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Sample records for limit fire hazard

  1. FIRE HAZARDS ANALYSIS - BUSTED BUTTE

    SciTech Connect

    R. Longwell; J. Keifer; S. Goodin

    2001-01-22

    The purpose of this fire hazards analysis (FHA) is to assess the risk from fire within individual fire areas at the Busted Butte Test Facility and to ascertain whether the DOE fire safety objectives are met. The objective, identified in DOE Order 420.1, Section 4.2, is to establish requirements for a comprehensive fire and related hazards protection program for facilities sufficient to minimize the potential for: (1) The occurrence of a fire related event. (2) A fire that causes an unacceptable on-site or off-site release of hazardous or radiological material that will threaten the health and safety of employees. (3) Vital DOE programs suffering unacceptable interruptions as a result of fire and related hazards. (4) Property losses from a fire and related events exceeding limits established by DOE. Critical process controls and safety class systems being damaged as a result of a fire and related events.

  2. Cables and fire hazards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zanelli, C.; Philbrick, S.; Beretta, G.

    1986-01-01

    Besides describing the experiments conducted to develop a nonflammable cable, this article discusses several considerations regarding other hazards which might result from cable fires, particularly the toxicity and opacity of the fumes emitted by the burning cable. In addition, this article examines the effects of using the Oxygen Index as a gauge of quality control during manufacture.

  3. Exploratory Studies Facility Subsurface Fire Hazards Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    J. L. Kubicek

    2001-09-07

    The primary objective of this Fire Hazard Analysis (FHA) is to confirm the requirements for a comprehensive fire and related hazards protection program for the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) are sufficient to minimize the potential for: (1) The occurrence of a fire or related event. (2) A fire that causes an unacceptable on-site or off-site release of hazardous or radiological material that will threaten the health and safety of employees, the public or the environment. (3) Vital US. Department of Energy (DOE) programs suffering unacceptable interruptions as a result of fire and related hazards. (4) Property losses from a fire and related events exceeding limits established by DOE. (5) Critical process controls and safety class systems being damaged as a result of a fire and related events.

  4. Exploratory Studies Facility Subsurface Fire Hazards Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Richard C. Logan

    2002-03-28

    The primary objective of this Fire Hazard Analysis (FHA) is to confirm the requirements for a comprehensive fire and related hazards protection program for the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) are sufficient to minimize the potential for: The occurrence of a fire or related event; A fire that causes an unacceptable on-site or off-site release of hazardous or radiological material that will threaten the health and safety of employees, the public or the environment; Vital U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) programs suffering unacceptable interruptions as a result of fire and related hazards; Property losses from a fire and related events exceeding limits established by DOE; and Critical process controls and safety class systems being damaged as a result of a fire and related events.

  5. 32 CFR 935.161 - Fire hazards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... under that person's control. (b) To minimize fire hazards, no person may store any waste or flammable... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fire hazards. 935.161 Section 935.161 National... WAKE ISLAND CODE Public Safety § 935.161 Fire hazards. (a) Each person engaged in a business or...

  6. 32 CFR 935.161 - Fire hazards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... under that person's control. (b) To minimize fire hazards, no person may store any waste or flammable... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Fire hazards. 935.161 Section 935.161 National... WAKE ISLAND CODE Public Safety § 935.161 Fire hazards. (a) Each person engaged in a business or...

  7. Fire Hazards Analysis for the 200 Area Interim Storage Area

    SciTech Connect

    JOHNSON, D.M.

    2000-01-06

    This documents the Fire Hazards Analysis (FHA) for the 200 Area Interim Storage Area. The Interim Storage Cask, Rad-Vault, and NAC-1 Cask are analyzed for fire hazards and the 200 Area Interim Storage Area is assessed according to HNF-PRO-350 and the objectives of DOE Order 5480 7A. This FHA addresses the potential fire hazards associated with the Interim Storage Area (ISA) facility in accordance with the requirements of DOE Order 5480 7A. It is intended to assess the risk from fire to ensure there are no undue fire hazards to site personnel and the public and to ensure property damage potential from fire is within acceptable limits. This FHA will be in the form of a graded approach commensurate with the complexity of the structure or area and the associated fire hazards.

  8. Fire hazards evaluation for light duty utility arm system

    SciTech Connect

    HUCKFELDT, R.A.

    1999-02-24

    In accordance with DOE Order 5480.7A, Fire Protection, a Fire Hazards Analysis must be performed for all new facilities. LMHC Fire Protection has reviewed and approved the significant documentation leading up to the LDUA operation. This includes, but is not limited to, development criteria and drawings, Engineering Task Plan, Quality Assurance Program Plan, and Safety Program Plan. LMHC has provided an appropriate level of fire protection for this activity as documented.

  9. Fire and explosion hazards of oil shale

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    The US Bureau of Mines publication presents the results of investigations into the fire and explosion hazards of oil shale rocks and dust. Three areas have been examined: the explosibility and ignitability of oil shale dust clouds, the fire hazards of oil shale dust layers on hot surfaces, and the ignitability and extinguishment of oil shale rubble piles. 10 refs., 54 figs., 29 tabs.

  10. 32 CFR 935.161 - Fire hazards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Fire hazards. 935.161 Section 935.161 National... WAKE ISLAND CODE Public Safety § 935.161 Fire hazards. (a) Each person engaged in a business or other activity on Wake Island shall, at his expense, provide and maintain (in an accessible location)...

  11. 32 CFR 935.161 - Fire hazards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Fire hazards. 935.161 Section 935.161 National... WAKE ISLAND CODE Public Safety § 935.161 Fire hazards. (a) Each person engaged in a business or other activity on Wake Island shall, at his expense, provide and maintain (in an accessible location)...

  12. 32 CFR 935.161 - Fire hazards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Fire hazards. 935.161 Section 935.161 National... WAKE ISLAND CODE Public Safety § 935.161 Fire hazards. (a) Each person engaged in a business or other activity on Wake Island shall, at his expense, provide and maintain (in an accessible location)...

  13. Electrical Sitchgear Building No. 5010-ESF Fire Hazards Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    N.M. Ruonavaara

    2001-05-08

    The purpose of this Fire Hazards Analysis Technical Report (hereinafter referred to as Technical Report) is to assess the risk from fire within individual fire areas to ascertain whether the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) fire safety objectives are met. The objectives, identified in DOE Order 420.1, Change 2, Fire Safety, Section 4.2, establish requirements for a comprehensive fire and related hazards protection program for facilities sufficient to minimize the potential for: (1) The occurrence of a fire or related event; (2) A fire that causes an unacceptable on-site or off-site release of hazardous or radiological material that will threaten the health and safety of the employees, the public, and the environment; (3) Vital DOE programs suffering unacceptable interruptions as a result of fire and related hazards; (4) Property losses from a fire and related events exceeding defined limits established by DOE; and (5) Critical process controls and safety class systems being damaged as a result of a fire and related event.

  14. Surface Fire Hazards Analysis Technical Report-Constructor Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    R.E. Flye

    2000-10-24

    The purpose of this Fire Hazards Analysis Technical Report (hereinafter referred to as Technical Report) is to assess the risk from fire within individual fire areas to ascertain whether the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) fire safety objectives are met. The objectives identified in DOE Order 420.1, Change 2, Facility Safety, Section 4.2, establish requirements for a comprehensive fire and related hazards protection program for facilities sufficient to minimize the potential for: The occurrence of a fire or related event; A fire that causes an unacceptable on-site or off-site release of hazardous or radiological material that will threaten the health and safety of employees, the public, or the environment; Vital DOE programs suffering unacceptable interruptions as a result of fire and related hazards; Property losses from a fire and related events exceeding defined limits established by DOE; and Critical process controls and safety class systems being damaged as a result of a fire and related events.

  15. Repository Subsurface Preliminary Fire Hazard Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Richard C. Logan

    2001-07-30

    This fire hazard analysis identifies preliminary design and operations features, fire, and explosion hazards, and provides a reasonable basis to establish the design requirements of fire protection systems during development and emplacement phases of the subsurface repository. This document follows the Technical Work Plan (TWP) (CRWMS M&O 2001c) which was prepared in accordance with AP-2.21Q, ''Quality Determinations and Planning for Scientific, Engineering, and Regulatory Compliance Activities''; Attachment 4 of AP-ESH-008, ''Hazards Analysis System''; and AP-3.11Q, ''Technical Reports''. The objective of this report is to establish the requirements that provide for facility nuclear safety and a proper level of personnel safety and property protection from the effects of fire and the adverse effects of fire-extinguishing agents.

  16. The Elimination of Fire Hazard Due to Back Fires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Theodorsen, Theodore; Freeman, Ira M

    1933-01-01

    A critical study was made of the operation of a type of back-fire arrester used to reduce the fire hazard of aircraft engines. A flame arrester consisting of a pack or plug of alternate flat and corrugated plates of thin metal was installed in the intake pipe of a gasoline engines; an auxiliary spark plug inserted in the intake manifold permitted the production of artificial back fires at will. It was found possible to design a plug which prevented all back fires from reaching the carburetor.

  17. Fire hazard analysis for the fuel supply shutdown storage buildings

    SciTech Connect

    REMAIZE, J.A.

    2000-09-27

    The purpose of a fire hazards analysis (FHA) is to comprehensively assess the risk from fire and other perils within individual fire areas in a DOE facility in relation to proposed fire protection so as to ascertain whether the objectives of DOE 5480.7A, Fire Protection, are met. This Fire Hazards Analysis was prepared as required by HNF-PRO-350, Fire Hazards Analysis Requirements, (Reference 7) for a portion of the 300 Area N Reactor Fuel Fabrication and Storage Facility.

  18. 327 Building fire hazards analysis implementation plan

    SciTech Connect

    BARILO, N.F.

    1999-05-10

    In March 1998, the 327 Building Fire Hazards Analysis (FHA) (Reference 1) was approved by the U.S. Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (DOE-E) for implementation by B and W Hanford Company (BWC). The purpose of the FHA was to identify gaps in compliance with DOE Order 5480.7A (Reference 2) and Richland Operations Office Implementation Directive (RLID) 5480.7 (Reference 3), especially in regard to loss limitation. The FHA identified compliance gaps in five areas and provided nine recommendations (11 items) to bring the 327 Building into compliance. A status is provided for each recommendation in this document. BWHC will use this Implementation Plan to bring the 327 Building and its operation into compliance with DOE Order 5480.7A and IUD 5480.7.

  19. Solving Another Fire Hazard Problem.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trunko, Michael E.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses how rooftop grease containment systems can protect college roofs and prevent fires. Included are the rules and regulations for grease containment systems and tips for choosing a system. (GR)

  20. 327 Building fire hazards analysis implementation plan

    SciTech Connect

    Eggen, C.D.

    1998-09-16

    In March 1998, the 327 Building Fire Hazards Analysis (FRA) (Reference 1) was approved by the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL) for implementation by B and W Hanford Company (B and WHC). The purpose of the FHA was to identify gaps in compliance with DOE Order 5480.7A (Reference 2) and Richland Operations Office Implementation Directive (RLID) 5480.7 (Reference 3), especially in regard to loss limitation. The FHA identified compliance gaps in five areas and provided nine recommendations (11 items) to bring the 327 Building into compliance. To date, actions for five of the 11 items have been completed. Exemption requests will be transmitted to DOE-RL for two of the items. Corrective actions have been identified for the remaining four items. The completed actions address combustible loading requirements associated with the operation of the cells and support areas. The status of the recommendations and actions was confirmed during the July 1998 Fire Protection Assessment. B and WHC will use this Implementation Plan to bring the 327 Building and its operation into compliance with DOE Order 5480.7A and RLID 5480.7.

  1. 324 Building fire hazards analysis implementation plan

    SciTech Connect

    Eggen, C.D.

    1998-09-16

    In March 1998, the 324 Building Fire Hazards Analysis (FHA) (Reference 1) was approved by the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL) for implementation by B and W Hanford Company (BWHC). The purpose of the FHA was to identify gaps in compliance with DOE Order 5480.7A (Reference 2) and Richland Operations Office Implementation Directive (RLID) 5480.7 (Reference 3), especially in regard to loss limitation. The FHA identified compliance gaps in six areas and provided 20 recommendations to bring the 324 Building into compliance with DOE Order 5480.7A. Additionally, one observation was provided. To date, four of the recommendations and the one observation have been completed. Actions identified for seven of the recommendations are currently in progress. Exemption requests will be transmitted to DOE-RL for three of the recommendations. Six of the recommendations are related to future shut down activities of the facility and the corrective actions are not being addressed as part of this plan. The actions for recommendations associated with the safety related part of the 324 Building and operation of the cells and support areas were evaluated using the Unreviewed Safety Question (USQ) process. Major Life Safety Code concerns have been corrected. The status of the recommendations and actions was confirmed during the July 1998 Fire Protection Assessment. BVMC will use this Implementation Plan to bring the 324 Building and its operation into compliance with DOE Order 5480.7A and RLID 5480.7.

  2. Fire Hazards of Windowless Buildings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juillerat, Ernest E.

    1964-01-01

    In response to the fast growing prominence of windowless buildings due to potential or possible aesthetic, psychological, and economic advantages, this article was written to discuss--(1) effects of windowless construction on the life safety of building occupants, (2) the possible extents of fire damage to the building and its contents, and (3)…

  3. Hazard Assessment of Fire in Electrical Cabinets

    SciTech Connect

    Avidor, Elyahu; Joglar-Billoch, Francisco J.; Mowrer, Frederick W.; Modarres, Mohammad

    2003-12-15

    Fire in electrical cabinets is of major concern in nuclear power plants. With the need to reduce incoming electrical power from 14 kV to as low as 50 V, and the need to supply power to hundreds of electrical components, there is an abundance of electrical cabinets in nuclear power plants. The combination of fire load and live electrical energy within electrical cabinets has caused fires and explosions. Such fires are of concern as they may disrupt the delivery of electrical power and instrumentation and control in the plant. In addition, the fire can propagate to nearby cabinets and plant components. This paper presents advances in the knowledge and understanding of the conditions inside a cabinet due to fire and ranks fire hazard potential of electrical cabinets.Test results for electrical cabinet fires have been reported by Sandia National Laboratories and by the Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT). The Sandia tests provide data for fires in control cabinets. The VTT tests provide a model for calculation of burning rates inside a specific electrical cabinet. This research included a site visit to a nuclear power plant to understand variations in electrical cabinet design as well as performing 39 cabinet fire tests with varying burning rates, ventilation openings, and cabinet sizes. Two types of fuels were used for this study: propane gas and heptane liquid. This paper identifies the minimum fire size that can be maintained in a cabinet as a function of ventilation openings, cabinet wall temperatures, and radiation levels, and the characteristics of external smoke and fire plumes. Based on the test results, a one-zone model was developed for mathematical simulation. The model was used to expand on the results of the tests to construct a risk matrix of fire hazards for various cabinets as a function of the cabinet size, fire size, and ventilation openings.Since the test results in this study are based on propane and heptane as the fire load, it is desirable

  4. Fire hazards analysis of transuranic waste storage and assay facility

    SciTech Connect

    Busching, K.R., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-07-31

    This document analyzes the fire hazards associated with operations at the Central Waste Complex. It provides the analysis and recommendations necessary to ensure compliance with applicable fire codes.

  5. Fire hazards analysis for solid waste burial grounds

    SciTech Connect

    McDonald, K.M.

    1995-09-28

    This document comprises the fire hazards analysis for the solid waste burial grounds, including TRU trenches, low-level burial grounds, radioactive mixed waste trenches, etc. It analyzes fire potential, and fire damage potential for these facilities. Fire scenarios may be utilized in future safety analysis work, or for increasing the understanding of where hazards may exist in the present operation.

  6. 324 Building fire hazards analysis implementation plan

    SciTech Connect

    BARILO, N.F.

    1999-05-10

    In March 1998, the 324 Building Fire Hazards Analysis (FHA) (Reference 1) was approved by the U S. Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL) for implementation by B and W Hanford Company (BWHC). The purpose of the FHA was to identify gaps in compliance with DOE Order 5480.7A (Reference 2) and Richland Operations Office Implementation Directive (RLID) 5480.7 (Reference 3), especially in regard to loss limitation. The FHA identified compliance gaps in six areas and provided 20 recommendations to bring the 324 Building into compliance with DOE Order 5480 7A. Additionally, one observation was provided. A status is provided for each recommendation in this document. The actions for recommendations associated with the safety related part of the 324 Building and operation of the cells and support areas were evaluated using the Unreviewed Safety Question (USQ) process BWHC will use this Implementation Plan to bring the 324 Building and its operation into compliance with DOE Order 5480 7A and RLID 5480.7.

  7. Fire Hazard Analysis for the Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) Facility

    SciTech Connect

    JOHNSON, B.H.

    1999-08-19

    This Fire Hazard Analysis assesses the risk from fire within individual fire areas in the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility at the Hanford Site in relation to existing or proposed fire protection features to ascertain whether the objectives of DOE Order 5480.7A Fire Protection are met.

  8. Syncrude`s fire hazard index priorities risks

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, B.

    1997-05-01

    To quantify fire hazard risks within large production facilities and help establish priorities for additional fire controls, Syncrude Canada Ltd. created a fire hazard index, to identify high-priority risks. The fire hazard index scoring system assigns a number score to each facility or work area. The numerical score represents the composite fire risk associated with the area of concern. The resulting scores are used as a comparative tool to determine which fire risks receive top priority for additional controls and fire inspections/surveys. Unlike other fire hazard indices, the Syncrude index can be used for all facilities regardless of whether they handle flammable material. As a result, the potential fire hazard associated with vehicles, shops, offices, computer rooms, and mechanical equipment can be assessed. 1 ref., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Fire Hazards Analysis for the Inactive Equipment Storage Sprung Structure

    SciTech Connect

    MYOTT, C.F.

    2000-02-03

    The purpose of the analysis is to comprehensively assess the risk from fire within individual fire areas in relation to proposed fire protection so as to ascertain whether the fire protection objective of DOE Order 5480.1A are met. The order acknowledges a graded approach commensurate with the hazards involved.

  10. Slash fire hazard analysis on the Siskiyou National Forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radloff, David L.; Schopfer, Walter C.; Yancik, Richard F.

    1982-11-01

    Potential increase in fire hazard as a result of timber harvesting is a concern of forest managers throughout the United States. Treating fuels can help reduce unacceptable fire hazards. To evaluate alternative fuel treatments, managers need to know their effects on fire hazard. A decision analysis approach to estimating fire hazard in terms of expected burned area was applied to a watershed in the Siskiyou National Forest (Oregon). Three treatment alternatives (do nothing and two levels of yarding unmerchantable material) were evaluated, and the effects of the treatments were projected over a 90-yr period. Initially, the effects of applying a treatment are small. After 50 years of treatment, the most intense alternative can be expected to show almost a 50% reduction in burned area compared to no treatment. The procedure also estimates burned are by fire size and fire intensity classes. Managers may find this useful for estimating expected fire effects associated with a particular fuel treatment regime.

  11. Limiting the immediate and subsequent hazards associated with wildfires

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeGraff, Jerome V.; Cannon, Susan H.; Parise, Mario

    2013-01-01

    Similarly, our capability to limit impacts from post-fire debris flows is improving. Empirical models for estimating the probability of debris-flow occurrence, the volume of such an event, and mapping the inundated area, linked with improved definitions of the rainfall conditions that trigger debris flows, can be used to provide critical information for post-fire hazard mitigation and emergency-response planning.

  12. Health hazards of fire fighters: exposure assessment.

    PubMed Central

    Brandt-Rauf, P W; Fallon, L F; Tarantini, T; Idema, C; Andrews, L

    1988-01-01

    There is growing concern over the detrimental health effects to firefighters produced by exposure to combustion byproducts of burning materials. To assess the types and levels of exposure encountered by firefighters during their routine occupational duties, members of the Buffalo Fire Department were monitored during firefighting activities with personal, portable, ambient environmental sampling devices. The results indicate that firefighters are frequently exposed to significant concentrations of hazardous materials including carbon monoxide, benzene, sulphur dioxide, hydrogen cyanide, aldehydes, hydrogen chloride, dichlorofluoromethane, and particulates. Furthermore, in many cases of the worst exposure to these materials respiratory protective equipment was not used owing to the visual impression of low smoke intensity, and thus these levels represent actual direct exposure of the firefighters. Many of these materials have been implicated in the production of cardiovascular, respiratory, or neoplastic diseases, which may provide an explanation for the alleged increased risk for these illnesses among firefighters. PMID:3179235

  13. 46 CFR 71.25-45 - Fire hazards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fire hazards. 71.25-45 Section 71.25-45 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Annual Inspection § 71.25-45 Fire hazards. (a) At each annual inspection, the inspector shall examine the tank...

  14. 46 CFR 189.25-45 - Fire hazards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Fire hazards. 189.25-45 Section 189.25-45 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Inspection for Certification § 189.25-45 Fire hazards. At each inspection for certification...

  15. 46 CFR 71.25-45 - Fire hazards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Fire hazards. 71.25-45 Section 71.25-45 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Annual Inspection § 71.25-45 Fire hazards. (a) At each annual inspection, the inspector shall examine the tank...

  16. 46 CFR 91.25-45 - Fire hazards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Fire hazards. 91.25-45 Section 91.25-45 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Inspection for Certification § 91.25-45 Fire hazards. (a) At each inspection for certification...

  17. 46 CFR 189.25-45 - Fire hazards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Fire hazards. 189.25-45 Section 189.25-45 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Inspection for Certification § 189.25-45 Fire hazards. At each inspection for certification...

  18. 46 CFR 189.25-45 - Fire hazards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Fire hazards. 189.25-45 Section 189.25-45 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Inspection for Certification § 189.25-45 Fire hazards. At each inspection for certification...

  19. 46 CFR 91.25-45 - Fire hazards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Fire hazards. 91.25-45 Section 91.25-45 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Inspection for Certification § 91.25-45 Fire hazards. (a) At each inspection for certification...

  20. 46 CFR 91.25-45 - Fire hazards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fire hazards. 91.25-45 Section 91.25-45 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Inspection for Certification § 91.25-45 Fire hazards. (a) At each inspection for certification...

  1. 46 CFR 91.25-45 - Fire hazards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fire hazards. 91.25-45 Section 91.25-45 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Inspection for Certification § 91.25-45 Fire hazards. (a) At each inspection for certification...

  2. 46 CFR 91.25-45 - Fire hazards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Fire hazards. 91.25-45 Section 91.25-45 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Inspection for Certification § 91.25-45 Fire hazards. (a) At each inspection for certification...

  3. 46 CFR 71.25-45 - Fire hazards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Fire hazards. 71.25-45 Section 71.25-45 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Annual Inspection § 71.25-45 Fire hazards. (a) At each annual inspection, the inspector shall examine the tank...

  4. 46 CFR 189.25-45 - Fire hazards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fire hazards. 189.25-45 Section 189.25-45 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Inspection for Certification § 189.25-45 Fire hazards. At each inspection for certification...

  5. 46 CFR 71.25-45 - Fire hazards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Fire hazards. 71.25-45 Section 71.25-45 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Annual Inspection § 71.25-45 Fire hazards. (a) At each annual inspection, the inspector shall examine the tank tons and bilges in the machinery spaces...

  6. 46 CFR 189.25-45 - Fire hazards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fire hazards. 189.25-45 Section 189.25-45 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Inspection for Certification § 189.25-45 Fire hazards. At each inspection for certification...

  7. 46 CFR 71.25-45 - Fire hazards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fire hazards. 71.25-45 Section 71.25-45 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Annual Inspection § 71.25-45 Fire hazards. (a) At each annual inspection, the inspector shall examine the tank...

  8. Fire hazards and CO2 laser resurfacing.

    PubMed

    Wald, D; Michelow, B J; Guyuron, B; Gibb, A A

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the fire risk of laser resurfacing in the presence of supplemental oxygen. This study aims at defining safety parameters of variables such as laser energy level, oxygen flow rate, and "oxygen to laser target distance" when oxygen is delivered through a nasal cannula or nasopharyngeal tube. The typical operating room environment was simulated in the laboratory using the Yucatan minipig animal model. The energy source was a Coherent Ultrapulse CO2 laser. It was found that combustion did not occur at laser settings of 500 mJ, 50 W, 100 kHz, and a density of 5, used in conjunction with an oxygen flow rate of 6 liter/minute with the target area as close as 0.5 cm to the oxygen delivery. A total of 400 computer pattern generator treatments were delivered using this energy setting without observation of any combustion (p < 0.001). This provides evidence that while using even somewhat high laser settings and oxygen flow rate, laser induced fires can be avoided. We conclude that use of the laser in the presence of oxygen is safe, provided the target area is free of combustible fuels. Despite this assurance, laser mishaps are serious because they lead to both morbidity and mortality. It is our recommendation that close attention be constantly paid to all details, thus reducing the hazard potential of laser energy on local factors in an oxygen-rich environment. PMID:9427936

  9. Phase 2 fire hazard analysis for the canister storage building

    SciTech Connect

    Sadanaga, C.T., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-07-01

    The fire hazard analysis assesses the risk from fire in a facility to ascertain whether the fire protection policies are met. This document provides a preliminary FHA for the CSB facility. Open items have been noted in the document. A final FHA will be required at the completion of definitive design, prior to operation of the facility.

  10. 46 CFR 72.03-5 - Fire hazards to be minimized.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fire hazards to be minimized. 72.03-5 Section 72.03-5... ARRANGEMENT General Fire Protection § 72.03-5 Fire hazards to be minimized. (a) The general construction of the vessel shall be such as to minimize fire hazards insofar as is reasonable and practicable. (b)...

  11. 46 CFR 190.05-3 - Fire hazards to be minimized.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fire hazards to be minimized. 190.05-3 Section 190.05-3... CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT General Fire Protection § 190.05-3 Fire hazards to be minimized. (a) The general construction of the vessel shall be such as to minimize fire hazards....

  12. 46 CFR 92.05-1 - Fire hazards to be minimized.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fire hazards to be minimized. 92.05-1 Section 92.05-1... CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT General Fire Protection § 92.05-1 Fire hazards to be minimized. (a) The general construction of the vessel shall be such as to minimize fire hazards insofar as is reasonable and practicable....

  13. Fire hazard considerations for composites in vehicle design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gordon, Rex B.

    1994-01-01

    Military ground vehicles fires are a significant cause of system loss, equipment damage, and crew injury in both combat and non-combat situations. During combat, the ability to successfully fight an internal fire, without losing fighting and mobility capabilities, is often the key to crew survival and mission success. In addition to enemy hits in combat, vehicle fires are initiated by electrical system failures, fuel line leaks, munitions mishaps and improper personnel actions. If not controlled, such fires can spread to other areas of the vehicle, causing extensive damage and the potential for personnel injury and death. The inherent fire safety characteristics (i.e. ignitability, compartments of these vehicles play a major roll in determining rather a newly started fire becomes a fizzle or a catastrophe. This paper addresses a systems approach to assuring optimum vehicle fire safety during the design phase of complex vehicle systems utilizing extensive uses of composites, plastic and related materials. It provides practical means for defining the potential fire hazard risks during a conceptual design phase, and criteria for the selection of composite materials based on its fire safety characteristics.

  14. Fire hazard analysis for Plutonium Finishing Plant complex

    SciTech Connect

    MCKINNIS, D.L.

    1999-02-23

    A fire hazards analysis (FHA) was performed for the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) Complex at the Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford site. The scope of the FHA focuses on the nuclear facilities/structures in the Complex. The analysis was conducted in accordance with RLID 5480.7, [DOE Directive RLID 5480.7, 1/17/94] and DOE Order 5480.7A, ''Fire Protection'' [DOE Order 5480.7A, 2/17/93] and addresses each of the sixteen principle elements outlined in paragraph 9.a(3) of the Order. The elements are addressed in terms of the fire protection objectives stated in paragraph 4 of DOE 5480.7A. In addition, the FHA also complies with WHC-CM-4-41, Fire Protection Program Manual, Section 3.4 [1994] and WHC-SD-GN-FHA-30001, Rev. 0 [WHC, 1994]. Objectives of the FHA are to determine: (1) the fire hazards that expose the PFP facilities, or that are inherent in the building operations, (2) the adequacy of the fire safety features currently located in the PFP Complex, and (3) the degree of compliance of the facility with specific fire safety provisions in DOE orders, related engineering codes, and standards.

  15. TRACE METAL RETENTION WHEN FIRING HAZARDOUS WASTE IN A FLUIDIZED-BED INCINERATOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report describes a bench-scale fluidized-bed incinerator that will capture trace metals on the bed material when firing hazardous waste. The design is based on limited tests at an existing laboratory facility. Operating conditions, operating procedures, and equipment design a...

  16. Fire-eating: hazards of hydrocarbon aspiration.

    PubMed

    Guandalini, M; Steinke, K

    2007-12-01

    A 30-year-old male fire eater presented following aspiration of hydrocarbon fuel during a performance. A plain chest radiograph carried out 2 h after aspiration showed left lower lobe consolidation. The patient subsequently developed worsening shortness of breath, haemoptysis, fever and myalgia and a repeat plain chest radiograph showed extensive bilateral pulmonary consolidation with mediastinal and bilateral hilar lymphadenopathy. Computed tomography showed features consistent with necrotizing pneumonia. The clinical course was complicated by the development of large pleural effusions, pneumatocoeles and a spontaneous pneumothorax. Early abnormalities on a plain chest radiograph following suspected hydrocarbon aspiration require close monitoring for the development of further life-threatening complications. PMID:17958694

  17. Hazards Management in Grand County, Colorado-Fire Fuels Characterization

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cole, Christopher; Lile, Elizabeth; Briggs, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    The USGS Fire Science Initiative is designed to identify potential wildfire risks and related hazards and to mitigate their effects on people, property, and natural resources. The USGS Rocky Mountain Geographic Science Center (RMGSC) plays an integral role in the fire science demonstration project targeting Grand County, Colo., which uses remote sensing imagery, other geospatial data, and advanced classification techniques to produce inventories and assessments of the current state of the ecosystem. The data gathered - extent of tree mortality and insect infestation, changes in fire fuels, susceptibility to post-fire effects, distribution of wildland-urban interface areas, etc. - will give much needed information to decisionmakers on the Federal, State, and local levels.

  18. Fire hazard and other safety concerns of PV systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhere, Neelkanth G.

    2011-09-01

    Photovoltaic modules are usually considered safe and reliable. But in case of grid-connected PV systems that are becoming very popular, the issue of fire safety of PV modules is becoming increasingly important due to the employed high voltages of 600 V to 1000 V. The two main factors i.e. open circuiting of the bypass diode and ground fault that are responsible for the fire in the PV systems have been discussed in detail along with numerous real life examples. Recommendations are provided for preventing the fire hazards such as having at least class C fire rated PV modules, proper bypass and blocking diodes and interestingly, having an ungrounded PV system.

  19. 76 FR 70408 - Information Collection; Understanding Value Trade-Offs Regarding Fire Hazard Reduction Programs...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-14

    ... Forest Service Information Collection; Understanding Value Trade-Offs Regarding Fire Hazard Reduction... approved information collection, Understanding Value Trade-offs Regarding Fire Hazard Reduction Programs in...-offs Regarding Fire Hazard Reduction Programs in the Wildland-Urban Interface. OMB Number:...

  20. 30 CFR 75.1107-15 - Fire suppression devices; hazards; training of miners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Fire suppression devices; hazards; training of... Protection Fire Suppression Devices and Fire-Resistant Hydraulic Fluids on Underground Equipment § 75.1107-15 Fire suppression devices; hazards; training of miners. Each operator shall instruct all miners...

  1. SYNTHESIS OF SAFETY ANALYSIS AND FIRE HAZARD ANALYSIS METHODOLOGIES

    SciTech Connect

    Coutts, D

    2007-04-17

    Successful implementation of both the nuclear safety program and fire protection program is best accomplished using a coordinated process that relies on sound technical approaches. When systematically prepared, the documented safety analysis (DSA) and fire hazard analysis (FHA) can present a consistent technical basis that streamlines implementation. If not coordinated, the DSA and FHA can present inconsistent conclusions, which can create unnecessary confusion and can promulgate a negative safety perception. This paper will compare the scope, purpose, and analysis techniques for DSAs and FHAs. It will also consolidate several lessons-learned papers on this topic, which were prepared in the 1990s.

  2. Fire hazard analysis for Project W-320 Tank 241-C-106 waste retrieval

    SciTech Connect

    Conner, J.C.

    1995-09-12

    This Fire Hazards Analysis (FHA) for Project W-320, `Tank 241-C-106 Waste Retrieval` addresses fire hazards or fire related concerns in accordance with DOE 5480.7A (DOE 1998), resulting from or related to the processes and equipment to be installed or modified under Project W-320 to ensure that there are no undue fire hazards to site personnel and the public; the potential for the occurrence of a fire is minimized, process control and safety systems are not damaged by fire or related perils; and property damage from fire and related perils does not exceed an acceptable level.

  3. Fire hazard and other safety concerns of photovoltaic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhere, Neelkanth G.; Shiradkar, Narendra S.

    2012-01-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) modules are usually considered safe and reliable. But in case of grid-connected PV systems that are becoming popular, the issue of fire safety of PV modules is becoming increasingly important due to the employed high voltages of 600 to 1000 V. The two main factors, i.e., open circuiting of the dc circuit and of the bypass diodes and ground faults that are responsible for the fire in the PV systems, have been discussed in detail along with numerous real life examples. Recommendations are provided for preventing the fire hazards such as designing the PV array mounting system to minimize the chimney effect, having proper bypass and blocking diodes, and interestingly, having an ungrounded PV system.

  4. Chaparral vegetation reflectance and its potential utility for assessment of fire hazard

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Warren B.

    1991-01-01

    Current methods for assessment of ignition potential often fail to alert wildland managers to the severity of drought-induced fire hazard at remote locations and over large geographic areas. After the severe fires of 1988 in the western United States, the need was heightened for improved fire hazard assessment techniques. Chaparral vegetation is particularly receptive to recurring drought-related episodes of extreme fire hazard and was thus chosen for study here. Demonstrated herein is that chaparral vegetation has considerably different reflecting properties at different levels of drought stress. As such, remote sensing may have utility for fire hazard assessment in this vegetation type.

  5. Fire hazard analyses and safety analysis reports relationship

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, W.W., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-05-30

    DOE Order 5480.7A requires that Fire Hazard Analyses (FHA) be performed for new facilities, for facilities requiring a DOE 5480.23 Safety Analysis, or as directed by the DOE Program Secretarial Officer. DOE Order 5480.23 requires that a Safety Analysis Report (SAR) be prepared for DOE nuclear facilities. Both the FHA and SAR `documents provide important information and direction for facility design and operation. Each of the two documents address the effects of postulated fire scenarios, and both have common or at least consistent bases, and have overlapping elements. However, some of the objectives of the required analyses are distinctly different. These differences have historically resulted in variations in the interpretation and Understanding of the DOE Orders and associated guidance by organizations and individuals within the Westinghouse Hanford Company.

  6. Fire hazards analysis for W-413, West Area Tank Farm Storage and Staging Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Huckfeldt, R.A.; Lott, D.T.

    1994-12-14

    In accordance with DOE Order 5480.7A, a Fire Hazards Analysis must be performed for all new facilities. The purpose of the analysis is to comprehensively assess the risk from fire within individual fire areas in relation to proposed fire protection so as to ascertain whether the fire protection objectives of the Order are met. The Order acknowledges a graded approach commensurate with the hazards involved. Tank Farms Operations must sore/stage material and equipment such as pipes, fittings, conduit, instrumentation and others related items until work packages are ready to work. Consumable materials, such as nut, bolts and welding rod, are also requires to be stored for routine and emergency work. Connex boxes and open storage is currently used for much of the storage because of the limited space at and 272WA. Safety issues based on poor housekeeping and material deteriorating due to weather damage has resulted from this inadequate storage space. It has been determined that a storage building in close proximity to the Tank Farm work force would be cost effective. This facility is classified as a safety class 4 building.

  7. Preliminary fire hazards analysis for W-211, Initial Tank Retrieval Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Huckfeldt, R.A.

    1995-03-16

    A fire hazards analysis (FHA) was performed for Project W-211, Initial Tank Retrieval System (ITRS), at the Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford site. The objectives of this FHA was to determine (1) the fire hazards that expose the Initial Tank Retrieval System or are inherent in the process, (2) the adequacy of the fire-safety features planned, and (3) the degree of compliance of the project with specific fire safety provisions in DOE orders and related engineering codes and standards. The scope included the construction, the process hazards, building fire protection, and site wide fire protection. The results are presented in terms of the fire hazards present, the potential extent of fire damage, and the impact on employees and public safety. This study evaluated the ITRS with respect to its use at Tank 241-SY-101 only.

  8. Fire hazards analysis for the uranium oxide (UO{sub 3}) facility

    SciTech Connect

    Wyatt, D.M.

    1994-12-06

    The Fire Hazards Analysis (FHA) documents the deactivation end-point status of the UO{sub 3} complex fire hazards, fire protection and life safety systems. This FHA has been prepared for the Uranium Oxide Facility by Westinghouse Hanford Company in accordance with the criteria established in DOE 5480.7A, Fire Protection and RLID 5480.7, Fire Protection. The purpose of the Fire Hazards Analysis is to comprehensively and quantitatively assess the risk from a fire within individual fire areas in a Department of Energy facility so as to ascertain whether the objectives stated in DOE Order 5480.7, paragraph 4 are met. Particular attention has been paid to RLID 5480.7, Section 8.3, which specifies the criteria for deactivating fire protection in decommission and demolition facilities.

  9. VIIRS Unique Fires Compared to the NOAA Hazard Mapping System Fire Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruminski, M.; Liddick, K.

    2014-12-01

    The Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) instrument on the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (S-NPP) satellite provides radiometric measurements for automated fire detection. The baseline VIIRS Active Fire Product (AFP) is very similar to the collection 4 legacy fire detection algorithm developed for the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instrument on NASA's Terra and Aqua spacecraft and is expected to become operational and validated in the Fall of 2014. VIIRS (imagery and the AFP) will soon be incorporated into NESDIS' operational Hazard Mapping System (HMS) fire and smoke analysis. The HMS incorporates a wide variety of satellite data for use in fire detection, including GOES-East and GOES-West at least every 15 minutes, five NOAA and METOP polar orbiting satellites with the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) instrument and MODIS Aqua/Terra. The HMS utilizes the automated fire detections from each of the sensors which are then quality controlled by an analyst. The VIIRS AFP became available for evaluation with the HMS in the Spring of 2014. The AFP was compared with the final quality controlled HMS product over the contiguous US between 8 April and 8 June 2014, which is primarily the agricultural and prescribed fire season, in order to determine the number of VIIRS unique fires. In making the comparison, any VIIRS AFP fire that was within 4 km of an HMS fire would not be considered unique, due to navigational accuracy and the 4km nominal resolution of GOES. Any VIIRS fire that was within 2km of a power plant or a known false detect location was also not considered. Based on these criteria there were 5876 VIIRS AFP unique locations compared to 71,705 HMS detections, approximately 8 percent of the HMS total. These extra locations potentially represent additional emissions that could affect air quality. The geographic distribution resembled the burning pattern during this period with the majority over the

  10. Utilization of geoinformation tools for the development of forest fire hazard mapping system: example of Pekan fire, Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahmud, Ahmad; Setiawan, Iwan; Mansor, Shattri; Shariff, Abdul; Pradhan, Biswajeet; Nuruddin, Ahmed

    2009-12-01

    A study in modeling fire hazard assessment will be essential in establishing an effective forest fire management system especially in controlling and preventing peat fire. In this paper, we have used geographic information system (GIS), in combination with other geoinformation technologies such as remote sensing and computer modeling, for all aspects of wild land fire management. Identifying areas that have a high probability of burning is an important component of fire management planning. The development of spatially explicit GIS models has greatly facilitated this process by allowing managers to map and analyze variables contributing to fire occurrence across large, unique geographic units. Using the model and its associated software engine, the fire hazard map was produced. Extensive avenue programming scripts were written to provide additional capabilities in the development of these interfaces to meet the full complement of operational software considering various users requirements. The system developed not only possesses user friendly step by step operations to deliver the fire vulnerability mapping but also allows authorized users to edit, add or modify parameters whenever necessary. Results from the model can support fire hazard mapping in the forest and enhance alert system function by simulating and visualizing forest fire and helps for contingency planning.

  11. PRELIMINARY ASSESSMENT OF COSTS AND CREDITS FOR HAZARDOUS WASTE CO-FIRING IN INDUSTRIAL BOILERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report provides preliminary information on the costs and credits associated with hazardous waste co-firing in industrial boilers. The main objective is to identify and evaluate the costs/credits inherent in current hazardous waste co-firing practices, plus the additional cos...

  12. 75 FR 32960 - Hazardous Fire Risk Reduction, East Bay Hills, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Hazardous Fire Risk Reduction, East Bay Hills, CA AGENCY... of fire hazard. These projects would affect approximately 980 acres of the Wildland-Urban...

  13. 78 FR 28892 - Hazardous Fire Risk Reduction, East Bay Hills, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Hazardous Fire Risk Reduction, East Bay Hills, CA AGENCY... to reduce the risk of fire hazard. These projects would affect approximately 998 acres of...

  14. 24 CFR 200.86 - Covenant for fire and other hazard insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Covenant for fire and other hazard..., Commitment, and Endorsement Generally Applicable to Multifamily and Health Care Facility Mortgage Insurance... Covenant for fire and other hazard insurance. The mortgage shall contain a covenant binding the...

  15. 30 CFR 75.1107-15 - Fire suppression devices; hazards; training of miners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Fire suppression devices; hazards; training of miners. 75.1107-15 Section 75.1107-15 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Fire Protection Fire Suppression Devices...

  16. 30 CFR 75.1107-15 - Fire suppression devices; hazards; training of miners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Fire suppression devices; hazards; training of miners. 75.1107-15 Section 75.1107-15 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Fire Protection Fire Suppression Devices...

  17. 30 CFR 75.1107-15 - Fire suppression devices; hazards; training of miners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Fire suppression devices; hazards; training of miners. 75.1107-15 Section 75.1107-15 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Fire Protection Fire Suppression Devices...

  18. FIRE HAZARDS ANALYSIS FOR THE FUEL SUPPLY SYSTEM - ESF PACKAGE 1E

    SciTech Connect

    N.M. Ruonavaara

    1995-04-12

    The purpose of the fire hazards analysis is to comprehensively assess the risk from fire within individual fire areas in accordance with US. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5480.7h (Reference 4.4.7.4). This document will assess the fire hazard risk within the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) fuel supply system, Package 1E, and evaluate whether the following objectives are met: (1) Ensure that property damage from fire and related perils do not exceed an acceptable level. (2) Provide input to the facility Safety Analysis Report (SAR).

  19. Fire hazard after prescribed burning in a gorse shrubland: implications for fuel management.

    PubMed

    Marino, Eva; Guijarro, Mercedes; Hernando, Carmen; Madrigal, Javier; Díez, Carmen

    2011-03-01

    Prescribed burning is commonly used to prevent accumulation of biomass in fire-prone shrubland in NW Spain. However, there is a lack of knowledge about the efficacy of the technique in reducing fire hazard in these ecosystems. Fire hazard in burned shrubland areas will depend on the initial capacity of woody vegetation to recover and on the fine ground fuels existing after fire. To explore the effect that time since burning has on fire hazard, experimental tests were performed with two fuel complexes (fine ground fuels and regenerated shrubs) resulting from previous prescribed burnings conducted in a gorse shrubland (Ulex europaeus L.) one, three and five years earlier. A point-ignition source was used in burning experiments to assess ignition and initial propagation success separately for each fuel complex. The effect of wind speed was also studied for shrub fuels, and several flammability parameters were measured. Results showed that both ignition and initial propagation success of fine ground fuels mainly depended on fuel depth and were independent of time since burning, although flammability parameters indicated higher fire hazard three years after burning. In contrast, time since burning increased ignition and initial propagation success of regenerated shrub fuels, as well as the flammability parameters assessed, but wind speed had no significant effect. The combination of results of fire hazard for fine ground fuels and regenerated shrubs according to the variation in relative coverage of each fuel type after prescribed burning enabled an assessment of integrated fire hazard in treated areas. The present results suggest that prescribed burning is a very effective technique to reduce fire hazard in the study area, but that fire hazard will be significantly increased by the third year after burning. These results are valuable for fire prevention and fuel management planning in gorse shrubland areas. PMID:21112688

  20. Comparison of the Hazard Mapping System (HMS) fire product to ground-based fire records in Georgia, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Xuefei; Yu, Chao; Tian, Di; Ruminski, Mark; Robertson, Kevin; Waller, Lance A.; Liu, Yang

    2016-03-01

    Biomass burning has a significant and adverse impact on air quality, climate change, and various ecosystems. The Hazard Mapping System (HMS) detects fires using data from multiple satellite sensors in order to maximize its fire detection rate. However, to date, the detection rate of the HMS fire product for small fires has not been well studied, especially using ground-based fire records. This paper utilizes the 2011 fire information compiled from ground observations and burn authorizations in Georgia to assess the comprehensiveness of the HMS active fire product. The results show that detection rates of the hybrid HMS increase substantially by integrating multiple satellite instruments. The detection rate increases dramatically from 3% to 80% with an increase in fire size from less than 0.02 km2 to larger than 2 km2, resulting in detection of approximately 12% of all recorded fires which represent approximately 57% of the total area burned. The spatial pattern of detection rates reveals that grid cells with high detection rates are generally located in areas where large fires occur frequently. The seasonal analysis shows that overall detection rates in winter and spring (12% and 13%, respectively) are higher than those in summer and fall (3% and 6%, respectively), mainly because of higher percentages of large fires (>0.19 km2) that occurred in winter and spring. The land cover analysis shows that detection rates are 2-7 percentage points higher in land cover types that are prone to large fires such as forestland and shrub land.

  1. Reduction of fire hazards on large mining equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Maria I. De Rosa

    2008-09-15

    Although standards and regulations are in place to prevent large mining equipment fires, recent analyses of mine accident data show that mining equipment fires still occur with alarming frequency and grave consequences, particularly at all surface mines and in underground metal/nonmetal mines. Recently technological advances in fire protection, combined with the statistical data on equipment fires, led NIOSH to reinvestigate this and to improve operator safety. NIOSH demonstrated that newly developed technologies, such as dual cab fire inerting systems and engine compartment fire barriers, can greatly enhance operator safety and lessen the damage of property during large mobile equipment fires. 10 refs., 5 figs.

  2. North Portal Fuel Storage System Fire Hazard Analysis-ESF Surface Design Package ID

    SciTech Connect

    N.M. Ruonavaara

    1995-01-18

    The purpose of the fire hazard analysis is to comprehensively assess the risk from fire within the individual fire areas. This document will only assess the fire hazard analysis within the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) Design Package ID, which includes the fuel storage system area of the North Portal facility, and evaluate whether the following objectives are met: 1.1.1--This analysis, performed in accordance with the requirements of this document, will satisfy the requirements for a fire hazard analysis in accordance with U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5480.7A. 1.1.2--Ensure that property damage from fire and related perils does not exceed an acceptable level. 1.1.3--Provide input to the ESF Basis For Design (BFD) Document. 1.1.4 Provide input to the facility Safety Analysis Report (SAR) (Paragraph 3.8).

  3. An evaluation of the relative fire hazards of jet A and jet B for commercial flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hibbard, R. R.; Hacker, P. T.

    1973-01-01

    The relative fire hazards of Jet A and Jet B aircraft fuels are evaluated. The evaluation is based on a consideration of the presence of and/or the generation of flammable mixtures in fuel systems, the ignition characteristics, and the flame propagation rates for the two fuel types. Three distinct aircraft operating regimes where fuel type may be a factor in fire hazards are considered. These are: (1) ground handling and refueling, (2) flight, and (3) crash. The evaluation indicates that the overall fire hazards for Jet A are less than for Jet B fuel.

  4. Fire hazards at the urban-wildland interface: what the public expects

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cortner, Hanna J.; Gardner, Philip D.; Taylor, Jonathan G.

    1990-01-01

    Urban-wildland issues have become among the most contentious and problematic issues for forest managers. Using data drawn from surveys conducted by the authors and others, this article discusses how public knowledge and perceptions of fire policies and fire hazards change over time, the kinds of policy responses homeowners prefer as a way of preventing fire hazards at the urban-wildland interface, and how citizens view their own obligations as participants in interface issues. These data show that public attitudes toward fire have changed significantly over the past two decades and that educating the public about fire and the managers' use of fire can have positive effects on behavior. Yet, modifying the individual's behavior in regard to interface fire risks must also deal with important issues of individual incentives, the distribution of costs, and unanticipated policy impacts.

  5. Wildland fire as a self-regulating mechanism: the role of previous burns and weather in limiting fire progression.

    PubMed

    Parks, Sean A; Holsinger, Lisa M; Miller, Carol; Nelson, Cara R

    2015-09-01

    Theory suggests that natural fire regimes can result in landscapes that are both self-regulating and resilient to fire. For example, because fires consume fuel, they may create barriers to the spread of future fires, thereby regulating fire size. Top-down controls such as weather, however, can weaken this effect. While empirical examples demonstrating this pattern-process feedback between vegetation and fire exist, they have been geographically limited or did not consider the influence of time between fires and weather. The availability of remotely sensed data identifying fire activity over the last four decades provides an opportunity to explicitly quantify-the ability of wildland fire to limit the progression of subsequent fire. Furthermore, advances in fire progression mapping now allow an evaluation of how daily weather as a top-down control modifies this effect. In this study, we evaluated the ability of wildland fire to create barriers that limit the spread of subsequent fire along a gradient representing time between fires in four large study areas in the western United States. Using fire progression maps in conjunction with weather station data, we also evaluated the influence of daily weather. Results indicate that wildland fire does limit subsequent fire spread in all four study areas, but this effect decays over time; wildland fire no longer limits subsequent fire spread 6-18 years after fire, depending on the study area. We also found that the ability of fire to regulate, subsequent fire progression was substantially reduced under extreme conditions compared to moderate weather conditions in all four study areas. This study increases understanding of the spatial feedbacks that can lead to self-regulating landscapes as well as the effects of top-down controls, such as weather, on these feedbacks. Our results will be useful to managers who seek to restore natural fire regimes or to exploit recent burns when managing fire. PMID:26552258

  6. Preliminary fire hazard analysis for the PUTDR and TRU trenches in the Solid Waste Burial Ground

    SciTech Connect

    Gaschott, L.J.

    1995-06-16

    This document represents the Preliminary Fire Hazards Analysis for the Pilot Unvented TRU Drum Retrieval effort and for the Transuranic drum trenches in the low level burial grounds. The FHA was developed in accordance with DOE Order 5480.7A to address major hazards inherent in the facility.

  7. Evaluating fuel complexes for fire hazard mitigation planning in the southeastern United States.

    SciTech Connect

    Andreu, Anne G.; Shea, Dan; Parresol, Bernard, R.; Ottmar, Roger, D.

    2012-01-01

    Fire hazard mitigation planning requires an accurate accounting of fuel complexes to predict potential fire behavior and effects of treatment alternatives. In the southeastern United States, rapid vegetation growth coupled with complex land use history and forest management options requires a dynamic approach to fuel characterization. In this study we assessed potential surface fire behavior with the Fuel Characteristic Classification System (FCCS), a tool which uses inventoried fuelbed inputs to predict fire behavior. Using inventory data from 629 plots established in the upper Atlantic Coastal Plain, South Carolina, we constructed FCCS fuelbeds representing median fuel characteristics by major forest type and age class. With a dry fuel moisture scenario and 6.4 km h{sub 1} midflame wind speed, the FCCS predicted moderate to high potential fire hazard for the majority of the fuelbeds under study. To explore fire hazard under potential future fuel conditions, we developed fuelbeds representing the range of quantitative inventorydata for fuelbed components that drive surface fire behavior algorithms and adjusted shrub species composition to represent 30% and 60% relative cover of highly flammable shrub species. Results indicate that the primary drivers of surface fire behavior vary by forest type, age and surface fire behavior rating. Litter tends to be a primary or secondary driver in most forest types. In comparison to other surface fire contributors, reducing shrub loading results in reduced flame lengths most consistently across forest types. FCCS fuelbeds and the results from this project can be used for fire hazard mitigation planning throughout the southern Atlantic Coastal Plain where similar forest types occur. The approach of building simulated fuelbeds across the range of available surface fuel data produces sets of incrementally different fuel characteristics that can be applied to any dynamic forest types in which surface fuel conditions change rapidly.

  8. Determination of the fire hazards of mine materials using a radiant panel

    PubMed Central

    Harteis, S.P.; Litton, C.D.; Thomas, R.A.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a laboratory-scale method to rank the ignition and fire hazards of commonly used underground mine materials and to eliminate the need for the expensive large-scale tests that are currently being used. A radiant-panel apparatus was used to determine the materials’ relevant thermal characteristics: time to ignition, critical heat flux for ignition, heat of gasification, and mass-loss rate. Three thermal parameters, TRP, TP1 and TP4, were derived from the data, then developed and subsequently used to rank the combined ignition and fire hazards of the combustible materials from low hazard to high hazard. The results compared favorably with the thermal and ignition hazards of similar materials reported in the literature and support this approach as a simpler one for quantifying these combustible hazards. PMID:26877552

  9. Health-hazard evaluation report HETA 84-484-1754, Detroit Fire Fighters, Detroit, Michigan

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, K.E.; Melius, J.M.

    1986-12-01

    In response to a request from the International Association of Fire Fighters on behalf of the Detroit Fire Fighters Association, Detroit, Michigan, a health hazard evaluation was made of respiratory symptoms and skin irritation in fire fighters involved in a large fire and explosion at a warehouse. Over 200 fire fighters from fire-fighting organizations in three communities were involved in the incident. Site runoff water contained chlordane and malathion in low parts per million; other samples were negative. Nose and throat irritation, cough, and shortness of breath were experienced by a large proportion of fire fighters following the fire, and in 14, 15, and 17 percent, respectively, symptoms persisted over 2 months. Symptoms were significantly associated with time spent at the scene and time spent in heavy smoke. Pulmonary function tests were abnormal in 14 cases, ten due to obstructive lung disease, three to restrictive lung disease, and one to a combination. The authors conclude that better protective equipment is needed for fire fighters at chemical fires. Recommendations include development of a hazardous-materials response team, and implementation of a routine medical surveillance program.

  10. HAZARDS OF THERMAL EXPANSION FOR RADIOLOGICAL CONTAINER ENGULFED IN FIRE

    SciTech Connect

    Donna Post Guillen

    2013-05-01

    Fire accidents pose a serious threat to nuclear facilities. It is imperative that transport casks or shielded containers designed to transport/contain radiological materials have the ability to withstand a hypothetical fire. A numerical simulation was performed for a shielded container constructed of stainless steel and lead engulfed in a hypothetical fire as outlined by 10 CFR §71.73. The purpose of this analysis was to determine the thermal response of the container during and after the fire. The thermal model shows that after 30 minutes of fire, the stainless steel will maintain its integrity and not melt. However, the lead shielding will melt since its temperature exceeds the melting point. Due to the method of construction of the container under consideration, ample void space must be provided to allow for thermal expansion of the lead upon heating and melting, so as to not overstress the weldment.

  11. An assessment of the crash fire hazard of liquid hydrogen fueled aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The crash fire hazards of liquid hydrogen fueled aircraft relative to those of mission equivalent aircraft fueled either with conventional fuel or with liquefied methane were evaluated. The aircraft evaluated were based on Lockheed Corporation design for 400 passenger, Mach 0.85, 5500 n. mile aircraft. Four crash scenarios were considered ranging from a minor incident causing some loss of fuel system integrity to a catastrophic crash. Major tasks included a review of hazardous properties of the alternate fuels and of historic crash fire data; a comparative hazard evluation for each of the three fuels under four crash scenarios a comprehensive review and analysis and an identification of areas further development work. The conclusion was that the crash fire hazards are not significantly different when compared in general for the three fuels, although some fuels showed minor advantages in one respect or another.

  12. Complexed metals in hazardous waste: Limitations of conventional chemical oxidation

    SciTech Connect

    Diel, B.N.; Kuchynka, D.J.; Borchert, J.

    1994-12-31

    In the management of hazardous waste, more is known regarding the treatment of metals than about the fixation, destruction and/or immobilization of any other hazardous constituent group. Metals are the only hazardous constituents which cannot be destroyed, and so must be converted to their least soluble and/or reactive form to prevent reentry into the environment. The occurrence of complexed metals, e.g., metallocyanides, and/or chelated metals, e.g., M{center_dot}EDTA in hazardous waste streams presents formidable challenges to conventional waste treatment practices. This paper presents the results of extensive research into the destruction (chemical oxidation) of metallocyanides and metal-chelates, defines the utility and limitations of conventional chemical oxidation approaches, illustrates some of the waste management difficulties presented by such species, and presents preliminary data on the UV/H{sub 2}O{sub 2} photodecomposition of chelated metals.

  13. Identification of Process Hazards and Accident Scenarios for Site 300 B-Division Firing Areas, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Lambert, H; Johnson, G

    2001-05-04

    This report describes a hazard and accident analysis conducted for Site 300 operations to support update of the ''Site 300 B-Division Firing Areas Safety Analysis Report'' (SAR) [LLNL 1997]. A significant change since the previous SAR is the construction and the new Contained Firing Facility (CFF). Therefore, this hazard and accident analysis focused on the hazards associated with bunker operations to ensure that the hazards at CFF are properly characterized in the updated SAR. Hazard tables were created to cover both the CFF and the existing bunkers with ''open air'' firing tables.

  14. Fire Hazard Analysis for the Cold Vacuum Drying facility (CVD) Facility

    SciTech Connect

    SINGH, G.

    2000-09-06

    The CVDF is a nonreactor nuclear facility that will process the Spent Nuclear Fuels (SNF) presently stored in the 105-KE and 105-KW SNF storage basins. Multi-canister overpacks (MCOs) will be loaded (filled) with K Basin fuel transported to the CVDF. The MCOs will be processed at the CVDF to remove free water from the fuel cells (packages). Following processing at the CVDF, the MCOs will be transported to the CSB for interim storage until a long-term storage solution can be implemented. This operation is expected to start in November 2000. A Fire Hazard Analysis (FHA) is required for all new facilities and all nonreactor nuclear facilities, in accordance with U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5480.7A, Fire Protection. This FHA has been prepared in accordance with DOE 5480.7A and HNF-PRO-350, Fire Hazard Analysis Requirements. Additionally, requirements or criteria contained in DOE, Richland Operations Office (RL) RL Implementing Directive (RLID) 5480.7, Fire Protection, or other DOE documentation are cited, as applicable. This FHA comprehensively assesses the risk of fire at the CVDF to ascertain whether the specific objectives of DOE 5480.7A are met. These specific fire protection objectives are: (1) Minimize the potential for the occurrence of a fire. (2) Ensure that fire does not cause an onsite or offsite release of radiological and other hazardous material that will threaten the public health and safety or the environment. (3) Establish requirements that will provide an acceptable degree of life safety to DOE and contractor personnel and ensure that there are no undue hazards to the public from fire and its effects in DOE facilities. (4) Ensure that vital DOE programs will not suffer unacceptable delays as a result of fire and related perils. (5) Ensure that property damage from fire and related perils does not exceed an acceptable level. (6) Ensure that process control and safety systems are not damaged by fire or related perils. This FHA is based on the

  15. Gaseous emissions and toxic hazards associated with plastics in fire situations: A literature review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Junod, T. L.

    1976-01-01

    The hazards of plastics in fire situations, the gases emitted, the factors influencing the nature of these emissions, the characteristics of toxic gases, and the results of laboratory studies, are discussed. The literature pertaining to the pyrolysis and oxidation of plastics was reviewed. An effort was made to define the state of the art for determining the toxic gases emitted by plastics under fire conditions. Recommendations are made and research needs defined as a result of this review.

  16. Parents of preschool fire setters: perceptions of the child-play fire hazard.

    PubMed

    Pollack-Nelson, Carol; Faranda, Donna M; Porth, Don; Lim, Nicholas K

    2006-09-01

    The present study sought to learn about risk perceptions held by parents of preschool fire-setters. A 41-item survey was distributed to 60 parents whose children, aged 6 years and younger, had previously set fires and who were involved in intervention programmes throughout the US. Most parents did not think their children would play with matches/lighters, or knew how to use these items, although some had witnessed their children playing with matches/lighters previously. Most parents reported having taken precautions to keep matches/lighters out of reach and also educating their children about fire. Regardless, children not only set fires, but in 40% of cases climbed to access the match/lighter. Parents' perceptions of their children's proclivity for fire play were not consistent with their actual fire-play behaviour. Parents underestimated the likelihood that their children would play with matches/lighters. Although most reportedly undertook preventative measures aimed at thwarting fire play, these strategies were ineffective. Traditionally relied upon precautionary techniques, such as storing lighters out of reach and discussing the dangers of fire, were not sufficient to stem interest and resultant fire play. PMID:16943160

  17. A growing fire hazard concern in communities: home oxygen therapy and continued smoking habits.

    PubMed

    Galligan, Catherine J; Markkanen, Pia K; Fantasia, Linda M; Gore, Rebecca J; Sama, Susan R; Quinn, Margaret M

    2015-02-01

    The Safe Home Care Project investigated both qualitatively and quantitatively a range of occupational safety and health hazards, as well as injury and illness prevention practices, among home care aides in Massachusetts. This article reports on a hazard identified by aides during the study's initial focus groups: smoking by home care clients on long-term oxygen therapy. Following the qualitative phase we conducted a cross-sectional survey among 1,249 aides and found that medical oxygen was present in 9 percent of aide visits (314 of aides' 3,484 recent client visits) and that 25 percent of clients on oxygen therapy were described as smokers. Based on our findings, the Board of Health in a local town conducted a pilot study to address fire hazards related to medical oxygen. Medical oxygen combined with smoking or other sources of ignition is a serious fire and explosion hazard that threatens not only workers who visit homes but also communities. PMID:25816169

  18. Hazard rating of ash and slag dumps of thermal power plants firing Kuznetskii coal

    SciTech Connect

    E.P. Dik; A.N. Soboleva

    2006-03-15

    Results of a study of the degree of toxicity and of the hazard rating of ash and slag waste due to firing Kuznetskii coals at thermal power plants are presented. Computation shows and biological tests prove that the waste belongs to the fifth hazard class, i.e., is virtually safe. Comparison of the results obtained with foreign data shows that the waste in question belongs to the safe category in accordance with foreign standards as well.

  19. A life cycle hazard assessment (LCHA) framework to address fire hazards at the wildland-urban interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindquist, Eric; Pierce, Jen; Wuerzer, Thomas; Glenn, Nancy; Dialani, Jijay; Gibble, Katie; Frazier, Tim; Strand, Eva

    2015-04-01

    The stages of planning for and responding to natural hazards, such as wildfires and related events, are often conducted as discrete (and often not connected) efforts. Disaster response often takes precedence, exhausting agency and stakeholder resources, and the planning stages are conducted by different agencies or entities with different and often competing agendas and jurisdictions. The result is that evaluation after a disaster can be minimal or even non-existent as resources are expended and interest moves on to the next event. Natural disasters and hazards, however, have a tendency to cascade and multiply: wildfires impact the vulnerability of hillslopes, for example, which may result in landslides, flooding and debris flows long after the initial event has occurred. Connecting decisions across multiple events and time scales is ignored, yet these connections could lead to better policy making at all stages of disaster risk reduction. Considering this situation, we present an adapted life cycle analysis (LCA) approach to examine fire-related hazards at the Wildland-Urban Interface in the American West. The LCHA focuses on the temporal integration of : 1) the 'pre-fire' set of physical conditions (e.g. fuel loads) and human conditions (e.g. hazard awareness), 2) the 'fire event', focusing on computational analysis of the communication patterns and responsibility for response to the event, and 3) the 'post-event' analysis of the landscape susceptibility to fire-related debris flows. The approach of the LCHA follows other models used by governmental agencies to prepare for disasters through 1) preparation and prevention, 2) response and 3) recovery. As an overlay are the diverse agencies and policies associated with these stages and their respective resource and management decisions over time. LCAs have evolved from a business-centric consideration of the environmental impact of a specific product over the products life. This approach takes several phases to end

  20. PEACETIME RADIATION HAZARDS IN THE FIRE SERVICE, BASIC COURSE, RESOURCE MANUAL.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BERNDT, WILLIAM

    FOR USE BY FIREMEN AND OTHER EMERGENCY PERSONNEL WHO MAY HAVE TO DEAL WITH FIRES OR SIMILAR EMERGENCIES INVOLVING RADIATION HAZARDS, THIS MANUAL IS CORRELATED WITH THE FOLLOWING INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS FOR THE 15-HOUR COURSE -- (1) AN INSTRUCTOR'S GUIDE (VT 002 117), (2) A STUDENT STUDY GUIDE (VT 001 878), AND (3) A SET OF TWENTY-TWO 20- BY…

  1. 75 FR 44275 - Hazardous Fire Risk Reduction, East Bay Hills, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-28

    ..., 2010, (75 FR 32960), FEMA published a notice of intent to prepare an EIS and request for comments for... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Hazardous Fire Risk Reduction, East Bay Hills, CA...

  2. 30 CFR 75.1107-15 - Fire suppression devices; hazards; training of miners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fire suppression devices; hazards; training of miners. 75.1107-15 Section 75.1107-15 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES...

  3. PEACETIME RADIATION HAZARDS IN THE FIRE SERVICE, BASIC COURSE, INSTRUCTOR'S GUIDE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BERNDT, WILLIAM; AND OTHERS

    THE 12 TEACHING GUIDES INCLUDED ARE CORRELATED WITH THE "RESOURCE MANUAL" (VT 001 337), "STUDY GUIDE" (VT 001 878), AND A SET OF TWENTY-TWO 20- BY 28-INCH CHARTS (OE84022) DESIGNED TO BE PRESENTED TO FIREMEN IN A 15-HOUR COURSE AS A PART OF THEIR BASIC FIRE TRAINING. THEY ARE CONCERNED WITH HAZARDS RESULTING FROM THE PRESENCE OF RADIOACTIVE…

  4. PEACETIME RADIATION HAZARDS IN THE FIRE SERVICE, BASIC COURSE, STUDY GUIDE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atomic Energy Commission, Washington, DC.

    THE ASSIGNMENT SHEETS INCLUDED ARE CORRELATED WITH THE INSTRUCTOR'S GUIDE (VT 002 117), THE RESOURCE MANUAL (VT 001 337), AND A SET OF TWENTY-TWO 20- BY 28-INCH CHARTS (OE 84002). THE MATERIAL IS DESIGNED TO BE PRESENTED TO FIREMEN IN A 15-HOUR COURSE AS A PART OF THEIR BASIC FIRE TRAINING AND IS CONCERNED WITH THE HAZARDS RESULTING FROM THE…

  5. 24 CFR 200.86 - Covenant for fire and other hazard insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT GENERAL INTRODUCTION TO FHA PROGRAMS Requirements for Application... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Covenant for fire and other hazard insurance. 200.86 Section 200.86 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and...

  6. WHC-SD-W252-FHA-001, Rev. 0: Preliminary fire hazard analysis for Phase II Liquid Effluent Treatment and Disposal Facility, Project W-252

    SciTech Connect

    Barilo, N.F.

    1995-05-11

    A Fire Hazards Analysis was performed to assess the risk from fire and other related perils and the capability of the facility to withstand these hazards. This analysis will be used to support design of the facility.

  7. Data for fire hazard assessment of selected non-halogenated and halogenated fire retardants: Report of Test FR 3983

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, R. H.; Babrauskas, V.; Levin, B. C.; Paabo, M.

    1991-10-01

    Five plastic materials, with and without fire retardants, were studied to compare the fire hazards of non-halogenated fire retardant additives with halogenated flame retardents. The plastic materials were identified by the sponsors as unsaturated polyesters, thermoplastic high density, low density and cross-linked low density polyethylenes, polypropylene, flexible and rigid poly(vinyl chlorides), and cross-linked and thermoplastic ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymers. The non-halogenated fire retardants tested were aluminum hydroxide, also known as alumina trihydrate, sodium alumino-carbonate, and magnesium hydroxide. The halogenated flame retardants were chlorine or bromine/antimony oxides. The plastics were studied using the Cone Calorimeter and the cup furnace smoke toxicity method (high density polyethylene only). The Cone Calorimeter provided data on mass consumed; time to ignition; peak rate and peak time of heat release; total heat release; effective heat of combustion; average yields of CO, CO2, HCl, and HBr; and average smoke obscuration. The concentrations of toxic gases generated in the cup furnace smoke toxicity method were used to predict the toxic potency of the mixed thermal decomposition products. The data from the Cone Calorimeter indicate that the non-halogenated fire retardants were, in most of the tested plastic formulations, more effective than the halogenated flame retardants in increasing the time to ignition. The non-halogenated fire retardants were also more effective in reducing the mass consumed, peak rate of heat release, total heat released, and effective smoke produced. The use of halogenated flame retardants increased smoke production and CO yields and, additionally, produced the known acid gases and toxic irritants, HCl and HBr, in measureable quantities.

  8. The potential for LiDAR technology to map fire fuel hazard over large areas of Australian forest.

    PubMed

    Price, Owen F; Gordon, Christopher E

    2016-10-01

    Fuel load is a primary determinant of fire spread in Australian forests. In east Australian forests, litter and canopy fuel loads and hence fire hazard are thought to be highest at and beyond steady-state fuel loads 15-20 years post-fire. Current methods used to predict fuel loads often rely on course-scale vegetation maps and simple time-since-fire relationships which mask fine-scale processes influencing fuel loads. Here we use Light Detecting and Remote Sensing technology (LiDAR) and field surveys to quantify post-fire mid-story and crown canopy fuel accumulation and fire hazard in Dry Sclerophyll Forests of the Sydney Basin (Australia) at fine spatial-scales (20 × 20 m cell resolution). Fuel cover was quantified in three strata important for crown fire propagation (0.5-4 m, 4-15 m, >15 m) over a 144 km(2) area subject to varying fire fuel ages. Our results show that 1) LiDAR provided a precise measurement of fuel cover in each strata and a less precise but still useful predictor of surface fuels, 2) cover varied greatly within a mapped vegetation class of the same fuel age, particularly for elevated fuel, 3) time-since-fire was a poor predictor of fuel cover and crown fire hazard because fuel loads important for crown fire propagation were variable over a range of fire fuel ages between 2 and 38 years post-fire, and 4) fuel loads and fire hazard can be high in the years immediately following fire. Our results show the benefits of spatially and temporally specific in situ fuel sampling methods such as LiDAR, and are widely applicable for fire management actions which aim to decrease human and environmental losses due to wildfire. PMID:27558828

  9. Enclosure fire hazard analysis using relative energy release criteria. [burning rate and combustion control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coulbert, C. D.

    1978-01-01

    A method for predicting the probable course of fire development in an enclosure is presented. This fire modeling approach uses a graphic plot of five fire development constraints, the relative energy release criteria (RERC), to bound the heat release rates in an enclosure as a function of time. The five RERC are flame spread rate, fuel surface area, ventilation, enclosure volume, and total fuel load. They may be calculated versus time based on the specified or empirical conditions describing the specific enclosure, the fuel type and load, and the ventilation. The calculation of these five criteria, using the common basis of energy release rates versus time, provides a unifying framework for the utilization of available experimental data from all phases of fire development. The plot of these criteria reveals the probable fire development envelope and indicates which fire constraint will be controlling during a criteria time period. Examples of RERC application to fire characterization and control and to hazard analysis are presented along with recommendations for the further development of the concept.

  10. Fire hazards analysis for the Center for National Security and Arms Control (CNSAC) Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Klamerus, E.W.; Ross, S.B.

    1993-07-01

    This Fire Hazards Analysis is sponsored by Plant Engineering and is prepared to support the Safety Assessment for the CNSAC Facility. This is a preliminary fire hazards analysis of a yet to be constructed facility and is based upon the current building design and the current understanding of the potential occupancy hazards. The governing occupancy for this building is personnel offices. The CNSAC facility will be dedicated primarily to two activities: (1) arms control and verification technology and (2) intelligence. This report supplements the Safety Assessment for the CNSAC facility and follows the guidance of DOE Memorandum EH-31.3 and meets the objectives of paragraph 4 of DOE Order 5480.7A, ``Fire Protection.`` This analysis demonstrates that under ``worst case`` assumptions a fire in the CNSAC facility will result in consequences which are below DOE offsite guidelines for accident conditions. This report is based upon preliminary design information and any major changes to the building design may require additional analyses.

  11. A multidimensional evaluation of fire fighter training for hazardous materials response: first results from the IAFF Program.

    PubMed

    Cohen, A

    1998-10-01

    The International Association of Fire Fighters (IAFF) course on hazardous materials training for first responders is described together with an evaluation plan that includes multiple levels of assessment. Trainee appraisals of the course, shifts in their ratings of task competencies, gains in knowledge quiz scores, and self-reports on actions reflecting lessons learned from the course are among the measures used. Evaluations of courses given in several city fire departments found more than 60% of trainee judgments of course quality and utility to be highly favorable, along with significant post-course improvements in their competency ratings and quiz scores. Follow-up interviews with samples of trainees also suggested more self-protective behaviors and preventive actions being taken with regard to alarms and risks of hazardous materials exposures. However, cross-comparing the results for the various evaluation measures gave only limited support to a popular evaluation model that hypothesized that they would be interdependent. Limitations in appreciating technical course subjects, the value of add-on or refresher instruction, and variable risk experiences are noted in explaining differences in some training results. PMID:9750939

  12. Workplace fire-not a misfortune, but an avoidable occupational hazard in Korea.

    PubMed

    Park, Ji-Eun; Kim, Myoung-Hee

    2015-02-01

    In this article, we argue that workplace fire should be understood within an occupational safety and health context. We selected two cases of fire and explosion with the greatest numbers of fatalities from the annual lists of the "Worst Manslaughter Companies of the Year" in Korea. Through review of information from major media, government, courts, and workers' advocacy organizations, we found that these incidents resulted from violations of basic safety rules by the companies, and that the penalties imposed on them were light. In addition, precarious workers were more vulnerable to such risk, and self-regulation did not work even in large corporations. Like other types of occupational hazards, explosions and fires can be prevented, but prevention requires that occupational safety and health regulations be thoroughly enforced and that heavy penalties be imposed in order to eliminate any incentives for regulatory violations. PMID:25816166

  13. Limitations imposed on fire PRA methods as the result of incomplete and uncertain fire event data.

    SciTech Connect

    Nowlen, Steven Patrick; Hyslop, J. S.

    2010-04-01

    Fire probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) methods utilize data and insights gained from actual fire events in a variety of ways. For example, fire occurrence frequencies, manual fire fighting effectiveness and timing, and the distribution of fire events by fire source and plant location are all based directly on the historical experience base. Other factors are either derived indirectly or supported qualitatively based on insights from the event data. These factors include the general nature and intensity of plant fires, insights into operator performance, and insights into fire growth and damage behaviors. This paper will discuss the potential methodology improvements that could be realized if more complete fire event reporting information were available. Areas that could benefit from more complete event reporting that will be discussed in the paper include fire event frequency analysis, analysis of fire detection and suppression system performance including incipient detection systems, analysis of manual fire fighting performance, treatment of fire growth from incipient stages to fully-involved fires, operator response to fire events, the impact of smoke on plant operations and equipment, and the impact of fire-induced cable failures on plant electrical circuits.

  14. A Survey of Vegetation and Wildland Fire Hazards on the Nevada Test Site, September 2004

    SciTech Connect

    Nevada, Bechtel

    2004-09-01

    In the spring of 2004 a survey was conducted by Bechtel Nevada Ecological Services on the Nevada Test Site to characterize vegetation resources and climatic components of the environment that contribute to wildland fires. The field surveyed assessed 211 sites along major Nevada Test Site corridors for the abundance of native perennial and annual species and invasive weeds. The abundance of fine-textured (grasses and herbs) and coarse-textured (woody) biomass was visually estimated on numerical scales ranging from one to five. Wildland fires are costly to control and to mitigate once they occur. Revegetation of burned areas is very slow without reseeding or transplanting with native species and other rehabilitation efforts. Untreated areas become much more vulnerable to future fires once invasive species, rather than native species, colonize a burned area.The annual assessment of wildland fire hazards on the Nevada Test Site is scheduled to be implemented each spring in the near future with results being reported directly to the U.S. Department of Energy and the Bechtel Nevada Fire Marshal.

  15. Orientation effect on cone calorimeter test results to assess fire hazard of materials.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Kuang-Chung

    2009-12-30

    A cone calorimeter can provide material "reaction to fire" information for use in evaluating the fire hazard of materials. Two orientations can be selected, vertical or horizontal, depending on the geometry of materials in their final use. However, most fire models and material evaluation reports fail to consider the effects of the orientation and applied the horizontal case data. To assess the validity of using data with "horizontal" samples for further applications, a systematic experimental was performed using materials including PMMA, wooden products and polystyrene foams. Besides critical heat flux for ignition, other "reaction to fire" material properties were measured, including ignition time, ignition temperature, heat release rate history and mass loss rate when exposed to three heating irradiances, namely 15, 30 and 50 kW/m(2). For the horizontal orientation in comparison to the vertical orientation, the study data reveal relatively constant temperature distribution before ignition, lower critical heat flux for pilot ignition, shorter time to ignition, lower peak heat release rate, identical total heat release, longer burning time and almost identical combustion completeness for all the tested materials except polystyrene foams. Ignition temperature displaced no clear trend. Vertical orientation tests are consequently recommended for evaluating material fire performance. PMID:19665837

  16. Interim guidelines for protecting fire-fighting personnel from multiple hazards at nuclear plant sites: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, A.R.; Bloom, C.W.

    1989-07-01

    This report provides interim guidelines for reducing the impact to fire fighting and other supporting emergency response personnel from the multiple hazards of radiation, heat stress, and trauma when fighting a fire in a United States commercial nuclear power plant. Interim guidelines are provided for fire brigade composition, training, equipment, procedures, strategies, heat stress and trauma. In addition, task definitions are provided to evaluate and further enhance the interim guidelines over the long term. 19 refs.

  17. Hazard Science in Support of Community Resiliency: The Response of the Multi Hazards Demonstration Project to the 2009 Station Fire in Los Angeles County

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, L. M.; Bawden, G. W.; Bowers, J.; Cannon, S.; Cox, D. A.; Fisher, R.; Keeley, J.; Perry, S. C.; Plumlee, G. S.; Wood, N. J.

    2009-12-01

    The “Station” fire, the largest fire in the history of Los Angeles County in southern California, began on August 26, 2009 and as of the abstract deadline had burned over 150,000 acres of the Angeles National Forest. This fire creates both a demand and an opportunity for hazards science to be used by the communities directly hit by the fire, as well as those downstream of possible postfire impacts. The Multi Hazards Demonstration Project of the USGS is deploying several types of scientific response, including 1) evaluation of potential debris-flow hazards and associated risk, 2) monitoring physical conditions in burned areas and the hydrologic response to rainstorms, 3) increased streamflow monitoring, 4) ash analysis and ground water contamination, 5) ecosystem response and endangered species rescue, 6) lidar data acquisition for evaluations of biomass loss, detailed mapping of the physical processes that lead to debris-flow generation, and other geologic investigations. The Multi Hazards Demonstration Project is working with the southern California community to use the resulting information to better manage the social consequences of the fire and its secondary hazards. In particular, we are working with Los Angeles County to determine what information they need to prioritize recovery efforts. For instance, maps of hazards specific to debris flow potential can help identify the highest priority areas for debris flow mitigation efforts. These same maps together with ecosystem studies will help land managers determine whether individuals from endangered species should be removed to zoos or other refuges during the rainy months. The ash analysis will help water managers prevent contamination to water supplies. Plans are just beginning for a public information campaign with Los Angeles County about the risk posed by potential debris flows that should be underway in December. Activities from the fire response will support the development of the Wildfire Scenario in

  18. Emergency assessment of post-fire debris-flow hazards for the 2013 Springs Fire, Ventura County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Staley, Dennis M.

    2014-01-01

    Wildfire can significantly alter the hydrologic response of a watershed to the extent that even modest rainstorms can produce dangerous flash floods and debris flows. In this report, empirical models are used to predict the probability and magnitude of debris-flow occurrence in response to a 10-year rainstorm for the 2013 Springs fire in Ventura County, California. Overall, the models predict a relatively high probability (60–80 percent) of debris flow for 9 of the 99 drainage basins in the burn area in response to a 10-year recurrence interval design storm. Predictions of debris-flow volume suggest that debris flows may entrain a significant volume of material, with 28 of the 99 basins identified as having potential debris-flow volumes greater than 10,000 cubic meters. These results of the relative combined hazard analysis suggest there is a moderate likelihood of significant debris-flow hazard within and downstream of the burn area for nearby populations, infrastructure, wildlife, and water resources. Given these findings, we recommend that residents, emergency managers, and public works departments pay close attention to weather forecasts and National Weather Service-issued Debris Flow and Flash Flood Outlooks, Watches, and Warnings, and that residents adhere to any evacuation orders.

  19. Health Hazard Evaluation Report HETA 81-459-1603, the City of New York Fire Department, New York, New York

    SciTech Connect

    Tubbs, R.L.

    1985-07-01

    A noise survey of New York City Fire Department equipment was conducted in November, 1982. The evaluation was requested by the fire department to investigate selected noise sources found at the fire scene or on vehicles used to get to and from a fire scene. The author concludes that a potential for overexposure to noise does exist for the fire department personnel. Recommendations include limiting the use of warning devices as much as legally and practically possible, relocating warning devices away from fire personnel on the vehicle, and implementing a hearing conservation program.

  20. A Study of Aircraft Fire Hazards Related to Natural Electrical Phenomena

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kester, Frank L.; Gerstein, Melvin; Plumer, J. A.

    1960-01-01

    The problems of natural electrical phenomena as a fire hazard to aircraft are evaluated. Assessment of the hazard is made over the range of low level electrical discharges, such as static sparks, to high level discharges, such as lightning strikes to aircraft. In addition, some fundamental work is presented on the problem of flame propagation in aircraft fuel vent systems. This study consists of a laboratory investigation in five parts: (1) a study of the ignition energies and flame propagation rates of kerosene-air and JP-6-air foams, (2) a study of the rate of flame propagation of n-heptane, n-octane, n-nonane, and n-decane in aircraft vent ducts, (3) a study of the damage to aluminum, titanium, and stainless steel aircraft skin materials by lightning strikes, (4) a study of fuel ignition by lightning strikes to aircraft skins, and (5) a study of lightning induced flame propagation in an aircraft vent system.

  1. ERTS-1 imagery and high flight photographs as aids to fire hazard appraisal at the NASA San Pablo Reservoir test site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colwell, R. N.

    1973-01-01

    The identification of fire hazards at the San Pablo Reservoir Test Site in California using ERTS-1 data is discussed. It is stated that the two primary fire hazards in the area are caused by wild oat plants and eucalyptus trees. The types of imagery used in conducting the study are reported. Aerial photographs of specific areas are included to show the extent of the fire hazards.

  2. 14 CFR 91.815 - Agricultural and fire fighting airplanes: Noise operating limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Agricultural and fire fighting airplanes... RULES Operating Noise Limits § 91.815 Agricultural and fire fighting airplanes: Noise operating limitations. (a) This section applies to propeller-driven, small airplanes having standard...

  3. 14 CFR 91.815 - Agricultural and fire fighting airplanes: Noise operating limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Agricultural and fire fighting airplanes... RULES Operating Noise Limits § 91.815 Agricultural and fire fighting airplanes: Noise operating limitations. (a) This section applies to propeller-driven, small airplanes having standard...

  4. 14 CFR 91.815 - Agricultural and fire fighting airplanes: Noise operating limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Agricultural and fire fighting airplanes... RULES Operating Noise Limits § 91.815 Agricultural and fire fighting airplanes: Noise operating limitations. (a) This section applies to propeller-driven, small airplanes having standard...

  5. Beyond reducing fire hazard: fuel treatment impacts on overstory tree survival

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Collins, Brandon M.; Das, Adrian J.; Battles, John J.; Fry, Danny L.; Krasnow, Kevin D.; Stephens, Scott L.

    2014-01-01

    Fuel treatment implementation in dry forest types throughout the western United States is likely to increase in pace and scale in response to increasing incidence of large wildfires. While it is clear that properly implemented fuel treatments are effective at reducing hazardous fire potential, there are ancillary ecological effects that can impact forest resilience either positively or negatively depending on the specific elements examined, as well as treatment type, timing, and intensity. In this study, we use overstory tree growth responses, measured seven years after the most common fuel treatments, to estimate forest health. Across the five species analyzed, observed mortality and future vulnerability were consistently low in the mechanical-only treatment. Fire-only was similar to the control for all species except Douglas-fir, while mechanical-plus-fire had high observed mortality and future vulnerability for white fir and sugar pine. Given that overstory trees largely dictate the function of forests and services they provide (e.g., wildlife habitat, carbon sequestration, soil stability) these results have implications for understanding longer-term impacts of common fuel treatments on forest resilience.

  6. Quantify landslide exposure in areas with limited hazard information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pellicani, R.; Spilotro, G.; Van Westen, C. J.

    2012-04-01

    In Daunia region, located in the North-western part of Apulia (Southern Italy), landslides are the main source of damage to properties in the urban centers of the area, involving especially transportation system and the foundation stability of buildings. In the last 50 years, the growing demand for physical development of these unstable minor hillside and mountain centers has produced a very rapid expansion of built-up areas, often with poor planning of urban and territorial infrastructures, and invasion of the agricultural soil. Because of the expansion of the built-up towards not safe areas, human activities such as deforestation or excavation of slopes for road cuts and building sites, etc., have become important triggers for landslide occurrence. In the study area, the probability of occurrence of landslides is very difficult to predict, as well as the expected magnitude of events, due to the limited data availability on past landslide activity. Because the main limitations concern the availability of temporal data on landslides and triggering events (frequency), run-out distance and landslide magnitude, it was not possible to produce a reliable landslide hazard map and, consequently, a risk map. Given these limitations in data availability and details, a qualitative exposure map has been produced and combined with a landslide susceptibility map, both generated using a spatial multi-criteria evaluation (SMCE) procedure in a GIS system, for obtaining the qualitative landslide risk map. The qualitative analysis has been provided the spatial distribution of the exposure level in the study area; this information could be used in a preliminary stage of regional planning. In order to have a better definition of the risk level in the Daunia territory, the quantification of the economic losses at municipal level was carried out. For transforming these information on economic consequences into landslide risk quantification, it was necessary to assume the temporal

  7. Emergency assessment of post-fire debris-flow hazards for the 2013 Mountain fire, southern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Staley, Dennis M.; Gartner, Joseph E.; Smoczyk, Greg M.; Reeves, Ryan R.

    2013-01-01

    Wildfire dramatically alters the hydrologic response of a watershed such that even modest rainstorms can produce dangerous flash floods and debris flows. We use empirical models to predict the probability and magnitude of debris flow occurrence in response to a 10-year rainstorm for the 2013 Mountain fire near Palm Springs, California. Overall, the models predict a relatively high probability (60–100 percent) of debris flow for six of the drainage basins in the burn area in response to a 10-year recurrence interval design storm. Volumetric predictions suggest that debris flows that occur may entrain a significant volume of material, with 8 of the 14 basins identified as having potential debris-flow volumes greater than 100,000 cubic meters. These results suggest there is a high likelihood of significant debris-flow hazard within and downstream of the burn area for nearby populations, infrastructure, and wildlife and water resources. Given these findings, we recommend that residents, emergency managers, and public works departments pay close attention to weather forecasts and National Weather Service–issued Debris Flow and Flash Flood Outlooks, Watches and Warnings and that residents adhere to any evacuation orders.

  8. Post-Fire Debris-Flow Hazard Assessments at the U.S. Geological Survey - Recent Advances and Future Directions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staley, D. M.; Kean, J. W.; Smoczyk, G. M.; Negri, J. A.

    2014-12-01

    Wildfire can have profound effects on the hydrologic response of a watershed, and debris-flow activity is among the most destructive consequences of these effects. The continued high likelihood of catastrophic wildfires in the western U. S. and the encroachment of development into fire-prone areas have created the need to develop tools to identify and quantify the potential hazards posed by debris flows generated from burned watersheds. These tools are critically needed by Federal, State, and local agencies to mitigate the impacts of debris flows on people, their property, infrastructure and natural resources. Applied research at the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Landslide Hazards Program is focused on providing timely, science-based assessments of post-fire debris-flow hazard. Formerly, post-fire debris-flow hazard assessments were disseminated by means of the USGS Open-File Report publication series, which included poster-sized maps that predicted the probability, volume, and combined hazard for given watersheds. Feedback from collaborators suggested that 1) the reports were not sufficiently timely for immediate post-fire use, 2) the static maps were difficult to use for site-specific assessments, and 3) individual assessments were often cost-prohibitive. Beginning in January 2014, the USGS has transitioned to a web-based method for disseminating post-fire debris-flow hazard assessments. This new platform addresses the primary concerns of our stakeholders in three ways. First, the turnaround time has been reduced from 1-2 months for a map and written report, to 3-4 days for a web-based map assessment. This allows response teams to incorporate the assessment results into their reports, which are urgently needed immediately after fires. Second, the new website is interactive and accompanied by downloadable geospatial data of predictions for several storm scenarios. These features permit casual (local residents) and power-users (GIS experts) to evaluate site

  9. Field Guide for Testing Existing Photovoltaic Systems for Ground Faults and Installing Equipment to Mitigate Fire Hazards

    SciTech Connect

    Brooks, William; Basso, Thomas; Coddington, Michael

    2015-10-01

    Ground faults and arc faults are the two most common reasons for fires in photovoltaic (PV) arrays and methods exist that can mitigate the hazards. This report provides field procedures for testing PV arrays for ground faults, and for implementing high resolution ground fault and arc fault detectors in existing and new PV system designs.

  10. Assessment of erosion hazard after recurrence fires with the RUSLE 3D MODEL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vecín-Arias, Daniel; Palencia, Covadonga; Fernández Raga, María

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this work is to calculate if there is more soil erosion after the recurrence of several forest fires on an area. To that end, it has been studied an area of 22 130 ha because has a high frequency of fires. This area is located in the northwest of the Iberian Peninsula. The assessment of erosion hazard was calculated in several times using Geographic Information Systems (GIS).The area have been divided into several plots according to the number of times they have been burnt in the past 15 years. Due to the complexity that has to make a detailed study of a so large field and that there are not information available anually, it is necessary to select the more interesting moments. In august 2012 it happened the most agressive and extensive fire of the area. So the study was focused on the erosion hazard for 2011 and 2014, because they are the date before and after from the fire of 2012 in which there are orthophotos available. RUSLE3D model (Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation) was used to calculate maps erosion losses. This model improves the traditional USLE (Wischmeier and D., 1965) because it studies the influence of the concavity / convexity (Renard et al., 1997), and improves the estimation of the slope factor LS (Renard et al., 1991). It is also one of the most commonly used models in literatura (Mitasova et al., 1996; Terranova et al., 2009). The tools used are free and accessible, using GIS "gvSIG" (http://www.gvsig.com/es) and the metadata were taken from Spatial Data Infrastructure of Spain webpage (IDEE, 2016). However the RUSLE model has many critics as some authors who suggest that only serves to carry out comparisons between areas, and not for the calculation of absolute soil loss data. These authors argue that in field measurements the actual recovered eroded soil can suppose about one-third of the values obtained with the model (Šúri et al., 2002). The study of the area shows that the error detected by the critics could come from

  11. Assessment of erosion hazard after recurrence fires with the RUSLE 3D MODEL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vecín-Arias, Daniel; Palencia, Covadonga; Fernández Raga, María

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this work is to calculate if there is more soil erosion after the recurrence of several forest fires on an area. To that end, it has been studied an area of 22 130 ha because has a high frequency of fires. This area is located in the northwest of the Iberian Peninsula. The assessment of erosion hazard was calculated in several times using Geographic Information Systems (GIS).The area have been divided into several plots according to the number of times they have been burnt in the past 15 years. Due to the complexity that has to make a detailed study of a so large field and that there are not information available anually, it is necessary to select the more interesting moments. In august 2012 it happened the most agressive and extensive fire of the area. So the study was focused on the erosion hazard for 2011 and 2014, because they are the date before and after from the fire of 2012 in which there are orthophotos available. RUSLE3D model (Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation) was used to calculate maps erosion losses. This model improves the traditional USLE (Wischmeier and D., 1965) because it studies the influence of the concavity / convexity (Renard et al., 1997), and improves the estimation of the slope factor LS (Renard et al., 1991). It is also one of the most commonly used models in literatura (Mitasova et al., 1996; Terranova et al., 2009). The tools used are free and accessible, using GIS "gvSIG" (http://www.gvsig.com/es) and the metadata were taken from Spatial Data Infrastructure of Spain webpage (IDEE, 2016). However the RUSLE model has many critics as some authors who suggest that only serves to carry out comparisons between areas, and not for the calculation of absolute soil loss data. These authors argue that in field measurements the actual recovered eroded soil can suppose about one-third of the values obtained with the model (Šúri et al., 2002). The study of the area shows that the error detected by the critics could come from

  12. 14 CFR 91.815 - Agricultural and fire fighting airplanes: Noise operating limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...: Noise operating limitations. 91.815 Section 91.815 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... RULES Operating Noise Limits § 91.815 Agricultural and fire fighting airplanes: Noise operating... indicate that the airplane has not been shown to comply with the noise limits under part 36 of this...

  13. Feasibility of methods and systems for reducng LNG tanker fire hazards

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-08-01

    In this program concepts for reducing fire hazards that may result from LNG tanker collisions are identified and their technical feasibility evaluated. Concepts considered include modifications to the shipborne LNG containers so that in the event of a container rupture less of the contents would spill and/or the contents would spill at a reduced rate. Changes in the cargo itself, including making the LNG into a gel, solidifying it, converting it to methanol, and adding flame suppressants are also evaluated. The relative effectiveness and the costs of implementing these methods in terms of increased cost of gas at the receiving terminal, are explained. The vulnerability of an LNG tanker and its crew to the thermal effects of a large pool fire caused by a collision spill is estimated and methods of protecting the crew are considered. It is shown that the protection of ship and crew so that further deterioration of a damaged ship might be ameliorated, would require the design and installation of extraordinary insulation systems and life support assistance for the crew. Methods of salvaging or disposing of cargo from a damaged and disabled ship are evaluated, and it is concluded that if the cargo cannot be transferred to another (empty) LNG tanker because of lack of availability, then the burning of the cargo at a location somewhat distant from the disabled tanker appears to be a promising approach. Finally, the likelihood of the vapors from a spill being ignited due to the frictional impact of the colliding ships was examined. It is found that the heating of metal sufficient to ignite flammable vapors would occur during a collision, but it is questionable whether flammable vapor and air will, in fact, come in contact with the hot metal surfaces.

  14. Hazard of CO₂ laser-induced airway fire in laryngeal surgery: experimental data of contributing factors.

    PubMed

    Stuermer, Konrad Johannes; Ayachi, Stefan; Gostian, Antoniu-O; Beutner, Dirk; Hüttenbrink, Karl-Bernd

    2013-09-01

    In carbon dioxide (CO2) laser surgery of the larynx, the potentially dangerous combination of laser-induced heat in an oxygen-enriched atmosphere typically occurs when jet ventilation is used or due to an insufficiently blocked endotracheal tube. Until now, no limitations for safe oxygen concentrations or laser intervals have been established. The aim of this study was to investigate and quantify the factors that may contribute to an airway fire in laryngeal laser surgery. Fat, muscle and cartilage were irradiated with a CO2 laser at 2, 4, 6 and 8 W in five different oxygen concentrations with and without smoke exhaustion. The time to ignition was recorded for each different experimental setup. Fat burnt fastest, followed by cartilage and muscle. The elevation of laser energy or oxygen concentration reduced the time to inflammation of any tissue. The elevation of oxygen by 10 % increases the risk of inflammation more than the elevation of laser power by 2 W. Under smoke exhaustion, inflammation and burning occurred delayed or were even inhibited at lower oxygen concentrations. Lasing in more than 50 % oxygen is comparatively dangerous and can cause airway fire in less than 5 s, especially when laser energies of more than 5 W are applied. In equal or lower than 50 % oxygen, an irradiation interval of 5 s can be considered a comparatively safe time limit to prevent inflammation in laryngeal laser surgery. Smoke exhaustion should always be applied. PMID:23636479

  15. Health-Hazard Evaluation Report HETA 85-150-1767, Warwick Fire Department, Warwick, Rhode Island

    SciTech Connect

    Keenlyside, R.A.; House, L.A.; Kent, G.; Durand, J.M.

    1987-01-01

    In answer to a request from the International Association of Fire Fighters (IAFF), an evaluation was made of health complaints noted by fire fighters exposed to plastic products and pesticides during two separate fires attended to by the Warwick Fire Department, located in Warwick, Rhode Island. Questionnaires were administered to 43 persons who were only present at the plastics fire and 46 who were only present at the pesticide fire and to 13 present at both fires. The men who fought the plastic products fire and the pesticide fire apparently experienced acute symptoms related to smoke and chemical inhalation during the fires, including headache, cough, sore throat, wheezing, shortness of breath, rash, dizziness, nausea, blurred vision, and numbness. The authors conclude that fire fighters at these two fires experienced acute irritant symptoms from smoke and chemical inhalation. The authors recommend use of protective clothing, use of protective equipment, prefire planning, implementation of medical surveillance for all fire fighters, and the proper cleanup of protective clothing and equipment after fires.

  16. Emergency assessment of postwildfire debris-flow hazards for the 2011 Motor Fire, Sierra and Stanislaus National Forests, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cannon, Susan H.; Michael, John A.

    2011-01-01

    This report presents an emergency assessment of potential debris-flow hazards from basins burned by the 2011 Motor fire in the Sierra and Stanislaus National Forests, Calif. Statistical-empirical models are used to estimate the probability and volume of debris flows that may be produced from burned drainage basins as a function of different measures of basin burned extent, gradient, and soil physical properties, and in response to a 30-minute-duration, 10-year-recurrence rainstorm. Debris-flow probability and volume estimates are then combined to form a relative hazard ranking for each basin. This assessment provides critical information for issuing warnings, locating and designing mitigation measures, and planning evacuation timing and routes within the first two years following the fire.

  17. Fire hazard criteria for noise control products in underground coal mines. Open file report 28 Sep 79-5 Apr 83

    SciTech Connect

    Pettitt, M.R.; Giuntini, R.E.; Wessels, W.R.

    1983-05-01

    The development of fire hazard criteria for noise control products in underground coal mines are presented. Qualifying requisites of the criteria include maintaining miners' safety, allowing for maximum use of noise control products, and economic feasibility. The burning process is analyzed for its relationship to fire hazard criteria developed by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and the Federal Aviation Administration, and the mine environment is analyzed in conjunction with the end-use applications of noise control products. Also, the interim fire hazard specification developed by the Mine Safety and Health Administration is appraised as it applies to end-use applications of noise control products. From these analyses and a literature survey, fire hazard criteria are developed that include an initial screening procedure that evaluates the level of flammability testing required.

  18. Fire hazard analysis of Rocky Flats Building 776/777 duct systems

    SciTech Connect

    DiNenno, P.J.; Scheffey, J.L.; Gewain, R.G.; Shanley, J.H. Jr.

    1988-12-01

    The objective of this analysis is to determine if ventilation ductwork in Building 776/777 will maintain their structural integrity during expected fire conditions as well as standard design fires typically used to ascertain fire resistance ratings. If the analysis shows that ductwork will not maintain structural integrity, the impact of this failure will be determined and analyzed, and alternative solutions recommended. Associated with this analysis is the development of a computer fire model which can be used as an engineering tool in analyzing the effect of fires on ductwork in other areas and buildings.

  19. Fires

    MedlinePlus

    Whether a fire happens in your home or in the wild, it can be very dangerous. Fire spreads quickly. There is no time to gather ... a phone call. In just two minutes, a fire can become life-threatening. In five minutes, a ...

  20. Hazardous air pollutant emissions from gas-fired combustion sources: emissions and the effects of design and fuel type.

    PubMed

    England, G C; McGrath, T P; Gilmer, L; Seebold, J G; Lev-On, M; Hunt, T

    2001-01-01

    Air emissions from gas-fired combustion devices such as boilers, process heaters, gas turbines and stationary reciprocating engines contain hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) subjected to consideration under the federal clean air act (CAA). This work presents a recently completed major research project to develop an understanding of HAP emissions from gas-fired boilers and process heaters and new HAP emission factors based on field emission tests of gas-fired external combustion devices used in the petroleum industry. The effect of combustion system design and operating parameters on HAP emissions determined by both field and research tests are discussed. Data from field tests of gas-fired petroleum industry boilers and heaters generally show very low emission levels of organic HAPs. A comparison of the emission data for boilers and process heaters, including units with and without various forms of NOx emission controls, showed no significant difference in organic HAP emission characteristics due to process or burner design. This conclusion is also supported by the results of research tests with different burner designs. Based on field tests of units fired with natural gas and various petroleum industry process gases and research tests in which gas composition was intentionally varied, organic HAP emissions were not determined to be significantly affected by the gas composition. Research data indicate that elevated organic HAP emission levels are found only under extreme operating conditions (starved air or high excess air combustion) associated with poor combustion. PMID:11219701

  1. Landscape scale vegetation-type conversion and fire hazard in the San Francisco bay area open spaces

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Russell, W.H.; McBride, J.R.

    2003-01-01

    Successional pressures resulting from fire suppression and reduced grazing have resulted in vegetation-type conversion in the open spaces surrounding the urbanized areas of the San Francisco bay area. Coverage of various vegetation types were sampled on seven sites using a chronosequence of remote images in order to measure change over time. Results suggest a significant conversion of grassland to shrubland dominated by Baccharis pilularison five of the seven sites sampled. An increase in Pseudotsuga menziesii coverage was also measured on the sites where it was present. Increases fuel and fire hazard were determined through field sampling and use of the FARSITE fire area simulator. A significant increase in biomass resulting from succession of grass-dominated to shrub-dominated communities was evident. In addition, results from the FARSITE simulations indicated significantly higher fire-line intensity, and flame length associated with shrublands over all other vegetation types sampled. These results indicate that the replacement of grass dominated with shrub-dominated landscapes has increased the probability of high intensity fires. ?? 2003 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Dispersal limitation drives successional pathways in Central Siberian forests under current and intensified fire regimes.

    PubMed

    Tautenhahn, Susanne; Lichstein, Jeremy W; Jung, Martin; Kattge, Jens; Bohlman, Stephanie A; Heilmeier, Hermann; Prokushkin, Anatoly; Kahl, Anja; Wirth, Christian

    2016-06-01

    Fire is a primary driver of boreal forest dynamics. Intensifying fire regimes due to climate change may cause a shift in boreal forest composition toward reduced dominance of conifers and greater abundance of deciduous hardwoods, with potential biogeochemical and biophysical feedbacks to regional and global climate. This shift has already been observed in some North American boreal forests and has been attributed to changes in site conditions. However, it is unknown if the mechanisms controlling fire-induced changes in deciduous hardwood cover are similar among different boreal forests, which differ in the ecological traits of the dominant tree species. To better understand the consequences of intensifying fire regimes in boreal forests, we studied postfire regeneration in five burns in the Central Siberian dark taiga, a vast but poorly studied boreal region. We combined field measurements, dendrochronological analysis, and seed-source maps derived from high-resolution satellite images to quantify the importance of site conditions (e.g., organic layer depth) vs. seed availability in shaping postfire regeneration. We show that dispersal limitation of evergreen conifers was the main factor determining postfire regeneration composition and density. Site conditions had significant but weaker effects. We used information on postfire regeneration to develop a classification scheme for successional pathways, representing the dominance of deciduous hardwoods vs. evergreen conifers at different successional stages. We estimated the spatial distribution of different successional pathways under alternative fire regime scenarios. Under intensified fire regimes, dispersal limitation of evergreen conifers is predicted to become more severe, primarily due to reduced abundance of surviving seed sources within burned areas. Increased dispersal limitation of evergreen conifers, in turn, is predicted to increase the prevalence of successional pathways dominated by deciduous hardwoods

  3. Assessment of dermal hazard from acid burns with fire retardant garments in a full-size simulation of an engulfment flash fire.

    PubMed

    Mackay, Christopher E; Vivanco, Stephanie N; Yeboah, George; Vercellone, Jeff

    2016-09-01

    There have been concerns that fire-derived acid gases could aggravate thermal burns for individuals wearing synthetic flame retardant garments. A comparative risk assessment was performed on three commercial flame retardant materials with regard to relative hazards associated with acidic combustion gases to skin during a full engulfment flash fire event. The tests were performed in accordance with ASTM F1930 and ISO 13506: Standard Test Method for Evaluation of Flame Resistant Clothing for Protection against Fire Simulations Using an Instrumented Manikin. Three fire retardant textiles were tested: an FR treated cotton/nylon blend, a low Protex(®) modacrylic blend, and a medium Protex(®) modacrylic blend. The materials, in the form of whole body coveralls, were subjected to propane-fired flash conditions of 84kW/m(2) in a full sized simulator for a duration of either 3 or 4s. Ion traps consisting of wetted sodium carbonate-impregnated cellulose in Teflon holders were placed on the chest and back both above and under the standard undergarments. The ion traps remained in position from the time of ignition until 5min post ignition. Results indicated that acid deposition did increase with modacrylic content from 0.9μmol/cm(2) for the cotton/nylon, to 12μmol/cm(2) for the medium modacrylic blend. The source of the acidity was dominated by hydrogen chloride. Discoloration was inversely proportional to the amount of acid collected on the traps. A risk assessment was performed on the potential adverse impact of acid gases on both the skin and open wounds. The results indicated that the deposition and dissolution of the acid gases in surficial fluid media (perspiration and blood plasma) resulted in an increase in acidity, but not sufficient to induce irritation/skin corrosion or to cause necrosis in open third degree burns. PMID:27325216

  4. Historical background of the child labor regulations: strengths and limitations of the agricultural hazardous occupations orders.

    PubMed

    Miller, Mary E

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to review the background of key legislative and regulatory milestones of the initial laws and federal child labor provisions limiting hazardous work by children in agriculture up to the more recent developments contributing to the proposed updates to the agricultural hazardous occupations orders. A summary of the key changes are described and the significant differences between agricultural and nonagricultural regulations are highlighted. Recommendations for future policy are provided. PMID:22490029

  5. Laser surgery and fire hazards in ear, nose, and throat surgeries.

    PubMed

    Sheinbein, David S; Loeb, Robert G

    2010-09-01

    Operating room fires are rare but can be devastating. These fires can occur during almost any surgical procedure but are more likely during airway surgery, during head and neck surgery, and if volatile flammable liquids are used. Each team in the operating room (ie, anesthesia, surgery, and nursing) has special expertise and responsibility in preventing and responding to a fire. Fires can be prevented by ongoing education and an interdisciplinary discussion of risks and responsibilities prior to each high-risk case. PMID:20850079

  6. Modeling hydrologic and geomorphic hazards across post-fire landscapes using a self-organizing map approach

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Friedel, M.J.

    2011-01-01

    Few studies attempt to model the range of possible post-fire hydrologic and geomorphic hazards because of the sparseness of data and the coupled, nonlinear, spatial, and temporal relationships among landscape variables. In this study, a type of unsupervised artificial neural network, called a self-organized map (SOM), is trained using data from 540 burned basins in the western United States. The sparsely populated data set includes variables from independent numerical landscape categories (climate, land surface form, geologic texture, and post-fire condition), independent landscape classes (bedrock geology and state), and dependent initiation processes (runoff, landslide, and runoff and landslide combination) and responses (debris flows, floods, and no events). Pattern analysis of the SOM-based component planes is used to identify and interpret relations among the variables. Application of the Davies-Bouldin criteria following k-means clustering of the SOM neurons identified eight conceptual regional models for focusing future research and empirical model development. A split-sample validation on 60 independent basins (not included in the training) indicates that simultaneous predictions of initiation process and response types are at least 78% accurate. As climate shifts from wet to dry conditions, forecasts across the burned landscape reveal a decreasing trend in the total number of debris flow, flood, and runoff events with considerable variability among individual basins. These findings suggest the SOM may be useful in forecasting real-time post-fire hazards, and long-term post-recovery processes and effects of climate change scenarios. ?? 2011.

  7. 14 CFR 91.815 - Agricultural and fire fighting airplanes: Noise operating limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., as effective on January 1, 1966) or for dispensing fire fighting materials. (b) If the Airplane Flight Manual, or other approved manual material information, markings, or placards for the airplane indicate that the airplane has not been shown to comply with the noise limits under part 36 of this...

  8. An update on The Hazard Mapping System (HMS) - a multiplatform remote sensing approach to fire and smoke detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kibler, J. M.; Ruminski, M. G.; Simko, J. J.; McNamara, D. P.; Kasheta, T.

    2004-12-01

    The Hazard Mapping System (HMS) is a multiplatform remote sensing approach to detecting fires and smoke over the US, Canada, Mexico and Central America. This system is an integral part of the Satellite Services Division's near realtime hazards detection and mitigation efforts. The system utilizes NOAA's Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES), Polar Operational Environmental Satellites (POES), the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instrument on NASA's Terra and Aqua spacecraft and the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program Operational Linescan System (OLS) sensor, (F14 and F15). Automated detection algorithms are employed for each of the satellites (except DMSP OLS) for the fire detects while smoke is annotated by a satellite analyst. Fire detects can also be added by the satellite analyst. Major customers for this product include the National Weather Service, Storm Prediction Center, US Forest Service, Environmental Protection Agency, research science teams, as well as numerous federal, state and local land and air quality managers. In 2004 the HMS was upgraded by adding the Canadian, Mexican, and Central American sectors for hotspot and smoke detection. These sectors can be easily turned off or on by changing flags in the system configuration file. This enables analysis in sectors only during their respective burning seasons. The Alaskan and Canadian sectors are typically turned off in the winter season and the Mexican sector is cut off after the March-May burning season. But sectors can also be easily added or restarted if, for instance, smoke from a region is affecting the United States. Various ancillary data sources are used in the HMS to aid the analysis. Stable Lights is a static product that identifies stable sources of light from the OLS sensor and is usually associated with cities and urban areas. It appears on the screen as a transparent overlay on the satellite imagery being displayed. This capability can assist

  9. Emergency assessment of post-fire debris-flow hazards for the 2013 Powerhouse fire, southern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Staley, Dennis M.; Smoczyk, Gregory M.; Reeves, Ryan R.

    2013-01-01

    Wildfire dramatically alters the hydrologic response of a watershed such that even modest rainstorms can produce dangerous flash floods and debris flows. Existing empirical models were used to predict the probability and magnitude of debris-flow occurrence in response to a 10-year recurrence interval rainstorm for the 2013 Powerhouse fire near Lancaster, California. Overall, the models predict a relatively low probability for debris-flow occurrence in response to the design storm. However, volumetric predictions suggest that debris flows that occur may entrain a significant volume of material, with 44 of the 73 basins identified as having potential debris-flow volumes between 10,000 and 100,000 cubic meters. These results suggest that even though the likelihood of debris flow is relatively low, the consequences of post-fire debris-flow initiation within the burn area may be significant for downstream populations, infrastructure, and wildlife and water resources. Given these findings, we recommend that residents, emergency managers, and public works departments pay close attention to weather forecasts and National-Weather-Service-issued Debris Flow and Flash Flood Outlooks, Watches, and Warnings and that residents adhere to any evacuation orders.

  10. Hazard report. Internal wire breakage in reusable electrosurgical active electrode cables may cause sparking and surgical fires.

    PubMed

    2009-07-01

    Breaks in the internal wires of reusable electrosurgical active electrode cables can increase the risk of injuries and surgical fires. Careful visual and manual inspection during reprocessing and immediately before use, coupled with periodic replacement, can help limit the risk. PMID:20848952

  11. Hazard Analysis for Post-Fire Debris-Flow Potential in Arizona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Youberg, A.; Koestner, K. A.; Schiefer, E.; Neary, D. G.

    2011-12-01

    Several large, devastating wildfires occurred in Arizona during the past 2 years, after a 4-year period without any large wildfires. In June, 2010, the human-caused Schultz Fire near Flagstaff burned 6,100 ha of mostly steep terrain. Subsequent rains from the 4th wettest monsoon on record produced numerous debris flows, significant erosion, and substantial flooding of the downslope residential areas. In May and June of 2011, 3 very large human-caused wildfires (Wallow, Horseshoe 2, and Monument Fires) burned over 320,000 ha, posing serious threats to communities below burned slopes. The Burned Area Emergency Response (BAER) teams, in need of a rapid method to assess the potential for post-fire debris flows, turned to models developed by the USGS for this purpose [Cannon and others, 2010, GSA Bull, 122(1-2), 127-144]. These models, while providing quick results, have not been evaluated for use in Arizona's varied physiographic provinces. Here we use data from the Schultz Fire to compare basin responses with those predicted by the USGS post-fire debris-flow models. Data from the Schultz Fire includes detailed field documentation of debris-flow occurrence and runout distances, 1:12,000 stereo aerial photographs, high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) and tipping-bucket rainfall data. These data document debris-flow producing storms, basin response, and the extent of debris-flow runout, and provide estimates of debris-flow volumes. The hydrologic responses from 30 small, steep, upper basins burned by the Schultz Fire were assessed for debris or flood flow occurrences. Nineteen basins produced debris flows during a July 20th storm that had a peak 10-minute intensity of 24 mm. A second storm on August 16th, with a peak 10-minute intensity of 15 mm, produced additional debris flows in several of the same basins. Of the 30 basins assessed, 19 were completely burned; four at high severity and 12 at moderate to high severity. The basin with the smallest burned area

  12. 49 CFR 173.423 - Requirements for multiple hazard limited quantity Class 7 (radioactive) materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Class 7 (radioactive) materials. 173.423 Section 173.423 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... MATERIALS REGULATIONS SHIPPERS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Class 7 (Radioactive) Materials § 173.423 Requirements for multiple hazard limited quantity Class 7 (radioactive) materials....

  13. 49 CFR 173.423 - Requirements for multiple hazard limited quantity Class 7 (radioactive) materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Class 7 (radioactive) materials. 173.423 Section 173.423 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... MATERIALS REGULATIONS SHIPPERS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Class 7 (Radioactive) Materials § 173.423 Requirements for multiple hazard limited quantity Class 7 (radioactive) materials....

  14. 49 CFR 173.423 - Requirements for multiple hazard limited quantity Class 7 (radioactive) materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Class 7 (radioactive) materials. 173.423 Section 173.423 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... MATERIALS REGULATIONS SHIPPERS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Class 7 (Radioactive) Materials § 173.423 Requirements for multiple hazard limited quantity Class 7 (radioactive) materials....

  15. 49 CFR 173.423 - Requirements for multiple hazard limited quantity Class 7 (radioactive) materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Class 7 (radioactive) materials. 173.423 Section 173.423 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... MATERIALS REGULATIONS SHIPPERS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Class 7 (Radioactive) Materials § 173.423 Requirements for multiple hazard limited quantity Class 7 (radioactive) materials....

  16. 49 CFR 173.423 - Requirements for multiple hazard limited quantity Class 7 (radioactive) materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Class 7 (radioactive) materials. 173.423 Section 173.423 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... MATERIALS REGULATIONS SHIPPERS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Class 7 (Radioactive) Materials § 173.423 Requirements for multiple hazard limited quantity Class 7 (radioactive) materials....

  17. 75 FR 59197 - Hazardous Materials: Limiting the Use of Electronic Devices by Highway

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-27

    ... Distractions (Safety Advisory Notice No.10-5)'' on August 3, 2010 (75 FR 45697) to alert the hazardous... Docket FMCSA-2009-0370 (75 FR 16391). The final rule prohibits texting by CMV drivers operating in... ``texting'' in Sec. 383.5 (75 FR 16403) as follows: Electronic device includes, but is not limited to,...

  18. Human-caused fires limit convection in tropical Africa: First temporal observations and attribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tosca, M. G.; Diner, D. J.; Garay, M. J.; Kalashnikova, O. V.

    2015-08-01

    It is well established that smoke particles modify clouds, which in turn affects climate. However, no study has quantified the temporal dynamics of aerosol-cloud interactions with direct observations. Here for the first time, we use temporally offset satellite observations from northern Africa between 2006 and 2010 to quantitatively measure the effect of fire aerosols on convective cloud dynamics. We attribute a reduction in cloud fraction during periods of high aerosol optical depths to a smoke-driven inhibition of convection. We find that higher smoke burdens limit upward vertical motion, increase surface pressure, and increase low-level divergence—meteorological indicators of convective suppression. These results are corroborated by climate simulations that show a smoke-driven increase in regionally averaged shortwave tropospheric heating and decrease in convective precipitation during the fire season. Our results suggest that in tropical regions, anthropogenic fire initiates a positive feedback loop where increased aerosol emissions limit convection, dry the surface, and enable increased fire activity via human ignition.

  19. Fires in storages of LFO: Analysis of hazard of structural collapse of steel-aluminium containers.

    PubMed

    Rebec, A; Kolšek, J; Plešec, P

    2016-04-01

    Pool fires of light fuel oil (LFO) in above-ground storages with steel-aluminium containers are discussed. A model is developed for assessments of risks of between-tank fire spread. Radiative effects of the flame body are accounted for by a solid flame radiation model. Thermal profiles evolved due to fire in the adjacent tanks and their consequential structural response is pursued in an exact (materially and geometrically non-linear) manner. The model's derivation is demonstrated on the LFO tank storage located near the Port of Koper (Slovenia). In support of the model, data from literature are adopted where appropriate. Analytical expressions are derived correspondingly for calculations of emissive characteristics of LFO pool fires. Additional data are collected from experiments. Fire experiments conducted on 300cm diameter LFO pans and at different wind speeds and high-temperature uniaxial tension tests of the analysed aluminium alloys types 3xxx and 6xxx are presented. The model is of an immediate fire engineering practical value (risk analyses) or can be used for further research purposes (e.g. sensitivity and parametric studies). The latter use is demonstrated in the final part of the paper discussing possible effects of high-temperature creep of 3xxx aluminium. PMID:26802486

  20. The influence of manganese-cobalt oxide/graphene on reducing fire hazards of poly(butylene terephthalate).

    PubMed

    Wang, Dong; Zhang, Qiangjun; Zhou, Keqing; Yang, Wei; Hu, Yuan; Gong, Xinglong

    2014-08-15

    By means of direct nucleation and growth on the surface of graphene and element doping of cobalt oxide (Co3O4) nano-particles, manganese-cobalt oxide/graphene hybrids (MnCo2O4-GNS) were synthesized to reduce fire hazards of poly(butylene terephthalate) (PBT). The structure, elemental composition and morphology of the obtained hybrids were surveyed by X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectrometer and transmission electron microscopy, respectively. Thermogravimetric analysis was applied to simulate and study the influence of MnCo2O4-GNS hybrids on thermal degradation of PBT during combustion. The fire hazards of PBT and its composites were assessed by the cone calorimeter. The cone test results had showed that peak HRR and SPR values of MnCo2O4-GNS/PBT composites were lower than that of pure PBT and Co3O4-GNS/PBT composites. Furthermore, the incorporation of MnCo2O4-GNS hybrids gave rise to apparent decrease of pyrolysis products containing aromatic compounds, carbonyl compounds, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide, attributed to combined impact of physical barrier for graphene and cat O4 for organic volatiles and carbon monoxide. PMID:24997255

  1. Postwildfire debris flows hazard assessment for the area burned by the 2011 Track Fire, northeastern New Mexico and southeastern Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tillery, Anne C.; Darr, Michael J.; Cannon, Susan H.; Michael, John A.

    2011-01-01

    In June 2011, the Track Fire burned 113 square kilometers in Colfax County, northeastern New Mexico, and Las Animas County, southeastern Colorado, including the upper watersheds of Chicorica and Raton Creeks. The burned landscape is now at risk of damage from postwildfire erosion, such as that caused by debris flows and flash floods. This report presents a preliminary hazard assessment of the debris-flow potential from basins burned by the Track Fire. A pair of empirical hazard-assessment models developed using data from recently burned basins throughout the intermountain western United States were used to estimate the probability of debris-flow occurrence and volume of debris flows at the outlets of selected drainage basins within the burned area. The models incorporate measures of burn severity, topography, soils, and storm rainfall to estimate the probability and volume of post-fire debris flows following the fire. In response to a design storm of 38 millimeters of rain in 30 minutes (10-year recurrence-interval), the probability of debris flow estimated for basins burned by the Track fire ranged between 2 and 97 percent, with probabilities greater than 80 percent identified for the majority of the tributary basins to Raton Creek in Railroad Canyon; six basins that flow into Lake Maloya, including the Segerstrom Creek and Swachheim Creek basins; two tributary basins to Sugarite Canyon, and an unnamed basin on the eastern flank of the burned area. Estimated debris-flow volumes ranged from 30 cubic meters to greater than 100,000 cubic meters. The largest volumes (greater than 100,000 cubic meters) were estimated for Segerstrom Creek and Swachheim Creek basins, which drain into Lake Maloya. The Combined Relative Debris-Flow Hazard Ranking identifies the Segerstrom Creek and Swachheim Creek basins as having the highest probability of producing the largest debris flows. This finding indicates the greatest post-fire debris-flow impacts may be expected to Lake Maloya

  2. Emergency assessment of post-fire debris-flow hazards for the 2013 Rim Fire, Stanislaus National Forest and Yosemite National Park, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Staley, Dennis M.

    2013-01-01

    Wildfire can significantly alter the hydrologic response of a watershed to the extent that even modest rainstorms can produce dangerous flash floods and debris flows. In this report, empirical models are used to predict the probability and magnitude of debris-flow occurrence in response to a 10-year rainstorm for the 2013 Rim fire in Yosemite National Park and the Stanislaus National Forest, California. Overall, the models predict a relatively high probability (60–80 percent) of debris flow for 28 of the 1,238 drainage basins in the burn area in response to a 10-year recurrence interval design storm. Predictions of debris-flow volume suggest that debris flows may entrain a significant volume of material, with 901 of the 1,238 basins identified as having potential debris-flow volumes greater than 10,000 cubic meters. These results of the relative combined hazard analysis suggest there is a moderate likelihood of significant debris-flow hazard within and downstream of the burn area for nearby populations, infrastructure, wildlife, and water resources. Given these findings, we recommend that residents, emergency managers, and public works departments pay close attention to weather forecasts and National-Weather-Service-issued Debris Flow and Flash Flood Outlooks, Watches and Warnings and that residents adhere to any evacuation orders.

  3. Post-fire debris-flow hazard assessment of the area burned by the 2013 Beaver Creek Fire near Hailey, central Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Skinner, Kenneth D.

    2013-01-01

    A preliminary hazard assessment was developed for debris-flow hazards in the 465 square-kilometer (115,000 acres) area burned by the 2013 Beaver Creek fire near Hailey in central Idaho. The burn area covers all or part of six watersheds and selected basins draining to the Big Wood River and is at risk of substantial post-fire erosion, such as that caused by debris flows. Empirical models derived from statistical evaluation of data collected from recently burned basins throughout the Intermountain Region in Western United States were used to estimate the probability of debris-flow occurrence, potential volume of debris flows, and the combined debris-flow hazard ranking along the drainage network within the burn area and to estimate the same for analyzed drainage basins within the burn area. Input data for the empirical models included topographic parameters, soil characteristics, burn severity, and rainfall totals and intensities for a (1) 2-year-recurrence, 1-hour-duration rainfall, referred to as a 2-year storm (13 mm); (2) 10-year-recurrence, 1-hour-duration rainfall, referred to as a 10-year storm (19 mm); and (3) 25-year-recurrence, 1-hour-duration rainfall, referred to as a 25-year storm (22 mm). Estimated debris-flow probabilities for drainage basins upstream of 130 selected basin outlets ranged from less than 1 to 78 percent with the probabilities increasing with each increase in storm magnitude. Probabilities were high in three of the six watersheds. For the 25-year storm, probabilities were greater than 60 percent for 11 basin outlets and ranged from 50 to 60 percent for an additional 12 basin outlets. Probability estimates for stream segments within the drainage network can vary within a basin. For the 25-year storm, probabilities for stream segments within 33 basins were higher than the basin outlet, emphasizing the importance of evaluating the drainage network as well as basin outlets. Estimated debris-flow volumes for the three modeled storms range

  4. Lessons learned from an emergency release of a post-fire debris-flow hazard assessment for the 2009 Station fire, San Gabriel Mountains, southern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cannon, S. H.; Perry, S. C.; Staley, D. M.

    2010-12-01

    The 2009 Station fire burned through portions of the steep, rugged terrain of the San Gabriel Mountains in southern California with a known history of producing large magnitude debris flows following fires. In response to the emergency, the U.S. Geological Survey released an assessment of debris-flow hazards as maps showing estimates of the probability and volume of debris-flow production from 678 burned drainage basins, and the areas that may be inundated by debris flows. The assessment was based on statistical-empirical models developed from post-fire hydrologic-response monitoring data throughout southern California steeplands. The intent of the assessment was to provide state-of-the-art information about potential debris-flow impacts to the public, and quantitative data critical for mitigation, resource-deployment and evacuation decisions by land-management, city and county public-works and flood-control, and emergency-response agencies. Here, we describe a research scientist perspective of the hits and misses associated with the release of this information. Release of the assessment was accompanied by an extensive multi-agency public information campaign. Hazards information was provided to the media and presented at numerous well-attended public meetings organized by local politicians, homeowner and religious associations, city councils, and a multi-agency response team. Meetings targeted to specific ethnic and religious groups resulted in increased attendance by members of these groups. Even with the extensive information campaign, the public response to both mandatory and voluntary evacuation orders was low, and decreased with each sequential winter storm. Interviews with local residents indicated that the low compliance could be attributed to: 1) a lack of a personal understanding of just how dangerous and destructive debris flows can be, 2) inconsistent messaging from different agencies regarding potential magnitudes of a debris-flow response, 3) a poor

  5. Emergency Assessment of Postfire Debris-Flow Hazards for the 2009 Station Fire, San Gabriel Mountains, Southern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cannon, Susan H.; Gartner, Joseph E.; Rupert, Michael G.; Michael, John A.; Staley, Dennis M.; Worstell, Bruce B.

    2009-01-01

    This report presents an emergency assessment of potential debris-flow hazards from basins burned by the 2009 Station fire in Los Angeles County, southern California. Statistical-empirical models developed for postfire debris flows are used to estimate the probability and volume of debris-flow production from 678 drainage basins within the burned area and to generate maps of areas that may be inundated along the San Gabriel mountain front by the estimated volume of material. Debris-flow probabilities and volumes are estimated as combined functions of different measures of basin burned extent, gradient, and material properties in response to both a 3-hour-duration, 1-year-recurrence thunderstorm and to a 12-hour-duration, 2-year recurrence storm. Debris-flow inundation areas are mapped for scenarios where all sediment-retention basins are empty and where the basins are all completely full. This assessment provides critical information for issuing warnings, locating and designing mitigation measures, and planning evacuation timing and routes within the first two winters following the fire. Tributary basins that drain into Pacoima Canyon, Big Tujunga Canyon, Arroyo Seco, West Fork of the San Gabriel River, and Devils Canyon were identified as having probabilities of debris-flow occurrence greater than 80 percent, the potential to produce debris flows with volumes greater than 100,000 m3, and the highest Combined Relative Debris-Flow Hazard Ranking in response to both storms. The predicted high probability and large magnitude of the response to such short-recurrence storms indicates the potential for significant debris-flow impacts to any buildings, roads, bridges, culverts, and reservoirs located both within these drainages and downstream from the burned area. These areas will require appropriate debris-flow mitigation and warning efforts. Probabilities of debris-flow occurrence greater than 80 percent, debris-flow volumes between 10,000 and 100,000 m3, and high

  6. 22 CHARTS TO ACCOMPANY PEACETIME RADIATION HAZARDS IN THE FIRE SERVICE--BASIC COURSE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atomic Energy Commission, Washington, DC. Office of Industrial Relations.

    A SET OF TWENTY-TWO 20-BY-28 INCH CHARTS ILLUSTRATING ASPECTS OF RADIATION SUCH AS TYPES, EFFECTS OF EXPOSURE, SHIELDS, WARNING SIGNS, REACTORS, THE CHAIN REACTION PROCESS, AND FIRE-FIGHTING PROCEDURES IS TO BE USED WITH (1) RESOURCE MANUAL (VT 001 337), (2) INSTRUCTOR'S GUIDE (VT 002 117), (3) STUDENT STUDY GUIDE (VT 001 878), (4) ORIENTATION…

  7. Underground Coal-Fires in Xinjiang, China: A Continued Effort in Applying Geophysics to Solve a Local Problem and to Mitigate a Global Hazard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wuttke, M. W.; Halisch, M.; Tanner, D. C.; Cai, Z. Y.; Zeng, Q.; Wang, C.

    2012-04-01

    laboratory measurements realistic dynamical models of fire-zones are constructed to increase the understanding of particular coal-fires, to interpret the surface signatures of the coal-fire in terms of location and propagation and to estimate the output of hazardous exhaust products to evaluate the economic benefit of fire extinction.

  8. Emergency Assessment of Debris-Flow Hazards from Basins Burned by the 2007 Witch Fire, San Diego County, Southern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cannon, Susan H.; Gartner, Joseph E.; Michael, John A.; Bauer, Mark A.; Stitt, Susan C.; Knifong, Donna L.; McNamara, Bernard J.; Roque, Yvonne M.

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The objective of this report is to present a preliminary emergency assessment of the potential for debris-flow generation from basins burned by the Witch Fire in San Diego County, southern California in 2007. Debris flows are among the most hazardous geologic phenomena; debris flows that followed wildfires in southern California in 2003 killed 16 people and caused tens of millions of dollars of property damage. A short period of even moderate rainfall on a burned watershed can lead to debris flows. Rainfall that is normally absorbed into hillslope soils can run off almost instantly after vegetation has been removed by wildfire. This causes much greater and more rapid runoff than is normal from creeks and drainage areas. Highly erodible soils in a burn scar allow flood waters to entrain large amounts of ash, mud, boulders, and unburned vegetation. Within the burned area and downstream, the force of rushing water, soil, and rock can destroy culverts, bridges, roadways, and buildings, potentially causing injury or death. This emergency debris-flow hazard assessment is presented as relative ranking of the predicted median volume of debris flows that can issue from basin outlets in response to 2.25 inches (57.15 mm) of rainfall over a 3-hour period. Such a storm has a 10-year return period. The calculation of debris flow volume is based on a multiple-regression statistical model that describes the median volume of material that can be expected from a recently burned basin as a function of the area burned at high and moderate severity, the basin area with slopes greater than or equal to 30 percent, and triggering storm rainfall. Cannon and others (2007) describe the methods used to generate the hazard maps. Identification of potential debris-flow hazards from burned drainage basins is necessary to issue warnings for specific basins, to make effective mitigation decisions, and to help plan evacuation timing and routes.

  9. Emergency Assessment of Debris-Flow Hazards from Basins Burned by the 2007 Ammo Fire, San Diego County, Southern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cannon, Susan H.; Gartner, Joseph E.; Michael, John A.; Bauer, Mark A.; Stitt, Susan C.; Knifong, Donna L.; McNamara, Bernard J.; Roque, Yvonne M.

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The objective of this report is to present a preliminary emergency assessment of the potential for debris-flow generation from basins burned by the Ammo Fire in San Diego County, southern California in 2007. Debris flows are among the most hazardous geologic phenomena; debris flows that followed wildfires in southern California in 2003 killed 16 people and caused tens of millions of dollars of property damage. A short period of even moderate rainfall on a burned watershed can lead to debris flows. Rainfall that is normally absorbed into hillslope soils can run off almost instantly after vegetation has been removed by wildfire. This causes much greater and more rapid runoff than is normal from creeks and drainage areas. Highly erodible soils in a burn scar allow flood waters to entrain large amounts of ash, mud, boulders, and unburned vegetation. Within the burned area and downstream, the force of rushing water, soil, and rock can destroy culverts, bridges, roadways, and buildings, potentially causing injury or death. This emergency debris-flow hazard assessment is presented as relative ranking of the predicted median volume of debris flows that can issue from basin outlets in response to 1.75 inches (44.45 mm) of rainfall over a 3-hour period. Such a storm has a 10-year return period. The calculation of debris flow volume is based on a multiple-regression statistical model that describes the median volume of material that can be expected from a recently burned basin as a function of the area burned at high and moderate severity, the basin area with slopes greater than or equal to 30 percent, and triggering storm rainfall. Cannon and others (2007) describe the methods used to generate the hazard maps. Identification of potential debris-flow hazards from burned drainage basins is necessary to issue warnings for specific basins, to make effective mitigation decisions, and to help plan evacuation timing and routes.

  10. Emergency Assessment of Debris-Flow Hazards from Basins Burned by the 2007 Poomacha Fire, San Diego County, Southern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cannon, Susan H.; Gartner, Joseph E.; Michael, John A.; Bauer, Mark A.; Stitt, Susan C.; Knifong, Donna L.; McNamara, Bernard J.; Roque, Yvonne M.

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The objective of this report is to present a preliminary emergency assessment of the potential for debris-flow generation from basins burned by the Poomacha Fire in San Diego County, southern California in 2007. Debris flows are among the most hazardous geologic phenomena; debris flows that followed wildfires in southern California in 2003 killed 16 people and caused tens of millions of dollars of property damage. A short period of even moderate rainfall on a burned watershed can lead to debris flows. Rainfall that is normally absorbed into hillslope soils can run off almost instantly after vegetation has been removed by wildfire. This causes much greater and more rapid runoff than is normal from creeks and drainage areas. Highly erodible soils in a burn scar allow flood waters to entrain large amounts of ash, mud, boulders, and unburned vegetation. Within the burned area and downstream, the force of rushing water, soil, and rock can destroy culverts, bridges, roadways, and buildings, potentially causing injury or death. This emergency debris-flow hazard assessment is presented as relative ranking of the predicted median volume of debris flows that can issue from basin outlets in response to 2.25 inches (57.15 mm) of rainfall over a 3-hour period. Such a storm has a 10-year return period. The calculation of debris flow volume is based on a multiple-regression statistical model that describes the median volume of material that can be expected from a recently burned basin as a function of the area burned at high and moderate severity, the basin area with slopes greater than or equal to 30 percent, and triggering storm rainfall. Cannon and others (2007) describe the methods used to generate the hazard maps. Identification of potential debris-flow hazards from burned drainage basins is necessary to issue warnings for specific basins, to make effective mitigation decisions, and to help plan evacuation timing and routes.

  11. Emergency Assessment of Debris-Flow Hazards from Basins Burned by the 2007 Rice Fire, San Diego County, Southern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cannon, Susan H.; Gartner, Joseph E.; Michael, John A.; Bauer, Mark A.; Stitt, Susan C.; Knifong, Donna L.; McNamara, Bernard J.; Roque, Yvonne M.

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The objective of this report is to present a preliminary emergency assessment of the potential for debris-flow generation from basins burned by the Rice Fire in San Diego County, southern California in 2007. Debris flows are among the most hazardous geologic phenomena; debris flows that followed wildfires in southern California in 2003 killed 16 people and caused tens of millions of dollars of property damage. A short period of even moderate rainfall on a burned watershed can lead to debris flows. Rainfall that is normally absorbed into hillslope soils can run off almost instantly after vegetation has been removed by wildfire. This causes much greater and more rapid runoff than is normal from creeks and drainage areas. Highly erodible soils in a burn scar allow flood waters to entrain large amounts of ash, mud, boulders, and unburned vegetation. Within the burned area and downstream, the force of rushing water, soil, and rock can destroy culverts, bridges, roadways, and buildings, potentially causing injury or death. This emergency debris-flow hazard assessment is presented as relative ranking of the predicted median volume of debris flows that can issue from basin outlets in response to 1.75 inches (44.45 mm) of rainfall over a 3-hour period. Such a storm has a 10-year return period. The calculation of debris flow volume is based on a multiple-regression statistical model that describes the median volume of material that can be expected from a recently burned basin as a function of the area burned at high and moderate severity, the basin area with slopes greater than or equal to 30 percent, and triggering storm rainfall. Cannon and others (2007) describe the methods used to generate the hazard maps. Identification of potential debris-flow hazards from burned drainage basins is necessary to issue warnings for specific basins, to make effective mitigation decisions, and to help plan evacuation timing and routes.

  12. Emergency Assessment of Debris-Flow Hazards from Basins Burned by the 2007 Harris Fire, San Diego County, Southern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cannon, Susan H.; Gartner, Joseph E.; Michael, John A.; Bauer, Mark A.; Stitt, Susan C.; Knifong, Donna L.; McNamara, Bernard J.; Roque, Yvonne M.

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The objective of this report is to present a preliminary emergency assessment of the potential for debris-flow generation from basins burned by the Harris Fire in San Diego County, southern California in 2007. Debris flows are among the most hazardous geologic phenomena; debris flows that followed wildfires in southern California in 2003 killed 16 people and caused tens of millions of dollars of property damage. A short period of even moderate rainfall on a burned watershed can lead to debris flows. Rainfall that is normally absorbed into hillslope soils can run off almost instantly after vegetation has been removed by wildfire. This causes much greater and more rapid runoff than is normal from creeks and drainage areas. Highly erodible soils in a burn scar allow flood waters to entrain large amounts of ash, mud, boulders, and unburned vegetation. Within the burned area and downstream, the force of rushing water, soil, and rock can destroy culverts, bridges, roadways, and buildings, potentially causing injury or death. This emergency debris-flow hazard assessment is presented as relative ranking of the predicted median volume of debris flows that can issue from basin outlets in response to 1.75 inches (44.45 mm) of rainfall over a 3-hour period. Such a storm has a 10-year return period. The calculation of debris flow volume is based on a multiple-regression statistical model that describes the median volume of material that can be expected from a recently burned basin as a function of the area burned at high and moderate severity, the basin area with slopes greater than or equal to 30 percent, and triggering storm rainfall. Cannon and others (2007) describe the methods used to generate the hazard maps. Identification of potential debris-flow hazards from burned drainage basins is necessary to issue warnings for specific basins, to make effective mitigation decisions, and to help plan evacuation timing and routes.

  13. Emergency Assessment of Debris-Flow Hazards from Basins Burned by the 2007 Santiago Fire, Orange County, Southern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cannon, Susan H.; Gartner, Joseph E.; Michael, John A.; Bauer, Mark A.; Stitt, Susan C.; Knifong, Donna L.; McNamara, Bernard J.; Roque, Yvonne M.

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The objective of this report is to present a preliminary emergency assessment of the potential for debris-flow generation from basins burned by the Santiago Fire in Orange County, southern California in 2007. Debris flows are among the most hazardous geologic phenomena; debris flows that followed wildfires in southern California in 2003 killed 16 people and caused tens of millions of dollars of property damage. A short period of even moderate rainfall on a burned watershed can lead to debris flows. Rainfall that is normally absorbed into hillslope soils can run off almost instantly after vegetation has been removed by wildfire. This causes much greater and more rapid runoff than is normal from creeks and drainage areas. Highly erodible soils in a burn scar allow flood waters to entrain large amounts of ash, mud, boulders, and unburned vegetation. Within the burned area and downstream, the force of rushing water, soil, and rock can destroy culverts, bridges, roadways, and buildings, potentially causing injury or death. This emergency debris-flow hazard assessment is presented as relative ranking of the predicted median volume of debris flows that can issue from basin outlets in response to 1.75 inches (44.45 mm) of rainfall over a 3-hour period. Such a storm has a 10-year return period. The calculation of debris flow volume is based on a multiple-regression statistical model that describes the median volume of material that can be expected from a recently burned basin as a function of the area burned at high and moderate severity, the basin area with slopes greater than or equal to 30 percent, and triggering storm rainfall. Cannon and others (2007) describe the methods used to generate the hazard maps. Identification of potential debris-flow hazards from burned drainage basins is necessary to issue warnings for specific basins, to make effective mitigation decisions, and to help plan evacuation timing and routes.

  14. Emergency Assessment of Debris-Flow Hazards from Basins Burned by the 2007 Buckweed Fire, Los Angeles County, Southern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cannon, Susan H.; Gartner, Joseph E.; Michael, John A.; Bauer, Mark A.; Stitt, Susan C.; Knifong, Donna L.; McNamara, Bernard J.; Roque, Yvonne M.

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The objective of this report is to present a preliminary emergency assessment of the potential for debris-flow generation from basins burned by the Buckweed Fire in Los Angeles County, southern California in 2007. Debris flows are among the most hazardous geologic phenomena; debris flows that followed wildfires in southern California in 2003 killed 16 people and caused tens of millions of dollars of property damage. A short period of even moderate rainfall on a burned watershed can lead to debris flows. Rainfall that is normally absorbed into hillslope soils can run off almost instantly after vegetation has been removed by wildfire. This causes much greater and more rapid runoff than is normal from creeks and drainage areas. Highly erodible soils in a burn scar allow flood waters to entrain large amounts of ash, mud, boulders, and unburned vegetation. Within the burned area and downstream, the force of rushing water, soil, and rock can destroy culverts, bridges, roadways, and buildings, potentially causing injury or death. This emergency debris-flow hazard assessment is presented as relative ranking of the predicted median volume of debris flows that can issue from basin outlets in response to 2.25 inches (57.15 mm) of rainfall over a 3-hour period. Such a storm has a 10-year return period. The calculation of debris flow volume is based on a multiple-regression statistical model that describes the median volume of material that can be expected from a recently burned basin as a function of the area burned at high and moderate severity, the basin area with slopes greater than or equal to 30 percent, and triggering storm rainfall. Cannon and others (2007) describe the methods used to generate the hazard maps. Identification of potential debris-flow hazards from burned drainage basins is necessary to issue warnings for specific basins, to make effective mitigation decisions, and to help plan evacuation timing and routes.

  15. Emergency Assessment of Debris-Flow Hazards from Basins Burned by the 2007 Canyon Fire, Los Angeles County, Southern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cannon, Susan H.; Gartner, Joseph E.; Michael, John A.; Bauer, Mark A.; Stitt, Susan C.; Knifong, Donna L.; McNamara, Bernard J.; Roque, Yvonne M.

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The objective of this report is to present a preliminary emergency assessment of the potential for debris-flow generation from basins burned by the Canyon Fire in Los Angeles County, southern California in 2007. Debris flows are among the most hazardous geologic phenomena; debris flows that followed wildfires in southern California in 2003 killed 16 people and caused tens of millions of dollars of property damage. A short period of even moderate rainfall on a burned watershed can lead to debris flows. Rainfall that is normally absorbed into hillslope soils can run off almost instantly after vegetation has been removed by wildfire. This causes much greater and more rapid runoff than is normal from creeks and drainage areas. Highly erodible soils in a burn scar allow flood waters to entrain large amounts of ash, mud, boulders, and unburned vegetation. Within the burned area and downstream, the force of rushing water, soil, and rock can destroy culverts, bridges, roadways, and buildings, potentially causing injury or death. This emergency debris-flow hazard assessment is presented as relative ranking of the predicted median volume of debris flows that can issue from basin outlets in response to 2.25 inches (57.15 mm) of rainfall over a 3-hour period. Such a storm has a 10-year return period. The calculation of debris flow volume is based on a multiple-regression statistical model that describes the median volume of material that can be expected from a recently burned basin as a function of the area burned at high and moderate severity, the basin area with slopes greater than or equal to 30 percent, and triggering storm rainfall. Cannon and others (2007) describe the methods used to generate the hazard maps. Identification of potential debris-flow hazards from burned drainage basins is necessary to issue warnings for specific basins, to make effective mitigation decisions, and to help plan evacuation timing and routes.

  16. EVALUATION OF FIRE HAZARDS WHILE REPACKAGING PLUTONIUM-CONTAMINATED SCRAP IN HB-LINE

    SciTech Connect

    Hallman, D

    2003-12-18

    The potential for a fire while repackaging plutonium-contaminated scrap was evaluated. The surface-to-mass ratio indicates the metal alone will not spontaneously ignite. Uranium hydride can form when uranium metal is exposed to water vapor or hydrogen; uranium hydride reacts rapidly and energetically with atmospheric oxygen. The plutonium-contaminated scrap has been inside containers qualified for shipping, and these containers are leak-tight. The rate of diffusion of water vapor through the seals is small, and the radiolytic hydrogen generation rate is low. Radiography of samples of the storage containers indicates no loose oxide/hydride powder has collected in the storage container to date. The frequently of a fire while repackaging the plutonium-contaminated scrap is extremely unlikely.

  17. PEACETIME RADIATION HAZARDS IN THE FIRE SERVICE, ORIENTATION UNIT--INSTRUCTOR'S GUIDE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BERNDT, WILLIAM; AND OTHERS

    MATERIALS ARE PROVIDED FOR A 2-SESSION UNIT TO ACQUAINT FIREMEN WITH THE PROBLEMS OF RADIATION HAZARDS AND TO PREPARE THEM FOR MORE SPECIALIZED TRAINING. THE UNIT WAS DEVELOPED JOINTLY BY THE TRADE AND INDUSTRIAL EDUCATION BRANCH OF THE U.S. OFFICE OF EDUCATION AND THE OFFICE OF INDUSTRIAL RELATIONS, U.S. ATOMIC ENERGY COMMISSION. IT INCLUDES…

  18. Approach to the assessment of the hazard. [fire released carbon fiber electrical effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huston, R. J.

    1980-01-01

    An overview of the carbon fiber hazard assessment is presented. The potential risk to the civil sector associated with the accidental release of carbon fibers from aircraft having composite structures was assessed along with the need for protection of civil aircraft from carbon fibers.

  19. Methods for the Emergency Assessment of Debris-Flow Hazards from Basins Burned by the Fires of 2007, Southern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cannon, Susan H.; Gartner, Joseph E.; Michael, John A.

    2007-01-01

    This report describes the approach used to assess potential debris-flow hazards from basins burned by the Buckweed, Santiago, Canyon, Poomacha, Ranch, Harris, Witch, Rice, Ammo, Slide, Grass Valley and Cajon Fires of 2007 in southern California. The assessments will be presented as a series of maps showing a relative ranking of the predicted volume of debris flows that can issue from basin outlets in response to a 3-hour duration rainstorm with a 10-year return period. Potential volumes of debris flows are calculated using a multiple-regression model that describes debris-flow volume at a basin outlet as a function of measures of basin gradient, burn extent, and storm rainfall. This assessment provides critical information for issuing basin-specific warnings, locating and designing mitigation measures, and planning of evacuation timing and routes.

  20. Field Guide for Testing Existing Photovoltaic Systems for Ground Faults and Installing Equipment to Mitigate Fire Hazards: November 2012 - October 2013

    SciTech Connect

    Brooks, William

    2015-02-01

    Ground faults and arc faults are the two most common reasons for fires in photovoltaic (PV) arrays and methods exist that can mitigate the hazards. This report provides field procedures for testing PV arrays for ground faults, and for implementing high resolution ground fault and arc fault detectors in existing and new PV system designs.

  1. Tracking hazardous air pollutants from a refinery fire by applying on-line and off-line air monitoring and back trajectory modeling.

    PubMed

    Shie, Ruei-Hao; Chan, Chang-Chuan

    2013-10-15

    The air monitors used by most regulatory authorities are designed to track the daily emissions of conventional pollutants and are not well suited for measuring hazardous air pollutants that are released from accidents such as refinery fires. By applying a wide variety of air-monitoring systems, including on-line Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, gas chromatography with a flame ionization detector, and off-line gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for measuring hazardous air pollutants during and after a fire at a petrochemical complex in central Taiwan on May 12, 2011, we were able to detect significantly higher levels of combustion-related gaseous and particulate pollutants, refinery-related hydrocarbons, and chlorinated hydrocarbons, such as 1,2-dichloroethane, vinyl chloride monomer, and dichloromethane, inside the complex and 10 km downwind from the fire than those measured during the normal operation periods. Both back trajectories and dispersion models further confirmed that high levels of hazardous air pollutants in the neighboring communities were carried by air mass flown from the 22 plants that were shut down by the fire. This study demonstrates that hazardous air pollutants from industrial accidents can successfully be identified and traced back to their emission sources by applying a timely and comprehensive air-monitoring campaign and back trajectory air flow models. PMID:23912073

  2. Projections of air toxic emissions from coal-fired utility combustion: Input for hazardous air pollutant regulators

    SciTech Connect

    Szpunar, C.B.

    1993-08-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is required by the 1990 CAAA to promulgate rules for all ``major`` sources of any of these HAPs. According to the HAPs section of the new Title III, any stationary source emitting 10 tons per year (TPY) of one HAP or 25 TPY of a combination of HAPs will be considered and designated a major source. In contrast to the original National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP), which were designed to protect public health to ``an ample margin of safety,`` the new Title III, in its first phase, will regulate by industrial category those sources emitting HAPs in excess of the 10/25-TPY threshold levels, regardless of health risks. The trace elements normally associated with coal mineral matter and the various compounds formed during coal combustion have the potential to produce hazardous air toxic emissions from coal-fired electric utilities. Under Title III, the EPA is required to perform certain studies, prior to any regulation of electric utilities; these studies are currently underway. Also, the US Department of Energy (DOE) maintains a vested interest in addressing those energy policy questions affecting electric utility generation, coal mining, and steel producing critical to this country`s economic well-being, where balancing the costs to the producers and users of energy with the benefits of environmental protection to the workers and the general populace remains of significant concern.

  3. Using fine-scale fuel measurements to assess wildland fuels, potential fire behavior and hazard mitigation treatments in the southeastern USA.

    SciTech Connect

    Ottmar, Roger, D.; Blake, John, I.; Crolly, William, T.

    2012-01-01

    The inherent spatial and temporal heterogeneity of fuelbeds in forests of the southeastern United States may require fine scale fuel measurements for providing reliable fire hazard and fuel treatment effectiveness estimates. In a series of five papers, an intensive, fine scale fuel inventory from the Savanna River Site in the southeastern United States is used for building fuelbeds and mapping fire behavior potential, evaluating fuel treatment options for effectiveness, and providing a comparative analysis of landscape modeled fire behavior using three different data sources including the Fuel Characteristic Classification System, LANDFIRE, and the Southern Wildfire Risk Assessment. The research demonstrates that fine scale fuel measurements associated with fuel inventories repeated over time can be used to assess broad scale wildland fire potential and hazard mitigation treatment effectiveness in the southeastern USA and similar fire prone regions. Additional investigations will be needed to modify and improve these processes and capture the true potential of these fine scale data sets for fire and fuel management planning.

  4. Fire Detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    An early warning fire detection sensor developed for NASA's Space Shuttle Orbiter is being evaluated as a possible hazard prevention system for mining operations. The incipient Fire Detector represents an advancement over commercially available smoke detectors in that it senses and signals the presence of a fire condition before the appearance of flame and smoke, offering an extra margin of safety.

  5. Postwildfire debris-flow hazard assessment of the area burned by the 2013 West Fork Fire Complex, southwestern Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Verdin, Kristine L.; Dupree, Jean A.; Stevens, Michael R.

    2013-01-01

    This report presents a preliminary emergency assessment of the debris-flow hazards from drainage basins burned by the 2013 West Fork Fire Complex near South Fork in southwestern Colorado. Empirical models derived from statistical evaluation of data collected from recently burned basins throughout the intermountain western United States were used to estimate the probability of debris-flow occurrence, potential volume of debris flows, and the combined debris-flow hazard ranking along the drainage network within and just downstream from the burned area, and to estimate the same for 54 drainage basins of interest within the perimeter of the burned area. Input data for the debris-flow models included topographic variables, soil characteristics, burn severity, and rainfall totals and intensities for a (1) 2-year-recurrence, 1-hour-duration rainfall, referred to as a 2-year storm; (2) 10-year-recurrence, 1-hour-duration rainfall, referred to as a 10-year storm; and (3) 25-year-recurrence, 1-hour-duration rainfall, referred to as a 25-year storm. Estimated debris-flow probabilities at the pour points of the 54 drainage basins of interest ranged from less than 1 to 65 percent in response to the 2-year storm; from 1 to 77 percent in response to the 10-year storm; and from 1 to 83 percent in response to the 25-year storm. Twelve of the 54 drainage basins of interest have a 30-percent probability or greater of producing a debris flow in response to the 25-year storm. Estimated debris-flow volumes for all rainfalls modeled range from a low of 2,400 cubic meters to a high of greater than 100,000 cubic meters. Estimated debris-flow volumes increase with basin size and distance along the drainage network, but some smaller drainages also were predicted to produce substantial debris flows. One of the 54 drainage basins of interest had the highest combined hazard ranking, while 9 other basins had the second highest combined hazard ranking. Of these 10 basins with the 2 highest

  6. Assessment of crash fire hazard of LH sub 2 fueled aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brewer, G. D.; Wittlin, G.; Versaw, E. F.; Parmley, R.; Cima, R.; Walther, E. G.

    1981-01-01

    The relative safety of passengers in LH2 - fueled aircraft, as well as the safety of people in areas surrounding a crash scene, has been evaluated in an analytical study. Four representative circumstances were postulated involving a transport aircraft in which varying degrees of severity of damage were sustained. Potential hazard to the passengers and to the surroundings posed by the spilled fuel was evaluated for each circumstance. Corresponding aircraft fueled with liquid methane, Jet A, and JP-4 were also studied in order to make comparisons of the relative safety. The four scenarios which were used to provide a basis for the evaluation included: (1) a small fuel leak internal to the aircraft, (2) a survivable crash in which a significant quantity of fuel is spilled in a radial pattern as a result of impact with a stationary object while taxiing at fairly low speed, (3) a survivable crash in which a significant quantity of fuel is spilled in an axial pattern as a result of impact during landing, and (4) a non-survivable crash in which a massive fuel spill occurs instantaneously.

  7. Preparation of zinc hydroxystannate-decorated graphene oxide nanohybrids and their synergistic reinforcement on reducing fire hazards of flexible poly (vinyl chloride).

    PubMed

    Gao, Tingting; Chen, Laicheng; Li, Zhiwei; Yu, Laigui; Wu, Zhishen; Zhang, Zhijun

    2016-12-01

    A novel flame retardant, zinc hydroxystannate-decorated graphene oxide (ZHS/GO) nanohybrid, was successfully prepared and well characterized. Herein, the ZHS nanoparticles could not only enhance the flame retardancy of GO with the synergistic flame-retardant effect of ZHS but also prevent the restack of GO to improve the mechanical properties of poly (vinyl chloride) (PVC) matrix. The structure characterization showed ZHS nanoparticles were bonded onto the surface of GO nanosheets and the ZHS nanoparticles were well distributed on the surface of GO. Subsequently, resulting ZHS/GO was introduced into flexible PVC and fire hazards and mechanical properties of PVC nanocomposites were investigated. Compared to neat PVC, thermogravimetric analysis exhibited that the addition of ZHS/GO into PVC matrix led to an improvement of the charring amount and thermal stability of char residue. Moreover, the incorporation of 5 wt.% ZHS/GO imparted excellent flame retardancy to flexible PVC, as shown by increased limiting oxygen index, reduced peak heat release rate, and total heat release tested by an oxygen index meter and a cone calorimeter, respectively. In addition, the addition of ZHS/GO nanohybrids decreased the smoke products and increased the tensile strength of PVC. Above-excellent flame-retardant properties are generally attributed to the synergistic effect of GO and ZHS, containing good dispersion of ZHS/GO in PVC matrix, the physical barrier of GO, and the catalytic char function of ZHS. PMID:27071679

  8. Preparation of zinc hydroxystannate-decorated graphene oxide nanohybrids and their synergistic reinforcement on reducing fire hazards of flexible poly (vinyl chloride)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Tingting; Chen, Laicheng; Li, Zhiwei; Yu, Laigui; Wu, Zhishen; Zhang, Zhijun

    2016-04-01

    A novel flame retardant, zinc hydroxystannate-decorated graphene oxide (ZHS/GO) nanohybrid, was successfully prepared and well characterized. Herein, the ZHS nanoparticles could not only enhance the flame retardancy of GO with the synergistic flame-retardant effect of ZHS but also prevent the restack of GO to improve the mechanical properties of poly (vinyl chloride) (PVC) matrix. The structure characterization showed ZHS nanoparticles were bonded onto the surface of GO nanosheets and the ZHS nanoparticles were well distributed on the surface of GO. Subsequently, resulting ZHS/GO was introduced into flexible PVC and fire hazards and mechanical properties of PVC nanocomposites were investigated. Compared to neat PVC, thermogravimetric analysis exhibited that the addition of ZHS/GO into PVC matrix led to an improvement of the charring amount and thermal stability of char residue. Moreover, the incorporation of 5 wt.% ZHS/GO imparted excellent flame retardancy to flexible PVC, as shown by increased limiting oxygen index, reduced peak heat release rate, and total heat release tested by an oxygen index meter and a cone calorimeter, respectively. In addition, the addition of ZHS/GO nanohybrids decreased the smoke products and increased the tensile strength of PVC. Above-excellent flame-retardant properties are generally attributed to the synergistic effect of GO and ZHS, containing good dispersion of ZHS/GO in PVC matrix, the physical barrier of GO, and the catalytic char function of ZHS.

  9. Emergency assessments of postfire debris-flow hazards for the 2009 La Brea, Jesusita, Guiberson, Morris, Sheep, Oak Glen, Pendleton, and Cottonwood fires in southern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cannon, Susan H.; Gartner, Joseph E.; Rupert, Michael G.; Michael, John A.

    2010-01-01

    This report presents an emergency assessment of potential debris-flow hazards from basins burned by the 2009 La Brea and Jesusita fires in Santa Barbara County, the Guiberson fire in Ventura County, the Morris fire in Los Angeles County, the Sheep, Oak Glen, and Pendleton fires in San Bernardino County, and the Cottonwood fire in Riverside County, southern California. Statistical-empirical models developed to analyze postfire debris flows are used to estimate the probability and volume of debris-flows produced from drainage basins within each of the burned areas. Debris-flow probabilities and volumes are estimated as functions of different measures of basin burned extent, gradient, and material properties in response to both a 3-hour-duration, 2-year-recurrence thunderstorm and to a widespread, 12-hour-duration, 2-year-recurrence winter storm. This assessment provides critical information for issuing warnings, locating and designing mitigation measures, and planning evacuation timing and routes within the first two winters following the fire.

  10. Infrared-fiber-optic fire sensor developments - Role of measurement uncertainty in evaluation of background limited range. [in spacecraft safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tapphorn, Ralph M.; Kays, Randy; Porter, Alan

    1989-01-01

    Fire-detector systems based on distributed infrared fiber-sensors have been investigated for potential applications in the aerospace industry. Responsivities to blackbody and flame radiations were measured with various design configurations of an infrared fiber-optic sensor. Signal processing techniques were also investigated, and the results show significant differences in the fire-sensor performance depending on the design configuration. Measurement uncertainties were used to determine the background-limited ranges for the various fire-sensor concepts, and the probability of producing false alarms caused by fluctuations in the background signals were determined using extreme probability theory. The results of the research show that infrared fiber-optic fire sensors are feasible for application on manned spacecraft; however, additional development work will be required to eliminate false alarms caused by high temperature objects such as incandescent lamps.

  11. Direct identification of hazardous elements in ultra-fine and nanominerals from coal fly ash produced during diesel co-firing.

    PubMed

    Martinello, Kátia; Oliveira, Marcos L S; Molossi, Fernando A; Ramos, Claudete G; Teixeira, Elba C; Kautzmann, Rubens M; Silva, Luis F O

    2014-02-01

    This study has provided an initial assessment of the environmental impacts and potential health effects associated with coal fly ash produced during diesel co-firing. Many hazardous elements that are typically detected by multifaceted chemical characterization by XRD, petrology, FE-SEM/EDS, and HR-TEM/SEAD/FFT/EDS in ultra-fine compounds and nanominerals from the co-fired coal fly ashes (CFAs). It provided an in-depth understanding of coal ash produced during diesel co-firing. Several of the neoformed ultra-fine compounds and nano-minerals found in the coal ashes are the same as those commonly associated with oxidation/transformation of aluminosilicates, carbonates, sulphides and phosphates. PMID:24157478

  12. Health hazard evaluation report HETA 91-0190-2491, International Association of Fire Fighters (IAFF), Jersey City, New Jersey

    SciTech Connect

    Kinnes, G.M.; Deitchman, S.

    1995-02-01

    In response to a request from the International Association of Fire Fighters, an investigation was begun into the health and safety practices used during the handling of a fire at an illegal dumpsite by Jersey City Fire Department (SIC-9224), Jersey City, New Jersey. The investigation centered around the incident command system, safety management, the arrangements for medical service, and decontamination. High winds and several directional wind shifts hampered operations at the fire scene. Some fire fighters did not wear their self contained breathing apparatus or depleted their supply of air cylinders during the fire. Several fire fighters were treated at the scene for dizziness, mucosal irritation and elevated blood pressure. Abnormalities were noted on the field cardiac monitors for several of the firemen. A total of 171 fire fighters were transported to area hospitals and three were admitted. The fire department indicated that 68 fire fighters received incident related injuries. Findings indicated that exposure to methylene-chloride (75092) may have been responsible for some of the adverse health experiences reported. The authors conclude that it was not possible to determine a definitive environment cause for the health effects experienced by fire fighters during the dumpsite fire. The authors recommend that changes be made in incident command and safety procedures.

  13. Bibliography on aircraft fire hazards and safety. Volume 2: Safety. Part 1: Key numbers 1 to 524

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pelouch, J. J., Jr. (Compiler); Hacker, P. T. (Compiler)

    1974-01-01

    Bibliographic citations are presented to describe and define aircraft safety methods, equipment, and criteria. Some of the subjects discussed are: (1) fire and explosion suppression using whiffle balls, (2) ultraviolet flame detecting sensors, (3) evaluation of flame arrestor materials for aircraft fuel systems, (4) crash fire prevention system for supersonic commercial aircraft, and (5) fire suppression for aerospace vehicles.

  14. 76 FR 23768 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants From Coal- and Oil-Fired Electric...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-28

    ... Utility Steam Generating Units and Standards of Performance for Fossil-Fuel-Fired Electric Utility... Performance for Fossil-Fuel-Fired Electric Utility, Industrial- Commercial-Institutional, and Small Industrial... Coal- and Oil-Fired Electric Utility Steam Generating Units and Standards of Performance for...

  15. Fire behavior and risk analysis in spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedman, Robert; Sacksteder, Kurt R.

    1988-01-01

    Practical risk management for present and future spacecraft, including space stations, involves the optimization of residual risks balanced by the spacecraft operational, technological, and economic limitations. Spacecraft fire safety is approached through three strategies, in order of risk: (1) control of fire-causing elements, through exclusion of flammable materials for example; (2) response to incipient fires through detection and alarm; and (3) recovery of normal conditions through extinguishment and cleanup. Present understanding of combustion in low gravity is that, compared to normal gravity behavior, fire hazards may be reduced by the absence of buoyant gas flows yet at the same time increased by ventilation flows and hot particle expulsion. This paper discusses the application of low-gravity combustion knowledge and appropriate aircraft analogies to fire detection, fire fighting, and fire-safety decisions for eventual fire-risk management and optimization in spacecraft.

  16. An assessment of potential environmental impacts of cement kiln dust produced in kilns co-fired with hazardous waste fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Goad, P.T.; Millner, G.C.; Nye, A.C.

    1998-12-31

    The Keystone Cement Company (Keystone), located in Bath, Pennsylvania, produces cement in two kilns that are co-fired with hazardous waste-derived fuels. Beginning in the late 1970`s Keystone began storing cement kiln dust (CKD) in an aboveground storage pile located on company property adjacent to the cement kilns. Storm water runoff from the CKD pile is channeled into a storm water settling pond which in turn discharges into Monocacy Creek, a stream running along the eastern property boundary. Monocacy Creek sustains a thriving trout fishery and is routinely fished during the open recreational fishing season in pennsylvania. The CKD pile has a surface area of approximately 12 acres, with an average height of approximately 35 feet. The southern edge of the pile is contiguous with an adjacent company-owned field in which field corn is grown for cattle feed. Some of the corn on the edges of the field is actually grown in direct contact with CKD that comprises the edge of the storage pile. The CKD pile is located approximately 150 yards to the west of Monocacy Creek. In 1995--1996 water, sediment and fish (trout) samples were obtained from Monocacy Creek sampling stations upstream and downstream of the point of discharge of storm water runoff from the CKD pile. In addition, corn samples were obtained from the field contiguous with the CKD pile and from a control field located distant to the site. The sediment, water, fish, and corn samples were analyzed for various chemicals previously identified as chemicals of potential concern in CKD. These data indicate that chemical constituents of CKD are not contaminating surface water or sediment in the stream, and that bioaccumulation of organic chemicals and/or metals has not occurred in field corn grown in direct contact with undiluted CKD, or in fish living in the waters that receive CKD pile runoff.

  17. Health-hazard evaluation report HETA 85-375-1861, International Association of Fire Fighters (IAFF), Los Angeles, California

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, K.E.; Melius, J.M.

    1988-01-01

    In response to a request from the International Association of Fire Fighters, a study was made of possible toxic exposures experienced by fire fighters from the Los Angeles Fire Department, paramedics, and police officers during a chemical warehouse fire at Research Organic, Inorganic Chemical Corporation, Sun Valley, California. Numerous flammable, corrosive, and reactive compounds were stored at the warehouse at the time of the fire. Dermatological problems with rashes lasting more than 1 day after the fire were reported by 18 fire fighters and nine police officers. Neurotoxic symptoms of fatigue, forgetfulness, irritability, headaches, and difficulty sleeping were also reported. The neurotoxic symptoms lasted from a month to over a year. The authors conclude that the symptoms experienced by those working at the fire site are associated with exposures during the fire. Recommendations arising from the fire include the establishment of a response team with comprehensive training, state of the art protective equipment, protocols for addressing medical evaluation and decontamination issues, environmental sampling capability, and coordination with other emergency disaster responders.

  18. Identifying an indoor air exposure limit for formaldehyde considering both irritation and cancer hazards

    PubMed Central

    Golden, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Formaldehyde is a well-studied chemical and effects from inhalation exposures have been extensively characterized in numerous controlled studies with human volunteers, including asthmatics and other sensitive individuals, which provide a rich database on exposure concentrations that can reliably produce the symptoms of sensory irritation. Although individuals can differ in their sensitivity to odor and eye irritation, the majority of authoritative reviews of the formaldehyde literature have concluded that an air concentration of 0.3 ppm will provide protection from eye irritation for virtually everyone. A weight of evidence-based formaldehyde exposure limit of 0.1 ppm (100 ppb) is recommended as an indoor air level for all individuals for odor detection and sensory irritation. It has recently been suggested by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), the National Toxicology Program (NTP), and the US Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) that formaldehyde is causally associated with nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC) and leukemia. This has led US EPA to conclude that irritation is not the most sensitive toxic endpoint and that carcinogenicity should dictate how to establish exposure limits for formaldehyde. In this review, a number of lines of reasoning and substantial scientific evidence are described and discussed, which leads to a conclusion that neither point of contact nor systemic effects of any type, including NPC or leukemia, are causally associated with exposure to formaldehyde. This conclusion supports the view that the equivocal epidemiology studies that suggest otherwise are almost certainly flawed by identified or yet to be unidentified confounding variables. Thus, this assessment concludes that a formaldehyde indoor air limit of 0.1 ppm should protect even particularly susceptible individuals from both irritation effects and any potential cancer hazard. PMID:21635194

  19. Chapter C. The Loma Prieta, California, Earthquake of October 17, 1989 - Fire, Police, Transportation and Hazardous Materials

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Van Anne, Craig, (Edited By); Scawthorn, Charles R.

    1994-01-01

    The papers in this chapter discuss some of the failures and successes that resulted from the societal response by a multitude of agencies to the Loma Prieta earthquake. Some of the lessons learned were old ones relearned. Other lessons were obvious ones which had gone unnoticed. Still, knowledge gained from past earthquakes spawned planning and mitigation efforts which proved to be successful in limiting the aftermath effects of the Loma Prieta event. At least four major areas of response are presented in this chapter: the Oakland Police Department response to the challenge of controlled access to the Cypress freeway collapse area without inhibiting relief and recovery efforts; search and rescue of the freeway collapse and the monumental crisis management problem that accompanied it; the short- and long-term impact on transbay transportation systems to move a large work force from home to business; and the handling of hazardous material releases throughout the Bay Area.

  20. The relationship of an integral wind shear hazard to aircraft performance limitations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, M. S.; Robinson, P. A.; Hinton, D. A.; Bowles, R. L.

    1994-01-01

    The development and certification of airborne forward-looking wind shear detection systems has required a hazard definition stated in terms of sensor observable wind field characteristics. This paper outlines the definition of the F-factor wind shear hazard index and an average F-factor quantity, calculated over a specified averaging interval, which may be used to judge an aircraft's potential performance loss due to a given wind shear field. A technique for estimating airplane energy changes during a wind shear encounter is presented and used to determine the wind shear intensity, as a function of the averaging interval, that presents significant hazard to transport category airplanes. The wind shear hazard levels are compared to averaged F-factor values at various averaging intervals for four actual wind shear encounters. Results indicate that averaging intervals of about one kilometer could be used in a simple method to discern hazardous shears.

  1. 76 FR 38590 - Proposed National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants From Coal- and Oil-Fired...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-01

    ... Fossil-Fuel-Fired Electric Utility, Industrial-Commercial-Institutional, and Small Industrial-Commercial... Performance for Fossil-Fuel- Fired Electric Utility, Industrial-Commercial-Institutional, and Small Industrial... comment period for the proposed rule published May 3, 2011 (76 FR 24976) is being extended for 30 days...

  2. Health-hazard evaluation report HETA 85-274-1879, evaluation of zinc chloride smoke-generating devices, International Association of Fire Fighters, Washington, DC

    SciTech Connect

    Zey, J.N.; Richardson, F.

    1988-03-01

    An assessment was made of hazards to fire fighters of using different zinc-chloride smoke generating devices, manufactured by the Superior Signal Company, Inc., New Jersey. used in fire-fighter-training exercises, zinc compounds, hydrochloric acid and over 50 chlorinated hydrocarbons were detected in smoke clouds. The concentration of hydrochloric acid ranged as high as 420 mg/m/sup 3/. Zinc chloride concentrations ranged from 11 to 498 mg/m/sup 3/. A telephone survey was conducted of 62 different fire fighting training organizations around the United States to obtain information they might have on use of similar devices. A literature search revealed that there had been severe adverse health effects, including death, resulting from exposure to a dense smoke cloud from a zinc-chloride smoke-generating device. Individuals who were adversely affected were not wearing respiratory protective gear or had malfunctioning gear. Symptoms of exposure included sore throat, difficulty breathing, joint pain, chills and fever, headache, and generalized fatigue. The authors conclude that no smoke-generating device should be considered safe and nontoxic, and that measures should be taken to reduce exposures to smoke clouds from such devices. Alternative methods to distort vision in fire-fighting training exercises should be considered.

  3. Analysis and mapping of post-fire hydrologic hazards for the 2002 Hayman, Coal Seam, and Missionary Ridge wildfires, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Elliott, J.G.; Smith, M.E.; Friedel, M.J.; Stevens, M.R.; Bossong, C.R.; Litke, D.W.; Parker, R.S.; Costello, C.; Wagner, J.; Char, S.J.; Bauer, M.A.; Wilds, S.R.

    2005-01-01

    Wildfires caused extreme changes in the hydrologic, hydraulic, and geomorphologic characteristics of many Colorado drainage basins in the summer of 2002. Detailed assessments were made of the short-term effects of three wildfires on burned and adjacent unburned parts of drainage basins. These were the Hayman, Coal Seam, and Missionary Ridge wildfires. Longer term runoff characteristics that reflect post-fire drainage basin recovery expected to develop over a period of several years also were analyzed for two affected stream reaches: the South Platte River between Deckers and Trumbull, and Mitchell Creek in Glenwood Springs. The 10-, 50-, 100-, and 500-year flood-plain boundaries and water-surface profiles were computed in a detailed hydraulic study of the Deckers-to-Trumbull reach. The Hayman wildfire burned approximately 138,000 acres (216 square miles) in granitic terrain near Denver, and the predominant potential hazard in this area is flooding by sediment-laden water along the large tributaries to and the main stem of the South Platte River. The Coal Seam wildfire burned approximately 12,200 acres (19.1 square miles) near Glenwood Springs, and the Missionary Ridge wildfire burned approximately 70,500 acres (110 square miles) near Durango, both in areas underlain by marine shales where the predominant potential hazard is debris-flow inundation of low-lying areas. Hydrographs and peak discharges for pre-burn and post-burn scenarios were computed for each drainage basin and tributary subbasin by using rainfall-runoff models because streamflow data for most tributary subbasins were not available. An objective rainfall-runoff model calibration method based on nonlinear regression and referred to as the ?objective calibration method? was developed and applied to rainfall-runoff models for three burned areas. The HEC-1 rainfall-runoff model was used to simulate the pre-burn rainfall-runoff processes in response to the 100-year storm, and HEC-HMS was used for runoff

  4. Postwildfire preliminary debris flow hazard assessment for the area burned by the 2011 Las Conchas Fire in north-central New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tillery, Anne C.; Darr, Michael J.; Cannon, Susan H.; Michael, John A.

    2011-01-01

    The Las Conchas Fire during the summer of 2011 was the largest in recorded history for the state of New Mexico, burning 634 square kilometers in the Jemez Mountains of north-central New Mexico. The burned landscape is now at risk of damage from postwildfire erosion, such as that caused by debris flows and flash floods. This report presents a preliminary hazard assessment of the debris-flow potential from 321 basins burned by the Las Conchas Fire. A pair of empirical hazard-assessment models developed using data from recently burned basins throughout the intermountain western United States was used to estimate the probability of debris-flow occurrence and volume of debris flows at the outlets of selected drainage basins within the burned area. The models incorporate measures of burn severity, topography, soils, and storm rainfall to estimate the probability and volume of debris flows following the fire. In response to a design storm of 28.0 millimeters of rain in 30 minutes (10-year recurrence interval), the probabilities of debris flows estimated for basins burned by the Las Conchas Fire were greater than 80 percent for two-thirds (67 percent) of the modeled basins. Basins with a high (greater than 80 percent) probability of debris-flow occurrence were concentrated in tributaries to Santa Clara and Rio del Oso Canyons in the northeastern part of the burned area; some steep areas in the Valles Caldera National Preserve, Los Alamos, and Guaje Canyons in the east-central part of the burned area; tributaries to Peralta, Colle, Bland, and Cochiti canyons in the southwestern part of the burned area; and tributaries to Frijoles, Alamo, and Capulin Canyons in the southeastern part of the burned area (within Bandelier National Monument). Estimated debris-flow volumes ranged from 400 cubic meters to greater than 72,000 cubic meters. The largest volumes (greater than 40,000 cubic meters) were estimated for basins in Santa Clara, Los Alamos, and Water Canyons, and for two

  5. Radionuclides in the soil around the largest coal-fired power plant in Serbia: radiological hazard, relationship with soil characteristics and spatial distribution.

    PubMed

    Ćujić, Mirjana; Dragović, Snežana; Đorđević, Milan; Dragović, Ranko; Gajić, Boško; Miljanić, Šćepan

    2015-07-01

    Primordial radionuclides, (238)U, (232)Th and (40)K were determined in soil samples collected at two depths (0-10 and 10-20 cm) in the vicinity of the largest coal-fired power plant in Serbia, and their spatial distribution was analysed using ordinary kriging. Mean values of activity concentrations for these depths were 50.7 Bq kg(-1) for (238)U, 48.7 Bq kg(-1) for (232)Th and 560 Bq kg(-1) for (40)K. Based on the measured activity concentrations, the radiological hazard due to naturally occurring radionuclides in soil was assessed. The value of the mean total absorbed dose rate was 76.3 nGy h(-1), which is higher than the world average. The annual effective dose due to these radionuclides ranged from 51.4 to 114.2 μSv. Applying cluster analysis, correlations between radionuclides and soil properties were determined. The distribution pattern of natural radionuclides in the environment surrounding the coal-fired power plant and their enrichment in soil at some sampling sites were in accordance with dispersion models of fly ash emissions. From the results obtained, it can be concluded that operation of the coal-fired power plant has no significant negative impact on the surrounding environment with regard to the content of natural radionuclides. PMID:25716901

  6. Modelling post-fire soil erosion hazard using ordinal logistic regression: A case study in South-eastern Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Notario del Pino, Jesús S.; Ruiz-Gallardo, José-Reyes

    2015-03-01

    Treatments that minimize soil erosion after large wildfires depend, among other factors, on fire severity and landscape configuration so that, in practice, most of them are applied according to emergency criteria. Therefore, simple tools to predict soil erosion risk help to decide where the available resources should be used first. In this study, a predictive model for soil erosion degree, based on ordinal logistic regression, has been developed and evaluated using data from three large forest fires in South-eastern Spain. The field data were successfully fit to the model in 60% of cases after 50 runs (i.e., agreement between observed and predicted soil erosion degrees), using slope steepness, slope aspect, and fire severity as predictors. North-facing slopes were shown to be less prone to soil erosion than the rest.

  7. Does fungal endophyte infection improve tall fescue's growth response to fire and water limitation?

    PubMed

    Hall, Sarah L; McCulley, Rebecca L; Barney, Robert J; Phillips, Timothy D

    2014-01-01

    Invasive species may owe some of their success in competing and co-existing with native species to microbial symbioses they are capable of forming. Tall fescue is a cool-season, non-native, invasive grass capable of co-existing with native warm-season grasses in North American grasslands that frequently experience fire, drought, and cold winters, conditions to which the native species should be better-adapted than tall fescue. We hypothesized that tall fescue's ability to form a symbiosis with Neotyphodium coenophialum, an aboveground fungal endophyte, may enhance its environmental stress tolerance and persistence in these environments. We used a greenhouse experiment to examine the effects of endophyte infection (E+ vs. E-), prescribed fire (1 burn vs. 2 burn vs. unburned control), and watering regime (dry vs. wet) on tall fescue growth. We assessed treatment effects for growth rates and the following response variables: total tiller length, number of tillers recruited during the experiment, number of reproductive tillers, tiller biomass, root biomass, and total biomass. Water regime significantly affected all response variables, with less growth and lower growth rates observed under the dry water regime compared to the wet. The burn treatments significantly affected total tiller length, number of reproductive tillers, total tiller biomass, and total biomass, but treatment differences were not consistent across parameters. Overall, fire seemed to enhance growth. Endophyte status significantly affected total tiller length and tiller biomass, but the effect was opposite what we predicted (E->E+). The results from our experiment indicated that tall fescue was relatively tolerant of fire, even when combined with dry conditions, and that the fungal endophyte symbiosis was not important in governing this ecological ability. The persistence of tall fescue in native grassland ecosystems may be linked to other endophyte-conferred abilities not measured here (e

  8. Does Fungal Endophyte Infection Improve Tall Fescue’s Growth Response to Fire and Water Limitation?

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Sarah L.; McCulley, Rebecca L.; Barney, Robert J.; Phillips, Timothy D.

    2014-01-01

    Invasive species may owe some of their success in competing and co-existing with native species to microbial symbioses they are capable of forming. Tall fescue is a cool-season, non-native, invasive grass capable of co-existing with native warm-season grasses in North American grasslands that frequently experience fire, drought, and cold winters, conditions to which the native species should be better-adapted than tall fescue. We hypothesized that tall fescue’s ability to form a symbiosis with Neotyphodium coenophialum, an aboveground fungal endophyte, may enhance its environmental stress tolerance and persistence in these environments. We used a greenhouse experiment to examine the effects of endophyte infection (E+ vs. E−), prescribed fire (1 burn vs. 2 burn vs. unburned control), and watering regime (dry vs. wet) on tall fescue growth. We assessed treatment effects for growth rates and the following response variables: total tiller length, number of tillers recruited during the experiment, number of reproductive tillers, tiller biomass, root biomass, and total biomass. Water regime significantly affected all response variables, with less growth and lower growth rates observed under the dry water regime compared to the wet. The burn treatments significantly affected total tiller length, number of reproductive tillers, total tiller biomass, and total biomass, but treatment differences were not consistent across parameters. Overall, fire seemed to enhance growth. Endophyte status significantly affected total tiller length and tiller biomass, but the effect was opposite what we predicted (E−>E+). The results from our experiment indicated that tall fescue was relatively tolerant of fire, even when combined with dry conditions, and that the fungal endophyte symbiosis was not important in governing this ecological ability. The persistence of tall fescue in native grassland ecosystems may be linked to other endophyte-conferred abilities not measured here (e

  9. Fire hazard analysis for the Westinghouse Hanford Company managed low-level mixed waste Trench 31 and 34

    SciTech Connect

    Howard, B.J.

    1995-01-10

    This analysis is to assess comprehensively the risks from fire within the new lined landfills, provided by W-025 and designated Trench 31 and 34 of Burial Ground 218-W-5; they are located in the 200 West area of the Hanford Site, and are designed to receive low-level mixed waste.

  10. The Role of Deposition in Limiting the Hazard Extent of Dense-Gas Plumes

    SciTech Connect

    Dillon, M B

    2008-01-29

    Accidents involving release of large (multi-ton) quantities of toxic industrial chemicals often yield far fewer fatalities and causalities than standard, widely-used assessment and emergency response models predict. While recent work has suggested that models should incorporate the protection provided by buildings, more refined health effect methodologies, and more detailed consideration of the release process; investigations into the role of deposition onto outdoor surfaces has been lacking. In this paper, we examine the conditions under which dry deposition may significantly reduce the extent of the downwind hazard zone. We provide theoretical arguments that in congested environments (e.g. suburbs, forests), deposition to vertical surfaces (such as building walls) may play a significant role in reducing the hazard zone extent--particularly under low-wind, stable atmospheric conditions which are often considered to be the worst-case scenario for these types of releases. Our analysis suggests that in these urban or suburban environments, the amount of toxic chemicals lost to earth's surface is typically a small fraction of overall depositional losses. For isothermal gases such as chlorine, the degree to which the chemicals stick to (or react with) surfaces (i.e. surface resistance) is demonstrated to be a key parameter controlling hazard extent (the maximum distance from the release at which hazards to human health are expected). This analysis does not consider the depositional effects associated with particulate matter or gases that undergo significant thermal change in the atmosphere. While no controlled experiments were available to validate our hypothesis, our analysis results are qualitatively consistent with the observed downwind extent of vegetation damage in two chlorine accidents.

  11. Postwildfire debris-flow hazard assessment of the area burned by the 2012 Little Bear Fire, south-central New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tillery, Anne C.; Matherne, Anne Marie

    2013-01-01

    A preliminary hazard assessment was developed of the debris-flow potential from 56 drainage basins burned by the Little Bear Fire in south-central New Mexico in June 2012. The Little Bear Fire burned approximately 179 square kilometers (km2) (44,330 acres), including about 143 km2 (35,300 acres) of National Forest System lands of the Lincoln National Forest. Within the Lincoln National Forest, about 72 km2 (17,664 acres) of the White Mountain Wilderness were burned. The burn area also included about 34 km2 (8,500 acres) of private lands. Burn severity was high or moderate on 53 percent of the burn area. The area burned is at risk of substantial postwildfire erosion, such as that caused by debris flows and flash floods. A postwildfire debris-flow hazard assessment of the area burned by the Little Bear Fire was performed by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service, Lincoln National Forest. A set of two empirical hazard-assessment models developed by using data from recently burned drainage basins throughout the intermountain Western United States was used to estimate the probability of debris-flow occurrence and volume of debris flows along the burn area drainage network and for selected drainage basins within the burn area. The models incorporate measures of areal burn extent and severity, topography, soils, and storm rainfall intensity to estimate the probability and volume of debris flows following the fire. Relative hazard rankings of postwildfire debris flows were produced by summing the estimated probability and volume ranking to illustrate those areas with the highest potential occurrence of debris flows with the largest volumes. The probability that a drainage basin could produce debris flows and the volume of a possible debris flow at the basin outlet were estimated for three design storms: (1) a 2-year-recurrence, 30-minute-duration rainfall of 27 millimeters (mm) (a 50 percent chance of occurrence in

  12. Emergency Assessment of Debris-Flow Hazards from Basins Burned by the 2007 Slide and Grass Valley Fires, San Bernardino County, Southern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cannon, Susan H.; Gartner, Joseph E.; Michael, John A.; Bauer, Mark A.; Stitt, Susan C.; Knifong, Donna L.; McNamara, Bernard J.; Roque, Yvonne M.

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The objective of this report is to present a preliminary emergency assessment of the potential for debris-flow generation from basins burned by the Slide and Grass Valley Fires in San Bernardino County, southern California in 2007. Debris flows are among the most hazardous geologic phenomena; debris flows that followed wildfires in southern California in 2003 killed 16 people and caused tens of millions of dollars of property damage. A short period of even moderate rainfall on a burned watershed can lead to debris flows. Rainfall that is normally absorbed into hillslope soils can run off almost instantly after vegetation has been removed by wildfire. This causes much greater and more rapid runoff than is normal from creeks and drainage areas. Highly erodible soils in a burn scar allow flood waters to entrain large amounts of ash, mud, boulders, and unburned vegetation. Within the burned area and downstream, the force of rushing water, soil, and rock can destroy culverts, bridges, roadways, and buildings, potentially causing injury or death. This emergency debris-flow hazard assessment is presented as relative ranking of the predicted median volume of debris flows that can issue from basin outlets in response to 3.50 inches (88.90 mm) of rainfall over a 3-hour period. Such a storm has a 10-year return period. The calculation of debris flow volume is based on a multiple-regression statistical model that describes the median volume of material that can be expected from a recently burned basin as a function of the area burned at high and moderate severity, the basin area with slopes greater than or equal to 30 percent, and triggering storm rainfall. Cannon and others (2007) describe the methods used to generate the hazard maps. Identification of potential debris-flow hazards from burned drainage basins is necessary to issue warnings for specific basins, to make effective mitigation decisions, and to help plan evacuation timing and routes.

  13. Emergency Assessment of Debris-Flow Hazards from Basins Burned by the 2007 Ranch Fire, Ventura and Los Angeles Counties, Southern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cannon, Susan H.; Gartner, Joseph E.; Michael, John A.; Bauer, Mark A.; Stitt, Susan C.; Knifong, Donna L.; McNamara, Bernard J.; Roque, Yvonne M.

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The objective of this report is to present a preliminary emergency assessment of the potential for debris-flow generation from basins burned by the Ranch Fire in Ventura and Los Angeles Counties, southern California in 2007. Debris flows are among the most hazardous geologic phenomena; debris flows that followed wildfires in southern California in 2003 killed 16 people and caused tens of millions of dollars of property damage. A short period of even moderate rainfall on a burned watershed can lead to debris flows. Rainfall that is normally absorbed into hillslope soils can run off almost instantly after vegetation has been removed by wildfire. This causes much greater and more rapid runoff than is normal from creeks and drainage areas. Highly erodible soils in a burn scar allow flood waters to entrain large amounts of ash, mud, boulders, and unburned vegetation. Within the burned area and downstream, the force of rushing water, soil, and rock can destroy culverts, bridges, roadways, and buildings, potentially causing injury or death. This emergency debris-flow hazard assessment is presented as relative ranking of the predicted median volume of debris flows that can issue from basin outlets in response to 2.25 inches (57.15 mm) of rainfall over a 3-hour period. Such a storm has a 10-year return period. The calculation of debris flow volume is based on a multiple-regression statistical model that describes the median volume of material that can be expected from a recently burned basin as a function of the area burned at high and moderate severity, the basin area with slopes greater than or equal to 30 percent, and triggering storm rainfall. Cannon and others (2007) describe the methods used to generate the hazard maps. Identification of potential debris-flow hazards from burned drainage basins is necessary to issue warnings for specific basins, to make effective mitigation decisions, and to help plan evacuation timing and routes.

  14. Escaping radioactivity from coal-fired power plants (CPPs) due to coal burning and the associated hazards: a review.

    PubMed

    Papastefanou, Constantin

    2010-03-01

    Coal, like most materials found in nature, contains trace quantities of the naturally occurring primordial radionuclides, i.e. of (40)K and of (238)U, (232)Th and their decay products. Therefore, the combustion of coal results in the released into the environment of some natural radioactivity (1.48 TBq y(-1)), the major part of which (99%) escapes as very fine particles, while the rest in fly ash. The activity concentrations of natural radionuclides measured in coals originated from coal mines in Greece varied from 117 to 435 Bq kg(-1) for (238)U, from 44 to 255 Bq kg(-1) for (226)Ra, from 59 to 205 Bq kg(-1) for (210)Pb, from 9 to 41 Bq kg(-1) for (228)Ra ((232)Th) and from 59 to 227 Bq kg(-1) for (40)K. Fly ash escapes from the stacks of coal-fired power plants in a percentage of 3-1% of the total fly ash, in the better case. The natural radionuclide concentrations measured in fly ash produced and retained or escaped from coal-fired power plants in Greece varied from 263 to 950 Bq kg(-1) for (238)U, from 142 to 605 Bq kg(-1) for (226)Ra, from 133 to 428 Bq kg(-1) for (210)Pb, from 27 to 68 Bq kg(-1) for (228)Ra ((232)Th) and from 204 to 382 Bq kg(-1) for (40)K. About 5% of the total ash produced in the coal-fired power plants is used as substitute of cement in concrete for the construction of dwellings, and may affect indoor radiation doses from external irradiation and the inhalation of radon decay products (internal irradiation) is the most significant. The resulting normalized collective effective doses were 6 and 0.5man-Sv(GWa)(-1) for typical old and modern coal-fired power plants, respectively. PMID:20005612

  15. Measurements of UV-A radiation and hazard limits from some types of outdoor lamps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Moghazy, Essam; Abd-Elmageed, Alaa-Eldin; Reda, Sameh

    2015-05-01

    Illumination using artificial light sources is common in these days. Many manufactures are paying for the design of lamps depending on high efficacy and low UV hazards. This research is focusing on the most useable lamps in the Egyptian markets; High Pressure Mercury (HPM), Metal Halide (MH), and High Pressure Sodium (HPS). A set up for relative spectral power distribution based on single monochromator and UVA silicon detector for absolute irradiance measurements are used. The absolute irradiance in (W/m2) in UVA region of the lamps and their accompanied standard uncertainty are evaluated.

  16. Emergency assessment of debris-flow hazards from basins burned by the Cedar and Paradise Fires of 2003, southern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cannon, Susan H.; Gartner, Joseph E.; Rupert, Michael G.; Michael, John A.

    2004-01-01

    These maps present preliminary assessments of the probability of debris-flow activity and estimates of peak discharges that can potentially be generated by debris flows issuing from basins burned by the Cedar and Paradise Fires of October 2003 in southern California in response to 25-year, 10-year, and 2-year recurrence, 1-hour duration rain storms. The probability maps are based on the application of a logistic multiple regression model that describes the percent chance of debris-flow production from an individual basin as a function of burned extent, soil properties, basin gradients, and storm rainfall. The peak-discharge maps are based on application of a multiple-regression model that can be used to estimate debris-flow peak discharge at a basin outlet as a function of basin gradient, burn extent, and storm rainfall. Probabilities of debris-flow occurrence for the Cedar Fire range between 0 and 98% and estimates of debris-flow peak discharges range between 893 and 5,987 ft3/s (25 to 170 m3/s). Basins burned by the Paradise Fire show probabilities for debris-flow occurrence between 2 and 98%, and peak discharge estimates between 1,814 and 5,980 ft3/s (51 and 169 m3/s). These maps are intended to identify those basins that are most prone to the largest debris-flow events and provide information for the preliminary design of mitigation measures and for the planning of evacuation timing and routes.

  17. The Role of Deposition in Limiting the Hazard Extent of Dense-Gas Plumes

    SciTech Connect

    Dillon, M B

    2008-05-11

    Accidents that involve large (multi-ton) releases of toxic industrial chemicals and form dense-gas clouds often yield far fewer fatalities, casualties and environmental effects than standard assessment and emergency response models predict. This modeling study, which considers both dense-gas turbulence suppression and deposition to environmental objects (e.g. buildings), demonstrates that dry deposition to environmental objects may play a significant role in reducing the distance at which adverse impacts occur - particularly under low-wind, stable atmospheric conditions which are often considered to be the worst-case scenario for these types of releases. The degree to which the released chemical sticks to (or reacts with) environmental surfaces is likely a key parameter controlling hazard extents. In all modeled cases, the deposition to vertical surfaces of environmental objects (e.g. building walls) was more efficient in reducing atmospheric chemical concentrations than deposition to the earth's surface. This study suggests that (1) hazard extents may vary widely by release environment (e.g. grasslands vs. suburbia) and release conditions (e.g. sunlight or humidity may change the rate at which chemicals react with a surface) and (2) greenbelts (or similar structures) may dramatically reduce the impacts of large-scale releases. While these results are demonstrated to be qualitatively consistent with the downwind extent of vegetation damage in two chlorine releases, critical knowledge gaps exist and this study provides recommendations for additional experimental studies.

  18. Fire testing: A review of past, current and future methods

    SciTech Connect

    White, G.C.; Shirvill, L.C.

    1995-12-31

    The philosophy and current methods of fire testing elements of construction and the associated fire protection systems are reviewed. Particular attention is paid to offshore structures and the fire hazards associated with offshore operations. Fire testing is only one aspect in the attempt to ensure that the effects of fires are understood and that effective fire protection systems are developed. The historical development of fire tests is discussed, ending with the furnace test which follows the hydrocarbon temperature versus time curve. The limitations of these tests are discussed, in particular when they are applied to offshore fire scenarios where they are not representative of the potential fire loading and conditions identified for typical platforms. The identification of the jet fire as a common fire scenario on offshore platforms, together with the criticisms made by Lord Cullen in his report on the Piper Alpha disaster, has driven the development of more realistic fire tests. Two such tests are now available and are described in the paper. Also discussed is the development of a smaller scale test that has formed the basis of the recently issued Interim Jet Fire Test Procedure, produced by a working group comprising the UK Health and Safety Executive (HSE); the Norwegian Petroleum Directorate (NPD); Lloyd`s Register; the UK Offshore Operator`s Association (UKOOA); the Norwegian Fire Research Laboratory (SINTEF NBL); the Southwest Research Institute (SwRI); Shell Research Ltd.; and British Gas Research and Technology.

  19. The influence of zinc hydroxystannate on reducing toxic gases (CO, NOx and HCN) generation and fire hazards of thermoplastic polyurethane composites.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bibo; Sheng, Haibo; Shi, Yongqian; Song, Lei; Zhang, Yan; Hu, Yuan; Hu, Weizhao

    2016-08-15

    A uniform zinc hydroxystannate (ZnHS) microcube was synthesized to reduce toxicity and fire hazards of thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) composites using ammonium polyphosphate as a flame retardant agent. The structure, morphology and thermal properties of ZnHS were characterized by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and thermogravimetric analysis, respectively. Smoke suppression properties and synergistic flame retardant effect of ZnHS on flame retardant TPU composites were intensively investigated by smoke density test, cone calorimeter test, and thermalgravimetric analysis. Thermogravimetric analysis/infrared spectrometry and tube furnace were employed to evaluate the toxic gases (CO, NOx and HCN) of TPU composites. The incorporation of ZnHS into TPU matrix effectively improved the fire safety and restrained the smoke density, which is attributed to that the char residue catalyzed by ZnHS enhanced barrier effect that reduced peak heat release rate, total heat release, smoke particles and organic volatiles during combustion. Furthermore, the ZnHS synergist demonstrated high efficiency in catalytic degradation of the toxic gases, which obviously decreased total volatiled product and toxic volatiles evolved, such as the CO, HCN and NOx, indicating suppressed toxicity of the TPU composites. PMID:27136731

  20. Relative Spectral Mixture Analysis for monitoring natural hazards that impact vegetation cover: the importance of the nonphotosynthetic fraction in understanding landscape response to drought, fire, and hurricane damage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okin, G. S.

    2007-12-01

    Remote sensing provides a unique ability to monitor natural hazards that impact vegetation hydrologically. Here, the use of a new multitemporal remote sensing technique that employs free, coarse multispectral remote sensing data is demonstrated in monitoring short- and long-term drought, fire occurrence and recovery, and damage to hurricane-related mangrove ecosystems and subsequent recovery of these systems. The new technique, relative spectral mixture analysis (RSMA), provides information about the nonphotosynthetic fraction (nonphotosynthetic vegetation plus litter) of ground cover in addition to the green vegetation fraction. In some cases, RSMA even provides an improved ability to monitor changes in the green fraction compared to traditional vegetation indices or standard remote sensing products. In arid and semiarid regions, the nonphotosynthetic fraction can vary on an annual basis significantly more than the green fraction and is thus perfectly suited for monitoring drought in these regions. Mortality of evergreen trees due to long-term drought also shows up strongly in the nonphotosynthetic fraction as green vegetation is replaced by dry needles and bare trunks. The response of the nonphotosynthetic fraction to fire is significantly different from that of drought because of the combustion of nonphotosynthetic material. Finally, damage to mangrove ecosystems from hurricane damage, and their subsequent recovery, is readily observable in both the green and nonphotosynthetic fractions as estimated by RSMA.

  1. Assessing the Potential Impact of the 2015-2016 El Niño on the California Rim Fire Burn Scar Through Debris Flow Hazard Mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larcom, S.; Grigsby, S.; Ustin, S.

    2015-12-01

    Wildfires are a perennial issue for California, and the current record-breaking drought is exacerbating the potential problems for the state. Fires leave behind burn scars characterized by diminished vegetative cover and abundant bare soil, and these areas are especially susceptible to storm events that pose an elevated risk of debris flows and sediment-rich sheet wash. This study focused on the 2013 Rim Fire that devastated significant portions of Stanislaus National Forest and Yosemite National Park, and utilized readily available NASA JPL SRTM elevation data and AVIRIS spectral imaging data to construct a debris flow hazard map that assesses mass wasting risk for the Rim Fire burn scar. This study consisted entirely of remotely sensed data, which was processed in software programs such as ENVI, GRASS GIS, ArcMap, and Google Earth. Parameters that were taken into consideration when constructing this map include hill slope (greater than 30 percent rise), burn severity (assessed by calculating NDVI), and erodibility of the soil (by comparing spectral reflectance of AVIRIS images with the reference spectra of illite). By calculating percent of total burn area, 6% was classified as low risk, 55% as medium risk, and 39% as high risk. In addition, this study assessed the importance of the 2015-2016 El Niño, which is projected to be one of the strongest on record, by studying historic rainfall records and storm events of past El Niño's. Hydrological and infrastructural problems that could be caused by short-term convective or long-term synoptic storms and subsequent debris flows were explored as well.

  2. Fire Prevention Inspection Procedures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pribyl, Paul F.

    Lesson plans are provided for a fire prevention inspection course of the Wisconsin Fire Service Training program. Objectives for the course are to enable students to describe and conduct fire prevention inspections, to identify and correct hazards common to most occupancies, to understand the types of building construction and occupancy, and to…

  3. Fire Department Emergency Response

    SciTech Connect

    Blanchard, A.; Bell, K.; Kelly, J.; Hudson, J.

    1997-09-01

    In 1995 the SRS Fire Department published the initial Operations Basis Document (OBD). This document was one of the first of its kind in the DOE complex and was widely distributed and reviewed. This plan described a multi-mission Fire Department which provided fire, emergency medical, hazardous material spill, and technical rescue services.

  4. Emergency Assessment of Debris-Flow Hazards from Basins Burned by the Padua Fire of 2003, Southern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cannon, Susan H.; Gartner, Joseph E.; Rupert, Michael G.; Michael, John A.

    2004-01-01

    Results of a present preliminary assessment of the probability of debris-flow activity and estimates of peak discharges that can potentially be generated by debris flows issuing from basins burned by the Padua Fire of October 2003 in southern California in response to 25-year, 10-year, and 2-year recurrence, 1-hour duration rain storms are presented. The resulting probability maps are based on the application of a logistic multiple-regression model (Cannon and others, 2004) that describes the percent chance of debris-flow production from an individual basin as a function of burned extent, soil properties, basin gradients, and storm rainfall. The resulting peak discharge maps are based on application of a multiple-regression model (Cannon and others, 2004) that can be used to estimate debris-flow peak discharge at a basin outlet as a function of basin gradient, burn extent, and storm rainfall. Probabilities of debris-flow occurrence for the Padua Fire range between 0 and 99% and estimates of debris-flow peak discharges range between 1211 and 6,096 ft3/s (34 to 173 m3/s). These maps are intended to identify those basins that are most prone to the largest debris-flow events and provide information for the preliminary design of mitigation measures and for the planning of evacuation timing and routes.

  5. Multi-Hazard Risk Assessment of Structures Subjected to Seismic Excitation and Blast for the Limit State of Collapse

    SciTech Connect

    Asprone, D.; Jalayer, F.; Prota, A.; Manfredi, G.

    2008-07-08

    Multi-hazard approach represents a convenient way to address structural reliability of a critical infrastructure. Objective of the present paper is to present a multi-hazard methodology for evaluation of the risk associated with the limit state of collapse for a reinforced concrete (RC) structure subject to both seismic and blast threats. Blast fragility can be defined as the probability of progressive collapse given a blast event has taken place and its evaluation is here suggested via a Monte Carlo procedure, generating different possible blast configurations. For each blast scenario, the consequent damages occurring to the investigated structure are identified and an updating of the structure is then performed. The structural stability under gravity loading is then verified by employing a kinematic plastic limit analysis. The conditional probability of collapse or the blast fragility is then calculated as the mean value of the collapse indicator variable over the number of cases generated by the simulation procedure. Therefore, the seismic fragility is also determined via classical methods described elsewhere and the total risk of collapse is evaluated as the sum of blast and seismic contributions.

  6. Fire Safety's My Job. Eighth Grade. Fire Safety for Texans: Fire and Burn Prevention Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas State Commission on Fire Protection, Austin.

    This booklet comprises the eighth grade component of a series of curriculum guides on fire and burn prevention. Designed to meet the age-specific needs of eighth grade students, its objectives include: (1) focusing on technical aspects of fire hazards and detection, and (2) exploring fire hazards outside the home. Texas essential elements of…

  7. Risks and issues in fire safety on the Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedman, Robert

    1993-01-01

    A fire in the inhabited portion of a spacecraft is a greatly feared hazard, but fire protection in space operations is complicated by two factors. First, the spacecraft cabin is an enclosed volume, which limits the resources for fire fighting and the options for crew escape. Second, an orbiting spacecraft experiences a balance of forces, creating a near-zero-gravity (microgravity) environment that profoundly affects the characteristics of fire initiation, spread, and suppression. The current Shuttle Orbiter is protected by a fire-detection and suppression system whose requirements are derived of necessity from accepted terrestrial and aircraft standards. While experience has shown that Shuttle fire safety is adequate, designers recognize that improved systems to respond specifically to microgravity fire characteristics are highly desirable. Innovative technology is particularly advisable for the Space Station, a forthcoming space community with a complex configuration and long-duration orbital missions, in which the effectiveness of current fire-protection systems is unpredictable. The development of risk assessments to evaluate the probabilities and consequences of fire incidents in spacecraft are briefly reviewed. It further discusses the important unresolved issues and needs for improved fire safety in the Space Station, including those of material selection, spacecraft atmospheres, fire detection, fire suppression, and post-fire restoration.

  8. Testing sodium limitation of fire ants in the field and laboratory

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    1) Sodium is an essential dietary element and preferential foraging for high concentrations of sodium by inland herbivorous and omnivorous ants suggests it may be limiting. If so, increased sodium availability through altered deposition and anthropogenic sources may lead to increased colony growth a...

  9. Fire Protection in Educational Occupancies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gervais, Romeo P.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the origins of school fires and the components of the fire protection code called the Life Safety Code (LSC). Three of the following LSC requirements are described: means of egress; protection from hazards; and fire suppression and alarm systems. Information on who starts fires is highlighted along with preventive measures. (GR)

  10. Fire Inspection Guide for Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Virginia State Corp. Commission, Richmond.

    A functional explanation of the "School Fire Prevention Inspection Form" is provided for use by local school and fire department personnel in the Virginia School Fire Prevention Inspection Program. Many helpful suggestions are made for safeguarding occupants of public school buildings from fire hazards. Items discussed are--(1) exit doors, (2)…

  11. Teach Children Fire Will Burn.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Children's Bureau (DHEW), Washington, DC.

    This handbook, addressed to parents and others responsible for the safety of children, presents information on fire hazards, prevention and protection. Emphasizing an early start to fire safety training, it outlines the basic facts of fire safety education, listing the most frequent causes of fire and suggesting the organization of a Family Fire…

  12. Use of limited protocols to evaluate the genotoxicity of hazardous wastes in mammalian cell assays: comparison to Salmonella

    SciTech Connect

    DeMarini, D.M.; Brusick, D.J.; Lewtas, J.

    1987-01-01

    Dichloromethane extracts of four diverse hazardous wastes (coke plant, herbicide manufacturing, pulp and paper, and oil refining) were evaluated for mutagenicity in strains TA98 and TA100 of Salmonella. These extracts also were tested for biological activity in short-term mammalian cell assays, including mutagenicity in L5178Y/TK +/- mouse lymphoma cells, chromosomal aberrations and sister chromatid exchanges in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells, morphological transformation in BALB/c-3T3 cells, and teratogenic potential in mouse limb bud cells. The mammalian cell assays were performed using limited protocols that consisted of a preliminary testing of the extracts for cytotoxicity in CHO cells in order to estimate the appropriate dose range for the other assays. These assays were then performed once with only a few doses of extract; all but the mouse limb bud assay were performed in the presence of metabolic activation. Although all four of the wastes were presumptively positive for either mutation or cytogenetic effects, none of the wastes transformed BALB/c-3T3 cells. Further studies are needed to establish which mammalian cell assays, if any, might be useful complements to the Salmonella assay for the purpose of screening hazardous wastes.

  13. Prediction of the limits of detection of hazardous vapors by passive infrared with the use of modtran.

    PubMed

    Flanigan, D F

    1996-10-20

    Passive infrared remote detection of hazardous gases, vapors, and aerosols is based on the difference, Δ T, between the air temperature of the threat vapor cloud and the effective radiative temperature of the background. In this paper I address the problem of detection with a low-angle-sky background. I used Modtran to predict Δ T and atmospheric transmittance for standard atmospheric models. The detection limits, at 2-cm(-1) resolution, are discussed for sulfur hexafluoride, Sarin, trichloroethylene, methyl isocyanate, mustard gas, methyl chloride, and sulfur dioxide for selected cases with the U.S. Standard, the Subarctic Winter, and the Tropical models. I used a particularly interesting case of Sarin detection with the Subarctic Winter atmospheric model to illustrate the power of Modtran to predict subtle changes in Δ T with angle of elevation (AOE). PMID:21127625

  14. Limits on Pluto's ring system from the June 12 2006 stellar occultation and implications for the New Horizons impact hazard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Throop, Henry B.; French, Richard G.; Shoemaker, Kevin; Olkin, Cathy B.; Ruhland, Trina R.; Young, Leslie A.

    2015-01-01

    The Pluto system passed in front of a 15th magnitude star on 12 June 2006. We observed this occultation from the 3.9 m Anglo-Australian Telescope (AAT), and took photometric observations every 100 ms for 3 h. Our three-hour baseline of data provides among the longest and highest-quality occultation dataset of the Pluto system ever taken. Results on Pluto's atmospheric structure from these data have been previously reported (Young, E.F. [2008]. Astron. J. 136, 1757-1769). Here we report on limits for rings, ring arcs, and small satellites within the system. We find a 3 σ upper limit on the normal optical depth of τ < 0.07 for narrow rings of width 2.4 km, and τ < 5 ×10-3 for rings of width 1500 km. We also detect no discrete objects of radius 220 m or larger along the occultation path. Motivated by the upcoming flyby of New Horizons through the Pluto system, we estimate the dust impact hazard to the spacecraft based on our optical depth limits and those derived from imaging with the Hubble Space Telescope.

  15. The properties of the nano-minerals and hazardous elements: Potential environmental impacts of Brazilian coal waste fire.

    PubMed

    Civeira, Matheus S; Pinheiro, Rafael N; Gredilla, Ainara; de Vallejuelo, Silvia Fdez Ortiz; Oliveira, Marcos L S; Ramos, Claudete G; Taffarel, Silvio R; Kautzmann, Rubens M; Madariaga, Juan Manuel; Silva, Luis F O

    2016-02-15

    Brazilian coal area (South Brazil) impacted the environment by means of a large number of coal waste piles emplaced over the old mine sites and the adjacent areas of the Criciúma, Urussanga, and Siderópolis cities. The area studied here was abandoned and after almost 30 years (smokeless visual) some companies use the actual minerals derived from burning coal cleaning rejects (BCCRs) complied in the mentioned area for industry tiles or refractory bricks. Mineralogical and geochemical similarities between the BCCRs and non-anthropogenic geological environments are outlined here. Although no visible flames were observed, this study revealed that auto-combustion existed in the studied area for many years. The presence of amorphous phases, mullite, hematite and other Fe-minerals formed by high temperature was found. There is also pyrite, Fe-sulphates (eg. jarosite) and unburnt coal present, which are useful for comparison purposes. Bad disposal of coal-dump wastes represents significant environmental concerns due to their potential influence on atmosphere, river sediments, soils and as well as on the surface and groundwater in the surroundings of these areas. The present study using advanced analytical techniques were performed to provide an improved understanding of the complex processes related with sulphide-rich coal waste oxidation, spontaneous combustion and mineral formation. It is reporting huge numbers of rare minerals with alunite, montmorillonite, szomolnokite, halotrichite, coquimbite and copiapite at the BCCRs. The data showed the presence of abundant amorphous Si-Al-Fe-Ti as (oxy-)hydroxides and Fe-hydro/oxides with goethite and hematite with various degrees of crystallinity, containing hazardous elements, such as Cu, Cr, Hf, Hg, Mo, Ni, Se, Pb, Th, U, Zr, and others. By Principal Component Analysis (PCA), the mineralogical composition was related with the range of elemental concentration of each sample. Most of the nano-minerals and ultra-fine particles

  16. Experiments to Determine Whether Recursive Partitioning (CART) or an Artificial Neural Network Overcomes Theoretical Limitations of Cox Proportional Hazards Regression

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kattan, Michael W.; Hess, Kenneth R.; Kattan, Michael W.

    1998-01-01

    New computationally intensive tools for medical survival analyses include recursive partitioning (also called CART) and artificial neural networks. A challenge that remains is to better understand the behavior of these techniques in effort to know when they will be effective tools. Theoretically they may overcome limitations of the traditional multivariable survival technique, the Cox proportional hazards regression model. Experiments were designed to test whether the new tools would, in practice, overcome these limitations. Two datasets in which theory suggests CART and the neural network should outperform the Cox model were selected. The first was a published leukemia dataset manipulated to have a strong interaction that CART should detect. The second was a published cirrhosis dataset with pronounced nonlinear effects that a neural network should fit. Repeated sampling of 50 training and testing subsets was applied to each technique. The concordance index C was calculated as a measure of predictive accuracy by each technique on the testing dataset. In the interaction dataset, CART outperformed Cox (P less than 0.05) with a C improvement of 0.1 (95% Cl, 0.08 to 0.12). In the nonlinear dataset, the neural network outperformed the Cox model (P less than 0.05), but by a very slight amount (0.015). As predicted by theory, CART and the neural network were able to overcome limitations of the Cox model. Experiments like these are important to increase our understanding of when one of these new techniques will outperform the standard Cox model. Further research is necessary to predict which technique will do best a priori and to assess the magnitude of superiority.

  17. Determination of Realistic Fire Scenarios in Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dietrich, Daniel L.; Ruff, Gary A.; Urban, David

    2013-01-01

    This paper expands on previous work that examined how large a fire a crew member could successfully survive and extinguish in the confines of a spacecraft. The hazards to the crew and equipment during an accidental fire include excessive pressure rise resulting in a catastrophic rupture of the vehicle skin, excessive temperatures that burn or incapacitate the crew (due to hyperthermia), carbon dioxide build-up or accumulation of other combustion products (e.g. carbon monoxide). The previous work introduced a simplified model that treated the fire primarily as a source of heat and combustion products and sink for oxygen prescribed (input to the model) based on terrestrial standards. The model further treated the spacecraft as a closed system with no capability to vent to the vacuum of space. The model in the present work extends this analysis to more realistically treat the pressure relief system(s) of the spacecraft, include more combustion products (e.g. HF) in the analysis and attempt to predict the fire spread and limiting fire size (based on knowledge of terrestrial fires and the known characteristics of microgravity fires) rather than prescribe them in the analysis. Including the characteristics of vehicle pressure relief systems has a dramatic mitigating effect by eliminating vehicle overpressure for all but very large fires and reducing average gas-phase temperatures.

  18. National Fire Protection Association

    MedlinePlus

    ... and standards Welcome to the Jungle With the marijuana industry poised for a rapid expansion, Colorado — epicenter ... more. See where fire codes intersect with the marijuana industry. Hazards of the trade As with any ...

  19. The Dependency of Probabilistic Tsunami Hazard Assessment on Magnitude Limits of Seismic Sources in the South China Sea and Adjoining Basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hongwei; Yuan, Ye; Xu, Zhiguo; Wang, Zongchen; Wang, Juncheng; Wang, Peitao; Gao, Yi; Hou, Jingming; Shan, Di

    2016-08-01

    The South China Sea (SCS) and its adjacent small basins including Sulu Sea and Celebes Sea are commonly identified as tsunami-prone region by its historical records on seismicity and tsunamis. However, quantification of tsunami hazard in the SCS region remained an intractable issue due to highly complex tectonic setting and multiple seismic sources within and surrounding this area. Probabilistic Tsunami Hazard Assessment (PTHA) is performed in the present study to evaluate tsunami hazard in the SCS region based on a brief review on seismological and tsunami records. 5 regional and local potential tsunami sources are tentatively identified, and earthquake catalogs are generated using Monte Carlo simulation following the Tapered Gutenberg-Richter relationship for each zone. Considering a lack of consensus on magnitude upper bound on each seismic source, as well as its critical role in PTHA, the major concern of the present study is to define the upper and lower limits of tsunami hazard in the SCS region comprehensively by adopting different corner magnitudes that could be derived by multiple principles and approaches, including TGR regression of historical catalog, fault-length scaling, tectonic and seismic moment balance, and repetition of historical largest event. The results show that tsunami hazard in the SCS and adjoining basins is subject to large variations when adopting different corner magnitudes, with the upper bounds 2-6 times of the lower. The probabilistic tsunami hazard maps for specified return periods reveal much higher threat from Cotabato Trench and Sulawesi Trench in the Celebes Sea, whereas tsunami hazard received by the coasts of the SCS and Sulu Sea is relatively moderate, yet non-negligible. By combining empirical method with numerical study of historical tsunami events, the present PTHA results are tentatively validated. The correspondence lends confidence to our study. Considering the proximity of major sources to population-laden cities

  20. Remote sensing of coastal environmental hazards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huh, Oscar K.; Roberts, Harry H.; Rouse, Lawrence J., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    Examples of the application of NOAA High Resolution Picture Transmission (HRPT) data to natural hazards and disasters are reviewed. The examples discussed include flooding of the Ganges River Delta; detecting effects of salt water intrusion into freshwater marshes; detecting fires, smoke plumes, and oil slicks; and monitoring of ocean currents and eddies. The present limitations of the HRPT data and future prospects are briefly discussed.

  1. Is Fire Safety a Burning Issue for Your Home?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haines, Jamie E.

    1986-01-01

    Families can take an active role in protecting their homes and themselves from fire by: (1) keeping their homes free of fire hazards; (2) installing, testing, and maintaining smoke detectors; and (3) developing a fire escape plan. (DF)

  2. 29 CFR 1926.151 - Fire prevention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Fire prevention. 1926.151 Section 1926.151 Labor... (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Fire Protection and Prevention § 1926.151 Fire... at or in the vicinity of operations which constitute a fire hazard, and shall be conspicuously...

  3. Analysing the Spectrum of Andesitic Plinian Eruptions: Approaching the Uppermost Hazard Limits Expected from MT. Ruapehu, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pardo, N.; Cronin, S. J.; Palmer, A. S.; Procter, J.; Smith, I. E.; Nemeth, K.

    2011-12-01

    parameters by comparing different methodologies, in order to best estimate realistic uppermost hazard limits. We found Sulpizio (2005) method of k1 vs. √Aip, by integrating multiple segments, as the best approach to quantify past eruptions where the exposures are limited to proximal-intermediate locations and isopachs thinner than 5 cm cannot be constructed. The bilobate nature of both isopachs and isopleth maps reflects the complexity of tephra dispersion in a form of non-elliptical isopleths shapes showing high contour distortion and lobe axis bending, reflecting important shifts in the wind-direction over a short time interval. Calculated eruptive parameters such as minimum erupted volumes (0.3 to 0.6 km3), break in slope distances (√Aip: 31.4 - 80.8 km), column heights (22-37 km), volume discharge rates (~104-105 m3/s), and mass discharge rates (~107-108 kg/s), are all consistent with Plinian style eruptions, significantly larger than eruptions that have occurred over the past 5000 yr (VEI = 3). This new data could yield the "worst-case" eruption scenario of Ruapehu, similar to the Plinian phases of Askja 1875 and Chaitén 2008 eruptions.

  4. USE OF LIMITED PROTOCOLS TO EVALUATE THE GENOTOXICITY OF HAZARDOUS WASTES IN MAMMALIAN CELL ASSAYS: COMPARISON TO 'SALMONELLA'

    EPA Science Inventory

    Dichloromethane extracts of four diverse hazardous wastes (coke plant, herbicide mfg., pulp and paper, and oil refining) were evaluated for mutagenicity in strains TA98 and TA100 of Salmonella. These extracts also were tested for biological activity in short-term mammalian cells ...

  5. Computational fire modeling for aircraft fire research

    SciTech Connect

    Nicolette, V.F.

    1996-11-01

    This report summarizes work performed by Sandia National Laboratories for the Federal Aviation Administration. The technical issues involved in fire modeling for aircraft fire research are identified, as well as computational fire tools for addressing those issues, and the research which is needed to advance those tools in order to address long-range needs. Fire field models are briefly reviewed, and the VULCAN model is selected for further evaluation. Calculations are performed with VULCAN to demonstrate its applicability to aircraft fire problems, and also to gain insight into the complex problem of fires involving aircraft. Simulations are conducted to investigate the influence of fire on an aircraft in a cross-wind. The interaction of the fuselage, wind, fire, and ground plane is investigated. Calculations are also performed utilizing a large eddy simulation (LES) capability to describe the large- scale turbulence instead of the more common k-{epsilon} turbulence model. Additional simulations are performed to investigate the static pressure and velocity distributions around a fuselage in a cross-wind, with and without fire. The results of these simulations provide qualitative insight into the complex interaction of a fuselage, fire, wind, and ground plane. Reasonable quantitative agreement is obtained in the few cases for which data or other modeling results exist Finally, VULCAN is used to quantify the impact of simplifying assumptions inherent in a risk assessment compatible fire model developed for open pool fire environments. The assumptions are seen to be of minor importance for the particular problem analyzed. This work demonstrates the utility of using a fire field model for assessing the limitations of simplified fire models. In conclusion, the application of computational fire modeling tools herein provides both qualitative and quantitative insights into the complex problem of aircraft in fires.

  6. A Review of Hazardous Chemical Species Associated with CO2 Capturefrom Coal-Fired Power Plants and Their Potential Fate in CO2 GeologicStorage

    SciTech Connect

    Apps, J.A.

    2006-02-23

    environmental pollutants in the gaseous state and co-inject them with the CO2, in order to mitigate problems associated with solid waste disposal in surface impoundments. Under such conditions, the injected pollutant concentrations could be roughly equivalent to their concentrations in the coal feed. The fate of the injected contaminants can only be determined through further testing and geochemical modeling. However, the concentrations of inadvertent contaminants in the injected CO2 would probably be comparable to their ambient concentrations in confining shales of the injection zone. In general, the aqueous concentrations of hazardous constituents in distal parts of the injection zone, regardless of source, are likely to be limited by equilibrium with respect to coexisting solid phases under the acid conditions induced by the dissolved high pressure CO2, rather than by the initial concentrations of injected contaminants. Therefore, even if a deliberate policy of contaminant recovery and injection were to be pursued, water quality in USDWs would more likely depend on thermodynamic controls governing aqueous contaminant concentrations in the presence of high pressure CO2 rather than in the injected CO2. The conclusions reached in this report are preliminary, and should be confirmed through more comprehensive data evaluation and supporting geochemical modeling.

  7. Assessing Surface Fuel Hazard in Coastal Conifer Forests through the Use of LiDAR Remote Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koulas, Christos

    The research problem that this thesis seeks to examine is a method of predicting conventional fire hazards using data drawn from specific regions, namely the Sooke and Goldstream watershed regions in coastal British Columbia. This thesis investigates whether LiDAR data can be used to describe conventional forest stand fire hazard classes. Three objectives guided this thesis: to discuss the variables associated with fire hazard, specifically the distribution and makeup of fuel; to examine the relationship between derived LiDAR biometrics and forest attributes related to hazard assessment factors defined by the Capitol Regional District (CRD); and to assess the viability of the LiDAR biometric decision tree in the CRD based on current frameworks for use. The research method uses quantitative datasets to assess the optimal generalization of these types of fire hazard data through discriminant analysis. Findings illustrate significant LiDAR-derived data limitations, and reflect the literature in that flawed field application of data modelling techniques has led to a disconnect between the ways in which fire hazard models have been intended to be used by scholars and the ways in which they are used by those tasked with prevention of forest fires. It can be concluded that a significant trade-off exists between computational requirements for wildfire simulation models and the algorithms commonly used by field teams to apply these models with remote sensing data, and that CRD forest management practices would need to change to incorporate a decision tree model in order to decrease risk.

  8. Detoxification of hazardous dust with marine sediment.

    PubMed

    Wei, Yu-Ling; Lin, Chang-Yuan; Wang, H Paul

    2014-08-30

    Hazardous electric arc furnace dust containing dioxins/furans and heavy metals is blended with harbor sediment, fired at 950-1100 °C to prepare lightweight aggregates. Dust addition can lower the sintering temperature by about 100 °C, as compared to a typical industrial process. After firing at 950 °C and 1050 °C, more than 99.85% of dioxins/furans originally present in the dust have been removed and/or destructed in the mix containing a dust/sediment ratio of 50:100. The heavy metals leached from all fired mixes are far below Taiwan EPA legal limits. The particle density of the lightweight aggregates always decreases with increasing firing temperature. Greater addition of the dust results in a considerably lower particle density (mostly <2.0 g cm(-3)) fired at 1050 °C and 1100 °C. However, firing at temperatures lower than 1050 °C produces no successful bloating, leading to a denser particle density (>2.0 g cm(-3)) that is typical of bricks. PMID:24461694

  9. Limiter

    DOEpatents

    Cohen, S.A.; Hosea, J.C.; Timberlake, J.R.

    1984-10-19

    A limiter with a specially contoured front face is provided. The front face of the limiter (the plasma-side face) is flat with a central indentation. In addition, the limiter shape is cylindrically symmetric so that the limiter can be rotated for greater heat distribution. This limiter shape accommodates the various power scrape-off distances lambda p, which depend on the parallel velocity, V/sub parallel/, of the impacting particles.

  10. Contingent valuation study of the value of reducing fire hazards to old-growth forests in the Pacific northwest. Forest Service research paper

    SciTech Connect

    Loomis, J.B.; Gonzalez-Caban, A.; Gregory, R.

    1996-07-01

    A contingent valuation methodology was applied to old-growth forests and critical habitat units for the Northern Spotted Owl in Oregon to esimate the economic value to the public in knowing that rare and unique ecosystems will be protected from fire for current and future generations. Generalizing to the whole state, the total annual willingness-to-pay of Oregon residents ranges from $49.6 to $99 million. In terms of old-growth forests protected from fire, the value is $28 per acre.

  11. Limiter

    DOEpatents

    Cohen, Samuel A.; Hosea, Joel C.; Timberlake, John R.

    1986-01-01

    A limiter with a specially contoured front face accommodates the various power scrape-off distances .lambda..sub.p, which depend on the parallel velocity, V.sub..parallel., of the impacting particles. The front face of the limiter (the plasma-side face) is flat with a central indentation. In addition, the limiter shape is cylindrically symmetric so that the limiter can be rotated for greater heat distribution.

  12. Emergency Assessment of Debris-Flow Hazards from Basins Burned by the Piru, Simi, and Verdale Fires of 2003, Southern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cannon, Susan H.; Gartner, Joseph E.; Rupert, Michael G.; Michael, John A.

    2003-01-01

    These maps present preliminary assessments of the probability of debris-flow activity and estimates of peak discharges that can potentially be generated by debris-flows issuing from basins burned by the Piru, Simi and Verdale Fires of October 2003 in southern California in response to the 25-year, 10-year, and 2-year 1-hour rain storms. The probability maps are based on the application of a logistic multiple regression model that describes the percent chance of debris-flow production from an individual basin as a function of burned extent, soil properties, basin gradients and storm rainfall. The peak discharge maps are based on application of a multiple-regression model that can be used to estimate debris-flow peak discharge at a basin outlet as a function of basin gradient, burn extent, and storm rainfall. Probabilities of debris-flow occurrence for the Piru Fire range between 2 and 94% and estimates of debris flow peak discharges range between 1,200 and 6,640 ft3/s (34 to 188 m3/s). Basins burned by the Simi Fire show probabilities for debris-flow occurrence between 1 and 98%, and peak discharge estimates between 1,130 and 6,180 ft3/s (32 and 175 m3/s). The probabilities for debris-flow activity calculated for the Verdale Fire range from negligible values to 13%. Peak discharges were not estimated for this fire because of these low probabilities. These maps are intended to identify those basins that are most prone to the largest debris-flow events and provide information for the preliminary design of mitigation measures and for the planning of evacuation timing and routes.

  13. Hazard Evaluation for a Salt Well Centrifugal Pump Design Using Service Water for Lubrication and Cooling

    SciTech Connect

    GRAMS, W.H.

    2000-10-09

    This report documents the results of a preliminary hazard analysis (PHA) covering the new salt well pump design. The PHA identified ten hazardous conditions mapped to four analyzed accidents: flammable gas deflagrations, fire in contaminated area, tank failure due to excessive loads, and waste transfer leaks. This document also presents the results of the control decision/allocation process. A backflow preventer and associated limiting condition were assigned.

  14. Fire safety distances for open pool fires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sudheer, S.; Kumar, Lokendra; Manjunath, B. S.; Pasi, Amit; Meenakshi, G.; Prabhu, S. V.

    2013-11-01

    Fire accidents that carry huge loss with them have increased in the previous two decades than at any time in the history. Hence, there is a need for understanding the safety distances from different fires with different fuels. Fire safety distances are computed for different open pool fires. Diesel, gasoline and hexane are used as fuels for circular pool diameters of 0.5 m, 0.7 m and 1.0 m. A large square pool fire of 4 m × 4 m is also conducted with diesel as a fuel. All the prescribed distances in this study are purely based on the thermal analysis. IR camera is used to get the thermal images of pool fires and there by the irradiance at different locations is computed. The computed irradiance is presented with the threshold heat flux limits for human beings.

  15. Determination of Survivable Fires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dietrich, D. L.; Niehaus, J. E.; Ruff, G. A.; Urban, D. L.; Takahashi, F.; Easton, J. W.; Abbott, A. A.; Graf, J. C.

    2012-01-01

    At NASA, there exists no standardized design or testing protocol for spacecraft fire suppression systems (either handheld or total flooding designs). An extinguisher's efficacy in safely suppressing any reasonable or conceivable fire is the primary benchmark. That concept, however, leads to the question of what a reasonable or conceivable fire is. While there exists the temptation to over-size' the fire extinguisher, weight and volume considerations on spacecraft will always (justifiably) push for the minimum size extinguisher required. This paper attempts to address the question of extinguisher size by examining how large a fire a crew member could successfully survive and extinguish in the confines of a spacecraft. The hazards to the crew and equipment during an accidental fire include excessive pressure rise resulting in a catastrophic rupture of the vehicle skin, excessive temperatures that burn or incapacitate the crew (due to hyperthermia), carbon dioxide build-up or other accumulation of other combustion products (e.g. carbon monoxide). Estimates of these quantities are determined as a function of fire size and mass of material burned. This then becomes the basis for determining the maximum size of a target fire for future fire extinguisher testing.

  16. Catalytic Destruction of a Surrogate Organic Hazardous Air Pollutant as a Potential Co-benefit for Coal-fired Selective Catalyst Reduction Systems

    EPA Science Inventory

    Catalytic destruction of benzene (C6H6), a surrogate for organic hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) produced from coal combustion, was investigated using a commercial selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalyst for evaluating the potential co-benefit of the SCR technology for reduc...

  17. Moderate Image Spectrometer (MODIS) Fire Radiative Energy: Physics and Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufman, Y.

    2004-01-01

    MODIS fire channel does not saturate in the presence of fires. The fire channel therefore is used to estimate the fire radiative energy, a measure of the rate of biomass consumption in the fire. We found correlation between the fire radiative energy, the rate of formation of burn scars and the rate of emission of aerosol from the fires. Others found correlations between the fire radiative energy and the rate of biomass consumption. This relationships can be used to estimates the emissions from the fires and to estimate the fire hazards.

  18. Fire suppressing apparatus. [sodium fires

    DOEpatents

    Buttrey, K.E.

    1980-12-19

    Apparatus for smothering a liquid sodium fire comprises a pan, a perforated cover on the pan, and tubed depending from the cover and providing communication between the interior of the pan and the ambient atmosphere through the perforations in the cover. Liquid caught in the pan rises above the lower ends of the tubes and thus serves as a barrier which limits the amount of air entering the pan.

  19. Mode of action and the assessment of chemical hazards in the presence of limited data: use of structure-activity relationships (SAR) under TSCA, Section 5.

    PubMed Central

    Auer, C M; Nabholz, J V; Baetcke, K P

    1990-01-01

    Section 5 of the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) requires that manufacturers and importers of new chemicals must submit a Premanufacture Notification (PMN) to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 90 days before they intend to commence manufacture or import. Certain information such as chemical identity, uses, etc., must be included in the notification. The submission of test data on the new substance, however, is not required, although any available health and environmental information must be provided. Nonetheless, over half of all PMNs submitted to the agency do not contain any test data; because PMN chemicals are new, no test data is generally available in the scientific literature. Given this situation, EPA has had to develop techniques for hazard assessment that can be used in the presence of limited test data. EPA's approach has been termed "structure-activity relationships" (SAR) and involves three major components: the first is critical evaluation and interpretation of available toxicity data on the chemical; the second component involves evaluation of test data available on analogous substances and/or potential metabolites; and the third component involves the use of mathematical expressions for biological activity known as "quantitative structure-activity relationships" (QSARs). At present, the use of QSARs is limited to estimating physical chemical properties, environmental toxicity, and bioconcentration factors. An important overarching element in EPA's approach is the experience and judgment of scientific assessors in interpreting and integrating the available data and information. Examples are provided that illustrate EPA's approach to hazard assessment for PMN chemicals. PMID:2269224

  20. Positively Fire Safe. Third Grade. Fire Safety for Texans: Fire and Burn Prevention Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas State Commission on Fire Protection, Austin.

    This booklet comprises the third grade component of a series of curriculum guides on fire and burn prevention. Designed to meet the age-specific needs of third grade students, its objectives include: (1) acquiring basic knowledge of hazards and safe storage of flammable liquids; and (2) developing positive actions to prevent fires and burns or to…

  1. 49 CFR 397.11 - Fires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fires. 397.11 Section 397.11 Transportation Other... PARKING RULES General § 397.11 Fires. (a) A motor vehicle containing hazardous materials must not be operated near an open fire unless its driver has first taken precautions to ascertain that the vehicle...

  2. 49 CFR 397.11 - Fires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fires. 397.11 Section 397.11 Transportation Other... PARKING RULES General § 397.11 Fires. (a) A motor vehicle containing hazardous materials must not be operated near an open fire unless its driver has first taken precautions to ascertain that the vehicle...

  3. 29 CFR 1926.151 - Fire prevention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Fire prevention. 1926.151 Section 1926.151 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Fire Protection and Prevention § 1926.151 Fire prevention. (a) Ignition hazards....

  4. 29 CFR 1926.151 - Fire prevention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fire prevention. 1926.151 Section 1926.151 Labor... (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Fire Protection and Prevention § 1926.151 Fire prevention. (a) Ignition hazards. (1) Electrical wiring and equipment for light, heat, or power...

  5. 14 CFR 121.221 - Fire precautions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fire precautions. 121.221 Section 121.221..., FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Special Airworthiness Requirements § 121.221 Fire precautions. (a... the compartment and so that damage to or failure of the item would not create a fire hazard in...

  6. 49 CFR 397.11 - Fires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Fires. 397.11 Section 397.11 Transportation Other... PARKING RULES General § 397.11 Fires. (a) A motor vehicle containing hazardous materials must not be operated near an open fire unless its driver has first taken precautions to ascertain that the vehicle...

  7. 49 CFR 397.11 - Fires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Fires. 397.11 Section 397.11 Transportation Other... PARKING RULES General § 397.11 Fires. (a) A motor vehicle containing hazardous materials must not be operated near an open fire unless its driver has first taken precautions to ascertain that the vehicle...

  8. 14 CFR 121.221 - Fire precautions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fire precautions. 121.221 Section 121.221..., FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Special Airworthiness Requirements § 121.221 Fire precautions. (a... the compartment and so that damage to or failure of the item would not create a fire hazard in...

  9. 14 CFR 121.221 - Fire precautions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fire precautions. 121.221 Section 121.221..., FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Special Airworthiness Requirements § 121.221 Fire precautions. (a... the compartment and so that damage to or failure of the item would not create a fire hazard in...

  10. 49 CFR 397.11 - Fires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Fires. 397.11 Section 397.11 Transportation Other... PARKING RULES General § 397.11 Fires. (a) A motor vehicle containing hazardous materials must not be operated near an open fire unless its driver has first taken precautions to ascertain that the vehicle...

  11. Fire prevention on aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuhn, Fritz

    1931-01-01

    The following discussion is at first restricted to the light-oil engines now in use. We shall consider how far it is possible to reduce fire hazards by changes in the design of the engines and carburetors and in the arrangement of the fuel pipes.

  12. Remote sensing information for fire management and fire effects assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chuvieco, Emilio; Kasischke, Eric S.

    2007-03-01

    Over the past decade, much research has been carried out on the utilization of advanced geospatial technologies (remote sensing and geographic information systems) in the fire science and fire management disciplines. Recent advances in these technologies were the focus of a workshop sponsored by the EARSEL special interest group (SIG) on forest fires (FF-SIG) and the Global Observation of Forest and Land Cover Dynamics (GOFC-GOLD) fire implementation team. Here we summarize the framework and the key findings of papers submitted from this meeting and presented in this special section. These papers focus on the latest advances for near real-time monitoring of active fires, prediction of fire hazards and danger, monitoring of fuel moisture, mapping of fuel types, and postfire assessment of the impacts from fires.

  13. Fire in Mediterranean climate ecosystems: a comparative overview

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Keeley, Jon E.

    2012-01-01

    Four regions of the world share a similar climate and structurally similar plant communities with the Mediterranean Basin. These five areas, known collectively as "mediterranean-type climate (MTC) regions", are dominated by evergreen sclerophyllous-leaved shrublands, semi-deciduous scrub, and woodlands, all of which are prone to widespread crown fires. Summer droughts produce an annual fire hazard that contributes to a highly predictable fire regime. Fire has been an important factor driving the convergence of these systems and is reflected in plant traits such as lignotubers in resprouting shrubs and delayed reproduction that restricts recruitment to a postfire pulse of seedlings. On fertile soils where postfire resprouting is very rapid, opportunities for postfire seedling recruitment are limited and thus these woody taxa have not opted for delaying reproduction. Such fire-independent recruitment is widespread in the floras of MTC regions of the Mediterranean Basin and California and postfire seeding tends to dominate at the more arid end of the gradient. Due to very different geological histories in South Africa and Western Australia, substrates are nutrient poor and thus postfire resprouters do not pose a similar competitive challenge to seedlings and thus postfire seeding is very widespread in these floras. Although circumstantial evidence suggests that the MTC region of Chile had fire-prone landscapes in the Tertiary, these were lost with the late Miocene completion of the Andean uplift, which now blocks summer lightning storms from moving into the region. Today these five regions pose a significant fire management challenge due to the annual fire hazard and metropolitan centers juxtaposed with highly flammable vegetation. This challenge varies across the five MTC landscapes as a function of differences in regional fuel loads and population density.

  14. Fire Resistant Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Fire hazard is greater in atmospheres containing a high percentage of oxygen under pressure. NASA intensified its fire safety research after a 1967 Apollo fire. A chemically treated fabric called Durette developed by Monsanto Company, which will not burn or produce noxious fumes, was selected as a material for Apollo astronaut garments. Monsanto sold production rights for this material to Fire Safe Products (FSP). Durette is now used for a wide range of applications such as: sheets, attendants' uniforms in hyperbaric chambers; crew's clothing, furniture and interior walls of diving chambers operated by the U.S. Navy and other oceanographic companies and research organizations. Pyrotect Safety Equipment, Minneapolis, MN produces Durette suits for auto racers, refuelers and crew chiefs from material supplied by FSP. FSP also manufactures Durette bags for filtering gases and dust from boilers, electric generators and similar systems. Durette bags are an alternative to other felted fiber capable of operating at high temperature that cost twice as much.

  15. Fire Protection Program fiscal year 1996, site support program plan Hanford Fire Department. Revision 2

    SciTech Connect

    Good, D.E.

    1995-09-01

    The mission of the Hanford Fire Department (HFD) is to support the safe and timely cleanup of the Hanford site by providing fire suppression, fire prevention, emergency rescue, emergency medical service, and hazardous materials response; and to be capable of dealing with and terminating emergency situations which could threaten the operations, employees, or interest of the US Department of Energy operated Hanford Site. This includes response to surrounding fire departments/districts under a mutual aid agreement and contractual fire fighting, hazardous materials, and ambulance support to Washington Public Power Supply System (Supply System). The fire department also provides site fire marshal overview authority, fire system testing and maintenance, self-contained breathing apparatus maintenance, building tours and inspections, ignitable and reactive waste site inspections, prefire planning, and employee fire prevention education. This report gives a program overview, technical program baselines, and cost and schedule baseline.

  16. Fire protection program fiscal year 1997 site support program plan - Hanford fire department

    SciTech Connect

    Good, D.E., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-07-01

    The mission of the Hanford Fires Department (HFD) is to support the safe and timely cleanup of the Hanford Site by providing fire suppression, fire prevention, emergency rescue, emergency medical service, and hazardous materials response; and to be capable of dealing with and terminating situations which could threaten the operations, employees, or interest of the US Department of Energy operated Hanford Site. this includes response to surrounding fire department districts under mutual aids agreements and contractual fire fighting, hazardous materials, and ambulance support to Washington Public Power Supply System (Supply System) and various commercial entities operating on site. the fire department also provides site fire marshal overview authority, fire system testing, and maintenance, respiratory protection services, building tours and inspections, ignitable and reactive waste site inspections, prefire planning, and employee fire prevention and education.

  17. Libby South Fire, Washington

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    On July 9, 2001, a fire burned about 15 miles south of Twisp, Washington, that officials believe was caused by human error. NASA's Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer on the Terra satellite observed the fire, indicated with a red dot in this image, on July 10, after the fire had already consumed about 1,240 acres. On July 10, another fire-called the Thirty Mile Fire-trapped 21 firefighters and 2 civilians in a narrow canyon in the Chewuch River Valley, north of Winthrop, WA. (That fire did not erupt until later in the day after this image was acquired and is therefore not visible.) Tragically, four firefighters were killed and six people were injured, including the two civilians. Rolling debris, rugged and steep terrain, and limited access are impeding efforts to contain the now 8,200-acre fire, which according to current fire incident reports, is completely uncontained. Nearly all the areas in the full-size image, including Washington (center), Idaho (right), Oregon (bottom) are in a state of severe drought, which means the region could be in for another devastating fire season. Another fire is visible in Idaho in the full-size image just east of where Idaho borders with Washington and Oregon. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team

  18. Standard on fire protection for self-propelled and mobile surface mining equipment. 2001 ed.

    SciTech Connect

    2001-07-01

    Safeguard life and property against fire and related hazards in mines with the latest requirements in NFPA 121. This 2001 edition covers fire detection, suppression, ignition sources, fire risk assessment and maintenance of mining equipment systems. 4 apps.

  19. 30 CFR 77.1100 - Fire protection; training and organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fire protection; training and organization. 77... UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Fire Protection § 77.1100 Fire protection; training and organization. Firefighting facilities and equipment shall be provided commensurate with the potential fire hazards at each...

  20. 14 CFR 121.247 - Fire-wall construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fire-wall construction. 121.247 Section 121...-wall construction. Each fire wall and shroud must— (a) Be so made that no hazardous quantity of air... openings in the fire wall or shroud sealed with close-fitting fire-proof grommets, bushings, or...

  1. 14 CFR 121.247 - Fire-wall construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fire-wall construction. 121.247 Section 121...-wall construction. Each fire wall and shroud must— (a) Be so made that no hazardous quantity of air... openings in the fire wall or shroud sealed with close-fitting fire-proof grommets, bushings, or...

  2. 14 CFR 121.247 - Fire-wall construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fire-wall construction. 121.247 Section 121...-wall construction. Each fire wall and shroud must— (a) Be so made that no hazardous quantity of air... openings in the fire wall or shroud sealed with close-fitting fire-proof grommets, bushings, or...

  3. 14 CFR 121.247 - Fire-wall construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fire-wall construction. 121.247 Section 121...-wall construction. Each fire wall and shroud must— (a) Be so made that no hazardous quantity of air... openings in the fire wall or shroud sealed with close-fitting fire-proof grommets, bushings, or...

  4. Emergency Assessment of Debris-Flow Hazards from Basins Burned by the Grand Prix and Old Fires of 2003, Southern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cannon, Susan H.; Gartner, Joseph E.; Rupert, Michael G.; Michael, John A.; Djokic, Dean; Sreedhar, Sreeresh

    2003-01-01

    These maps present preliminary assessments of the probability of debris-flow activity and estimates of peak discharges that can potentially be generated by debris flows issuing from basins burned by the Old and Grand Prix Fires of October 2003 in southern California in response to the 25-year, 10-year, and 2-year recurrence, 1-hour duration rain storms. The probability maps are based on the application of a logistic multiple regression model that describes the percent chance of debris-flow production from an individual basin as function of burned extent, soil properties, basin gradients and storm rainfall. The peak discharge maps are based on application of a multiple-regression model that can be used to estimate debris-flow peak discharge at a basin outlet as a function of basin gradient, burn extent, and storm rainfall. Probabilities of debris-flow occurrence range between 0 and 85% and estimates of debris flow peak discharges range between 460 and 5,900 ft3/s (13 to 167 m3/s). These maps are intended to identify those basins that are most prone to the largest debris-flow events and provide critical information for the preliminary design of mitigation measures and for the planning of evacuation timing and routes.

  5. Hazardous Waste

    MedlinePlus

    ... you throw these substances away, they become hazardous waste. Some hazardous wastes come from products in our homes. Our garbage can include such hazardous wastes as old batteries, bug spray cans and paint ...

  6. Fire extinguishers for manned spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopylov, S.; Smirnov, N. V.; Tanklevsky, L. T.

    2015-04-01

    Based on an analysis of fires in the oxygen-enriched atmosphere conditions in spacecraft and other sealed chambers of various purposes, the most dangerous groups of fires are identified. For this purpose, groups were compiled to analyze dependences that describe the increase of fire hazard to a critical value. A criterion for determining timely and effective fire extinguishing was offered. Fire experiments in oxygen-enriched atmosphere conditions were conducted, and an array of experimental data on the mass burning rate of materials and their extinguishing by water mist was obtained. Relationships colligating an array of experimental data were offered. Experimental and analytical studies were taken as a basis for hand fire extinguisher implementation for manned spacecraft.

  7. Fire Signatures of Materials Used in Spacecraft Construction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Christina

    2003-01-01

    The focus of my work this summer was fire safety, specifically determining fire signatures from the combustion of materials commonly found in the construction of spacecraft. This project was undertaken with the aim of addressing concerns for health and safety onboard spacecraft. Under certain conditions, burning electronics produce surprisingly large amounts of acrid smoke, release fine airborne particles and expel condensable aerosols. Similarly, some wire insulation and packing material evolves smoke when in contact with a hot surface. In the limited, enclosed space available on spacecraft, these combustion products may pose a nuisance at the very least - at worst, a hazard to health or equipment. There is also a concern for fire safety in early detection on spacecraft. Our goal for the summer was to determine the most effective methods to test the materials, develop a protocol for sampling, and generate samples for analysis. We restricted our testing to electronic components, packaging and insulation materials, and wire insulation materials.

  8. 33 CFR 127.601 - Fire equipment: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) WATERFRONT FACILITIES WATERFRONT FACILITIES HANDLING LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS AND LIQUEFIED HAZARDOUS GAS Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Natural Gas Firefighting § 127.601 Fire equipment: General. (a)...

  9. A FIRE-ACE/SHEBA Case Study of Mixed-Phase Arctic Boundary Layer Clouds: Entrainment Rate Limitations on Rapid Primary Ice Nucleation Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fridlin, Ann; vanDiedenhoven, Bastiaan; Ackerman, Andrew S.; Avramov, Alexander; Mrowiec, Agnieszka; Morrison, Hugh; Zuidema, Paquita; Shupe, Matthew D.

    2012-01-01

    Observations of long-lived mixed-phase Arctic boundary layer clouds on 7 May 1998 during the First International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) Regional Experiment (FIRE)Arctic Cloud Experiment (ACE)Surface Heat Budget of the Arctic Ocean (SHEBA) campaign provide a unique opportunity to test understanding of cloud ice formation. Under the microphysically simple conditions observed (apparently negligible ice aggregation, sublimation, and multiplication), the only expected source of new ice crystals is activation of heterogeneous ice nuclei (IN) and the only sink is sedimentation. Large-eddy simulations with size-resolved microphysics are initialized with IN number concentration N(sub IN) measured above cloud top, but details of IN activation behavior are unknown. If activated rapidly (in deposition, condensation, or immersion modes), as commonly assumed, IN are depleted from the well-mixed boundary layer within minutes. Quasi-equilibrium ice number concentration N(sub i) is then limited to a small fraction of overlying N(sub IN) that is determined by the cloud-top entrainment rate w(sub e) divided by the number-weighted ice fall speed at the surface v(sub f). Because w(sub c)< 1 cm/s and v(sub f)> 10 cm/s, N(sub i)/N(sub IN)<< 1. Such conditions may be common for this cloud type, which has implications for modeling IN diagnostically, interpreting measurements, and quantifying sensitivity to increasing N(sub IN) (when w(sub e)/v(sub f)< 1, entrainment rate limitations serve to buffer cloud system response). To reproduce observed ice crystal size distributions and cloud radar reflectivities with rapidly consumed IN in this case, the measured above-cloud N(sub IN) must be multiplied by approximately 30. However, results are sensitive to assumed ice crystal properties not constrained by measurements. In addition, simulations do not reproduce the pronounced mesoscale heterogeneity in radar reflectivity that is observed.

  10. Comparative hazard evaluation of near-infrared diode lasers.

    PubMed

    Marshall, W J

    1994-05-01

    Hazard evaluation methods from various laser protection standards differ when applied to extended-source, near-infrared lasers. By way of example, various hazard analyses are applied to laser training systems, which incorporate diode lasers, specifically those that assist in training military or law enforcement personnel in the proper use of weapons by simulating actual firing by the substitution of a beam of near-infrared energy for bullets. A correct hazard evaluation of these lasers is necessary since simulators are designed to be directed toward personnel during normal use. The differences among laser standards are most apparent when determining the hazard class of a laser. Hazard classification is based on a comparison of the potential exposures with the maximum permissible exposures in the 1986 and 1993 versions of the American National Standard for the Safe Use of Lasers, Z136.1, and the accessible emission limits of the federal laser product performance standard. Necessary safety design features of a particular system depend on the hazard class. The ANSI Z136.1-1993 standard provides a simpler and more accurate hazard assessment of low-power, near-infrared, diode laser systems than the 1986 ANSI standard. Although a specific system is evaluated, the techniques described can be readily applied to other near-infrared lasers or laser training systems. PMID:8175359

  11. Assessing the risk to firefighters from chemical vapors and gases during vehicle fire suppression.

    PubMed

    Fent, Kenneth W; Evans, Douglas E

    2011-03-01

    Despite the frequent occurrence of vehicle fires, very few studies investigating firefighters' potential inhalation exposures during vehicle fire suppression have been conducted. In this paper, we present an assessment of firefighters' health risk from vehicle fire suppression that accounts for the mixture of gases and vapors likely to be found in these fires. Summa canisters were used to collect emissions from the engine and cabin fires of a single vehicle and were analyzed for 75 volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Firefighters' breathing zone concentrations (BZCs) of aromatic hydrocarbons, aldehydes, isocyanates, and carbon monoxide were measured during the suppression of three vehicle fires. The Summa canister and BZC data were used to develop a simple model for predicting BZCs for the compounds that were not measured in the firefighters' breathing zones. Hazard quotients (HQs) were calculated by dividing the predicted and measured BZCs by the most conservative short-term exposure limits (STELs) or ceiling limits. Hazard indices (HIs) were determined by adding HQs for compounds grouped by the target organ for acute health effects. Any HIs above unity represented unacceptable risks. According to this mixture analysis, the estimated 95(th) percentile of the exposure distribution for the study population represents ≥ 9.2 times the acceptable level of risk to the respiratory tract and eyes. Furthermore, chemicals known or reasonably anticipated to be human carcinogens contributed to > 45% of these HIs. While STELs are not usually based on carcinogenicity, maintaining exposures below STELs may protect individuals from the biological stress that could result from short-term exposures to carcinogens over time. Although vehicle fires are suppressed quickly (<10 min), this assessment suggests that firefighters have the potential to be overexposed to acute toxins during vehicle fire suppression and should therefore wear self-contained breathing apparatus at all times

  12. Optimal firing rate estimation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paulin, M. G.; Hoffman, L. F.

    2001-01-01

    We define a measure for evaluating the quality of a predictive model of the behavior of a spiking neuron. This measure, information gain per spike (Is), indicates how much more information is provided by the model than if the prediction were made by specifying the neuron's average firing rate over the same time period. We apply a maximum Is criterion to optimize the performance of Gaussian smoothing filters for estimating neural firing rates. With data from bullfrog vestibular semicircular canal neurons and data from simulated integrate-and-fire neurons, the optimal bandwidth for firing rate estimation is typically similar to the average firing rate. Precise timing and average rate models are limiting cases that perform poorly. We estimate that bullfrog semicircular canal sensory neurons transmit in the order of 1 bit of stimulus-related information per spike.

  13. A statistical procedure for fire risk mapping in Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiorucci, Paolo; Biondi, Guido; Campo, Lorenzo; D'Andrea, Mirko

    2015-04-01

    The high topographic and vegetation heterogeneity makes Italy vulnerable to forest fires both in the summer and in winter. In particular, northern regions are predominantly characterized by a winter fire regime, mainly due to frequent extremely dry winds from the north, while southern and central regions and the large islands are characterized by a severe summer fire regime, because of the higher temperatures and prolonged lack of precipitation. The threat of wildfires in Italy is not confined to wooded areas as they extend to agricultural areas and urban-forest interface areas. In view of the limited availability of fire risk management resources, most of which are used in the management of national and regional air services, it is necessary to precisely identify the areas most vulnerable to fire risk. The few resources available can thus be used on a yearly basis to mitigate problems in the areas at highest risk by defining a program of forest management interventions, which is expected to make a significant contribution to the problem in a few years' time. Given the availability of fire perimeters mapped over a period spanning from 5 to 10 years, depending by the region, a statistical procedure was defined in order to assess areas at risk based on objective criteria by observing past fire events. The availability of fire perimeters combined with a detailed knowledge of topography and land cover allowed to understand which are the main features involved in forest fire occurrences and their behavior. The seasonality of the fire regime was also considered, partitioning the analysis in two macro season (November-April and May- October). In addition, the total precipitation obtained from the interpolation of 30 years-long time series from 460 raingauges and the average air temperature obtained downscaling 30 years ERA-INTERIM data series were considered. The analysis consists on the subdivision of the territory in classes based on the named information layers

  14. Understory Fires

    NASA Video Gallery

    The flames of understory fires in the southern Amazon reach on average only a few feet tall, but the fire type can claim anywhere from 10 to 50 percent of a burn area's trees. Credit: NASA/Doug Morton

  15. Texas Fires

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-15

    article title:  Wind-Whipped Fires in East Texas     View Larger Image ... western side of the storm stoked fires throughout eastern Texas, which was already suffering from the worst one-year drought on record ...

  16. Analysis of Multiengine Transport Airplane Fire Records

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pesman, Gerard J.

    1950-01-01

    An analysis has been made of Civil Aeronautics Administration and Civil Aeronautics Board commercial airplane fire records collected during the 10-year period ending July 1, 1948. The results of the analysis show that: 1. Gasoline was most frequently the initial combustible ignited in flight and ground fires and is considered to be the most hazardous of the combustibles carried. 2. Although electrical-ignition sources are the most frequent flight-fire ignition source by a small margin, the exhaust system is concluded to be the most hazardous ignition source because it is necessarily located near the lubricating-oil and gasoline-plumbing systems and the resulting fires are relatively severe. The electrical-ignition sources usually involve only the electrical insulation and result in small-volume fires. The exhaust system was found to be the most frequent ground-fire ignition source. 3. Engine failures were the most frequent cause of the union of combustible and ignition source that resulted in flight fires. 4. Fuel-plumbing-system failures were the most frequent cause of fires occurring during ground operation. 5. The evidence concerning crash fires was not sufficiently extensive to provide information concerning the factors that affect the start and the spread of fire. In order that future records may be more useful, all crash accidents should be studied to determine why fire does or does not occur and to establish data that relate the occurrence and the spread of fire to airplane design and operation.

  17. Radio Hazard Safety Assessment for Marine Ship Transmitters: Measurements Using a New Data Collection Method and Comparison with ICNIRP and ARPANSA Limits

    PubMed Central

    Halgamuge, Malka N.

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the levels of radio frequency electromagnetic fields (RF EMFs) emitted from marine ship transmitters. In this study, we recorded the radio frequency (RF) electric field (EF) levels emitted from transmitters from a marine vessel focusing on the areas normally occupied by crew members and passengers. Previous studies considered radiation hazard safety assessment for marine vessels with a limited number of transmitters, such as very high-frequency (VHF) transceivers, radar and communication transmitters. In our investigation, EF levels from seven radio transmitters were measured, including: VHF, medium frequency/high frequency (MF/HF), satellite communication (Sat-Com C), AISnavigation, radar X-band and radar S-band. Measurements were carried out in a 40 m-long, three-level ship (upper deck, bridge deck and bridge roof) at 12 different locations. We developed a new data-collection protocol and performed it under 11 different scenarios to observe and measure the radiation emissions from all of the transmitters. In total, 528 EF field measurements were collected and averaged over all three levels of the marine ship with RF transmitters: the measured electric fields were the lowest on the upper deck (0.82–0.86 V/m), the highest on the bridge roof (2.15–3.70 V/m) and in between on the bridge deck (0.47–1.15 V/m). The measured EF levels were then assessed for compliance with the occupational and general public reference levels of the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) guidelines and the Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency (ARPANSA) standards. The ICNIRP and the ARPANSA limits for the general public were exceeded on the bridge roof; nevertheless, the occupational limits were respected everywhere. The measured EF levels, hence, complied with the ICNIRP guidelines and the ARPANSA standards. In this paper, we provide a new data collection model for future surveys, which could be conducted with

  18. Radio Hazard Safety Assessment for Marine Ship Transmitters: Measurements Using a New Data Collection Method and Comparison with ICNIRP and ARPANSA Limits.

    PubMed

    Halgamuge, Malka N

    2015-05-01

    We investigated the levels of radio frequency electromagnetic fields (RF EMFs) emitted from marine ship transmitters. In this study, we recorded the radio frequency (RF) electric field (EF) levels emitted from transmitters from a marine vessel focusing on the areas normally occupied by crew members and passengers. Previous studies considered radiation hazard safety assessment for marine vessels with a limited number of transmitters, such as very high-frequency (VHF) transceivers, radar and communication transmitters. In our investigation, EF levels from seven radio transmitters were measured, including: VHF, medium frequency/high frequency (MF/HF), satellite communication (Sat-Com C), AISnavigation, radar X-band and radar S-band. Measurements were carried out in a 40 m-long, three-level ship (upper deck, bridge deck and bridge roof) at 12 different locations. We developed a new data-collection protocol and performed it under 11 different scenarios to observe and measure the radiation emissions from all of the transmitters. In total, 528 EF field measurements were collected and averaged over all three levels of the marine ship with RF transmitters: the measured electric fields were the lowest on the upper deck (0.82-0.86 V/m), the highest on the bridge roof (2.15-3.70 V/m) and in between on the bridge deck (0.47-1.15 V/m). The measured EF levels were then assessed for compliance with the occupational and general public reference levels of the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) guidelines and the Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency (ARPANSA) standards. The ICNIRP and the ARPANSA limits for the general public were exceeded on the bridge roof; nevertheless, the occupational limits were respected everywhere. The measured EF levels, hence, complied with the ICNIRP guidelines and the ARPANSA standards. In this paper, we provide a new data collection model for future surveys, which could be conducted with larger

  19. Hazardous Materials Verification and Limited Characterization Report on Sodium and Caustic Residuals in Materials and Fuel Complex Facilities MFC-799/799A

    SciTech Connect

    Gary Mecham

    2010-08-01

    This report is a companion to the Facilities Condition and Hazard Assessment for Materials and Fuel Complex Sodium Processing Facilities MFC-799/799A and Nuclear Calibration Laboratory MFC-770C (referred to as the Facilities Condition and Hazards Assessment). This report specifically responds to the requirement of Section 9.2, Item 6, of the Facilities Condition and Hazards Assessment to provide an updated assessment and verification of the residual hazardous materials remaining in the Sodium Processing Facilities processing system. The hazardous materials of concern are sodium and sodium hydroxide (caustic). The information supplied in this report supports the end-point objectives identified in the Transition Plan for Multiple Facilities at the Materials and Fuels Complex, Advanced Test Reactor, Central Facilities Area, and Power Burst Facility, as well as the deactivation and decommissioning critical decision milestone 1, as specified in U.S. Department of Energy Guide 413.3-8, “Environmental Management Cleanup Projects.” Using a tailored approach and based on information obtained through a combination of process knowledge, emergency management hazardous assessment documentation, and visual inspection, this report provides sufficient detail regarding the quantity of hazardous materials for the purposes of facility transfer; it also provides that further characterization/verification of these materials is unnecessary.

  20. An event-based approach for examining the effects of wildland fire decisions on communities.

    PubMed

    McCool, Stephen F; Burchfield, James A; Williams, Daniel R; Carroll, Matthew S

    2006-04-01

    Public concern over the consequences of forest fire to wildland interface communities has led to increased resources devoted to fire suppression, fuel treatment, and management of fire events. The social consequences of the decisions involved in these and other fire-related actions are largely unknown, except in an anecdotal sense, but do occur at a variety of temporal and social organizational scales. These consequences are not limited to the fire event itself. Preparation for the possibility of a fire, actions that suppression agencies take during a fire, and postfire decisions all have consequences, if unknown currently. This article presents an "event-based" approach that can be useful for constructing and systematic discussion about the consequences of wildland fire to human communities. For each of the three major periods within this approach, agencies, communities, and individuals make decisions and take actions that have consequences. The article presents an integrated, temporally based process for examining these consequences, which is similar to others developed in the natural hazards and disaster management literature. PMID:16465562

  1. Coal Field Fire Fighting - Practiced methods, strategies and tactics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wündrich, T.; Korten, A. A.; Barth, U. H.

    2009-04-01

    Subsurface coal fires destroy millions of tons of coal each year, have an immense impact to the ecological surrounding and threaten further coal reservoirs. Due to enormous dimensions a coal seam fire can develop, high operational expenses are needed. As part of the Sino-German coal fire research initiative "Innovative technologies for exploration, extinction and monitoring of coal fires in Northern China" the research team of University of Wuppertal (BUW) focuses on fire extinction strategies and tactics as well as aspects of environmental and health safety. Besides the choice and the correct application of different extinction techniques further factors are essential for the successful extinction. Appropriate tactics, well trained and protected personnel and the choice of the best fitting extinguishing agents are necessary for the successful extinction of a coal seam fire. The chosen strategy for an extinction campaign is generally determined by urgency and importance. It may depend on national objectives and concepts of coal conservation, on environmental protection (e.g. commitment to green house gases (GHG) reductions), national funding and resources for fire fighting (e.g. personnel, infrastructure, vehicles, water pipelines); and computer-aided models and simulations of coal fire development from self ignition to extinction. In order to devise an optimal fire fighting strategy, "aims of protection" have to be defined in a first step. These may be: - directly affected coal seams; - neighboring seams and coalfields; - GHG emissions into the atmosphere; - Returns on investments (costs of fire fighting compared to value of saved coal). In a further step, it is imperative to decide whether the budget shall define the results, or the results define the budget; i.e. whether there are fixed objectives for the mission that will dictate the overall budget, or whether the limited resources available shall set the scope within which the best possible results shall be

  2. Forest fire scenario and challenges of mitigation during fire season in North East India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborty, K.; Mondal, P. P.; Chabukdhara, M.; Sudhakar, S.

    2014-11-01

    Forest fires are a major environmental problem in North East Region (NER) with large tracts of forest areas being affected in every season. Forest fires have become a major threat to the forest ecosystems in the region, leading to loss of timber, biodiversity, wildlife habitat and loss to other natural resources. Studies on forest fire have reported that about 50% of forest fire in the country takes place in NE region. The forest fire in NER is anthropogenic in nature. The forest fire hazard map generated based on appropriate weightage given to the factors affecting fire behavior like topography, fuel characteristic and proximity to roads, settlements and also historical fire locations helped to demarcate the fire prone zones. Whereas, during fire season the weather pattern also governs the fire spread in the given area. Therefore, various data on fuel characteristics (land use/land cover, forest type map, forest density map), topography (DEM, slope, aspect) proximity to settlement, road, waterbodies, meteorological data from AWS on wind speed, wind direction, dew point have been used for each fire point to rank its possible hazard level. Near real time fire location data obtained from MODIS/FIRMSwere used to generate the fire alerts. This work demonstrates dissemination of information in the form of maps and tables containing information of latitude and longitude of fire location, fire occurrence date, state and district name, LULC, road connectivity, slope and aspect, settlements/water bodies and meteorological data and the corresponding rating of possibility of fire spread to the respective fire control authorities during fire season.

  3. Solid waste drum array fire performance

    SciTech Connect

    Louie, R.L.; Haecker, C.F.; Beitel, J.J.; Gottuck, D.T.; Rhodes, B.T.; Bayier, C.L.

    1995-09-01

    Fire hazards associated with drum storage of radioactively contaminated waste are a major concern in DOE waste storage facilities. This report is the second of two reports on fire testing designed to provide data relative to the propagation of a fire among storage drum arrays. The first report covers testing of individual drums subjected to an initiating fire and the development of the analytical methodology to predict fire propagation among storage drum arrays. This report is the second report, which documents the results of drum array fire tests. The purpose of the array tests was to confirm the analytical methodology developed by Phase I fire testing. These tests provide conclusive evidence that fire will not propagate from drum to drum unless an continuous fuel source other than drum contents is provided.

  4. The ForFire photodetector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peyaud, A.; Angelopoulos, A.; Chelmis, C.; Costopoulos, V.; Chica, M.; Giomataris, I.; Gongadze, A.; Herbert, T.; Kantemiris, I.; Kirch, S.; Mols, J. P.; Papaevangelou, T.; Pavlopoulos, P.; Quinlan, F.

    2015-07-01

    The objective of the ForFire project is the development of an outdoor fire detection system by using an innovative solar blind camera based on the technology of photosensitive gas and solid-state detectors. The development of this new sensor together with an appropriate algorithm for pattern recognition aims to provide a high capability and a high reliability flame-detection system with cost effectiveness, early detection and accurate localization of fire hazards. This is achieved by focusing specifically on the detection of the VUV part (180 nm ≤ λ ≤ 260 nm) of the electromagnetic spectrum emitted by the fire source. The advantage of this approach is that on Earth only fire flames emit in this spectral range thus avoiding potential interferences with other wavelength sources where the Sun is a dominant background.

  5. PERSPECTIVE: Fire on the fringe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pyne, Stephen J.

    2009-09-01

    of Portugal and the overgrown paisaje of Galicia. While international in scope, the real hazards reside in particular places, and while telegenically graphic, the economic losses elsewhere are no worse than those caused by tornadoes. The pressures for the earlier frontier were deep, and often damaged both land and settlers, but until the momentum had exhausted itself, there was little reform possible. So it may take the Great Recession, or worse, to stem the flow of money that has underwritten the colonization of subprime landscapes. Besides, sprawl is interbreeding with whatever hazard it meets. Fire in the I-zone is less damaging than sprawl in floodplains, coastal plains, or earthquake zones. Over the past 20 years, the responsible agencies have largely succeeded in learning how to protect people and houses when fires break out. The tenets of Fire Wise, Fire Safe, and Community Fireguard are widely known. A new kind of landscape is emerging. The worst hazards reside in the older communities that need retrofitting. A fatal plague is becoming a seasonal nuisance. But an appeal to other scholarships might - still can - illuminate the powers and limits of the proposed remediations, which ultimately rely for their success on cultural acceptance. Fire is about context: it synthesizes its surroundings. Yet the only research context allowed is a universalist science, such that the science of south Australia can join that of Catalonia and of Missoula, Montana. It does not mingle with other scholarship. In this way we have come to understand in marvelous detail how houses burn, but not why houses are there in the first place. We understand how to prevent roofs from igniting during ember attacks, but not how to cope with sprawl's attack on the landscape. So long as we leave fire on the fringe of scholarship, it will roar through the fringes of our new- settled countryside. References [1] Wilson A A G and Ferguson I S 1986 Predicting the probability of house survival during

  6. Fire Safety: Any Time, Any Place. First Grade. Fire Safety for Texans: Fire and Burn Prevention Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas State Commission on Fire Protection, Austin.

    This booklet comprises the first grade component of a series of curriculum guides on fire and burn prevention. Designed to meet the age-specific needs of first grade students, its objectives include acquiring basic knowledge of fire and burn hazards, developing a basic understanding of simple injury reduction, and encouraging parent involvement.…

  7. Decreasing Fires in Mediterranean Europe

    PubMed Central

    Turco, Marco; Bedia, Joaquín; Di Liberto, Fabrizio; Fiorucci, Paolo; von Hardenberg, Jost; Koutsias, Nikos; Llasat, Maria-Carmen; Xystrakis, Fotios; Provenzale, Antonello

    2016-01-01

    Forest fires are a serious environmental hazard in southern Europe. Quantitative assessment of recent trends in fire statistics is important for assessing the possible shifts induced by climate and other environmental/socioeconomic changes in this area. Here we analyse recent fire trends in Portugal, Spain, southern France, Italy and Greece, building on a homogenized fire database integrating official fire statistics provided by several national/EU agencies. During the period 1985-2011, the total annual burned area (BA) displayed a general decreasing trend, with the exception of Portugal, where a heterogeneous signal was found. Considering all countries globally, we found that BA decreased by about 3020 km2 over the 27-year-long study period (i.e. about -66% of the mean historical value). These results are consistent with those obtained on longer time scales when data were available, also yielding predominantly negative trends in Spain and France (1974-2011) and a mixed trend in Portugal (1980-2011). Similar overall results were found for the annual number of fires (NF), which globally decreased by about 12600 in the study period (about -59%), except for Spain where, excluding the provinces along the Mediterranean coast, an upward trend was found for the longer period. We argue that the negative trends can be explained, at least in part, by an increased effort in fire management and prevention after the big fires of the 1980’s, while positive trends may be related to recent socioeconomic transformations leading to more hazardous landscape configurations, as well as to the observed warming of recent decades. We stress the importance of fire data homogenization prior to analysis, in order to alleviate spurious effects associated with non-stationarities in the data due to temporal variations in fire detection efforts. PMID:26982584

  8. Decreasing Fires in Mediterranean Europe.

    PubMed

    Turco, Marco; Bedia, Joaquín; Di Liberto, Fabrizio; Fiorucci, Paolo; von Hardenberg, Jost; Koutsias, Nikos; Llasat, Maria-Carmen; Xystrakis, Fotios; Provenzale, Antonello

    2016-01-01

    Forest fires are a serious environmental hazard in southern Europe. Quantitative assessment of recent trends in fire statistics is important for assessing the possible shifts induced by climate and other environmental/socioeconomic changes in this area. Here we analyse recent fire trends in Portugal, Spain, southern France, Italy and Greece, building on a homogenized fire database integrating official fire statistics provided by several national/EU agencies. During the period 1985-2011, the total annual burned area (BA) displayed a general decreasing trend, with the exception of Portugal, where a heterogeneous signal was found. Considering all countries globally, we found that BA decreased by about 3020 km2 over the 27-year-long study period (i.e. about -66% of the mean historical value). These results are consistent with those obtained on longer time scales when data were available, also yielding predominantly negative trends in Spain and France (1974-2011) and a mixed trend in Portugal (1980-2011). Similar overall results were found for the annual number of fires (NF), which globally decreased by about 12600 in the study period (about -59%), except for Spain where, excluding the provinces along the Mediterranean coast, an upward trend was found for the longer period. We argue that the negative trends can be explained, at least in part, by an increased effort in fire management and prevention after the big fires of the 1980's, while positive trends may be related to recent socioeconomic transformations leading to more hazardous landscape configurations, as well as to the observed warming of recent decades. We stress the importance of fire data homogenization prior to analysis, in order to alleviate spurious effects associated with non-stationarities in the data due to temporal variations in fire detection efforts. PMID:26982584

  9. Fire and Children: Learning Survival Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Block, Jeanne H.; And Others

    This paper describes a study designed to investigate: (1) children's interest in, anxieties about, attitudes toward, and reactions to fire; (2) the relationship of particular personality characteristics to attitudes about and behavior with potentially hazardous fire material; (3) socialization techniques and teaching strategies of mothers in…

  10. How to reduce your fire insurance rates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dubain, M.

    1971-01-01

    Construction procedures and utilization of materials to reduce the cost of insuring large buildings against losses from fire are discussed. Examples of good and bad techniques in building construction and fire safety management are provided. The inadequacies of building codes and the hazards resulting from improper construction are examined.

  11. Reproductive Hazards

    MedlinePlus

    ... such as lead and mercury Chemicals such as pesticides Cigarettes Some viruses Alcohol For men, a reproductive hazard can affect the sperm. For a woman, a reproductive hazard can cause different effects during pregnancy, depending on when she is exposed. ...

  12. The California Hazards Institute

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rundle, J. B.; Kellogg, L. H.; Turcotte, D. L.

    2006-12-01

    California's abundant resources are linked with its natural hazards. Earthquakes, landslides, wildfires, floods, tsunamis, volcanic eruptions, severe storms, fires, and droughts afflict the state regularly. These events have the potential to become great disasters, like the San Francisco earthquake and fire of 1906, that overwhelm the capacity of society to respond. At such times, the fabric of civic life is frayed, political leadership is tested, economic losses can dwarf available resources, and full recovery can take decades. A patchwork of Federal, state and local programs are in place to address individual hazards, but California lacks effective coordination to forecast, prevent, prepare for, mitigate, respond to, and recover from, the harmful effects of natural disasters. Moreover, we do not know enough about the frequency, size, time, or locations where they may strike, nor about how the natural environment and man-made structures would respond. As California's population grows and becomes more interdependent, even moderate events have the potential to trigger catastrophes. Natural hazards need not become natural disasters if they are addressed proactively and effectively, rather than reactively. The University of California, with 10 campuses distributed across the state, has world-class faculty and students engaged in research and education in all fields of direct relevance to hazards. For that reason, the UC can become a world leader in anticipating and managing natural hazards in order to prevent loss of life and property and degradation of environmental quality. The University of California, Office of the President, has therefore established a new system-wide Multicampus Research Project, the California Hazards Institute (CHI), as a mechanism to research innovative, effective solutions for California. The CHI will build on the rich intellectual capital and expertise of the Golden State to provide the best available science, knowledge and tools for

  13. 46 CFR 108.405 - Fire detection system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Fire detection system. 108.405 Section 108.405 Shipping... EQUIPMENT Fire Extinguishing Systems § 108.405 Fire detection system. (a) Each fire detection system and...) Each fire detection system must be divided into zones to limit the area covered by any particular...

  14. 46 CFR 108.405 - Fire detection system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Fire detection system. 108.405 Section 108.405 Shipping... EQUIPMENT Fire Extinguishing Systems § 108.405 Fire detection system. (a) Each fire detection system and...) Each fire detection system must be divided into zones to limit the area covered by any particular...

  15. Seek alternative to halon for gas-turbine fire protection

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-01

    This article describes fine water-spray technology which recasts use of water for fixed fire-suppression systems. Technology differs from common sprinkler system. Since the 1987 Montreal Protocol governing use and production of chemicals that are suspected of depleting the upper atmospheric ozone layer, fire-protection manufacturers have explored alternatives to halon 1301, a chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) used extensively in powerplant applications. One particularly challenging application is the gas-turbine enclosure, because of its high operating temperature and range of potential fire hazards--pools of leaking lube oil, oil-soaked insulation, ruptured high-pressure natural-gas lines, and so on. One alternative racing toward commercialization is fine water spray produced by the so-called twin-fluid atomizing nozzle. The technology, developed and tested in Europe, combines water and compressed air--or nitrogen--to direct precisely sized water droplets to the base of a fire. According to david Kipley, Vectra Technologies Inc., Naperville, IL, the system can rapidly extinguish large, intense fires using limited quantities of water.

  16. Fire clay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Virta, R.L.

    2006-01-01

    In 2005, six companies mined fire clay in Missouri, Ohio and South Carolina. Production was estimate to be 300 kt with a value of $8.3 million. Missouri was the leading producer state followed by Ohio and South Carolina. For the third consecutive year, sales and use of fire clays have been relatively unchanged. For the next few years, sales of fire clay is forecasted to remain around 300 kt/a.

  17. Fire clay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Virta, R.L.

    2011-01-01

    The article discusses the latest developments in the fire clay industry, particularly in the U.S., as of June 2011. It claims that the leading fire clay producer in the U.S. is the state of Missouri. The other major producers include California, Texas and Washington. It reports that the use of heavy clay products made of fire clay like brick, cement and lightweight aggregate has increased slightly in 2010.

  18. 14 CFR 121.247 - Fire-wall construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fire-wall construction. 121.247 Section 121... REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Special Airworthiness Requirements § 121.247 Fire-wall construction. Each fire wall and shroud must— (a) Be so made that no hazardous quantity of...

  19. Fire clay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Virta, R.L.

    2013-01-01

    Four companies mined fire clay in three states in 2012. Production, based on a preliminary survey of the fire clay industry, was estimated to be 230 kt (254,000 st) valued at $6.98 million, an increase from 215 kt (237,000 st) valued at $6.15 million in 2011. Missouri was the leading producing state, followed by Colorado and Texas, in decreasing order by quantity. The number of companies mining fire clay declined in 2012 because several common clay producers that occasionally mine fire clay indicated that they did not do so in 2012.

  20. Chemical process hazards analysis

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-01

    The Office of Worker Health and Safety (EH-5) under the Assistant Secretary for the Environment, Safety and Health of the US Department (DOE) has published two handbooks for use by DOE contractors managing facilities and processes covered by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Rule for Process Safety Management of Highly Hazardous Chemicals (29 CFR 1910.119), herein referred to as the PSM Rule. The PSM Rule contains an integrated set of chemical process safety management elements designed to prevent chemical releases that can lead to catastrophic fires, explosions, or toxic exposures. The purpose of the two handbooks, ``Process Safety Management for Highly Hazardous Chemicals`` and ``Chemical Process Hazards Analysis,`` is to facilitate implementation of the provisions of the PSM Rule within the DOE. The purpose of this handbook ``Chemical Process Hazards Analysis,`` is to facilitate, within the DOE, the performance of chemical process hazards analyses (PrHAs) as required under the PSM Rule. It provides basic information for the performance of PrHAs, and should not be considered a complete resource on PrHA methods. Likewise, to determine if a facility is covered by the PSM rule, the reader should refer to the handbook, ``Process Safety Management for Highly Hazardous Chemicals`` (DOE- HDBK-1101-96). Promulgation of the PSM Rule has heightened the awareness of chemical safety management issues within the DOE. This handbook is intended for use by DOE facilities and processes covered by the PSM rule to facilitate contractor implementation of the PrHA element of the PSM Rule. However, contractors whose facilities and processes not covered by the PSM Rule may also use this handbook as a basis for conducting process hazards analyses as part of their good management practices. This handbook explains the minimum requirements for PrHAs outlined in the PSM Rule. Nowhere have requirements been added beyond what is specifically required by the rule.

  1. Station set requirements document. Volume 82: Fire support. Book 2: Preliminary functional fire plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gray, N. C.

    1974-01-01

    The fire prevention/protection requirements for all shuttle facility and ground support equipment are presented for the hazardous operations. These include: preparing the orbiter for launch, launch operations, landing operations, safing operations, and associated off-line activities.

  2. Biological research on fire in the West

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    2005-01-01

    Wildland fires are a natural feature of many ecosystems, including grasslands, forests, and shrublands. How-ever, years of fire exclusion have led to accumulations of dead fuels and increases in the density of fire-intolerant species. In most western states, recent fires burning in these altered ecosystems have caused significant damage and huge economic losses to homes, busi-nesses, and communities. They also have dis-turbed forests and rangelands as well as their associated watersheds, plants, and animals. Every western state is concerned about dam-age from such catastrophic fires, and there is strong interest from all sectors in prevent-ing and reducing the resulting damage in the future. There is also interest in the use of fire as a management tool for reducing hazards and restoring damaged ecosystems and for returning fire to its natural role in wilderness ecosystems.

  3. Thermal Cooling Limits of Sbotaged Spent Fuel Pools

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Thomas G. Hughes; Dr. Thomas F. Lin

    2010-09-10

    To develop the understanding and predictive measures of the post “loss of water inventory” hazardous conditions as a result of the natural and/or terrorist acts to the spent fuel pool of a nuclear plant. This includes the thermal cooling limits to the spent fuel assembly (before the onset of the zircaloy ignition and combustion), and the ignition, combustion, and the subsequent propagation of zircaloy fire from one fuel assembly to others

  4. Remote sensing of fire and deforestation in the tropics from the International Space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffman, James W.; Riggan, Philip J.; Brass, James A.

    2000-01-01

    In August of 1999 over 30,000 fire counts were registered by the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer aboard NOAA satellites over central Brazil, and an extensive smoke pall produced a health hazard and hindered commercial aviation across large portions of the states of Mato Grosso and Mato Grosso do Sul. Clearly fire was an important part of the Brazilian environment, but limitations in satellite and airborne remote sensing prevented a clear picture of what was burning, how much biomass was consumed, where the most critical resources were threatened, or exactly what was the global environmental impact. Another important problem that must be addressed is the deforestation of the rain forest by unauthorized logging operations. To detect these illegal clear cutting activities, continuous, high resolution monitoring must be initiated. The low altitude Space Station offers an ideal platform from which to monitor the tropical regions for both fires and deforestation from an equatorial orbit. A new micro-bolometer-based thermal imager, the FireMapper, has been designed to provide a solution for these problems in fire and resource monitoring. In this paper we describe potential applications of the FireMapper aboard the International Space Station for demonstration of space-borne fire detection and measurement. .

  5. Arizona Fires

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-15

    ... the second largest fire in Arizona history. More than 2,000 people are working to contain the fire, which is being driven by high winds and ... bright desert background. The areas with no data (shown in black and present at the oblique angles) are locations where the variable ...

  6. Returning Fire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gould, Jon B.

    2007-01-01

    Last December saw another predictable report from the Foundation for Individual Rights in Education (FIRE), a self-described watchdog group, highlighting how higher education is supposedly under siege from a politically correct plague of so-called hate-speech codes. In that report, FIRE declared that as many as 96 percent of top-ranked colleges…

  7. Fire Power

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denker, Deb; West, Lee

    2009-01-01

    For education administrators, campus fires are not only a distressing loss, but also a stark reminder that a campus faces risks that require special vigilance. In many ways, campuses resemble small communities, with areas for living, working and relaxing. A residence hall fire may raise the specter of careless youth, often with the complication of…

  8. Siberian Fires

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    ... of fires across Siberia and the Russian Far East, northeast China and northern Mongolia. Fires in Eastern Siberia have been increasing in ... spatial contrast. The heights correspond to elevations above sea level. Taking into account the surface elevation, the smoke plumes range ...

  9. Waste drum fire tests

    SciTech Connect

    Bucci, H.M.; Greenhalgh, W.O.; Olson, W.W.; Zimmer, J.J.

    1994-05-01

    Radioactive solid wastes containing combustible materials have been generated and stored in drums and boxes at U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites since the 1940`s. Programs are currently underway to characterize, process, and package the post-1970 portion of these wastes for final disposal as low-level or transuranic (TRU) waste. As these programs mature and projects are defined, safety analysis reports and fire hazard analyses are required to assure the DOE of the safety of the planned activities. Review of literature and discussions with other DOE sites indicated a lack of available data regarding the behaviour and consequences of fires involving radioactive combustible wastes stored at DOE sites. In the past 2 years, Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) has been involved in two different waste drum fire tests. The first was performed by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) in 1993 and was patterned after a flammable liquid pool fire. The second was performed by WHC at the Hanford Site as part of a building demolition burn. These scoping tests provide useful data for the development of more structured test plans. The paper summarizes the LLNL and WHC tests and their results.

  10. Natural Hazards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bryant, Edward

    2005-02-01

    This updated new edition presents a comprehensive, inter-disciplinary analysis of the complete range of natural hazards. Edward Bryant describes and explains how hazards occur, examines prediction methods, considers recent and historical hazard events and explores the social impact of such disasters. Supported by over 180 maps, diagrams and photographs, this standard text is an invaluable guide for students and professionals in the field. First Edition Hb (1991): 0-521-37295-X First Edition Pb (1991): 0-521-37889-3

  11. 46 CFR 28.315 - Fire pumps, fire mains, fire hydrants, and fire hoses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fire pumps, fire mains, fire hydrants, and fire hoses... After September 15, 1991, and That Operate With More Than 16 Individuals on Board § 28.315 Fire pumps, fire mains, fire hydrants, and fire hoses. (a) Each vessel 36 feet (11.8 meters) or more in length...

  12. 46 CFR 28.820 - Fire pumps, fire mains, fire hydrants, and fire hoses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Fire pumps, fire mains, fire hydrants, and fire hoses... REQUIREMENTS FOR COMMERCIAL FISHING INDUSTRY VESSELS Aleutian Trade Act Vessels § 28.820 Fire pumps, fire mains, fire hydrants, and fire hoses. (a) Each vessel must be equipped with a self-priming, power driven...

  13. 46 CFR 28.820 - Fire pumps, fire mains, fire hydrants, and fire hoses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Fire pumps, fire mains, fire hydrants, and fire hoses... REQUIREMENTS FOR COMMERCIAL FISHING INDUSTRY VESSELS Aleutian Trade Act Vessels § 28.820 Fire pumps, fire mains, fire hydrants, and fire hoses. (a) Each vessel must be equipped with a self-priming, power driven...

  14. Development of fire test methods for airplane interior materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tustin, E. A.

    1978-01-01

    Fire tests were conducted in a 737 airplane fuselage at NASA-JSC to characterize jet fuel fires in open steel pans (simulating post-crash fire sources and a ruptured airplane fuselage) and to characterize fires in some common combustibles (simulating in-flight fire sources). Design post-crash and in-flight fire source selections were based on these data. Large panels of airplane interior materials were exposed to closely-controlled large scale heating simulations of the two design fire sources in a Boeing fire test facility utilizing a surplused 707 fuselage section. Small samples of the same airplane materials were tested by several laboratory fire test methods. Large scale and laboratory scale data were examined for correlative factors. Published data for dangerous hazard levels in a fire environment were used as the basis for developing a method to select the most desirable material where trade-offs in heat, smoke and gaseous toxicant evolution must be considered.

  15. Assessing impacts of fire and post-fire mitigation on runoff and erosion from rangelands

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wildfires are a natural component of rangeland ecosystems, but fires can pose hydrologic hazards for ecological resources, infrastructure, property, and human life. There has been considerable research conducted on the effects of fire on hydrologic processes and erosion on shrublands and woodlands....

  16. Producing Mosaiced Infrared Data on Natural Hazards for Real-time Emergency Management using UAS and Thermal Infrared Cameras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatfield, M. C.; Webley, P. W.; Saiet, E., II

    2015-12-01

    Unmanned aerial systems (UAS) provide a unique capability for emergency management and real-time hazard assessment with access to hazardous environments that maybe off limits for manned aircraft while reducing the risk to personnel and loss of ground assets. When dealing with hazards, such as forest fires and volcanic eruptions, there is a need to assess the location of the fire/flow front and where best to assign ground personnel to reduce the risk to local populations and infrastructure. Thermal infrared cameras provide the ideal tool to detect subtle changes in the developing fire/flow front while providing data 24/7. There are limits to the detecting capabilities of these cameras given the wavelengths used and image resolution available. Given the large thermal contrast between the hot flow front and surrounding landscape then the data can be used to map out the location and changes seen as the front of the flow/fire advances. To map the complete hazard then either the UAS has to be flown at an altitude to capture the event in one image or the data has to be mosaiced together. Higher altitudes lead to coarser resolution imagery and therefore we will show how thermal infrared data can be mosaiced to provide the highest spatial resolution map of the hazard. We will present results using different UAS and thermal cameras including adding neutral density filters to detect hotter thermal targets. Timely generation of these mosaiced maps in a real-time environment is critical for those assessing the ongoing event and we will show how these maps can be generated quickly with the necessary spatial and thermal accuracy while discussing the requirements needed to generate thermal infrared maps of the hazardous events that are both useful for quick real-time assessment and also for further investigation in research projects.

  17. Characterization of potential fire regimes: applying landscape ecology to fire management in Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jardel, E.; Alvarado, E.; Perez-Salicrup, D.; Morfín-Rios, J.

    2013-05-01

    Knowledge and understanding of fire regimes is fundamental to design sound fire management practices. The high ecosystem diversity of Mexico offers a great challenge to characterize the fire regime variation at the landscape level. A conceptual model was developed considering the main factors controlling fire regimes: climate and vegetation cover. We classified landscape units combining bioclimatic zones from the Holdridge life-zone system and actual vegetation cover. Since bioclimatic conditions control primary productivity and biomass accumulation (potential fuel), each landscape unit was considered as a fuel bed with a particular fire intensity and behavior potential. Climate is also a determinant factor of post-fire recovery rates of fuel beds, and climate seasonality (length of the dry and wet seasons) influences fire probability (available fuel and ignition efficiency). These two factors influence potential fire frequency. Potential fire severity can be inferred from fire frequency, fire intensity and behavior, and vegetation composition and structure. Based in the conceptual model, an exhaustive literature review and expert opinion, we developed rules to assign a potential fire regime (PFR) defined by frequency, intensity and severity (i.e. fire regime) to each bioclimatic-vegetation landscape unit. Three groups and eight types of potential fire regimes were identified. In Group A are fire-prone ecosystems with frequent low severity surface fires in grasslands (PFR type I) or forests with long dry season (II) and infrequent high-severity fires in chaparral (III), wet temperate forests (IV, fire restricted by humidity), and dry temperate forests (V, fire restricted by fuel recovery rate). Group B includes fire-reluctant ecosystems with very infrequent or occasional mixed severity surface fires limited by moisture in tropical rain forests (VI) or fuel availability in seasonally dry tropical forests (VII). Group C and PFR VIII include fire-free environments

  18. "Making Do" Decisions: How Home Healthcare Personnel Manage Their Exposure to Home Hazards.

    PubMed

    Wills, Celia E; Polivka, Barbara J; Darragh, Amy; Lavender, Steven; Sommerich, Carolyn; Stredney, Donald

    2016-04-01

    This study describes the decision-making processes home healthcare personnel (HHP) use to manage their personal health and safety when managing hazards in client homes. A professionally diverse national sample of 68 HHP participated in individual semi-structured interviews and focus group discussions, and described their decision making and strategies for hazard management in their work environments. HHP described 353 hazard management dilemmas within 394 specifically identified hazards, which were clustered within three broader categories: electrical/fire, slip/trip/lift, and environmental exposures. HHP described multiple types of "making do" decisions for hazard management solutions in which perceived and actual resource limitations constrained response options. A majority of hazard management decisions in the broader hazards categories (72.5%, 68.5%, and 63.5%, respectively) were classifiable as less than optimal. These findings stress the need for more support of HHPs, including comprehensive training, to improve HHP decision making and hazard management strategies, especially in context of resource constraints. PMID:26669605

  19. “Making Do” Decisions: How Home Healthcare Personnel Manage Their Exposure to Home Hazards

    PubMed Central

    Wills, Celia E.; Polivka, Barbara J.; Darragh, Amy; Lavender, Steven; Sommerich, Carolyn; Stredney, Donald

    2016-01-01

    This study describes the decision-making processes home healthcare personnel (HHP) use to manage their personal health and safety when managing hazards in client homes. A professionally diverse national sample of 68 HHP participated in individual semi-structured interviews and focus group discussions, and described their decision making and strategies for hazard management in their work environments. HHP described 353 hazard management dilemmas within 394 specifically identified hazards, which were clustered within three broader categories: electrical/fire, slip/trip/lift, and environmental exposures. HHP described multiple types of “making do” decisions for hazard management solutions in which perceived and actual resource limitations constrained response options. A majority of hazard management decisions in the broader hazards categories (72.5%, 68.5%, and 63.5%, respectively) were classifiable as less than optimal. These findings stress the need for more support of HHPs, including comprehensive training, to improve HHP decision making and hazard management strategies, especially in context of resource constraints. PMID:26669605

  20. Pool fires in a simulated aircraft cabin interior with ventilation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bankston, C. P.; Back, L. H.; Cho, Y. I.; Shakkottai, P.

    1987-01-01

    Results of experiments conducted at the JPL to evaluate aircraft postcrash fire hazards are presented. The experiments were carried out in a one-third scale simulated aircraft cabin geometry to study pool fire and ventilation flow interactions. It is shown that wind-induced ventilation may significantly affect fire plume orientation, smoke transport, and heat fluxes and thus will affect subsequent fire spread and the immediate survivability of the passengers.

  1. Catastrophic Fires in Russian Forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhinin, A. I.; McRae, D. J.; Stocks, B. J.; Conard, S. G.; Hao, W.; Soja, A. J.; Cahoon, D.

    2010-12-01

    We evaluated the contribution of catastrophic fires to the total burned area and the amount of tree mortality in Russia since the 1970’s. Such fires occurred in the central regions of European Russia (1972, 1976, 1989, 2002, 2010), Khabarovsk krai (1976, 1988, 1998), Amur region (1997-2002), Republics of Yakutia and Tuva (2002), Magadan and Kamchatka oblast (1984, 2001, 2010), and Irkutsk, Chita, Amur regions, Buryat, Agin national districts (2003, 2007-08). We define a catastrophic fire as a single high-severity fire that covers more than 10,000 ha and results in total consumption of the litter and humus layers and in high tree mortality, or the simultaneous occurrence of several high-severity fires in a given region with a total area exceeding 10,000 km2. Fires on this scale can cause substantial economic, social and environmental effects, with regional to global impacts. We hypothesize that there is a positive feedback between anticyclone growth and energy release from wildfires burning over large areas. Usually the first blocking anticyclone appears in June in Russia, bringing with it dry weather that increases fire hazard. The anticyclonic pattern has maximum activity in the end of July and disappears around the middle of August. When high fire activity occurs, the anticyclone may strengthen and develop a blocking character that prevents cyclonic patterns from moving into anticyclone-dominated areas, where the fire danger index may be more than six times the average maximum. The likelihood of uncontrolled fire situations developing increases greatly when the fire number and burned area exceed critical values as a function of conditions that favor high intensity fires. In such situations fire suppression by regional forest protection services becomes impossible and federal resources are required. If the appearance of a blocking anticyclone is forecast, active fire prevention and suppression of small fires (most of which appear to be human caused) is critical

  2. Spacecraft Fire Safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Margle, Janice M. (Editor)

    1987-01-01

    Fire detection, fire standards and testing, fire extinguishment, inerting and atmospheres, fire-related medical science, aircraft fire safety, Space Station safety concerns, microgravity combustion, spacecraft material flammability testing, and metal combustion are among the topics considered.

  3. Fire and climate in Mongolia (1532-2010 Common Era)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hessl, Amy E.; Brown, Peter; Byambasuren, Oyunsanaa; Cockrell, Shawn; Leland, Caroline; Cook, Ed; Nachin, Baatarbileg; Pederson, Neil; Saladyga, Thomas; Suran, Byambagerel

    2016-06-01

    Recent increases in wildland fire, warming temperatures, and land use change have coincided in many forested regions, making it difficult to parse causes of elevated fire activity. Here we use 20 multicentury fire scar chronologies (464 fire scar samples) from Mongolia to evaluate the role of climate forcing of fire in the context of livestock grazing and minimal fire suppression. We observe no change in fire return intervals post-1900; however, since the 1500s, periods of drought are coincident with more fire and shorter fire return intervals. We observe same year and some antecedent year effects of drought on fire, a pattern typical of semiarid forests elsewhere. During the instrumental period, drought remains an important driver of fire; however, limited fire activity in recent decades may be due to the coincidence of drought and intensive grazing that have synergized to reduce fuel continuity and fire spread.

  4. Interactions among wildland fires in a long-established Sierra Nevada natural fire area

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Collins, B.M.; Miller, J.D.; Thode, A.E.; Kelly, M.; van Wagtendonk, J.W.; Stephens, S.L.

    2009-01-01

    We investigate interactions between successive naturally occurring fires, and assess to what extent the environments in which fires burn influence these interactions. Using mapped fire perimeters and satellite-based estimates of post-fire effects (referred to hereafter as fire severity) for 19 fires burning relatively freely over a 31-year period, we demonstrate that fire as a landscape process can exhibit self-limiting characteristics in an upper elevation Sierra Nevada mixed conifer forest. We use the term 'self-limiting' to refer to recurring fire as a process over time (that is, fire regime) consuming fuel and ultimately constraining the spatial extent and lessening fire-induced effects of subsequent fires. When the amount of time between successive adjacent fires is under 9 years, and when fire weather is not extreme (burning index <34.9), the probability of the latter fire burning into the previous fire area is extremely low. Analysis of fire severity data by 10-year periods revealed a fair degree of stability in the proportion of area burned among fire severity classes (unchanged, low, moderate, high). This is in contrast to a recent study demonstrating increasing high-severity burning throughout the Sierra Nevada from 1984 to 2006, which suggests freely burning fires over time in upper elevation Sierra Nevada mixed conifer forests can regulate fire-induced effects across the landscape. This information can help managers better anticipate short- and long-term effects of allowing naturally ignited fires to burn, and ultimately, improve their ability to implement Wildland Fire Use programs in similar forest types. ?? 2008 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  5. Fire Effects on Invasive Weed Seed Germination

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Restoring historic fire regimes is often beneficial to rangeland structure and function. However, understanding of interactions between fire and invasive weeds is limited. We designed an experiment to determine fire effects on germination of soil surface-deposited seeds of the invasive weeds Bromu...

  6. Reconstruction of fire spread within wildland fire events in Northern Eurasia from the MODIS active fire product

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loboda, T. V.; Csiszar, I. A.

    2007-04-01

    Russian boreal forests have been reshaped by wildland fire for millennia. While fire is a natural component of boreal ecosystems, it impacts various aspects of the environment and affects human well-being. Often fires occur over large remote areas with limited access, which makes their ground-based observation difficult. A significant progress has been made in mapping burned area from satellite imagery, which provides consistent and fairly unbiased estimates of fire impact on areas of interest at multiple scales. Although the information provided by burned area products is highly important, the spatio-temporal dynamics of individual fire events and their impact are less known. In high northern latitudes of Northern Eurasia, MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) makes up to four daily observations from each of the Terra and Aqua satellites providing consistent data on fire development with high temporal frequency. Here we introduce an approach to reconstruct the development of fire events based on active fire detections from MODIS. Fire Spread Reconstruction (FSR) provides a means for characterization of fire occurrence over large territories from remotely sensed data. Individual fire detections are clustered within a GIS environment based on a set of rules determining proximity between fire observations in space and time. FSR determines the number of fire events, their approximate size, duration, and fire spread rate and allows for the analysis of fire occurrence and spread as a function of vegetation, fire season, fire weather and other parameters. FSR clusters were compared to burned scars mapped from Landsat7/ETM+ imagery over Yakutia (Russia). While some smaller burn scars were found to be formed through a continuous burning of a single fire event, large burned areas in Siberia were created by a constellation of fire events incorporating over 100 individual fire clusters. Geographic regions were found to have a stronger influence on the rates of

  7. Hazardous materials

    MedlinePlus

    ... people how to work with hazardous materials and waste. There are many different kinds of hazardous materials, including: Chemicals, like some that are used for cleaning Drugs, like chemotherapy to treat cancer Radioactive material that is used for x-rays or ...

  8. 309 Building fire protection analysis and justification for deactivation of sprinkler system. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Conner, R.P.

    1997-06-25

    Provide a `graded approach` fire evaluation in preparation for turnover to Environmental Restoration Contractor for D&D. Scope includes revising 309 Building book value and evaluating fire hazards, radiological and toxicological releases, and life safety issues.

  9. Summaries of BFRL fire research in-house projects and grants, 1993

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jason, Nora H.

    1993-09-01

    The report describes the fire research projects performed in the Building and Fire Research Laboratory (BFRL) and under its extramural grants program during fiscal year 1993. The BFRL Fire Research Program has directed its efforts under three program thrusts. The in-house priority projects, grants, and externally-funded efforts thus form an integrated, focussed ensemble. The publication is organized along those lines: fire risk and hazard prediction - carbon monoxide prediction, turbulent combustion, soot, engineering analysis, fire hazard assessment, and large fires; fire safety of products and materials - materials combustion, furniture flammability, and wall and ceiling fires; and advanced technologies for fire sensing and control - fire detection and fire suppression. For the convenience of the reader, an alphabetical listing of all grants is contained in Part 2.0.

  10. RCRA hazardous waste contingency plans

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, T.P. )

    1991-10-01

    This paper reports that the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) requires hazardous waste treatment, storage and disposal facilities (TSDFs) to prepare a contingency plan. The plan is a blueprint for emergency response, and must be designed to minimize health and environmental hazards resulting from fires, explosions or other unplanned hazardous releases. Hazardous waste contingency plans often are neglected and considered an unnecessary regulatory exercise by facility operators. However, an effective contingency plan is a valuable tool for reducing liability, protecting workers and the community, and avoiding costly shutdowns. The requirement under Title III of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA) that regulated facilities report to EPA annually on releases to the environment has caused regulators to renew emphasis on the importance of RCRA contingency plans. However, regulatory agencies historically have provided insufficient information on the elements of an adequate contingency plan. Nevertheless, facility operators seriously should consider going beyond minimum regulatory requirements and create a comprehensive contingency plan.

  11. Mexico Fires

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-18

    article title:  Smoke from Fires in Southern Mexico     View Larger Image ... southern Mexico sent smoke drifting northward over the Gulf of Mexico. These views from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) ...

  12. California Fires

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-15

    ... title:  Smoke from Station Fire Blankets Southern California     View Larger Image ... that had not burned in decades, and years of extended drought contributed to the explosive growth of wildfires throughout southern ...

  13. Fire clay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Virta, R.L.

    2012-01-01

    Five companies mined fire clay in four states in 2011. Production, based on a preliminary survey of the fire clay industry, was estimated to be 240 kt (265,000 st), valued at $7.68 million, an increase from 216 kt (238,000 st), valued at $6.12 million in 2010. Missouri was the leading producing state, followed by Texas, Washington and Ohio, in decreasing order by quantity.

  14. Empirical validation of the conceptual design of the LLNL 60-kg contained-firing facility

    SciTech Connect

    Pastrnak, J.W.; Baker, C.F.; Simmons, L.F.

    1995-02-24

    In anticipation of increasingly stringent environmental regulations, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is proposing to modify an existing facility to add a 60-kg firing chamber and related support areas. This modification will provide blast-effects containment for most of its open-air, high-explosive, firing operations. Even though these operations are within current environmental limits, containment of the blast effects and hazardous debris will further drastically reduce emissions to the environment and minimize the hazardous waste generated. The major design consideration of such a chamber is its overall structural dynamic response in terms of its long-term ability to contain all blast effects from repeated internal detonations of high explosives. Another concern is how much other portions of the facility outside the firing chamber must be hardened to ensure personnel protection in the event of an accidental detonation while the chamber door is open. To assess these concerns, a 1/4-scale replica model of the planned contained firing chamber was engineered, constructed, and tested with scaled explosive charges ranging from 25 to 125% of the operational explosives limit of 60 kg. From 16 detonations of high explosives, 880 resulting strains, blast pressures, and temperatures within the model were measured to provide information for the final design.

  15. Fire protection for launch facilities using machine vision fire detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwartz, Douglas B.

    1993-01-01

    Fire protection of critical space assets, including launch and fueling facilities and manned flight hardware, demands automatic sensors for continuous monitoring, and in certain high-threat areas, fast-reacting automatic suppression systems. Perhaps the most essential characteristic for these fire detection and suppression systems is high reliability; in other words, fire detectors should alarm only on actual fires and not be falsely activated by extraneous sources. Existing types of fire detectors have been greatly improved in the past decade; however, fundamental limitations of their method of operation leaves open a significant possibility of false alarms and restricts their usefulness. At the Civil Engineering Laboratory at Tyndall Air Force Base in Florida, a new type of fire detector is under development which 'sees' a fire visually, like a human being, and makes a reliable decision based on known visual characteristics of flames. Hardware prototypes of the Machine Vision (MV) Fire Detection System have undergone live fire tests and demonstrated extremely high accuracy in discriminating actual fires from false alarm sources. In fact, this technology promises to virtually eliminate false activations. This detector could be used to monitor fueling facilities, launch towers, clean rooms, and other high-value and high-risk areas. Applications can extend to space station and in-flight shuttle operations as well; fiber optics and remote camera heads enable the system to see around obstructed areas and crew compartments. The capability of the technology to distinguish fires means that fire detection can be provided even during maintenance operations, such as welding.

  16. Fire protection for launch facilities using machine vision fire detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwartz, Douglas B.

    1993-02-01

    Fire protection of critical space assets, including launch and fueling facilities and manned flight hardware, demands automatic sensors for continuous monitoring, and in certain high-threat areas, fast-reacting automatic suppression systems. Perhaps the most essential characteristic for these fire detection and suppression systems is high reliability; in other words, fire detectors should alarm only on actual fires and not be falsely activated by extraneous sources. Existing types of fire detectors have been greatly improved in the past decade; however, fundamental limitations of their method of operation leaves open a significant possibility of false alarms and restricts their usefulness. At the Civil Engineering Laboratory at Tyndall Air Force Base in Florida, a new type of fire detector is under development which 'sees' a fire visually, like a human being, and makes a reliable decision based on known visual characteristics of flames. Hardware prototypes of the Machine Vision (MV) Fire Detection System have undergone live fire tests and demonstrated extremely high accuracy in discriminating actual fires from false alarm sources. In fact, this technology promises to virtually eliminate false activations. This detector could be used to monitor fueling facilities, launch towers, clean rooms, and other high-value and high-risk areas. Applications can extend to space station and in-flight shuttle operations as well; fiber optics and remote camera heads enable the system to see around obstructed areas and crew compartments. The capability of the technology to distinguish fires means that fire detection can be provided even during maintenance operations, such as welding.

  17. NOAA/National Weather Service Support in Response to the Threat of Debris Flows from the 2009 Station Fire in Los Angeles County: Lessons Learned in Hazard Communications and Public Response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, M.; Laber, J. L.; Boldt, E.

    2010-12-01

    February 6, 2010 when intense rainfall over the burn area produced very damaging but fortunately nonfatal flash flooding and debris flows. Unfortunately public and local agency response to NWS forecasts, watches, and warnings issued for this event was minimal. Possible causes of, and actions needed to improve upon, this minimal response are examined, including 1) complacency due to previous watch and warning false alarms, 2) underestimating the hazard threat due to local residents having not personally experienced a severe debris flow event in recent history if ever, 3) misinterpretation of NWS point precipitation forecasts and current limits of predictability related to forecasting specific locations and amounts of intense rainfall beyond 12-24 hours, 4) the challenges of ensuring NWS information is consistently received and interpreted among the multiple agencies and jurisdictions of the unified command, and 5) the likelihood that most people did not hear NWS warnings due to the event taking place late at night. Also examined are proper calls to action to protect life and property at a time when evacuations may put people in harm's way.

  18. Assessing European wild fire vulnerability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oehler, F.; Oliveira, S.; Barredo, J. I.; Camia, A.; Ayanz, J. San Miguel; Pettenella, D.; Mavsar, R.

    2012-04-01

    , due to limitations in data availability, this approach of environmental accounting is not fully implemented yet. Keywords: fire vulnerability, damage assessment, land cover restoration, long-term fire risk, European scale

  19. 46 CFR 28.820 - Fire pumps, fire mains, fire hydrants, and fire hoses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... water from a hose connected to the highest outlet. The minimum capacity of the power fire pump shall be... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Fire pumps, fire mains, fire hydrants, and fire hoses... REQUIREMENTS FOR COMMERCIAL FISHING INDUSTRY VESSELS Aleutian Trade Act Vessels § 28.820 Fire pumps, fire...

  20. 46 CFR 28.820 - Fire pumps, fire mains, fire hydrants, and fire hoses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... water from a hose connected to the highest outlet. The minimum capacity of the power fire pump shall be... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fire pumps, fire mains, fire hydrants, and fire hoses... REQUIREMENTS FOR COMMERCIAL FISHING INDUSTRY VESSELS Aleutian Trade Act Vessels § 28.820 Fire pumps, fire...

  1. 46 CFR 28.820 - Fire pumps, fire mains, fire hydrants, and fire hoses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    .../capacity, and is properly equipped to handle both fire fighting and flood control. (b) Each vessel must... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fire pumps, fire mains, fire hydrants, and fire hoses... REQUIREMENTS FOR COMMERCIAL FISHING INDUSTRY VESSELS Aleutian Trade Act Vessels § 28.820 Fire pumps, fire...

  2. One-dimensional simulation of fire injection heights in contrasted meteorological scenarios with PRM and Meso-NH models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strada, S.; Freitas, S. R.; Mari, C.; Longo, K. M.; Paugam, R.

    2013-02-01

    Wild-fires release huge amounts of aerosol and hazardous trace gases in the atmosphere. The residence time and the dispersion of fire pollutants in the atmosphere can range from hours to days and from local to continental scales. These various scenarios highly depend on the injection height of smoke plumes. The altitude at which fire products are injected in the atmosphere is controlled by fire characteristics and meteorological conditions. Injection height however is still poorly accounted in chemistry transport models for which fires are sub-grid scale processes which need to be parametrised. Only recently, physically-based approaches for estimating the fire injection heights have been developed which consider both the convective updrafts induced by the release of fire sensible heat and the impact of background meteorological environment on the fire convection dynamics. In this work, two different models are used to simulate fire injection heights in contrasted meteorological scenarios: a Mediterranean arson fire and two Amazonian deforestation fires. A Eddy-Diffusivity/Mass-Flux approach, formerly developed to reproduce convective boundary layer in the non-hydrostatic meteorological model Meso-NH, is compared to the 1-D Plume Rise Model. For both models, radiosonde data and re-analyses from the European Center for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) have been used as initial conditions to explore the sensitivity of the models responses to different meteorological forcings. The two models predict injection heights for the Mediterranean fire between 1.7 and 3.3 km with the Meso-NH/EDMF model systematically higher than the 1-D PRM model. Both models show a limited sensitivity to the meteorological forcings with a 20-30% difference in the injection height between radiosondes and ECMWF data for this case. Injection heights calculated for the two Amazonian fires ranges from 5 to 6.5 km for the 1-D PRM model and from 2 to 4 km for the Meso-NH/EDMF model. The

  3. [Research progress in post-fire debris flow].

    PubMed

    Di, Xue-ying; Tao, Yu-zhu

    2013-08-01

    The occurrence of the secondary disasters of forest fire has significant impacts on the environment quality and human health and safety. Post-fire debris flow is one of the most hazardous secondary disasters of forest fire. To understand the occurrence conditions of post-fire debris flow and to master its occurrence situation are the critical elements in post-fire hazard assessment. From the viewpoints of vegetation, precipitation threshold and debris flow material sources, this paper elaborated the impacts of forest fire on the debris flow, analyzed the geologic and geomorphic conditions, precipitation and slope condition that caused the post-fire debris flow as well as the primary mechanisms of debris-flow initiation caused by shallow landslide or surface runoff, and reviewed the research progress in the prediction and forecast of post-fire debris flow and the related control measures. In the future research, four aspects to be focused on were proposed, i. e., the quantification of the relationships between the fire behaviors and environmental factors and the post-fire debris flow, the quantitative research on the post-fire debris flow initiation and movement processes, the mechanistic model of post-fire debris flow, and the rapid and efficient control countermeasures of post-fire debris flow. PMID:24380363

  4. Hazardous materials

    MedlinePlus

    ... should be in a room with good airflow Work Safely If you find a spill, treat it like ... Hazard communication; Material Safety Data Sheet; MSDS References Occupational Safety and Health Administration. Healthcare. Available at: www.osha. ...

  5. Coastal Hazards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vandas, Steve

    1998-01-01

    Focuses on hurricanes and tsunamis and uses these topics to address other parts of the science curriculum. In addition to a discussion on beach erosion, a poster is provided that depicts these natural hazards that threaten coastlines. (DDR)

  6. Hazardous Waste

    MedlinePlus

    ... wastes come from products in our homes. Our garbage can include such hazardous wastes as old batteries, ... drain, flush them, or put them in the garbage. See if you can donate or recycle. Many ...

  7. Reproductive Hazards

    MedlinePlus

    ... and female reproductive systems play a role in pregnancy. Problems with these systems can affect fertility and ... a reproductive hazard can cause different effects during pregnancy, depending on when she is exposed. During the ...

  8. Post-fire forest sustainability in north-central Portugal: Assessing the impacts of pre- and post-fire ground preparations, logging and mitigation treatments on post-fire runoff and erosion.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malvar, Maruxa; Prats, Sérgio A.; Martins, Martinho A. S.; Gonzalez-Pelayo, Óscar; Keizer, Jacob J.

    2014-05-01

    Wildfires have been reported worldwide as producing strong and sometimes extreme responses in runoff and soil erosion. However, in the case of North-Central Portugal, little research had been carried out regarding the hydrologic and erosive impacts of several land management activities in recently burnt areas (such as ground preparation, post-fire logging or post-fire mitigation treatments). This is the main objective of this research. Several pre- and post-fire ground preparation operations (down-slope rip-ploughed, contour ploughed and terracing), post-fire logging activities, and post-fire soil erosion mitigation treatments (forest residue mulches, polyacrylamide and hydromulch) were assessed from the first to the third post-fire years. Repeated rainfall simulation experiments (RSE's), micro-scale runoff plots and bounded sediment fences were installed immediately after the wildfire in twelve burnt slopes and monitored at weekly-basis intervals. The results for the first post-fire year showed comparable runoff coefficient (20-60%) but lower sediment losses (1.2-10 Mg ha-1) than prior studies in Portugal and worldwide, which corresponded well with the historic intensive land use in the area. Terracing sharply increased soil erosion (up to 30 Mg ha-1) at the micro-plots scale during the first year after a wildfire and terracing. However, sediment limited erosion was measured in all the pre-fire ploughed sites, probably due to the time elapsed since ploughing. Post-fire logging activities enhanced 5- to 10- fold the sediment losses, which was related to the disturbance of the soil surface cover. The mulches (forest residue or hydromulch) were highly effective reducing post-fire soil erosion in more than 80%. The increase on sediment losses of the recently terraced area and the measured sediment exhaustion at all the pre-fire ploughed sites as well as the increasing frequency of ploughing in the forest areas implies the need to consider ploughing as a hazardous

  9. Computer Model Locates Environmental Hazards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Catherine Huybrechts Burton founded San Francisco-based Endpoint Environmental (2E) LLC in 2005 while she was a student intern and project manager at Ames Research Center with NASA's DEVELOP program. The 2E team created the Tire Identification from Reflectance model, which algorithmically processes satellite images using turnkey technology to retain only the darkest parts of an image. This model allows 2E to locate piles of rubber tires, which often are stockpiled illegally and cause hazardous environmental conditions and fires.

  10. HAZARDOUS WASTE DEGRADATION BY WOOD DEGRADING FUNGI

    EPA Science Inventory

    The persistence and toxicity of many hazardous waste constituents indicates that the environment has limited capacity to degrade such materials. he competence and presence of degrading organisms significantly effects our ability to treat and detoxify these hazardous waste chemica...

  11. Assessment and Prediction of Natural Hazards from Satellite Imagery

    PubMed Central

    Gillespie, Thomas W.; Chu, Jasmine; Frankenberg, Elizabeth; Thomas, Duncan

    2013-01-01

    Since 2000, there have been a number of spaceborne satellites that have changed the way we assess and predict natural hazards. These satellites are able to quantify physical geographic phenomena associated with the movements of the earth’s surface (earthquakes, mass movements), water (floods, tsunamis, storms), and fire (wildfires). Most of these satellites contain active or passive sensors that can be utilized by the scientific community for the remote sensing of natural hazards over a number of spatial and temporal scales. The most useful satellite imagery for the assessment of earthquake damage comes from high-resolution (0.6 m to 1 m pixel size) passive sensors and moderate resolution active sensors that can quantify the vertical and horizontal movement of the earth’s surface. High-resolution passive sensors have been used to successfully assess flood damage while predictive maps of flood vulnerability areas are possible based on physical variables collected from passive and active sensors. Recent moderate resolution sensors are able to provide near real time data on fires and provide quantitative data used in fire behavior models. Limitations currently exist due to atmospheric interference, pixel resolution, and revisit times. However, a number of new microsatellites and constellations of satellites will be launched in the next five years that contain increased resolution (0.5 m to 1 m pixel resolution for active sensors) and revisit times (daily ≤ 2.5 m resolution images from passive sensors) that will significantly improve our ability to assess and predict natural hazards from space. PMID:25170186

  12. Carbon Structure Hazard Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yoder, Tommy; Greene, Ben; Porter, Alan

    2015-01-01

    Carbon composite structures are widely used in virtually all advanced technology industries for a multitude of applications. The high strength-to-weight ratio and resistance to aggressive service environments make them highly desirable. Automotive, aerospace, and petroleum industries extensively use, and will continue to use, this enabling technology. As a result of this broad range of use, field and test personnel are increasingly exposed to hazards associated with these structures. No single published document exists to address the hazards and make recommendations for the hazard controls required for the different exposure possibilities from damaged structures including airborne fibers, fly, and dust. The potential for personnel exposure varies depending on the application or manipulation of the structure. The effect of exposure to carbon hazards is not limited to personnel, protection of electronics and mechanical equipment must be considered as well. The various exposure opportunities defined in this document include pre-manufacturing fly and dust, the cured structure, manufacturing/machining, post-event cleanup, and post-event test and/or evaluation. Hazard control is defined as it is applicable or applied for the specific exposure opportunity. The carbon exposure hazard includes fly, dust, fiber (cured/uncured), and matrix vapor/thermal decomposition products. By using the recommendations in this document, a high level of confidence can be assured for the protection of personnel and equipment.

  13. Wind shear hazard determination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, Michael S.

    1992-01-01

    The topics are presented in viewgraph form and include the following: F-factor relationship with aircraft performance; F-factor formulations; the F-bar index; F-factor hazard limit; F-bar with Doppler sensors; and F-bar profile composite.

  14. Wildfire Research in an Environmental Hazards Course: An Active Learning Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wall, Tamara U.; Halvorson, Sarah J.

    2011-01-01

    Creating opportunities for students to actively apply hazards theory to real-life situations is often a challenge in hazards geography courses. This article presents a project, the Jocko Lakes Fire Project, that implemented learning strategies to encourage students to be active in wildfire hazards research. Wildfire hazards stand out as an…

  15. A Full-Scale Fire Program to Evaluate New Furnishings and Textile Materials Developed by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hillenbrand, L. J.; Wray, J. A.

    1973-01-01

    The plans for the present series of full-scale experimental fires were initiated at the suggestion of NASA following the presentation of a film and discussion illustrating Battelle-Columbus' recent work in fire research. That film showed bedroom-type fires carried out as a part of a program to determine the influence of the cyclic characteristics of real fires under limited ventilation on the burning and pyrolysis properties of the room furnishings. A new series of fires was suggested by NASA designed to show the performance of new fire resistant and fire retardant materials by providing comparative fire and smoldering environmental conditions. More recently, the goal for the new series of fires was written in a meeting with NASA personnel and others at Battelle on May 3 and 4, 1972. The goal was as follows: To establish the need for special materials of improved fire safety in domiciliary settings of public concern, and to assess, in a professionally acceptable manner, the potential of materials arising from the new space-age technology for this purpose. It was anticipated that some new materials arising from the space-age technology and not yet available through conventional commercial channels might provide significant improvements in fire safety if the best of the commercially available materials showed important shortcomings in this area. It was the intent of this program to assess the benefits that could accrue from the use of these new materials. Fire safety is a matter requiring the evaluation of a number of factors. For example, fire resistance and fire spread, visibility during the fire, toxicity of evolved gases, and the fire-fighting problem that is created must be evaluated before the relative hazard can be assessed. The plan of the program provided for sampling and instrumentation to evaluate these factors, consistent with the goal of technological utilization that has been specified. Arrangements were made with the Columbus Fire Department to use an

  16. Active Fire Mapping Program

    MedlinePlus

    ... Incidents (Home) New Large Incidents Fire Detection Maps MODIS Satellite Imagery VIIRS Satellite Imagery Fire Detection GIS ... Data Web Services Latest Detected Fire Activity Other MODIS Products Frequently Asked Questions About Active Fire Maps ...

  17. NASA Hydrogen Peroxide Propellant Hazards Technical Manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, David L.; Greene, Ben; Frazier, Wayne

    2005-01-01

    The Fire, Explosion, Compatibility and Safety Hazards of Hydrogen Peroxide NASA technical manual was developed at the NASA Johnson Space Center White Sands Test Facility. NASA Technical Memorandum TM-2004-213151 covers topics concerning high concentration hydrogen peroxide including fire and explosion hazards, material and fluid reactivity, materials selection information, personnel and environmental hazards, physical and chemical properties, analytical spectroscopy, specifications, analytical methods, and material compatibility data. A summary of hydrogen peroxide-related accidents, incidents, dose calls, mishaps and lessons learned is included. The manual draws from art extensive literature base and includes recent applicable regulatory compliance documentation. The manual may be obtained by United States government agencies from NASA Johnson Space Center and used as a reference source for hazards and safe handling of hydrogen peroxide.

  18. 49 CFR 383.121 - Requirements for hazardous materials endorsement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... vehicle, from information contained in 49 CFR parts 171, 172, 173, 177, 178, and 397, on the following: (a... precautions for driving near a fire and carrying hazardous materials, and smoking and carrying...

  19. 49 CFR 383.121 - Requirements for hazardous materials endorsement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... vehicle, from information contained in 49 CFR parts 171, 172, 173, 177, 178, and 397, on the following: (a... precautions for driving near a fire and carrying hazardous materials, and smoking and carrying...

  20. TECHNICAL BASIS REPORT FOR LARGE FIRE ACCIDENTS INVOLVING ABOVEGROUND TANKS & VESSELS

    SciTech Connect

    MARCHESE, A.R.

    2005-03-03

    This document analyzes large fire accidents involving aboveground tanks and vessels during Demonstration Bulk Vitrification System (DBVS) operations. The fire accident scenarios are consistent with RPP-22461,''Preliminary Fire Hazard Analysis (PFHA) for DBVS''. The radiological and toxicological consequences are determined for a wide spectrum of fire sizes to bracket the range of possible consequences resulting from large fires involving aboveground tanks/vessels that are part of DBVS.

  1. Probabilistic Tsunami Hazard Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thio, H. K.; Ichinose, G. A.; Somerville, P. G.; Polet, J.

    2006-12-01

    thousands of earthquake scenarios. We have carried out preliminary tsunami hazard calculations for different return periods for western North America and Hawaii based on thousands of earthquake scenarios around the Pacific rim and along the coast of North America. We will present tsunami hazard maps for several return periods and also discuss how to use these results for probabilistic inundation and runup mapping. Our knowledge of certain types of tsunami sources is very limited (e.g. submarine landslides), but a probabilistic framework for tsunami hazard evaluation can include even such sources and their uncertainties and present the overall hazard in a meaningful and consistent way.

  2. PREFER: a European service providing forest fire management support products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eftychidis, George; Laneve, Giovanni; Ferrucci, Fabrizio; Sebastian Lopez, Ana; Lourenco, Louciano; Clandillon, Stephen; Tampellini, Lucia; Hirn, Barbara; Diagourtas, Dimitris; Leventakis, George

    2015-06-01

    PREFER is a Copernicus project of the EC-FP7 program which aims developing spatial information products that may support fire prevention and burned areas restoration decisions and establish a relevant web-based regional service for making these products available to fire management stakeholders. The service focuses to the Mediterranean region, where fire risk is high and damages from wildfires are quite important, and develop its products for pilot areas located in Spain, Portugal, Italy, France and Greece. PREFER aims to allow fire managers to have access to online resources, which shall facilitate fire prevention measures, fire hazard and risk assessment, estimation of fire impact and damages caused by wildfire as well as support monitoring of post-fire regeneration and vegetation recovery. It makes use of a variety of products delivered by space borne sensors and develop seasonal and daily products using multi-payload, multi-scale and multi-temporal analysis of EO data. The PREFER Service portfolio consists of two main suite of products. The first refers to mapping products for supporting decisions concerning the Preparedness/Prevention Phase (ISP Service). The service delivers Fuel, Hazard and Fire risk maps for this purpose. Furthermore the PREFER portfolio includes Post-fire vegetation recovery, burn scar maps, damage severity and 3D fire damage assessment products in order to support relative assessments required in context of the Recovery/Reconstruction Phase (ISR Service) of fire management.

  3. FIRE BLIGHT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fire blight, caused by the bacterium Erwinia amylovora, is a destructive disease of apple, pears and woody ornamentals of the rose family. The disease is indigenous to North America and has been studied for more than one century. E. amylovora can infect blossoms, stems, immature fruits, woody branch...

  4. Dalhousie Fire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Fred W.

    1986-01-01

    Describes steps taken by the Weldon Law Library at Dalhousie University in salvaging books damaged in a major fire, including procedures and processes used in packing, sorting, drying, and cleaning the books. The need for a disaster plan for specific libraries is emphasized, and some suggestions are made. (CDD)

  5. Colorado Fires

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-15

    ... (MISR). The images were captured on June 9, 2002, on the second day of the Hayman fire, when only about 13 percent of the total 137,000 ... x 565 kilometers. They use data from blocks 58 to 61 within World Reference System-2 path 32. MISR was built and is managed by NASA's ...

  6. Appalachian Fires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This image of smoke from forest fires in Virginia, Kentucky, and West Virginia was taken by the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) on November 15, 2001. Smoke is visible extending over the Chesapeake Bay. Image courtesy the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, and ORBIMAGE

  7. Process safety management for highly hazardous chemicals

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-01

    Purpose of this document is to assist US DOE contractors who work with threshold quantities of highly hazardous chemicals (HHCs), flammable liquids or gases, or explosives in successfully implementing the requirements of OSHA Rule for Process Safety Management of Highly Hazardous Chemicals (29 CFR 1910.119). Purpose of this rule is to prevent releases of HHCs that have the potential to cause catastrophic fires, explosions, or toxic exposures.

  8. Fire in the Shop!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Clifton P.; Buchanan, Joseph P.

    1977-01-01

    Fire emergency preparedness measures to take to prevent school fires and to protect against injury and minimize damage when fire does occur are presented. Includes fire safety practices, extinguishers for different classes of fires and their use, and the need for fire safety training in schools. (MF)

  9. 46 CFR 28.315 - Fire pumps, fire mains, fire hydrants, and fire hoses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... fire pump on a vessel 79 feet (24 meters) or more in length must be capable of delivering water... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Fire pumps, fire mains, fire hydrants, and fire hoses... After September 15, 1991, and That Operate With More Than 16 Individuals on Board § 28.315 Fire...

  10. 46 CFR 28.315 - Fire pumps, fire mains, fire hydrants, and fire hoses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... fire pump on a vessel 79 feet (24 meters) or more in length must be capable of delivering water... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fire pumps, fire mains, fire hydrants, and fire hoses... After September 15, 1991, and That Operate With More Than 16 Individuals on Board § 28.315 Fire...

  11. 46 CFR 153.460 - Fire protection systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... CARRYING BULK LIQUID, LIQUEFIED GAS, OR COMPRESSED GAS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Design and Equipment Special Requirements for Flammable Or Combustible Cargoes § 153.460 Fire protection systems. Each self-propelled...

  12. 46 CFR 153.460 - Fire protection systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... CARRYING BULK LIQUID, LIQUEFIED GAS, OR COMPRESSED GAS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Design and Equipment Special Requirements for Flammable Or Combustible Cargoes § 153.460 Fire protection systems. Each self-propelled...

  13. 46 CFR 153.460 - Fire protection systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... CARRYING BULK LIQUID, LIQUEFIED GAS, OR COMPRESSED GAS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Design and Equipment Special Requirements for Flammable Or Combustible Cargoes § 153.460 Fire protection systems. Each self-propelled...

  14. 46 CFR 153.460 - Fire protection systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... CARRYING BULK LIQUID, LIQUEFIED GAS, OR COMPRESSED GAS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Design and Equipment Special Requirements for Flammable Or Combustible Cargoes § 153.460 Fire protection systems. Each self-propelled...

  15. Fire safety: A case study of technology transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heins, C. F.

    1975-01-01

    Two basic ways in which NASA-generated technology is being used by the fire safety community are described. First, improved products and systems that embody NASA technical advances are entering the marketplace. Second, NASA test data and technical information related to fire safety are being used by persons concerned with reducing the hazards of fire through improved design information and standards. The development of commercial fire safety products and systems typically requires adaptation and integration of aerospace technologies that may not have been originated for NASA fire safety applications.

  16. Combining satellite-based fire observations and ground-based lightning detections to identify lightning fires across the conterminous USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bar-Massada, A.; Hawbaker, T.J.; Stewart, S.I.; Radeloff, V.C.

    2012-01-01

    Lightning fires are a common natural disturbance in North America, and account for the largest proportion of the area burned by wildfires each year. Yet, the spatiotemporal patterns of lightning fires in the conterminous US are not well understood due to limitations of existing fire databases. Our goal here was to develop and test an algorithm that combined MODIS fire detections with lightning detections from the National Lightning Detection Network to identify lightning fires across the conterminous US from 2000 to 2008. The algorithm searches for spatiotemporal conjunctions of MODIS fire clusters and NLDN detected lightning strikes, given a spatiotemporal lag between lightning strike and fire ignition. The algorithm revealed distinctive spatial patterns of lightning fires in the conterminous US While a sensitivity analysis revealed that the algorithm is highly sensitive to the two thresholds that are used to determine conjunction, the density of fires it detected was moderately correlated with ground based fire records. When only fires larger than 0.4 km2 were considered, correlations were higher and the root-mean-square error between datasets was less than five fires per 625 km2 for the entire study period. Our algorithm is thus suitable for detecting broad scale spatial patterns of lightning fire occurrence, and especially lightning fire hotspots, but has limited detection capability of smaller fires because these cannot be consistently detected by MODIS. These results may enhance our understanding of large scale patterns of lightning fire activity, and can be used to identify the broad scale factors controlling fire occurrence.

  17. A regional assessment of potential environmental hazards to and limitations on petroleum development of the Southeastern United States Atlantic continental shelf, slope, and rise, offshore North Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Popenoe, Peter; Coward, E.L.; Cashman, K.V.

    1982-01-01

    have taken place in two large areas of the Continental Slope. Seismic-reflection profiles of the southern area, centered on the lower slope at 1at. 33?N., long. 76?W., show a 80-m-hlgh scarp in which bedding has been truncated. Rotational slump faults are present in this area on the middle and upper slope. Sidescan images show that large blocks have slid downslope from the scarp face, furrowing the bottom. High-resolution (3.5-kHz) records show that the rotational slump faults upslope are active. The association of these slumps and the scarps with salt diapirs suggests subsidence accompanying salt tectonism as the cause. Seismic-reflection records over the northern area, at about fat. 36?20'N., long. 74?40'W., show two steep scarps, each about 225 m high on the upper and middle-slope. These slump scars and an absence of Pleistocene sediments indicate that large blocks of the slope have been removed by slumping. The slope north of fat. 35?N. is highly dissected by canyons. Mid-range sidescan-sonar records suggest that the canyons are the product of mass wasting and have probably formed largely by slumping. Sediments in a wide zone on the upper rise are highly disturbed and faulted owing to salt tectonism. Twenty-six salt diapirs are mapped, as is a zone of disturbed bottom related to salt tectonism. An area of frozen bottom (clathrate) under which shallow free gas is trapped underlies the outer Blake Plateau, the slope, and the upper rise. Although the hazards of drilling into or through clathrates have not been tested, the release of gas from beneath this frozen layer may prove to be a primary hazard to exploration.

  18. Fire suppressing apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Buttrey, Kenneth E.

    1982-11-02

    Apparatus for smothering a liquid sodium fire comprises a pan, a perforated cover on the pan, and tubes depending from the cover and providing communication between the interior of the pan and the ambient atmosphere through the perforations in the cover. Liquid caught in the pan rises above the lower ends of the tubes and thus serves as a barrier which limits the amount of air entering the pan.

  19. Fire protection for inactive contaminated structures

    SciTech Connect

    Wyatt, D.M.

    1994-02-01

    In general industry and construction, destruction of an inactive/surplus facility by fire may be considered a blessing. However, in a decommissioned contaminated structure, where radiological and other hazardous materials exist, such a fire could be a major catastrophe. The losses from this type of fire are not only property (i.e., structure and its contents) but also the resulting environmental damage, required cleanup, offsite releases, and public relations and reactions. The purpose of this presentation is to (1) promote an awareness among the waste management community of fire protection engineering aspects that must be considered for inactive/surplus contaminated structures, and (2) present to the fire protection community an opportunity to become involved in the decommissioning process while promoting the DOE objectives to manage the risks associated with these structures.

  20. Historical dominance of low-severity fire in dry and wet mixed-conifer forest habitats of the endangered terrestrial Jemez Mountains salamander (Plethodon neomexicanus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Margolis, Ellis; Malevich, Steven B.

    2016-01-01

    Anthropogenic alteration of ecosystem processes confounds forest management and conservation of rare, declining species. Restoration of forest structure and fire hazard reduction are central goals of forest management policy in the western United States, but restoration priorities and treatments have become increasingly contentious. Numerous studies have documented changes in fire regimes, forest stand structure and species composition following a century of fire exclusion in dry, frequent-fire forests of the western U.S. (e.g., ponderosa pine and dry mixed-conifer). In contrast, wet mixed-conifer forests are thought to have historically burned infrequently with mixed- or high-severity fire—resulting in reduced impacts from fire exclusion and low restoration need—but data are limited. In this study we quantified the current forest habitat of the federally endangered, terrestrial Jemez Mountains salamander (Plethodon neomexicanus) and compared it to dendroecological reconstructions of historical habitat (e.g., stand structure and composition), and fire regime parameters along a gradient from upper ponderosa pine to wet mixed-conifer forests. We found that current fire-free intervals in Jemez Mountains salamander habitat (116–165 years) are significantly longer than historical intervals, even in wet mixed-conifer forests. Historical mean fire intervals ranged from 10 to 42 years along the forest gradient. Low-severity fires were historically dominant across all forest types (92 of 102 fires). Although some mixed- or highseverity fire historically occurred at 67% of the plots over the last four centuries, complete mortality within 1.0 ha plots was rare, and asynchronous within and among sites. Climate was an important driver of temporal variability in fire severity, such that mixed- and high-severity fires were associated with more extreme drought than low-severity fires. Tree density in dry conifer forests historically ranged from open (90 trees/ha) to

  1. Fire Detection Organizing Questions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Verified models of fire precursor transport in low and partial gravity: a. Development of models for large-scale transport in reduced gravity. b. Validated CFD simulations of transport of fire precursors. c. Evaluation of the effect of scale on transport and reduced gravity fires. Advanced fire detection system for gaseous and particulate pre-fire and fire signaturesa: a. Quantification of pre-fire pyrolysis products in microgravity. b. Suite of gas and particulate sensors. c. Reduced gravity evaluation of candidate detector technologies. d. Reduced gravity verification of advanced fire detection system. e. Validated database of fire and pre-fire signatures in low and partial gravity.

  2. Do insect outbreaks reduce the severity of subsequent forest fires?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meigs, Garrett W.; Zald, Harold S. J.; Campbell, John L.; Keeton, William S.; Kennedy, Robert E.

    2016-04-01

    Understanding the causes and consequences of rapid environmental change is an essential scientific frontier, particularly given the threat of climate- and land use-induced changes in disturbance regimes. In western North America, recent widespread insect outbreaks and wildfires have sparked acute concerns about potential insect–fire interactions. Although previous research shows that insect activity typically does not increase wildfire likelihood, key uncertainties remain regarding insect effects on wildfire severity (i.e., ecological impact). Recent assessments indicate that outbreak severity and burn severity are not strongly associated, but these studies have been limited to specific insect or fire events. Here, we present a regional census of large wildfire severity following outbreaks of two prevalent bark beetle and defoliator species, mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) and western spruce budworm (Choristoneura freemani), across the US Pacific Northwest. We first quantify insect effects on burn severity with spatial modeling at the fire event scale and then evaluate how these effects vary across the full population of insect–fire events (n = 81 spanning 1987–2011). In contrast to common assumptions of positive feedbacks, we find that insects generally reduce the severity of subsequent wildfires. Specific effects vary with insect type and timing, but both insects decrease the abundance of live vegetation susceptible to wildfire at multiple time lags. By dampening subsequent burn severity, native insects could buffer rather than exacerbate fire regime changes expected due to land use and climate change. In light of these findings, we recommend a precautionary approach when designing and implementing forest management policies intended to reduce wildfire hazard and increase resilience to global change.

  3. Do insect outbreaks reduce the severity of subsequent forest fires?

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Meigs, Garrett W.; Zald, Harold S. J.; Campbell, John L.; Keeton, William S.; Kennedy, Robert E.

    2016-04-21

    In this study, we Understand the causes and consequences of rapid environmental change is an essential scientific frontier, particularly given the threat of climate-and land use-induced changes in disturbance regimes. In western North America, recent widespread insect outbreaks and wildfires have sparked acute concerns about potential insect-fire interactions. Although previous research shows that insect activity typically does not increase wildfire likelihood, key uncertainties remain regarding insect effects on wildfire severity (i.e., ecological impact). Recent assessments indicate that outbreak severity and burn severity are not strongly associated, but these studies have been limited to specific insect or fire events. Here, wemore » present a regional census of large wildfire severity following outbreaks of two prevalent bark beetle and defoliator species, mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) and western spruce budworm (Choristoneura freemani), across the US Pacific Northwest. Wefirst quantify insect effects on burn severity with spatial modeling at the fire event scale and then evaluate how these effects vary across the full population of insect-fire events (n = 81 spanning 1987-2011). In contrast to common assumptions of positive feedbacks, we find that insects generally reduce the severity of subsequent wildfires. Specific effects vary with insect type and timing, but both insects decrease the abundance of live vegetation susceptible to wildfire at multiple time lags. By dampening subsequent burn severity, native insects could buffer rather than exacerbate fire regime changes expected due to land use and climate change. In light of these findings, we recommend a precautionary approach when designing and implementing forest management policies intended to reduce wildfire hazard and increase resilience to global change.« less

  4. IDENTIFICATION OF AIRCRAFT HAZARDS

    SciTech Connect

    K.L. Ashley

    2005-03-23

    Aircraft hazards were determined to be potentially applicable to a repository at Yucca Mountain in the ''Monitored Geological Repository External Events Hazards Screening Analysis'' (BSC 2004, Section 6.4.1). That determination was conservatively based on limited knowledge of flight data in the area of concern and on crash data for aircraft of the type flying near Yucca Mountain. The purpose of this report is to identify specific aircraft hazards that may be applicable to a Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) at Yucca Mountain using NUREG-0800, ''Standard Review Plan for the Review of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants'' (NRC 1987, Section 3.5.1.6), as guidance for the inclusion or exclusion of identified aircraft hazards. NUREG-0800 is being used here as a reference because some of the same considerations apply. The intended use of this report is to provide inputs for further screening and analysis of the identified aircraft hazards based on the criteria that apply to Category 1 and 2 event sequence analyses as defined in 10 CFR 63.2 (see Section 4). The scope of this technical report includes the evaluation of military, private, and commercial use of airspace in the 100-mile regional setting of the MGR at Yucca Mountain with the potential for reducing the regional setting to a more manageable size after consideration of applicable screening criteria (see Section 7).

  5. Identification of Aircraft Hazards

    SciTech Connect

    K. Ashley

    2006-12-08

    Aircraft hazards were determined to be potentially applicable to a repository at Yucca Mountain in ''Monitored Geological Repository External Events Hazards Screening Analysis'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 174235], Section 6.4.1). That determination was conservatively based upon limited knowledge of flight data in the area of concern and upon crash data for aircraft of the type flying near Yucca Mountain. The purpose of this report is to identify specific aircraft hazards that may be applicable to a monitored geologic repository (MGR) at Yucca Mountain, using NUREG-0800, ''Standard Review Plan for the Review of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants'' (NRC 1987 [DIRS 103124], Section 3.5.1.6), as guidance for the inclusion or exclusion of identified aircraft hazards. The intended use of this report is to provide inputs for further screening and analysis of identified aircraft hazards based upon the criteria that apply to Category 1 and Category 2 event sequence analyses as defined in 10 CFR 63.2 [DIRS 176544] (Section 4). The scope of this report includes the evaluation of military, private, and commercial use of airspace in the 100-mile regional setting of the repository at Yucca Mountain with the potential for reducing the regional setting to a more manageable size after consideration of applicable screening criteria (Section 7).

  6. 46 CFR 194.20-7 - Fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fire protection. 194.20-7 Section 194.20-7 Shipping..., AND CONTROL OF EXPLOSIVES AND OTHER HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Chemical Stores and/or Storerooms § 194.20-7 Fire protection. (a) Each chemical storeroom shall be protected by a fixed automatic carbon...

  7. 46 CFR 194.20-7 - Fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fire protection. 194.20-7 Section 194.20-7 Shipping..., AND CONTROL OF EXPLOSIVES AND OTHER HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Chemical Stores and/or Storerooms § 194.20-7 Fire protection. (a) Each chemical storeroom shall be protected by a fixed automatic carbon...

  8. Oregon Fires

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-15

    article title:  Smoke Plumes from the B&B Complex Fires, Oregon     ... The results indicate that the tops of the two main plumes originating from the B&B complex differ in altitude by about 1-2 ... The  animation  depicts a "multi-angle fly-over" of the plumes, and was generated using red-band data from MISR's vertical and ...

  9. Identifying the location of fire refuges in wet forest ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Berry, Laurence E; Driscoll, Don A; Stein, John A; Blanchard, Wade; Banks, Sam C; Bradstock, Ross A; Lindenmayer, David B

    2015-12-01

    The increasing frequency of large, high-severity fires threatens the survival of old-growth specialist fauna in fire-prone forests. Within topographically diverse montane forests, areas that experience less severe or fewer fires compared with those prevailing in the landscape may present unique resource opportunities enabling old-growth specialist fauna to survive. Statistical landscape models that identify the extent and distribution of potential fire refuges may assist land managers to incorporate these areas into relevant biodiversity conservation strategies. We used a case study in an Australian wet montane forest to establish how predictive fire simulation models can be interpreted as management tools to identify potential fire refuges. We examined the relationship between the probability of fire refuge occurrence as predicted by an existing fire refuge model and fire severity experienced during a large wildfire. We also examined the extent to which local fire severity was influenced by fire severity in the surrounding landscape. We used a combination of statistical approaches, including generalized linear modeling, variogram analysis, and receiver operating characteristics and area under the curve analysis (ROC AUC). We found that the amount of unburned habitat and the factors influencing the retention and location of fire refuges varied with fire conditions. Under extreme fire conditions, the distribution of fire refuges was limited to only extremely sheltered, fire-resistant regions of the landscape. During extreme fire conditions, fire severity patterns were largely determined by stochastic factors that could not be predicted by the model. When fire conditions were moderate, physical landscape properties appeared to mediate fire severity distribution. Our study demonstrates that land managers can employ predictive landscape fire models to identify the broader climatic and spatial domain within which fire refuges are likely to be present. It is essential

  10. DynCorp Tricities Services, Inc. Hanford fire department FY 1998 annual work plan

    SciTech Connect

    Good, D.E.

    1997-08-19

    The mission of the Hanford Fire Department (HFD) is to support the safe and timely cleanup of the Hanford site by providing fire suppression, fire prevention, emergency rescue, emergency medical service, and hazardous materials response; and to be capable of dealing with and terminating emergency situations which could threaten the operations, employees, or interest of the U.S. Department of Energy operated Hanford site. This includes response to surrounding fire departments/districts under mutual aid and state mobilization agreements and fire fighting, hazardous materials, and ambulance support to Washington Public Power Supply System (Supply System) and various commercial entities operating on site through Requests for Service from DOE-RL. This fire department also provides site fire marshal overview authority, fire system testing and maintenance, respiratory protection services, building tours and inspections, ignitable and reactive waste site inspections, prefire planning, and employee fire prevention education. This plan provides a program overview, program baselines, and schedule baseline.

  11. A Statistical Analysis of Automated and Manually Detected Fires Using Environmental Satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruminski, M. G.; McNamara, D.

    2003-12-01

    The National Environmental Satellite and Data Information Service (NESDIS) of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has been producing an analysis of fires and smoke over the US since 1998. This product underwent significant enhancement in June 2002 with the introduction of the Hazard Mapping System (HMS), an interactive workstation based system that displays environmental satellite imagery (NOAA Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES), NOAA Polar Operational Environmental Satellite (POES) and National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) MODIS data) and fire detects from the automated algorithms for each of the satellite sensors. The focus of this presentation is to present statistics compiled on the fire detects since November 2002. The Automated Biomass Burning Algorithm (ABBA) detects fires using GOES East and GOES West imagery. The Fire Identification, Mapping and Monitoring Algorithm (FIMMA) utilizes NOAA POES 15/16/17 imagery and the MODIS algorithm uses imagery from the MODIS instrument on the Terra and Aqua spacecraft. The HMS allows satellite analysts to inspect and interrogate the automated fire detects and the input satellite imagery. The analyst can then delete those detects that are felt to be false alarms and/or add fire points that the automated algorithms have not selected. Statistics are compiled for the number of automated detects from each of the algorithms, the number of automated detects that are deleted and the number of fire points added by the analyst for the contiguous US and immediately adjacent areas of Mexico and Canada. There is no attempt to distinguish between wildfires and control or agricultural fires. A detailed explanation of the automated algorithms is beyond the scope of this presentation. However, interested readers can find a more thorough description by going to www.ssd.noaa.gov/PS/FIRE/hms.html and scrolling down to Individual Fire Layers. For the period November 2002 thru August

  12. Climate-Induced Wildland Fires in the Wildland-Urban Interface (WUI) and their Aftereffects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCalla, M. R.

    2006-12-01

    , business, and recreation area closures within the WUI. Displaced property owners and workers are another result of climate- and drought- induced wildland fires. Ecosystems are particularly vulnerable to these types of wildland fires. Habitat losses can occur, and soil fertility can be compromised. Air and water quality also suffers during and after a wildland fire. As a result, the health of habitats and the organisms (humans, animals, flora, etc.) within, downwind, and downstream of those habitats is also at risk. Thus, within the WUI, climate, potential climate changes, drought, and wildland fires weave a complex web whose filaments form a network through which commercial, environmental, and human impacts may reverberate. Therefore, limiting the discussion to climate, potential changes in climate, drought, and the associated WUI fire hazard may be short-sighted without equal consideration to the long-term personal, commercial, and environmental impacts which may result. This presentation will (1) document the close linkages between climate, changes in climate, drought, and WUI fires, (2) focus on the repercussions of the interconnectedness between climate, drought, and WUI fires, and (3) present a holistic approach to considering climate, potential climate changes, drought, WUI fires, and the possible environmental, social, economic, and human-health consequences.

  13. 46 CFR 161.002-2 - Types of fire-protective systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., but not be limited to, automatic fire and smoke detecting systems, manual fire alarm systems, sample...) Automatic fire detecting systems. For the purpose of this subpart, automatic fire and smoke detecting... unit, fire detectors, smoke detectors, and audible and visual alarms distinct in both respects from...

  14. 46 CFR 161.002-2 - Types of fire-protective systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., but not be limited to, automatic fire and smoke detecting systems, manual fire alarm systems, sample...) Automatic fire detecting systems. For the purpose of this subpart, automatic fire and smoke detecting... unit, fire detectors, smoke detectors, and audible and visual alarms distinct in both respects from...

  15. 46 CFR 161.002-2 - Types of fire-protective systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., but not be limited to, automatic fire and smoke detecting systems, manual fire alarm systems, sample...) Automatic fire detecting systems. For the purpose of this subpart, automatic fire and smoke detecting... unit, fire detectors, smoke detectors, and audible and visual alarms distinct in both respects from...

  16. 46 CFR 161.002-2 - Types of fire-protective systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., but not be limited to, automatic fire and smoke detecting systems, manual fire alarm systems, sample...) Automatic fire detecting systems. For the purpose of this subpart, automatic fire and smoke detecting... unit, fire detectors, smoke detectors, and audible and visual alarms distinct in both respects from...

  17. 46 CFR 161.002-2 - Types of fire-protective systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., but not be limited to, automatic fire and smoke detecting systems, manual fire alarm systems, sample...) Automatic fire detecting systems. For the purpose of this subpart, automatic fire and smoke detecting... unit, fire detectors, smoke detectors, and audible and visual alarms distinct in both respects from...

  18. Hazards Control Department annual technology review, 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Griffith, R.V.; Anderson, K.J.

    1988-07-01

    This document describes some of the research performed in the LLNL Hazards Control Department from October 1986 to September 1987. The sections in the Annual report cover scientific concerns in the areas of Health Physics, Industrial Hygiene, Industrial Safety, Aerosol Science, Resource Management, Dosimetry and Radiation Physics, Criticality Safety, and Fire Science. For a broader overview of the types of work performed in the Hazards Control Department, we have also compiled a selection of abstracts of recent publications by Hazards Control employees. Individual reports are processed separately for the data base.

  19. Measurements of a 1/4-scale model of an explosives firing chamber

    SciTech Connect

    Pastrnak, J.W.; Baker, C.F.; Simmons, L.F.

    1995-01-27

    In anticipation of increasingly stringent environmental regulations, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) proposes to construct a 60-kg firing chamber to provide blast-effects containment for most of its open-air, high-explosive, firing operations. Even though these operations are within current environmental limits, containment of the blast effects and hazardous debris will further drastically reduce emissions to the environment and minimize the generated hazardous waste. The major design consideration of such a chamber is its overall structural dynamic response in terms of long-term containment of all blast effects from repeated internal detonations of high explosives. Another concern is how much other portions of the facility outside the firing chamber must be hardened to ensure personnel protection in the event of an accidental detonation while the chamber door is open. To assess these concerns, a 1/4-scale replica model of the planned contained firing chamber was designed, constructed, and tested with scaled explosive charges ranging from 25 to 125% of the operational explosives limit of 60 kg. From 16 detonations of high explosives, 880 resulting strains, blast pressures, and temperatures within the model were measured to provide information for the final design. Factors of safety for dynamic yield of the firing chamber structure were calculated and compared to the design criterion of totally elastic response. The rectangular, reinforced-concrete chamber model exhibited a lightly damped vibrational response that placed the structure in alternating cycles of tension and compression. During compression, both the reinforcing steel and the concrete remained elastic.

  20. Effects of Pre-Fire Fuels Treatments on Post-Fire Burn Severity on the 2007 Fires in the Northern Rocky Mountains, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudak, A. T.; Morgan, P.; Robichaud, P. R.; Lewis, S. A.; Evans, J. S.

    2007-12-01

    Climate change may be contributing to regional warming and drying trends that are increasing the size and severity of wildfires. Regardless if climate is a factor, the escalating costs of fire suppression and post-fire rehabilitation on the many large fires of recent decades have driven a national effort to reduce hazardous fuels across large areas, particularly those in the wildland-urban interface (WUI). Nationally, concern is especially focused on the numerous large wildfires currently burning in the Northern Rocky Mountains with a need for rapid science-based assessment of burn severity, even as fires and fire suppression efforts continue. Our objective is to assess if and how well various fuels reduction treatments applied pre-fire mitigated burn severity measured in the field immediately post-fire. We will obtain data from the incident command teams, including fire weather, daily fire progression maps, and where strategic and tactical fire suppression measures were applied. Location and type of fuels treatment as well as data on local vegetation type, structure, and fuels will be obtained from local management agencies and national databases. We will pair our sampled field plots in treated and burned areas with those not treated and burned in similar stand and topographic conditions across three or more large forest fires. Our analysis is both quantitative and qualitative, and linked with efforts to assess fuel treatment effects on fire behavior and ease of fire suppression. We report specifically on whether various fuels treatments are mitigating fire effects on soil (e.g., char, percent exposed, infiltration rate, water repellency) and vegetation (e.g., scorch, tree mortality, understory abundance, recovery). We discuss which fuels treatments work and which do not work, and the extent to which fire weather and other factors beyond the control of fire managers may determine whether or not fuels treatments are effectively mitigating severe fire effects.

  1. Zaca Fire

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    On August 7, 2007, the Zaca fire continued to burn in the Los Padres National Forest near Santa Barbara, California. The fire started more than a month ago, on July 4, and has burned 69,800 acres. The fire remains in steep, rocky terrain with poor access. The continued poor access makes containment difficult in the wilderness area on the eastern flank. So far only one outbuilding has been destroyed; but over 450 homes are currently threatened. Over 2300 fire personnel, aided by four air tankers and 15 helicopters, are working to contain this massive fire. Full containment is expected on September 1.

    The image covers 45.2 x 46.1 km, and is centered near 34.6 degrees north latitude, 119.7 degrees west longitude.

    With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra spacecraft. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER provides scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission

  2. Moral hazard.

    PubMed

    Chambers, David W

    2009-01-01

    Civil societies set aside a common pool of resources to help those with whom chance has dealt harshly. Frequently we allow access to these common resources when bad luck is assisted by foolishness and lack of foresight. Sometimes we may even help ourselves to a few of those common assets since others are doing so and they are public goods, the cost of which is shared and has already been paid. Moral hazard is the questionable ethical practice of increasing opportunity for individual gain while shifting risk for loss to the group. Bailout is an example. What makes moral hazard so widespread and difficult to manage is that it is easier for individuals to see their advantage than it is for groups to see theirs. Runaway American healthcare costs can be explained in these terms. Cheating, overtreatment, commercialism, and other moral problems in dentistry can be traced to the interaction between opportunistic individual behavior and permissive group responses common in moral hazard. PMID:19928367

  3. 49 CFR 176.69 - General stowage requirements for hazardous materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... equipped with a fixed fire extinguishing and fire detection system, the freight containers or barges need... (miscellaneous hazardous) materials) must be stowed in a manner that will facilitate inspection during the voyage, their removal from a potentially dangerous situation, and the removal of packages in case of fire....

  4. 49 CFR 176.69 - General stowage requirements for hazardous materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... equipped with a fixed fire extinguishing and fire detection system, the freight containers or barges need... (miscellaneous hazardous) materials) must be stowed in a manner that will facilitate inspection during the voyage, their removal from a potentially dangerous situation, and the removal of packages in case of fire....

  5. 49 CFR 176.69 - General stowage requirements for hazardous materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... equipped with a fixed fire extinguishing and fire detection system, the freight containers or barges need... (miscellaneous hazardous) materials) must be stowed in a manner that will facilitate inspection during the voyage, their removal from a potentially dangerous situation, and the removal of packages in case of fire....

  6. 49 CFR 176.69 - General stowage requirements for hazardous materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... equipped with a fixed fire extinguishing and fire detection system, the freight containers or barges need... (miscellaneous hazardous) materials) must be stowed in a manner that will facilitate inspection during the voyage, their removal from a potentially dangerous situation, and the removal of packages in case of fire....

  7. REFINING FIRE EMISSIONS FOR AIR QUALITY MODELING WITH REMOTELY-SENSED FIRE COUNTS: A WILDFIRE CASE STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper examines the use of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) observed active fire data (pixel counts) to refine the National Emissions Inventory (NEI) fire emission estimates for major wildfire events. This study was motivated by the extremely limited info...

  8. 14 CFR 29.1187 - Drainage and ventilation of fire zones.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Protection § 29.1187 Drainage and ventilation of fire zones. (a) There must be complete drainage of each part... will cause an additional fire hazard. (e) For category A rotorcraft, there must be means to allow the... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Drainage and ventilation of fire zones....

  9. Fire safety of LPG in marine transportation

    SciTech Connect

    Martinsen, W.E.; Johnson, D.W.; Welker, J.R.

    1980-08-01

    This report contains an analytical examination of cargo spill and fire hazard potential associated with the marine handling of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) as cargo. Principal emphasis was on cargo transfer operations for ships unloading at receiving terminals, and barges loading or unloading at a terminal. Major safety systems, including emergency shutdown systems, hazard detection systems, and fire extinguishment and control systems were included in the analysis. Spill probabilities were obtained from fault tree analyses utilizing composite LPG tank ship and barge designs. Failure rates for hardware in the analyses were generally taken from historical data on similar generic classes of hardware, there being very little historical data on the specific items involved. Potential consequences of cargo spills of various sizes are discussed and compared to actual LPG vapor cloud incidents. The usefulness of hazard mitigation systems (particularly dry chemical fire extinguishers and water spray systems) in controlling the hazards posed by LPG spills and spill fires is also discussed. The analysis estimates the probability of fatality for a terminal operator is about 10/sup -6/ to 10/sup -5/ per cargo transfer operation. The probability of fatality for the general public is substantially less.

  10. Fire Safety Training Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montgomery County Dept. of Fire and Rescue Services, Rockville, MD. Div. of Fire Prevention.

    Designed for a community fire education effort, particularly in which local volunteers present general information on fire safety to their fellow citizens, this workbook contains nine lessons. Included are an overview of the household fire problem; instruction in basic chemistry and physics of fire, flammable liquids, portable fire extinguishers,…

  11. Fire Protection for Buildings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edmunds, Jane

    1972-01-01

    Reviews attack on fire safety in high rise buildings made by a group of experts representing the iron and steel industry at a recent conference. According to one expert, fire problems are people oriented, which calls for emphasis on fire prevention rather than reliance on fire suppression and for fire pretection to be built into a structure.…

  12. FIRE ALARM SYSTEM OUTDATED.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CHANDLER, L.T.

    AN EFFICIENT FIRE ALARM SYSTEM SHOULD--(1) PROVIDE WARNING OF FIRES THAT START IN HIDDEN OR UNOCCUPIED LOCATIONS, (2) INDICATE WHERE THE FIRE IS, (3) GIVE ADVANCE WARNING TO FACULTY AND ADMINISTRATION SO THAT PANIC AND CONFUSION CAN BE AVOIDED AND ORDERLY EVACUATION OCCUR, (4) AUTOMATICALLY NOTIFY CITY FIRE HEADQUARTERS OF THE FIRE, (5) OPERATE BY…

  13. 46 CFR 28.315 - Fire pumps, fire mains, fire hydrants, and fire hoses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... After September 15, 1991, and That Operate With More Than 16 Individuals on Board § 28.315 Fire pumps, fire mains, fire hydrants, and fire hoses. (a) Each vessel 36 feet (11.8 meters) or more in length must... fire pump on a vessel 79 feet (24 meters) or more in length must be capable of delivering...

  14. 46 CFR 28.315 - Fire pumps, fire mains, fire hydrants, and fire hoses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... After September 15, 1991, and That Operate With More Than 16 Individuals on Board § 28.315 Fire pumps, fire mains, fire hydrants, and fire hoses. (a) Each vessel 36 feet (11.8 meters) or more in length must... fire pump on a vessel 79 feet (24 meters) or more in length must be capable of delivering...

  15. 29 CFR Appendix A to Subpart L of... - Fire Protection

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... defined as the ratio of the contaminant concentrations outside of the respirator to the contaminant... workplaces, pose a greater hazard to employees; they can produce greater exposure to quantities of smoke... necessary to abandon fire fighting efforts. In recognition of the degree of hazard present in the two...

  16. 33 CFR 127.1507 - Water systems for fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Water systems for fire protection. 127.1507 Section 127.1507 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... HAZARDOUS GAS Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Hazardous Gas Firefighting Equipment § 127.1507...

  17. Risk assessment compatible fire models (RACFMs)

    SciTech Connect

    Lopez, A.R.; Gritzo, L.A.; Sherman, M.P.

    1998-07-01

    A suite of Probabilistic Risk Assessment Compatible Fire Models (RACFMs) has been developed to represent the hazard posed by a pool fire to weapon systems transported on the B52-H aircraft. These models represent both stand-off (i.e., the weapon system is outside of the flame zone but exposed to the radiant heat load from fire) and fully-engulfing scenarios (i.e., the object is fully covered by flames). The approach taken in developing the RACFMs for both scenarios was to consolidate, reconcile, and apply data and knowledge from all available resources including: data and correlations from the literature, data from an extensive full-scale fire test program at the Naval Air Warfare Center (NAWC) at China Lake, and results from a fire field model (VULCAN). In the past, a single, effective temperature, T{sub f}, was used to represent the fire. The heat flux to an object exposed to a fire was estimated using the relationship for black body radiation, {sigma}T{sub f}{sup 4}. Significant improvements have been made by employing the present approach which accounts for the presence of temperature distributions in fully-engulfing fires, and uses best available correlations to estimate heat fluxes in stand-off scenarios.

  18. Transportation of hazardous materials

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-07-01

    This report discusses the following: data and information systems for hazardous-materials; containers for hazardous-materials transportation; hazardous-materials transportation regulation; and training for hazardous-materials transportation enforcement and emergency response.

  19. Underground Coal-Fires in Xinjiang, China: Assessment of Fire Dynamics from Surface Measurements and Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wuttke, Manfred W.; Zeng, Qiang; Tanner, David C.; Halisch, Matthias; Cai, Zhong-yong; Wang, Chunli

    2013-04-01

    Spontaneous uncontrolled coal seam fires are a well known phenomenon that causes severe environmental problems and severe impact on natural coal reserves. Coal fires are a worldwide phenomenon, but in particular in Xinjiang, that covers 17.3 % of Chinas area and hosts approx 42 % of its coal resources. The Xinjiang Coalfield Fire Fighting Bureau (XJCFB) has developed technologies and methods to deal with any known fire. Many fires have been extinguished already, but the problem is still there if not even growing. This problem is not only a problem for China due to the loss of valuable energy resources, but it is also a worldwide threat because of the generation of substantial amounts of greenhouse gases. In this contribution we describe the latest results from a new conjoint project between China and Germany where on the basis of field investigations and laboratory measurements realistic dynamical models of fire-zones are constructed to increase the understanding of particular coal-fires, to interpret the surface signatures of the coal-fire in terms of location and propagation and to estimate the output of hazardous exhaust products to evaluate the economic benefit of fire extinction. For two exemplary fire-locations, coarse digital terrain models have been produced. These models serve as basis for a detailed surface exploration by terrestrial laser scanning which shall deliver a detailed fracture inventory. Samples of rock and coal have been taken in the field and are characterized in LIAG's petrophysical laboratory in terms of transport properties. All these data serve as input for our detailed numerical fire models. Repeated measurements of the surface changes together with thermal images reveal the dynamics of fire propagation. The numerical models are calibrated by such data and can later be used to quantify the emissions from such a fire zone.

  20. Pinellas Plant contingency plan for the hazardous waste management facility

    SciTech Connect

    1988-04-01

    Subpart D of Part 264 (264.50 through .56) of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) regulations require that each facility maintain a contingency plan detailing procedures to {open_quotes}minimize hazards to human health or the environment from fires, explosions, or any unplanned sudden or non-sudden release of hazardous waste or hazardous waste constituents to air, soil, or surface water.{close_quotes}

  1. Home Fires Involving Grills

    MedlinePlus

    ... fires were fueled by gas while 13% used charcoal or other solid fuel. Gas grills were involved ... structure fires and 4,300 outdoor fires annually. Charcoal or other solid-fueled grills were involved in ...

  2. Fire safety at home

    MedlinePlus

    ... over the smoke alarm as needed. Using a fire extinguisher can put out a small fire to keep it from getting out of control. Tips for use include: Keep fire extinguishers in handy locations, at least one on ...

  3. Home Fires Involving Grills

    MedlinePlus

    ... per year, including an average of 3,900 structure fires and 5,100 outside fires. These 8, ... property damage.  Almost all the losses resulted from structure fires.  July was the peak month for grill ...

  4. Measurements of a 1/4-scale model of a 60-kg explosives firing chamber

    SciTech Connect

    Pastrnak, J.W.; Baker, C.F.; Simmons, L.F.

    1995-01-27

    In anticipation of increasingly stringent environmental regulations, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) proposes to construct a 60-kg firing chamber to provide blast-effects containment for, most of its open-air, high-explosive, firing operations. Even though these operations are within current environmental limits, containment of the blast effects and hazardous debris will further drastically reduce emissions to the environment and minimize the generated hazardous waste. The major design consideration of such a chamber is its overall structural dynamic response in terms of long-term containment of all blast effects from repeated internal detonations of high explosives. Another concern is how much other portions of the facility must be hardened to ensure personnel protection in the event of an accidental detonation. To assess these concerns, a 1/4-scale replica model of the planned contained firing chamber was designed, constructed, and tested with scaled explosive charges ranging from 25 to 125% of the operational explosives limit of 60 kg. From 16 detonations of high explosives, 880 resulting strains, blast pressures, and temperatures within the model were measured. Factors of safety for dynamic yield of the firing chamber structure were calculated and compared to the design criterion of totally elastic response. The rectangular, reinforced-concrete chamber model exhibited a lightly damped vibrational response that placed the structure in alternating cycles of tension and compression. During compression, both the reinforcing steel and the concrete remained elastic. During tension, the reinforcing steel remained elastic, but the concrete elastic limit was exceeded in two areas, the center spans of the ceiling and the north wall, where elastic safety factors as low as 0.66 were obtained, thus indicating that the concrete would be expected to crack in those areas. Indeed, visual post-test inspection of those areas revealed tight cracks in the concrete.

  5. The prevention of fire in the air

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warner, Edward P

    1922-01-01

    On an airplane, the safeguards adopted may be divided into three classes, those intended to prevent a fire from getting started, those intended to put it out if it does get under way, and, finally, those designed to limit the damage which a fire can do.

  6. Modelling Fire Frequency in a Cerrado Savanna Protected Area

    PubMed Central

    Pereira Júnior, Alfredo C.; Oliveira, Sofia L. J.; Pereira, José M. C.; Turkman, Maria Antónia Amaral

    2014-01-01

    Covering almost a quarter of Brazil, the Cerrado is the world’s most biologically rich tropical savanna. Fire is an integral part of the Cerrado but current land use and agricultural practices have been changing fire regimes, with undesirable consequences for the preservation of biodiversity. In this study, fire frequency and fire return intervals were modelled over a 12-year time series (1997–2008) for the Jalapão State Park, a protected area in the north of the Cerrado, based on burned area maps derived from Landsat imagery. Burned areas were classified using object based image analysis. Fire data were modelled with the discrete lognormal model and the estimated parameters were used to calculate fire interval, fire survival and hazard of burning distributions, for seven major land cover types. Over the study period, an area equivalent to four times the size of Jalapão State Park burned and the mean annual area burned was 34%. Median fire intervals were generally short, ranging from three to six years. Shrub savannas had the shortest fire intervals, and dense woodlands the longest. Because fires in the Cerrado are strongly responsive to fuel age in the first three to four years following a fire, early dry season patch mosaic burning may be used to reduce the extent of area burned and the severity of fire effects. PMID:25054540

  7. Modelling fire frequency in a Cerrado savanna protected area.

    PubMed

    Pereira Júnior, Alfredo C; Oliveira, Sofia L J; Pereira, José M C; Turkman, Maria Antónia Amaral

    2014-01-01

    Covering almost a quarter of Brazil, the Cerrado is the world's most biologically rich tropical savanna. Fire is an integral part of the Cerrado but current land use and agricultural practices have been changing fire regimes, with undesirable consequences for the preservation of biodiversity. In this study, fire frequency and fire return intervals were modelled over a 12-year time series (1997-2008) for the Jalapão State Park, a protected area in the north of the Cerrado, based on burned area maps derived from Landsat imagery. Burned areas were classified using object based image analysis. Fire data were modelled with the discrete lognormal model and the estimated parameters were used to calculate fire interval, fire survival and hazard of burning distributions, for seven major land cover types. Over the study period, an area equivalent to four times the size of Jalapão State Park burned and the mean annual area burned was 34%. Median fire intervals were generally short, ranging from three to six years. Shrub savannas had the shortest fire intervals, and dense woodlands the longest. Because fires in the Cerrado are strongly responsive to fuel age in the first three to four years following a fire, early dry season patch mosaic burning may be used to reduce the extent of area burned and the severity of fire effects. PMID:25054540

  8. No evidence of increased fire risk due to agricultural land abandonment in Sardinia (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ricotta, C.; Guglietta, D.; Migliozzi, A.

    2012-05-01

    Different land cover types are related to different levels of fire hazard through their vegetation structure and fuel load composition. Therefore, understanding the relationships between landscape changes and fire behavior is of crucial importance for developing adequate fire fighting and fire prevention strategies for a changing world. In the last decades the abandonment of agricultural lands and pastoral activities has been the major driver of landscape transformations in Mediterranean Europe. As agricultural land abandonment typically promotes an increase in plant biomass (fuel load), a number of authors argue that vegetation succession in abandoned fields and pastures is expected to increase fire hazard. In this short paper, based on 28 493 fires in Sardinia (Italy) in the period 2001-2010, we show that there is no evidence of increased probability of fire ignition in abandoned rural areas. To the contrary, in Sardinia the decreased human impact associated with agricultural land abandonment leads to a statistically significant decrease of fire ignition probability.

  9. Issues in Numerical Simulation of Fire Suppression

    SciTech Connect

    Tieszen, S.R.; Lopez, A.R.

    1999-04-12

    This paper outlines general physical and computational issues associated with performing numerical simulation of fire suppression. Fire suppression encompasses a broad range of chemistry and physics over a large range of time and length scales. The authors discuss the dominant physical/chemical processes important to fire suppression that must be captured by a fire suppression model to be of engineering usefulness. First-principles solutions are not possible due to computational limitations, even with the new generation of tera-flop computers. A basic strategy combining computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation techniques with sub-grid model approximations for processes that have length scales unresolvable by gridding is presented.

  10. Fire control apparatus for a laser weapon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Worsham, R. H.

    1985-10-01

    This patent application discloses a laser weapon fire control computer apparatus for responding in real time to the escort/threat scenario that confronts the weapon. The fire control computer apparatus compares the threat data with stored predicted scenarios to develop a firing strategy menu which takes into account the fact that the laser energy is instantaneously propagated to the target but requires a substantial amount of time to inflict damage. The fire control computer apparatus utilizes the weapon's status, dwell time, slow time and fuel limits to yield a weapon pointing sequence and weapon on-off times.

  11. Ecology: human role in Russian wild fires.

    PubMed

    Mollicone, Danilo; Eva, Hugh D; Achard, Frédéric

    2006-03-23

    Anomalies in temperature and precipitation in northern Russia over the past few years have been viewed as manifestations of anthropogenic climate change, prompting suggestions that this may also account for exceptional forest fires in the region. Here we examine the number of forest-fire events across the boreal Russian Federation for the period 2002 to 2005 in 'intact' forests, where human influence is limited, and in 'non-intact' forests, which have been shaped by human activity. Our results show that there were more fires in years during which the weather was anomalous, but that more than 87% of fires in boreal Russia were started by people. PMID:16554800

  12. Modeling of air toxics from hydrocarbon pool fires

    SciTech Connect

    Harvey, K.A.; Aydil, M.L.; Barone, J.B.

    1996-12-31

    While there is guidance for estimating the radiation hazards of fires (ARCHIE), there is little guidance on modeling the dispersion of hazardous materials from fires. The objective of this paper is to provide a review of the methodology used for modeling the impacts of liquid hydrocarbon pool fires. The required input variables for modeling of hydrocarbon pool fires include emission strength, emission duration, and dispersion characteristics. Methods for predicting the products of combustion including the use of literature values, test data, and thermodynamic equilibrium calculations are discussed. The use of energy balances coupled to radiative heat transfer calculations are presented as a method for determining flame temperature. Fire modeling literature is reviewed in order to determine other source release variables such as mass burn rate and duration and flame geometry.

  13. Effect of fire engulfment on thermal response of LPG tanks.

    PubMed

    Bi, Ming-shu; Ren, Jing-jie; Zhao, Bo; Che, Wei

    2011-08-30

    A model has been developed to predict the thermal response of liquefied-pressure gases (LPG) tanks under fire, and three-dimensional numerical simulations were carried out on a horizontal LPG tank which was 60% filled. Comparison between numerical predictions and published experimental data shows close agreement. The attention is focused on the influence of different fire conditions (different fire scenarios, various engulfing degrees and flame temperatures) on thermal response of LPG tanks. Potential hazard probabilities under different fire conditions were discussed by analyzing the maximum wall temperature and media energy after the internal pressure rose to the same value. It is found that the less severe fire scenario and lower engulfing case may lead to a greater probability of burst hazard because of the higher maximum wall temperature and media energy before the pressure relief valve (PRV) opens. PMID:21723662

  14. POST-FIRE REVEGETATION AT HANFORD

    SciTech Connect

    ROOS RC; JOHNSON AR; CAUDILL JG; RODRIGUEZ JM; WILDE JW

    2010-01-05

    Range fires on the Hanford Site can have a long lasting effect on native plant communities. Wind erosion following removal of protective vegetation from fragile soils compound the damaging effect of fires. Dust storms caused by erosion create health and safety hazards to personnel, and damage facilities and equipment. The Integrated Biological Control Program (IBC) revegetates burned areas to control erosion and consequent dust. Use of native, perennial vegetation in revegetation moves the resulting plant community away from fire-prone annual weeds, and toward the native shrub-steppe that is much less likely to burn in the future. Over the past 10 years, IBC has revegetated major fire areas with good success. IBC staff is monitoring the success of these efforts, and using lessons learned to improve future efforts.

  15. Fire clay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Virta, R.L.

    2004-01-01

    Seven companies mined fire clay in four states during 2003. From 1984 to 1992, production declined to 383 kt (422,000 st) from a high of 1.04 Mt (1.14 million st) as markets for clay-based refractories declined. Since 1992, production levels have been erratic, ranging from 383 kt (422,000 st) in 1992 and 2001 to 583 kt (642,000 st) in 1995. Production in 2003, based on preliminary data, was estimated to be around 450 kt (496,000 st) with a value of about $10.5 million. This was about the same as in 2002. Missouri remained the leading producer state, followed by South Carolina, Ohio and California.

  16. On the fluid mechanics of fires

    SciTech Connect

    TIESZEN,SHELDON R.

    2000-02-29

    Fluid mechanics research related to fire is reviewed with focus on canonical flows, multiphysics coupling aspects, experimental and numerical techniques. Fire is a low-speed, chemically-reacting, flow in which buoyancy plans an important role. Fire research has focused on two canonical flows, the reacting boundary-layer and the reacting free plume. There is rich, multi-lateral, bi-directional, coupling among fluid mechanics and scalar transport, combustion, and radiation. There is only a limited experimental fluid-mechanics database for fire due to measurement difficulties in the harsh environment, and the focus within the fire community on thermal/chemical consequences. Increasingly, computational fluid dynamics techniques are being used to provide engineering guidance on thermal/chemical consequences and to study fire phenomenology.

  17. Fire Suppression and Response

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruff, Gary A.

    2004-01-01

    This report is concerned with the following topics regarding fire suppression:What is the relative effectiveness of candidate suppressants to extinguish a representative fire in reduced gravity, including high-O2 mole fraction, low -pressure environments? What are the relative advantages and disadvantages of physically acting and chemically-acting agents in spacecraft fire suppression? What are the O2 mole fraction and absolute pressure below which a fire cannot exist? What effect does gas-phase radiation play in the overall fire and post-fire environments? Are the candidate suppressants effective to extinguish fires on practical solid fuels? What is required to suppress non-flaming fires (smoldering and deep seated fires) in reduced gravity? How can idealized space experiment results be applied to a practical fire scenario? What is the optimal agent deployment strategy for space fire suppression?

  18. Fire environment determination in the LaSalle NPP control room

    SciTech Connect

    Usher, J.L.; Boccio, J.L.; Singhal, A.K.; Tam, L.T.

    1986-01-01

    One objective of NRC's Fire Protection Research Program (FPRP) is to improve the modeling of environments caused by fires in typical nuclear power plant enclosures. A three-dimensional fluid dynamics computer code (PHOENICS) has been adapted as a field-model fire code (SAFFIRE) for this purpose. The model has been applied to simulate two distinct fires in the control room of the LaSalle County power plant. The environments determined illustrate hazardous potential for both personnel and equipment.

  19. The Phoenix series large scale LNG pool fire experiments.

    SciTech Connect

    Simpson, Richard B.; Jensen, Richard Pearson; Demosthenous, Byron; Luketa, Anay Josephine; Ricks, Allen Joseph; Hightower, Marion Michael; Blanchat, Thomas K.; Helmick, Paul H.; Tieszen, Sheldon Robert; Deola, Regina Anne; Mercier, Jeffrey Alan; Suo-Anttila, Jill Marie; Miller, Timothy J.

    2010-12-01

    The increasing demand for natural gas could increase the number and frequency of Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) tanker deliveries to ports across the United States. Because of the increasing number of shipments and the number of possible new facilities, concerns about the potential safety of the public and property from an accidental, and even more importantly intentional spills, have increased. While improvements have been made over the past decade in assessing hazards from LNG spills, the existing experimental data is much smaller in size and scale than many postulated large accidental and intentional spills. Since the physics and hazards from a fire change with fire size, there are concerns about the adequacy of current hazard prediction techniques for large LNG spills and fires. To address these concerns, Congress funded the Department of Energy (DOE) in 2008 to conduct a series of laboratory and large-scale LNG pool fire experiments at Sandia National Laboratories (Sandia) in Albuquerque, New Mexico. This report presents the test data and results of both sets of fire experiments. A series of five reduced-scale (gas burner) tests (yielding 27 sets of data) were conducted in 2007 and 2008 at Sandia's Thermal Test Complex (TTC) to assess flame height to fire diameter ratios as a function of nondimensional heat release rates for extrapolation to large-scale LNG fires. The large-scale LNG pool fire experiments were conducted in a 120 m diameter pond specially designed and constructed in Sandia's Area III large-scale test complex. Two fire tests of LNG spills of 21 and 81 m in diameter were conducted in 2009 to improve the understanding of flame height, smoke production, and burn rate and therefore the physics and hazards of large LNG spills and fires.

  20. A Burning Question: Does Post-Fire Rehabilitation Alter the Likelihood of Future Fires?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowman-Prideaux, C.; Newingham, B. A.

    2013-12-01

    Historically, aridlands have had infrequent fire due to patchy plant distributions, which limit fire spread. However, aridland fire regimes have changed because invasive annual grasses have created continuous fuel beds, which have led to increasingly frequent fires and a greater area burned each decade since the 1970s. Climate change is predicted to further increase the number and size of fires. Post-fire rehabilitation is enacted in order to reestablish plant communities and has the potential to further alter fire regimes. Rehabilitation treatments include tilling seeds using a tractor and drill (drill seeding), dropping seed aerially with helicopters (aerial seeding), or both. Few studies examine the impact of post-fire rehabilitation on the likelihood of future fires in these aridland ecosystems. We examined the effects of post-fire rehabilitation treatments on the number of years before the next fire. Using GIS layers detailing fire history and post-fire rehabilitation treatments in the southern Idaho Great Basin, we extracted information from randomly selected sites and analyzed them with generalized linear models. Preliminary analysis on 43 sites suggests the number of years before the next fire tended to be less in seeded than unseeded sites (P=0.055). Further investigation revealed that the number of years until the next fire differed among seed application methods. Sites that were drill seeded burned approximately 12 years later while sites with combined aerial and drill seeding burned again after 6.5 years (P=0.05). The total number of burns at a site was inversely related to the time before the next fire (P=0.001). After the first fire, sites averaged 17.4 years before the next fire occurred; this decreased with each subsequent fire to 7.1 years after the fifth fire. The number of times a site burned and the rehabilitation treatment interacted to affect the number of years between fires. In sites that burned once, there was on average 27.75 years before

  1. Old Fire/Grand Prix Fire, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    On November 18, 2003, the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite acquired this image of the Old Fire/Grand Prix fire east of Los Angeles. The image is being processed by NASA's Wildfire Response Team and will be sent to the United States Department of Agriculture's Forest Service Remote Sensing Applications Center (RSAC) which provides interpretation services to Burned Area Emergency Response (BAER) teams to assist in mapping the severity of the burned areas. The image combines data from the visible and infrared wavelength regions to highlight the burned areas.

    With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER provides scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.

    Michael Abrams at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), Pasadena, Calif., is the U.S. science team leader; Bjorn Eng of JPL is the project manager. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, a long- term research effort dedicated to

  2. NASA Hazard Analysis Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deckert, George

    2010-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews The NASA Hazard Analysis process. The contents include: 1) Significant Incidents and Close Calls in Human Spaceflight; 2) Subsystem Safety Engineering Through the Project Life Cycle; 3) The Risk Informed Design Process; 4) Types of NASA Hazard Analysis; 5) Preliminary Hazard Analysis (PHA); 6) Hazard Analysis Process; 7) Identify Hazardous Conditions; 8) Consider All Interfaces; 9) Work a Preliminary Hazard List; 10) NASA Generic Hazards List; and 11) Final Thoughts

  3. 43 CFR 423.31 - Fires and flammable material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Fires and flammable material. 423.31... of Conduct § 423.31 Fires and flammable material. (a) You must not leave a fire unattended, and it... not burn materials that produce toxic fumes, including, but not limited to, tires, plastic,...

  4. Environmental protection for hazardous materials incidents

    SciTech Connect

    Barkenbus, B.D.; Carter, R.J.; Dobson, J.E.; Easterly, C.E.; Ogle, P.S.; VanCleave, A.K.

    1990-02-01

    This document was prepared to provide the US Air Force fire protection community with an integrated program for handling hazardous materials (HAZMAT)s and hazardous material incidents. The goal of the project was to define and identify a computer system for the base fire departments that would facilitate hazard assessment and response during HAZMAT emergencies, provide HAZMAT incident management guidelines, and provide a training tool to simulate emergency response during normal times. Site visits to Air Force bases were made to observe existing HAZMAT related organizations, their methods and procedures used in HAZMAT management, and to collect personnel input for the development of the computerized Hazardous Materials Incident Management System (HMIMS). The study concentrated on defining strategic areas of concern to emergency response personnel. Particular emphasis was given to such areas as responsibilities and roles for response agencies; personnel requirements to handle HAZMAT incidents; procedures to follow during HAZMAT incidents and decontamination; personnel evacuation; postincident evaluation and feedback; emergency response personnel participation in installation restoration program; personal protective clothing; mutual air requirements; and training. Future recommendations were made for purchase, use, storage, disposal, and management of HAZMATs during their life cycle on bases and during incidents. This detailed technical report and the HMIMS are expected to meet the integrated HAZMAT program needs primarily of Air Force fire departments and secondarily in other response agencies. 21 figs., 6 tabs.

  5. Wildland fire simulation by WRF-Fire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandel, J.; Beezley, J. D.; Kochanski, A.; Kondratenko, V. Y.; Sousedik, B.

    2010-12-01

    This presentation will give an overview of the principles, algorithms, and features of the coupled atmosphere-wildland fire software WRF-Fire. WRF-Fire consists of a fire-spread model, based on a modified Rothermel's formula implemented by the level-set method, coupled with the Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF). The code has been publicly released with WRF and it is supported by the developers. The WRF infrastructure is used for parallel execution, with additional improvements. In addition to the input of standard atmospheric data, the WRF Preprocessing System (WPS) has been extended for the input of high-resolution topography and fuel data. The fuel models can be easily modified by the user. The components of the wind and of the terrain gradient are interpolated to the fire model mesh by accurate formulas which respect grid staggering. Ignition models include point, drip-torch line, and, in near future, a developed fire perimeter from standard web sources, with an atmosphere spin-up. Companion presentations will describe a validation on the FireFlux experiment, and a simulation of a real wildland fire in a terrain with sharp gradients. This work was supported by NSF grants CNS-0719641 and ATM-0835579. Simulation of the FireFlux grass fire experiment (Clements et al., 2007) in WRF-Fire.

  6. FIRE SERVICE TRAINING.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BERNDT, WILLIAM M.; AND OTHERS

    STUDENTS MAY USE THIS REVISED MANUAL IN FIRE STATION OR TRAINING CENTER EXTENSION PROGRAMS FOR IMPROVING THE COMPETENCIES AND SKILLS OF LOCAL FIRE PERSONNEL IN THE SPECIALIZED FIELD OF FIRE SERVICE. IT WAS DEVELOPED BY A STATEWIDE COMMITTEE OF FIRE-FIGHTING CONSULTANTS AND ADVISORY GROUPS. THE 26 CHAPTERS PROVIDE BOTH BASIC AND ADVANCED TECHNICAL…

  7. Children and Home Fires

    MedlinePlus

    CHILDREN AND HOME FIRES Fast Facts Children under the age of five are twice as likely to die in a home fire than the rest of the population, and child-playing fires are the leading cause of fire deaths among ...

  8. Fire Safety Technician

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Pam

    2007-01-01

    Fire protection is one of the most important considerations in the construction and operation of industrial plants and commercial buildings. Fire insurance rates are determined by fire probability factors, such as the type of construction, ease of transporting personnel, and the quality and quantity of fire protection equipment available. Because…

  9. Fire-Resistant Polyimides Containing Phosphorus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mikroyannidis, J.

    1986-01-01

    Limiting oxygen index increased. Copolyimide with a group containing phosphorus synthesized from 1-2,4-diaminobenzene, m-phenylenediamine, and tetracarboxylic dianhydride. Copolymer more fire resistant than corresponding polyimide without phosphorus.

  10. Fire-walking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willey, David

    2010-09-01

    This article gives a brief history of fire-walking and then deals with the physics behind fire-walking. The author has performed approximately 50 fire-walks, took the data for the world's hottest fire-walk and was, at one time, a world record holder for the longest fire-walk (www.dwilley.com/HDATLTW/Record_Making_Firewalks.html). He currently teaches Physics for the University of Pittsburgh at Johnstown, USA.

  11. Fire-Walking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willey, David

    2010-01-01

    This article gives a brief history of fire-walking and then deals with the physics behind fire-walking. The author has performed approximately 50 fire-walks, took the data for the world's hottest fire-walk and was, at one time, a world record holder for the longest fire-walk (www.dwilley.com/HDATLTW/Record_Making_Firewalks.html). He currently…

  12. Short Term Soil Respiration Response to Fire in a Semi-arid Ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rozin, A. G.

    2015-12-01

    In the Intermountain West (USA), fire is an important driver of carbon cycling in the environment. Increasing frequency and severity of fires, either through management actions or wildfires, is expected with changing climates in the Western United States. When burning is used as a management tool, it may be beneficial and control the growth of nuisance vegetation, promote the regeneration of grasses and forage species, and reduce hazardous fuel loads to minimize the risk of future wildfires. However, high intensity wildfires often have a negative effect, resulting in a loss of carbon storage and a shift of vegetation communities. This delays recovery of the ecosystem for years or decades and alters the historic fire regime. A 2000 acre prescribed burn in the Reynolds Creek Critical Zone Observatory provided the opportunity to quantify pre and post-burn soil carbon stores and soil carbon losses by heterotrophic respiration. Pre and post-burn soil samples were collected for physical and biogeochemical characterization to quantify substrate availability and possible limitations for heterotrophic respiration. CO2 fluxes were continuously monitored in situ before and immediately after the fire to understand the short-term response of soil respiration to varying burn severities.

  13. LNG fire and vapor control system technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Konzek, G.J.; Yasutake, K.M.; Franklin, A.L.

    1982-06-01

    This report provides a review of fire and vapor control practices used in the liquefied natural gas (LNG) industry. Specific objectives of this effort were to summarize the state-of-the-art of LNG fire and vapor control; define representative LNG facilities and their associated fire and vapor control systems; and develop an approach for a quantitative effectiveness evaluation of LNG fire and vapor control systems. In this report a brief summary of LNG physical properties is given. This is followed by a discussion of basic fire and vapor control design philosophy and detailed reviews of fire and vapor control practices. The operating characteristics and typical applications and application limitations of leak detectors, fire detectors, dikes, coatings, closed circuit television, communication systems, dry chemicals, water, high expansion foam, carbon dioxide and halogenated hydrocarbons are described. Summary descriptions of a representative LNG peakshaving facility and import terminal are included in this report together with typical fire and vapor control systems and their locations in these types of facilities. This state-of-the-art review identifies large differences in the application of fire and vapor control systems throughout the LNG industry.

  14. Health Hazard Evaluations

    MedlinePlus

    ... Products Programs Contact NIOSH HHE Media Health Hazard Evaluations (HHEs) Language: English en Español Recommend on Facebook ... or employers can ask the NIOSH Health Hazard Evaluation (HHE) Program to help learn whether health hazards ...

  15. Action on Hazardous Wastes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    EPA Journal, 1979

    1979-01-01

    U.S. EPA is gearing up to investigate about 300 hazardous waste dump sites per year that could pose an imminent health hazard. Prosecutions are expected to result from the priority effort at investigating illegal hazardous waste disposal. (RE)

  16. Fires in P-3 Aircraft Oxygen Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoltzfus, Joel

    2006-01-01

    Fires in three P3 aircraft oxygen systems have occurred: one in the Royal Australian Air Force (RAAF) in 1984 and two in the U.S. Navy in 1998 and 2003. All three fires started in the aluminum manifold and check valve (MCV) assembly and produced similar damages to the aircraft in which they occurred. This paper discusses a failure analysis conducted by the NASA Johnson Space Center White Sands Test Facility (WSTF) Oxygen Hazards and Testing Team on the 2003 U.S. Navy VP62 fire. It was surmised that the fire started due to heat generated by an oxygen leak past a silicone check valve seal or possibly because of particle impact near the seat of one of the MCV assembly check valves. An additional analysis of fires in several check valve poppet seals from other aircraft is discussed. These burned poppet seals came from P3 oxygen systems that had been serviced at the Naval Air Station (NAS) in Jacksonville following standard fill procedures. It was concluded that these seal fires occurred due to the heat from compression heating, particle impact, or the heat generated by an oxygen leak past the silicone check valve seal. The fact that catastrophic fires did not occur in the case of each check valve seal fire was attributed to the protective nature of the aluminum oxide layer on the check valve poppets. To prevent future fires of this nature, the U.S. and Canadian fleets of P3 aircraft have been retrofitted with MCV assemblies with an upgraded design and more burn-resistant materials.

  17. People, El Niño southern oscillation and fire in Australia: fire regimes and climate controls in hummock grasslands.

    PubMed

    Bliege Bird, Rebecca; Bird, Douglas W; Codding, Brian F

    2016-06-01

    While evidence mounts that indigenous burning has a significant role in shaping pyrodiversity, the processes explaining its variation across local and external biophysical systems remain limited. This is especially the case with studies of climate-fire interactions, which only recognize an effect of humans on the fire regime when they act independently of climate. In this paper, we test the hypothesis that an anthropogenic fire regime (fire incidence, size and extent) does not covary with climate. In the lightning regime, positive El Niño southern oscillation (ENSO) values increase lightning fire incidence, whereas La Niña (and associated increases in prior rainfall) increase fire size. ENSO has the opposite effect in the Martu regime, decreasing ignitions in El Niño conditions without affecting fire size. Anthropogenic ignition rates covary positively with high antecedent rainfall, whereas fire size varies only with high temperatures and unpredictable winds, which may reduce control over fire spread. However, total area burned is similarly predicted by antecedent rainfall in both regimes, but is driven by increases in fire size in the lightning regime, and fire number in the anthropogenic regime. We conclude that anthropogenic regimes covary with climatic variation, but detecting the human-climate-fire interaction requires multiple measures of both fire regime and climate.This article is part of the themed issue 'The interaction of fire and mankind'. PMID:27216513

  18. Fire risk in San Diego County, California: A weighted Bayesian model approach

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kolden, Crystal A.; Weigel, Timothy J.

    2007-01-01

    Fire risk models are widely utilized to mitigate wildfire hazards, but models are often based on expert opinions of less understood fire-ignition and spread processes. In this study, we used an empirically derived weights-of-evidence model to assess what factors produce fire ignitions east of San Diego, California. We created and validated a dynamic model of fire-ignition risk based on land characteristics and existing fire-ignition history data, and predicted ignition risk for a future urbanization scenario. We then combined our empirical ignition-risk model with a fuzzy fire behavior-risk model developed by wildfire experts to create a hybrid model of overall fire risk. We found that roads influence fire ignitions and that future growth will increase risk in new rural development areas. We conclude that empirically derived risk models and hybrid models offer an alternative method to assess current and future fire risk based on management actions.

  19. NASA technical advances in aircraft occupant safety. [clear air turbulence detectors, fire resistant materials, and crashworthiness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Enders, J. H.

    1978-01-01

    NASA's aviation safety technology program examines specific safety problems associated with atmospheric hazards, crash-fire survival, control of aircraft on runways, human factors, terminal area operations hazards, and accident factors simulation. While aircraft occupants are ultimately affected by any of these hazards, their well-being is immediately impacted by three specific events: unexpected turbulence encounters, fire and its effects, and crash impact. NASA research in the application of laser technology to the problem of clear air turbulence detection, the development of fire resistant materials for aircraft construction, and to the improvement of seats and restraint systems to reduce crash injuries are reviewed.

  20. 75 FR 44720 - Safety Zone; Live-Fire Gun Exercise, M/V Del Monte, James River, VA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-29

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Live-Fire Gun Exercise, M/V Del Monte... specified waters of the James River to protect mariners from the hazards associated with live fire and... conduct a live fire and explosive training event onboard the M/V Del Monte in the vicinity of the...

  1. 76 FR 80832 - Fire Pots and Gel Fuel; Advance Notice of Proposed Rulemaking; Request for Comments and Information

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-27

    ... COMMISSION 16 CFR Part Chapter II Fire Pots and Gel Fuel; Advance Notice of Proposed Rulemaking; Request for....regulations.gov . FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Rohit Khanna, Fire Program Area Team Leader, Office of... firepots and gel fuel are used together, they can present serious burn and fire hazards. Firepots and...

  2. Advanced fire-resistant forms of activated carbon and methods of adsorbing and separating gases using same

    DOEpatents

    Xiong, Yongliang; Wang, Yifeng

    2016-04-19

    A method of removing a target gas from a gas stream is disclosed. The method uses advanced, fire-resistant activated carbon compositions having vastly improved fire resistance. Methods for synthesizing the compositions are also provided. The advanced compositions have high gas adsorption capacities and rapid adsorption kinetics (comparable to commercially-available activated carbon), without having any intrinsic fire hazard.

  3. Releases of UF{sub 6} to the atmosphere after a potential fire in a cylinder storage yard

    SciTech Connect

    Lombardi, D.A.; Williams, W.R.; Anderson, J.C.

    1997-06-01

    Uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}), a toxic material, is stored in just over 6200 cylinders at the K-25 site in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The safety analysis report (SAR) for cylinder yard storage operations at the plant required the development of accident scenarios for the potential release of UF{sub 6} to the atmosphere. In accordance with DOE standards and guidance, the general approach taken in this SAR was to examine the functions and contents of the cylinder storage yards to determine whether safety-significant hazards were present for workers in the immediate vicinity, workers on-site, the general public off-site, or the environment. and to evaluate the significance of any hazards that were found. A detailed accident analysis was performed to determine a set of limiting accidents that have potential for off-site consequences. One of the limiting accidents identified in the SAR was the rupture of a cylinder engulfed in a fire.

  4. Review of the health effects of wildland fire smoke on wildland firefighters and the public.

    PubMed

    Adetona, Olorunfemi; Reinhardt, Timothy E; Domitrovich, Joe; Broyles, George; Adetona, Anna M; Kleinman, Michael T; Ottmar, Roger D; Naeher, Luke P

    2016-01-01

    Each year, the general public and wildland firefighters in the US are exposed to smoke from wildland fires. As part of an effort to characterize health risks of breathing this smoke, a review of the literature was conducted using five major databases, including PubMed and MEDLINE Web of Knowledge, to identify smoke components that present the highest hazard potential, the mechanisms of toxicity, review epidemiological studies for health effects and identify the current gap in knowledge on the health impacts of wildland fire smoke exposure. Respiratory events measured in time series studies as incidences of disease-caused mortality, hospital admissions, emergency room visits and symptoms in asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients are the health effects that are most commonly associated with community level exposure to wildland fire smoke. A few recent studies have also determined associations between acute wildland fire smoke exposure and cardiovascular health end-points. These cardiopulmonary effects were mostly observed in association with ambient air concentrations of fine particulate matter (PM2.5). However, research on the health effects of this mixture is currently limited. The health effects of acute exposures beyond susceptible populations and the effects of chronic exposures experienced by the wildland firefighter are largely unknown. Longitudinal studies of wildland firefighters during and/or after the firefighting career could help elucidate some of the unknown health impacts of cumulative exposure to wildland fire smoke, establish occupational exposure limits and help determine the types of exposure controls that may be applicable to the occupation. PMID:26915822

  5. Detecting moving fires on coal conveyors

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    To comply with certain elements of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, a number of utilities operating coal fired power plants have switched to low-rank bituminous and semi-bituminous coals as an alternative to other fuels like natural gas. Power plants firing and handling this variety of coal may be extremely prone to fires nd explosions as the coal is conveyed from storage on to the boilers due to a phenomenon known as spontaneous combustion. The American Society of Testing for Materials ranks coals by their tendency to oxidize. The lower the coal`s rank, the greater its tendency to absorb oxygen and, consequently, the greater its tendency to spontaneously combust. This unique property creates a new type of fire and explosion hazard not previously experienced by many coal-fired plants. Fires involving coal crushers, storage silos, conveyors, bunkers and pulverizer mills generally occur as a result of two ignition sources: spontaneous combustion (self-heating) of coal and frictional heating of the coal`s conveyance system.

  6. Fires Scorch Oregon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    In southwestern Oregon, the Florence Fire (north) and the Sour Biscuit Fire (south) continue to grow explosively. This image from the Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus was captured on July 29, 2002. The Florence Fire had grown to 50,000 acres and the Sour Biscuit Fire had grown to 16,000 acres. Numerous evacuation notices remain in effect. Thick smoke from the actively burning eastern perimeter of the Florence Fire is billowing southward and mingling with the Biscuit Fire smoke. Credit:Image provided by the USGS EROS Data Center Satellite Systems Branch.

  7. Measuring Subpixel Fire Sizes and Temperatures to Improve Global Remote Sensing of Fires and Their Effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eckmann, T.

    2009-04-01

    Some of the most widely-used datasets for monitoring fires and their effects come from the Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensors aboard NASA's Terra and Aqua satellites, which can cover the entire Earth multiple times each day. For virtually all remote sensing systems, including MODIS, pixels that contain fires all comprise a mix of flaming, smoldering, and non-burning components, each with sizes and temperatures that vary between pixels. Current remote sensing products unfortunately provide little information about these subpixel components, severely limiting measurements and forecasts of the gas and aerosol emissions, ecological impacts, and spreading behavior from the world's fires. This study shows how multiple endmember spectral mixture analysis (MESMA) can measure subpixel fire sizes and temperatures from MODIS and other sensors, and overcome many limitations of existing methods for characterizing fire intensities from remotely sensed data, such as the Dozier and fire radiative power (FRP) approaches. This study also compares MESMA results with other measures of fire properties across multiple sensors, at nominal spatial resolutions ranging from 5 m to 1 km. Prior to this work, few studies, if any, had used MESMA for estimating fire sizes and temperatures from a sensor with global coverage like MODIS, or compared MESMA estimates of fire properties to higher-resolution data or other methods for measuring fires. Because a fire's size and its temperature exert strong influences on its gas and aerosol emissions, ecological effects, and spreading rates, MESMA estimates from MODIS and other sensors could contribute useful new information for monitoring, understanding, and forecasting the behavior and impacts of many fires worldwide.

  8. Wildland fires and nuclear winters. Selected reconstruction of historic large fires. Technical report, 1 March 1985-28 February 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Pyne, S.J.; Omi, P.N.

    1986-02-28

    Under the nuclear winter scenario, large wildland fires are expected to contribute to a general smoke plume and are considered potential analogues for the behavior of gigantic palls. As a means of testing the reasonableness of current estimates of a wildland fire contribution, the authors reconstructed from the historic record two major events; the Tillamook Burn of August 1933 and the 1910 fire complex in the Northern Rocky Mountains. Both events are near the upper limit for wildland fires - the Tillamook Burn for a single fire. For the 1910 fires, for which environmental data are skimpy, a modern analogue, the Sundance fire (1967), was used for certain extrapolations. Reconstructed fire behavior and estimated smoke production suggest that current nuclear winter models overestimate the magnitude of a wildland component.

  9. Occupational Hazards of Farming

    PubMed Central

    White, Gill; Cessna, Allan

    1989-01-01

    A number of occupational hazards exist for the farmer and farm worker. They include the hazards of farm machinery, biologic and chemical hazards, and social and environmental stresses. Recognizing of these hazards will help the family physician care for farmers and their families. PMID:21248929

  10. Application of a Mesoscale Atmospheric Coupled Fire Model BRAMS-FIRE to Alentejo Woodland Fire and Comparison of Performance with the Fire Model WRF-Sfire.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freitas, S. R.; Menezes, I. C.; Stockler, R.; Mello, R.; Ribeiro, N. A.; Corte-Real, J. A. M.; Surový, P.

    2014-12-01

    Models of fuel with the identification of vegetation patterns of Montado ecosystem in Portugal was incorporated in the mesoscale Brazilian Atmospheric Modeling System (BRAMS) and coupled with a spread woodland fire model. The BRAMS-FIRE is a new system developed by the "Centro de Previsão de Tempo e Estudos Climáticos" (CPTEC/INPE, Brazil) and the "Instituto de Ciências Agrárias e Ambientais Mediterrâneas" (ICAAM, Portugal). The fire model used in this effort was originally, developed by Mandel et al. (2013) and further incorporated in the Weather Research and Forecast model (WRF). Two grids of high spatial resolution were configured with surface input data and fuel models integrated for simulations using both models BRAMS-FIRE and WRF-SFIRE. One grid was placed in the plain land near Beja and the other one in the hills of Ossa to evaluate different types of fire propagation and calibrate BRAMS-FIRE. The objective is simulating the effects of atmospheric circulation in local scale, namely the movements of the heat front and energy release associated to it, obtained by this two models in an episode of woodland fire which took place in Alentejo area in the last decade, for application to planning and evaluations of agro woodland fire risks. We aim to model the behavior of forest fires through a set of equations whose solutions provide quantitative values of one or more variables related to the propagation of fire, described by semi-empirical expressions that are complemented by experimental data allow to obtain the main variables related advancing the perimeter of the fire, as the propagation speed, the intensity of the fire front and fuel consumption and its interaction with atmospheric dynamic system. References Mandel, J., J. D. Beezley, G. Kelman, A. K. Kochanski, V. Y. Kondratenko, B. H. Lynn, and M. Vejmelka, 2013. New features in WRF-SFIRE and the wildfire forecasting and danger system in Israel. Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences, submitted

  11. Fire and amphibians in North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pilliod, D.S.; Bury, R.B.; Hyde, E.J.; Pearl, C.A.; Corn, P.S.

    2003-01-01

    Information on amphibian responses to fire and fuel reduction practices is critically needed due to potential declines of species and the prevalence of new, more intensive fire management practices in North American forests. The goals of this review are to summarize the known and potential effects of fire and fuels management on amphibians and their aquatic habitats, and to identify information gaps to help direct future scientific research. Amphibians as a group are taxonomically and ecologically diverse; in turn, responses to fire and associated habitat alteration are expected to vary widely among species and among geographic regions. Available data suggest that amphibian responses to fire are spatially and temporally variable and incompletely understood. Much of the limited research has addressed short-term (1-3 years) effects of prescribed fire on terrestrial life stages of amphibians in the southeastern United States. Information on the long-term negative effects of fire on amphibians and the importance of fire for maintaining amphibian communities is sparse for the majority of taxa in North America. Given the size and severity of recent wildland fires and the national effort to reduce fuels on federal lands, future studies are needed to examine the effects of these landscape disturbances on amphibians. We encourage studies to address population-level responses of amphibians to fire by examining how different life stages are affected by changes in aquatic, riparian, and upland habitats. Research designs need to be credible and provide information that is relevant for fire managers and those responsible for assessing the potential effects of various fuel reduction alternatives on rare, sensitive, and endangered amphibian species. ?? 2003 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Using burned area data to explore fire spread in coupled fire and ecosystem models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez-Dans, J. L.; Lewis, P.; Wooster, M.; Spessa, A.

    2009-04-01

    Fire is a major driver of change in many ecosystems, and ecosystem models should try to understand and model the feedbacks between vegetation and fire. To achieve this, work has started on coupling fire and ecosystem models. The fire model receives modelled vegetation as input for its fuel loads, and simulates ignitions and fire spread from a number of assumptions on fire processes. The fire model simulates fire behaviour, and also estimates how vegetation is killed by the fire. This disturbance is fed back into the ecosystem model. In the current work, we focus on the LPJ ecosystem model and on the SPITFIRE fire model. Both models haven been used in conjunction in the past to model emissions over Southern Africa. SPITFIRE makes assumptions about ignitions (either anthropogenic or due to lightning strikes), live fuel moisture, fuel load and type derived from the ecosystem model, and about fire dynamics. In a typical run at daily temporal resolution, SPITFIRE will simulate an "average fire" in terms of fire dynamics, which is combined with the estimated daily number of ignitions to calculate the burned area on that day. The use of an average fire simplifies modelling at the coarse resolutions (grid cell spacing is often around 0.5 - 1 °) often used in these studies, but the associated penalty of a number of important fire limiting factors, such as human-driven suppression efforts or landscape elements that act as fire blocks. In the current study, we aim to explore landscape fragmentation in fire spread. To this end, we compare LPJ+SPITFIRE simulations fire area distributions with actual fire area observations from spaceborne sensors over a large region in Southern Africa. We introduce the concept of "landscape impedance", a metric that describes the difficulty of a fire spreading due to fragmentation, and estimate it spatially using satellite data. Finally, we introduce these concepts into the SPITFIRE fire model. Recently, burned area data from the MODIS sensor

  13. School Fires. Topical Fire Research Series. Volume 8, Issue 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Homeland Security, 2007

    2007-01-01

    Using the past 3 years of data, for 2003 to 2005, from the National Fire Incident Reporting System (NFIRS) database, the yearly national fire loss for fires on nonadult school properties is estimated at $85 million. Such losses are the result of an estimated annual average of 14,700 fires that required a fire department response. Fires on school…

  14. Forest Fires Produce Dense Smoke over Alaska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    On August 14, 2005, the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA's Terra satellite captured this stunning image of forest fires raging across the width of Alaska. Smoke from scores of fires (marked in red) filled the state's broad central valley and poured out to sea. Hemmed in by mountains to the north and the south, the smoke spreads westward and spills out over the Bering and Chukchi Seas (image left). More than a hundred fires were burning across the state as of August 14. Air quality warnings have been issued for about 90 percent of the Interior, according to the August 12 report from the Alaska Department of Environmental Conservation's Division of Air Quality. Conditions have ranged from 'very unhealthy' to 'hazardous' over the weekend in many locations, including Fairbanks. A large area of high atmospheric pressure spread over much of the state, keeping temperatures high and reducing winds that would clear the air.

  15. Fire Service Training. Fire Stream Practices. (Revised).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Dept. of Community Colleges, Raleigh.

    One of a set of fourteen instructional outlines for use in a course to train novice firemen, this guide covers the topic of fire streams. The various types of fire streams are identified as well as the methods used to produce them, emphasizing the operation of nozzles and the different kinds of friction loss. Designed to be used with the Robert J.…

  16. Fires Scorch Oregon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    On Wednesday, August 7, 2002, two large Oregon fires merged into a single massive fire of more than 333,000 acres. In southwest Oregon, the Sour Biscuit fire on the Oregon-California state line, and the larger Florence Fire to its north closed the gap between them and created an enormous blaze that retained the name Biscuit Fire. The fire has burned over the Oregon state line into California. This image of the fires and thick smoke was captured by the landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus on August 14, 2002. In this false-color iamge, vegetation is green, burned areas are deep magenta, actively burning fire is bright pink, and smoke is blue. Credit:Image provided by the USGS EROS Data Center Satellite Systems Branch.

  17. FIRE Data and Information

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2015-11-13

    ... The First ISCCP Regional Experiment ( FIRE ) is a series of field missions which have collected cirrus and marine stratocumulus ... Marine Stratocumulus Home Page FIRE I - Extended Time Observations Home Page SCAR-B Block:  ...

  18. Wildland Fire Safety

    MedlinePlus

    Wildland Fire Safety Every year, wildfires burn across the U.S., and more and more people are living where wildfires ... including garages and sheds. If it can catch fire, don’t let it touch your house, deck ...

  19. South America Fire Observations

    NASA Video Gallery

    From space, we can understand fires in ways that are impossible from the ground. NASA research has contributed to much improved detection of fire for scientific purposes using satellite remote sens...

  20. Modelling pollutants dispersion and plume rise from large hydrocarbon tank fires in neutrally stratified atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Argyropoulos, C. D.; Sideris, G. M.; Christolis, M. N.; Nivolianitou, Z.; Markatos, N. C.

    2010-02-01

    Petrochemical industries normally use storage tanks containing large amounts of flammable and hazardous substances. Therefore, the occurrence of a tank fire, such as the large industrial accident on 11th December 2005 at Buncefield Oil Storage Depots, is possible and usually leads to fire and explosions. Experience has shown that the continuous production of black smoke from these fires due to the toxic gases from the combustion process, presents a potential environmental and health problem that is difficult to assess. The goals of the present effort are to estimate the height of the smoke plume, the ground-level concentrations of the toxic pollutants (smoke, SO 2, CO, PAHs, VOCs) and to characterize risk zones by comparing the ground-level concentrations with existing safety limits. For the application of the numerical procedure developed, an external floating-roof tank has been selected with dimensions of 85 m diameter and 20 m height. Results are presented and discussed. It is concluded that for all scenarios considered, the ground-level concentrations of smoke, SO 2, CO, PAHs and VOCs do not exceed the safety limit of IDLH and there are no "death zones" due to the pollutant concentrations.