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1

Ordinal Methodology in the Analysis of Likert Scales  

Microsoft Academic Search

Likert scales are widely used in survey studies for attitude measuring. In particular, the questionnaires propagated by the\\u000a SERVQUAL approach are based on Likert scales. Though the problem of attitude suggests an ordinal interpretation of Likert\\u000a scales, attitude survey data are often evaluated with techniques designed for cardinal measurements. The present paper discusses\\u000a the interpretation of scales for attitude measuring

Rainer Göb; Christopher McCollin; Maria Fernanda Ramalhoto

2007-01-01

2

Do Research Participants Give Interval or Ordinal Answers In Response to Likert Scales?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The data scale for Likert scale questionnaires is important in the determination of the statistical analyses that can be used to analyze the data. This paper describes a pilot study of a methodology intended to experimentally determine whether experimental subjects tend to give an ordinal or an interval answers in response to questions asked on Likert scales. Subjects answered 10

Patrick L. Parker; H. Scott McDaniel; Lesia L. Crumpton-Young

3

Psychological Distance between Categories in the Likert Scale: Comparing Different Numbers of Options  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined whether the number of options in the Likert scale influences the psychological distance between categories. The most important assumption when using the Likert scale is that the psychological distance between options is equal. The authors proposed a new algorithm for calculating the scale values of options by applying item…

Wakita, Takafumi; Ueshima, Natsumi; Noguchi, Hiroyuki

2012-01-01

4

Compressed ultrasound video image-quality evaluation using a Likert scale and Kappa statistical analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Experiments using NASA's Advanced Communications Technology Satellite were conducted to provide an estimate of the compressed video quality required for preservation of clinically relevant features for the detection of trauma. Bandwidth rates of 128, 256 and 384 kbps were used. A five point Likert scale (1 equals no useful information and 5 equals good diagnostic quality) was used for a subjective preference questionnaire to evaluate the quality of the compressed ultrasound imagery at the three compression rates for several anatomical regions of interest. At 384 kbps the Likert scores (mean plus or minus SD) were abdomen (4.45 plus or minus 0.71), carotid artery (4.70 plus or minus 0.36), kidney (5.0 plus or minus 0.0), liver (4.67 plus or minus 0.58) and thyroid (4.03 plus or minus 0.74). Due to the volatile nature of the H.320 compressed digital video stream, no statistically significant results can be derived through this methodology. As the MPEG standard has at its roots many of the same intraframe and motion vector compression algorithms as the H.261 (such as that used in the previous ACTS/AMT experiments), we are using the MPEG compressed video sequences to best gauge what minimum bandwidths are necessary for preservation of clinically relevant features for the detection of trauma. We have been using an MPEG codec board to collect losslessly compressed video clips from high quality S- VHS tapes and through direct digitization of S-video. Due to the large number of videoclips and questions to be presented to the radiologists and for ease of application, we have developed a web browser interface for this video visual perception study. Due to the large numbers of observations required to reach statistical significance in most ROC studies, Kappa statistical analysis is used to analyze the degree of agreement between observers and between viewing assessment. If the degree of agreement amongst readers is high, then there is a possibility that the ratings (i.e., average Likert score at each bandwidth) do in fact reflect the dimension they are purported to reflect (video quality versus bandwidth). It is then possible to make intelligent choice of bandwidth for streaming compressed video and compressed videoclips.

Stewart, Brent K.; Carter, Stephen J.; Langer, Steven G.; Andrew, Rex K.

1998-06-01

5

Attitudes of heterosexuals toward homosexuality: A Likert?type scale and construct validity  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reports on three phases of the development of a Likert?type scale measuring heterosexual attitudes toward homosexuality. Phase 1 describes the development of the scale. Item analysis yielded 20 statements with item?total correlations ranging from .57 to .74. In Phase 2 the 20?item Heterosexual Attitudes Toward Homosexuality (HATH) Scale was administered to 82 subjects. Analysis yielded a corrected split?half

Knud S. Larsen; Michael Reed; Susan Hoffman

1980-01-01

6

Designing a likert-type scale to assess attitude toward energy conservation: A nine step process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A nine-step process was used as a multilevel screening mechanism in developing a Likert-type scale that measures that attitudes of teachers toward energy conservation. Following the assemblage of a 71 statement item pool, the statements were analyzed via qualitative criteria (i.e., presence of authoritative appeals, use of double negatives, statements irrelevant to the attitude object, etc.). The 60 statements meeting the qualitative criteria were then pilotted using a sample of 93 preservice elementary teachers. One of the 60 statements was modified as a result of respondent feedback. Data collected from respondents were anlayzed using the Likert Attitude Scale Analysis Main Program (LIKRT) and the emotional intensity of each statement was judged by the criteria: discrimination index, bipolar data, and neutral data. Nineteen statements that were part of the initial item pool met all the criteria set forth by the nine-step process; as a result, these statements composed the Attitude Toward Energy Conservation Scale. Coefficient alpha for the scale was reported at 0.81 by LIKRT with an average adjusted item-total correlation of 0.48. Initial validity data collected suggests the scale to be a valid measure of preservice teachers' attitudes toward energy conservation.

Koballa, Thomas R., Jr.

7

What's wrong with cross-cultural comparisons of subjective Likert scales?: The reference-group effect.  

PubMed

Social comparison theory maintains that people think about themselves compared with similar others. Those in one culture, then, compare themselves with different others and standards than do those in another culture, thus potentially confounding cross-cultural comparisons. A pilot study and Study 1 demonstrated the problematic nature of this reference-group effect: Whereas cultural experts agreed that East Asians are more collectivistic than North Americans, cross-cultural comparisons of trait and attitude measures failed to reveal such a pattern. Study 2 found that manipulating reference groups enhanced the expected cultural differences, and Study 3 revealed that people from different cultural backgrounds within the same country exhibited larger differences than did people from different countries. Cross-cultural comparisons using subjective Likert scales are compromised because of different reference groups. Possible solutions are discussed. PMID:12051579

Heine, Steven J; Lehman, Darrin R; Peng, Kaiping; Greenholtz, Joe

2002-06-01

8

The Analysis of Likert Scales Using State Multipoles: An Application of Quantum Methods to Behavioral Sciences Data  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Though ubiquitous, Likert scaling's traditional mode of analysis is often unable to uncover all of the valid information in a data set. Here, the authors discuss a solution to this problem based on methodology developed by quantum physicists: the state multipole method. The authors demonstrate the relative ease and value of this method by…

Camparo, James; Camparo, Lorinda B.

2013-01-01

9

Prostate Cancer Localization Using Multiparametric MR Imaging: Comparison of Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System (PI-RADS) and Likert Scales.  

PubMed

Purpose: To compare the recently proposed Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System (PI-RADS) scale that incorporates fixed criteria and a standard Likert scale based on overall impression in prostate cancer localization using multiparametric magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Materials and Methods: This retrospective study was HIPAA compliant and institutional review board approved. Seventy patients who underwent 3-T pelvic MR imaging, including T2-weighted imaging, diffusion-weighted imaging, and dynamic contrast material-enhanced imaging, with a pelvic phased-array coil before radical prostatectomy were included. Three radiologists, each with 6 years of experience, independently scored 18 regions (12 peripheral zone [PZ], six transition zone [TZ]) using PI-RADS (range, scores 3-15) and Likert (range, scores 1-5) scales. Logistic regression for correlated data was used to compare scales for detection of tumors larger than 3 mm in maximal diameter at prostatectomy. Results: Maximal accuracy was achieved with score thresholds of 8 and higher and of 3 and higher for PI-RADS and Likert scales, respectively. At these thresholds, in the PZ, similar accuracy was achieved with the PI-RADS scale and the Likert scale for radiologist 1 (89.0% vs 88.2%, P = .223) and radiologist 3 (88.5% vs 88.2%, P = .739) and greater accuracy was achieved with the PI-RADS scale than the Likert scale for radiologist 2 (89.6% vs 87.1%, P = .008). In the TZ, accuracy was lower with the PI-RADS scale than with the Likert scale for radiologist 1 (70.0% vs 87.1%, P < .001), radiologist 2 (87.6% vs 92.6%, P = .002), and radiologist 3 (82.9% vs 91.2%, P < .001). For tumors with Gleason score of at least 7, sensitivity was higher with the PI-RADS scale than with the Likert scale for radiologist 1 (88.6% vs 82.6%, P = .032), and sensitivity was similar for radiologist 2 (78.0% vs 76.5, P = .467) and radiologist 3 (77.3% vs 81.1%, P = .125). Conclusion: Radiologists performed well with both PI-RADS and Likert scales for tumor localization, although, in the TZ, performance was better with the Likert scale than the PI-RADS scale. © RSNA, 2013 Supplemental material: http://radiology.rsna.org/lookup/suppl/doi:10.1148/radiol.13122233/-/DC1. PMID:23788719

Rosenkrantz, Andrew B; Kim, Sooah; Lim, Ruth P; Hindman, Nicole; Deng, Fang-Ming; Babb, James S; Taneja, Samir S

2013-06-20

10

Comparison of interreader reproducibility of the prostate imaging reporting and data system and likert scales for evaluation of multiparametric prostate MRI.  

PubMed

OBJECTIVE. The objective of our study was to compare interreader reproducibility of the recently proposed "Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System," or "PI-RADS," scale incorporating fixed criteria and a standard Likert scale based on overall impression for prostate cancer localization using multiparametric MRI. MATERIALS AND METHODS. Fifty-five patients who underwent a 3-T prostate MRI examination using a pelvic phased-array coil and incorporating T2-weighted imaging, diffusion-weighted imaging, and dynamic contrast-enhanced imaging were included in the study. Three radiologists (6, 4, and 1 year of experience) independently scored 18 regions (12 in the peripheral zone [PZ] and six in the transition zone [TZ]) using PI-RADS (range, 3-15) and Likert (range, 1-5) scales, which were based on fixed criteria and overall impression, respectively. Interreader reproducibility was evaluated using the concordance correlation coefficient (CCC), which assesses exact agreement between scores (minimal, < 0.2; poor, 0.2-<0.4; moderate, 0.4-<0.6; strong, 0.6-<0.8; almost perfect, ? 0.8). RESULTS. Agreement between experienced readers was strong in the PZ and TZ combined and in the PZ for both the PI-RADS and Likert scales (CCC = 0.608-0.677), moderate in the TZ for the Likert scale (CCC = 0.519), and poor in the TZ for PI-RADS (CCC = 0.376). Agreement between experienced and inexperienced readers was moderate to poor in the PZ and TZ combined for PI-RADS (CCC = 0.340-0.477), moderate in the PZ and TZ combined for the Likert scale (CCC = 0.471-0.497), moderate in the PZ for PI-RADS and Likert scales (CCC = 0.472-0.542), minimal to poor in the TZ for PI-RADS (CCC = 0.094-0.283), and poor in the TZ for the Likert scale (CCC = 0.287-0.400). CONCLUSION. Interreader reproducibility tended to be higher for relatively experienced readers than for less experienced readers and to be higher in the PZ than in the TZ. For the relatively experienced readers, reproducibility was similar for PI-RADS and Likert scales in the PZ but was somewhat higher for the Likert scale than for PI-RADS in the TZ. PMID:24059400

Rosenkrantz, Andrew B; Lim, Ruth P; Haghighi, Mershad; Somberg, Molly B; Babb, James S; Taneja, Samir S

2013-10-01

11

Score Reliability in Webor Internet-Based Surveys: Unnumbered Graphic Rating Scales versus Likert-Type Scales  

Microsoft Academic Search

Unnumbered graphic rating scales theoretically can lead to greater score variance and thus greater score reliability. The use of Web-based graphic sliders overcomes the practical problems of administering graphic scales on paper measures: the excessive costs of scoring and excessive scoring errors arising from the tediousness of scoring done by hand. The study investigated whether graphic scales realize theoretically expected

Colleen Cook; Fred Heath; Russel L. Thompson; Bruce Thompson

2001-01-01

12

Scaling question answering to the web  

Microsoft Academic Search

The wealth of information on the web makes it an attractive resource for seeking quick answers to simple, factual questions such as "e;who was the first American in space?"e; or "e;what is the second tallest mountain in the world?"e; Yet today's most advanced web search services (e.g., Google and AskJeeves) make it surprisingly tedious to locate answers to such questions.

Cody Kwok; Oren Etzioni; Daniel S. Weld

2001-01-01

13

A Question of Scale: Quarks to Quasars  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site consists of a series of pages, each depicting and describing an object(s) on a different order of magnitude. There are 42 pages of this in all, for 42 powers of ten, starting with quarks (10^-14 meters) and ending with 'near the limit of our knowledge' (10^25 meters). The pictures 'zoom out,' with the quarks being part of a proton being part of a nucleus, and so on. There are short descriptions for each of the physics-related objects (i.e. quarks, atoms, clusters) and some of the locations, as well as links to more extensive descriptions. Also included is a page on units and scales.

Bryson, Bruce

2004-07-17

14

Estimating Ordinal Reliability for Likert-Type and Ordinal Item Response Data: A Conceptual, Empirical, and Practical Guide  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper provides a conceptual, empirical, and practical guide for estimating ordinal reliability coefficients for ordinal item response data (also referred to as Likert, Likert-type, ordered categorical, or rating scale item responses). Conventionally, reliability coefficients, such as Cronbach's alpha, are calculated using a Pearson…

Gadermann, Anne M.; Guhn, Martin; Zumbo, Bruno D.

2012-01-01

15

Brief Questions to Identify Patients With Inadequate Health Literacy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and Objectives: No practical method for identifying patients with low heath literacy exists. We sought to develop screening questions for identifying patients with inadequate or marginal health literacy. Methods: Patients (n=332) at a VA preoperative clinic completed in-person interviews that in- cluded 16 health literacy screening questions on a 5-point Likert scale, followed by a validated health literacy measure,

Lisa D. Chew; Katharine A. Bradley; Edward J. Boyko

2004-01-01

16

Questions  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

Text Version... Questions Sildenafil July 29, 2010 DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Public Health Service Food and Drug Administration ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/advisorycommittees/committeesmeetingmaterials

17

Quantitative analysis of scale of aeromagnetic data raises questions about geologic-map scale  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A recently published study has shown that small-scale geologic map data can reproduce mineral assessments made with considerably larger scale data. This result contradicts conventional wisdom about the importance of scale in mineral exploration, at least for regional studies. In order to formally investigate aspects of scale, a weights-of-evidence analysis using known gold occurrences and deposits in the Central Lapland Greenstone Belt of Finland as training sites provided a test of the predictive power of the aeromagnetic data. These orogenic-mesothermal-type gold occurrences and deposits have strong lithologic and structural controls associated with long (up to several kilometers), narrow (up to hundreds of meters) hydrothermal alteration zones with associated magnetic lows. The aeromagnetic data were processed using conventional geophysical methods of successive upward continuation simulating terrane clearance or 'flight height' from the original 30 m to an artificial 2000 m. The analyses show, as expected, that the predictive power of aeromagnetic data, as measured by the weights-of-evidence contrast, decreases with increasing flight height. Interestingly, the Moran autocorrelation of aeromagnetic data representing differing flight height, that is spatial scales, decreases with decreasing resolution of source data. The Moran autocorrelation coefficient scems to be another measure of the quality of the aeromagnetic data for predicting exploration targets. ?? Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2007.

Nykanen, V.; Raines, G. L.

2006-01-01

18

Comparison among antiretroviral adherence questions  

PubMed Central

Our objective was to compare antiretroviral adherence questions. Among 53 methadone maintained HIV-infected drug users, we compared five measures, including two single item measures using qualitative Likert-type responses, one measure of percent adherence, one visual analog scale, and one measure that averaged responses across antiretrovirals. Responses were termed inconsistent if respondents endorsed the highest adherence level on at least one measure but middle levels on others. We examined ceiling effects, concordance, and correlations with VL. Response distributions differed markedly between measures. A ceiling effect was less pronounced for the single-item measures than for the measure that averaged responses for each antiretroviral: the proportion with 100% adherence varied from 22% (single item measure) to 58% (multi-item measure). Overall agreement between measures ranged from fair to good; 49% of participants had inconsistent responses. Though responses correlated with VL, single-item measures had higher correlations. Future studies should compare single-item questions to objective measures.

Berg, Karina M.; Wilson, Ira B.; Li, Xuan; Arnsten, Julia H.

2013-01-01

19

Relationships between rating scales, question stem wording, and community responses to railway noise  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two series of social surveys on community responses to railway noise were carried out in Japan to evaluate the relationships between two verbal scales and a numeric scale, and those among four base descriptors. In the first survey, two types of questionnaires were prepared in which a 0-10- point numeric scale was used in combination with either a four-point or a five-point verbal scale. The key questions concerned annoyance, activity disturbance and related effects caused by railway noise. Community responses were compared on the basis of the dose-response relationships. Regarding the percentages of respondents who answered, "highly annoyed," it was found that there were no systematic differences between the two verbal scales. It was also found that the extent of noise annoyance rated on the four-point or five-point verbal scale corresponded with that rated on the 11-point numeric scale by percentages of scale steps. In the second survey, four types of questionnaires were prepared, each using one of the four base descriptors. Community responses to general noise annoyance among the four base descriptors were compared. No systematic differences were found among the four base descriptors.

Sato, Tetsumi; Yano, Takashi; Morihara, Takashi; Masden, Kirk

2004-10-01

20

Validity Issues in the Likert and Thurstone Approaches to Attitude Measurement  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article highlights the theoretical differences between the Likert and Thurstone approaches to attitude measurement and demonstrates how such differences can lead to discrepant attitude estimates for individuals with the most extreme opinions. Both simulated data and real data on attitude toward abortion are used to demonstrate this discrepancy. The results suggest that attitude researchers should, at the very least,

James S. Roberts; James E. Laughlin; Douglas H. Wedell

1999-01-01

21

What's wrong with cross-cultural comparisons of subjective Likert scales?: The reference-group effect  

Microsoft Academic Search

Social comparison theory maintains that people think about themselves compared with similar others. Those in one culture, then, compare themselves with different others and standards than do those in another culture, thus potentially confounding cross-cultural comparisons. A pilot study and Study 1 demonstrated the problematic nature of this reference-group effect: Whereas cultural experts agreed that East Asians are more collectivistic

Steven J. Heine; Darrin R. Lehman; Kaiping Peng; Joe Greenholtz

2002-01-01

22

The Circadian Energy Scale (CIRENS): two simple questions for a reliable chronotype measurement based on energy.  

PubMed

This study presents the Circadian Energy Scale (CIRENS), a very short and simple chronotype measurement tool based on energy. The CIRENS consists of two introspective questions about the usual energy level (very low, low, moderate, high, or very high, scored 1 to 5) in the morning and in the evening. The difference between energy level scores (-4 to 4) felt by respondents in the evening and morning defines the chronotype score and classification. A concurrent validity analysis of the CIRENS with the widely used Horne and Östberg Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire (MEQ) was conducted using a sample of 225 college students, and with MSFsc, a sleep-based chronotype assessment tool based on the Munich Chronotype Questionnaire (MCTQ), using a sample of 34,530 subjects (18-83 yrs, 27% males). This large sample was collected in a Web survey for behavioral correlates of the CIRENS with variables previously associated with chronotype differences. The correlation of the CIRENS chronotype score was r?=?-.70 with the MEQ and r?=?.32 with the MSFsc. CIRENS chronotype scores declined with age and were not affected by sex. Both CIRENS and MSFsc chronotype scores were related to differences in tobacco, caffeine, and cola soft-drink consumption (all higher in evening types). The CIRENS provides a simple chronotype index and a measure of absolute energy throughout the day and seems to be a reliable chronotype assessment tool that may be useful both clinically and for large-scale studies. PMID:21452918

Ottoni, Gustavo L; Antoniolli, Eduardo; Lara, Diogo R

2011-04-01

23

Relationships between rating scales, question stem wording, and community responses to railway noise  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two series of social surveys on community responses to railway noise were carried out in Japan to evaluate the relationships between two verbal scales and a numeric scale, and those among four base descriptors. In the first survey, two types of questionnaires were prepared in which a 0–10- point numeric scale was used in combination with either a four-point or

Tetsumi Sato; Takashi Yano; Takashi Morihara; Kirk Masden

2004-01-01

24

Dealing with missing data in a multi-question depression scale: a comparison of imputation methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Missing data present a challenge to many research projects. The problem is often pronounced in studies utilizing self-report scales, and literature addressing different strategies for dealing with missing data in such circumstances is scarce. The objective of this study was to compare six different imputation techniques for dealing with missing data in the Zung Self-reported Depression scale (SDS). METHODS:

Fiona M Shrive; Heather Stuart; Hude Quan; William A Ghali

2006-01-01

25

Validating the Use of Anchoring Vignettes for the Correction of Response Scale Differences in Subjctive Questions.  

PubMed

Comparing self-assessed indicators of subjective outcomes such as health, work disability, political efficacy, job satisfaction, etc. across countries or socio-economic groups is often hampered by the fact that different groups use different response scales. This paper develops an integrated framework in which objective measurements are used to validate vignette-based corrections. The framework is applied to objective and subjective self-assessments of drinking behavior by students in Ireland. Model comparisons using the Akaike information criterion favor a specification with response consistency and vignette corrected response scales. Put differently, vignette based corrections appear quite effective in bringing objective and subjective measures closer together. PMID:23526119

Van Soest, Arthur; Delaney, Liam; Harmon, Colm; Kapteyn, Arie; Smith, James P

2011-07-01

26

THE DEVELOPMENT OF A COMPETENCE SCALE FOR LEARNING SCIENCE: INQUIRY AND COMMUNICATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to develop an instrument to measure school students’ competence in learning science as part\\u000a of a large research project in Taiwan. The instrument consisted of 29 self-report, Likert-type items divided into 2 scales:\\u000a Competence in Scientific Inquiry and Competence in Communication. The Competence in Scientific Inquiry scale contained 4 subscales:\\u000a presenting questions and hypothesis,

Huey-Por Chang; Chin-Chang Chen; Gwo-Jen Guo; Yeong-Jin Cheng; Chen-Yung Lin; Tsung-Hau Jen

2011-01-01

27

Boise Hydrogeophysical Research Site: Field-Scale Test Facility for Addressing Fundamental Questions of Environmental Science  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Boise Hydrogeophysical Research Site (BHRS) is a research wellfield or field-scale test facility developed in a shallow, coarse, fluvial aquifer with the objectives of supporting (a) development of cost-effective, non- invasive methods for quantitative characterization and imaging methods in heterogeneous aquifers using hydrologic and geophysical techniques; (b) examination of fundamental relationships and processes at multiple scales; (c) testing theories and models for groundwater flow and solute transport; and (d) educating and training the next generation of professionals in multidisciplinary subsurface science and engineering. The design of the wells and the wellfield provide for a wide range of single-well, cross-hole, multiwell and multilevel hydrologic, geophysical, and combined hydrologic-geophysical experiments. Efforts have been focused largely on (a) establishing the 3D distributions of geologic, hydrologic, and geophysical parameters which can then be used as the basis for testing methods to jointly invert hard and soft data to return the "known" 3D K distribution and (b) developing subsurface measurement and imaging methods including static and time-lapse tomographic imaging methods. From this work we have developed a good understanding of the hydrostratigraphic framework of the BHRS as a hierarchical system which includes layers and lenses; this framework is recognized with geologic, hydrologic, radar, seismic, and EM methods and tracer tests. Work to date has been conducted by Boise State University with some collaboration and exchange with researchers and students from other institutions. At this point the BHRS is functioning well as a field-scale control volume and test cell in a multiscale heterogeneous aquifer so there is an opportunity to increase the range of both collaborative participation and research activities at the BHRS. In this regard, opportunities exist to investigate and monitor process and property variation in time and space, and fluxes within system components and across boundaries (i.e., ground water, surface water, unsaturated zone, phreatophytes) including chemical and biological/microbiological investigations in addition to on-going hydrologic and geophysical investigations.

Barrash, W.; Routh, P. S.

2006-12-01

28

Sex-Role Stereotyping, Gender Biases, and Job Selection: The Use of Ordinal Logit in Analyzing Likert Scale Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sex-role stereotyping and gender biases are examined in a study of 246 individuals. Results show that previous gender biases in job selection have all but disappeared; however, biases still seem prevalent in the assessment of individuals' long term success on the job. Specifically, the findings showed that while gender biases are found only slightly in the hiring decisions of male

Robin L. Snipes; Sharon L. Oswald; Steven B. Caudill

1998-01-01

29

Attitude measurement: Judging the emotional intensity of likert-type science attitude statements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Emotional intensity, that readiness of a teacher to respond favorably or unfavorably toward such psychological objects as science or the teaching of science, is the quality that distinguishes the attitude concept from other related psychological concepts. It would seem, then, that valid attitude statements, if they are to reflect the definition of attitude, would evoke emotional intensity, responses in both a favorable and unfavorable direction by a group of teachers on each item on a science attitude scale. Science educators who design or modify science attitude scales should continue using item-total correlations and other quantitative techniques to test for emotional intensity, but qualitative judgments are necessary, too. In addition, the frequency distribution of data generated by each statement should be examined for skewness and high percentages of neutral responses, both of which can impair the emotional intensity of an item.

Shrigley, Robert L.; Koballa, Thomas R., Jr.

30

On the Question of an Identity Status Category Order: Rasch Model Step and Scale Statistics Used to Identify Category Order  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The question of whether or not a developmental continuum underlies James Marcia's identity statuses has been a topic of debate among identity researchers for nearly 20 years. This study addressed the prefatory question of whether the identity statuses can be empirically ordered in a theoretically optimal way. This question was addressed via use…

Al-Owidha, Amjed; Green, Kathy E.; Kroger, Jane

2009-01-01

31

question_1301530459 — Provocative Questions  

Cancer.gov

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This is an important question - many cancers such as multiple myeloma are characterized by genomic instability, with new cytogenetic abnormalities, deletions or mutations, and other genetic changes detected as disease progresses.

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question_1298674892 — Provocative Questions  

Cancer.gov

Provocative Questions Skip to content. | Skip to navigation Personal tools Sign Up Log in Sections Home Home Current RFAs and PQs Cancer Prevention and Risk Mechanisms of Tumor Development or Recurrence Tumor Detection, Diagnosis, and Prognosis Cancer

47

question_1312382828 — Provocative Questions  

Cancer.gov

Provocative Questions Skip to content. | Skip to navigation Personal tools Sign Up Log in Sections Home Home Current RFAs and PQs Cancer Prevention and Risk Mechanisms of Tumor Development or Recurrence Tumor Detection, Diagnosis, and Prognosis Cancer

48

question_1337052960 — Provocative Questions  

Cancer.gov

Provocative Questions Skip to content. | Skip to navigation Personal tools Sign Up Log in Sections Home Home Current RFAs and PQs Cancer Prevention and Risk Mechanisms of Tumor Development or Recurrence Tumor Detection, Diagnosis, and Prognosis Cancer

49

question_1297191054 — Provocative Questions  

Cancer.gov

Provocative Questions Skip to content. | Skip to navigation Personal tools Sign Up Log in Sections Home Home Current RFAs and PQs Cancer Prevention and Risk Mechanisms of Tumor Development or Recurrence Tumor Detection, Diagnosis, and Prognosis Cancer

50

question_1309360864 — Provocative Questions  

Cancer.gov

Provocative Questions Skip to content. | Skip to navigation Personal tools Sign Up Log in Sections Home Home Current RFAs and PQs Cancer Prevention and Risk Mechanisms of Tumor Development or Recurrence Tumor Detection, Diagnosis, and Prognosis Cancer

51

question_1309532294 — Provocative Questions  

Cancer.gov

Provocative Questions Skip to content. | Skip to navigation Personal tools Sign Up Log in Sections Home Home Current RFAs and PQs Cancer Prevention and Risk Mechanisms of Tumor Development or Recurrence Tumor Detection, Diagnosis, and Prognosis Cancer

52

question_1296513894 — Provocative Questions  

Cancer.gov

Provocative Questions Skip to content. | Skip to navigation Personal tools Sign Up Log in Sections Home Home Current RFAs and PQs Cancer Prevention and Risk Mechanisms of Tumor Development or Recurrence Tumor Detection, Diagnosis, and Prognosis Cancer

53

Optimum Response Categories for the Religious Motivation Scale  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Likert response scales are widely used in the social sciences, typically to measure attitudes and personality. This study seeks to understand the optimal number of categories to include in a Likert scale measuring attitudes. Therefore, the author examined four versions of an attitude measure, the Religious Motivation Scale, ranging from a 4- to…

Kraska, Chad

2011-01-01

54

Reliability and Validity of a German Version of the Questions About Behavioral Function (QABF) Scale for Self-Injurious Behavior in Individuals With Intellectual Disabilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

The psychometric properties of a German version of the Questions About Behavioral Function Scale (QABF) (Matson & Vollmer, 1995) were examined in a sample of 522 individuals with intellectual disabilities residing in large facilities participated. The factor structure was first examined by exploratory factor analysis, yielding a five-factor-solution that was identical to the one described by the authors of the

Pia Bienstein; Susanne Nussbeck

2009-01-01

55

question_1303305591 — Provocative Questions  

Cancer.gov

This is an outstanding and intellectually-stimulating question which introduces a new way to translate more effectively metastasis research to the clinic. It is certainly worth exploring and badly needed. because, if positive, drugs could be immediately useful to help defined populations of patients. Per points, we agree that these are limited metastasis groups; however, results could at minimum justify moving forward to full adjuvant trials. Worthy cause given the "bottleneck" we experience nowadays since drugs are mostly not tested in metastasis prevention.

56

Validating Five Questions of Antiretroviral Nonadherence in a Public-Sector Treatment Program in Rural South Africa  

PubMed Central

Abstract Simple questions are the most commonly used measures of antiretroviral treatment (ART) adherence in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), but rarely validated. We administered five adherence questions in a public-sector primary care clinic in rural South Africa: 7-day recall of missed doses, 7-day recall of late doses, a six-level Likert item, a 30-day visual analogue scale of the proportion of doses missed, and recall of the time when an ART dose was last missed. We estimated question sensitivity and specificity in detecting immunologic (or virologic) failure assessed within 45 days of the adherence question date. Of 165 individuals, 7% had immunologic failure; 137 individuals had viral loads with 9% failure detected. The Likert item performed best for immunologic failure with sensitivity/specificity of 100%/5% (when defining nonadherence as self-reported adherence less than “excellent”), 42%/55% (less than “very good”), and 25%/95% (less than “good”). The remaining questions had sensitivities ?17%, even when the least strict cutoffs defined nonadherence. When we stratified the analysis by gender, age, or education, question performance was not substantially better in any of the subsamples in comparison to the total sample. Five commonly used adherence questions performed poorly in identifying patients with treatment failure in a public-sector ART program in SSA. Valid adherence measurement instruments are urgently required to identify patients needing treatment support and those most at risk of treatment failure. Available estimates of ART adherence in SSA are mostly based on studies using adherence questions. It is thus unlikely that our understanding of ART adherence in the region is correct.

Chaiyachati, Krisda; Hirschhorn, Lisa R.; Tanser, Frank; Newell, Marie-Louise

2011-01-01

57

Use of questioning during lectures in a dental hygiene didactic course.  

PubMed

The purposes of this quasi-experimental, one-group crossover study were to determine the effect of questioning during dental hygiene lectures on low-level and high-level learning and to evaluate student perceptions of questioning. Twenty-three dental hygiene students participated in two control lectures using traditional lecturing methods. The students served as their own controls by next participating in two experimental lectures with questions asked throughout the lecture at both low and high cognitive levels. Student performance was measured with an examination containing low- and high-level questions. The interaction between the group and the level of questions was analyzed using ANOVA, and no statistically significant difference was found. Based on a Likert scale (1 to 6), average ratings for student perceptions were as follows: enjoyment of use, 4.5; understanding the lecture material, 4.74; and questioning effectiveness, 4.35. Student perceptions of questioning were positive; however, this strategy was found to be no more effective than the traditional lecture in promoting retention of information. PMID:21828301

Hessheimer, Heather M; Rogo, Ellen J; Howlett, Bernadette

2011-08-01

58

Large-Scale Wind-Energy Utilisation and Some Open Questions in Atmospheric-Boundary-Layer Energetics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Basically, energetics in an atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) without energy extraction by turbines is simple: The potential energy (PE) of the pressure-field is transformed to kinetic energy (KE) of the wind by down-gradient volume-flow. KE is further transformed to turbulent KE (TKE), which is dissipated to heat by viscous processes at the smallest turbulence scales. In stable stratification, a small

Juan Carlos Bergmann

2010-01-01

59

About Provocative Questions — Provocative Questions  

Cancer.gov

The provocative questions initiative has assembled a list of 24 important questions from the research community to stimulate the NCI’s research communities to use laboratory, clinical and populations sciences in especially effective and imaginative ways to answer the questions. The questions are not simple restatements of long-term goals of the National Cancer Program, which are to improve the prevention, detection, diagnosis, and treatment of all forms of cancer.

60

Further Empirical Results on Parametric Versus Non-Parametric IRT Modeling of Likert-Type Personality Data  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Chernyshenko, Stark, Chan, Drasgow, and Williams (2001) investigated the fit of Samejima's logistic graded model and Levine's non-parametric MFS model to the scales of two personality questionnaires and found that the graded model did not fit well. We attribute the poor fit of the graded model to small amounts of multidimensionality present in…

Maydeu-Olivares, Albert

2005-01-01

61

Further Empirical Results on Parametric Versus Non-Parametric IRT Modeling of Likert-Type Personality Data  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Chernyshenko, Stark, Chan, Drasgow, and Williams (2001) investigated the fit of Samejima's logistic graded model and Levine's non-parametric MFS model to the scales of two personality questionnaires and found that the graded model did not fit well. We attribute the poor fit of the graded model to small amounts of multidimensionality present in…

Maydeu-Olivares, Albert

2005-01-01

62

Questioning Styles  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In this article, the author discusses a project involving the observation of 12 teachers in different schools, teaching pupils at Key Stage 3 of differing ages and abilities, noting both questioning techniques used and pupils' responses. The teachers involved were volunteers, chosen to give a range of experience, styles, and school, and included…

Martin, Nikki

2003-01-01

63

Four Questions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Teaching artists often find themselves working in schools and communities that are new to them, whether these are situations close to home or farther afield. This issue of Four Questions highlights teaching artists who travel extensively as part of their teaching and artistic practices and bring their expertise, energy, and creativity to…

Hark-Weber, Amara G., Ed.

2013-01-01

64

101questions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website, created by math educator Dan Meyer, randomly displays photos and brief videos contributed by Meyer or visitors to the site. The photos and videos are in intended to be "perplexing" and to promote wondering. Visitors to the site are encouraged to post questions inspired by the images. Many of these can be used in the classroom to spark inquiry and initiate mathematics investigations. The page links to a related blog.

2012-03-01

65

Lifestyle Alternatives: Development and Evaluation of an Attitude Scale.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes the construction and testing of an instrument to assess attitudes toward voluntary simplicity of lifestyle. The scale consists of 120 Likert items concerning such behaviors as recycling, home production of goods, conservation of resources, and sharing of skills. (SK)|

Pestle, Ruth E.; And Others

1982-01-01

66

Labeled scales (e.g., category, Likert, VAS) and invalid across-group comparisons: what we have learned from genetic variation in taste  

Microsoft Academic Search

Direct comparisons of sensory or hedonic perceived intensities across individuals are impossible since we cannot share experiences. However, experiences can be compared indirectly if we can identify a standard assumed to be equal, on average, to groups compared. Sensory standards (i.e., magnitude matching) have proved very useful. Intensity adjectives\\/adverbs have also been used as standards (e.g., This tastes very strong

L. M Bartoshuk; V. B Duffy; K Fast; B. G Green; J Prutkin; D. J Snyder

2003-01-01

67

Putting the feminism into feminism scales: Introduction of a Liberal Feminist Attitude and Ideology Scale (LFAIS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Likert-type scale was developed to provide a feminist attitude measure that taps the domains of gender role attitudes, goals of feminism, and feminist ideology. The development and testing of the scale involved two studies. First, a pilot study was conducted to help generate themes and items for the scale. Second, the validity and reliability of the scale was empirically

Betsy Levonian Morgan

1996-01-01

68

The helium question  

Microsoft Academic Search

The question of the desirability of a governmental program of recovering and storing helium from helium-rich natural gas for the low-cost supply of future helium demands is considered. The geologic occurence and distribution of helium, most of which is found in the United States, are discussed, and difficulties in the assessment of helium resources are presented. Uncertainties of future large-scale

E. Cook

1979-01-01

69

Geomagnetic Field Frequently Asked Questions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

At this site the question and answer format is used to provide information about the Earth's magnetic field. Frequently asked questions are linked to detailed answers. Along with standard questions about the magnetic poles and how a compass works, there are sections about geomagnetic models, Space Weather Scales and magnetic field reversals. Links lead to a site to download the latest model as well as sites for more detailed information.

2007-09-05

70

Validity and Reliability of Trichotomous Achievement Goal Scale  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Trichotomous Achievement Goal Scale was developed by Agbuga and Xiang (2008) by including selected items from the scales of Duda and Nicholls (1992), Elliot (1999), and Elliot and Church (1997) and adapting them into Turkish. The scale consists of 18 items, and students rated each item on a 7-point Likert scale. To ascertain the validity and reliability of the

Gökçe Erturan ?lker; Yunus Arslan; G?yasettin Demirhan

2011-01-01

71

Perception of Parents Scale: Development and Validation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes the development and validation of the Perception of Parents Scale (POPS), which was designed to measure the transformation in parent-child relations from the initial positions of authority and obedience to the mature position of mutual reciprocity. A 51-item, 4-point Likert scale was designed. Items were divided into three…

Wintre, Maxine Gallander; Yaffe, Marvin

72

Designing the Nuclear Energy Attitude Scale.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presents a refined method for designing a valid and reliable Likert-type scale to test attitudes toward the generation of electricity from nuclear energy. Discusses various tests of validity that were used on the nuclear energy scale. Reports results of administration and concludes that the test is both reliable and valid. (CW)|

Calhoun, Lawrence; And Others

1988-01-01

73

Cross-cultural adaptation and patients' judgments of a Question Prompt List for Italian-speaking cancer patients  

PubMed Central

Background Question Prompt Lists (QPLs) have proven very effective in encouraging cancer patients to ask questions, allowing them to take up a more active role during visits with the oncologist. As no such tool has yet been validated for Italian-speaking users, we carried out the cross-cultural adaptation and evaluation of an existing Australian Question Prompt List. Methods Cross-cultural adaptation was performed in accordance with the five steps described by Guillemin and Beaton. Forward and back translations of the original tool were carried out, and the products discussed by an Expert Committee who agreed on a prefinal version of the Italian QPL, which was submitted to 30 volunteer patients for evaluation. They rated each question's adequacy of content, clarity of wording, usefulness, and generated anxiety, on a 3-point Likert scale. Based on the analysis of patient ratings, the final version of the Italian QPL was produced. Results Few discrepancies between the two back translations and the original version of the instrument were noted, indicating that the Italian translation (synthesis of the 2 forward translations) was substantially accurate. Most volunteer patients felt that the questionnaire was adequate, easy to understand and useful. Only a few minor criticisms were expressed. Certain questions on diagnosis and prognosis generated the highest level of anxiety. Patient comments and ratings on clarity highlighted the need to clarify common health care terms which are not widely used by the public (i.e. guideline, multidisciplinary team and clinical trial) Conclusions This cross-cultural adaptation has produced an Italian Question Prompt List that is now available for multi-center international studies and can be safely used with Italian-speaking cancer patients.

2010-01-01

74

Questions, Questioning Techniques, and Effective Teaching.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book focuses on questioning techniques and strategies teachers may employ to make the difference between active and passive learning in the classroom. There are nine chapters: (1) Why Questions? (Ambrose A. Clegg, Jr.); (2) Review of Research on Questioning Techniques (Meredith D. Gall and Tom Rhody); (3) The Multidisciplinary World of…

Wilen, William W., Ed.

75

VALIDATION OF THE MOTIVATION FOR EATING SCALE  

Microsoft Academic Search

For items used in the Likert-type Motivation for Eating Scale (MFES), content domain was clearly specified and a panel of experts assessed the relevance of each item. Based on responses from 298 participants in the western United States, the MFES was evaluated for internal consistency and reliability using factor analysis and correlation techniques. The factor solution isolated four factors that

STEVEN R. HAWKS; CARI G. MERRILL; Julie A. GAST; JAYLYN F. HAWKS

2004-01-01

76

A Three Component Alcohol Attitude Scale.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A summated rating scale of the Likert-type, constructed to measure college students' attitudes toward alcohol use and abuse, is discussed in this article. The three-component approach was found to be an appropriate technique for measuring attitudes towards health related behaviors. (Author/DF)|

Veenker, C. H.; Torabi, Mohammad R.

1984-01-01

77

An Examination of Four Arithmetic Attitude Scales.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines at the elementary school level four different types of instruments in order to assess their capability to measure the attitudes toward arithmetic of third and fifth grade children. The four arithmetic attitude instruments were administered using a Latin Square model and included: the Dutton-Thurstone Scale, the Dutton-Likert

Mastantuono, Albert Kenneth; Anttonen, Ralph George

78

Study Questions for Geophysics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website hosts over fifty practice questions relating geophysics. Topics covered in these questions include gravity, earthquake waves and seismicity, Earth's structure, geochronology, anomalies, viscosity, and polar wandering.

Slaymaker, Susan

79

Ask an intelligent question...  

SciTech Connect

In recent years, as electric utilities have moved toward deregualtion, industry watchers have counceled them to create streamlined competitor intelligence functions or else be outstripped by utilities that do. Gathering competitor intelligence stays focused on answering key questions and showing a cource of action. To that extent, it is part and parcel of good decision-making. In strategic analysis, intelligence focuses on broad-scale comparisons to other electric utilities to determine competitive strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats. This information helps utilities develop business strategies, including a high-level view of what products and services to offer customers. The objective is to ensure that the company doesn`t miss an important issue or trend, so such analysis is ongoing and benefits from a visionary or creative viewpoint.

Mann, K.

1995-05-01

80

Parsing and Question Classification for Question Answering  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes machine learning based parsing and question classification for ques- tion answering. We demonstrate that for this type of application, parse trees have to be semantically richer and structurally more oriented towards semantics than what most treebanks offer. We empirically show how question parsing dramatically improves when augmenting a semantically enriched Penn treebank training corpus with an addi-

Ulf Hermjakob

2001-01-01

81

Posing Einstein's Question: Questioning Einstein's Pose.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses the events surrounding a famous picture of Albert Einstein in which he poses near a blackboard containing a tensor form of his 10 field equations for pure gravity with a question mark after it. Speculates as to the content of Einstein's lecture and the questions he might have had about the equation. (Contains over 30 references.) (WRM)|

Topper, David; Vincent, Dwight E.

2000-01-01

82

Question the Author  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web page describes the comprehension strategy of Question the Author (QtA), a strategy in which students pose questions while reading nonfiction text. Students pose questions about the author's purpose in including certain phrases or forms of information while reading. Sample questions are provided in a three-step instructional sequence. References are included.

2012-01-01

83

Effective Classroom Questioning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A guide to help instructors improve or review their questioning skills is presented, with a focus on devising appropriate questions and interpersonal skills that maximize student responses. Questions that entail knowledge, comprehension, and simple application levels are distinguished from questions requiring complex application (e.g., analysis…

Goodwin, Stephanie S.; And Others

84

A Turkish Version of the School Social Behavior Scales (SSBS)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Intended to enhance social skills instruction in Turkey, the present study highlights the process and outcome of creating a Turkish-language version of the School Social Behavior Scales (SSBS), originally developed by Merrell (1993). The social skills of the Turkish pre-and elementary school students were based on the Likert scale. The analyses of…

Yukay-Yuksel, Muge

2009-01-01

85

Factor Analysis of the Omega Scale: A Scale Designed To Measure the Attitudes of College Students toward Their Own Deaths and the Disposition of Their Bodies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A study was undertaken to provide a factor analysis of the Omega Scale, a 25-item, Likert-type scale developed in 1984 to assess attitudes toward death and funerals and other body disposition practices. The Omega Scale was administered to 250 students enrolled in introductory psychology classes at two higher education institutions in Alabama.…

Staik, Irene M.

86

The Rural Town and the Scale Question.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The paper is offered in the belief that economist can contribute to population distribution policy in at least two ways. First, better understanding can be provided of the future course of population distribution, indicating the benchmark from which any p...

D. R. Haurin G. S. Tolley

1973-01-01

87

Using Socratic Questioning  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Can it be, Ischomachus, that asking questions is teaching? I am just beginning to see what is behind all your questions. You lead me on by means of things I know, point to things that resemble them, and persuade ...

Merritts, Dorothy

88

Burning Questions about Calories.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Uses questioning techniques to teach about caloric consumption and weight gain. Starts with defining questions about calories and includes the stages of measuring calories, analyzing data, and conducting inquiry research. Includes directions for the experiment. (YDS)

Keller, J. David; Berry, Kimberly A.

2001-01-01

89

Hydrosphere: Questions and Answers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Detailed Example of Using Socratic Questioning in Class Content Area: Hydrosphere Back to Example This sample of plausible questions and responses is designed to help guide the instructor through an entire Socratic ...

90

Formulating a Research Question  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This tutorial discusses the conceptual development of a research goal, beginning with the formation of a research question. It also explains the links between a research question, specific aims, hypotheses, and long-term research goals.

The Research Assistant (Danya International, Inc.)

2003-08-12

91

Many questions Begs the Question (but questions do not Beg the Question)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fallacy of many questions or the complex question, popularized by the sophism ‘Have you stopped beating your spouse?’ (when a yes-or-no answer is required), is similar to the fallacy of begging the question orpetitio principii. Douglas N. Walton inBegging the Question has recently argued that the two forms are alike in trying unfairly to elicit an admission from a

Dale Jacquette

1994-01-01

92

Exam Question Exchange.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Acceptable answers are provided for two chemistry questions. The first question is related to the prediction of the appearance of non-first-order proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra. The second question is related to extraterrestrial kinetic theory of gases. (JN)|

Alexander, John J., Ed.

1983-01-01

93

Reading for Meaning: Questioning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|An essential literacy skill is asking questions. Because reading comprehension strategies should be taught directly and explicitly, students need to be told that they should ask questions throughout their research and that all questions are valid. While library media specialists are not reading teachers, the work they do with students in the…

Trinkle, Catherine

2009-01-01

94

Why-Questions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The conditions that define correct answers to why-questions are discussed. Stated more precisely, a why-question is a question that can be put in English in the form of an interrogative sentence of which the following is true: (1) the sentence begins with...

S. Bromberger

1966-01-01

95

Critical Questions for Teachers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Good teachers of critical thinking ask hard questions of students; however, they must also ask hard questions of themselves to be the best possible teacher and provide the best learning environment. In this article, two veteran educators present reflective questions that teachers might ask themselves as they prepare and implement courses. These…

Kienzler, Donna; Smith, Frances M.

2005-01-01

96

Reading for Meaning: Questioning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An essential literacy skill is asking questions. Because reading comprehension strategies should be taught directly and explicitly, students need to be told that they should ask questions throughout their research and that all questions are valid. While library media specialists are not reading teachers, the work they do with students in the…

Trinkle, Catherine

2009-01-01

97

The Use of Different Happiness Rating Scales: Bias and Comparison Problem?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper uses data of reported happiness which is measured at 4, 5, 7 and 11 likert-scale points. A group of 137 respondents was selected to study the comparison problem on the estimated mean happiness using direct rescaling. It is found that the 11-point scale's estimated mean happiness is significantly higher than the 4 and 7-point scale.…

Lim, Hock-Eam

2008-01-01

98

Natural language question-answering systems: 1969  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent experiments in programming natural language question-answering systems are reviewed to summarize the methods that have been developed for syntactic, semantic, and logical analysis of English strings. It is concluded that at least minimally effective techniques have been devised for answering questions from natural language subsets in small scale experimental systems and that a useful paradigm has evolved to guide

Robert F. Simmons

1970-01-01

99

Asking Effective Questions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This 8-page monograph offers strategies for effective questioning that engages students and that deepens their conceptual understanding in mathematics. It suggests questions and prompts that help students progress through various stages of the problem solving process and that help teachers assess the thinking of students. The article describes the purposes of questions at different stages of a lesson and describes situations when it is appropriate to convey information to students. A list of references is included.

2011-07-01

100

When lawyers question children  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study assessed the impact of some complex question forms frequently used by attorneys who examine and cross-examine witnesses in the courtroom. Fifteen males and 15 females from each of four student populations (kindergarten, fourth grade, ninth grade, and college) viewed a videotaped incident and then responded to questions about the incident. Half the questions were asked in “law-yerese” (i.e.,

Nancy W. Perry; Bradley D. McAuliff; Paulette Tam; Linda Claycomb; Colleen Dostal; Cameron Flanagant

1995-01-01

101

It's about the Questions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The best coaching partnerships are built on conversation and listening, and they are not built on a coach giving answers to a mentee. Ronald Bearward explains how coaches can use questions to help mentees find answers for themselves. Effective questions lead to greater reflection and solutions that teachers can use now and in the future.

Bearwald, Ronald R.

2011-01-01

102

Seven Questions of Networking  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|What do leaders mean when they talk about networks and whether leadership networks have the power to transform the profession? When it comes to educational leadership networks, there certainly are more than seven important questions. This article focuses on seven key questions about networking in the superintendent ranks by the coordinator of one…

Livingston, David

2007-01-01

103

1 Great Question  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In this article, the author presents an ideal question that can take an art teacher and his or her students through all the levels of thought in Bloom's taxonomy--perfect for modeling the think-aloud process: "How many people is the artist inviting into this picture?" This great question always helps the students look beyond the obvious and dig…

Nethery, Carrie

2011-01-01

104

What is a Question?  

Microsoft Academic Search

A given question can be defined in terms of the set of statements or assertions that answer it. Application of logical inference to these sets of assertions allows one to derive the logic of inquiry among questions. There are interesting symmetries between the logics of inference and inquiry; where probability describes the degree to which a premise implies an assertion,

Kevin H. Knuth

2003-01-01

105

Questioning: The Untapped Resource.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The questioning behavior of college faculty is descriptively analyzed. The cognitive levels of questioning patterns of professors are described and the differences in these levels and patterns are examined across the variables of institution size (small or large), sector (public or private), course level (beginning or advanced), and discipline…

Barnes, Carol P.

106

Water Questions and Answers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This list of questions and answers about water covers a variety of categories, including water use in the United States, water use in the home, data and measurements, chemistry, and others. Links to additional information is embedded in the text of some questions.

107

Forming the research question.  

PubMed

The most important precondition for performing a clinical research project in plastic surgery, or any other surgical subspecialty, is the need to ask the "right question." Although this might seem to be an easy task, in truth it requires a lot of effort and hard work. This article addresses the key points to remember when formulating a research question. PMID:18298991

Thoma, Achilleas; McKnight, Leslie; McKay, Paula; Haines, Ted

2008-04-01

108

Developing a Scale on the Usage of Learner Control Strategy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The aim of this study was to develop a Likert-like scale in order to measure teachers' usage level of learner control strategy. This study was carried out with 219 State primary school teachers who were class teachers, Turkish teachers, English teachers, Mathematics teachers, Science teachers, Social Sciences teachers, Religion and Moral teachers…

Kutlu, M. Oguz

2012-01-01

109

A Validation Study of the Adolescent Dissociative Experiences Scale  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: The purpose of this study was to further the validation process of the Adolescent Dissociative Experiences Scale (A-DES). In this study, a 6-item Likert response format with descriptors was used when responding to the A-DES rather than the 11-item response format used in the original A-DES. Method: The internal reliability and construct…

Keck Seeley, Susan. M.; Perosa, Sandra, L.; Perosa, Linda, M.

2004-01-01

110

The Intuitive Eating Scale: Development and Preliminary Validation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article describes the development and validation of an instrument designed to measure the concept of intuitive eating. To ensure face and content validity for items used in the Likert-type Intuitive Eating Scale (IES), content domain was clearly specified and a panel of experts assessed the validity of each item. Based on responses from 391…

Hawks, Steven; Merrill, Ray M.; Madanat, Hala N.

2004-01-01

111

Validation of a Scale to Measure Reasoning About Abortion  

Microsoft Academic Search

We developed and validated a scale to measure how persons view abortion. A preliminary version of a Reasoning About Abortion Questionnaire (RAQ) was pilot tested on 134 undergraduate and graduate students. This version contained 30 Likert items that reflected right to life and prochoice arguments. Factor analysis revealed a single, bipolar dimension on which prochoice and right to life items

Nancy K. Parsons; Herbert C. Richards; Geoffrey D. P. Kanter

1990-01-01

112

A systematic procedure for constructing a valid microcomputer attitude scale  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this study was twofold: (1) to design a system for constructing Likert attitude scales as supported by the sociopsychological and measurement literature, and (2) using the design to assemble a microcomputer attitude scale for inservice and preservice teachers (n = 281). The results of the study: (1) a 15-step flow chart for designing reliable and valid attitude scales, and (2) a 23-item microcomputer Likert attitude scale with the following characteristics: (a) coefficient alpha 0.89, (b) range of adjusted item-total correlations from 0.29 to 0.62, (c) range of interitem correlations from 0.04 to 0.60, (d) correlation of 0.20 with a mathematics attitude scale and 0.02 with a reading attitude scale, and (e) favorable factor analysis and emotional intensity data.

Abdel-Gaid, Samiha; Trueblood, Cecil R.; Shrigley, Robert L.

113

Development and validation of the Personal Nostalgia Scale  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research conducts five studies and uses 1185 respondents to develop and validate a six-item, seven-point Likert scale capable of measuring a personal nostalgia response to an advertisement. Traditional forms of scale development and a variety of experimental conditions are undertaken to develop and validate the scale. Statistical techniques include t-tests, correlation, regression, confirmatory factor analysis and a multitrait–multimethod matrix.

Christopher Marchegiani; Ian Phau

2011-01-01

114

The Logic of Questions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The paper further develops semantic theory in two ways. First, it extends the range of semantic concepts that the theory can successfully define by adding definitions for the logical properties and relations of questions to the definitions already given f...

J. J. Katz

1968-01-01

115

Rotavirus Frequently Asked Questions  

MedlinePLUS

... Rotavirus Rubella Shingles Tetanus Frequently Asked Questions About Rotavirus What is Rotavirus? Why can dehydration be serious ... I find information about the vaccine? What is Rotavirus? Rotavirus is a highly contagious virus that infects ...

116

Cho, Hearn — Provocative Questions  

Cancer.gov

This is an important question - many cancers such as multiple myeloma are characterized by genomic instability, with new cytogenetic abnormalities, deletions or mutations, and other genetic changes detected as disease progresses.

117

Frequently Asked Questions  

NASA Website

Frequently Asked Questions 1. Do you have drawings of airplanes? 2. How can I get photos of aircraft? 3. How can I gain access to NASA technical reports? 4. How can I understand the principles of flight 5.

118

Griguer, Corinne — Provocative Questions  

Cancer.gov

Provocative Questions Skip to content. | Skip to navigation Personal tools Sign Up Log in Sections Home Home Current RFAs and PQs Cancer Prevention and Risk Mechanisms of Tumor Development or Recurrence Tumor Detection, Diagnosis, and Prognosis Cancer

119

Scardino, Peter — Provocative Questions  

Cancer.gov

Excellent question, made more provocative when we realize that the seminal vesicles and Cowper’s gland in the male, tissues adjacent to the prostate and under the same hormonal influences as the prostate, rarely if even harbor malignant tumors.

120

Dystonia: Questions & Answers  

MedlinePLUS

... and Aging Locate a Support Group Regional Coordinators Online Support and Resources Support Related Articles Resources for Families Order Brochures and Materials Catalog and Shopping Cart Questions & Answers How does the doctor know ...

121

Lerman, Michael — Provocative Questions  

Cancer.gov

Provocative Questions Skip to content. | Skip to navigation Personal tools Sign Up Log in Sections Home Home Current RFAs and PQs Cancer Prevention and Risk Mechanisms of Tumor Development or Recurrence Tumor Detection, Diagnosis, and Prognosis Cancer

122

Finn, Olivera — Provocative Questions  

Cancer.gov

Provocative Questions Skip to content. | Skip to navigation Personal tools Sign Up Log in Sections Home Home Current RFAs and PQs Cancer Prevention and Risk Mechanisms of Tumor Development or Recurrence Tumor Detection, Diagnosis, and Prognosis Cancer

123

Frequently Asked Questions - FAQs  

Cancer.gov

Frequently Asked Questions - FAQs CTRP Program >> What is the purpose of the Clinical Trials Reporting Program (CTRP)? How will CTRP be connected to other databases within NCI and NIH? Will CTRP support the Cancer Centers Summary 4 Report? Will CTRP

124

Amalgam Homework Assignment Questions  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

Text VersionPage 1. Amalgam Homework Assignment Questions Reviewer: Gary Ginsberg Date: Oct 27, 2010 Prepared for US FDA ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/advisorycommittees/committeesmeetingmaterials

125

Provocative Questions Workshop  

Cancer.gov

Provocative Questions Workshop August 2, 2011 UCLA Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center Los Angeles, California Final Participant List Chair Edward Harlow, Ph.D Chair Department of Biological Chemistry and Molecular Pharmacology Harvard Medical

126

CAT questions and answers  

SciTech Connect

This document, prepared in February 1993, addresses the most common questions asked by APS Collaborative Access Teams (CATs). The answers represent the best judgment on the part of the APS at this time. In some cases, details are provided in separate documents to be supplied by the APS. Some of the answers are brief because details are not yet available. The questions are separated into five categories representing different aspects of CAT interactions with the APS: (1) Memorandum of Understanding (MOU), (2) CAT Beamline Review and Construction, (3) CAT Beamline Safety, (4) CAT Beamline Operations, and (5) Miscellaneous. The APS plans to generate similar documents as needed to both address new questions and clarify answers to present questions.

Not Available

1993-02-01

127

Saha, Bratin — Provocative Questions  

Cancer.gov

Provocative Questions Skip to content. | Skip to navigation Personal tools Sign Up Log in Sections Home Home Current RFAs and PQs Cancer Prevention and Risk Mechanisms of Tumor Development or Recurrence Tumor Detection, Diagnosis, and Prognosis Cancer

128

Schneider, Thomas — Provocative Questions  

Cancer.gov

Provocative Questions Skip to content. | Skip to navigation Personal tools Sign Up Log in Sections Home Home Current RFAs and PQs Cancer Prevention and Risk Mechanisms of Tumor Development or Recurrence Tumor Detection, Diagnosis, and Prognosis Cancer

129

Pagel, Mark — Provocative Questions  

Cancer.gov

Provocative Questions Skip to content. | Skip to navigation Personal tools Sign Up Log in Sections Home Home Current RFAs and PQs Cancer Prevention and Risk Mechanisms of Tumor Development or Recurrence Tumor Detection, Diagnosis, and Prognosis Cancer

130

Hecht, Toby — Provocative Questions  

Cancer.gov

Provocative Questions Skip to content. | Skip to navigation Personal tools Sign Up Log in Sections Home Home Current RFAs and PQs Cancer Prevention and Risk Mechanisms of Tumor Development or Recurrence Tumor Detection, Diagnosis, and Prognosis Cancer

131

Questions to Committee  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

Text Version... TUMORS THYROID TUMORS Question 1 (voting) Has the applicant provided adequate data on the animal thyroid C-cell tumor findings to ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/advisorycommittees/committeesmeetingmaterials

132

The Self-Assessment Scale of Cognitive Complaints in Schizophrenia: A validation study in Tunisian population  

PubMed Central

Background Despite a huge well-documented literature on cognitive deficits in schizophrenia, little is known about the own perception of patients regarding their cognitive functioning. The purpose of our study was to create a scale to collect subjective cognitive complaints of patients suffering from schizophrenia with Tunisian Arabic dialect as mother tongue and to proceed to a validation study of this scale. Methods The authors constructed the Self-Assessment Scale of Cognitive Complaints in Schizophrenia (SASCCS) based on a questionnaire covering five cognitive domains which are the most frequently reported in the literature to be impaired in schizophrenia. The scale consisted of 21 likert-type questions dealing with memory, attention, executive functions, language and praxia. In a second time, the authors proceeded to the study of psychometric qualities of the scale among 105 patients suffering from schizophrenia spectrum disorders (based on DSM- IV criteria). Patients were evaluated using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), the Global Assessment Functioning Scale (GAF scale) and the Calgary Depression Scale (CDS). Results The scale's reliability was proven to be good through Cronbach alpha coefficient equal to 0.85 and showing its good internal consistency. The intra-class correlation coefficient at 11 weeks was equal to 0.77 suggesting a good stability over time. Principal component analysis with Oblimin rotation was performed and yielded to six factors accounting for 58.28% of the total variance of the scale. Conclusion Given the good psychometric properties that have been revealed in this study, the SASCCS seems to be reliable to measure schizophrenic patients' perception of their own cognitive impairment. This kind of evaluation can't substitute for objective measures of cognitive performances in schizophrenia. The purpose of such an evaluation is to permit to the patient to express his own well-being and satisfaction of quality of life.

Johnson, Ines; Kebir, Oussama; Ben Azouz, Olfa; Dellagi, Lamia; Rabah, Yasmine; Tabbane, Karim

2009-01-01

133

Redefining the Fundamental Questions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Every researcher must make some fundamental questions. A researcher's questions should include the following: (1) What is the nature of the reality that I wish to study? (2) How will I know it? (3) What must I do to know it? (4) Who am I? (5) Where is God in this? and (6) For religious educators--How does my research lead to a world of peace and…

Crain, Margaret Ann

2006-01-01

134

The Chinese Parental Stress Scale: Psychometric Evidence Using Rasch Modeling on Clinical and Nonclinical Samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, we examined the psychometric properties of the Parental Stress Scale (PSS; Berry & Jones, 1995) with Chinese parents. Participants included 162 parents recruited through primary schools and 38 parents with children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Rasch analysis results indicated that 2 items were outside the accepted fit statistics range and that the Likert scale response

Cynthia Leung; Sandra K. M. Tsang

2010-01-01

135

Research Questions and Hypotheses  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This first section guides students to ask testable questions, and formulate hypotheses and null hypotheses. Students also become familiar with the parts of a science research report. This structure reinforces the concepts of quantitative observations and comparative research. It also sets the stage for doing statistical testing. At the end of the first section, students are ready to ask a research question and formulate hypotheses for their Long-Term Research Projects (LTRP). Students finish the section by drafting the introduction paragraphs for their LTRP poster presentations. In this free section you will find Lesson 1--Ooze Observations, an Introduction and the Table of Contents.

Steel, Ashley; Kelsey, Kathryn

2001-01-01

136

Residents' clinical questions  

PubMed Central

Abstract Objective To assess residents’ clinical questions, where they get their answers, the utility of those answers, and if an evidence-based medicine (EBM) workshop improves the use of evidence-based electronic resources. Design Prospective observational cohort study. Setting Urban family medicine teaching clinics in Edmonton, Alta, in 2007. Participants First- and second-year family medicine residents training in the family medicine teaching units. Methods An observer recorded clinical questions posed by residents in clinic, the resources used to answer these questions, and how residents thought the answers modified practice. Resources were categorized broadly as colleagues, electronic, or paper. Answer utility was ranked in decreasing order as large change, small change, confirmed, expanded knowledge, or no help. Use of resources was compared before and after an EBM workshop, and between residents under normal supervision and those in semi-independent clinics. Results Thirty-eight residents from 5 sites were observed addressing 325 questions in 114 clinical half-day sessions (420 patients). Residents had 0.8 questions per patient and answered 83.4% of questions with 1 resource (range 1 to 6). Residents made 406 attempts to answer questions, using colleagues 65.5% of the time (93.6% were preceptors), electronic resources 20.7% of the time, and paper resources 13.8% of the time. Answers from colleagues were least likely to require secondary resources (F test, P < .001). The utility of answers from colleagues (F test, P = .002) was superior to that of answers from electronic resources, and this difference remained significantly higher in sensitivity analysis. The EBM workshop training did not influence electronic resource use (17.8% before and 15.1% after, Fisher-Freeman-Halton test, P = .18), but semi-independence from preceptors increased the use of electronic resources from 16.5% to 51.0% (Fisher-Freeman-Halton test, P < .001). Conclusion Residents have many questions during clinical practice. Preceptors were used more commonly than all other resources combined and were the most dependable resource for residents to obtain answers. Although an EBM workshop was not associated with increased use of electronic evidence-based resources, semi-independent work appeared to be.

Allan, G. Michael; Ma, Victoria; Aaron, Sarah; Vandermeer, Ben; Manca, Donna; Korownyk, Christina

2012-01-01

137

Finding similar questions in large question and answer archives  

Microsoft Academic Search

There has recently been a significant increase in the number of community-based question and answer services on the Web where people answer other peoples' questions. These services rapidly build up large archives of questions and answers, and these archives are a valuable linguistic resource. One of the major tasks in a question and answer service is to find questions in

Jiwoon Jeon; Joon Ho Lee

2005-01-01

138

The True Love Question  

Microsoft Academic Search

The true love question is a marital therapy intervention utilized to evaluate marriage viability. This intervention is based upon a model which posits three possible origins for marriage, of which only one, bilateral true love, is maintained as the sole basis for marital longevity with enduring intimacy. Four possible outcomes from introducing this intervention with couples are discussed, as are

Russell W. Brethauer

2009-01-01

139

Questions&Ansers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Question: What evidence is there that genetic factors might predispose individuals to anorexia nervosa?It is now well established that all major psychological illnesses run in families. While the causes of these conditions are multiply determined, genetic factors appear to play a highly important role in determining the familial susceptibility patterns seen in conditions such as manic depression, unipolar depression, panic

Michael Strober

1996-01-01

140

The Compensation Question  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Over the past few years, as cash-strapped states and school districts have faced tough budget decisions, spending on teacher compensation has come under the microscope. The underlying question is whether, when you take everything into account, today's teachers are fairly paid, underpaid, or overpaid. In this forum, two pairs of respected…

Richwine, Jason; Biggs, Andrew; Mishel, Lawrence; Roy, Joydeep

2012-01-01

141

Unanswered Questions from CTX.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The big question being addressed on CTX during the past year has been: Why was energy confinement not improved by increasing the mesh flux conserver radius from 40 cm to 67 cm. A comparison of decaying spheromaks with the same values of j and n in the two...

B. L. Wright C. W. Barnes J. C. Fernandez I. Henins H. W. Hoida

1986-01-01

142

Questions about Adoption  

MedlinePLUS

... honest explanation. When you are proud of your child's identity, she too will learn to appreciate her own value. Be aware that your attitude about adoption will show in your answers. How you respond can set an example as to how your child may choose to answer these questions in the ...

143

Frequently Asked Questions  

Cancer.gov

Frequently Asked Questions  Policy-Related Can the career awardee stay at his/her current institution in an unmentored phase?Yes. The NCI Staff must approve the transition to an unmentored phase at the same institution in the same way as if they were

144

Exam Question Exchange.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Two exam questions are presented. One suitable for advanced undergraduate or beginning graduate courses in organic chemistry, is on equivalent expressions for the description of several pericyclic reactions. The second, for general chemistry students, asks for an estimation of the rate of decay of a million-year-old Uranium-238 sample. (BB)|

Alexander, John J., Ed.

1978-01-01

145

Questions for the Profession.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the issues and lists available options for these questions: why don't teachers (1) teach about the future, (2) use results of educational research, (3) focus on teacher-student interaction, (4) assign grades from a competency criterion, and (5) teach the structure of mechanical drafting. (SK)

Smalley, Lee

1984-01-01

146

CONSUMERS AND THEIR QUESTIONS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Consumers and Their Questions Today’s consumer enjoys being informed about the products they purchase. Some have strong beliefs on how the agricultural products they utilized are produced and processed. An important part of egg marketing being able to effectively communicate with consumers. Rela...

147

The ethnicity question for the 1991 Census: Background and issues  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Government announced on 13 November 1989 that an ethnicity question would be asked in the 1991 Census. The decision was taken following the favourable public response to the fielding of a new form of ethnicity question in the large?scale Census Test carried out in April 1989. The question asks the respondent to tick one box from among the following

Máire Ní Bhrolcháin

1990-01-01

148

CDL Online Practice Questions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Aspiring truck drivers and those who seek a commercial driving license will appreciate this website a great deal, as it features a number of practice questions that may be found on the test that is required for such certifications. The site features over a dozen self-assessment modules that cover such topics as air brakes, hazardous materials, and of course, transporting passengers. Within each section, visitors will find both Âtrue-falseÂ-style questions and their equally well-known counterpart, the multiple choice query. Also, for those getting acquainted with teaching others how to prepare for this exam, this site may be most handy. Whether one is on their way to Bangor, Maine, or just in need of this certification to meet up with a midnight train, this site will get them on their way.

149

Knowledge based question answering  

SciTech Connect

The natural language database query system incorporated in the Knobs Interactive Planning System comprises a dictionary driven parser, APE-II, and script interpreter whch yield a conceptual dependency as a representation of the meaning of user input. A conceptualisation pattern matching production system then determines and executes a procedure for extracting the desired information from the database. In contrast to syntax driven q-a systems, e.g. those based on atn parsers, APE-II is driven bottom-up by expectations associated with word meanings. The goals of this approach include utilising similar representations for questions with similar meanings but widely varying surface structures, developing a powerful mechanism for the disambiguation of words with multiple meanings and the determination of pronoun referents, answering questions which require inferences to be understood, and interpreting ellipses and ungrammatical statements. The Knobs demonstration system is an experimental, expert system for air force mission planning applications. 16 refs.

Pazzani, M.J.; Engelman, C.

1983-01-01

150

The "Looting Question" Bibliography  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Provocatively subtitled "Web and Literary Resources on the Archaeological Politics of Private Collecting, Commercial Treasure Hunting, Looting, and 'Professional' Archaeology," this comprehensive online bibliography provides scholars and practitioners with resources related to the "looting question." The bibliography is organized by format type and focuses on North American materials. Hugh Jarvis, a doctoral candidate in Anthropology as well as a graduate student in Information and Library Studies at the State University of New York (SUNY) at Buffalo, has compiled this unique, frequently updated resource.

151

ETX Questions and Answers  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Since its creation in September 1996, the Mighty ETX Site on the Web has become a respected resource known worldwide for its\\u000a tips, information, how-to’s, and actual ETX astrophotography and as a forum for questions and answers from real ETX users.\\u000a For readers of this book who are not “Net-connected”, this chapter will give you a flavor of the ETX

Mike Weasner

152

Development of the Adelaide Driving Self-Efficacy Scale  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To describe the development of the Adelaide Driving Self-Efficacy Scale (ADSES) and to report on its reliability and validity.Methods: A set of 12 driving behaviours, developed through literature review, clinical experience and expert review, were rated for self-efficacy using a Likert scale. Internal consistency was investigated using a Cronbach's alpha coefficient and construct validity by comparing ADSES scores of

Stacey George; Michael Clark; Maria Crotty

2007-01-01

153

Antiretroviral treatment and the health workforce in South Africa: how have ART workers been affected by scaling up?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary objective To investigate the effect of scaling up antiretroviral treatment (ART) on the working environment and motivation of health workers in South Africa; and to suggest strategies to minimize negative effects and maximise positive effects. methods Exploratory interviews with health managers and senior clinical staff were used to identify locally relevant work environment indicators. A self -reported Likert scale

Patrick Tobi; Gavin George; Elena Schmidt; Adrian Renton

2008-01-01

154

An Ethics Primer: Ethical Questions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource is a PDF that provides a short introduction to ethical questions and strategies having to do with Ethics instruction. The PDF describes an overview of ethical questions and develops student understanding of ethical questions through three different worksheets.

2008-01-01

155

The Art of Asking Questions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A rationale is given for the use of questioning techniques and strategies in classroom instruction. B. Bloom's Taxonomy of Educational Objectives is presented as one framework for questions. Five pitfalls, including avoiding vague questions and personal pronouns, are discussed. (CL)

Sykes, Rosetta A.

1979-01-01

156

Questions about Vitiligo  

MedlinePLUS

... is generalized vitiligo, in which there is widespread distribution of white macules, often in a remarkably symmetrical ... in fair skinned persons, include: Lupus erythematosus (atypical distribution, positive immunofluorescence, serologic studies) Pityriasis alba (slight scaling, ...

157

Approaches to Cell Biology Teaching: Questions about Questions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There are many questions to be asked about the pedagogical practice of questioning. Questions provide insight into what students at any age or grade level already know about a topic, which provides a beginning point for teaching. Questions reveal misconceptions and misunderstandings that must be addressed for teachers to move student thinking…

Allen, Deborah; Tanner, Kimberly

2002-01-01

158

Unanswered questions from CTX  

SciTech Connect

The big question being addressed on CTX during the past year has been: Why was energy confinement not improved by increasing the mesh flux conserver radius from 40 cm to 67 cm. A comparison of decaying spheromaks with the same values of j and n in the two cases shows tau/sub B/2 improving roughly as R/sup 2/ but little change in T/sub e/. As a result, <..beta..>/sub vol/ has gone from approx. 7.0% to approx. 2.0% and the inferred energy confinement time has remained unchanged at approx. 23 ..mu..s. An energy balance analysis of the 40 cm case showed that the observed rapid particle loss could account for most of the energy loss while providing a mechanism for the removal of impurities. At 67 cm, tau/sub p/ has also improved by about a factor of 2, particle loss therefore contributes substantially less to energy balance and the achievement in CTX of j/n/sub e/ as high as 3 x 10/sup -14/ A.m (I/sub tor/ up to 1 MA), low-Z impurities should not be a problem. A question then arises: Is CTX faced with a new strong energy loss mechanism that is characteristic of spheromaks in general. This question is not simply answered because it may involve processes of thermal conduction or convection that cannot be directly measured. In the following paragraphs we discuss many of the topics that have been considered in this search.

Wright, B.L.; Barnes, C.W.; Fernandez, J.C.; Henins, I.; Hoida, H.W.; Jarboe, T.R.; Knox, S.O.; Marklin, G.J.; Platts, D.A.

1986-01-01

159

Questioning and Experimentation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper is a philosophical analysis of experimentation. The philosophical framework of the analysis is the interrogative model of inquiry developed by Hintikka. The basis of the model is explicit and well-formed logic of questions and answers. The framework allows us to formulate a flexible logic of experimentation. In particular, the formulated model can be interpreted realistically. Moreover, the model demonstrates an explicit logic of knowledge acquisition. So, the natural extension of the model is to apply it to an analysis of the learning process.

Mutanen, Arto

2013-08-01

160

Marchetti, Dario — Provocative Questions  

Cancer.gov

This is an outstanding and intellectually-stimulating question which introduces a new way to translate more effectively metastasis research to the clinic. It is certainly worth exploring and badly needed. because, if positive, drugs could be immediately useful to help defined populations of patients. Per points, we agree that these are limited metastasis groups; however, results could at minimum justify moving forward to full adjuvant trials. Worthy cause given the "bottleneck" we experience nowadays since drugs are mostly not tested in metastasis prevention.

161

The Early Years: Investigable Questions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Teachers may not need to teach children to ask questions, just develop that safe place where questions can be voiced, observe children to see the questions in their actions, and develop a culture that appreciates and records questions. An investigable que

Ashbrook, Peggy

2010-12-01

162

Engaging Students through Effective Questions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In what ways might questioning techniques improve student learning? What kinds of questions enable educators to tap into different parts of the cognitive domain? How can questions engage students when their attention begins to wander? Many questions at the lower levels of Bloom's Taxonomy--particularly knowledge and comprehension--are…

Neal, Mary-Anne

2011-01-01

163

Engaging Students through Effective Questions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In what ways might questioning techniques improve student learning? What kinds of questions enable educators to tap into different parts of the cognitive domain? How can questions engage students when their attention begins to wander? Many questions at the lower levels of Bloom's Taxonomy--particularly knowledge and comprehension--are closed-ended…

Neal, Mary-Anne

2011-01-01

164

Handling Difficult Questions and Situations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recommendations are presented for dealing with difficult students and the questions they ask during classroom discussions. Brief ideas are provided for handling argumentative individuals, long-winded questioners, and questions for which the instructor does not have a good answer. A discussion of curved or loaded questions (pseudoquestions)…

Watkins, Karen

1983-01-01

165

Evaluation of Social Cognitive Scaling Response Options in the Physical Activity Domain  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of this study was to compare the reliability, variability, and predictive validity of two common scaling response formats (semantic differential, Likert-type) and two numbers of response options (5-point, 7-point) in the physical activity domain. Constructs of the theory of planned behavior were chosen in this analysis based on its…

Rhodes, Ryan E.; Matheson, Deborah Hunt; Mark, Rachel

2010-01-01

166

Retrospective Assessment of Childhood Sexual and Physical Abuse: A Comparison of Scaled and Behaviorally Specific Approaches  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study compared retrospective reports of childhood sexual and physical abuse as assessed by two measures: the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ), which uses a Likert-type scaling approach, and the Computer Assisted Maltreatment Inventory (CAMI), which employs a behaviorally specific means of assessment. Participants included 1,195…

DiLillo, David; Fortier, Michelle A.; Hayes, Sarah A.; Trask, Emily; Perry, Andrea R.; Messman-Moore, Terri; Fauchier, Angele; Nash, Cindy

2006-01-01

167

Developing an Attitude Scale for the Profession of Physical Education Teaching (ASPPET)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, the development of a Likert-type attitude scale for the profession of physical education teaching (ASPPET) was aimed. The group of the study was consisted of totally 556 pre-service physical education teachers. In order to determine the structural validity of ASPPET, an exploratory and confirmative factor analyses were performed. A…

Unlu, Huseyin

2011-01-01

168

The Factor Structure of the Self-Directed Learning Readiness Scale (SDLRS).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study involving teachers and administrators from 16 elementary, middle, and high schools in Tennessee investigated the factorial structure of the Self-Directed Learning Readiness Scale (SDLRS). The SDLRS includes 58 Likert-like items designed to measure the readiness of adult learners to assume self-direction in the learning process. Study…

Wang, Xiaoping; And Others

169

Unproven (questionable) cancer therapies.  

PubMed Central

More than half of all cancer patients use some form of alternative treatment during the course of their illness. Alternative therapies are often started early in patients' illness, and their use is frequently not acknowledged to health care professionals. Some alternative therapies are harmful, and their promoters may be fraudulent. Persons who try alternative cancer therapies may not be poorly educated but may ultimately abandon conventional treatment. Recent attention has focused on aspects of questionable therapies that make these treatments attractive to patients and that may be perceived as being deficient in the practice of conventional health care professionals. Physicians with patients with cancer should always make sure that unproven therapies are discussed early in the therapeutic relationship. They should also attempt to be aware of alternative therapies that are in vogue in their particular geographic area.

Brigden, M L

1995-01-01

170

Ten Questions about Emergence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Self-Organization is of growing importance for large distributed computing systems. In these systems, a central control and manual management is exceedingly difficult or even impossible. Emergence is widely recognized as the core principle behind self-organization. Therefore the idea to use both principles to control and organize large-scale distributed systems is very attractive and not so far off. Yet there are

Jochen Fromm

2005-01-01

171

An Arabic question-answering system for factoid questions  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we propose an Arabic Question-Answering (Q-A) system called QASAL (Question-Answering system for Arabic Language). QASAL accepts as an input a natural language question written in Modern Standard Arabic (MSA) and generates as an output the most efficient and appropriate answer. The proposed system is composed of three modules: A question analysis module, a passage retrieval module and

Wissal BRINI; Mariem ELLOUZE; Slim MESFAR; Lamia HADRICH BELGUITH

2009-01-01

172

Automating preparation of exam questions: Exam Question Classification System (EQCS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Currently, there is no any available computerized mechanism to classify the exam questions prepared by the instructors. Everything is done manually by the instructors according to their own style. Written exam question has always been a method for educators to assess the level of understanding of students. A good exam question should consist of different levels of difficulties in order

Nor Diana Ahmad; Wan Adilah Wan Adnan; Maslina Abdul Aziz; Mohd Yusaimir Yusof

2011-01-01

173

Develop Your Questioning Techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

How much thought have you given to what you want your students to gain from your class? Far too often the emphasis on factual content overshadows the development of conceptual understanding, and accountability issues force us to present a wide-ranging curriculum in a short time period. As a beginning teacher, you are probably being directed to ``cover'' the curriculum, and your focus has been on making sure you understand the concepts you are presenting. You spend hours studying the content until you are sure you know every aspect and can work every problem in the textbook dealing with the given topic. You prepare a very detailed lesson plan and deliver a brilliant lecture only to find that your students did not ``receive'' the information you thought you transmitted. You know the content much better because you had to present your understanding of the concepts to others. You can provide your students the same opportunity to test their understanding by developing questioning techniques to engage them in effective dialogue.

Blanton, Patricia

2009-01-01

174

Dietary glucosamine under question  

PubMed Central

Annual sales of glucosamine as a neutraceutical for affecting cartilage in treatment of osteoarthritis are close to a billion dollars, but recent clinical studies have currently raised severe criticism regarding its functional value. Additional doubts can be raised by the knowledge of the well-defined cellular steps in glucosamine formation and production of glycosaminoglycans such as chondroitin. Glucosamine is produced in an activated state from glucose by essentially all cells for incorporation into glycosaminoglycans and glycoproteins, and there have been no reports of any deficiencies in its production under any conditions. Nevertheless, many investigations of glucosamine, using cells or tissues, have claimed effects on cartilage and chondroitin sulfate. The significance of these studies is questionable since they have invariably been with concentrations that were 10- to 1000-fold higher than has been found in human serum or plasma after glucosamine ingestion. Experiments with cells or tissues using glucosamine in the low concentrations found after ingestion need to be examined before any conclusions are drawn concerning its direct action on cartilage and its potential for modifying osteoarthritis.

Silbert, Jeremiah E

2009-01-01

175

Gallery Walk Questions on Karst  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

created by Mark Francek, Central Michigan University The following are potential questions that could be used in a gallery walk activity about karst. The questions are organized according to the cognitive level at ...

176

Gallery Walk Questions about Volcanism  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

created by Mark Francek, Central Michigan University The following are potential questions that could be used in a gallery walk activity about volcanism. The questions are organized according to the cognitive ...

177

Global Warming: Questions and Answers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Back to Example Detailed Example of Using Socratic Questioning in Class This sample of plausible questions and responses is designed to help guide the instructor through a Socratic lesson. It will help instructors ...

178

Gallery Walk Questions about Coastlines  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

created by Mark Francek, Central Michigan University The following are potential questions that could be used in a gallery walk activity about coastlines. The questions are organized according to the cognitive ...

179

WP 31 - How Many Hours Do You Usually Work: an analysis of the working hours questions in 26 large-scale surveys in 6 countries and the European Union  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews how working hours are asked in 26 large-scale surveys in 6 countries plus the European Union. Four dimensions of working time were investigated, notably number of working hours, timing of work, predictability and control over hours, and commuting time. Although almost all questionnaires ask for hours worked, the terminology varies largely. In only half of the cases

Kea Tijdens; A. E. Dragstra

2004-01-01

180

A question of character.  

PubMed

For the most part, Glamor-a-Go-Go's board has been thrilled with CEO Joe Ryan's performance. Ryan, after all, had transformed the private-label cosmetics company into a retail powerhouse with flashy outlets from New York to Los Angeles. In addition to saving the company from bankruptcy shortly after his arrival in 1992, Ryan had made Glamor-a-Go-Go a fun and exciting place to work, increasing workers' wages and creating boundless opportunities for anyone willing to work hard and think out of the box. He had also brought more women and people of color on board. And he had made many employees wealthy, with generous stock giveaways and options for the most senior employees down to the most junior. Glamor-a-Go-Go's stock price had grown tenfold during Ryan's tenure. But Ryan's personal affairs were beginning to call into question his leadership abilities. The local paper's gossip column recently ran a photo of Ryan--a married man--leaving a gala event with a beautiful young woman from the company, with the headline "Who's That Girl?" Indeed, rumors about Ryan's philandering were starting to take on a harsher edge. Some people believed his secretary left because Ryan had sexually harassed her. Others believed a mail-room employee had been promoted to factory supervisor because of her affair with the CEO. Having warned Ryan several times about his alleged infidelities, the board is stuck. What should it do about Ryan's extracurricular behavior? Does Ryan's personal behavior even affect the company? Is what Ryan does outside the office the board's concern? Six commentators weigh in. PMID:10621266

Wetlaufer, S

181

A question of authority  

SciTech Connect

A Question of Authority. This article deals with a certain scenario and several reviewers are to give their opinion. This one is in regards to - Suspending an IACUC approved animal use activity is about the last thing a research institution wants to do. Consider the predicament that the Great Eastern University IACUC faced when Dr. Janet Jenkins, the Attending Veterinarian, suspended all animal use activity on an approved protocol of Dr. Roy Maslo. Jenkins had the IACUCs authority to temporarily suspend a protocol, subject to review by a quorum of the full committee. She alleged that Maslo used mice from his breeding colony, not purchased rats, to begin a new study. Jenkins saw Maslos technicians bringing mouse cages to a procedure room and setting up for a minor survival surgery. She asked them to wait until she clarified things as she felt confident that the protocol called for rats. She called Maslo and asked him if the study had been approved for mice, to which he responded affirmatively. Still not feeling quite assured, she went to her office, reviewed the protocol, and found only rat studies described. She also called the IACUC office to see if there were any approved amendments which she may not have received, and was told that there were none. By the time she returned, one procedure was completed. Understandably upset, she informed the technicians and Maslo that any further activity on the protocol was suspended until the issue was resolved. Jenkins informed the IACUC chairman who in turned called an emergency meeting of the committee.

Morgan, Earl W. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB))

2003-10-15

182

Questioning to resolve decision problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Why do we ask questions? Because we want to have some information. But why this particular kind of information? Because only information of this partic- ular kind is helpful to resolve the decision problem that the agent faces. In this paper I argue that questions are asked because their answers help to resolve the questioner's decision problem, and that this

Robert van Rooy

1999-01-01

183

Contemplative Pedagogy: Frequently Asked Questions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Contemplative Pedagogy is a new and sometimes controversial pedagogical practice. Faculty often have basic questions about how to implement the pedagogy in their classrooms, in addition to questions that challenge the educational value and appropriateness of the practice. Assembled here are the most frequently asked questions about Contemplative…

Coburn, Tom; Grace, Fran; Klein, Anne Carolyn; Komjathy, Louis; Roth, Harold; Simmer-Brown, Judith

2011-01-01

184

Questions and Critical Thinking1  

Microsoft Academic Search

How can you stimulate critical thinking with the questions you ask in the classroom? Can these questions motivate students? Indeed, there are practical techniques, which work, that can help educators ask questions to stimulate critical thinking in class. Those of you with a strong back- ground in education literature will recognize the influence of the critical thinking literature, teaching techniques

Peter D. Hurd

185

Questions Parents Ask about Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide presents questions that parents frequently ask about their children's school, along with answers to those questions. The questions and answers were prepared based on the results of studies conducted by the Partnership for Family Involvement in Education, the U.S. Department of Education, the GTE Foundation, and by the National Center…

National Opinion Research Center, Chicago, IL.

186

The Hermeneutics of Educational Questioning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article looks at the practice of educational questioning using the philosophical hermeneutics of Hans-Georg Gadamer. It first looks at questions and statements from a hermeneutic perspective, demonstrating some of the differences and similarities between the two. It then details Gadamer's notion of the "true question", asking whether it is…

Bingham, Charles

2005-01-01

187

Questions for Music Education Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In addressing the question-set "What questions do music education researchers need to address?", an illustrative list of juxtaposed descriptive and normative questions is sketched as follows: What are and should be the dimensions of music education? What are and should be the institutional agencies of music education? What are and should be the…

Jorgensen, Estelle R.

2008-01-01

188

Teacher Researchers Questioning their Practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eight teacher researchers examined their own practice to analyse their use of questioning in the context of numeracy, in partnership with two researchers. Each teacher researcher devised their own question categories, from which the research team then developed common categories. Teacher researchers found the most helpful way to categorise questions was according to their purposes for asking them, and that

Linda Bonne; Ruth Pritchard

189

The Development and Concurrent Validity of the Procrastination Scale  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to develop a self-report measure of procrastination tendencies and to investigate its relationship to a behavioral measure of procrastination and to a self-report measure of general self-efficacy. In a pilot study, the 72-item scale in a 4-point Likert-type response format was developed and administered to 50 college juniors and seniors. A factor analysis of

Bruce W. Tuckman

1991-01-01

190

Can multiple-choice questions simulate free-response questions?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

We discuss a study to evaluate the extent to which free-response questions could be approximated by multiple-choice equivalents. Two carefully designed research-based multiple-choice questions were transformed into a free-response format and administered on the final exam in a calculus-based introductory physics course. The original multiple-choice questions were administered in another similar introductory physics course on final exam. Findings suggest that carefully designed multiple-choice questions can reflect the relative performance of the free-response questions while maintaining the benefits of ease of grading and quantitative analysis, especially if the different choices in the multiple-choice questions are weighted to reflect the different levels of understanding that students display.

Lin, Shih-Yin; Singh, Chandralekha

2012-04-24

191

Photo-based question answering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Photo-based question answering is a useful way of finding information about physical objects. Current question an- swering (QA) systems are text-based and can be difficult to use when a question involves an object with distinct vi- sual features. A photo-based QA system allows direct use of a photo to refer to the object. We develop a three-layer system architecture for

Tom Yeh; John J. Lee; Trevor Darrell

2008-01-01

192

Classroom Questioning Techniques: The T.V. Taxonomy of Questions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The T.V. Taxonomy of Questions was developed for use by teachers who wish to stimulate their students' critical thinking skills, but who find the terminology of existing skill taxonomies both confusing and elusive. This taxonomy consists of six levels of questions. Each level is given the name of a television program reflecting how the student…

Kahn, Michael

193

Clear and present questions: formulating questions for evidence based practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The paper seeks to provide an overview and update of thinking in relation to the theory and practice of formulation of answerable research questions within evidence based information practice. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The paper reviews the healthcare and information literature on question formulation, augmented by structured and purposive internet searches. Findings – Although a few key authors have published

Andrew Booth

2006-01-01

194

Donating Blood Questions and Answers  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

... Vaccines, Blood & Biologics. ... Donating Blood Questions and Answers. The blood safety system established by FDA is dependent ... More results from www.fda.gov/biologicsbloodvaccines/bloodbloodproducts/questionsaboutblood

195

Reference Readiness for AV Questions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Reviews 50 reference tools which librarians can use to answer almost any audiovisual question including queries on trivia, equipment selection, biographical information, and motion picture ratings. (LLS)|

Drolet, Leon L., Jr.

1981-01-01

196

Reference Readiness for AV Questions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews 50 reference tools which librarians can use to answer almost any audiovisual question including queries on trivia, equipment selection, biographical information, and motion picture ratings. (LLS)

Drolet, Leon L., Jr.

1981-01-01

197

A Psychometric Evaluation of the Career Decision Self-Efficacy Scale With Korean Students: A Rasch Model Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Career Decision Self-Efficacy Scale (CDSE) is one of the most frequently used in the field of career development and counseling. In this study, using the Rasch rating scale model analysis, the CDSE Scale was evaluated by the content, structural, and substantive aspects of validity in a sample of college students from South Korea. Overall, the 5-point Likert-type format response

Suk Kyung Nam; Eunjoo Yang; Sang Min Lee; Sang Hee Lee; Hyunsoo Seol

2011-01-01

198

Measuring attitude toward Judaism: The internal consistency reliability of the Katz–Francis Scale of Attitude toward Judaism  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes and discusses the development and empirical properties of the 24-item Likert-type Katz–Francis Scale of Attitude toward Judaism. The scale is designed to facilitate inter-faith comparisons within the psychology of religion alongside the well-established Francis Scale of Attitude toward Christianity. Data are provided from a sample of 618 Hebrew-speaking undergraduate students attending Bar-Ilan University. The findings confirm the

Leslie J. Francis; Y. J. Katz

2007-01-01

199

Validation of Irritable Bowel Syndrome Global Improvement Scale: An Integrated Symptom End Point for Assessing Treatment Efficacy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Global Improvement Scale (GIS) assesses multiple irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) symptoms using a patient-defined 7-point Likert scale ranging from symptoms substantially worse to substantially improved. To evaluate the scale as an efficacy end point, data were collected from two 12-week randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies of female nonconstipated IBS patients. GIS responders were defined as having substantial or moderate improvement

Susan Gordon; Vanessa Ameen; Barbara Bagby; Britt Shahan; Priti Jhingran; Eric Carter

2003-01-01

200

Test Pool Questions, Area III.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This manual contains multiple choice questions to be used in testing students on nurse training objectives. Each test includes several questions covering each concept. The concepts in section A, medical surgical nursing, are diseases of the following systems: musculoskeletal; central nervous; cardiovascular; gastrointestinal; urinary and male…

Sloan, Jamee Reid

201

Unanswered Questions in Audience Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

As its title implies, this article explores a number of unanswered questions and outstanding issues in contemporary audience research. These include: models of the “active audience”; questions of cultural power; global media and transnational audiences; methodologies in audience research; problems of essentialism in the conceptualization of categories of audience members; the strengths and limitations of the encoding\\/decoding model; models of

David Morley

2006-01-01

202

Multiple Choice Questions for Groundwater  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This online quiz was written by Dr. John C. Butler at the University of Houston for 100-level geology students. There are 44 multiple choice questions and 8 fill in the blank questions, Topics include groundwater resources, the water cycle, karst features, the water table and parts of an aquifer. Answers are linked directly from the quiz page.

Butler, John C.; Houston, University O.

203

Twenty Questions about Mathematical Reasoning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper poses and answers 20 questions about mathematical reasoning. Questions include: (1) Is mathematical reasoning mathematical? (2) Is mathematical reasoning useful? (3) Is mathematical reasoning an appropriate goal of school mathematics? (4) Can teachers teach mathematical reasoning? (5) Can mathematical reasoning be taught? (6) Do skills…

Steen, Lynn Arthur

204

LCC Tools for Question Answering  

Microsoft Academic Search

The increased complexity of the TREC QA questions requires advanced text processingtools that rely on natural language processing and knowledge reasoning. Thispaper presents the suite of tools that account for the performance of the PowerAnswerquestion answering system. It is shown how questions, answers and world knowledgeare transformed first in logic representation, followed by a systematic and rigorouslogic proof that validly

Dan I. Moldovan; Sanda M. Harabagiu; Roxana Girju; Paul Morarescu; V. Finley Lacatusu; Adrian Novischi; Adriana Badulescu; Orest Bolohan

2002-01-01

205

Questions to Ask Your Doctor  

MedlinePLUS

... prepare your questions before your appointment. Your doctor wants your questions Doctors know a lot about a ... Privacy Policy Electronic Policies Viewers & Players Get Social Home About Us Careers Contact Us Sitemap FAQ Health Care Information Priority Populations Información en español For ...

206

Answering Your Questions about AIDS.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This book focuses on AIDS education and answers 350 commonly asked questions about Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) taken from questions addressed to two major urban AIDS hotlines (Milwaukee, Wisconsin, and Houston, Texas). Chapter 1, "HIV - The Virus That Causes AIDS," discusses: the HIV virus;…

Kalichman, Seth C.

207

Exploiting redundancy in question answering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our goal is to automatically answer brief factual questions of the form ``When was the Battle of Hastings?'' or ``Who wrote The Wind in the Willows?''. Since the answer to nearly any such question can now be found somewhere on the Web, the problem reduces to finding potential answers in large volumes of data and validating their accuracy. We apply

Charles L. A. Clarke; Gordon V. Cormack; Thomas R. Lynam

2001-01-01

208

Thirteen Questions: Reframing Education's Conversation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book provides alternative answers to those questions about the American educational system that have been answered until now by an outmoded, conservative educational agenda. Following the introduction that describes the rationale for a postmodern deconstruction of educational narratives, 13 chapters present essays on the following questions:…

Kincheloe, Joe L., Ed.; Steinberg, Shirley R., Ed.

209

The Geography of Virtual Questioning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article explores the geography of virtual questioning by using geographic information systems to study activity within the Florida Electronic Library "Ask a Librarian" collaborative chat service. Researchers mapped participating libraries throughout the state of Florida that served as virtual "entry portals" for users as they asked questions

Mon, Lorri; Bishop, Bradley Wade; McClure, Charles R.; McGilvray, Jessica; Most, Linda; Milas, Theodore Patrick; Snead, John T.

2009-01-01

210

Guiding Questions for Technology Planning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presents guiding questions developed by the U.S. Department of Education's Technology Planning Task Force. Questions revolve around creating a vision of learning, using technology to support the mission, developing a supportive infrastructure, understanding the plan's context, garnering public support, and implementing and evaluating the plan.…

North Central Regional Technology in Education Consortium

2001-01-01

211

Toward Automated Consumer Question Answering: Automatically Separating Consumer Questions from Professional Questions in the Healthcare Domain  

PubMed Central

Objective Both healthcare professionals and healthcare consumers have information needs that can be met through the use of computers, specifically via medical question answering systems. However, the information needs of both groups are different in terms of literacy levels and technical expertise, and an effective question answering system must be able to account for these differences if it is to formulate the most relevant responses for users from each group. In this paper, we propose that a first step toward answering the queries of different users is automatically classifying questions according to whether they were asked by healthcare professionals or consumers. Design We obtained two sets of consumer questions (~10,000 questions in total) from Yahoo answers. The professional questions consist of two question collections: 4654 point-of-care questions (denoted as PointCare) obtained from interviews of a group of family doctors following patient visits and 5378 questions from physician practices through professional online services (denoted as OnlinePractice). With more than 20,000 questions combined, we developed supervised machine-learning models for automatic classification between consumer questions and professional questions. To evaluate the robustness of our models, we tested the model that was trained on the Consumer-PointCare dataset on the Consumer-OnlinePractice dataset. We evaluated both linguistic features and statistical features and examined how the characteristics in two different types of professional questions (PointCare vs. OnlinePractice) may affect the classification performance. We explored information gain for feature reduction and the back-off linguistic category features. Results 10-fold cross-validation results showed the best F1-measure of 0.936 and 0.946 on Consumer-PointCare and Consumer-OnlinePractice respectively, and the best F1-measure of 0.891 when testing the Consumer-PointCare model on the Consumer-OnlinePractice dataset. Conclusion Healthcare consumer questions posted at Yahoo online communities can be reliably classified from professional questions posted by point-of-care clinicians and online physicians. The supervised machine-learning models are robust for this task. Our study will significantly benefit further development in automated consumer question answering.

Liu, Feifan; Antieau, Lamont D.; Yu, Hong

2011-01-01

212

The Value Question in Metaphysics.  

PubMed

Much seems to be at stake in metaphysical questions about, for example, God, free will or morality. One thing that could be at stake is the value of the universe we inhabit-how good or bad it is. We can think of competing philosophical positions as describing possibilities, ways the world might turn out to be, and to which value can be assigned. When, for example, people hope that God exists, or fear that we do not possess free will, they express attitudes towards these possibilities, attitudes that presuppose answers to questions about their comparative value. My aim in this paper is to distinguish these evaluative questions from related questions with which they can be confused, to identify structural constraints on their proper pursuit, and to address objections to their very coherence. Answers to such evaluative questions offer one measure of the importance of philosophical disputes. PMID:23024399

Kahane, Guy

2012-07-01

213

The Value Question in Metaphysics  

PubMed Central

Much seems to be at stake in metaphysical questions about, for example, God, free will or morality. One thing that could be at stake is the value of the universe we inhabit—how good or bad it is. We can think of competing philosophical positions as describing possibilities, ways the world might turn out to be, and to which value can be assigned. When, for example, people hope that God exists, or fear that we do not possess free will, they express attitudes towards these possibilities, attitudes that presuppose answers to questions about their comparative value. My aim in this paper is to distinguish these evaluative questions from related questions with which they can be confused, to identify structural constraints on their proper pursuit, and to address objections to their very coherence. Answers to such evaluative questions offer one measure of the importance of philosophical disputes.

Kahane, Guy

2012-01-01

214

Development of the Chinese version of the Oro-facial Esthetic Scale.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to investigate the psychometric properties of the Oro-facial Esthetic Scale among Chinese-speaking patients. The original Oro-facial Esthetic Scale was cross-culturally adapted in accordance with the international standards to develop a Chinese version (OES-C). Unlike the original Oro-facial Esthetic Scale, the version employed in this study used a 5-point Likert scale with items rated from unsatisfactory to most satisfactory. Psychometric evaluation included the reliability and validity of the OES-C. The reliability of the OES-C was determined through internal consistency and test-retest methods. The validity of OES-C was analysed by content validity, discriminative validity, construct validity and convergent validity. The corrected item-total correlation coefficients of the OES-C ranged from 0·859 to 0·910. The inter-item correlation coefficients between each two of the eight items of the OES-C ranged from 0·766 to 0·922. The values of ICC ranged from 0·79 (95% CI = 0·54-0·98) to 0·93 (95% CI = 0·87-0·99), indicating an excellent agreement. Construct validity was proved by the presence of one-factor structure that accounted for 83·507% of the variance and fitted well into the model. Convergent validity was confirmed by the association between OES-C scores and self-reported oral aesthetics and three questions from the Oral Health Impact Profile related to aesthetics (correlation coefficients ranged from -0·830 to -0·702, P < 0·001). OES-C scores discriminated aesthetically impaired patients from healthy controls. This study provides preliminary evidence concerning the reliability and validity of the OES-C. The results show that the OES-C may be a useful tool for assessment of oro-facial esthetics in China. PMID:23829233

Zhao, Y; He, S L

2013-07-06

215

Posing clinical questions: framing the question for scientific inquiry.  

PubMed

Much of nursing practice is (and always has been) based on information generated through inquiry. Finding the best answers quickly and effectively for the questions that arise in the clinical setting facilitates care, increases nursing efficiency, and improves patient outcome and satisfaction. Posing clinical questions also can help nurses identify and fill in gaps in knowledge, keep up with advances in clinical practice, and strengthen interactions with their peers, team members, and patients and their families. Formulating clinical questions that lead to sound, evidence-based answers to resolve clinical problems or direct patient-care decisions takes time and practice. The information in this article will assist nurses to develop the skill of framing clinical questions efficiently and effectively. PMID:11759420

McKibbon, K A; Marks, S

2001-11-01

216

Explaining errors in children's questions.  

PubMed

The ability to explain the occurrence of errors in children's speech is an essential component of successful theories of language acquisition. The present study tested some generativist and constructivist predictions about error on the questions produced by ten English-learning children between 2 and 5 years of age. The analyses demonstrated that, as predicted by some generativist theories [e.g. Santelmann, L., Berk, S., Austin, J., Somashekar, S. & Lust. B. (2002). Continuity and development in the acquisition of inversion in yes/no questions: dissociating movement and inflection, Journal of Child Language, 29, 813-842], questions with auxiliary DO attracted higher error rates than those with modal auxiliaries. However, in wh-questions, questions with modals and DO attracted equally high error rates, and these findings could not be explained in terms of problems forming questions with why or negated auxiliaries. It was concluded that the data might be better explained in terms of a constructivist account that suggests that entrenched item-based constructions may be protected from error in children's speech, and that errors occur when children resort to other operations to produce questions [e.g. Dabrowska, E. (2000). From formula to schema: the acquisition of English questions. Cognitive Liguistics, 11, 83-102; Rowland, C. F. & Pine, J. M. (2000). Subject-auxiliary inversion errors and wh-question acquisition: What children do know? Journal of Child Language, 27, 157-181; Tomasello, M. (2003). Constructing a language: A usage-based theory of language acquisition. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press]. However, further work on constructivist theory development is required to allow researchers to make predictions about the nature of these operations. PMID:16839536

Rowland, Caroline F

2006-07-12

217

Questions  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

Text Version... national levels. 6. Changes in Visits for Acute Otitis Media among Children <2 years old Pre- & Post-PCV7. Administrative data ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/advisorycommittees/committeesmeetingmaterials

218

OSHA Frequently Asked Questions: HAZWOPER  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This OSHA web page provides answers to many of the more common questions regarding the Hazardous Waste Operations and Emergency Response (HAZWOPER) regulation. Many of the answers provided are regarding the HAZWOPER training requirements.

2007-09-21

219

Questions Students Ask: Beta Decay.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Answers a student's question about the emission of a positron from a nucleus. Discusses the problem from the aspects of the uncertainty principle, beta decay, the Fermi Theory, and modern physics. (YP)|

Koss, Jordan; Hartt, Kenneth

1988-01-01

220

Toward a Question Answering Roadmap.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Growth in government investment, academic research, and commercial question answering (QA) systems is motivating a need for increased planning and coordination. The internationalization of QA research, and the need to move toward a common understanding of...

M. T. Maybury

2002-01-01

221

Birds: Old Questions and New.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses questions such as how birds fly and the meaning of bird songs. Explains the relationship between birds and ecological activism and points out the excitement in research and observation of birds. (Contains 34 references.) (YDS)

Flannery, Maura C.

2002-01-01

222

On Clickers, Questions, and Learning  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The purpose of this paper is to review the procedures used to help students become learning victors. Specifically, this paper will discuss the process used to integrate classroom-response-system technology and question-driven instruction into an introductory anatomy and physiology course for pre-nursing/allied health students at a community college. Emphasis is placed on a systematic process for developing effective questions. Student reaction to this strategy is also discussed.

Skinner, Steven

2009-03-01

223

Automatic Generation of Trivia Questions  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a (nearly) domain-independent approach to mining trivia questions from a database. Generated questions are ranked\\u000a and are more “interesting” if they have a modest number of solutions and may reasonably be solved (but are not too easy).\\u000a Our functional model and genetic approach have several advantages: they are tractable and scalable, the hypothesis space size\\u000a is limited, and

Matthew Merzbacher

2002-01-01

224

Type D Assessment in Patients With Chronic Heart Failure and Peripheral Arterial Disease: Evaluation of the Experimental DS Scale Using Item Response Theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Type D personality refers to a clustering of 2 stable personality traits, namely negative affectivity and social inhibition. Currently Type D is standardly assessed using the DS14. An experimental Type D personality scale, the DS, was developed to examine an avenue for assessing Type D more efficiently. The DS differs from the DS14 in its use of a 3-point Likert

Wilco H. M. Emons; Floortje Mols; Aline Pelle; Kim G. Smolderen; Johan Denollet

2012-01-01

225

TryEngineering: A Question of Balance  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a lesson plan that explores the use of weight scales and measurement by manufacturing engineers, developed to help teachers integrate engineering practices in the secondary classroom. Students will work in teams to plan and design a packaging system that generates consistent packages of marbles or paper clips. The driving question of the lesson: How do manufacturing engineers develop systems to create consistent products that are uniform in weight or count? This collection is part of TryEngineering.org, a website maintained by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE).

226

Consensus Conference Follow-up: Inter-rater Reliability Assessment of the Best Evidence in Emergency Medicine (BEEM) Rater Scale, a Medical Literature Rating Tool for Emergency Physicians  

PubMed Central

Background Studies published in general and specialty medical journals have the potential to improve emergency medicine (EM) practice, but there can be delayed awareness of this evidence because emergency physicians (EPs) are unlikely to read most of these journals. Also, not all published studies are intended for or ready for clinical practice application. The authors developed “Best Evidence in Emergency Medicine” (BEEM) to ameliorate these problems by searching for, identifying, appraising, and translating potentially practice-changing studies for EPs. An initial step in the BEEM process is the BEEM rater scale, a novel tool for EPs to collectively evaluate the relative clinical relevance of EM-related studies found in more than 120 journals. The BEEM rater process was designed to serve as a clinical relevance filter to identify those studies with the greatest potential to affect EM practice. Therefore, only those studies identified by BEEM raters as having the highest clinical relevance are selected for the subsequent critical appraisal process and, if found methodologically sound, are promoted as the best evidence in EM. Objectives The primary objective was to measure inter-rater reliability (IRR) of the BEEM rater scale. Secondary objectives were to determine the minimum number of EP raters needed for the BEEM rater scale to achieve acceptable reliability and to compare performance of the scale against a previously published evidence rating system, the McMaster Online Rating of Evidence (MORE), in an EP population. Methods The authors electronically distributed the title, conclusion, and a PubMed link for 23 recently published studies related to EM to a volunteer group of 134 EPs. The volunteers answered two demographic questions and rated the articles using one of two randomly assigned seven-point Likert scales, the BEEM rater scale (n = 68) or the MORE scale (n = 66), over two separate administrations. The IRR of each scale was measured using generalizability theory. Results The IRR of the BEEM rater scale ranged between 0.90 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.86 to 0.93) to 0.92 (95% CI = 0.89 to 0.94) across administrations. Decision studies showed a minimum of 12 raters is required for acceptable reliability of the BEEM rater scale. The IRR of the MORE scale was 0.82 to 0.84. Conclusions The BEEM rater scale is a highly reliable, single-question tool for a small number of EPs to collectively rate the relative clinical relevance within the specialty of EM of recently published studies from a variety of medical journals. It compares favorably with the MORE system because it achieves a high IRR despite simply requiring raters to read each article’s title and conclusion.

Worster, Andrew; Kulasegaram, Kulamakan; Carpenter, Christopher R.; Vallera, Teresa; Upadhye, Suneel; Sherbino, Jonathan; Haynes, R. Brian

2011-01-01

227

Ultraviolet tanning equipment: six questions.  

PubMed

Recreational tanning, particularly as promoted by commercial salons with 'sunbeds' or booths, has generated increasing attention from the regulatory and the biomedical communities. Several agencies have weighed in with opinions on recommended modifications in guidelines, training procedures, regulatory controls, and consumer awareness. Currently there is little uniformity in the guidance provided by trade groups, in recommendations supplied by health agencies and medical associations, or in regulatory approaches taken or proposed by the many countries involved. In an effort to provide a clearer focus for its concerns in this area, the EU Directorate General Health and Consumer Affairs formulated six questions on ultraviolet (UV) tanning, all of a technical or biomedical nature. The questions were stimulated in part by the fact that the European Commission no longer regards the European standard EN 60335-2-27:1997 ('Particular requirements for appliances for skin exposure to ultraviolet and infrared radiation') as giving presumption of conformity to the Low Voltage Directive 73/23/EEC. (The latter Directive governs marketing of electrical devices in EC countries.) Initially, the questions were posed to an EU Scientific Committee. Subsequently, industry representatives and the European Commission jointly requested that the scientific community provide answers to the questions. We received the questions with a request for our technical responses and opinions. Our response was in the form of the following essay, submitted earlier this year to the European Commission. We offer it here in the hope of stimulating constructive discussion and comment. PMID:16149938

van der Leun, Jan C; Forbes, Paul Donald

2005-10-01

228

Obesity in Infancy: Questions, More Questions, and Few Answers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current literature presents conflicting views about the existence of infant obesity and its role as a risk factor for later life obesity and comorbidity. This article reviews extant literature and addresses the issues raised about obesity and overweight status in the first 2 years of life. The epidemic increase in childhood obesity stimulates questions about the effects of body weight

Marjorie M. Heinzer

2005-01-01

229

A question of scale: Human migrations writ large and small  

PubMed Central

Several recent papers illustrate the importance of migration and gene flow in molding the patterns of genetic variation observed in humans today. We place the varied demographic processes covered by these terms into a more general framework, and discuss some of the challenges facing attempts to reconstruct past human mobility and determine its influence on our genetic heritage. See research articles: http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7007/8/15 and http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2156/11/18

2010-01-01

230

Response times to conceptual questions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We measured the time taken by students to respond to individual Force Concept Inventory (FCI) questions. We examine response time differences between correct and incorrect answers, both before and after instruction. We also determine the relation between response time and expressed confidence. Our data reveal three results of interest. First, response times are longer for incorrect answers than for correct ones, indicating that distractors are not automatic choices. Second, response times increase after instruction for both correct and incorrect answers, supporting the notion that instruction changes students' approach to conceptual questions. Third, response times are inversely related to students' expressed confidence; the lower their confidence, the longer it takes to respond.

Lasry, Nathaniel; Watkins, Jessica; Mazur, Eric; Ibrahim, Ahmed

2013-09-01

231

Cloud Seeding Frequently Asked Questions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site is provided by North American Weather Consultants, Inc. The site briefly answers questions such as "when did application of modern cloud seeding technology begin?," "Is cloud seeding effective?," and "Do the commonly used seeding materials pose any direct health or environmental risks?"

Griffith, Don; Solak, Mark

2008-01-07

232

ANSWERING CONSUMER QUESTIONS ABOUT EGGS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Answering consumer questions is an important aspect of egg marketing. Consumers expect those they contact to be able to address their situation and help find answers. Topics of general consumer concerns include: proper storage, safe handling, food safety, and food quality. With the vast array of ...

233

Some Questions for Feminist Rhetoric.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Some questions about feminist rhetoric would include the following. Should a speaker resist the phallocentric rhetoric of the academy by refusing, resisting or otherwise willfully choosing not to say, "Here are my points, Here are my conclusions, Here is my argument that I hope to persuade you to believe?" Should a speaker foster a discourse that…

Hayes, Christopher G.

234

Folic Acid Questions and Answers  

MedlinePLUS

... INFO (800-232-4636) TTY: (888) 232-6348 Contact CDC-INFO flo@cdc.gov Folic Acid Homepage Facts Quiz Questions & Answers Cereals with Folic Acid Data and Statistics Research Global Initiative Articles & Key Findings Recommendations Free Materials Links ...

235

Information Extraction Supported Question Answering  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the use of our information extraction (IE) system, Textract, in the question- answering (QA) track of the recently held TREC-8 tests. One of our major objectives is to examine how IE can help IR (Information Retrieval) in applications like QA. Our study shows: (i) IE can provide solid support for QA; (ii) low-level IE like Named Entity

Rohini K. Srihari; Wei Li

1999-01-01

236

Tolstoy and the woman question  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work examines the perceptions of women in art and literature in Russia during the later half of the nineteenth century. It specifically focuses on the women question and examines women's function and role in Russian society and how different visual artists along with Tolstoy examine this issue through their artwork. The first section of the work focuses specifically on

Jeanna Marie Whiting

2006-01-01

237

Four Questions to Ask Yourself  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|One's commitment to intellectual freedom is manifested not just in the creation of a strong and clear selection policy or the celebration of Banned Books Week but by his or her willingness to examine his or her practices openly with others. In this article, the author proposes four questions to explore in one's teaching and in professional…

Abilock, Debbie, Ed.

2007-01-01

238

Physical Fitness: Questions Teachers Ask.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Answers teachers' questions about physical fitness, emphasizing children's physical fitness, why people believe children are unfit, children's activity levels, heredity and maturation in fitness testing, test results, adequate fitness, activity, and participation, how long it takes children to get fit, reward systems, current fitness testing, and…

Pangrazi, Robert P.; Corbin, Charles B.

1993-01-01

239

Questions and Answers about Stroke  

MedlinePLUS

Questions and Answers About Stroke What is a stroke? A stroke occurs when blood flow to the brain is interrupted. When a stroke occurs, brain ... need to function. What are the types of strokes? A stroke can occur in two ways. In ...

240

Addressing Phonological Questions with Ultrasound  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Ultrasound can be used to address unresolved questions in phonological theory. To date, some studies have shown that results from ultrasound imaging can shed light on how differences in phonological elements are implemented. Phenomena that have been investigated include transitional schwa, vowel coalescence, and transparent vowels. A study of…

Davidson, Lisa

2005-01-01

241

Unanswered questions in venous thromboembolism  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have made great strides in the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of venous thromboembolism (VTE). Despite these advances, however, questions remain. Perhaps the most important unmet need is the development and implementation of strategies to increase the uptake of guidelines for thromboprophylaxis. VTE is largely preventable with appropriate prophylaxis. New oral anticoagulants have the potential to further streamline VTE prevention

Jeffrey I. Weitz

2009-01-01

242

Cloning: questions answered and unsolved  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cloning by the transfer of adult somatic cell nuclei to oocytes has produced viable offspring in a variety of mammalian species. The technology is still in its initial stages of development. Studies to date have answered several basic questions related to such issues as genome potency, life expectancy of clones, mitochondrial fates, and feasibility of inter-species nuclear transfer. They have

Keith E. Latham

2004-01-01

243

Addressing Phonological Questions with Ultrasound  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Ultrasound can be used to address unresolved questions in phonological theory. To date, some studies have shown that results from ultrasound imaging can shed light on how differences in phonological elements are implemented. Phenomena that have been investigated include transitional schwa, vowel coalescence, and transparent vowels. A study of…

Davidson, Lisa

2005-01-01

244

On the question of fill  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two unrelated areas of APL have become the basis for the notion of prototype in some groups of extensions to APL. One of these areas, which arises when new operators like Rank, or its special case Each, are considered, is the question of empty frames: what result to return when an expression specifies, roughly, that a function is to be

Roland H. Pesch

1984-01-01

245

Five questions on intellectual history  

Microsoft Academic Search

Responding to questions posed by Mikkel Thorup (University of Aarhus), I recount how I was drawn to intellectual history by its breadth of concern and its relative epistemological modesty. I characterise it is as less a subfield of history than an interdisciplinary field aimed at clarifying problems and calling attention to limits. I reject the view that it ought to

Allan Megill

2011-01-01

246

Key questions regarding work engagement  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article discusses the concept of work engagement and summarizes research on its most important antecedents. The authors formulate 10 key questions and shape a research agenda for engagement. In addition to the conceptual development and measurement of enduring work engagement, the authors discuss the importance of state work engagement. Further, they argue that the social context is crucial and

Arnold B. Bakker; Simon L. Albrecht; Michael P. Leiter

2011-01-01

247

Looming Questions in Performance Pay  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|When proposing performance pay for teachers, reformers first must answer three questions: What is the definition of teacher performance? What is the definition of student performance? and What are the goals of schooling? Reformers also need to examine the assumptions that guide their proposals and prepare to deal with the implementation issues…

Gratz, Donald B.

2010-01-01

248

Ten Practical Questions about Branding  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|"Marketing" and "branding" were once considered dirty words on campus but faculty, staff, and board members now appreciate the value of getting their message out and managing their reputation. The question is not so much whether to invest, but when, how, and most important, what's the return on investment? A roundtable of accomplished marketing…

Moore, Robert M.; Rattenbury, Jeanne

2004-01-01

249

Dimensions of the IE Scale and their Relationship to Other Personality Measures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 46 alternatives in the original 23-item forced-choice format of the I-E scale were administered in a Likert agree-disagree format. The intercorrelations of the 46 alternatives were subjected to a principal components analysis. A varimax rotation of four factors yielded four subscales comparable to those reported by Collins (1974): Belief in a difficult world, a just world, a politically responsive

Miron Zuckerman; Kathleen Carrese Gerbasi

1977-01-01

250

The Validation of a New Obsessive–Compulsive Disorder Scale: The Obsessive–Compulsive Inventory  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Obsessive–Compulsive Inventory (OCI) is a new self-report instrument developed to address the problems inherent in available instruments for determining the diagnosis and severity of obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD). The OCI consists of 42 items composing 7 subscales: Washing, Checking, Doubting, Ordering, Obsessing (i.e., having obsessional thoughts), Hoarding, and Mental Neutralizing. Each item is rated on a 5-point (0–4) Likert scale

Edna B. Foa; Michael J. Kozak; Paul M. Salkovskis; Meredith E. Coles; Nader Amir

1998-01-01

251

Initial Development and Validation of the Academic Self-Concept Scale  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Academic Self-Concept Scale (ASCS) was developed as a measure of an academic facet of general self-concept in college stu dents. The initial item pool consisted of 59 items worded to conform to a 4-point Likert-type response format. On the basis of responses from 427 college students, the final form of the ASCS was con structed consisting of 40 items

William M. Reynolds; Maria P. Ramirez; Antonio Magriña; Jane Elizabeth Allen

1980-01-01

252

Questions, Not Answers, Stimulate Critical Thinking.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Successful classroom questioning is an art that can be cultivated through practice. While teachers do use questions in classroom interaction with students, these questions tend to be lower order questions which only require recall or comprehension on the part of the students. Research suggests that teachers favor these lower order questions for…

Williams, Bonnie; And Others

253

Classroom Questions. ERIC/AE Digest.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Questioning is one of the most popular modes of teaching, but it has the capacity to turn a child off to learning if done incorrectly. This digest provides teachers with information on the types of questions and questioning behaviors that can facilitate the learning process and on the types of questions that are ineffective. Good questions foster…

Brualdi, Amy C.

254

Asking Personal Questions in Mock Job Interviews.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two studies used a job interview role-play situation to examine strategies that interviewers employed when asking personal as compared to neutral questions. They found that personal questions were asked later in the interview than neutral questions and that more hesitation markers, tag questions, and hedges were used with personal questions than…

Ng, Sik Hung

1995-01-01

255

Lexical Chains for Question Answering  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents a method for finding topically related words on an extended WordNet. By exploiting the information in the WordNet glosses, the connectivity between the synsets is dramatically increased. Topical relations expressed as lexical chains on extended WordNet improve the performance of a question answering system by increasing the document retrieval recall and by providing the much needed axioms

Dan I. Moldovan; Adrian Novischi

2002-01-01

256

High performance question\\/answering  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we present the features of a Question\\/Answering (Q\\/A) system that had unparalleled performance in the TREC-9 evaluations. We explain the accuracy of our system through the unique characteristics of its architecture: (1) usage of a wide-coverage answer type taxonomy; (2) repeated passage retrieval; (3) lexico-semantic feedback loops; (4) extraction of the answers based on machine learning techniques;

Marius A. Pasca; Sandra M. Harabagiu

2001-01-01

257

Difficult questions of relativity theory  

SciTech Connect

The following concepts are discussed: covariance, invariance, the general, special, and kinematic principles of relativity, coordinate systems and frames of reference, and the energy--momentum tensor of the gravitational field. The relationships between the three canonical theories of gravitation are considered. The theory of the affine connection as applied to these questions is presented. Attention is drawn to inconsistency in terminology and the need for an explanatory dictionary for gravitational specialists. A contribution to the compilation of such a dictionary is made.

Chernikov, N.A.

1987-09-01

258

PBS: The Question of God  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

PBS may not have cornered the entire market on thoughtful and intelligent television programming, but they certainly have garnered the lion's share of this type of material. One of the network's most recent programs (and this website which accompanies it), The Question of God, is certainly proof positive of this fact. The four-hour series (based on a popular Harvard course taught by Dr. Armand Nicholi) explores some of the basic questions of humanity, such as "What is happiness?" and "How do we find meaning and purpose in our lives?" The program itself does this by looking through the lens of the eyes of two of the 20th century's most well-known intellectuals, Sigmund Freud, who was a strong critic of religious belief, and C.S. Lewis, who was a strong proponent of "faith based on reason." On the site, visitors can learn about the lives of Freud and Lewis through excerpts from their own writings, read synopses of the programs, and read other perspectives on the question of God from such individuals as Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr. and D.T. Suzuki. Additionally, visitors can watch clips from the program and listen in on roundtable conversations moderated by Dr. Nicholi.

259

Astronomical Scales  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson plan is part of the DiscoverySchool.com lesson plan library for grades 9-12. It focuses on scales and numbers used when representing distances and sizes in the science of astronomy. This involves developing equations and using scientific notation for large numbers. The Earth, Sun, Milky Way galaxy and universe are all used to develop understanding of this concept. It includes objectives, materials, procedures, discussion questions, evaluation ideas, suggested readings, and vocabulary. There are videos available to order which complement this lesson, and links to teaching tools for making custom quizzes, worksheets, puzzles and lesson plans.

260

A question of competing paradigms?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There are some fundamental—i.e., essential—differences between conceptual change theory and a rigorously applied discourse approach to the question of what and how people know. In this rejoinder, I suggest that the differences are paradigmatic because, among others, the units of analysis used and the data constructed are irreconcilably different. I now have abandoned my hopes for a collaborative extension of the two approaches, which I articulated not so long ago. I conclude that as alternative paradigms, conceptual change and discursive approaches will co-exist until one of them dies with its proponents.

Roth, Wolff-Michael

2008-07-01

261

Unanswered Questions in Friedreich Ataxia  

PubMed Central

During the past 15 years, the pace of research advancement in Friedreich ataxia has been rapid. The abnormal gene has been discovered and its gene product characterized, leading to the development of new evidence-based therapies. Still, various unsettled issues remain that affect clinical trials. These include the level of frataxin deficiency needed to cause disease, the mechanism by which frataxin-deficient mitochondrial dysfunction leads to symptomatology, and the reason selected cells are most affected in Friedreich ataxia. In this review, we summarize these questions and propose testable hypotheses for their resolution.

Lynch, David R.; Deutsch, Eric C.; Wilson, Robert B.; Tennekoon, Gihan

2013-01-01

262

Quick Questions: Learn About Data  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners will collect and analyze data to learn about the people around them. How many letters in everyoneâs first name? Whatâs the most common number of letters? Whatâs most or least? Start out by posing a multiple choice question. Everyone records answers on a large chart. Then, explore the data. This works well as a family activity or in a public areaâmuseum, library, school building. Post the chart and review answers after at least 100 people have responded. Available as a web page or downloadable pdf.

Terc

2010-01-01

263

Answering Key Fuel Cycle Questions  

SciTech Connect

Given the range of fuel cycle goals and criteria, and the wide range of fuel cycle options, how can the set of options eventually be narrowed in a transparent and justifiable fashion? It is impractical to develop all options. We suggest an approach that starts by considering a range of goals for the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) and then posits seven questions, such as whether Cs and Sr isotopes should be separated from spent fuel and, if so, what should be done with them. For each question, we consider which of the goals may be relevant to eventually providing answers. The AFCI program has both ''outcome'' and ''process'' goals because it must address both waste already accumulating as well as completing the fuel cycle in connection with advanced nuclear power plant concepts. The outcome objectives are waste geologic repository capacity and cost, energy security and sustainability, proliferation resistance, fuel cycle economics, and safety. The process objectives are rea diness to proceed and adaptability and robustness in the face of uncertainties.

Piet, S.J.; Dixon, B.W.; Bennett, R.G.; Smith, J.D.; Hill, R.N.

2004-10-03

264

The Urban Institute: Five Questions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In the mid-1960s, President Johnson saw the need for independent nonpartisan analysis of the problems facing America's cities and their residents. The President created a blue-ribbon commission of civic leaders who recommended chartering a center to do that work and in 1968, the Urban Institute became that center. Today the Urban Institute analyzes policies, evaluates programs, and informs community development to "improve social, civic, and economic well-being." Working in all 50 states and abroad, the Institute shares its research with policymakers, business leaders, and academics. On this site, visitors can enjoy the Institute's series of interviews entitled "Five Questions For"" which poses five questions to the people behind the Urban Institute's research. Here, experts talk about the nature of their work and offer insights on what they've learned. The collection allows visitors to browse a chronological list of this series of interviews and each interview is easily emailed and is also available in a printer friendly format.

265

Internal construct validity of the Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Well-being Scale (WEMWBS): a Rasch analysis using data from the Scottish Health Education Population Survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Well-Being Scale (WEMWBS) was developed to meet demand for instruments to measure mental well-being. It comprises 14 positively phrased Likert-style items and fulfils classic criteria for scale development. We report here the internal construct validity of WEMWBS from the perspective of the Rasch measurement model. METHODS: The model was applied to data collected from 779 respondents

Sarah Stewart-Brown; Alan Tennant; Ruth Tennant; Stephen Platt; Jane Parkinson; Scott Weich

2009-01-01

266

Four components of the Rotter Internal-External scale: Belief in a difficult world, a just world, a predictable world, and a politically responsive world  

Microsoft Academic Search

Administered the original 23-item forced choice Rotter Internal-External Control Scale (I-E) in a Likert, agree-disagree format to 300 undergraduates. There is a common theme through all of the 46 alternatives, but rotation of 4 factors clearly identifies 4 distinguishable and relatively orthogonal subscales. A respondent may score external on the I-E scale because he believes the world is difficult, unjust,

Barry E. Collins

1974-01-01

267

Approaches to Exploring Category Information for Question Retrieval in Community Question-Answer Archives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Community Question Answering (CQA) is a popular type of service where users ask questions and where answers are obtained from other users or from historical question-answer pairs. CQA archives contain large volumes of questions organized into a hierarchy of categories. As an essential function of CQA services, question retrieval in a CQA archive aims to retrieve historical question-answer pairs that

Xin Cao; Gao Cong; Bin Cui; Christian S. Jensen; Quan Yuan

2012-01-01

268

Classroom questioning: teachers’ perceptions and practices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Moving from a teacher-centered teaching to a student-centered teaching implies a new perspective of the approaches to questioning. Putting the focus on students’ questions rather then on teacher's questions, and valuing students’ questions rather then emphasizing their responses is imperative in supporting learners’ higher levels of thinking. This paper outlines and action research study with 3 secondary biology teachers and

Patrícia Albergaria-Almeida

2010-01-01

269

Accelerating instant question search with database techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

Distributed question answering services, like Yahoo Answer and Aardvark, are known to be useful for end users and have also opened up numerous topics ranging in many research fields. In this paper, we propose a user-support tool for composing questions in such services. Our system incrementally recommends similar questions while users are typing their question in a sentence, which gives

Takeharu Eda; Toshio Uchiyama; Katsuji Bessho; Norifumi Katafuchi; Alice Chen; Ryoji Kataoka

2011-01-01

270

37 CFR 354.2 - Novel questions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...law described in § 354.1(a) is a novel question of law, referral to the...Copyright Royalty Judges is mandatory. A ânovel question of lawâ is a question...a proceeding where the referral of a novel question to the Register of...

2010-07-01

271

37 CFR 354.2 - Novel questions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...law described in § 354.1(a) is a novel question of law, referral to the...Copyright Royalty Judges is mandatory. A ânovel question of lawâ is a question...a proceeding where the referral of a novel question to the Register of...

2009-07-01

272

Using Questioning to Stimulate Mathematical Thinking  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Good questioning techniques have long been regarded as a fundamental tool of effective teachers and research has found that "differences in students' thinking and reasoning could be attributed to the type of questions that teachers asked" (Wood, 2002). Past research shows that 93% of teacher questions were "lower order" knowledge-based questions

Way, Jenni

2008-01-01

273

Minimal Span Weighting Retrieval for Question Answering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current question answering systems rely on document re- trieval as a means of providing documents which are likely to contain an answer to a user's question. Recent research has shown that taking into account the proximity between question terms is helpful in determining whether a docu- ment contains an answer to a question. In this paper, we propose a novel

Christof Monz

274

Recognizing Digressive Questions During Interactive Generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In expository discourse, people sometimes ask ques- tions that digress from the purpose of the discussion. A system that provides interactive explanations and advice must be able to distinguish pertinent questions from questions that digress. It must also be able .to recognize questions that are incoherent. These types of questions require different treatment. Pertinent ques- tions must be answered to

Susan M. Hailer

275

Frequently Asked Questions about Psoriasis  

MedlinePLUS

... skin under the scales has a shiny red appearance. Can psoriasis be cured? No. The tendency to develop psoriasis is inherited through a person’s genes. We hope to be able to safely modify these genes in the future, but the technology is not yet developed. We do foresee a ...

276

Parkfield Aftershock Interoccurrence Scaling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aftershock sequences present a unique opportunity to study the physics of earthquakes. Important questions concern the fundamental origin of three widely applicable scaling laws: 1) Gutenberg-Richter frequency- magnitude scaling, 2) Omori's law for aftershock decay rates, and 3) Båth's law for the difference between the magnitude of the largest aftershock and a main shock. The high resolution Parkfield seismic network

R. Shcherbakov; D. L. Turcotte; J. B. Rundle

2006-01-01

277

Big questions about the universe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Astronomy is not only a branch of science but also an important part of the culture and civilisations of peoples. Starting with archeoastronomy to the present day, it has always contributed to a better understanding of life, of humanity. After 400 years of modern astronomy, it still addresses major problems such as: Why there is something rather than nothing? Why is nature comprehensible to humans? How is cosmos related to humanity? Do multiverses exist? Is there life on other planets? Are we alone in the universe? Does the universe have a beginning? If so, what does it mean? How did the universe originate? All these questions are a challenge for interdisciplinary and transdisciplinary investigations, for philosophers, physicists, cosmologists, mathematicians, theologians. The new insights gained by pursuing in depth these common investigations will shape the society we live in and have important consequences on the future we are creating.

Stavinschi, Magda

2011-06-01

278

Minister Peng answers correspondents' questions.  

PubMed

Following a press conference where she presented the results of the 1990 census and the accomplishments of China's family planning program, Peng Peiyun, minister of the State Family Planning Commission, and other officials answered the questions of Chinese and foreign correspondents. Asked about the implementation of family planning in rural areas, Peng explained that while the 1-child policy has been followed, farmers with only 1 daughter have been allowed a second child. Nonetheless, the total fertility rate (TFR) of rural women has fallen bellow 4. On the issue of abortion, an official explained that for the past few years, there have been 10 million abortions annually. Abortion, however, is used only when contraception fails. Despite China's impressive achievements in curbing population growth, Peng noted that the country still faces serious problems. As the country enters its 8th 5-year plan, China will undergo a baby boom. An average of 17 million births each year is expected throughout the plan's duration. Peng acknowledged that the previous target of controlling China's population to 1.2 billion by the year 2000 will not be achieved. Under the new plan, which hopes to reduce the TFR from 2.35 in 1989 to 2.0 by the turn of the century, calls for the population to stabilize somewhere between 1.5 and 1.6 billion. Peng also answered questions concerning abuses by family planning workers. She stressed that China's family planning program is voluntary, although economic disincentives are used. Furthermore, Peng addressed issues concerning religion and family planning, infanticide, the safety of contraceptives, and concerns over the ageing of the population. PMID:12284670

1991-02-01

279

Evaluation of four maternal smoking questions.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: The authors evaluated four questions about maternal smoking during pregnancy for use on birth certificates. METHODS: Question 1 (yes/no format) and Question 2 (trimester-specific design) were tested among 1171 women who delivered at two Kaiser Permanente medical centers in northern California. Responses to Questions 1 and 2 were compared with smoking information provided by participants in telephone interviews conducted during pregnancy. Question 3 (multiple choice format) and Question 4 (month- and grouped month-specific design) were tested among 900 women who enrolled in a statewide prenatal screening program and who delivered in 20 hospitals in four Central Valley counties. Responses to Questions 3 and 4 were compared with mid-pregnancy serum cotinine levels. The authors evaluated the four questions in terms of conciseness, response rate, data accuracy, and type of data requested. RESULTS: Questions 1 and 2 were the most concise. Response rates could not be calculated for Questions 1 and 2. Response rates were 86.0% for Question 3 and 74.2% for Question 4. Sensitivity was 47.3% for Question 1, 62.1% for Question 2, 83.8% for Question 3, and 86.7% for Question 4. The types of data requested by Questions 2 and 4 seem to best satisfy the needs of the broad audience of birth certificate users. CONCLUSIONS: No single question was clearly superior. The authors propose a combination of Questions 2 and 4, which asks about average number of cigarettes smoked per day in the three months before pregnancy and in each trimester of pregnancy.

Kharrazi, M; Epstein, D; Hopkins, B; Kreutzer, R; Doebbert, G; Hiatt, R; Swan, S; Eskenazi, B; Pirkle, J L; Bernert, J T

1999-01-01

280

A Measurement Model for Likert Responses that Incorporates Response Time  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes a model for response times that is proposed as a supplement to the usual factor-analytic model for responses to graded or more continuous typical-response items. The use of the proposed model together with the factor model provides additional information about the respondent and can potentially increase the accuracy of the…

Ferrando, Pere J.; Lorenzo-Seva, Urbano

2007-01-01

281

An Edge Question: What Now ?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This feature from the nonprofit Edge Foundation, Inc. (reviewed previously in the July 25, 2000 Scout Report for Social Sciences & Humanities) is an impressive collection of thoughtful words in response to the recent terrorist attacks and ensuing war. The Edge postulated the question, "What now?" to its members with the idea that, as editor John Brockman explains, "within the community is invaluable expertise in many pertinent areas, not to mention the intelligence that the 'Edgies' can bring to the subjects." What separates this forum from many others dealing with recent issues of terrorism is that Brockman asks for "'hard-edge' comments, derived from empirical results or experience specific to the expertise of the contributors," rather than emotional or purely rhetorical responses. Here are a few of the pieces -- some essay length, others only a few sentences -- found here: psychiatrist Richard Rabkin takes a "strategic psychotherapy" approach to dealing with terrorism, science writer and television commentator Margaret Wertheim and archaeologist Timothy Taylor both touch on the corruption of science by weapons development as well as the intermingling of science and religion, and evolutionary scholar Richard Dawkins brings up the tendency to "bend over backwards to see the other point of view and blame ourselves for everything." Take time to peruse this collection of 44,000 words from 55 contributors and you'll be glad you did.

2001-01-01

282

Answering Complex, List and Context Questions with LCC's Question-Answering Server  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the architecture of the Question-Answering Server (QAS) developed at the Language Computer Corporation (LCC) and used in the TREC-10 evaluations. LCC's QAS extracts answers for (a) factual questions of variable degree of difficulty; (b) questions that expect lists of answers; and (c) questions posed in the context of previous questions and answers. One of the major novelties

Sanda M. Harabagiu; Dan I. Moldovan; Marius Pasca; Mihai Surdeanu; Rada Mihalcea; Roxana Girju; Vasile Rus; V. Finley Lacatusu; Paul Morarescu; Razvan C. Bunescu

2001-01-01

283

Lawyers' Questioning: The Effect of Confusing Questions on Witness Confidence and Accuracy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study investigated the effect on witness confidence and accuracy of confusing questions often used by attorneys in court. Participants viewed a videotaped film and were individually questioned about the incident 1 week later. Half the participants were asked questions using six categories of confusing questions (negatives, double negatives, leading, multiple questions, complex syntax, and complex vocabulary); the remaining

Mark R. Kebbell; Shane D. Johnson

2000-01-01

284

The Effect of Distributed Questioning with Varied Examples on Exam Performance on Inference Questions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the distributed presentation of different versions of a question would produce better performance on a new version of the question than distributed presentation of the same version of the question. A total of 48 four question sets of five alternative multiple-choice questions were presented…

Glass, Arnold Lewis

2009-01-01

285

Questions in Classrooms; Questions in the Lecture. Teaching and Learning at Indiana University Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Questioning in the college classroom remains an undeveloped, unrefined skill even though there is abundant evidence that classroom questioning can be improved. Research on classroom questioning techniques at the pre-college level shows that teachers ask questions that are predominantly literal in nature. Questions that require "higher order"…

Gliessman, David; And Others

286

Gallery Walk Questions about Human Dimensions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

created by Mark Francek, Central Michigan University The following are potential questions that could be used in a gallery walk activity about the human dimensions of geologic issues. The questions are organized ...

287

Gallery Walk Questions about the Solar System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

created by Mark Francek, Central Michigan University The following are potential questions that could be used in a gallery walk activity about the solar system. The questions are organized according to the ...

288

Gallery Walk Questions on Atmospheric Moisture  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

created by Mark Francek, Central Michigan University The following are potential questions that could be used in a gallery walk activity about Atmospheric Mosture. The questions are organized according to the ...

289

Editor's Note: No Dumb Questions, But. . .  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Investigable questions are important elements of lessons that promote inquiry and help students construct meaning. Good questions help students make links between what they know, what they want to find out, what they observe, and how their observations fi

Froschauer, Linda

2010-12-01

290

Gallery Walk Questions on Earth's Radiation Balance  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

created by Mark Francek, Central Michigan University The following are potential questions that could be used in a gallery walk activity about the Earth's Radiation Balance. The questions are organized ...

291

Questions for Your Prospective Massage Therapist  

MedlinePLUS

... Your Prospective Massage Therapist Questions for Your Prospective Massage Therapist Ensure your massage therapy session will benefit ... questions: Are you a member of the American Massage Therapy Association (AMTA)? AMTA members commit to the ...

292

Global Perspectives in Education: Questions People Ask.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses 20 questions commonly asked when educators express a need for a global approach in education. Questions focus on defining the term, relating it to the schools, its place in the curriculum, and implementation procedures. (KC)|

King, David C.

1980-01-01

293

Gallery Walk Questions about the Ocean  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

created by Mark Francek, Central Michigan University The following are potential questions that could be used in a gallery walk activity about the ocean. The questions are organized according to the cognitive ...

294

Frequently Asked Questions about Surgical Site Infections  

MedlinePLUS

... and Specimen Submission Frequently Asked Questions For Clinicians Antifungal Prophylaxis Lumbar Puncture Patient Guidance Frequently Asked Questions ... arms up to their elbows with an antiseptic agent just before the surgery. Clean their hands with ...

295

Are Viruses Alive: Sample Socratic Questions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This example Socratic questioning page provides an outline for leading a classroom discussion regarding whether or not viruses are alive. Sample questions, resources for background information, and tips and assessment information are provided.

By Monica Bruckner and George Rice, Montana State University, Bozeman. Based on MLER website:Are Viruses Alive? by George Rice (mbruckner@montana.edu and grice@montana.edu).

296

Gallery Walk Questions on Weather and Climate  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

created by Mark Francek, Central Michigan University The following are potential questions that could be used in a gallery walk activity about weather and climate. The questions are organized according to the ...

297

Home Care Services: Questions to Ask  

MedlinePLUS

... be reprinted for personal, noncommercial use only. Home care services: Questions to ask By Mayo Clinic staff ... share your e-mail address Sign up Home care services: Questions to ask Home care services range ...

298

Multilingual Question\\/Answering: the DIOGENE System  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the DIOGENE question\\/answering system developed at ITC- Irst. The system is based on a rather standard architecture which includes three components for question processing, search and answer extraction. Linguistic processing strongly relies on MULTIWORDNET, an extended version of the English WORDNET. The system has been designed to address two promising directions: multilingual question\\/answering and question\\/answering on the

Bernardo Magnini; Matteo Negri; Roberto Prevete; Hristo Tanev

2001-01-01

299

More questions for mirror neurons.  

PubMed

The mirror neuron system is widely held to provide direct access to the motor goals of others. This paper critically investigates this idea, focusing on the so-called 'intentional worry'. I explore two answers to the intentional worry: first that the worry is premised on too limited an understanding of mirror neuron behaviour (Sections 2 and 3), second that the appeal made to mirror neurons can be refined in such a way as to avoid the worry (Section 4). I argue that the first response requires an account of the mechanism by which small-scale gestures are supposedly mapped to larger chains of actions but that none of the extant accounts of this mechanism are plausible. Section 4 then briefly examines refinements of the mirror neuron-mindreading hypothesis which avoid the intentional worry. I conclude that these refinements may well be plausible but that they undermine many of the claims standardly made for mirror neurons. PMID:23261329

Borg, Emma

2012-12-20

300

COGEX: A Logic Prover for Question Answering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent TREC results have demonstrated the need for deeper text understanding methods. This paper introduces the idea of automated reasoning applied to question answering and shows the feasibility of integrating a logic prover into a Question Answering system. The approach is to transform questions and answer passages into logic representations. World knowledge axioms as well as linguistic axioms are supplied

Dan I. Moldovan; Christine Clark; Sanda M. Harabagiu; Steven J. Maiorano

2003-01-01

301

Children's Production and Comprehension of Questions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two studies were conducted to discover possible patterns in question acquisition. For the production study, questions were collected from 22 children aged two to eleven. In the comprehension study, 100 children, aged three to five, were tested. The test controlled syntax and vocabulary and varied specific "wh-" question-words. (Author/RM)

Tyack, Dorothy; Ingram, David

1977-01-01

302

The outcomes question in teacher education  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article begins with the premise that it is possible to trace teacher education development and reform in terms of the major questions that have driven the field and the sometimes competing ways these questions have been constructed, debated, and enacted in research, policy, and practice. The author argues that currently “the outcomes question” is driving teacher education. Generally, the

Marilyn Cochran-Smith

2001-01-01

303

The Physics Question of the Week  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The question of the week web site hosts questions about physics related to experiments and demonstrations. The answer to each question is posted at the end of the week along with a short video showing the experiment and a link to a page with more information about a related demonstration.

Berg, Richard E.

2007-11-10

304

Questions That Science Teachers Find Difficult (II).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presents some questions that science teachers find difficult. Focuses on three further questions relating to "simple" everyday situations that are normally explained in terms of the kinetic theory of matter. Identifies looking at the difference between chemical and physical changes as the most problematic question. (Author/YDS)|

Goodwin, Alan

2003-01-01

305

Question Answering in the Context of Stories  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study a model of question answering (called QUEST) is tested in the context of short stories. College students first read a story and then judged the quality of answers to questions about episodes in the story. The model could account for the goodness-of-answer judgments and decision latencies of 5 categories of questions: why, how, when, enablement, and consequence.

Arthur C. Graesser; Kathy L. Lang; Richard M. Roberts

1991-01-01

306

Questioning and Teaching. A Manual of Practice.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Questions and questioning play a major role in both formal and informal educative processes. They are the means by which a child expresses the desire to understand the world outside and they subsequently become the means by which a teacher assesses whether or not a child has satisfactorily assimilated something. This book considers questions from…

Dillon, J. T.

307

Responding to Questions to Continue Classroom Participation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author discusses the importance of questioning techniques in the instruction of learning disabled students. Factors affecting students' responses to questions are the strengths and weaknesses of the learner and the type and difficulty of the question asked. A systematic method of providing or following up on students answers, termed…

Bachor, Dan G.

308

Delivery of QTIiv2 Question Types  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The IMS Question and Test Interoperability (QTI) standard identifies 16 different question types which may be used in online assessment. While some partial implementations exist, the R2Q2 project has developed a complete solution that renders and responds to all 16 question types as specified. In addition, care has been taken in the R2Q2 project…

Wills, Gary B.; Davis, Hugh C.; Gilbert, Lester; Hare, Jonathon; Howard, Yvonne; Jeyes, Steve; Millard, David; Sherratt, Robert

2009-01-01

309

Questions Analysis of Confucius Analects Knowledge System  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we explore the method based on keywords to analyze the questions for Confucius Analects Knowledge System. After analyzing the questions we can find the answers from the knowledge database of Confucius Analects. Confucius Analects Knowledge System is regard as a specific domain Question-Answer system. Taking a reference to the chapters' structure of Confucius Analects and the literature

Song Liu; F. Ren; Ye Yang; S. Kuroiwa

2007-01-01

310

What Can We Learn from Students' Questions?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Creating opportunities and encouraging student-centered questioning requires a special teacher-student dynamic. Students need to be empowered to ask questions. The article explores what teachers can learn from questions students ask, focusing on learning outcomes for teachers, and using a second-grade lesson on Harriet Tubman as an example. (SM)|

Commeyras, Michelle

1995-01-01

311

Teaching Students to Form Effective Questions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The ability to question lies at the heart of human curiosity and is a necessary component of cognition. The author stresses that forming questions is essential to human thought and communication. As such, forming questions is a foundational process that cuts across curricular areas and is embedded in content standards across the nation, including…

Stafford, Tish

2009-01-01

312

Questions and Answers About Nuclear Power Plants.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This pamphlet is designed to answer many of the questions that have arisen about nuclear power plants and the environment. It is organized into a question and answer format, with the questions taken from those most often asked by the public. Topics include regulation of nuclear power sources, potential dangers to people's health, whether nuclear…

Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

313

Questioning as Thinking: A Metacognitive Framework  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this article is to present Questioning as Thinking (QAT), a metacognitive framework that helps teachers and students focus on performance. QAT combines components of three widely-used strategies: Think-Alouds, Question Answer Relationships (QAR), and Self-Questioning. Together, these three strategies give students and teachers the…

Wilson, Nance S.; Smetana, Linda

2009-01-01

314

Doctors' questions as displays of understanding.  

PubMed

Based on German data from history-taking in doctor-patient interaction, the paper shows that the three basic syntactic types of questions (questions fronted by a question-word (w-questions), verb-first (V1) questions, and declarative questions) provide different opportunities for displaying understanding in medical interaction. Each syntactic question-format is predominantly used in a different stage of topical sequences in history taking: w-questions presuppose less knowledge and are thus used to open up topical sequences; declarative questions are used to check already achieved understandings and to close topical sequences. Still, the expected scope of answers to yes/no-questions and to declarative questions is less restricted than previously thought. The paper focuses in detail on the doctors' use of formulations as declarative questions, which are designed to make patients elaborate on already established topics, giving more details or accounting for a confirmation. Formulations often involve a shift to psychological aspects of the illness. Although patients confirm doctors' empathetic formulations, they, however, regularly do not align with this shift, returning to the description of symptoms and to biomedical accounts instead. The study shows how displays of understanding are responded to not only in terms of correctness, but also (and more importantly) in terms of their relevance for further action. PMID:23264976

Deppermann, Arnulf; Spranz-Fogasy, Thomas

2011-01-01

315

EXPOSURE FACTORS HANDBOOK - FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

This page provides a list of the most frequently asked questions and answers related to exposure factors. The following questions and answers have been compiled from inquiries made by users of the Exposure Factors Handbook. These questions and answers provide general information ...

316

Questions Good Teachers of Reading Should Ask.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Good teachers of reading should ask questions which link the research knowledge base in reading, effective teaching, and learning with proficient decision-making skills. These questions should focus on the content to be taught, the behaviors of the student, and the behaviors of the teacher. Content questions address central concepts, prior…

Hull, Starr; Shaw-Baker, Margaret

317

Questioning and Teaching. A Manual of Practice.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Questions and questioning play a major role in both formal and informal educative processes. They are the means by which a child expresses the desire to understand the world outside and they subsequently become the means by which a teacher assesses whether or not a child has satisfactorily assimilated something. This book considers questions from…

Dillon, J. T.

318

Questions and Answers About Nuclear Power Plants.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This pamphlet is designed to answer many of the questions that have arisen about nuclear power plants and the environment. It is organized into a question and answer format, with the questions taken from those most often asked by the public. Topics include regulation of nuclear power sources, potential dangers to people's health, whether nuclear…

Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

319

Reference Services: A Model of Question Handling  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes a conceptual framework and a vocabulary which can be used to discuss strategies and choices involved in question handling. A model of question handling is presented which provides for: (1) developing strategies for handling questions; (2) evaluating the appropriateness of the strategy; and (3) relating levels of service to resource requirements. The model can be used both

Barbara M. Robinson

1989-01-01

320

Boston University Physics Applets: Test Charge Questions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This item contains two in-class questions relating to test charge. Given a uniform electric field, students decide which simulation shows a test charge. In the related question, students use the positive test charge to determine the signs of two simulated charges. This item is part of a larger collection of physics questions and simulations developed by the Boston University Physics Department.

Duffy, Andrew

2008-08-01

321

Leading questions and the eyewitness report*1  

Microsoft Academic Search

A total of 490 subjects, in four experiments, saw films of complex, fast-moving events, such as automobile accidents or classroom disruptions. The purpose of these experiments was to investi- gate how the wording of questions asked immediately after an event may influence responses to questions asked considerably later. It is shown that when the initial question contains either true presuppositions

Elizabeth F. Loftus

1975-01-01

322

Effects of Comparison Question Type and Between Test Stimulation on the Validity of Comparison Question Test.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study examined the validity of two approaches to the comparison question test. Probable-lie and directed-lie comparison questions were evaluated in a mock crime experiment with 250 participants. Review of questions between charts was also manipulated...

C. R. Honts R. Reavy

2009-01-01

323

Validation Studies of the Two Question and Three Question Physical Activity Assessment  

Cancer.gov

Validation Studies of the Two Question and Three Question Physical Activity Assessment Smith et al. 2005 See reference #106 Methods (2Q) and three-question (3Q) assessments compared to Active Australia Questionnaire (AAQ), and 7-day CSA accelerometer

324

150 Student Questions on Solar Physics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Center for Integrated Space Weather Modeling (CISM) holds a two-week Space Weather Summer School for introductory graduate students and space weather professionals to gain a system level understanding of the space environment and the effects of space weather. A typical day in the summer school consists of three morning lectures followed by an afternoon lab session. After the morning lectures, the participants are each asked to submit a question about the mornings topics on a question card. The lecturers then take the time to answer these questions prior to afternoon sessions. In the last 5 years over 1000 such question cards have been collected and cataloged. Despite detailed lectures by experts similar questions appear every year. We have analyzed over 150 questions related to the introductory lectures on solar physics and solar activity. Questions content was categorized using the AGU Index, and question sophistication was categorized using Bloom’s Taxonomy of Educational Objectives. Specific analysis results along with lists of questions will be presented. We hope that these results can be used to improve the lecture and classroom content and allow students to move beyond low level education objectives and ask more sophisticated questions.

Lopez, R. E.; Gross, N. A.; Knipp, D. J.

2010-12-01

325

The Relationship between Teaching and Learning Conceptions, Preferred Teaching Approaches and Questioning Practices  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper focuses on the relationship between preferential teaching approach (PTA) and the concept of teachers' questioning practices (TQP), as part of a large-scale three-year project aimed at developing the scholarship of teaching and learning at one Portuguese university. In order to contribute to understandings of how teachers' questioning

Pedrosa-de-Jesus, Maria Helena; da Silva Lopes, Betina

2011-01-01

326

Personal knowledge questions for fallback authentication: security questions in the era of Facebook  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT Security questions (or challenge questions) are commonly used to authenticate users who,have lost their passwords. We examined the password retrieval mechanisms for a num- ber of personal banking websites, and found that many of them rely in part on security questions with serious usability and security weaknesses. We discuss patterns in the secu- rity questions we observed. We argue

Ariel Rabkin

2008-01-01

327

How to... Ask the Right Questions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Questions, questions, questions! They are a large part of a teacher's stock-in-trade. We use questions to help students review, to check on comprehension, to stimulate critical thinking, to encourage creativity, to emphasize a point, to control classroom activities, reduce disruptive behavior, to help determine grades, to encourage discussion, to discourage inattentiveness, and for other reasons and purposes. Questioning style and content varies from teacher to teacher, student group to student group, and situation to situation. The aim of this "How to�" booklet is to help you focus on a common teaching activity--the asking of questions. To illustrate some of the classifications and concepts discussed, excerpts from a videotaped lesson to third graders on magnetism appears at the end of this booklet.

Blosser, Patricia E.

2000-01-01

328

Comparisons of American, Israeli, Italian and Mexican physicians and nurses on the total and factor scores of the Jefferson scale of attitudes toward physician–nurse collaborative relationships  

Microsoft Academic Search

This cross-cultural study was designed to compare the attitudes of physicians and nurses toward physician–nurse collaboration in the United States, Israel, Italy and Mexico. Total participants were 2522 physicians and nurses who completed the Jefferson Scale of Attitudes Toward Physician–Nurse Collaboration (15 Likert-type items, (Hojat et al., Evaluation and the Health Professions 22 (1999a) 208; Nursing Research 50 (2001) 123).

Mohammadreza Hojat; Joseph S Gonnella; Thomas J Nasca; Sylvia K Fields; Americo Cicchetti; Alessandra Lo Scalzo; Francesco Taroni; Anna Maria Vincenza Amicosante; Manuela Macinati; Massimo Tangucci; Carlo Liva; Gualtiero Ricciardi; Shmuel Eidelman; Hanna Admi; Hana Geva; Tanya Mashiach; Gideon Alroy; Adelina Alcorta-Gonzalez; David Ibarra; Antonio Torres-Ruiz

2003-01-01

329

Une structure pour les questions enchainées  

Microsoft Academic Search

Résumé. Nous présentons des travaux réalisés dans le domaine des systèmes de questions réponses (SQR) utilisant des questions enchainées. La recherche des documents dans un SQR est perturbée par l'absence d'informations sur la valeur à a ccorder aux éléments de texte éven- tuellement utiles à la recherche d'informations qui figuren t dans les questions liées. Les récentes campagnes d'évaluation montrent

Kévin Séjourné

330

Twenty Questions Games Always End With Yes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Huffman coding is often presented as the optimal solution to Twenty Questions. However, a caveat is that Twenty Questions games always end with a reply of Yes, whereas Huffman codewords need not obey this constraint. We bring resolution to this issue by showing that the average number of questions still lies between H(X) and H(X)+1. IPNPR Volume 42-187 Tagged File.txt

Wu, W.; Gill, J. T., III

2011-08-01

331

Single-Concept Clicker Question Sequences  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Students typically use electronic polling systems, or clickers, to answer individual questions. Differing from this tradition, we have developed a new clicker methodology in which multiple clicker questions targeting the same underlying concept but with different surface features are grouped into a sequence. Here we present the creation, validation, and evaluation of clicker question sequences sufficient in number to populate a year of calculus-based introductory physics.

Lee, Albert; Ding, Lin; Reay, Neville W.; Bao, Lei

2011-09-01

332

Earthquake Hazards Program: Frequently Asked Questions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This frequently-asked-questions feature deals with the relationship between earthquakes, faults, and plate tectonics; myths about earthquakes; effects and experiences; preparedness; and many other topics.

333

Questions and Answers on Monosodium glutamate (MSG)  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... Questions and Answers on Monosodium glutamate (MSG). November 19, 2012. What is MSG? Monosodium glutamate ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/ingredientspackaginglabeling/foodadditivesingredients

334

Exam Question Exchange: Potential Energy Surfaces.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presents three examination questions, graded in difficulty, that explore the topic of potential energy surfaces using a diagrammatic approach. Provides and discusses acceptable solutions including diagrams. (CW)|

Alexander, John J., Ed.

1988-01-01

335

Development of a Community Commitment Scale with Cross-sectional Survey Validation for Preventing Social Isolation in Older Japanese People  

PubMed Central

Background Elderly social isolation could be prevented by facilitating communication or mutual helping at the neighborhood level. The helping of elderly neighbors by local volunteers may relate to their community commitment (CC), but ways to measure CC have not been identified. The aim of the present study was to develop a Community Commitment Scale (CCS) to measure psychological sense of belonging and socializing in the community among local volunteers, for research in prevention of elderly social isolation. We also tested the CCS in a general population of the elderly. Methods A pilot test of 266 Japanese urban residents was conducted to examine face validity for 24 identified items, of which 12 items were selected for the CCS, based on a 4-point Likert-type scale. The CCS was developed via self-report questionnaires to 859 local volunteers in two suburban cities and to 3484 randomly sampled general residents aged 55 years or older living in one of the cities. To assess concurrent validity, data were collected using the Brief Sense of Community Scale (Peterson; 2008) and two types of single questions on self-efficacy for helping elderly neighbors. Results Item analysis and factor analysis identified 8 items, which were classified between two datasets under the domains of “belonging” and “socializing” in the local volunteers and the general residents. Cronbach’s alpha (which conveyed the internal consistency of the CCS) was 0.75 in local volunteers and 0.78 in general residents. The correlation coefficients between the scores of the CCS and BSCS were 0.54 for local volunteers and 0.62 for general residents. ANOVA comparing the CCS between the confidence levels of the two types of single question of self-efficacy on helping elderly neighbors showed a strong relationship in the volunteers and residents. Conclusions These results demonstrate acceptable internal consistency and concurrent validity for the CCS, with the two dimensions “belonging” and “socializing”, among the local volunteers and general residents in urban Japanese areas. Community commitment measured by the CCS was related to the degree of confidence for self-efficacy in helping elderly neighbors to prevent elderly social isolation.

2012-01-01

336

Eye Tracking While Answering Questions in Electronic Multimedia Environments.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This research project collected eye tracking data while adults answered questions, asked questions, and interacted with electronic media. We tested computational models of question answering (QUEST), question comprehension difficulty (QUAID), and question...

A. C. Graesser

2002-01-01

337

Casimir energies of cavities: The geometry question  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The question of how the Casimir effect relates to a system's geometry is of fundamental interest. In this thesis, we present new results for interior Casimir self-energies of various integrable geometries and show interesting systematic relations between these energies. In particular, we consider prisms with triangular cross sections (equilateral, hemiequilateral, and right isosceles triangles), triangular polygons of the same cross sections, and three tetrahedra. The triangular prisms are of infinite or finite lengths. These geometries are integrable and unique in the sense that the Laplacian eigenvalues may be found using the method of images. We obtain interior Casimir energies for these cavities subject to Dirichlet and Neumann boundary conditions. In addition to these boundary conditions, we also obtain electromagnetic Casimir energies for the infinite prisms. These energies are regularized using various consistent methods, one of which is regularization by point-splitting. Summing these modes explicitly using a cylinder kernel formulation, we show that the correct Weyl divergences are obtained. We also give closed-form results for the infinite triangular prisms. In order to understand the geometry dependence of these energies, we rederive well-known results for rectangular parallelepipeds (including the cube) and infinite rectangular prisms. The analysis of these self-energies yields intriguing results. By plotting the scaled energies against the appropriately chosen isoperimetric or isoareal quotients, we observe interesting patterns, which hint towards a systematic functional dependence. In addition to the calculation of new Casimir energies, this constitutes a significant contribution to the theoretical understanding of self-energies and has interesting implications.

Abalo, Iroko Komi Elom

338

A Definition of Complexity of Questions for Question and Answer and its Evaluation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes a definition of complexity of questions for a question and answer function in an intelligent support system for English learning, and its evaluation. To realize adaptive question and answer, the system should generates questions depending on both educational intentions and the learner's understanding state. For generating suitable questions for the learner automatically, we must investigate the factors which influence difficulty of questions, and prepare the mechanism to calculate the difficulty. The difficulty is composed of the learner dependent part and the independent part. The former is evaluated by referring to a student model. The latter is defined by enumerating factors which influence complexity of questions. We present a definition of the complexity along with learners' answering flow; understanding text sentences, understanding a question and composing an answer. Moreover, we describe experimentation comparing the complexity of questions calculated by computer according to the definition with the complexity evaluated by human.

Kunichika, Hidenobu; Urushima, Minoru; Hirashima, Tsukasa; Takeuchi, Akira

339

Scaling up Psycholinguistics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This dissertation contains several projects, each addressing different questions with different techniques. In chapter 1, I argue that they are unified thematically by their goal of "scaling up psycholinguistics"; they are all aimed at analyzing large data-sets using tools that reveal patterns to propose and test mechanism-neutral hypotheses…

Smith, Nathaniel J.

2011-01-01

340

Asking the Wrong Questions about Leadership  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Comments on the article by R. J. Hackman and R. Wageman (see record 2006-23492-007) which presented some directions for leadership research. Hackman and Wageman organized their article around their five reject-accept questions suggesting new directions. The current author discusses how each of the questions appears far too timid for real progress…

Graen, George B.

2007-01-01

341

The Effects of Questioning on Thinking Processes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the effects of self-generated questions and external questions on thinking processes. Thirty-three college students acted as investigators in a computer simulation of a Congressional investigation into the Pearl Harbor attack. The simulation--known as "The Attack on Pearl Harbor: Cloud of Mystery?"--presented the background…

Shiang, Ching-Pyng; McDaniel, Ernest

342

[Questions about the Part H Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Directed to the state lead agency directors, the memorandum from the Office of Special Education Programs answers questions concerning implementation of Part H of the EHA, Education of the Handicapped Act, the Early Intervention Program for Infants and Toddlers with Handicaps. The following questions are addressed: (1) Can a child who is counted…

Bellamy, G. Thomas

343

Analyses for elucidating current question answering technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we take a detailed look at the performance of components of an idealized question answering system on two dieren t tasks: the TREC Question Answering task and a set of reading comprehension exams. We carry out three types of analysis: inherent properties of the data, feature analysis, and performance bounds. Based on these analyses we explain some

MARC LIGHT; GIDEON S. MANN; ERIC BRECK

2001-01-01

344

Surface form and memory in question answering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Speakers tend to repeat materials from previous talk. This tendency is experi- mentally established and manipulated in various question-answering situations. It is shown that a question's surface form can affect the format of the answer given, even if this form has little semantic or conversational consequence, as in the pair Q: (At) what time do you close,\\

WILLEM J. M. LEVELT; S. Kelter

1982-01-01

345

From Question Answering to Visual Exploration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research in Question Answering has focused on the quality of information retrieval or extraction using the metrics of precision and recall to judge success; these metrics drive toward finding the specific best answer(s) and are best supportive of a lookup type of search. These do not address the opportunity that users? natural language questions present for exploratory interactions. In this

Dave W. McColgin; Michelle L. Gregory; Elizabeth G. Hetzler; Alan E. Turner

2006-01-01

346

Processing the Curriculum through Quality Questioning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In this inquiry-based project, student-generated questions became the basis for student-directed individual and group projects that provided practice with problem solving, critical thinking, and research skills while digging deeper into the Earth science curriculum. The author used her students' high-level questions to provide relevance,…

Gregerson, Jessica

2011-01-01

347

Developing Offline Strategies for Answering Medical Questions  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe ongoing developments on two offline strategies for automatically answering questions in the medical domain: one based on an analysis of the document structure, the other based on dependency parsing. We highlight differences with open domain question answering, and provide a preliminary evaluation of the current state of our strategies. Copyright (c) 2005, American Association for Artificial Intelligence (www.aaai.org).

E. F. Tjong Kim Sang; G. Bouma; Rijke de M

2005-01-01

348

Self-Questioning Instructional Research: A Review.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Studies in self-questioning designed to improve students' prose processing are reviewed in the context of three theoretical perspectives: active processing perspective, metacognitive theory, and schema theory. The effects of self-questioning training on students' prose processing seem successful. Constraints of content knowledge and metacognitive…

Wong, Bernice Y. L.

1985-01-01

349

Academic Oversight: Asking Questions, Building Bridges  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The best way for trustees to fully understand and fulfill their responsibility to ensure that their institution is providing quality education and meeting academic goals is by asking appropriate questions. Collaboration among trustees, faculty members, and administrators is essential to framing questions from a strategic perspective. Just the act…

Wilson, E. B.

2011-01-01

350

Asking Good Questions & Promoting Discourse (Part 1)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This brief NCTM article ( and Part 2 cataloged separately) presents tips on asking good questions and promoting discourse, which is an integral part of the teaching and learning in a classroom. The article includes suggestions on how teachers can improve their questioning techniques as well as how they respond to student discourse.

2013-01-01

351

Asking Questions & Promoting Discourse (Part 2)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This brief NCTM article presents Part 2 (Part 1 cataloged separately) of their collection of tips on asking good questions and promoting discourse, which is an integral part of the teaching and learning in a classroom. The article includes suggestions on how teachers can improve their questioning techniques as well as how they respond to student discourse.

2013-01-01

352

Uniqueness Questions for Multiple Trigonometric Series  

Microsoft Academic Search

We survey some recent results on the uniqueness questions on multiple trigonometric series. Two basic questions, one about series which converges to zero and the other about the series which converge to an inte- grable function, are asked for four modes of convergence: unrestricted rectan- gular convergence, spherical convergence, square convergence, and restricted rectangular convergence. We will either get into

J. Marshall Ash; Gang Wang

353

Questioning Strategies that Minimize Behavior Problems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Teachers know from their training and experience that questioning plays an important role in today's instruction. Modern lessons are fast-paced and interactive, with teachers asking a lot of questions. Because this instructional strategy dominates class time and because students are active during the lesson, there are more chances for management…

Bond, Nathan

2008-01-01

354

Probabilistic question answering on the web  

Microsoft Academic Search

Web-based search engines such as Google and NorthernLight return documents that are relevant to a user query, not answers to user questions. We have developed an architecture that augments existing search engines so that they support natural language question answering. The process entails five steps: query modulation, document retrieval, passage extraction, phrase extraction, and answer ranking. In this paper we

Dragomir R. Radev; Weiguo Fan; Hong Qi; Harris Wu; Amardeep Grewal

2002-01-01

355

Children's Questions: A Mechanism for Cognitive Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Preschoolers' questions may play an important role in cognitive development. When children encounter a problem with their current knowledge state (a gap in their knowledge, some ambiguity they do not know how to resolve, some inconsistency they have detected), asking a question allows them to get targeted information exactly when they need it.…

Chouinard, Michelle M.

2007-01-01

356

Children's Questions: A Mechanism for Cognitive Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Preschoolers' questions may play an important role in cognitive development. When children encounter a problem with their current knowledge state (a gap in their knowledge, some ambiguity they do not know how to resolve, some inconsistency they have detected), asking a question allows them to get targeted information exactly when they need it.…

Chouinard, Michelle M.

2007-01-01

357

The School in Question: An Economist's Viewpoint.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Replies to theories stated in "The School in Question" by Torsten Husen are presented. The author questions Husen's argument that unless education is linked with the work world, youth unemployment will be a permanent feature of advanced industrial society. Husen's statements about the cost-effectiveness of education are also examined. (KC)|

Vaizey, John

1979-01-01

358

Questionnaire Design: Asking Questions with a Purpose  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This short document guides the user through the stages of creating and implementing an effective questionnaire. The types of questions and how they should be worded are addressed, and many good examples of the different types of questions that could go into a questionnaire are presented. This resource is intended for novice evaluators.

Taylor-Powell, Ellen

1998-05-01

359

Baseball: an automatic question-answerer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Baseball is a computer program that answers questions phrased in ordinary English about stored data. The program reads the question from punched cards. After the words and idioms are looked up in a dictionary, the phrase structure and other syntactic facts are determined for a content analysis, which lists attribute-value pairs specifying the information given and the information requested. The

Bert F. Green Jr.; Alice K. Wolf; Carol Chomsky; Kenneth Laughery

1961-01-01

360

Is there a Burden of Questioning?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In some recent cases in Anglo-American law juries ruled contrary to an expert's testimony even though that testimony was never challenged, contradicted or questioned in the trial. These cases are shown to raise some theoretical questions about formal dialogue systems in computational dialectical systems for legal argumentation of the kind recently surveyed by Bench-Capon (1997) and Hage (2000) in this

Douglas Walton

2003-01-01

361

Questions to Ask Your Liability Insurance Broker  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper discusses some important questions to ask an insurance broker regarding liability insurance. The author based these questions on his interviews with Kathryn Hammerback, Craig Hammer, and Mike North: (1) Are centers covered when...?; (2) How can a center director cut costs on this policy?; (3) Is this an "occurrence" or a "claims-made"…

Neugebauer, Roger

2006-01-01

362

Preceptor questioning and student critical thinking  

Microsoft Academic Search

Questioning is fundamental to student learning. Not only does it enable students to elevate their level of thinking, but in the process it also affords them the opportunity to deal with their world intelligently. The practice setting is an environment rich in opportunity for enabling critical thinking through the use of questioning. In the preceptorship experience, preceptors are in a

Florence Myrick; Olive Yonge

2002-01-01

363

Open versus closed questions – an open issue  

Microsoft Academic Search

In our constant asking of questions in our organizations we use a combination of open and closed questions. This is generally done in a haphazard manner according to custom or spontaneity. Argues that research evidence suggests there are appropriate contexts and occasions for the use of either type. Sets out the pros and cons in tabular form. Finds it is

Gerald Vinten

1995-01-01

364

Frequently Asked Questions about Learning Disabilities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This brochure, in a question-and-answer format, provides basic information about learning disabilities for faculty at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. The questions address such topics as the definition of a learning disability, diagnostic criteria, documentation criteria, verifying the legitimacy of a student's request for…

Illinois Univ., Urbana. Div. of Rehabilitation Education Services.

365

Questioning Strategies that Minimize Behavior Problems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Teachers know from their training and experience that questioning plays an important role in today's instruction. Modern lessons are fast-paced and interactive, with teachers asking a lot of questions. Because this instructional strategy dominates class time and because students are active during the lesson, there are more chances for management…

Bond, Nathan

2008-01-01

366

9/11: Reflections, Memories, and Questions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|What were you doing on September 11th? This seems like an obvious question to prompt conversations about the World Trade Center tragedy, but is it a good question to ask high school students a decade removed from the event? Many students now in high school were toddlers at the time. What do they really remember from that day? Are these memories…

Zingone, Joe

2011-01-01

367

Risk Factor Analysis and the Youth Question  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper is concerned with exploring how in late modernity the "youth question" is being addressed by public policy and what impact this is having on understandings of childhood and youth. Historically the youth question has been shaped by adult anxieties over youth delinquency and their problems of social integration. In late modernity, this is…

France, Alan

2008-01-01

368

PAQ database: Single Question Physical Activity Questionnaire  

Cancer.gov

Single Question Physical Activity Questionnaire In: Rose SB, Elley CR, Lawton BA, Dowell AC. A single question reliably identifies physically inactive women in primary care. N Z Med J 2008 Jan 25;121(1268):U2897. [View Abstract] "As a rule, do you do

369

Term weighting schemes for question categorization.  

PubMed

Term weighting has proven to be an effective way to improve the performance of text categorization. Very recently, with the development of user-interactive question answering or community question answering, there has emerged a need to accurately categorize questions into predefined categories. However, as a question is usually a piece of short text, can the existing term-weighting methods perform consistently in question categorization as they do in text categorization? The answer is not clear, since to the best of our knowledge, we have not seen any work related to this problem despite of its significance. In this study, we investigate the popular unsupervised and supervised term-weighting methods for question categorization. At the same time, we propose three new supervised term-weighting methods, namely, qf*icf, iqf*qf*icf, and vrf. Comparisons of them with existing unsupervised and supervised term-weighting methods are made through a series of experiments on question collections of Yahoo! Answers. The experimental results show that iqf*qf*icf achieves the best performance among all term-weighting methods, while qf*icf and vrf are also competitive for question categorization. Meanwhile, tf*OR is proven to be the most significant one among existing methods. In addition, iqf*qf*icf and vrf are also effective for long document categorization. PMID:20733219

Quan, Xiaojun; Liu, Wenyin; Qiu, Bite

2011-05-01

370

An Application of Scaling to Questionnaire Construction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The basic problem considered was that of selecting one out of a number of proposed question forms in survey work. In the particular case, there were two apparent directions of bias. Questions were designed to represent each of these, and each question of the set was judged in relation to these and to each other. Thurstone scaling of judgments was

Charles A. Metzner

1950-01-01

371

The Priority of the Question: Focus Questions for Sustained Reasoning in Science  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Science education standards place a high priority on promoting the skills and dispositions associated with inquiry at all levels of learning. Yet, the questions teachers employ to foster sustained reasoning are most likely borrowed from a textbook, lab manual, or worksheet. Such generic questions generated for a mass audience, lack authenticity and contextual cues that allow learners to immediately appreciate a question’s relevance. Teacher queries intended to motivate, guide, and foster learning through inquiry are known as focus questions. This theoretical article draws upon science education research to present a typology and conceptual framework intended to support science teacher educators as they identify, develop, and evaluate focus questions with their students.

Lustick, David

2010-08-01

372

Happiness Scale Interval Study. Methodological Considerations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Happiness Scale Interval Study deals with survey questions on happiness, using verbal response options, such as "very happy" and "pretty happy". The aim is to estimate what degrees of happiness are denoted by such terms in different questions and languages. These degrees are expressed in numerical values on a continuous [0,10] scale, which…

Kalmijn, W. M.; Arends, L. R.; Veenhoven, R.

2011-01-01

373

Beyond Information Retrieval--Medical Question Answering  

PubMed Central

Physicians have many questions when caring for patients, and frequently need to seek answers for their questions. Information retrieval systems (e.g., PubMed) typically return a list of documents in response to a user’s query. Frequently the number of returned documents is large and makes physicians’ information seeking “practical only ‘after hours’ and not in the clinical settings”. Question answering techniques are based on automatically analyzing thousands of electronic documents to generate short-text answers in response to clinical questions that are posed by physicians. The authors address physicians’ information needs and described the design, implementation, and evaluation of the medical question answering system (MedQA). Although our long term goal is to enable MedQA to answer all types of medical questions, currently, we currently implement MedQA to integrate information retrieval, extraction, and summarization techniques to automatically generate paragraph-level text for definitional questions (i.e., “What is X?”). MedQA can be accessed at http://www.dbmi.columbia.edu/~yuh9001/research/MedQA.html.

Lee, Minsuk; Cimino, James; Zhu, Hai Ran; Sable, Carl; Shanker, Vijay; Ely, John; Yu, Hong

2006-01-01

374

The large scale structure of the universe  

SciTech Connect

Recent developments concerning the large scale structure of the universe are discussed. All seem to indicate inhomogeneities on much larger scales than previously thought. Specific observations from above the atmosphere can aid in understanding several outstanding questions, like the spatial distribution of various absorbers, the global geometry of the universe, or the nature of large scale velocities over scales considerably larger than currently available.

Szalay, A.S. (Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD (USA))

1990-07-05

375

Question Answering from Frequently-Asked Question Files: Experiences with the FAQ Finder System  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes FAQ Finder, a natural language question-answering system that usesfiles of frequently-asked questions as its knowledge base. Unlike AI question-answering systemsthat focus on the generation of new answers, FAQ Finder retrieves existing ones found infrequently-asked question files. Unlike information retrieval approaches that rely on a purelylexical metric of similarity between query and document, FAQ Finder uses a semantic

Robin D. Burke; Kristian J. Hammond; Vladimir Kulyukin

1996-01-01

376

The effects on interest, instruction, and achievement on the science question level of middle school students  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effects of instruction in writing researchable questions, science topic interest, and achievement (science, reading, and mathematics) on science question level in seventh grade students were investigated experimentally. The hypotheses were: students instructed in researchable questioning in science would outperform students who were not instructed on a measure of science question level; students interested in science topics would score higher on a measure of science question level, than when they are not interested; and high achieving students in mathematics, reading or science would outperform students who are not high achievers on a measure of science question level. Eight classes of normally achieving seventh graders (n = 106 students), from a middle school in west central Florida, were randomly assigned to two treatments. One group received instruction in writing researchable questions in science, the other group did not receive instruction. Each student in each of the eight classes completed "The Middle School Students' Science Topic Interest Rating Scale", developed for this study (test-retest reliability, rsbs =.84), rating each of the thirteen topics from one to three. All students selected two topics in which they were least interested, and two topics in which they were most interested. They then wrote researchable questions for each topic. All students took the Scholastic Aptitude Tests (SAT) in reading, mathematics and science. The questions were rated using the four levels described by "The Middle School Students' Science Question Rating Scale", developed for this study (inter-rater reliability, rsbs =.96). The scores for each question were averaged for two raters then summed for each interest level for each student The means and standard deviations were computed for questions generated at a low level of interest, questions generated at a high level of interest, reading SAT scores, mathematics SAT scores, and science SAT scores. The data were analyzed for main effects and interaction effects using general linear modeling procedures. The variable modeled was question level. There was one within subjects factor, science topic interest, and four between subjects factors: instruction, science achievement, mathematics achievement and reading achievement. The results, consistent with the hypotheses, indicate that students who received instruction in researchable questioning outperformed those students who were not instructed on a measure of science question level; when students were interested in a science topic their question level was significantly higher than when they were not interested; and students who were high achievers in mathematics, reading or science outperformed those students who were not high achievers on a measure of science question level.

Cuccio Schirripa, Santine

377

Offline Strategies for Online Question Answering: Answering Questions Before They Are Asked  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent work in Question Answering has focused on web-based systems that extract answers using simple lexico-syntactic patterns. We present an alternative strategy in which patterns are used to extract highly precise relational information offline, creating a data repository that is used to efficiently answer questions. We evaluate our strategy on a challenging subset of questions, i.e. \\

Michael Fleischman; Eduard H. Hovy; Abdessamad Echihabi

2003-01-01

378

Instructor Modeling and Online Question Prompts for Supporting Peer-Questioning During Online Discussion  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study investigates how the combination of instructor modeling and question prompts for peer-questioning influences students' online questioning and answering activities. Fourteen students in a turfgrass management online class at a large land-grant university participated in two three-week sessions of online discussion. Two randomly selected…

Choi, Ikseon; Land, Susan M.; Turgeon, Alfred

2008-01-01

379

Questions and Answers: Smallpox Vaccine and Monkeypox  

MedlinePLUS

... 404) 639-3311 Monkeypox Home > QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS Smallpox Vaccine and Monkeypox Download PDF version formatted for ... 132 KB/2 pages) How effective is the smallpox vaccine in preventing monkeypox? Past data from Africa ...

380

Astronaut Jeff Williams Answers Your Questions  

NASA Video Gallery

Expedition 22 Commander Jeff Williams, aboard the International Space Station 220 miles above Earth, responds to questions posted on YouTube concerning the station's orientation, life in space and the recent butterfly experiment.

NASA - nasa.gov

2010-03-10

381

Frequently Asked Questions: Tobacco Products Scientific ...  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

Text Version... Questions: Tobacco Products Scientific Advisory Committee's Report and Recommendations on the Impact of the Use of Menthol in Cigarettes ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/advisorycommittees/committeesmeetingmaterials

382

Incorporating Syntactic Information in Question Answering.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Syntactic information potentially plays a much more important role in question answering than it does in information retrieval. The aim of the experiment described in this paper is to study the impact of a particular approach for using syntactic informati...

W. B. Croft X. Li

2001-01-01

383

Postlude to a Question-Answering Project.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

From 1967 to 1973, the author worked in a project group developing a computerized natural language question answering system. This report, written after the conclusion of the project, tries to summarize some experiences about writing such a system which m...

J. Palme

1979-01-01

384

Question of Endemic Nature of Influenza A.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report contains a hypothesis on the question of the endemic nature of influenza A based on the concept that influenza is an anthropozoonotic infection linked in nature with a rather broad range of living things.

V. Z. Soloukhin

1975-01-01

385

Emergency Medical Services Frequently Asked Questions  

MedlinePLUS

... Home > Topics & States > Topics > Emergency Medical Services Emergency Medical Services Frequently Asked Questions How can a rural ... may be used to purchase equipment for emergency medical services. Contact your local USDA Rural Development Office ...

386

Response to Questions on Presentation to NAS  

SciTech Connect

Response to questions on the presentation 'Overview to Chamber and Power Plant Designs for IFE' made at the 1/29-31 meeting of the National Academies Committee on the Prospects for Inertial Confinement Fusion Energy Systems.

Meier, W R

2011-03-17

387

The Credentials Question: Why We Care.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses the concept of professionalism for librarianship, questioning the position of library associations on credentials as well as the validity of the graduate degree in library science with regard to the individual librarian and public service. (CWM)|

Cameron, Dee Birch

1979-01-01

388

Questions and Answers on Current Good Manufacturing ...  

Center for Drug Evaluation (CDER)

... We intend to use this format to provide timely answers to questions about the meaning and application of cGMPs for human, animal, and biological ... More results from www.fda.gov/drugs/developmentapprovalprocess/manufacturing

389

Question and Answer on FDA Guidance Entitled " ...  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

... Are there alternative procedures to inclusion of specific questions on SARS in the donor questionnaire that would meet the intent of the guidance? ... More results from www.fda.gov/biologicsbloodvaccines/guidancecomplianceregulatoryinformation/guidances

390

Frequently Asked Questions about Digital Mammography  

MedlinePLUS

... Interest Articles Other Resources - Frequently Asked Questions About Digital Mammography The following Q&As provide information for consumers about Digital Mammography. F requently A sked Q uestions: What ...

391

Top 10 Questions for Active Debris Removal.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This slide presentation reviews the requirement and issues around removal of debris from the earth orbital environment. The 10 questions discussed are: 1. Which region (LEO/MEO/GEO) has the fastest projected growth rate and the highest collision activitie...

J. C. Liou

2010-01-01

392

Questions and Answers: FDA announces new requirements ...  

Center for Drug Evaluation (CDER)

... addition, FDA responded to common questions about the new sunscreen regulations submitted by the WebMD community via Twitter and Facebook ... More results from www.fda.gov/drugs/resourcesforyou/consumers

393

Export Certificate Program Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs ...  

Center for Drug Evaluation (CDER)

Text VersionPage 1. CDER Export Certificate Program Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) Q. What is an FDA CDER issued Export Certificate? ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/drugs/guidancecomplianceregulatoryinformation

394

Physicians’ opening questions and patients’ satisfaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveTo determine the association between the format of physicians’ opening questions that solicit patients’ presenting concerns and patients’ post-visit evaluations of (i.e., satisfaction with) the affective-relational dimension of physicians’ communication.

Jeffrey D. Robinson; John Heritage

2006-01-01

395

IRSS Public Opinion Poll Question Database  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This database, constructed by the Institute for Research in Social Science (IRSS) at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, allows researchers to conduct keyword searches on questions derived from a collection of public opinion polls, dating from the 1960s to the present. Query results display the full text of the poll questions, information about the studies, and, in many searches, frequency distributions. Users also have the option to view the full catalog record and download data from selected studies from the data archive. The IRSS Public Opinion Poll Question Database is an excellent resource for researchers who are developing "questions for their own studies, as well as for users interested in frequencies or in locating particular variables for statistical analysis."

396

10 Questions to Ask Your Neurologist  

MedlinePLUS

10 Questions to Ask Your Neurologist! - Irene Beer Given neuropathy’s scope and its myriad of causes, each ... Will my children develop some form of neuropathy? 10. How can I find out about clinical trials ...

397

Recruiting Students into Nursing: Prior Questions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Raises fundamental questions regarding student recruitment: (1) why recruit students into nursing? (2) what are the issues that determine whether a school should have a nursing program? and (3) what are students being recruited into? (JOW)|

Hipps, Opal S.

1983-01-01

398

Get Answers to Common Questions About...  

Cancer.gov

Get Answers to Common Questions About... Biological Specimens Drug Availability, Labeling and Distribution Ethics Indemnity Insurance Planning Clinical Trials and Navigating Regulatory Requirements Protocols Quality Assurance and Monitoring Software

399

The Energy Question: Problems and Alternatives  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Some ideas for teaching about the energy crisis are developed in this article. The author suggests related inquiry questions and suggests techniques for clarification of interrelationships. Graphs and data related to the energy crisis are included. (SM)

Nesbitt, William A.

1973-01-01

400

Questions & Answers for Consumers Concerning Infant ...  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... Parents should ask their infant's health care provider if they have questions about selecting a formula for their infant. Source ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/foodborneillnesscontaminants/peopleatrisk

401

Questioning: an intervention for health promotion.  

PubMed

In the health professions, questioning is traditionally viewed as a way of gathering information from a client as well as a way of developing the affective domain or how the client feels. The development of the cognitive domain, or how the client thinks, receives less attention. This article describes a clinical nursing approach using Bloom's Taxonomy to question clients' thinking behavior. Examples from nurses' files are used to clarify this approach. PMID:10272208

Farrell, P; Chalmers, K

402

Is question answering an acquired skill?  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a question answering (QA) system which learns how to detect and rank answer passages by analyzing questions and their answers (QA pairs) provided as training data. We built our system in only a few person-months using off-the-shelf components: a part-of-speech tagger, a shallow parser, a lexical network, and a few well-known supervised learning algorithms. In contrast, many of

Ganesh Ramakrishnan; Soumen Chakrabarti; Deepa Paranjpe; Pushpak Bhattacharyya

2004-01-01

403

The Effect of Question Order on Responses to Multiple-choice Questions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This paper, presented at the 2002 Physics Education Research Conference, investigates how the order of two related FCI questions (#13 and 14) affects students' responses. This study also investigates the effect an unrelated FCI question (#23) has on answers to the above problems. Four versions of a survey were administered before and after instruction to 243 students taking an algebra-based physics class. Versions 1 and 2 of the survey included the related physics questions in opposite order. Versions 3 and 4 included the unrelated physics question and one of the above questions. Student responses for the four versions were compared for both the pre- and post-instruction surveys.

Rebello, Sanjay; Zollman, Dean; Gray, Kara

2010-12-02

404

The Effect of Question Order on Responses to Multiple-choice Questions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This paper, presented at the 2002 Physics Education Research Conference, investigates how the order of two related FCI questions (#13 and 14) affects students' responses. This study also investigates the effect an unrelated FCI question (#23) has on answers to the above problems. Four versions of a survey were administered before and after instruction to 243 students taking an algebra-based physics class. Versions 1 and 2 of the survey included the related physics questions in opposite order. Versions 3 and 4 included the unrelated physics question and one of the above questions. Student responses for the four versions were compared for both the pre- and post-instruction surveys.

Gray, Kara E.; Rebello, N. S.; Zollman, Dean A.

2006-12-06

405

A control question test oriented towards students.  

PubMed

Control Question Tests were altered for 12 of 24 students who were examined with a polygraph about a mock crime which half of them had committed. The altered tests substituted control questions about students' cheating and plagiarism for the standard questions about crime issues. Responses to the altered tests were compared with those from tests using regular control questions which are usually about criminal issues. All tests were conducted by a professor. Detection scores derived from response magnitudes of skin resistance differed between innocent (M = 2.0) and guilty participants (M = -1.9). Guilt and innocence interacted with the type of test. Those examined with control questions oriented towards students scored as more innocent when actually innocent (M = 4.3) than guilty students examined with the student form (M = -3.0) or the crime form (M = -0.8) of the test and innocent students (M = -0.3) examined with control questions oriented towards crimes. The discussion is augmented by results from a direct analysis of magnitude of scores. PMID:9842625

Bradley, M T; Black, M E

1998-10-01

406

A Web Question-Answering Method for Any Class of Non-Factoid Questions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we propose a method of non-factoid Web question-answering that can uniformly deal with any class of Japanese non-factoid question by using a large number of example Q&A pairs. Instead of preparing classes of questions beforehand, the method retrieves already asked question examples similar to a submitted question from a set of Q&A pairs. Then, instead of preparing clue expressions for the writing style of answers according to each question class beforehand, it dynamically extracts clue expressions from the answer examples corresponding to the retrieved question examples. This clue expression information is combined with topical content information from the question to extract appropriate answer candidates. The score of an answer candidate is measured by the density of submitted question's keywords, words associated with the question and the clue expressions. Note that we utilize the set of Q&A pairs, not to find answers from them, but to obtain clue expressions about the writing style of their answers. The information source for question answering is the Web documents retrieved by using an API of a Web search engine. Experimental results showed that the clue expressions obtained from the set of examples improved the accuracy of answer candidate extraction.

Ishioroshi, Madoka; Sato, Mitsuru; Mori, Tatsunori

407

A concept for major incident triage: full-scaled simulation feasibility study  

PubMed Central

Background Efficient management of major incidents involves triage, treatment and transport. In the absence of a standardised interdisciplinary major incident management approach, the Norwegian Air Ambulance Foundation developed Interdisciplinary Emergency Service Cooperation Course (TAS). The TAS-program was established in 1998 and by 2009, approximately 15 500 emergency service professionals have participated in one of more than 500 no-cost courses. The TAS-triage concept is based on the established triage Sieve and Paediatric Triage Tape models but modified with slap-wrap reflective triage tags and paediatric triage stretchers. We evaluated the feasibility and accuracy of the TAS-triage concept in full-scale simulated major incidents. Methods The learners participated in two standardised bus crash simulations: without and with competence of TAS-triage and access to TAS-triage equipment. The instructors calculated triage accuracy and measured time consumption while the learners participated in a self-reported before-after study. Each question was scored on a 7-point Likert scale with points labelled "Did not work" (1) through "Worked excellent" (7). Results Among the 93 (85%) participating emergency service professionals, 48% confirmed the existence of a major incident triage system in their service, whereas 27% had access to triage tags. The simulations without TAS-triage resulted in a mean over- and undertriage of 12%. When TAS-Triage was used, no mistriage was found. The average time from "scene secured to all patients triaged" was 22 minutes (range 15-32) without TAS-triage vs. 10 minutes (range 5-21) with TAS-triage. The participants replied to "How did interdisciplinary cooperation of triage work?" with mean 4,9 (95% CI 4,7-5,2) before the course vs. mean 5,8 (95% CI 5,6-6,0) after the course, p < 0,001. Conclusions Our modified triage Sieve tool is feasible, time-efficient and accurate in allocating priority during simulated bus accidents and may serve as a candidate for a future national standard for major incident triage.

2010-01-01

408

Overview of the TREC 2005 Question Answering Track  

Microsoft Academic Search

The TREC 2005 Question Answering (QA) track contained three tasks: the main question answering task, the document ranking task, and the relationship task. In the main task, question series were used to dene a set of targets. Each series was about a single target and contained factoid and list questions. The nal question in the series was an ìOtherî question

Ellen M. Voorhees; Hoa Trang Dang

2005-01-01

409

Overview of the TREC 2003 Question Answering Track  

Microsoft Academic Search

The TREC 2003 question answering track contained two tasks, the passages task and the main task. In the passages task, systems returned a single text snippet in response to factoid questions; the evaluation metric was the number of snippets that contained a correct answer. The main task contained three separate types of questions, factoid questions, list questions, and definition questions.

Ellen M. Voorhees

2003-01-01

410

Using Group Questions to stimulate Student Thinking  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the past year I have modified all of my science classes to include time for group work. Essentially, I break up a typical class into two parts: part 1 includes about a 20 minute lecture and then students are broken into groups of 3 and are give two to three questions that they must answer. Students are also required to write in complte sentences. I circulate around the room during the group session to insure that students stay focused on the questions. I also spend time looking at preliminary answers and encourage students to think further in the hopes that they will discover the answers for themselves. After about 12 minutes, I have students hand in their responses and then I go over the group questions. Typical Group questions in my introductory astronomy class include: 1) How is it that temperatures are hotter in the summer than in the winter? 2) How is it that Planets have a round shape whereas smaller objects such as asteroids have an irregular shape? Sample group questions will be available at my presentation.

Schmude, R. W., Jr.

2005-08-01

411

Ian Hinchliffe Answers Your Higgs Boson Questions  

ScienceCinema

contingent with the ATLAS experiment at CERN, answers many of your questions about the Higgs boson. Ian invited viewers to send in questions about the Higgs via email, Twitter, Facebook, or YouTube in an "Ask a Scientist" video posted July 3: http://youtu.be/xhuA3wCg06s CERN's July 4 announcement that the ATLAS and CMS experiments at the Large Hadron Collider have discovered a particle "consistent with the Higgs boson" has raised questions about what scientists have found and what still remains to be found -- and what it all means. If you have suggestions for future "Ask a Scientist" videos, post them below or send ideas to askascientist@lbl.gov

412

Questionable prescribing for elderly patients in Quebec.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of questionable and rational high-risk prescribing among elderly people of the three drug groups most commonly implicated in drug-related illness: cardiovascular drugs, psychotropic drugs and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). DESIGN: Retrospective prevalence study; all prescription and billing records for the period Jan. 1 to Dec. 31, 1990, for the study sample were retrieved from the relevant provincial databases of the Régie de l'assurance-maladie du Québec. SETTING: Quebec. PARTICIPANTS: Regionally stratified random sample of 63,268 elderly medicare registrants who made at least one visit to physician in 1990 and were not living in a health care institution for the entire year. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Prescription information was examined for three types of high-risk prescribing: rational and questionable drug combinations, excessive treatment duration and drugs relatively contraindicated for use in elderly people. RESULTS: Overall, 52.6% of the patients experienced one or more events of high-risk prescribing, and 45.6% experienced at least one that was questionable. High-risk prescribing was most prevalent for psychotropic drugs, and questionable prescribing was more frequent than rational prescribing in this drug group. An estimated 30.8% of the total elderly population in Quebec received benzodiazepines for more than 30 consecutive days, 12.9% received a long-acting benzodiazepine, and 13.0% received a questionable high-risk psychotropic drug combination. The prevalence of high-risk prescribing was higher among the women than among the men and increased with age until 75 to 84 years. There were significant unexplained differences between regions in the regional prevalence of high-risk prescribing, particularly of psychotropic drugs. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of questionable high-risk prescribing, especially of psychotropic drugs, is substantial among elderly people. This may be a potentially important and avoidable risk factor for drug-related illness in elderly people.

Tamblyn, R M; McLeod, P J; Abrahamowicz, M; Monette, J; Gayton, D C; Berkson, L; Dauphinee, W D; Grad, R M; Huang, A R; Isaac, L M

1994-01-01

413

Construction of rating scales for measuring attitudinal and psychological characteristics of drug abusers.  

PubMed

The purpose of the paper is to show the construction of 8 Likert-type rating scales for measuring 8 attitudinal and psychological characteristics of drug abusers. They are: attitude toward drug taking, interpersonal relationships, self-concept, personal values, risk-taking tendency, motivation, rebelliousness, and pleasure seeking. A random sample of 20 drug abusers and their 20 nondrug controls individually matched for sex, approximate age, race, educational stream, and neighborhood was employed. The procedure of construction is discussed in detail, which includes definition of rating scales, review and comments of judges, item selection, and validation of rating scales. The final form of these 8 rating scales with 12 items each was obtained. They are shown to have presumably satisfactory face validity and content validity as well as high reliability ranging from .83 to .98. PMID:3266197

Ong, T H

1988-09-01

414

Skin, Scales and Skulls  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners examine body parts (including skin, scales, and skulls) from fish, mammals and reptiles. Questions are provided to help encourage learner investigations. Several activities are described, including object identification (what animal and what part of the animal?), free sorting of the objects, and a discussion of similarities, differences, and protective functions of the animal parts. It's written for use as a cart demo in a museum or aquarium, but could be done anywhere animal body parts are available.

Center, Virginia A.

2009-01-01

415

Questions Students Ask: About Terminal Velocity.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

If a ball were given an initial velocity in excess of its terminal velocity, would the upward force of air resistance (a function of velocity) be greater than the downward force of gravity and thus push the ball back upwards? An answer to this question is provided. (JN)

Meyer, Earl R.; Nelson, Jim

1984-01-01

416

Information Resources: Old Questions--New Choices.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Examines how politics and technology are changing the ways in which information is produced, stored, communicated, processed and used; and concludes that, in this new context of changing information resources, the basic political questions--who gets what, when, how--need to be redefined. (CWM)|

Oettinger, Anthony G.

1979-01-01

417

The open source movement: Key research questions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper analyzes the incentives of individual programmers and of commercial companies to participate in open source projects. While these incentives are in our opinion well accounted for by the economic paradigm, much empirical and theoretical work is still needed to answer the many interesting questions suggested by the open source movement.

Josh Lerner; Jean Tirole

2001-01-01

418

Do We Need the Census Race Question?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Objects to the detailed classification of race on the U.S. Census, explaining that these questions are irrational, sending a message that the government considers race and ethnicity more important than anything else. Suggests that the Census is attempting to impose a fixed categorization on identities in flux. Recommends how to change the Census…

Glazer, Nathan

2002-01-01

419

Learning How to Ask Research Questions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Collaborative research is a demanding endeavor, and for a group of undergraduate students tasked with identifying their own interdisciplinary research problem, the challenges are even greater. "It was scary--we didn't know what to ask the professors, and we couldn't decide on a research question," says Miran Park, a student at the University of…

Musante, Susan

2010-01-01

420

Learning How to Ask Research Questions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Collaborative research is a demanding endeavor, and for a group of undergraduate students tasked with identifying their own interdisciplinary research problem, the challenges are even greater. "It was scary--we didn't know what to ask the professors, and we couldn't decide on a research question," says Miran Park, a student at the University of…

Musante, Susan

2010-01-01

421

Science and Public Policy: Millennium Questions  

Microsoft Academic Search

At the beginning of the twentieth century, at the International Congress of Mathemati- cians in Paris, the mathematician David Hilbert presented twenty-three of the greatest unsolved problems of his day. At the start of our new millennium (and century) similar question-posing exercises can be observed in several areas of science. The Clay Mathemat- ics Institute of Cambridge (MA) has announced

Lloyd S. Etheredge; David Hilbert

422

Question and Negation in Israeli Sign Language  

Microsoft Academic Search

- dition to the basic lexical terms, ISL uses various morphological devices to expand its basic question and negation vocabulary, such as compound - ing and suffixation. The nonmanual component consists of specific facial expressions, head and body posture, and mouthing. The use of mouthing is especially interesting, as ISL seems to use it extensively, both as a word for

Irit Meir

2004-01-01

423

The "Volvo Effect"--Questioning Standardized Tests.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Questions current emphasis on standardized tests and discusses several factors about the tests that should prompt reevaluation of their usefulness. Issues discussed include: development and design of standardized tests; the correlation between test scores and socioeconomic position; the discrepancy between test designs and accurate reflection of…

Wesson, Kenneth A.

2001-01-01

424

Cognitive Model of Pedagogical Question Asking.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Soldiers will be interacting more directly with high-technology, computer-based training systems in the Army of the future. Soldier trainees interacting with these machines will profit from the ability to ask questions as they learn. A fundamental problem...

M. L. Swartz

1988-01-01

425

Modifying Teacher Questioning Behavior in Classroom Interaction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This project investigated the effects of increasing teachers' wait times on general questioning skills in science teaching. Variables were separated through the use of four treatment groups, each containing ten science teachers. Schools were randomly assigned to four treatment conditions from a subsampling of middle schools in a central New York…

Gooding, C. Thomas; Swift, J. Nathan

426

Executive Compensation: Six Questions that Need Answering  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, we focus on how recent research advances can be used to address the following six questions: (1) How much does executive compensation cost the firm? (2) How much is executive compensation worth to the recipient? (3) How well does executive compensation work? (4) What are the effects of executive compensation? (5) How much executive compensation is enough?

John M. Abowd; David S. Kaplan

1999-01-01

427

Management of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) questions & answers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper has been developed from a presentation given by Dr. John Smith of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the transcribed question and answer session which followed the presentation. The meeting served as a forum for the exchange of info...

1995-01-01

428

Software Design Patterns: Common Questions and Answers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Software design patterns are an emerging tool for guiding and documenting system design. This paper is a beginner's guide to patterns, answering common questions about patterns, pattern languages, generativity, and Alexandrian form. The paper describes patterns in terms of objects, rules, idioms, and paradigms in general. The paper also provides sources for patterns, and provides a short bibliography of patterns

James O. Coplien

1998-01-01

429

Matching Questions on Minerals and Rocks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site contains 11 matching questions on the topic of rocks and minerals, which covers rock types (igneous, metamorphic, sedimentary), mineral types (oxides, silicates, and more), and rock properties (texture, composition). This is part of the Principles of Earth Science course at the University of South Dakota. Users submit their answer and are provided immediate feedback.

Heaton, Timothy

430

Brain Training Draws Questions about Benefits  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|While programs to improve students' working memory are among the hottest new education interventions, new studies are calling into question whether exercises to improve this foundational skill can actually translate into greater intelligence, problem-solving ability, or academic achievement. Working memory is the system the mind uses to hold…

Sparks, Sarah D.

2012-01-01

431

Methodological Questions in Studying Consonant Acquisition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Consonant mastery is one of the most widely used metrics of typical phonological acquisition and of phonological disorder. Two fundamental methodological questions concerning research on consonant acquisition are (1) how to elicit a representative sample of productions and (2) how to analyse this sample once it has been collected. This paper…

Edwards, Jan; Beckman, Mary E.

2008-01-01

432

Proanthocyanidin biosynthesis – still more questions than answers?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Proanthocyanidins, also known as condensed tannins, are oligomers or polymers of flavan-3-ol units. In spite of important breakthroughs in our understanding of the biosynthesis of the major building blocks of proanthocyanidins, (+)-catechin and (?)-epicatechin, important questions still remain to be answered as to the exact nature of the molecular species that undergo polymerization, and the mechanisms of assembly. We review

De-Yu Xie; Richard A. Dixon

2005-01-01

433

Walt Whitman and the Question of Copyright  

Microsoft Academic Search

(excerpt) Walt Whitman is not the first author who comes to mind when one considers the question of copyright in nineteenth-century America. Despite careful consideration of Whitman's publishing career, little has been said regarding his views on the subject and the apparent contradiction between the poet's now-famous declaration of 1855, \\

Martin T. Buinicki

2003-01-01

434

Survey Questions Answered Only by Psychosocial Experts.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Twelve tables provide a breakdown of answers to a survey responded to by 48 experts in the psychosocial treatment of psychiatric and behavioral problems in people with mental retardation. Questions address treatment of self-injurious or aggressive behavior, specific psychiatric disorders, specific target symptoms, use of applied behavior analysis…

American Journal on Mental Retardation, 2000

2000-01-01

435

Media Convergence: Creating Content, Questioning Relationships  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development, dissemination, and proliferation of multimedia and media convergent texts raise a number of pressing questions for literacy scholars in general and compositionists in particular. What kinds of literacy practices are students developing through their use and composition of multimodal and new media texts? What genres are used in the creation of such texts, and why? Are there particular

Jonathan Alexander

2008-01-01

436

Relationship between examination questions and bloom's taxonomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Written examination is a conventional yet universal tool to evaluate the student's performance in a subject area, where the required cognitive ability is defined through items such as learning outcomes. Whether or not the written examination is able to assess the student's ability very much depends on the questions presented in the examination paper. A good and reasonable examination paper

Karl O. Jones; Janice Harland; Juliet M. V. Reid; Rebecca Bartlett

2009-01-01

437

Questioning the Founders--and Ourselves  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The question of the relation between liberal education and political liberty, perennially important, is driven for this forum by the Obama administration's endorsement of "A Crucible Moment: College Learning & Democracy's Future," according to which the chief ends of postsecondary civic education ought to include the promotion of sweeping…

Lindsay, Thomas K.

2012-01-01

438

Mothers misunderstand questions on a feeding questionnaire  

Microsoft Academic Search

Feeding questionnaires have not consistently identified mothers' beliefs or behaviors associated with preschool children becoming overweight. One reason may be that mothers do not understand the constructs in the questions in the way intended by the developers of the questionnaire. This study assessed items on the Preschooler Feeding Questionnaire (PFQ)—a maternal questionnaire about feeding practices and beliefs relating to the

Anjali Jain; Susan N. Sherman; Leigh A. Chamberlin; Robert C. Whitaker

2004-01-01

439

Simple Questions for Interactive Information Retrieval.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We explore simple questions that can be used for interactive information retrieval. We develop four techniques that have the potential to be used in an interactive setting. The techniques are designed to be easy to use and understand, and provide good imp...

G. Kumaran J. Allan

2006-01-01

440

Questions of Intimacy: Rethinking Population Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document contains 14 papers that examine recent changes in the definition, principles, and delivery of population education throughout the world. The paper titles are as follows: "Introduction" (Linda King); "Reaching Men for Health and Development" (Benno de Keijzer); "Boys, Men and Questions of Masculinity in South Africa" (Robert Morrell);…

King, Linda, Ed.

441

Questions & Answers about...Marfan Syndrome.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This fact sheet answers general questions about Marfan syndrome, a heritable condition that affects the connective tissue. It describes the characteristics of the disorder, the diagnostic process, and ways to manage symptoms. Characteristics include: (1) people with Marfan syndrome are typically very tall, slender, and loose jointed; (2) more…

National Inst. of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases (NIH), Bethesda, MD.

442

Detecting questionable observers using face track clustering  

Microsoft Academic Search

We introduce the questionable observer detection problem: Given a collection of videos of crowds, determine which individuals appear unusually often across the set of videos. The algorithm proposed here detects these individuals by clustering sequences of face images. To provide robustness to sensor noise, facial expression and resolution variations, blur, and intermittent occlusions, we merge similar face image sequences from

Jeremiah R. Barr; Kevin W. Bowyer; Patrick J. Flynn

2011-01-01

443

Striving for Optimal Relevance when Answering Questions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|When people are asked "Do you have the time?" they can answer in a variety of ways, such as "It is almost 3," "Yeah, it is quarter past two," or more precisely as in "It is now 1:43." We present the results of four experiments that examined people's real-life answers to questions about the time. Our hypothesis, following previous research…

Gibbs, Raymond W., Jr.; Bryant, Gregory A.

2008-01-01

444

Frequently Asked Questions about Today's Cryptography  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Many common questions about cryptography are answered in this May 2000 handbook by RSA Security, Inc. The contents include a basic introduction to cryptography, tools, applications, problems, cryptoanalysis, techniques, real world uses of cryptography, and legal issues. There is also some discussion of mathematical concepts involved and suggestions for further reading.

2008-01-01

445

Some Questions about Feature Re-Assembly  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In this commentary, differences between feature re-assembly and feature selection are discussed. Lardiere's proposals are compared to existing approaches to grammatical features in second language (L2) acquisition. Questions are raised about the predictive power of the feature re-assembly approach. (Contains 1 footnote.)|

White, Lydia

2009-01-01

446

The School in Question: A Comment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The author examines Torsten Husen's book, "The School in Question," in terms of Husen's description of the current crisis and his proposals for improvement. The extent to which Husen's proposals for the future follow from his analysis and diagnosis is discussed. (KC)|

Maclure, Stuart

1979-01-01

447

Questionable Exercises--Some Safer Alternatives.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Some commonly misused or abused exercises which are potentially harmful are identified. Each questionable exercise is illustrated, its potential for harm discussed, and an alternative suggested. Ten general rules are offered to help teachers, coaches, exercise leaders, and individuals avoid exercise-related injuries. (IAH)|

Lindsey, Ruth; Corbin, Charles

1989-01-01

448

Science's Big Questions / Deep Impact Update  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This radio broadcast addresses two issues. The first segment consists of discussion and interviews with researchers about what they believe to be the biggest remaining unanswered questions in science. In the second segment, a project scientist with NASA's Deep Impact mission talks about what researchers have learned about Comet Tempel-1 in the few days after the probe's collision with it.

449

Vocabulary Questions on Informal Reading Inventories.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the utility of informal reading inventories (IRI) and acknowledges four limitations of the research. Indicates that no validity-enhancing measures were implemented in conjunction with the three IRIs analyzed. Suggests that IRI vocabulary questions do not appear to be useful. (MG)

Duffelmeyer, Fredrick A.; And Others

1989-01-01

450

Methodological Questions in Studying Consonant Acquisition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Consonant mastery is one of the most widely used metrics of typical phonological acquisition and of phonological disorder. Two fundamental methodological questions concerning research on consonant acquisition are (1) how to elicit a representative sample of productions and (2) how to analyse this sample once it has been collected. This paper…

Edwards, Jan; Beckman, Mary E.

2008-01-01

451

Five questions for addressing ethical dilemmas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This paper aims to offer a framework of five questions for analyzing ethical dilemmas faced by managers and professionals. The framework's main purpose is to help individuals understand the nature of ethical issues and to avoid making ethical mistakes – decisions or actions that are unintentionally unethical that they would later regret and wish they could undo. Design\\/methodology\\/approach

Gerard L. Rossy

2011-01-01

452

American Indians Today: Answers to Your Questions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet attempts to answer briefly the most common questions about American Indians asked by students, people who believe they have Indian ancestors, individuals who want to visit or volunteer to work on a reservation, or those who want to know the current Indian policy. Separate sections outline President Reagan's American Indian policy;…

Bureau of Indian Affairs (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

453

Bayes for Beginners? Some Pedagogical Questions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ought we to base beginning instruction in statistics for general students on the Bayesian approach to inference? In the long run, this question will be set- tled by progress (or lack of progress) in persuading users of statistical methods to choose Bayesian methods. This paper is primarily concerned with the peda- gogical challenges posed by Bayesian reasoning. It argues, based

David S. Moore

454

Question Negotiation at Orem Public Library.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of this unobtrusive study of reference services at Orem (Utah) Public Library was to determine the extent to which reference questions were negotiated, the appropriateness of the verbal and nonverbal communication skills used, and the extent of influence those skills and levels of negotiation had on the accuracy of the answer given.…

Buckley, Jonathan; And Others

455

The Big Questions of Public Administration Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Identifies four questions related to public administration education: (1) do we seek to educate students with respect to theory or practice? (2) do we prepare students for first jobs or later jobs? (3) what are appropriate delivery systems? and (4) what personal commitments do we make as public administrators? (Contains 48 references.) (JOW)|

Denhardt, Robert B.

2001-01-01

456

Questions of Intimacy: Rethinking Population Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This document contains 14 papers that examine recent changes in the definition, principles, and delivery of population education throughout the world. The paper titles are as follows: "Introduction" (Linda King); "Reaching Men for Health and Development" (Benno de Keijzer); "Boys, Men and Questions of Masculinity in South Africa" (Robert…

King, Linda, Ed.

457

Differential Effects of Science Study Questions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to investigate the differential effects on low and high verbal students of verbatim study questions adjunct to a text describing science concepts. The sample consisted of 217 eighth grade students enrolled in twelve Calgary (Alberta, Canada) schools. Materials developed for the study included an introduction to the…

Holliday, William G.; And Others

458

Asking Essay Questions: Answering Contemporary Needs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Essay questions have been a stable fixture of teacher assessment activity for decades. Assessment reforms of the early 90's encouraged the development and use of "newer" forms of assessment including portfolios, performance tasks, and authentic assessments. As of late, however, there appears to be a regressive emphasis toward the use of objective…

Criswell, John R.; Criswell, Susan J.

2004-01-01

459

Using Group Questions to stimulate Student Thinking  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the past year I have modified all of my science classes to include time for group work. Essentially, I break up a typical class into two parts: part 1 includes about a 20 minute lecture and then students are broken into groups of 3 and are give two to three questions that they must answer. Students are also required

R. W. Schmude Jr.

2005-01-01

460

Creating with the 4 Essential Questions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As part of a Professional Learning Community (PLC), the author is asked to focus on the four essential questions of learning when developing projects: (1) What is it teachers want their students to learn?; (2) How will teachers know if each student has learned it?; (3) How will teachers respond when some students do not learn it?; and (4) How can…

Coy, Mary

2009-01-01

461

Computers into Classrooms: More Questions than Answers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This is one of a series of three books addressing the question of the nature of technological literacy. This volume, consisting of an introduction, an epilogue, and 12 chapters, focuses on classrooms and classroom processes involving computers and deals directly with teacher and student usage of microcomputers in teaching and learning. The 12…

Beynon, John, Ed.; Mackay, Hughie, Ed.

462

Insistent Questions in Our Learning Age  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Changes in the content and structure of museum/school programs reveal serious questions about how museums are perceived as essential educational resources. In this article, the author examines this relationship as symptomatic of the continuing marginalization of museums in public policy and recognition and, ultimately, public support. She urges…

Sheppard, Beverly

2010-01-01

463

Automarking: Automatic Assessment of Open Questions  

Microsoft Academic Search

A number of Learning Management Systems (LMSs) exist on the market today. A subset of a LMS is the component in which student assessment is managed. In some forms of assessment, such as open questions, the LMS is incapable of evaluating the students' responses and therefore human intervention is necessary. In order to assess at higher levels of Bloom's (1956)

Laurie Ane Cutrone; Maiga Chang

2010-01-01

464

Inequity in Mathematics Education: Questions for Educators.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Explores factors that affect student learning and the well-publicized achievement gap between students from different ethnic and socio-economic groups. Poses some questions and offers some thoughts on how beliefs, attitudes, values, and emotions about teaching and learning, nature of schools, culture, and language effect equity in mathematics…

Weissglass, Julian

2002-01-01

465

Partisanship, Independence, and the Partisan Identification Question  

Microsoft Academic Search

The partisan identification index has come under increasing criticism. Many of the difficulties in interpreting the index disappear once one realizes that the partisan identifi cation question is a bidimensional measure of partisanship and independence. As a consequence of this bidimensionality, partisan independents are neither more nor less partisan than weak partisans but are instead more independent. This relationship between

David C. Valentine; John R. Van Wingen

1980-01-01

466

Question Clarification in the Reference Encounter.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Briefly surveys the background of interpersonal communication to consider the nature of the communication dyad represented by information seeker and librarian and explores the phenomenon of users' needs and their expression, specific question clarification principles, and research methodologies that have been used to study this area. Fifty-six…

Cummins, Thompson R.

1984-01-01

467

Comprehensive Written Exams: Questions and Answers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This document contains four papers that are answers to comprehensive examination questions of a doctoral student in instructional technology. The first paper, "Federal Support and Funding of School Library Media Programs into the 21st Century," includes sections on why federal support and funding are needed, how school library media programs…

Hardy, Janice Valerye

468

Answering Lord Perry's question: dissecting regulatory overfishing  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1995, in response to the distressed condition of the British fishing industry, the House of Lords held a series of hearings on “Fish Stock Conservation and Management.” Lord Perry of Walton posed the straightforward question of why regulation was not succeeding: If one takes all the management systems into account—TACs [total allowable catches, or annual quotas], number of days

Josh Eagle; Barton H Thompson

2003-01-01

469

Critical Policy Questions in Postsecondary Education Finance.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A strategy to establish a research agenda and critical policy questions in postsecondary education finance are considered. Three steps in preparing agendas are the development of a statistical or factual overview of recent developments, the review of appropriate approaches and their relevance to the issues to be researched, and consideration of…

Froomkin, Joseph

470

ANALYSIS OF INSTRUCTIONAL CONSULTANTS' QUESTIONS AND ALTERNATIVES TO QUESTIONS DURING THE PROBLEM IDENTIFICATION INTERVIEW  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study sought to determine the relation between Instructional Consultants' communication skills and competence using videotapes of simulated Problem Identification interviews. A quantitative analysis identified the frequencies of questions and alternatives to questions used, and the qualitative analysis examined the content of the verbalizations in the context of the session. Few quantitative differences were observed across consultants' competency levels, with

A. Efrat Benn; Grace W. Jones; Sylvia Rosenfield

2008-01-01

471

Analysis of Instructional Consultants' Questions and Alternatives to Questions during the Problem Identification Interview  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study sought to determine the relation between Instructional Consultants' communication skills and competence using videotapes of simulated Problem Identification interviews. A quantitative analysis identified the frequencies of questions and alternatives to questions used, and the qualitative analysis examined the content of the…

Benn, A. Efrat; Jones, Grace W.; Rosenfield, Sylvia

2008-01-01

472

Questioning to Scaffold: An Exploration of Questions in Pre-Service Teacher Training Feedback Sessions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of this research was to explore trainer questioning strategies which aimed to scaffold development and learning in teacher training feedback sessions. Research was conducted with a group of Turkish pre-service English teacher trainees at an English-medium university in Turkey. Findings include a categorisation of different question

Engin, Marion

2013-01-01

473

A Comparison of Study Strategies for Passages: Rereading, Answering Questions, and Generating Questions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Students are often encouraged to generate and answer their own questions on to-be-remembered material, because this interactive process is thought to enhance memory. But does this strategy actually work? In three experiments, all participants read the same passage, answered questions, and took a test to get accustomed to the materials in a practice phase. They then read three passages and

Yana Weinstein; Kathleen B. McDermott; Henry L. Roediger

2010-01-01

474

The crucible differentiation scale: assessing differentiation in human relationships.  

PubMed

Whereas most existing differentiation measures are grounded in Bowen's writings about differentiation, the self-report instrument created in this study addresses differentiation according to the Four Points of Balance articulated by the Crucible Approach. The Crucible Differentiation Scale (CDS) is a 63-item, Likert-type, multidimensional measure of differentiation focused on adults and their important relationships. The psychometric properties of the CDS were tested through five studies with a total of 4,169 participants. The identified CDS subscales are Solid Self, Connectedness, Anxiety Regulation through Self-Soothing, Anxiety Regulation through Accommodation, Reactivity through Avoidance, Reactivity through Arguments, and Tolerating Discomfort for Growth. The CDS has potential use in evaluating differentiation theory, organizing treatment, and measuring therapy process and outcome. PMID:23066750

Schnarch, David; Regas, Susan

2011-10-12

475

A comparison of study strategies for passages: rereading, answering questions, and generating questions.  

PubMed

Students are often encouraged to generate and answer their own questions on to-be-remembered material, because this interactive process is thought to enhance memory. But does this strategy actually work? In three experiments, all participants read the same passage, answered questions, and took a test to get accustomed to the materials in a practice phase. They then read three passages and did one of three tasks on each passage: reread the passage, answered questions set by the experimenter, or generated and answered their own questions. Passages were 575-word (Experiments 1 and 2) or 350-word (Experiment 3) texts on topics such as Venice, the Taj Mahal, and the singer Cesaria Evora. After each task, participants predicted their performance on a later test, which followed the same format as the practice phase test (a short-answer test in Experiments 1 and 2, and a free recall test in Experiment 3). In all experiments, best performance was predicted after generating and answering questions. We show, however, that generating questions led to no improvement over answering comprehension questions, but that both of these tasks were more beneficial than rereading. This was the case on an immediate short-answer test (Experiment 1), a short-answer test taken 2 days after study (Experiment 2), and an immediate free recall test (Experiment 3). Generating questions took at least twice as long as answering questions in all three experiments, so although it is a viable alternative to answering questions in the absence of materials, it is less time-efficient. PMID:20853989

Weinstein, Yana; McDermott, Kathleen B; Roediger, Henry L

2010-09-01

476

Methodological questions in studying consonant acquisition  

PubMed Central

Consonant mastery is one of the most widely used metrics of typical phonological acquisition and of phonological disorder. Two fundamental methodological questions concerning research on consonant acquisition are (1) how to elicit a representative sample of productions and (2) how to analyse this sample once it has been collected. This paper address these two questions by reviewing relevant aspects of experience in evaluating word-initial consonant accuracy from transcriptions of isolated-word productions elicited from 2- and 3-year-olds learning four different first languages representing a telling range of consonant systems (English, Cantonese, Greek, Japanese). It is suggested that both researchers and clinicians should consider a number of different item-related factors, such as phonotactic probability and word length, when constructing word lists to elicit consonant productions from young children. This study also proposes that transcription should be supplemented by acoustic analysis and the perceptual judgements of naïve listeners.

Edwards, Jan; Beckman, Mary E.

2009-01-01

477

Seven Questions About Stroke and Epilepsy  

PubMed Central

Seizures and stroke are both common neurologic conditions, but when they occur in close temporal proximity they produce much more concern than either does alone. The stroke specialist (and the family) fear that convulsions will worsen the stroke because of acute hypertension and airway compromise, and the epileptologist is concerned that these acute seizures are the harbingers of later epilepsy. Other less commonly recognized but important aspects of this relationship are that subclinical seizures worsen some forms of stroke, and some anticonvulsants may have more adverse effects on stroke patients than they do in other groups. In surveying the connections between these two conditions, I have attempted to address seven questions. For some questions, there are data to help provide an answer; for others, there is only opinion; and for a maddening few, newer research is making older suggestions less certain.

Bleck, Thomas P.

2012-01-01

478

Common questions patients ask during pregnancy.  

PubMed

When women become pregnant, they expect their family physicians to answer many questions about potential risks during the pregnancy and possible effects on the developing fetus. Many of these questions concern over-the-counter medications, common household exposures and daily activities, which often are not well discussed in obstetric texts. In general, women can be reassured that allergy medications and most common food additives, such as caffeine and aspartame, are safe to use during pregnancy. Most cosmetics and hair care products, including permanent wave solutions, are safe in limited exposures. Patients should be counseled to avoid exposure to insecticides and to continue good safety habits, such as wearing seat belts. Discussion of specific risks may prevent unnecessary anxiety and needless changes in work and home environment and lifestyle for pregnant women. PMID:7732948

Hueston, W J; Eilers, G M; King, D E; McGlaughlin, V G

1995-05-01

479

Model Answers to Lipid Membrane Questions  

PubMed Central

Ever since it was discovered that biological membranes have a core of a bimolecular sheet of lipid molecules, lipid bilayers have been a model laboratory for investigating physicochemical and functional properties of biological membranes. Experimental and theoretical models help the experimental scientist to plan experiments and interpret data. Theoretical models are the theoretical scientist’s preferred toys to make contact between membrane theory and experiments. Most importantly, models serve to shape our intuition about which membrane questions are the more fundamental and relevant ones to pursue. Here we review some membrane models for lipid self-assembly, monolayers, bilayers, liposomes, and lipid–protein interactions and illustrate how such models can help answering questions in modern lipid cell biology.

Mouritsen, Ole G.

2011-01-01

480

Antimicrobial Peptides: successes, challenges and unanswered questions  

PubMed Central

Multidrug antibiotic resistance is an increasingly serious public health problem worldwide. Thus, there is a significant and urgent need for the development of new classes of antibiotics that do not induce resistance. To develop such antimicrobial compounds, we must look toward agents with novel mechanisms of action. Membrane permeabilizing antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are good candidates because they act without high specificity toward a protein target, which reduces the likelihood of induced resistance. Understanding the mechanism of membrane permeabilization is crucial for the development of AMPs into useful anti-microbial agents. Various models, some phenomenological and others more quantitative or semi-molecular, have been proposed to explain the action of antimicrobial peptides. While these models explain many aspects of AMP action, none of the models captures all the experimental observations and significant questions remain unanswered. Here we discuss the state of the field and pose some questions that, if answered, could speed the discovery of clinically useful peptide antibiotics.

Hristova, Kalina

2011-01-01

481

Essential Questions on Suicide Bereavement and Postvention  

PubMed Central

During the past decades public and research interest in postvention, i.e., support for families and communities after a suicide, has increased. However, the postvention field is still facing a number of important challenges and questions. This article aims to discuss a series of essential issues on suicide bereavement and postvention, regarding the current state of the art and future developments. Who is a suicide survivor and how many suicide survivors are there? Is suicide bereavement different from other types of bereavement? What are the needs of suicide survivors and what is postvention from a clinical perspective and from a public health perspective? Can postvention be prevention? With this last question, the article concludes with a series of recommendations in order to strengthen the potential of postvention as prevention.

Andriessen, Karl; Krysinska, Karolina

2011-01-01

482

Explaining errors in children’s questions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability to explain the occurrence of errors in children’s speech is an essential component of successful theories of language acquisition. The present study tested some generativist and constructivist predictions about error on the questions produced by ten English-learning children between 2 and 5 years of age. The analyses demonstrated that, as predicted by some generativist theories [e.g. Santelmann, L.,

Caroline F. Rowland

2007-01-01

483

Thinking skills: the question of generality  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the question of whether there are useful general thinking skills. It oÄ ers a working de® nition ofthinking skill' and identi® es ways in which this concept has been over-applied. Thinking skills, used across domains, are not inevitably weak as a result of the generality± power tradeoÄ . Admitting that thinking skills require domain-speci® c knowledge for

Gerald F. Smith

2002-01-01

484

Student perceptions of questionable personal selling practices  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports the findings of a study which identify student ethical evaluation of questionable yet common personal selling\\u000a practices. The results suggest generally that students' perceptions may not be as negative toward personal selling as reported\\u000a in earlier studies dealing with perceptions of business generally. There are, however, differences in student perceptions\\u000a between business and nonbusiness students suggesting that

Joseph A. Bellizzi; Ronald W. Hasty

1984-01-01

485

Twenty-five questions for string theorists  

SciTech Connect

In an effort to promote communication between the formal and phenomenological branches of the high-energy theory community, we provide a description of some important issues in supersymmetric and string phenomenology. We describe each within the context of string constructions, illustrating them with specific examples where applicable. Each topic culminates in a set of questions that we believe are amenable to direct consideration by string theorists, and whose answers we think could help connect string theory and phenomenology.

Binetruy, Pierre; /Orsay, LPT; Kane, G.L.; /Michigan U., MCTP; Lykken, Joseph D.; /Fermilab; Nelson, Brent D.; /Pennsylvania U.

2005-09-01

486

Management of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) questions & answers  

SciTech Connect

This {open_quotes}Management of PCBs Questions and Answers{close_quotes} has been developed from a presentation given by Dr. John Smith of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the transcribed question and answer session which followed the presentation. Dr. Smith was featured at the first DOE complex-wide PCB Focus Group meeting held in San Francisco, California in December 1992. The meeting was attended by representatives from field elements who were actively involved in the management of PCBs. The meeting served as a forum for the exchange of information and discussion of PCB management issues. This document has been prepared as one of several guidance documents developed by the Department of Energy Office of Environmental Policy and Assistance (EH-41) (formerly the Office of Environmental Guidance, EH-23) to assist DOE elements in their PCB management programs. This document is organized into three parts: (1) an introduction describing the conception and development of this document, (2) a summary of Dr. Smith`s presentation, and (3) the question and answer session.

NONE

1995-11-01

487

Pre-Lab Questions: Acceleration Due to Gravity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A series of simulation based interactive questions that were used as pre-lab questions at Kennesaw State University. The simulations in this case are based on Davidson's college Physlets. These particular questions focus on free fall.

Mzoughi, Taha

2008-09-21

488

Guidance for Industry M4: The CTD - Safety Questions and ...  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

Text Version... This guidance provides answers to questions that have ... This guidance specifically addresses questions related to ... Other question and answer (Q &A ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/drugs/guidancecomplianceregulatoryinformation

489

A New Model Course in Applied Quantum Physics: Examination Questions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These examination questions measure the learner's comprehension of key concepts in an introductory applied quantum mechanics course. Each set of questions is accompanied by pertinent results from physics education research. The questions require a password, which is available by email.

Redish, Edward F.; Steinberg, Richard N.; Wittmann, Michael C.

2005-07-26

490

Ground Water and Drinking Water: Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site, from the Office of Ground Water and Drinking Water, presents a list of most frequently asked questions (with answers). Question topics include: drinking water standards, getting information about your tap water and questions about bottled water.

491

Palliative Care Questions and Answers (Hospice Care Comparison)  

MedlinePLUS

Living with Illness > Palliative Care Palliative Care Palliative Care Questions and Answers Palliative Care Questions and Answers Question Palliative Care Hospice Care Who can receive this care? Anyone with ...

492

Frequently Asked Questions about Cicatricial (Scarring) Alopecia  

MedlinePLUS

... care for my hair? Hair care products and shampoos are generally safe as long as they are ... to the scalp. Your dermatologist may recommend specific shampoos and products to decrease scalp symptoms, scaling and ...

493

Essential Questions: Accuracy, errors and user perceptions in a drag/drop user-composable Electronic Health Record.  

PubMed

In previous work we have described the creation and user testing of a drag/drop user-composable electronic health record, MedWISE. Any new design poses new potential problems; here we discuss the accuracy, potential for new types of errors, and user reactions to the approach, including their perceptions of ease of use and usefulness. Our results come from a mixed methods laboratory study with 18 clinicians at a large academic medical center. 12 used MedWISE and 6 used the conventional system. MedWISE users had comparable assessment accuracy to use of the conventional system, low (1/10) risk of diagnosis momentum error, and overall favorable and even enthusiastic user perception. 10/12 said the system eased their cognitive process, Ease of use and usefulness were rated 3.79 and 4.00 on a 5-point Likert scale. Users were unconcerned about the possibility of increased errors due to their trust in colleagues and system similarities to current practice. After first describing the issues, we suggest a method to elucidate risks in innovative and current systems. PMID:23941953

Senathirajah, Yalini; Kaufman, David; Bakken, Suzanne

2013-01-01

494

Public library patrons' use of collaborative chat reference service: The effectiveness of question answering by question type  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the effectiveness of question answering by question types in the inter-institutional collaborative chat reference service at a public library system. In particular, this study examined whether subject-based research type questions are answered as effectively as simple factual type questions, and whether local-specific questions are answered as effectively as non-local questions in the inter-institutional chat reference service. Effectiveness

Nahyun Kwon

2007-01-01

495

Moon and Terrestrial Planets: Unresolved Questions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Human exploration during Apollo began the documentation of the evolution of the Moon and of its importance in understanding the origin and evolution of the terrestrial planets. This revolution in planetary geology continues as a vigorous and vibrant arena for discovery and debate for new generations of geoscientists. Although much has been learned and, indeed, resolved in lunar science, we are left with major questions unresolved. One fundamental question is that of the origin of the Moon. A large consensus has developed in the planetary science community that the Moon was created by the "giant impact" of a Mars-sized asteroid on the Earth after the accretion of the Earth was largely complete and differentiation had begun. A minority, however, questions this consensus hypothesis because of increasing indications that the lower mantle of the Moon may be largely undifferentiated. If the issue of the high angular momentum of the Earth-Moon system can be resolved through new modeling studies, then capture of a co-orbiting planetesimal may be an important alternative to a "giant impact". Another important question, particularly in consideration of the terrestrial and Martian surface environments during the first 0.8 billion years of Earth history, is the impact record of that period as recorded on the Moon. Again, a large consensus has developed that the 50 or so large and very large impact basins identified on the Moon were created over a very short "cataclysm" between about 3.9 and 3.8 billion years ago. Here also, a minority suggests that this period of large basin formation, although distinct in lunar history, took place over several hundred million years and that the apparent cataclysm is an artifact of sampling the effects of the last few basin-forming impacts. Either way, a previously unavailable source of impactors appeared somewhere in the solar system and greatly affected terrestrial environments at the time the precursors to life were appearing on Earth. Additional unresolved questions raised by lunar exploration and study include 1) the effect of chondritic proto-cores on the timing of core formation in the terrestrial planets, 2) the number of extremely large basin-forming events (lunar diameters >2000 km) and the potential for proto-continents being formed by the differentiation of their melt sheets on water-rich planets, 3) effect of clays produced by the weathering of the debris and glass produced by pervasive asteroid and cometary impacts, 4) the many details of the differentiation of magma oceans, and 5) the processes governing the evolution of the lunar regolith. Finally, there is the question of when humans shall return to the Moon. On the one hand, the use of this unique and accessible planetary body as a scientific resource has barely begun. On the other hand, the Helium-3 fusion energy resources and deep space travel consumables that remain untapped in the lunar regolith hardly can be ignored in the face of human and environmental challenges on Earth and the species' desire to go to Mars. On both hands, it is time we took another walk on the Moon. 30 years going on 40 is long enough to think about what once was possible.

Schmitt, H. H.

2002-12-01

496

Descriptive Question Answering with Answer Type Independent Features  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we present a supervised learning method to seek out answers to the most frequently asked descriptive questions: reason, method, and definition questions. Most of the previous systems for question answering focus on factoids, lists or definitional questions. However, descriptive questions such as reason questions and method questions are also frequently asked by users. We propose a system for these types of questions. The system conducts an answer search as follows. First, we analyze the user's question and extract search keywords and the expected answer type. Second, information retrieval results are obtained from an existing search engine such as Yahoo or Google. Finally, we rank the results to find snippets containing answers to the questions based on a ranking SVM algorithm. We also propose features to identify snippets containing answers for descriptive questions. The features are adaptable and thus are not dependent on answer type. Experimental results show that the proposed method and features are clearly effective for the task.

Yoon, Yeo-Chan; Lee, Chang-Ki; Kim, Hyun-Ki; Jang, Myung-Gil; Ryu, Pum Mo; Park, So-Young

497

An advance directive in two questions.  

PubMed

It has been two decades since advance directives have become an integral part of health care. Impediments to their optimal usage are common and multifactorial. Decisions commonly have to be made when patients are unable to do so or choose not to participate in decision making, often at the end of life. The use of two questions, 1) "If you cannot, or choose not to participate in health care decisions, with whom should we speak?" and 2) "If you cannot, or choose not to participate in decision making, what should we consider when making decisions about your care?," may accomplish the major goals of an advance directive. PMID:21398084

Mahon, Margaret M

2011-03-12

498

Lessons, open questions, and future prospects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We summarize some of the highlights of this workshop, the first of its kind dedicated to observing and modeling the tidal disruption of stars by black holes in the centers of galaxies (or star clusters). We review the lessons learned from recent observations and from theory and identify outstanding questions and areas where more theoretical and observational work is needed. We also consider upcoming observing facilities that can be used to study tidal disruption events and speculate what these new facilities may contribute to the field.

Eracleous, M.; Gezari, S.; Grupe, D.; Komossa, S.; Saxton, R.

2012-12-01

499

The Intonation and Signaling of Declarative Questions in Manchego Peninsular Spanish  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper is an experimental investigation on the tonal structure and phonetic signaling of declarative questions by speakers of Manchego Peninsular Spanish, a dialect of Spanish for which little experimental research on intonation is currently available. Analysis 1 examines the scaling and timing properties of final rises produced by 16 speakers…

Henriksen, Nicholas C.

2012-01-01

500

The Museum of Questionable Medical Devices  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Featuring items on loan from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, the American Medical Association, and others, the Minneapolis-based Museum of Questionable Medical Devices is an interesting resource about the history of medicine. From frightening turn-of-the-century phrenology machines to the vibrating "Relaxicisor," taken off the market in 1971, and even an electric shock contraption, "The Stimulator," introduced in 1996, the site features a wide array of machines. Visitors can click on a machine's name and go to a page that includes a photo or illustration, a bit of history of the machine including the date and manufacturer, and a series of related links both to other pages on the museum's site and to outside sites. The links take readers to interesting, informative quackery sites such as Quackwatch.com, Internet Hoax Watch, and the National Council for Reliable Health Information. Well-organized, lively, and information-rich, the Museum of Questionable Medical Devices Website provides a worthwhile diversion.