over a decade, the authors have been involved in a design theory experiment providing software for high school students preparing for the descriptive question on the Advanced Placement (AP) chemistry examination. Since 1997, the software has been available as a Web site offering repeatable practice. This study describes a 4-year project during…

Crippen, Kent; Brooks, David W.

2005-01-01

364

Science's Big Questions / Deep Impact Update  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This radio broadcast addresses two issues. The first segment consists of discussion and interviews with researchers about what they believe to be the biggest remaining unanswered questions in science. In the second segment, a project scientist with NASA's Deep Impact mission talks about what researchers have learned about Comet Tempel-1 in the few days after the probe's collision with it.

365

European Security: What are the Right Questions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Is the security of Europe important to the United States. - Why. What does security mean. What factors affect a nation's security and specifically Europe's security. What has been the impact of the question and dialogue over NATO enlargement. Are the righ...

P. G. Wolfe

1996-01-01

366

Answers to Health Questions in Physical Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Culled from the answers of physical education teachers and coaches, this booklet attempts to indicate the scope of health problems and suggests some directions which the solutions may take. It is divided into three parts. Part 1, Health and Safety in Activity Programs, answers questions on first aid, excused absences, and desirability of…

Kaplan, Robert, Ed.

367

Thymectomy: Common Questions Patients Ask about Thymectomies  

MedlinePLUS

... types of thymectomy being performed vary, it is essential to discuss in detail these and all other questions about the surgery with the MG specialist and the surgeon. What is a thymectomy and why is it performed? A thymectomy is the surgical removal of the thymus gland. The thymus has ...

368

Treatment of Anthrax Disease Frequently Asked Questions  

SciTech Connect

This document provides a summary of Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) on the treatment of anthrax disease caused by a wide-area release of Bacillus anthracis spores as an act bioterrorism. These FAQs are intended to provide the public health and medical community, as well as others, with guidance and communications to support the response and long-term recovery from an anthrax event.

Judd, Kathleen S.; Young, Joan E.; Lesperance, Ann M.; Malone, John D.

2010-05-14

369

Ask the Experts: March 2005 - Question #1  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Have you ever wondered what would be considered a native species in a place such as Hawaii? It seems like everything that exists there was introduced to the Aloha State because nothing live came up without the lava from the ocean waters when the islands formed... Discover the answer to this thought-provoking question in this month's, "Ask the Experts" column.

2005-03-01

370

Frequently Asked Questions about Today's Cryptography  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Many common questions about cryptography are answered in this May 2000 handbook by RSA Security, Inc. The contents include a basic introduction to cryptography, tools, applications, problems, cryptoanalysis, techniques, real world uses of cryptography, and legal issues. There is also some discussion of mathematical concepts involved and suggestions for further reading.

2008-01-01

371

Bayes for Beginners? Some Pedagogical Questions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ought we to base beginning instruction in statistics for general students on the Bayesian approach to inference? In the long run, this question will be set- tled by progress (or lack of progress) in persuading users of statistical methods to choose Bayesian methods. This paper is primarily concerned with the peda- gogical challenges posed by Bayesian reasoning. It argues, based

David S. Moore

372

Survey Questions Answered Only by Psychosocial Experts.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Twelve tables provide a breakdown of answers to a survey responded to by 48 experts in the psychosocial treatment of psychiatric and behavioral problems in people with mental retardation. Questions address treatment of self-injurious or aggressive behavior, specific psychiatric disorders, specific target symptoms, use of applied behavior analysis…

American Journal on Mental Retardation, 2000

2000-01-01

373

Questionable Exercises--Some Safer Alternatives.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Some commonly misused or abused exercises which are potentially harmful are identified. Each questionable exercise is illustrated, its potential for harm discussed, and an alternative suggested. Ten general rules are offered to help teachers, coaches, exercise leaders, and individuals avoid exercise-related injuries. (IAH)

Lindsey, Ruth; Corbin, Charles

1989-01-01

374

Insistent Questions in Our Learning Age  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Changes in the content and structure of museum/school programs reveal serious questions about how museums are perceived as essential educational resources. In this article, the author examines this relationship as symptomatic of the continuing marginalization of museums in public policy and recognition and, ultimately, public support. She urges…

Sheppard, Beverly

2010-01-01

375

Frequently asked questions about gravity gradiometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

We will provide some answers to the following frequently asked questions regarding gravity gradiometry: Given that gravity, gravity gradients, and geoid measurements are all derived from the identical gravity potential what is the benefit of one kind of measurement over the others? Why do we need gradient measurements when we could, theoretically, get the same results from gravity or geoid

M. Talwani

2003-01-01

376

Six questions about translational due diligence.  

PubMed

To maintain stable respect and support, translational research must be guided by appropriate ethical, social, legal, and political concerns and carry out culturally competent practices. Considering six key questions concerning due diligence will enable the translational research community to examine critically how it approaches these endeavors. PMID:20427818

Selinger, Evan

2010-04-28

377

Question Negotiation at Orem Public Library.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this unobtrusive study of reference services at Orem (Utah) Public Library was to determine the extent to which reference questions were negotiated, the appropriateness of the verbal and nonverbal communication skills used, and the extent of influence those skills and levels of negotiation had on the accuracy of the answer given.…

Buckley, Jonathan; And Others

378

Benedict Arnold: A Question of Honor.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The spring 2003 The Idea Book for Educators highlights television programming from the Arts and Entertainment Network (A&E), the History Channel, and the Biography Channel, with a focus on an A&E original movie premiere, "Benedict Arnold: A Question of Honor." The booklet contains the following materials: "A&E Study Guide: Benedict Arnold: A…

Nicolosi, Annie; O'Connell, Libby Haight; Rust, Mead

2003-01-01

379

Text Dependent Questions and the CCSS  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An effective text dependent question first and foremost embraces the key principle of close reading embedded in the Common Core State Standards (CCSS) Anchor Reading Standards by asking students to provide evidence from complex text and draw inferences based on what the text explicitly says (Standards 1 and 10). A close look at the intervening…

Aspen Institute, 2012

2012-01-01

380

Media Convergence: Creating Content, Questioning Relationships  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development, dissemination, and proliferation of multimedia and media convergent texts raise a number of pressing questions for literacy scholars in general and compositionists in particular. What kinds of literacy practices are students developing through their use and composition of multimodal and new media texts? What genres are used in the creation of such texts, and why? Are there particular

Jonathan Alexander

2008-01-01

381

Asking sociological questions about Lagrange five  

Microsoft Academic Search

As human habitation in space seems increasingly feasible, sociologists must begin to identify issues that will emerge. Space colonization raises questions involving the whole range of sociology and offers a novel way of introducing them. Space colonies can be used to explore ideas about communities, particularly uptopian communities, and to illustrate important concerns of sociology. One can relate the essential

Barry A. Turner

1986-01-01

382

Questioning and Oracy in a Reading Program  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper is about the questioning patterns of teachers in an early intervention reading program and the exceptions to this typical interactional pattern. Literacy experts recommend a rich diet of oral language for young learners of English literacy. Teachers offer this rich diet by creating an appropriate learning environment in the classroom…

Vaish, Viniti

2013-01-01

383

Passage-Related Reading Comprehension Questions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Studies showing that even though certain factual questions are directly related to information in passages they are also easier to answer without reference to the passage are the basis for this study which attempted to define qualities of relationship which might be responsible for the ease of answerability. Three Tests of Acquisition of…

Tuinman, J. Jaap

384

Increasing Deception Detection Accuracy with Strategic Questioning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One explanation for the finding of slightly above-chance accuracy in detecting deception experiments is limited variance in sender transparency. The current study sought to increase accuracy by increasing variance in sender transparency with strategic interrogative questioning. Participants (total N = 128) observed cheaters and noncheaters who…

Levine, Timothy R.; Shaw, Allison; Shulman, Hillary C.

2010-01-01

385

Memorial Consequences of Answering SAT II Questions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many thousands of students take standardized tests every year. In the current research, we asked whether answering standardized test questions affects students' later test performance. Prior research has shown both positive and negative effects of multiple-choice testing on later tests, with negative effects arising from students selecting…

Marsh, Elizabeth J.; Agarwal, Pooja K.; Roediger, Henry L., III

2009-01-01

386

Technical Communication across Cultures: Five Philosophical Questions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Challenges technical communicators to rethink some of the precepts of their discipline, in order to accommodate both global business ambitions and postmodern sensibilities. Questions core beliefs of many professional technical communicators. Suggests the clear, simple, and direct style of North American technical writers is an effective and…

Weiss, Edmond H.

1998-01-01

387

Asking Essay Questions: Answering Contemporary Needs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Essay questions have been a stable fixture of teacher assessment activity for decades. Assessment reforms of the early 90's encouraged the development and use of "newer" forms of assessment including portfolios, performance tasks, and authentic assessments. As of late, however, there appears to be a regressive emphasis toward the use of objective…

Criswell, John R.; Criswell, Susan J.

2004-01-01

388

Sea Level : Frequently Asked Questions and Answers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Visitors can find answers to frequently asked questions regarding sea level and sea level changes. Topics addressed include how mean sea level is defined, how much sea level would rise if all the worlds ice were to melt, differences in sea level between oceans and at different latitudes, the meaning of altitude above sea level, and others.

2007-12-12

389

Answering Lord Perry's question: dissecting regulatory overfishing  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1995, in response to the distressed condition of the British fishing industry, the House of Lords held a series of hearings on “Fish Stock Conservation and Management.” Lord Perry of Walton posed the straightforward question of why regulation was not succeeding: If one takes all the management systems into account—TACs [total allowable catches, or annual quotas], number of days

Josh Eagle; Barton H Thompson

2003-01-01

390

Rosie the Robot - a Question of Balance  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site, authored by New York Universities' Ken Perlin is the Rosie the Robot - a Question of Balance site. This comical but interesting page explains how The Jetsons TV show's Rosie the robot balances on her wheels. Besides this, visitors will fine interactive applets that they can manipulate to further their knowledge of gyroscope workings.

Perlin, Ken

2008-03-17

391

Questions and Answers about CD ROM.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Question and answer column about the CD ROM medium discusses: (1) optical storage devices available; (2) language teaching applications; (3) types of courseware available; (4) costs to hook up a CD ROM drive as a peripheral to an existing system; (5) how to go about developing and mastering a disk; and (6) mastering and replication costs.…

Kuhn, Carolyn

1987-01-01

392

Global Perspectives: Some Questions and Answers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To enlighten the reader on the status, objectives, and needs of global education, this paper poses and answers questions related to global perspectives. A global perspective is interpreted to include heightened awareness and understanding of the global system as well as increased consciousness of the intimate relationship of self, humankind, and…

Center for Global Perspectives, New York, NY.

393

Questions of Inclusion in Scotland and Europe  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines inclusion in Scotland and in Europe. It considers some of the uncertainties surrounding inclusion and the questions--many of which give cause for concern--that are currently being raised by researchers, teachers and their representative unions, parents and children. The shifting political and policy contexts and recent patterns…

Allan, Julie

2010-01-01

394

Walt Whitman and the Question of Copyright  

Microsoft Academic Search

(excerpt) Walt Whitman is not the first author who comes to mind when one considers the question of copyright in nineteenth-century America. Despite careful consideration of Whitman's publishing career, little has been said regarding his views on the subject and the apparent contradiction between the poet's now-famous declaration of 1855, \\

Martin T. Buinicki

2003-01-01

395

Cognitive Model of Pedagogical Question Asking.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Soldiers will be interacting more directly with high-technology, computer-based training systems in the Army of the future. Soldier trainees interacting with these machines will profit from the ability to ask questions as they learn. A fundamental problem...

M. L. Swartz

1988-01-01

396

Grand challenge scientific questions in coupled modeling  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Most convective field experiments in the past (e.g., SESAME, CCOPE, CINDE) have attempted to resolve only the immediate scales of moist convection using network arrays that spanned two or three atmospheric scales at most. Furthermore, these scales have been defined more on practical considerations (cost, manpower, etc.) than on a clear understanding of their theoretical significance. Unfortunately, this has precluded a description of the entire life cycle of MCS's and their interaction with larger scale systems, the land surface, and trace species. Fortunately, the following factors now make it possible to attempt to simulate scale contraction processes from the synoptic scale down to the cloud scale, as well as interactions between complex meteorological, land surface, precipitation, chemical, and hydrologic processes with coupled, multiscale models: the availability of new technology to sample meteorological fields at high temporal and spatial resolution over a broad region made possible by the weather observing modernization program; increased computer power and improved numerical approaches to run limited area models with nonhydrostatic precipitation physics so as to explicitly resolve MCS (Mesoscale Convective System) processes; and four dimensional assimilation of non-conventional data to provide dynamically consistent datasets for diagnostic analysis of nonlinear scale-interactive dynamics. Several examples of scale-interactive processes which present grand challenges for coupled, multiscale modeling were presented.

Koch, Steven

1993-01-01

397

A Comparison of Study Strategies for Passages: Rereading, Answering Questions, and Generating Questions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students are often encouraged to generate and answer their own questions on to-be-remembered material, because this interactive process is thought to enhance memory. But does this strategy actually work? In three experiments, all participants read the same passage, answered questions, and took a test to get accustomed to the materials in a…

Weinstein, Yana; McDermott, Kathleen B.; Roediger, Henry L., III

2010-01-01

398

A Comparison of Study Strategies for Passages: Rereading, Answering Questions, and Generating Questions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Students are often encouraged to generate and answer their own questions on to-be-remembered material, because this interactive process is thought to enhance memory. But does this strategy actually work? In three experiments, all participants read the same passage, answered questions, and took a test to get accustomed to the materials in a practice phase. They then read three passages and

Yana Weinstein; Kathleen B. McDermott; Henry L. Roediger

2010-01-01

399

Evidence for Confirmatory Biases in Interviewers' Questioning Strategies Using a Free Question Generation Methodology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The selection interview is a commonly used procedure for gathering applicant information upon which to base personnel decisions. Synder and Swann (1978) found that people tended to ask questions and generally seek information consistent with their initial beliefs about the person being interviewed. They suggested that this confirmatory questioning

Binning, John F.; And Others

400

The question cube: a model for developing question repertoire in training couple and family therapists.  

PubMed

This paper presents a three-dimensional model for teaching questioning to those wishing to develop skills in couple and family therapy. The model breaks questions into their component parts of format (the style of the question: open, closed, forced choice, rating, or ranking); orientation (the person who is being inquired about: self or other), and subject (the content of the question: behavior, feelings, beliefs, meaning, or relationship). The model is presented in the context of our post-Milan version of couple and family therapy training. The model is useful in that it allows students gradually to increase their repertoire of questions in a way that offers step-wise learning and integrates with their existing skills. PMID:9058551

Brown, J E

1997-01-01

401

A comparison of study strategies for passages: rereading, answering questions, and generating questions.  

PubMed

Students are often encouraged to generate and answer their own questions on to-be-remembered material, because this interactive process is thought to enhance memory. But does this strategy actually work? In three experiments, all participants read the same passage, answered questions, and took a test to get accustomed to the materials in a practice phase. They then read three passages and did one of three tasks on each passage: reread the passage, answered questions set by the experimenter, or generated and answered their own questions. Passages were 575-word (Experiments 1 and 2) or 350-word (Experiment 3) texts on topics such as Venice, the Taj Mahal, and the singer Cesaria Evora. After each task, participants predicted their performance on a later test, which followed the same format as the practice phase test (a short-answer test in Experiments 1 and 2, and a free recall test in Experiment 3). In all experiments, best performance was predicted after generating and answering questions. We show, however, that generating questions led to no improvement over answering comprehension questions, but that both of these tasks were more beneficial than rereading. This was the case on an immediate short-answer test (Experiment 1), a short-answer test taken 2 days after study (Experiment 2), and an immediate free recall test (Experiment 3). Generating questions took at least twice as long as answering questions in all three experiments, so although it is a viable alternative to answering questions in the absence of materials, it is less time-efficient. PMID:20853989

Weinstein, Yana; McDermott, Kathleen B; Roediger, Henry L

2010-09-01

402

Proposing Questions for the Upcoming Midterm Exam  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This in-class exercise is done during the last half of the class meeting prior to a midterm exam (which is held during a class period), to get the students to initiate their own review processes. To begin, a map of the lecture hall is shown, divided into a large number of seating areas (18, in the example used in the attached material). The exact number is not too important, it just needs to be enough to ensure not too much repetition yet sufficient variety among the teams. Each seating area is assigned a particular type of exam question (diagram, matching, ordering, multiple answer, short essay answer, or whatever other question types you use) and a topic that will be on the immediately upcoming midterm exam. The topics are currently taken from the textbook, divided relatively finely but not so finely that there is insufficient material for them to formulate an exam question from the material. Ten minutes is allotted for the students to form groups of 2-3 (more in a team is less productive for individual students), then for each team to review its assigned topic, and to create a reasonable question and answer set in the assigned format. Following this, another 10 minutes is allotted for the teams to evaluate one other team's set and to work out improvements with the originating team, if needed. (This last activity doesn't always happen.) At the end of this stage I collect a copy of the question, the answer, the names of the originators, and the names of the checkers for each Q&A set. I post all the question/answer sets on Blackboard as fast as I can enter them, so they can serve all the students as a review basis for the exam. Depending on my schedule, that can take from 2-6 hours. I try not to correct incorrect answers or other problems, preferring instead to post a warning (see attached examples) urging students to check the answers given. This is not generally successful, as many students merely memorize the list, right or wrong, without apparently checking it.

Gertsch, Leslie

403

Scaling properties of granular materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Given an assembly of viscoelastic spheres with certain material properties, we raise the question how the macroscopic properties\\u000a of the assembly will change if all lengths of the system, i.e. radii, container size etc., are scaled by a constant. The result\\u000a leads to a method to scale down experiments to lab-size.

T. Pöschel; C. Salueña; T. Schwager

404

Organizing Questions for Reduced-Gravity Flammability  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A team consisting of of the Microgravity Flight Project Scientists for solid flammability experiments has been reviewing and prioritizing a set of organizing questions for fire prevention (material flammability).In particular the team has been charged with determining:What experiments must be conducted to best answer these questions, and can some of the quest ions be answered using existing/planned hardware or experimental concepts?Is the NASA STD 6001, Test 1 configuration conservative or non-conservative in assessing material flammability in reduced gravity?NASA ST D 6001, Test 1 is an upward flammability test, considered the most stringent test in normal gravity. A material that passes this test would most likely not burn in a quiescent microgravity environment.A forced ignition and spread test is described.

Miller, Fletcher

2004-01-01

405

Conscience in childhood: old questions, new answers.  

PubMed

Although conscience has been the focus of reflection for centuries, fundamental questions regarding its organization have not been fully answered. To address those questions, the authors applied structural equation modeling techniques to longitudinal data comprising multiple behavioral measures of children's conscience, obtained in parallel fashion at 33 and 45 months. The measures encompassed moral emotion (guilt and empathic distress) and rule-compatible conduct (internalization of maternal prohibitions and requests and of another adult's rules). Confirmatory factor analyses supported a differentiated view of conscience with 2 latent factors at both ages: Moral Emotion and Rule-Compatible Conduct. The structure of conscience was remarkably stable over time. The coherence between Moral Emotion and Rule-Compatible Conduct factors increased as children grew older. PMID:15910158

Aksan, Nazan; Kochanska, Grazyna

2005-05-01

406

On leadership: attending, questioning, and quality.  

PubMed

Health care is just now feeling the effects of many years of neglect of serious attention to quality outcomes. We have many tools available now to change our thinking and to provide techniques to attain excellence in quality, such as Six Sigma and principals from Toyota. However, these techniques will only get us to a minimal level of quality. We need to change our questions, think the impossible, and break out of our old modes of thinking about quality. Zero defects are possible. We only have to take that quantum leap and think in new ways. We are posed on the edge of a quantum leap into new ways of thinking about quality. We will hear much more about nurse-sensitive indicators in the future. Nurse leaders should change their questions now to attend to new models that will get us closer to the ultimate ossible thinking" goal of zero defects in nurse-sensitive indicators of quality.$ PMID:17674605

Kerfoot, Karlene

2007-06-01

407

Are debatable scientific questions debatable? (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Are debatable scientific questions debatable? In 2000, the physicist-philosopher John Ziman posed this pithy—and crucial—question. He noted that scientists were at a disadvantage in public debate, because the rules of engagement are different in scientific discourse than in public discourse in ways that make it difficult for scientists to ‘win’ public arguments, even when the facts are on their side. In this paper, I revisit Ziman’s arguments in light of the difficulties that climate scientists have had in communicating the reality and gravity of global warming. In addition to the problem posed by Ziman, I also address the role of organized disinformation in further increasing the challenges that climate scientists face.

Oreskes, N.

2010-12-01

408

Twenty-five questions for string theorists  

SciTech Connect

In an effort to promote communication between the formal and phenomenological branches of the high-energy theory community, we provide a description of some important issues in supersymmetric and string phenomenology. We describe each within the context of string constructions, illustrating them with specific examples where applicable. Each topic culminates in a set of questions that we believe are amenable to direct consideration by string theorists, and whose answers we think could help connect string theory and phenomenology.

Binetruy, Pierre; /Orsay, LPT; Kane, G.L.; /Michigan U., MCTP; Lykken, Joseph D.; /Fermilab; Nelson, Brent D.; /Pennsylvania U.

2005-09-01

409

Differential Evolution Research – Trends and Open Questions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Differential Evolution (DE), a vector population based stochastic optimization method has been introduced to the public in\\u000a 1995. During the last 10 years research on and with DE has reached an impressive state, yet there are still many open questions,\\u000a and new application areas are emerging. This chapter introduces some of the current trends in DE-research and touches upon\\u000a the

Rainer Storn

410

Question Answering: Technology For Intelligence Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This chapter presents a former analyst’s perspective on Question Answering (QA) systems. Although the author’s background\\u000a is in intelligence analysis, he is currently engaged in sponsoring basic research in linguistic pragmatics. Given this background,\\u000a the author believes that today’s technology has the potential to help fulfil the vision of providing a highly capable tool\\u000a enabling an analyst – any analyst,

Steven Maiorano

411

Management of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) questions & answers  

SciTech Connect

This {open_quotes}Management of PCBs Questions and Answers{close_quotes} has been developed from a presentation given by Dr. John Smith of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the transcribed question and answer session which followed the presentation. Dr. Smith was featured at the first DOE complex-wide PCB Focus Group meeting held in San Francisco, California in December 1992. The meeting was attended by representatives from field elements who were actively involved in the management of PCBs. The meeting served as a forum for the exchange of information and discussion of PCB management issues. This document has been prepared as one of several guidance documents developed by the Department of Energy Office of Environmental Policy and Assistance (EH-41) (formerly the Office of Environmental Guidance, EH-23) to assist DOE elements in their PCB management programs. This document is organized into three parts: (1) an introduction describing the conception and development of this document, (2) a summary of Dr. Smith`s presentation, and (3) the question and answer session.

NONE

1995-11-01

412

Neural network classification of questionable EGRET events  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High energy gamma rays (greater than 20 MeV) pair producing in the spark chamber of the Energetic Gamma Ray Telescope Experiment (EGRET) give rise to a characteristic but highly variable 3-D locus of spark sites, which must be processed to decide whether the event is to be included in the database. A significant fraction (about 15 percent or 104 events/day) of the candidate events cannot be categorized (accept/reject) by an automated rule-based procedure; they are therefore tagged, and must be examined and classified manually by a team of expert analysts. We describe a feedforward, back-propagation neural network approach to the classification of the questionable events. The algorithm computes a set of coefficients using representative exemplars drawn from the preclassified set of questionable events. These coefficients map a given input event into a decision vector that, ideally, describes the correct disposition of the event. The net's accuracy is then tested using a different subset of preclassified events. Preliminary results demonstrate the net's ability to correctly classify a large proportion of the events for some categories of questionables. Current work includes the use of much larger training sets to improve the accuracy of the net.

Meetre, C. A.; Norris, J. P.

1992-02-01

413

Neural network classification of questionable EGRET events  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

High energy gamma rays (greater than 20 MeV) pair producing in the spark chamber of the Energetic Gamma Ray Telescope Experiment (EGRET) give rise to a characteristic but highly variable 3-D locus of spark sites, which must be processed to decide whether the event is to be included in the database. A significant fraction (about 15 percent or 10(exp 4) events/day) of the candidate events cannot be categorized (accept/reject) by an automated rule-based procedure; they are therefore tagged, and must be examined and classified manually by a team of expert analysts. We describe a feedforward, back-propagation neural network approach to the classification of the questionable events. The algorithm computes a set of coefficients using representative exemplars drawn from the preclassified set of questionable events. These coefficients map a given input event into a decision vector that, ideally, describes the correct disposition of the event. The net's accuracy is then tested using a different subset of preclassified events. Preliminary results demonstrate the net's ability to correctly classify a large proportion of the events for some categories of questionables. Current work includes the use of much larger training sets to improve the accuracy of the net.

Meetre, C. A.; Norris, J. P.

1992-01-01

414

78 FR 33862 - Draft Emergency Preparedness Frequently Asked Questions  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Emergency Preparedness Frequently Asked Questions AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission...Preparedness (EP) frequently asked questions (EPFAQs) No. 2012-007, No...Docket ID NRC-2013-0113. Address questions about NRC dockets to Carol...

2013-06-05

415

77 FR 25504 - Draft Emergency Preparedness Frequently Asked Questions  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Emergency Preparedness Frequently Asked Questions AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission...Preparedness (EP) frequently asked questions (EPFAQs). These EPFAQs will be...Docket ID NRC-2012-0098. Address questions about NRC dockets to Carol...

2012-04-30

416

78 FR 52570 - Draft Emergency Preparedness Frequently Asked Questions  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Emergency Preparedness Frequently Asked Questions AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission...Preparedness (EP) frequently asked questions (EPFAQs) No. 2013-004, No...Docket ID NRC-2013-0113. Address questions about NRC dockets to Carol...

2013-08-23

417

78 FR 72122 - Draft Emergency Preparedness Frequently Asked Questions  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Emergency Preparedness Frequently Asked Questions AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission...Emergency Preparedness Frequently Asked Question (EPFAQ) No. 2013-008. This...Docket ID NRC-2013-0262. Address questions about NRC dockets to Carol...

2013-12-02

418

Exam Question Exchange: A Popular Approach to Reaction Kinetics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents an undergraduate physical chemistry question and its acceptable solution. This question, presented to share exam questions with other teachers, shows the analogy between molecular kinetics and population dynamics. (HM)

Collins, Michael P. S.; Alexander, John J., Ed.

1979-01-01

419

NCI Community Cancer Centers Program - Frequently Asked Questions  

Cancer.gov

NCI Community Cancer Centers Program - Frequently Asked Questions Search NCCCP Contact Us Overview Frequently Asked Questions Frequently Asked Questions NCI Community Cancer Centers Program Pilot: 2007-2010 Key Points The NCI Community

420

Five questions to ask about the soils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

I think that anyone who ever gave a lecture would agree that this feels like being on a stage. One has to educate the audience of course, but also keep attention and be interesting to the listeners. Authority is important but there is a certain vulnerability at all times. There is also a fine line on both sides that should not be crossed. However, the most important thing is that the audience remembers the lecture and certain points the lecturer made for at least some time, and even more that someone gets interested enough to ask for more details. This is often done by giving interesting examples and unusual comparison. Teaching a soils course there are five main questions to be addressed, of which first four are often subordinated to the fifth being the most complex. First question is "Is the soil alive?". The answer is yes, and that is what it differentiates from any type of sediment or rock, and it is very vulnerable to environmental change. The second question is "Where does it come from?" Rocks being a main origin of soils are often neglected in soil science and petrography in general, and weathering, as an important process for soil formation, are not given enough explaining. Petrography teaches us about rock characteristics, structure and texture and mineralogy. Understanding petrography would help in understanding the weathering processes which are crucial for soil formation and this must not be ignored. The third question is "Is it old?" Yes, it is - at least for everybody else except geologists. It is important to understand how slow the soil formation process is. The forth question is "Does it move?" Yes, it can move and the faster it moves downhill, it less likes it. Erosion is a very important problem for soil and must be addressed. And finally, the fifth question is "What are the main characteristics of soils?" This is an opportunity to talk about physical, chemical, biological, microbiological issues. As the most elaborate question it allows the lecturer to talk mostly about the soil issues that are of main interest to the audience. Every soil science course should involve laboratory and field classes as much as possible. Hands on experience has always been of outmost importance and one hour in the lab or in the field can substitute 3-5 hours of lecturing measuring the absorbed information by students. So, to conclude, if one knows that something is alive, what it is made off, how old it is, what will happen to it during natural processes and also during imposed processes one would develop some respect for it and would be interested in its various characteristics and also, probably, how to save it from degradation. If that is all done while having a chance to touch it, and see it in its natural condition, the result would be even more insightful.

Kasanin Grubin, Milica

2013-04-01

421

Pertussis (Whooping Cough) Frequently Asked Questions  

MedlinePLUS

... driving force behind the large scale outbreaks or epidemics. However, their parents are putting them at greater risk of getting a serious pertussis infection and then possibly spreading it to other family or community members. We ...

422

The Priority of the Question: Focus Questions for Sustained Reasoning in Science  

Microsoft Academic Search

Science education standards place a high priority on promoting the skills and dispositions associated with inquiry at all\\u000a levels of learning. Yet, the questions teachers employ to foster sustained reasoning are most likely borrowed from a textbook,\\u000a lab manual, or worksheet. Such generic questions generated for a mass audience, lack authenticity and contextual cues that\\u000a allow learners to immediately appreciate

David Lustick

2010-01-01

423

Public library patrons' use of collaborative chat reference service: The effectiveness of question answering by question type  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the effectiveness of question answering by question types in the inter-institutional collaborative chat reference service at a public library system. In particular, this study examined whether subject-based research type questions are answered as effectively as simple factual type questions, and whether local-specific questions are answered as effectively as non-local questions in the inter-institutional chat reference service. Effectiveness

Nahyun Kwon

2007-01-01

424

Did Darwin really answer Paley's question?  

PubMed

It is commonly thought that natural selection explains the rise of adaptive complexity. Razeto-Barry and Frick (2011) have recently argued in favour of this view, dubbing it the Creative View. I argue that the Creative View is mistaken if it claims that natural selection serves to answer Paley's question. This is shown by a case that brings out the contrastive structure inherent in this demand for explanation. There is, however, a rather trivial sense in which specific environmental conditions are crucial for the rise of specific adaptations, but this is hardly what opponents of the Creative View are denying. PMID:23591048

Brunnander, Björn

2013-09-01

425

Windchill: Frequently Asked Questions, Terms and Definitions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource introduces students to the concept of windchill, the temperature of windless air that would have the same effect on exposed human skin as a given combination of wind speed and air temperature. Materials include a discussion of the new, more accurate formula, a downloadable brochure that answers basic questions about windchill, frostbite, and hypothermia, and the newly revised chart for determining windchill (also downloadable). There is also a comparison chart showing the difference between the old and new windchill formulas, and an online calculator that allows users to enter air temperature and wind speed to obtain the windchill value.

426

The most intriguing question in synesthesia research.  

PubMed

Abstract This discussion paper forms an insightful addition to the synesthesia literature. Accompanying a steep increase in recent publications on synesthesia, it helps remedy the conspicuous paucity of mechanistic process models explaining the condition. The paper furthermore addresses what is arguably among the most interesting questions: Why do most synesthetes *not* get confused by their additional sensations? This is particularly interesting when phrased in a broader context: What are the mechanisms for deciding which of the sensations we experience reflect something "real" (phenomena in the outside world) and which reflect something that is "not real" (internally generated and private phenomena). PMID:24735051

Rouw, Romke; Ridderinkhof, K Richard

2014-06-01

427

Questionable methods of cancer management: 'nutritional' therapies.  

PubMed

Although dietary measures may be helpful in preventing certain cancers, there is no scientific evidence that any nutritionally related regimen is appropriate as a primary treatment for cancer. This paper focuses on seven questionable modalities: vitamin C, pau d'arco tea, the Gerson diet, Hoxsey herbal therapy, the macrobiotic diet, Manner metabolic therapy, and Kelley metabolic therapy. Some of these approaches involve a diet that is nutritionally inadequate. Some involve potentially toxic doses of vitamins and/or other substances. Some are quite expensive. All pose the risk that patients who use them will abandon effective treatment. The American Cancer Society therefore recommends that "nutritional cancer cures" be avoided. PMID:8364770

1993-01-01

428

Nonlinear quantum mechanics: Results and open questions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

About 15 years ago, we (Heinz-Dietrich Doebner and I) proposed a special type of nonlinear modification of the usual Schrödinger time-evolution equation in quantum mechanics. Our equation was motivated by certain unitary representations of the group of diffeomorphisms of physical space, in the framework of either nonrelativistic local current algebra or quantum Borel kinematics. Subsequently, we developed this and related approaches to nonlinearity in quantum mechanics considerably further, to incorporate theories of measurement, groups of nonlinear gauge transformations, symmetry and invariance properties, unification of a large family of nonlinear perturbations, and possible physical contexts for quantum nonlinearity. Some of our results and highlights of some open questions are summarized.

Goldin, G. A.

2008-05-01

429

Science questions for the Magellan continuing mission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Magellan has completed two mapping cycles around the planet Venus, returning high resolution synthetic aperture images and altimetry data of over 95 percent of the planet's surface. Venus is dominated by low lying volcanic plains with an impact crater population indicating an average surface age of about 500 million years. Highland regions either tend to be characterized by volcanic shield complexes and rifting or by complex ridged terrain. Successful as the primary mission of Magellan has been, significant scientific questions remain to be addressed with imaging and gravity data that will be collected over the next several years.

Saunders, R. S.; Stofan, E. R.

1992-01-01

430

AskHERMES: An online question answering system for complex clinical questions  

PubMed Central

Objective Clinical questions are often long and complex and take many forms. We have built a clinical question answering system named AskHERMES to perform robust semantic analysis on complex clinical questions and output question-focused extractive summaries as answers. Design This paper describes the system architecture and a preliminary evaluation of AskHERMES, which implements innovative approaches in question analysis, summarization, and answer presentation. Five types of resources were indexed in this system: MEDLINE abstracts, PubMed Central full-text articles, eMedicine documents, clinical guidelines and Wikipedia articles. Measurement We compared the AskHERMES system with Google (Google and Google Scholar) and UpToDate and asked physicians to score the three systems by ease of use, quality of answer, time spent, and overall performance. Results AskHERMES allows physicians to enter a question in a natural way with minimal query formulation and allows physicians to efficiently navigate among all the answer sentences to quickly meet their information needs. In contrast, physicians need to formulate queries to search for information in Google and UpToDate. The development of the AskHERMES system is still at an early stage, and the knowledge resource is limited compared with Google or UpToDate. Nevertheless, the evaluation results show that AskHERMES’ performance is comparable to the other systems. In particular, when answering complex clinical questions, it demonstrates the potential to outperform both Google and UpToDate systems. Conclusions AskHERMES, available at http://www.AskHERMES.org, has the potential to help physicians practice evidence-based medicine and improve the quality of patient care.

Cao, YongGang; Liu, Feifan; Simpson, Pippa; Antieau, Lamont; Bennett, Andrew; Cimino, James J.; Ely, John; Yu, Hong

2012-01-01

431

The female condom: frequently asked questions.  

PubMed

Frequently asked questions about the female condom include questions about its effectiveness as a contraceptive, which is as high as the other barrier methods and can approach 95% with perfect use. Its effectiveness in preventing transmission of sexually transmitted diseases and HIV infection is speculative but promising because the condom material is impermeable to the causative agents. The female condom is safe to use except by people who are sensitive to polyurethane or silicone. The condom is made in one size and has a closed inner ring and an open outer ring (which remains outside of the vagina during use). The condoms are prelubricated, and additional water-based lubrication can be used. The accepted shelf life of the female condom in the US is two years, but this may be extended. The female condom is impervious to normal changes in temperature, altitude, and humidity; however, it can be ripped by a sharp object such as a fingernail or jewelry. The female condom can be used with other nonbarrier methods but should not be used in conjunction with a male condom or in the presence of a tampon. Pregnant or menstruating women and women of any age can safely use the device, and it can be inserted several hours prior to use. Studies have shown that many women like the device and would recommend it to others. PMID:12290469

1995-09-01

432

The Museum of Questionable Medical Devices  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Featuring items on loan from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, the American Medical Association, and others, the Minneapolis-based Museum of Questionable Medical Devices is an interesting resource about the history of medicine. From frightening turn-of-the-century phrenology machines to the vibrating "Relaxicisor," taken off the market in 1971, and even an electric shock contraption, "The Stimulator," introduced in 1996, the site features a wide array of machines. Visitors can click on a machine's name and go to a page that includes a photo or illustration, a bit of history of the machine including the date and manufacturer, and a series of related links both to other pages on the museum's site and to outside sites. The links take readers to interesting, informative quackery sites such as Quackwatch.com, Internet Hoax Watch, and the National Council for Reliable Health Information. Well-organized, lively, and information-rich, the Museum of Questionable Medical Devices Website provides a worthwhile diversion.

433

The regulation of autophagy - unanswered questions  

PubMed Central

Autophagy is an intracellular lysosomal (vacuolar) degradation process that is characterized by the formation of double-membrane vesicles, known as autophagosomes, which sequester cytoplasm. As autophagy is involved in cell growth, survival, development and death, the levels of autophagy must be properly regulated, as indicated by the fact that dysregulated autophagy has been linked to many human pathophysiologies, such as cancer, myopathies, neurodegeneration, heart and liver diseases, and gastrointestinal disorders. Substantial progress has recently been made in understanding the molecular mechanisms of the autophagy machinery, and in the regulation of autophagy. However, many unanswered questions remain, such as how the Atg1 complex is activated and the function of PtdIns3K is regulated, how the ubiquitin-like conjugation systems participate in autophagy and the mechanisms of phagophore expansion and autophagosome formation, how the network of TOR signaling pathways regulating autophagy are controlled, and what the underlying mechanisms are for the pro-cell survival and the pro-cell death effects of autophagy. As several recent reviews have comprehensively summarized the recent progress in the regulation of autophagy, we focus in this Commentary on the main unresolved questions in this field.

Chen, Yongqiang; Klionsky, Daniel J.

2011-01-01

434

Darwin, Cuvier and Geoffroy: comments and questions.  

PubMed

In writing, in the Origin of Species, of 'two great laws' on which organic beings are formed, 'Unity of Type' and 'Conditions of Existence', Darwin was referring to the famous opposition between Cuvier and Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, first stated publicly in the spring of 1830. After a brief statement of the chief points at issue in the debate, I raise the question of Darwin's attitude to the disagreement and the views of the two protagonists. There are numerous earlier, and some later, references to Cuvier and Geoffroy in the Darwin archives, notebooks, marginalia and correspondence. An examination of these materials suggests a shift in Darwin's sympathies, from Geoffroy to Cuvier. However, some of Geoffroy's principles are retained, and, in adopting Cuvier's phrase 'conditions of existence', Darwin partly alters its meaning. Finally, since originally, and in its adoption by such writers as Whewell and Owen, the expression 'conditions of existence' was interpreted as entailing design or final cause, I consider the vexed question of Darwin's attitude to teleology. PMID:12557693

Grene, M

2001-01-01

435

Semantic Technology and the Question-Centric Curriculum  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article I describe software that facilitates "question-centric curricula" in which "big questions," rather than academic disciplines, are the primary means of organizing educational resources. To find these questions, the software scans course catalogs and extracts all sentences ending in a question mark. To find connections between…

Fost, Joshua

2013-01-01

436

Science education: A meta-analysis of major questions  

Microsoft Academic Search

A multi-institutional endeavor was initiated to integrate the findings of extant research studies directed toward the major science education research questions. The research questions were selected by a largely empirical process of identifiying the most frequently researched questions in the literature. These questions were assigned to various researchers who developed coding sheets and procedures with many features in common. This

Ronald D. Anderson; Stuart R. Kahl; Gene V. Glass; Mary Lee Smith

1983-01-01

437

Three Commonly Asked Questions About Central Auditory Processing Disorders: Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

this paper, weaddress three questions about the managementof CAPD in children that are frequently posedat national meetings and in our practices. Bypublishing these questions and answers in thisforum, we hope to reach a large number ofclinicians who struggle with the issues raised inthese questions.Question 1: What type of rehabilitationapproach is indicated when a child does poorlyon the frequency (pitch) pattern

Frank E. Musiek; Gail D. chermak

1995-01-01

438

Begging the Question: Some Pragmatic Aspects of Argument.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Begging the question, or the "petitio" fallacy, is problematic for logicians because rules of logic dictate that if an argument of a particular form begs the question at issue, any other argument of the same form also begs the question; yet such questions can appear satisfactory in other contexts. The fallacy benefits from considering the…

Wilson, Kent

439

Student questions in urban middle school science communities of practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

This dissertation examines student questions within three Communities of Practice (CoP), all urban middle school science environments. The study analyzed student questions from a sociocultural perspective and used ethnographic research techniques to detail how the CoP's shaped questions in the classroom. In the first study, two case study girls attempted to navigate questioning events that required them to negotiation participation.

Meghan Groome

2007-01-01

440

Overview of the TREC 2004 Question Answering Track  

Microsoft Academic Search

The TREC 2004 Question Answering track contained a single task in which question series were used to define a set of targets. Each series contained factoid and list questions and related to a single target. The final question in the series was an \\

Ellen M. Voorhees

2004-01-01

441

How to Improve Your Impact Factor: Questioning the Quantification of Academic Quality  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A broad-scale quantification of the measure of quality for scholarship is under way. This trend has fundamental implications for the future of academic publishing and employment. In this essay we want to raise questions about these burgeoning practices, particularly how they affect philosophy of education and similar sub-disciplines. First,…

Smeyers, Paul; Burbules, Nicholas C.

2011-01-01

442

Severe storms and storm systems: Scientific background, methods, and critical questions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The structure and dynamics of severe convective storms and their mesoscale environments is described on the basis of current literature. Numerical modeling of regional and cloud-scale meteorology is reviewed with respect to its contribution to the understanding of convective storm evolution. Observation techniques are surveyed briefly. Critical questions, principally on the triggering of convective storms, are listed and a U.S.

Douglas K. Lilly

1975-01-01

443

Questions of Evidence in Neurocognitive Linguistics  

Microsoft Academic Search

It would be nice if we could look inside the brain of a person talking and observe what is going on there. Some have supposed that neuroimaging methods actually make such observation possible. But neuroimaging is, for the present at least, too crude to allow much progress, except for large-scale localization of a few narrowly defined functions. Why? The reasons

Sydney M. Lamb

444

Electron Holography: Applications to Materials Questions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Impressive progress has been made in the processing and exploration of new material on an atomic scale (nanomaterials). However, the characterization of such materials by the usual transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques suffers from the drawback that the phase of the object-modulated electron wave is virtually lost in the recorded intensity images. Electron holography has opened possibilities for analyzing both

Hannes Lichte; Petr Formanek; Andreas Lenk; Martin Linck; Christopher Matzeck; Michael Lehmann; Paul Simon

2007-01-01

445

CADASIL: new cases and new questions.  

PubMed

We described the first two unrelated Polish families with cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL). In the morphological examination with light microscopy, two kinds of changes were observed: (1). panarteritis nodosa-like changes with eosinophilic fibrinoid necrosis of the vessel wall and perivascular inflammatory infiltrates and (2). basophilic granular material in the tunica media characteristic of CADASIL. At electron microscopy, we found deposits of granular osmophilic material (GOM) within the wall of arteries, veins and capillary vessels. Our findings imply two questions requiring further investigation: Why in the genetically determined vascular disorder are the features of systemic inflammatory vascular disease present? Why in capillary walls deprived of smooth muscle cells are deposits of GOM present? PMID:14520480

Rafalowska, J; Fidzia?ska, A; Dziewulska, D; Podlecka, A; Szpak, G M; Kwieci?ski, H

2003-12-01

446

[Nursing diagnosis--questions which remained unanswered].  

PubMed

This article concerns one of the research questions in the project on 'Terminology in Dutch Nursing: Towards clarification, classification and standardization of nursing concepts', i.c. related to the conceptual definition of nursing diagnosis. On the one hand those parts are reported on which agreement was reached, by means of literature research and analysis of documents, interviews with key-informants and group discussions and through a Delphi research. On the other hand, those aspects of the proposed conceptual definition are elucidated on which discussions seem not to be closed yet or that are missing in the definition for lack of agreement. These discussion points are explored, thus following one of the recommendations of the research project on 'Terminology in Dutch Nursing', namely for further refinement of the proposed working definition of the concept nursing diagnosis. Finally some suggestions are made to realize this solicited refinement. PMID:9516821

van der Bruggen, H; Ten Napel, H

1996-11-01

447

Frequently Asked Questions About Shape Dynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Barbour's interpretation of Mach's principle led him to postulate that gravity should be formulated as a dynamical theory of spatial conformal geometry, or in his terminology, "shapes." Recently, it was shown that the dynamics of General Relativity can indeed be formulated as the dynamics of shapes. This new Shape Dynamics theory, unlike earlier proposals by Barbour and his collaborators, implements local spatial conformal invariance as a gauge symmetry that replaces refoliation invariance in General Relativity. It is the purpose of this paper to answer frequent questions about (new) Shape Dynamics, such as its relation to Poincaré invariance, General Relativity, Constant Mean (extrinsic) Curvature gauge, earlier Shape Dynamics, and finally the conformal approach to the initial value problem of General Relativity. Some of these relations can be clarified by considering a simple model: free electrodynamics and its dual shift symmetric formulation. This model also serves as an example where symmetry trading is used for usual gauge theories.

Gomes, Henrique; Koslowski, Tim

2013-12-01

448

[Blood transfusion and ethics: new questions].  

PubMed

Chairman to the French Institutional Review Board, Professor Didier Sicard raises blood donation issues from an ethical standpoint. The contaminated blood scandal focused on the necessity of reducing transfusion risks and regarded blood safety as an ethical mandatory requirement, a debatable subject to deal with. The author proposes to reconsider the nature of unpaid blood donations while advising not to scorn the remunerated gift when such is the case. As for the use of blood, he questions the solutions based on a zero risk perspective, in particular an excessive auto-transfusional practice or a restrictive use of blood, lately regarded as essential. Starting from the blood donation concern this article leads us to think over both our society's fears and the precautionary principle abuses. PMID:17010652

Sicard, D

2006-09-01

449

Dronedarone: current evidence and future questions.  

PubMed

Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common sustained arrhythmia, affecting more than 2.2 million Americans. ACC/AHA/ESC guidelines for the management of patients with AF recommend amiodarone for maintaining sinus rhythm. Dronedarone is a derivative of amiodarone indicated for the treatment of AF. To provide an overview of dronedarone with a focus on the phase III trials and discuss unresolved questions of dronedarone. A literature search was conducted via the PubMed database using the keyword "dronedarone." Search was limited to human trials in english. The FDA website was searched for briefing documents and subcommittee meetings on dronedarone. Clinicaltrials.gov was searched with the keyword dronedarone for upcoming or unpublished clinical trials. Five phase III trials are available for dronedarone: ANDROMEDA, EURIDIS/ADONIS, ATHENA, ERATO, and DIONYSIS. EURIDIS/ADONIS and ATHENA demonstrated a reduction AF recurrence with dronedarone compared to placebo. The ANDROMEDA trial recruited patients with recent hospitalization for heart failure and was terminated due to an excess of deaths in the dronedarone group. The DIONYSIS trial was a comparative effectiveness trial that demonstrated less efficacy for dronedarone but improved tolerability compared to amiodarone. Dronedarone represents an option in the management of AF in select patients. Dronedarone is not appropriate in patients with recently decompensated heart failure or those treated with strong CYP3A4 inhibitors or medications prolonging the QT interval. Dronedarone appears to have improved tolerability at the expense of decreased efficacy when compared to amiodarone. Questions remain on the long-term safety, use in patients with heart failure, retreatment after dronedarone or amiodarone failure, and comparative efficacy with a rate control strategy. PMID:20074258

Schafer, Jeremy A; Kjesbo, Nicole K; Gleason, Patrick P

2010-01-01

450

Unreviewed safety question determination application guide  

SciTech Connect

The basic purpose of the Unreviewed Safety Question Determination (USQD) process is to ascertain if a change to a facility can be made without a prior safety review and approval by the original approving body. The USQD process judges whether the change could result in the facility being outside its authorization basis. If the change could result in the facility being outside its authorization basis, the change involves an Unreviewed Safety Question (USQ). The authorization basis consists of those aspects of the facility design basis relied upon by the original approving body to authorize operation. The authorization basis would typically include the facility Safety Analysis Report, Technical Safety Requirements (TSRs), Operational Safety Requirements (OSRs), Technical Specifications, DOE-issued Safety Evaluation Reports, Safety Analysis Report Update Program documents, Safety Studies, Safety Assessments, Risk Assessments, Facility Safety Evaluations, and any applicable commitments made to comply with Department of Energy (DOE) orders or policies. Steps in the USQD process include defining the changes being evaluated; evaluating the process by which the change is accomplished; then the potential effects of the change are compared to the authorization basis for the facility to determine if the change could result in the facility being outside is authorization basis. The USQD will provide input to the change control board for facilities placed under configuration management to aid their understanding of the extent of a proposed change and whether or not the change should be authorized. The USQD will also provide input to the categorization of reportable occurrences under DOE Order 5000.3A, Occurrence Reporting and Processing of Operations Information. This report provides an overview of the steps in the USQD process and detailed instructions and examples intended primarily for use by the personnel who perform, review, and approve the USQDs. 3 refs., 3 figs.

Not Available

1991-09-01

451

Research in thermal biology: Burning questions for coldwater stream fishes  

USGS Publications Warehouse

With the increasing appreciation of global warming impacts on ecological systems, in addition to the myriad of land management effects on water quality, the number of literature citations dealing with the effects of water temperature on freshwater fish has escalated in the past decade. Given the many biological scales at which water temperature effects have been studied, and the growing need to integrate knowledge from multiple disciplines of thermal biology to fully protect beneficial uses, we held that a survey of the most promising recent developments and an expression of some of the remaining unanswered questions with significant management implications would best be approached collectively by a diverse research community. We have identified five specific topic areas of renewed research where new techniques and critical thought could benefit coldwater stream fishes (particularly salmonids): molecular, organism, population/species, community and ecosystem, and policy issues in water quality. Our hope is that information gained through examination of recent research fronts linking knowledge at various scales will prove useful in managing water quality at a basin level to protect fish populations and whole ecosystems. Standards of the past were based largely on incipient lethal and optimum growth rate temperatures for fish species, while future standards should consider all integrated thermal impacts to the organism and ecosystem. ?? Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

McCullough, D. A.; Bartholow, J. M.; Jager, H. I.; Beschta, R. L.; Cheslak, E. F.; Deas, M. L.; Ebersole, J. L.; Foott, J. S.; Johnson, S. L.; Marine, K. R.; Mesa, M. G.; Petersen, J. H.; Souchon, Y.; Tiffan, K. F.; Wurtsbaugh, W. A.

2009-01-01

452

Doing Science and Asking Questions II: An Exercise that Generates Questions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An exercise that engages students in asking their own questions is provided and a description on the way in which it was applied in a large introductory chemistry-class is presented. Suggestions are offered to instructors regarding the way the exercise needs to be used, including several variations applicable to different topics in general…

Middlecamp, Catherine Hurt; Nickel, Anne-Marie

2005-01-01

453

Classifying Teacher Questions in EFL Classrooms: Question Types and Their Proper Use  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reports the findings of a case study investigating the taxonomy of question-types in Hong Kong EFL classrooms, their appropriate application by teachers, and the resulting effectiveness in helping students understand the correct lesson objectives. Triangulation was conducted in data collection using classroom observations, teacher…

Wong, Ruth

2010-01-01

454

Answering Questions and Questioning Answers. Part II. University of Central Florida Conference Papers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Brief analyses are provided of presentations made at a conference, held at the University of Central Florida in Orlando, which addressed questions and answers relating to research and education. Conference sessions explored the role of research in relation to educational practices with special focus on theory, research, issues and application.…

Miller, C. C.; And Others

1982-01-01

455

Using Questioning to Assess and Foster Student Thinking  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Questioning can be used to probe for understanding, to initiate inquiry, and to promote development of understanding. The results from questioning, listening, and assessment also can be used by teachers to promote their own growth as professionals. This chapter presents a transcript of a class discussion in which questioning is used to assess and foster student thinking. After developing this context for questioning, the authors discuss purposes and kinds of questions, then revisit the context to demonstrate how the results of assessment through questioning can be used to guide the adaptation of curriculum and instruction.

Van Zee, Emily; Minstrell, Jim

2003-01-01

456

Writing Effective Online Homework Questions for Astro 101  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The online environment provides benefits and limitations to the scope and implementation of homework questions. In this session we discussed this topic, as well as the methodology used to write effective computer-graded online homework questions, specifically discussing targeted feedback and randomization. I demonstrated a few existing online astronomy questions and then workshop participants worked in groups to write their own questions. We concluded with a discussion of effective strategies for writing online homework questions. We focused on developing and writing questions within an environment that includes randomization and targeted feedback, similar to Sapling Learning, MasteringAstronomy, and WebAssign.

Urban, A.

2014-07-01

457

Functional symptoms in neurology: questions and answers  

PubMed Central

Between 10 and 30% of patients seen by neurologists have symptoms for which there is no current pathophysiological explanation. The objective of this review is to answer questions many neurologists have about disorders characterised by unexplained symptoms (functional disorders) by conducting a multidisciplinary review based on published reports and clinical experience. Current concepts explain functional symptoms as resulting from auto-suggestion, innate coping styles, disorders of volition or attention. Predisposing, precipitating, and perpetuating aetiological factors can be identified and contribute to a therapeutic formulation. The sympathetic communication of the diagnosis by the neurologist is important and all patients should be screened for psychiatric or psychological symptoms because up to two thirds have symptomatic psychiatric comorbidity. Treatment programmes are likely to be most successful if there is close collaboration between neurologists, (liaison) psychiatrists, psychologists, and general practitioners. Long term, symptoms persist in over 50% of patients and many patients remain dependent on financial help from the government. Neurologists can acquire the skills needed to engage patients in psychological treatment but would benefit from closer working relationships with liaison psychiatry or psychology.

Reuber, M; Mitchell, A; Howlett, S; Crimlisk, H; Grunewald, R

2005-01-01

458

Sylvester's question and the random acceleration process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Let n points be chosen randomly and independently in the unit disk. 'Sylvester's question' concerns the probability pn that they are the vertices of a convex n-sided polygon. Here we establish the link with another problem. We show that for large n this polygon, when suitably parameterized by a function r(phi) of the polar angle phi, satisfies the equation of the random acceleration process (RAP), d2r/dphi2 = f(phi), where f is Gaussian noise. On the basis of this relation we derive the asymptotic expansion log pn = -2n log n + n log(2?2e2)-c0n1/5 + . . ., of which the first two terms agree with a rigorous result due to Bárány. The non-analyticity in n of the third term is a new result. The value \\case {1}{5} of the exponent follows from recent work on the RAP due to Györgyi et al (2007 Phys. Rev. E 75 021123). We show that the n-sided polygon is effectively contained in an annulus of width ~n-4/5 along the edge of the disk. The distance ?n of closest approach to the edge is exponentially distributed with average (2n)-1.

Hilhorst, H. J.; Calka, P.; Schehr, G.

2008-10-01

459

Coherent sampling of multiple branch event tree questions  

SciTech Connect

In the detailed phenomenological event trees used in recent Level III PRA analyses questions arise about the possible outcomes of events for which the underlying physics is not well understood and where the initial and boundary conditions are uncertain. Examples of the types of events being analyzed are: What is the containment failure mode?, Is them a large in-vessel steam explosion?, How much H{sub 2}, CO, and CO{sub 2} are produced during core-concrete interactions? The outcomes of each of these questions must be defined based on an understanding of the basic physics of the phenomena and the level of detail of the probabilistic analysis. Many of these phenomena have never occurred since severe reactor accidents are extremely rare events. The only information we have about these phenomena comes from four basic sources: general theoretical knowledge, limited experimental results a few actual events, and various models of the phenomena. All of these phenomena have significant uncertainty arising from three basic sources: level of detail, initial and boundary conditions, and lack of knowledge. Since it is not possible to conduct enough full scale tests to generate a set of ``objective`` relative frequencies, the probabilities, therefore, will have to be ``subjective`` and generated based on expert knowledge. In assessing the conditional probabilities of the various possible outcomes of an event during an accident, the expert must amalgamate his knowledge with the level of detail being used in the PRA analysis to generate a set of probabilities for the defined set of outcomes. It is often convenient for an expert to formulate his opinion in terms of expecting to see n{sub i} occurrences of outcome E{sub i} in N occurrences of event E. The order of the outcomes is typically not important because the individual trials are viewed as being independent of one another.

Payne, A.C. Jr.; Wyss, G.D.

1993-10-01

460

Paleoecoinformatics: applying geohistorical data to ecological questions.  

PubMed

Paleoecoinformatics, the development and use of paleoecological databases and tools, has a strong tradition of community support, and is rapidly growing as new tools bring new opportunities to advance understanding of ecological and evolutionary dynamics, from regional to global scales, and across the entire history of life on earth. Paleoecoinformatics occupies the intersection of ecoinformatics and geoinformatics. All face shared challenges, including developing frameworks to store heterogeneous and dynamic datasets, facilitating data contributions, linking heterogeneous data, and tracking improvements in data quality and scientific understanding. The three communities will benefit from increased engagement and exchange. PMID:22001528

Brewer, Simon; Jackson, Stephen T; Williams, John W

2012-02-01

461

Frequently Asked Questions about Colorectal Cancer and IBD  

MedlinePLUS

... Cancer & IBD Go Back Frequently Asked Questions About Colorectal Cancer & IBD Email Print + Share CCFA's Chair of Professional ... Tom Ullman, MD, Answers Frequently Asked Questions About Colorectal Cancer & IBD Each year, in the United States, 147, ...

462

When Children Pose Inquiry Questions that Disagree with Society's Beliefs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents the dilemma of teachers determining the acceptability of a child's inquiry question (such as the making of a bomb). Lists reflective questions on moral and ethical concerns to guide decision making about whether such inquiries should be pursued. (SK)

Pataray-Ching, Jann; Kavanaugh-Anderson, Deborah C.

1998-01-01

463

49 CFR 630.7 - Failure to respond to questions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...fact in writing, and request written justification from the reporting entity to either document the accuracy of the questioned data, or to revise the questioned data with a more accurate submission. Failure of a reporting entity to make a...

2010-10-01

464

49 CFR 630.7 - Failure to respond to questions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...fact in writing, and request written justification from the reporting entity to either document the accuracy of the questioned data, or to revise the questioned data with a more accurate submission. Failure of a reporting entity to make a...

2009-10-01

465

Are We Asking the Right Questions in Science and Management.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In this paper, we focus on the importance of asking effective questions in both management and the science that serves the management process. Part of this process involves making a clear distinction between management questions and scientific (or researc...

C. W. Fowler L. Hobbs

2009-01-01

466

Gallery Walk Questions on Weathering and Mass Wasting  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

created by Mark Francek, Central Michigan University The following are potential questions that could be used in a gallery walk activity about weathering and mass wasting. The questions are organized according to ...

467

49 CFR 630.8 - Questionable data items.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL TRANSIT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION NATIONAL TRANSIT DATABASE § 630.8 Questionable data items. FTA may enter a zero, or adjust any questionable data item(s), in any...

2013-10-01

468

Question Generation as a Learning Multiplier in Distributed Learning Environments.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report provides a rationale for question generation as a workable learning multiplier in distributed learning environments. The rationale was derived from a thorough review of recent research on questioning from multiple perspectives: psychology, cog...

A. C. Graesser R. A. Wisher

2001-01-01

469

The impact of corpus size on question answering performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using our question answering system, questions from the TREC 2001 evaluation were executed over a series of Web data collections, with the sizes of the collections increasing from 25 gigabytes up to nearly a terabyte.

Charles L. A. Clarke; Gordon V. Cormack; M. Laszlo; Thomas R. Lynam; Egidio L. Terra

2002-01-01

470

Posing Problems for Open Investigations: What Questions Do Pupils Ask?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports on a study that explored the types of questions that students ask for open-ended science investigations. Discusses how teachers can help students identify problems and pose questions that are feasible for investigation. (Contains 55 references.) (DDR)

Chin, Christine; Kayalvizhi, G.

2002-01-01

471

Gallery Walk Questions on the Hydrosphere and Cryosphere  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

created by Mark Francek, Central Michigan University The following are potential questions that could be used in a gallery walk activity about the hydrosphere and cryosphere. The questions are organized according ...

472

Teaching evolution in New Jersey public high schools: Examining the influence of personal belief and religious background on teaching practices  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to determine relationships between New Jersey biology teachers' personal characteristics and religious backgrounds and the time spent and approach to teaching evolution. The research instrument chosen was a cross-sectional survey. Survey questions were presented in various forms: fill in, single response, Likert scale, and open ended. The questions were grouped into five sections: demographics,

Carlen Smith

2010-01-01

473

Epistemologies, conceptions of learning, and study practices in medicine and psychology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The subjects (N = 175), freshmen and fifth year students in psychology (n = 59) and medicine (n = 116), described their modes of studying by answering open-ended questions and Likert-type questions, presented to them within a task booklet. They were first asked to write down their own subjective definitions of learning. Scales to classify the answers were adopted from

K. Lonka; S. Lindblom-Ylänne

1996-01-01

474

Mapping location-based questions to inform mobile campus apps  

Microsoft Academic Search

This poster presents spatial analysis of location-based questions asked on a university campus to inform mobile campus application development. Location-based questions are inquiries that concern a georeferencable site. Findings indicate the majority of location-based questions concern the same site as the location where they were asked. Findings include the frequency and locations of questions asked across campus to inform mobile

Bradley Wade Bishop

2012-01-01

475

Rainfall Simulation: methods, research questions and challenges  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In erosion research, rainfall simulations are used for the improvement of process knowledge as well as in the field for the assessment of overland flow generation, infiltration, and erosion rates. In all these fields of research, rainfall experiments have become an indispensable part of the research methods. In this context, small portable rainfall simulators with small test-plot sizes of one square-meter or even less, and devices of low weight and water consumption are in demand. Accordingly, devices with manageable technical effort like nozzle-type simulators seem to prevail against larger simulators. The reasons are obvious: lower costs and less time consumption needed for mounting enable a higher repetition rate. Regarding the high number of research questions, of different fields of application, and not least also due to the great technical creativity of our research staff, a large number of different experimental setups is available. Each of the devices produces a different rainfall, leading to different kinetic energy amounts influencing the soil surface and accordingly, producing different erosion results. Hence, important questions contain the definition, the comparability, the measurement and the simulation of natural rainfall and the problem of comparability in general. Another important discussion topic will be the finding of an agreement on an appropriate calibration method for the simulated rainfalls, in order to enable a comparison of the results of different rainfall simulator set-ups. In most of the publications, only the following "nice" sentence can be read: "Our rainfall simulator generates a rainfall spectrum that is similar to natural rainfall!". The most substantial and critical properties of a simulated rainfall are the drop-size distribution, the fall velocities of the drops, and the spatial distribution of the rainfall on the plot-area. In a comparison of the most important methods, the Laser Distrometer turned out to be the most up-to-date and the best measurement method for drop-spectra and drop fall velocities. The measured rainfall amounts resulting from the different methods differ by two orders of magnitude, due to the different exposure times and measuring areas, and thus the efficiency also ranges between 0.2 and 108 %. This also shows that a standardized method for the calibration of simulated rainfall should be determined. As a third point, the three major challenges for the experimental soil erosion research of the Physical Geography Department in Trier will be presented: 1) Influence of land-use and treatments, 2) Influence of Sheep (goat) trampling and 3) Influence of wind-driven rain. The presented results indicate increases of the sediment yields due to wind influence between 113 % and at the maximum even 1100 %, that equals one order of magnitude. The main conclusions are: Rainfall simulations are an adequate tool for soil erosion studies with different experimental set-ups. A calibration of the simulated rainfall is necessary, and an appropriate method should be found. Rainfall simulations with small portable simulators show discriminative results depending on land-cover types and treatments. Wind-driven rain increases the soil erosion rate, while the runoff stays almost unaffected. This fact has to be considered for the interpretation of rainfall simulation results gained excluding wind influence, as it is usually the case.

Ries, J. B.; Iserloh, T.

2012-04-01

476

Setting Generalization of Question-Asking by Children with Autism.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Incorporated motivational procedures to teach question-asking to three children (ages three and five). All children learned to use questions in relation to items they had previously been unable to label and demonstrated generalization of spontaneous question-asking to new items and to their home environments with their mothers, with concomitant…

Koegel, Lynn Kern; Camarata, Stephen M.; Valdez-Menchaca, Marta; Koegel, Robert L.

1998-01-01

477

Automated Question Generator for Tagalog Informational Texts Using Case Markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an automated natural language question generator for Tagalog informational texts. It takes a target text as an input and generates set of what, where and who question and answer pairs extracted from the source text. The resulting questions are also ranked using a proposed acceptability criterion. The implementation consists of three modules: a part of speech tagger,

Chuchi S. Montenegr; Vernon G. Engle; Melody Grace J. Acuba; Aimee Michelle A. Ferrenal

2012-01-01

478

Adjunct Questions in Prose Learning: The Effects of Response Mode.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A 3 x 3 x 2 factorial design was used with 120 undergraduate subjects to study the effects of question type on learning from prose. A 2,000-word reading passage on geological history was presented, with factual questions on each page. Questions were also presented after the reading activity. When compared to a reading only control group, the short…

Staley, Richard K.; Wolf, Richard I.

479

Success on Algorithmic and LOCS vs. Conceptual Chemistry Exam Questions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Analyzes differences in students' performance on algorithmic, lower-order cognitive skills (LOCS), and conceptual exam questions and the correlations between their achievements on these categories across different populations.Reports that the highest scores were obtained for the algorithmic questions, the lowest for the conceptual questions, and…

Zoller, Uri; And Others

1995-01-01

480

Fora: Leveraging the Power of Internet Communities for Question Answering  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper introduces a system for searching question an- swer pairs automatically extracted from the discussions in internet communities. The system, named Fora, aggregates discussions from multiple forums and newsgroups in the same domain, automatically extracts question answer pairs from the data, and provides searches of the question answer pairs. The system also ofiers expert search, query sugges- tion, page

Gu Xu; Hang Li; Wei-Ying Ma

2008-01-01

481

LF Movement: A Problem for Questions in Marathi and Kashmiri.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It is proposed that LF-movement in in-situ questions is not adequate to express the scope distinctions basic to the semantic interpretations of the direct and indirect question dichotomy in Marathi and Kashmiri, because this question type is more constrained in these languages than in languages like Chinese and Japanese. This theory is illustrated…

Wali, Kashi

482

Power: A Questioning Strategy for Analyzing Power Relationships.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Nine questions provide a framework for examining and analyzing how power is used in human relationships and institutions and four questions are presented that show how to begin to apply knowledge about power learning through the previous questioning. To gain an understanding of power, students can analyze various historical situations,…

Freeman, Robert E.

483

Learning How to Answer Questions Using Trivia Games  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we examine a sentence comprehension task: given a question, and an extended sentence known to answer that question, the goal is to extract the short answer to the question. As an initial solution, a novel robust statistical model is presented which combines the semantics of the expected answer with the expected context within which the answer will

Gideon S. Mann

2002-01-01

484

Do Bees Sneeze? And Other Questions Kids Ask about Insects.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book is written for teachers, librarians, museum staff, educational program leaders, and parents who are often faced with a myriad of questions from children about insects. Questions were obtained during visits to schools and published solicitation and represent those most commonly asked. There are 210 questions from children representing 18…

Wangberg, James K.

485

The Artful Dodger: Answering the Wrong Question the Right Way  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

What happens when speakers try to "dodge" a question they would rather not answer by answering a different question? In 4 studies, we show that listeners can fail to detect dodges when speakers answer similar--but objectively incorrect--questions (the "artful dodge"), a detection failure that goes hand-in-hand with a failure to rate dodgers more…

Rogers, Todd; Norton, Michael I.

2011-01-01

486

The Basic Epistemological Questions--Are There Also Valid Answers?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Epistemology is the branch of philosophy that seeks answers to two main questions: How do we know? and How do we know we know? This paper is concerned with how four major schools of thought have addressed these questions and the implications that their answers to these questions have for education. The paper begins by discussing how four major…

Oderman, Dale B.

487

Principles of asking effective questions during student problem solving  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using effective teaching practices is a high priority for educators. One important pedagogical skill for computer science instructors is asking effective questions. This paper presents a set of instructional principles for effective question asking during guided problem solving. We illustrate these principles with results from classifying the questions that untrained human tutors asked while working with students solving an introductory

Kristy Elizabeth Boyer; William Lahti; Robert Phillips; Michael D. Wallis; Mladen A. Vouk; James C. Lester

2010-01-01

488

Improving Teacher Questioning in Science Inquiry Discussions through Professional Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explores questioning practices adopted by elementary teachers while facilitating science inquiry discussions prior and subsequent to their participation in a summer institute in which they were provided with scholarly descriptions of inquiry-based teacher questioning (i.e., typologies of questions used by discourse analysts to…

Oliveira, Alandeom W.

2010-01-01

489

Environmental Problems, Causes, and Solutions: An Open Question  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a national evaluation of environmental literacy in Israel, (Negev, Sagy, Garb, Salzberg, & Tal, 2008), the authors included both multiple choice questions and open questions. In this article the authors describe the qualitative analysis of the answers to an open question regarding a local environmental problem. Most participants specified solid waste, open spaces, or air pollution as the main

Maya Negev; Yaakov Garb; Roni Biller; Gonen Sagy; Alon Tal

2009-01-01

490

Enhanced Answer Type Inference from Questions using Sequential Models  

Microsoft Academic Search

Question classification is an important step in factual question answering (QA) and other dialog systems. Several at- tempts have been made to apply statistical machine learning approaches, including Support Vector Machines (SVMs) with sophisticated features and kernels. Curi- ously, the payoff beyond a simple bag-of- words representation has been small. We show that most questions reveal their class through a

Vijay Krishnan; Sujatha Das; Soumen Chakrabarti

2005-01-01

491

Questioning Techniques of Fifth and Sixth Grade Reading Teachers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Asking questions is a powerful way for students to learn. They use questions as a "pathway to wandering and wondering" and as a tool to turn confusing curriculum into meaningful learning. In this way, "student generated questions may lead to more demanding study, particularly when the prescribed curriculum is too often preoccupied with answers to…

Bintz, William P.; Williams, Lynne

2005-01-01

492

Explicit versus Implicit Questioning: Inviting All Children to Think Mathematically  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background/Context: Open-ended, or implicit, questioning has been described as central to reform teaching in mathematics. However, concerns about equity have caused some researchers to question whether this kind of teaching is productive for all children. Purpose: This study explores the role that implicit and explicit questions played in…

Parks, Amy Noelle

2010-01-01

493

Environmental Problems, Causes, and Solutions: An Open Question  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a national evaluation of environmental literacy in Israel, (Negev, Sagy, Garb, Salzberg, & Tal, 2008), the authors included both multiple choice questions and open questions. In this article the authors describe the qualitative analysis of the answers to an open question regarding a local environmental problem. Most participants specified solid…

Negev, Maya; Garb, Yaakov; Biller, Roni; Sagy, Gonen; Tal, Alon

2010-01-01

494

Learning search engine specific query transformations for question answering  

Microsoft Academic Search

We introduce a method for learning query transformations that im- proves the ability to retrieve answers to questions from an informa- tion retrieval system. During the training stage the method involves automatically learning phrase features for classifying questions into different types, automatically generating candidate query transfor- mations from a training set of question\\/answer pairs, and automat- ically evaluating the candidate

Eugene Agichtein; Steve Lawrence; Luis Gravano

2001-01-01

495

The Contextual Adaptation of English Teachers' Questioning Strategies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In order to guarantee an interactive classroom atmosphere, English teachers pay much attention to the questioning strategies when they use question-answer teaching method. This paper makes a comprehensive analysis on English teachers' questioning strategies from the perspective of adaptation theory. It shows that the utilization of teachers'…

Xi, Hong-mei; Li, Wang-zi; Lei, Ping

2010-01-01

496

Effects of discriminatory interview questions and gender on applicant reactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Justice and signalling theory were used to explain the effects of discriminatory interview questions on applicant reactions. Participants were randomly assigned to a hypothetical interview condition with four, two or no discriminatory questions. Discriminatory questions had a significant negative effect on participant’s reactions to the interview and interviewer; perceptions of employee treatment; and intentions to pursue employment, accept a job

Alan M. Saks; Julie M. McCarthy

2006-01-01

497

How Physicians' Answers Relate to Health Consumers' Questions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the semantic relationships in consumers' health-related questions, physician-provided answers, and between questions and answers with the purpose of supporting the design of health consumer question-answering systems. The information present in the text was expressed using a "pilot" ontology that was based on the semantic relationships…

Slaughter, Laura; Soergel, Dagobert

2003-01-01

498

Critical Questions for Space Human Factors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Traditional human factors contributions to NASA's crewed space programs have been rooted in the classic approaches to quantifying human physical and cognitive capabilities and limitations in the environment of interest, and producing recommendations and standards for the selection or design of mission equipment. Crews then evaluate the interfaces, displays, or equipment, and with the assistance of human factors experts, improvements are made as funds, time, control documentation, and weight allow. We have come a long way from the early spaceflight days, where men with the ' right stuff were the solution to operating whatever equipment was given to them. The large and diverse Shuttle astronaut corps has impacted mission designs to accommodate a wide range of human capabilities and preferences. Yet with existing long duration experience, we have seen the need to address a different set of dynamics when designing for optimal crew performance: critical equipment and mission situations degrade, and human function changes with mission environment, situation, and duration. Strategies for quantifying the critical nature of human factors requirements are being worked by NASA. Any exploration-class mission will place new responsibilities on mission designers to provide the crew with the information and resources to accomplish the mission. The current duties of a Mission Control Center to monitor system status, detect degradation or malfunction, and provide a proven solution, will need to be incorporated into on-board systems to allow the crew autonomous decision-making. The current option to resupply and replace mission systems and resources, including both vehicle equipment and human operators, will be removed, so considerations of maintenance, onboard training, and proficiency assessment are critical to providing a self-sufficient crew. As we 'move in' to the International Space Station, there are tremendous opportunities to investigate our ability to design for autonomous crews. Yet prioritizing the research that can and should be done by NASA will be based on the critical nature of the issues, and the impact of the individual research questions on mission design. The risks to crew health and safety associated with answering critical human factors issues must be properly included and communicated in order to support the Agency's decisions regarding future space programs.

Woolford, Barbara; Bagian, Tandi

2000-01-01

499

Varying the Cognitive Levels of Classroom Questions: An Analysis of Student Teachers' Questions and Pupil Achievement in Elementary Social Studies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study sought to determine whether student teachers' questioning strategy can be modified to increase their use of higher level cognitive questions and also whether student achievement was higher in classes where the teacher asked more high level questions. Subjects of the study were 20 student teachers assigned to fifth-grade classes in…

Rogers, Virginia; David, O. L.

500

Physicians' use of computer software in answering clinical questions.  

PubMed Central

Descriptive data about the use of medical information software were gathered from physicians who were early users of these resources. Eight clinically active internists and medical subspecialists were lent a microcomputer loaded with six commercially available medical information software products. Participants used the software for two weeks to answer questions arising in their practice and completed written questionnaires. They recorded a total of 50 questions (between 3 and 11 per participant per two-week study period). Using the workstation, participants answered 20 questions (40% of the total), partially answered 16 questions (32%), and did not obtain useful information for 14 questions (28%). Participants found answers outside the workstation to 8 of the 14 questions (57%) not answered by using the software. The most common question topic was drug information (16 questions, or 32% of the total). The most common problems encountered using the workstation were retrieval of incomplete information (20 questions, or 40% of the total) and difficulty navigating the software (16 questions, or 32%). Other problems included difficulty translating clinical problems into questions, inappropriate resource selection, inadequate training for using the software, and excessive time required to access information. The study highlights several opportunities for medical librarians and others involved in clinical information management to facilitate the use of computer software for solving clinical problems.

Osheroff, J A; Bankowitz, R A

1993-01-01