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Sample records for limetta cucurbita maxima

  1. Three new triterpene esters from pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima) seeds.

    PubMed

    Kikuchi, Takashi; Ueda, Shinsuke; Kanazawa, Jokaku; Naoe, Hiroki; Yamada, Takeshi; Tanaka, Reiko

    2014-01-01

    Three new multiflorane-type triterpene esters, i.e. 7α-hydroxymultiflor-8-ene-3α,29-diol 3-acetate-29-benzoate (1), 7α-methoxymultiflor-8-ene-3α,29-diol 3,29-dibenzoate (2), and 7β-methoxymultiflor-8-ene-3α,29-diol 3,29-dibenzoate (3), were isolated from seeds of Cucurbita maxima, along with the known compound, multiflora-7,9(11)-diene-3α,29-diol 3,29-dibenzoate (4). Compound 1 exhibited melanogenesis inhibitory activities comparable with those of arbutin. In cytotoxicity assays, compounds 1 and 3 exhibited weak cytotoxicity, with IC50 values of 34.5-93.7 μM against HL-60 and P388 cells. PMID:24743937

  2. Biosynthesis of Sterols and Triterpenoids in Tissue Cultures of Cucurbita maxima.

    PubMed

    Caputo, O; Delprino, L; Viola, F; Caramiello, R; Balliano, G

    1983-11-01

    The biosynthesis of sterols and triterpenoids in CUCURBITA MAXIMA was studied by analysis of unsaponifiable fraction of tissues from different development stages of the plant (seeds, seedlings, adult plant and tissue culture) and by feeding germinating seeds and tissue cultures with [2- (14)C]-acetate. Synthesis of cucurbitacins does not occur in callus tissues of CUCURBITA MAXIMA, whereas a wide variety of 4,4-dimethylsterols present in these tissues testifies of a high level of squaleneoxide cyclase activity in growing callus. The peculiarity of Cucurbitaceae among the higher plants is also discussed comparing the side chain biosynthesis of sterols in CUCURBITA MAXIMA to that operating in other higher plants. PMID:17405044

  3. Pumpkin Seed Oil Extracted From Cucurbita maxima Improves Urinary Disorder in Human Overactive Bladder.

    PubMed

    Nishimura, Mie; Ohkawara, Tatsuya; Sato, Hiroji; Takeda, Hiroshi; Nishihira, Jun

    2014-01-01

    The pumpkin seed oil obtained from Cucurbita pepo has been shown to be useful for the treatment of nocturia in patients with urinal disorders in several western countries. In this study, we evaluated the effect of the pumpkin seed oil from Cucurbita maxima on urinary dysfunction in human overactive bladder (OAB). Forty-five subjects were enrolled in this study. An extract of pumpkin seed oil from C. maxima (10 g of oil/day) was orally administrated for 12 weeks. After 6 and 12 weeks, urinary function was evaluated using Overactive Bladder Symptom Score (OABSS). Pumpkin seed oil from C. maxima significantly reduced the degree of OABSS in the subjects. The results from our study suggest that pumpkin seed oil extracts from C. maxima as well as from C. pepo are effective for urinary disorders such as OAB in humans. PMID:24872936

  4. Pumpkin Seed Oil Extracted From Cucurbita maxima Improves Urinary Disorder in Human Overactive Bladder

    PubMed Central

    Nishimura, Mie; Ohkawara, Tatsuya; Sato, Hiroji; Takeda, Hiroshi; Nishihira, Jun

    2014-01-01

    The pumpkin seed oil obtained from Cucurbita pepo has been shown to be useful for the treatment of nocturia in patients with urinal disorders in several western countries. In this study, we evaluated the effect of the pumpkin seed oil from Cucurbita maxima on urinary dysfunction in human overactive bladder (OAB). Forty-five subjects were enrolled in this study. An extract of pumpkin seed oil from C. maxima (10 g of oil/day) was orally administrated for 12 weeks. After 6 and 12 weeks, urinary function was evaluated using Overactive Bladder Symptom Score (OABSS). Pumpkin seed oil from C. maxima significantly reduced the degree of OABSS in the subjects. The results from our study suggest that pumpkin seed oil extracts from C. maxima as well as from C. pepo are effective for urinary disorders such as OAB in humans. PMID:24872936

  5. [Preclinical studies of cucurbita maxima (pumpkin seeds) a traditional intestinal antiparasitic in rural urban areas].

    PubMed

    Díaz Obregón, Daysi; Lloja Lozano, Luis; Carbajal Zúñiga, Victor

    2004-01-01

    Experimental research was carried out at the Parasitology and Chemistry laboratories of the Jorge Basadre Grohmann National University, in Tacna. The process involved two phases: (1) determination of the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of Cucurbita Maxima as an antiparasitic agent using canine tapeworms with an intestinal isolation of 5 to 6 hours, and (2) determination of the side-effects of Curbita Maxima on exposed albino rats. It was found that the MIC of 23 gr. of pumpkin seed in 100 ml. of distilled water can produce an antihelminthic effect. This concentration is equivalent to +/- 73 pumpkin seeds (x2 = 5.6, p<0.01). Macroscopically, alterations in helminthic motility are present at a dose of > 23 gr. There is a protheolithic effect with an average survival time of 38.4 minutes. Microscopically the mature proglottids present a destruction of the tegument involving the basal membrane. In the gravid proglottids there is egg destruction. These findings are accentuated when experimenting with Cucurbita Maxima in a concentration of 30 and 32 gr. Superficial non-erosive gastritis was found in weys rats after 4 hours of administering 9 gr/kg. PMID:15614300

  6. Characterization of cucurbita maxima phloem serpin-1 (CmPS-1). A developmentally regulated elastase inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Yoo, B C; Aoki, K; Xiang, Y; Campbell, L R; Hull, R J; Xoconostle-Cázares, B; Monzer, J; Lee, J Y; Ullman, D E; Lucas, W J

    2000-11-10

    We report on the molecular, biochemical, and functional characterization of Cucurbita maxima phloem serpin-1 (CmPS-1), a novel 42-kDa serine proteinase inhibitor that is developmentally regulated and has anti-elastase properties. CmPS-1 was purified to near homogeneity from C. maxima (pumpkin) phloem exudate and, based on microsequence analysis, the cDNA encoding CmPS-1 was cloned. The association rate constant (k(a)) of phloem-purified and recombinant His(6)-tagged CmPS-1 for elastase was 3.5 +/- 1.6 x 10(5) and 2.7 +/- 0.4 x 10(5) m(-)(1) s(-)(1), respectively. The fraction of complex-forming CmPS-1, X(inh), was estimated at 79%. CmPS-1 displayed no detectable inhibitory properties against chymotrypsin, trypsin, or thrombin. The elastase cleavage sites within the reactive center loop of CmPS-1 were determined to be Val(347)-Gly(348) and Val(350)-Ser(351) with a 3:2 molar ratio. In vivo feeding assays conducted with the piercing-sucking aphid, Myzus persicae, established a close correlation between the developmentally regulated increase in CmPS-1 within the phloem sap and the reduced ability of these insects to survive and reproduce on C. maxima. However, in vitro feeding experiments, using purified phloem CmPS-1, failed to demonstrate a direct effect on aphid survival. Likely roles of this novel phloem serpin in defense against insects/pathogens are discussed. PMID:10960478

  7. Identification of a volatile attractant for Diabrotica and Acalymma spp. from blossoms of Cucurbita maxima duchesne.

    PubMed

    Andersen, J F; Metcalf, R L

    1986-03-01

    Fractionation of headspace volatiles from Cucurbita maxima blossoms by high-performance liquid chromatography resulted in the isolation of a single component which was highly active in an electroantennogram bioassay on Diabrotica undecimpunctata howardi antennae. This compound was identified as indole by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Field-trapping bioassays were conducted which indicated that indole is a potent attractant of the western corn rootworm,D. virgifera virgifera, and the striped cucumber beetle,Acalymma vittatum. The southern corn rootworm,D. u. howardi, did not respond, despite its strong EAG response. The sex ratio ofD. v. virgifera found in indole-baited traps varied seasonally. Males were trapped in abundance in late July and later September, 1983, while females were more abundant August and early September. The effectiveness of indole as aD. v. virgifera attractant also varied seasonally. A prolonged period of depressed trap catches occurred in early August 1983, during the silking and tasseling period of the corn in the field where trapping was carried out. PMID:24306908

  8. Microbacterium horti sp. nov., a bacterium isolated from Cucurbita maxima cultivating soil.

    PubMed

    Akter, Shahina; Park, Jae Hee; Yin, Chang Shik

    2016-04-01

    A novel bacterial strain THG-SL1(T) was isolated from a soil sample of Cucurbita maxima garden and was characterized by using a polyphasic approach. Cells were Gram-reaction-positive, non-motile and rod-shaped. The strain was aerobic, catalase positive and weakly positive for oxidase. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis but it shared highest similarity with Microbacterium ginsengisoli KCTC 19189(T) (96.6 %), indicating that strain THG-SL1(T) belongs to the genus Microbacterium. The DNA G + C content of the isolate was 68.9 mol %. The major fatty acids were anteiso-C15: 0 (39.7 %), anteiso-C17: 0 (24.4 %) and iso-C16: 0 (18.5 %). The major polar lipids of strain THG-SL1(T) were phosphatidylglycerol (PG) and an unidentified glycolipid (GL). The predominant respiratory isoprenoid quinones were menaquinone-11 and menaquinone-12. The diamino acid in the cell-wall peptidoglycan was ornithine. Based on the results of polyphasic characterization, strain THG-SL1(T) represented a novel species within the genus Microbacterium, for which the name Microbacterium horti sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is THG-SL1(T) (=KACC 18286(T)=CCTCC AB 2015117(T)). PMID:26757723

  9. Characterization and Pathogenicity of Alternaria burnsii from Seeds of Cucurbita maxima (Cucurbitaceae) in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Paul, Narayan Chandra; Deng, Jian Xin; Lee, Hyang Burm; Yu, Seung-Hun

    2015-12-01

    In the course of survey of endophytic fungi from Bangladesh pumpkin seeds in 2011~2012, two strains (CNU111042 and CNU111043) with similar colony characteristics were isolated and characterized by their morphology and by molecular phylogenetic analysis of the internal transcribed spacer, glyceraldehydes-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (gpd), and Alternaria allergen a1 (Alt a1) sequences. Phylogenetic analysis of all three sequences and their combined dataset revealed that the fungus formed a subclade within the A. alternata clade, matching A. burnsi and showing differences with its other closely related Alternaria species, such as A. longipes, A. tomato, and A. tomaticola. Long ellipsoid, obclavate or ovoid beakless conidia, shorter and thinner conidial size (16~60 [90] × 6.5~14 [~16] µm) distinguish this fungus from other related species. These isolates showed more transverse septation (2~11) and less longitudinal septation (0~3) than did other related species. Moreover, the isolate did not produce any diffusible pigment on media. Therefore, our results reveal that the newly recorded fungus from a new host, Cucurbita maxima, is Alternaria burnsii Uppal, Patel & Kamat. PMID:26839497

  10. Characterization and Pathogenicity of Alternaria burnsii from Seeds of Cucurbita maxima (Cucurbitaceae) in Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Paul, Narayan Chandra; Deng, Jian Xin

    2015-01-01

    In the course of survey of endophytic fungi from Bangladesh pumpkin seeds in 2011~2012, two strains (CNU111042 and CNU111043) with similar colony characteristics were isolated and characterized by their morphology and by molecular phylogenetic analysis of the internal transcribed spacer, glyceraldehydes-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (gpd), and Alternaria allergen a1 (Alt a1) sequences. Phylogenetic analysis of all three sequences and their combined dataset revealed that the fungus formed a subclade within the A. alternata clade, matching A. burnsi and showing differences with its other closely related Alternaria species, such as A. longipes, A. tomato, and A. tomaticola. Long ellipsoid, obclavate or ovoid beakless conidia, shorter and thinner conidial size (16~60 [90] × 6.5~14 [~16] µm) distinguish this fungus from other related species. These isolates showed more transverse septation (2~11) and less longitudinal septation (0~3) than did other related species. Moreover, the isolate did not produce any diffusible pigment on media. Therefore, our results reveal that the newly recorded fungus from a new host, Cucurbita maxima, is Alternaria burnsii Uppal, Patel & Kamat. PMID:26839497

  11. Remote-controlled stop of phloem mass flow by biphasic occlusion in Cucurbita maxima

    PubMed Central

    Furch, Alexandra C. U.; Zimmermann, Matthias R.; Will, Torsten; Hafke, Jens B.; van Bel, Aart J. E.

    2010-01-01

    The relationships between damage-induced electropotential waves (EPWs), sieve tube occlusion, and stop of mass flow were investigated in intact Cucurbita maxima plants. After burning leaf tips, EPWs propagating along the phloem of the main vein were recorded by extra- and intracellular microelectrodes. The respective EPW profiles (a steep hyperpolarization/depolarization peak followed by a prolonged hyperpolarization/depolarization) probably reflect merged action and variation potentials. A few minutes after passage of the first EPW peak, sieve tubes gradually became occluded by callose, with maximum synthesis occurring ∼10 min after burning. Early stop of mass flow, well before completion of callose deposition, pointed to an occlusion mechanism preceding callose deposition. This obstruction of mass flow was inferred from the halt of carboxyfluorescein movement in sieve tubes and intensified secretion of aqueous saliva by feeding aphids. The early occlusion is probably due to proteins, as indicated by a dramatic drop in soluble sieve element proteins and a simultaneous coagulation of sieve element proteins shortly after the burning stimulus. Mass flow resumed 30–40 min after burning, as demonstrated by carboxyfluorescein movement and aphid activities. Stop of mass flow by Ca2+-dependent occlusion mechanisms is attributed to Ca2+ influx during EPW passage; the reversibility of the occlusion is explained by removal of Ca2+ ions. PMID:20584788

  12. Pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima) seed proteins: sequential extraction processing and fraction characterization.

    PubMed

    Rezig, Leila; Chibani, Farhat; Chouaibi, Moncef; Dalgalarrondo, Michèle; Hessini, Kamel; Guéguen, Jacques; Hamdi, Salem

    2013-08-14

    Seed proteins extracted from Tunisian pumpkin seeds ( Cucurbita maxima ) were investigated for their solubility properties and sequentially extracted according to the Osborne procedure. The solubility of pumpkin proteins from seed flour was greatly influenced by pH changes and ionic strength, with higher values in the alkaline pH regions. It also depends on the seed defatting solvent. Protein solubility was decreased by using chloroform/methanol (CM) for lipid extraction instead of pentane (P). On the basis of differential solubility fractionation and depending on the defatting method, the alkali extract (AE) was the major fraction (42.1 (P), 22.3% (CM)) compared to the salt extract (8.6 (P), 7.5% (CM)). In salt, alkali, and isopropanol extracts, all essential amino acids with the exceptions of threonine and lysine met the minimum requirements for preschool children (FAO/WHO/UNU). The denaturation temperatures were 96.6 and 93.4 °C for salt and alkali extracts, respectively. Pumpkin protein extracts with unique protein profiles and higher denaturation temperatures could impart novel characteristics when used as food ingredients. PMID:23869935

  13. Differences in p,p'-DDE bioaccumulation from compost and soil by the plants Cucurbita pepo and Cucurbita maxima and the earthworms Eisenia fetida and Lumbricus terrestris.

    PubMed

    Peters, Richard; Kelsey, Jason W; White, Jason C

    2007-07-01

    Two plant species, Cucurbita pepo and Cucurbita maxima, and two earthworm species, Eisenia fetida and Lumbricus terrestris, were exposed to soil and compost with equivalent p,p'-DDE contamination. Pollutant bioconcentration was equal in plant roots in both media, but translocation was higher in C. pepo. Bioaccumulation by E. fetida was approximately 6- and 3-fold higher than that by L. terrestris in the soil and compost, respectively. For all species, p,p'-DDE uptake was significantly greater from soil than from compost; 7- to 8-fold higher for plant roots and 3- to 7-fold higher for worms. Abiotic desorption from soil was approximately twice that from the compost. When all the data are normalized for organic-carbon content of the media, the contaminant is more tightly bound by soil than compost. Although the risk associated with p,p'-DDE is higher in soil than compost, important mechanistic differences exist in contaminant binding to organic carbon in the two media. PMID:17241722

  14. Random Estimate the values of seed oil of Cucurbita maxima by refractive index method.

    PubMed

    Saxena, R B

    2010-01-01

    The crude oil having lower iodine and free fatty acids values has Aamdosha properties. These properties are present due to toxic and anti-toxic compounds. These compounds can be harmful for the special diseases and may be unsaturated, saturated, open chain etc. The adulteration can take part as catalytic action for the toxic effect for the special diseases. Toxic properties of oils are removed by different ingrediants and methods. C. maxima seed tail (mst) is used with food and medicine. The present paper deals with the study of oil by refractive index and equations. PMID:22131677

  15. Evaluation of Cucurbita maxima extract against scopolamine-induced amnesia in rats: implication of tumour necrosis factor alpha.

    PubMed

    Jawaid, Talha; Shakya, Ashok K; Siddiqui, Hefazat Hussain; Kamal, Mehnaz

    2014-01-01

    Cucurbita maxima (CM) seed oil is commonly used in Indian folk medicine to treat various ailments. We have investigated the effect of CM seed oil on memory impairment induced by scopolamine in rats. Male adult Wistar rats were administered scopolamine 1 mg/kg body weight, i.p. or 1.25 mg/kg body weight, s.c. to induce memory impairment. The nootropic agent piracetam 100 mg/kg body weight, i.p. and CM seed oil 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight, p.o. were administered daily for five consecutive days. The memory function was evaluated in the Morris water maze (MWM) test, the social recognition test (SRT), the elevated plus maze (EPM) test, and the pole climbing test (PCT). Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity and oxidative stress parameters were estimated in the cortex, hippocampus, and cerebellum of the brains after completion of the behavioural studies. The effects of scopolamine on the levels of the tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) transcript were also investigated. Scopolamine caused memory impairment in all the behavioural paradigms along with a significant increase in the AChE activity and oxidative stress in the brain. Scopolamine also caused a significant increase in the expression of TNF-α in the hippocampus. CM seed oil exhibited antiamnesic activity as indicated by a significant reduction in the latency time in the MWM test and decreased social interaction during trial 2 in the SRT. Further, treatment with CM seed oil significantly decreased the AChE activity and malondialdehyde levels and increased the glutathione level in brain regions. CM seed oil also significantly decreased the expression of TNF-α in the hippocampus. The effect of CM seed oil on behavioural and biochemical parameters was comparable to that observed in rats treated with piracetam. These results indicate that CM seed oil may exert antiamnesic activity which may be attributed to the inhibition of AChE and inflammation as well as its antioxidant activity in the brain. PMID:25711042

  16. Molecular cloning and characterization of a cDNA encoding the gibberellin biosynthetic enzyme ent-kaurene synthase B from pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima L.).

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, S; Saito, T; Abe, H; Yamane, H; Murofushi, N; Kamiya, Y

    1996-08-01

    The first committed step in the formation of diterpenoids leading to gibberellin (GA) biosynthesis is the conversion of geranylgeranyl diphosphate (GGDP) to ent-kaurene. ent-Kaurene synthase A (KSA) catalyzes the conversion of GGDP to copalyl diphosphate (CDP), which is subsequently converted to ent-kaurene by ent-kaurene synthase B (KSB). A full-length KSB cDNA was isolated from developing cotyledons in immature seeds of pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima L.). Degenerate oligonucleotide primers were designed from the amino acid sequences obtained from the purified protein to amplify a cDNA fragment, which was used for library screening. The isolated full-length cDNA was expressed in Escherichia coli as a fusion protein, which demonstrated the KSB activity to cyclize [3H]CDP to [3H]ent-kaurene. The KSB transcript was most abundant in growing tissues, but was detected in every organ in pumpkin seedlings. The deduced amino acid sequence shares significant homology with other terpene cyclases, including the conserved DDXXD motif, a putative divalent metal ion-diphosphate complex binding site. A putative transit peptide sequence that may target the translated product into the plastids is present in the N-terminal region. PMID:8771778

  17. Overexpression of the pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima) 16 kDa phloem protein CmPP16 increases tolerance to water deficit

    PubMed Central

    Ramírez-Ortega, Francisco Arturo; Herrera-Pola, Paul Starsky; Toscano-Morales, Roberto; Xoconostle-Cázares, Beatriz; Ruiz-Medrano, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    The phloem plays an important role in the delivery of nutrients and signals between photosynthetic to heterotrophic tissues. Proteins and RNAs in the phloem translocation stream may have an important role in maintaining the integrity of the sieve tube system, as well as in long-distance signaling. CmPP16 is a pumpkin phloem protein, which has been shown to bind RNA in a non-sequence specific manner, and move it cell-to-cell and conceivably, long-distance. The protein and RNA are found in both companion cell (CC) and sieve elements (SE). However, a more precise function for this protein is not known. In this work we report the overexpression of CmPP16 fused to GFP via transformation of pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima cv. Big Max) plants in the cotyledonary stage by direct inoculation of Agrobacterium tumefaciens and Agrobacterium rhizogenes. Plants overexpressing CmPP16 did not show an obvious phenotype. However, these plants displayed higher photosynthetic capacity during drought than wild-type (WT) pumpkin or transformed with another construct. These results suggest that CmPP16 may be involved in the response to stress through long-distance signaling. PMID:25482781

  18. Energy-dispersive x-Ray Analysis of Phosphorus, Potassium, Magnesium, and Calcium in Globoid Crystals in Protein Bodies from Different Regions of Cucurbita maxima Embryos 1

    PubMed Central

    Lott, John N. A.; Greenwood, John S.; Vollmer, Catherine M.; Buttrose, Mark S.

    1978-01-01

    The seeds of Cucurbita maxima contain protein bodies with electrondense globoid crystals. Because of their density globoid crystals are ideal material for energy-dispersive x-ray (EDX) analysis studies of elemental composition. Fixation trials were carried out to test globoid crystal extraction during glutaraldehyde fixation, water washing, and ethanol dehydration. Glutaraldehyde fixation without subsequent washing or dehydration alone produced no significant changes in elemental composition of cotyledon globoid crystals. If glutaraldehyde fixation was followed by water washes or ethanol dehydration there was some loss of the major globoid crystal elements but the relative percentages of the elements P, K, Ca, and Mg remained relatively unchanged. In this paper results of a study of the P, K, Mg, and Ca content of globoid crystals in different tissues of squash embryos are presented. The globoid crystals in the radicle were found to be the least dense in the embryo. Globoid crystals from all embryo regions contained P, K, and Mg. In the various embryo regions P and Mg maintained relatively constant proportions of the globoid crystal composition while K and Ca varied. Of particular significance is the distribution of Ca which is generally an immobile element. Calcium was found in highest amounts in the globoid crystals of the radicle and stem regions while globoid crystals in much of the cotyledon contained little, if any, Ca. The Ca storage thus seems to be spatially arranged in a manner that would aid early growth of the root-shoot axis. PMID:16660439

  19. Energy-dispersive x-Ray Analysis of Phosphorus, Potassium, Magnesium, and Calcium in Globoid Crystals in Protein Bodies from Different Regions of Cucurbita maxima Embryos.

    PubMed

    Lott, J N; Greenwood, J S; Vollmer, C M

    1978-06-01

    The seeds of Cucurbita maxima contain protein bodies with electrondense globoid crystals. Because of their density globoid crystals are ideal material for energy-dispersive x-ray (EDX) analysis studies of elemental composition. Fixation trials were carried out to test globoid crystal extraction during glutaraldehyde fixation, water washing, and ethanol dehydration. Glutaraldehyde fixation without subsequent washing or dehydration alone produced no significant changes in elemental composition of cotyledon globoid crystals. If glutaraldehyde fixation was followed by water washes or ethanol dehydration there was some loss of the major globoid crystal elements but the relative percentages of the elements P, K, Ca, and Mg remained relatively unchanged. In this paper results of a study of the P, K, Mg, and Ca content of globoid crystals in different tissues of squash embryos are presented. The globoid crystals in the radicle were found to be the least dense in the embryo. Globoid crystals from all embryo regions contained P, K, and Mg. In the various embryo regions P and Mg maintained relatively constant proportions of the globoid crystal composition while K and Ca varied. Of particular significance is the distribution of Ca which is generally an immobile element. Calcium was found in highest amounts in the globoid crystals of the radicle and stem regions while globoid crystals in much of the cotyledon contained little, if any, Ca. The Ca storage thus seems to be spatially arranged in a manner that would aid early growth of the root-shoot axis. PMID:16660439

  20. Cucurbitacin delta 23-reductase from the fruit of Cucurbita maxima var. Green Hubbard. Physicochemical and fluorescence properties and enzyme-ligand interactions.

    PubMed Central

    Dirr, H W; Schabort, J C; Weitz, C

    1986-01-01

    Cucurbitacin delta 23-reductase from Cucurbita maxima var. Green Hubbard fruit displays an apparent Mr of 32,000, a Stokes radius of 263 nm and a diffusion coefficient of 8.93 X 10(-7) cm2 X s-1. The enzyme appears to possess a homogeneous dimeric quaternary structure with a subunit Mr of 15,000. Two tryptophan and fourteen tyrosine residues per dimer were found. Emission spectral properties of the enzyme and fluorescence quenching by iodide indicate the tryptophan residues to be buried within the protein molecule. In the pH range 5-7, where no conformational changes were detected, protonation of a sterically related ionizable group with a pK of approx. 6.0 markedly influenced the fluorescence of the tryptophan residues. Protein fluorescence quenching was employed to determine the dissociation constants for binding of NADPH (Kd 17 microM), NADP+ (Kd 30 microM) and elaterinide (Kd 227 microM). Fluorescence energy transfer between the tryptophan residues and enzyme-bound NADPH was observed. Images Fig. 1. PMID:3707515

  1. Discovering metabolic indices for early detection of squash (Cucurbita maxima) storage quality using GC-MS-based metabolite profiling.

    PubMed

    Okazaki, K; Kimura, Y; Sugiyama, K; Kami, D; Nakamura, T; Oka, N

    2016-04-01

    Squash (Cucubita maxima) cultivars with good storage qualities are needed for breeding to improve poor crop supply during winter in Japan. We measured changes in squash constituents during different storage periods to identify compounds that were suitable to be used as indices of storage quality. Principal components analysis of compounds at 1-5 months after harvest showed that PC1 scores were lower for cultivars with a higher rather than lower SQ (storage quality) ranks. Partial least-squares regression analysis was performed using the peak areas of all compounds identified from the 15 cultivars at 1 month after harvest as explanation variables and SQ as the target variable. Variable influence on projection scores and rank correlation coefficients were higher for arabinose and xylose, which showed less temporal change during the storage period; hence, they were considered to be suitable indicators for storage evaluation. These data will be useful for future studies aiming to improve storage quality of squash. PMID:26593601

  2. Calcium distribution in globoid crystals of cucurbita cotyledon protein bodies.

    PubMed

    Lott, J N; Spitzer, E; Vollmer, C M

    1979-05-01

    Energy-dispersive x-ray analysis was used to investigate the location of globoid crystals with relatively high Ca levels within cotyledons of Cucurbita maxima, Cucurbita mixta, and Cucurbita andreana. The small globoid crystals in both upper and lower epidermal cells commonly contained Ca. Ca was present in globoid crystals of all provascular regions with the exception of the very small provascular regions of C. maxima. In C. maxima and C. mixta cotyledons, some cases were observed where Ca was found in the globoid crystals of the first layer of mesophyll cells surrounding the provascular region, but in general Ca was absent from globoid crystals of palisade and spongy mesophyll cells. In C. andreana, globoid crystals of palisade and spongy mesophyll cells commonly contained at least some Ca. Cell position and cell type are factors affecting the Ca content of globoid crystals in protein bodies. PMID:16660825

  3. Flavonoids rich fraction of Citrus limetta fruit peels reduces proinflammatory cytokine production and attenuates malaria pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Mohanty, Shilpa; Maurya, Anil K; Jyotshna; Saxena, Archana; Shanker, Karuna; Pal, Anirban; Bawankule, Dnyaneshwar U

    2015-01-01

    Exploration of possible pharmacological effects along with characterisation of the bioactive compounds present in peels may have a key role in converting the fruit waste materials into therapeutic value added products. Extracts prepared from the Citrus limetta fruit peels were studied for antioxidant and anti- inflammatory activity using in-vitro bioassays. Among all, ClEt an ethanol extract of Citrus limetta fruit peels has shown promising anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activity. ClEt was further validated to ensure its safety evaluation at 2000mg/kg and anti-malarial efficacy at 100, 250, 500 mg/kg body weight with special reference to inflammatory mediators involved in malaria pathogenesis. In-vivo study revealed that ClEt was safe at higher dose and showed promising anti-malarial activity by inhibiting the parasitaemia and inflammatory mediators (IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-6) involved in malaria pathogenesis, able to improve the haemoglobin and glucose level and increase the survival time. Chemical fingerprint of ClEt revealed the presence of flavonoids. Results suggested the suitability of ClEt, a flavonoid rich fraction of Citrus limetta fruit peels as a candidate for further investigation towards the management of malaria pathogenesis. PMID:25860065

  4. Calcium Distribution in Globoid Crystals of Cucurbita Cotyledon Protein Bodies 1

    PubMed Central

    Lott, John N. A.; Spitzer, Ernest; Vollmer, Catherine M.

    1979-01-01

    Energy-dispersive x-ray analysis was used to investigate the location of globoid crystals with relatively high Ca levels within cotyledons of Cucurbita maxima, Cucurbita mixta, and Cucurbita andreana. The small globoid crystals in both upper and lower epidermal cells commonly contained Ca. Ca was present in globoid crystals of all provascular regions with the exception of the very small provascular regions of C. maxima. In C. maxima and C. mixta cotyledons, some cases were observed where Ca was found in the globoid crystals of the first layer of mesophyll cells surrounding the provascular region, but in general Ca was absent from globoid crystals of palisade and spongy mesophyll cells. In C. andreana, globoid crystals of palisade and spongy mesophyll cells commonly contained at least some Ca. Cell position and cell type are factors affecting the Ca content of globoid crystals in protein bodies. PMID:16660825

  5. Rootstock of interspecific squash hybrids (Cucurbita maxima x Cucurbita moschata) increases lycopene content of watermelon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The watermelon industry in the U.S. is facing increased soil-borne disease pressure and the loss of the soil fumigant methyl bromide. To combat this, grafting of scions with disease-resistant rootstocks of cucurbit species has garnered widespread interest. Both scion and rootstock can affect plant...

  6. Evaluation of Antihyperglycemic Activity of Citrus limetta Fruit Peel in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    KunduSen, Sriparna; Haldar, Pallab K.; Gupta, Malaya; Mazumder, Upal K.; Saha, Prerona; Bala, Asis; Bhattacharya, Sanjib; Kar, Biswakanth

    2011-01-01

    The present paper aims to evaluate antihyperglycemic activity of methanol extract of Citrus limetta fruit peel (MECL) in streptozotocin-induced (STZ; 65 mg/kg b.w.) diabetic rats. Three days after STZ induction, diabetic rats received MECL orally at 200 and 400 mg kg−1 body weight daily for 15 days. Glibenclamide (0.5 mg kg−1 p. o.) was used as reference drug. Blood glucose levels were measured on 0th, 4th, 8th, and 15th days of study. Serum biochemical parameters namely, SGOT, SGPT and ALP were estimated. The TBARS and GSH levels of pancreas, kidney, and liver were determined. MECL significantly (P < 0.001) and dose dependently normalized blood glucose levels and serum biochemical parameters, decreased lipid peroxidation, and recovered GSH as compared to those of STZ control. The present paper infers that in STZ-induced diabetic Wistar rats, C. limetta fruit peel demonstrated a potential antihyperglycemic effect which may be attributed to its antioxidant property. PMID:22363893

  7. Recovery of Ga(III) by Raw and Alkali Treated Citrus limetta Peels

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Alkali treated Citrus limetta peels were used for recovery of Ga(III) from its aqueous solution. The raw and alkali treated peels were characterized for functional groups. The efficiency of adsorption increased from 47.62 mg/g for raw peels to 83.33 mg/g for alkali treated peels. Between pH 1 and 3, the adsorption increased and thereafter decreased drastically. The adsorption followed pseudosecond order kinetics and Langmuir isotherm gave the best fit for the experimental data. Desorption studies showed 95.28% desorption after 3 cycles for raw peels while it was 89.51% for alkali treated peels. Simulated Bayer liquor showed 39.57% adsorption for gallium ions on raw peels which was enhanced to 41.13% for alkali treated peels.

  8. Evaluation of the Inhibition of Carbohydrate Hydrolyzing Enzymes, the Antioxidant Activity, and the Polyphenolic Content of Citrus limetta Peel Extract

    PubMed Central

    Flores-Fernandez, José Miguel; Owolabi, Moses S.; Villanueva-Rodríguez, Socorro

    2014-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus is one of the most frequent causes of death in Mexico, characterized by chronic hyperglycemia. One alternative strategy for this metabolic abnormality is inhibiting the enzymes responsible for the metabolism of carbohydrates. We evaluated whether the aqueous Citrus limetta peel extract could inhibit the metabolism of carbohydrates. We found that this extract inhibited primarily the enzyme α-amylase by 49.6% at a concentration of 20 mg/mL and to a lesser extent the enzyme α-glucosidase with an inhibition of 28.2% at the same concentration. This inhibition is likely due to the high polyphenol content in the Citrus limetta peel (19.1 mg GAE/g). Antioxidant activity of the Citrus limetta peel demonstrated dose-dependent antioxidant activity, varying from 6.5% at 1.125 mg/mL to 42.5% at 20 mg/mL. The study of these polyphenolic compounds having both antihyperglycemic and antioxidant activities may provide a new approach to the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus. PMID:25587557

  9. Metabolite profiling of polyphenols in peels of Citrus limetta Risso by combination of preparative high-speed countercurrent chromatography and LC-ESI-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Rivera, M Paulina; Lugo-Cervantes, Eugenia; Winterhalter, Peter; Jerz, Gerold

    2014-09-01

    The polar constituents of peels from Citrus limetta variety Risso (Rutaceae) were investigated by a combination of two complementary chromatographic techniques consisting of preparative high-speed countercurrent chromatography (HSCCC), and off-line LC-ESI-MS/MS analysis to design a two-dimensional metabolite profile. Countercurrent chromatography (CCC) using solely immiscible solvent systems allowed the fractionation of principal components and an enrichment of minor concentrated metabolites from a crude polar solvent partition of C. limetta peels for subsequent structural identification by LC-ESI-MS/MS analysis. The combination of two very different chromatographic techniques resulted in lower detection limits for electrospray mass-spectrometry and revealed eighty-five compounds, including three abscisic acid derivatives, five limonoid glycosides, twenty-six dihydro-cinnamic and cinnamic acid glycosides, eleven flavanone glycosides, seven flavone glycosides, seventeen flavonol glycosides, including limocitrol and limocitrin derivatives. As a chemocharacteristic for C. limetta metabolites, many of the detected structures were linked to single and multiple 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl (HMG) substitutions. C. limetta peels are a by-product of juice production, and not only the antioxidant fractions but also some of the fortified compounds could be used for food and pharmaceutical purposes. PMID:24731325

  10. Phylogenetic relationships among domesticated and wild species of Cucurbita (Cucurbitaceae) inferred from a mitochondrial gene: Implications for crop plant evolution and areas of origin.

    PubMed

    Sanjur, Oris I; Piperno, Dolores R; Andres, Thomas C; Wessel-Beaver, Linda

    2002-01-01

    We have investigated the phylogenetic relationships among six wild and six domesticated taxa of Cucurbita using as a marker an intron region from the mitochondrial nad1 gene. Our study represents one of the first successful uses of a mtDNA gene in resolving inter- and intraspecific taxonomic relationships in Angiosperms and yields several important insights into the origins of domesticated Cucurbita. First, our data suggest at least six independent domestication events from distinct wild ancestors. Second, Cucurbita argyrosperma likely was domesticated from a wild Mexican gourd, Cucurbita sororia, probably in the same region of southwest Mexico that gave rise to maize. Third, the wild ancestor of Cucurbita moschata is still unknown, but mtDNA data combined with other sources of information suggest that it will probably be found in lowland northern South America. Fourth, Cucurbita andreana is supported as the wild progenitor of Cucurbita maxima, but humid lowland regions of Bolivia in addition to warmer temperate zones in South America from where C. andreana was originally described should possibly be considered as an area of origin for C. maxima. Fifth, our data support other molecular results that indicate two separate domestications in the Cucurbita pepo complex. The potential zone of domestication for one of the domesticated subspecies, C. pepo subsp. ovifera, includes eastern North America and should be extended to northeastern Mexico. The wild ancestor of the other domesticated subspecies, C. pepo subsp. pepo, is undiscovered but is closely related to C. pepo subsp. fraterna and possibly will be found in southern Mexico. PMID:11782554

  11. Phylogenetic relationships among domesticated and wild species of Cucurbita (Cucurbitaceae) inferred from a mitochondrial gene: Implications for crop plant evolution and areas of origin

    PubMed Central

    Sanjur, Oris I.; Piperno, Dolores R.; Andres, Thomas C.; Wessel-Beaver, Linda

    2002-01-01

    We have investigated the phylogenetic relationships among six wild and six domesticated taxa of Cucurbita using as a marker an intron region from the mitochondrial nad1 gene. Our study represents one of the first successful uses of a mtDNA gene in resolving inter- and intraspecific taxonomic relationships in Angiosperms and yields several important insights into the origins of domesticated Cucurbita. First, our data suggest at least six independent domestication events from distinct wild ancestors. Second, Cucurbita argyrosperma likely was domesticated from a wild Mexican gourd, Cucurbita sororia, probably in the same region of southwest Mexico that gave rise to maize. Third, the wild ancestor of Cucurbita moschata is still unknown, but mtDNA data combined with other sources of information suggest that it will probably be found in lowland northern South America. Fourth, Cucurbita andreana is supported as the wild progenitor of Cucurbita maxima, but humid lowland regions of Bolivia in addition to warmer temperate zones in South America from where C. andreana was originally described should possibly be considered as an area of origin for C. maxima. Fifth, our data support other molecular results that indicate two separate domestications in the Cucurbita pepo complex. The potential zone of domestication for one of the domesticated subspecies, C. pepo subsp. ovifera, includes eastern North America and should be extended to northeastern Mexico. The wild ancestor of the other domesticated subspecies, C. pepo subsp. pepo, is undiscovered but is closely related to C. pepo subsp. fraterna and possibly will be found in southern Mexico. PMID:11782554

  12. Factors influencing distribution ofDiabrotica spp. in blossoms of cultivatedCucurbita spp.

    PubMed

    Andersen, J F; Metcalf, R L

    1987-04-01

    Cultivars representing three species ofCucurbita were examined for blossom preference byDiabrotica spp.C. maxima cultivars were found to be preferred byD. undecimpunctata howardi over those ofC. pepo andC. moschata.D. virgifera virgifera preferredC. maxima and the "Connecticut Field" cultivar ofC. pepo.C. moschata and other cultivars ofC. pepo were not preferred. Cultivars were examined for differences in floral volatile release, blossom cucurbitacin content, and pollen content of male blossoms.C. maxima male blossoms released a larger quantity of volatiles thanC. pepo orC. moschata. Also, onlyC. maxima male blossoms contained cucurbitacins. Cultivars ofC. moschata contained the largest quantities of pollen, but all three species contained relatively large quantities. The data indicate a correspondence ofD. u. howardi distribution in the field with high volatile release rates and high cucurbitacin levels that are found inC. maxima blossoms.D. v. virgifera distribution appears to be somewhat independent of these factors since this species was abundant in blossoms of aC. pepo cultivar as well as cultivars ofC. maxima. PMID:24302038

  13. Pyruvate Metabolism in Sarcina maxima

    PubMed Central

    Kupfer, Dorothy G.; Canale-Parola, E.

    1967-01-01

    The mechanisms of pyruvate cleavage and hydrogen production by Sarcina maxima were studied. It was found that a phosphoroclastic system for pyruvate oxidation, similar to that occurring in saccharolytic clostridia, is present in S. maxima. Cleavage of pyruvate by extracts of the latter organism resulted in the formation of acetyl phosphate, CO2, and electrons which were transferred to ferredoxin. Formate was not an intermediate in this system. Pyruvate oxidation was coupled with ferredoxin-dependent nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP) reduction. A hydrogenase, active in particulate extracts of S. maxima, did not accept electrons from reduced ferredoxin. Formate was detected as a fermentation product when S. maxima was grown in media buffered with CaCO3. Whole cells and extracts degraded formate to H2 and CO2. The evidence suggests that electrons generated by ferredoxin-linked pyruvate oxidation by S. maxima are not used for H2 production, but that they serve for the reduction of NADP. Reduced NADP may be utilized by the organisms for synthesis of cell material. Production of H2 by S. maxima may occur through a pyruvate clastic system similar to that present in coliform bacteria. PMID:4383134

  14. Native Bees Effectively Pollinate New World Cucurbita (C. pepo and C. maxima): An Internet Collaboration

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wild squash bees have all five traits ascribed to the most effective crop pollinators. They are abundant, competitive, efficient, faithful to a specific crop and fast. Shared pollinator surveys covering 2,700 ha of US squash and pumpkin (n = 50 farms) show strong parallels among Cucurbita’s bee gui...

  15. MAXIMA: Observations of CMB anisotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabii, Bahman

    This document describes the Millimeter Anisotropy eXperiment IMaging Array (MAXIMA), a balloon-borne experiment measuring the temperature anisotropy of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) on angular scales of 10 ' to 5°. MAXIMA data are used to discriminate between cosmological models and to determine cosmological parameters. MAXIMA maps the CMB using 16 bolometric detectors observing in spectral bands centered at 150 GHz, 230 GHz, and 410 GHz, with 10 ' resolution at all frequencies. The combined receiver sensitivity to CMB anisotropy is ˜40 μK sec , the best reported by any CMB experiment. Systematic errors are rejected by using four uncorrelated spatial modulations, multiple independent CMB observations, heavily baffled optics, and strong spectral discrimination. Observation patterns are well cross-linked and optimized for the extraction of cosmological information. Pointing is reconstructed to an accuracy of 1'. Absolute calibration uncertainty of 3 4% is the best achieved by any sub-orbital CMB experiment. Two MAXIMA flights were launched from the National Scientific Balloon Facility in Palestine Texas in 1998 and 1999. During a total of 8.5 hours of CMB observations, 300 deg2 of the sky were mapped, with ˜50 deg2 overlap between the two flights. The observed region was selected for low foreground emission and post-flight data analysis confirms that foreground contamination is negligible. Cosmological results are presented from the 1998 flight, MAXIMA-I , in which 122 deg2 of sky were mapped over 3 hours. A maximum likelihood map with 3' pixelization is obtained from the three most sensitive and best tested detectors. The angular power spectrum derived from this map shows a narrow peak near ℓ = 200, and is consistent with inflationary Big Bang models. Within these models, cosmological parameters are estimated, including total density Ωtot = 0.9+0.18-0.16 , baryon density Ωbh2 = 0.033 ± 0.013, and power spectrum normalization C

  16. Ecology of Nematodes Under Influence of Cucurbita spp. and Different Fertilizer Types.

    PubMed

    Porazinska, D L; Coleman, D C

    1995-12-01

    In a field study conducted in Georgia, cucurbit plants with high (Cucurbita andreana) and low (Cucurbita maxima) concentrations of cucurbitacins were used in combination with two types of fertilizers to investigate their effects on the community of soil nematodes. Ecological measures of soil nematode community structure such as total nematode abundance, number of genera, trophic diversity, trophic group proportions, fungivore/bacterivore ratio, and modified maturity index were assessed and compared among treatments. In general, poultry manure (an organic source of nitrogen) and synthetic fertilizer (a nonorganic source of nitrogen) did not differ in their effects on the nematode communities throughout one growing season. Few differences between the two plant species were found for any of the nematode community measurements. Bacterial- and fungal-feeding nematodes were the most abundant trophic groups, averaging 60% and 20% of the nematode community, respectively. Trophic diversity, nematode maturity index, and fungivore/ bacterivore values were lowest at the beginning and highest at the end of the experiment. PMID:19277330

  17. Ecology of Nematodes Under Influence of Cucurbita spp. and Different Fertilizer Types

    PubMed Central

    Porazinska, D. L.; Coleman, D. C.

    1995-01-01

    In a field study conducted in Georgia, cucurbit plants with high (Cucurbita andreana) and low (Cucurbita maxima) concentrations of cucurbitacins were used in combination with two types of fertilizers to investigate their effects on the community of soil nematodes. Ecological measures of soil nematode community structure such as total nematode abundance, number of genera, trophic diversity, trophic group proportions, fungivore/bacterivore ratio, and modified maturity index were assessed and compared among treatments. In general, poultry manure (an organic source of nitrogen) and synthetic fertilizer (a nonorganic source of nitrogen) did not differ in their effects on the nematode communities throughout one growing season. Few differences between the two plant species were found for any of the nematode community measurements. Bacterial- and fungal-feeding nematodes were the most abundant trophic groups, averaging 60% and 20% of the nematode community, respectively. Trophic diversity, nematode maturity index, and fungivore/ bacterivore values were lowest at the beginning and highest at the end of the experiment. PMID:19277330

  18. Chloroplast DNA diversity among wild and cultivated members of Cucurbita (Cucurbitaceae).

    PubMed

    Wilson, H D; Doebley, J; Duvall, M

    1992-09-01

    Cladistic analysis of 86 chloroplast DNA restriction-site mutations among 30 samples representing 15 species of Cucurbita indicates that annual species of the genus are derived from perennials. The Malabar Gourd, C. ficifolia, is placed as a basal, sister taxon relative to other domesticated species and allied wild-types. The pattern of variation supports three species groups as monophyletic: (1) C. fraterna, C. pepo, and C. texana, (2) C. lundelliana, C. martinezii, C. mixta, C. moschata and C. sororia, and (3) C. foetidissima and C. pedatifolia. Domesticated samples representing subspecies of C. pepo are divided into two concordant groups, one of which is allied to wild-types referable to C. texana and C. fraterna. The data failed to resolve relationships among cultivars of C. moschata and C. mixta and their association to the wild C. sororia. The South American domesticate, C. maxima, and its companion weed, C. andreana, show close affinity and alliance to C. equadorensis. PMID:24201487

  19. Nucleic Acid Hybridization Studies within the Genus Cucurbita

    PubMed Central

    Goldberg, Robert B.; Bemis, William P.; Siegel, Albert

    1972-01-01

    The DNAs of Cucurbita species were examined by several methods. All Cucurbita DNAs have a similar CsCl isopycnic banding pattern consisting of a major band at 1.695 g/cc and a well separated satellite band at 1.707 g/cc. Compared to other plant and animal genera, Cucurbita species have a large genomic proportion of rDNA; this value ranging from 1.4% to 3.1%. The genomic proportion of rDNA was found not to be useful as a characteristic indicating degree of relatedness of the various Cucurbita species. However, Cucurbita DNAs can be distinguished by the extent to which their repetitive sequences cross-hybridize to each other and an assessment of species relationships can be made on this basis. PMID:17248582

  20. Scaling exponents for ordered maxima

    SciTech Connect

    Ben-Naim, E.; Krapivsky, P. L.; Lemons, N. W.

    2015-12-22

    We study extreme value statistics of multiple sequences of random variables. For each sequence with N variables, independently drawn from the same distribution, the running maximum is defined as the largest variable to date. We compare the running maxima of m independent sequences and investigate the probability SN that the maxima are perfectly ordered, that is, the running maximum of the first sequence is always larger than that of the second sequence, which is always larger than the running maximum of the third sequence, and so on. The probability SN is universal: it does not depend on the distribution from which the random variables are drawn. For two sequences, SN~N–1/2, and in general, the decay is algebraic, SN~N–σm, for large N. We analytically obtain the exponent σ3≅1.302931 as root of a transcendental equation. Moreover, the exponents σm grow with m, and we show that σm~m for large m.

  1. Scaling exponents for ordered maxima

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Ben-Naim, E.; Krapivsky, P. L.; Lemons, N. W.

    2015-12-22

    We study extreme value statistics of multiple sequences of random variables. For each sequence with N variables, independently drawn from the same distribution, the running maximum is defined as the largest variable to date. We compare the running maxima of m independent sequences and investigate the probability SN that the maxima are perfectly ordered, that is, the running maximum of the first sequence is always larger than that of the second sequence, which is always larger than the running maximum of the third sequence, and so on. The probability SN is universal: it does not depend on the distribution frommore » which the random variables are drawn. For two sequences, SN~N–1/2, and in general, the decay is algebraic, SN~N–σm, for large N. We analytically obtain the exponent σ3≅1.302931 as root of a transcendental equation. Moreover, the exponents σm grow with m, and we show that σm~m for large m.« less

  2. Dependence of maxima in space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, H.; Pereira, L.

    2015-01-01

    We evaluate the dependence among large values of a spatial process of maxima trough a coefficient that can be applied in natural, technical and societal extreme phenomena. Its main properties are: a) k locations can be taken into account; b) it takes values in [0,1] and higher values indicate stronger dependence; c) it is independent of the univariate marginal distributions of the random field; d) it can be related with other coefficients in the literature such as the tail dependence and the extremal coefficients; e) it agrees with the concordance property for multivariate distributions; f) it has as a particular case the variogram from geostatistics; g) it can be easily estimated. We illustrate the application of the introduced coefficient with the estimation of the degree of dependence among large values of the amount of tritium in drinking water for tree cities.

  3. Phytoaccumulation of antimicrobials by hydroponic Cucurbita pepo.

    PubMed

    Aryal, Niroj; Reinhold, Dawn

    2013-01-01

    Consumer use of antimicrobial-containing products continuously introduces triclocarban and triclosan into the environment. Triclocarban and triclosan adversely affect plants and animals and have the potential to affect human health. Research examined the phytoaccumulation of triclocarban and triclosan by pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo cultivar Howden) and zucchini (Cucurbita pepo cultivar Gold Rush) grown hydroponically. Pumpkin and zucchini were grown in nutrient solution spiked with 0.315 microg/mL triclocarban and 0.289 microg/mL triclosan for two months. Concentrations of triclocarban and triclosan in nutrient solutions were monitored weekly. At the end of the trial, roots and shoots were analyzed for triclocarban and triclosan. Research demonstrated that pumpkin and zucchini accumulated triclocarban and triclosan. Root accumulation factors were 1.78 and 0.64 and translocation factors were 0.001 and 0.082 for triclocarban and triclosan, respectively. The results of this experiment were compared with a previous soil column study that represented environmentally relevant exposure of antimicrobials from biosolids and had similar root mass. Plants were not as efficient in removing triclocarban and triclosan in hydroponic systems as in soil systems. Shoot concentrations of antimicrobials were the same or lower in hydroponic systems than in soil columns, indicating that hydroponic system does not overpredict the concentrations of antimicrobials. PMID:23487999

  4. First Known Image of Cucurbita in Europe, 1503–1508

    PubMed Central

    PARIS, HARRY S.; DAUNAY, MARIE-CHRISTINE; PITRAT, MICHEL; JANICK, JULES

    2006-01-01

    • Background The genus Cucurbita (pumpkin, squash, gourd) is native to the Americas and diffused to other continents subsequent to the European contact in 1492. For many years, the earliest images of this genus in Europe that were known to cucurbit specialists were the two illustrations of C. pepo pumpkins that were published in Fuchs' De Historia Stirpium, 1542. Images of fruits of two Cucurbita species, drawn between 1515 and 1518, were recently discovered in the Villa Farnesina in Rome. • Findings An even earlier image of Cucurbita exists in the prayer book, Grandes Heures d'Anne de Bretagne, illustrated by Jean Bourdichon in Touraine, France, between 1503 and 1508. This image, which shows a living branch bearing flowers and fruits, had not been examined and analysed by cucurbit specialists until now. The image is identified as depicting Cucurbita pepo subsp. texana. Unlike some of the fruits of Cucurbita depicted in the Villa Farnesina a decade later, this image does not depict an esculent and does not constitute evidence of early European contact with New World agriculture. Based on the descriptive, ecological and geographical accounts of C. pepo subsp. texana in the wild, the idea is considered that the image was based on an offspring of a plant found growing along the Gulf Coast of what is now the United States. PMID:16687431

  5. SSR-based genetic linkage map of Cucurbita moschata and its synteny with Cucurbita pepo.

    PubMed

    Gong, L; Pachner, M; Kalai, K; Lelley, T

    2008-11-01

    The first SSR-based genetic linkage map of Cucurbita moschata was created by integrating the maps of two F2 populations with one common parent developed from the crosses Waltham Butternut (WB) x Nigerian Local (NL) and ZHOU (a hull-less type) x WB. The integrated C. moschata map comprises 205 SSR markers and two morphological traits (Gr and n). The map is composed of 27 linkage groups with a marker density of 7 cM. Comparing the C. moschata map with the published Cucurbita pepo map, we found a high level of macrosynteny. Seventy-two of 76 common SSR markers between C. moschata and C. pepo were located in homologous linkage groups. These markers in general have conserved orders and similar genetic distances; they represent orthologous loci. A reference map based on these SSRs was obtained. No major chromosomal rearrangement between the two species could be detected at present, although four SSR markers were mapped in nonhomologous linkage groups. The comparative alignment of SSR markers did not provide any indication of a possible ancient polyploid origin of the species. The comparative mapping of C. moschata and C. pepo reported here will be useful for further studies on Cucurbit evolution, gene isolation, and breeding work. PMID:18956020

  6. Influence of cultivar, cooking, and storage on cell-wall polysaccharide composition of winter squash (Cucurbita maxima).

    PubMed

    Ratnayake, R M Sunil; Melton, Laurence D; Hurst, Paul L

    2003-03-26

    Changes in the cell-wall polysaccharides (CWP) of the edible tissues of four winter squash cultivars during storage and after cooking were investigated. A procedure for isolating cell walls of tissues containing high levels of starch was used. The starch-free CWP were sequentially fractionated using CDTA, dilute Na(2)CO(3), and 4 M KOH. Cellulose made up 40-42% of the total CWP for three cultivars (Delica, CF 2, and CF 4) at harvest but was 35% in the softer Red Warren. The pectic polysaccharides of Delica, CF 2, and CF 4 cell walls are more branched than those from Red Warren squash. The higher proportion of uronic acid in the pectic polysaccharides of Red Warren squash correlates with its lower firmness. Cooking resulted in an increase in the water-soluble pectins and a decrease in the pectins associated with cellulose. The total CWP content of the squash cultivars remained unchanged for up to 2 months of storage and then markedly decreased between 2 and 3 months of storage. The galactose content of Delica and Red Warren cell walls remained relatively constant from harvest to 2 months of storage and then decreased markedly during 2-3 months of storage. PMID:12643650

  7. Spatial dependences among precipitation maxima over Belgium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vannitsem, S.; Naveau, P.

    2007-09-01

    For a wide range of applications in hydrology, the probability distribution of precipitation maxima represents a fundamental quantity to build dykes, propose flood planning policies, or more generally, to mitigate the impact of precipitation extremes. Classical Extreme Value Theory (EVT) has been applied in this context by usually assuming that precipitation maxima can be considered as Independent and Identically Distributed (IID) events, which approximately follow a Generalized Extreme Value distribution (GEV) at each recording site. In practice, weather stations records can not be considered as independent in space. Assessing the spatial dependences among precipitation maxima provided by two Belgium measurement networks is the main goal of this work. The pairwise dependences are estimated by a variogram of order one, also called madogram, that is specially tailored to be in compliance with spatial EVT and to capture EVT bivariate structures. Our analysis of Belgium precipitation maxima indicates that the degree of dependence varies greatly according to three factors: the distance between two stations, the season (summer or winter) and the precipitation accumulation duration (hourly, daily, monthly, etc.). Increasing the duration (from one hour to 20 days) strengthens the spatial dependence. The full independence is reached after about 50 km (100 km) for summer (winter) for a duration of one hour, while for long durations only after a few hundred kilometers. In addition this dependence is always larger in winter than in summer whatever is the duration. An explanation of these properties in terms of the dynamical processes dominating during the two seasons is advanced.

  8. Biological control of Cucurbita pepo var texana (Texas gourd) in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) with the fungus Fusarium solani f sp Cucurbitae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Experiments were conducted to evaluate various formulations and application methods of the fungus Fusarium solani f. sp. cucurbitae (FSC) for controlling Texas gourd (Cucurbita pepo var. texana) in cotton (Gosssypium hirsutum). In greenhouse tests, Texas gourd was controlled 93% and 96%, respective...

  9. [The fatty acid composition of large pumpkin seed oil (Curucbitae maxima Dich) cultivated in Georgia].

    PubMed

    2014-09-01

    The aim of the study was to identify qualitatively and quantitatively fatty acid composition of large pumpkin seed oil cultivated in Georgia (Cucurbitae maxima Duch) and evaluate its biological activities. Evaluation was conducted using high-performance liquid chromatography method. Fatty acids ranging from C12:0 to C22:0 were identified in the probe. The oil contained 0,2В±0,01mg% lauric, 0,3В±0,01 mg% miristic, 9,0В±0,7mg% palmitic, 5,5В±0,4 mg% stearic, 28,1В±1,0 mg% oleic, 40,2В±1,9 mg% linolic, 12,1В±1,0 mg% linolenic, 2,0В±0,2mg% arachinic and 1,2В±0,1 mg% begenic acids. The investigation showed that large pumpkin seed oil contains a range of biologically significant fatty acids, unique proportion of which attaches great value to the vegetative material. PMID:25341255

  10. Characterization of the Eimeria maxima sporozoite surface protein IMP1

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of this study was to characterize Eimeria maxima immunoprotective protein IMP1 that is hypothesized to play a role in eliciting protective immunity against E. maxima infection in chickens. RT-PCR analysis of RNA from unsporulated and sporulating E. maxima oocysts revealed highest transc...

  11. The period gene and allochronic reproductive isolation in Bactrocera cucurbitae.

    PubMed

    Miyatake, Takahisa; Matsumoto, Akira; Matsuyama, Takashi; Ueda, Hiroki R; Toyosato, Tetsuya; Tanimura, Teiichi

    2002-12-01

    Clock genes that pleiotropically control circadian rhythm and the time of mating may cause allochronic reproductive isolation in the melon fly Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett) (Diptera: Tephritidae). Flies with a shorter circadian period (ca. 22 h of locomotor activity rhythm) mated 5 h earlier in the day than those with a longer circadian period (ca. 30 h). Mate-choice tests demonstrated significant pre-mating isolation between populations with short and long circadian periods. Pre-mating isolation did not occur when the mating time was synchronized between the two populations by photoperiodic controls, indicating that reproductive isolation is due to variations in the time of mating and not any unidentified ethological difference between the two populations. We cloned the period (per) gene of B. cucurbitae that is homologous to the per gene in Drosophila. The relative level of per mRNA in the melon fly exhibited a robust daily fluctuation under light : dark conditions. The fluctuation of per expression under dark : dark conditions is closely correlated to the locomotor rhythm in B. cucurbitae. These results suggest that clock genes can cause reproductive isolation via the pleiotropic effect as a change of mating time. PMID:12495490

  12. Maxima and O-C Diagrams for 489 Mira Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karlsson, T.

    2013-11-01

    Maxima for 489 Mira stars have been compiled. They were computed with data from AAVSO, AFOEV, VSOLJ, and BAA-VSS and collected from published maxima. The result is presented in a mysql database and on web pages with O-C diagrams, periods and some statistical information for each star.

  13. Characterization of the Eimeria maxima sporozoite surface protein IMP1.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, M C; Fetterer, R; Miska, K; Tuo, W; Kwok, O; Dubey, J P

    2015-07-30

    The purpose of this study was to characterize Eimeria maxima immune-mapped protein 1 (IMP1) that is hypothesized to play a role in eliciting protective immunity against E. maxima infection in chickens. RT-PCR analysis of RNA from unsporulated and sporulating E. maxima oocysts revealed highest transcription levels at 6-12h of sporulation with a considerable downregulation thereafter. Alignment of IMP1 coding sequence from Houghton, Weybridge, and APU-1 strains of E. maxima revealed single nucleotide polymorphisms that in some instances led to amino acid changes in the encoded protein sequence. The E. maxima (APU-1) IMP1 cDNA sequence was cloned and expressed in 2 different polyHis Escherichia coli expression vectors. Regardless of expression vector, recombinant E. maxima IMP1 (rEmaxIMP1) was fairly unstable in non-denaturing buffer, which is consistent with stability analysis of the primary amino acid sequence. Antisera specific for rEmaxIMP1 identified a single 72 kDa protein or a 61 kDa protein by non-reducing or reducing SDS-PAGE/immunoblotting. Immunofluorescence staining with anti-rEmaxIMP1, revealed intense surface staining of E. maxima sporozoites, with negligible staining of merozoite stages. Immuno-histochemical staining of E. maxima-infected chicken intestinal tissue revealed staining of E. maxima developmental stages in the lamnia propia and crypts at both 24 and 48 h post-infection, and negligible staining thereafter. The expression of IMP1 during early stages of in vivo development and its location on the sporozoite surface may explain in part the immunoprotective effect of this protein against E. maxima infection. PMID:26012860

  14. The asymptotic distribution of maxima in bivariate samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, J. W.; Tsokos, C. P.

    1973-01-01

    The joint distribution (as n tends to infinity) of the maxima of a sample of n independent observations of a bivariate random variable (X,Y) is studied. A method is developed for deriving the asymptotic distribution of the maxima, assuming that X and Y possess asymptotic extreme-value distributions and that the probability element dF(x,y) can be expanded in a canonical series. Applied both to the bivariate normal distribution and to the bivariate gamma and compound correlated bivariate Poisson distributions, the method shows that maxima from all these distributions are asymptotically uncorrelated.

  15. 7 CFR 301.32-2 - Regulated articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... utilissimus Melon, long Peach. Cucurbita maxima Squash Melon. Cucurbita moschata Pumpkin, Canada Melon. Cucurbita pepo Pumpkin Melon. Cydonia oblonga Quince Mexican, Mediterranean, Oriental, Peach, Sapote... (Cucumis utilissimus) Pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo) Pumpkin, Canada (Cucurbita moschata) Squash...

  16. 7 CFR 301.32-2 - Regulated articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... utilissimus Melon, long Peach. Cucurbita maxima Squash Melon. Cucurbita moschata Pumpkin, Canada Melon. Cucurbita pepo Pumpkin Melon. Cydonia oblonga Quince Mexican, Mediterranean, Oriental, Peach, Sapote... (Cucumis utilissimus) Pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo) Pumpkin, Canada (Cucurbita moschata) Squash...

  17. 7 CFR 301.32-2 - Regulated articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... utilissimus Melon, long Peach. Cucurbita maxima Squash Melon. Cucurbita moschata Pumpkin, Canada Melon. Cucurbita pepo Pumpkin Melon. Cydonia oblonga Quince Mexican, Mediterranean, Oriental, Peach, Sapote... (Cucumis utilissimus) Pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo) Pumpkin, Canada (Cucurbita moschata) Squash...

  18. 7 CFR 301.32-2 - Regulated articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... utilissimus Melon, long Peach. Cucurbita maxima Squash Melon. Cucurbita moschata Pumpkin, Canada Melon. Cucurbita pepo Pumpkin Melon. Cydonia oblonga Quince Mexican, Mediterranean, Oriental, Peach, Sapote... (Cucumis utilissimus) Pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo) Pumpkin, Canada (Cucurbita moschata) Squash...

  19. The sterols of Cucurbita moschata ("calabacita") seed oil.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, J B; Gros, E G; Bertoni, M H; Cattaneo, P

    1996-11-01

    From the sterol fraction of seed oil from commercial Cucurbita moschata Dutch ("calabacita") delta 5 and delta 7 sterols having saturated and unsaturated side chain were isolated by chromatographic procedures and characterized by spectroscopic (1H and 13C-nuclear magnetic resonance, mass spectrometry) methods. The main components were identified as 24S-ethyl 5 alpha-cholesta-7,22E-dien-3 beta-ol (alpha-spinasterol); 24S-ethyl 5 alpha-cholesta-7,22E,25-trien-3 beta-ol (25-dehydrochondrillasterol); 24S-ethyl 5 alpha-cholesta-7,25-dien-3 beta-ol; 24R-ethyl-cholesta-7-en-3 beta-ol (delta 7-stigmastenol) and 24-ethyl-cholesta-7, 24(28)-dien-3 beta-ol (delta 7,24(28)-stigmastadienol). PMID:8934454

  20. Depth Distribution Of The Maxima Of Extensive Air Shower

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, J. H.; Howell, L. W.

    2003-01-01

    Observations of the extensive air showers from space can be free from interference by low altitude clouds and aerosols if the showers develop at a sufficiently high altitude. In this paper we explore the altitude distribution of shower maxima to determine the fraction of all showers that will reach their maxima at sufficient altitudes to avoid interference from these lower atmosphere phenomena. Typically the aerosols are confined within a planetary boundary layer that extends from only 2-3 km above the Earth's surface. Cloud top altitudes extend above 15 km but most are below 4 km. The results reported here show that more than 75% of the showers that will be observed by EUSO have maxima above the planetary boundary layer. The results also show that more than 50% of the showers that occur on cloudy days have their maxima above the cloud tops.

  1. Gourds and squashes (Cucurbita spp.) adapted to megafaunal extinction and ecological anachronism through domestication.

    PubMed

    Kistler, Logan; Newsom, Lee A; Ryan, Timothy M; Clarke, Andrew C; Smith, Bruce D; Perry, George H

    2015-12-01

    The genus Cucurbita (squashes, pumpkins, gourds) contains numerous domesticated lineages with ancient New World origins. It was broadly distributed in the past but has declined to the point that several of the crops' progenitor species are scarce or unknown in the wild. We hypothesize that Holocene ecological shifts and megafaunal extinctions severely impacted wild Cucurbita, whereas their domestic counterparts adapted to changing conditions via symbiosis with human cultivators. First, we used high-throughput sequencing to analyze complete plastid genomes of 91 total Cucurbita samples, comprising ancient (n = 19), modern wild (n = 30), and modern domestic (n = 42) taxa. This analysis demonstrates independent domestication in eastern North America, evidence of a previously unknown pathway to domestication in northeastern Mexico, and broad archaeological distributions of taxa currently unknown in the wild. Further, sequence similarity between distant wild populations suggests recent fragmentation. Collectively, these results point to wild-type declines coinciding with widespread domestication. Second, we hypothesize that the disappearance of large herbivores struck a critical ecological blow against wild Cucurbita, and we take initial steps to consider this hypothesis through cross-mammal analyses of bitter taste receptor gene repertoires. Directly, megafauna consumed Cucurbita fruits and dispersed their seeds; wild Cucurbita were likely left without mutualistic dispersal partners in the Holocene because they are unpalatable to smaller surviving mammals with more bitter taste receptor genes. Indirectly, megafauna maintained mosaic-like landscapes ideal for Cucurbita, and vegetative changes following the megafaunal extinctions likely crowded out their disturbed-ground niche. Thus, anthropogenic landscapes provided favorable growth habitats and willing dispersal partners in the wake of ecological upheaval. PMID:26630007

  2. Gourds and squashes (Cucurbita spp.) adapted to megafaunal extinction and ecological anachronism through domestication

    PubMed Central

    Kistler, Logan; Newsom, Lee A.; Ryan, Timothy M.; Smith, Bruce D.; Perry, George H.

    2015-01-01

    The genus Cucurbita (squashes, pumpkins, gourds) contains numerous domesticated lineages with ancient New World origins. It was broadly distributed in the past but has declined to the point that several of the crops’ progenitor species are scarce or unknown in the wild. We hypothesize that Holocene ecological shifts and megafaunal extinctions severely impacted wild Cucurbita, whereas their domestic counterparts adapted to changing conditions via symbiosis with human cultivators. First, we used high-throughput sequencing to analyze complete plastid genomes of 91 total Cucurbita samples, comprising ancient (n = 19), modern wild (n = 30), and modern domestic (n = 42) taxa. This analysis demonstrates independent domestication in eastern North America, evidence of a previously unknown pathway to domestication in northeastern Mexico, and broad archaeological distributions of taxa currently unknown in the wild. Further, sequence similarity between distant wild populations suggests recent fragmentation. Collectively, these results point to wild-type declines coinciding with widespread domestication. Second, we hypothesize that the disappearance of large herbivores struck a critical ecological blow against wild Cucurbita, and we take initial steps to consider this hypothesis through cross-mammal analyses of bitter taste receptor gene repertoires. Directly, megafauna consumed Cucurbita fruits and dispersed their seeds; wild Cucurbita were likely left without mutualistic dispersal partners in the Holocene because they are unpalatable to smaller surviving mammals with more bitter taste receptor genes. Indirectly, megafauna maintained mosaic-like landscapes ideal for Cucurbita, and vegetative changes following the megafaunal extinctions likely crowded out their disturbed-ground niche. Thus, anthropogenic landscapes provided favorable growth habitats and willing dispersal partners in the wake of ecological upheaval. PMID:26630007

  3. Developmental Biology of Zeugodacus cucurbitae (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Three Cucurbitaceous Hosts at Different Temperature Regimes.

    PubMed

    Mkiga, A M; Mwatawala, M W

    2015-01-01

    Fruit flies are key pests of cucurbits in many parts of the world, including Tanzania. Developmental biology of Zeugodacus cucurbitae (Coquillett) has been determined across temperature regimes in some cucurbitaceous hosts, in limited geographies. This study was conducted to determine duration and survival rates of immature stages of Z. cucurbitae in three cucurbitaceous hosts, at different temperature regimes. It was hypothesized that temperature and cucurbitaceous hosts influence duration and survival of immature stages of Z. cucurbitae. We conducted experiments in the environmental chamber set at 75 ± 10% RH and a photoperiod of 12:12 (L:D) h, at temperatures of 20, 25, and 30°. Our results showed that duration and survival of immature stages of Z. cucurbitae differed significantly among the temperature regimes but not among the hosts. Egg incubation period as well as larval and pupal stages were significantly longer (P < 0.0001) at low temperature in all three hosts Likewise, survival rate of all immature stages were significantly higher (P < 0.0001) at higher than lower temperatures. The three hosts, cucumber (Cucumis sativus), watermelon (Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. and Nakai), and pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo) did not significantly affect duration or survival rates of immature stages of Z. cucurbitae. The low developmental thresholds were estimated at 15.88, 13.44, and 12.62 for egg, larva and pupa, respectively. These results further confirm that Z. cucurbitae is well adapted to warm climate, which dominates many areas of Tanzania. PMID:26589874

  4. Developmental Biology of Zeugodacus cucurbitae (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Three Cucurbitaceous Hosts at Different Temperature Regimes

    PubMed Central

    Mkiga, A. M.; Mwatawala, M. W

    2015-01-01

    Fruit flies are key pests of cucurbits in many parts of the world, including Tanzania. Developmental biology of Zeugodacus cucurbitae (Coquillett) has been determined across temperature regimes in some cucurbitaceous hosts, in limited geographies. This study was conducted to determine duration and survival rates of immature stages of Z. cucurbitae in three cucurbitaceous hosts, at different temperature regimes. It was hypothesized that temperature and cucurbitaceous hosts influence duration and survival of immature stages of Z. cucurbitae. We conducted experiments in the environmental chamber set at 75 ± 10% RH and a photoperiod of 12:12 (L:D) h, at temperatures of 20, 25, and 30°. Our results showed that duration and survival of immature stages of Z. cucurbitae differed significantly among the temperature regimes but not among the hosts. Egg incubation period as well as larval and pupal stages were significantly longer (P < 0.0001) at low temperature in all three hosts Likewise, survival rate of all immature stages were significantly higher (P < 0.0001) at higher than lower temperatures. The three hosts, cucumber (Cucumis sativus), watermelon (Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. and Nakai), and pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo) did not significantly affect duration or survival rates of immature stages of Z. cucurbitae. The low developmental thresholds were estimated at 15.88, 13.44, and 12.62 for egg, larva and pupa, respectively. These results further confirm that Z. cucurbitae is well adapted to warm climate, which dominates many areas of Tanzania. PMID:26589874

  5. [Allelopathic effects of cultured Cucurbita moschata root exudates].

    PubMed

    Li, Min; Ma, Yongqin; Shui, Junfeng

    2005-04-01

    By using the techniques of tissue culture, bio-assay and laboratory analysis, this paper studied the effects of the allelopathic chemicals from pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata) roots on the seed germination and seedling growth of pumpkin, wheat (Triticum aestivum), and radish (Raphanus sativus). The pumpkin root was cultured on a sterile B5 media, and the concentrations of macro- and microelements, organic supplements and hormones in the media were adjusted by using an orthogonal design. After culturing, the culture media was filtered and used in a bioassay to test the autotoxicity and allelopathic effects. The results showed that the pumpkin had both autotoxic and allelopathic effects, and the media having been used to culture the pumpkin roots contained the chemicals that significantly inhibited the seedling growth of wheat and radish. The allelopathic effect decreased when the culture media was diluted. The production of allelochemicals seemed to be related to the growth rate of the pumpkin roots. When the root growth was rapid, the concentration of allelochemicals was high. The allelopathic effect was stronger on radish than on wheat. The optimum concentrations of macro- and microelements, vitamins and hormones for culturing pumpkin root were determined, and the effect of pumpkin root nutrition on the production of allelochemicals was tested. The results indicated that pumpkin root nutrition had a significant effect on the production of allelochemicals. PMID:16011180

  6. Assessment of Sauromatum guttatum lectin toxicity against Bactrocera cucurbitae.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Manpreet; Thakur, Kshema; Kamboj, Sukhdev Singh; Kaur, Satwinder; Kaur, Amritpal; Singh, Jatinder

    2015-11-01

    Lectins are proteins that bind specifically to foreign glycans. Due to this binding property, these molecules have potential application as bioinsecticidal tools replacing conventional chemical insecticides. The present study involved purification of phytolectin from the tubers of Sauromatum guttatum by affinity chromatography on asialofetuin-linked silica matrix. The purity of the sample was checked by SDS-PAGE at pH 8.3. Purified lectin was incorporated in the artificial diet of a Dipteran model, Bactrocera cucurbitae at different concentrations (10, 20, 40, 60 and 80 µgml(-1)). The lectin significantly affected various developmental parameters that were studied. Percentage pupation and percentage emergence was reduced to 44 % and 7.9%, respectively, at 80 µgml(-1) concentration as compared to control (100%). LC50 of Sauromatum guttatum lectin was calculated to be 19.42 µgml(-1). Treatment of insect larvae with LC50 of Sauromatum guttatum lectin suppressed the activity of hydrolytic enzymes (esterases and acid phosphatases) and oxidative enzymes (superoxide dismutase and glutathione-S-transferase). Thus, with low LC50 and high mortality (approximately 92% at 80 µgml(-1)) of the insect larvae, Sauromatum guttatum lectin offers a possibility to engineer crop plants for improved and safer agriculture. PMID:26688959

  7. Effects of Dietary Fiber Extracted from Pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima Duch.) on the Physico-Chemical and Sensory Characteristics of Reduced-Fat Frankfurters

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Cheon-Jei; Kim, Hyun-Wook; Hwang, Ko-Eun; Song, Dong-Heon; Ham, Youn-Kyung; Choi, Ji-Hun

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the effects of reducing fat levels from 30% to 25, 20, and 15% by substituting pork fat with water and pumpkin fiber (2%) on the quality of frankfurters compared with control. Decreasing the fat concentration from 30% to 15% significantly increased moisture content, redness of meat batter and frankfurter, cooking loss, and water exudation, and decreased fat content, energy value, pH, and lightness of meat batter and frankfurter, hardness, cohesiveness, gumminess, chewiness, and apparent viscosity. The addition of 2% pumpkin fiber was significantly increased moisture content, yellowness of meat batter and frankfurter, hardness, cohesiveness, gumminess, chewiness, and apparent viscosity, whereas reduced cooking loss and emulsion stability. The treatment of reduced-fat frankfurters formulated with 20 and 25% fat levels and with pumpkin fiber had sensory properties similar to the high-fat control frankfurters. The results demonstrate that when the reduced-fat frankfurter with 2% added pumpkin fiber and water replaces fat levels can be readily made with high quality and acceptable sensory properties. PMID:27433101

  8. Effects of Dietary Fiber Extracted from Pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima Duch.) on the Physico-Chemical and Sensory Characteristics of Reduced-Fat Frankfurters.

    PubMed

    Kim, Cheon-Jei; Kim, Hyun-Wook; Hwang, Ko-Eun; Song, Dong-Heon; Ham, Youn-Kyung; Choi, Ji-Hun; Kim, Young-Boong; Choi, Yun-Sang

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the effects of reducing fat levels from 30% to 25, 20, and 15% by substituting pork fat with water and pumpkin fiber (2%) on the quality of frankfurters compared with control. Decreasing the fat concentration from 30% to 15% significantly increased moisture content, redness of meat batter and frankfurter, cooking loss, and water exudation, and decreased fat content, energy value, pH, and lightness of meat batter and frankfurter, hardness, cohesiveness, gumminess, chewiness, and apparent viscosity. The addition of 2% pumpkin fiber was significantly increased moisture content, yellowness of meat batter and frankfurter, hardness, cohesiveness, gumminess, chewiness, and apparent viscosity, whereas reduced cooking loss and emulsion stability. The treatment of reduced-fat frankfurters formulated with 20 and 25% fat levels and with pumpkin fiber had sensory properties similar to the high-fat control frankfurters. The results demonstrate that when the reduced-fat frankfurter with 2% added pumpkin fiber and water replaces fat levels can be readily made with high quality and acceptable sensory properties. PMID:27433101

  9. The cosmic microwave background after MAXIMA and BOOMERANG

    SciTech Connect

    Richards, Paul L.

    2000-12-01

    The first release of data from the MAXIMA and BOOMERANG experiments has introduced a new era of precision cosmology. The two data sets are essentially independent, consistent and complementary. In a joint effort by the two teams, the two data sets were combined and then used to test cosmological models and determine values of cosmological constants. These results are available because of the success of bolometric detection techniques. The experimental approach is described with references to the MAXIMA-1 experiment. Important new cosmological experiments at far infrared and millimeter wavelengths require major improvements in bolometric techniques. A new technology, the voltage-biased superconducting bolometer, promises to provide the required experimental power.

  10. Scilab and Maxima Environment: Towards Free Software in Numerical Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mora, Angel; Galan, Jose Luis; Aguilera, Gabriel; Fernandez, Alvaro; Merida, Enrique; Rodriguez, Pedro

    2010-01-01

    In this work we will present the ScilabUMA environment we have developed as an alternative to Matlab. This environment connects Scilab (for numerical analysis) and Maxima (for symbolic computations). Furthermore, the developed interface is, in our opinion at least, as powerful as the interface of Matlab. (Contains 3 figures.)

  11. Anticancer and antiinflammatory activities of cucurbitacins from Cucurbita andreana.

    PubMed

    Jayaprakasam, Bolleddula; Seeram, Navindra P; Nair, Muraleedharan G

    2003-01-10

    Bioassay-guided purification of an extract of Cucurbita andreana fruits yielded cucurbitacins B (1), D (2), E (3), and I (4). These cucurbitacins were evaluated for their inhibitory effects on the growth of human colon (HCT-116), breast (MCF-7), lung (NCI-H460), and central nervous system (CNS) (SF-268) cancer cell lines, cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) enzymes and on lipid peroxidation. Inhibitory activities of cucurbitacins B (1), D (2), E (3) and I (4), respectively, were for colon 81.5, 80.4, 77, and 65% at 0.4 microM, breast 87, 78, 66.5, and 12% at 0.4 microM, lung 96, 43, 37 and 2% at 0.1 microM and CNS 92, 25, 24 and 4% at 0.05 microM. Adriamycin (doxorubicin) was used as a positive control, which showed 64, 47, 45 and 71% inhibition of HCT-116 (colon), MCF-7 (breast), NCI-H460 (lung) and SF-268 (CNS) cell lines, respectively, at 0.3 x 10(-5) M. Compounds 1, 2, 3, and 4 inhibited the COX-2 enzyme by 32, 29, 35, and 27%, respectively, at 100 microg/ml. However these compounds did not inhibit the COX-1 enzyme at this concentration. Ibuprofen, naproxen and vioxx, commercial antiinflammatory drugs, were tested as controls for the inhibition of COX-1 and COX-2 enzymes at concentrations of 2.1, 2.5 and 1.67 microg/ml, respectively. Ibuprofen and naproxen exhibited 59 and 95% COX-1, and 53 and 79% COX-2 inhibitory activities, respectively. Vioxx showed specific COX-2 inhibition by 71%. Also, cucurbitacins 1 and 4 inhibited lipid peroxidation by 59 and 23%, respectively, at 100 microg/ml. PMID:12445672

  12. Methoprene application and diet protein supplementation to male melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae, modifies female remating behavior

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Methoprene (an analogue of juvenile hormone) application and feeding on a protein diet is known to enhance male melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae Coquillett (Diptera: Tephritidae), mating success. In the present study we investigated the effect of these treatments on male B. cucurbitae’s ability to i...

  13. Cucumber Volatile Blend Attractive to Female Melon Fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett), is a serious crop pest throughout the pacific, sub-continental and southeast Asia, causing damage to a variety of solanaceous and cucurbit related crops. Attractants for female melon flies are of particular interest as they could be used to reduce ...

  14. Laboratory evaluation of the chemosterilant lufenuron against Ceratitis capitata, Bactrocera dorsalis, B. cucurbitae, and B. latifrons.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Four species of tephritid fruit flies, Ceratitis capitata, Bactrocera dorsalis, B. cucurbitae, and B. latifrons were evaluated for toxic, developmental, and physiological responses to the chemosterilant lufenuorn incorporated in an agar adult diet and a liquid larval diet. No significant mortality o...

  15. Microsatellites for the genus Cucurbita and an SSR-based genetic linkage map of Cucurbita pepo L.

    PubMed Central

    Gong, L.; Stift, G.; Kofler, R.; Pachner, M.

    2008-01-01

    Until recently, only a few microsatellites have been available for Cucurbita, thus their development is highly desirable. The Austrian oil-pumpkin variety Gleisdorfer Ölkürbis (C. pepo subsp. pepo) and the C. moschata cultivar Soler (Puerto Rico) were used for SSR development. SSR-enriched partial genomic libraries were established and 2,400 clones were sequenced. Of these 1,058 (44%) contained an SSR at least four repeats long. Primers were designed for 532 SSRs; 500 primer pairs produced fragments of expected size. Of these, 405 (81%) amplified polymorphic fragments in a set of 12 genotypes: three C. moschata, one C. ecuadorensis, and eight C. pepo representing all eight cultivar groups. On an average, C. pepo and C. moschata produced 3.3 alleles per primer pair, showing high inter-species transferability. There were 187 SSR markers detecting polymorphism between the USA oil-pumpkin variety “Lady Godiva” (O5) and the Italian crookneck variety “Bianco Friulano” (CN), which are the parents of our previous F2 mapping population. It has been used to construct the first published C. pepo map, containing mainly RAPD and AFLP markers. Now the updated map comprises 178 SSRs, 244 AFLPs, 230 RAPDs, five SCARs, and two morphological traits (h and B). It contains 20 linkage groups with a map density of 2.9 cM. The observed genome coverage (Co) is 86.8%. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00122-008-0750-2) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:18379753

  16. Biogas production from anaerobic digestion of Spirulina maxima algal biomass

    SciTech Connect

    Samson, R.; LeDuy, A.

    1982-08-01

    The semimicroscopic blue-green alga Spirulina maxima makes an ideal substrate for anaerobic digestion because it is easy to harvest, it can use carbon dioxide from the atmosphere as its carbon source, and its fermentability is higher than that of other small algae. Digestion experiments demonstrated that S. maxima can serve as the sole nutrient for biogas production and that municipal sewage sludge, when adapted to this new substrate, is very stable. During semicontinuous daily-fed trials under non-optimal conditions at an 0.06 lb volatile solids (VS)/ft/sup 3/ (0.97 kg VS/m/sup 3/) loading rate, 33-day retention time, and 86/sup 0/F (30/sup 0/C) digestion temperature, the daily methane yield was 4.2 CF/lb (0.26 m/sup 3//kg) VS added, which represents 47% of the maximum theoretical yield. Studies on optimizing the process are underway.

  17. Critical heat flux maxima during boiling crisis on textured surfaces.

    PubMed

    Dhillon, Navdeep Singh; Buongiorno, Jacopo; Varanasi, Kripa K

    2015-01-01

    Enhancing the critical heat flux (CHF) of industrial boilers by surface texturing can lead to substantial energy savings and global reduction in greenhouse gas emissions, but fundamentally this phenomenon is not well understood. Prior studies on boiling crisis indicate that CHF monotonically increases with increasing texture density. Here we report on the existence of maxima in CHF enhancement at intermediate texture density using measurements on parametrically designed plain and nano-textured micropillar surfaces. Using high-speed optical and infrared imaging, we study the dynamics of dry spot heating and rewetting phenomena and reveal that the dry spot heating timescale is of the same order as that of the gravity and liquid imbibition-induced dry spot rewetting timescale. Based on these insights, we develop a coupled thermal-hydraulic model that relates CHF enhancement to rewetting of a hot dry spot on the boiling surface, thereby revealing the mechanism governing the hitherto unknown CHF enhancement maxima. PMID:26346098

  18. Critical heat flux maxima during boiling crisis on textured surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Dhillon, Navdeep Singh; Buongiorno, Jacopo; Varanasi, Kripa K.

    2015-01-01

    Enhancing the critical heat flux (CHF) of industrial boilers by surface texturing can lead to substantial energy savings and global reduction in greenhouse gas emissions, but fundamentally this phenomenon is not well understood. Prior studies on boiling crisis indicate that CHF monotonically increases with increasing texture density. Here we report on the existence of maxima in CHF enhancement at intermediate texture density using measurements on parametrically designed plain and nano-textured micropillar surfaces. Using high-speed optical and infrared imaging, we study the dynamics of dry spot heating and rewetting phenomena and reveal that the dry spot heating timescale is of the same order as that of the gravity and liquid imbibition-induced dry spot rewetting timescale. Based on these insights, we develop a coupled thermal-hydraulic model that relates CHF enhancement to rewetting of a hot dry spot on the boiling surface, thereby revealing the mechanism governing the hitherto unknown CHF enhancement maxima. PMID:26346098

  19. Critical heat flux maxima during boiling crisis on textured surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhillon, Navdeep Singh; Buongiorno, Jacopo; Varanasi, Kripa K.

    2015-09-01

    Enhancing the critical heat flux (CHF) of industrial boilers by surface texturing can lead to substantial energy savings and global reduction in greenhouse gas emissions, but fundamentally this phenomenon is not well understood. Prior studies on boiling crisis indicate that CHF monotonically increases with increasing texture density. Here we report on the existence of maxima in CHF enhancement at intermediate texture density using measurements on parametrically designed plain and nano-textured micropillar surfaces. Using high-speed optical and infrared imaging, we study the dynamics of dry spot heating and rewetting phenomena and reveal that the dry spot heating timescale is of the same order as that of the gravity and liquid imbibition-induced dry spot rewetting timescale. Based on these insights, we develop a coupled thermal-hydraulic model that relates CHF enhancement to rewetting of a hot dry spot on the boiling surface, thereby revealing the mechanism governing the hitherto unknown CHF enhancement maxima.

  20. Differential sensitivity theory applied to movement of maxima responses. [LMFBR

    SciTech Connect

    Maudlin, P.J.; Parks, C.V.; Cacuci, D.G.

    1981-01-01

    Differential sensitivity theory (DST) is a recently developed methodology to evaluate response derivatives dR/d..cap alpha.. by using adjoint functions which correspond to the differentiated (with respect to an arbitrary parameter ..cap alpha..) linear or nonlinear physical system of equations. However, for many problems, where responses of importance are local maxima such as peak temperature, power, or heat flux, changes in the phase space location of the peak itself are of interest. This summary will present the DST procedure for predicting phase space shifts of maxima responses as applied to the MELT-III fast reactor safety code. An FFTF protected transient involving a $.23/s ramp reactivity insertion with scram on high power was selected for investigation.

  1. Temperature maxima in stable two-dimensional shock waves

    SciTech Connect

    Kum, O.; Hoover, W.G.; Hoover, C.G.

    1997-07-01

    We use molecular dynamics to study the structure of moderately strong shock waves in dense two-dimensional fluids, using Lucy{close_quote}s pair potential. The stationary profiles show relatively broad temperature maxima, for both the longitudinal and the average kinetic temperatures, just as does Mott-Smith{close_quote}s model for strong shock waves in dilute three-dimensional gases. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  2. Influence of modified atmosphere packaging on radiation tolerance in the phytosanitary pest melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Diptera Tephritidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) producing a low oxygen environment to increase produce shelf life may increase the radiation tolerance of insect pests receiving phytosanitary irradiation treatment on traded agricultural commodities. Melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Diptera: Tephritidae) is an i...

  3. Biogas production from anaerobic digestion of Spirulina maxima algal biomass

    SciTech Connect

    Samson, R.; LeDuy, A.

    1982-08-01

    The photosynthetic spectrum of solar energy could be exploited for the production of chemical energy of methane through the combined algal-bacterial process. In this process, the algae are mass produced from light and from carbon in the first step. The algal biomass is then used as a nutrient for feeding the anaerobic digester, in the second step, for the production of methane by anaerobic bacteria. The carbon source for the production of algal biomass could be either organic carbon from wastewaters (for eucaryotic algae), or carbon dioxide from the atmosphere or from the combustion exhaust gases (for both prokaryotic and eukaryotic algae). The technical feasibility data on the anaerobic digestion of algal biomass have been reported for many species of algae including macroscopic algae and microscopic algae. Research being conducted in the authors' laboratory consists of using the semimicroscopic blue-green alga Spirulina maxima as the sole substrate for this combined algal-bacterial process. This species of alga is very attractive for the process because of its capability of using the atmospheric carbon dioxide as carbon source and its simple harvesting methods. Furthermore, it appeared that the fermentability of S. maxima is significantly higher than other microscopic algae. This communication presents the results on the anaerobic inoculum development by the adaptation technique. This inoculum was then used for the semicontinuous anaerobic digestion of S. maxima algal biomass. The evolutions of biogas production and composition, biogas yield, total volatile fatty acids, alkalinity, ammonia nitrogen, pH, and electrode potential were followed.

  4. Cucurbita spp. and Cucumis sativus enhance the dissipation of polychlorinated biphenyl congeners by stimulating soil microbial community development.

    PubMed

    Qin, Hua; Brookes, Philip C; Xu, Jianming

    2014-01-01

    A number of Cucurbita species have the potential to extract polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from soil, but their impact on the soil microbial communities responsible for PCB degradation remains unclear. A greenhouse experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of three Cucurbita and one Cucumis species on PCB dissipation and soil microbial community structure. Compared to the unplanted control, enhanced losses of PCBs (19.5%-42.7%) were observed in all planted soils. Cucurbita pepo and Cucurbita moschata treatments were more efficient in PCB dissipation, and have similar patterns of soil phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) and PCB congener profiles. Cucurbita treatments tend to have higher soil microbial biomass than Cucumis. Gram-negative (G(-)) bacteria were significantly correlated with PCB degradation rates (R(2) = 0.719, p < 0.001), while fungi and G(-) bacteria were correlated with dissipation of the penta homologue group (R(2) = 0.590, p < 0.01). Therefore, Cucurbita related soil microorganisms could play an important role in remediation of PCB contaminated soils. PMID:24077568

  5. Transcriptome characterization and high throughput SSRs and SNPs discovery in Cucurbita pepo (Cucurbitaceae)

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Cucurbita pepo belongs to the Cucurbitaceae family. The "Zucchini" types rank among the highest-valued vegetables worldwide, and other C. pepo and related Cucurbita spp., are food staples and rich sources of fat and vitamins. A broad range of genomic tools are today available for other cucurbits that have become models for the study of different metabolic processes. However, these tools are still lacking in the Cucurbita genus, thus limiting gene discovery and the process of breeding. Results We report the generation of a total of 512,751 C. pepo EST sequences, using 454 GS FLX Titanium technology. ESTs were obtained from normalized cDNA libraries (root, leaves, and flower tissue) prepared using two varieties with contrasting phenotypes for plant, flowering and fruit traits, representing the two C. pepo subspecies: subsp. pepo cv. Zucchini and subsp. ovifera cv Scallop. De novo assembling was performed to generate a collection of 49,610 Cucurbita unigenes (average length of 626 bp) that represent the first transcriptome of the species. Over 60% of the unigenes were functionally annotated and assigned to one or more Gene Ontology terms. The distributions of Cucurbita unigenes followed similar tendencies than that reported for Arabidopsis or melon, suggesting that the dataset may represent the whole Cucurbita transcriptome. About 34% unigenes were detected to have known orthologs of Arabidopsis or melon, including genes potentially involved in disease resistance, flowering and fruit quality. Furthermore, a set of 1,882 unigenes with SSR motifs and 9,043 high confidence SNPs between Zucchini and Scallop were identified, of which 3,538 SNPs met criteria for use with high throughput genotyping platforms, and 144 could be detected as CAPS. A set of markers were validated, being 80% of them polymorphic in a set of variable C. pepo and C. moschata accessions. Conclusion We present the first broad survey of gene sequences and allelic variation in C. pepo, where

  6. High-throughput SNP genotyping in Cucurbita pepo for map construction and quantitative trait loci mapping

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Cucurbita pepo is a member of the Cucurbitaceae family, the second- most important horticultural family in terms of economic importance after Solanaceae. The "summer squash" types, including Zucchini and Scallop, rank among the highest-valued vegetables worldwide. There are few genomic tools available for this species. The first Cucurbita transcriptome, along with a large collection of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNP), was recently generated using massive sequencing. A set of 384 SNP was selected to generate an Illumina GoldenGate assay in order to construct the first SNP-based genetic map of Cucurbita and map quantitative trait loci (QTL). Results We herein present the construction of the first SNP-based genetic map of Cucurbita pepo using a population derived from the cross of two varieties with contrasting phenotypes, representing the main cultivar groups of the species' two subspecies: Zucchini (subsp. pepo) × Scallop (subsp. ovifera). The mapping population was genotyped with 384 SNP, a set of selected EST-SNP identified in silico after massive sequencing of the transcriptomes of both parents, using the Illumina GoldenGate platform. The global success rate of the assay was higher than 85%. In total, 304 SNP were mapped, along with 11 SSR from a previous map, giving a map density of 5.56 cM/marker. This map was used to infer syntenic relationships between C. pepo and cucumber and to successfully map QTL that control plant, flowering and fruit traits that are of benefit to squash breeding. The QTL effects were validated in backcross populations. Conclusion Our results show that massive sequencing in different genotypes is an excellent tool for SNP discovery, and that the Illumina GoldenGate platform can be successfully applied to constructing genetic maps and performing QTL analysis in Cucurbita. This is the first SNP-based genetic map in the Cucurbita genus and is an invaluable new tool for biological research, especially considering that most

  7. Biogas production from anaerobic digestion of Spirulina maxima algal biomass

    SciTech Connect

    Rejean Samson; Anh LeDuy

    1982-08-01

    Spirulina maxima algal biomass could be used as the sole nutrient for the production of biogas by anaerobic digestion process. It is relatively simple to adapt the municipal sewage sludge to this new substrate. The adapted sludge is very stable. Under nonoptimal conditions, the methane yield and productivity obtained were 0.26 m/sup 3//(kg VS added day) and 0.26 m/sup 3//(kg VS added day), respectively, with the semicontinuous, daily fed, anaerobic digestion having loading rate of 0.97 kg VS/(m/sup 3/ day), retention time of 33 days and temperature of 30/sup 0/C.

  8. Iron ions increase the thermostability of phycocyanin of Spirulina maxima

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jian-Hong; Tai, Zi-Hou; Tseng, Chao-Tsi

    1998-03-01

    A spectral method to investigate the effect of Fe3+, Fe2+ on the thermostability of phycocyanin (PC) of Spirulina maxima showed that iron ions provent decrease of visible light absorbance and fluorescence intensity of PC. Increase in denaturation temperature caused by Fe3+ was observed by the micro-differential scanning calorimetric method. All results showed iron ions maintain the aggregation stability of the PC. The absorption spectrum of phycocyanobilin (PCB, a prosthetic group of PC) with Fe3+ in chloroform was quite different from that of free PCB.

  9. Two daily smoke maxima in eighteenth century London air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, R. Giles

    Varied electrostatics experiments followed Benjamin Franklin's pioneering atmospheric investigations. In Knightsbridge, Central London, John Read (1726-1814) installed a sensing rod in the upper part of his house and, using a pith ball electrometer and Franklin chimes, monitored atmospheric electricity from 1789 to 1791. Atmospheric electricity is sensitive to weather and smoke pollution. In calm weather conditions, Read observed two daily electrification maxima in moderate weather, around 9 am and 7 pm. This is likely to represent a double diurnal cycle in urban smoke. Before the motor car and steam railways, one source of the double maximum smoke pattern was the daily routine of fire lighting for domestic heating.

  10. Medical image fusion by wavelet transform modulus maxima

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guihong, Qu; Dali, Zhang; Pingfan, Yan

    2001-08-01

    Medical image fusion has been used to derive useful information from multimodality medical image data. In this research, we propose a novel method for multimodality medical image fusion. Using wavelet transform, we achieved a fusion scheme. Afusion rule is proposed and used for calculating the wavelet transformation modulus maxima of input images at different bandwidths and levels. To evaluate the fusion result, a metric based on mutual information (MI) is presented for measuring fusion effect. The performances of other two methods of image fusion based on wavelet transform are briefly described for comparison. The experiment results demonstrate the effectiveness of the fusion scheme.

  11. Evolution of diabroticite rootworm beetle (Chrysomelidae) receptors for Cucurbita blossom volatiles.

    PubMed

    Metcalf, R L; Lampman, R L

    1991-03-01

    The diabroticite rootworm beetles coevolved with plants of the family Cucurbitaceae as demonstrated by their feeding dependence on the tetracyclic triterpenoid cucurbitacins. These beetles also exhibit strong attraction to phenylpropanoid volatile components of Cucurbita blossoms. A mixture of 1,2,4-trimethoxybenzene, indole, and (E)-cinnamaldehyde, all blossom components, is highly attractive to the several species of diabroticite cucumber beetles and corn rootworms and is considered a simplified Cucurbita blossom kairomone odor. The evolutionary divergence in antennal receptor complementarity is best understood by comparing the species-specific responses of several Diabrotica to structural analogues of (E)-cinnamaldehyde, the major attractant for Diabrotica undecimpunctata howardi. Cinnamyl alcohol is a strong attractant for Diabrotica barberi, and 4-methoxycinnamaldehyde is an exceptional attractant for Diabrotica virgifera. The very closely related species D. barberi and Diabrotica cristata are most strongly attracted to 4-methoxyphenethanol, which is unattractive to the other species studied. PMID:11607158

  12. Evolution of diabroticite rootworm beetle (Chrysomelidae) receptors for Cucurbita blossom volatiles.

    PubMed Central

    Metcalf, R L; Lampman, R L

    1991-01-01

    The diabroticite rootworm beetles coevolved with plants of the family Cucurbitaceae as demonstrated by their feeding dependence on the tetracyclic triterpenoid cucurbitacins. These beetles also exhibit strong attraction to phenylpropanoid volatile components of Cucurbita blossoms. A mixture of 1,2,4-trimethoxybenzene, indole, and (E)-cinnamaldehyde, all blossom components, is highly attractive to the several species of diabroticite cucumber beetles and corn rootworms and is considered a simplified Cucurbita blossom kairomone odor. The evolutionary divergence in antennal receptor complementarity is best understood by comparing the species-specific responses of several Diabrotica to structural analogues of (E)-cinnamaldehyde, the major attractant for Diabrotica undecimpunctata howardi. Cinnamyl alcohol is a strong attractant for Diabrotica barberi, and 4-methoxycinnamaldehyde is an exceptional attractant for Diabrotica virgifera. The very closely related species D. barberi and Diabrotica cristata are most strongly attracted to 4-methoxyphenethanol, which is unattractive to the other species studied. PMID:11607158

  13. A new cucurbitacin profile forCucurbita andreana: A candidate for cucurbitacin tissue culture.

    PubMed

    Halaweish, F T; Tallamy, D W

    1993-06-01

    In addition to previously reported cucurbitacins B,1, and D,2, cucurbitacin E,3, and I,4, aglycones and their glucosides 2-O-β-glucopyranosyl-cucurbitacin E,5, and 2-O-β-glucopyranosyl-cucurbitacin I,6, were isolated and identified as constituents ofCucurbita andreana on the basis of MS, FD-MS, 1 H NMR and(13)C NMR spectroscopy. Also, 2-O-β-glucopy-ranosyl-cucurbitacin B, 7, cucurbitacin B glucoside was isolated and identified. PMID:24249132

  14. Purification of Colocasia esculenta lectin and determination of its anti-insect potential towards Bactrocera cucurbitae.

    PubMed

    Thakur, Kshema; Kaur, Manpreet; Kaur, Satwinder; Kaur, Amritpal; Kamboj, Sukhdev Singh; Singh, Jatinder

    2013-01-01

    The present study reports the purification of a lectin from Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott corms and evaluation of its anti-insect potential towards Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquilett). The lectin was found to be specific towards N-acetyl-D-lactosamine (LacNac), a disaccharide and asialofetuin, a desialylated serum glycoprotein in hemagglutination inhibition assay. Asialofetuin was used as a ligand to purify Colocasia esculenta agglutinin (CEA) by affinity chromatography. The purity of CEA was ascertained by the presence of a single band in reducing SDS-PAGE at pH 8.3. The affinity purified CEA was employed in artificial diet bioassay of second instar larvae (64-72 hr old) of the B. cucurbitae at concentrations ranging between 10-160 microg ml(-1). The lectin significantly (p < 0.01) decreased the percent pupation and emergence with respect to control. Effect on various enzymes was studied by employing LC50 (51.6 microg ml(-1)) CEA in the artificial diet bioassay of second instar larvae. All the enzymes tested namely esterases, phosphatases (acid and alkaline), superoxide dismutases, catalase and glutathione-S-transferase showed a significant (p < 0.01, p < 0.05) increase in their enzyme and specific activities. These results showed that CEA affected normal growth and development and presented stress to the larvae, activating their detoxification and anti-oxidant systems. Thus, the lectin seems to be a useful candidate for the control measures of B. cucurbitae under the integrated pest management (IPM) system. PMID:24006804

  15. Population Susceptibility to Insecticides and the Development of Resistance in Bactrocera cucurbitae (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Jin, Tao; Lin, Yu-Ying; Jin, Qi-An; Wen, Hai-Bo; Peng, Zheng-Qiang

    2016-04-01

    Excessive insecticide applications are commonly used to manage Bactrocera cucurbitae Coquillett in China. Resistance status, resistance development trends, and patterns of cross-resistance to insecticides in B. cucurbitae were investigated. Among 21 populations from Hainan Island, two populations expressed high resistance to beta-cypermethrin; seven, eight, and ten populations expressed intermediate resistance to spinosad, avermectin, and beta-cypermethrin, respectively; four, six, one, five, and four populations expressed low resistance to spinosad, avermectin, trichlorfon, beta-cypermethrin, and fipronil, respectively; and the remaining populations exhibited either minor resistance or remained susceptible. Analysis of the development of resistance showed that resistance levels to spinosad and avermectin were readily developed at 40.68- and 18.42-fold, respectively, and a spinosad-resistant strain also showed relative positive cross-resistance to beta-cypermethrin and avermectin, but relative negative cross-resistance to trichlorfon and fipronil. These data represent the most extensive survey of insecticide resistance conducted in B. cucurbitae to date, and the level of insecticide resistance in populations should be considered when designing control measures and pest management strategies. PMID:26668351

  16. Clustering of extreme events created by multiple correlated maxima

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azevedo, Davide; Freitas, Ana Cristina Moreira; Freitas, Jorge Milhazes; Rodrigues, Fagner B.

    2016-02-01

    We consider stochastic processes arising from dynamical systems by evaluating an observable function along the orbits of the system. The novelty is that we will consider observables achieving a global maximum value (possible infinite) at multiple points with special emphasis for the case where these maximal points are correlated or bound by belonging to the same orbit of a certain chosen point. These multiple correlated maxima can be seen as a new mechanism creating clustering of extreme observations, i.e., the occurrence of several extreme observations concentrated in the time frame. We recall that clustering was intimately connected with periodicity when the maximum was achieved at a single point. We will study this mechanism for creating clustering and will address the existence of limiting Extreme Value Laws, the repercussions on the value of the Extremal Index, the impact on the limit of Rare Events Points Processes, the influence on clustering patterns and the competition of domains of attraction. We also consider briefly and for comparison purposes multiple uncorrelated maxima. The systems considered include expanding maps of the interval such as Rychlik maps but also maps with an indifferent fixed point such as Manneville-Pomeau maps.

  17. Can Spirulina maxima reduce the mutagenic potential of sibutramine?

    PubMed

    Araldi, R P; Santos, N P; Mendes, T B; Carvalho, L B; Ito, E T; de-Sá-Júnior, P L; Souza, E B

    2015-01-01

    The worldwide obesity pandemic requires the use of anti-obesity drugs. Sibutramine is an anti-obesity drug that has been used worldwide but is indiscriminately consumed in Brazil. Several studies have demonstrated that sibutramine promotes weight loss and weight maintenance, but several side effects have been associated with its systematic consumption. For this reason, sibutramine was withdrawn from the European and American markets, but still remains legal for use in Brazil. Studies have shown that a 5-10% reduction in body weight results in outstanding health benefits for obese patients. However, in order to promote significant weight loss, it is necessary to use sibutramine for at least 2 years. This long-term exposure has carcinogenic potential, as sibutramine causes DNA damage. Thus, this study evaluated the in vivo mutagenic potential of sibutramine alone (5, 7, 10, 15, and 20 mg/kg) and in association with Spirulina maxima (150 and 300 mg/kg), a cyanobacterium with antioxidant potential, using the polychromatic erythrocyte micronucleus test. Our results reinforced the mutagenic potential of sibutramine alone, which showed a time-dependent action. Combinatory treatments with S. maxima were not able to reduce the genotoxicity of sibutramine. These results were confirmed in vitro with the cytokinesis-blocked micronucleus test. In conclusion, our data showed that new alternative anti-obesity treatments are needed since the consumption of sibutramine can increase the risk of cancer in overweight patients. PMID:26782493

  18. Visiting bees of cucurbita flowers (cucurbitaceae) with emphasis on the presence of peponapis fervens smith (eucerini - apidae) - Santa Catarina, Southern Brazil.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cucurbita flowers are monoecious, the male and female requiring a pollinator to transfer pollen. Bees were systematically collected as they visited flowers of three cultivated Cucurbita species grown at seven separate localities of Santa Catarina state in southern Brazil. Additionally, pantraps we...

  19. Theoretical study on the absorption maxima of real GFPs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuura, Azuma; Hayashi, Tomohiko; Sato, Hiroyuki; Takahashi, Atsuya; Sakurai, Minoru

    2010-01-01

    The excited-state calculations for the real green fluorescent protein (GFP) and its mutants, including the wild-type GFP, Y66F, blue fluorescent protein, and cyan fluorescent protein, were carried out at the INDO/S-CIS//ONIOM (B3LYP/6-31G∗∗:AMBER) level. The numbers of singly excited configuration state functions at INDO/S-CIS were over 20 million. The calculated absorption maxima were in good agreement with the experimental data with a computational error of ⩽15 nm. For the wild-type GFP, INDO/S-CIS yielded a bathochromic shift of 38 nm with respect to its model chromophore in vacuo, which was also in good agreement with the extrapolated experimental shift of 45 nm.

  20. Acylphenols and dimeric acylphenols from Myristica maxima Warb.

    PubMed

    Othman, Muhamad Aqmal; Sivasothy, Yasodha; Looi, Chung Yeng; Ablat, Abdulwali; Mohamad, Jamaludin; Litaudon, Marc; Awang, Khalijah

    2016-06-01

    Giganteone E (1), a new dimeric acylphenol was isolated as a minor constituent from the bark of Myristica maxima Warb. The structure of 1 was established on the basis of 1D and 2D NMR techniques and LCMS-IT-TOF analysis. Malabaricones A-C (2-4), giganteones A and C (5 and 6), maingayones A and B (7 and 8), maingayic acid B (9) and β-sitosteryl oleate (10) were also characterized in this plant for the first time. Compound 10 was identified for the first time in the Myristicaceae. Compounds 2 and 5 were active against human prostate cancer cell-lines, thus making this the first report on the prostate cancer inhibiting potential of acylphenols and dimeric acylphenols. Compounds 1, 4, 5, 7 and 8 exhibited potent DPPH free radical scavenging activity. This is the first report on their free radical scavenging capacity. PMID:27072985

  1. Maxima of two random walks: universal statistics of lead changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben-Naim, E.; Krapivsky, P. L.; Randon-Furling, J.

    2016-05-01

    We investigate statistics of lead changes of the maxima of two discrete-time random walks in one dimension. We show that the average number of lead changes grows as {π }-1{ln}t in the long-time limit. We present theoretical and numerical evidence that this asymptotic behavior is universal. Specifically, this behavior is independent of the jump distribution: the same asymptotic underlies standard Brownian motion and symmetric Lévy flights. We also show that the probability to have at most n lead changes behaves as {t}-1/4{({ln}t)}n for Brownian motion and as {t}-β (μ ){({ln}t)}n for symmetric Lévy flights with index μ. The decay exponent β \\equiv β (μ ) varies continuously with the Lévy index when 0\\lt μ \\lt 2, and remains constant β =1/4 for μ \\gt 2.

  2. Two new ent-kaurane-type diterpene glycosides from zucchini (Cucurbita pepo L.) seeds.

    PubMed

    Kikuchi, Takashi; Ando, Hiromi; Maekawa, Ken-Ichiro; Arie, Hiroki; Yamada, Takeshi; Tanaka, Reiko

    2015-12-01

    Two new ent-kaurane diterpene glycosides; 12α-(β-d-glucopyranosyloxy)-7β-hydroxykaurenolide (1) and 7β-(β-d-glucopyranosyloxy)-12α-hydroxykaurenolide (2), a new steroid; (24S)-stigmasta-7,22E,25-trien-3-one (12), and known compounds (3-11, 13-14) were isolated from zucchini (Cucurbita pepo L.) seeds. The absolute structures of 1 and 2 were determined by acid hydrolysis and application of a modified Moscher's method. Furthermore, isolated compounds (1-14), and a derivative, 1a, were evaluated for their inhibitory effects on macrophage activation by an inhibitory assay of nitric oxide (NO) production. PMID:26420344

  3. Cucurbitacins fromCucurbita texana: Evidence for the role of isocucurbitacins.

    PubMed

    Halaweish, F T

    1993-01-01

    In addition to cucurbitacins E andI, cucurbitacins D,1, 3-epi-isocucurbitacin D,2, and B,3, were isolated from the fruits ofCucurbita texana and structurally identified by UV, IR,(1)H NMR,(13)C NMR, and MS, and 2-O-Β-glucopyranosylcucurbitacin I was identified. These compounds have not been reported previously as constituents of this species. The isolation of 3-epi-isocucurbitacin D2 together with normal cucurbitacins suggests that isocucurbitacins occur naturally. Evidence is also discussed that isocucurbitacins are biosynthesized one step ahead of normal cucurbitacin. PMID:24248508

  4. Cultivation of Spirulina maxima in medium supplemented with sugarcane vinasse.

    PubMed

    dos Santos, Raquel Rezende; Araújo, Ofélia de Queiroz Fernandes; de Medeiros, José Luiz; Chaloub, Ricardo Moreira

    2016-03-01

    The feasibility of sugarcane vinasse as supplement in growth medium of Spirulina maxima was investigated. The cell was cultivated under autotrophic (no vinasse, 70 μmol photons m(-2) s(-1)), heterotrophic (no light, culture medium supplemented with vinasse at 0.1% v/v and 1.0% v/v) and mixotrophic conditions (70 μmol photons m(-2) s(-1), vinasse at 0.1% v/v and 1.0% v/v). These preliminary results suggested a cyclic two-stage cultivation - CTSC, with autotrophic condition during light phase of the photoperiod (12 h, 70-200 μmol photons m(-2) s(-1)) and heterotrophic condition during dark phase (12h, 3.0% v/v vinasse). The adopted CTSC strategy consisted in three cycles with 75% withdrawal of suspension and reposition of medium containing 3.0% v/v vinasse, separated by autotrophic rest periods of few days between cycles. Results show an increase of biomass concentration between 0.495 g L(-1) and 0.609 g L(-1) at the 7th day of each cycle and high protein content (between 74.3% and 77.3% w/w). PMID:26773377

  5. The complete mitochondrial genome of Acanthastrea maxima (Cnidaria, Scleractinia, Lobophylliidae).

    PubMed

    Arrigoni, Roberto; Vacherie, Benoît; Benzoni, Francesca; Barbe, Valérie

    2016-01-01

    The complete nucleotide sequence of the mitochondrial genome of the scleractinian coral Acanthastrea maxima has been obtained, representing the first sequenced mitogenome of a member of the Lobophylliidae. The mitochondrial genome is 18,278  bp in length, the longest sequence among the robust corals sequenced mitogenome to date. The overall GC composition (33.7%) and the gene arrangement are similar to those of the other scleractinian corals, including 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNA genes (rnl and rns) and 2 tRNA genes (tRNA-Met and tRNA-Trp). All genes except tRNA-Trp, atp8, cox1, tRNA-Met and rnl are engulfed by a large group I intron in the nad5 gene. A second group I intron of 1077 bp in length is inserted in the cox1 gene and it encodes a putative homing endonuclease. There are four regions of gene overlaps totalling 22 bp and nine intergenic spacer regions for a total of 2220 bp, of which the cox3-cox2 region may correspond to the putative control region. PMID:24938099

  6. Maxima of two random walks: Universal statistics of lead changes

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Ben-Naim, E.; Krapivsky, P. L.; Randon-Furling, J.

    2016-04-18

    In this study, we investigate statistics of lead changes of the maxima of two discrete-time random walks in one dimension. We show that the average number of lead changes grows asmore » $${\\pi }^{-1}\\mathrm{ln}t$$ in the long-time limit. We present theoretical and numerical evidence that this asymptotic behavior is universal. Specifically, this behavior is independent of the jump distribution: the same asymptotic underlies standard Brownian motion and symmetric Lévy flights. We also show that the probability to have at most n lead changes behaves as $${t}^{-1/4}{(\\mathrm{ln}t)}^{n}$$ for Brownian motion and as $${t}^{-\\beta (\\mu )}{(\\mathrm{ln}t)}^{n}$$ for symmetric Lévy flights with index μ. The decay exponent $$\\beta \\equiv \\beta (\\mu )$$ varies continuously with the Lévy index when $$0\\lt \\mu \\lt 2$$, and remains constant $$\\beta =1/4$$ for $$\\mu \\gt 2$$.« less

  7. EIMERIA PRAECOX INFECTION AMELIORATES EFFECTS OF E. MAXIMA INFECTION IN CHICKENS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effect of Eimeria praecox on concurrent E. maxima infection was studied in susceptible chickens. Cinical signs of coccidiosis were assessed in single infections with E. praecox or E. maxima and dual infection with both Eimeria species. Compared to uninfected controls, groups infected with 104 E...

  8. Critical thermal maxima of two geographic strains of channel and hybrid catfish

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Critical thermal maxima have been used extensively to provide physiologically and ecologically valuable reference points that identify early signs of thermal stress. In catfish pond culture, daily temperature maxima up to 36'C and daily fluctuations of as much as 6'Care observed. These extreme condi...

  9. Development and Field Release of a Genetic Sexing Strain of the Melon Fly, Bactrocera Cucurbitae in Hawaii

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The first practical genetic sexing strain for the melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae, developed in Hawaii was mass-reared and released as sterile males into wild fly populations. Significant improvements in the field quality of sterile males were made with the pupal color strain in which males can be ...

  10. Novel Pseudomonas syringae strains associated with leaf spot diseases on watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) and squash (Cucurbita pepo) in California

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In 2006 and 2011, bacteria, fluorescent on KMB, were isolated from leaf spots of greenhouse-grown watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) and field-grown squash (Cucurbita pepo) in coastal California. Biochemical characterization of the isolates indicated that they belonged to Pseudomonas syringae. Multilocu...

  11. Attraction of wild-like and colony-reared Bactrocera cucurbitae (Diptera:Tephritidae) to Cuelure in the field

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The attraction of wild tephritids to semiochemical-based lures are the ideal basis for trap network design in detection programs, but in practice, mass-reared colony insects are usually used to determine trap efficiency. For Bactrocera cucurbitae Coquillett, a lower response by wild males compared w...

  12. Seed oil content and fatty acid composition in a genebank collection of Cucurbita moschata Duchesne and C. argyrosperma C. Huber

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Data on intraspecific variability for seed oil content, fatty acid composition and seed oil characteristics in Cucurbita moschata and C. argyrosperma are lacking in the scientific literature. We examined 528 genebank accessions of C. moschata and 166 accessions of C. argyrosperma - that included mem...

  13. FIELD CAPTURES OF WILD MELON FLY, BACTROCERA CUCURBITAE (COQUILLETT) WITH AN IMPROVED MALE ATTRACTANT RASPBERRY KETONE FORMATE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Further field - trapping evaluations of the new male attractant, raspberry ketone formate(formic acid 4-(3-oxobutyl)phenyl ester), were conducted with wild populations of melon flies, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett), to determine its activity in the field and to evaluate new plastic matrix formul...

  14. Assessment of Attractiveness of Plants as Roosting Sites for the Melon Fly, Bactrocera Cucurbitae, and Oriental Fruit Fly, Bactrocera Dorsalis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The use of toxic protein bait sprays to suppress melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett), populations typically involves application to vegetation bordering agricultural host areas where the adults seek shelter (“roost”). Although bait spray applications for suppression of oriental fruit fly,...

  15. STATE-DEPENDENT ATTRACTIVENESS OF PROTEIN BAIT AND HOST FRUIT ODOR TO BACTROCERA CUCURBITAE (DIPTERA: TEPHRITIDAE) FEMALES.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We evaluated responses of protein-deprived and protein-fed mature (26-30 days old) female melon flies, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett), to odor of host fruit and of proteinaceous baits using 1 x 1 x 1 m cages containing non-host plants. Protein-deprived and protein-fed females were equally attra...

  16. Reconstructing a comprehensive transcriptome assembly of a white-pupal translocated strain of the pest fruit fly Bactrocera cucurbitae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Bactrocera cucurbitae is an important agricultural pest. Basic genomic information is lacking for this species and this would be useful to inform methods of control, damage mitigation, and eradication efforts. Here, we have sequenced, assembled, and annotated a comprehensive transcriptom...

  17. Assessment of attractiveness of cassava as a roosting plant for melon fly, bactrocera cucurbitae, and oriental fruit fly, B. dorsalis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Application of bait spray to crop borders is a standard approach for suppression of melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett), populations, and may also be of value for suppression of oriental fruit fly, B. dorsalis (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae), populations. Establishment of preferred roostin...

  18. Pollination value of male bees: the specialist bee Peponapis pruinosa (Apidae) at summer squash (Cucurbita pepo).

    PubMed

    Cane, James H; Sampson, Blair J; Miller, Stephanie A

    2011-06-01

    Male bees can be abundant at flowers, particularly floral hosts of those bee species whose females are taxonomic pollen specialists (oligolecty). Contributions of male bees to host pollination are rarely studied directly despite their prevalence in a number of pollination guilds, including those of some crop plants. In this study, males of the oligolectic bee, Peponapis pruinosa Say, were shown to be effective pollinators of summer squash, Cucurbita pepo L. Seven sequential visits from male P. pruinosa maximized squash fruit set and growth. This number of male visits accumulated during the first hour of their foraging and mate searching at flowers soon after sunrise. Pollination efficacy of male P. pruinosa and their abundances at squash flowers were sufficient to account for most summer squash production at our study sites, and by extrapolation, to two-thirds of all 87 North American farms and market gardens growing squashes that were surveyed for pollinators by collaborators in the Squash Pollinators of the Americas Survey. We posit that the substantial pollination value of male Peponapis bees is a consequence of their species' oligolecty, their mate seeking strategy, and some extreme traits of Cucurbita flowers (massive rewards, flower size, phenology). PMID:22251639

  19. The regulation of gelation of Phloem exudate from cucurbita fruit by dilution, glutathione, and glutathione reductase.

    PubMed

    Alosi, M C; Melroy, D L; Park, R B

    1988-04-01

    The average glutathione equivalent concentration in phloem exudate collected from squash fruit (Cucurbita moschata [Duchesne] Poir. var Butternut) and pumpkin fruit (Cucurbita pepo [L.] var Jack-o-lattern) was 1.02 and 0.60 millimolar, respectively. Glutathione reductase (EC 1.6.4.2) activity in phloem exudate from squash and pumpkin fruit averaged 0.48 and 1.74 micromole NADPH oxidized per minute per milliliter, respectively. Protein concentrations in fruit phloem exudates averaged 67 milligrams per milliliter for squash and 57 milligrams per milliliter for pumpkin. The phloem-specific P-proteins account for most of the protein content of exudate. Pure exudate from fruit does not gel for hours or days, but when diluted with neutral or alkaline aqueous solutions, exudate gels rapidly. Exudate solutions undergo biphasic pH changes with dilution. We suggest that P-protein undergoes conformational change upon dilution, exposing titratable groups and sulfhydryl residues. Oxidation of the latter forms the intermolecular disulfide bridges of the gel. The gelation of diluted exudate is regulated by factors (oxygen, pH, glutathione, NADPH) which affect the maintenance of reduced sulfhydryl residues and the activity of glutathione reductase. While these factors may also act in vivo to regulate redox conditions in phloem, their relationship to hypothetical sol/gel transitions or motile and nonmotile phases in the transport conduit is unknown. PMID:16666036

  20. Variability of vitamin E content in pumpkin seeds (Cucurbita pepo L.).

    PubMed

    Murkovic, M; Hillebrand, A; Winkler, J; Pfannhauser, W

    1996-04-01

    Pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L.) seed oil is a common salad oil which is produced in the southern parts of Austria, Slovenia and Hungary. It is dark green and has a high content of free fatty acids. Due to its colour, the oil cannot be used for cooking. The content of vitamin E, especially gamma-tocopherol, is very high. The oil content of the pumpkin seed is about 50%. The seed itself can be eaten. Therefore a pumpkin variety with high vitamin E content is desirable. The aim of this work was to find a variety of Cucurbita pepo which has a high oil yield and a high vitamin E content. A total of 100 breeding lines were tested for their tocopherol content. The tocopherols and tocotrienols are extracted with hexane and analysed by NP-HPLC/FLD with hexane/dioxan (96/4) as eluent, with fluorescence detection at 292/335 nm. The gamma-tocopherol content, which is about 5-10 times as much as that of alpha-tocopherol varies over a broad range (41-620 mg/kg dry pumpkin seeds). Beta- and delta-tocopherol are found at low levels. PMID:8638429

  1. Detailed study of anaerobic digestion of Spirulina maxima algae biomass

    SciTech Connect

    Samson, R.; LeDuy, A.

    1986-07-01

    Biomass of the blue-green alga Spirulina maxima was converted to methane using continuous stirred tank digesters with an energy conversion efficiency of 59%. Digesters were operated using once-a-day feeding with a retention time (theta) between 5 and 40 days, volatile solid concentrations (Sto) between 20 and 100 kg VS/cubic m, and temperatures between 15 and 52/sup 0/C. The results indicated a maximum methane yield of 0.35 cubic m (STP)/kg VS added at theta = 30 days and Sto = 20 kg VS/cubic m. Under such conditions, the energy conversion of the algal biomass to methane was 59%. The maximum methane production rate of 0.80 cubic m (STP)/cubic m day was obtained with theta = 20 days and Sto = 100 kg VS/cubic m. The mesophilic condition at 35/sup 0/C produced the maximum methane yield and production rate. The process was stable and characterized by a high production of volatile acids (up to 23,200 mg/l), alkalinity (up to 20,000 mg/l), and ammonia (up to 7000 mg/l), and the high protein content of the biomass produced a well-buffered environment which reduced inhibitory effects. At higher loading rates, the inhibition of methanogenic bacteria was observed, but there was no clear-cut evidence that such a phenomenon was due to nonionized volatile acids or gaseous ammonia. The kinetic analysis using the model proposed by Chen and Hashimoto indicated that the minimum retention time was seven days. The optimum retention time increased gradually from 11 to 16 days with an increase in the initial volatile solid concentration. The kinetic constant K decreased with the improvement in the digester performance and increased in parallel with the ammonia concentration in the culture media. 32 references.

  2. Suppression of phytopathogenic fungi by hexane extract of Nepenthes ventricosa x maxima leaf.

    PubMed

    Shin, Kwang-Soo; Lee, Samkeun; Cha, Byeong Jin

    2007-12-01

    The hexane extract of Nepenthes ventricosa x maxima leaf exhibited antifungal activity against Alternaria alternata, Aspergillus niger, Bipolaris oryzae, Fusarium oxysporum, Phytophthora capsici, Rhizoctonia solani, Rhizopus stolonifer var. stolonifer and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. PMID:17573203

  3. Leaf development and phloem transport in Cucurbita pepo: Transition from import to export.

    PubMed

    Turgeon, R; Webb, J A

    1973-06-01

    The capacity of a growing leaf blade of Cucurbita pepo L. to import (14)C-labelled photoassimilate is lost in a basipetal direction. Import into the lamina tip stops when the blade is 10% expanded. Development of the leaf progresses linearly with time and the lamina base stops importing when the blade is 45% expanded. Export capacity also develops basipetally and follows immediately the loss of import capacity, at least in the lamina base. The small amount of material initially exported from the leaf tip is redistributed to the still-importing leaf base, delaying export from the lamina until the blade is 35% expanded. Loss of import capacity by the petiole is both basipetal and dorsoventral. The proximal, adaxial portion of the petiole is the last region to cease importing (14)C. Leaves of Beta vulgaris L. and Nicotiana tabacum L. also lose import capacity in a basipetal direction. PMID:24468909

  4. Environmental variation influences the magnitude of inbreeding depression in Cucurbita pepo ssp. texana (Cucurbitaceae).

    PubMed

    Hayes, C Nelson; Winsor, James A; Stephenson, Andrew G

    2005-01-01

    We grew inbred and outcrossed Cucurbita pepo ssp. texana plants and measured inbreeding depression for several male and female fitness traits 4 years in a row in adjacent fields at the same field station under the same cultivation conditions. We found that the magnitude of inbreeding depression varied from 0.16 to 0.53 from year to year and that those traits which were most affected tended to vary with year. We also grew inbred and outcrossed C. pepo ssp. texana plants in two adjacent fields differing only in the presence of nitrogen fertilizer to examine the effect of nutrient limitation as a form of environmental stress on the magnitude of inbreeding depression. We found that inbreeding depression was more severe in the unfertilized field. Overall, this study illustrates the notion that any estimate of inbreeding depression represents a single point in a cluster of possible estimates that can vary (often dramatically) with growing conditions. PMID:15669971

  5. Degradation of disperse dye from textile effluent by free and immobilized Cucurbita pepo peroxidase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boucherit, N.; Abouseoud, M.; Adour, L.

    2012-06-01

    Disperse dyes constitute the largest group of dyes used in local textile industry. This work evaluates the potential of the Cucurbita peroxidase(C-peroxidase) extracted from courgette in the decolourization of disperse dye in free and immobilized form. The optimal conditions for immobilization of C-peroxidase in Ca-alginate were identified. The immobilization was optimized at 2%(w/v) of sodium alginate and 0.2 M of calcium chloride. After optimization of treatment parameters, the results indicate that at pH 2, dye concentration: 80 mg/L(for FCP) and 180 mg/L(for ICP), H2O2 dose: 0,02M (for FCP) and 0,12M(for ICP), the decolourization by free and immobilized C-peroxidase were 72.02% and 69.71 % respectively. The degradation pathway and the metabolic products formed after the degradation were also predicted using UV-vis spectroscopy analysis.

  6. Variability of fatty acid content in pumpkin seeds (Cucurbita pepo L.).

    PubMed

    Murkovic, M; Hillebrand, A; Winkler, J; Leitner, E; Pfannhauser, W

    1996-09-01

    Pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L.) seed oil is a common salad oil which is produced in Slovenia, Hungary and the southern parts of Austria. It is dark green and has a high content of free fatty acids. The seed itself can be eaten. Due to its colour and the foam formation, the oil cannot be used for cooking. The content of vitamin E, especially gamma-tocopherol, is very high. The oil content of the pumpkin seed is about 50%. The variability in the oil content is very high resulting from a broad genetic diversity. Thus a breeding programme for increasing the oil productivity is very promising. The four dominant fatty acids are palmitic, stearic, oleic and linoleic acids. These four fatty acids make up 98 +/- 0.13% of the total amount of fatty acids, others being found at levels well below 0.5%. PMID:8873459

  7. African Cucurbita pepo L.: properties of seed and variability in fatty acid composition of seed oil.

    PubMed

    Younis, Y M; Ghirmay, S; al-Shihry, S S

    2000-05-01

    Pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo) seeds are used locally in Eritrea to treat tapeworm. Seeds were found to be rich in oil (approximately 35%), protein (38%), alpha-tocoferols (3 mg/100 g) and carbohydrate content (approximately 37%). The physico-chemical properties and fatty acid composition of the seed oil were examined. The four dominant fatty acids found are: palmitic C16:0 (13.3%), stearic C18:0 (8.0%), oleic C18:1 (29.0%) and linoleic C18:2 (47.0%). The oil contains an appreciable amount of unsaturated fatty acids (78.0%) and found to be a rich source of linoleic acid (47.0%). Within the three localities of the study, variations exist in seed properties and the fatty acid composition of the oil. PMID:10846750

  8. Monitoring Resistance to Spinosad in the Melon Fly (Bactrocera cucurbitae) in Hawaii and Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Ju-Chun; Haymer, David S.; Chou, Ming-Yi; Feng, Hai-Tung; Chen, Hsaio-Han; Huang, Yu-Bing; Mau, Ronald F. L.

    2012-01-01

    Spinosad is a natural insecticide with desirable qualities, and it is widely used as an alternative to organophosphates for control of pests such as the melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett). To monitor the potential for development of resistance, information about the current levels of tolerance to spinosad in melon fly populations were established in this study. Spinosad tolerance bioassays were conducted using both topical applications and feeding methods on flies from field populations with extensive exposure to spinosad as well as from collections with little or no prior exposure. Increased levels of resistance were observed in flies from the field populations. Also, higher dosages were generally required to achieve specific levels of mortality using topical applications compared to the feeding method, but these levels were all lower than those used for many organophosphate-based food lures. Our information is important for maintaining effective programs for melon fly management using spinosad. PMID:22629193

  9. Eradication of the melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae, in Japan: importance of behavior, ecology, genetics, and evolution.

    PubMed

    Koyama, Juro; Kakinohana, Hiroyuki; Miyatake, Takahisa

    2004-01-01

    The melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae, is a destructive insect of cucurbit and other fruits. It invaded the Southwestern Islands of Japan from 1919 to 1974. The sterile insect technique (SIT) was successfully applied from 1972 to 1993 to eradicate the melon fly. Technical research into SIT functions, such as suppression of density, mass-rearing, sterilization, shipment, release, evaluation of efficacy, and quality control of mass-reared insects, was conducted for this eradication project. Fundamental research into the dispersion, mating and oviposition behavior, population dynamics and estimation of density, eradication models, spatial distribution, genetics, and evolution of the melon fly was also undertaken and supported the success of the eradication project. PMID:14651467

  10. In vitro effects of Cucurbita moschata seed extracts on Haemonchus contortus.

    PubMed

    Marie-Magdeleine, C; Hoste, H; Mahieu, M; Varo, H; Archimede, H

    2009-04-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the in vitro effect of Cucurbita moschata seed against the parasitic nematode of small ruminants Haemonchus contortus. Three extracts (aqueous, methanolic and dichloromethane) of C. moschata seed were tested in vitro on four developmental stages of H. contortus using egg hatch assay (EHA), larval development assay (LDA), L3 migration inhibition (LMI) assay and adult worm motility (AWM) assay. The highly significant (P<0.001) ability to stop larval development (inhibition>90% for each extract) and the negative effect of the dichloromethane and methanolic extracts on adult worm motility (inhibition of motility >59.2% after 24h of incubation) compared to the negative controls, suggest anthelmintic properties of C. moschata seed against H. contortus. The active principles responsible for the activity could be secondary metabolites such as amino acid compounds or terpenoid compounds present in the extracts. PMID:19135803

  11. Cloning and sequencing of the allophycocyanin genes from Spirulina maxima (Cyanophyta)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Song; Hiroyuki, Kojima; Yoshikazu, Kawata; Shin-Ichi, Yano; Zeng, Cheng-Kui

    1998-03-01

    The genes coding for the α-and β-subunit of allophycocyanin ( apcA and apcB) from the cyanophyte Spirulina maxima were cloned and sequenced. The results revealed 44.4% of nucleotide sequence similarity and 30.4% of similarity of deduced amino acid sequence between them. The amino acid sequence identities between S. maxima and S. platensis are 99.4% for α subunit and 100% for β subunit.

  12. Methoprene application and diet protein supplementation to male melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae, modifies female remating behavior

    PubMed Central

    ul Haq, Ihsan; Vreysen, Marc J B; Teal, P E A; Hendrichs, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    Methoprene (an analogue of juvenile hormone) application and feeding on a protein diet is known to enhance male melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae Coquillett (Diptera: Tephritidae), mating success. In this study, we investigated the effect of these treatments on male B. cucurbitae's ability to inhibit female remating. While 14-d-old females were fed on protein diet, 6-d-old males were exposed to one of the following treatments: (i) topical application of methoprene and fed on a protein diet; (ii) no methoprene but fed on a protein diet; (iii) methoprene and sugar-fed only; and (iv) sugar-fed, 14-d-old males acted as controls. Treatments had no effect on a male's ability to depress the female remating receptivity in comparison to the control. Females mated with protein-deprived males showed higher remating receptivity than females first mated with protein-fed males. Methoprene and protein diet interaction had a positive effect on male mating success during the first and second mating of females. Significantly more females first mated with sugar-fed males remated with protein-fed males and females first mated with methoprene treated and protein-fed males were more likely to remate with similarly treated males. Females mating latency (time to start mating) was significantly shorter with protein-fed males, and mating duration was significantly longer with protein-fed males compared with protein-deprived males. These results are discussed in the context of methoprene and/or dietary protein as prerelease treatment of sterile males in area-wide control of melon fly integrating the sterile insect technique (SIT). PMID:24376160

  13. Methoprene application and diet protein supplementation to male melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae, modifies female remating behavior.

    PubMed

    Ul Haq, Ihsan; Vreysen, Marc J B; Teal, P E A; Hendrichs, Jorge

    2014-10-01

    Methoprene (an analogue of juvenile hormone) application and feeding on a protein diet is known to enhance male melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae Coquillett (Diptera: Tephritidae), mating success. In this study, we investigated the effect of these treatments on male B. cucurbitae's ability to inhibit female remating. While 14-d-old females were fed on protein diet, 6-d-old males were exposed to one of the following treatments: (i) topical application of methoprene and fed on a protein diet; (ii) no methoprene but fed on a protein diet; (iii) methoprene and sugar-fed only; and (iv) sugar-fed, 14-d-old males acted as controls. Treatments had no effect on a male's ability to depress the female remating receptivity in comparison to the control. Females mated with protein-deprived males showed higher remating receptivity than females first mated with protein-fed males. Methoprene and protein diet interaction had a positive effect on male mating success during the first and second mating of females. Significantly more females first mated with sugar-fed males remated with protein-fed males and females first mated with methoprene treated and protein-fed males were more likely to remate with similarly treated males. Females mating latency (time to start mating) was significantly shorter with protein-fed males, and mating duration was significantly longer with protein-fed males compared with protein-deprived males. These results are discussed in the context of methoprene and/or dietary protein as prerelease treatment of sterile males in area-wide control of melon fly integrating the sterile insect technique (SIT). PMID:24376160

  14. Co-infection of chickens with Eimeria praecox and Eimeria maxima does not prevent development of immunity to Eimeria praecox or Eimeria maxima

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previous studies revealed an ameliorating effect of Eimeria praecox on concurrent E. maxima infection, such that weight gain, feed conversion efficiency, and intestinal lesions were nearly identical to uninfected or E. praecox-infected controls. The purpose of the present study was to determine if p...

  15. Draft Genome Sequence of Methylobacterium radiotolerans, a DDE-Degrading and Plant Growth-Promoting Strain Isolated from Cucurbita pepo

    PubMed Central

    Eevers, Nele; Van Hamme, Jonathan D.; Bottos, Eric M.; Weyens, Nele

    2015-01-01

    We announce the draft genome of Methylobacterium radiotolerans, a Gram-negative bacterium isolated from Cucurbita pepo roots. This strain shows 2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-1,1-dichloroethylene (DDE)-degrading potential and plant growth-promoting capacities. Analyses of its 6.8-Mb genome will improve our understanding of DDE-degradation pathways and aid in the deployment of phytoremediation technologies to remediate DDE-contaminated soils. PMID:25977414

  16. Sphingomonas taxi, Isolated from Cucurbita pepo, Proves to Be a DDE-Degrading and Plant Growth-Promoting Strain

    PubMed Central

    Eevers, Nele; Van Hamme, Jonathan D.; Bottos, Eric M.; Weyens, Nele

    2015-01-01

    The draft genome of Sphingomonas taxi, a strain of the Sphingomonadaceae isolated from Cucurbita pepo root tissue, is presented. This Gram-negative bacterium shows 2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-1,1-dichloroethylene (DDE)-degrading potential and plant growth-promoting capacities. An analysis of its 3.9-Mb draft genome will enhance the understanding of DDE-degradation pathways and phytoremediation applications for DDE-contaminated soils. PMID:25977415

  17. Draft Genome Sequence of Enterobacter aerogenes, a DDE-Degrading and Plant Growth-Promoting Strain Isolated from Cucurbita pepo

    PubMed Central

    Eevers, Nele; Van Hamme, Jonathan D.; Bottos, Eric M.; Weyens, Nele

    2015-01-01

    We report here the draft genome of Enterobacter aerogenes, a Gram-negative bacterium of the Enterobacteriaceae isolated from Cucurbita pepo root tissue. This bacterium shows 2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-1,1-dichloroethylene (DDE)-degrading potential and plant growth-promoting capacity. An analysis of its 4.5-Mb draft genome will enhance the understanding of DDE degradation pathways and phytoremediation applications for DDE-contaminated soils. PMID:25883299

  18. Sphingomonas taxi, Isolated from Cucurbita pepo, Proves to Be a DDE-Degrading and Plant Growth-Promoting Strain.

    PubMed

    Eevers, Nele; Van Hamme, Jonathan D; Bottos, Eric M; Weyens, Nele; Vangronsveld, Jaco

    2015-01-01

    The draft genome of Sphingomonas taxi, a strain of the Sphingomonadaceae isolated from Cucurbita pepo root tissue, is presented. This Gram-negative bacterium shows 2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-1,1-dichloroethylene (DDE)-degrading potential and plant growth-promoting capacities. An analysis of its 3.9-Mb draft genome will enhance the understanding of DDE-degradation pathways and phytoremediation applications for DDE-contaminated soils. PMID:25977415

  19. 7 CFR 301.32-2 - Regulated articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... utilissimus Melon, long Peach. Cucurbita maxima Squash Melon. Cucurbita moschata Pumpkin, Canada Melon. Cucurbita pepo Pumpkin Melon. Cydonia oblonga Quince Mexican, Mediterranean, Oriental, Peach, Sapote... flowered (Lagenaria siceraria) Melon, Chinese (Benincasa hispida) Melon, long (Cucumis utilissimus)...

  20. Accumulation of alkaline earth metals by the green macroalga Bryopsis maxima.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Shigekazu; Aizawa, Kyoko; Nakamura, Saki; Nakayama, Katsumi; Fujisaki, Shingo; Watanabe, Soichiro; Satoh, Hiroyuki

    2015-04-01

    Twenty-five days after the disaster at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant in 2011, we collected samples of the green macroalga Bryopsis maxima from the Pacific coast of Japan. Bryopsis maxima is a unicellular, multinuclear, siphonous green macroalga. Radiation analysis revealed that B. maxima emitted remarkably high gamma radiation of (131)I, (134)Cs, (137)Cs, and (140)Ba as fission products of (235)U. Interestingly, B. maxima contained naturally occurring radionuclides derived from (226)Ra and (228)Ra. Analysis of element content revealed that B. maxima accumulates many ocean elements, especially high quantities of the alkaline earth metals Sr (15.9 g per dry-kg) and Ba (3.79 g per dry-kg), whereas Ca content (12.5 g per dry-kg) was lower than that of Sr and only 61 % of the mean content of 70 Japanese seaweed species. Time-course analysis determined the rate of radioactive (85)Sr incorporation into thalli to be approximately 0.13 g Sr per dry-kg of thallus per day. Subcellular fractionation of B. maxima cells showed that most of the (85)Sr was localized in the soluble fraction, predominantly in the vacuole or cytosol. Given that (85)Sr radioactivity was permeable through a dialysis membrane, the (85)Sr was considered to be a form of inorganic ion and/or bound with a small molecule. Precipitation analysis with sodium sulfate showed that more than 70% of the Sr did not precipitate as SrSO4, indicating that a proportion of the Sr may bind with small molecules in B. maxima. PMID:25744028

  1. Alleviation of metabolic abnormalities induced by excessive fructose administration in Wistar rats by Spirulina maxima

    PubMed Central

    Jarouliya, Urmila; Anish, Zacharia J.; Kumar, Pravin; Bisen, P.S.; Prasad, G.B.K.S.

    2012-01-01

    Background & objectives: Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder characterized by hyperglycaemia. Several natural products have been isolated and identified to restore the complications of diabetes. Spirulina maxima is naturally occurring fresh water cyanobacterium, enriched with proteins and essential nutrients. The aim of the study was to determine whether S. maxima could serve as a therapeutic agent to correct metabolic abnormalities induced by excessive fructose administration in Wistar rats. Methods: Oral administration of 10 per cent fructose solution to Wistar rats (n=5 in each group) for 30 days resulted in hyperglycaemia and hyperlipidaemia. Aqueous suspension of S. maxima (5 or 10%) was also administered orally once daily for 30 days. The therapeutic potential of the preparation with reference to metformin (500 mg/kg) was assessed by monitoring various biochemical parameters at 10 day intervals during the course of therapy and at the end of 30 days S. maxima administration. Results: Significant (P<0.001) reductions in blood glucose, lipid profile (triglycerides, cholesterol and LDL, VLDL) and liver function markers (SGPT and SGOT) were recorded along with elevated level of HDL-C at the end of 30 days therapy of 5 or 10 per cent S. maxima aquous extract. Co-administration of S. maxima extract (5 or 10% aqueous) with 10 per cent fructose solution offered a significant protection against fructose induced metabolic abnormalities in Wistar rats. Interpretation & Conclusions: The present findings showed that S. maxima exhibited anti-hyperglycaemic, anti-hyperlipidaemic and hepatoprotective activity in rats fed with fructose. Further studies are needed to understand the mechanisms. PMID:22561632

  2. Chlorophyll maxima and water mass interfaces: Tidally induced dynamics in the Strait of Gibraltar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macías, D.; Lubián, L. M.; Echevarría, F.; Huertas, I. E.; García, C. M.

    2008-07-01

    A conceptual model proposing the distribution and dynamics of water masses and chlorophyll maxima according to tidal cycle is presented for the Strait of Gibraltar. The proposal is based on the analysis of data registered in a section along the strait at different stages of the tidal cycle. Basic water characteristics were established from CTD casts combined with bottle sampling. Composition and nature of the phytoplankton assemblage were studied by analysis of chlorophyll, pulse amplitude modulated fluorometry, flow cytometry and light microscopy analyses. The usual occurrence of deep chlorophyll maximum (DCM) linked to pycnoclines and/or water mass interfaces draws complicate patterns in the Gibraltar region, as three water masses (SAW, MOW and NACW) meet in the upper layers of the water column. The results indicate that the chlorophyll maxima found in the channel of the strait are not homogeneous and could be classified into at least three types: Atlantic maxima, linked to the SAW-NACW interface; suction maxima, present only in the SAW-MOW interface and deep maxima, associated with the transition NACW-MOW on the eastern side of the strait. These chlorophyll maxima are strongly associated with the different water mass interfaces and, even more, to a specific water density following the movement of these water mass interfaces, which is forced mainly by the tidal amplitude in this area. This study also adds new elements supporting the hypothesis that some of the pulsating chlorophyll patches observed in the strait could have a coastal origin, as their characteristics were clearly different from those of other chlorophyll maxima detected in the channel but originating in the open sea.

  3. Assessment of Navel Oranges, Clementine Tangerines, and Rutaceous Fruits as Hosts of Bactrocera cucurbitae and Bactrocera latifrons (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    McQuate, Grant T; Follett, Peter A; Liquido, Nicanor J; Sylva, Charmaine D

    2015-01-01

    Export of Citrus spp. fruits may require risk mitigation measures if grown in areas with established tephritid fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) populations capable of infesting the fruits. The host status of Citrus spp. fruits is unclear for two tephritid fruit fly species whose geographic ranges have expanded in recent years: melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Cocquillett), and Bactrocera latifrons (Hendel). In no choice cage infestation studies, B. latifrons oviposited into intact and punctured Washington navel oranges (Citrus sinensis [L.] Osbeck) and Clementine tangerines (C. reticulata L. var. Clementine), but eggs rarely developed to the adult stage. B. cucurbitae readily infested intact and punctured tangerines, and to a lesser extent punctured oranges, but did not infest intact oranges. Limited cage infestation and only a single literature report of field Citrus spp. infestation suggest that risk mitigation of Citrus spp. for B. latifrons is not needed. Risk mitigation options of Citrus spp. for B. cucurbitae, including heat and cold treatments and systems approaches, are discussed. PMID:26816484

  4. Competitive Interactions between Immature Stages of Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett) and Bactrocera tau (Walker) (Diptera: Tephritidae) under Laboratory Conditions.

    PubMed

    Shen, K; Hu, J; Wu, B; An, K; Zhang, J; Liu, J; Zhang, R

    2014-08-01

    The melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett), and the pumpkin fly, Bactrocera tau (Walker), are economically important pests that attack mainly cucurbitacean fruits. The two fruit fly species have similar natural distributions, host ranges, and population growth capacities. This study was designed to assess the asymmetrical competitions through resource exploitation between the larvae of B. cucurbitae and B. tau at different density levels and temperatures, and on different hosts by comparing the relative effects of interspecific and intraspecific interactions on four life history parameters: survival rate, puparial mass, puparial duration, and developmental duration. Our results showed that intraspecific and interspecific competitions occurred under some laboratory conditions, and B. cucurbitae took advantage over B. tau at the high-density level and at low and high temperatures on pumpkin, bitter gourd, and bottle gourd when interspecific competition took place. Intraspecific and interspecific competitions mainly affected the puparial mass and the survival rate of the two fruit fly species but had no marked effect on the puparial duration or development duration. PMID:27193811

  5. Assessment of Navel Oranges, Clementine Tangerines, and Rutaceous Fruits as Hosts of Bactrocera cucurbitae and Bactrocera latifrons (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    PubMed Central

    McQuate, Grant T.; Follett, Peter A.; Liquido, Nicanor J.; Sylva, Charmaine D.

    2015-01-01

    Export of Citrus spp. fruits may require risk mitigation measures if grown in areas with established tephritid fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) populations capable of infesting the fruits. The host status of Citrus spp. fruits is unclear for two tephritid fruit fly species whose geographic ranges have expanded in recent years: melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Cocquillett), and Bactrocera latifrons (Hendel). In no choice cage infestation studies, B. latifrons oviposited into intact and punctured Washington navel oranges (Citrus sinensis [L.] Osbeck) and Clementine tangerines (C. reticulata L. var. Clementine), but eggs rarely developed to the adult stage. B. cucurbitae readily infested intact and punctured tangerines, and to a lesser extent punctured oranges, but did not infest intact oranges. Limited cage infestation and only a single literature report of field Citrus spp. infestation suggest that risk mitigation of Citrus spp. for B. latifrons is not needed. Risk mitigation options of Citrus spp. for B. cucurbitae, including heat and cold treatments and systems approaches, are discussed. PMID:26816484

  6. Identification of the Shaft Orbit for Rotating Machines Using Wavelet Modulus Maxima

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    PENG, Z.; HE, Y.; CHEN, Z.; CHU, F.

    2002-07-01

    In this paper, a novel approach for the identification of the shaft centre orbits is proposed, which is based on wavelet modulus maxima. For this approach, continuous wavelet transform is utilised upon the Θ-S diagram of the shaft centre orbits, and then, maxima lines are extracted and Lipschitz exponents α of every maxima line are calculated by non-linear least-squares method. The number of maxima lines with positive α, the mean of the positive α, the number of maxima lines with negative α and the mean of the negative α are used as features of the shaft orbits. In succession, the four features are used as the inputs of the back-propagation network to classify the shaft orbits for the fault diagnosis for the rotating machines. The experimental data of four classes of faults (rub-impact, oil whirl, coupling misalignment and unbalance) are used to test the performance of the proposed method. The test result indicates that the proposed method is very effective with the advantages of fewer features used and faster training of the network, and can fulfil classification of the shaft centre orbit with satisfactory accuracy.

  7. Compositions of the volatile oils of Citrus macroptera and C. maxima.

    PubMed

    Rana, Virendra S; Blazquez, Maria A

    2012-10-01

    The essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation from the fresh peels of Citrus macroptera Montr. and C. maxima (Burm.) Merr. were analyzed by GC and GC/MS. The yields of oil ranged from 0.53% in C. macroptera to 0.13% in C. maxima cultivar (white). Forty-seven compounds were identified in the oils with limonene (55.3-80.0%), dodecyl acrylate (2.2-8.0%), geranial (0.4-3.5%), trans-linalool oxide (1.0-2.8%), alpha-terpineol (0.7-2.3%), linalool (0.7-1.5%) and cis-linalool oxide (0.5-1.4%) identified as major compounds. The oil ofC. macroptera contained limonene (55.3%), beta-caryophyllene (4.7%) and geranial (3.5%) as main compounds. Similarly, oils from two C. maxima (pink and white) cultivars were rich in limonene (72.0-80.0%), dodecyl acrylate (8.0-7.2%) and nootkatone (1.6-2.5%). C. maxima (pink and white) cultivars were found to contain higher amount of limonene (72.0 and 80.0%) as compared with C. macroptera (55.3%). The chemical compositions of the oils were found to be similar, but nootkatone (1.6-2.5%) was identified only in C. maxima cultivars. PMID:23157014

  8. Use of extracts from oyster shell and soil for cultivation of Spirulina maxima.

    PubMed

    Jung, Joo-Young; Kim, Sunmin; Lee, Hansol; Kim, Kyochan; Kim, Woong; Park, Min S; Kwon, Jong-Hee; Yang, Ji-Won

    2014-12-01

    Calcium ion and trace metals play important roles in various metabolisms of photosynthetic organisms. In this study, simple methods were developed to extract calcium ion and micronutrients from oyster shell and common soil, and the prepared extracts were tested as a replacement of the corresponding chemicals that are essential for growth of microalgae. The oyster shell and soil were treated with 0.1 M sodium hydroxide or with 10 % hydrogen peroxide, respectively. The potential application of these natural sources to cultivation was investigated with Spirulina maxima. When compared to standard Zarrouk medium, the Spirulina maxima cultivated in a modified Zarrouk media with elements from oyster shell and soil extract exhibited increases in biomass, chlorophyll, and phycocyanin by 17, 16, and 64 %, respectively. These results indicate that the extracts of oyster shell and soil provide sufficient amounts of calcium and trace metals for successful cultivation of Spirulina maxima. PMID:24871274

  9. Time spans between price maxima and price minima in stock markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Yongjie; Li, Honggang

    2014-02-01

    We empirically investigate the distribution of time spans between price maxima and price minima in international stock markets, where a time span is defined as the time interval between a local price minimum and a local price maximum, and local price extrema are identified by a method introduced by Preis and Stanley (Preis et al. (2011), Preis (2011), Preis and Stanley (2011, 2010), Preis (2010), Preis and Stanley (2010), Stanley et al. (2010), Preis and Stanley (2009)). The empirical results show that both the tail distributions of time spans from local price maxima to local price minima and the tail distributions of time spans from local price minima to local price maxima yield an exponential distribution. In addition, price rise/fall asymmetry is observed by comparing the values of the exponents of the distribution curves. These results are robust across eight representative stock markets.

  10. Evaluation of Antidepressant-like Effect of Citrus Maxima Leaves in Animal Models of Depression

    PubMed Central

    Potdar, Vikram H; Kibile, Swati J

    2011-01-01

    Objective(s) This study planned to assess antidepressant like activity of aqueous extract from leaves of Citrus maxima Merr. (Rutaceae). Materials and Methods Boiling was used for aqueous extraction. Acute toxicity study was performed in mice. Antidepressant activity was studied using locomotor activity test, modified forced swimming test (FST) and tail suspension test (TST). Three doses 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg of aqueous extract of leaves were selected for testing. Fluoxetine (20 mg/kg, i.p.) and imipramine (30 mg/kg, i.p.) were used as the standard drugs. Results Aqueous extract of Citrus maxima leaves significantly reduced immobility time in both TST and FST. In locomotor activity testing it showed psychostimulant effect. Extract increased the climbing behavior in FST, which is similar to effect observed with imipramine. Conclusion The results of this study suggest that antidepressant like effect of Citrus maxima seems to be mediated by an increase in norepinephrine level in synapses. PMID:23492865

  11. Effects of pollen selection on progeny vigor in a Cucurbita pepo x C. texana hybrid.

    PubMed

    Quesada, M; Winsor, J A; Stephenson, A G

    1996-05-01

    We examined the effects of pollen selection for rapid pollen-tube growth on progeny vigor. First, we crossed a wild gourd (Cucurbita texana) to a cultivated zucchini (Cucurbita pepo cv 'Black Beauty') to produce an F1 and then an F2 generation. Half of the F1 seeds were produced by depositing small loads of C. texana pollen onto the stigmas of C. pepo. These small pollen loads were insufficient to produce a full complement of seeds and, consequently, both the fast- and the slow-growing pollen tubes were permitted to achieve fertilization. An F2 generation was then produced by depositing small loads of F1 pollen onto stigmas of F1 plants. The F2 seeds resulting from two generations of small pollen loads are termed the non-selected line because there was little or no selection for pollen-tube growth rate on these plants. The other half of the F1 and F2 seeds were produced by depositing large pollen loads (>10 000 pollen grains) onto stigmas and then allowing only the first 1% or so of the pollen tubes that entered the ovary to fertilize the ovules. We did this by excising the styles at the ovary at 12-15 h after pollination. The resulting F2 seeds are termed 'the selected line' because they were produced by two generations of selection for only the fastest growing pollen tubes. Small pollen loads from the F2plants, both the selected and the non-selected lines, were then deposited onto stigmas of different C. pepo flowers, and the vigor of the resulting seeds was compared under greenhouse and field conditions. The results showed that the seeds fertilized by pollen from the selected line had greater vegetative vigor as seedlings and greater flower and fruit production as mature plants than the seeds fertilized by pollen from the non-selected line. This study demonstrates that selection for fast pollen-tube growth (selection on the microgametophyte) leads to a correlated increase in sporophyte (progeny) vigor. PMID:24166555

  12. Joint distributions of partial and global maxima of a Brownian bridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bénichou, Olivier; Krapivsky, P. L.; Mejía-Monasterio, Carlos; Oshanin, Gleb

    2016-08-01

    We analyze the joint distributions and temporal correlations between the partial maximum m and the global maximum M achieved by a Brownian bridge on the subinterval [0,{t}1] and on the entire interval [0,t], respectively. We determine three probability distribution functions: the joint distribution P(m,M) of both maxima; the distribution P(m) of the partial maximum; and the distribution {{\\Pi }}(G) of the gap between the maxima, G=M-m. We present exact results for the moments of these distributions and quantify the temporal correlations between m and M by calculating the Pearson correlation coefficient.

  13. Maxima of |Ψ|2: a connection between quantum mechanics and Lewis structures.

    PubMed

    Lüchow, Arne

    2014-04-30

    The maxima of squared electronic wave functions |Ψ|2 are analyzed for a number of small molecules. They are in principle observables and show considerable chemical insight from first principles. The maxima contain substantial information about the relative electron positions in a molecule, such as the pairing of opposite spin electrons and the Pauli repulsion which are lost in the electron density. Single bond and double bond as well as polar bond pairs and lone pairs are obtained from the maximum analysis. In many cases, we find a correspondence to the electron arrangements in molecules as assumed by Lewis in 1916. PMID:24532243

  14. Pressure maxima in the flow of superfluid [sup 4]He in tubes

    SciTech Connect

    Mills, G.L.; Mord, A.J.; Snyder, H.A. University of Colorado, Campus Box 429, Boulder, Colorado 80309 )

    1994-01-01

    Calculations based on the standard equations for the flow He II in tubes predict large pressure and moderate temperature maxima when the tube is long and narrow. This effect has not, to our knowledge, been previously observed. Experimental data are presented that confirm the existence of the pressure maxima in capillaries of diameter 0.3 [mu]m. The measured data are in good agreement with predictions. The data validate the model equations for flow in capillaries and porous media using the bulk value of the Gorter-Mellink parameter. This effect may impact interpretations of experimental searches for size effects.

  15. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Time of Maxima for the SX Phe star XX Cyg (Conidis+ 2011)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conidis, G. J.; Sadavoy, S. I.; Maxwell, A. J.; Delaney, P. A.; Manzer, L. H.

    2011-03-01

    Newly calculated O-C (observed minus calculated) values for the SX Phe star, XX Cyg, are combined with all times of maxima available in literature. The calculated values are generated from the newly presented linear ephemeris (equation 2). For each time of maxima, the source from which the maxima was acquired from, the time of maxima in HJD, the cycle number from our newly presented linear ephemeris, and the O-C value are presented in the order as just stated. (1 data file).

  16. A lectin from the exudate of the fruit of the vegetable marrow (Cucurbita pepo) that has a specificity for beta-1,4-linked N-acetylglucosamine oligosaccharides.

    PubMed Central

    Allen, A K

    1979-01-01

    Lectins are present in the exudate (presumably from the phloem) of the fruits of three species of the Cucurbitaceae, namely vegetable marrow (Cucurbita pepo), melon (Cucumis melo) and cucumber (Cucumis sativus). They are all strongly inhibited in their activities by chitin oligosaccharides, but only weakly by N-acetylglucosamine. Glycopeptides from soya-bean agglutinin and fetuin are also strong inhibitors of Cucurbita pepo lectin, indicating that it interacts with internal N-acetylglucosamine residues. The lectin from Cucurbita pepo fruit was purified by affinity chromatography by using chitin oligosaccharides covalently attached to Sepharose. The lectin is not a glycoprotein, and it consists of a single polypeptide chain of about 20,000 mol.wt. It is a major protein (18% of the total) of the phloem exudate and it is postulated that it may have an anti-parasitic function. PMID:534476

  17. Movement of soil-applied imidacloprid and thiamethoxam into nectar and pollen of squash (Cucurbita pepo).

    PubMed

    Stoner, Kimberly A; Eitzer, Brian D

    2012-01-01

    There has been recent interest in the threat to bees posed by the use of systemic insecticides. One concern is that systemic insecticides may translocate from the soil into pollen and nectar of plants, where they would be ingested by pollinators. This paper reports on the movement of two such systemic neonicotinoid insecticides, imidacloprid and thiamethoxam, into the pollen and nectar of flowers of squash (Cucurbita pepo cultivars "Multipik," "Sunray" and "Bush Delicata") when applied to soil by two methods: (1) sprayed into soil before seeding, or (2) applied through drip irrigation in a single treatment after transplant. All insecticide treatments were within labeled rates for these compounds. Pollen and nectar samples were analyzed using a standard extraction method widely used for pesticides (QuEChERS) and liquid chromatography mass spectrometric analysis. The concentrations found in nectar, 10 ± 3 ppb (mean ± s.d) for imidacloprid and 11 ± 6 ppb for thiamethoxam, are higher than concentrations of neonicotinoid insecticides in nectar of canola and sunflower grown from treated seed, and similar to those found in a recent study of neonicotinoids applied to pumpkins at transplant and through drip irrigation. The concentrations in pollen, 14 ± 8 ppb for imidacloprid and 12 ± 9 ppb for thiamethoxam, are higher than those found for seed treatments in most studies, but at the low end of the range found in the pumpkin study. Our concentrations fall into the range being investigated for sublethal effects on honey bees and bumble bees. PMID:22761727

  18. A comparison of male and female responses to inbreeding in Cucurbita pepo subsp. texana (Cucurbitaceae).

    PubMed

    Hayes, C Nelson; Winsor, James A; Stephenson, Andrew G

    2005-01-01

    Accurate estimates of inbreeding depression are necessary in order to predict the evolutionary dynamics of a population, but many studies estimate inbreeding depression based solely on components of female function such as fruit set, seed set, and seed quality. Because total fitness is achieved through both male and female functions in hermaphroditic plants, estimates of both male and female fitness are needed to estimate accurately the magnitude of inbreeding depression. Seedlings of a wild gourd, Cucurbita pepo subsp. texana, with coefficients of inbreeding of 0 and 0.75 were planted in an experimental garden, and several components of male and female fitness were measured over the course of the growing season. Fitness in inbred plants was confounded by both maternal and genetic inbreeding effects. Inbred individuals produced significantly fewer fruits than outcrossed individuals, and percentage germination of seeds from inbred individuals was significantly lower than seeds from outcrossed individuals. Inbred plants also produced significantly fewer staminate flowers and marginally fewer and smaller pollen grains per flower. Pollen from inbred plants also grew significantly more slowly in vitro than pollen from outcrossed plants. Multiplicative estimates of inbreeding depression revealed inbreeding depression for both male and female functions in wild gourd, but inbreeding depression through female function was stronger than inbreeding depression through male function. PMID:21652390

  19. Expression of Ascorbic Acid Oxidase in Zucchini Squash (Cucurbita pepo L.).

    PubMed

    Lin, L S; Varner, J E

    1991-05-01

    The expression of ascorbic acid oxidase was studied in zucchini squash (Cucurbita pepo L.), one of the most abundant natural sources of the enzyme. In the developing fruit, specific activity of ascorbic acid oxidase was highest between 4 and 6 days after anthesis. Protein and mRNA levels followed the same trend as enzyme activity. Highest growth rate of the fruit occurred before 6 days after anthesis. Within a given fruit, ascorbic acid oxidase activity and mRNA level were highest in the epidermis, and lowest in the central placental region. In leaf tissue, ascorbic acid oxidase activity was higher in young leaves, and very low in old leaves. Within a given leaf, enzyme activity was highest in the fast-growing region (approximately the lower third of the blade), and lowest in the slow-growing region (near leaf apex). High expression of ascorbic acid oxidase at a stage when rapid growth is occurring (in both fruits and leaves), and localization of the enzyme in the fruit epidermis, where cells are under greatest tension during rapid growth in girth, suggest that ascorbic acid oxidase might be involved in reorganization of the cell wall to allow for expansion. Based on the known chemistry of dehydroascorbic acid, the end product of the ascorbic acid oxidase-catalyzed reaction, we have proposed several hypotheses to explain how dehydroascorbic acid might cause cell wall "loosening." PMID:16668145

  20. Peptide hydrolase activities in seedlings and hormone-treated cotyledons of pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo).

    PubMed

    Weidhase, R A; Parthier, B

    1983-01-01

    Enzymes hydrolyzing Gly-Ala-, Met-Met- and Pro-4-phenylazo-phenylamides, and N-benzoyl-L-arginine-4-nitroanilide have been identified in germinating seeds and cotyledons of pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo). The enzyme activities per cotyledon increase markedly during the germination process, but the proportion of enhancement depends on the type of enzyme species. The increase in enzyme activities is due to de novo synthesis as shown by cycloheximide treatment and is influenced by phytohormones (cytokinins and abscissic acid). In isolated cotyledons exogenous cytokinin (benzyladenine) obviously can replace the effect of the embryo as the source of endogenous hormone. Abscissic acid counteracts the cytokinin effect. It is suggested that aminopeptidases have a biological function in reserve protein degradation of the cotyledons during seed germination. Our results do not support the assumption that the embryonic axis of the growing seedling serves as a "sink" of proteolytic products resulting in an activation of peptide hydrolases in the cotyledons, but rather de novo synthesis of these enzymes seems to be controlled by substances (phytohormones) originating from the embryo. PMID:6360167

  1. First TILLING Platform in Cucurbita pepo: A New Mutant Resource for Gene Function and Crop Improvement

    PubMed Central

    Vicente-Dólera, Nelly; Troadec, Christelle; Moya, Manuel; del Río-Celestino, Mercedes; Pomares-Viciana, Teresa; Bendahmane, Abdelhafid; Picó, Belén; Román, Belén; Gómez, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    Although the availability of genetic and genomic resources for Cucurbita pepo has increased significantly, functional genomic resources are still limited for this crop. In this direction, we have developed a high throughput reverse genetic tool: the first TILLING (Targeting Induced Local Lesions IN Genomes) resource for this species. Additionally, we have used this resource to demonstrate that the previous EMS mutant population we developed has the highest mutation density compared with other cucurbits mutant populations. The overall mutation density in this first C. pepo TILLING platform was estimated to be 1/133 Kb by screening five additional genes. In total, 58 mutations confirmed by sequencing were identified in the five targeted genes, thirteen of which were predicted to have an impact on the function of the protein. The genotype/phenotype correlation was studied in a peroxidase gene, revealing that the phenotype of seedling homozygous for one of the isolated mutant alleles was albino. These results indicate that the TILLING approach in this species was successful at providing new mutations and can address the major challenge of linking sequence information to biological function and also the identification of novel variation for crop breeding. PMID:25386735

  2. The use of biochar to reduce soil PCB bioavailability to Cucurbita pepo and Eisenia fetida.

    PubMed

    Denyes, Mackenzie J; Langlois, Valérie S; Rutter, Allison; Zeeb, Barbara A

    2012-10-15

    Biochar is a carbon rich by-product produced from the thermal decomposition of organic matter under low oxygen concentrations. Currently many researchers are studying the ability of biochar to improve soil quality and function in agricultural soils while sustainably sequestering carbon. This paper focuses on a novel but complimentary application of biochar - the reduced bioavailability and phytoavailability of organic contaminants in soil, specifically polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). In this greenhouse experiment, the addition of 2.8% (by weight) biochar to soil contaminated with 136 and 3.1 μg/g PCBs, reduced PCB root concentration in the known phytoextractor Cucurbita pepo ssp. pepo by 77% and 58%, respectively. At 11.1% biochar, even greater reductions of 89% and 83% were recorded, while shoot reductions of 22% and 54% were observed. PCB concentrations in Eisenia fetida tissue were reduced by 52% and 88% at 2.8% and 11.1% biochar, respectively. In addition, biochar amended to industrial PCB-contaminated soil increased both aboveground plant biomass, and worm survival rates. Thus, biochar has significant potential to serve as a mechanism to decrease the bioavailability of organic contaminants (e.g. PCBs) in soil, reducing the risk these chemicals pose to environmental and human health, and at the same time improve soil quality and decrease CO(2) emissions. PMID:22922132

  3. Carotenoid composition and vitamin A value of an Argentinian squash (Cucurbita moschata).

    PubMed

    González, E; Montenegro, M A; Nazareno, M A; López de Mishima, B A

    2001-12-01

    The carotenoid composition of butternut squash (Cucurbita moschata) cultivated in the province of Santiago del Estero, Argentina, was determined. The main carotenoids isolated were identified as beta-carotene (beta,beta-carotene), alpha-carotene (beta,epsilon-carotene), and lutein (beta,epsilon-carotene-3,3'-diol) and the minor carotenoids, as phytofluene (7,8,11,12,7',8'-hexahydro-psi,psi-carotene), zeta-carotene (7,8,7',8'-tetrahydro-psi,psi-carotene), neurosporene (7,8-dihydro-psi,psi-carotene), violaxanthin (5,6,5',6'- diepoxy-5,6,5',6'-tetrahydro-beta,beta-carotene-3,3'-diol) and neoxanthin (5,6-epoxy-6,7-didehydro-5,6,5',6'-tetrahydro-beta,beta- carotene-3,5,3'-triol). In some samples, 5,6,5',6'-beta-carotene diepoxide, (5,6,5',6'-diepoxy-5,6,5',6'-tetrahydro-beta,beta-carotene) and flavoxanthin (5,8-epoxy-5,8-dihydro-beta,epsilon-carotene-3,3'-diol) were detected. The presence of cis-isomers of beta,beta-carotene was also detected by HPLC. The vitamin A value obtained was 432 micrograms RE/100 g fresh sample, which indicates that this vegetable is an important source of provitamin A. PMID:12012567

  4. Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of carotenoids from pumpkin (Cucurbita spp.): a review.

    PubMed

    Durante, Miriana; Lenucci, Marcello Salvatore; Mita, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    Carotenoids are well known for their nutritional properties and health promoting effects representing attractive ingredients to develop innovative functional foods, nutraceutical and pharmaceutical preparations. Pumpkin (Cucurbita spp.) flesh has an intense yellow/orange color owing to the high level of carotenoids, mainly α-carotene, β-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, lutein and zeaxanthin. There is considerable interest in extracting carotenoids and other bioactives from pumpkin flesh. Extraction procedures able to preserve nutritional and pharmacological properties of carotenoids are essential. Conventional extraction methods, such as organic solvent extraction (CSE), have been used to extract carotenoids from plant material for a long time. In recent years, supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) extraction has received a great deal of attention because it is a green technology suitable for the extraction of lipophylic molecules and is able to give extracts of high quality and totally free from potentially toxic chemical solvents. Here, we review the results obtained so far on SC-CO2 extraction efficiency and quali-quantitative composition of carotenoids from pumpkin flesh. In particular, we consider the effects of (1) dehydration pre-treatments; (2) extraction parameters (temperature and pressure); the use of water, ethanol and olive oil singularly or in combination as entrainers or pumpkin seeds as co-matrix. PMID:24756094

  5. Leaf herbivory increases floral fragrance in male but not female Cucurbita pepo subsp. texana (Cucurbitaceae) flowers.

    PubMed

    Theis, Nina; Kesler, Karen; Adler, Lynn S

    2009-05-01

    Mutualisms are key interactions that affect population dynamics and structure communities, but the extent to which mutualists can attract potential partners may depend on community context. Many studies have shown that leaf herbivory reduces pollinator visitation and have focused on reduced floral visual display and rewards as potential mechanisms. However, olfactory display plays a critical role in mediating interactions between plants, herbivores, and pollinators. We simulated leaf damage in Cucurbita pepo subsp. texana and measured fragrance emission and other floral characters of both male and female flowers. Contrary to our expectations, damage increased fragrance production, but only in male flowers. Female flowers, which were bigger and produced more fragrance than males, were unaffected by leaf damage. The greatest increase in floral fragrance compounds was in the terpenoids, which we hypothesize could be byproducts of defensively induced cucurbitacins, or they may function defensively themselves. In summary, this study is the first to demonstrate changes in floral fragrance due to leaf damage. Such changes in floral fragrance following herbivory may be a critical and overlooked mechanism mediating interactions between plants, herbivores, and pollinators. PMID:21628242

  6. Solution properties of a heteropolysaccharide extracted from pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo, lady godiva).

    PubMed

    Song, Yi; Zhao, Jing; Ni, Yuanying; Li, Quanhong

    2015-11-01

    A water-soluble galactoglucofucomannan was extracted from pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo, lady godiva variety). GC-MS analysis indicated that the polysaccharide was composed of 1,6-linked-glucosyl, 1,2,6-linked-mannosyl, 1,3,6-linked-mannosyl, 1,2,6-linked-galactosyl, 1,2,6-linked-galactosyl, terminal fucosyl and terminal glucose. The solution properties of the polysaccharide were studied systematically by using size-exclusion chromatography combined with multi-angle laser light scattering, viscometry and dynamic light scattering at 25 °C. The weight average molecular masses (Mw), intrinsic viscosity [η], radius of gyration (Rg) and hydrodynamic radius (Rh) were found to be 12.7 × 10(5)g/mol, 780 ml/g, 68 nm and 116 nm, respectively. The fraction dimension and value of ρ (Rg/Rh) of the polysaccharide revealed that it existed in a sphere-like conformation in distilled water. The dependence of zero shear specific viscosity on the coil overlap parameter was analyzed using different models. Furthermore, degradation of samples upon autoclaving has been observed and quantified by intrinsic viscosity determination and SEC-MALLS. PMID:26256344

  7. Plant growth regulators induced urease activity in Cucurbita pepo L. cotyledons.

    PubMed

    El Shora, Hamed M; Ali, Awatif S

    2016-03-01

    This study is aimed to investigate the activity of urease (EC 3.5.1.5, urea amidohydrolase) that catalyzes the hydrolysis of urea in 5-day-old Cucurbita pepo cotyledons subjected to various concentrations of different growth regulators. The treatment of C. pepo cotyledons with different concentrations (100-600 μmol) of different auxins [indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), indole butyric acid (IBA), indole propionic acid (IPA) and naphthalene acetic acid (NAA)]; or with different concentrations (100-300 μmol) of different cytokinins [kinetin, zeatin and benzyladenine (6-BA)] resulted in a significant increase of urease activity, compared to control. The optimal effects were recorded for each of 500 μmol of IAA and 300 μmol of zeatin treatments. A gradual increase in urease activity was detected in cotyledons treated with various concentrations (0.2-1.0 mM) of 28-homobrassinolide (HBL), in relative to control. A substantial increase in urease activity was observed in cotyledons subjected to different concentrations of triazole (10-60 mg L(-1)), containing either triadimefon (TDM) or hexaconazole (HEX), compared to control. The combination of 300 μmol zeatin with any of protein inhibitors, namely 5-fluorouridine (FUrd), cordycepin and α-amanitin, resulted in the alleviation of their inhibitory effect on the urease activity. PMID:26960356

  8. Developmental instability: measures of resistance and resilience using pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L.)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Freeman, D. Carl; Brown, Michelle L.; Dobson, Melissa; Jordan, Yolanda; Kizy, Anne; Micallef, Chris; Hancock, Leandria C.; Graham, John H.; Emlen, John M.

    2003-01-01

    Fluctuating asymmetry measures random deviations from bilateral symmetry, and thus estimates developmental instability, the loss of ability by an organism to regulate its development. There have been few rigorous tests of this proposition. Regulation of bilateral symmetry must involve either feedback between the sides or independent regulation toward a symmetric set point. Either kind of regulation should decrease asymmetry over time, but only right–left feedback produces compensatory growth across sides, seen as antipersistent growth following perturbation. Here, we describe the developmental trajectories of perturbed and unperturbed leaves of pumpkin, Cucurbita pepoL., grown at three densities. Covering one side of a leaf with aluminium foil for 24 h perturbed leaf growth. Reduced growth on the perturbed side caused leaves to become more asymmetrical than unperturbed controls. After the treatment the size-corrected asymmetry decreased over time. In addition, rescaled range analysis showed that asymmetry was antipersistent rather than random, i.e. fluctuation in one direction was likely to be followed by fluctuations in the opposite direction. Development involves right–left feedback. This feedback reduced size-corrected asymmetry over time most strongly in the lowest density treatment suggesting that developmental instability results from a lack of resilience rather than resistance. 

  9. Feasibility of enzymatic hydrolysis and alcoholic fermentation of starch contained in buffalo gourd (Cucurbita foetidissima) roots

    SciTech Connect

    Scheerens, J.C.; Kopplin, M.J.; Abbas, I.R.; Nelson, J.M.; Gathman, A.C.; Berry, J.W.

    1987-03-01

    The suitability of using annually grown, carrot-sized buffalo gourd (Cucurbita foetidissima) roots as a feedstock for alcoholic fermentation was explored. Roots grown in 1982 and 1983 were slurried, dextrinized and saccharified using Takatherm and Diazyme (commercial enzymes manufactured by Miles Laboratories), and fermented by the action of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. These processes were monitored in detail and results were compared with those displayed by controls formulated using potato tubers. The preparation of gourd root slurries with suitable viscosity characteristics for enzymatic digestion required the addition of water (at least 50% by weight) which reduced the proportion of fermentable sugars in the resulting saccharified suspensions. The resulting slurries were well-suited to enzymatic conversion of starch to sugar. Estimates of enzymatic efficiency in gourd root suspensions did not suggest the presence of naturally occurring amylase or glucosidase inhibitors in these plant materials. Saccharified gourd root mashes supported yeast growth well and produced ethanol yields at 82.2-86.5% of the theoretically maximum efficiency. 23 references.

  10. Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Extraction of Carotenoids from Pumpkin (Cucurbita spp.): A Review

    PubMed Central

    Durante, Miriana; Lenucci, Marcello Salvatore; Mita, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    Carotenoids are well known for their nutritional properties and health promoting effects representing attractive ingredients to develop innovative functional foods, nutraceutical and pharmaceutical preparations. Pumpkin (Cucurbita spp.) flesh has an intense yellow/orange color owing to the high level of carotenoids, mainly α-carotene, β-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, lutein and zeaxanthin. There is considerable interest in extracting carotenoids and other bioactives from pumpkin flesh. Extraction procedures able to preserve nutritional and pharmacological properties of carotenoids are essential. Conventional extraction methods, such as organic solvent extraction (CSE), have been used to extract carotenoids from plant material for a long time. In recent years, supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) extraction has received a great deal of attention because it is a green technology suitable for the extraction of lipophylic molecules and is able to give extracts of high quality and totally free from potentially toxic chemical solvents. Here, we review the results obtained so far on SC-CO2 extraction efficiency and quali-quantitative composition of carotenoids from pumpkin flesh. In particular, we consider the effects of (1) dehydration pre-treatments; (2) extraction parameters (temperature and pressure); the use of water, ethanol and olive oil singularly or in combination as entrainers or pumpkin seeds as co-matrix. PMID:24756094

  11. The clock gene cryptochrome of Bactrocera cucurbitae (Diptera: Tephritidae) in strains with different mating times.

    PubMed

    Fuchikawa, T; Sanada, S; Nishio, R; Matsumoto, A; Matsuyama, T; Yamagishi, M; Tomioka, K; Tanimura, T; Miyatake, T

    2010-04-01

    Differences in mating time between populations can give rise to premating reproductive isolation. Tephritid fruit flies exhibit large variation in mating time among intra- or inter-specific populations. We previously cloned the clock gene period from two strains of melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae; in one the individuals mate early during the day, whereas in the other the individuals mate later. These strains were originally established by divergent artificial selection for developmental time, 'short' and 'long', with early and late mating times, respectively. The deduced amino acid sequences of PERIOD proteins for these two strains were reported to be identical. Here we cloned another clock gene cryptochrome (cry) from the two strains, and found two stable amino acid substitutions in the strains. In addition, the allele frequency at the two polymorphic sites of cry gene correlated with the circadian locomotor period (tau) across strains, whereas the expression pattern of cry mRNA in the heads of flies taken from the short strain significantly differed from that from the long strain. These findings suggest that variation in the cry gene is related to differences in the circadian behaviour in the two strains, thus implying that the cry gene may have an important role in reproductive isolation. PMID:20010960

  12. Improved postharvest quality in patagonian squash ( Cucurbita moschata) coated with radiation depolymerized chitosan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pugliese, Maria Alicia; Goitia, Maria Teresa; Yossen, Mariana; Cifone, Norma; Agulló, Enrique; Andreucetti, Noemi

    2011-12-01

    Different molecular weight chitosans were evaluated on the decay of coated Anquito squashes ( Cucurbita moschata) as well as the maintenance of the fruit quality along five storage months. The original chitosan (Mw=391 kDa, 83% DD), was depolymerized by gamma radiation. Apart from chain scission, other chemical changes were not detected by FTIR or UV-vis analyses. The molecular weight characterization of chitosans was done by size exclusion chromatography with dual light scattering and concentration detection (SEC-MALLS-RI). The coating effectiveness was evaluated on the following parameters: fungal decay incidence, weight loss, firmness, total reducing sugar, soluble solid, flesh color, carotene content, pH and titratable acidity. No sign of fungal decay was observed in squashes coated with 122 and 56 kDa chitosans, which were also the most effective treatments in reducing the weight loss. The chitosan with Mw=122 kDa was also the best treatment considering firmness, internal aspect, sugar and carotene content. Then, radiation degraded chitosan was better in C. moschata preservation than the original chitosan.

  13. Composition of globoid crystals from embryo protein bodies in five species of cucurbita.

    PubMed

    Lott, J N; Vollmer, C M

    1979-02-01

    Previous energy-dispersive x-ray analysis studies of globoid crystal composition in seed protein bodies gave an indication that there might be a correlation between seed size and the type of elements stored in globoid crystals. This possibility was tested by conducting energy-dispersive x-ray analysis studies of P, K, Mg, and Ca levels in globoid crystals of four embryo regions (radicle, stem, cotyledon center palisade mesophyll, cotyledon center spongy mesophyII) in each of five different Cucurbita species (C. mixta, C. moschata, C. foetidissima, C. pepo, and C. andreana). The species were chosen to provide a range of seed size and weight. Globoid crystals from all embryo regions in all five species contained P, K, and Mg. Some variations in the levels of these elements did occur but there was no consistent pattern with regard to area of the seed or with regard to seed size. Calcium distribution showed significant variations. In species with large seeds (C. mixta, C. moschata) Ca was mainly found in globoid crystals in the radicle. Globoid crystals in species with small seeds (C. foetidissima, C. pepo, C. andreana) contained Ca in all embryo regions tested. The results of this study support the concept that Ca distribution in globoid crystals can be correlated with seed weight. PMID:16660719

  14. Composition of Globoid Crystals from Embryo Protein Bodies in Five Species of Cucurbita1

    PubMed Central

    Lott, John N. A.; Vollmer, Catherine M.

    1979-01-01

    Previous energy-dispersive x-ray analysis studies of globoid crystal composition in seed protein bodies gave an indication that there might be a correlation between seed size and the type of elements stored in globoid crystals. This possibility was tested by conducting energy-dispersive x-ray analysis studies of P, K, Mg, and Ca levels in globoid crystals of four embryo regions (radicle, stem, cotyledon center palisade mesophyll, cotyledon center spongy mesophyII) in each of five different Cucurbita species (C. mixta, C. moschata, C. foetidissima, C. pepo, and C. andreana). The species were chosen to provide a range of seed size and weight. Globoid crystals from all embryo regions in all five species contained P, K, and Mg. Some variations in the levels of these elements did occur but there was no consistent pattern with regard to area of the seed or with regard to seed size. Calcium distribution showed significant variations. In species with large seeds (C. mixta, C. moschata) Ca was mainly found in globoid crystals in the radicle. Globoid crystals in species with small seeds (C. foetidissima, C. pepo, C. andreana) contained Ca in all embryo regions tested. The results of this study support the concept that Ca distribution in globoid crystals can be correlated with seed weight. PMID:16660719

  15. Cucurbita moschata Duch. and its active component, β-carotene effectively promote the immune responses through the activation of splenocytes and macrophages.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hee-Yun; Nam, Sun-Young; Yang, Shi-Young; Kim, Hyung-Min; Jeong, Hyun-Ja

    2016-10-01

    Cucurbita moschata Duch. has long been used for traditional health food in many countries. However, to enhance the immune system of Cucurbita moschata Duch. and its major component, β-carotene is not clear. Here, we determined the immune enhancement effect of Cucurbita moschata Duch. and β-carotene in mouse splenocytes and RAW 264.7 macrophage cell line. We prepared baked Cucurbita moschata Duch. (Sweetme Sweet Pumpkin(TM), SSP) and steamed Cucurbita moschata Duch. (SC). Splenocytes isolated from the spleen of BALB/c mice were treated with SSP, SC, and β-carotene for 24 h. RAW 264.7 cells were stimulated with recombinant interferon-γ (rIFN-γ) for 6 h before treatment with SSP, SC, or β-carotene. SSP, SC and β-carotene significantly up-regulated the proliferation of splenocyte and mRNA expression of KI-67. The levels of interleukin-2 and IFN-γ were up-regulated by SSP, SC, or β-carotene in the splenocytes. SC and β-carotene also increased the levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in the splenocytes. In addition, SSP, SC, or β-carotene significantly increased the levels of TNF-α through the nuclear translocation of the nuclear factor-κB and phosphorylation of IκBα in the rIFN-γ-primed RAW 264.7 cells. These data indicate that Cucurbita moschata Duch. and β-carotene may have an immune-enhancing effect through the production of Th1 cytokines by activation of splenocytes and macrophages. PMID:27315229

  16. Dietary Curcuma longa enhances resistance against Eimeria maxima and Eimeria tenella infections in chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects of dietary supplementation with an organic extract of Curcuma longa on systemic and local immune responses to experimental Eimeria maxima and E. tenella infections were evaluated in commercial broiler chickens. Infected chickens given the C. longa-containing diet had increased body weig...

  17. Coccidian Merozoite Transcriptome Analysis From Eimeria Maxima In Comparison To Eimeria Tenella And Eimeria Acervulina

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Using the Eimeria spp. population that infect chickens as a model for coccidian biology, we aimed to survey the transcriptome of E. maxima and contrast it to the two other Eimeria spp. for which transcriptome data are available, E. tenella and E. acervulina. Examining specifically the asexual intra...

  18. Innate immune response to Clostridium perfringens and Eimeria maxima in necrotic enteritis model

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We have investigated various aspects of host immune responses using a disease model for necrotic enteritis (NE) in which the severity of lesions produced by Clostridium perfringens was increased, and the growth performance of broiler chickens was decreased by prior infection with Eimeria maxima. Qu...

  19. Different susceptibilities of Eimeria acervulina, Eimeria maxima, and Eimeria tenella oocysts to dessication

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Outbreaks of avian coccidiosis may occur when susceptible chickens are raised on litter containing high concentrations of viable Eimeria oocysts. The purpose of this study was to compare the relative sensitivities of E. acervulina, E. maxima, and E. tenella oocysts to dessication. Sporulated E. ac...

  20. Glyceria maxima as new test species for the EU risk assessment for herbicides: a microcosm study.

    PubMed

    Mohr, S; Schott, J; Hoenemann, L; Feibicke, M

    2015-03-01

    In its recent guidance document on tiered risk assessment for plant protection products for aquatic organisms, the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) proposed to use Glyceria maxima as monocotyledonous grass species for the testing of special herbicide groups. However, published toxicity data for this species is very limited and there is no test guideline for Glyceria sp. For this reason a microcosm study was conducted in order to gain experience on the degree of sensitivity of G. maxima to the herbicidal substances clodinafop-propargyl (grass herbicide) and fluroxypyr (auxin) in comparison to the already established test organism water milfoil Myriophyllum spicatum and the duckweed species Landoltia punctata. Five concentrations without replicates were tested for each test substance using 10 microcosms and three microcosms served as controls. The experiment was run for 8 weeks. Morphological endpoints were used to determine growth and EC50 values. The results show that M. spicatum was most sensitive to fluroxypyr (37 days EC50 for roots: 62 µg/L) and G. maxima most sensitive to clodinafop-propargyl (22 days EC50 for total shoot length: 48 µg/L) whereas the duckweed species was considerable less sensitive. Hence, G. maxima turns out to be a good candidate for testing grass specific herbicides, supporting its inclusion as an additional macrophyte test for the risk assessment of herbicides as proposed by the EFSA. PMID:25380672

  1. Characterization and localization of an Eimeria-specific protein in Eimeria maxima

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A recently completed analysis of Eimeria maxima transcriptome indentified a gene with homology to sequences expressed by E. tenella and E. acervulina but lacking homology with other organisms including other apicomplexans. This gene designated ESP codes for a protein with predicted molecular weight...

  2. Anticoccidial effect of green tea-based diets against Eimeria maxima

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Anticoccidial effects of green tea-based diets were evaluated in chickens following oral infection with Eimeria maxima a ubiquitous intestinal parasite of poultry that impares the growth and feed efficiency of infected birds. Five-week old chickens were assigned to four groups (GT 0.5%, GT 2.0%, in...

  3. An Example of Competence-Based Learning: Use of Maxima in Linear Algebra for Engineers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diaz, Ana; Garcia, Alfonsa; de la Villa, Agustin

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyses the role of Computer Algebra Systems (CAS) in a model of learning based on competences. The proposal is an e-learning model Linear Algebra course for Engineering, which includes the use of a CAS (Maxima) and focuses on problem solving. A reference model has been taken from the Spanish Open University. The proper use of CAS is…

  4. IMMUNE-RELATED GENE EXPRESSION IN TWO GENETICALLY DISPARATE FAYOUMI CHICKEN LINES FOLLOWING EIMERIA MAXIMA INFECTION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To investigate the influence of genetic differences in the major histocopatibility complex (MHC) on susceptibility to avian coccidiosis, M5.1 and M15.2 B-haplotype congenic Fayoumi chickens were orally infected with live Eimeria maxima oocysts and body weight gain, fecal oocyst production, and expre...

  5. Reducing effect of feeding powdered nacre of Pinctada maxima on the visceral fat of rats.

    PubMed

    Shono, Masayuki; Shimizu, Ichiro; Aoyagi, Eriko; Taniguchi, Tatsuya; Takenaka, Hidetaka; Ishikawa, Momoko; Urata, Mari; Sannomiya, Katsutaka; Tamaki, Katsuyoshi; Harada, Nagakatsu; Nakaya, Yutaka; Takayama, Tetsuji

    2008-10-01

    An abdominal fat accumulation complicated by high blood triglycerides is regarded as a risk factor of metabolic syndrome. Feeding powdered nacre, mother of pearl, from Pinctada maxima, resulted in reduced body weight, visceral fat amount, and blood triglyceride level without influencing the food intake, body length, or amount of muscular tissue, suggesting that nacre powder specifically could decrease visceral fat. PMID:18838791

  6. Antioxidant Effect of Spirulina (Arthrospira) maxima on Chronic Inflammation Induced by Freund's Complete Adjuvant in Rats.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez-Rebolledo, Gabriel Alfonso; Galar-Martínez, Marcela; García-Rodríguez, Rosa Virginia; Chamorro-Cevallos, Germán A; Hernández-Reyes, Ana Gabriela; Martínez-Galero, Elizdath

    2015-08-01

    One of the major mechanisms in the pathogenesis of chronic inflammation is the excessive production of reactive oxygen and reactive nitrogen species, and therefore, oxidative stress. Spirulina (Arthrospira) maxima has marked antioxidant activity in vivo and in vitro, as well as anti-inflammatory activity in certain experimental models, the latter activity being mediated probably by the antioxidant activity of this cyanobacterium. In the present study, chronic inflammation was induced through injection of Freund's complete adjuvant (CFA) in rats treated daily with Spirulina (Arthrospira) maxima for 2 weeks beginning on day 14. Joint diameter, body temperature, and motor capacity were assessed each week. On days 0 and 28, total and differential leukocyte counts and serum oxidative damage were determined, the latter by assessing lipid peroxidation and protein carbonyl content. At the end of the study, oxidative damage to joints was likewise evaluated. Results show that S. maxima favors increased mobility, as well as body temperature regulation, and a number of circulating leukocytes, lymphocytes, and monocytes in specimens with CFA-induced chronic inflammation and also protects against oxidative damage in joint tissue as well as serum. In conclusion, the protection afforded by S. maxima against development of chronic inflammation is due to its antioxidant activity. PMID:25599112

  7. Potential antiradical and alpha-glucosidase inhibitors from Ecklonia maxima (Osbeck) Papenfuss.

    PubMed

    Rengasamy, Kannan R R; Aderogba, Mutalib A; Amoo, Stephen O; Stirk, Wendy A; Van Staden, Johannes

    2013-11-15

    Alpha-glucosidase inhibitors play a potential role in the treatment of type 2 diabetes by delaying glucose absorption in the small intestine. Ecklonia maxima, a brown alga which grows abundantly on the west coast of South Africa, is used to produce alginate, animal feed, nutritional supplements and fertilizer. The crude aqueous methanol extract, four solvent fractions and three phlorotannins: 1,3,5-trihydroxybenezene (phloroglucinol) (1), dibenzo [1,4] dioxine-2,4,7,9-tetraol (2) and hexahydroxyphenoxydibenzo [1,4] dioxine (eckol) (3) isolated from E. maxima were evaluated for antiradical and alpha-glucosidase inhibitory activities. All the phlorotannins tested had strong antioxidant activities on DPPH free radicals with EC50 values ranging from 0.008 to 0.128μM. Compounds 2 and 3 demonstrated stronger antioxidant activity and an alpha-glucosidase inhibitory property than positive controls. These results suggest that E. maxima could be a natural source of potent antioxidants and alpha-glucosidase inhibitors. This study could facilitate effective utilization of E. maxima as an oral antidiabetic drug or functional food ingredient with a promising role in the formulation of medicines and nutrition supplements. PMID:23790932

  8. Antioxidant Effect of Spirulina (Arthrospira) maxima on Chronic Inflammation Induced by Freund's Complete Adjuvant in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Gutiérrez-Rebolledo, Gabriel Alfonso; Galar-Martínez, Marcela; García-Rodríguez, Rosa Virginia; Chamorro-Cevallos, Germán A.; Hernández-Reyes, Ana Gabriela

    2015-01-01

    Abstract One of the major mechanisms in the pathogenesis of chronic inflammation is the excessive production of reactive oxygen and reactive nitrogen species, and therefore, oxidative stress. Spirulina (Arthrospira) maxima has marked antioxidant activity in vivo and in vitro, as well as anti-inflammatory activity in certain experimental models, the latter activity being mediated probably by the antioxidant activity of this cyanobacterium. In the present study, chronic inflammation was induced through injection of Freund's complete adjuvant (CFA) in rats treated daily with Spirulina (Arthrospira) maxima for 2 weeks beginning on day 14. Joint diameter, body temperature, and motor capacity were assessed each week. On days 0 and 28, total and differential leukocyte counts and serum oxidative damage were determined, the latter by assessing lipid peroxidation and protein carbonyl content. At the end of the study, oxidative damage to joints was likewise evaluated. Results show that S. maxima favors increased mobility, as well as body temperature regulation, and a number of circulating leukocytes, lymphocytes, and monocytes in specimens with CFA-induced chronic inflammation and also protects against oxidative damage in joint tissue as well as serum. In conclusion, the protection afforded by S. maxima against development of chronic inflammation is due to its antioxidant activity. PMID:25599112

  9. Beyond Polymaxenolide: Cembrane-Africanane Terpenoids from the Hybrid Soft Coral Sinularia maxima x S. polydactyla

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects of natural hybridization on secondary metabolite production and diversification have only recently been studied in plants and have essentially been overlooked in marine organisms. Chemical investigation of the hybrid soft coral Sinularia maxima × S. polydactyla resulted in the isolation ...

  10. A review of the current knowledge on Zeugodacus cucurbitae (Coquillett) (Diptera, Tephritidae) in Africa, with a list of species included in Zeugodacus.

    PubMed

    De Meyer, Marc; Delatte, Hélène; Mwatawala, Maulid; Quilici, Serge; Vayssières, Jean-François; Virgilio, Massimiliano

    2015-01-01

    This paper reviews all available information regarding the occurrence and biology of the melon fly, Zeugodacus cucurbitae (Coquillett), in the Afrotropical Region, including data on invasion history, distribution patterns, population genetics, host range, and interspecific competition. Although limited intraspecific variability has been observed within the region regarding the above mentioned aspects, there seems to be no indication that Zeugodacus cucurbitae represents a species complex. A checklist of all of the species included in Zeugodacus as recently proposed by Virgilio et al. (2015) is provided. PMID:26798277

  11. A review of the current knowledge on Zeugodacus cucurbitae (Coquillett) (Diptera, Tephritidae) in Africa, with a list of species included in Zeugodacus

    PubMed Central

    De Meyer, Marc; Delatte, Hélène; Mwatawala, Maulid; Quilici, Serge; Vayssières, Jean-François; Virgilio, Massimiliano

    2015-01-01

    Abstract This paper reviews all available information regarding the occurrence and biology of the melon fly, Zeugodacus cucurbitae (Coquillett), in the Afrotropical Region, including data on invasion history, distribution patterns, population genetics, host range, and interspecific competition. Although limited intraspecific variability has been observed within the region regarding the above mentioned aspects, there seems to be no indication that Zeugodacus cucurbitae represents a species complex. A checklist of all of the species included in Zeugodacus as recently proposed by Virgilio et al. (2015) is provided. PMID:26798277

  12. Parasitism, Emergence, and Development of Spalangia endius (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) in Pupae of Different Ages of Bactrocera cucurbitae (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Liang-De; Ji, Xun-Cong; Han, Yun; Fu, Bu-Li; Liu, Kui

    2015-01-01

    The wasp Spalangia endius Walker (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) is a major parasitoid of the pupae of fruit flies, which are a common agricultural pest. An understanding of this intricate host–parasitoid interaction could provide basic information necessary for the sustainable integrated biological control of fruit flies. In this study, we investigated the effect of S. endius on different-aged pupae of the melon fly Bactrocera cucurbitae Coquillett by using choice and nonchoice tests under laboratory conditions. We showed that S. endius females oviposited, and their progeny successfully developed, in different-aged pupae of B. cucurbitae regardless of the method of exposure. There was an oviposition preference for 3–5-d-old pupa. The highest mean percentage parasitism occurred on 4- and 5-d-old hosts, followed by 2- and 3-d-old hosts. The average development time for both males and females was significantly longer in 6–7-d-old hosts than in the younger host stages. Adult females that developed from younger host pupae (2–5-d old) were significantly heavier than those from older host pupae (6–7-d old), and they also lived longer. The sex ratio (proportion of females) of the parasite progeny decreased with an increase in host age. Host mortality also decreased gradually as the pupal age increased. The differences in development time, body weight, and longevity between females and males were significant. These results suggest that S. endius is a good candidate for the biological control of B. cucurbitae. PMID:25700538

  13. Stability at Potential Maxima: The L-4 and L-5 Points of the Restricted Three-Body Problem.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenberg, Richard; Davis, Donald R.

    1978-01-01

    Describes a dynamical system which is stable at potential maxima. The maxima, called L-4 and L-5, are stable locations of the restricted three-body problem. Energy loss from the system will tend to drive it away from stability. (GA)

  14. ANTIBODIES TO EIMERIA MAXIMA GAMETOCYTE ANTIGENS CROSS-REACT WITH EIMERIA TENELLA AND E. ACERVULINA: IMPLICATIONS FOR VACCINE DEVELOPMENT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It has been shown previously that vaccination with gamete specific molecules in Eimeria maxima offers protection via transfer of maternal antibodies (anti-EmAPGA), not just against infection with E. maxima, but also against E. tenella and E. acervulina. Antibodies to the gamete proteins recognise t...

  15. Expression of ascorbic acid oxidase in zucchini squash (Cucurbita pepo L. )

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Liangshiou; Varner, J.E. )

    1991-05-01

    The expression of ascorbic acid oxidase was studied in zuchini squash (Cucurbita pepo L.), one of the most abundant natural sources of the enzyme. In the developing fruit, specific activity of ascorbic acid oxidase was highest between 4 and 6 days after anthesis. Protein and mRNA levels followed the same trend as enzyme activity. Highest growth rate of the fruit occurred before 6 days after anthesis. Within a given fruit, ascorbic acid oxidase activity was higher in young leaves, and very low in old leaves. Within a given leaf, enzyme activity was highest in the fast-growing region (approximately the lower third of the blade), and lowest in the central placental region. In leaf tissue, ascorbic acid oxidase activity was higher in young leaves, and very low in old leaves. Within a given leaf, enzyme activity was highest in the fast-growing region (approximately the lower third of the blade), and lowest in the slow-growing region (near leaf apex). High expression of ascorbic acid oxidase at a stage when rapid growth is occurring (in both fruits and leaves), and localization of the enzyme in the fruit epidermis, where cells are under greatest tension during rapid growth in girth, suggest that ascorbic acid oxidase might be involved in reorganization of the cell wall to allow for expansion. Based on the known chemistry of dehydroascorbic acid, the end product of the ascorbic acid oxidase-catalyzed reaction, the authors have proposed several hypotheses to explain how dehydroascorbic acid might cause cell wall loosening.

  16. Effect of mycorrhizal fungi on the phytoextraction of weathered p,p-DDE by Cucurbita pepo.

    PubMed

    White, Jason C; Ross, Daniel W; Gent, Martin P N; Eitzer, Brian D; Mattina, Maryjane Incorvia

    2006-10-11

    Field experiments were conducted to assess the impact of inoculation with mycorrhizal fungi on the accumulation of weathered p,p'-DDE from soil by three cultivars of zucchini (Cucurbita pepo spp. pepo cv Costata Romanesco, Goldrush, Raven). Three commercially available mycorrhizal products (BioVam, Myco-Vam, INVAM) were inoculated into the root system of the zucchini seedlings at planting. In agreement with our previous findings, plants not inoculated with fungi accumulated large but variable amounts of contaminant, with root bioconcentration factors (BCFs, ratio of p,p'-DDE, on a dry weight basis, in the root to that in the soil) ranging from 10 to 48 and stem BCFs ranging from 5.5 to 11. The total amount of contaminant phytoextracted during the 62 day growing season ranged from 0.72-2.9%. The effect of fungal inoculation on the release of weathered p,p'-DDE from soil and on the subsequent uptake of the parent compound by zucchini appeared to vary at the cultivar level. For Goldrush, fungal inoculation generally decreased tissue BCFs but because of slightly larger biomass, did not significantly impact the percent contaminant phytoextracted. Alternatively, for Costata, BioVam and Myco-Vam generally enhanced p,p'-DDE accumulation from soil, and increased the amount of contaminant phytoextracted by up to 34%. For Raven, BioVam reduced contaminant uptake whereas Myco-Vam and INVAM increased contaminant phytoextraction by 53 and 60%, respectively. The data show that fungal inoculation may significantly increase the remedial potential of C. pepo ssp. pepo. The apparent cultivar specific response to mycorrhizal inoculation is unexpected and the subject of ongoing investigation. PMID:16777321

  17. Uptake and translocation of p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene supplied in hydroponics solution to Cucurbita.

    PubMed

    Gent, Martin P N; White, Jason C; Parrish, Zakia D; Isleyen, Mehmet; Eitzer, Brian D; Mattina, MaryJane Incorvia

    2007-12-01

    Field studies show shoots of zucchini (Cucurbita pepo L.) accumulate various hydrophobic contaminants from soil, although many other plants do not, including cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.). To investigate the mechanism for this uptake, we presented p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) to these two species in hydroponics solution. A mixture of DDE bound to Tenax beads stirred with a solution of water passing through a reservoir provided a flowing solution containing DDE at approximately 2 microg/L for many weeks duration. Approximately 90% of the DDE supplied in solution was adsorbed on the roots of both cucumber and zucchini. Less than 10% of the sorbed DDE was released subsequently when clean solution flowed past these contaminated roots for 9 d. The shoots of both species accumulated DDE, but the fraction that moved from the roots to the shoot in zucchini, ranging from 6 to 27% in various trials, was 10-fold greater than that in cucumber, 0.7 to 2%. The gradient in DDE concentration in zucchini tissues was in the order root more more than stem > petiole > leaf blade, indicating the movement was through the xylem in the transpiration stream. Some DDE in leaf blades might have been absorbed from the air, because the concentration in this tissue varied less with time, position in trough, or species, than did DDE in stems and petioles. The remarkable ability of zucchini to translocate DDE could not be attributed to differences in tissue composition, growth rate, distribution of weight among plant parts, or in the leaf area and rate of transpiration of water from leaves. Some other factor enables efficient translocation of hydrophobic organic contaminants in the xylem of zucchini. PMID:18020671

  18. The melon fruit fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae: A review of its biology and management

    PubMed Central

    Dhillon, M.K.; Singh, Ram; Naresh, J.S.; Sharma, H.C.

    2005-01-01

    The melon fruit fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett) (Diptera: Tephritidae) is distributed widely in temperate, tropical, and sub-tropical regions of the world. It has been reported to damage 81 host plants and is a major pest of cucurbitaceous vegetables, particularly the bitter gourd (Momordica charantia), muskmelon (Cucumis melo), snap melon (C. melo var. momordica), and snake gourd (Trichosanthes anguina). The extent of losses vary between 30 to 100%, depending on the cucurbit species and the season. Its abundance increases when the temperatures fall below 32° C, and the relative humidity ranges between 60 to 70%. It prefers to infest young, green, soft-skinned fruits. It inserts the eggs 2 to 4 mm deep in the fruit tissues, and the maggots feed inside the fruit. Pupation occurs in the soil at 0.5 to 15 cm below the soil surface. Keeping in view the importance of the pest and crop, melon fruit fly management could be done using local area management and wide area management. The melon fruit fly can successfully be managed over a local area by bagging fruits, field sanitation, protein baits, cue-lure traps, growing fruit fly-resistant genotypes, augmentation of biocontrol agents, and soft insecticides. The wide area management program involves the coordination of different characteristics of an insect eradication program (including local area options) over an entire area within a defensible perimeter, and subsequently protected against reinvasion by quarantine controls. Although, the sterile insect technique has been successfully used in wide area approaches, this approach needs to use more sophisticated and powerful technologies in eradication programs such as insect transgenesis and geographical information systems, which could be deployed over a wide area. Various other options for the management of fruit fly are also discussed in relation to their bio-efficacy and economics for effective management of this pest. PMID:17119622

  19. Movement of Soil-Applied Imidacloprid and Thiamethoxam into Nectar and Pollen of Squash (Cucurbita pepo)

    PubMed Central

    Stoner, Kimberly A.; Eitzer, Brian D.

    2012-01-01

    There has been recent interest in the threat to bees posed by the use of systemic insecticides. One concern is that systemic insecticides may translocate from the soil into pollen and nectar of plants, where they would be ingested by pollinators. This paper reports on the movement of two such systemic neonicotinoid insecticides, imidacloprid and thiamethoxam, into the pollen and nectar of flowers of squash (Cucurbita pepo cultivars “Multipik,” “Sunray” and “Bush Delicata”) when applied to soil by two methods: (1) sprayed into soil before seeding, or (2) applied through drip irrigation in a single treatment after transplant. All insecticide treatments were within labeled rates for these compounds. Pollen and nectar samples were analyzed using a standard extraction method widely used for pesticides (QuEChERS) and liquid chromatography mass spectrometric analysis. The concentrations found in nectar, 10±3 ppb (mean ± s.d) for imidacloprid and 11±6 ppb for thiamethoxam, are higher than concentrations of neonicotinoid insecticides in nectar of canola and sunflower grown from treated seed, and similar to those found in a recent study of neonicotinoids applied to pumpkins at transplant and through drip irrigation. The concentrations in pollen, 14±8 ppb for imidacloprid and 12±9 ppb for thiamethoxam, are higher than those found for seed treatments in most studies, but at the low end of the range found in the pumpkin study. Our concentrations fall into the range being investigated for sublethal effects on honey bees and bumble bees. PMID:22761727

  20. Boron excess affects photosynthesis and antioxidant apparatus of greenhouse Cucurbita pepo and Cucumis sativus.

    PubMed

    Landi, Marco; Remorini, Damiano; Pardossi, Alberto; Guidi, Lucia

    2013-11-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the behavior of zucchini (Cucurbita pepo L.) and cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) under boron (B) excess. Plants were grown under greenhouse conditions in a sandy soil-peat mixture using a nutrient solution containing 0.2 (control), 10 and 20 mg L(-1) B. Visible symptoms were quantified and leaf B accumulation, gas exchanges, chlorophyll (Chl) a fluorescence, malondialdehyde by-products and antioxidants were investigated 20 days after the beginning of the treatments. Boron toxicity induced oxidative load and leaf necrotic burns coupled with the reduction of leaf growth and biomass accumulation in both species. Boron excess resulted in a decrease of Chl a/b ratio, potential (Fv/Fm) and actual (ΦPSII) PSII quantum efficiency, photosynthetic rate (Pn), stomatal conductance (gs), and transpiration (E) as well. A general stimulation of the antioxidant enzymes ascorbate peroxidase, catalase and superoxide dismutase was observed, and a significant increase in the oxidized form of ascorbate and glutathione was evidenced for treated plants of both species. A difference between the two species was observed: C. pepo appeared to be more sensitive to B stress being damaged at all B concentration. C. sativus grown at 10 mg L(-1) B in nutrient solution showed some down-regulated mechanisms, i.e. increase in Chl b content and a good photochemical PSII efficiency as well as a higher amount of constitutive antioxidant molecules, that, however, are not sufficient to contrast the negative effects of B. PMID:23779070

  1. Melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Diptera: Tephritidae), infestation in host fruits in the Southwestern Islands of Japan before the initiation of Island-wide population suppression

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett) is a tephritid fruit fly native to the Indo-Malayan region. Its distribution, though, has extended to include Africa, temperate Asia, and a number of Pacific islands. It became established in Japan in 1919 in the Yaeyama Islands and spread north in the Southwestern...

  2. Genetic relationships in Cucurbita pepo (pumpkin, squash, gourd) as viewed with high frequency oligonucleotide–targeting active gene (HFO–TAG) markers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cucurbita pepo is a highly diverse, economically important member of the Cucurbitaceae. C. pepo encompasses hundreds of cultivars of pumpkins, squash, and gourds. Although C. pepo has been scrutinized with various types of DNA markers, the relationships among the cultivar-groups of C. pepo subsp. p...

  3. Insecticidal Activity of Basil Oil, trans-Anethole, Estragole, and Linalool to Adults of Ceratitis capitata, Bactrocera dorsalis, and B. cucurbitae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pest tephritid fruit flies, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), and B. cucurbitae (Cocquillett) are among the species of economic significance. Their management has primarily relied on the use of food baits, male attractants and their combinations with insecticides. Basil o...

  4. Effects of the juvenile hormone analogue methoprene and dietary protein on male melon fly Bactrocera cucurbitae (Diptera:Tephritidae) mating success

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effect of access to dietary protein (P) and the topical application of a juvenile hormone analogue (methoprene (M)) on mating behaviour of male melon fly Bactrocera cucurbitae was assessed in the laboratory and in field cages. Age, dietary protein and methoprene application increased the mating...

  5. Microsatellite markers reveal population structure and low gene flow among collections of Bactrocera cucurbitae (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Asia.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yi; Li, Yunlong; Ruiz-Arce, Raul; McPheron, Bruce A; Wu, Jiajiao; Li, Zhihong

    2011-06-01

    The melon fruit fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett) (Diptera: Tephritidae), is widespread agricultural pest, and it is known to have the potential to establish invasive populations in various tropical and subtropical areas. Despite the economic risk associated with a putative stable presence of this fly, the population genetics of this pest have remained relatively unexplored in Asia, the main area for distribution of this pest. The goals for this study were to employ nuclear markers to examine geographic collections for population genetic structure and quantify the extent of gene flow within these Southeast Asian and Chinese populations. To achieve these goals, we used 12 polymorphic microsatellite markers. A low level of genetic diversity was found among collections from China and higher levels were seen in Southeast Asia collections. Three genetically distinct groups, Southeast Asia, southwest China, and southeast China, were recovered by Bayesian model-based clustering methods, the phylogenetic reconstruction and the principal coordinate analysis. The Mantel test clearly shows geographical distance contributed in the genetic structuring of B. cucurbitae's populations. No recent bottlenecks for any of the populations examined. The results of clustering, migration analyses, and Mantel test, strongly suggest that the regional structure observed may be due to geographical factors such as mountains, rivers, and islands. We found a high rate of migration in some sites from the southwest China region (cluster 1) and the southeast China region (cluster 2), suggesting that China-Guangdong-Guangzhou (GZ) may be the center of melon fruit fly in the southeast China region. PMID:21735930

  6. Damage detection under varying environmental and operational conditions using Wavelet Transform Modulus Maxima decay lines similarity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tjirkallis, A.; Kyprianou, A.

    2016-01-01

    Over the last three decades, there have been increasing demands to develop and deploy Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) systems for engineering structures in service. Since these structures are subjected to varying environmental and operational conditions, reliable SHM methodologies must be capable of not misattributing to damage changes due to environmental conditions. This paper presents a novel damage detection methodology based on the similarity between maxima decay lines of the continuous wavelet transform scalogram of the structural responses obtained under different operational and environmental conditions. The normalized cross correlation (NCC) is used as a measure of this similarity. In addition, the pointwise summation of similar Wavelet Transform Modulus Maxima (WTMM) decay lines is used to identify changes due to the presence of damage from different force realizations and/or varying environmental conditions. The effectiveness of the proposed methodology is demonstrated using a simulated 3DOF system and an experimental cantilever beam.

  7. Iridium abundance maxima at the latest Ordovician mass extinction horizon, Yangtze Basin, China: Terrestrial or extraterrestrial

    SciTech Connect

    Kun Wang; Chatterton, B.D.E. ); Attrep, M. Jr; Orth, C.J. )

    1992-01-01

    Neutron activation analyses of the Chinese Ordovician/Silurian (O/S) boundary sections at two distant localities in the Yangtze Basin, spanning the horizon of a major latest Ordovician global extinction event, show the maxima of iridium abundances to be coincident with the extinction horizon at the base of the graptolite Glyptograptus persculputs zone. The 0.23 ppb Ir maximum in the Yichang type section is almost as large as the late Eocene impact Ir anomaly. However, the authors have observed that the Ir abundances in the Chinese sections are closely correlated with the sedimentation rates, and therefore have concluded that Ir maxima do not indicate a cataclysmic extraterrestrial impact at this extinction level.

  8. Concentric Eye Walls, Secondary Wind Maxima, and The Evolution of the Hurricane vortex.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willoughby, H. E.; Clos, J. A.; Shoreibah, M. G.

    1982-02-01

    Research aircraft observations in recent hurricanes support the model of Shapiro and Willoughby (1982) for the tropical cyclone's response to circularly symmetric, convective heat sources (convective rings). In both nature and the numerical model the tangential wind commonly increases rapidly just inside the radius of maximum wind and decreases inside the eye near the central axis of the vortex. Thus both secondary outer wind maxima and eyewall wind maxima often contract as they intensify. This response is independent of the horizontal spatial scale of the maximum. An outer maximum is frequently observed to constrict about a pre-existing eye and replace it. This chain of events often coincides with a weakening, or at least a pause in intensification, of the vortex as a whole. The concentric eye phenomenon is a common, but by no means universal, feature of tropical cyclones. It is most frequently observed in intense, highly symmetric systems.

  9. Comparative analysis of spatial organization of laccases from Cerrena maxima and Coriolus zonatus

    SciTech Connect

    Zhukova, Yu. N.; Zhukhlistova, N. E.; Lyashenko, A. V.; Morgunova, E. Yu.; Zaitsev, V. N.; Mikhailov, A. M.

    2007-09-15

    Laccase (oxygen oxidoreductase, EC 1.10.3.2) belongs to the multicopper oxidase family. The main function of this enzyme is to perform electron transfer from the oxidized substrate through the mononuclear copper-containing site T1 to the oxygen molecule bound to the site T3 in the trinuclear T2/T3 cluster. The structures of two new fungal laccases from C. maxima and C. zonatus were solved on the basis of synchrotron X-ray diffraction data. Both laccases show high structural homology with laccases from other sources. The role of the carbohydrate component of laccases in structure stabilization and formation of ordered protein crystals was demonstrated. In the structures of C. maxima and C. zonatus laccases, two water channels of functional importance were found and characterized. The structural results reported in the present study characterize one of the functional states of the enzyme fixed in the crystal structure.

  10. The solar wind during current and past solar minima and maxima

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zerbo, J.-L.; Richardson, J. D.

    2015-12-01

    This paper presents solar wind data from the last five solar cycles. We review solar wind parameters over the four solar minima and five maxima for which spacecraft data are available and show the recovery from the last very weak minimum to the current solar maximum. The solar wind magnetic field, speed, and density have remained anomalously low in this time period. However, the distributions of these parameters about the (lower than normal) average are similar to those from previous solar minima and maxima. This result suggests that the acceleration mechanism for the recent weak solar wind is probably not significantly different from earlier solar cycles. The He++/H+ ratio variation with solar cycle continues to be a function of speed, but the most recent solar minimum has significantly lower ratios than in the previous solar cycle.

  11. Atlas of depth-duration frequency of precipitation annual maxima for Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Asquith, William H.; Roussel, Meghan C.

    2004-01-01

    Ninety-six maps depicting the spatial variation of the depth-duration frequency of precipitation annual maxima for Texas are presented. The recurrence intervals represented are 2, 5, 10, 25, 50, 100, 250, and 500 years. The storm durations represented are 15 and 30 minutes; 1, 2, 3, 6, and 12 hours; and 1, 2, 3, 5, and 7 days. The maps were derived using geographically referenced parameter maps of probability distributions used in previously published research by the U.S. Geological Survey to model the magnitude and frequency of precipitation annual maxima for Texas. The maps in this report apply that research and update depth-duration frequency of precipitation maps available in earlier studies done by the National Weather Service.

  12. Comparative analysis of spatial organization of laccases from Cerrena maxima and Coriolus zonatus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhukova, Yu. N.; Zhukhlistova, N. E.; Lyashenko, A. V.; Morgunova, E. Yu.; Zaitsev, V. N.; Mikhaĭlov, A. M.

    2007-09-01

    Laccase (oxygen oxidoreductase, EC 1.10.3.2) belongs to the multicopper oxidase family. The main function of this enzyme is to perform electron transfer from the oxidized substrate through the mononuclear copper-containing site T1 to the oxygen molecule bound to the site T3 in the trinuclear T2/ T3 cluster. The structures of two new fungal laccases from C. maxima and C. zonatus were solved on the basis of synchrotron X-ray diffraction data. Both laccases show high structural homology with laccases from other sources. The role of the carbohydrate component of laccases in structure stabilization and formation of ordered protein crystals was demonstrated. In the structures of C. maxima and C. zonatus laccases, two water channels of functional importance were found and characterized. The structural results reported in the present study characterize one of the functional states of the enzyme fixed in the crystal structure.

  13. Variation of Spirulina maxima biomass production in different depths of urea-used culture medium

    PubMed Central

    Affan, Md-Abu; Lee, Dae-Won; Al-Harbi, Salim Marzoog; Kim, Han-Jun; Abdulwassi, Najah Ibrahim; Heo, Soo-Jin; Oh, Chulhong; Park, Heung-Sik; Ma, Chae Woo; Lee, Hyeon-Yong; Kang, Do-Hyung

    2015-01-01

    Fewer studies have assessed the outdoor cultivation of Spirulina maxima compared with S. platensis, although the protein content of S. maxima is higher than S. platensis. Spirulina growth medium requires an increased amount of NaHCO3, Na2CO3, and NaNO3, which increases the production cost. Therefore, the current study used a low-cost but high-efficiency biomass production medium (Medium M-19) after testing 33 different media. The medium depth of 25 cm (group A) was sub-divided into A1 (50% cover with a black curtain (PolyMax, 12 oz ultra-blackout), A2 (25% cover), and A3 (no cover). Similarly the medium depths of 30 and 35 cm were categorized as groups B (B1, B2, and B3) and C (C1, C2, and C3), respectively, and the effects of depth and surface light availability on growth and biomass production were assessed. The highest biomass production was 2.05 g L-1 in group A2, which was significantly higher (p < 0.05) than that in all other groups and sub-groups. Spirulina maxima died in B1 and C1 on the fifth day of culture. The biochemical composition of the biomass obtained from A2 cultures, including protein, carbohydrate, lipid, moisture, and ash, was 56.59%, 14.42%, 0.94%, 5.03%, and 23.02%, respectively. Therefore, S. maxima could be grown outdoors with the highest efficiency in urea-enriched medium at a 25-cm medium depth with 25% surface cover or uncovered. PMID:26691456

  14. Variation of Spirulina maxima biomass production in different depths of urea-used culture medium.

    PubMed

    Affan, Md-Abu; Lee, Dae-Won; Al-Harbi, Salim Marzoog; Kim, Han-Jun; Abdulwassi, Najah Ibrahim; Heo, Soo-Jin; Oh, Chulhong; Park, Heung-Sik; Ma, Chae Woo; Lee, Hyeon-Yong; Kang, Do-Hyung

    2015-01-01

    Fewer studies have assessed the outdoor cultivation of Spirulina maxima compared with S. platensis, although the protein content of S. maxima is higher than S. platensis. Spirulina growth medium requires an increased amount of NaHCO3, Na2CO3, and NaNO3, which increases the production cost. Therefore, the current study used a low-cost but high-efficiency biomass production medium (Medium M-19) after testing 33 different media. The medium depth of 25 cm (group A) was sub-divided into A1 (50% cover with a black curtain (PolyMax, 12 oz ultra-blackout), A2 (25% cover), and A3 (no cover). Similarly the medium depths of 30 and 35 cm were categorized as groups B (B1, B2, and B3) and C (C1, C2, and C3), respectively, and the effects of depth and surface light availability on growth and biomass production were assessed. The highest biomass production was 2.05 g L-1 in group A2, which was significantly higher (p < 0.05) than that in all other groups and sub-groups. Spirulina maxima died in B1 and C1 on the fifth day of culture. The biochemical composition of the biomass obtained from A2 cultures, including protein, carbohydrate, lipid, moisture, and ash, was 56.59%, 14.42%, 0.94%, 5.03%, and 23.02%, respectively. Therefore, S. maxima could be grown outdoors with the highest efficiency in urea-enriched medium at a 25-cm medium depth with 25% surface cover or uncovered. PMID:26691456

  15. Protective effects of Aloe vera-based diets in Eimeria maxima-infected broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Yim, Dongjean; Kang, Sang S; Kim, Dong W; Kim, Sang H; Lillehoj, Hyun S; Min, Wongi

    2011-01-01

    Aloes have been widely used for a broad range of pharmacological activities, including parasitic problems. Avian coccidiosis is the most costly and wide-spread parasitic disease in the poultry industry, and has been mainly controlled by the use of chemotherapeutic agents. Due to the emergence of drug-resistant strains, alternative control strategies are needed. In this study, the protective effects of Aloe vera-based diets were assessed in broiler chickens following oral infection with Eimeria maxima. Chickens were fed a regular diet supplemented with ground Aloe vera throughout the duration of the experiment beginning 2 days prior to infection with 1 × 10(4) sporulated oocysts of E. maxima. No significant differences were found in body weight gain or loss between the Aloe vera-supplemented and unsupplemented groups with or without E. maxima infections. Fecal oocyst shedding decreased significantly (p < 0.05) in all of the treatment groups that were supplemented with Aloe vera as compared to the unsupplemented group. Furthermore, the Aloe vera-supplemented group showed significantly fewer intestinal lesions (p < 0.05) than the unsupplemented group following infection. The findings of this study suggest that Aloe vera could be used an alternative treatment for controlling avian coccidiosis. PMID:20723543

  16. Measuring the Daemon-Flux Seasonal Maxima at the Baksan Neutrino Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drobyshevski, E. M.; Drobyshevski, M. E.

    2007-08-01

    Detection of negative daemons (Dark Electric Matter Objects - presumably the multiply electrically charged Planckian objects) in low-background conditions in September 2005 and March 2006 has provided supportive evidence for the expected to occur at that times maxima in the flux of daemons with V ≈ 10-15 km/s. These objects hit the Earth from the near-Earth, almost circular heliocentric orbits (NEACHOs). The ability of some FEU-167-1 PM tubes with a thicker inner Al coating to detect directly (without a scintillator) daemon passage through them has also been employed, an effect increasing ~ 100-fold the detector efficiency. As a result, the daemon flux recorded at the maxima was increased from ~10-9 to 10-7 cm-2s-1. At the maxima, two phases in the observed flux can be discriminated. The first of them is associated with objects moving in outer NEACHOs, which catch up with the Earth and cross it. The intensity and direction of the flux during this phase which lasts about two weeks depend on the time of day and latitude of observations (therefore, synchronous measurements in the northern and southern Earth's hemispheres are desirable). In the second phase, where the flux consists primarily of few objects transferred into geocentric, Earth-surface-crossing orbits during the first phase, the daytime and latitude dependence becomes less pronounced. All the experimental results thus obtained either support the conclusions following from the daemon paradigm or find a simple interpretation within it.

  17. Experimental Infection with Sporulated Oocysts of Eimeria maxima (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) in Broiler

    PubMed Central

    Brito, Luciana da S.; Pereira, Elder N.; da Silva, Augusta A.; Bentivóglio Costa Silva, Vinícius; Freitas, Fagner L. da C.

    2014-01-01

    Through this study we assessed the metabolic and pathological changes in broilers experimentally infected with oocysts of Eimeria maxima. To perform the experiment, we used 150 broiler strain cooB males, with ten days of age, were randomized according to weight and randomly assigned to two experimental groups: the control group was inoculated with 0.5 mL of distilled water; the infected group inoculated with 0.5 mL of solution containing 5 × 104 sporulated oocysts of Eimeria maxima. The live performance was evaluated on day 0 (day of inoculation), 5°, 10°, 15°, 25°, and 35° dpi, being slaughtered by cervical dislocation, fifteen birds/group. Although the sum in meat production was higher in the control group, the weight of the heart and gizzard of the experimental animals showed no significant difference, while the liver had difference on day 5°, 15°, and 35° dpi. The pathologic evaluation showed congested mucosa and presence of large amounts of mucus at 6 dpi. Therefore, it is concluded that the dose of 5 × 104 E. maxima inoculated in the experimental group was enough to cause harm to the animal organism. PMID:26464925

  18. Isolation of a new ribonuclease from fruiting bodies of the silver plate mushroom Clitocybe maxima.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hexiang; Ng, T B

    2004-06-01

    A ribonuclease, with an N-terminal sequence exhibiting some homology to ribonuclease from Pleurotus ostreatus (Family Pleurotaceae), has been purified from fruiting bodies of the silver plate mushroom Clitocybe maxima (Family Tricholomataceae). However, there is little resemblance between the N-terminal sequences of ribonucleases from various Pleurotus species, and a lesser extent of resemblance between ribonucleases from C. maxima and Pleurotus tuber-regium. No structural relationship exists between ribonuclease from C. maxima, and those from Volvariella volvacea, Lentinus edodes and Irpex lacteus. The purification protocol involved ion exchange chromatography on DEAE-cellulose, affinity chromatography on Affi-gel blue gel, ion exchange chromatography on CM-Sepharose, and fast protein liquid chromatography on Superdex 75. The ribonuclease was unadsorbed on DEAE-cellulose and adsorbed on Affi-gel blue gel and CM-Sepharose. It exhibited a molecular mass of 17.5 kDa in both gel filtration and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. It manifested roughly the same ribonucleolytic potency toward poly A and poly G followed by poly U. Its activity toward poly C was, by comparison, meager. The temperature and pH required for its optimal activity were, respectively, 70 degrees C and 6.5-7.0. PMID:15203239

  19. Expression of nutrient transporters in duodenum, jejunum, and ileum of Eimeria maxima-infected broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Fetterer, Raymond H; Miska, Katarzyna B; Jenkins, Mark C; Wong, Eric A

    2014-10-01

    The uptake of amino acids is mediated by active transporters located on the basolateral and brush border membranes of intestinal epithelial cells. The current study investigated the expression of amino acid transporters (AAT) and other genes in the intestine of chicks infected with Eimeria maxima. At 7-day postinfection (PI), tissue from each intestinal segment (duodenum, jejunum, and ileum) was taken from birds inoculated with 3 × 10(3) oocysts/bird and processed to recover RNA. Analysis of gene expression was performed using real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Results were given as relative expression using β₂-microglobulin as an endogenous control. All the genes studied were expressed in three segments of the intestines, and expression of the genes was altered by infection with E. maxima. Even though the jejunum is considered the parasite's primary predilection site, there was no segment-related difference in expression of most of the genes studied. The antimicrobial peptide (LEAP2) was downregulated in all three segments of the intestine. The results also demonstrate that transporters associated with brush border membranes were downregulated while transporters associated with the basolateral membranes were upregulated and that E. maxima alters the expression of AAT and LEAP2 throughout the small intestine. PMID:25193050

  20. Biomass of Spirulina maxima enriched by biosorption process as a new feed supplement for swine.

    PubMed

    Saeid, A; Chojnacka, K; Korczyński, M; Korniewicz, D; Dobrzański, Z

    2013-04-01

    This paper deals with the new mineral feed additives with Cu produced in a biosorption process from a semi-technical scale. The natural biomass of edible microalga Spirulina sp. was enriched with Cu(II) and then used as a mineral supplement in feeding experiments on swine to assess its nutrition properties. A total of 24 piglets divided into two groups (control and experimental) were used to determine the bioavailability of a new generation of mineral feed additives based on Spirulina maxima. The control group was feed using traditional inorganic supplements of microelements, while the experimental group was fed with the feed containing the biomass of S. maxima enriched with Cu by biosorption. The apparent absorption was 30 % (P < 0.05) higher in the experimental group. No effect on the production results (average daily feed intake, average daily gain, feed conversion ratio) was detected. It was found that copper concentration in feces in the experimental group was 60 % (P < 0.05) lower than in the control group. The new preparation-a dietary supplement with microelements produced by biosorption based on biomass of microalgae S. maxima-is a promising alternative to currently used inorganic salts as the source of nutritionally important microelements. PMID:23482251

  1. Volatile compounds in cryptic species of the Aneura pinguis complex and Aneura maxima (Marchantiophyta, Metzgeriidae).

    PubMed

    Wawrzyniak, Rafał; Wasiak, Wiesław; Bączkiewicz, Alina; Buczkowska, Katarzyna

    2014-09-01

    Aneura pinguis is one of the liverwort species complexes that consist of several cryptic species. Ten samples collected from different regions in Poland are in the focus of our research. Eight of the A. pinguis complex belonging to four cryptic species (A, B, C, E) and two samples of closely related species Aneura maxima were tested for the composition of volatile compounds. The HS-SPME technique coupled to GC/FID and GC/MS analysis has been applied. The fiber coated with DVB/CAR/PDMS has been used. The results of the present study, revealed the qualitative and quantitative differences in the composition of the volatile compounds between the studied species. Mainly they are from the group of sesquiterpenoids, oxygenated sesquiterpenoids and aliphatic hydrocarbons. The statistical methods (CA and PCA) showed that detected volatile compounds allow to distinguish cryptic species of A. pinguis. All examined cryptic species of the A. pinguis complex differ from A. maxima. Species A and E of A. pinguis, in CA and PCA, form separate clusters remote from two remaining cryptic species of A. pinguis (B and C) and A. maxima. Relationship between the cryptic species appeared from the chemical studies are in accordance with that revealed on the basis of DNA sequences. PMID:25034615

  2. Grand solar minima and maxima deduced from 10Be and 14C: magnetic dynamo configuration and polarity reversal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inceoglu, F.; Simoniello, R.; Knudsen, M. F.; Karoff, C.; Olsen, J.; Turck-Chiéze, S.; Jacobsen, B. H.

    2015-05-01

    Aims: This study aims to improve our understanding of the occurrence and origin of grand solar maxima and minima. Methods: We first investigate the statistics of peaks and dips simultaneously occurring in the solar modulation potentials reconstructed using the Greenland Ice Core Project (GRIP) 10Be and IntCal13 14C records for the overlapping time period spanning between ~1650 AD to 6600 BC. Based on the distribution of these events, we propose a method to identify grand minima and maxima periods. By using waiting time distribution analysis, we investigate the nature of grand minima and maxima periods identified based on the criteria as well as the variance and significance of the Hale cycle during these kinds of events throughout the Holocene epoch. Results: Analysis of grand minima and maxima events occurring simultaneously in the solar modulation potentials, reconstructed based on the 14C and the 10Be records, shows that the majority of events characterized by periods of moderate activity levels tend to last less than 50 years: grand maxima periods do not last longer than 100 years, while grand minima can persist slightly longer. The power and the variance of the 22-year Hale cycle increases during grand maxima and decreases during grand minima, compared to periods characterized by moderate activity levels. Conclusions: We present the first reconstruction of the occurrence of grand solar maxima and minima during the Holocene based on simultaneous changes in records of past solar variability derived from tree-ring 14C and ice-core 10Be, respectively. This robust determination of the occurrence of grand solar minima and maxima periods will enable systematic investigations of the influence of grand solar minima and maxima episodes on Earth's climate.

  3. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray study of the fungal laccase from Cerrena maxima

    SciTech Connect

    Lyashenko, Andrey V.; Zhukhlistova, Nadegda E.; Gabdoulkhakov, Azat G.; Zhukova, Yuliya N.; Voelter, Wolfang; Zaitsev, Viatcheslav N.; Bento, Isabel; Stepanova, Elena V.; Kachalova, Galina S.; Koroleva, Ol’ga V.; Cherkashyn, Evgeniy A.; Tishkov, Vladimir I.; Lamzin, Victor S.; Schirwitz, Katja; Betzel, Christian; Mikhailov, Al’bert M.

    2006-10-01

    The crystallization and preliminary X-ray structure at 1.9 Å resolution of the fungal laccase from C. maxima are presented. Laccases are members of the blue multi-copper oxidase family that oxidize substrate molecules by accepting electrons at a mononuclear copper centre and transferring them to a trinuclear centre. Dioxygen binds to the trinuclear centre and, following the transfer of four electrons, is reduced to two molecules of water. Crystals of the laccase from Cerrena maxima have been obtained and X-ray data were collected to 1.9 Å resolution using synchrotron radiation. A preliminary analysis shows that the enzyme has the typical laccase structure and several carbohydrate sites have been identified. The carbohydrate chains appear to be involved in stabilization of the intermolecular contacts in the crystal structure, thus promoting the formation of well ordered crystals of the enzyme. Here, the results of an X-ray crystallographic study on the laccase from the fungus Cerrena maxima are reported. Crystals that diffract well to a resolution of at least 1.9 Å (R factor = 18.953%; R{sub free} = 23.835; r.m.s.d. bond lengths, 0.06 Å; r.m.s.d. bond angles, 1.07°) have been obtained despite the presence of glycan moieties. The overall spatial organization of C. maxima laccase and the structure of its copper-containing active centre have been determined by the molecular-replacement method using the laccase from Trametes versicolor (Piontek et al., 2002 ▶) as a structural template. In addition, four glycan-binding sites were identified and the 1.9 Å X-ray data were used to determine the previously unknown primary structure of this protein. The identity (calculated from sequence alignment) between the C. maxima laccase and the T. versicolor laccase is about 87%. Tyr196 and Tyr372 show significant extra density at the ortho positions and this has been interpreted in terms of NO{sub 2} substituents.

  4. MAXIMA-1: A Measurement of the Cosmic Microwave Background Anisotropy on Angular Scales of 10' to 5 degrees

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Ade, P.; Balbi, A.; Bock, J.; Borrill, J.; Boscaleri, A.; de Bernardis, P.; Ferreira, P. G.; Hanany, S.; Hristov, V. V.; Jaffe, A. H.; Lange, A. E.; Lee, A. T.; Mauskopf, P. D.; Netterfield, C. B.; Oh, S.; Pascale, E.; Rabii, B.; Richards, P. L.; Smoot, G. F.; Stompor, R.; Winant,C. D.; Wu, J. H. P.

    2005-06-04

    We present a map and an angular power spectrum of the anisotropy of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) from the first flight of MAXIMA. MAXIMA is a balloon-borne experiment with an array of 16 bolometric photometers operated at 100 mK. MAXIMA observed a 124 deg{sup 2} region of the sky with 10' resolution at frequencies of 150, 240 and 410 GHz. The data were calibrated using in-flight measurements of the CMB dipole anisotropy. A map of the CMB anisotropy was produced from three 150 and one 240 GHz photometer without need for foreground subtractions.

  5. Artificial elevation of glutathione affects symptom development in ZYMV-infected Cucurbita pepo L. plants.

    PubMed

    Zechmann, B; Zellnig, G; Urbanek-Krajnc, A; Müller, M

    2007-01-01

    Styrian oil pumpkin seedlings (Cucurbita pepo L. subsp. pepo var. styriaca GREB: .) were treated for 48 h with 1 mM OTC (L-2-oxothiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid) in order to artificially increase cellular glutathione content. They were inoculated with zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV) 10 days later. The effects of OTC treatment and ZYMV infection on glutathione levels were examined at the subcellular level by immunogold labeling of glutathione using a transmission electron microscope (TEM). These effects were further tested at the whole-tissue level by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Such tests were carried out a) on roots, cotyledons and the first true leaves immediately after OTC treatment in order to analyze to which extent OTC increases glutathione levels in different cell compartments as well as in the whole organ; and b) in older and younger leaves and in roots three weeks after ZYMV inoculation in order to study how possible effects of OTC on symptom development would correlate with glutathione levels at the subcellular level and in the whole organ. Immunocytological and biochemical investigations revealed that, 48 h after OTC treatment, glutathione content had increased in all investigated organs, up to 144% in peroxisomes of cotyledons. Three weeks after ZYMV inoculation, glutathione labeling density had significantly increased within intact cells of infected leaves, up to 124% in the cytosol of younger leaves. Roots showed decreased amounts of glutathione in the TEM. Biochemical studies revealed that OTC treatment resulted in 41 and 51% higher glutathione content in older and younger ZYMV-infected leaves, respectively, in comparison to untreated and ZYMV-infected plants. Evaluation of symptom development at this point revealed that all untreated ZYMV-infected plants had symptoms, whereas only 42% of OTC-treated ZYMV-infected plants showed signs of symptoms. Quantification of ZYMV particles revealed that all organs of OTC-treated and ZYMV

  6. Influence of salinity, bottom topography, and tides on locations of estuarine turbidity maxima in northern San Francisco Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schoellhamer, David H.

    2000-01-01

    Time series of salinity and suspended-solids concentration measured at four locations and vertical profiles of salinity and suspended-solids concentration measured during 48 water-quality cruises from January 1993 to September 1997 are analyzed to describe the influence of salinity, bottom topography, and tides on locations of estuarine turbidity maxima in northern San Francisco Bay, California. Estuarine turbidity maxima form when salinity is present but they are not associated with a singular salinity. Bottom topography enhances salinity stratification, gravitational circulation and estuarine turbidity maxima formation seaward of sills. The spring/neap tidal cycle affects locations of estuarine turbidity maxima. Salinity stratification in Carquinez Strait, which is seaward of a sill, is greatest during neap tides, which is the only time when tidally averaged suspended-solids concentration in Carquinez Strait was less than that observed landward at Mallard Island. Spring tides cause the greatest vertical mixing and suspended-solids concentration in Carquinez Strait. Therefore, surface estuarine turbidity maxima always were located in or near the Strait (seaward of Middle Ground) during spring tide cruises, regardless of salinity. During neap tides, surface estuarine turbidity maxima always were observed in the landward half of the study area (landward of Middle Ground) and between 0–2 practical salinity units.

  7. Protective effects of Spirulina maxima on hyperlipidemia and oxidative-stress induced by lead acetate in the liver and kidney

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Oxidative damage has been proposed as a possible mechanism involved in lead toxicity, specially affecting the liver and kidney. Previous studies have shown the antioxidant effect of Spirulina maxima in several experimental models of oxidative stress. The current study was carried out to evaluate the antioxidant activity of Spirulina maxima against lead acetate-induced hyperlipidemia and oxidative damage in the liver and kidney of male rats. Control animals were fed on a standard diet and did not receive lead acetate (Control group). Experimental animals were fed on a standard laboratory diet with or without Spirulina maxima 5% in the standard laboratory diet and treated with three doses of lead acetate (25 mg each/weekly, intraperitoneal injection) (lead acetate with Spirulina, and lead acetate without Spirulina groups). Results The results showed that Spirulina maxima prevented the lead acetate-induced significant changes on plasma and liver lipid levels and on the antioxidant status of the liver and kidney. On the other hand, Spirulina maxima succeeded to improve the biochemical parameters of the liver and kidney towards the normal values of the Control group. Conclusions It was concluded that Spirulina maxima has protective effects on lead acetate-induced damage, and that the effects are associated with the antioxidant effect of Spirulina. PMID:20353607

  8. Supplementation of Citrus maxima Peel Powder Prevented Oxidative Stress, Fibrosis, and Hepatic Damage in Carbon Tetrachloride (CCl4) Treated Rats

    PubMed Central

    Chowdhury, Mohammed Riaz Hasan; Sagor, Md Abu Taher; Tabassum, Nabila; Potol, Md Abdullah

    2015-01-01

    Citrus maxima peel is rich in natural phenolic compounds and has a long use in the traditional medicine. HPLC-DAD analysis on Citrus maxima peel powder exhibited the presence of various phenolic compounds such as caffeic acid and (−)-epicatechin. To determine the plausible hepatoprotective activity of Citrus maxima peel powder, we used carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) treated rat model. Liver damage in rats was confirmed by measuring the AST, ALT, and ALP enzyme activities. In addition, lipid peroxidation products (MDA), nitric oxide, advanced protein oxidation products level (APOP), and catalase activities were also analyzed along with the histological profiling for the inflammatory cell infiltration, collagen, and iron deposition in liver. Dietary supplementation of Citrus maxima peel powder exhibited significant reduction of serum AST, ALT, and ALP activities in carbon tetrachloride treated rats. Moreover, Citrus maxima peel powder also showed a significant reduction of the oxidative stress markers (MDA, NO, and APOP level) and restored the catalase activity in CCl4 treated rats. Histological examination of the liver section revealed reduced inflammatory cells infiltration, collagen, and iron deposition in CCl4 treated rats. The results from this study demonstrated that Citrus maxima peel powder produced significant hepatoprotective action in CCl4 administered rats. PMID:26106435

  9. Study of the spring and autumn daemon-flux maxima at the Baksan Neutrino Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drobyshevski, Edward; Drobyshevski, Mikhail

    2006-02-01

    Detection of daemons in low-background conditions in September 2005 and March 2006 has provided supportive evidence for the maxima in the flux of daemons with V ≈ 10 15kms- 1, which hit the Earth from near-Earth almost-circular heliocentric orbits (NEACHOs) and which were expected to occur at those times. The ability of some FEU-167-1 photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) with a thicker inner aluminium coating to detect directly (without a scintillator) daemon passage through them has also been demonstrated, an effect giving a hundredfold increase in the detector efficiency. As a result, the daemon flux recorded at the maxima was increased from about 10- 9 to about 10- 7cm- 2s- 1. At the maxima, two phases in the observed flux can be discriminated. The first of these is associated with objects which catch up with the Earth when moving in outer NEACHOs and cross it. The intensity and direction of the flux during this phase which lasts about 2 weeks depend on the time of day and latitude of observations (therefore, synchronous measurements in the northern and southern hemispheres of the Earth are desirable). In the second phase, where the flux consists primarily of a few objects captured into geocentric Earth-surface-crossing orbits during the first phase, the daytime and latitude dependences become less pronounced. The experiments suggest an explanation for the fairly poor reproducibility of our earlier ground-level measurements (subtle differences in PMT design, varying radon background, etc.). All the experimental results thus obtained either support the conclusions following from the daemon paradigm or find a simple interpretation within it.

  10. Effect of Spirulina maxima on Postprandial Lipemia in Young Runners: A Preliminary Report

    PubMed Central

    Torres-Durán, Patricia Victoria; Ferreira-Hermosillo, Aldo; Ramos-Jiménez, Arnulfo; Hernández-Torres, Rosa Patricia

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Trained people exhibit low plasma concentrations of triacylglcyerols in both fasting and postprandial states. Exercise practice is commonly believed to improve postprandial lipemia. In addition, elevated postprandial lipemia is an indicator of poor lipid clearance, and it has been associated with atherosclerosis, insulin resistance, and obesity. Spirulina maxima is an edible microorganism with a high nutritional value. When it is consumed, beneficial properties to health have been demonstrated, such as hypolipemic and antihypertensive properties in human beings. This work evaluates the effects of orally administrated S. maxima on postprandial lipemia in a young Mexican sporting population after 15 days of consumption, as a possible alternative treatment to improve their lipid clearance. Forty-one runners (10–26 years old; 21 men and 20 women) volunteered to participate in the study. All of them were physically active for at least 1 year before the study and were not undergoing training during the study. The subjects consumed 5 g of Spirulina during 15 days. Before and after the treatment with Spirulina, they consumed (12 h fasting) a standardized meal with high fat content (53.2% total calories). Postprandial lipemia was measured at 1.5, 3, and 4.5 h after the fatty meal. Fasting plasma triacylglycerol (TAG) concentrations were lower after Spirulina treatment than before treatment. In addition, the postprandial area under the curve of TAG concentrations was lower after the treatment with Spirulina. Sixty-two percent of the youngest runners (10–16 years) studied exhibited the best response to the treatment. Orally administered S. maxima decreased postprandial lipemia in sporting teenagers. The youngest people were the most responsive to the beneficial effects of Spirulina on postprandial lipemia. PMID:22738038

  11. Eimeria maxima phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate 5-kinase: locus sequencing, characterization, and cross-phylum comparison.

    PubMed

    Goh, Mei-Yen; Pan, Mei-Zhen; Blake, Damer P; Wan, Kiew-Lian; Song, Beng-Kah

    2011-03-01

    Phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate 5-kinase (PIP5K) may play an important role in host-cell invasion by the Eimeria species, protozoan parasites which can cause severe intestinal disease in livestock. Here, we report the structural organization of the PIP5K gene in Eimeria maxima (Weybridge strain). Two E. maxima BAC clones carrying the E. maxima PIP5K (EmPIP5K) coding sequences were selected for shotgun sequencing, yielding a 9.1-kb genomic segment. The EmPIP5K coding region was initially identified using in silico gene-prediction approaches and subsequently confirmed by mapping rapid amplification of cDNA ends and RT-PCR-generated cDNA sequence to its genomic segment. The putative EmPIP5K gene was located at position 710-8036 nt on the complimentary strand and comprised of 23 exons. Alignment of the 1147 amino acid sequence with previously annotated PIP5K proteins from other Apicomplexa species detected three conserved motifs encompassing the kinase core domain, which has been shown by previous protein deletion studies to be necessary for PIP5K protein function. Phylogenetic analysis provided further evidence that the putative EmPIP5K protein is orthologous to that of other Apicomplexa. Subsequent comparative gene structure characterization revealed events of intron loss/gain throughout the evolution of the apicomplexan PIP5K gene. Further scrutiny of the genomic structure revealed a possible trend towards "intron gain" between two of the motif regions. Our findings offer preliminary insights into the structural variations that have occurred during the evolution of the PIP5K locus and may aid in understanding the functional role of this gene in the cellular biology of apicomplexan parasites. PMID:20938684

  12. Immune protection of microneme 7 (EmMIC7) against Eimeria maxima challenge in chickens.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jingwei; Zhang, Zhenchao; Li, Menghui; Song, Xiaokai; Yan, Ruofeng; Xu, Lixin; Li, Xiangrui

    2015-10-01

    In the present study, the immune protective effects of recombinant microneme protein 7 of Eimeria maxima (rEmMIC7) and a DNA vaccine encoding this antigen (pVAX1-EmMIC7) on experimental challenge were evaluated. Two-week-old chickens were randomly divided into five groups. Experimental groups of chickens were immunized with 100 μg DNA vaccine pVAX1-MIC7 or 200 μg rEmMIC7, while control groups of chickens were injected with pVAX1 plasmid or sterile phosphate buffered saline (PBS). The results showed that the anti-EmMIC7 antibody titres in chickens of both rEmMIC7 and pVAX1-MIC7 groups were significantly higher as compared to PBS and pVAX1 control (P < .05). The splenocytes from both vaccinated groups of chickens displayed significantly greater proliferation response compared with the controls (P < .05). Serum from chickens immunized with pVAX1-MIC7 and rEmMIC7 displayed significantly high levels of interleukin-2, interferon-γ, IL-10, IL-17, tumour growth factor-β and IL-4 (P < .05) compared to those of negative controls. The challenge experiment results showed that both the recombinant antigen and the DNA vaccine could obviously alleviate jejunum lesions, body weight loss and enhance oocyst decrease ratio. The anti-coccidial index (ACI) of the pVAX1-MIC7 group was 167.84, higher than that of the recombinant MIC7 protein group, 167.10. Our data suggested that immunization with EmMIC7 was effective in imparting partial protection against E. maxima challenge in chickens and it could be an effective antigen candidate for the development of new vaccines against E. maxima. PMID:26181095

  13. The effects of pruning and nodal adventitious roots on polychlorinated biphenyl uptake by Cucurbita pepo grown in field conditions.

    PubMed

    Low, Jennifer E; Åslund, Melissa L Whitfield; Rutter, Allison; Zeeb, Barbara A

    2011-03-01

    Two cultivation techniques (i-pruning and ii-nodal adventitious root encouragement) were investigated for their ability to increase PCB phytoextraction by Cucurbita pepo ssp pepo cv. Howden (pumpkin) plants in situ at a contaminated industrial site in Ontario (Aroclor 1248, mean soil [PCB] = 5.6 μg g(-1)). Pruning was implemented to increase plant biomass close to the root where PCB concentration is known to be highest. This treatment was found to have no effect on final shoot biomass or PCB concentration. However, material pruned from the plant is not included in the final shoot biomass. The encouragement of nodal adventitious roots at stem nodes did significantly increase the PCB concentration in the primary stem, while not affecting shoot biomass. Both techniques are easily applied cultivation practices that may be implemented to decrease phytoextraction treatment time. PMID:21168941

  14. Protection of Broiler Chicks Housed with Immunized Cohorts Against Infection with Eimeria maxima and E. acervulina.

    PubMed

    Fetterer, Raymond H; Barfield, Ruth C; Jenkins, Mark C

    2015-03-01

    The use of live oocyst vaccines is becoming increasingly important in the control of avian coccidiosis in broilers. Knowledge of the mechanisms employed when chicks uptake oocysts and become immune is important for optimizing delivery of live vaccines. The current study tests the hypothesis that chicks not initially immunized may ingest oocysts by contact with litter containing oocysts shed by immunized cohorts. In Experiment 1, day-old broiler chicks were housed in pens containing clean litter. In Trial 1, 100% of chicks in some pens were immunized with 2.5 X 10(3) Eimeria acervulina oocysts while in other pens only 75% of chicks were immunized and remaining cohorts within the pens were not immunized. Other pens contained chicks that served as nonimmunized nonchallenged controls or nonimmunized challenged controls (NIC). On day 21, birds were given a homologous challenge of 6 X 10(5) oocysts. A second identical trial was conducted, except birds were immunized with 500 Eimeria maxima oocysts and were challenged with 3 X 10(3) E. maxima oocysts. In Experiment 2, 100% of chicks in some pens were immunized with 500 E. acervulina oocysts while in other pens either 75% or 50% of the birds were immunized. On day 14, birds were challenged with 1 X 10(6) oocysts. Trial 2 was identical to Trial 1 except that birds were immunized with 100 E. maxima oocysts and challenged with 1 X 10(6) oocysts. For all experiments weight gain, feed conversion ratio (FCR), plasma carotenoids, and litter oocyst counts were measured. In Experiment 1, the level of protection in groups containing 25% nonimmunized cohorts, as measured by weight gain, carotenoid level, FCR, and oocyst litter counts, was identical to groups containing 100% immunized chicks. In Experiment 2, pens where 50% or 75% of birds were immunized with either E. maxima or E. acervulina were not well protected from decreases in weight gain and plasma carotenoids nor from increases in litter oocyst counts following a challenge

  15. Large-scale investigation of the parameters in response to Eimeria maxima challenge in broilers.

    PubMed

    Hamzic, E; Bed'Hom, B; Juin, H; Hawken, R; Abrahamsen, M S; Elsen, J M; Servin, B; Pinard-van der Laan, M H; Demeure, O

    2015-04-01

    Coccidiosis, a parasitic disease of the intestinal tract caused by members of the genera Eimeria and Isospora, is one of the most common and costly diseases in chicken. The aims of this study were to assess the effect of the challenge and level of variability of measured parameters in chickens during the challenge with Eimeria maxima. Furthermore, this study aimed to investigate which parameters are the most relevant indicators of the health status. Finally, the study also aimed to estimate accuracy of prediction for traits that cannot be measured on large scale (such as intestinal lesion score and fecal oocyst count) using parameters that can easily be measured on all animals. The study was performed in 2 parts: a pilot challenge on 240 animals followed by a large-scale challenge on 2,024 animals. In both experiments, animals were challenged with 50,000 Eimeria maxima oocysts at 16 d of age. In the pilot challenge, all animals were measured for BW gain, plasma coloration, hematocrit, and rectal temperature and, in addition, a subset of 48 animals was measured for oocyst count and the intestinal lesion score. All animals from the second challenge were measured for BW gain, plasma coloration, and hematocrit whereas a subset of 184 animals was measured for intestinal lesion score, fecal oocyst count, blood parameters, and plasma protein content and composition. Most of the parameters measured were significantly affected by the challenge. Lesion scores for duodenum and jejunum (P < 0.001), oocyst count (P < 0.05), plasma coloration for the optical density values between 450 and 490 nm (P < 0.001), albumin (P < 0.001), α1-globulin (P < 0.01), α2-globulin (P < 0.001), α3-globulin (P < 0.01), and β2-globulin (P < 0.001) were the most strongly affected parameters and expressed the greatest levels of variation. Plasma protein profiles proved to be a new, reliable parameter for measuring response to Eimeria maxima. Prediction of intestinal lesion score and fecal oocyst

  16. Light Curve Morphology: The Evolution of the O`Connell Effect and the Maxima Separation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Debski, B.; Zola, S.; Baran, A.

    2015-07-01

    We have used starspot migration models to obtain constraints on the co-latitude of a moving dark region on the surface of a contact binary system. Our study focused on two migration indicators: the evolution of the O'Connell effect, and changes in the brightness of the maxima. The amplitude and shape of these signals obtained observationally were confronted with simulations, giving rather sharp boundaries for the allowed co-latitude of the migrating starspots. Our models prefer large, polar or circumpolar migrating starspots. This may explain how the long-lived migrating spots survive the journey in latitude around the neck of the contact binary.

  17. Two and three dimensional characterization of Zucchini Yellow Mosaic Virus induced structural alterations in Cucurbita pepo L. plants.

    PubMed

    Zellnig, Günther; Pöckl, Michael Herbert; Möstl, Stefan; Zechmann, Bernd

    2014-05-01

    Infection of plants by Zucchini Yellow Mosaic Virus (ZYMV) induces severe ultrastructural changes. The aim of this study was to investigate ultrastructural changes during ZYMV-infection in Cucurbita pepo L. plants on the two and three dimensional (2D and 3D) level and to correlate these changes with the spread of ZYMV throughout the plant by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and image analysis. This study revealed that after inoculation of the cotyledons ZYMV moved into roots [3 days post inoculation (dpi)], then moved upwards into the stem and apical meristem (5 dpi), then into the first true leaf (7 dpi) and could finally be found in all plant parts (9 dpi). ZYMV-infected cells contained viral inclusion bodies in the form of cylindrical inclusions (CIs). These CIs occurred in four different forms throughout the cytosol of roots and leaves: scrolls and pinwheels when cut transversely and long tubular structures and bundles of filaments when cut longitudinally. 3D reconstruction of ZYMV-infected cells containing scrolls revealed that they form long tubes throughout the cytosol. The majority has a preferred orientation and an average length and width of 3 μm and 120 nm, respectively. Image analysis revealed an increased size of cells and vacuoles (107% and 447%, respectively) in younger ZYMV-infected leaves leading to a similar ratio of cytoplasm to vacuole (about 1:1) in older and younger ZYMV-infected leaves which indicates advanced cell growth in younger tissues. The collected data advances the current knowledge about ZYMV-induced ultrastructural changes in Cucurbita pepo. PMID:24631670

  18. Dynamo model for grand maxima of solar activity: can superflares occur on the Sun?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitchatinov, L. L.; Olemskoy, S. V.

    2016-07-01

    Recent data on superflares on Sun-like stars and radiocarbon data on solar activity in the past are both indicative of transient epochs of unusually high magnetic activity. We propose an explanation for the grand activity maxima in the framework of a solar dynamo model with fluctuating parameters. Solar-type dynamos are oscillatory because of the combination of the solar-type differential rotation with positive (in the Northern hemisphere) alpha-effect. An artificial reversal of the sign in the alpha-effect changes the dynamo to a steady regime with hundreds of times larger magnetic energy compared to the amplitude of the cyclic dynamo. Sufficiently large and durable fluctuations reversing the sign of the alpha-effect during the growth phase of a magnetic cycle can, therefore, cause a transient change to a steady dynamo with considerably increased magnetic energy. This qualitative scenario for grand activity maxima is supported by computations of the dynamo model with a fluctuating alpha-effect. The computed statistics of several thousand magnetic cycles gives examples of cycles with very high magnetic energy. Our preliminary estimations, however, suggest that the probability of solar superflares is extremely low.

  19. Dynamo model for grand maxima of solar activity: can superflares occur on the Sun?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitchatinov, L. L.; Olemskoy, S. V.

    2016-04-01

    Recent data on superflares on sun-like stars and radiocarbon data on solar activity in the past are both indicative of transient epochs of unusually high magnetic activity. We propose an explanation for the grand activity maxima in the framework of a solar dynamo model with fluctuating parameters. Solar-type dynamos are oscillatory because of the combination of the solar-type differential rotation with positive (in the northern hemisphere) alpha-effect. An artificial reversal of the sign in the alpha-effect changes the dynamo to a steady regime with hundreds of times larger magnetic energy compared to the amplitude of the cyclic dynamo. Sufficiently large and durable fluctuations reversing the sign of the alpha-effect during the growth phase of a magnetic cycle can, therefore, cause a transient change to a steady dynamo with considerably increased magnetic energy. This qualitative scenario for grand activity maxima is supported by computations of the dynamo model with a fluctuating alpha-effect. The computed statistics of several thousand magnetic cycles gives examples of cycles with very high magnetic energy. Our preliminary estimations however suggest that the probability of solar superflares is extremely low.

  20. Relationship between tropical heating and subtropical westerly maxima in the Southern Hemisphere during SOP-1, FGGE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hurrel, James W.; Vincent, Dayton G.

    1990-01-01

    FGGE Level III-b analyses, produced by the Goddard Laboratory for Atmospheres, NASA, are used to investigate the relationship between tropical heating and subtropical westerly maxima in the Southern Hemisphere during SOP-1 (January 5 - March 4, 1979). The mean state of two 15-day periods is examined, as well as day-to-day variations for the entire 59-day period. In Period 1 (January 6-20), the central South Pacific was extremely active convectively, while in Period 2 (February 3-17), convective activity over the western Indian Ocean was enhanced. Episodes of strong outflow in the tropics, as measured by the upper tropospheric velocity potential, were found to be well correlated with the strengthening and propagation of westerly wind maxima in the subtropics. The average location of the westerly maximum over the South Pacific and Indian oceans was about 16 deg latitudes south, and slightly east, of its corresponding heat source. For a cyclone case study which is presented, however, this distance was considerably less. The response time between the upper level tropical outflow and subtropical westerly enhancement appears to be less than 12 hours; however, an exact temporal scale was difficult to identify.

  1. Transformation-rate maxima during lath martensite formation: plastic vs. elastic shape strain accommodation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loewy, Sarah; Rheingans, Bastian; Mittemeijer, Eric J.

    2016-05-01

    Recently, a modulated formation behaviour of lath martensite in Fe-Ni(-based) alloys was observed, exhibiting a series of transformation-rate maxima. This peculiar transformation behaviour was explained on the basis of the hierarchical microstructure of lath martensite, minimising the net shape strain associated with martensite formation, by a block-by-block formation of martensite packages occurring simultaneously in all packages. In the present work, the martensitic transformation upon slow cooling of two Fe-Ni alloys, containing 22 and 25 at.% of Ni, respectively, was investigated by high-resolution dilatometry with the aim of identifying the influence of alloy composition on the modulated transformation behaviour. The differences observed for the two alloys, a more rapid sequence of the transformation-rate maxima and a narrower temperature range in case of Fe-25 at.% Ni, can be explained consistently as a consequence of the lower transformation temperatures in Fe-25 at.% Ni, highlighting the role of temporary accommodation of the shape strain during formation of the lath martensite microstructure: the depression of the transformation toward lower temperatures leads to a higher strength of the austenite, hence resulting in a more elastic (less plastic) temporary accommodation of the shape strain upon block formation and thereby in a more effective mutual compensation of the shape strain by neighbouring blocks. A kinetic model on the basis of energy-change considerations is presented which is able to describe the observed modulated transformation behaviour.

  2. Enhancement of Immune Activation Activities of Spirulina maxima Grown in Deep-Sea Water

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Woon Yong; Kang, Do Hyung; Lee, Hyeon Yong

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the immuno-modulatory and anticancer activities of marine algae, Spirulina maxima grown in deep-sea water (DSW), were investigated. It was found that the extract of S. maxima, cultured in DSW, effectively suppressed the expression of Bcl2 in A549 cells as well as inhibiting various human cancer cells with concentration dependency, which possibly implies that the extracts may play more important roles in controlling cancer cell growth. The secretion of cytokines IL-6 and TNF-α from human B cells was also greatly increased, compared to those of the extract grown in conventional sea-water. The growth of Human Natural Killer (NK) cells in the presence of the extracts from DSW was significantly higher (12.2 × 104 viable cells/mL) when compared to the control (1.1 × 104 viable cells/mL). Based on HPLC analysis, the increase in the biological activities of the extracts from DSW was caused by considerably high amounts of β-carotene and ascorbic acid because the DSW contained high concentrations and good ratios of several key minerals for biosynthesizing β-carotene and ascorbic acid, as well as maintaining high cell growth. PMID:23743830

  3. Enhancement of immune activation activities of Spirulina maxima grown in deep-sea water.

    PubMed

    Choi, Woon Yong; Kang, Do Hyung; Lee, Hyeon Yong

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the immuno-modulatory and anticancer activities of marine algae, Spirulina maxima grown in deep-sea water (DSW), were investigated. It was found that the extract of S. maxima, cultured in DSW, effectively suppressed the expression of Bcl2 in A549 cells as well as inhibiting various human cancer cells with concentration dependency, which possibly implies that the extracts may play more important roles in controlling cancer cell growth. The secretion of cytokines IL-6 and TNF-α from human B cells was also greatly increased, compared to those of the extract grown in conventional sea-water. The growth of Human Natural Killer (NK) cells in the presence of the extracts from DSW was significantly higher (12.2 × 104 viable cells/mL) when compared to the control (1.1 × 104 viable cells/mL). Based on HPLC analysis, the increase in the biological activities of the extracts from DSW was caused by considerably high amounts of β-carotene and ascorbic acid because the DSW contained high concentrations and good ratios of several key minerals for biosynthesizing β-carotene and ascorbic acid, as well as maintaining high cell growth. PMID:23743830

  4. STRUCTURE IN THE 3D GALAXY DISTRIBUTION. II. VOIDS AND WATERSHEDS OF LOCAL MAXIMA AND MINIMA

    SciTech Connect

    Way, M. J.; Gazis, P. R.; Scargle, Jeffrey D. E-mail: PGazis@sbcglobal.net

    2015-01-20

    The major uncertainties in studies of the multi-scale structure of the universe arise not from observational errors but from the variety of legitimate definitions and detection methods for individual structures. To facilitate the study of these methodological dependencies, we have carried out 12 different analyses defining structures in various ways. This has been done in a purely geometrical way by utilizing the HOP algorithm as a unique parameter-free method of assigning groups of galaxies to local density maxima or minima. From three density estimation techniques (smoothing kernels, Bayesian blocks, and self-organizing maps) applied to three data sets (the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7, the Millennium simulation, and randomly distributed points) we tabulate information that can be used to construct catalogs of structures connected to local density maxima and minima. We also introduce a void finder that utilizes a method to assemble Delaunay tetrahedra into connected structures and characterizes regions empty of galaxies in the source catalog.

  5. Comparison of substorms near two solar cycle maxima: (1999-2000 and 2012-2013)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Despirak, I.; Lubchich, A.; Kleimenova, N.

    2016-05-01

    We present the comparative analysis of the substorm behavior during two solar cycle maxima. The substorms, observed during the large solar cycle maximum (1999- 2000, with Wp> 100) and during the last maximum (2012-2013 with Wp~60), were studied. The considered substorms were divided into 3 types according to auroral oval dynamic. First type - substorms which are observed only at auroral latitudes ("usual" substorms); second type - substorms which propagate from auroral latitudes (<70?) to polar geomagnetic latitudes (>70°) ("expanded" substorms, according to expanded oval); third type - substorms which are observed only at latitudes above ~70° in the absence of simultaneous geomagnetic disturbances below 70° ("polar" substorms, according to contracted oval). Over 1700 substorm events have been analyzed. The following substorm characteristics have been studied: (i) the seasonal variations, (ii) the latitudinal range of the occurrence, (iii) solar wind and IMF parameters before substorm onset, (iiii) PC-index before substorm onset. Thus, the difference between two solar activity maxima could be seen in the difference of substorm behavior in these periods as well.

  6. In vivo localization of antibodies raised against Eimeria maxima wall forming bodies during sexual intracellular development.

    PubMed

    Frölich, Sonja; Shahparee, Annisha; Wasinger, Valerie C; Wallach, Michael

    2014-11-01

    SUMMARY Apicomplexan parasites cause devastating diseases in humans and livestock. Previously we demonstrated that antibodies targeting transmissible forms of the apicomplexan parasite, Eimeria, are effective at reducing parasite shedding thus preventing the transmission of the disease. However, the mechanisms responsible have not been fully defined. Moreover, there is no direct evidence that the parasite-specific IgG antibodies can reach the parasite developing in the enterocytes of the infected chicken host. This study summarizes our efforts using host immunity, parasite proteomics and 3D microscopy to provide a step forward in our understanding of how this immune response works. Eimeria maxima is an important pathogen of poultry and used as a surrogate for a number of human pathogens including Toxoplasma and Plasmodium. Our studies demonstrate that immunization with the purified wall forming bodies (WFBs) results in a production of parasite-specific IgG antibodies, which have the ability to reach in situ gametocytes in the intestinal lumen and permeate the enterocyte/parasite membranes in order to bind to the cytoplasmic Type 1 and Type 2 WFBs. This raises the intriguing possibility that via this process antibodies block the development of Eimeria maxima in vivo. PMID:25075563

  7. F-actin distribution and function during sexual development in Eimeria maxima.

    PubMed

    Frölich, Sonja; Wallach, Michael

    2015-06-01

    To determine the involvement of the actin cytoskeleton in macrogametocyte growth and oocyst wall formation, freshly purified macrogametocytes and oocysts were stained with Oregon Green 514 conjugated phalloidin to visualize F-actin microfilaments, while Evans blue staining was used to detect type 1 wall forming bodies (WFB1s) and the outer oocyst wall. The double-labelled parasites were then analysed at various stages of sexual development using three-dimensional confocal microscopy. The results showed F-actin filaments were distributed throughout the entire cytoplasm of mature Eimeria maxima macrogametocytes forming a web-like meshwork of actin filaments linking the type 1 WFBs together into structures resembling 'beads on a string'. At the early stages of oocyst wall formation, F-actin localization changed in alignment with the egg-shaped morphology of the forming oocysts with F-actin microfilaments making direct contact with the WFB1s. In tissue oocysts, the labelled actin cytoskeleton was situated underneath the forming outer layer of the oocyst wall. Treatment of macrogametocytes in vitro with the actin depolymerizing agents, Cytochalasin D and Latrunculin, led to a reduction in the numbers of mature WFB1s in the cytoplasm of the developing macrogametocytes, indicating that the actin plays an important role in WFB1 transport and oocyst wall formation in E. maxima. PMID:25800683

  8. Characterization and bioactivity of phycocyanin isolated from Spirulina maxima grown under salt stress.

    PubMed

    Abd El-Baky, Hanaa H; El-Baroty, Gamal S

    2012-04-01

    In this study, Spirulina maxima (SM) has been selected following preliminary investigations, for cultivation in either normal (0.02 M) or stress (0.1 M) NaCl medium (Zarrouk) under room conditions to evaluate the possibility of increasing the total phycobiliprotein content (TPC) and their chemical constituents: C-phycocyanin (C-PC), allophycocyanin (APC) and phycoerthrin (PE). TPC material was separated, purified and characterized by various spectroscopic techniques (UV-Vis and IR spectra). The antioxidant activity against free radicals of DPPH, ABTS, superoxide (˙(-)O(2)), hydroxy (˙OH) and reducing power potential were determined. Results indicated a highly significant correlation between increased TPC content in SM cells and the increasing concentration of NaCl in medium, and its chemical constituents were significantly different (P > 0.05). TPC of SM (grown in stress NaCl) containing high amounts of C-PC groups, showed strong antioxidant activity compared with ascorbic acid (standard antioxidant). Although, it activity against different free radicals were found to be variable and dose-dependent. Moreover, the TPC showed lower antimicrobial activity (MIC values in the range of 250-300 μg mL(-1)) than that of chloramphinicol (30 μg mL(-1), reference antimicrobial). Therefore, Spirulina maxima could be cultivated in a salinated open pond, and considered as highly healthy foods and source of natural pigments. PMID:22234291

  9. MAXIMA: an experiment to measure temperature anisotropy in the cosmic microwave background

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, A.T.; Balbi, A.; Borrill, J.; Jaffe, A.H.; Oh, S.; Rabii, B.; Richards, P.L.; Smoot, G.F.; Winant, C.D.; Lee, A.T.; Jaffe, A.H.; Rabii, B.; Richards, P.L.; Smoot, G.F.; Winant, C.D.; Ade, P.; Hristov, V.; Lange, A.E.; Pascale, E.; Balbi, A.; Borrill, J.; Bock, J.; Crill, B.P.; Smoot, G.F.; Bock, J.; Del Castillo, H.; Boscaleri, A.; De Bernardis, P.; Ferreira, P.; Ganga, K.; Hanany, S.; Mauskopf, P.; Netterfield, C.B.; Ruhl, J.

    1999-05-01

    We describe the MAXIMA experiment, a balloon-borne measurement designed to map temperature anisotropy in the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) from l=80 to l=800. The experiment consists of a 1.3 m diameter off-axis Gregorian telescope and a receiver with a 16 element array of bolometers cooled to 100 mK. The frequency bands are centered at 150, 240, and 410 GHz. The 10{sup {prime}} FWHM beam sizes are well matched to the scale of acoustic peaks expected in the angular power spectrum of the CMB. The first flight of the experiment in its full configuration was launched in August 1998. A 122 deg{sup 2} map of the sky was made near the Draco constellation during the 7 hour flight in a region of extremely low galactic dust contamination. This map covers 0.3{percent} of the sky and has 3200 independent beamsize pixels. We describe the MAXIMA instrument and its performance during the recent flight. {copyright} {ital 1999 American Institute of Physics.}

  10. Captures of Wild Ceratitis capitata, Bactrocera dorsalis, and Bactrocera cucurbitae (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Traps with Improved Multilure TMR Dispensers Weathered in California.

    PubMed

    Vargas, Roger I; Souder, Steven K; Morse, Joseph G; Grafton-Cardwell, Elizabeth E; Haviland, David R; Kabashima, John N; Faber, Ben A; Mackey, Bruce; Cook, Peter

    2016-04-01

    During 2012–2013, solid Mallet TMR (trimedlure [TML], methyl eugenol [ME], raspberry ketone [RK]) wafers impregnated with DDVP (2, 2-dichlorovinyl dimethyl phosphate) insecticide were weathered during summer (8 wk) and winter (12 wk) in five California citrus-growing counties (Kern, Ventura, Orange, Tulare, and Riverside). In addition, TMR wafers without DDVP and with a Hercon Vaportape II insecticidal strip were compared with TMR dispensers with DDVP at Exeter and Riverside. Weathered treatments were shipped every week (overnight delivery) to Hawaii and frozen for a later bioassay in a 1,335-ha coffee plantation near Numila, Kauai Island, HI, where Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis Hendel, and melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae Coquillett, were all present. We compared trap captures of the three species, C. capitata, B. dorsalis, and B. cucurbitae, for the five different weathering locations. Captures of C. capitata, B. dorsalis, and B. cucurbitae with Mallet TMR dispensers (with DDVP) were not significantly different for the five locations. Captures with the Mallet TMR dispenser without DDVP and Vaportape were similar to those for Mallet TMR with DDVP, although there were some slight location differences. In conclusion, based on these results, the Mallet TMR dispenser could potentially be used in California habitats where large numbers of detection traps are currently deployed. Use of Vaportape with dispensers would not require them to be registered with US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Dispensers for use as Male Annihilation Technique (MAT) devices will be tested further in Hawaii. PMID:26582906