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Sample records for lineage specific expansions

  1. Inferring Gene Family Histories in Yeast Identifies Lineage Specific Expansions

    PubMed Central

    Ames, Ryan M.; Money, Daniel; Lovell, Simon C.

    2014-01-01

    The complement of genes found in the genome is a balance between gene gain and gene loss. Knowledge of the specific genes that are gained and lost over evolutionary time allows an understanding of the evolution of biological functions. Here we use new evolutionary models to infer gene family histories across complete yeast genomes; these models allow us to estimate the relative genome-wide rates of gene birth, death, innovation and extinction (loss of an entire family) for the first time. We show that the rates of gene family evolution vary both between gene families and between species. We are also able to identify those families that have experienced rapid lineage specific expansion/contraction and show that these families are enriched for specific functions. Moreover, we find that families with specific functions are repeatedly expanded in multiple species, suggesting the presence of common adaptations and that these family expansions/contractions are not random. Additionally, we identify potential specialisations, unique to specific species, in the functions of lineage specific expanded families. These results suggest that an important mechanism in the evolution of genome content is the presence of lineage-specific gene family changes. PMID:24921666

  2. Multiple lineage specific expansions within the guanylyl cyclase gene family

    PubMed Central

    Fitzpatrick, David A; O'Halloran, Damien M; Burnell, Ann M

    2006-01-01

    Background Guanylyl cyclases (GCs) are responsible for the production of the secondary messenger cyclic guanosine monophosphate, which plays important roles in a variety of physiological responses such as vision, olfaction, muscle contraction, homeostatic regulation, cardiovascular and nervous function. There are two types of GCs in animals, soluble (sGCs) which are found ubiquitously in cell cytoplasm, and receptor (rGC) forms which span cell membranes. The complete genomes of several vertebrate and invertebrate species are now available. These data provide a platform to investigate the evolution of GCs across a diverse range of animal phyla. Results In this analysis we located GC genes from a broad spectrum of vertebrate and invertebrate animals and reconstructed molecular phylogenies for both sGC and rGC proteins. The most notable features of the resulting phylogenies are the number of lineage specific rGC and sGC expansions that have occurred during metazoan evolution. Among these expansions is a large nematode specific rGC clade comprising 21 genes in C. elegans alone; a vertebrate specific expansion in the natriuretic receptors GC-A and GC-B; a vertebrate specific expansion in the guanylyl GC-C receptors, an echinoderm specific expansion in the sperm rGC genes and a nematode specific sGC clade. Our phylogenetic reconstruction also shows the existence of a basal group of nitric oxide (NO) insensitive insect and nematode sGCs which are regulated by O2. This suggests that the primordial eukaryotes probably utilized sGC as an O2 sensor, with the ligand specificity of sGC later switching to NO which provides a very effective local cell-to-cell signalling system. Phylogenetic analysis of the sGC and bacterial heme nitric oxide/oxygen binding protein domain supports the hypothesis that this domain originated from a cyanobacterial source. Conclusion The most salient feature of our phylogenies is the number of lineage specific expansions, which have occurred within

  3. Lineage-Specific Expansion of the Chalcone Synthase Gene Family in Rosids

    PubMed Central

    Zavala, Kattina; Opazo, Juan C.

    2015-01-01

    Rosids are a monophyletic group that includes approximately 70,000 species in 140 families, and they are found in a variety of habitats and life forms. Many important crops such as fruit trees and legumes are rosids. The evolutionary success of this group may have been influenced by their ability to produce flavonoids, secondary metabolites that are synthetized through a branch of the phenylpropanoid pathway where chalcone synthase is a key enzyme. In this work, we studied the evolution of the chalcone synthase gene family in 12 species belonging to the rosid clade. Our results show that the last common ancestor of the rosid clade possessed six chalcone synthase gene lineages that were differentially retained during the evolutionary history of the group. In fact, of the six gene lineages that were present in the last common ancestor, 7 species retained 2 of them, whereas the other 5 only retained one gene lineage. We also show that one of the gene lineages was disproportionately expanded in species that belonged to the order Fabales (soybean, barrel medic and Lotus japonicas). Based on the available literature, we suggest that this gene lineage possesses stress-related biological functions (e.g., response to UV light, pathogen defense). We propose that the observed expansion of this clade was a result of a selective pressure to increase the amount of enzymes involved in the production of phenylpropanoid pathway-derived secondary metabolites, which is consistent with the hypothesis that suggested that lineage-specific expansions fuel plant adaptation. PMID:26181912

  4. Parallel Evolution and Lineage-Specific Expansion of RNA Editing in Ctenophores.

    PubMed

    Kohn, Andrea B; Sanford, Rachel S; Yoshida, Masa-aki; Moroz, Leonid L

    2015-12-01

    RNA editing is a process of targeted alterations of nucleotides in all types of RNA molecules (e.g., rRNA, tRNA, mRNA, and miRNA). As a result, the transcriptional output differs from its genomic DNA template. RNA editing can be defined both by biochemical mechanisms and by enzymes that perform these reactions. There are high levels of RNA editing detected in the mammalian nervous system, suggesting that nervous systems use this mechanism to increase protein diversity, because the post-transcription modifications lead to new gene products with novel functions. By re-annotating the ctenophore genomes, we found that the number of predicted RNA-editing enzymes is comparable to the numbers in mammals, but much greater than in other non-bilaterian basal metazoans. However, the overall molecular diversity of RNA-editing enzymes in ctenophores is lower, suggesting a possible "compensation" by an expansion of the ADAT1-like subfamily in this lineage. In two genera of ctenophores, Pleurobrachia and Mnemiopsis, there are high levels of expression for RNA-editing enzymes in their aboral organs, the integrative center involved in control of locomotion and geotaxis. This finding supports the hypothesis that RNA editing is correlated with the complexity of tissues and behaviors. Smaller numbers of RNA-editing enzymes in Porifera and Placozoa also correlates with the primary absence of neural and muscular systems in these lineages. In ctenophores, the expansion of the RNA-editing machinery can also provide mechanisms that support the remarkable capacity for regeneration in these animals. In summary, despite their compact genomes, a wide variety of epigenomic mechanisms employed by ctenophores and other non-bilaterian basal metazoans can provide novel insights into the evolutionary origins of biological novelties. PMID:26089435

  5. Characterisation of monotreme caseins reveals lineage-specific expansion of an ancestral casein locus in mammals.

    PubMed

    Lefèvre, Christophe M; Sharp, Julie A; Nicholas, Kevin R

    2009-01-01

    Using a milk-cell cDNA sequencing approach we characterised milk-protein sequences from two monotreme species, platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus) and echidna (Tachyglossus aculeatus) and found a full set of caseins and casein variants. The genomic organisation of the platypus casein locus is compared with other mammalian genomes, including the marsupial opossum and several eutherians. Physical linkage of casein genes has been seen in the casein loci of all mammalian genomes examined and we confirm that this is also observed in platypus. However, we show that a recent duplication of beta-casein occurred in the monotreme lineage, as opposed to more ancient duplications of alpha-casein in the eutherian lineage, while marsupials possess only single copies of alpha- and beta-caseins. Despite this variability, the close proximity of the main alpha- and beta-casein genes in an inverted tail-tail orientation and the relative orientation of the more distant kappa-casein genes are similar in all mammalian genome sequences so far available. Overall, the conservation of the genomic organisation of the caseins indicates the early, pre-monotreme development of the fundamental role of caseins during lactation. In contrast, the lineage-specific gene duplications that have occurred within the casein locus of monotremes and eutherians but not marsupials, which may have lost part of the ancestral casein locus, emphasises the independent selection on milk provision strategies to the young, most likely linked to different developmental strategies. The monotremes therefore provide insight into the ancestral drivers for lactation and how these have adapted in different lineages. PMID:19874726

  6. Lineage-Specific Expansion of IFIT Gene Family: An Insight into Coevolution with IFN Gene Family

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ying; Zhang, Yi-Bing; Liu, Ting-Kai; Gui, Jian-Fang

    2013-01-01

    In mammals, IFIT (Interferon [IFN]-induced proteins with Tetratricopeptide Repeat [TPR] motifs) family genes are involved in many cellular and viral processes, which are tightly related to mammalian IFN response. However, little is known about non-mammalian IFIT genes. In the present study, IFIT genes are identified in the genome databases from the jawed vertebrates including the cartilaginous elephant shark but not from non-vertebrates such as lancelet, sea squirt and acorn worm, suggesting that IFIT gene family originates from a vertebrate ancestor about 450 million years ago. IFIT family genes show conserved gene structure and gene arrangements. Phylogenetic analyses reveal that this gene family has expanded through lineage-specific and species-specific gene duplication. Interestingly, IFN gene family seem to share a common ancestor and a similar evolutionary mechanism; the function link of IFIT genes to IFN response is present early since the origin of both gene families, as evidenced by the finding that zebrafish IFIT genes are upregulated by fish IFNs, poly(I:C) and two transcription factors IRF3/IRF7, likely via the IFN-stimulated response elements (ISRE) within the promoters of vertebrate IFIT family genes. These coevolution features creates functional association of both family genes to fulfill a common biological process, which is likely selected by viral infection during evolution of vertebrates. Our results are helpful for understanding of evolution of vertebrate IFN system. PMID:23818968

  7. Lineage-specific expansion of IFIT gene family: an insight into coevolution with IFN gene family.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ying; Zhang, Yi-Bing; Liu, Ting-Kai; Gui, Jian-Fang

    2013-01-01

    In mammals, IFIT (Interferon [IFN]-induced proteins with Tetratricopeptide Repeat [TPR] motifs) family genes are involved in many cellular and viral processes, which are tightly related to mammalian IFN response. However, little is known about non-mammalian IFIT genes. In the present study, IFIT genes are identified in the genome databases from the jawed vertebrates including the cartilaginous elephant shark but not from non-vertebrates such as lancelet, sea squirt and acorn worm, suggesting that IFIT gene family originates from a vertebrate ancestor about 450 million years ago. IFIT family genes show conserved gene structure and gene arrangements. Phylogenetic analyses reveal that this gene family has expanded through lineage-specific and species-specific gene duplication. Interestingly, IFN gene family seem to share a common ancestor and a similar evolutionary mechanism; the function link of IFIT genes to IFN response is present early since the origin of both gene families, as evidenced by the finding that zebrafish IFIT genes are upregulated by fish IFNs, poly(I:C) and two transcription factors IRF3/IRF7, likely via the IFN-stimulated response elements (ISRE) within the promoters of vertebrate IFIT family genes. These coevolution features creates functional association of both family genes to fulfill a common biological process, which is likely selected by viral infection during evolution of vertebrates. Our results are helpful for understanding of evolution of vertebrate IFN system. PMID:23818968

  8. Lineage-specific late pleistocene expansion of an endemic subtropical gossamer-wing damselfly, Euphaea formosa, in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Pleistocene glacial oscillations have significantly affected the historical population dynamics of temperate taxa. However, the general effects of recent climatic changes on the evolutionary history and genetic structure of extant subtropical species remain poorly understood. In the present study, phylogeographic and historical demographic analyses based on mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequences were used. The aim was to investigate whether Pleistocene climatic cycles, paleo-drainages or mountain vicariance of Taiwan shaped the evolutionary diversification of a subtropical gossamer-wing damselfly, Euphaea formosa. Results E. formosa populations originated in the middle Pleistocene period (0.3 Mya) and consisted of two evolutionarily independent lineages. It is likely that they derived from the Pleistocene paleo-drainages of northern and southern Minjiang, or alternatively by divergence within Taiwan. The ancestral North-central lineage colonized northwestern Taiwan first and maintained a slowly growing population throughout much of the early to middle Pleistocene period. The ancestral widespread lineage reached central-southern Taiwan and experienced a spatial and demographic expansion into eastern Taiwan. This expansion began approximately 30,000 years ago in the Holocene interglacial period. The ancestral southern expansion into eastern Taiwan indicates that the central mountain range (CMR) formed a barrier to east-west expansion. However, E. formosa populations in the three major biogeographic regions (East, South, and North-Central) exhibit no significant genetic partitions, suggesting that river drainages and mountains did not form strong geographical barriers against gene flow among extant populations. Conclusions The present study implies that the antiquity of E. formosa's colonization is associated with its high dispersal ability and larval tolerance to the late Pleistocene dry grasslands. The effect of late Pleistocene climatic changes on the

  9. Origin, evolution and classification of type-3 copper proteins: lineage-specific gene expansions and losses across the Metazoa

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Tyrosinases, tyrosinase-related proteins, catechol oxidases and hemocyanins comprise the type-3 copper protein family and are involved in a variety of biological processes, including pigment formation, innate immunity and oxygen transport. Although this family is present in the three domains of life, its origin and early evolution are not well understood. Previous analyses of type-3 copper proteins largely have focussed on specific animal and plant phyla. Results Here, we combine genomic, phylogenetic and structural analyses to show that the original type-3 copper protein possessed a signal peptide and may have been secreted (we designate proteins of this type the α subclass). This ancestral type-3 copper protein gene underwent two duplication events, the first prior to the divergence of the unikont eukaryotic lineages and the second before the diversification of animals. The former duplication gave rise to a cytosolic form (β) and the latter to a membrane-bound form (γ). Structural comparisons reveal that the active site of α and γ forms are covered by aliphatic amino acids, and the β form has a highly conserved aromatic residue in this position. The subsequent evolution of this gene family in modern lineages of multicellular eukaryotes is typified by the loss of one or more of these three subclasses and the lineage-specific expansion of one or both of the remaining subclasses. Conclusions The diversity of type-3 copper proteins in animals and other eukaryotes is consistent with two ancient gene duplication events leading to α, β and γ subclasses, followed by the differential loss and expansion of one or more of these subclasses in specific kingdoms and phyla. This has led to many lineage-specific type-3 copper protein repertoires and in some cases the independent evolution of functionally-classified tyrosinases and hemocyanins. For example, the oxygen-carrying hemocyanins in arthropods evolved from a β-subclass tyrosinase, whilst hemocyanins

  10. The polyphenol oxidase gene family in land plants: Lineage-specific duplication and expansion

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Plant polyphenol oxidases (PPOs) are enzymes that typically use molecular oxygen to oxidize ortho-diphenols to ortho-quinones. These commonly cause browning reactions following tissue damage, and may be important in plant defense. Some PPOs function as hydroxylases or in cross-linking reactions, but in most plants their physiological roles are not known. To better understand the importance of PPOs in the plant kingdom, we surveyed PPO gene families in 25 sequenced genomes from chlorophytes, bryophytes, lycophytes, and flowering plants. The PPO genes were then analyzed in silico for gene structure, phylogenetic relationships, and targeting signals. Results Many previously uncharacterized PPO genes were uncovered. The moss, Physcomitrella patens, contained 13 PPO genes and Selaginella moellendorffii (spike moss) and Glycine max (soybean) each had 11 genes. Populus trichocarpa (poplar) contained a highly diversified gene family with 11 PPO genes, but several flowering plants had only a single PPO gene. By contrast, no PPO-like sequences were identified in several chlorophyte (green algae) genomes or Arabidopsis (A. lyrata and A. thaliana). We found that many PPOs contained one or two introns often near the 3’ terminus. Furthermore, N-terminal amino acid sequence analysis using ChloroP and TargetP 1.1 predicted that several putative PPOs are synthesized via the secretory pathway, a unique finding as most PPOs are predicted to be chloroplast proteins. Phylogenetic reconstruction of these sequences revealed that large PPO gene repertoires in some species are mostly a consequence of independent bursts of gene duplication, while the lineage leading to Arabidopsis must have lost all PPO genes. Conclusion Our survey identified PPOs in gene families of varying sizes in all land plants except in the genus Arabidopsis. While we found variation in intron numbers and positions, overall PPO gene structure is congruent with the phylogenetic relationships based on

  11. Gene Duplication, Lineage-Specific Expansion, and Subfunctionalization in the MADF-BESS Family Patterns the Drosophila Wing Hinge

    PubMed Central

    Shukla, Vallari; Habib, Farhat; Kulkarni, Apurv; Ratnaparkhi, Girish S.

    2014-01-01

    Gene duplication, expansion, and subsequent diversification are features of the evolutionary process. Duplicated genes can be lost, modified, or altered to generate novel functions over evolutionary timescales. These features make gene duplication a powerful engine of evolutionary change. In this study, we explore these features in the MADF-BESS family of transcriptional regulators. In Drosophila melanogaster, the family contains 16 similar members, each containing an N-terminal, DNA-binding MADF domain and a C-terminal, protein-interacting, BESS domain. Phylogenetic analysis shows that members of the MADF-BESS family are expanded in the Drosophila lineage. Three members, which we name hinge1, hinge2, and hinge3 are required for wing development, with a critical role in the wing hinge. hinge1 is a negative regulator of Winglesss expression and interacts with core wing-hinge patterning genes such as teashirt, homothorax, and jing. Double knockdowns along with heterologous rescue experiments are used to demonstrate that members of the MADF-BESS family retain function in the wing hinge, in spite of expansion and diversification for over 40 million years. The wing hinge connects the blade to the thorax and has critical roles in fluttering during flight. MADF-BESS family genes appear to retain redundant functions to shape and form elements of the wing hinge in a robust and fail-safe manner. PMID:24336749

  12. Phylogenetic Analysis, Lineage-Specific Expansion and Functional Divergence of seed dormancy 4-Like Genes in Plants

    PubMed Central

    Subburaj, Saminathan; Cao, Shuanghe; Xia, Xianchun; He, Zhonghu

    2016-01-01

    The rice gene seed dormancy 4 (OsSdr4) functions in seed dormancy and is a major factor associated with pre-harvest sprouting (PHS). Although previous studies of this protein family were reported for rice and other species, knowledge of the evolution of genes homologous to OsSdr4 in plants remains inadequate. Fifty four Sdr4-like (hereafter designated Sdr4L) genes were identified in nine plant lineages including 36 species. Phylogenetic analysis placed these genes in eight subfamilies (I-VIII). Genes from the same lineage clustered together, supported by analysis of conserved motifs and exon-intron patterns. Segmental duplications were present in both dicot and monocot clusters, while tandemly duplicated genes occurred only in monocot clusters indicating that both tandem and segmental duplications contributed to expansion of the grass I and II subfamilies. Estimation of the approximate ages of the duplication events indicated that ancestral Sdr4 genes evolved from a common angiosperm ancestor, about 160 million years ago (MYA). Moreover, diversification of Sdr4L genes in mono and dicot plants was mainly associated with genome-wide duplication and speciation events. Functional divergence was observed in all subfamily pairs, except IV/VIIIa. Further analysis indicated that functional constraints between subfamily pairs I/II, I/VIIIb, II/VI, II/VIIIb, II/IV, and VI/VIIIb were statistically significant. Site and branch-site model analyses of positive selection suggested that these genes were under strong adaptive selection pressure. Critical amino acids detected for both functional divergence and positive selection were mostly located in the loops, pointing to functional importance of these regions in this protein family. In addition, differential expression studies by transcriptome atlas of 11 Sdr4L genes showed that the duplicated genes may have undergone divergence in expression between plant species. Our findings showed that Sdr4L genes are functionally divergent

  13. Lineage-specific expansions of TET/JBP genes and a new class of DNA transposons shape fungal genomic and epigenetic landscapes

    PubMed Central

    Iyer, Lakshminarayan M.; Zhang, Dapeng; de Souza, Robson F.; Pukkila, Patricia J.; Rao, Anjana; Aravind, L.

    2014-01-01

    TET/JBP dioxygenases oxidize methylpyrimidines in nucleic acids and are implicated in generation of epigenetic marks and potential intermediates for DNA demethylation. We show that TET/JBP genes are lineage-specifically expanded in all major clades of basidiomycete fungi, with the majority of copies predicted to encode catalytically active proteins. This pattern differs starkly from the situation in most other organisms that possess just a single or a few copies of the TET/JBP family. In most basidiomycetes, TET/JBP genes are frequently linked to a unique class of transposons, KDZ (Kyakuja, Dileera, and Zisupton) and appear to have dispersed across chromosomes along with them. Several of these elements typically encode additional proteins, including a divergent version of the HMG domain. Analysis of their transposases shows that they contain a previously uncharacterized version of the RNase H fold with multiple distinctive Zn-chelating motifs and a unique insert, which are predicted to play roles in structural stabilization and target sequence recognition, respectively. We reconstruct the complex evolutionary history of TET/JBPs and associated transposons as involving multiple rounds of expansion with concomitant lineage sorting and loss, along with several capture events of TET/JBP genes by different transposon clades. On a few occasions, these TET/JBP genes were also laterally transferred to certain Ascomycota, Glomeromycota, Viridiplantae, and Amoebozoa. One such is an inactive version, calnexin-independence factor 1 (Cif1), from Schizosaccharomyces pombe, which has been implicated in inducing an epigenetically transmitted prion state. We argue that this unique transposon-TET/JBP association is likely to play important roles in speciation during evolution and epigenetic regulation. PMID:24398522

  14. Expansion of banana (Musa acuminata) gene families involved in ethylene biosynthesis and signalling after lineage-specific whole-genome duplications.

    PubMed

    Jourda, Cyril; Cardi, Céline; Mbéguié-A-Mbéguié, Didier; Bocs, Stéphanie; Garsmeur, Olivier; D'Hont, Angélique; Yahiaoui, Nabila

    2014-05-01

    Whole-genome duplications (WGDs) are widespread in plants, and three lineage-specific WGDs occurred in the banana (Musa acuminata) genome. Here, we analysed the impact of WGDs on the evolution of banana gene families involved in ethylene biosynthesis and signalling, a key pathway for banana fruit ripening. Banana ethylene pathway genes were identified using comparative genomics approaches and their duplication modes and expression profiles were analysed. Seven out of 10 banana ethylene gene families evolved through WGD and four of them (1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthase (ACS), ethylene-insensitive 3-like (EIL), ethylene-insensitive 3-binding F-box (EBF) and ethylene response factor (ERF)) were preferentially retained. Banana orthologues of AtEIN3 and AtEIL1, two major genes for ethylene signalling in Arabidopsis, were particularly expanded. This expansion was paralleled by that of EBF genes which are responsible for control of EIL protein levels. Gene expression profiles in banana fruits suggested functional redundancy for several MaEBF and MaEIL genes derived from WGD and subfunctionalization for some of them. We propose that EIL and EBF genes were co-retained after WGD in banana to maintain balanced control of EIL protein levels and thus avoid detrimental effects of constitutive ethylene signalling. In the course of evolution, subfunctionalization was favoured to promote finer control of ethylene signalling. PMID:24716518

  15. ZINC-INDUCED FACILITATOR-LIKE family in plants: lineage-specific expansion in monocotyledons and conserved genomic and expression features among rice (Oryza sativa) paralogs

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Duplications are very common in the evolution of plant genomes, explaining the high number of members in plant gene families. New genes born after duplication can undergo pseudogenization, neofunctionalization or subfunctionalization. Rice is a model for functional genomics research, an important crop for human nutrition and a target for biofortification. Increased zinc and iron content in the rice grain could be achieved by manipulation of metal transporters. Here, we describe the ZINC-INDUCED FACILITATOR-LIKE (ZIFL) gene family in plants, and characterize the genomic structure and expression of rice paralogs, which are highly affected by segmental duplication. Results Sequences of sixty-eight ZIFL genes, from nine plant species, were comparatively analyzed. Although related to MSF_1 proteins, ZIFL protein sequences consistently grouped separately. Specific ZIFL sequence signatures were identified. Monocots harbor a larger number of ZIFL genes in their genomes than dicots, probably a result of a lineage-specific expansion. The rice ZIFL paralogs were named OsZIFL1 to OsZIFL13 and characterized. The genomic organization of the rice ZIFL genes seems to be highly influenced by segmental and tandem duplications and concerted evolution, as rice genome contains five highly similar ZIFL gene pairs. Most rice ZIFL promoters are enriched for the core sequence of the Fe-deficiency-related box IDE1. Gene expression analyses of different plant organs, growth stages and treatments, both from our qPCR data and from microarray databases, revealed that the duplicated ZIFL gene pairs are mostly co-expressed. Transcripts of OsZIFL4, OsZIFL5, OsZIFL7, and OsZIFL12 accumulate in response to Zn-excess and Fe-deficiency in roots, two stresses with partially overlapping responses. Conclusions We suggest that ZIFL genes have different evolutionary histories in monocot and dicot lineages. In rice, concerted evolution affected ZIFL duplicated genes, possibly maintaining similar

  16. Matrix elasticity directs stem cell lineage specification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Discher, Dennis

    2010-03-01

    Adhesion of stem cells - like most cells - is not just a membrane phenomenon. Most tissue cells need to adhere to a ``solid'' for viability, and over the last decade it has become increasingly clear that the physical ``elasticity'' of that solid is literally ``felt'' by cells. Here we show that Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSCs) specify lineage and commit to phenotypes with extreme sensitivity to the elasticity typical of tissues [1]. In serum only media, soft matrices that mimic brain appear neurogenic, stiffer matrices that mimic muscle are myogenic, and comparatively rigid matrices that mimic collagenous bone prove osteogenic. Inhibition of nonmuscle myosin II activity blocks all elasticity directed lineage specification, which indicates that the cytoskeleton pulls on matrix through adhesive attachments. Results have significant implications for `therapeutic' stem cells and have motivated development of a proteomic-scale method to identify mechano-responsive protein structures [2] as well as deeper physical studies of matrix physics [3] and growth factor pathways [4]. [4pt] [1] A. Engler, et al. Matrix elasticity directs stem cell lineage specification. Cell (2006).[0pt] [2] C.P. Johnson, et al. Forced unfolding of proteins within cells. Science (2007).[0pt] [3] A.E.X. Brown, et al. Multiscale mechanics of fibrin polymer: Gel stretching with protein unfolding and loss of water. Science (2009).[0pt] [4] D.E. Discher, et al. Growth factors, matrices, and forces combine and control stem cells. Science (2009).

  17. The monosaccharide transporter gene family in land plants is ancient and shows differential subfamily expression and expansion across lineages

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Deborah A; Hill, Jeffrey P; Thomas, Michael A

    2006-01-01

    Background In plants, tandem, segmental and whole-genome duplications are prevalent, resulting in large numbers of duplicate loci. Recent studies suggest that duplicate genes diverge predominantly through the partitioning of expression and that breadth of gene expression is related to the rate of gene duplication and protein sequence evolution. Here, we utilize expressed sequence tag (EST) data to study gene duplication and expression patterns in the monosaccharide transporter (MST) gene family across the land plants. In Arabidopsis, there are 53 MST genes that form seven distinct subfamilies. We created profile hidden Markov models of each subfamily and searched EST databases representing diverse land plant lineages to address the following questions: 1) Are homologs of each Arabidopsis subfamily present in the earliest land plants? 2) Do expression patterns among subfamilies and individual genes within subfamilies differ across lineages? 3) Has gene duplication within each lineage resulted in lineage-specific expansion patterns? We also looked for correlations between relative EST database representation in Arabidopsis and similarity to orthologs in early lineages. Results Homologs of all seven MST subfamilies were present in land plants at least 400 million years ago. Subfamily expression levels vary across lineages with greater relative expression of the STP, ERD6-like, INT and PLT subfamilies in the vascular plants. In the large EST databases of the moss, gymnosperm, monocot and eudicot lineages, EST contig construction reveals that MST subfamilies have experienced lineage-specific expansions. Large subfamily expansions appear to be due to multiple gene duplications arising from single ancestral genes. In Arabidopsis, one or a few genes within most subfamilies have much higher EST database representation than others. Most highly represented (broadly expressed) genes in Arabidopsis have best match orthologs in early divergent lineages. Conclusion The seven

  18. Widespread acquisition of antimicrobial resistance among Campylobacter isolates from UK retail poultry and evidence for clonal expansion of resistant lineages

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Antimicrobial resistance is increasing among clinical Campylobacter cases and is common among isolates from other sources, specifically retail poultry - a major source of human infection. In this study the antimicrobial susceptibility of isolates from a UK-wide survey of Campylobacter in retail poultry in 2001 and 2004–5 was investigated. The occurrence of phenotypes resistant to tetracycline, quinolones (ciprofloxacin and naladixic acid), erythromycin, chloramphenicol and aminoglycosides was quantified. This was compared with a phylogeny for these isolates based upon Multi Locus Sequence Typing (MLST) to investigate the pattern of antimicrobial resistance acquisition. Results Antimicrobial resistance was present in all lineage clusters, but statistical testing showed a non-random distribution. Erythromycin resistance was associated with Campylobacter coli. For all antimicrobials tested, resistant isolates were distributed among relatively distant lineages indicative of widespread acquisition. There was also evidence of clustering of resistance phenotypes within lineages; indicative of local expansion of resistant strains. Conclusions These results are consistent with the widespread acquisition of antimicrobial resistance among chicken associated Campylobacter isolates, either through mutation or horizontal gene transfer, and the expansion of these lineages as a proportion of the population. As Campylobacter are not known to multiply outside of the host and long-term carriage in humans is extremely infrequent in industrialized countries, the most likely location for the proliferation of resistant lineages is in farmed chickens. PMID:23855904

  19. Phylogenetic plant community structure along elevation is lineage specific

    PubMed Central

    Ndiribe, Charlotte; Pellissier, Loïc; Antonelli, Silvia; Dubuis, Anne; Pottier, Julien; Vittoz, Pascal; Guisan, Antoine; Salamin, Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    The trend of closely related taxa to retain similar environmental preferences mediated by inherited traits suggests that several patterns observed at the community scale originate from longer evolutionary processes. While the effects of phylogenetic relatedness have been previously studied within a single genus or family, lineage-specific effects on the ecological processes governing community assembly have rarely been studied for entire communities or flora. Here, we measured how community phylogenetic structure varies across a wide elevation gradient for plant lineages represented by 35 families, using a co-occurrence index and net relatedness index (NRI). We propose a framework that analyses each lineage separately and reveals the trend of ecological assembly at tree nodes. We found prevailing phylogenetic clustering for more ancient nodes and overdispersion in more recent tree nodes. Closely related species may thus rapidly evolve new environmental tolerances to radiate into distinct communities, while older lineages likely retain inherent environmental tolerances to occupy communities in similar environments, either through efficient dispersal mechanisms or the exclusion of older lineages with more divergent environmental tolerances. Our study illustrates the importance of disentangling the patterns of community assembly among lineages to better interpret the ecological role of traits. It also sheds light on studies reporting absence of phylogenetic signal, and opens new perspectives on the analysis of niche and trait conservatism across lineages. PMID:24455126

  20. Genetic and demographic implications of the Bantu expansion: insights from human paternal lineages.

    PubMed

    Berniell-Lee, Gemma; Calafell, Francesc; Bosch, Elena; Heyer, Evelyne; Sica, Lucas; Mouguiama-Daouda, Patrick; van der Veen, Lolke; Hombert, Jean-Marie; Quintana-Murci, Lluis; Comas, David

    2009-07-01

    The expansion of Bantu languages, which started around 5,000 years before present in west/central Africa and spread all throughout sub-Saharan Africa, may represent one of the major and most rapid demographic movements in the history of the human species. Although the genetic footprints of this expansion have been unmasked through the analyses of the maternally inherited mitochondrial DNA lineages, information on the genetic impact of this massive movement and on the genetic composition of pre-Bantu populations is still scarce. Here, we analyze an extensive collection of Y-chromosome markers--41 single nucleotide polymorphisms and 18 short tandem repeats--in 883 individuals from 22 Bantu-speaking agriculturalist populations and 3 Pygmy hunter-gatherer populations from Gabon and Cameroon. Our data reveal a recent origin for most paternal lineages in west Central African populations most likely resulting from the expansion of Bantu-speaking farmers that erased the more ancient Y-chromosome diversity found in this area. However, some traces of ancient paternal lineages are observed in these populations, mainly among hunter-gatherers. These results are at odds with those obtained from mtDNA analyses, where high frequencies of ancient maternal lineages are observed, and substantial maternal gene flow from hunter-gatherers to Bantu farmers has been suggested. These differences are most likely explained by sociocultural factors such as patrilocality. We also find the intriguing presence of paternal lineages belonging to Eurasian haplogroup R1b1*, which might represent footprints of demographic expansions in central Africa not directly related to the Bantu expansion. PMID:19369595

  1. Clonal Expansion and Migration of a Highly Virulent, Defoliating Lineage of Verticillium dahliae.

    PubMed

    Milgroom, Michael G; Del Mar Jiménez-Gasco, María; Olivares-García, Concepción; Jiménez-Díaz, Rafael M

    2016-09-01

    We used a population genomics approach to test the hypothesis of clonal expansion of a highly fit genotype in populations of Verticillium dahliae. This fungal pathogen has a broad host range and can be dispersed in contaminated seed or other plant material. It has a highly clonal population structure, with several lineages having nearly worldwide distributions in agricultural crops. Isolates in lineage 1A are highly virulent and cause defoliation in cotton, okra, and olive (denoted 1A/D), whereas those in other lineages cause wilting but not defoliation (ND). We tested whether the highly virulent lineage 1A/D could have spread from the southwestern United States to the Mediterranean basin, as predicted from historical records. We found 187 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), determined by genotyping by sequencing, among 91 isolates of lineage 1A/D and 5 isolates in the closely related lineage 1B/ND. Neighbor-joining and maximum-likelihood analyses on the 187 SNPs showed a clear divergence between 1A/D and 1B/ND haplotypes. Data for only 77 SNPs were obtained for all 96 isolates (no missing data); lineages 1A/D and 1B/ND differed by 27 of these 77 SNPs, confirming a clear divergence between the two lineages. No evidence of recombination was detected within or between these two lineages. Phylogenetic and genealogical analyses resulted in five distinct subclades of 1A/D isolates that correlated closely with geographic origins in the Mediterranean basin, consistent with the hypothesis that the D pathotype was introduced at least five times in independent founder events into this region from a relatively diverse source population. The inferred ancestral haplotype was found in two isolates sampled before 1983 from the southwestern United States, which is consistent with historical records that 1A/D originated in North America. The five subclades coalesce with the ancestral haplotype at the same time, consistent with a hypothesis of rapid population expansion in the

  2. Multilayered specification of the T-cell lineage fate

    PubMed Central

    Rothenberg, Ellen V.; Zhang, Jingli; Li, Long

    2010-01-01

    Summary T-cell development from stem cells has provided a highly accessible and detailed view of the regulatory processes that can go into the choice of a cell fate in a postembryonic, stem cell-based system. But, it has been a view from the outside. The problems in understanding the regulatory basis for this lineage choice begin with the fact that too many transcription factors are needed to provide crucial input: without any one of them, T-cell development fails. Furthermore, almost all the factors known to provide crucial functions during the climax of T-lineage commitment itself are also vital for earlier functions that establish the pool of multilineage precursors that would normally feed into the T-cell specification process. When the regulatory genes that encode them are mutated, the confounding effects on earlier stages make it difficult to dissect T-cell specification genetically. Yet both the positive and the negative regulatory events involved in the choice of a T-cell fate are actually a mosaic of distinct functions. New evidence has emerged recently that finally provides a way to separate the major components that fit together to drive this process. Here, we review insights into T-cell specification and commitment that emerge from a combination of molecular, cellular, and systems biology approaches. The results reveal the regulatory structure underlying this lineage decision. PMID:20969591

  3. Principles Governing DNA Methylation during Neuronal Lineage and Subtype Specification

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Ali; Klein, Shifra S.; Barboza, Luendreo; Lohdi, Niraj

    2016-01-01

    Although comprehensively described during early neuronal development, the role of DNA methylation/demethylation in neuronal lineage and subtype specification is not well understood. By studying two distinct neuronal progenitors as they differentiate to principal neurons in mouse hippocampus and striatum, we uncovered several principles governing neuronal DNA methylation during brain development. (1) The program consists of three stages: an initial genome-wide methylation during progenitor proliferation is followed by loss of methylation during the transition of regional progenitors to “young” hippocampal/striatal neurons, which is then reversed by gain in methylation during maturation to subtype-specific neurons. (2) At the first two stages, gain and loss of methylation are limited to CpGs, whereas during the third maturation stage, methylation also occurs at non-CpG sites in both lineages. (3) Methylation/demethylation, similar to transcription, are initially highly similar in the two lineages, whereas diversification in methylation and transcription during maturation creates subtype-specific methylation differences. (4) Initially, methylation targets all genomic locations, whereas later, during early and late differentiation, the preferred targets are intronic/intergenic sequences with enhancer-like activity. (5) Differentially methylated genes are enriched in sequential neurodevelopmental functions (such as progenitor proliferation, migration, neuritogenesis, and synaptic transmission); upregulated genes represent current and consecutive stage-specific functions, and downregulated genes represent preceding functions that are no longer required. The main conclusion of our work is that the neuronal methylation/demethylation program is predominantly developmental with minimal lineage specificity, except in the final stage of development when neuron subtype-specific differences also emerge. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Our work is the first to describe a set of

  4. Mapping the route from naive pluripotency to lineage specification.

    PubMed

    Kalkan, Tüzer; Smith, Austin

    2014-12-01

    In the mouse blastocyst, epiblast cells are newly formed shortly before implantation. They possess a unique developmental plasticity, termed naive pluripotency. For development to proceed, this naive state must be subsumed by multi-lineage differentiation within 72 h following implantation. In vitro differentiation of naive embryonic stem cells (ESCs) cultured in controlled conditions provides a tractable system to dissect and understand the process of exit from naive pluripotency and entry into lineage specification. Exploitation of this system in recent large-scale RNAi and mutagenesis screens has uncovered multiple new factors and modules that drive or facilitate progression out of the naive state. Notably, these studies show that the transcription factor network that governs the naive state is rapidly dismantled prior to upregulation of lineage specification markers, creating an intermediate state that we term formative pluripotency. Here, we summarize these findings and propose a road map for state transitions in ESC differentiation that reflects the orderly dynamics of epiblast progression in the embryo. PMID:25349449

  5. Y-chromosome descent clusters and male differential reproductive success: Young lineage expansions dominate Asian pastoral nomadic populations

    PubMed Central

    Balaresque, Patricia; Gerard, Patrice; Quintana-Murci, Lluis; Heyer, Evelyne; Jobling, Mark A.

    2014-01-01

    High frequency microsatellite haplotypes of the male-specific Y chromosome can signal past episodes of high reproductive success of particular men and their patrilineal descendants. Previously, two examples of such successful Y-lineages have been described in Asia, both associated with Altaic-speaking pastoral nomadic societies, and putatively linked to dynasties descending respectively from Genghis Khan and Giocangga. Here we surveyed a total of 5321 Y chromosomes from 127 Asian populations, including novel Y-SNP and microsatellite data on 461 Central Asian males, to ask if additional lineage expansions could be identified. Based on the most frequent 8-microsatellite haplotypes we objectively defined eleven descent clusters (DCs), each within a specific haplogroup, that represent likely past instances of high male reproductive success, including the two previously identified cases. Analysis of the geographical patterns and ages of these DCs and their associated cultural characteristics showed that the most successful lineages are found both among sedentary agriculturalists and pastoral nomads and expanded between 2100 BCE and 1100 CE. However, those with recent origins in the historical period are almost exclusively found in Altaic-speaking pastoral nomadic populations, which may reflect a shift in political organisation in pastoralist economies and a greater ease of transmission of Y-chromosomes through time and space facilitated by the use of horses. PMID:25585703

  6. The WNT-controlled transcriptional regulator LBH is required for mammary stem cell expansion and maintenance of the basal lineage.

    PubMed

    Lindley, Linsey E; Curtis, Kevin M; Sanchez-Mejias, Avencia; Rieger, Megan E; Robbins, David J; Briegel, Karoline J

    2015-03-01

    The identification of multipotent mammary stem cells (MaSCs) has provided an explanation for the unique regenerative capacity of the mammary gland throughout adult life. However, it remains unclear what genes maintain MaSCs and control their specification into the two epithelial lineages: luminal and basal. LBH is a novel transcription co-factor in the WNT pathway with hitherto unknown physiological function. LBH is expressed during mammary gland development and aberrantly overexpressed in aggressive 'basal' subtype breast cancers. Here, we have explored the in vivo role of LBH in mammopoiesis. We show that in postnatal mammary epithelia, LBH is predominantly expressed in the Lin(-)CD29(high)CD24(+) basal MaSC population. Upon conditional inactivation of LBH, mice exhibit pronounced delays in mammary tissue expansion during puberty and pregnancy, accompanied by increased luminal differentiation at the expense of basal lineage specification. These defects could be traced to a severe reduction in the frequency and self-renewal/differentiation potential of basal MaSCs. Mechanistically, LBH induces expression of key epithelial stem cell transcription factor ΔNp63 to promote a basal MaSC state and repress luminal differentiation genes, mainly that encoding estrogen receptor α (Esr1/ERα). Collectively, these studies identify LBH as an essential regulator of basal MaSC expansion/maintenance, raising important implications for its potential role in breast cancer pathogenesis. PMID:25655704

  7. Evolution of the globin gene family in deuterostomes: lineage-specific patterns of diversification and attrition.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Federico G; Opazo, Juan C; Hoogewijs, David; Hankeln, Thomas; Ebner, Bettina; Vinogradov, Serge N; Bailly, Xavier; Storz, Jay F

    2012-07-01

    In the Metazoa, globin proteins display an underlying unity in tertiary structure that belies an extraordinary diversity in primary structures, biochemical properties, and physiological functions. Phylogenetic reconstructions can reveal which of these functions represent novel, lineage-specific innovations, and which represent ancestral functions that are shared with homologous globin proteins in other eukaryotes and even prokaryotes. To date, our understanding of globin diversity in deuterostomes has been hindered by a dearth of genomic sequence data from the Ambulacraria (echinoderms + hemichordates), the sister group of chordates, and the phylum Xenacoelomorpha, which includes xenoturbellids, acoelomorphs, and nemertodermatids. Here, we report the results of a phylogenetic and comparative genomic analysis of the globin gene repertoire of deuterostomes. We first characterized the globin genes of the acorn worm, Saccoglossus kowalevskii, a representative of the phylum Hemichordata. We then integrated genomic sequence data from the acorn worm into a comprehensive analysis of conserved synteny and phylogenetic relationships among globin genes from representatives of the eight lineages that comprise the superphylum Deuterostomia. The primary aims were 1) to unravel the evolutionary history of the globin gene superfamily in deuterostomes and 2) to use the estimated phylogeny to gain insights into the functional evolution of deuterostome globins. Results of our analyses indicate that the deuterostome common ancestor possessed a repertoire of at least four distinct globin paralogs and that different subsets of these ancestral genes have been retained in each of the descendant organismal lineages. In each major deuterostome group, a different subset of ancestral precursor genes underwent lineage-specific expansions of functional diversity through repeated rounds of gene duplication and divergence. By integrating results of the phylogenetic analysis with available

  8. Genome expansion via lineage splitting and genome reduction in the cicada endosymbiont Hodgkinia

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Matthew A.; Van Leuven, James T.; Meister, Russell C.; Carey, Kaitlin M.; Simon, Chris; McCutcheon, John P.

    2015-01-01

    Comparative genomics from mitochondria, plastids, and mutualistic endosymbiotic bacteria has shown that the stable establishment of a bacterium in a host cell results in genome reduction. Although many highly reduced genomes from endosymbiotic bacteria are stable in gene content and genome structure, organelle genomes are sometimes characterized by dramatic structural diversity. Previous results from Candidatus Hodgkinia cicadicola, an endosymbiont of cicadas, revealed that some lineages of this bacterium had split into two new cytologically distinct yet genetically interdependent species. It was hypothesized that the long life cycle of cicadas in part enabled this unusual lineage-splitting event. Here we test this hypothesis by investigating the structure of the Ca. Hodgkinia genome in one of the longest-lived cicadas, Magicicada tredecim. We show that the Ca. Hodgkinia genome from M. tredecim has fragmented into multiple new chromosomes or genomes, with at least some remaining partitioned into discrete cells. We also show that this lineage-splitting process has resulted in a complex of Ca. Hodgkinia genomes that are 1.1-Mb pairs in length when considered together, an almost 10-fold increase in size from the hypothetical single-genome ancestor. These results parallel some examples of genome fragmentation and expansion in organelles, although the mechanisms that give rise to these extreme genome instabilities are likely different. PMID:26286984

  9. Nephric lineage specification by Pax2 and Pax8.

    PubMed

    Bouchard, Maxime; Souabni, Abdallah; Mandler, Markus; Neubüser, Annette; Busslinger, Meinrad

    2002-11-15

    The mammalian kidney develops in three successive steps from the initial pronephros via the mesonephros to the adult metanephros. Although the nephric lineage is specified during pronephros induction, no single regulator, including the transcription factor Pax2 or Pax8, has yet been identified to control this initial phase of kidney development. In this paper, we demonstrate that mouse embryos lacking both Pax2 and Pax8 are unable to form the pronephros or any later nephric structures. In these double-mutant embryos, the intermediate mesoderm does not undergo the mesenchymal-epithelial transitions required for nephric duct formation, fails to initiate the kidney-specific expression of Lim1 and c-Ret, and is lost by apoptosis 1 d after failed pronephric induction. Conversely, retroviral misexpression of Pax2 was sufficient to induce ectopic nephric structures in the intermediate mesoderm and genital ridge of chick embryos. Together, these data identify Pax2 and Pax8 as critical regulators that specify the nephric lineage. PMID:12435636

  10. DLGP: A database for lineage-conserved and lineage-specific gene pairs in animal and plant genomes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dapeng

    2016-01-15

    The conservation of gene organization in the genome with lineage-specificity is an invaluable resource to decipher their potential functionality with diverse selective constraints, especially in higher animals and plants. Gene pairs appear to be the minimal structure for such kind of gene clusters that tend to reside in their preferred locations, representing the distinctive genomic characteristics in single species or a given lineage. Despite gene families having been investigated in a widespread manner, the definition of gene pair families in various taxa still lacks adequate attention. To address this issue, we report DLGP (http://lcgbase.big.ac.cn/DLGP/) that stores the pre-calculated lineage-based gene pairs in currently available 134 animal and plant genomes and inspect them under the same analytical framework, bringing out a set of innovational features. First, the taxonomy or lineage has been classified into four levels such as Kingdom, Phylum, Class and Order. It adopts all-to-all comparison strategy to identify the possible conserved gene pairs in all species for each gene pair in certain species and reckon those that are conserved in over a significant proportion of species in a given lineage (e.g. Primates, Diptera or Poales) as the lineage-conserved gene pairs. Furthermore, it predicts the lineage-specific gene pairs by retaining the above-mentioned lineage-conserved gene pairs that are not conserved in any other lineages. Second, it carries out pairwise comparison for the gene pairs between two compared species and creates the table including all the conserved gene pairs and the image elucidating the conservation degree of gene pairs in chromosomal level. Third, it supplies gene order browser to extend gene pairs to gene clusters, allowing users to view the evolution dynamics in the gene context in an intuitive manner. This database will be able to facilitate the particular comparison between animals and plants, between vertebrates and arthropods, and

  11. Population expansions shared among coexisting bacterial lineages are revealed by genetic evidence

    PubMed Central

    Avitia, Morena; Escalante, Ana E.; Rebollar, Eria A.; Moreno-Letelier, Alejandra; Eguiarte, Luis E.

    2014-01-01

    Comparative population studies can help elucidate the influence of historical events upon current patterns of biodiversity among taxa that coexist in a given geographic area. In particular, comparative assessments derived from population genetics and coalescent theory have been used to investigate population dynamics of bacterial pathogens in order to understand disease epidemics. In contrast, and despite the ecological relevance of non-host associated and naturally occurring bacteria, there is little understanding of the processes determining their diversity. Here we analyzed the patterns of genetic diversity in coexisting populations of three genera of bacteria (Bacillus, Exiguobacterium, and Pseudomonas) that are abundant in the aquatic systems of the Cuatro Cienegas Basin, Mexico. We tested the hypothesis that a common habitat leaves a signature upon the genetic variation present in bacterial populations, independent of phylogenetic relationships. We used multilocus markers to assess genetic diversity and (1) performed comparative phylogenetic analyses, (2) described the genetic structure of bacterial populations, (3) calculated descriptive parameters of genetic diversity, (4) performed neutrality tests, and (5) conducted coalescent-based historical reconstructions. Our results show a trend of synchronic expansions across most populations independent of both lineage and sampling site. Thus, we provide empirical evidence supporting the analysis of coexisting bacterial lineages in natural environments to advance our understanding of bacterial evolution beyond medical or health-related microbes. PMID:25548732

  12. Population expansions shared among coexisting bacterial lineages are revealed by genetic evidence.

    PubMed

    Avitia, Morena; Escalante, Ana E; Rebollar, Eria A; Moreno-Letelier, Alejandra; Eguiarte, Luis E; Souza, Valeria

    2014-01-01

    Comparative population studies can help elucidate the influence of historical events upon current patterns of biodiversity among taxa that coexist in a given geographic area. In particular, comparative assessments derived from population genetics and coalescent theory have been used to investigate population dynamics of bacterial pathogens in order to understand disease epidemics. In contrast, and despite the ecological relevance of non-host associated and naturally occurring bacteria, there is little understanding of the processes determining their diversity. Here we analyzed the patterns of genetic diversity in coexisting populations of three genera of bacteria (Bacillus, Exiguobacterium, and Pseudomonas) that are abundant in the aquatic systems of the Cuatro Cienegas Basin, Mexico. We tested the hypothesis that a common habitat leaves a signature upon the genetic variation present in bacterial populations, independent of phylogenetic relationships. We used multilocus markers to assess genetic diversity and (1) performed comparative phylogenetic analyses, (2) described the genetic structure of bacterial populations, (3) calculated descriptive parameters of genetic diversity, (4) performed neutrality tests, and (5) conducted coalescent-based historical reconstructions. Our results show a trend of synchronic expansions across most populations independent of both lineage and sampling site. Thus, we provide empirical evidence supporting the analysis of coexisting bacterial lineages in natural environments to advance our understanding of bacterial evolution beyond medical or health-related microbes. PMID:25548732

  13. Neuroblast lineage identification and lineage-specific Hox gene action during postembryonic development of the subesophageal ganglion in the Drosophila central brain.

    PubMed

    Kuert, Philipp A; Hartenstein, Volker; Bello, Bruno C; Lovick, Jennifer K; Reichert, Heinrich

    2014-06-15

    The central brain of Drosophila consists of the supraesophageal ganglion (SPG) and the subesophageal ganglion (SEG), both of which are generated by neural stem cell-like neuroblasts during embryonic and postembryonic development. Considerable information has been obtained on postembryonic development of the neuroblasts and their lineages in the SPG. In contrast, very little is known about neuroblasts, neural lineages, or any other aspect of the postembryonic development in the SEG. Here we characterize the neuroanatomy of the larval SEG in terms of tracts, commissures, and other landmark features as compared to a thoracic ganglion. We then use clonal MARCM labeling to identify all adult-specific neuroblast lineages in the late larval SEG and find a surprisingly small number of neuroblast lineages, 13 paired and one unpaired. The Hox genes Dfd, Scr, and Antp are expressed in a lineage-specific manner in these lineages during postembryonic development. Hox gene loss-of-function causes lineage-specific defects in axonal targeting and reduction in neural cell numbers. Moreover, it results in the formation of novel ectopic neuroblast lineages. Apoptosis block also results in ectopic lineages suggesting that Hox genes are required for lineage-specific termination of proliferation through programmed cell death. Taken together, our findings show that postembryonic development in the SEG is mediated by a surprisingly small set of identified lineages and requires lineage-specific Hox gene action to ensure the correct formation of adult-specific neurons in the Drosophila brain. PMID:24713419

  14. Prospects for T. cruzi lineage-specific serological surveillance of wild mammals.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharyya, Tapan; Mills, Emily A; Jansen, Ana Maria; Miles, Michael A

    2015-11-01

    Sequence diversity in the Trypanosoma cruzi small surface molecule TSSA has yielded antigens for serology to investigate the T. cruzi lineage-specific infection history of patients with Chagas disease. Synthetic peptides can be used as the lineage-specific antigens. Here we consider the rationale, feasibility and potential of applying peptide-based lineage-specific serology to naturally infected wild mammals. The commercial availability of appropriate secondary antibodies encourages this further development, for discovery of new reservoir host species and to reveal the wider ecological distribution of T. cruzi lineages, currently hindered by the need to recover live isolates or to attempt genotyping of DNA extracted from blood samples. PMID:26116784

  15. Genetic and epigenetic variation in the lineage specification of regulatory T cells

    PubMed Central

    Arvey, Aaron; van der Veeken, Joris; Plitas, George; Rich, Stephen S; Concannon, Patrick; Rudensky, Alexander Y

    2015-01-01

    Regulatory T (Treg) cells, which suppress autoimmunity and other inflammatory states, are characterized by a distinct set of genetic elements controlling their gene expression. However, the extent of genetic and associated epigenetic variation in the Treg cell lineage and its possible relation to disease states in humans remain unknown. We explored evolutionary conservation of regulatory elements and natural human inter-individual epigenetic variation in Treg cells to identify the core transcriptional control program of lineage specification. Analysis of single nucleotide polymorphisms in core lineage-specific enhancers revealed disease associations, which were further corroborated by high-resolution genotyping to fine map causal polymorphisms in lineage-specific enhancers. Our findings suggest that a small set of regulatory elements specify the Treg lineage and that genetic variation in Treg cell-specific enhancers may alter Treg cell function contributing to polygenic disease. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.07571.001 PMID:26510014

  16. Lineage-specific genomics: Frequent birth and death in the human genome: The human genome contains many lineage-specific elements created by both sequence and functional turnover.

    PubMed

    Young, Robert S

    2016-07-01

    Frequent evolutionary birth and death events have created a large quantity of biologically important, lineage-specific DNA within mammalian genomes. The birth and death of DNA sequences is so frequent that the total number of these insertions and deletions in the human population remains unknown, although there are differences between these groups, e.g. transposable elements contribute predominantly to sequence insertion. Functional turnover - where the activity of a locus is specific to one lineage, but the underlying DNA remains conserved - can also drive birth and death. However, this does not appear to be a major driver of divergent transcriptional regulation. Both sequence and functional turnover have contributed to the birth and death of thousands of functional promoters in the human and mouse genomes. These findings reveal the pervasive nature of evolutionary birth and death and suggest that lineage-specific regions may play an important but previously underappreciated role in human biology and disease. PMID:27231054

  17. Concise Review: Chemical Approaches for Modulating Lineage-Specific Stem Cells and Progenitors

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Tao; Zhang, Mingliang; Laurent, Timothy; Xie, Min

    2013-01-01

    Generation and manipulation of lineage-restricted stem and progenitor cells in vitro and/or in vivo are critical for the development of stem cell-based clinical therapeutics. Lineage-restricted stem and progenitor cells have many advantageous qualities, including being able to efficiently engraft and differentiate into desirable cell types in vivo after transplantation, and they are much less tumorigenic than pluripotent cells. Generation of lineage-restricted stem and progenitor cells can be achieved by directed differentiation from pluripotent stem cells or lineage conversion from easily obtained somatic cells. Small molecules can be very helpful in these processes since they offer several important benefits. For example, the risk of tumorigenesis is greatly reduced when small molecules are used to replace integrated transcription factors, which are widely used in cell fate conversion. Furthermore, small molecules are relatively easy to apply, optimize, and manufacture, and they can more readily be developed into conventional pharmaceuticals. Alternatively, small molecules can be used to expand or selectively control the differentiation of lineage-restricted stem and progenitor cells for desirable therapeutics purposes in vitro or in vivo. Here we summarize recent progress in the use of small molecules for the expansion and generation of desirable lineage-restricted stem and progenitor cells in vitro and for selectively controlling cell fate of lineage-restricted stem and progenitor cells in vivo, thereby facilitating stem cell-based clinical applications. PMID:23580542

  18. Lineage-affiliated transcription factors bind the Gata3 Tce1 enhancer to mediate lineage-specific programs

    PubMed Central

    Ohmura, Sakie; Mizuno, Seiya; Oishi, Hisashi; Ku, Chia-Jui; Hermann, Mary; Hosoya, Tomonori; Takahashi, Satoru; Engel, James Douglas

    2016-01-01

    The transcription factor GATA3 is essential for the genesis and maturation of the T cell lineage, and GATA3 dysregulation has pathological consequences. Previous studies have shown that GATA3 function in T cell development is regulated by multiple signaling pathways and that the Notch nuclear effector, RBP-J, binds specifically to the Gata3 promoter. We previously identified a T cell–specific Gata3 enhancer (Tce1) lying 280 kb downstream from the structural gene and demonstrated in transgenic mice that Tce1 promoted T lymphocyte–specific transcription of reporter genes throughout T cell development; however, it was not clear if Tce1 is required for Gata3 transcription in vivo. Here, we determined that the canonical Gata3 promoter is insufficient for Gata3 transcriptional activation in T cells in vivo, precluding the possibility that promoter binding by a host of previously implicated transcription factors alone is responsible for Gata3 expression in T cells. Instead, we demonstrated that multiple lineage-affiliated transcription factors bind to Tce1 and that this enhancer confers T lymphocyte–specific Gata3 activation in vivo, as targeted deletion of Tce1 in a mouse model abrogated critical functions of this T cell–regulatory element. Together, our data show that Tce1 is both necessary and sufficient for critical aspects of Gata3 T cell–specific transcriptional activity. PMID:26808502

  19. Lineage-affiliated transcription factors bind the Gata3 Tce1 enhancer to mediate lineage-specific programs.

    PubMed

    Ohmura, Sakie; Mizuno, Seiya; Oishi, Hisashi; Ku, Chia-Jui; Hermann, Mary; Hosoya, Tomonori; Takahashi, Satoru; Engel, James Douglas

    2016-03-01

    The transcription factor GATA3 is essential for the genesis and maturation of the T cell lineage, and GATA3 dysregulation has pathological consequences. Previous studies have shown that GATA3 function in T cell development is regulated by multiple signaling pathways and that the Notch nuclear effector, RBP-J, binds specifically to the Gata3 promoter. We previously identified a T cell-specific Gata3 enhancer (Tce1) lying 280 kb downstream from the structural gene and demonstrated in transgenic mice that Tce1 promoted T lymphocyte-specific transcription of reporter genes throughout T cell development; however, it was not clear if Tce1 is required for Gata3 transcription in vivo. Here, we determined that the canonical Gata3 promoter is insufficient for Gata3 transcriptional activation in T cells in vivo, precluding the possibility that promoter binding by a host of previously implicated transcription factors alone is responsible for Gata3 expression in T cells. Instead, we demonstrated that multiple lineage-affiliated transcription factors bind to Tce1 and that this enhancer confers T lymphocyte-specific Gata3 activation in vivo, as targeted deletion of Tce1 in a mouse model abrogated critical functions of this T cell-regulatory element. Together, our data show that Tce1 is both necessary and sufficient for critical aspects of Gata3 T cell-specific transcriptional activity. PMID:26808502

  20. Lineage-specific evolution of the vertebrate Otopetrin gene family revealed by comparative genomic analyses

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Mutations in the Otopetrin 1 gene (Otop1) in mice and fish produce an unusual bilateral vestibular pathology that involves the absence of otoconia without hearing impairment. The encoded protein, Otop1, is the only functionally characterized member of the Otopetrin Domain Protein (ODP) family; the extended sequence and structural preservation of ODP proteins in metazoans suggest a conserved functional role. Here, we use the tools of sequence- and cytogenetic-based comparative genomics to study the Otop1 and the Otop2-Otop3 genes and to establish their genomic context in 25 vertebrates. We extend our evolutionary study to include the gene mutated in Usher syndrome (USH) subtype 1G (Ush1g), both because of the head-to-tail clustering of Ush1g with Otop2 and because Otop1 and Ush1g mutations result in inner ear phenotypes. Results We established that OTOP1 is the boundary gene of an inversion polymorphism on human chromosome 4p16 that originated in the common human-chimpanzee lineage more than 6 million years ago. Other lineage-specific evolutionary events included a three-fold expansion of the Otop genes in Xenopus tropicalis and of Ush1g in teleostei fish. The tight physical linkage between Otop2 and Ush1g is conserved in all vertebrates. To further understand the functional organization of the Ushg1-Otop2 locus, we deduced a putative map of binding sites for CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF), a mammalian insulator transcription factor, from genome-wide chromatin immunoprecipitation-sequencing (ChIP-seq) data in mouse and human embryonic stem (ES) cells combined with detection of CTCF-binding motifs. Conclusions The results presented here clarify the evolutionary history of the vertebrate Otop and Ush1g families, and establish a framework for studying the possible interaction(s) of Ush1g and Otop in developmental pathways. PMID:21261979

  1. Understanding the molecular circuitry of cell lineage specification in the early mouse embryo.

    PubMed

    Bergsmedh, Anna; Donohoe, Mary E; Hughes, Rebecca-Ayme; Hadjantonakis, Anna-Katerina

    2011-01-01

    Pluripotent stem cells hold great promise for cell-based therapies in regenerative medicine. However, critical to understanding and exploiting mechanisms of cell lineage specification, epigenetic reprogramming, and the optimal environment for maintaining and differentiating pluripotent stem cells is a fundamental knowledge of how these events occur in normal embryogenesis. The early mouse embryo has provided an excellent model to interrogate events crucial in cell lineage commitment and plasticity, as well as for embryo-derived lineage-specific stem cells and induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells. Here we provide an overview of cell lineage specification in the early (preimplantation) mouse embryo focusing on the transcriptional circuitry and epigenetic marks necessary for successive differentiation events leading to the formation of the blastocyst. PMID:24710206

  2. Phylogeographic pattern of range expansion provides evidence for cryptic species lineages in Silene nutans in Western Europe.

    PubMed

    Martin, H; Touzet, P; Van Rossum, F; Delalande, D; Arnaud, J-F

    2016-03-01

    As a result of recent or past evolutionary processes, a single species might consist of distinct Evolutionary Significant Units (ESUs), even corresponding to cryptic species. Determining the underlying mechanisms of range shifts and the processes at work in the build-up of divergent ESUs requires elucidating the factors that contribute to population genetic divergence across a species' range. We investigated the large-scale patterns of genetic structure in the perennial herbaceous plant species Silene nutans (Caryophyllaceae) in Western Europe. We sampled and genotyped 111 populations using 13 nuclear microsatellite loci and 6 plastid single-nucleotide polymorphisms. Broad-scale spatial population genetic structure was examined using Bayesian clustering, spatial multivariate analyses and measures of hierarchical genetic differentiation. The genotypic structure of S. nutans was typical of a predominantly allogamous mating system. We also identified plastid lineages with no intra-population polymorphism, mirroring two genetically differentiated nuclear lineages. No evidence of admixture was found. Spatial trends in genetic diversity further suggested independent leading-edge expansion associated with founding events and subsequent genetic erosion. Overall, our findings suggested speciation processes in S. nutans and highlighted striking patterns of distinct stepwise recolonisation of Western Europe shaped by Quaternary climate oscillations. Two main potential ESUs can be defined in Western Europe, corresponding to Eastern and Western nuclear-plastid lineages. In situ preservation of populations and genetic rescue implying ex situ conservation techniques should take the lineage identity into account. This is particularly true in Great Britain, northern France and Belgium, where S. nutans is rare and where distinct lineages co-occur in close contact. PMID:26647652

  3. Pan-genome analyses identify lineage- and niche-specific markers of evolution and adaptation in Epsilonproteobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ying; Sievert, Stefan M.

    2014-01-01

    The rapidly increasing availability of complete bacterial genomes has created new opportunities for reconstructing bacterial evolution, but it has also highlighted the difficulty to fully understand the genomic and functional variations occurring among different lineages. Using the class Epsilonproteobacteria as a case study, we investigated the composition, flexibility, and function of its pan-genomes. Models were constructed to extrapolate the expansion of pan-genomes at three different taxonomic levels. The results show that, for Epsilonproteobacteria the seemingly large genome variations among strains of the same species are less noticeable when compared with groups at higher taxonomic ranks, indicating that genome stability is imposed by the potential existence of taxonomic boundaries. The analyses of pan-genomes has also defined a set of universally conserved core genes, based on which a phylogenetic tree was constructed to confirm that thermophilic species from deep-sea hydrothermal vents represent the most ancient lineages of Epsilonproteobacteria. Moreover, by comparing the flexible genome of a chemoautotrophic deep-sea vent species to (1) genomes of species belonging to the same genus, but inhabiting different environments, and (2) genomes of other vent species, but belonging to different genera, we were able to delineate the relative importance of lineage-specific versus niche-specific genes. This result not only emphasizes the overall importance of phylogenetic proximity in shaping the variable part of the genome, but also highlights the adaptive functions of niche-specific genes. Overall, by modeling the expansion of pan-genomes and analyzing core and flexible genes, this study provides snapshots on how the complex processes of gene acquisition, conservation, and removal affect the evolution of different species, and contribute to the metabolic diversity and versatility of Epsilonproteobacteria. PMID:24678308

  4. Lineage-Specific Conserved Noncoding Sequences of Plant Genomes: Their Possible Role in Nucleosome Positioning

    PubMed Central

    Hettiarachchi, Nilmini; Kryukov, Kirill; Sumiyama, Kenta; Saitou, Naruya

    2014-01-01

    Many studies on conserved noncoding sequences (CNSs) have found that CNSs are enriched significantly in regulatory sequence elements. We conducted whole-genome analysis on plant CNSs to identify lineage-specific CNSs in eudicots, monocots, angiosperms, and vascular plants based on the premise that lineage-specific CNSs define lineage-specific characters and functions in groups of organisms. We identified 27 eudicot, 204 monocot, 6,536 grass, 19 angiosperm, and 2 vascular plant lineage-specific CNSs (lengths range from 16 to 1,517 bp) that presumably originated in their respective common ancestors. A stronger constraint on the CNSs located in the untranslated regions was observed. The CNSs were often flanked by genes involved in transcription regulation. A drop of A+T content near the border of CNSs was observed and CNS regions showed a higher nucleosome occupancy probability. These CNSs are candidate regulatory elements, which are expected to define lineage-specific features of various plant groups. PMID:25364802

  5. A Role for RE-1-Silencing Transcription Factor in Embryonic Stem Cells Cardiac Lineage Specification.

    PubMed

    Aksoy, Irene; Marcy, Guillaume; Chen, Jiaxuan; Divakar, Ushashree; Kumar, Vibhor; John-Sanchez, Daniel; Rahmani, Mehran; Buckley, Noel J; Stanton, Lawrence W

    2016-04-01

    During development, lineage specification is controlled by several signaling pathways involving various transcription factors (TFs). Here, we studied the RE-1-silencing transcription factor (REST) and identified an important role of this TF in cardiac differentiation. Using mouse embryonic stem cells (ESC) to model development, we found that REST knockout cells lost the ability to differentiate into the cardiac lineage. Detailed analysis of specific lineage markers expression showed selective downregulation of endoderm markers in REST-null cells, thus contributing to a loss of cardiogenic signals. REST regulates cardiac differentiation of ESCs by negatively regulating the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway and positively regulating the cardiogenic TF Gata4. We propose here a new role for REST in cell fate specification besides its well-known repressive role of neuronal differentiation. PMID:26864965

  6. Constraint of gene expression by the chromatin remodelling protein CHD4 facilitates lineage specification

    PubMed Central

    O'Shaughnessy-Kirwan, Aoife; Signolet, Jason; Costello, Ita; Gharbi, Sarah; Hendrich, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Chromatin remodelling proteins are essential for different aspects of metazoan biology, yet functional details of why these proteins are important are lacking. Although it is possible to describe the biochemistry of how they remodel chromatin, their chromatin-binding profiles in cell lines, and gene expression changes upon loss of a given protein, in very few cases can this easily translate into an understanding of how the function of that protein actually influences a developmental process. Here, we investigate how the chromatin remodelling protein CHD4 facilitates the first lineage decision in mammalian embryogenesis. Embryos lacking CHD4 can form a morphologically normal early blastocyst, but are unable to successfully complete the first lineage decision and form functional trophectoderm (TE). In the absence of a functional TE, Chd4 mutant blastocysts do not implant and are hence not viable. By measuring transcript levels in single cells from early embryos, we show that CHD4 influences the frequency at which unspecified cells in preimplantation stage embryos express lineage markers prior to the execution of this first lineage decision. In the absence of CHD4, this frequency is increased in 16-cell embryos, and by the blastocyst stage cells fail to properly adopt a TE gene expression programme. We propose that CHD4 allows cells to undertake lineage commitment in vivo by modulating the frequency with which lineage-specification genes are expressed. This provides novel insight into both how lineage decisions are made in mammalian cells, and how a chromatin remodelling protein functions to facilitate lineage commitment. PMID:26116663

  7. Rewiring mesenchymal stem cell lineage specification by switching the biophysical microenvironment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Junmin; Abdeen, Amr A.; Kilian, Kristopher A.

    2014-06-01

    The propensity of stem cells to specify and commit to a particular lineage program is guided by dynamic biophysical and biochemical signals that are temporally regulated. However, most in vitro studies rely on ``snapshots'' of cell state under static conditions. Here we asked whether changing the biophysical aspects of the substrate could modulate the degree of mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) lineage specification. We chose to explore two diverse differentiation outcomes: MSC osteogenesis and trans-differentiation to neuron-like cells. MSCs were cultured on soft (~0.5 kPa) or stiff (~40 kPa) hydrogels followed by transfer to gels of the opposite stiffness. MSCs on soft gels express elevated neurogenesis markers while MSCs on stiff substrates express elevated osteogenesis markers. Transfer of MSCs from soft to stiff or stiff to soft substrates led to a switch in lineage specification. However, MSCs transferred from stiff to soft substrates maintained elevated osteogenesis markers, suggesting a degree of irreversible activation. Transferring MSCs to micropatterned substrates reveal geometric cues that further modulate lineage reversal. Taken together, this study demonstrates that MSCs remain susceptible to the biophysical properties of the extracellular matrix--even after several weeks of culture--and can redirect lineage specification in response to changes in the microenvironment.

  8. Lineage-specific molecular probing reveals novel diversity and ecological partitioning of haplosporidians

    PubMed Central

    Hartikainen, Hanna; Ashford, Oliver S; Berney, Cédric; Okamura, Beth; Feist, Stephen W; Baker-Austin, Craig; Stentiford, Grant D; Bass, David

    2014-01-01

    Haplosporidians are rhizarian parasites of mostly marine invertebrates. They include the causative agents of diseases of commercially important molluscs, including MSX disease in oysters. Despite their importance for food security, their diversity and distributions are poorly known. We used a combination of group-specific PCR primers to probe environmental DNA samples from planktonic and benthic environments in Europe, South Africa and Panama. This revealed several highly distinct novel clades, novel lineages within known clades and seasonal (spring vs autumn) and habitat-related (brackish vs littoral) variation in assemblage composition. High frequencies of haplosporidian lineages in the water column provide the first evidence for life cycles involving planktonic hosts, host-free stages or both. The general absence of haplosporidian lineages from all large online sequence data sets emphasises the importance of lineage-specific approaches for studying these highly divergent and diverse lineages. Combined with host-based field surveys, environmental sampling for pathogens will enhance future detection of known and novel pathogens and the assessment of disease risk. PMID:23966100

  9. Neuroblast lineage-specific origin of the neurons of the Drosophila larval olfactory system

    PubMed Central

    Das, Abhijit; Gupta, Tripti; Davla, Sejal; Godino, Laura Lucia Prieto; Diegelmann, Sören; Reddy, O. Venkateswara; VijayRaghavan, K.; Reichert, Heinrich; Lovick, Jennifer; Hartenstein, Volker

    2014-01-01

    The complete neuronal repertoire of the central brain of Drosophila originates from only approximately 100 pairs of neural stem cells, or neuroblasts. Each neuroblast produces a highly stereotyped lineage of neurons which innervate specific compartments of the brain. Neuroblasts undergo two rounds of mitotic activity: embryonic divisions produce lineages of primary neurons that build the larval nervous system; after a brief quiescence, the neuroblasts go through a second round of divisions in larval stage to produce secondary neurons which are integrated into the adult nervous system. Here we investigate the lineages that are associated with the larval antennal lobe, one of the most widely studied neuronal systems in fly. We find that the same five neuroblasts responsible for the adult antennal lobe also produce the antennal lobe of the larval brain. However, there are notable differences in the composition of larval (primary) lineages and their adult (secondary) counterparts. Significantly, in the adult, two lineages (lNB/BAlc and adNB/BAmv3) produce uniglomerular projection neurons connecting the antennal lobe with the mushroom body and lateral horn; another lineage, vNB/BAla1, generates multiglomerular neurons reaching the lateral horn directly. lNB/BAlc, as well as a fourth lineage, vlNB/BAla2, generate a diversity of local interneurons. We describe a fifth, previously unknown lineage, BAlp4, which connects the posterior part of the antennal lobe and the neighboring tritocerebrum (gustatory center) with a higher brain center located adjacent to the mushroom body. In the larva, only one of these lineages, adNB/BAmv3, generates all uniglomerular projection neurons. Also as in the adult, lNB/BAlc and vlNB/BAla2 produce local interneurons which, in terms of diversity in architecture and transmitter expression, resemble their adult counterparts. In addition, lineages lNB/BAlc and vNB/BAla1, as well as the newly described BAlp4, form numerous types of projection

  10. Neuroblast lineage-specific origin of the neurons of the Drosophila larval olfactory system.

    PubMed

    Das, Abhijit; Gupta, Tripti; Davla, Sejal; Prieto-Godino, Lucia L; Diegelmann, Sören; Reddy, O Venkateswara; Raghavan, K Vijay; Reichert, Heinrich; Lovick, Jennifer; Hartenstein, Volker

    2013-01-15

    The complete neuronal repertoire of the central brain of Drosophila originates from only approximately 100 pairs of neural stem cells, or neuroblasts. Each neuroblast produces a highly stereotyped lineage of neurons which innervate specific compartments of the brain. Neuroblasts undergo two rounds of mitotic activity: embryonic divisions produce lineages of primary neurons that build the larval nervous system; after a brief quiescence, the neuroblasts go through a second round of divisions in larval stage to produce secondary neurons which are integrated into the adult nervous system. Here we investigate the lineages that are associated with the larval antennal lobe, one of the most widely studied neuronal systems in fly. We find that the same five neuroblasts responsible for the adult antennal lobe also produce the antennal lobe of the larval brain. However, there are notable differences in the composition of larval (primary) lineages and their adult (secondary) counterparts. Significantly, in the adult, two lineages (lNB/BAlc and adNB/BAmv3) produce uniglomerular projection neurons connecting the antennal lobe with the mushroom body and lateral horn; another lineage, vNB/BAla1, generates multiglomerular neurons reaching the lateral horn directly. lNB/BAlc, as well as a fourth lineage, vlNB/BAla2, generate a diversity of local interneurons. We describe a fifth, previously unknown lineage, BAlp4, which connects the posterior part of the antennal lobe and the neighboring tritocerebrum (gustatory center) with a higher brain center located adjacent to the mushroom body. In the larva, only one of these lineages, adNB/BAmv3, generates all uniglomerular projection neurons. Also as in the adult, lNB/BAlc and vlNB/BAla2 produce local interneurons which, in terms of diversity in architecture and transmitter expression, resemble their adult counterparts. In addition, lineages lNB/BAlc and vNB/BAla1, as well as the newly described BAlp4, form numerous types of projection

  11. Impact of Tissue-Specific Stem Cells on Lineage-Specific Differentiation: A Focus on the Musculoskeletal System

    PubMed Central

    Pizzute, Tyler; Lynch, Kevin; Pei, Ming

    2014-01-01

    Tissue-specific stem cells are found throughout the body and, with proper intervention and environmental cues, these stem cells exercise their capabilities for differentiation into several lineages to form cartilage, bone, muscle, and adipose tissue in vitro and in vivo. Interestingly, it has been widely demonstrated that they do not differentiate with the same efficacy during lineage-specific differentiation studies, as the tissue-specific stem cells are generally more effective when differentiating toward the tissues from which they were derived. This review focuses on four mesodermal lineages for tissue-specific stem cell differentiation: adipogenesis, chondrogenesis, myogenesis, and osteogenesis. It is intended to give insight into current multilineage differentiation and comparative research, highlight and contrast known trends regarding differentiation, and introduce supporting evidence which demonstrates particular tissue-specific stem cells’ superiority in lineage-specific differentiation, along with their resident tissue origins and natural roles. In addition, some epigenetic and transcriptomic differences between stem cells which may explain the observed trends are discussed. PMID:25113801

  12. Effect of lineage-specific metabolic traits of Lactobacillus reuteri on sourdough microbial ecology.

    PubMed

    Lin, Xiaoxi B; Gänzle, Michael G

    2014-09-01

    This study determined the effects of specific metabolic traits of Lactobacillus reuteri on its competitiveness in sourdoughs. The competitiveness of lactobacilli in sourdough generally depends on their growth rate; acid resistance additionally contributes to competitiveness in sourdoughs with long fermentation times. Glycerol metabolism via glycerol dehydratase (gupCDE) accelerates growth by the regeneration of reduced cofactors; glutamate metabolism via glutamate decarboxylase (gadB) increases acid resistance by generating a proton motive force. Glycerol and glutamate metabolisms are lineage-specific traits in L. reuteri; therefore, this study employed glycerol dehydratase-positive sourdough isolates of human-adapted L. reuteri lineage I, glutamate decarboxylase-positive strains of rodent-adapted L. reuteri lineage II, as well as mutants with deletions in gadB or gupCDE. The competitivenesses of the strains were quantified by inoculation of wheat and sorghum sourdoughs with defined strains, followed by propagation of doughs with a 10% inoculum and 12-h or 72-h fermentation cycles. Lineage I L. reuteri strains dominated sourdoughs propagated with 12-h fermentation cycles; lineage II L. reuteri strains dominated sourdoughs propagated with 72-h fermentation cycles. L. reuteri 100-23ΔgadB was outcompeted by its wild-type strain in sourdoughs fermented with 72-h fermentation cycles; L. reuteri FUA3400ΔgupCDE was outcompeted by its wild-type strain in sourdoughs fermented with both 12-h and 72-h fermentation cycles. Competition experiments with isogenic pairs of strains resulted in a constant rate of strain displacement of the less competitive mutant strain. In conclusion, lineage-specific traits of L. reuteri determine the competitiveness of this species in sourdough fermentations. PMID:25015888

  13. Effect of Lineage-Specific Metabolic Traits of Lactobacillus reuteri on Sourdough Microbial Ecology

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Xiaoxi B.

    2014-01-01

    This study determined the effects of specific metabolic traits of Lactobacillus reuteri on its competitiveness in sourdoughs. The competitiveness of lactobacilli in sourdough generally depends on their growth rate; acid resistance additionally contributes to competitiveness in sourdoughs with long fermentation times. Glycerol metabolism via glycerol dehydratase (gupCDE) accelerates growth by the regeneration of reduced cofactors; glutamate metabolism via glutamate decarboxylase (gadB) increases acid resistance by generating a proton motive force. Glycerol and glutamate metabolisms are lineage-specific traits in L. reuteri; therefore, this study employed glycerol dehydratase-positive sourdough isolates of human-adapted L. reuteri lineage I, glutamate decarboxylase-positive strains of rodent-adapted L. reuteri lineage II, as well as mutants with deletions in gadB or gupCDE. The competitivenesses of the strains were quantified by inoculation of wheat and sorghum sourdoughs with defined strains, followed by propagation of doughs with a 10% inoculum and 12-h or 72-h fermentation cycles. Lineage I L. reuteri strains dominated sourdoughs propagated with 12-h fermentation cycles; lineage II L. reuteri strains dominated sourdoughs propagated with 72-h fermentation cycles. L. reuteri 100-23ΔgadB was outcompeted by its wild-type strain in sourdoughs fermented with 72-h fermentation cycles; L. reuteri FUA3400ΔgupCDE was outcompeted by its wild-type strain in sourdoughs fermented with both 12-h and 72-h fermentation cycles. Competition experiments with isogenic pairs of strains resulted in a constant rate of strain displacement of the less competitive mutant strain. In conclusion, lineage-specific traits of L. reuteri determine the competitiveness of this species in sourdough fermentations. PMID:25015888

  14. Helicobacter pylori Evolution: Lineage- Specific Adaptations in Homologs of Eukaryotic Sel1-Like Genes

    PubMed Central

    Mittl, Peer R. E; Lee, Hae-Kyung; Dailide, Geidrius; Tan, Shumin; Ito, Yoshiyuki; Secka, Ousman; Dailidiene, Daiva; Putty, Kalyani; Berg, Douglas E; Kalia, Awdhesh

    2007-01-01

    Geographic partitioning is postulated to foster divergence of Helicobacter pylori populations as an adaptive response to local differences in predominant host physiology. H. pylori's ability to establish persistent infection despite host inflammatory responses likely involves active management of host defenses using bacterial proteins that may themselves be targets for adaptive evolution. Sequenced H. pylori genomes encode a family of eight or nine secreted proteins containing repeat motifs that are characteristic of the eukaryotic Sel1 regulatory protein, whereas the related Campylobacter and Wolinella genomes each contain only one or two such “Sel1-like repeat” (SLR) genes (“slr genes”). Signatures of positive selection (ratio of nonsynonymous to synonymous mutations, dN/dS = ω > 1) were evident in the evolutionary history of H. pylori slr gene family expansion. Sequence analysis of six of these slr genes (hp0160, hp0211, hp0235, hp0519, hp0628, and hp1117) from representative East Asian, European, and African H. pylori strains revealed that all but hp0628 had undergone positive selection, with different amino acids often selected in different regions. Most striking was a divergence of Japanese and Korean alleles of hp0519, with Japanese alleles having undergone particularly strong positive selection (ωJ > 25), whereas alleles of other genes from these populations were intermingled. Homology-based structural modeling localized most residues under positive selection to SLR protein surfaces. Rapid evolution of certain slr genes in specific H. pylori lineages suggests a model of adaptive change driven by selection for fine-tuning of host responses, and facilitated by geographic isolation. Characterization of such local adaptations should help elucidate how H. pylori manages persistent infection, and potentially lead to interventions tailored to diverse human populations. PMID:17696605

  15. Early cell lineage specification in a marsupial: a case for diverse mechanisms among mammals.

    PubMed

    Frankenberg, Stephen; Shaw, Geoff; Freyer, Claudia; Pask, Andrew J; Renfree, Marilyn B

    2013-03-01

    Early cell lineage specification in eutherian mammals results in the formation of a pluripotent inner cell mass (ICM) and trophoblast. By contrast, marsupials have no ICM. Here, we present the first molecular analysis of mechanisms of early cell lineage specification in a marsupial, the tammar wallaby. There was no overt differential localisation of key lineage-specific transcription factors in cleavage and early unilaminar blastocyst stages. Pluriblast cells (equivalent to the ICM) became distinguishable from trophoblast cells by differential expression of POU5F1 and, to a greater extent, POU2, a paralogue of POU5F1. Unlike in the mouse, pluriblast-trophoblast differentiation coincided with a global nuclear-to-cytoplasmic transition of CDX2 localisation. Also unlike in the mouse, Hippo pathway factors YAP and WWTR1 showed mutually distinct localisation patterns that suggest non-redundant roles. NANOG and GATA6 were conserved as markers of epiblast and hypoblast, respectively, but some differences to the mouse were found in their mode of differentiation. Our results suggest that there is considerable evolutionary plasticity in the mechanisms regulating early lineage specification in mammals. PMID:23344710

  16. Digital development: a database of cell lineage differentiation in C. elegans with lineage phenotypes, cell-specific gene functions and a multiscale model

    PubMed Central

    Santella, Anthony; Kovacevic, Ismar; Herndon, Laura A.; Hall, David H.; Du, Zhuo; Bao, Zhirong

    2016-01-01

    Developmental systems biology is poised to exploit large-scale data from two approaches: genomics and live imaging. The combination of the two offers the opportunity to map gene functions and gene networks in vivo at single-cell resolution using cell tracking and quantification of cellular phenotypes. Here we present Digital Development (http://www.digital-development.org), a database of cell lineage differentiation with curated phenotypes, cell-specific gene functions and a multiscale model. The database stores data from recent systematic studies of cell lineage differentiation in the C. elegans embryo containing ∼200 conserved genes, 1400 perturbed cell lineages and 600 000 digitized single cells. Users can conveniently browse, search and download four categories of phenotypic and functional information from an intuitive web interface. This information includes lineage differentiation phenotypes, cell-specific gene functions, differentiation landscapes and fate choices, and a multiscale model of lineage differentiation. Digital Development provides a comprehensive, curated, multidimensional database for developmental biology. The scale, resolution and richness of biological information presented here facilitate exploration of gene-specific and systems-level mechanisms of lineage differentiation in Metazoans. PMID:26503254

  17. Genetic Characterization of Zika Virus Strains: Geographic Expansion of the Asian Lineage

    PubMed Central

    Haddow, Andrew D.; Schuh, Amy J.; Yasuda, Chadwick Y.; Kasper, Matthew R.; Heang, Vireak; Huy, Rekol; Guzman, Hilda; Tesh, Robert B.; Weaver, Scott C.

    2012-01-01

    Background Zika virus (ZIKV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus distributed throughout much of Africa and Asia. Infection with the virus may cause acute febrile illness that clinically resembles dengue fever. A recent study indicated the existence of three geographically distinct viral lineages; however this analysis utilized only a single viral gene. Although ZIKV has been known to circulate in both Africa and Asia since at least the 1950s, little is known about the genetic relationships between geographically distinct virus strains. Moreover, the geographic origin of the strains responsible for the epidemic that occurred on Yap Island, Federated States of Micronesia in 2007, and a 2010 pediatric case in Cambodia, has not been determined. Methodology/Principal Findings To elucidate the genetic relationships of geographically distinct ZIKV strains and the origin of the strains responsible for the 2007 outbreak on Yap Island and a 2010 Cambodian pediatric case of ZIKV infection, the nucleotide sequences of the open reading frame of five isolates from Cambodia, Malaysia, Nigeria, Uganda, and Senegal collected between 1947 and 2010 were determined. Phylogenetic analyses of these and previously published ZIKV sequences revealed the existence of two main virus lineages (African and Asian) and that the strain responsible for the Yap epidemic and the Cambodian case most likely originated in Southeast Asia. Examination of the nucleotide and amino acid sequence alignments revealed the loss of a potential glycosylation site in some of the virus strains, which may correlate with the passage history of the virus. Conclusions/Significance The basal position of the ZIKV strain isolated in Malaysia in 1966 suggests that the recent outbreak in Micronesia was initiated by a strain from Southeast Asia. Because ZIKV infection in humans produces an illness clinically similar to dengue fever and many other tropical infectious diseases, it is likely greatly misdiagnosed and underreported

  18. Agitation increases expansion of cord blood hematopoietic cells and promotes their differentiation into myeloid lineage.

    PubMed

    Hosseinizand, Hasti; Ebrahimi, Marzieh; Abdekhodaie, Mohammad J

    2016-08-01

    Mechanical stress caused by agitation is one of the factors that can affect hematopoietic stem cell expansion in suspension bioreactors. Therefore, we have investigated the effects of agitation on umbilical cord blood hematopoietic stem cell (UCB-HSC) growth and differentiation. A comparison was made between various agitation rates (20, 40 and 60 rpm) in spinner-flask and cells cultured in glass petri dish as a static culture. Moreover, the fluid dynamic at various agitation rates of spinner-flask was analyzed to determine shear stress. The spinner-flask contained a rotational moving mixer with glass ball and was kept in tissue culture incubator. To reduce consumption of cytokines, UCB-serum was used which widely decreased the costs. Our results determined that, agitation rate at 40 rpm promoted UCB-HSCs expansion and their colony forming potential. Myeloid progenitors were the main type of cells at 40 rpm agitation rate. The results of glucose consumption and lactic acid production were in complete agreement with colony assay and expansion data and indicated the superiority of culture in spinner-flask when agitated at 40 rpm over to other agitation speeds and also static culture. Cell viability and colony count was affected by changing the agitation speed. We assume that changes in cell growth resulted from the effect of shear stress directly on cell viability, and indirectly on signaling pathways that influence the cells to differentiate. PMID:26264594

  19. The shell-forming proteome of Lottia gigantea reveals both deep conservations and lineage-specific novelties.

    PubMed

    Marie, Benjamin; Jackson, Daniel J; Ramos-Silva, Paula; Zanella-Cléon, Isabelle; Guichard, Nathalie; Marin, Frédéric

    2013-01-01

    Proteins that are occluded within the molluscan shell, the so-called shell matrix proteins (SMPs), are an assemblage of biomolecules attractive to study for several reasons. They increase the fracture resistance of the shell by several orders of magnitude, determine the polymorph of CaCO(3) deposited, and regulate crystal nucleation, growth initiation and termination. In addition, they are thought to control the shell microstructures. Understanding how these proteins have evolved is also likely to provide deep insight into events that supported the diversification and expansion of metazoan life during the Cambrian radiation 543 million years ago. Here, we present an analysis of SMPs isolated form the CaCO(3) shell of the limpet Lottia gigantea, a gastropod that constructs an aragonitic cross-lamellar shell. We identified 39 SMPs by combining proteomic analysis with genomic and transcriptomic database interrogations. Among these proteins are various low-complexity domain-containing proteins, enzymes such as peroxidases, carbonic anhydrases and chitinases, acidic calcium-binding proteins and protease inhibitors. This list is likely to contain the most abundant SMPs of the shell matrix. It reveals the presence of both highly conserved and lineage-specific biomineralizing proteins. This mosaic evolutionary pattern suggests that there may be an ancestral molluscan SMP set upon which different conchiferan lineages have elaborated to produce the diversity of shell microstructures we observe nowadays. PMID:23145877

  20. In silico analysis of stomach lineage specific gene set expression pattern in gastric cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Pandi, Narayanan Sathiya Suganya, Sivagurunathan; Rajendran, Suriliyandi

    2013-10-04

    Highlights: •Identified stomach lineage specific gene set (SLSGS) was found to be under expressed in gastric tumors. •Elevated expression of SLSGS in gastric tumor is a molecular predictor of metabolic type gastric cancer. •In silico pathway scanning identified estrogen-α signaling is a putative regulator of SLSGS in gastric cancer. •Elevated expression of SLSGS in GC is associated with an overall increase in the survival of GC patients. -- Abstract: Stomach lineage specific gene products act as a protective barrier in the normal stomach and their expression maintains the normal physiological processes, cellular integrity and morphology of the gastric wall. However, the regulation of stomach lineage specific genes in gastric cancer (GC) is far less clear. In the present study, we sought to investigate the role and regulation of stomach lineage specific gene set (SLSGS) in GC. SLSGS was identified by comparing the mRNA expression profiles of normal stomach tissue with other organ tissue. The obtained SLSGS was found to be under expressed in gastric tumors. Functional annotation analysis revealed that the SLSGS was enriched for digestive function and gastric epithelial maintenance. Employing a single sample prediction method across GC mRNA expression profiles identified the under expression of SLSGS in proliferative type and invasive type gastric tumors compared to the metabolic type gastric tumors. Integrative pathway activation prediction analysis revealed a close association between estrogen-α signaling and SLSGS expression pattern in GC. Elevated expression of SLSGS in GC is associated with an overall increase in the survival of GC patients. In conclusion, our results highlight that estrogen mediated regulation of SLSGS in gastric tumor is a molecular predictor of metabolic type GC and prognostic factor in GC.

  1. Telomerase Protects Werner Syndrome Lineage-Specific Stem Cells from Premature Aging

    PubMed Central

    Cheung, Hoi-Hung; Liu, Xiaozhuo; Canterel-Thouennon, Lucile; Li, Lu; Edmonson, Catherine; Rennert, Owen M.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Werner syndrome (WS) patients exhibit premature aging predominantly in mesenchyme-derived tissues, but not in neural lineages, a consequence of telomere dysfunction and accelerated senescence. The cause of this lineage-specific aging remains unknown. Here, we document that reprogramming of WS fibroblasts to pluripotency elongated telomere length and prevented telomere dysfunction. To obtain mechanistic insight into the origin of tissue-specific aging, we differentiated iPSCs to mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and neural stem/progenitor cells (NPCs). We observed recurrence of premature senescence associated with accelerated telomere attrition and defective synthesis of the lagging strand telomeres in MSCs, but not in NPCs. We postulate this “aging” discrepancy is regulated by telomerase. Expression of hTERT or p53 knockdown ameliorated the accelerated aging phenotypein MSC, whereas inhibition of telomerase sensitized NPCs to DNA damage. Our findings unveil a role for telomerase in the protection of accelerated aging in a specific lineage of stem cells. PMID:24749076

  2. Evolutionary origins of the vertebrate heart: Specification of the cardiac lineage in Ciona intestinalis

    PubMed Central

    Davidson, Brad; Levine, Michael

    2003-01-01

    Here we exploit the extensive cell lineage information and streamlined genome of the ascidian, Ciona intestinalis, to investigate heart development in a basal chordate. Several cardiac genes were analyzed, including the sole Ciona ortholog of the Drosophila tinman gene, and tissue-specific enhancers were isolated for some of the genes. Conserved sequence motifs within these enhancers facilitated the isolation of a heart enhancer for the Ciona Hand-like gene. Altogether, these studies provide a regulatory framework for the differentiation of the cardiac mesoderm, beginning at the 110-cell stage, and extending through the fusion of cardiac progenitors during tail elongation. The cardiac lineage shares a common origin with the germ line, and zygotic transcription is first detected in the heart progenitors only after its separation from the germ line at the 64-cell stage. We propose that germ-line determinants influence the specification of the cardiac mesoderm, both by inhibiting inductive signals required for the development of noncardiac mesoderm lineages, and by providing a localized source of Wnt-5 and other signals required for heart development. We discuss the possibility that the germ line also influences the specification of the vertebrate heart. PMID:14500781

  3. Lineage-specific gene radiations underlie the evolution of novel betalain pigmentation in Caryophyllales.

    PubMed

    Brockington, Samuel F; Yang, Ya; Gandia-Herrero, Fernando; Covshoff, Sarah; Hibberd, Julian M; Sage, Rowan F; Wong, Gane K S; Moore, Michael J; Smith, Stephen A

    2015-09-01

    Betalain pigments are unique to the Caryophyllales and structurally and biosynthetically distinct from anthocyanins. Two key enzymes within the betalain synthesis pathway have been identified: 4,5-dioxygenase (DODA) that catalyzes the formation of betalamic acid and CYP76AD1, a cytochrome P450 gene that catalyzes the formation of cyclo-DOPA. We performed phylogenetic analyses to reveal the evolutionary history of the DODA and CYP76AD1 lineages and in the context of an ancestral reconstruction of pigment states we explored the evolution of these genes in relation to the complex evolution of pigments in Caryophylalles. Duplications within the CYP76AD1 and DODA lineages arose just before the origin of betalain pigmentation in the core Caryophyllales. The duplications gave rise to DODA-α and CYP76AD1-α isoforms that appear specific to betalain synthesis. Both betalain-specific isoforms were then lost or downregulated in the anthocyanic Molluginaceae and Caryophyllaceae. Our findings suggest a single origin of the betalain synthesis pathway, with neofunctionalization following gene duplications in the CYP76AD1 and DODA lineages. Loss of DODA-α and CYP76AD1-α in anthocyanic taxa suggests that betalain pigmentation has been lost twice in Caryophyllales, and exclusion of betalain pigments from anthocyanic taxa is mediated through gene loss or downregulation. [Correction added after online publication 13 May 2015: in the last two paragraphs of the Summary the gene name CYP761A was changed to CYP76AD1.]. PMID:25966996

  4. Lineage-specific gene radiations underlie the evolution of novel betalain pigmentation in Caryophyllales

    PubMed Central

    Brockington, Samuel F; Yang, Ya; Gandia-Herrero, Fernando; Covshoff, Sarah; Hibberd, Julian M; Sage, Rowan F; Wong, Gane K S; Moore, Michael J; Smith, Stephen A

    2015-01-01

    Betalain pigments are unique to the Caryophyllales and structurally and biosynthetically distinct from anthocyanins. Two key enzymes within the betalain synthesis pathway have been identified: 4,5-dioxygenase (DODA) that catalyzes the formation of betalamic acid and CYP76AD1, a cytochrome P450 gene that catalyzes the formation of cyclo-DOPA. We performed phylogenetic analyses to reveal the evolutionary history of the DODA and CYP76AD1 lineages and in the context of an ancestral reconstruction of pigment states we explored the evolution of these genes in relation to the complex evolution of pigments in Caryophylalles. Duplications within the CYP76AD1 and DODA lineages arose just before the origin of betalain pigmentation in the core Caryophyllales. The duplications gave rise to DODA-α and CYP76AD1-α isoforms that appear specific to betalain synthesis. Both betalain-specific isoforms were then lost or downregulated in the anthocyanic Molluginaceae and Caryophyllaceae. Our findings suggest a single origin of the betalain synthesis pathway, with neofunctionalization following gene duplications in the CYP76AD1 and DODA lineages. Loss of DODA-α and CYP76AD1-α in anthocyanic taxa suggests that betalain pigmentation has been lost twice in Caryophyllales, and exclusion of betalain pigments from anthocyanic taxa is mediated through gene loss or downregulation. [Correction added after online publication 13 May 2015: in the last two paragraphs of the Summary the gene name CYP761A was changed to CYP76AD1.] PMID:25966996

  5. Lineage-specific evolution of Methylthioalkylmalate synthases (MAMs) involved in glucosinolates biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jifang; Wang, Xiaobo; Cheng, Feng; Wu, Jian; Liang, Jianli; Yang, Wencai; Wang, Xiaowu

    2015-01-01

    Methylthioalkylmalate synthases (MAMs) encoded by MAM genes are central to the diversification of the glucosinolates, which are important secondary metabolites in Brassicaceae species. However, the evolutionary pathway of MAM genes is poorly understood. We analyzed the phylogenetic and synteny relationships of MAM genes from 13 sequenced Brassicaceae species. Based on these analyses, we propose that the syntenic loci of MAM genes, which underwent frequent tandem duplications, divided into two independent lineage-specific evolution routes and were driven by positive selection after the divergence from Aethionema arabicum. In the lineage I species Capsella rubella, Camelina sativa, Arabidopsis lyrata, and A. thaliana, the MAM loci evolved three tandem genes encoding enzymes responsible for the biosynthesis of aliphatic glucosinolates with different carbon chain-lengths. In lineage II species, the MAM loci encode enzymes responsible for the biosynthesis of short-chain aliphatic glucosinolates. Our proposed model of the evolutionary pathway of MAM genes will be useful for understanding the specific function of these genes in Brassicaceae species. PMID:25691886

  6. Lineage-specific evolution of Methylthioalkylmalate synthases (MAMs) involved in glucosinolates biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jifang; Wang, Xiaobo; Cheng, Feng; Wu, Jian; Liang, Jianli; Yang, Wencai; Wang, Xiaowu

    2015-01-01

    Methylthioalkylmalate synthases (MAMs) encoded by MAM genes are central to the diversification of the glucosinolates, which are important secondary metabolites in Brassicaceae species. However, the evolutionary pathway of MAM genes is poorly understood. We analyzed the phylogenetic and synteny relationships of MAM genes from 13 sequenced Brassicaceae species. Based on these analyses, we propose that the syntenic loci of MAM genes, which underwent frequent tandem duplications, divided into two independent lineage-specific evolution routes and were driven by positive selection after the divergence from Aethionema arabicum. In the lineage I species Capsella rubella, Camelina sativa, Arabidopsis lyrata, and A. thaliana, the MAM loci evolved three tandem genes encoding enzymes responsible for the biosynthesis of aliphatic glucosinolates with different carbon chain-lengths. In lineage II species, the MAM loci encode enzymes responsible for the biosynthesis of short-chain aliphatic glucosinolates. Our proposed model of the evolutionary pathway of MAM genes will be useful for understanding the specific function of these genes in Brassicaceae species. PMID:25691886

  7. Dynamic Control of Enhancer Repertoires Drives Lineage and Stage-Specific Transcription during Hematopoiesis.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jialiang; Liu, Xin; Li, Dan; Shao, Zhen; Cao, Hui; Zhang, Yuannyu; Trompouki, Eirini; Bowman, Teresa V; Zon, Leonard I; Yuan, Guo-Cheng; Orkin, Stuart H; Xu, Jian

    2016-01-11

    Enhancers are the primary determinants of cell identity, but the regulatory components controlling enhancer turnover during lineage commitment remain largely unknown. Here we compare the enhancer landscape, transcriptional factor occupancy, and transcriptomic changes in human fetal and adult hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells and committed erythroid progenitors. We find that enhancers are modulated pervasively and direct lineage- and stage-specific transcription. GATA2-to-GATA1 switch is prevalent at dynamic enhancers and drives erythroid enhancer commissioning. Examination of lineage-specific enhancers identifies transcription factors and their combinatorial patterns in enhancer turnover. Importantly, by CRISPR/Cas9-mediated genomic editing, we uncover functional hierarchy of constituent enhancers within the SLC25A37 super-enhancer. Despite indistinguishable chromatin features, we reveal through genomic editing the functional diversity of several GATA switch enhancers in which enhancers with opposing functions cooperate to coordinate transcription. Thus, genome-wide enhancer profiling coupled with in situ enhancer editing provide critical insights into the functional complexity of enhancers during development. PMID:26766440

  8. Jagged1 expression by osteoblast-lineage cells regulates trabecular bone mass and periosteal expansion in mice.

    PubMed

    Youngstrom, D W; Dishowitz, M I; Bales, C B; Carr, E; Mutyaba, P L; Kozloff, K M; Shitaye, H; Hankenson, K D; Loomes, K M

    2016-10-01

    through homotypic Jag1 signaling in osteochondral progenitors, but not mature osteoblasts, inhibits periosteal expansion. Therefore, Jag1 signaling within the osteoblast lineage regulates bone metabolism in a compartment-dependent manner. Moreover, loss of Jag1 function in osteoblast lineage cells may contribute to the skeletal phenotype associated with ALGS. PMID:27416809

  9. ATTED-II in 2016: A Plant Coexpression Database Towards Lineage-Specific Coexpression

    PubMed Central

    Aoki, Yuichi; Okamura, Yasunobu; Tadaka, Shu; Kinoshita, Kengo; Obayashi, Takeshi

    2016-01-01

    ATTED-II (http://atted.jp) is a coexpression database for plant species with parallel views of multiple coexpression data sets and network analysis tools. The user can efficiently find functional gene relationships and design experiments to identify gene functions by reverse genetics and general molecular biology techniques. Here, we report updates to ATTED-II (version 8.0), including new and updated coexpression data and analysis tools. ATTED-II now includes eight microarray- and six RNA sequencing-based coexpression data sets for seven dicot species (Arabidopsis, field mustard, soybean, barrel medick, poplar, tomato and grape) and two monocot species (rice and maize). Stand-alone coexpression analyses tend to have low reliability. Therefore, examining evolutionarily conserved coexpression is a more effective approach from the viewpoints of reliability and evolutionary importance. In contrast, the reliability of species-specific coexpression data remains poor. Our assessment scores for individual coexpression data sets indicated that the quality of the new coexpression data sets in ATTED-II is higher than for any previous coexpression data set. In addition, five species (Arabidopsis, soybean, tomato, rice and maize) in ATTED-II are now supported by both microarray- and RNA sequencing-based coexpression data, which has increased the reliability. Consequently, ATTED-II can now provide lineage-specific coexpression information. As an example of the use of ATTED-II to explore lineage-specific coexpression, we demonstrate monocot- and dicot-specific coexpression of cell wall genes. With the expanded coexpression data for multilevel evaluation, ATTED-II provides new opportunities to investigate lineage-specific evolution in plants. PMID:26546318

  10. Lineage-specific splicing of a brain-enriched alternative exon promotes glioblastoma progression

    PubMed Central

    Ferrarese, Roberto; Harsh, Griffith R.; Yadav, Ajay K.; Bug, Eva; Maticzka, Daniel; Reichardt, Wilfried; Dombrowski, Stephen M.; Miller, Tyler E.; Masilamani, Anie P.; Dai, Fangping; Kim, Hyunsoo; Hadler, Michael; Scholtens, Denise M.; Yu, Irene L.Y.; Beck, Jürgen; Srinivasasainagendra, Vinodh; Costa, Fabrizio; Baxan, Nicoleta; Pfeifer, Dietmar; von Elverfeldt, Dominik; Backofen, Rolf; Weyerbrock, Astrid; Duarte, Christine W.; He, Xiaolin; Prinz, Marco; Chandler, James P.; Vogel, Hannes; Chakravarti, Arnab; Rich, Jeremy N.; Carro, Maria S.; Bredel, Markus

    2014-01-01

    Tissue-specific alternative splicing is critical for the emergence of tissue identity during development, yet the role of this process in malignant transformation is undefined. Tissue-specific splicing involves evolutionarily conserved, alternative exons that represent only a minority of the total alternative exons identified. Many of these conserved exons have functional features that influence signaling pathways to profound biological effect. Here, we determined that lineage-specific splicing of a brain-enriched cassette exon in the membrane-binding tumor suppressor annexin A7 (ANXA7) diminishes endosomal targeting of the EGFR oncoprotein, consequently enhancing EGFR signaling during brain tumor progression. ANXA7 exon splicing was mediated by the ribonucleoprotein PTBP1, which is normally repressed during neuronal development. PTBP1 was highly expressed in glioblastomas due to loss of a brain-enriched microRNA (miR-124) and to PTBP1 amplification. The alternative ANXA7 splicing trait was present in precursor cells, suggesting that glioblastoma cells inherit the trait from a potential tumor-initiating ancestor and that these cells exploit this trait through accumulation of mutations that enhance EGFR signaling. Our data illustrate that lineage-specific splicing of a tissue-regulated alternative exon in a constituent of an oncogenic pathway eliminates tumor suppressor functions and promotes glioblastoma progression. This paradigm may offer a general model as to how tissue-specific regulatory mechanisms can reprogram normal developmental processes into oncogenic ones. PMID:24865424

  11. Lineage-specific splicing of a brain-enriched alternative exon promotes glioblastoma progression.

    PubMed

    Ferrarese, Roberto; Harsh, Griffith R; Yadav, Ajay K; Bug, Eva; Maticzka, Daniel; Reichardt, Wilfried; Dombrowski, Stephen M; Miller, Tyler E; Masilamani, Anie P; Dai, Fangping; Kim, Hyunsoo; Hadler, Michael; Scholtens, Denise M; Yu, Irene L Y; Beck, Jürgen; Srinivasasainagendra, Vinodh; Costa, Fabrizio; Baxan, Nicoleta; Pfeifer, Dietmar; von Elverfeldt, Dominik; Backofen, Rolf; Weyerbrock, Astrid; Duarte, Christine W; He, Xiaolin; Prinz, Marco; Chandler, James P; Vogel, Hannes; Chakravarti, Arnab; Rich, Jeremy N; Carro, Maria S; Bredel, Markus

    2014-07-01

    Tissue-specific alternative splicing is critical for the emergence of tissue identity during development, yet the role of this process in malignant transformation is undefined. Tissue-specific splicing involves evolutionarily conserved, alternative exons that represent only a minority of the total alternative exons identified. Many of these conserved exons have functional features that influence signaling pathways to profound biological effect. Here, we determined that lineage-specific splicing of a brain-enriched cassette exon in the membrane-binding tumor suppressor annexin A7 (ANXA7) diminishes endosomal targeting of the EGFR oncoprotein, consequently enhancing EGFR signaling during brain tumor progression. ANXA7 exon splicing was mediated by the ribonucleoprotein PTBP1, which is normally repressed during neuronal development. PTBP1 was highly expressed in glioblastomas due to loss of a brain-enriched microRNA (miR-124) and to PTBP1 amplification. The alternative ANXA7 splicing trait was present in precursor cells, suggesting that glioblastoma cells inherit the trait from a potential tumor-initiating ancestor and that these cells exploit this trait through accumulation of mutations that enhance EGFR signaling. Our data illustrate that lineage-specific splicing of a tissue-regulated alternative exon in a constituent of an oncogenic pathway eliminates tumor suppressor functions and promotes glioblastoma progression. This paradigm may offer a general model as to how tissue-specific regulatory mechanisms can reprogram normal developmental processes into oncogenic ones. PMID:24865424

  12. Lineage-Specific Regulation of Epigenetic Modifier Genes in Human Liver and Brain

    PubMed Central

    Weng, Matthias K.; Natarajan, Karthick; Scholz, Diana; Ivanova, Violeta N.; Sachinidis, Agapios; Hengstler, Jan G.; Waldmann, Tanja; Leist, Marcel

    2014-01-01

    Despite an abundance of studies on chromatin states and dynamics, there is an astonishing dearth of information on the expression of genes responsible for regulating histone and DNA modifications. We used here a set of 156 defined epigenetic modifier genes (EMG) and profiled their expression pattern in cells of different lineages. As reference value, expression data from human embryonic stem cells (hESC) were used. Hepatocyte-like cells were generated from hESC, and their EMG expression was compared to primary human liver cells. In parallel, we generated postmitotic human neurons (Lu d6), and compared their relative EMG expression to human cortex (Ctx). Clustering analysis of all cell types showed that neuronal lineage samples grouped together (94 similarly regulated EMG), as did liver cells (61 similarly-regulated), while the two lineages were clearly distinct. The general classification was followed by detailed comparison of the major EMG groups; genes that were higher expressed in differentiated cells than in hESC included the acetyltransferase KAT2B and the methyltransferase SETD7. Neuro-specific EMGs were the histone deacetylases HDAC5 and HDAC7, and the arginine-methyltransferase PRMT8. Comparison of young (Lu d6) and more aged (Ctx) neuronal samples suggested a maturation-dependent switch in the expression of functionally homologous proteins. For instance, the ratio of the histone H3 K27 methyltransfereases, EZH1 to EZH2, was high in Ctx and low in Lu d6. The same was observed for the polycomb repressive complex 1 (PRC1) subunits CBX7 and CBX8. A large proportion of EMGs in differentiated cells was very differently expressed than in hESC, and absolute levels were significantly higher in neuronal samples than in hepatic cells. Thus, there seem to be distinct qualitative and quantitative differences in EMG expression between cell lineages. PMID:25054330

  13. Differential Deployment of REST and CoREST Promotes Glial Subtype Specification and Oligodendrocyte Lineage Maturation

    PubMed Central

    Gokhan, Solen; Zheng, Deyou; Bergman, Aviv; Mehler, Mark F.

    2009-01-01

    Background The repressor element-1 (RE1) silencing transcription factor/neuron-restrictive silencer factor (REST/NRSF) is a master transcriptional regulator that binds to numerous genomic RE1 sites where it acts as a molecular scaffold for dynamic recruitment of modulatory and epigenetic cofactors, including corepressor for element-1-silencing transcription factor (CoREST). CoREST also acts as a hub for various cofactors that play important roles in epigenetic remodeling and transcriptional regulation. While REST can recruit CoREST to its macromolecular complex, CoREST complexes also function at genomic sites independently of REST. REST and CoREST perform a broad array of context-specific functions, which include repression of neuronal differentiation genes in neural stem cells (NSCs) and other non-neuronal cells as well as promotion of neurogenesis. Despite their involvement in multiple aspects of neuronal development, REST and CoREST are not believed to have any direct modulatory roles in glial cell maturation. Methodology/Principal Findings We challenged this view by performing the first study of REST and CoREST in NSC-mediated glial lineage specification and differentiation. Utilizing ChIP on chip (ChIP-chip) assays, we identified distinct but overlapping developmental stage-specific profiles for REST and CoREST target genes during astrocyte (AS) and oligodendrocyte (OL) lineage specification and OL lineage maturation and myelination, including many genes not previously implicated in glial cell biology or linked to REST and CoREST regulation. Amongst these factors are those implicated in macroglial (AS and OL) cell identity, maturation, and maintenance, such as members of key developmental signaling pathways and combinatorial transcription factor codes. Conclusions/Significance Our results imply that REST and CoREST modulate not only neuronal but also glial lineage elaboration. These factors may therefore mediate critical developmental processes including the

  14. The Lineage-Specific Transcription Factor PU.1 Prevents Polycomb-Mediated Heterochromatin Formation at Macrophage-Specific Genes.

    PubMed

    Tagore, Mohita; McAndrew, Michael J; Gjidoda, Alison; Floer, Monique

    2015-08-01

    Lineage-specific transcription factors (TFs) are important determinants of cellular identity, but their exact mode of action has remained unclear. Here we show using a macrophage differentiation system that the lineage-specific TF PU.1 keeps macrophage-specific genes accessible during differentiation by preventing Polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2) binding to transcriptional regulatory elements. We demonstrate that the distal enhancer of a gene becomes bound by PRC2 as cells differentiate in the absence of PU.1 binding and that the gene is wrapped into heterochromatin, which is characterized by increased nucleosome occupancy and H3K27 trimethylation. This renders the gene inaccessible to the transcriptional machinery and prevents induction of the gene in response to an external signal in mature cells. In contrast, if PU.1 is bound at the transcriptional regulatory region of a gene during differentiation, PRC2 is not recruited, nucleosome occupancy is kept low, and the gene can be induced in mature macrophages. Similar results were obtained at the enhancers of other macrophage-specific genes that fail to bind PU.1 as an estrogen receptor fusion (PUER) in this system. These results show that one role of PU.1 is to exclude PRC2 and to prevent heterochromatin formation at macrophage-specific genes. PMID:26012552

  15. Lineage-Specific Changes in Biomarkers in Great Apes and Humans.

    PubMed

    Ronke, Claudius; Dannemann, Michael; Halbwax, Michel; Fischer, Anne; Helmschrodt, Christin; Brügel, Mathias; André, Claudine; Atencia, Rebeca; Mugisha, Lawrence; Scholz, Markus; Ceglarek, Uta; Thiery, Joachim; Pääbo, Svante; Prüfer, Kay; Kelso, Janet

    2015-01-01

    Although human biomedical and physiological information is readily available, such information for great apes is limited. We analyzed clinical chemical biomarkers in serum samples from 277 wild- and captive-born great apes and from 312 healthy human volunteers as well as from 20 rhesus macaques. For each individual, we determined a maximum of 33 markers of heart, liver, kidney, thyroid and pancreas function, hemoglobin and lipid metabolism and one marker of inflammation. We identified biomarkers that show differences between humans and the great apes in their average level or activity. Using the rhesus macaques as an outgroup, we identified human-specific differences in the levels of bilirubin, cholinesterase and lactate dehydrogenase, and bonobo-specific differences in the level of apolipoprotein A-I. For the remaining twenty-nine biomarkers there was no evidence for lineage-specific differences. In fact, we find that many biomarkers show differences between individuals of the same species in different environments. Of the four lineage-specific biomarkers, only bilirubin showed no differences between wild- and captive-born great apes. We show that the major factor explaining the human-specific difference in bilirubin levels may be genetic. There are human-specific changes in the sequence of the promoter and the protein-coding sequence of uridine diphosphoglucuronosyltransferase 1 (UGT1A1), the enzyme that transforms bilirubin and toxic plant compounds into water-soluble, excretable metabolites. Experimental evidence that UGT1A1 is down-regulated in the human liver suggests that changes in the promoter may be responsible for the human-specific increase in bilirubin. We speculate that since cooking reduces toxic plant compounds, consumption of cooked foods, which is specific to humans, may have resulted in relaxed constraint on UGT1A1 which has in turn led to higher serum levels of bilirubin in humans. PMID:26247603

  16. Lineage-Specific Changes in Biomarkers in Great Apes and Humans

    PubMed Central

    Ronke, Claudius; Dannemann, Michael; Halbwax, Michel; Fischer, Anne; Helmschrodt, Christin; Brügel, Mathias; André, Claudine; Atencia, Rebeca; Mugisha, Lawrence; Scholz, Markus; Ceglarek, Uta; Thiery, Joachim; Pääbo, Svante; Prüfer, Kay; Kelso, Janet

    2015-01-01

    Although human biomedical and physiological information is readily available, such information for great apes is limited. We analyzed clinical chemical biomarkers in serum samples from 277 wild- and captive-born great apes and from 312 healthy human volunteers as well as from 20 rhesus macaques. For each individual, we determined a maximum of 33 markers of heart, liver, kidney, thyroid and pancreas function, hemoglobin and lipid metabolism and one marker of inflammation. We identified biomarkers that show differences between humans and the great apes in their average level or activity. Using the rhesus macaques as an outgroup, we identified human-specific differences in the levels of bilirubin, cholinesterase and lactate dehydrogenase, and bonobo-specific differences in the level of apolipoprotein A-I. For the remaining twenty-nine biomarkers there was no evidence for lineage-specific differences. In fact, we find that many biomarkers show differences between individuals of the same species in different environments. Of the four lineage-specific biomarkers, only bilirubin showed no differences between wild- and captive-born great apes. We show that the major factor explaining the human-specific difference in bilirubin levels may be genetic. There are human-specific changes in the sequence of the promoter and the protein-coding sequence of uridine diphosphoglucuronosyltransferase 1 (UGT1A1), the enzyme that transforms bilirubin and toxic plant compounds into water-soluble, excretable metabolites. Experimental evidence that UGT1A1 is down-regulated in the human liver suggests that changes in the promoter may be responsible for the human-specific increase in bilirubin. We speculate that since cooking reduces toxic plant compounds, consumption of cooked foods, which is specific to humans, may have resulted in relaxed constraint on UGT1A1 which has in turn led to higher serum levels of bilirubin in humans. PMID:26247603

  17. AMPK governs lineage specification through Tfeb-dependent regulation of lysosomes

    PubMed Central

    Young, Nathan P.; Kamireddy, Anwesh; Van Nostrand, Jeanine L.; Eichner, Lillian J.; Shokhirev, Maxim Nikolaievich; Dayn, Yelena; Shaw, Reuben J.

    2016-01-01

    Faithful execution of developmental programs relies on the acquisition of unique cell identities from pluripotent progenitors, a process governed by combinatorial inputs from numerous signaling cascades that ultimately dictate lineage-specific transcriptional outputs. Despite growing evidence that metabolism is integrated with many molecular networks, how pathways that control energy homeostasis may affect cell fate decisions is largely unknown. Here, we show that AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a central metabolic regulator, plays critical roles in lineage specification. Although AMPK-deficient embryonic stem cells (ESCs) were normal in the pluripotent state, these cells displayed profound defects upon differentiation, failing to generate chimeric embryos and preferentially adopting an ectodermal fate at the expense of the endoderm during embryoid body (EB) formation. AMPK−/− EBs exhibited reduced levels of Tfeb, a master transcriptional regulator of lysosomes, leading to diminished endolysosomal function. Remarkably, genetic loss of Tfeb also yielded endodermal defects, while AMPK-null ESCs overexpressing this transcription factor normalized their differential potential, revealing an intimate connection between Tfeb/lysosomes and germ layer specification. The compromised endolysosomal system resulting from AMPK or Tfeb inactivation blunted Wnt signaling, while up-regulating this pathway restored expression of endodermal markers. Collectively, these results uncover the AMPK pathway as a novel regulator of cell fate determination during differentiation. PMID:26944679

  18. The BAF chromatin remodelling complex is an epigenetic regulator of lineage specification in the early mouse embryo

    PubMed Central

    Panamarova, Maryna; Cox, Andy; Wicher, Krzysztof B.; Butler, Richard; Bulgakova, Natalia; Jeon, Shin; Rosen, Barry; Seong, Rho H.; Skarnes, William; Crabtree, Gerald; Zernicka-Goetz, Magdalena

    2016-01-01

    Dynamic control of gene expression is essential for the development of a totipotent zygote into an embryo with defined cell lineages. The accessibility of genes responsible for cell specification to transcriptional machinery is dependent on chromatin remodelling complexes such as the SWI\\SNF (BAF) complex. However, the role of the BAF complex in early mouse development has remained unclear. Here, we demonstrate that BAF155, a major BAF complex subunit, regulates the assembly of the BAF complex in vivo and regulates lineage specification of the mouse blastocyst. We find that associations of BAF155 with other BAF complex subunits become enriched in extra-embryonic lineages just prior to implantation. This enrichment is attributed to decreased mobility of BAF155 in extra-embryonic compared with embryonic lineages. Downregulation of BAF155 leads to increased expression of the pluripotency marker Nanog and its ectopic expression in extra-embryonic lineages, whereas upregulation of BAF155 leads to the upregulation of differentiation markers. Finally, we show that the arginine methyltransferase CARM1 methylates BAF155, which differentially influences assembly of the BAF complex between the lineages and the expression of pluripotency markers. Together, our results indicate a novel role of BAF-dependent chromatin remodelling in mouse development via regulation of lineage specification. PMID:26952987

  19. The bHLH transcription factor Tcf21 is required for lineage-specific EMT of cardiac fibroblast progenitors

    PubMed Central

    Acharya, Asha; Baek, Seung Tae; Huang, Guo; Eskiocak, Banu; Goetsch, Sean; Sung, Caroline Y.; Banfi, Serena; Sauer, Marion F.; Olsen, Gregory S.; Duffield, Jeremy S.; Olson, Eric N.; Tallquist, Michelle D.

    2012-01-01

    The basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) family of transcription factors orchestrates cell-fate specification, commitment and differentiation in multiple cell lineages during development. Here, we describe the role of a bHLH transcription factor, Tcf21 (epicardin/Pod1/capsulin), in specification of the cardiac fibroblast lineage. In the developing heart, the epicardium constitutes the primary source of progenitor cells that form two cell lineages: coronary vascular smooth muscle cells (cVSMCs) and cardiac fibroblasts. Currently, there is a debate regarding whether the specification of these lineages occurs early in the formation of the epicardium or later after the cells have entered the myocardium. Lineage tracing using a tamoxifen-inducible Cre expressed from the Tcf21 locus demonstrated that the majority of Tcf21-expressing epicardial cells are committed to the cardiac fibroblast lineage prior to initiation of epicardial epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Furthermore, Tcf21 null hearts fail to form cardiac fibroblasts, and lineage tracing of the null cells showed their inability to undergo EMT. This is the first report of a transcription factor essential for the development of cardiac fibroblasts. We demonstrate a unique role for Tcf21 in multipotent epicardial progenitors, prior to the process of EMT that is essential for cardiac fibroblast development. PMID:22573622

  20. The BAF chromatin remodelling complex is an epigenetic regulator of lineage specification in the early mouse embryo.

    PubMed

    Panamarova, Maryna; Cox, Andy; Wicher, Krzysztof B; Butler, Richard; Bulgakova, Natalia; Jeon, Shin; Rosen, Barry; Seong, Rho H; Skarnes, William; Crabtree, Gerald; Zernicka-Goetz, Magdalena

    2016-04-15

    Dynamic control of gene expression is essential for the development of a totipotent zygote into an embryo with defined cell lineages. The accessibility of genes responsible for cell specification to transcriptional machinery is dependent on chromatin remodelling complexes such as the SWI\\SNF (BAF) complex. However, the role of the BAF complex in early mouse development has remained unclear. Here, we demonstrate that BAF155, a major BAF complex subunit, regulates the assembly of the BAF complexin vivoand regulates lineage specification of the mouse blastocyst. We find that associations of BAF155 with other BAF complex subunits become enriched in extra-embryonic lineages just prior to implantation. This enrichment is attributed to decreased mobility of BAF155 in extra-embryonic compared with embryonic lineages. Downregulation of BAF155 leads to increased expression of the pluripotency markerNanogand its ectopic expression in extra-embryonic lineages, whereas upregulation of BAF155 leads to the upregulation of differentiation markers. Finally, we show that the arginine methyltransferase CARM1 methylates BAF155, which differentially influences assembly of the BAF complex between the lineages and the expression of pluripotency markers. Together, our results indicate a novel role of BAF-dependent chromatin remodelling in mouse development via regulation of lineage specification. PMID:26952987

  1. Lineage-specific enhancers activate self-renewal genes in macrophages and embryonic stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Soucie, Erinn L.; Weng, Ziming; Geirsdóttir, Laufey; Molawi, Kaaweh; Maurizio, Julien; Fenouil, Romain; Mossadegh-Keller, Noushine; Gimenez, Gregory; VanHille, Laurent; Beniazza, Meryam; Favret, Jeremy; Berruyer, Carole; Perrin, Pierre; Hacohen, Nir; Andrau, J.-C.; Ferrier, Pierre; Dubreuil, Patrice; Sidow, Arend; Sieweke, Michael H.

    2016-01-01

    Differentiated macrophages can self-renew in tissues and expand long-term in culture, but the gene regulatory mechanisms that accomplish self-renewal in the differentiated state have remained unknown. Here we show that in mice, the transcription factors MafB and c-Maf repress a macrophage-specific enhancer repertoire associated with a gene network controlling self-renewal. Single cell analysis revealed that, in vivo, proliferating resident macrophages can access this network by transient down-regulation of Maf transcription factors. The network also controls embryonic stem cell self-renewal but is associated with distinct embryonic stem cell-specific enhancers. This indicates that distinct lineage-specific enhancer platforms regulate a shared network of genes that control self-renewal potential in both stem and mature cells. PMID:26797145

  2. An LTR Retrotransposon-Derived Gene Displays Lineage-Specific Structural and Putative Species-Specific Functional Variations in Eutherians.

    PubMed

    Irie, Masahito; Koga, Akihiko; Kaneko-Ishino, Tomoko; Ishino, Fumitoshi

    2016-01-01

    Amongst the 11 eutherian-specific genes acquired from a sushi-ichi retrotransposon is the CCHC type zinc-finger protein-encoding gene SIRH11/ZCCHC16. Its contribution to eutherian brain evolution is implied because of its involvement in cognitive function in mice, possibly via the noradrenergic system. Although, the possibility that Sirh11/Zcchc16 functions as a non-coding RNA still remains, dN/dS ratios in pairwise comparisons between its orthologs have provided supportive evidence that it acts as a protein. It became a pseudogene in armadillos (Cingulata) and sloths (Pilosa), the only two extant orders of xenarthra, which prompted us to examine the lineage-specific variations of SIRH11/ZCCHC16 in eutherians. We examined the predicted SIRH11/ZCCHC16 open reading frame (ORF) in 95 eutherian species based on the genomic DNA information in GenBank. A large variation in the SIRH11/ZCCHC16 ORF was detected in several lineages. These include a lack of a CCHC RNA-binding domain in its C-terminus, observed in gibbons (Hylobatidae: Primates) and megabats (Megachiroptera: Chiroptera). A lack of the N-terminal half, on the other hand, was observed in New World monkeys (Platyrrhini: Primates) and species belonging to New World and African Hystricognaths (Caviomorpha and Bathyergidae: Rodents) along with Cetacea and Ruminantia (Cetartiodactyla). Among the hominoids, interestingly, three out of four genera of gibbons have lost normal SIRH11/ZCCHC16 function by deletion or the lack of the CCHC RNA-binding domain. Our extensive dN/dS analysis suggests that such truncated SIRH11/ZCCHC16 ORFs are functionally diversified even within lineages. Combined, our results show that SIRH11/ZCCHC16 may contribute to the diversification of eutherians by lineage-specific structural changes after its domestication in the common eutherian ancestor, followed by putative species-specific functional changes that enhanced fitness and occurred as a consequence of complex natural selection events

  3. An LTR Retrotransposon-Derived Gene Displays Lineage-Specific Structural and Putative Species-Specific Functional Variations in Eutherians

    PubMed Central

    Irie, Masahito; Koga, Akihiko; Kaneko-Ishino, Tomoko; Ishino, Fumitoshi

    2016-01-01

    Amongst the 11 eutherian-specific genes acquired from a sushi-ichi retrotransposon is the CCHC type zinc-finger protein-encoding gene SIRH11/ZCCHC16. Its contribution to eutherian brain evolution is implied because of its involvement in cognitive function in mice, possibly via the noradrenergic system. Although, the possibility that Sirh11/Zcchc16 functions as a non-coding RNA still remains, dN/dS ratios in pairwise comparisons between its orthologs have provided supportive evidence that it acts as a protein. It became a pseudogene in armadillos (Cingulata) and sloths (Pilosa), the only two extant orders of xenarthra, which prompted us to examine the lineage-specific variations of SIRH11/ZCCHC16 in eutherians. We examined the predicted SIRH11/ZCCHC16 open reading frame (ORF) in 95 eutherian species based on the genomic DNA information in GenBank. A large variation in the SIRH11/ZCCHC16 ORF was detected in several lineages. These include a lack of a CCHC RNA-binding domain in its C-terminus, observed in gibbons (Hylobatidae: Primates) and megabats (Megachiroptera: Chiroptera). A lack of the N-terminal half, on the other hand, was observed in New World monkeys (Platyrrhini: Primates) and species belonging to New World and African Hystricognaths (Caviomorpha and Bathyergidae: Rodents) along with Cetacea and Ruminantia (Cetartiodactyla). Among the hominoids, interestingly, three out of four genera of gibbons have lost normal SIRH11/ZCCHC16 function by deletion or the lack of the CCHC RNA-binding domain. Our extensive dN/dS analysis suggests that such truncated SIRH11/ZCCHC16 ORFs are functionally diversified even within lineages. Combined, our results show that SIRH11/ZCCHC16 may contribute to the diversification of eutherians by lineage-specific structural changes after its domestication in the common eutherian ancestor, followed by putative species-specific functional changes that enhanced fitness and occurred as a consequence of complex natural selection events

  4. Genome-wide identification of lineage-specific genes in Arabidopsis, Oryza and Populus

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Xiaohan; Jawdy, Sara; Tschaplinski, Timothy J; Tuskan, Gerald A

    2009-01-01

    Protein sequences were compared among Arabidopsis, Oryza and Populus to identify differential gene (DG) sets that are in one but not the other two genomes. The DG sets were screened against a plant transcript database, the NR protein database and six newly-sequenced genomes (Carica, Glycine, Medicago, Sorghum, Vitis and Zea) to identify a set of species-specific genes (SS). Gene expression, protein motif and intron number were examined. 192, 641 and 109 SS genes were identified in Arabidopsis, Oryza and Populus, respectively. Some SS genes were preferentially expressed in flowers, roots, xylem and cambium or up-regulated by stress. Six conserved motifs in Arabidopsis and Oryza SS proteins were found in other distant lineages. The SS gene sets were enriched with intronless genes. The results reflect functional and/or anatomical differences between monocots and eudicots or between herbaceous and woody plants. The Populus-specific genes are candidates for carbon sequestration and biofuel research.

  5. Stage-specific differentiation of iPSCs toward retinal ganglion cell lineage

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Fei; Chen, Mengfei; Liu, Ying; Hu, Huiling; Xiong, Yunfan; Xu, Chaochao; Liu, Yuchun; Li, Kangjun; Zhuang, Jing

    2016-01-01

    Purpose As an alternative and desirable approach for regenerative medicine, human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC) technology raises the possibility of developing patient-tailored cell therapies to treat intractable degenerative diseases in the future. This study was undertaken to guide human Tenon’s capsule fibroblasts-derived iPSCs (TiPSCs) to differentiate along the retinal ganglion cell (RGC) lineage, aiming at producing appropriate cellular material for RGC regeneration. Methods By mimicking RGC genesis, we deliberately administered the whole differentiation process and directed the stage-specific differentiation of human TiPSCs toward an RGC fate via manipulation of the retinal inducers (DKK1+Noggin+Lefty A) alongside master gene (Atoh7) sequentially. Throughout this stepwise differentiation process, changes in primitive neuroectodermal, eye field, and RGC marker expression were monitored with quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR), immunocytochemistry, and/or flow cytometry. Results Upon retinal differentiation, a large fraction of the cells developed characteristics of retinal progenitor cells (RPCs) in response to simulated environment signaling (DKK1+Noggin+Lefty A), which was selectively recovered with manual isolation approaches and then maintained in the presence of mitogen for multiple passages. Thereafter, overexpression of ATOH7 further promoted RGC specification in TiPSC-derived RPCs. A subset of transfected cells displayed RGC-specific expression patterns, including Brn3b, iSlet1, calretinin, and Tuj, and approximately 23% of Brn3b-positive RGC-like cells were obtained finally. Conclusions Our DKK1+Noggin+Lefty A/Atoh7-based RGC-induction regime could efficiently direct TiPSCs to differentiate along RGC lineage in a stage-specific manner, which may provide a benefit to develop possible cell therapies to treat retinal degenerative diseases such as glaucoma. PMID:27293372

  6. Quantitative lineage tracing strategies to resolve multipotency in tissue-specific stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Wuidart, Aline; Ousset, Marielle; Rulands, Steffen; Simons, Benjamin D.; Van Keymeulen, Alexandra; Blanpain, Cédric

    2016-01-01

    Lineage tracing has become the method of choice to study the fate and dynamics of stem cells (SCs) during development, homeostasis, and regeneration. However, transgenic and knock-in Cre drivers used to perform lineage tracing experiments are often dynamically, temporally, and heterogeneously expressed, leading to the initial labeling of different cell types and thereby complicating their interpretation. Here, we developed two methods: the first one based on statistical analysis of multicolor lineage tracing, allowing the definition of multipotency potential to be achieved with high confidence, and the second one based on lineage tracing at saturation to assess the fate of all SCs within a given lineage and the “flux” of cells between different lineages. Our analysis clearly shows that, whereas the prostate develops from multipotent SCs, only unipotent SCs mediate mammary gland (MG) development and adult tissue remodeling. These methods offer a rigorous framework to assess the lineage relationship and SC fate in different organs and tissues. PMID:27284162

  7. Quantitative lineage tracing strategies to resolve multipotency in tissue-specific stem cells.

    PubMed

    Wuidart, Aline; Ousset, Marielle; Rulands, Steffen; Simons, Benjamin D; Van Keymeulen, Alexandra; Blanpain, Cédric

    2016-06-01

    Lineage tracing has become the method of choice to study the fate and dynamics of stem cells (SCs) during development, homeostasis, and regeneration. However, transgenic and knock-in Cre drivers used to perform lineage tracing experiments are often dynamically, temporally, and heterogeneously expressed, leading to the initial labeling of different cell types and thereby complicating their interpretation. Here, we developed two methods: the first one based on statistical analysis of multicolor lineage tracing, allowing the definition of multipotency potential to be achieved with high confidence, and the second one based on lineage tracing at saturation to assess the fate of all SCs within a given lineage and the "flux" of cells between different lineages. Our analysis clearly shows that, whereas the prostate develops from multipotent SCs, only unipotent SCs mediate mammary gland (MG) development and adult tissue remodeling. These methods offer a rigorous framework to assess the lineage relationship and SC fate in different organs and tissues. PMID:27284162

  8. Lineage-specific effects of Notch/Numb signaling in post-embryonic development of the Drosophila brain.

    PubMed

    Lin, Suewei; Lai, Sen-Lin; Yu, Huang-Hsiang; Chihara, Takahiro; Luo, Liqun; Lee, Tzumin

    2010-01-01

    Numb can antagonize Notch signaling to diversify the fates of sister cells. We report here that paired sister cells acquire different fates in all three Drosophila neuronal lineages that make diverse types of antennal lobe projection neurons (PNs). Only one in each pair of postmitotic neurons survives into the adult stage in both anterodorsal (ad) and ventral (v) PN lineages. Notably, Notch signaling specifies the PN fate in the vPN lineage but promotes programmed cell death in the missing siblings in the adPN lineage. In addition, Notch/Numb-mediated binary sibling fates underlie the production of PNs and local interneurons from common precursors in the lAL lineage. Furthermore, Numb is needed in the lateral but not adPN or vPN lineages to prevent the appearance of ectopic neuroblasts and to ensure proper self-renewal of neural progenitors. These lineage-specific outputs of Notch/Numb signaling show that a universal mechanism of binary fate decision can be utilized to govern diverse neural sibling differentiations. PMID:20023159

  9. The Lineage-Specific Evolution of Aquaporin Gene Clusters Facilitated Tetrapod Terrestrial Adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Finn, Roderick Nigel; Chauvigné, François; Hlidberg, Jón Baldur; Cutler, Christopher P.; Cerdà, Joan

    2014-01-01

    A major physiological barrier for aquatic organisms adapting to terrestrial life is dessication in the aerial environment. This barrier was nevertheless overcome by the Devonian ancestors of extant Tetrapoda, but the origin of specific molecular mechanisms that solved this water problem remains largely unknown. Here we show that an ancient aquaporin gene cluster evolved specifically in the sarcopterygian lineage, and subsequently diverged into paralogous forms of AQP2, -5, or -6 to mediate water conservation in extant Tetrapoda. To determine the origin of these apomorphic genomic traits, we combined aquaporin sequencing from jawless and jawed vertebrates with broad taxon assembly of >2,000 transcripts amongst 131 deuterostome genomes and developed a model based upon Bayesian inference that traces their convergent roots to stem subfamilies in basal Metazoa and Prokaryota. This approach uncovered an unexpected diversity of aquaporins in every lineage investigated, and revealed that the vertebrate superfamily consists of 17 classes of aquaporins (Aqp0 - Aqp16). The oldest orthologs associated with water conservation in modern Tetrapoda are traced to a cluster of three aqp2-like genes in Actinistia that likely arose >500 Ma through duplication of an aqp0-like gene present in a jawless ancestor. In sea lamprey, we show that aqp0 first arose in a protocluster comprised of a novel aqp14 paralog and a fused aqp01 gene. To corroborate these findings, we conducted phylogenetic analyses of five syntenic nuclear receptor subfamilies, which, together with observations of extensive genome rearrangements, support the coincident loss of ancestral aqp2-like orthologs in Actinopterygii. We thus conclude that the divergence of sarcopterygian-specific aquaporin gene clusters was permissive for the evolution of water conservation mechanisms that facilitated tetrapod terrestrial adaptation. PMID:25426855

  10. Lineage-specific STAT5 target gene activation in hematopoietic progenitor cells predicts the FLT3(+)-mediated leukemic phenotype.

    PubMed

    Müller, T A; Grundler, R; Istvanffy, R; Rudelius, M; Hennighausen, L; Illert, A L; Duyster, J

    2016-08-01

    Mutations that activate FMS-like tyrosine kinase 3 (FLT3) are frequent occurrences in acute myeloid leukemia. Two distinct types of mutations have been described: internal duplication of the juxtamembranous domain (ITD) and point mutations of the tyrosine kinase domain (TKD). Although both mutations lead to constitutive FLT3 signaling, only FLT3-ITD strongly activates signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 (STAT5). In a murine transplantation model, FLT3-ITD induces a myeloproliferative neoplasm, whereas FLT3-TKD leads to a lymphoid malignancy with significantly longer latency. Here we report that the presence of STAT5 is critical for the development of a myeloproliferative disease by FLT3-ITD in mice. Deletion of Stat5 in FLT3-ITD-induced leukemogenesis leads not only to a significantly longer survival (82 vs 27 days) of the diseased mice, but also to an immunophenotype switch with expansion of the lymphoid cell compartment. Interestingly, we were able to show differential STAT5 activation in FLT3-ITD(+) myeloid and lymphoid murine progenitors. STAT5 target genes such as Oncostatin M were highly expressed in FLT3-ITD(+) myeloid but not in FLT3-ITD(+) lymphoid progenitor cells. Strikingly, FLT3-TKD expression in combination with Oncostatin M is sufficient to reverse the phenotype to a myeloproliferative disease in FLT3-TKD mice. Thus, lineage-specific STAT5 activation in hematopoietic progenitor cells predicts the FLT3(+)-mediated leukemic phenotype in mice. PMID:27046463

  11. Tracing the Evolution of Lineage-Specific Transcription Factor Binding Sites in a Birth-Death Framework

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Jian

    2014-01-01

    Changes in cis-regulatory element composition that result in novel patterns of gene expression are thought to be a major contributor to the evolution of lineage-specific traits. Although transcription factor binding events show substantial variation across species, most computational approaches to study regulatory elements focus primarily upon highly conserved sites, and rely heavily upon multiple sequence alignments. However, sequence conservation based approaches have limited ability to detect lineage-specific elements that could contribute to species-specific traits. In this paper, we describe a novel framework that utilizes a birth-death model to trace the evolution of lineage-specific binding sites without relying on detailed base-by-base cross-species alignments. Our model was applied to analyze the evolution of binding sites based on the ChIP-seq data for six transcription factors (GATA1, SOX2, CTCF, MYC, MAX, ETS1) along the lineage toward human after human-mouse common ancestor. We estimate that a substantial fraction of binding sites (∼58–79% for each factor) in humans have origins since the divergence with mouse. Over 15% of all binding sites are unique to hominids. Such elements are often enriched near genes associated with specific pathways, and harbor more common SNPs than older binding sites in the human genome. These results support the ability of our method to identify lineage-specific regulatory elements and help understand their roles in shaping variation in gene regulation across species. PMID:25144359

  12. Lineage-Specific Modulation of Interleukin 4 Signaling by Interferon Regulatory Factor 4

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Sanjay; Jiang, Man; Anthony, Alissa; Pernis, Alessandra B.

    1999-01-01

    Interleukin (IL)-4 is an immunoregulatory cytokine that exerts distinct biological activities on different cell types. Our studies indicate that interferon regulatory factor (IRF)-4 is both a target and a modulator of the IL-4 signaling cascade. IRF-4 expression is strongly upregulated upon costimulation of B cells with CD40 and IL-4. Furthermore, we find that IRF-4 can interact with signal transducer and activator of transcription (Stat)6 and drive the expression of IL-4–inducible genes. The transactivating ability of IRF-4 is blocked by the repressor factor BCL-6. Since expression of IRF-4 is mostly confined to lymphoid cells, these data provide a potential mechanism by which IL-4–inducible genes can be regulated in a lineage-specific manner. PMID:10601358

  13. Lineage-specific and ubiquitous biological roles of the mammalian transcription factor LSF

    PubMed Central

    Veljkovic, Jelena; Hansen, Ulla

    2012-01-01

    Transcriptional regulation in mammalian cells is driven by a complex interplay of multiple transcription factors that respond to signals from either external or internal stimuli. A single transcription factor can control expression of distinct sets of target genes, dependent on its state of post-translational modifications, interacting partner proteins, and the chromatin environment of the cellular genome. Furthermore, many transcription factors can act as either transcriptional repressors or activators, depending on promoter and cellular contexts (Alvarez, et al., 2003). Even in this light, the versatility of LSF (Late SV40 Factor) is remarkable. A hallmark of LSF is its unusual DNA binding domain, as evidenced both by lack of homology to any other established DNA-binding domains and by its DNA recognition sequence. Although a dimer in solution, LSF requires additional multimerization with itself or partner proteins in order to interact with DNA. Transcriptionally, LSF can function as an activator or a repressor. It is a direct target of an increasing number of signal transduction pathways. Biologically, LSF plays roles in cell cycle progression and cell survival, as well as in cell lineage-specific functions, shown most strikingly to date in hematopoietic lineages. This review discusses how the unique aspects of LSF DNA-binding activity may make it particularly susceptible to regulation by signal transduction pathways and may relate to its distinct biological roles. We present current progress in elucidation of both tissue-specific and more universal cellular roles of LSF. Finally, we discuss suggestive data linking LSF to signaling by the amyloid precursor protein and to Alzheimer's disease, as well as to the regulation of latency of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). PMID:15563829

  14. Cryptic diversity among Western Palearctic tree frogs: postglacial range expansion, range limits, and secondary contacts of three European tree frog lineages (Hyla arborea group).

    PubMed

    Stöck, Matthias; Dufresnes, Christophe; Litvinchuk, Spartak N; Lymberakis, Petros; Biollay, Sébastien; Berroneau, Matthieu; Borzée, Amaël; Ghali, Karim; Ogielska, Maria; Perrin, Nicolas

    2012-10-01

    We characterize divergence times, intraspecific diversity and distributions for recently recognized lineages within the Hyla arborea species group, based on mitochondrial and nuclear sequences from 160 localities spanning its whole distribution. Lineages of H. arborea, H. orientalis, H. molleri have at least Pliocene age, supporting species level divergence. The genetically uniform Iberian H. molleri, although largely isolated by the Pyrenees, is parapatric to H. arborea, with evidence for successful hybridization in a small Aquitanian corridor (southwestern France), where the distribution also overlaps with H. meridionalis. The genetically uniform H. arborea, spread from Crete to Brittany, exhibits molecular signatures of a postglacial range expansion. It meets different mtDNA clades of H. orientalis in NE-Greece, along the Carpathians, and in Poland along the Vistula River (there including hybridization). The East-European H. orientalis is strongly structured genetically. Five geographic mitochondrial clades are recognized, with a molecular signature of postglacial range expansions for the clade that reached the most northern latitudes. Hybridization with H. savignyi is suggested in southwestern Turkey. Thus, cryptic diversity in these Pliocene Hyla lineages covers three extremes: a genetically poor, quasi-Iberian endemic (H. molleri), a more uniform species distributed from the Balkans to Western Europe (H. arborea), and a well-structured Asia Minor-Eastern European species (H. orientalis). PMID:22652054

  15. The phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) gene family shows a gymnosperm-specific lineage

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) is a key enzyme of the phenylpropanoid pathway that catalyzes the deamination of phenylalanine to trans-cinnamic acid, a precursor for the lignin and flavonoid biosynthetic pathways. To date, PAL genes have been less extensively studied in gymnosperms than in angiosperms. Our interest in PAL genes stems from their potential role in the defense responses of Pinus taeda, especially with respect to lignification and production of low molecular weight phenolic compounds under various biotic and abiotic stimuli. In contrast to all angiosperms for which reference genome sequences are available, P. taeda has previously been characterized as having only a single PAL gene. Our objective was to re-evaluate this finding, assess the evolutionary history of PAL genes across major angiosperm and gymnosperm lineages, and characterize PAL gene expression patterns in Pinus taeda. Methods We compiled a large set of PAL genes from the largest transcript dataset available for P. taeda and other conifers. The transcript assemblies for P. taeda were validated through sequencing of PCR products amplified using gene-specific primers based on the putative PAL gene assemblies. Verified PAL gene sequences were aligned and a gene tree was estimated. The resulting gene tree was reconciled with a known species tree and the time points for gene duplication events were inferred relative to the divergence of major plant lineages. Results In contrast to angiosperms, gymnosperms have retained a diverse set of PAL genes distributed among three major clades that arose from gene duplication events predating the divergence of these two seed plant lineages. Whereas multiple PAL genes have been identified in sequenced angiosperm genomes, all characterized angiosperm PAL genes form a single clade in the gene PAL tree, suggesting they are derived from a single gene in an ancestral angiosperm genome. The five distinct PAL genes detected and verified in P. taeda

  16. NeSL-1, an ancient lineage of site-specific non-LTR retrotransposons from Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed Central

    Malik, H S; Eickbush, T H

    2000-01-01

    Phylogenetic analyses of non-LTR retrotransposons suggest that all elements can be divided into 11 lineages. The 3 oldest lineages show target site specificity for unique locations in the genome and encode an endonuclease with an active site similar to certain restriction enzymes. The more "modern" non-LTR lineages possess an apurinic endonuclease-like domain and generally lack site specificity. The genome sequence of Caenorhabditis elegans reveals the presence of a non-LTR retrotransposon that resembles the older elements, in that it contains a single open reading frame with a carboxyl-terminal restriction-like endonuclease domain. Located near the N-terminal end of the ORF is a cysteine protease domain not found in any other non-LTR element. The N2 strain of C. elegans appears to contain only one full-length and several 5' truncated copies of this element. The elements specifically insert in the Spliced leader-1 genes; hence the element has been named NeSL-1 (Nematode Spliced Leader-1). Phylogenetic analysis confirms that NeSL-1 branches very early in the non-LTR lineage and that it represents a 12th lineage of non-LTR elements. The target specificity of NeSL-1 for the spliced leader exons and the similarity of its structure to that of R2 elements leads to a simple model for its expression and retrotransposition. PMID:10628980

  17. Genome-Wide Analysis Indicates Lineage-Specific Gene Loss during Papilionoideae Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Yongzhe; Xing, Shilai; He, Chaoying

    2016-01-01

    Gene loss is the driving force for changes in genome and morphology; however, this particular evolutionary event has been poorly investigated in leguminous plants. Legumes (Fabaceae) have some lineage-specific and diagnostic characteristics that are distinct from other angiosperms. To understand the potential role of gene loss in the evolution of legumes, we compared six genome-sequenced legume species of Papilionoideae, the largest representative clade of Fabaceae, such as Glycine max, with 34 nonlegume plant species, such as Arabidopsis thaliana. The results showed that the putative orthologs of the 34 Arabidopsis genes belonging to 29 gene families were absent in these legume species but these were conserved in the sequenced nonlegume angiosperm lineages. Further evolutionary analyses indicated that the orthologs of these genes were almost completely lost in the Papillionoideae ancestors, thus designated as the legume lost genes (LLGs), and these underwent purifying selection in nonlegume plants. Most LLGs were functionally unknown. In Arabidopsis, two LLGs were well-known genes that played a role in plant immunity such as HARMLESS TO OZONE LAYER 1 and HOPZ-ACTIVATED RESISTANCE 1, and 16 additional LLGs were predicted to participate in plant–pathogen interactions in in silico expression and protein–protein interaction network analyses. Most of these LLGs’ orthologs in various plants were also found to be associated with biotic stress response, indicating the conserved role of these genes in plant defense. The evolutionary implication of LLGs during the development of the ability of symbiotic nitrogen fixation involving plant and bacterial interactions, which is a well-known characteristic of most legumes, is also discussed. Our work sheds light on the evolutionary implication of gene loss events in Papilionoideae evolution, as well as provides new insights into crop design to improve nitrogen fixation capacity. PMID:26868598

  18. Genome-Wide Analysis Indicates Lineage-Specific Gene Loss during Papilionoideae Evolution.

    PubMed

    Gu, Yongzhe; Xing, Shilai; He, Chaoying

    2016-03-01

    Gene loss is the driving force for changes in genome and morphology; however, this particular evolutionary event has been poorly investigated in leguminous plants. Legumes (Fabaceae) have some lineage-specific and diagnostic characteristics that are distinct from other angiosperms. To understand the potential role of gene loss in the evolution of legumes, we compared six genome-sequenced legume species of Papilionoideae, the largest representative clade of Fabaceae, such as Glycine max, with 34 nonlegume plant species, such as Arabidopsis thaliana. The results showed that the putative orthologs of the 34 Arabidopsis genes belonging to 29 gene families were absent in these legume species but these were conserved in the sequenced nonlegume angiosperm lineages. Further evolutionary analyses indicated that the orthologs of these genes were almost completely lost in the Papillionoideae ancestors, thus designated as the legume lost genes (LLGs), and these underwent purifying selection in nonlegume plants. Most LLGs were functionally unknown. In Arabidopsis, two LLGs were well-known genes that played a role in plant immunity such as HARMLESS TO OZONE LAYER 1 and HOPZ-ACTIVATED RESISTANCE 1, and 16 additional LLGs were predicted to participate in plant-pathogen interactions in in silico expression and protein-protein interaction network analyses. Most of these LLGs' orthologs in various plants were also found to be associated with biotic stress response, indicating the conserved role of these genes in plant defense. The evolutionary implication of LLGs during the development of the ability of symbiotic nitrogen fixation involving plant and bacterial interactions, which is a well-known characteristic of most legumes, is also discussed. Our work sheds light on the evolutionary implication of gene loss events in Papilionoideae evolution, as well as provides new insights into crop design to improve nitrogen fixation capacity. PMID:26868598

  19. Fshb-iCre mice are efficient and specific Cre deleters for the gonadotrope lineage.

    PubMed

    Wang, Huizhen; Hastings, Richard; Miller, William L; Kumar, T Rajendra

    2016-01-01

    Genetic analysis of development and function of the gonadotrope cell lineage within mouse anterior pituitary has been greatly facilitated by at least three currently available Cre strains in which Cre was either knocked into the Gnrhr locus or expressed as a transgene from Cga and Lhb promoters. However, in each case there are some limitations including CRE expression in thyrotropes within pituitary or ectopic expression outside of pituitary, for example in some populations of neurons or gonads. Hence, these Cre strains often pose problems with regard to undesirable deletion of alleles in non-gonadotrope cells, fertility and germline transmission of mutant alleles. Here, we describe generation and characterization of a new Fshb-iCre deleter strain using 4.7 kb of ovine Fshb promoter regulatory sequences driving iCre expression exclusively in the gonadotrope lineage within anterior pituitary. Fshb-iCre mice develop normally, display no ectopic CRE expression in gonads and are fertile. When crossed onto a loxP recombination-mediated red to green color switch reporter mouse genetic background, in vivo CRE recombinase activity is detectable in gonadotropes at more than 95% efficiency and the GFP-tagged gonadotropes readily purified by fluorescence activated cell sorting. We demonstrate the applicability of this Fshb-iCre deleter strain in a mouse model in which Dicer is efficiently and selectively deleted in gonadotropes. We further show that loss of DICER-dependent miRNAs in gonadotropes leads to profound suppression of gonadotropins resulting in male and female infertility. Thus, Fshb-iCre mice serve as a new genetic tool to efficiently manipulate gonadotrope-specific gene expression in vivo. PMID:26472536

  20. Lineage-Specific Patterns of Genome Deterioration in Obligate Symbionts of Sharpshooter Leafhoppers

    PubMed Central

    Bennett, Gordon M.; McCutcheon, John P.; McDonald, Bradon R.; Moran, Nancy A.

    2016-01-01

    Plant sap-feeding insects (Hemiptera) rely on obligate bacterial symbionts that provision nutrients. Some of these symbionts are ancient and have evolved tiny genomes, whereas others are younger and retain larger, dynamic genomes. Baumannia cicadellinicola, an obligate symbiont of sharpshooter leafhoppers, is derived from a relatively recent symbiont replacement. To better understand evolutionary decay of genomes, we compared Baumannia from three host species. A newly sequenced genome for Baumannia from the green sharpshooter (B-GSS) was compared with genomes of Baumannia from the blue-green sharpshooter (B-BGSS, 759 kilobases [kb]) and from the glassy-winged sharpshooter (B-GWSS, 680 kb). B-GSS has the smallest Baumannia genome sequenced to date (633 kb), with only three unique genes, all involved in membrane function. It has lost nearly all pathways involved in vitamin and cofactor synthesis, as well as amino acid biosynthetic pathways that are redundant with pathways of the host or the symbiotic partner, Sulcia muelleri. The entire biosynthetic pathway for methionine is eliminated, suggesting that methionine has become a dietary requirement for hosts. B-GSS and B-BGSS share 33 genes involved in bacterial functions (e.g., cell division, membrane synthesis, metabolite transport, etc.) that are lost from the more distantly related B-GWSS and most other tiny genome symbionts. Finally, pairwise divergence estimates indicate that B-GSS has experienced a lineage-specific increase in substitution rates. This increase correlates with accelerated protein-level changes and widespread gene loss. Thus, the mode and tempo of genome reduction vary widely among symbiont lineages and result in wide variation in metabolic capabilities across hosts. PMID:26260652

  1. Lineage-Specific Patterns of Genome Deterioration in Obligate Symbionts of Sharpshooter Leafhoppers.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Gordon M; McCutcheon, John P; McDonald, Bradon R; Moran, Nancy A

    2016-01-01

    Plant sap-feeding insects (Hemiptera) rely on obligate bacterial symbionts that provision nutrients. Some of these symbionts are ancient and have evolved tiny genomes, whereas others are younger and retain larger, dynamic genomes. Baumannia cicadellinicola, an obligate symbiont of sharpshooter leafhoppers, is derived from a relatively recent symbiont replacement. To better understand evolutionary decay of genomes, we compared Baumannia from three host species. A newly sequenced genome for Baumannia from the green sharpshooter (B-GSS) was compared with genomes of Baumannia from the blue-green sharpshooter (B-BGSS, 759 kilobases [kb]) and from the glassy-winged sharpshooter (B-GWSS, 680 kb). B-GSS has the smallest Baumannia genome sequenced to date (633 kb), with only three unique genes, all involved in membrane function. It has lost nearly all pathways involved in vitamin and cofactor synthesis, as well as amino acid biosynthetic pathways that are redundant with pathways of the host or the symbiotic partner, Sulcia muelleri. The entire biosynthetic pathway for methionine is eliminated, suggesting that methionine has become a dietary requirement for hosts. B-GSS and B-BGSS share 33 genes involved in bacterial functions (e.g., cell division, membrane synthesis, metabolite transport, etc.) that are lost from the more distantly related B-GWSS and most other tiny genome symbionts. Finally, pairwise divergence estimates indicate that B-GSS has experienced a lineage-specific increase in substitution rates. This increase correlates with accelerated protein-level changes and widespread gene loss. Thus, the mode and tempo of genome reduction vary widely among symbiont lineages and result in wide variation in metabolic capabilities across hosts. PMID:26260652

  2. Comparative genomics of rhizobia nodulating soybean suggests extensive recruitment of lineage-specific genes in adaptations

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Chang Fu; Zhou, Yuan Jie; Zhang, Yan Ming; Li, Qin Qin; Zhang, Yun Zeng; Li, Dong Fang; Wang, Shuang; Wang, Jun; Gilbert, Luz B.; Li, Ying Rui; Chen, Wen Xin

    2012-01-01

    The rhizobium–legume symbiosis has been widely studied as the model of mutualistic evolution and the essential component of sustainable agriculture. Extensive genetic and recent genomic studies have led to the hypothesis that many distinct strategies, regardless of rhizobial phylogeny, contributed to the varied rhizobium–legume symbiosis. We sequenced 26 genomes of Sinorhizobium and Bradyrhizobium nodulating soybean to test this hypothesis. The Bradyrhizobium core genome is disproportionally enriched in lipid and secondary metabolism, whereas several gene clusters known to be involved in osmoprotection and adaptation to alkaline pH are specific to the Sinorhizobium core genome. These features are consistent with biogeographic patterns of these bacteria. Surprisingly, no genes are specifically shared by these soybean microsymbionts compared with other legume microsymbionts. On the other hand, phyletic patterns of 561 known symbiosis genes of rhizobia reflected the species phylogeny of these soybean microsymbionts and other rhizobia. Similar analyses with 887 known functional genes or the whole pan genome of rhizobia revealed that only the phyletic distribution of functional genes was consistent with the species tree of rhizobia. Further evolutionary genetics revealed that recombination dominated the evolution of core genome. Taken together, our results suggested that faithfully vertical genes were rare compared with those with history of recombination including lateral gene transfer, although rhizobial adaptations to symbiotic interactions and other environmental conditions extensively recruited lineage-specific shell genes under direct or indirect control through the speciation process. PMID:22586130

  3. Lineage-Specific Loss of Function of Bitter Taste Receptor Genes in Humans and Nonhuman Primates

    PubMed Central

    Go, Yasuhiro; Satta, Yoko; Takenaka, Osamu; Takahata, Naoyuki

    2005-01-01

    Since the process of becoming dead genes or pseudogenes (pseudogenization) is irreversible and can occur rather rapidly under certain environmental circumstances, it is one plausible determinant for characterizing species specificity. To test this evolutionary hypothesis, we analyzed the tempo and mode of duplication and pseudogenization of bitter taste receptor (T2R) genes in humans as well as in 12 nonhuman primates. The results show that primates have accumulated more pseudogenes than mice after their separation from the common ancestor and that lineage-specific pseudogenization becomes more conspicuous in humans than in nonhuman primates. Although positive selection has operated on some amino acids in extracellular domains, functional constraints against T2R genes are more relaxed in primates than in mice and this trend has culminated in the rapid deterioration of the bitter-tasting capability in humans. Since T2R molecules play an important role in avoiding generally bitter toxic and harmful substances, substantial modification of the T2R gene repertoire is likely to reflect different responses to changes in the environment and to result from species-specific food preference during primate evolution. PMID:15744053

  4. Potential merger of ancient lineages in a passerine bird discovered based on evidence from host-specific ectoparasites

    PubMed Central

    Block, Nicholas L; Goodman, Steven M; Hackett, Shannon J; Bates, John M; Raherilalao, Marie J

    2015-01-01

    The merger of formerly isolated lineages is hypothesized to occur in vertebrates under certain conditions. However, despite many demonstrated instances of introgression between taxa in secondary contact, examples of lineage mergers are rare. Preliminary mtDNA sequencing of a Malagasy passerine, Xanthomixis zosterops (Passeriformes: Bernieridae), indicated a possible instance of merging lineages. We tested the hypothesis that X. zosterops lineages are merging by comparing mtDNA sequence and microsatellite data, as well as mtDNA sequence data from host-specific feather lice in the genus Myrsidea (Phthiraptera: Menoponidae). Xanthomixis zosterops comprises four deeply divergent, broadly sympatric, cryptic mtDNA clades that likely began diverging approximately 3.6 million years ago. Despite this level of divergence, the microsatellite data indicate that the X. zosterops mtDNA clades are virtually panmictic. Three major phylogroups of Myrsidea were found, supporting previous allopatry of the X. zosterops clades. In combination, the datasets from X. zosterops and its Myrsidea document a potential merger of previously allopatric lineages that likely date to the Pliocene. This represents the first report of sympatric apparent hybridization among more than two terrestrial vertebrate lineages. Further, the mtDNA phylogeographic pattern of X. zosterops, namely the syntopy of more than two deeply divergent cryptic clades, appears to be a novel scenario among vertebrates. We highlight the value of gathering multiple types of data in phylogeographic studies to contribute to the study of vertebrate speciation. PMID:26380702

  5. Modern Lineages of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Exhibit Lineage-Specific Patterns of Growth and Cytokine Induction in Human Monocyte-Derived Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Sarkar, Rajesh; Lenders, Laura; Wilkinson, Katalin A.; Wilkinson, Robert J.; Nicol, Mark P.

    2012-01-01

    Background Strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis vary in virulence. Strains that have caused outbreaks in the United States and United Kingdom have been shown to subvert the innate immune response as a potential immune evasion mechanism. There is, however, little information available as to whether these patterns of immune subversion are features of individual strains or characteristic of broad clonal lineages of M. tuberculosis. Methods Strains from two major modern lineages (lineage 2 [East-Asian] and lineage 4 [Euro-American]) circulating in the Western Cape in South Africa as well as a comparator modern lineage (lineage 3 [CAS/Delhi]) were identified. We assessed two virulence associated characteristics: mycobacterial growth (in liquid broth and monocyte derived macrophages) and early pro-inflammatory cytokine induction. Results In liquid culture, Lineage 4 strains grew more rapidly and reached higher plateau levels than other strains (lineage 4 vs. lineage 2 p = 0.0024; lineage 4 vs. lineage 3 p = 0.0005). Lineage 3 strains were characterized by low and early plateau levels, while lineage 2 strains showed an intermediate growth phenotype. In monocyte-derived macrophages, lineage 2 strains grew faster than lineage 3 strains (p<0.01) with lineage 4 strains having an intermediate phenotype. Lineage 2 strains induced the lowest levels of pro-inflammatory TNF and IL-12p40 as compared to other lineages (lineage 2: median TNF 362 pg/ml, IL-12p40 91 pg/ml; lineage 3: median TNF 1818 pg/ml, IL-12p40 123 pg/ml; lineage 4: median TNF 1207 pg/ml, IL-12p40 205 pg/ml;). In contrast, lineage 4 strains induced high levels of IL-12p40 and intermediate level of TNF. Lineage 3 strains induced high levels of TNF and intermediate levels of IL-12p40. Conclusions Strains of M. tuberculosis from the three major modern strain lineages possess distinct patterns of growth and cytokine induction. Rapid growth and immune subversion may be key characteristics to the success of

  6. Development of Peptide-Based Lineage-Specific Serology for Chronic Chagas Disease: Geographical and Clinical Distribution of Epitope Recognition

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharyya, Tapan; Falconar, Andrew K.; Luquetti, Alejandro O.; Costales, Jaime A.; Grijalva, Mario J.; Lewis, Michael D.; Messenger, Louisa A.; Tran, Trang T.; Ramirez, Juan-David; Guhl, Felipe; Carrasco, Hernan J.; Diosque, Patricio; Garcia, Lineth; Litvinov, Sergey V.; Miles, Michael A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Chagas disease, caused by infection with the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi, remains a serious public health issue in Latin America. Genetically diverse, the species is sub-divided into six lineages, known as TcI–TcVI, which have disparate geographical and ecological distributions. TcII, TcV, and TcVI are associated with severe human disease in the Southern Cone countries, whereas TcI is associated with cardiomyopathy north of the Amazon. T. cruzi persists as a chronic infection, with cardiac and/or gastrointestinal symptoms developing years or decades after initial infection. Identifying an individual's history of T. cruzi lineage infection directly by genotyping of the parasite is complicated by the low parasitaemia and sequestration in the host tissues. Methodology/Principal Findings We have applied here serology against lineage-specific epitopes of the T. cruzi surface antigen TSSA, as an indirect approach to allow identification of infecting lineage. Chagasic sera from chronic patients from a range of endemic countries were tested by ELISA against synthetic peptides representing lineage-specific TSSA epitopes bound to avidin-coated ELISA plates via a biotin labelled polyethylene glycol-glycine spacer to increase rotation and ensure each amino acid side chain could freely interact with their antibodies. 79/113 (70%) of samples from Brazil, Bolivia, and Argentina recognised the TSSA epitope common to lineages TcII/TcV/TcVI. Comparison with clinical information showed that a higher proportion of Brazilian TSSApep-II/V/VI responders had ECG abnormalities than non-responders (38% vs 17%; p<0.0001). Among northern chagasic sera 4/20 (20%) from Ecuador reacted with this peptide; 1/12 Venezuelan and 1/34 Colombian samples reacted with TSSApep-IV. In addition, a proposed TcI-specific epitope, described elsewhere, was demonstrated here to be highly conserved across lineages and therefore not applicable to lineage-specific serology. Conclusions

  7. Comparative phylogeography of two sympatric beeches in subtropical China: Species-specific geographic mosaic of lineages.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhi-Yong; Wu, Rong; Wang, Qun; Zhang, Zhi-Rong; López-Pujol, Jordi; Fan, Deng-Mei; Li, De-Zhu

    2013-11-01

    In subtropical China, large-scale phylogeographic comparisons among multiple sympatric plants with similar ecological preferences are scarce, making generalizations about common response to historical events necessarily tentative. A phylogeographic comparison of two sympatric Chinese beeches (Fagus lucida and F. longipetiolata, 21 and 28 populations, respectively) was conducted to test whether they have responded to historical events in a concerted fashion and to determine whether their phylogeographic structure is exclusively due to Quaternary events or it is also associated with pre-Quaternary events. Twenty-three haplotypes were recovered for F. lucida and F. longipetiolata (14 each one and five shared). Both species exhibited a species-specific mosaic distribution of haplotypes, with many of them being range-restricted and even private to populations. The two beeches had comparable total haplotype diversity but F. lucida had much higher within-population diversity than F. longipetiolata. Molecular dating showed that the time to most recent common ancestor of all haplotypes was 6.36 Ma, with most haplotypes differentiating during the Quaternary. [Correction added on 14 October 2013, after first online publication: the timeunit has been corrected to '6.36'.] Our results support a late Miocene origin and southwards colonization of Chinese beeches when the aridity in Central Asia intensified and the monsoon climate began to dominate the East Asia. During the Quaternary, long-term isolation in subtropical mountains of China coupled with limited gene flow would have lead to the current species-specific mosaic distribution of lineages. PMID:24340187

  8. 5-Hydroxymethylcytosine Remodeling Precedes Lineage Specification during Differentiation of Human CD4(+) T Cells.

    PubMed

    Nestor, Colm E; Lentini, Antonio; Hägg Nilsson, Cathrine; Gawel, Danuta R; Gustafsson, Mika; Mattson, Lina; Wang, Hui; Rundquist, Olof; Meehan, Richard R; Klocke, Bernward; Seifert, Martin; Hauck, Stefanie M; Laumen, Helmut; Zhang, Huan; Benson, Mikael

    2016-07-12

    5-methylcytosine (5mC) is converted to 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) by the TET family of enzymes as part of a recently discovered active DNA de-methylation pathway. 5hmC plays important roles in regulation of gene expression and differentiation and has been implicated in T cell malignancies and autoimmunity. Here, we report early and widespread 5mC/5hmC remodeling during human CD4(+) T cell differentiation ex vivo at genes and cell-specific enhancers with known T cell function. We observe similar DNA de-methylation in CD4(+) memory T cells in vivo, indicating that early remodeling events persist long term in differentiated cells. Underscoring their important function, 5hmC loci were highly enriched for genetic variants associated with T cell diseases and T-cell-specific chromosomal interactions. Extensive functional validation of 22 risk variants revealed potentially pathogenic mechanisms in diabetes and multiple sclerosis. Our results support 5hmC-mediated DNA de-methylation as a key component of CD4(+) T cell biology in humans, with important implications for gene regulation and lineage commitment. PMID:27346350

  9. The Lineage Specification of Mesenchymal Stem Cells Is Directed by the Rate of Fluid Shear Stress.

    PubMed

    Lu, Juan; Fan, Yijuan; Gong, Xiaoyuan; Zhou, Xin; Yi, Caixia; Zhang, Yinxing; Pan, Jun

    2016-08-01

    The effective regulation of fluid shear stress (FSS) on the lineage specification of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) remains to be addressed. We hypothesized that when MSCs are recruited to musculoskeletal system following stimulation, their differentiation into osteogenic or chondrogenic cells is directed by the rate of FSS (ΔSS) through modulation of the mechanosensitive, cation-selective channels (MSCCs), intracellular calcium levels, and F-actin. To this end, MSCs were exposed to laminar FSS linearly increased from 0 to 10 dyn/cm(2) in 0, 2, or 20 min and maintained at 10 dyn/cm(2) for a total of 20 min (termed as ΔSS 0-0', 0-2', and 0-20', respectively, representing more physiological (0-0') and non-physiological (0-2' and 0-20') ΔSS treatments). Our results showed 0-0' facilitated MSC differentiation towards chondrogenic and not osteogenic phenotype, by promoting moderate intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca(2+) ]i ) increase from the calcium channels with the exception of MSCCs or intracellular calcium stores, and F-actin organization. In contrast, 0-2' promoted MSCs towards osteogenic and not chondrogenic phenotype, by inducing significant [Ca(2+) ]i increase mainly from the MSCCs, and F-actin assembly. However, 0-20' elicited the modest osteogenic and chondrogenic phenotypes, as it induced the lowest [Ca(2+) ]i increase mainly from MSCCs, and F-actin assembly. Our results suggest that compared to the more physiological ΔSS, the non-physiological ΔSS favors [Ca(2+) ]i influx from MSCCs. An appropriate non-physiological ΔSS (0-2') even elicits a large [Ca(2+) ]i influx from the MSCCs that reverses the lineage specification of MSCs, providing validation for the high mechanosensitivity of MSCs and guidance for training osteoporosis and osteoarthritis patients. J. Cell. Physiol. 231: 1752-1760, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26636289

  10. Human Lineage-Specific Transcriptional Regulation through GA-Binding Protein Transcription Factor Alpha (GABPa).

    PubMed

    Perdomo-Sabogal, Alvaro; Nowick, Katja; Piccini, Ilaria; Sudbrak, Ralf; Lehrach, Hans; Yaspo, Marie-Laure; Warnatz, Hans-Jörg; Querfurth, Robert

    2016-05-01

    A substantial fraction of phenotypic differences between closely related species are likely caused by differences in gene regulation. While this has already been postulated over 30 years ago, only few examples of evolutionary changes in gene regulation have been verified. Here, we identified and investigated binding sites of the transcription factor GA-binding protein alpha (GABPa) aiming to discover cis-regulatory adaptations on the human lineage. By performing chromatin immunoprecipitation-sequencing experiments in a human cell line, we found 11,619 putative GABPa binding sites. Through sequence comparisons of the human GABPa binding regions with orthologous sequences from 34 mammals, we identified substitutions that have resulted in 224 putative human-specific GABPa binding sites. To experimentally assess the transcriptional impact of those substitutions, we selected four promoters for promoter-reporter gene assays using human and African green monkey cells. We compared the activities of wild-type promoters to mutated forms, where we have introduced one or more substitutions to mimic the ancestral state devoid of the GABPa consensus binding sequence. Similarly, we introduced the human-specific substitutions into chimpanzee and macaque promoter backgrounds. Our results demonstrate that the identified substitutions are functional, both in human and nonhuman promoters. In addition, we performed GABPa knock-down experiments and found 1,215 genes as strong candidates for primary targets. Further analyses of our data sets link GABPa to cognitive disorders, diabetes, KRAB zinc finger (KRAB-ZNF), and human-specific genes. Thus, we propose that differences in GABPa binding sites played important roles in the evolution of human-specific phenotypes. PMID:26814189

  11. Human Lineage-Specific Transcriptional Regulation through GA-Binding Protein Transcription Factor Alpha (GABPa)

    PubMed Central

    Perdomo-Sabogal, Alvaro; Nowick, Katja; Piccini, Ilaria; Sudbrak, Ralf; Lehrach, Hans; Yaspo, Marie-Laure; Warnatz, Hans-Jörg; Querfurth, Robert

    2016-01-01

    A substantial fraction of phenotypic differences between closely related species are likely caused by differences in gene regulation. While this has already been postulated over 30 years ago, only few examples of evolutionary changes in gene regulation have been verified. Here, we identified and investigated binding sites of the transcription factor GA-binding protein alpha (GABPa) aiming to discover cis-regulatory adaptations on the human lineage. By performing chromatin immunoprecipitation-sequencing experiments in a human cell line, we found 11,619 putative GABPa binding sites. Through sequence comparisons of the human GABPa binding regions with orthologous sequences from 34 mammals, we identified substitutions that have resulted in 224 putative human-specific GABPa binding sites. To experimentally assess the transcriptional impact of those substitutions, we selected four promoters for promoter-reporter gene assays using human and African green monkey cells. We compared the activities of wild-type promoters to mutated forms, where we have introduced one or more substitutions to mimic the ancestral state devoid of the GABPa consensus binding sequence. Similarly, we introduced the human-specific substitutions into chimpanzee and macaque promoter backgrounds. Our results demonstrate that the identified substitutions are functional, both in human and nonhuman promoters. In addition, we performed GABPa knock-down experiments and found 1,215 genes as strong candidates for primary targets. Further analyses of our data sets link GABPa to cognitive disorders, diabetes, KRAB zinc finger (KRAB-ZNF), and human-specific genes. Thus, we propose that differences in GABPa binding sites played important roles in the evolution of human-specific phenotypes. PMID:26814189

  12. Environmental Physical Cues Determine the Lineage Specification of Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Chao; Dai, Jingxing; Zhang, Xin A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Physical cues of cellular environment affect cell fate and differentiation. For example, an environment with high stiffness drives mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) to undergo osteogenic differentiation, while low stiffness leads to lipogenic differentiation. Such effects could be independent of chemical/biochemical inducers. Scope of review Stiffness and/or topography of cellular environment can control MSC differentiation and fate determination. In addition, physical factors such as tension, resulted from profound cytoskeleton reorganization during MSC differentiation, affect the gene expression essential for the differentiation. Although physical cues control MSC lineage specification probably by reorganizing and tuning cytoskeleton, the full mechanism is largely unclear. It also remains elusive how physical signals are sensed by cells and transformed into biochemical and biological signals. More importantly, it becomes pivotal to define explicitly the physical cue(s) essential for cell differentiation and fate decision. With a focus on MSC, we present herein current understanding of the interplay between i) physical cue and factors and ii) MSC differentiation and fate determination. Major conclusions Biophysical cues can initiate or strengthen the biochemical signaling for MSC fate determination and differentiation. Physical properties of cellular environment direct the structural adaptation and functional coupling of the cells to their environment. General significance These observations not only open a simple avenue to engineer cell fate in vitro, but also start to reveal the physical elements that regulate and determine cell fate. PMID:25727396

  13. Atypical Regulation of a Green Lineage-Specific B-Type Cyclin-Dependent Kinase1

    PubMed Central

    Corellou, Florence; Camasses, Alain; Ligat, Laetitia; Peaucellier, Gérard; Bouget, François-Yves

    2005-01-01

    Cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) are the main regulators of cell cycle progression in eukaryotes. The role and regulation of canonical CDKs, such as the yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) Cdc2 or plant CDKA, have been extensively characterized. However, the function of the plant-specific CDKB is not as well understood. Besides being involved in cell cycle control, Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) CDKB would integrate developmental processes to cell cycle progression. We investigated the role of CDKB in Ostreococcus (Ostreococcus tauri), a unicellular green algae with a minimal set of cell cycle genes. In this primitive alga, at the basis of the green lineage, CDKB has integrated two levels of regulations: It is regulated by Tyr phosphorylation like cdc2/CDKA and at the level of synthesis-like B-type CDKs. Furthermore, Ostreococcus CDKB/cyclin B accounts for the main peak of mitotic activity, and CDKB is able to rescue a yeast cdc28ts mutant. By contrast, Ostreococcus CDKA is not regulated by Tyr phosphorylation, and it exhibits a low and steady-state activity from DNA replication to exit of mitosis. This suggests that from a major role in the control of mitosis in green algae, CDKB has evolved in higher plants to assume other functions outside the cell cycle. PMID:15965018

  14. Lineage-specific evolutionary rate in plants: Contributions of a screening for Cereus (Cactaceae)1

    PubMed Central

    Romeiro-Brito, Monique; Moraes, Evandro M.; Taylor, Nigel P.; Zappi, Daniela C.; Franco, Fernando F.

    2016-01-01

    Premise of the study: Predictable chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) sequences have been listed for the shallowest taxonomic studies in plants. We investigated whether plastid regions that vary between closely allied species could be applied for intraspecific studies and compared the variation of these plastid segments with two nuclear regions. Methods: We screened 16 plastid and two nuclear intronic regions for species of the genus Cereus (Cactaceae) at three hierarchical levels (species from different clades, species of the same clade, and allopatric populations). Results: Ten plastid regions presented interspecific variation, and six of them showed variation at the intraspecific level. The two nuclear regions showed both inter- and intraspecific variation, and in general they showed higher levels of variability in almost all hierarchical levels than the plastid segments. Discussion: Our data suggest no correspondence between variation of plastid regions at the interspecific and intraspecific level, probably due to lineage-specific variation in cpDNA, which appears to have less effect in nuclear data. Despite the heterogeneity in evolutionary rates of cpDNA, we highlight three plastid segments that may be considered in initial screenings in plant phylogeographic studies. PMID:26819857

  15. Lineage-specific transcriptional regulation of DICER by MITF in melanocytes.

    PubMed

    Levy, Carmit; Khaled, Mehdi; Robinson, Kathleen C; Veguilla, Rosa A; Chen, Po-Hao; Yokoyama, Satoru; Makino, Eiichi; Lu, Jun; Larue, Lionel; Beermann, Friedrich; Chin, Lynda; Bosenberg, Marcus; Song, Jun S; Fisher, David E

    2010-06-11

    DICER is a central regulator of microRNA maturation. However, little is known about mechanisms regulating its expression in development or disease. While profiling miRNA expression in differentiating melanocytes, two populations were observed: some upregulated at the pre-miRNA stage, and others upregulated as mature miRNAs (with stable pre-miRNA levels). Conversion of pre-miRNAs to fully processed miRNAs appeared to be dependent upon stimulation of DICER expression--an event found to occur via direct transcriptional targeting of DICER by the melanocyte master transcriptional regulator MITF. MITF binds and activates a conserved regulatory element upstream of DICER's transcriptional start site upon melanocyte differentiation. Targeted KO of DICER is lethal to melanocytes, at least partly via DICER-dependent processing of the pre-miRNA-17 approximately 92 cluster thus targeting BIM, a known proapoptotic regulator of melanocyte survival. These observations highlight a central mechanism underlying lineage-specific miRNA regulation which could exist for other cell types during development. PMID:20550935

  16. FoxA1 as a lineage-specific oncogene in luminal type breast cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Yamaguchi, Noritaka; Ito, Emi; Azuma, Sakura; Honma, Reiko; Yanagisawa, Yuka; Nishikawa, Akira; Kawamura, Mika; Imai, Jun-ichi

    2008-01-25

    The forkhead transcription factor FoxA1 is thought to be involved in mammary tumorigenesis. However, the precise role of FoxA1 in breast cancer development is controversial. We examined expression of FoxA1 in 35 human breast cancer cell lines and compared it with that of ErbB2, a marker of poor prognosis in breast cancer. We found that FoxA1 is expressed at high levels in all ErbB2-positive cell lines and a subset of ErbB2-negative cell lines. Down-regulation of FoxA1 by RNA interference significantly suppressed proliferation of ErbB2-negative and FoxA1-positive breast cancer cell lines. Down-regulation of FoxA1 also enhanced the toxic effect of Herceptin on ErbB2-positive cell lines through induction of apoptosis. Taken together with previous data that FoxA1 is a marker of luminal cells in mammary gland, our present results suggest that FoxA1 plays an important role as a lineage-specific oncogene in proliferation of cancer cells derived from mammary luminal cells.

  17. Evolution of lineage-specific functions in ancient cis-regulatory modules.

    PubMed

    Pauls, Stefan; Goode, Debbie K; Petrone, Libero; Oliveri, Paola; Elgar, Greg

    2015-11-01

    Morphological evolution is driven both by coding sequence variation and by changes in regulatory sequences. However, how cis-regulatory modules (CRMs) evolve to generate entirely novel expression domains is largely unknown. Here, we reconstruct the evolutionary history of a lens enhancer located within a CRM that not only predates the lens, a vertebrate innovation, but bilaterian animals in general. Alignments of orthologous sequences from different deuterostomes sub-divide the CRM into a deeply conserved core and a more divergent flanking region. We demonstrate that all deuterostome flanking regions, including invertebrate sequences, activate gene expression in the zebrafish lens through the same ancient cluster of activator sites. However, levels of gene expression vary between species due to the presence of repressor motifs in flanking region and core. These repressor motifs are responsible for the relatively weak enhancer activity of tetrapod flanking regions. Ray-finned fish, however, have gained two additional lineage-specific activator motifs which in combination with the ancient cluster of activators and the core constitute a potent lens enhancer. The exploitation and modification of existing regulatory potential in flanking regions but not in the highly conserved core might represent a more general model for the emergence of novel regulatory functions in complex CRMs. PMID:26538567

  18. Cyanobacterial symbionts diverged in the late Cretaceous towards lineage-specific nitrogen fixation factories in single-celled phytoplankton

    PubMed Central

    Cornejo-Castillo, Francisco M.; Cabello, Ana M.; Salazar, Guillem; Sánchez-Baracaldo, Patricia; Lima-Mendez, Gipsi; Hingamp, Pascal; Alberti, Adriana; Sunagawa, Shinichi; Bork, Peer; de Vargas, Colomban; Raes, Jeroen; Bowler, Chris; Wincker, Patrick; Zehr, Jonathan P.; Gasol, Josep M.; Massana, Ramon; Acinas, Silvia G.

    2016-01-01

    The unicellular cyanobacterium UCYN-A, one of the major contributors to nitrogen fixation in the open ocean, lives in symbiosis with single-celled phytoplankton. UCYN-A includes several closely related lineages whose partner fidelity, genome-wide expression and time of evolutionary divergence remain to be resolved. Here we detect and distinguish UCYN-A1 and UCYN-A2 lineages in symbiosis with two distinct prymnesiophyte partners in the South Atlantic Ocean. Both symbiotic systems are lineage specific and differ in the number of UCYN-A cells involved. Our analyses infer a streamlined genome expression towards nitrogen fixation in both UCYN-A lineages. Comparative genomics reveal a strong purifying selection in UCYN-A1 and UCYN-A2 with a diversification process ∼91 Myr ago, in the late Cretaceous, after the low-nutrient regime period occurred during the Jurassic. These findings suggest that UCYN-A diversified in a co-evolutionary process, wherein their prymnesiophyte partners acted as a barrier driving an allopatric speciation of extant UCYN-A lineages. PMID:27002549

  19. Cyanobacterial symbionts diverged in the late Cretaceous towards lineage-specific nitrogen fixation factories in single-celled phytoplankton.

    PubMed

    Cornejo-Castillo, Francisco M; Cabello, Ana M; Salazar, Guillem; Sánchez-Baracaldo, Patricia; Lima-Mendez, Gipsi; Hingamp, Pascal; Alberti, Adriana; Sunagawa, Shinichi; Bork, Peer; de Vargas, Colomban; Raes, Jeroen; Bowler, Chris; Wincker, Patrick; Zehr, Jonathan P; Gasol, Josep M; Massana, Ramon; Acinas, Silvia G

    2016-01-01

    The unicellular cyanobacterium UCYN-A, one of the major contributors to nitrogen fixation in the open ocean, lives in symbiosis with single-celled phytoplankton. UCYN-A includes several closely related lineages whose partner fidelity, genome-wide expression and time of evolutionary divergence remain to be resolved. Here we detect and distinguish UCYN-A1 and UCYN-A2 lineages in symbiosis with two distinct prymnesiophyte partners in the South Atlantic Ocean. Both symbiotic systems are lineage specific and differ in the number of UCYN-A cells involved. Our analyses infer a streamlined genome expression towards nitrogen fixation in both UCYN-A lineages. Comparative genomics reveal a strong purifying selection in UCYN-A1 and UCYN-A2 with a diversification process ∼91 Myr ago, in the late Cretaceous, after the low-nutrient regime period occurred during the Jurassic. These findings suggest that UCYN-A diversified in a co-evolutionary process, wherein their prymnesiophyte partners acted as a barrier driving an allopatric speciation of extant UCYN-A lineages. PMID:27002549

  20. A pursuit of lineage-specific and niche-specific proteome features in the world of archaea

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Archaea evoke interest among researchers for two enigmatic characteristics –a combination of bacterial and eukaryotic components in their molecular architectures and an enormous diversity in their life-style and metabolic capabilities. Despite considerable research efforts, lineage- specific/niche-specific molecular features of the whole archaeal world are yet to be fully unveiled. The study offers the first large-scale in silico proteome analysis of all archaeal species of known genome sequences with a special emphasis on methanogenic and sulphur-metabolising archaea. Results Overall amino acid usage in archaea is dominated by GC-bias. But the environmental factors like oxygen requirement or thermal adaptation seem to play important roles in selection of residues with no GC-bias at the codon level. All methanogens, irrespective of their thermal/salt adaptation, show higher usage of Cys and have relatively acidic proteomes, while the proteomes of sulphur-metabolisers have higher aromaticity and more positive charges. Despite of exhibiting thermophilic life-style, korarchaeota possesses an acidic proteome. Among the distinct trends prevailing in COGs (Cluster of Orthologous Groups of proteins) distribution profiles, crenarchaeal organisms display higher intra-order variations in COGs repertoire, especially in the metabolic ones, as compared to euryarchaea. All methanogens are characterised by a presence of 22 exclusive COGs. Conclusions Divergences in amino acid usage, aromaticity/charge profiles and COG repertoire among methanogens and sulphur-metabolisers, aerobic and anaerobic archaea or korarchaeota and nanoarchaeota, as elucidated in the present study, point towards the presence of distinct molecular strategies for niche specialization in the archaeal world. PMID:22691113

  1. Combined lineage mapping and fate specification profiling with NLOM-OCM using sub-10-fs pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibbs, H. C.; Dodson, C. R.; Bai, Y.; Lekven, A. C.; Yeh, A. T.

    2013-02-01

    We have developed a combined NLOM-OCM method using ultrashort sub-10-fs pulses to study cell lineages and their gene expression profiles in zebrafish. First, time-lapse NLOM is used to capture embryo morphology (broadly excited autofluorescence) and cell lineage dynamics (eGFP reporter). The embryo is then fixed and an in situ hybridization performed, depositing NBT/BCIP precipitate where a gene of interest is actively expressed. Combined NLOM-OCM is then used to capture the gene expression pattern with 3-D resolution and these two data sets acquired from the same embryo are merged using morphological landmarks. We have used this approach to study the dynamics of the wnt1 lineage at the midbrain-hindbrain boundary (MHB) in normal and in fgf8a(ace) morphant embryos. We show that with fgf8a knock-down, the MHB constriction begins to form but subsequent failure of the constriction causes the incorporation of a transient cerebellar structure into caudal tectum. Concomitantly, this morphological distortion in the dorsal MHB causes anterior displacement in a ventral subpopulation of the wnt1 lineage at the MHB. NLOM-OCM confirms the displaced wnt1 MHB lineage stops expressing the wnt1 reporter, and with further experiments we can investigate markers such as wnt4 or ascl1a, which have been shown to be expanded caudally in ace mutants, to understand the transformed molecular fate of this displaced tissue. We conclude this approach of co-registering dynamic lineage tracing and in situ hybridization data sets using morphological context will help shed light on developmental mechanisms by integrating established analysis techniques at the morphological, cellular, and molecular levels.

  2. Comparative Host Specificity of Human- and Pig- Associated Staphylococcus aureus Clonal Lineages

    PubMed Central

    Moodley, Arshnee; Espinosa-Gongora, Carmen; Nielsen, Søren S.; McCarthy, Alex J.; Lindsay, Jodi A.; Guardabassi, Luca

    2012-01-01

    Bacterial adhesion is a crucial step in colonization of the skin. In this study, we investigated the differential adherence to human and pig corneocytes of six Staphylococcus aureus strains belonging to three human-associated [ST8 (CC8), ST22 (CC22) and ST36(CC30)] and two pig-associated [ST398 (CC398) and ST433(CC30)] clonal lineages, and their colonization potential in the pig host was assessed by in vivo competition experiments. Corneocytes were collected from 11 humans and 21 pigs using D-squame® adhesive discs, and bacterial adherence to corneocytes was quantified by a standardized light microscopy assay. A previously described porcine colonization model was used to assess the potential of the six strains to colonize the pig host. Three pregnant, S. aureus-free sows were inoculated intravaginally shortly before farrowing with different strain mixes [mix 1) human and porcine ST398; mix 2) human ST36 and porcine ST433; and mix 3) human ST8, ST22, ST36 and porcine ST398] and the ability of individual strains to colonize the nasal cavity of newborn piglets was evaluated for 28 days after birth by strain-specific antibiotic selective culture. In the corneocyte assay, the pig-associated ST433 strain and the human-associated ST22 and ST36 strains showed significantly greater adhesion to porcine and human corneocytes, respectively (p<0.0001). In contrast, ST8 and ST398 did not display preferential host binding patterns. In the in vivo competition experiment, ST8 was a better colonizer compared to ST22, ST36, and ST433 prevailed over ST36 in colonizing the newborn piglets. These results are partly in agreement with previous genetic and epidemiological studies indicating the host specificity of ST22, ST36 and ST433 and the broad-host range of ST398. However, our in vitro and in vivo experiments revealed an unexpected ability of ST8 to adhere to porcine corneocytes and persist in the nasal cavity of pigs. PMID:23166643

  3. Topologically associated domains enriched for lineage-specific genes reveal expression-dependent nuclear topologies during myogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Neems, Daniel S.; Garza-Gongora, Arturo G.; Smith, Erica D.; Kosak, Steven T.

    2016-01-01

    The linear distribution of genes across chromosomes and the spatial localization of genes within the nucleus are related to their transcriptional regulation. The mechanistic consequences of linear gene order, and how it may relate to the functional output of genome organization, remain to be fully resolved, however. Here we tested the relationship between linear and 3D organization of gene regulation during myogenesis. Our analysis has identified a subset of topologically associated domains (TADs) that are significantly enriched for muscle-specific genes. These lineage-enriched TADs demonstrate an expression-dependent pattern of nuclear organization that influences the positioning of adjacent nonenriched TADs. Therefore, lineage-enriched TADs inform cell-specific genome organization during myogenesis. The reduction of allelic spatial distance of one of these domains, which contains Myogenin, correlates with reduced transcriptional variability, identifying a potential role for lineage-specific nuclear topology. Using a fusion-based strategy to decouple mitosis and myotube formation, we demonstrate that the cell-specific topology of syncytial nuclei is dependent on cell division. We propose that the effects of linear and spatial organization of gene loci on gene regulation are linked through TAD architecture, and that mitosis is critical for establishing nuclear topologies during cellular differentiation. PMID:26957603

  4. A genome survey sequencing of the Java mouse deer (Tragulus javanicus) adds new aspects to the evolution of lineage specific retrotransposons in Ruminantia (Cetartiodactyla).

    PubMed

    Gallus, S; Kumar, V; Bertelsen, M F; Janke, A; Nilsson, M A

    2015-10-25

    Ruminantia, the ruminating, hoofed mammals (cow, deer, giraffe and allies) are an unranked artiodactylan clade. Around 50-60 million years ago the BovB retrotransposon entered the ancestral ruminantian genome through horizontal gene transfer. A survey genome screen using 454-pyrosequencing of the Java mouse deer (Tragulus javanicus) and the lesser kudu (Tragelaphus imberbis) was done to investigate and to compare the landscape of transposable elements within Ruminantia. The family Tragulidae (mouse deer) is the only representative of Tragulina and phylogenetically important, because it represents the earliest divergence in Ruminantia. The data analyses show that, relative to other ruminantian species, the lesser kudu genome has seen an expansion of BovB Long INterspersed Elements (LINEs) and BovB related Short INterspersed Elements (SINEs) like BOVA2. In comparison the genome of Java mouse deer has fewer BovB elements than other ruminants, especially Bovinae, and has in addition a novel CHR-3 SINE most likely propagated by LINE-1. By contrast the other ruminants have low amounts of CHR SINEs but high numbers of actively propagating BovB-derived and BovB-propagated SINEs. The survey sequencing data suggest that the transposable element landscape in mouse deer (Tragulina) is unique among Ruminantia, suggesting a lineage specific evolutionary trajectory that does not involve BovB mediated retrotransposition. This shows that the genomic landscape of mobile genetic elements can rapidly change in any lineage. PMID:26123917

  5. Lineage-specific detection of influenza B virus using real-time polymerase chain reaction with melting curve analysis.

    PubMed

    Tewawong, Nipaporn; Chansaenroj, Jira; Klinfueng, Sirapa; Vichiwattana, Preeyaporn; Korkong, Sumeth; Thongmee, Thanunrat; Theamboonlers, Apiradee; Payungporn, Sunchai; Vongpunsawad, Sompong; Poovorawan, Yong

    2016-06-01

    Influenza B viruses comprise two lineages, Victoria (B/Vic) and Yamagata (B/Yam), which co-circulate globally. The surveillance data on influenza B virus lineages in many countries often underestimate the true prevalence due to the lack of a rapid, accurate, and cost-effective method for virus detection. We have developed a real-time PCR with melting curve analysis for lineage-specific differential detection of influenza B virus. By amplifying a region of the hemagglutinin gene using real-time PCR with SYBR Green I dye, B/Vic and B/Yam could be differentiated based on their melting temperature peaks. This method was efficient (B/Vic = 93.2 %; B/Yam 97.7 %), sensitive (B/Vic, 94.6 %; B/Yam, 96.3 %), and specific (B/Vic, 97.7 %; B/Yam, 97.1 %). The lower detection limit was 10(2) copies per microliter. The assay was evaluated using 756 respiratory specimens that were positive for influenza B virus, obtained between 2010 and 2015. The incidence of influenza B virus was approximately 18.9 % of all influenza cases, and the percentage was highest among children aged 6-17 years (7.57 %). The overall percentage of mismatched influenza B vaccine was 21.1 %. Our findings suggest that real-time PCR with melting curve analysis can provide a rapid, simple, and sensitive lineage-specific influenza B virus screening method to facilitate influenza surveillance. PMID:26923928

  6. Lineage-specific function of the noncoding Tsix RNA for Xist repression and Xi reactivation in mice

    PubMed Central

    Ohhata, Tatsuya; Senner, Claire E.; Hemberger, Myriam; Wutz, Anton

    2011-01-01

    The noncoding Tsix RNA is an antisense repressor of Xist and regulates X inactivation in mice. Tsix is essential for preventing the inactivation of the maternally inherited X chromosome in extraembryonic lineages where imprinted X-chromosome inactivation (XCI) occurs. Here we establish an inducible Tsix expression system for investigating Tsix function in development. We show that Tsix has a clear functional window in extraembryonic development. Within this window, Tsix can repress Xist, which is accompanied by DNA methylation of the Xist promoter. As a consequence of Xist repression, reactivation of the inactive X chromosome (Xi) is widely observed. In the parietal endoderm, Tsix represses Xist and causes reactivation of an Xi-linked GFP transgene throughout development, whereas Tsix progressively loses its Xist-repressing function from embryonic day 9.5 (E9.5) onward in trophoblast giant cells and spongiotrophoblast, suggesting that Tsix function depends on a lineage-specific environment. Our data also demonstrate that the maintenance of imprinted XCI requires Xist expression in specific extraembryonic tissues throughout development. This finding shows that reversible XCI is not exclusive to pluripotent cells, and that in some lineages cell differentiation is not accompanied by a stabilization of the Xi. PMID:21852535

  7. Specific Preferences in Lineage Choice and Phenotypic Plasticity of Glioma Stem Cells Under BMP4 and Noggin Influence.

    PubMed

    Videla Richardson, Guillermo Agustín; Garcia, Carolina Paola; Roisman, Alejandro; Slavutsky, Irma; Fernandez Espinosa, Damián Darío; Romorini, Leonardo; Miriuka, Santiago Gabriel; Arakaki, Naomi; Martinetto, Horacio; Scassa, María Elida; Sevlever, Gustavo Emilio

    2016-01-01

    Although BMP4-induced differentiation of glioma stem cells (GSCs) is well recognized, details of the cellular responses triggered by this morphogen are still poorly defined. In this study, we established several GSC-enriched cell lines (GSC-ECLs) from high-grade gliomas. The expansion of these cells as adherent monolayers, and not as floating neurospheres, enabled a thorough study of the phenotypic changes that occurred during their differentiation. Herein, we evaluated GSC-ECLs' behavior toward differentiating conditions by depriving them of growth factors and/or by adding BMP4 at different concentrations. After analyzing cellular morphology, proliferation and lineage marker expression, we determined that GSC-ECLs have distinct preferences in lineage choice, where some of them showed an astrocyte fate commitment and others a neuronal one. We found that this election seems to be dictated by the expression pattern of BMP signaling components present in each GSC-ECL. Additionally, treatment of GSC-ECLs with the BMP antagonist, Noggin, also led to evident phenotypic changes. Interestingly, under certain conditions, some GSC-ECLs adopted an unexpected smooth muscle-like phenotype. As a whole, our findings illustrate the wide differentiation potential of GSCs, highlighting their molecular complexity and paving a way to facilitate personalized differentiating therapies. PMID:25808628

  8. The ubiquitous transcription factor CTCF promotes lineage-specific epigenomic remodeling and establishment of transcriptional networks driving cell differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Dubois-Chevalier, Julie; Staels, Bart; Lefebvre, Philippe; Eeckhoute, Jérôme

    2015-01-01

    Cell differentiation relies on tissue-specific transcription factors (TFs) that cooperate to establish unique transcriptomes and phenotypes. However, the role of ubiquitous TFs in these processes remains poorly defined. Recently, we have shown that the CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF) is required for adipocyte differentiation through epigenomic remodelling of adipose tissue-specific enhancers and transcriptional activation of Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARG), the main driver of the adipogenic program (PPARG), and its target genes. Here, we discuss how these findings, together with the recent literature, illuminate a functional role for ubiquitous TFs in lineage-determining transcriptional networks. PMID:25565413

  9. Mapping the journey from totipotency to lineage specification in the mouse embryo.

    PubMed

    Leung, Chuen Yan; Zernicka-Goetz, Magdalena

    2015-10-01

    Understanding the past is to understand the present. Mammalian life, with all its complexity comes from a humble beginning of a single fertilized egg cell. Achieving this requires an enormous diversification of cellular function, the majority of which is generated through a series of cellular decisions during embryogenesis. The first decisions are made as the embryo prepares for implantation, a process that will require specialization of extra-embryonic lineages while preserving an embryonic one. In this mini-review, we will focus on the mouse as a mammalian model and discuss recent advances in the decision making process of the early embryo. PMID:26343010

  10. Lineage-specific function of Engrailed-2 in the progression of chronic myelogenous leukemia to T-cell blast crisis

    PubMed Central

    Abollo-Jiménez, Fernando; Campos-Sánchez, Elena; Toboso-Navasa, Amparo; Vicente-Dueñas, Carolina; González-Herrero, Inés; Alonso-Escudero, Esther; González, Marcos; Segura, Víctor; Blanco, Óscar; Martínez-Climent, José Ángel; Sánchez-García, Isidro; Cobaleda, César

    2014-01-01

    In hematopoietic malignancies, oncogenic alterations interfere with cellular differentiation and lead to tumoral development. Identification of the proteins regulating differentiation is essential to understand how they are altered in malignancies. Chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) is a biphasic disease initiated by an alteration taking place in hematopoietic stem cells. CML progresses to a blast crisis (BC) due to a secondary differentiation block in any of the hematopoietic lineages. However, the molecular mechanisms of CML evolution to T-cell BC remain unclear. Here, we have profiled the changes in DNA methylation patterns in human samples from BC-CML, in order to identify genes whose expression is epigenetically silenced during progression to T-cell lineage-specific BC. We have found that the CpG-island of the ENGRAILED-2 (EN2) gene becomes methylated in this progression. Afterwards, we demonstrate that En2 is expressed during T-cell development in mice and humans. Finally, we further show that genetic deletion of En2 in a CML transgenic mouse model induces a T-cell lineage BC that recapitulates human disease. These results identify En2 as a new regulator of T-cell differentiation whose disruption induces a malignant T-cell fate in CML progression, and validate the strategy used to identify new developmental regulators of hematopoiesis. PMID:24675889

  11. Lineage-Specific Methyltransferases Define the Methylome of the Globally Disseminated Escherichia coli ST131 Clone

    PubMed Central

    Forde, Brian M.; Phan, Minh-Duy; Gawthorne, Jayde A.; Ashcroft, Melinda M.; Stanton-Cook, Mitchell; Sarkar, Sohinee; Peters, Kate M.; Chan, Kok-Gan; Chong, Teik Min; Yin, Wai-Fong; Upton, Mathew

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Escherichia coli sequence type 131 (ST131) is a clone of uropathogenic E. coli that has emerged rapidly and disseminated globally in both clinical and community settings. Members of the ST131 lineage from across the globe have been comprehensively characterized in terms of antibiotic resistance, virulence potential, and pathogenicity, but to date nothing is known about the methylome of these important human pathogens. Here we used single-molecule real-time (SMRT) PacBio sequencing to determine the methylome of E. coli EC958, the most-well-characterized completely sequenced ST131 strain. Our analysis of 52,081 methylated adenines in the genome of EC958 discovered three m6A methylation motifs that have not been described previously. Subsequent SMRT sequencing of isogenic knockout mutants identified the two type I methyltransferases (MTases) and one type IIG MTase responsible for m6A methylation of novel recognition sites. Although both type I sites were rare, the type IIG sites accounted for more than 12% of all methylated adenines in EC958. Analysis of the distribution of MTase genes across 95 ST131 genomes revealed their prevalence is highly conserved within the ST131 lineage, with most variation due to the presence or absence of mobile genetic elements on which individual MTase genes are located. PMID:26578678

  12. Directing lineage specification of human mesenchymal stem cells by decoupling electrical stimulation and physical patterning on unmodified graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balikov, Daniel A.; Fang, Brian; Chun, Young Wook; Crowder, Spencer W.; Prasai, Dhiraj; Lee, Jung Bok; Bolotin, Kiril I.; Sung, Hak-Joon

    2016-07-01

    The organization and composition of the extracellular matrix (ECM) have been shown to impact the propagation of electrical signals in multiple tissue types. To date, many studies with electroactive biomaterial substrates have relied upon passive electrical stimulation of the ionic media to affect cell behavior. However, development of cell culture systems in which stimulation can be directly applied to the material - thereby isolating the signal to the cell-material interface and cell-cell contracts - would provide a more physiologically-relevant paradigm for investigating how electrical cues modulate lineage-specific stem cell differentiation. In the present study, we have employed unmodified, directly-stimulated, (un)patterned graphene as a cell culture substrate to investigate how extrinsic electrical cycling influences the differentiation of naïve human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) without the bias of exogenous biochemicals. We first demonstrated that cyclic stimulation does not deteriorate the cell culture media or result in cytotoxic pH, which are critical experiments for correct interpretation of changes in cell behavior. We then measured how the expression of osteogenic and neurogenic lineage-specific markers were altered simply by exposure to electrical stimulation and/or physical patterns. Expression of the early osteogenic transcription factor RUNX2 was increased by electrical stimulation on all graphene substrates, but the mature marker osteopontin was only modulated when stimulation was combined with physical patterns. In contrast, the expression of the neurogenic markers MAP2 and β3-tubulin were enhanced in all electrical stimulation conditions, and were less responsive to the presence of patterns. These data indicate that specific combinations of non-biological inputs - material type, electrical stimulation, physical patterns - can regulate hMSC lineage specification. This study represents a substantial step in understanding how the interplay of

  13. Directing lineage specification of human mesenchymal stem cells by decoupling electrical stimulation and physical patterning on unmodified graphene.

    PubMed

    Balikov, Daniel A; Fang, Brian; Chun, Young Wook; Crowder, Spencer W; Prasai, Dhiraj; Lee, Jung Bok; Bolotin, Kiril I; Sung, Hak-Joon

    2016-07-14

    The organization and composition of the extracellular matrix (ECM) have been shown to impact the propagation of electrical signals in multiple tissue types. To date, many studies with electroactive biomaterial substrates have relied upon passive electrical stimulation of the ionic media to affect cell behavior. However, development of cell culture systems in which stimulation can be directly applied to the material - thereby isolating the signal to the cell-material interface and cell-cell contracts - would provide a more physiologically-relevant paradigm for investigating how electrical cues modulate lineage-specific stem cell differentiation. In the present study, we have employed unmodified, directly-stimulated, (un)patterned graphene as a cell culture substrate to investigate how extrinsic electrical cycling influences the differentiation of naïve human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) without the bias of exogenous biochemicals. We first demonstrated that cyclic stimulation does not deteriorate the cell culture media or result in cytotoxic pH, which are critical experiments for correct interpretation of changes in cell behavior. We then measured how the expression of osteogenic and neurogenic lineage-specific markers were altered simply by exposure to electrical stimulation and/or physical patterns. Expression of the early osteogenic transcription factor RUNX2 was increased by electrical stimulation on all graphene substrates, but the mature marker osteopontin was only modulated when stimulation was combined with physical patterns. In contrast, the expression of the neurogenic markers MAP2 and β3-tubulin were enhanced in all electrical stimulation conditions, and were less responsive to the presence of patterns. These data indicate that specific combinations of non-biological inputs - material type, electrical stimulation, physical patterns - can regulate hMSC lineage specification. This study represents a substantial step in understanding how the interplay of

  14. A comparison of reptilian and avian olfactory receptor gene repertoires: Species-specific expansion of group γ genes in birds

    PubMed Central

    Steiger, Silke S; Kuryshev, Vladimir Y; Stensmyr, Marcus C; Kempenaers, Bart; Mueller, Jakob C

    2009-01-01

    Background The detection of odorants is mediated by olfactory receptors (ORs). ORs are G-protein coupled receptors that form a remarkably large protein superfamily in vertebrate genomes. We used data that became available through recent sequencing efforts of reptilian and avian genomes to identify the complete OR gene repertoires in a lizard, the green anole (Anolis carolinensis), and in two birds, the chicken (Gallus gallus) and the zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata). Results We identified 156 green anole OR genes, including 42 pseudogenes. The OR gene repertoire of the two bird species was substantially larger with 479 and 553 OR gene homologs in the chicken and zebra finch, respectively (including 111 and 221 pseudogenes, respectively). We show that the green anole has a higher fraction of intact OR genes (~72%) compared with the chicken (~66%) and the zebra finch (~38%). We identified a larger number and a substantially higher proportion of intact OR gene homologs in the chicken genome than previously reported (214 versus 82 genes and 66% versus 15%, respectively). Phylogenetic analysis showed that lizard and bird OR gene repertoires consist of group α, θ and γ genes. Interestingly, the vast majority of the avian OR genes are confined to a large expansion of a single branch (the so called γ-c clade). An analysis of the selective pressure on the paralogous genes of each γ-c clade revealed that they have been subjected to adaptive evolution. This expansion appears to be bird-specific and not sauropsid-specific, as it is lacking from the lizard genome. The γ-c expansions of the two birds do not intermix, i.e., they are lineage-specific. Almost all (group γ-c) OR genes mapped to the unknown chromosome. The remaining OR genes mapped to six homologous chromosomes plus three to four additional chromosomes in the zebra finch and chicken. Conclusion We identified a surprisingly large number of potentially functional avian OR genes. Our data supports recent

  15. Comparative cell-specific transcriptomics reveals differentiation of C4 photosynthesis pathways in switchgrass and other C4 lineages

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Xiaolan; Lu, Nan; Li, Guifen; Nakashima, Jin; Tang, Yuhong; Dixon, Richard A.

    2016-01-01

    Almost all C4 plants require the co-ordination of the adjacent and fully differentiated cell types, mesophyll (M) and bundle sheath (BS). The C4 photosynthetic pathway operates through two distinct subtypes based on how malate is decarboxylated in BS cells; through NAD-malic enzyme (NAD-ME) or NADP-malic enzyme (NADP-ME). The diverse or unique cell-specific molecular features of M and BS cells from separate C4 subtypes of independent lineages remain to be determined. We here provide an M/BS cell type-specific transcriptome data set from the monocot NAD-ME subtype switchgrass (Panicum virgatum). A comparative transcriptomics approach was then applied to compare the M/BS mRNA profiles of switchgrass, monocot NADP-ME subtype C4 plants maize and Setaria viridis, and dicot NAD-ME subtype Cleome gynandra. We evaluated the convergence in the transcript abundance of core components in C4 photosynthesis and transcription factors to establish Kranz anatomy, as well as gene distribution of biological functions, in these four independent C4 lineages. We also estimated the divergence between NAD-ME and NADP-ME subtypes of C4 photosynthesis in the two cell types within C4 species, including differences in genes encoding decarboxylating enzymes, aminotransferases, and metabolite transporters, and differences in the cell-specific functional enrichment of RNA regulation and protein biogenesis/homeostasis. We suggest that C4 plants of independent lineages in both monocots and dicots underwent convergent evolution to establish C4 photosynthesis, while distinct C4 subtypes also underwent divergent processes for the optimization of M and BS cell co-ordination. The comprehensive data sets in our study provide a basis for further research on evolution of C4 species. PMID:26896851

  16. Comparative cell-specific transcriptomics reveals differentiation of C4 photosynthesis pathways in switchgrass and other C4 lineages.

    PubMed

    Rao, Xiaolan; Lu, Nan; Li, Guifen; Nakashima, Jin; Tang, Yuhong; Dixon, Richard A

    2016-04-01

    Almost all C4 plants require the co-ordination of the adjacent and fully differentiated cell types, mesophyll (M) and bundle sheath (BS). The C4 photosynthetic pathway operates through two distinct subtypes based on how malate is decarboxylated in BS cells; through NAD-malic enzyme (NAD-ME) or NADP-malic enzyme (NADP-ME). The diverse or unique cell-specific molecular features of M and BS cells from separate C4 subtypes of independent lineages remain to be determined. We here provide an M/BS cell type-specific transcriptome data set from the monocot NAD-ME subtype switchgrass (Panicum virgatum). A comparative transcriptomics approach was then applied to compare the M/BS mRNA profiles of switchgrass, monocot NADP-ME subtype C4 plants maize and Setaria viridis, and dicot NAD-ME subtype Cleome gynandra. We evaluated the convergence in the transcript abundance of core components in C4 photosynthesis and transcription factors to establish Kranz anatomy, as well as gene distribution of biological functions, in these four independent C4 lineages. We also estimated the divergence between NAD-ME and NADP-ME subtypes of C4 photosynthesis in the two cell types within C4 species, including differences in genes encoding decarboxylating enzymes, aminotransferases, and metabolite transporters, and differences in the cell-specific functional enrichment of RNA regulation and protein biogenesis/homeostasis. We suggest that C4 plants of independent lineages in both monocots and dicots underwent convergent evolution to establish C4 photosynthesis, while distinct C4 subtypes also underwent divergent processes for the optimization of M and BS cell co-ordination. The comprehensive data sets in our study provide a basis for further research on evolution of C4 species. PMID:26896851

  17. Human Chromosomal Translocations at CpG Sites and a Theoretical Basis for their Lineage and Stage Specificity

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Albert G.; Lu, Haihui; Raghavan, Sathees C.; Muschen, Markus; Hsieh, Chih-Lin; Lieber, Michael R.

    2008-01-01

    SUMMARY We have assembled, annotated, and analyzed a database of over 1700 breakpoints from the most common chromosomal rearrangements in human leukemias and lymphomas. Using this database, we show that although the CpG dinucleotide constitutes only 1% of the human genome, it accounts for 40–70% of breakpoints at proB/pre-B stage translocation regions – specifically, those near the bcl-2, bcl-1, and E2A genes. We do not observe CpG hotspots in rearrangements involving lymphoid-myeloid progenitors, mature B cells, or T cells. The stage-specificity, lineage-specificity, CpG targeting, and unique breakpoint distributions at these cluster regions may be explained by a lesion-specific double-strand breakage mechanism involving the RAG complex acting at AID-deaminated methyl-CpGs. PMID:19070581

  18. Sequence of a Complete Chicken BG Haplotype Shows Dynamic Expansion and Contraction of Two Gene Lineages with Particular Expression Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Andrew C. Y.; Parker, Aimée; Huguet, Samuel; Marston, Denise A.; Rogers, Sally L.; Wu, Zhiguang; Smith, Adrian L.; Staines, Karen; Butter, Colin; Riegert, Patricia; Vainio, Olli; Nielsen, Line; Kaspers, Bernd; Griffin, Darren K.; Yang, Fengtang; Zoorob, Rima; Guillemot, Francois; Auffray, Charles; Beck, Stephan; Skjødt, Karsten; Kaufman, Jim

    2014-01-01

    Many genes important in immunity are found as multigene families. The butyrophilin genes are members of the B7 family, playing diverse roles in co-regulation and perhaps in antigen presentation. In humans, a fixed number of butyrophilin genes are found in and around the major histocompatibility complex (MHC), and show striking association with particular autoimmune diseases. In chickens, BG genes encode homologues with somewhat different domain organisation. Only a few BG genes have been characterised, one involved in actin-myosin interaction in the intestinal brush border, and another implicated in resistance to viral diseases. We characterise all BG genes in B12 chickens, finding a multigene family organised as tandem repeats in the BG region outside the MHC, a single gene in the MHC (the BF-BL region), and another single gene on a different chromosome. There is a precise cell and tissue expression for each gene, but overall there are two kinds, those expressed by haemopoietic cells and those expressed in tissues (presumably non-haemopoietic cells), correlating with two different kinds of promoters and 5′ untranslated regions (5′UTR). However, the multigene family in the BG region contains many hybrid genes, suggesting recombination and/or deletion as major evolutionary forces. We identify BG genes in the chicken whole genome shotgun sequence, as well as by comparison to other haplotypes by fibre fluorescence in situ hybridisation, confirming dynamic expansion and contraction within the BG region. Thus, the BG genes in chickens are undergoing much more rapid evolution compared to their homologues in mammals, for reasons yet to be understood. PMID:24901252

  19. Transient accumulation of 5-carboxylcytosine indicates involvement of active demethylation in lineage specification of neural stem cells.

    PubMed

    Wheldon, Lee M; Abakir, Abdulkadir; Ferjentsik, Zoltan; Dudnakova, Tatiana; Strohbuecker, Stephanie; Christie, Denise; Dai, Nan; Guan, Shengxi; Foster, Jeremy M; Corrêa, Ivan R; Loose, Matthew; Dixon, James E; Sottile, Virginie; Johnson, Andrew D; Ruzov, Alexey

    2014-06-12

    5-Methylcytosine (5mC) is an epigenetic modification involved in regulation of gene activity during differentiation. Tet dioxygenases oxidize 5mC to 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC), 5-formylcytosine (5fC), and 5-carboxylcytosine (5caC). Both 5fC and 5caC can be excised from DNA by thymine-DNA glycosylase (TDG) followed by regeneration of unmodified cytosine via the base excision repair pathway. Despite evidence that this mechanism is operative in embryonic stem cells, the role of TDG-dependent demethylation in differentiation and development is currently unclear. Here, we demonstrate that widespread oxidation of 5hmC to 5caC occurs in postimplantation mouse embryos. We show that 5fC and 5caC are transiently accumulated during lineage specification of neural stem cells (NSCs) in culture and in vivo. Moreover, 5caC is enriched at the cell-type-specific promoters during differentiation of NSCs, and TDG knockdown leads to increased 5fC/5caC levels in differentiating NSCs. Our data suggest that active demethylation contributes to epigenetic reprogramming determining lineage specification in embryonic brain. PMID:24882006

  20. HIV Skews the Lineage-Defining Transcriptional Profile of Mycobacterium tuberculosis-Specific CD4+ T Cells.

    PubMed

    Riou, Catherine; Strickland, Natalie; Soares, Andreia P; Corleis, Björn; Kwon, Douglas S; Wherry, E John; Wilkinson, Robert J; Burgers, Wendy A

    2016-04-01

    HIV-infected persons are at greater risk of developing tuberculosis (TB) even before profound CD4 loss occurs, suggesting that HIV alters CD4(+) T cell functions capable of containing bacterial replication. An effective immune response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis most likely relies on the development of a balanced CD4 response, in which distinct CD4(+) Th subsets act in synergy to control the infection. To define the diversity of M. tuberculosis-specific CD4(+) Th subsets and determine whether HIV infection impacts such responses, the expression of lineage-defining transcription factors T-bet, Gata3, RORγt, and Foxp3 was measured in M. tuberculosis-specific CD4(+) T cells in HIV-uninfected (n = 20) and HIV-infected individuals (n = 20) with latent TB infection. Our results show that, upon 5-d restimulation in vitro, M. tuberculosis-specific CD4(+) T cells from healthy individuals have the ability to exhibit a broad spectrum of Th subsets, defined by specific patterns of transcription factor coexpression. These transcription factor profiles were skewed in HIV-infected individuals where the proportion of T-bet(high)Foxp3(+) M. tuberculosis-specific CD4(+) T cells was significantly decreased (p = 0.002) compared with HIV-uninfected individuals, a change that correlated inversely with HIV viral load (p = 0.0007) and plasma TNF-α (p = 0.027). Our data demonstrate an important balance in Th subset diversity defined by lineage-defining transcription factor coexpression profiles that is disrupted by HIV infection and suggest a role for HIV in impairing TB immunity by altering the equilibrium of M. tuberculosis-specific CD4(+) Th subsets. PMID:26927799

  1. miRNA-embedded shRNAs for Lineage-specific BCL11A Knockdown and Hemoglobin F Induction

    PubMed Central

    Guda, Swaroopa; Brendel, Christian; Renella, Raffaele; Du, Peng; Bauer, Daniel E; Canver, Matthew C; Grenier, Jennifer K; Grimson, Andrew W; Kamran, Sophia C; Thornton, James; de Boer, Helen; Root, David E; Milsom, Michael D; Orkin, Stuart H; Gregory, Richard I; Williams, David A

    2015-01-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) technology using short hairpin RNAs (shRNAs) expressed via RNA polymerase (pol) III promoters has been widely exploited to modulate gene expression in a variety of mammalian cell types. For certain applications, such as lineage-specific knockdown, embedding targeting sequences into pol II-driven microRNA (miRNA) architecture is required. Here, using the potential therapeutic target BCL11A, we demonstrate that pol III-driven shRNAs lead to significantly increased knockdown but also increased cytotoxcity in comparison to pol II-driven miRNA adapted shRNAs (shRNAmiR) in multiple hematopoietic cell lines. We show that the two expression systems yield mature guide strand sequences that differ by a 4 bp shift. This results in alternate seed sequences and consequently influences the efficacy of target gene knockdown. Incorporating a corresponding 4 bp shift into the guide strand of shRNAmiRs resulted in improved knockdown efficiency of BCL11A. This was associated with a significant de-repression of the hemoglobin target of BCL11A, human γ-globin or the murine homolog Hbb-y. Our results suggest the requirement for optimization of shRNA sequences upon incorporation into a miRNA backbone. These findings have important implications in future design of shRNAmiRs for RNAi-based therapy in hemoglobinopathies and other diseases requiring lineage-specific expression of gene silencing sequences. PMID:26080908

  2. Reconstruction of cyclooxygenase evolution in animals suggests variable, lineage-specific duplications, and homologs with low sequence identity.

    PubMed

    Havird, Justin C; Kocot, Kevin M; Brannock, Pamela M; Cannon, Johanna T; Waits, Damien S; Weese, David A; Santos, Scott R; Halanych, Kenneth M

    2015-04-01

    Cyclooxygenase (COX) enzymatically converts arachidonic acid into prostaglandin G/H in animals and has importance during pregnancy, digestion, and other physiological functions in mammals. COX genes have mainly been described from vertebrates, where gene duplications are common, but few studies have examined COX in invertebrates. Given the increasing ease in generating genomic data, as well as recent, although incomplete descriptions of potential COX sequences in Mollusca, Crustacea, and Insecta, assessing COX evolution across Metazoa is now possible. Here, we recover 40 putative COX orthologs by searching publicly available genomic resources as well as ~250 novel invertebrate transcriptomic datasets. Results suggest the common ancestor of Cnidaria and Bilateria possessed a COX homolog similar to those of vertebrates, although such homologs were not found in poriferan and ctenophore genomes. COX was found in most crustaceans and the majority of molluscs examined, but only specific taxa/lineages within Cnidaria and Annelida. For example, all octocorallians appear to have COX, while no COX homologs were found in hexacorallian datasets. Most species examined had a single homolog, although species-specific COX duplications were found in members of Annelida, Mollusca, and Cnidaria. Additionally, COX genes were not found in Hemichordata, Echinodermata, or Platyhelminthes, and the few previously described COX genes in Insecta lacked appreciable sequence homology (although structural analyses suggest these may still be functional COX enzymes). This analysis provides a benchmark for identifying COX homologs in future genomic and transcriptomic datasets, and identifies lineages for future studies of COX. PMID:25758350

  3. Early preimplantation cells expressing Cdx2 exhibit plasticity of specification to TE and ICM lineages through positional changes.

    PubMed

    Toyooka, Yayoi; Oka, Sanae; Fujimori, Toshihiko

    2016-03-01

    The establishment of the trophectoderm (TE) and the inner cell mass (ICM) is the first cell lineage segregation to occur in mouse preimplantation development. These two cell lineages arise in a position-dependent manner at the blastocyst stage: the outer cells form TE, which will generate the future placenta, while the inner cells give rise to the ICM, from which the epiblast (EPI) and primitive endoderm (PrE) arise. Previous studies have shown that a portion of cells relocate from the outside position to the inside during this preimplantation stage, but few studies have investigated the correlation between cell relocation and the expression of key transcription factors critical for cell differentiation. To monitor cell movement and the status of the TE-specification pathway in living embryos, we established Cdx2-GFP reporter mice allowing us to visualize the expression of Caudal-type transcriptional factor (Cdx2), a key regulator of the initiation of TE differentiation. Observation of Cdx2-GFP preimplantation embryos by live cell imaging revealed that all cells localized in an initial outer position initiated the expression of Cdx2. Subsequently, cells that changed their position from an outer to an inner position downregulated Cdx2 expression and contributed to the ICM. Finally we showed that internalized cells likely contribute to both the EPI and PrE. Our datas indicate that cells expressing even high levels of Cdx2 can internalize, deactivate an activated TE-specification molecular pathway and integrate into the pluripotent cell population. PMID:26806703

  4. LATS-YAP/TAZ controls lineage specification by regulating TGFβ signaling and Hnf4α expression during liver development

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Da-Hye; Park, Jae Oh; Kim, Tae-Shin; Kim, Sang-Kyum; Kim, Tack-hoon; Kim, Min-chul; Park, Gun Soo; Kim, Jeong-Hwan; Kuninaka, Shinji; Olson, Eric N.; Saya, Hideyuki; Kim, Seon-Young; Lee, Ho; Lim, Dae-Sik

    2016-01-01

    The Hippo pathway regulates the self-renewal and differentiation of various adult stem cells, but its role in cell fate determination and differentiation during liver development remains unclear. Here we report that the Hippo pathway controls liver cell lineage specification and proliferation separately from Notch signalling, using mice and primary hepatoblasts with liver-specific knockout of Lats1 and Lats2 kinase, the direct upstream regulators of YAP and TAZ. During and after liver development, the activation of YAP/TAZ induced by loss of Lats1/2 forces hepatoblasts or hepatocytes to commit to the biliary epithelial cell (BEC) lineage. It increases BEC and fibroblast proliferation by up-regulating TGFβ signalling, but suppresses hepatoblast to hepatocyte differentiation by repressing Hnf4α expression. Notably, oncogenic YAP/TAZ activation in hepatocytes induces massive p53-dependent cell senescence/death. Together, our results reveal that YAP/TAZ activity levels govern liver cell differentiation and proliferation in a context-dependent manner. PMID:27358050

  5. LATS-YAP/TAZ controls lineage specification by regulating TGFβ signaling and Hnf4α expression during liver development.

    PubMed

    Lee, Da-Hye; Park, Jae Oh; Kim, Tae-Shin; Kim, Sang-Kyum; Kim, Tack-Hoon; Kim, Min-Chul; Park, Gun Soo; Kim, Jeong-Hwan; Kuninaka, Shinji; Olson, Eric N; Saya, Hideyuki; Kim, Seon-Young; Lee, Ho; Lim, Dae-Sik

    2016-01-01

    The Hippo pathway regulates the self-renewal and differentiation of various adult stem cells, but its role in cell fate determination and differentiation during liver development remains unclear. Here we report that the Hippo pathway controls liver cell lineage specification and proliferation separately from Notch signalling, using mice and primary hepatoblasts with liver-specific knockout of Lats1 and Lats2 kinase, the direct upstream regulators of YAP and TAZ. During and after liver development, the activation of YAP/TAZ induced by loss of Lats1/2 forces hepatoblasts or hepatocytes to commit to the biliary epithelial cell (BEC) lineage. It increases BEC and fibroblast proliferation by up-regulating TGFβ signalling, but suppresses hepatoblast to hepatocyte differentiation by repressing Hnf4α expression. Notably, oncogenic YAP/TAZ activation in hepatocytes induces massive p53-dependent cell senescence/death. Together, our results reveal that YAP/TAZ activity levels govern liver cell differentiation and proliferation in a context-dependent manner. PMID:27358050

  6. An autonomous CEBPA enhancer specific for myeloid-lineage priming and neutrophilic differentiation.

    PubMed

    Avellino, Roberto; Havermans, Marije; Erpelinck, Claudia; Sanders, Mathijs A; Hoogenboezem, Remco; van de Werken, Harmen J G; Rombouts, Elwin; van Lom, Kirsten; van Strien, Paulina M H; Gebhard, Claudia; Rehli, Michael; Pimanda, John; Beck, Dominik; Erkeland, Stefan; Kuiken, Thijs; de Looper, Hans; Gröschel, Stefan; Touw, Ivo; Bindels, Eric; Delwel, Ruud

    2016-06-16

    Neutrophilic differentiation is dependent on CCAAT enhancer-binding protein α (C/EBPα), a transcription factor expressed in multiple organs including the bone marrow. Using functional genomic technologies in combination with clustered regularly-interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated protein 9 genome editing and in vivo mouse modeling, we show that CEBPA is located in a 170-kb topological-associated domain that contains 14 potential enhancers. Of these, 1 enhancer located +42 kb from CEBPA is active and engages with the CEBPA promoter in myeloid cells only. Germ line deletion of the homologous enhancer in mice in vivo reduces Cebpa levels exclusively in hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and myeloid-primed progenitor cells leading to severe defects in the granulocytic lineage, without affecting any other Cebpa-expressing organ studied. The enhancer-deleted progenitor cells lose their myeloid transcription program and are blocked in differentiation. Deletion of the enhancer also causes loss of HSC maintenance. We conclude that a single +42-kb enhancer is essential for CEBPA expression in myeloid cells only. PMID:26966090

  7. Dynamic changes in replication timing and gene expression during lineage specification of human pluripotent stem cells.

    PubMed

    Rivera-Mulia, Juan Carlos; Buckley, Quinton; Sasaki, Takayo; Zimmerman, Jared; Didier, Ruth A; Nazor, Kristopher; Loring, Jeanne F; Lian, Zheng; Weissman, Sherman; Robins, Allan J; Schulz, Thomas C; Menendez, Laura; Kulik, Michael J; Dalton, Stephen; Gabr, Haitham; Kahveci, Tamer; Gilbert, David M

    2015-08-01

    Duplication of the genome in mammalian cells occurs in a defined temporal order referred to as its replication-timing (RT) program. RT changes dynamically during development, regulated in units of 400-800 kb referred to as replication domains (RDs). Changes in RT are generally coordinated with transcriptional competence and changes in subnuclear position. We generated genome-wide RT profiles for 26 distinct human cell types, including embryonic stem cell (hESC)-derived, primary cells and established cell lines representing intermediate stages of endoderm, mesoderm, ectoderm, and neural crest (NC) development. We identified clusters of RDs that replicate at unique times in each stage (RT signatures) and confirmed global consolidation of the genome into larger synchronously replicating segments during differentiation. Surprisingly, transcriptome data revealed that the well-accepted correlation between early replication and transcriptional activity was restricted to RT-constitutive genes, whereas two-thirds of the genes that switched RT during differentiation were strongly expressed when late replicating in one or more cell types. Closer inspection revealed that transcription of this class of genes was frequently restricted to the lineage in which the RT switch occurred, but was induced prior to a late-to-early RT switch and/or down-regulated after an early-to-late RT switch. Analysis of transcriptional regulatory networks showed that this class of genes contains strong regulators of genes that were only expressed when early replicating. These results provide intriguing new insight into the complex relationship between transcription and RT regulation during human development. PMID:26055160

  8. Concise Review: Primary Cilia: Control Centers for Stem Cell Lineage Specification and Potential Targets for Cell-Based Therapies.

    PubMed

    Bodle, Josephine C; Loboa, Elizabeth G

    2016-06-01

    Directing stem cell lineage commitment prevails as the holy grail of translational stem cell research, particularly to those interested in the application of mesenchymal stem cells and adipose-derived stem cells in tissue engineering. However, elucidating the mechanisms underlying their phenotypic specification persists as an active area of research. In recent studies, the primary cilium structure has been intimately associated with defining cell phenotype, maintaining stemness, as well as functioning in a chemo, electro, and mechanosensory capacity in progenitor and committed cell types. Many hypothesize that the primary cilium may indeed be another important player in defining and controlling cell phenotype, concomitant with lineage-dictated cytoskeletal dynamics. Many of the studies on the primary cilium have emerged from disparate areas of biological research, and crosstalk amongst these areas of research is just beginning. To date, there has not been a thorough review of how primary cilia fit into the current paradigm of stem cell differentiation and this review aims to summarize the current cilia work in this context. The goal of this review is to highlight the cilium's function and integrate this knowledge into the working knowledge of stem cell biologists and tissue engineers developing regenerative medicine technologies. Stem Cells 2016;34:1445-1454. PMID:26866419

  9. Flagellated Algae Protein Evolution Suggests the Prevalence of Lineage-Specific Rules Governing Evolutionary Rates of Eukaryotic Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Ting-Yan; Liao, Ben-Yang

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the general rules governing the rate of protein evolution is fundamental to evolutionary biology. However, attempts to address this issue in yeasts and mammals have revealed considerable differences in the relative importance of determinants for protein evolutionary rates. This phenomenon was previously explained by the fact that yeasts and mammals are different in many cellular and genomic properties. Flagellated algae species have several cellular and genomic characteristics that are intermediate between yeasts and mammals. Using partial correlation analyses on the evolution of 6,921 orthologous proteins from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and Volvox carteri, we examined factors influencing evolutionary rates of proteins in flagellated algae. Previous studies have shown that mRNA abundance and gene compactness are strong determinants for protein evolutionary rates in yeasts and mammals, respectively. We show that both factors also influence algae protein evolution with mRNA abundance having a larger impact than gene compactness on the rates of algae protein evolution. More importantly, among all the factors examined, coding sequence (CDS) length has the strongest (positive) correlation with protein evolutionary rates. This correlation between CDS length and the rates of protein evolution is not due to alignment-related issues or domain density. These results suggest no simple and universal rules governing protein evolutionary rates across different eukaryotic lineages. Instead, gene properties influence the rate of protein evolution in a lineage-specific manner. PMID:23563973

  10. Flagellated algae protein evolution suggests the prevalence of lineage-specific rules governing evolutionary rates of eukaryotic proteins.

    PubMed

    Chang, Ting-Yan; Liao, Ben-Yang

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the general rules governing the rate of protein evolution is fundamental to evolutionary biology. However, attempts to address this issue in yeasts and mammals have revealed considerable differences in the relative importance of determinants for protein evolutionary rates. This phenomenon was previously explained by the fact that yeasts and mammals are different in many cellular and genomic properties. Flagellated algae species have several cellular and genomic characteristics that are intermediate between yeasts and mammals. Using partial correlation analyses on the evolution of 6,921 orthologous proteins from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and Volvox carteri, we examined factors influencing evolutionary rates of proteins in flagellated algae. Previous studies have shown that mRNA abundance and gene compactness are strong determinants for protein evolutionary rates in yeasts and mammals, respectively. We show that both factors also influence algae protein evolution with mRNA abundance having a larger impact than gene compactness on the rates of algae protein evolution. More importantly, among all the factors examined, coding sequence (CDS) length has the strongest (positive) correlation with protein evolutionary rates. This correlation between CDS length and the rates of protein evolution is not due to alignment-related issues or domain density. These results suggest no simple and universal rules governing protein evolutionary rates across different eukaryotic lineages. Instead, gene properties influence the rate of protein evolution in a lineage-specific manner. PMID:23563973

  11. High-affinity FRβ-specific CAR T cells eradicate AML and normal myeloid lineage without HSC toxicity.

    PubMed

    Lynn, R C; Feng, Y; Schutsky, K; Poussin, M; Kalota, A; Dimitrov, D S; Powell, D J

    2016-06-01

    Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is an aggressive malignancy, and development of new treatments to prolong remissions is warranted. Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell therapies appear promising but on-target, off-tumor recognition of antigen in healthy tissues remains a concern. Here we isolated a high-affinity (HA) folate receptor beta (FRβ)-specific single-chain variable fragment (2.48 nm KD) for optimization of FRβ-redirected CAR T-cell therapy for AML. T cells stably expressing the HA-FRβ CAR exhibited greatly enhanced antitumor activity against FRβ(+) AML in vitro and in vivo compared with a low-affinity FRβ CAR (54.3 nm KD). Using the HA-FRβ immunoglobulin G, FRβ expression was detectable in myeloid-lineage hematopoietic cells; however, expression in CD34(+) hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) was nearly undetectable. Accordingly, HA-FRβ CAR T cells lysed mature CD14(+) monocytes, while HSC colony formation was unaffected. Because of the potential for elimination of mature myeloid lineage, mRNA CAR electroporation for transient CAR expression was evaluated. mRNA-electroporated HA-FRβ CAR T cells retained effective antitumor activity in vitro and in vivo. Together, our results highlight the importance of antibody affinity in target protein detection and CAR development and suggest that transient delivery of potent HA-FRβ CAR T cells is highly effective against AML and reduces the risk for long-term myeloid toxicity. PMID:26898190

  12. An analysis of the gene complement of a marsupial, Monodelphis domestica: Evolution of lineage-specific genes and giant chromosomes

    PubMed Central

    Goodstadt, Leo; Heger, Andreas; Webber, Caleb; Ponting, Chris P.

    2007-01-01

    The newly sequenced genome of Monodelphis domestica not only provides the out-group necessary to better understand our own eutherian lineage, but it enables insights into the innovative biology of metatherians. Here, we compare Monodelphis with Homo sequences from alignments of single nucleotides, genes, and whole chromosomes. Using PhyOP, we have established orthologs in Homo for 82% (15,250) of Monodelphis gene predictions. Those with single orthologs in each species exhibited a high median synonymous substitution rate (dS = 1.02), thereby explaining the relative paucity of aligned regions outside of coding sequences. Orthology assignments were used to construct a synteny map that illustrates the considerable fragmentation of Monodelphis and Homo karyotypes since their therian last common ancestor. Fifteen percent of Monodelphis genes are predicted, from their low divergence at synonymous sites, to have been duplicated in the metatherian lineage. The majority of Monodelphis-specific genes possess predicted roles in chemosensation, reproduction, adaptation to specific diets, and immunity. Using alignments of Monodelphis genes to sequences from either Homo or Trichosurus vulpecula (an Australian marsupial), we show that metatherian X chromosomes have elevated silent substitution rates and high G+C contents in comparison with both metatherian autosomes and eutherian chromosomes. Each of these elevations is also a feature of subtelomeric chromosomal regions. We attribute these observations to high rates of female-specific recombination near the chromosomal ends and within the X chromosome, which act to sustain or increase G+C levels by biased gene conversion. In particular, we propose that the higher G+C content of the Monodelphis X chromosome is a direct consequence of its small size relative to the giant autosomes. PMID:17495010

  13. Whole genome sequencing of a banana wild relative Musa itinerans provides insights into lineage-specific diversification of the Musa genus

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Wei; Yang, Yu-Lan; He, Wei-Ming; Rouard, Mathieu; Li, Wei-Ming; Xu, Meng; Roux, Nicolas; Ge, Xue-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Crop wild relatives are valuable resources for future genetic improvement. Here, we report the de novo genome assembly of Musa itinerans, a disease-resistant wild banana relative in subtropical China. The assembled genome size was 462.1 Mb, covering 75.2% of the genome (615.2Mb) and containing 32, 456 predicted protein-coding genes. Since the approximate divergence around 5.8 million years ago, the genomes of Musa itinerans and Musa acuminata have shown conserved collinearity. Gene family expansions and contractions enrichment analysis revealed that some pathways were associated with phenotypic or physiological innovations. These include a transition from wood to herbaceous in the ancestral Musaceae, intensification of cold and drought tolerances, and reduced diseases resistance genes for subtropical marginally distributed Musa species. Prevalent purifying selection and transposed duplications were found to facilitate the diversification of NBS-encoding gene families for two Musa species. The population genome history analysis of M. itinerans revealed that the fluctuated population sizes were caused by the Pleistocene climate oscillations, and that the formation of Qiongzhou Strait might facilitate the population downsizing on the isolated Hainan Island about 10.3 Kya. The qualified assembly of the M. itinerans genome provides deep insights into the lineage-specific diversification and also valuable resources for future banana breeding. PMID:27531320

  14. Whole genome sequencing of a banana wild relative Musa itinerans provides insights into lineage-specific diversification of the Musa genus.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wei; Yang, Yu-Lan; He, Wei-Ming; Rouard, Mathieu; Li, Wei-Ming; Xu, Meng; Roux, Nicolas; Ge, Xue-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Crop wild relatives are valuable resources for future genetic improvement. Here, we report the de novo genome assembly of Musa itinerans, a disease-resistant wild banana relative in subtropical China. The assembled genome size was 462.1 Mb, covering 75.2% of the genome (615.2Mb) and containing 32, 456 predicted protein-coding genes. Since the approximate divergence around 5.8 million years ago, the genomes of Musa itinerans and Musa acuminata have shown conserved collinearity. Gene family expansions and contractions enrichment analysis revealed that some pathways were associated with phenotypic or physiological innovations. These include a transition from wood to herbaceous in the ancestral Musaceae, intensification of cold and drought tolerances, and reduced diseases resistance genes for subtropical marginally distributed Musa species. Prevalent purifying selection and transposed duplications were found to facilitate the diversification of NBS-encoding gene families for two Musa species. The population genome history analysis of M. itinerans revealed that the fluctuated population sizes were caused by the Pleistocene climate oscillations, and that the formation of Qiongzhou Strait might facilitate the population downsizing on the isolated Hainan Island about 10.3 Kya. The qualified assembly of the M. itinerans genome provides deep insights into the lineage-specific diversification and also valuable resources for future banana breeding. PMID:27531320

  15. The evolution of lineage-specific clusters of single nucleotide substitutions in the human genome.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ke; Wang, Jianrong; Elango, Navin; Yi, Soojin V

    2013-10-01

    Genomic regions harboring large numbers of human-specific single nucleotide substitutions are of significant interest since they are potential genomic foci underlying the evolution of human-specific traits as well as human adaptive evolution. Previous studies aimed to identify such regions either used pre-defined genomic locations such as coding sequences and conserved genomic elements or employed sliding window methods. Such approaches may miss clusters of substitutions occurring in regions other than those pre-defined locations, or not be able to distinguish human-specific clusters of substitutions from regions of generally high substitution rates. Here, we conduct a 'maximal segment' analysis to scan the whole human genome to identify clusters of human-specific substitutions that occurred since the divergence of the human and the chimpanzee genomes. This method can identify species-specific clusters of substitutions while not relying on pre-defined regions. We thus identify thousands of clusters of human-specific single nucleotide substitutions. The evolution of such clusters is driven by a combination of several different evolutionary processes including increased regional mutation rate, recombination-associated processes, and positive selection. These newly identified regions of human-specific substitution clusters include large numbers of previously identified human accelerated regions, and exhibit significant enrichments of genes involved in several developmental processes. Our study provides a useful tool to study the evolution of the human genome. PMID:23770436

  16. Prey choice by carabid beetles feeding on an earthworm community analysed using species- and lineage-specific PCR primers.

    PubMed

    King, R Andrew; Vaughan, Ian P; Bell, James R; Bohan, David A; Symondson, William O C

    2010-04-01

    The carabid beetle Pterostichus melanarius is a major natural enemy of pests, such as aphids and slugs in agricultural systems. Earthworms are a dominant non-pest component of the diet of P. melanarius which help sustain the beetles during periods when the pest population is low or absent. In this study we wanted to test whether this predator exercises prey choice among different earthworm species or ecological groups. High levels of genetic diversity within morphological species of earthworm necessitated the development of primers that were specific not just to species but lineages and sub-lineages within species as well. Gut samples from beetles were analysed using multiplex-PCR and fluorescent-labelled primers. Calibratory feeding trials were undertaken to calculate median detection times for prey DNA following ingestion. Extensive testing demonstrated that the primers were species-specific, that detection periods were negatively related to amplicon size and that meal size had a highly significant effect on detection periods. Monte Carlo simulations showed that, in general, worms were being predated in proportion to their densities in the field with little evidence of prey choice, other than probable avoidance of the larger, deep-living species. There was no evidence that epigeic species were being taken preferentially in comparison with endogeic species. There was also no evidence that defensive secretions by Allolobophora chlorotica reduced predation pressure on this species by P. melanarius. We concluded that any management system that increases earthworm densities generally, regardless of component species, is likely to be optimal for increasing numbers of this beneficial beetle predator. PMID:20345680

  17. Lineage and stage specific requirement for Dicer1 in sympathetic ganglia and adrenal medulla formation and maintenance.

    PubMed

    Stubbusch, Jutta; Narasimhan, Priyanka; Hennchen, Melanie; Huber, Katrin; Unsicker, Klaus; Ernsberger, Uwe; Rohrer, Hermann

    2015-04-15

    The development of sympathetic neurons and chromaffin cells is differentially controlled at distinct stages by various extrinsic and intrinsic signals. Here we use conditional deletion of Dicer1 in neural crest cells and noradrenergic neuroblasts to identify stage specific functions in sympathoadrenal lineages. Conditional Dicer1 knockout in neural crest cells of Dicer1(Wnt1Cre) mice results in a rapid reduction in the size of developing sympathetic ganglia and adrenal medulla. In contrast, Dicer1 elimination in noradrenergic neuroblasts of Dicer1(DbhiCre) animals affects sympathetic neuron survival starting at late embryonic stages and chromaffin cells persist at least until postnatal week 1. A differential function of Dicer1 signaling for the development of embryonic noradrenergic and cholinergic sympathetic neurons is demonstrated by the selective increase in the expression of Tlx3 and the cholinergic marker genes VAChT and ChAT at E16.5. The number of Dbh, Th and TrkA expressing noradrenergic neurons is strongly decreased in Dicer1-deficient sympathetic ganglia at birth, whereas Tlx3(+)/ Ret(+) cholinergic neurons cells are spared from cell death. The postnatal death of chromaffin cells is preceded by the loss of Ascl1, mir-375 and Pnmt and an increase in the markers Ret and NF-M, which suggests that Dicer1 is required for the maintenance of chromaffin cell differentiation and survival. Taken together, these findings demonstrate distinct stage and lineage specific functions of Dicer1 signaling in differentiation and survival of sympathetic neurons and adrenal chromaffin cells. PMID:25661788

  18. The murine Otp homeobox gene plays an essential role in the specification of neuronal cell lineages in the developing hypothalamus.

    PubMed

    Wang, W; Lufkin, T

    2000-11-15

    Hypothalamic nuclei, including the anterior periventricular (aPV), paraventricular (PVN), and supraoptic (SON) nuclei strongly express the homeobox gene Orthopedia (Otp) during embryogenesis. Targeted inactivation of Otp in the mouse results in the loss of these nuclei in the homozygous null neonates. The Otp null hypothalamus fails to secrete neuropeptides somatostatin, arginine vasopressin, oxytocin, corticotropin-releasing hormone, and thyrotropin-releasing hormone in an appropriate spatial and temporal fashion, and leads to the death of Otp null pups shortly after birth. Failure to produce these neuropeptide hormones is evident prior to E15.5, indicating a failure in terminal differentiation of the aPV/PVN/SON neurons. Absence of elevated apoptotic activity, but reduced cell proliferation together with the ectopic activation of Six3 expression in the presumptive PVN, indicates a critical role for Otp in terminal differentiation and maturation of these neuroendocrine cell lineages. Otp employs distinct regulatory mechanisms to modulate the expression of specific molecular markers in the developing hypothalamus. At early embryonic stages, expression of Sim2 is immediately downregulated as a result of the absence of Otp, indicating a potential role for Otp as an upstream regulator of Sim2. In contrast, the regulation of Brn4 which is also expressed in the SON and PVN is independent of Otp function. Hence no strong evidence links Otp and Brn4 in the same regulatory pathway. The involvement of Otp and Sim1 in specifying specific hypothalamic neurosecretory cell lineages is shown to operate via distinct signaling pathways that partially overlap with Brn2. PMID:11071765

  19. Single cell lineage tracing reveals that oriented cell division contributes to trabecular morphogenesis and regional specification

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jingjing; Miao, Lianjie; Shieh, David; Spiotto, Ernest; Li, Jian; Zhou, Bin; Paul, Antoni; Schwartz, Robert J.; Firulli, Anthony B.; Singer, Harold A.; Huang, Guoying; Wu, Mingfu

    2016-01-01

    Summary The cardiac trabeculae are sheet-like structures extending from the myocardium that function to increase surface area. A lack of trabeculation causes embryonic lethality due to compromised cardiac function. To understand the cellular and molecular mechanisms of trabecular formation, we genetically labeled individual cardiomyocytes prior to trabeculation via the brainbow multicolor system, and traced and analyzed the labeled cells during trabeculation by whole-embryo clearing and imaging. The clones derived from labeled single cells displayed four different geometric patterns that are derived from different patterns of oriented cell division (OCD) and migration. Of the four types of clones, the inner, transmural, and mixed clones contributed to trabecular cardiomyocytes. Further studies showed that perpendicular OCD is an extrinsic asymmetric cell division that putatively contributes to trabecular regional specification. Furthermore, N-Cadherin deletion in labeled clones disrupted the clonal patterns. In summary, our data demonstrate that OCD contributes to trabecular morphogenesis and specification. PMID:27052172

  20. Direct lineage reprogramming reveals disease-specific phonotypes of motor neurons from human ALS patients

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Meng-Lu; Zang, Tong; Zhang, Chun-Li

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Subtype-specific neurons obtained from adult humans will be critical to modeling neurodegenerative diseases, such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Here we show that adult human skin fibroblasts can be directly and efficiently converted into highly pure motor neurons without passing through an induced pluripotent stem cell stage. These adult human induced motor neurons (hiMNs) exhibit the cytological and electrophysiological features of spinal motor neurons and form functional neuromuscular junctions (NMJs) with skeletal muscles. Importantly, hiMNs converted from ALS-patient fibroblasts show disease-specific degeneration manifested through poor survival, soma shrinkage, hypoactivity, and an inability to form NMJs. A chemical screen revealed that the degenerative features of ALS-hiMNs can be remarkably rescued by the small molecule kenpaullone. Taken together, our results define a direct and efficient strategy to obtain disease-relevant neuronal subtypes from adult human patients and reveal their promising value in disease modeling and drug identification. PMID:26725112

  1. High affinity FRβ-specific CAR T cells eradicate AML and normal yeloid lineage without HSC toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Lynn, Rachel C; Feng, Yang; Schutsky, Keith; Poussin, Mathilde; Kalota, Anna; Dimitrov, Dimiter S; Powell, Daniel J

    2016-01-01

    Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is an aggressive malignancy, and development of new treatments to prolong remissions is warranted. Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell therapies appear promising but on-target, off-tumor recognition of antigen in healthy tissues remains a concern. Here, we isolated a high affinity (HA) folate receptor beta (FRβ)-specific scFv (2.48nM KD) for optimization of FRβ-redirected CAR T-cell therapy for AML. T-cells stably expressing the HA-FRβ CAR exhibited greatly enhanced antitumor activity against FRβ+ AML in vitro and in vivo compared to a low affinity (LA) FRβ CAR (54.3nM KD). Using the HA-FRβ IgG, FRβ expression was detectable in myeloid-lineage hematopoietic cells; however, expression in CD34+ hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) was nearly undetectable. Accordingly, HA-FRβ CAR T-cells lysed mature CD14+ monocytes, while HSC colony formation was unaffected. Because of the potential for elimination of mature myeloid lineage, mRNA CAR electroporation for transient CAR expression was evaluated. mRNA-electroporated HA-FRβ CAR T-cells retained effective anti-tumor activity in vitro and in vivo. Together, our results highlight the importance of antibody affinity in target protein detection and CAR development and suggest that transient delivery of potent HA-FRβ CAR T-cells is highly effective against AML and reduces the risk for long-term myeloid toxicity. PMID:26898190

  2. Lineage and species-specific long noncoding RNAs during erythro-megakaryocytic development.

    PubMed

    Paralkar, Vikram R; Mishra, Tejaswini; Luan, Jing; Yao, Yu; Kossenkov, Andrew V; Anderson, Stacie M; Dunagin, Margaret; Pimkin, Maxim; Gore, Meghneel; Sun, Diana; Konuthula, Neeraja; Raj, Arjun; An, Xiuli; Mohandas, Narla; Bodine, David M; Hardison, Ross C; Weiss, Mitchell J

    2014-03-20

    Mammals express thousands of long noncoding (lnc) RNAs, a few of which are known to function in tissue development. However, the entire repertoire of lncRNAs in most tissues and species is not defined. Indeed, most lncRNAs are not conserved, raising questions about function. We used RNA sequencing to identify 1109 polyadenylated lncRNAs expressed in erythroblasts, megakaryocytes, and megakaryocyte-erythroid precursors of mice, and 594 in erythroblasts of humans. More than half of these lncRNAs were unannotated, emphasizing the opportunity for new discovery through studies of specialized cell types. Analysis of the mouse erythro-megakaryocytic polyadenylated lncRNA transcriptome indicates that ~75% arise from promoters and 25% from enhancers, many of which are regulated by key transcription factors including GATA1 and TAL1. Erythroid lncRNA expression is largely conserved among 8 different mouse strains, yet only 15% of mouse lncRNAs are expressed in humans and vice versa, reflecting dramatic species-specificity. RNA interference assays of 21 abundant erythroid-specific murine lncRNAs in primary mouse erythroid precursors identified 7 whose knockdown inhibited terminal erythroid maturation. At least 6 of these 7 functional lncRNAs have no detectable expression in human erythroblasts, suggesting that lack of conservation between mammalian species does not predict lack of function. PMID:24497530

  3. Lineage-specific interface proteins match up the cell cycle and differentiation in embryo stem cells.

    PubMed

    Re, Angela; Workman, Christopher T; Waldron, Levi; Quattrone, Alessandro; Brunak, Søren

    2014-09-01

    The shortage of molecular information on cell cycle changes along embryonic stem cell (ESC) differentiation prompts an in silico approach, which may provide a novel way to identify candidate genes or mechanisms acting in coordinating the two programs. We analyzed germ layer specific gene expression changes during the cell cycle and ESC differentiation by combining four human cell cycle transcriptome profiles with thirteen in vitro human ESC differentiation studies. To detect cross-talk mechanisms we then integrated the transcriptome data that displayed differential regulation with protein interaction data. A new class of non-transcriptionally regulated genes was identified, encoding proteins which interact systematically with proteins corresponding to genes regulated during the cell cycle or cell differentiation, and which therefore can be seen as interface proteins coordinating the two programs. Functional analysis gathered insights in fate-specific candidates of interface functionalities. The non-transcriptionally regulated interface proteins were found to be highly regulated by post-translational ubiquitylation modification, which may synchronize the transition between cell proliferation and differentiation in ESCs. PMID:25173649

  4. Specific erythroid-lineage defect in mice conditionally deficient for Mediator subunit Med1.

    PubMed

    Stumpf, Melanie; Yue, Xiaojing; Schmitz, Sandra; Luche, Hervé; Reddy, Janardan K; Borggrefe, Tilman

    2010-12-14

    The Mediator complex forms the bridge between transcriptional activators and the RNA polymerase II. Med1 (also known as PBP or TRAP220) is a key component of Mediator that interacts with nuclear hormone receptors and GATA transcription factors. Here, we show dynamic recruitment of GATA-1, TFIIB, Mediator, and RNA polymerase II to the β-globin locus in induced mouse erythroid leukemia cells and in an erythropoietin-inducible hematopoietic progenitor cell line. Using Med1 conditional knockout mice, we demonstrate a specific block in erythroid development but not in myeloid or lymphoid development, highlighted by the complete absence of β-globin gene expression. Thus, Mediator subunit Med1 plays a pivotal role in erythroid development and in β-globin gene activation. PMID:21098667

  5. Hematopoietic lineage cell specific protein 1 associates with and down-regulates protein kinase CK2.

    PubMed

    Ruzzene, M; Brunati, A M; Sarno, S; Donella-Deana, A; Pinna, L A

    1999-11-12

    The catalytic (alpha) subunit of protein kinase CK2 and the hematopoietic specific protein 1 (HS1) display opposite effects on Ha-ras induced fibroblast transformation, by enhancing and counteracting it, respectively. Here we show the occurrence of physical association between HS1 and CK2alpha as judged from both far Western blot and plasmon resonance (BIAcore) analysis. Association of HS1 with CK2alpha is drastically reduced by the deletion of the HS1 C-terminal region (403-486) containing an SH3 domain. HS1, but not its deletion mutant HS1 Delta324-393, lacking a sequence similar to an acidic stretch of the regulatory beta-subunit of CK2, inhibits calmodulin phosphorylation by CK2alpha. These data indicate that HS1 physically interacts with CK2alpha and down-regulates its activity by a mechanism similar to the beta-subunit. PMID:10561491

  6. SUMOylation of DRIL1 Directs Its Transcriptional Activity Towards Leukocyte Lineage-Specific Genes

    PubMed Central

    van Lohuizen, Maarten; Peeper, Daniel S.

    2009-01-01

    DRIL1 is an ARID family transcription factor that can immortalize primary mouse fibroblasts, bypass RASV12-induced cellular senescence and collaborate with RASV12 or MYC in mediating oncogenic transformation. It also activates immunoglobulin heavy chain transcription and engages in heterodimer formation with E2F to stimulate E2F-dependent transcription. Little, however, is known about the regulation of DRIL1 activity. Recently, DRIL1 was found to interact with the SUMO-conjugating enzyme Ubc9, but the functional relevance of this association has not been assessed. Here, we show that DRIL1 is sumoylated both in vitro and in vivo at lysine 398. Moreover, we provide evidence that PIASy functions as a specific SUMO E3-ligase for DRIL1 and promotes its sumoylation both in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, consistent with the subnuclear localization of PIASy in the Matrix-Associated Region (MAR), SUMO-modified DRIL1 species are found exclusively in the MAR fraction. This post-translational modification interferes neither with the subcellular localization nor the DNA-binding activity of the protein. In contrast, DRIL1 sumoylation impairs its interaction with E2F1 in vitro and modifies its transcriptional activity in vivo, driving transcription of subset of genes regulating leukocyte fate. Taken together, these results identify sumoylation as a novel post-translational modification of DRIL1 that represents an important mechanism for targeting and modulating DRIL1 transcriptional activity. PMID:19436740

  7. Identification of focally amplified lineage-specific super-enhancers in human epithelial cancers.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaoyang; Choi, Peter S; Francis, Joshua M; Imielinski, Marcin; Watanabe, Hideo; Cherniack, Andrew D; Meyerson, Matthew

    2016-02-01

    Whole-genome analysis approaches are identifying recurrent cancer-associated somatic alterations in noncoding DNA regions. We combined somatic copy number analysis of 12 tumor types with tissue-specific epigenetic profiling to identify significant regions of focal amplification harboring super-enhancers. Copy number gains of noncoding regions harboring super-enhancers near KLF5, USP12, PARD6B and MYC are associated with overexpression of these cancer-related genes. We show that two distinct focal amplifications of super-enhancers 3' to MYC in lung adenocarcinoma (MYC-LASE) and endometrial carcinoma (MYC-ECSE) are physically associated with the MYC promoter and correlate with MYC overexpression. CRISPR/Cas9-mediated repression or deletion of a constituent enhancer within the MYC-LASE region led to significant reductions in the expression of MYC and its target genes and to the impairment of anchorage-independent and clonogenic growth, consistent with an oncogenic function. Our results suggest that genomic amplification of super-enhancers represents a common mechanism to activate cancer driver genes in multiple cancer types. PMID:26656844

  8. New Functional Signatures for Understanding Melanoma Biology from Tumor Cell Lineage-Specific Analysis.

    PubMed

    Rambow, Florian; Job, Bastien; Petit, Valérie; Gesbert, Franck; Delmas, Véronique; Seberg, Hannah; Meurice, Guillaume; Van Otterloo, Eric; Dessen, Philippe; Robert, Caroline; Gautheret, Daniel; Cornell, Robert A; Sarasin, Alain; Larue, Lionel

    2015-10-27

    Molecular signatures specific to particular tumor types are required to design treatments for resistant tumors. However, it remains unclear whether tumors and corresponding cell lines used for drug development share such signatures. We developed similarity core analysis (SCA), a universal and unsupervised computational framework for extracting core molecular features common to tumors and cell lines. We applied SCA to mRNA/miRNA expression data from various sources, comparing melanoma cell lines and metastases. The signature obtained was associated with phenotypic characteristics in vitro, and the core genes CAPN3 and TRIM63 were implicated in melanoma cell migration/invasion. About 90% of the melanoma signature genes belong to an intrinsic network of transcription factors governing neural development (TFAP2A, DLX2, ALX1, MITF, PAX3, SOX10, LEF1, and GAS7) and miRNAs (211-5p, 221-3p, and 10a-5p). The SCA signature effectively discriminated between two subpopulations of melanoma patients differing in overall survival, and classified MEKi/BRAFi-resistant and -sensitive melanoma cell lines. PMID:26489459

  9. Lineage-specific evolution of echinoderm mitochondrial ATP synthase subunit 8.

    PubMed

    De Giorgi, C; Martiradonna, A; Pesole, G; Saccone, C

    1997-06-01

    Peculiar evolutionary properties of the subunit 8 of mitochondrial ATP synthase (ATPase8) are revealed by comparative analyses carried out between both closely and distantly related species of echinoderms. The analysis of nucleotide substitution in the three echinoids demonstrated a relaxation of amino acid functional constraints. The deduced protein sequences display a well conserved domain at the N-terminus, while the central part is very variable. At the C-terminus, the broad distribution of positively charged amino acids, which is typical of other organisms, is not conserved in the two different echinoderm classes of the sea urchins and of the sea stars. Instead, a motif of three amino acids, so far not described elsewhere, is conserved in sea urchins and is found to be very similar to the motif present in the sea stars. Our results indicate that the N-terminal region seems to follow the same evolutionary pattern in different organisms, while the maintenance of the C-terminal part in a phylum-specific manner may reflect the co-evolution of mitochondrial and nuclear genes. PMID:9298708

  10. Functional microRNAs and target sites are created by lineage-specific transposition

    PubMed Central

    Spengler, Ryan M.; Oakley, Clayton K.; Davidson, Beverly L.

    2014-01-01

    Transposable elements (TEs) account for nearly one-half of the sequence content in the human genome, and de novo germline transposition into regulatory or coding sequences of protein-coding genes can cause heritable disorders. TEs are prevalent in and around protein-coding genes, providing an opportunity to impart regulation. Computational studies reveal that microRNA (miRNA) genes and miRNA target sites reside within TE sequences, but there is little experimental evidence supporting a role for TEs in the birth of miRNAs, or as platform for gene regulation by miRNAs. In this work, we validate miRNAs and target sites derived from TE families prevalent in the human genome, including the ancient long interspersed nuclear element 2 (LINE2/L2), mammalian-wide interspersed repeat (MIR) retrotransposons and the primate-specific Alu family. We show that genes with 3′ untranslated region (3′ UTR) MIR elements are enriched for let-7 targets and that these sites are conserved and responsive to let-7 expression. We also demonstrate that 3′ UTR-embedded Alus are a source of miR-24 and miR-122 target sites and that a subset of active genomic Alus provide for de novo target site creation. Finally, we report that although the creation of miRNA genes by Alu elements is relatively uncommon relative to their overall genomic abundance, Alu-derived miR-1285-1 is efficiently processed from its genomic locus and regulates genes with target sites contained within homologous elements. Taken together, our data provide additional evidence for TEs as a source for miRNAs and miRNA target sites, with instances of conservation through the course of mammalian evolution. PMID:24234653

  11. Increased sampling reveals novel lineages of Entamoeba: consequences of genetic diversity and host specificity for taxonomy and molecular detection.

    PubMed

    Stensvold, C Rune; Lebbad, Marianne; Victory, Emma L; Verweij, Jaco J; Tannich, Egbert; Alfellani, Mohammed; Legarraga, Paulette; Clark, C Graham

    2011-07-01

    To expand the representation for phylogenetic analysis, ten additional complete Entamoeba small-subunit rRNA gene sequences were obtained from humans, non-human primates, cattle and a tortoise. For some novel sequences no corresponding morphological data were available, and we suggest that these organisms should be referred to as ribosomal lineages (RL) rather than being assigned species names at present. To investigate genetic diversity and host specificity of selected Entamoeba species, a total of 91 new partial small subunit rRNA gene sequences were obtained, including 49 from Entamoeba coli, 18 from Entamoeba polecki, and 17 from Entamoeba hartmanni. We propose a new nomenclature for significant variants within established Entamoeba species. Based on current data we propose that the uninucleated-cyst-producing Entamoeba infecting humans is called Entamoeba polecki and divided into four subtypes (ST1-ST4) and that Entamoeba coli is divided into two subtypes (ST1-ST2). New hosts for several species were detected and, while host specificity and genetic diversity of several species remain to be clarified, it is clear that previous reliance on cultivated material has given us a misleading and incomplete picture of variation within the genus Entamoeba. PMID:21295520

  12. Deconstruction of DNA methylation patterns during myogenesis reveals specific epigenetic events in the establishment of the skeletal muscle lineage.

    PubMed

    Carrió, Elvira; Díez-Villanueva, Anna; Lois, Sergi; Mallona, Izaskun; Cases, Ildefonso; Forn, Marta; Peinado, Miguel A; Suelves, Mònica

    2015-06-01

    The progressive restriction of differentiation potential from pluripotent embryonic stem cells (ESCs) to tissue-specific stem cells involves widespread epigenetic reprogramming, including modulation of DNA methylation patterns. Skeletal muscle stem cells are required for the growth, maintenance, and regeneration of skeletal muscle. To investigate the contribution of DNA methylation to the establishment of the myogenic program, we analyzed ESCs, skeletal muscle stem cells in proliferating (myoblasts) and differentiating conditions (myotubes), and mature myofibers. About 1.000 differentially methylated regions were identified during muscle-lineage determination and terminal differentiation, mainly located in gene bodies and intergenic regions. As a whole, myogenic stem cells showed a gain of DNA methylation, while muscle differentiation was accompanied by loss of DNA methylation in CpG-poor regions. Notably, the hypomethylated regions in myogenic stem cells were neighbored by enhancer-type chromatin, suggesting the involvement of DNA methylation in the regulation of cell-type specific enhancers. Interestingly, we demonstrated the hypomethylation of the muscle cell-identity Myf5 super-enhancer only in muscle cells. Furthermore, we observed that upstream stimulatory factor 1 binding to Myf5 super-enhancer occurs upon DNA demethylation in myogenic stem cells. Taken altogether, we characterized the unique DNA methylation signature of skeletal muscle stem cells and highlighted the importance of DNA methylation-mediated regulation of cell identity Myf5 super-enhancer during cellular differentiation. PMID:25801824

  13. The Staphylococcus aureus lineage-specific markers collagen adhesin and toxic shock syndrome toxin 1 distinguish multilocus sequence typing clonal complexes within spa clonal complexes.

    PubMed

    Deurenberg, Ruud H; Rijnders, Michelle I A; Sebastian, Silvie; Welling, Maaike A; Beisser, Patrick S; Stobberingh, Ellen E

    2009-10-01

    Spa typing/based upon repeat pattern (BURP) sometimes cannot differentiate multilocus sequence typing (MLST) clonal complexes (CCs) within spa-CCs. It has been observed previously that virulence factors, such as collagen adhesin (CNA) and toxic shock syndrome toxin 1 (TSST-1), are associated with certain Staphylococcus aureus lineages. Analysis of methicillin-sensitive and methicillin-resistant S. aureus by spa typing/BURP and detection of CNA and TSST-1 observed an association between CNA and MLST CC1, 12, 22, 30, 45, 51, and 239 and between TSST-1 and MLST CC30. In spa-CC 012, associated with MLST CC7, CC15, and CC30, MLST CC30 could be distinguished from MLST CC7 and CC15 with CNA and TSST-1 as lineage-specific markers. Lineage-specific markers can overcome clustering of nonrelated MLST CCs into 1 spa-CC. PMID:19748421

  14. Species-Specific Chitin-Binding Module 18 Expansion in the Amphibian Pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis

    PubMed Central

    Abramyan, John; Stajich, Jason E.

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis is the causative agent of chytridiomycosis, which is considered one of the driving forces behind the worldwide decline in populations of amphibians. As a member of the phylum Chytridiomycota, B. dendrobatidis has diverged significantly to emerge as the only pathogen of adult vertebrates. Such shifts in lifestyle are generally accompanied by various degrees of genomic modifications, yet neither its mode of pathogenicity nor any factors associated with it have ever been identified. Presented here is the identification and characterization of a unique expansion of the carbohydrate-binding module family 18 (CBM18), specific to B. dendrobatidis. CBM (chitin-binding module) expansions have been likened to the evolution of pathogenicity in a variety of fungus species, making this expanded group a prime candidate for the identification of potential pathogenicity factors. Furthermore, the CBM18 expansions are confined to three categories of genes, each having been previously implicated in host-pathogen interactions. These correlations highlight this specific domain expansion as a potential key player in the mode of pathogenicity in this unique fungus. The expansion of CBM18 in B. dendrobatidis is exceptional in its size and diversity compared to other pathogenic species of fungi, making this genomic feature unique in an evolutionary context as well as in pathogenicity. PMID:22718849

  15. Integrative Genomic Analyses Identify BRF2 as a Novel Lineage-Specific Oncogene in Lung Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Lockwood, William W.; Chari, Raj; Coe, Bradley P.; Thu, Kelsie L.; Garnis, Cathie; Malloff, Chad A.; Campbell, Jennifer; Williams, Ariane C.; Hwang, Dorothy; Zhu, Chang-Qi; Buys, Timon P. H.; Yee, John; English, John C.; MacAulay, Calum; Tsao, Ming-Sound; Gazdar, Adi F.; Minna, John D.; Lam, Stephen; Lam, Wan L.

    2010-01-01

    Background Traditionally, non-small cell lung cancer is treated as a single disease entity in terms of systemic therapy. Emerging evidence suggests the major subtypes—adenocarcinoma (AC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SqCC)—respond differently to therapy. Identification of the molecular differences between these tumor types will have a significant impact in designing novel therapies that can improve the treatment outcome. Methods and Findings We used an integrative genomics approach, combing high-resolution comparative genomic hybridization and gene expression microarray profiles, to compare AC and SqCC tumors in order to uncover alterations at the DNA level, with corresponding gene transcription changes, which are selected for during development of lung cancer subtypes. Through the analysis of multiple independent cohorts of clinical tumor samples (>330), normal lung tissues and bronchial epithelial cells obtained by bronchial brushing in smokers without lung cancer, we identified the overexpression of BRF2, a gene on Chromosome 8p12, which is specific for development of SqCC of lung. Genetic activation of BRF2, which encodes a RNA polymerase III (Pol III) transcription initiation factor, was found to be associated with increased expression of small nuclear RNAs (snRNAs) that are involved in processes essential for cell growth, such as RNA splicing. Ectopic expression of BRF2 in human bronchial epithelial cells induced a transformed phenotype and demonstrates downstream oncogenic effects, whereas RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated knockdown suppressed growth and colony formation of SqCC cells overexpressing BRF2, but not AC cells. Frequent activation of BRF2 in >35% preinvasive bronchial carcinoma in situ, as well as in dysplastic lesions, provides evidence that BRF2 expression is an early event in cancer development of this cell lineage. Conclusions This is the first study, to our knowledge, to show that the focal amplification of a gene in Chromosome 8p12, plays

  16. West Nile virus lineage 2 isolated from Culex modestus mosquitoes in the Czech Republic, 2013: expansion of the European WNV endemic area to the North?

    PubMed

    Rudolf, I; Bakonyi, T; Sebesta, O; Mendel, J; Peško, J; Betášová, L; Blažejová, H; Venclíková, K; Straková, P; Nowotny, N; Hubálek, Z

    2014-01-01

    We report the detection and isolation of four almost identical strains of West Nile virus (WNV) lineage 2from Culex modestus mosquitoes collected at three fish ponds in South Moravia, Czech Republic, during August 2013. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that the Czech WNV strains isolated are closely related to Austrian, Italian and Serbian strains reported in 2008,2011 and 2012, respectively. Our findings show the current northernmost range of lineage 2 WNV in Europe. PMID:25138970

  17. Evolutionary Genomics Reveals Lineage-Specific Gene Loss and Rapid Evolution of a Sperm-Specific Ion Channel Complex: CatSpers and CatSperβ

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Xinjiang; Clapham, David E.

    2008-01-01

    The mammalian CatSper ion channel family consists of four sperm-specific voltage-gated Ca2+ channels that are crucial for sperm hyperactivation and male fertility. All four CatSper subunits are believed to assemble into a heteromultimeric channel complex, together with an auxiliary subunit, CatSperβ. Here, we report a comprehensive comparative genomics study and evolutionary analysis of CatSpers and CatSperβ, with important correlation to physiological significance of molecular evolution of the CatSper channel complex. The development of the CatSper channel complex with four CatSpers and CatSperβ originated as early as primitive metazoans such as the Cnidarian Nematostella vectensis. Comparative genomics revealed extensive lineage-specific gene loss of all four CatSpers and CatSperβ through metazoan evolution, especially in vertebrates. The CatSper channel complex underwent rapid evolution and functional divergence, while distinct evolutionary constraints appear to have acted on different domains and specific sites of the four CatSper genes. These results reveal unique evolutionary characteristics of sperm-specific Ca2+ channels and their adaptation to sperm biology through metazoan evolution. PMID:18974790

  18. Lineage-Specific Reductions of Plastid Genomes in an Orchid Tribe with Partially and Fully Mycoheterotrophic Species.

    PubMed

    Feng, Yan-Lei; Wicke, Susann; Li, Jian-Wu; Han, Yu; Lin, Choun-Sea; Li, De-Zhu; Zhou, Ting-Ting; Huang, Wei-Chang; Huang, Lu-Qi; Jin, Xiao-Hua

    2016-01-01

    The plastid genome (plastome) of heterotrophic plants like mycoheterotrophs and parasites shows massive gene losses in consequence to the relaxation of functional constraints on photosynthesis. To understand the patterns of this convergent plastome reduction syndrome in heterotrophic plants, we studied 12 closely related orchids of three different lifeforms from the tribe Neottieae (Orchidaceae). We employ a comparative genomics approach to examine structural and selectional changes in plastomes within Neottieae. Both leafy and leafless heterotrophic species have functionally reduced plastid genome. Our analyses show that genes for the NAD(P)H dehydrogenase complex, the photosystems, and the RNA polymerase have been lost functionally multiple times independently. The physical reduction proceeds in a highly lineage-specific manner, accompanied by structural reconfigurations such as inversions or modifications of the large inverted repeats. Despite significant but minor selectional changes, all retained genes continue to evolve under purifying selection. All leafless Neottia species, including both visibly green and nongreen members, are fully mycoheterotrophic, likely evolved from leafy and partially mycoheterotrophic species. The plastomes of Neottieae span many stages of plastome degradation, including the longest plastome of a mycoheterotroph, providing invaluable insights into the mechanisms of plastome evolution along the transition from autotrophy to full mycoheterotrophy. PMID:27412609

  19. Highly Synchronized Expression of Lineage-Specific Genes during In Vitro Hepatic Differentiation of Human Pluripotent Stem Cell Lines.

    PubMed

    Ghosheh, Nidal; Olsson, Björn; Edsbagge, Josefina; Küppers-Munther, Barbara; Van Giezen, Mariska; Asplund, Annika; Andersson, Tommy B; Björquist, Petter; Carén, Helena; Simonsson, Stina; Sartipy, Peter; Synnergren, Jane

    2016-01-01

    Human pluripotent stem cells- (hPSCs-) derived hepatocytes have the potential to replace many hepatic models in drug discovery and provide a cell source for regenerative medicine applications. However, the generation of fully functional hPSC-derived hepatocytes is still a challenge. Towards gaining better understanding of the differentiation and maturation process, we employed a standardized protocol to differentiate six hPSC lines into hepatocytes and investigated the synchronicity of the hPSC lines by applying RT-qPCR to assess the expression of lineage-specific genes (OCT4, NANOG, T, SOX17, CXCR4, CER1, HHEX, TBX3, PROX1, HNF6, AFP, HNF4a, KRT18, ALB, AAT, and CYP3A4) which serve as markers for different stages during liver development. The data was evaluated using correlation and clustering analysis, demonstrating that the expression of these markers is highly synchronized and correlated well across all cell lines. The analysis also revealed a distribution of the markers in groups reflecting the developmental stages of hepatocytes. Functional analysis of the differentiated cells further confirmed their hepatic phenotype. Taken together, these results demonstrate, on the molecular level, the highly synchronized differentiation pattern across multiple hPSC lines. Moreover, this study provides additional understanding for future efforts to improve the functionality of hPSC-derived hepatocytes and thereby increase the value of related models. PMID:26949401

  20. Highly Synchronized Expression of Lineage-Specific Genes during In Vitro Hepatic Differentiation of Human Pluripotent Stem Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Ghosheh, Nidal; Olsson, Björn; Edsbagge, Josefina; Küppers-Munther, Barbara; Van Giezen, Mariska; Asplund, Annika; Andersson, Tommy B.; Björquist, Petter; Carén, Helena; Simonsson, Stina; Sartipy, Peter; Synnergren, Jane

    2016-01-01

    Human pluripotent stem cells- (hPSCs-) derived hepatocytes have the potential to replace many hepatic models in drug discovery and provide a cell source for regenerative medicine applications. However, the generation of fully functional hPSC-derived hepatocytes is still a challenge. Towards gaining better understanding of the differentiation and maturation process, we employed a standardized protocol to differentiate six hPSC lines into hepatocytes and investigated the synchronicity of the hPSC lines by applying RT-qPCR to assess the expression of lineage-specific genes (OCT4, NANOG, T, SOX17, CXCR4, CER1, HHEX, TBX3, PROX1, HNF6, AFP, HNF4a, KRT18, ALB, AAT, and CYP3A4) which serve as markers for different stages during liver development. The data was evaluated using correlation and clustering analysis, demonstrating that the expression of these markers is highly synchronized and correlated well across all cell lines. The analysis also revealed a distribution of the markers in groups reflecting the developmental stages of hepatocytes. Functional analysis of the differentiated cells further confirmed their hepatic phenotype. Taken together, these results demonstrate, on the molecular level, the highly synchronized differentiation pattern across multiple hPSC lines. Moreover, this study provides additional understanding for future efforts to improve the functionality of hPSC-derived hepatocytes and thereby increase the value of related models. PMID:26949401

  1. Lineage-Specific Reductions of Plastid Genomes in an Orchid Tribe with Partially and Fully Mycoheterotrophic Species

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Yan-Lei; Wicke, Susann; Li, Jian-Wu; Han, Yu; Lin, Choun-Sea; Li, De-Zhu; Zhou, Ting-Ting; Huang, Wei-Chang; Huang, Lu-Qi; Jin, Xiao-Hua

    2016-01-01

    The plastid genome (plastome) of heterotrophic plants like mycoheterotrophs and parasites shows massive gene losses in consequence to the relaxation of functional constraints on photosynthesis. To understand the patterns of this convergent plastome reduction syndrome in heterotrophic plants, we studied 12 closely related orchids of three different lifeforms from the tribe Neottieae (Orchidaceae). We employ a comparative genomics approach to examine structural and selectional changes in plastomes within Neottieae. Both leafy and leafless heterotrophic species have functionally reduced plastid genome. Our analyses show that genes for the NAD(P)H dehydrogenase complex, the photosystems, and the RNA polymerase have been lost functionally multiple times independently. The physical reduction proceeds in a highly lineage-specific manner, accompanied by structural reconfigurations such as inversions or modifications of the large inverted repeats. Despite significant but minor selectional changes, all retained genes continue to evolve under purifying selection. All leafless Neottia species, including both visibly green and nongreen members, are fully mycoheterotrophic, likely evolved from leafy and partially mycoheterotrophic species. The plastomes of Neottieae span many stages of plastome degradation, including the longest plastome of a mycoheterotroph, providing invaluable insights into the mechanisms of plastome evolution along the transition from autotrophy to full mycoheterotrophy. PMID:27412609

  2. Gene Loss and Lineage-Specific Restriction-Modification Systems Associated with Niche Differentiation in the Campylobacter jejuni Sequence Type 403 Clonal Complex

    PubMed Central

    Morley, Laura; McNally, Alan; Paszkiewicz, Konrad; Corander, Jukka; Méric, Guillaume; Sheppard, Samuel K.; Blom, Jochen

    2015-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is a highly diverse species of bacteria commonly associated with infectious intestinal disease of humans and zoonotic carriage in poultry, cattle, pigs, and other animals. The species contains a large number of distinct clonal complexes that vary from host generalist lineages commonly found in poultry, livestock, and human disease cases to host-adapted specialized lineages primarily associated with livestock or poultry. Here, we present novel data on the ST403 clonal complex of C. jejuni, a lineage that has not been reported in avian hosts. Our data show that the lineage exhibits a distinctive pattern of intralineage recombination that is accompanied by the presence of lineage-specific restriction-modification systems. Furthermore, we show that the ST403 complex has undergone gene decay at a number of loci. Our data provide a putative link between the lack of association with avian hosts of C. jejuni ST403 and both gene gain and gene loss through nonsense mutations in coding sequences of genes, resulting in pseudogene formation. PMID:25795671

  3. AFLP markers resolve intra-specific relationships and infer genetic structure among lineages of the canyon treefrog, Hyla arenicolor.

    PubMed

    Klymus, Katy E; Carl Gerhardt, H

    2012-11-01

    The canyon treefrog, Hyla arenicolor, is a wide-ranging hylid found from southwestern US into southern Mexico. Recent studies have shown this species to have a complex evolutionary history, with several phylogeographically distinct lineages, a probable cryptic species, and multiple episodes of mitochondrial introgression with the sister group, the H. eximia complex. We aimed to use genome wide AFLP markers to better resolve relationships within this group. As in other studies, our inferred phylogeny not only provides evidence for repeated mitochondrial introgression between H. arenicolor lineages and H. eximia/H. wrightorum, but it also affords more resolution within the main H. arenicolor clade than was previously achieved with sequence data. However, as with a previous study, the placement of a lineage of H. arenicolor whose distribution is centered in the Balsas Basin of Mexico remains poorly resolved, perhaps due to past hybridization with the H. eximia complex. Furthermore, the AFLP data set shows no differentiation among lineages from the Grand Canyon and Colorado Plateau despite their large mitochondrial sequence divergence. Finally, our results infer a well-supported sister relationship between this combined Colorado Plateau/Grand Canyon lineage and the Sonoran Desert lineage, a relationship that strongly contradicts conclusions drawn from the mtDNA evidence. Our study provides a basis for further behavioral and ecological speciation studies of this system and highlights the importance of multi-taxon (species) sampling in phylogenetic and phylogeographic studies. PMID:22898531

  4. H3K27me3 Does Not Orchestrate the Expression of Lineage-Specific Markers in hESC-Derived Hepatocytes In Vitro.

    PubMed

    Vanhove, Jolien; Pistoni, Mariaelena; Welters, Marc; Eggermont, Kristel; Vanslembrouck, Veerle; Helsen, Nicky; Boon, Ruben; Najimi, Mustapha; Sokal, Etienne; Collas, Philippe; Voncken, J Willem; Verfaillie, Catherine M

    2016-08-01

    Although pluripotent stem cells can be differentiated into the hepatocyte lineages, such cells retain an immature phenotype. As the chromatin state of regulatory regions controls spatiotemporal gene expression during development, we evaluated changes in epigenetic histone marks in lineage-specific genes throughout in vitro hepatocyte differentiation from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs). Active acetylation and methylation marks at promoters and enhancers correlated with progressive changes in gene expression. However, repression-associated H3K27me3 marks at these control regions showed an inverse correlation with gene repression during transition from hepatic endoderm to a hepatocyte-like state. Inhibitor of Enhancer of Zeste Homolog 2 (EZH2) reduced H3K27me3 decoration but did not improve hepatocyte maturation. Thus, H3K27me3 at regulatory regions does not regulate transcription and appears dispensable for hepatocyte lineage differentiation of hESCs in vitro. PMID:27477635

  5. Eukaryote-specific rRNA expansion segments function in ribosome biogenesis.

    PubMed

    Ramesh, Madhumitha; Woolford, John L

    2016-08-01

    The secondary structure of ribosomal RNA (rRNA) is largely conserved across all kingdoms of life. However, eukaryotes have evolved extra blocks of rRNA sequences, relative to those of prokaryotes, called expansion segments (ES). A thorough characterization of the potential roles of ES remains to be done, possibly because of limitations in the availability of robust systems to study rRNA mutants. We sought to systematically investigate the potential functions, if any, of the ES in 25S rRNA of Saccharomyces cerevisiae by deletion mutagenesis. We deleted 14 of the 16 different eukaryote-specific ES in yeast 25S rRNA individually and assayed their phenotypes. Our results show that all but two of the ES tested are necessary for optimal growth and are required for production of 25S rRNA, suggesting that ES play roles in ribosome biogenesis. Further, we classified expansion segments into groups that participate in early nucleolar, middle, and late nucleoplasmic steps of ribosome biogenesis, by assaying their pre-rRNA processing phenotypes. This study is the first of its kind to systematically identify the functions of eukaryote-specific expansion segments by showing that they play roles in specific steps of ribosome biogenesis. The catalog of phenotypes we identified, combined with previous investigations of the roles ribosomal proteins in large subunit biogenesis, leads us to infer that assembling ribosomes are composed of distinct RNA and protein structural neighborhood clusters that participate in specific steps of ribosome biogenesis. PMID:27317789

  6. Step-wise and lineage-specific diversification of plant RNA polymerase genes and origin of the largest plant-specific subunits.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yaqiong; Ma, Hong

    2015-09-01

    Proteins often function as complexes, yet little is known about the evolution of dissimilar subunits of complexes. DNA-directed RNA polymerases (RNAPs) are multisubunit complexes, with distinct eukaryotic types for different classes of transcripts. In addition to Pol I-III, common in eukaryotes, plants have Pol IV and V for epigenetic regulation. Some RNAP subunits are specific to one type, whereas other subunits are shared by multiple types. We have conducted extensive phylogenetic and sequence analyses, and have placed RNAP gene duplication events in land plant history, thereby reconstructing the subunit compositions of the novel RNAPs during land plant evolution. We found that Pol IV/V have experienced step-wise duplication and diversification of various subunits, with increasingly distinctive subunit compositions. Also, lineage-specific duplications have further increased RNAP complexity with distinct copies in different plant families and varying divergence for subunits of different RNAPs. Further, the largest subunits of Pol IV/V probably originated from a gene fusion in the ancestral land plants. We propose a framework of plant RNAP evolution, providing an excellent model for protein complex evolution. PMID:25921392

  7. Therapeutic transdifferentiation of human fibroblasts into endothelial cells using forced expression of lineage-specific transcription factors

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Wing Tak; Cooke, John P

    2016-01-01

    Transdifferentiation is the direct conversion from one somatic cell type into another desired somatic cell type. This reprogramming method offers an attractive approach for regenerative medicine. Here, we demonstrate that neonatal fibroblasts can be transdifferentiated into endothelial cells using only four endothelial transcription factors, namely, ETV2, FLI1, GATA2, and KLF4. We observed a significant up-regulation of endothelial genes including KDR, CD31, CD144, and vWF in human neonatal foreskin (BJ) fibroblasts infected with the lentiviral construct encoding the open reading frame of the four transcription factors. We observed morphological changes in BJ fibroblasts from the fibroblastic spindle shape into a more endothelial-like cobblestone structures. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis revealed that ~16% of the infected cells with the lentiviral constructs encoding 4F expressed CD31. The sorted cells were allowed to expand for 2 weeks and these cells were immunostained and found to express endothelial markers CD31. The induced endothelial cells also incorporated fluorescence-labeled acetylated low-density lipoprotein and efficiently formed capillary-like networks when seeded on Matrigel. These results suggested that the induced endothelial cells were functional in vitro. Taken together, we successfully demonstrated the direct conversion of human neonatal fibroblasts into endothelial cells by transduction of lentiviral constructs encoding endothelial lineage-specific transcription factors ETV2, FLI1, GATA2, and KLF4. The directed differentiation of fibroblasts into endothelial cells may have significant utility in diseases characterized by fibrosis and loss of microvasculature. PMID:27081470

  8. Bisphosphonates in vitro specifically inhibit, among the hematopoietic series, the development of the mouse mononuclear phagocyte lineage

    SciTech Connect

    Cecchini, M.G.; Fleisch, H. )

    1990-10-01

    Bisphosphonates (BP) are powerful inhibitors of bone resorption. We have previously shown that 4-amino-1-hydroxybutylidene-1,1-bisphosphonate (AHBuBP), 3-amino-1-hydroxypropylidene-1,1-bisphosphonate (AHPrBP), and dichloromethylenebisphosphonate (Cl2MBP) inhibit the proliferation of macrophages in vitro at concentrations that do not affect the viability of nonproliferating cells. In this study we further investigated whether the antiproliferative effect of these three BP is, among the hematopoietic series, preferential to the mononuclear phagocyte lineage. BP were unable to inhibit more than 30-40% of the ({sup 3}H)thymidine ({sup 3}H-TdR) incorporation into bone marrow cells stimulated to proliferate by multilineage colony-stimulating activity containing conditioned medium (multi-CSA). From the analysis of the colonies induced in semisolid medium by multi-CSA and recombinant murine granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (rmGM-CSF), a dose-dependent disappearance specific to the macrophage-containing colonies emerged. In contrast, the number and composition of colonies other than macrophage and, in particular, the granulocyte colonies were not affected by these compounds, even at high concentrations (100 microM) previously also shown to be toxic for nonproliferating macrophages. Since the macrophages, differently from polymorphonuclear phagocytes, are known to be highly pinocytotic, it is possible that by this means they selectively concentrate BP intracellularly, leading to toxic concentrations. We postulate tht BP may also act in vivo in addition to their effect on osteoclast activity, by a similar mechanism on osteoclast precursors and on bone resident macrophages, a source of cytokines stimulating bone resorption and leading to impaired osteoclast recruitment and activity.

  9. The Evaluation of Nerve Growth Factor Over Expression on Neural Lineage Specific Genes in Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Mortazavi, Yousef; Sheikhsaran, Fatemeh; Khamisipour, Gholamreza Khamisipour; Soleimani, Masoud; Teimuri, Ali; Shokri, Somayeh

    2016-01-01

    Objective Treatment and repair of neurodegenerative diseases such as brain tumors, spinal cord injuries, and functional disorders, including Alzheimer’s disease, are challenging problems. A common treatment approach for such disorders involves the use of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) as an alternative cell source to replace injured cells. However, use of these cells in hosts may potentially cause adverse outcomes such as tumorigenesis and uncontrolled differentiation. In attempt to generate mesenchymal derived neural cells, we have infected MSCs with recombinant lentiviruses that expressed nerve growth factor (NGF) and assessed their neural lineage genes. Materials and Methods In this experimental study, we cloned the NGF gene sequence into a helper dependent lentiviral vector that contained the green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene. The recombinant vector was amplified in DH5 bacterial cells. Recombinant viruses were generated in the human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK-293) packaging cell line with the helper vectors and analyzed under fluorescent microscopy. Bone marrow mesenchymal cells were infected by recombinant viruses for three days followed by assessment of neural differentiation. We evaluated expression of NGF through measurement of the NGF protein in culture medium by ELISA; neural specific genes were quantified by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Results We observed neural morphological changes after three days. Quantitative PCR showed that expressions of NESTIN, glial derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and Microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP2) genes increased following induction of NGF overexpression, whereas expressions of endogenous NGF and brain derived neural growth factor (BDNF) genes reduced. Conclusion Ectopic expression of NGF can induce neurogenesis in MSCs. Direct injection of MSCs may cause tumorigenesis and an undesirable outcome. Therefore an alternative choice to overcome this obstacle may

  10. Lineage-Specific Effector Signatures of Invariant NKT Cells Are Shared amongst γδ T, Innate Lymphoid, and Th Cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, You Jeong; Starrett, Gabriel J; Lee, Seungeun Thera; Yang, Rendong; Henzler, Christine M; Jameson, Stephen C; Hogquist, Kristin A

    2016-08-15

    Invariant NKT cells differentiate into three predominant effector lineages in the steady state. To understand these lineages, we sorted undifferentiated invariant NK T progenitor cells and each effector population and analyzed their transcriptional profiles by RNAseq. Bioinformatic comparisons were made to effector subsets among other lymphocytes, specifically Th cells, innate lymphoid cells (ILC), and γδ T cells. Myc-associated signature genes were enriched in NKT progenitors, like in other hematopoietic progenitors. Only NKT1 cells, but not NKT2 and NKT17 cells, had transcriptome similarity to NK cells and were also similar to other IFN-γ-producing lineages such as Th1, ILC1, and intraepithelial γδ T cells. NKT2 and NKT17 cells were similar to their analogous subsets of γδ T cells and ILCs, but surprisingly, not to Th2 and Th17 cells. We identified a set of genes common to each effector lineage regardless of Ag receptor specificity, suggesting the use of conserved regulatory cores for effector function. PMID:27385777

  11. Mouse model of chromosome mosaicism reveals lineage-specific depletion of aneuploid cells and normal developmental potential.

    PubMed

    Bolton, Helen; Graham, Sarah J L; Van der Aa, Niels; Kumar, Parveen; Theunis, Koen; Fernandez Gallardo, Elia; Voet, Thierry; Zernicka-Goetz, Magdalena

    2016-01-01

    Most human pre-implantation embryos are mosaics of euploid and aneuploid cells. To determine the fate of aneuploid cells and the developmental potential of mosaic embryos, here we generate a mouse model of chromosome mosaicism. By treating embryos with a spindle assembly checkpoint inhibitor during the four- to eight-cell division, we efficiently generate aneuploid cells, resulting in embryo death during peri-implantation development. Live-embryo imaging and single-cell tracking in chimeric embryos, containing aneuploid and euploid cells, reveal that the fate of aneuploid cells depends on lineage: aneuploid cells in the fetal lineage are eliminated by apoptosis, whereas those in the placental lineage show severe proliferative defects. Overall, the proportion of aneuploid cells is progressively depleted from the blastocyst stage onwards. Finally, we show that mosaic embryos have full developmental potential, provided they contain sufficient euploid cells, a finding of significance for the assessment of embryo vitality in the clinic. PMID:27021558

  12. Mouse model of chromosome mosaicism reveals lineage-specific depletion of aneuploid cells and normal developmental potential

    PubMed Central

    Bolton, Helen; Graham, Sarah J. L.; Van der Aa, Niels; Kumar, Parveen; Theunis, Koen; Fernandez Gallardo, Elia; Voet, Thierry; Zernicka-Goetz, Magdalena

    2016-01-01

    Most human pre-implantation embryos are mosaics of euploid and aneuploid cells. To determine the fate of aneuploid cells and the developmental potential of mosaic embryos, here we generate a mouse model of chromosome mosaicism. By treating embryos with a spindle assembly checkpoint inhibitor during the four- to eight-cell division, we efficiently generate aneuploid cells, resulting in embryo death during peri-implantation development. Live-embryo imaging and single-cell tracking in chimeric embryos, containing aneuploid and euploid cells, reveal that the fate of aneuploid cells depends on lineage: aneuploid cells in the fetal lineage are eliminated by apoptosis, whereas those in the placental lineage show severe proliferative defects. Overall, the proportion of aneuploid cells is progressively depleted from the blastocyst stage onwards. Finally, we show that mosaic embryos have full developmental potential, provided they contain sufficient euploid cells, a finding of significance for the assessment of embryo vitality in the clinic. PMID:27021558

  13. Two Distinct Broadly Neutralizing Antibody Specificities of Different Clonal Lineages in a Single HIV-1-Infected Donor: Implications for Vaccine Design

    PubMed Central

    Montefiori, David C.; Wu, Xueling; Chen, Xi; Hwang, Kwan-Ki; Tsao, Chun-Yen; Kozink, Daniel M.; Parks, Robert J.; Tomaras, Georgia D.; Crump, John A.; Kapiga, Saidi H.; Sam, Noel E.; Kwong, Peter D.; Kepler, Thomas B.; Liao, Hua-Xin; Mascola, John R.

    2012-01-01

    Plasma from a small subset of subjects chronically infected with HIV-1 shows remarkable magnitude and breadth of neutralizing activity. From one of these individuals (CH0219), we isolated two broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs), CH01 and VRC-CH31, from two clonal lineages of memory B cells with distinct specificities (variable loop 1 and 2 [V1V2] conformational specificity and CD4-binding site specificity, respectively) that recapitulate 95% of CH0219 serum neutralization breadth. These data provide proof of concept for an HIV-1 vaccine that aims to elicit bnAbs of multiple specificities. PMID:22301150

  14. Nitric Oxide-cGMP Signaling Stimulates Erythropoiesis through Multiple Lineage-Specific Transcription Factors: Clinical Implications and a Novel Target for Erythropoiesis

    PubMed Central

    Ikuta, Tohru; Sellak, Hassan; Odo, Nadine; Adekile, Adekunle D.; Gaensler, Karin M. L.

    2016-01-01

    Much attention has been directed to the physiological effects of nitric oxide (NO)-cGMP signaling, but virtually nothing is known about its hematologic effects. We reported for the first time that cGMP signaling induces human γ-globin gene expression. Aiming at developing novel therapeutics for anemia, we examined here the hematologic effects of NO-cGMP signaling in vivo and in vitro. We treated wild-type mice with NO to activate soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC), a key enzyme of cGMP signaling. Compared to untreated mice, NO-treated mice had higher red blood cell counts and total hemoglobin but reduced leukocyte counts, demonstrating that when activated, NO-cGMP signaling exerts hematopoietic effects on multiple types of blood cells in vivo. We next generated mice which overexpressed rat sGC in erythroid and myeloid cells. The forced expression of sGCs activated cGMP signaling in both lineage cells. Compared with non-transgenic littermates, sGC mice exhibited hematologic changes similar to those of NO-treated mice. Consistently, a membrane-permeable cGMP enhanced the differentiation of hematopoietic progenitors toward erythroid-lineage cells but inhibited them toward myeloid-lineage cells by controlling multiple lineage-specific transcription factors. Human γ-globin gene expression was induced at low but appreciable levels in sGC mice carrying the human β-globin locus. Together, these results demonstrate that NO-cGMP signaling is capable of stimulating erythropoiesis in both in vitro and vivo settings by controlling the expression of multiple lineage-specific transcription factors, suggesting that cGMP signaling upregulates erythropoiesis at the level of gene transcription. The NO-cGMP signaling axis may constitute a novel target to stimulate erythropoiesis in vivo. PMID:26727002

  15. Thermal Expansion, Specific Heat and Magnetostriction Measurements on R-Copper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chien, Teh-Shih

    The RCu (R = Gd, Tb, Dy and Ho) and R _2In (R = Gd and Tb) alloys have been systematically studied by thermal expansion, specific heat and magnetostriction measurements in order to investigate their magnetic and physical behaviors. GdCu and TbCu alloys undergo martensitic transformations at high and low temperatures. The Neel temperature of the GdCu alloy is 141.3 K from thermal expansion measurements. The Neel temperature T_{rm N} and martensitic transformation temperature M _{rm s} are 113.6 K and 116 K, respectively, for TbCu alloy. This is the first study to distinguish T_{rm N} from M_{rm s} using thermal expansion and specific heat measurements as well as a large thermal hysteresis. Both GdCu and TbCu alloys have a first-order structural transformation and a second-order magnetic phase transition. DyCu alloy has T_{rm N} = 60.5 K. The magnetic specific heat, C_{ rm m}, is a function of T^3 which obeys spin wave theory. HoCu alloy has T _{rm N} = 26 K and a spin reorientation at 14.1 K. YCu alloy has a Debye temperature of 230 K and C_{rm e} = 0.002T J/moleK. The Debye temperature is 160 K for all RCu alloys except for the DyCu alloy which has theta = 150 K. Gd_2In alloy has T _{rm N} = 97 K and T _{rm c} = 190.3 K which are associated with the antiferromagnetic and ferromagnetic transitions, respectively, from thermal expansion and magnetostriction measurements. Gd_2In alloy is a metamagnet with a critical magnetic field H = 8 kOe. Volume magnetostriction, omega_{rm V} is a function of H^{2 over3} in the ferromagnetic state. omega_{rm v} is a function of H^2, as expected, in the antiferromagnetic and paramagnetic states. The Curie temperature is 167.5 K for Tb_2In, as given by the thermal expansion and specific heat measurements. omega_{rm v} is a function of H in the ferromagnetic state. omega_{rm v} is a function of H^2, as expected, in the paramagnetic state.

  16. [Origin of caucasoid-specific mitochondrial DNA lineages in the ethnic populations of the Altai-Sayan region].

    PubMed

    Derenko, M V; Maliarchuk, B A; Zakharov, I A

    2002-09-01

    The data on sequence variation in the first hypervariable segment (HVSI) of human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) representing Caucasoid mtDNA lineages in the gene pools of Altaians and Khakassians are presented. Identification of the subgroups of Caucasoid mtDNA lineages found in the gene pools of the ethnic populations of the Altai-Sayan region and the adjacent territories, Altaians, Khakassians, Tuvinians, Buryats, and Yakuts was carried out. All Caucasoid mtDNA lineages belonged to groups H, HV1, J*, J1, J1b1, T1, T4, U1a, U2, U3, U4, U5a1, I, X and N1a. Taking into consideration possible contribution of southern Caucasoid and eastern European components to the formation of the anthropological type of Altai-Sayan ethnic populations, distribution of the revealed Caucasoid mtDNA lineages among the ethnic populations of the Central Asia, Western Asia, Caucasus, and Eastern Europe was examined. The applied approach permitted identification of 60% of mtDNA types the majority of which had southern Caucasoid origin. Less than 10% of mtDNA types were of eastern European origin. The gene pools of Altaians and Khakassians displayed the presence of autochthonous components represented by mtDNA types from subgroups U2 and U4. PMID:12391892

  17. A MLVA genotyping scheme for global surveillance of the citrus pathogen Xanthomonas citri pv. citri suggests a worldwide geographical expansion of a single genetic lineage.

    PubMed

    Pruvost, Olivier; Magne, Maxime; Boyer, Karine; Leduc, Alice; Tourterel, Christophe; Drevet, Christine; Ravigné, Virginie; Gagnevin, Lionel; Guérin, Fabien; Chiroleu, Frédéric; Koebnik, Ralf; Verdier, Valérie; Vernière, Christian

    2014-01-01

    MultiLocus Variable number of tandem repeat Analysis (MLVA) has been extensively used to examine epidemiological and evolutionary issues on monomorphic human pathogenic bacteria, but not on bacterial plant pathogens of agricultural importance albeit such tools would improve our understanding of their epidemiology, as well as of the history of epidemics on a global scale. Xanthomonas citri pv. citri is a quarantine organism in several countries and a major threat for the citrus industry worldwide. We screened the genomes of Xanthomonas citri pv. citri strain IAPAR 306 and of phylogenetically related xanthomonads for tandem repeats. From these in silico data, an optimized MLVA scheme was developed to assess the global diversity of this monomorphic bacterium. Thirty-one minisatellite loci (MLVA-31) were selected to assess the genetic structure of 129 strains representative of the worldwide pathological and genetic diversity of X. citri pv. citri. Based on Discriminant Analysis of Principal Components (DAPC), four pathotype-specific clusters were defined. DAPC cluster 1 comprised strains that were implicated in the major geographical expansion of X. citri pv. citri during the 20th century. A subset of 12 loci (MLVA-12) resolved 89% of the total diversity and matched the genetic structure revealed by MLVA-31. MLVA-12 is proposed for routine epidemiological identification of X. citri pv. citri, whereas MLVA-31 is proposed for phylogenetic and population genetics studies. MLVA-31 represents an opportunity for international X. citri pv. citri genotyping and data sharing. The MLVA-31 data generated in this study was deposited in the Xanthomonas citri genotyping database (http://www.biopred.net/MLVA/). PMID:24897119

  18. A MLVA Genotyping Scheme for Global Surveillance of the Citrus Pathogen Xanthomonas citri pv. citri Suggests a Worldwide Geographical Expansion of a Single Genetic Lineage

    PubMed Central

    Boyer, Karine; Leduc, Alice; Tourterel, Christophe; Drevet, Christine; Ravigné, Virginie; Gagnevin, Lionel; Guérin, Fabien; Chiroleu, Frédéric; Koebnik, Ralf; Verdier, Valérie; Vernière, Christian

    2014-01-01

    MultiLocus Variable number of tandem repeat Analysis (MLVA) has been extensively used to examine epidemiological and evolutionary issues on monomorphic human pathogenic bacteria, but not on bacterial plant pathogens of agricultural importance albeit such tools would improve our understanding of their epidemiology, as well as of the history of epidemics on a global scale. Xanthomonas citri pv. citri is a quarantine organism in several countries and a major threat for the citrus industry worldwide. We screened the genomes of Xanthomonas citri pv. citri strain IAPAR 306 and of phylogenetically related xanthomonads for tandem repeats. From these in silico data, an optimized MLVA scheme was developed to assess the global diversity of this monomorphic bacterium. Thirty-one minisatellite loci (MLVA-31) were selected to assess the genetic structure of 129 strains representative of the worldwide pathological and genetic diversity of X. citri pv. citri. Based on Discriminant Analysis of Principal Components (DAPC), four pathotype-specific clusters were defined. DAPC cluster 1 comprised strains that were implicated in the major geographical expansion of X. citri pv. citri during the 20th century. A subset of 12 loci (MLVA-12) resolved 89% of the total diversity and matched the genetic structure revealed by MLVA-31. MLVA-12 is proposed for routine epidemiological identification of X. citri pv. citri, whereas MLVA-31 is proposed for phylogenetic and population genetics studies. MLVA-31 represents an opportunity for international X. citri pv. citri genotyping and data sharing. The MLVA-31 data generated in this study was deposited in the Xanthomonas citri genotyping database (http://www.biopred.net/MLVA/). PMID:24897119

  19. Reprogramming CD19-specific T cells with IL-21 signaling can improve adoptive immunotherapy of B-lineage malignancies.

    PubMed

    Singh, Harjeet; Figliola, Matthew J; Dawson, Margaret J; Huls, Helen; Olivares, Simon; Switzer, Kirsten; Mi, Tiejuan; Maiti, Sourindra; Kebriaei, Partow; Lee, Dean A; Champlin, Richard E; Cooper, Laurence J N

    2011-05-15

    Improving the therapeutic efficacy of T cells expressing a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) represents an important goal in efforts to control B-cell malignancies. Recently an intrinsic strategy has been developed to modify the CAR itself to improve T-cell signaling. Here we report a second extrinsic approach based on altering the culture milieu to numerically expand CAR(+) T cells with a desired phenotype, for the addition of interleukin (IL)-21 to tissue culture improves CAR-dependent T-cell effector functions. We used electrotransfer of Sleeping Beauty system to introduce a CAR transposon and selectively propagate CAR(+) T cells on CD19(+) artificial antigen-presenting cells (aAPC). When IL-21 was present, there was preferential numeric expansion of CD19-specific T cells which lysed and produced IFN-γ in response to CD19. Populations of these numerically expanded CAR(+) T cells displayed an early memory surface phenotype characterized as CD62L(+)CD28(+) and a transcriptional profile of naïve T cells. In contrast, T cells propagated with only exogenous IL-2 tended to result in an overgrowth of CD19-specific CD4(+) T cells. Furthermore, adoptive transfer of CAR(+) T cells cultured with IL-21 exhibited improved control of CD19(+) B-cell malignancy in mice. To provide coordinated signaling to propagate CAR(+) T cells, we developed a novel mutein of IL-21 bound to the cell surface of aAPC that replaced the need for soluble IL-21. Our findings show that IL-21 can provide an extrinsic reprogramming signal to generate desired CAR(+) T cells for effective immunotherapy. PMID:21558388

  20. Cell-Specific Transduction of Prdm1-Expressing Lineages Mediated by a Receptor for Avian Leukosis Virus Subgroup B▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Asimakopoulos, Fotis; Varmus, Harold E.

    2009-01-01

    The transcription factor Blimp-1 has emerged as a regulator of cell fate in embryonic (germ cell) and adult (B- and T-cell immune effector and epithelial) lineages. It has also been proposed to act as a tumor suppressor in B-cell malignancy. Here, we present a novel in vivo system enabling the targeted genetic manipulation of cells expressing Prdm1, the gene encoding Blimp-1. We created bacterial artificial chromosome-transgenic mice expressing the avian leukosis virus (ALV) receptor TVB, fused to monomeric red fluorescent protein, under regulation by Prdm1 transcriptional elements, and we achieved transduction of TVB-expressing lymphocytes by ALV vectors bearing a subgroup B envelope. The system presented here incorporates a number of innovations. First, it is the first mammalian transgenic system that employs the ALV receptor TVB, thus expanding the flexibility and scope of ALV-mediated gene delivery. Second, it represents the first ALV-based system that allows gene transfer and expression into in vivo-activated mature lymphocytes, a cell type that has traditionally presented formidable challenges to efficient retroviral transduction. Third, Prdm1:TVB-mRFP transgenic animals could provide an invaluable tool for exploring the diverse roles of Blimp-1 in lineage commitment, immune regulation, and tumorigenesis. PMID:19279099

  1. De novo generation of white adipocytes from the myeloid lineage via mesenchymal intermediates is age, adipose depot, and gender specific

    PubMed Central

    Majka, Susan M.; Fox, Keith E.; Psilas, John C.; Helm, Karen M.; Childs, Christine R.; Acosta, Alistaire S.; Janssen, Rachel C.; Friedman, Jacob E.; Woessner, Brian T.; Shade, Theodore R.; Varella-Garcia, Marileila; Klemm, Dwight J.

    2010-01-01

    It is generally assumed that white adipocytes arise from resident adipose tissue mesenchymal progenitor cells. We challenge this paradigm by defining a hematopoietic origin for both the de novo development of a subset of white adipocytes in adults and a previously uncharacterized adipose tissue resident mesenchymal progenitor population. Lineage and cytogenetic analysis revealed that bone marrow progenitor (BMP)-derived adipocytes and adipocyte progenitors arise from hematopoietic cells via the myeloid lineage in the absence of cell fusion. Global gene expression analysis indicated that the BMP-derived fat cells are bona fide adipocytes but differ from conventional white or brown adipocytes in decreased expression of genes involved in mitochondrial biogenesis and lipid oxidation, and increased inflammatory gene expression. The BMP-derived adipocytes accumulate with age, occur in higher numbers in visceral than in subcutaneous fat, and in female versus male mice. BMP-derived adipocytes may, therefore, account in part for adipose depot heterogeneity and detrimental changes in adipose metabolism and inflammation with aging and adiposity. PMID:20679227

  2. Evolutionary origin and human-specific expansion of a cancer/testis antigen gene family.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qu; Su, Bing

    2014-09-01

    Cancer/testis (CT) antigens are encoded by germline genes and are aberrantly expressed in a number of human cancers. Interestingly, CT antigens are frequently involved in gene families that are highly expressed in germ cells. Here, we presented an evolutionary analysis of the CTAGE (cutaneous T-cell-lymphoma-associated antigen) gene family to delineate its molecular history and functional significance during primate evolution. Comparisons among human, chimpanzee, gorilla, orangutan, macaque, marmoset, and other mammals show a rapid and primate specific expansion of CTAGE family, which starts with an ancestral retroposition in the haplorhini ancestor. Subsequent DNA-based duplications lead to the prosperity of single-exon CTAGE copies in catarrhines, especially in humans. Positive selection was identified on the single-exon copies in comparison with functional constraint on the multiexon copies. Further sequence analysis suggests that the newly derived CTAGE genes may obtain regulatory elements from long terminal repeats. Our result indicates the dynamic evolution of primate genomes, and the recent expansion of this CT antigen family in humans may confer advantageous phenotypic traits during early human evolution. PMID:24916032

  3. A cleavage clock regulates features of lineage-specific differentiation in the development of a basal branching metazoan, the ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background An important question in experimental embryology is to understand how the developmental potential responsible for the generation of distinct cell types is spatially segregated over developmental time. Classical embryological work showed that ctenophores, a group of gelatinous marine invertebrates that arose early in animal evolution, display a highly stereotyped pattern of early development and a precocious specification of blastomere fates. Here we investigate the role of autonomous cell specification and the developmental timing of two distinct ctenophore cell types (motile compound comb-plate-like cilia and light-emitting photocytes) in embryos of the lobate ctenophore, Mnemiopsis leidyi. Results In Mnemiopsis, 9 h after fertilization, comb plate cilia differentiate into derivatives of the E lineage, while the bioluminescent capability begins in derivatives of the M lineage. Arresting cleavage with cytochalasin B at the 1-, 2- or 4-cell stage does not result in blastomere death; however, no visible differentiation of the comb-plate-like cilia or bioluminescence was observed. Cleavage arrest at the 8- or 16-cell stage, in contrast, results in the expression of both differentiation products. Fate-mapping experiments indicate that only the lineages of cells that normally express these markers in an autonomous fashion during normal development express these traits in cleavage-arrested 8- and 16-cell stage embryos. Lineages that form comb plates in a non-autonomous fashion (derivatives of the M lineage) do not. Timed actinomycin D and puromycin treatments show that transcription and translation are required for comb formation and suggest that the segregated material might be necessary for activation of the appropriate genes. Interestingly, even in the absence of cytokinesis, differentiation markers appear to be activated at the correct times. Treatments with a DNA synthesis inhibitor, aphidicolin, show that the number of nuclear divisions, and perhaps the

  4. Multi-species sequence comparison reveals dynamic evolution of the elastin gene that has involved purifying selection and lineage-specific insertions/deletions

    PubMed Central

    Piontkivska, Helen; Zhang, Yi; Green, Eric D; Elnitski, Laura

    2004-01-01

    Background The elastin gene (ELN) is implicated as a factor in both supravalvular aortic stenosis (SVAS) and Williams Beuren Syndrome (WBS), two diseases involving pronounced complications in mental or physical development. Although the complete spectrum of functional roles of the processed gene product remains to be established, these roles are inferred to be analogous in human and mouse. This view is supported by genomic sequence comparison, in which there are no large-scale differences in the ~1.8 Mb sequence block encompassing the common region deleted in WBS, with the exception of an overall reversed physical orientation between human and mouse. Results Conserved synteny around ELN does not translate to a high level of conservation in the gene itself. In fact, ELN orthologs in mammals show more sequence divergence than expected for a gene with a critical role in development. The pattern of divergence is non-conventional due to an unusually high ratio of gaps to substitutions. Specifically, multi-sequence alignments of eight mammalian sequences reveal numerous non-aligning regions caused by species-specific insertions and deletions, in spite of the fact that the vast majority of aligning sites appear to be conserved and undergoing purifying selection. Conclusions The pattern of lineage-specific, in-frame insertions/deletions in the coding exons of ELN orthologous genes is unusual and has led to unique features of the gene in each lineage. These differences may indicate that the gene has a slightly different functional mechanism in mammalian lineages, or that the corresponding regions are functionally inert. Identified regions that undergo purifying selection reflect a functional importance associated with evolutionary pressure to retain those features. PMID:15149554

  5. Caudal Ganglionic Eminence Precursor Transplants Disperse and Integrate as Lineage-Specific Interneurons but Do Not Induce Cortical Plasticity.

    PubMed

    Larimer, Phillip; Spatazza, Julien; Espinosa, Juan Sebastian; Tang, Yunshuo; Kaneko, Megumi; Hasenstaub, Andrea R; Stryker, Michael P; Alvarez-Buylla, Arturo

    2016-08-01

    The maturation of inhibitory GABAergic cortical circuits regulates experience-dependent plasticity. We recently showed that the heterochronic transplantation of parvalbumin (PV) or somatostatin (SST) interneurons from the medial ganglionic eminence (MGE) reactivates ocular dominance plasticity (ODP) in the postnatal mouse visual cortex. Might other types of interneurons similarly induce cortical plasticity? Here, we establish that caudal ganglionic eminence (CGE)-derived interneurons, when transplanted into the visual cortex of neonatal mice, migrate extensively in the host brain and acquire laminar distribution, marker expression, electrophysiological properties, and visual response properties like those of host CGE interneurons. Although transplants from the anatomical CGE do induce ODP, we found that this plasticity reactivation is mediated by a small fraction of MGE-derived cells contained in the transplant. These findings demonstrate that transplanted CGE cells can successfully engraft into the postnatal mouse brain and confirm the unique role of MGE lineage neurons in the induction of ODP. PMID:27425623

  6. Gain of a New Exon by a Lineage-Specific Alu Element-Integration Event in the BCS1L Gene during Primate Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sang-Je; Kim, Young-Hyun; Lee, Sang-Rae; Choe, Se-Hee; Kim, Myung-Jin; Kim, Sun-Uk; Kim, Ji-Su; Sim, Bo-Woong; Song, Bong-Seok; Jeong, Kang-Jin; Jin, Yeung-Bae; Lee, Youngjeon; Park, Young-Ho; Park, Young Il; Huh, Jae-Won; Chang, Kyu-Tae

    2015-01-01

    BCS1L gene encodes mitochondrial protein and is a member of conserved AAA protein family. This gene is involved in the incorporation of Rieske FeS and Qcr10p into complex III of respiratory chain. In our previous study, AluYRa2-derived alternative transcript in rhesus monkey genome was identified. However, this transcript has not been reported in human genome. In present study, we conducted evolutionary analysis of AluYRa2-exonized transcript with various primate genomic DNAs and cDNAs from humans, rhesus monkeys, and crab-eating monkeys. Remarkably, our results show that AluYRa2 element has only been integrated into genomes of Macaca species. This Macaca lineage-specific integration of AluYRa2 element led to exonization event in the first intron region of BCS1L gene by producing a conserved 3′ splice site. Intriguingly, in rhesus and crab-eating monkeys, more diverse transcript variants by alternative splicing (AS) events, including exon skipping and different 5′ splice sites from humans, were identified. Alignment of amino acid sequences revealed that AluYRa2-exonized transcript has short N-terminal peptides. Therefore, AS events play a major role in the generation of various transcripts and proteins during primate evolution. In particular, lineage-specific integration of Alu elements and species-specific Alu-derived exonization events could be important sources of gene diversification in primates. PMID:26537194

  7. Lineage-Specific Responses of Tooth Shape in Murine Rodents (Murinae, Rodentia) to Late Miocene Dietary Change in the Siwaliks of Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Kimura, Yuri; Jacobs, Louis L.; Flynn, Lawrence J.

    2013-01-01

    Past ecological responses of mammals to climate change are recognized in the fossil record by adaptive significance of morphological variations. To understand the role of dietary behavior on functional adaptations of dental morphology in rodent evolution, we examine evolutionary change of tooth shape in late Miocene Siwalik murine rodents, which experienced a dietary shift toward C4 diets during late Miocene ecological change indicated by carbon isotopic evidence. Geometric morphometric analysis in the outline of upper first molars captures dichotomous lineages of Siwalik murines, in agreement with phylogenetic hypotheses of previous studies (two distinct clades: the Karnimata and Progonomys clades), and indicates lineage-specific functional responses to mechanical properties of their diets. Tooth shapes of the two clades are similar at their sympatric origin but deviate from each other with decreasing overlap through time. Shape change in the Karnimata clade is associated with greater efficiency of propalinal chewing for tough diets than in the Progonomys clade. Larger body mass in Karnimata may be related to exploitation of lower-quality food items, such as grasses, than in smaller-bodied Progonomys. The functional and ecophysiological aspects of Karnimata exploiting C4 grasses are concordant with their isotopic dietary preference relative to Progonomys. Lineage-specific selection was differentially greater in Karnimata, and a faster rate of shape change toward derived Karnimata facilitated inclusion of C4 grasses in the diet. Sympatric speciation in these clades is most plausibly explained by interspecific competition on resource utilization between the two, based on comparisons of our results with the carbon isotope data. Interspecific competition with Karnimata may have suppressed morphological innovation of the Progonomys clade. Pairwise analyses of morphological and carbon isotope data can uncover ecological causes of sympatric speciation and define

  8. Archaic lineages in the history of modern humans.

    PubMed Central

    Labuda, D; Zietkiewicz, E; Yotova, V

    2000-01-01

    An important question in the ongoing debate on the origin of Homo sapiens is whether modern human populations issued from a single lineage or whether several, independently evolving lineages contributed to their genetic makeup. We analyzed haplotypes composed of 35 polymorphisms from a segment of the dystrophin gene. We find that the bulk of a worldwide sample of 868 chromosomes represents haplotypes shared by different continental groups. The remaining chromosomes carry haplotypes specific for the continents or for local populations. The haplotypes specific for non-Africans can be derived from the most frequent ones through simple recombination or a mutation. In contrast, chromosomes specific for sub-Saharan Africans represent a distinct group, as shown by principal component analysis, maximum likelihood tree, structural comparison, and summary statistics. We propose that African chromosomes descend from at least two lineages that have been evolving separately for a period of time. One of them underwent range expansion colonizing different continents, including Africa, where it mixed with another, local lineage represented today by a large fraction of African-specific haplotypes. Genetic admixture involving archaic lineages appears therefore to have occurred within Africa rather than outside this continent, explaining greater diversity of sub-Saharan populations observed in a variety of genetic systems. PMID:11014825

  9. E2-RING expansion of the NEDD8 cascade confers specificity to cullin modification

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, D.T.; Ayrault, O.; Hunt, H.W.; Taherbhoy, A.M.; Duda, D.M.; Scott, D.C.; Borg, L.A.; Neale, G.; Murray, P.J.; Roussel, M.F.; Schulman, B.A.

    2009-03-27

    Ubiquitin and ubiquitin-like proteins (UBLs) are directed to targets by cascades of E1, E2, and E3 enzymes. The largest ubiquitin E3 subclass consists of cullin-RING ligases (CRLs), which contain one each of several cullins (CUL1, -2, -3, -4, or -5) and RING proteins (RBX1 or -2). CRLs are activated by ligation of the UBL NEDD8 to a conserved cullin lysine. How is cullin NEDD8ylation specificity established? Here we report that, like UBE2M (also known as UBC12), the previously uncharacterized E2 UBE2F is a NEDD8-conjugating enzyme in vitro and in vivo. Biochemical and structural analyses indicate how plasticity of hydrophobic E1-E2 interactions and E1 conformational flexibility allow one E1 to charge multiple E2s. The E2s have distinct functions, with UBE2M/RBX1 and UBE2F/RBX2 displaying different target cullin specificities. Together, these studies reveal the molecular basis for and functional importance of hierarchical expansion of the NEDD8 conjugation system in establishing selective CRL activation.

  10. Hematopoietic Lineage Diversification, Simplified.

    PubMed

    Drissen, Roy; Nerlov, Claus

    2016-08-01

    Hematopoiesis is a complex process that requires a high degree of transcriptional diversification during lineage commitment and differentiation. de Graaf et al. (2016) have now generated a comprehensive gene expression dataset that allows cell-type-specific genes as well as associated transcription factor expression patterns to be readily identified. PMID:27494670

  11. P01.08LINEAGE-SPECIFIC SPLICING OF AN ALTERNATIVE EXON OF ANXA7 PROMOTES EGFR SIGNALING ACTIVATION AND TUMOR PROGRESSION IN GLIOBLASTOMA

    PubMed Central

    Ferrarese, R.; Bug, E.; Maticzka, D.; Reichardt, W.; Masilamani, A.P.; Dai, F.; Weyerbrock, A.; Prinz, M.; Bredel, M.; Carro, M.S.

    2014-01-01

    Tissue-specific alternative splicing is critical to the emergence of tissue identity during development, yet its role in malignant transformation is undefined. Tissue-specific splicing involves evolutionarily-conserved, alternative exons, which represent only a minority of total alternative exons. Many, however, have functional features that influence signaling pathways to profound biological effect. In the brain, Annexin A7 isoform 1 (ANXA7-I1) is exclusively expressed in mature neurons, while isoform 2 (ANXA7-I2) in which exon 6 is skipped, is expressed in glial and progenitor cells. We show that lineage-specific splicing of the cassette exon 6 in the membrane-binding tumor suppressor ANXA7diminishes endosomal targeting and consequent signal termination of the EGFR oncoprotein during brain tumor progression. Splicing of this exon is mediated by Polypyrimidine Tract-Binding Protein 1 (PTBP1), a ribonucleoprotein normally repressed during neuronal development but which we found to be highly expressed also in glioblastomas through loss of a brain-enriched microRNA, miR-124, and gene amplification. Here, we show that the PTBP1-ANXA7 splicing-EGFR signal activation axis promotes in vitro cell migration and invasion, and tumor angiogenesis in vivo. In glioblastoma, ANXA7 splicing is likely inherited from a potential tumor-initiating ancestor but this trait is further exploited through accumulation of mutations that enhance EGFR signaling. Our data illustrate how lineage-specific splicing of a tissue-regulated alternative exon in a constituent of an oncogenic pathway eliminates its tumor suppressor function and promotes glioblastoma progression. This paradigm may offer a general model as to how tissue-specific regulatory mechanisms can contribute to reprogramming normal development to oncogenesis.

  12. Abnormalities of the TITF-1 lineage-specific oncogene in NSCLC: Implications in lung cancer pathogenesis and prognosis

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Ximing; Kadara, Humam; Behrens, Carmen; Liu, Diane D.; Xiao, Yun; Rice, David; Gazdar, Adi F.; Fujimoto, Junya; Moran, Cesar; Varella-Garcia, Marileila; Lee, J. Jack; Hong, Waun Ki; Wistuba, Ignacio I.

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE Emerging evidence suggests that aberrant expression of oncogenes contributes to development of lung malignancy. The thyroid transcription factor 1 (TITF-1) gene functions as a lineage survival gene abnormally expressed in a significant fraction of NSCLCs, in particular lung adenocarcinomas. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN To better characterize TITF-1 abnormality: patterns in NSCLC, we studied TITF-1’s gene copy number using fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) and quantitative PCR, as well as its protein expression by immunohistochemistry analysis in a tissue microarray comprised of surgically resected NSCLC (N=321) including 204 adenocarcinomas and 117 squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs). TITF-1 copy number and protein expression were correlated with patients’ clinicopathologic characteristics, and in a subset of adenocarcinomas with EGFR and KRAS mutation status. RESULTS We found that increased TITF-1 protein expression was prevalent in lung adenocarcinomas only and was significantly associated with female gender (p<0.001), never smokers (p=0.004), presence of EGFR mutations (p=0.05) and better overall survival (all stages, p=0.0478. stages I and II, p=0.002). TITF-1 copy number gain (CBG) was detected by FISH analysis in both adenocarcinomas (18.9%; high CNG, 8.3%) and SCCs (20.1%; high CNG, 3.0%), and correlated significantly with the protein product (p=0.004) and presence of KRAS mutations (p=0.008) in lung adenocarcinomas. Moreover, multivariate analysis revealed that TITF-1 copy number gain was an independent predictor of poor survival of NSCLC (p=0.039). CONCLUSIONS Our integrative study demonstrates that the protein versus genomic expression patterns of TITF-1 have opposing roles in lung cancer prognosis and may occur preferentially in different subsets of NSCLC patients with distinct oncogene mutations. PMID:21257719

  13. Variability among the Most Rapidly Evolving Plastid Genomic Regions is Lineage-Specific: Implications of Pairwise Genome Comparisons in Pyrus (Rosaceae) and Other Angiosperms for Marker Choice

    PubMed Central

    Ter-Voskanyan, Hasmik; Allgaier, Martin; Borsch, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Plastid genomes exhibit different levels of variability in their sequences, depending on the respective kinds of genomic regions. Genes are usually more conserved while noncoding introns and spacers evolve at a faster pace. While a set of about thirty maximum variable noncoding genomic regions has been suggested to provide universally promising phylogenetic markers throughout angiosperms, applications often require several regions to be sequenced for many individuals. Our project aims to illuminate evolutionary relationships and species-limits in the genus Pyrus (Rosaceae)—a typical case with very low genetic distances between taxa. In this study, we have sequenced the plastid genome of Pyrus spinosa and aligned it to the already available P. pyrifolia sequence. The overall p-distance of the two Pyrus genomes was 0.00145. The intergenic spacers between ndhC–trnV, trnR–atpA, ndhF–rpl32, psbM–trnD, and trnQ–rps16 were the most variable regions, also comprising the highest total numbers of substitutions, indels and inversions (potentially informative characters). Our comparative analysis of further plastid genome pairs with similar low p-distances from Oenothera (representing another rosid), Olea (asterids) and Cymbidium (monocots) showed in each case a different ranking of genomic regions in terms of variability and potentially informative characters. Only two intergenic spacers (ndhF–rpl32 and trnK–rps16) were consistently found among the 30 top-ranked regions. We have mapped the occurrence of substitutions and microstructural mutations in the four genome pairs. High AT content in specific sequence elements seems to foster frequent mutations. We conclude that the variability among the fastest evolving plastid genomic regions is lineage-specific and thus cannot be precisely predicted across angiosperms. The often lineage-specific occurrence of stem-loop elements in the sequences of introns and spacers also governs lineage-specific mutations

  14. Akt inhibition enhances expansion of potent tumor-specific lymphocytes with memory cell characteristics.

    PubMed

    Crompton, Joseph G; Sukumar, Madhusudhanan; Roychoudhuri, Rahul; Clever, David; Gros, Alena; Eil, Robert L; Tran, Eric; Hanada, Ken-Ichi; Yu, Zhiya; Palmer, Douglas C; Kerkar, Sid P; Michalek, Ryan D; Upham, Trevor; Leonardi, Anthony; Acquavella, Nicolas; Wang, Ena; Marincola, Francesco M; Gattinoni, Luca; Muranski, Pawel; Sundrud, Mark S; Klebanoff, Christopher A; Rosenberg, Steven A; Fearon, Douglas T; Restifo, Nicholas P

    2015-01-15

    Adoptive cell therapy (ACT) using autologous tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) results in complete regression of advanced cancer in some patients, but the efficacy of this potentially curative therapy may be limited by poor persistence of TIL after adoptive transfer. Pharmacologic inhibition of the serine/threonine kinase Akt has recently been shown to promote immunologic memory in virus-specific murine models, but whether this approach enhances features of memory (e.g., long-term persistence) in TIL that are characteristically exhausted and senescent is not established. Here, we show that pharmacologic inhibition of Akt enables expansion of TIL with the transcriptional, metabolic, and functional properties characteristic of memory T cells. Consequently, Akt inhibition results in enhanced persistence of TIL after adoptive transfer into an immunodeficient animal model and augments antitumor immunity of CD8 T cells in a mouse model of cell-based immunotherapy. Pharmacologic inhibition of Akt represents a novel immunometabolomic approach to enhance the persistence of antitumor T cells and improve the efficacy of cell-based immunotherapy for metastatic cancer. PMID:25432172

  15. H3K4/H3K9me3 Bivalent Chromatin Domains Targeted by Lineage-Specific DNA Methylation Pauses Adipocyte Differentiation.

    PubMed

    Matsumura, Yoshihiro; Nakaki, Ryo; Inagaki, Takeshi; Yoshida, Ayano; Kano, Yuka; Kimura, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Toshiya; Tsutsumi, Shuichi; Nakao, Mitsuyoshi; Doi, Takefumi; Fukami, Kiyoko; Osborne, Timothy F; Kodama, Tatsuhiko; Aburatani, Hiroyuki; Sakai, Juro

    2015-11-19

    Bivalent H3K4me3 and H3K27me3 chromatin domains in embryonic stem cells keep active developmental regulatory genes expressed at very low levels and poised for activation. Here, we show an alternative and previously unknown bivalent modified histone signature in lineage-committed mesenchymal stem cells and preadipocytes that pairs H3K4me3 with H3K9me3 to maintain adipogenic master regulatory genes (Cebpa and Pparg) expressed at low levels yet poised for activation when differentiation is required. We show lineage-specific gene-body DNA methylation recruits H3K9 methyltransferase SETDB1, which methylates H3K9 immediately downstream of transcription start sites marked with H3K4me3 to establish the bivalent domain. At the Cebpa locus, this prevents transcription factor C/EBPβ binding, histone acetylation, and further H3K4me3 deposition and is associated with pausing of RNA polymerase II, which limits Cebpa gene expression and adipogenesis. PMID:26590716

  16. Species-specific diversity of novel bacterial lineages and differential abundance of predicted pathways for toxic compound degradation in scorpion gut microbiota.

    PubMed

    Bolaños, Luis M; Rosenblueth, Mónica; Castillo-Ramírez, Santiago; Figuier-Huttin, Gilles; Martínez-Romero, Esperanza

    2016-05-01

    Scorpions are considered 'living fossils' that have conserved ancestral anatomical features and have adapted to numerous habitats. However, their gut microbiota diversity has not been studied. Here, we characterized the gut microbiota of two scorpion species, Vaejovis smithi and Centruroides limpidus. Our results indicate that scorpion gut microbiota is species-specific and that food deprivation reduces bacterial diversity. 16S rRNA gene phylogenetic analysis revealed novel bacterial lineages showing a low level of sequence identity to any known bacteria. Furthermore, these novel bacterial lineages were each restricted to a different scorpion species. Additionally, our results of the predicted metagenomic profiles revealed a core set of pathways that were highly abundant in both species, and mostly related to amino acid, carbohydrate, vitamin and cofactor metabolism. Notably, the food-deprived V. smithi shotgun metagenome matched almost completely the metabolic features of the prediction. Finally, comparisons among predicted metagenomic profiles showed that toxic compound degradation pathways were more abundant in recently captured C. limpidus scorpions. This study gives a first insight into the scorpion gut microbiota and provides a reference for future studies on the gut microbiota from other arachnid species. PMID:26058415

  17. Influenza infection results in local expansion of memory CD8+ T cells with antigen non-specific phenotype and function

    PubMed Central

    Sckisel, Gail D; Tietze, Julia K; Zamora, Anthony E; Hsiao, Hua-Hui; Priest, Stephen O; Wilkins, Danice E C; Lanier, Louis L; Blazar, Bruce R; Baumgarth, Nicole; Murphy, William J

    2014-01-01

    Primary viral infections induce activation of CD8+ T cells responsible for effective resistance. We sought to characterize the nature of the CD8+ T cell expansion observed after primary viral infection with influenza. Infection of naive mice with different strains of influenza resulted in the rapid expansion of memory CD8+ T cells exhibiting a unique bystander phenotype with significant up-regulation of natural killer group 2D (NKG2D), but not CD25, on the CD44highCD8+ T cells, suggesting an antigen non-specific phenotype. We further confirmed the non-specificity of this phenotype on ovalbumin-specific (OT-I) CD8+ T cells, which are not specific to influenza. These non-specific CD8+ T cells also displayed increased lytic capabilities and were observed primarily in the lung. Thus, influenza infection was shown to induce a rapid, antigen non-specific memory T cell expansion which is restricted to the specific site of inflammation. In contrast, CD8+ T cells of a similar phenotype could be observed in other organs following administration of systemic agonistic anti-CD40 and interleukin-2 immunotherapy, demonstrating that bystander expansion in multiple sites is possible depending on whether the nature of activation is either acute or systemic. Finally, intranasal blockade of NKG2D resulted in a significant increase in viral replication early during the course of infection, suggesting that NKG2D is a critical mediator of anti-influenza responses prior to the initiation of adaptive immunity. These results characterize further the local bystander expansion of tissue-resident, memory CD8+ T cells which, due to their early induction, may play an important NKG2D-mediated, antigen non-specific role during the early stages of viral infection. PMID:23937663

  18. A genome-scale in vivo loss-of-function screen identifies Phf6 as a lineage-specific regulator of leukemia cell growth

    PubMed Central

    Meacham, Corbin E.; Lawton, Lee N.; Soto-Feliciano, Yadira M.; Pritchard, Justin R.; Joughin, Brian A.; Ehrenberger, Tobias; Fenouille, Nina; Zuber, Johannes; Williams, Richard T.; Young, Richard A.

    2015-01-01

    We performed a genome-scale shRNA screen for modulators of B-cell leukemia progression in vivo. Results from this work revealed dramatic distinctions between the relative effects of shRNAs on the growth of tumor cells in culture versus in their native microenvironment. Specifically, we identified many “context-specific” regulators of leukemia development. These included the gene encoding the zinc finger protein Phf6. While inactivating mutations in PHF6 are commonly observed in human myeloid and T-cell malignancies, we found that Phf6 suppression in B-cell malignancies impairs tumor progression. Thus, Phf6 is a “lineage-specific” cancer gene that plays opposing roles in developmentally distinct hematopoietic malignancies. PMID:25737277

  19. Automatic Concept-Based Query Expansion Using Term Relational Pathways Built from a Collection-Specific Association Thesaurus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyall-Wilson, Jennifer Rae

    2013-01-01

    The dissertation research explores an approach to automatic concept-based query expansion to improve search engine performance. It uses a network-based approach for identifying the concept represented by the user's query and is founded on the idea that a collection-specific association thesaurus can be used to create a reasonable representation of…

  20. MtDNA Haplogroup A10 Lineages in Bronze Age Samples Suggest That Ancient Autochthonous Human Groups Contributed to the Specificity of the Indigenous West Siberian Population

    PubMed Central

    Pilipenko, Aleksandr S.; Trapezov, Rostislav O.; Zhuravlev, Anton A.; Molodin, Vyacheslav I.; Romaschenko, Aida G.

    2015-01-01

    Background The craniometric specificity of the indigenous West Siberian human populations cannot be completely explained by the genetic interactions of the western and eastern Eurasian groups recorded in the archaeology of the area from the beginning of the 2nd millennium BC. Anthropologists have proposed another probable explanation: contribution to the genetic structure of West Siberian indigenous populations by ancient human groups, which separated from western and eastern Eurasian populations before the final formation of their phenotypic and genetic features and evolved independently in the region over a long period of time. This hypothesis remains untested. From the genetic point of view, it could be confirmed by the presence in the gene pool of indigenous populations of autochthonous components that evolved in the region over long time periods. The detection of such components, particularly in the mtDNA gene pool, is crucial for further clarification of early regional genetic history. Results and Conclusion We present the results of analysis of mtDNA samples (n = 10) belonging to the A10 haplogroup, from Bronze Age populations of West Siberian forest-steppe (V—I millennium BC), that were identified in a screening study of a large diachronic sample (n = 96). A10 lineages, which are very rare in modern Eurasian populations, were found in all the Bronze Age groups under study. Data on the A10 lineages’ phylogeny and phylogeography in ancient West Siberian and modern Eurasian populations suggest that A10 haplogroup underwent a long-term evolution in West Siberia or arose there autochthonously; thus, the presence of A10 lineages indicates the possible contribution of early autochthonous human groups to the genetic specificity of modern populations, in addition to contributions of later interactions of western and eastern Eurasian populations. PMID:25950581

  1. T-Cell Lineage Determination

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Qi; Bell, J. Jeremiah; Bhandoola, Avinash

    2010-01-01

    Summary T cells originate from hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) in the bone marrow but complete their development in the thymus. HSCs give rise to a variety of non-renewing hematopoietic progenitors, among which a rare subset migrates to the thymus via the bloodstream. The earliest T-cell progenitors identified in the thymus are not T-lineage restricted but possess the ability to give rise to cells of many different lineages. Alternative lineage potentials are gradually lost as progenitors progress towards later developmental stages. Here, we review the early developmental events that might be involved in T-cell lineage fate determination, including the properties of possible thymus settling progenitors, their homing into the thymus, and their T-cell lineage specification and commitment. PMID:20969581

  2. Evolutionary expansion and divergence in a large family of primate-specific zinc finger transcription factor genes

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, A T; Huntley, S; Tran-Gyamfi, M; Baggott, D; Gordon, L; Stubbs, L

    2005-09-28

    Although most genes are conserved as one-to-one orthologs in different mammalian orders, certain gene families have evolved to comprise different numbers and types of protein-coding genes through independent series of gene duplications, divergence and gene loss in each evolutionary lineage. One such family encodes KRAB-zinc finger (KRAB-ZNF) genes, which are likely to function as transcriptional repressors. One KRAB-ZNF subfamily, the ZNF91 clade, has expanded specifically in primates to comprise more than 110 loci in the human genome, yielding large gene clusters in human chromosomes 19 and 7 and smaller clusters or isolated copies at other chromosomal locations. Although phylogenetic analysis indicates that many of these genes arose before the split between old world monkeys and new world monkeys, the ZNF91 subfamily has continued to expand and diversify throughout the evolution of apes and humans. The paralogous loci are distinguished by sequence divergence within their zinc finger arrays indicating a selection for proteins with different DNA binding specificities. RT-PCR and in situ hybridization data show that some of these ZNF genes can have tissue-specific expression patterns, however many KRAB-ZNFs that are near-ubiquitous could also be playing very specific roles in halting target pathways in all tissues except for a few, where the target is released by the absence of its repressor. The number of variant KRAB-ZNF proteins is increased not only because of the large number of loci, but also because many loci can produce multiple splice variants, which because of the modular structure of these genes may have separate and perhaps even conflicting regulatory roles. The lineage-specific duplication and rapid divergence of this family of transcription factor genes suggests a role in determining species-specific biological differences and the evolution of novel primate traits.

  3. Large-scale in vitro expansion of human regulatory T cells with potent xenoantigen-specific suppression.

    PubMed

    Jin, Xi; Lu, Yanrong; Zhao, Ye; Yi, Shounan

    2016-08-01

    Xenotransplantation is a potential solution to the organ donor shortage. Immunosuppression is required for successful application of xenotransplantation but may lead to infection and cancer. Thus, strategies for immune tolerance induction need to be developed. Polyclonal regulatory T cells (Treg) play a central role in the induction and maintenance of immune tolerance and have been shown to protect against islet xenograft rejection in vivo. However, global immune suppression may be mediated by polyclonal Treg immunotherapy and a simple method for in vitro expansion of xenoantigen-specific Treg for efficient Treg application becomes necessary. Human Treg isolated from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were initially cultured with anti-CD3/CD28 beads, rapamycin and IL-2 for 7 days as polyclonal expansion. Expanded Treg were then cocultured with irradiated porcine PBMC as xenoantigen stimulation for three subsequent cycles with 7 days for each cycle in the presence of IL-2 and anti-CD3/CD28 beads. Treg phenotype and suppressive capacity were assessed after each cycle of xenoantigen stimulation. Treg expanded with one cycle of xenoantigen stimulation retained Treg suppressive phenotype but acquired no xenoantigen specificity along with poor expansion efficiency, whereas expansion with two-cycle xenoantigen stimulation resulted in not only more than 800-fold Treg expansion but highly suppressive xenoantigen-specific Treg with effector Treg phenotype. However further increase of stimulation cycles resulted in reduced Treg suppressive potency. This study provides a simple approach to obtain high numbers of xenoantigen-specific Treg for immune tolerance induction in xenotransplantation. PMID:25605448

  4. Green tea epigallocatechin-3-gallate modulates differentiation of naïve CD4⁺ T cells into specific lineage effector cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Junpeng; Pae, Munkyong; Meydani, Simin Nikbin; Wu, Dayong

    2013-04-01

    CD4(+) T helper (Th) subsets Th1, Th9, and Th17 cells are implicated in inducing autoimmunity whereas regulatory T cells (Treg) have a protective effect. We and others have previously shown that epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) attenuates experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) and alters CD4(+) T cell subpopulations. In this study, we investigated how EGCG impacts differentiation of naïve CD4(+) T cells into different effector lineages and report that EGCG impeded Th1, Th9, and Th17 differentiation and prevented IL-6-induced suppression of Treg development. We further showed that EGCG inhibited T-bet, PU.1, and RORγt, the specific transcription factors for Th1, Th9, and Th17 differentiation, respectively. These effects, in turn, may be mediated by EGCG-induced downregulation of transducers p-STAT1 and p-STAT4 for Th1, and p-STAT3 for Th17. EGCG-induced change in Th17/Treg balance may be mediated by its inhibition of IL-6 signaling because EGCG inhibited soluble IL-6R, membrane gp130, and IL-6-induced phosphorylation of STAT3. This notion was further supported by the in vivo results showing inhibited IL-6 and soluble IL-6R but increased soluble gp130 levels in plasma from EAE mice fed EGCG. Together, our results suggest that EGCG modulates development of CD4(+) T cell lineages through impacting their respective and interactive regulatory networks ultimately leading to an attenuated autoimmune response. PMID:23064699

  5. Risk assessment of relapse by lineage-specific monitoring of chimerism in children undergoing allogeneic stem cell transplantation for acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Preuner, Sandra; Peters, Christina; Pötschger, Ulrike; Daxberger, Helga; Fritsch, Gerhard; Geyeregger, Rene; Schrauder, André; von Stackelberg, Arend; Schrappe, Martin; Bader, Peter; Ebell, Wolfram; Eckert, Cornelia; Lang, Peter; Sykora, Karl-Walter; Schrum, Johanna; Kremens, Bernhard; Ehlert, Karoline; Albert, Michael H.; Meisel, Roland; Lawitschka, Anita; Mann, Georg; Panzer-Grümayer, Renate; Güngör, Tayfun; Holter, Wolfgang; Strahm, Brigitte; Gruhn, Bernd; Schulz, Ansgar; Woessmann, Wilhelm; Lion, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is required as rescue therapy in about 20% of pediatric patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. However, the relapse rates are considerable, and relapse confers a poor outcome. Early assessment of the risk of relapse is therefore of paramount importance for the development of appropriate measures. We used the EuroChimerism approach to investigate the potential impact of lineage-specific chimerism testing for relapse-risk analysis in 162 pediatric patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia after allogeneic stem cell transplantation in a multicenter study based on standardized transplantation protocols. Within a median observation time of 4.5 years, relapses have occurred in 41/162 patients at a median of 0.6 years after transplantation (range, 0.13–5.7 years). Prospective screening at defined consecutive time points revealed that reappearance of recipient-derived cells within the CD34+ and CD8+ cell subsets display the most significant association with the occurrence of relapses with hazard ratios of 5.2 (P=0.003) and 2.8 (P=0.008), respectively. The appearance of recipient cells after a period of pure donor chimerism in the CD34+ and CD8+ leukocyte subsets revealed dynamics indicative of a significantly elevated risk of relapse or imminent disease recurrence. Assessment of chimerism within these lineages can therefore provide complementary information for further diagnostic and, potentially, therapeutic purposes aiming at the prevention of overt relapse. This study was registered at clinical.trials.gov with the number NC01423747. PMID:26869631

  6. Smad2 and Smad3 have differential sensitivity in relaying TGFβ signaling and inversely regulate early lineage specification

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ling; Liu, Xu; Ren, Xudong; Tian, Yue; Chen, Zhenyu; Xu, Xiangjie; Du, Yanhua; Jiang, Cizhong; Fang, Yujiang; Liu, Zhongliang; Fan, Beibei; Zhang, Quanbin; Jin, Guohua; Yang, Xiao; Zhang, Xiaoqing

    2016-01-01

    The transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ) related signaling is one of the most important signaling pathways regulating early developmental events. Smad2 and Smad3 are structurally similar and it is mostly considered that they are equally important in mediating TGFβ signals. Here, we show that Smad3 is an insensitive TGFβ transducer as compared with Smad2. Smad3 preferentially localizes within the nucleus and is thus sequestered from membrane signaling. The ability of Smad3 in oligomerization with Smad4 upon agonist stimulation is also impaired given its unique linker region. Smad2 mediated TGFβ signaling plays a crucial role in epiblast development and patterning of three germ layers. However, signaling unrelated nuclear localized Smad3 is dispensable for TGFβ signaling-mediated epiblast specification, but important for early neural development, an event blocked by TGFβ/Smad2 signaling. Both Smad2 and Smad3 bind to the conserved Smads binding element (SBE), but they show nonoverlapped target gene binding specificity and differential transcriptional activity. We conclude that Smad2 and Smad3 possess differential sensitivities in relaying TGFβ signaling and have distinct roles in regulating early developmental events. PMID:26905010

  7. Smad2 and Smad3 have differential sensitivity in relaying TGFβ signaling and inversely regulate early lineage specification.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ling; Liu, Xu; Ren, Xudong; Tian, Yue; Chen, Zhenyu; Xu, Xiangjie; Du, Yanhua; Jiang, Cizhong; Fang, Yujiang; Liu, Zhongliang; Fan, Beibei; Zhang, Quanbin; Jin, Guohua; Yang, Xiao; Zhang, Xiaoqing

    2016-01-01

    The transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ) related signaling is one of the most important signaling pathways regulating early developmental events. Smad2 and Smad3 are structurally similar and it is mostly considered that they are equally important in mediating TGFβ signals. Here, we show that Smad3 is an insensitive TGFβ transducer as compared with Smad2. Smad3 preferentially localizes within the nucleus and is thus sequestered from membrane signaling. The ability of Smad3 in oligomerization with Smad4 upon agonist stimulation is also impaired given its unique linker region. Smad2 mediated TGFβ signaling plays a crucial role in epiblast development and patterning of three germ layers. However, signaling unrelated nuclear localized Smad3 is dispensable for TGFβ signaling-mediated epiblast specification, but important for early neural development, an event blocked by TGFβ/Smad2 signaling. Both Smad2 and Smad3 bind to the conserved Smads binding element (SBE), but they show nonoverlapped target gene binding specificity and differential transcriptional activity. We conclude that Smad2 and Smad3 possess differential sensitivities in relaying TGFβ signaling and have distinct roles in regulating early developmental events. PMID:26905010

  8. Novel flaviviruses from mosquitoes: Mosquito-specific evolutionary lineages within the phylogenetic group of mosquito-borne flaviviruses

    PubMed Central

    Huhtamo, Eili; Cook, Shelley; Moureau, Gregory; Uzcátegui, Nathalie Y.; Sironen, Tarja; Kuivanen, Suvi; Putkuri, Niina; Kurkela, Satu; Harbach, Ralph E.; Firth, Andrew E.; Vapalahti, Olli; Gould, Ernest A.; de Lamballerie, Xavier

    2014-01-01

    Novel flaviviruses that are genetically related to pathogenic mosquito-borne flaviviruses (MBFV) have been isolated from mosquitoes in various geographical locations, including Finland. We isolated and characterized another novel virus of this group from Finnish mosquitoes collected in 2007, designated as Ilomantsi virus (ILOV). Unlike the MBFV that infect both vertebrates and mosquitoes, the MBFV-related viruses appear to be specific to mosquitoes similar to the insect-specific flaviviruses (ISFs). In this overview of MBFV-related viruses we conclude that they differ from the ISFs genetically and antigenically. Phylogenetic analyses separated the MBFV-related viruses isolated in Africa, the Middle East and South America from those isolated in Europe and Asia. Serological cross-reactions of MBFV-related viruses with other flaviviruses and their potential for vector-borne transmission require further characterization. The divergent MBFV-related viruses are probably significantly under sampled to date and provide new information on the variety, properties and evolution of vector-borne flaviviruses. PMID:25108382

  9. Role of lymphocyte-specific protein tyrosine kinase (LCK) in the expansion of glioma-initiating cells by fractionated radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Rae-Kwon; Yoon, Chang-Hwan; Hyun, Kyung-Hwan; Lee, Hyejin; An, Sungkwan; Park, Myung-Jin; Kim, Min-Jung; Lee, Su-Jae

    2010-11-26

    Research highlights: {yields} Activation of Lymphocyte-specific protein tyrosine kinase (LCK) is involved in the fractionated radiation-induced expansion of glioma stem-like cells. {yields} Inhibition of LCK prevents acquisition of fractionated radiation-induced resistance to chemotherapeutic treatment. {yields} LCK activity is critical for the maintenance of self-renewal in glioma stem-like cells. -- Abstract: Brain cancers frequently recur or progress as focal masses after treatment with ionizing radiation. Radiation used to target gliomas may expand the cancer stem cell population and enhance the aggressiveness of tumors; however, the mechanisms underlying the expansion of cancer stem cell population after radiation have remained unclear. In this study, we show that LCK (lymphocyte-specific protein tyrosine kinase) is involved in the fractionated radiation-induced expansion of the glioma-initiating cell population and acquisition of resistance to anticancer treatments. Fractionated radiation caused a selective increase in the activity of LCK, a Src family non-receptor tyrosine kinase. The activities of other Src family kinases Src, Fyn, and Lyn were not significantly increased. Moreover, knockdown of LCK expression with a specific small interfering RNA (siRNA) effectively blocked fractionated radiation-induced expansion of the CD133{sup +} cell population. siRNA targeting of LCK also suppressed fractionated radiation-induced expression of the glioma stem cell marker proteins CD133, Nestin, and Musashi. Expression of the known self-renewal-related proteins Notch2 and Sox2 in glioma cells treated with fractionated radiation was also downregulated by LCK inhibition. Moreover, siRNA-mediated knockdown of LCK effectively restored the sensitivity of glioma cells to cisplatin and etoposide. These results indicate that the non-receptor tyrosine kinase LCK is critically involved in fractionated radiation-induced expansion of the glioma-initiating cell population and

  10. Analysis of expression in the Anopheles gambiae developing testes reveals rapidly evolving lineage-specific genes in mosquitoes

    PubMed Central

    Krzywinska, Elzbieta; Krzywinski, Jaroslaw

    2009-01-01

    Background Male mosquitoes do not feed on blood and are not involved in delivery of pathogens to humans. Consequently, they are seldom the subjects of research, which results in a very poor understanding of their biology. To gain insights into male developmental processes we sought to identify genes transcribed exclusively in the reproductive tissues of male Anopheles gambiae pupae. Results Using a cDNA subtraction strategy, five male-specifically or highly male-biased expressed genes were isolated, four of which remain unannotated in the An. gambiae genome. Spatial and temporal expression patterns suggest that each of these genes is involved in the mid-late stages of spermatogenesis. Their sequences are rapidly evolving; however, two genes possess clear homologs in a wide range of taxa and one of these probably acts in a sperm motility control mechanism conserved in many organisms, including humans. The other three genes have no match to sequences from non-mosquito taxa, thus can be regarded as orphans. RNA in situ hybridization demonstrated that one of the orphans is transcribed in spermatids, which suggests its involvement in sperm maturation. Two other orphans have unknown functions. Expression analysis of orthologs of all five genes indicated that male-biased transcription was not conserved in the majority of cases in Aedes and Culex. Conclusion Discovery of testis-expressed orphan genes in mosquitoes opens new prospects for the development of innovative control methods. The orphan encoded proteins may represent unique targets of selective anti-mosquito sterilizing agents that will not affect non-target organisms. PMID:19580678

  11. Bacterial Niche-Specific Genome Expansion Is Coupled with Highly Frequent Gene Disruptions in Deep-Sea Sediments

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yong; Yang, Jiang Ke; Lee, On On; Li, Tie Gang; Al-Suwailem, Abdulaziz; Danchin, Antoine; Qian, Pei-Yuan

    2011-01-01

    The complexity and dynamics of microbial metagenomes may be evaluated by genome size, gene duplication and the disruption rate between lineages. In this study, we pyrosequenced the metagenomes of microbes obtained from the brine and sediment of a deep-sea brine pool in the Red Sea to explore the possible genomic adaptations of the microbes in response to environmental changes. The microbes from the brine and sediments (both surface and deep layers) of the Atlantis II Deep brine pool had similar communities whereas the effective genome size varied from 7.4 Mb in the brine to more than 9 Mb in the sediment. This genome expansion in the sediment samples was due to gene duplication as evidenced by enrichment of the homologs. The duplicated genes were highly disrupted, on average by 47.6% and 70% for the surface and deep layers of the Atlantis II Deep sediment samples, respectively. The disruptive effects appeared to be mainly due to point mutations and frameshifts. In contrast, the homologs from the Atlantis II Deep brine sample were highly conserved and they maintained relatively small copy numbers. Likely, the adaptation of the microbes in the sediments was coupled with pseudogenizations and possibly functional diversifications of the paralogs in the expanded genomes. The maintenance of the pseudogenes in the large genomes is discussed. PMID:22216192

  12. Functional Genetic Diversity among Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex Clinical Isolates: Delineation of Conserved Core and Lineage-Specific Transcriptomes during Intracellular Survival

    PubMed Central

    Homolka, Susanne; Niemann, Stefan; Russell, David G.; Rohde, Kyle H.

    2010-01-01

    Tuberculosis exerts a tremendous burden on global health, with ∼9 million new infections and ∼2 million deaths annually. The Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC) was initially regarded as a highly homogeneous population; however, recent data suggest the causative agents of tuberculosis are more genetically and functionally diverse than appreciated previously. The impact of this natural variation on the virulence and clinical manifestations of the pathogen remains largely unknown. This report examines the effect of genetic diversity among MTC clinical isolates on global gene expression and survival within macrophages. We discovered lineage-specific transcription patterns in vitro and distinct intracellular growth profiles associated with specific responses to host-derived environmental cues. Strain comparisons also facilitated delineation of a core intracellular transcriptome, including genes with highly conserved regulation across the global panel of clinical isolates. This study affords new insights into the genetic information that M. tuberculosis has conserved under selective pressure during its long-term interactions with its human host. PMID:20628579

  13. Calnexin induces expansion of antigen-specific CD4(+) T cells that confer immunity to fungal ascomycetes via conserved epitopes.

    PubMed

    Wüthrich, Marcel; Brandhorst, Tristan T; Sullivan, Thomas D; Filutowicz, Hanna; Sterkel, Alana; Stewart, Douglas; Li, Mengyi; Lerksuthirat, Tassanee; LeBert, Vanessa; Shen, Zu Ting; Ostroff, Gary; Deepe, George S; Hung, Chiung Yu; Cole, Garry; Walter, Jennifer A; Jenkins, Marc K; Klein, Bruce

    2015-04-01

    Fungal infections remain a threat due to the lack of broad-spectrum fungal vaccines and protective antigens. Recent studies showed that attenuated Blastomyces dermatitidis confers protection via T cell recognition of an unknown but conserved antigen. Using transgenic CD4(+) T cells recognizing this antigen, we identify an amino acid determinant within the chaperone calnexin that is conserved across diverse fungal ascomycetes. Calnexin, typically an ER protein, also localizes to the surface of yeast, hyphae, and spores. T cell epitope mapping unveiled a 13-residue sequence conserved across Ascomycota. Infection with divergent ascomycetes, including dimorphic fungi, opportunistic molds, and the agent causing white nose syndrome in bats, induces expansion of calnexin-specific CD4(+) T cells. Vaccine delivery of calnexin in glucan particles induces fungal antigen-specific CD4(+) T cell expansion and resistance to lethal challenge with multiple fungal pathogens. Thus, the immunogenicity and conservation of calnexin make this fungal protein a promising vaccine target. PMID:25800545

  14. Calnexin induces expansion of antigen-specific CD4+ T cells that confer immunity to fungal ascomycetes via conserved epitopes

    PubMed Central

    Wüthrich, Marcel; Brandhorst, Tristan T.; Sullivan, Thomas D.; Filutowicz, Hanna; Sterkel, Alana; Stewart, Douglas; Li, Mengyi; Lerksuthirat, Tassanee; LeBert, Vanessa; Shen, Zu Ting; Ostroff, Gary; Deepe, George S.; Hung, Chiung Yu; Cole, Garry; Walter, Jennifer A.; Jenkins, Marc K.; Klein, Bruce

    2015-01-01

    Fungal infections remain a threat due to the lack of broad spectrum fungal vaccines and protective antigens. Recent studies showed that attenuated Blastomyces dermatitidis confers protection via T cell recognition of an unknown, but conserved antigen. Using transgenic CD4+ T cells recognizing this antigen, we identify an amino acid determinant within the chaperone calnexin that is conserved across diverse fungal ascomycetes. Calnexin, typically an ER protein, also localizes to the surface of yeast, hyphae and spores. T cell epitope mapping unveiled a 13-residue sequence conserved across Ascomycota. Infection with divergent ascomycetes including dimorphic fungi, opportunistic molds, and the agent causing white nose syndrome in bats induces expansion of calnexin-specific CD4+ T cells. Vaccine delivery of calnexin in glucan particles induces fungal antigen-specific CD4+ T cell expansion and resistance to lethal challenge with multiple fungal pathogens. Thus, the immunogeneticity and conservation of calnexin make this fungal protein a promising vaccine target. PMID:25800545

  15. Comparative Genomic Analysis Reveals Multiple Long Terminal Repeats, Lineage-Specific Amplification, and Frequent Interelement Recombination for Cassandra Retrotransposon in Pear (Pyrus bretschneideri Rehd.)

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Hao; Du, Jianchang; Li, Leiting; Jin, Cong; Fan, Lian; Li, Meng; Wu, Jun; Zhang, Shaoling

    2014-01-01

    Cassandra transposable elements belong to a specific group of terminal-repeat retrotransposons in miniature (TRIM). Although Cassandra TRIM elements have been found in almost all vascular plants, detailed investigations on the nature, abundance, amplification timeframe, and evolution have not been performed in an individual genome. We therefore conducted a comprehensive analysis of Cassandra retrotransposons using the newly sequenced pear genome along with four other Rosaceae species, including apple, peach, mei, and woodland strawberry. Our data reveal several interesting findings for this particular retrotransposon family: 1) A large number of the intact copies contain three, four, or five long terminal repeats (LTRs) (∼20% in pear); 2) intact copies and solo LTRs with or without target site duplications are both common (∼80% vs. 20%) in each genome; 3) the elements exhibit an overall unbiased distribution among the chromosomes; 4) the elements are most successfully amplified in pear (5,032 copies); and 5) the evolutionary relationships of these elements vary among different lineages, species, and evolutionary time. These results indicate that Cassandra retrotransposons contain more complex structures (elements with multiple LTRs) than what we have known previously, and that frequent interelement unequal recombination followed by transposition may play a critical role in shaping and reshaping host genomes. Thus this study provides insights into the property, propensity, and molecular mechanisms governing the formation and amplification of Cassandra retrotransposons, and enhances our understanding of the structural variation, evolutionary history, and transposition process of LTR retrotransposons in plants. PMID:24899073

  16. Histone Demethylase Jumonji AT-rich Interactive Domain 1B (JARID1B) Controls Mammary Gland Development by Regulating Key Developmental and Lineage Specification Genes*

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Mike Ran; Cao, Jian; Liu, Zongzhi; Huh, Sung Jin; Polyak, Kornelia; Yan, Qin

    2014-01-01

    The JmjC domain-containing H3K4 histone demethylase jumonji AT-rich interactive domain 1B (JARID1B) (also known as KDM5B and PLU1) is overexpressed in breast cancer and is a potential target for breast cancer treatment. To investigate the in vivo function of JARID1B, we developed Jarid1b−/− mice and characterized their phenotypes in detail. Unlike previously reported Jarid1b−/− strains, the majority of these Jarid1b−/− mice were viable beyond embryonic and neonatal stages. This allowed us to further examine phenotypes associated with the loss of JARID1B in pubertal development and pregnancy. These Jarid1b−/− mice exhibited decreased body weight, premature mortality, decreased female fertility, and delayed mammary gland development. Related to these phenotypes, JARID1B loss decreased serum estrogen level and reduced mammary epithelial cell proliferation in early puberty. In mammary epithelial cells, JARID1B loss diminished the expression of key regulators for mammary morphogenesis and luminal lineage specification, including FOXA1 and estrogen receptor α. Mechanistically, JARID1B was required for GATA3 recruitment to the Foxa1 promoter to activate Foxa1 expression. These results indicate that JARID1B positively regulates mammary ductal development through both extrinsic and cell-autonomous mechanisms. PMID:24802759

  17. Mixed Lineage Leukemia 5 (MLL5) Protein Stability Is Cooperatively Regulated by O-GlcNac Transferase (OGT) and Ubiquitin Specific Protease 7 (USP7)

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Xiaodan; Jiang, Wei; Zhou, Peipei; Liu, Lulu; Wan, Xiaoling; Yuan, Xiujie; Wang, Xizi; Chen, Miao; Chen, Jun; Yang, Jing; Kong, Chao; Li, Bin; Peng, Chao; Wong, Catherine C. L.; Hou, Fajian; Zhang, Yan

    2015-01-01

    Mixed lineage leukemia 5 (MLL5) protein is a trithorax family histone 3 lysine 4 (H3K4) methyltransferase that regulates diverse biological processes, including cell cycle progression, hematopoiesis and cancer. The mechanisms by which MLL5 protein stability is regulated have remained unclear to date. Here, we showed that MLL5 protein stability is cooperatively regulated by O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT) and ubiquitin-specific protease 7 (USP7). Depletion of OGT in cells led to a decrease in the MLL5 protein level through ubiquitin/proteasome-dependent proteolytic degradation, whereas ectopic expression of OGT protein suppressed MLL5 ubiquitylation. We further identified deubiquitinase USP7 as a novel MLL5-associated protein using mass spectrometry. USP7 stabilized the MLL5 protein through direct binding and deubiquitylation. Loss of USP7 induced degradation of MLL5 protein. Conversely, overexpression of USP7, but not a catalytically inactive USP7 mutant, led to decreased ubiquitylation and increased MLL5 stability. Co-immunoprecipitation and co-immunostaining assays revealed that MLL5, OGT and USP7 interact with each other to form a stable ternary complex that is predominantly located in the nucleus. In addition, upregulation of MLL5 expression was correlated with increased expression of OGT and USP7 in human primary cervical adenocarcinomas. Our results collectively reveal a novel molecular mechanism underlying regulation of MLL5 protein stability and provide new insights into the functional interplay among O-GlcNAc transferase, deubiquitinase and histone methyltransferase. PMID:26678539

  18. Postnatal stem cell survival: does the niche, a rare harbor where to resist the ebb tide of differentiation, also provide lineage-specific instructions?

    PubMed

    Kindler, Vincent

    2005-10-01

    Postnatal stem cells regulate the homeostasis of the majority of our tissues. They continuously generate new progenitors and mature, functional cells to replace old cells, which cannot assume the tissue function anymore and are eliminated. Blood, skin, gut mucosa, muscle, cartilage, nerves, cornea, retina, liver, and many other structures are regulated by stem cells. As a result of their ability to produce large numbers of functionally mature cells, postnatal stem cells represent a promising tool for regenerative therapy. Indeed, unmanipulated stem cells or their progeny amplified in vitro are already used in some clinical applications to restore the function of injured or genetically deficient tissues. However, despite our cumulating understanding concerning postnatal stem cells, many aspects of their functionality remain unclear. For instance, in most tissues, we cannot reliably define the phenotype of the postnatal stem cells sustaining its survival. We do not know to which extent the environment surrounding the stem cell-the niche-which is a key actor insuring stem cell self-maintenance, is also implicated in the maintenance of stem cell lineage specificity. Moreover, we have to clarify whether postnatal stem cells are capable of undertaking "transdifferentiation", that is, the conversion of one cell type into another under physiological conditions. Answering these questions should help us to draw a more accurate picture of postnatal stem cell biology and should lead to the design of safe, effective therapies. PMID:16199730

  19. Characterization of MAT gene functions in the life cycle of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum reveals a lineage-specific MAT gene functioning in apothecium morphogenesis.

    PubMed

    Doughan, Benjamin; Rollins, Jeffrey A

    2016-09-01

    Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib.) de Bary is a phytopathogenic fungus that relies on the completion of the sexual cycle to initiate aerial infections. The sexual cycle produces apothecia required for inoculum dispersal. In this study, insight into the regulation of apothecial multicellular development was pursued through functional characterization of mating-type genes. These genes are hypothesized to encode master regulatory proteins required for aspects of sexual development ranging from fertilization through fertile fruiting body development. Experimentally, loss-of-function mutants were created for the conserved core mating-type genes (MAT1-1-1, and MAT1-2-1), and the lineage-specific genes found only in S. sclerotiorum and closely related fungi (MAT1-1-5, and MAT1-2-4). The MAT1-1-1, MAT1-1-5, and MAT1-2-1 mutants are able to form ascogonia but are blocked in all aspects of apothecium development. These mutants also exhibit defects in secondary sexual characters including lower numbers of spermatia. The MAT1-2-4 mutants are delayed in carpogenic germination accompanied with altered disc morphogenesis and ascospore production. They too produce lower numbers of spermatia. All four MAT gene mutants showed alterations in the expression of putative pheromone precursor (Ppg-1) and pheromone receptor (PreA, PreB) genes. Our findings support the involvement of MAT genes in sexual fertility, gene regulation, meiosis, and morphogenesis in S. sclerotiorum. PMID:27567717

  20. Synteny and comparative analysis of miRNA retention, conservation, and structure across Brassicaceae reveals lineage- and sub-genome-specific changes.

    PubMed

    Jain, Aditi; Das, Sandip

    2016-05-01

    The recent availability of genome sequences together with syntenic block information for Brassicaceae offers an opportunity to study microRNA (miRNA) evolution across this family. We employed a synteny-based comparative genomics strategy to unambiguously identify miRNA homologs from the genome sequence of members of Brassicaceae. Such an analysis of miRNA across Brassicaceae allowed us to classify miRNAs as conserved, lineage-, karyotype- and sub-genome-specific. The differential loss of miRNA from sub-genomes in polyploid genomes of Brassica rapa and Brassica oleracea shows that miRNA also follows the rules of gene fractionation as observed in the case of protein-coding genes. The study of mature and miR* region of precursors revealed instances of in-dels and SNPs which reflect the evolutionary history of the genomes. High level of conservation in miR* regions in some cases points to their functional relevance which needs to be further investigated. We further show that sequence and length variability in precursor sequences can affect the free energy and foldback structure of miRNA which may ultimately affect their biogenesis and expression in the biological system. PMID:26873704

  1. Direct somatic lineage conversion.

    PubMed

    Tanabe, Koji; Haag, Daniel; Wernig, Marius

    2015-10-19

    The predominant view of embryonic development and cell differentiation has been that rigid and even irreversible epigenetic marks are laid down along the path of cell specialization ensuring the proper silencing of unrelated lineage programmes. This model made the prediction that specialized cell types are stable and cannot be redirected into other lineages. Accordingly, early attempts to change the identity of somatic cells had little success and was limited to conversions between closely related cell types. Nuclear transplantation experiments demonstrated, however, that specialized cells even from adult mammals can be reprogrammed into a totipotent state. The discovery that a small combination of transcription factors can reprogramme cells to pluripotency without the need of oocytes further supported the view that these epigenetic barriers can be overcome much easier than assumed, but the extent of this flexibility was still unclear. When we showed that a differentiated mesodermal cell can be directly converted to a differentiated ectodermal cell without a pluripotent intermediate, it was suggested that in principle any cell type could be converted into any other cell type. Indeed, the work of several groups in recent years has provided many more examples of direct somatic lineage conversions. Today, the question is not anymore whether a specific cell type can be generated by direct reprogramming but how it can be induced. PMID:26416679

  2. Ancestral reconstruction of tick lineages.

    PubMed

    Mans, Ben J; de Castro, Minique H; Pienaar, Ronel; de Klerk, Daniel; Gaven, Philasande; Genu, Siyamcela; Latif, Abdalla A

    2016-06-01

    Ancestral reconstruction in its fullest sense aims to describe the complete evolutionary history of a lineage. This depends on accurate phylogenies and an understanding of the key characters of each parental lineage. An attempt is made to delineate our current knowledge with regard to the ancestral reconstruction of the tick (Ixodida) lineage. Tick characters may be assigned to Core of Life, Lineages of Life or Edges of Life phenomena depending on how far back these characters may be assigned in the evolutionary Tree of Life. These include housekeeping genes, sub-cellular systems, heme processing (Core of Life), development, moulting, appendages, nervous and organ systems, homeostasis, respiration (Lineages of Life), specific adaptations to a blood-feeding lifestyle, including the complexities of salivary gland secretions and tick-host interactions (Edges of Life). The phylogenetic relationships of lineages, their origins and importance in ancestral reconstruction are discussed. Uncertainties with respect to systematic relationships, ancestral reconstruction and the challenges faced in comparative transcriptomics (next-generation sequencing approaches) are highlighted. While almost 150 years of information regarding tick biology have been assembled, progress in recent years indicates that we are in the infancy of understanding tick evolution. Even so, broad reconstructions can be made with relation to biological features associated with various lineages. Conservation of characters shared with sister and parent lineages are evident, but appreciable differences are present in the tick lineage indicating modification with descent, as expected for Darwinian evolutionary theory. Many of these differences can be related to the hematophagous lifestyle of ticks. PMID:26868413

  3. Cutting edge: stage-specific requirement of IL-18 for antiviral NK cell expansion.

    PubMed

    Madera, Sharline; Sun, Joseph C

    2015-02-15

    Although NK cells are considered part of the innate immune system, recent studies have demonstrated the ability of Ag-experienced NK cells to become long-lived and contribute to potent recall responses similar to T and B cells. The precise signals that promote the generation of a long-lived NK cell response are largely undefined. In this article, we demonstrate that NK cells require IL-18 signaling to generate a robust primary response during mouse CMV (MCMV) infection but do not require this signal for memory cell maintenance or recall responses. IL-12 signaling and STAT4 in activated NK cells increased the expression of the adaptor protein MyD88, which mediates signaling downstream of the IL-18 and IL-1 receptors. During MCMV infection, NK cells required MyD88, but not IL-1R, for optimal expansion. Thus, an IL-18-MyD88 signaling axis facilitates the prolific expansion of NK cells in response to primary viral infection, but not recall responses. PMID:25589075

  4. Stage-specific requirement of IL-18 for antiviral NK cell expansion

    PubMed Central

    Madera, Sharline; Sun, Joseph C.

    2014-01-01

    Although natural killer (NK) cells are considered part of the innate immune system, recent studies have demonstrated the ability of antigen-experienced NK cells to become long-lived and contribute to potent recall responses similar to T and B cells. The precise signals that promote the generation of a long-lived NK cell response are largely undefined. Here, we demonstrate that NK cells require interleukin (IL)-18 signaling to generate a robust primary response during mouse cytomegalovirus (MCMV) infection, but do not require this signal for memory cell maintenance or recall responses. IL-12 signaling and STAT4 in activated NK cells increased the expression of the adaptor protein MyD88, which mediates signaling downstream of the IL-18 and IL-1 receptors. During MCMV infection, NK cells required MyD88 but not IL-1 receptor for optimal expansion. Thus, an IL-18-MyD88 signaling axis facilitates the prolific expansion of NK cells in response to primary viral infection, but not recall responses. PMID:25589075

  5. Ebf1-mediated down-regulation of Id2 and Id3 is essential for specification of the B cell lineage

    PubMed Central

    Thal, Melissa A.; Carvalho, Thiago L.; He, Ti; Kim, Hyung-Gyoon; Gao, Hua; Hagman, James; Klug, Christopher A.

    2009-01-01

    Gene knockout experiments in mice have suggested a hierarchical model of early B cell commitment wherein E2A proteins (E47 and E12) activate early B cell factor (Ebf1), which in turn activates expression of the B cell commitment factor, Pax5. In IL-7 receptor alpha (IL-7Rα) knockout mice, B cell development is blocked before B-lineage commitment at the prepro-B cell stage in adult animals. In IL-7Rα−/− prepro-B cells, E47 is expressed and yet is insufficient to transcriptionally activate the putative downstream target gene, Ebf1. In this study, we show that further increases of E47 expression in IL-7Rα−/− prepro-B cells fails to activate Ebf1, but rather leads to a dramatic induction of the E2A inhibitory factors, Id2 and Id3. In contrast, enforced expression of Ebf1 in IL-7Rα−/− bone marrow potently down-regulates Id2 and Id3 mRNA expression and restores B cell differentiation in vivo. Down-regulation of both Id2 and Id3 during B cell specification is essential in that overexpression of either Id2 or Id3 in wild-type bone marrow blocks B cell specification at the prepro-B cell stage. Collectively, these studies suggest a model where Ebf1 induction specifies the B cell fate by dramatically increasing activity of E47 at the posttranslational level. PMID:19122139

  6. Integrative View of α2,3-Sialyltransferases (ST3Gal) Molecular and Functional Evolution in Deuterostomes: Significance of Lineage-Specific Losses

    PubMed Central

    Petit, Daniel; Teppa, Elin; Mir, Anne-Marie; Vicogne, Dorothée; Thisse, Christine; Thisse, Bernard; Filloux, Cyril; Harduin-Lepers, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Sialyltransferases are responsible for the synthesis of a diverse range of sialoglycoconjugates predicted to be pivotal to deuterostomes’ evolution. In this work, we reconstructed the evolutionary history of the metazoan α2,3-sialyltransferases family (ST3Gal), a subset of sialyltransferases encompassing six subfamilies (ST3Gal I–ST3Gal VI) functionally characterized in mammals. Exploration of genomic and expressed sequence tag databases and search of conserved sialylmotifs led to the identification of a large data set of st3gal-related gene sequences. Molecular phylogeny and large scale sequence similarity network analysis identified four new vertebrate subfamilies called ST3Gal III-r, ST3Gal VII, ST3Gal VIII, and ST3Gal IX. To address the issue of the origin and evolutionary relationships of the st3gal-related genes, we performed comparative syntenic mapping of st3gal gene loci combined to ancestral genome reconstruction. The ten vertebrate ST3Gal subfamilies originated from genome duplication events at the base of vertebrates and are organized in three distinct and ancient groups of genes predating the early deuterostomes. Inferring st3gal gene family history identified also several lineage-specific gene losses, the significance of which was explored in a functional context. Toward this aim, spatiotemporal distribution of st3gal genes was analyzed in zebrafish and bovine tissues. In addition, molecular evolutionary analyses using specificity determining position and coevolved amino acid predictions led to the identification of amino acid residues with potential implication in functional divergence of vertebrate ST3Gal. We propose a detailed scenario of the evolutionary relationships of st3gal genes coupled to a conceptual framework of the evolution of ST3Gal functions. PMID:25534026

  7. Counter-ion specificity explored in abnormal expansion of supra-molecular aggregates in aqueous solution of alkaline metal salts.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ningdong; Tao, Jiaojiao; Wei, Shenghui; Chen, Mingming; Wei, Chengsha; Li, Liangbin

    2015-09-21

    Ionic effects in aqueous solution of macro-ions showing specificity and unconventional characters, respectively, receive a lot of interests recently; however, the complexity of specific ion effects in unconventional phenomena remains ambiguous. In this study, the effects of univalent ions on aggregation of supra-molecular nano-fibrils with charged carboxylate groups on the surface as a prototype of macro-ions are investigated by Small Angle X-ray Scattering (SAXS) in aqueous solutions of alkaline metal chlorides. It is found that the columnar bundles of charged fibrils are expanded in certain salt concentration range contradicting the conventional screening effects of salts. The degree of expansion is dominated by cations as Na(+) induces drastic effects in comparison to rather gentle changes from K(+) and Cs(+). The specific cations effects observed by SAXS correlate with the pH behavior of the solutions, an indicator of surface charge, or number of carboxylate groups along the supra-molecular fibrils. It is postulated that while Na(+) with stronger affinity to carboxylates apparently reduces the surface charge, K(+) and Cs(+) only weakly interact with carboxylates and induce minor changes, accounting for the cation-sensitive aggregation behavior of fibrils observed by SAXS. By probing the bundling aggregation of charged supra-molecular nano-fibrils in salty water, we provide direct evidence of specific counter-ion effects in unusual expansion caused by univalent salts. PMID:26395732

  8. Virtual stenting workflow with vessel-specific initialization and adaptive expansion for neurovascular stents and flow diverters.

    PubMed

    Paliwal, Nikhil; Yu, Hongyu; Xu, Jinhui; Xiang, Jianping; Siddiqui, Adnan H; Yang, Xinjian; Li, Haiyun; Meng, Hui

    2016-10-01

    Endovascular intervention using traditional neurovascular stents and densely braided flow diverters (FDs) have become the preferred treatment strategies for traditionally challenging intracranial aneurysms. Modeling stent and FD deployment in patient-specific aneurysms and its flow modification results prior to the actual intervention can potentially predict the patient outcome and treatment optimization. We present a clinically focused, streamlined virtual stenting workflow that efficiently simulates stent and FD treatment in patient-specific aneurysms based on expanding a simplex mesh structure. The simplex mesh is generated using an innovative vessel-specific initialization technique, which uses the patient's parent artery diameter to identify the initial position of the simplex mesh inside the artery. A novel adaptive expansion algorithm enables the acceleration of deployment process by adjusting the expansion forces based on the distance of the simplex mesh from the parent vessel. The virtual stenting workflow was tested by modeling the treatment of two patient-specific aneurysms using the Enterprise stent and the Pipeline Embolization Device (commercial FD). Both devices were deployed in the aneurysm models in a few seconds. Computational fluid dynamics analyses of pre- and post-treatment aneurysmal hemodynamics show flow reduction in the aneurysmal sac in treated aneurysms, with the FD diverting more flow than the Enterprise stent. The test results show that this workflow can rapidly simulate clinical deployment of stents and FDs, hence paving the way for its future clinical implementation. PMID:26899135

  9. A cyclopropene-modified nucleotide for site-specific RNA labeling using genetic alphabet expansion transcription.

    PubMed

    Eggert, F; Kath-Schorr, S

    2016-06-01

    Site-specific RNA modification with methyl cyclopropene moieties is performed by T7 in vitro transcription. An existing unnatural base is functionalized with a cyclopropene moiety and used in transcription reactions to produce site-specifically cyclopropene-modified RNA molecules. The posttranscriptional inverse electron demand Diels-Alder cycloaddition reaction with a selected tetrazine-fluorophore conjugate is demonstrated. PMID:27181840

  10. Direct visualization of endogenous Salmonella-specific B cells reveals a marked delay in clonal expansion and germinal center development

    PubMed Central

    Nanton, Minelva R.; Lee, Seung-Joo; Atif, Shaikh M.; Nuccio, Sean-Paul; Taylor, Justin J.; Bäumler, Andreas J.; Way, Sing Sing; McSorley, Stephen J.

    2014-01-01

    CD4+ T cells and B cells are both essential for acquired immunity to Salmonella infection. It is well established that Salmonella inhibit host CD4+ T-cell responses, but a corresponding inhibitory effect on B cells is less well defined. Here, we utilize an antigen tetramer and pull-down enrichment strategy to directly visualize OVA-specific B cells in mice, as they respond to infection with Salmonella-OVA. Surprisingly, OVA-specific B-cell expansion and germinal center formation was not detected until bacteria were cleared from the host. Furthermore, Salmonella infection also actively inhibited both B- and T-cell responses to the same coinjected antigen but this did not require the presence of iNOS. The SPI2 locus has been shown to be responsible for inhibition of Salmonella-specific CD4+ T-cell responses, and an examination of SPI2-deficient bacteria demonstrated a recovery in B-cell expansion in infected mice. Together, these data suggest that Salmonella can simultaneously inhibit host B- and T-cell responses using SPI2-dependent mechanisms. PMID:25346524

  11. Dnmt3a Regulates Myeloproliferation and Liver-Specific Expansion of Hematopoietic Stem and Progenitor Cells

    PubMed Central

    Guryanova, Olga A.; Lieu, Yen K.; Garrett-Bakelman, Francine E.; Spitzer, Barbara; Glass, Jacob L.; Shank, Kaitlyn; Valencia Martinez, Ana Belen; Rivera, Sharon A.; Durham, Benjamin H.; Rapaport, Franck; Keller, Matthew D.; Pandey, Suveg; Bastian, Lennart; Tovbin, Daniel; Weinstein, Abby R.; Teruya-Feldstein, Julie; Abdel-Wahab, Omar; Santini, Valeria; Mason, Christopher E.; Melnick, Ari M.; Mukherjee, Siddhartha; Levine, Ross L.

    2015-01-01

    DNMT3A mutations are observed in myeloid malignancies, including myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN), myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS), and acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Transplantation studies have elucidated an important role for Dnmt3a in stem cell self-renewal and in myeloid differentiation. Here we investigated the impact of conditional hematopoietic Dnmt3a loss on disease phenotype in primary mice. Mx1-Cre-mediated Dnmt3a ablation led to the development of a lethal, fully penetrant myeloproliferative neoplasm with myelodysplasia (MDS/MPN) characterized by peripheral cytopenias and by marked, progressive hepatomegaly. We detected expanded stem/progenitor populations in the liver of Dnmt3a-ablated mice. The MDS/MPN induced by Dnmt3a ablation was transplantable, including the marked hepatomegaly. Homing studies showed that Dnmt3a-deleted bone marrow cells preferentially migrated to the liver. Gene expression and DNA methylation analyses of progenitor cell populations identified differential regulation of hematopoietic regulatory pathways, including fetal liver hematopoiesis transcriptional programs. These data demonstrate that Dnmt3a ablation in the hematopoietic system leads to myeloid transformation in vivo, with cell autonomous aberrant tissue tropism and marked extramedullary hematopoiesis (EMH) with liver involvement. Hence, in addition to the established role of Dnmt3a in regulating self-renewal, Dnmt3a regulates tissue tropism and limits myeloid progenitor expansion in vivo. PMID:26710888

  12. SPECIFIC SITES OF BONE EXPANSION DEPEND ON THE LEVEL OF VOLLEYBALL PRACTICE IN PREPUBESCENT BOYS

    PubMed Central

    Zouch, M.; Zribi, A.; Bouajina, E.; Zaouali, M.; Tabka, Z.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of 18 months of high and low levels of volleyball practice on bone acquisition. 130 prepubescent boys (mean age 11.4 ± 0.7) were divided into a high-level training group (HLG), low-level training group (LLG), and controls. Bone mineral content (BMC) and bone area at the whole body, lumbar spine L2-L4, femoral neck of the dominant leg, and right and left radius were measured using dual-photon X-ray absorptiometry. Enhanced BMC resulted from high-training volleyball activity in all measured sites except the third left and right distal radius, which is not modified by low-level training in prepubescent players but it was accompanied by a bone area expansion in radius and weight-bearing sites for the HLG, and in legs, whole right and left radius for the LLG. Significant improvement of skeletal tissues is associated with the intensity and duration of volleyball training. PMID:24744493

  13. Northern range expansion of European populations of the wasp spider Argiope bruennichi is associated with global warming-correlated genetic admixture and population-specific temperature adaptations.

    PubMed

    Krehenwinkel, Henrik; Tautz, Diethard

    2013-04-01

    Poleward range expansions are observed for an increasing number of species, which may be an effect of global warming during the past decades. However, it is still not clear in how far these expansions reflect simple geographical shifts of species ranges, or whether new genetic adaptations play a role as well. Here, we analyse the expansion of the wasp spider Argiope bruennichi into Northern Europe during the last century. We have used a range-wide sampling of contemporary populations and historical specimens from museums to trace the phylogeography and genetic changes associated with the range shift. Based on the analysis of mitochondrial, microsatellite and SNP markers, we observe a higher level of genetic diversity in the expanding populations, apparently due to admixture of formerly isolated lineages. Using reciprocal transplant experiments for testing overwintering tolerance, as well as temperature preference and tolerance tests in the laboratory, we find that the invading spiders have possibly shifted their temperature niche. This may be a key adaptation for survival in Northern latitudes. The museum samples allow a reconstruction of the invasion's genetic history. A first, small-scale range shift started around 1930, in parallel with the onset of global warming. A more massive invasion of Northern Europe associated with genetic admixture and morphological changes occurred in later decades. We suggest that the latter range expansion into far Northern latitudes may be a consequence of the admixture that provided the genetic material for adaptations to new environmental regimes. Hence, global warming could have facilitated the initial admixture of populations and this resulted in genetic lineages with new habitat preferences. PMID:23496675

  14. Physiological ecology and functional traits of North American native and Eurasian introduced Phragmites australis lineages

    PubMed Central

    Mozdzer, Thomas J.; Brisson, Jacques; Hazelton, Eric L. G.

    2013-01-01

    Physiological ecology and plant functional traits are often used to explain plant invasion. To gain a better understanding of how traits influence invasion, studies usually compare the invasive plant to a native congener, but there are few conspecific examples in the literature. In North America, the presence of native and introduced genetic lineages of the common reed, Phragmites australis, presents a unique example to evaluate how traits influence plant invasion. We reviewed the literature on functional traits of P. australis lineages in North America, specifically contrasting lineages present on the Atlantic Coast. We focused on differences in physiology between the lineage introduced from Eurasia and the lineage native to North America, specifically seeking to identify the causes underlying the recent expansion of the introduced lineage. Our goals were to better understand which traits may confer invasiveness, provide predictions of how these lineages may respond to interspecific competition or imminent global change, and provide guidance for future research. We reviewed published studies and articles in press, and conducted personal communications with appropriate researchers and managers to develop a comparative dataset. We compared the native and introduced lineages and focused on plant physiological ecology and functional traits. Under both stressful and favourable conditions, our review showed that introduced P. australis consistently exhibited greater ramet density, height and biomass, higher and more plastic relative growth rate, nitrogen productivity and specific leaf area, higher mass specific nitrogen uptake rates, as well as greater phenotypic plasticity compared with the native lineage. We suggest that ecophysiological and other plant functional traits elucidate potential mechanisms for the introduced lineage's invasiveness under current and predicted global change conditions. However, our review identified a disconnect between field surveys

  15. Broad-range detection of arboviruses belonging to Simbu serogroup lineage 1 and specific detection of Akabane, Aino and Peaton viruses by newly developed multiple TaqMan assays.

    PubMed

    Shirafuji, Hiroaki; Yazaki, Ryu; Shuto, Yozo; Yanase, Tohru; Kato, Tomoko; Ishikura, Youji; Sakaguchi, Zenjiro; Suzuki, Moemi; Yamakawa, Makoto

    2015-12-01

    TaqMan assays were developed for the broad-range detection of arboviruses belonging to Simbu serogroup lineage 1 in the genus Orthobunyavirus and also for the specific detection of three viruses in the lineage, Akabane, Aino and Peaton viruses (AKAV, AINOV and PEAV, respectively). A primer and probe set was designed for the broad-range detection of Simbu serogroup lineage 1 (Pan-Simbu1 set) mainly targeting AKAV, AINOV, PEAV, Sathuperi and Shamonda viruses (SATV and SHAV), and the forward and reverse primers of the Pan-Simbu1 set were also used for the specific detection of AKAV with another probe (AKAV-specific set). In addition, two more primer and probe sets were designed for AINOV- and PEAV-specific detection, respectively (AINOV- and PEAV-specific sets). All of the four primer and probe sets successfully detected targeted viruses, and thus broad-range and specific detection of all the targeted viruses can be achieved by using two multiplex assays and a single assay in a dual (two-color) assay format when another primer and probe set for a bovine β-actin control is also used. The assays had an analytical sensitivity of 10 copies/tube for AKAV, at least 100 copies/tube for AINOV, 100 copies/tube for PEAV, one copy/tube for SATV and at least 10 copies/tube for SHAV, respectively. Diagnostic sensitivity of the assays was tested with field-collected bovine samples, and the results suggested that the sensitivity was higher than that of a conventional RT-PCR. These data indicate that the newly developed TaqMan assays will be useful tools for the diagnosis and screening of field-collected samples for infections of AKAV and several other arboviruses belonging to the Simbu serogroup lineage 1. PMID:26341063

  16. Antigen-specific CD4{sup +} effector T cells: Analysis of factors regulating clonal expansion and cytokine production

    SciTech Connect

    Ohnuki, Kazunobu; Watanabe, Yuri; Takahashi, Yusuke; Kobayashi, Sakiko; Watanabe, Shiho; Ogawa, Shuhei; Kotani, Motoko; Kozono, Haruo; Tanabe, Kazunari; Abe, Ryo

    2009-03-20

    In order to fully understand T cell-mediated immunity, the mechanisms that regulate clonal expansion and cytokine production by CD4{sup +} antigen-specific effector T cells in response to a wide range of antigenic stimulation needs clarification. For this purpose, panels of antigen-specific CD4{sup +} T cell clones with different thresholds for antigen-induced proliferation were generated by repeated stimulation with high- or low-dose antigen. Differences in antigen sensitivities did not correlate with expression of TCR, CD4, adhesion or costimulatory molecules. There was no significant difference in antigen-dependent cytokine production by TG40 cells transfected with TCR obtained from either high- or low-dose-responding T cell clones, suggesting that the affinity of TCRs for their ligands is not primary determinant of T cell antigen reactivity. The proliferative responses of all T cell clones to both peptide stimulation and to TCR{beta} crosslinking revealed parallel dose-response curves. These results suggest that the TCR signal strength of effector T cells and threshold of antigen reactivity is determined by an intrinsic property, such as the TCR signalosome and/or intracellular signaling machinery. Finally, the antigen responses of high- and low-peptide-responding T cell clones reveal that clonal expansion and cytokine production of effector T cells occur independently of antigen concentration. Based on these results, the mechanisms underlying selection of high 'avidity' effector and memory T cells in response to pathogen are discussed.

  17. The Genome of Mycobacterium Africanum West African 2 Reveals a Lineage-Specific Locus and Genome Erosion Common to the M. tuberculosis Complex

    PubMed Central

    Bentley, Stephen D.; Comas, Iñaki; Bryant, Josephine M.; Walker, Danielle; Smith, Noel H.; Harris, Simon R.; Thurston, Scott; Gagneux, Sebastien; Wood, Jonathan; Antonio, Martin; Quail, Michael A.; Gehre, Florian; Adegbola, Richard A.; Parkhill, Julian; de Jong, Bouke C.

    2012-01-01

    Background M. africanum West African 2 constitutes an ancient lineage of the M. tuberculosis complex that commonly causes human tuberculosis in West Africa and has an attenuated phenotype relative to M. tuberculosis. Methodology/Principal Findings In search of candidate genes underlying these differences, the genome of M. africanum West African 2 was sequenced using classical capillary sequencing techniques. Our findings reveal a unique sequence, RD900, that was independently lost during the evolution of two important lineages within the complex: the “modern” M. tuberculosis group and the lineage leading to M. bovis. Closely related to M. bovis and other animal strains within the M. tuberculosis complex, M. africanum West African 2 shares an abundance of pseudogenes with M. bovis but also with M. africanum West African clade 1. Comparison with other strains of the M. tuberculosis complex revealed pseudogenes events in all the known lineages pointing toward ongoing genome erosion likely due to increased genetic drift and relaxed selection linked to serial transmission-bottlenecks and an intracellular lifestyle. Conclusions/Significance The genomic differences identified between M. africanum West African 2 and the other strains of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex may explain its attenuated phenotype, and pave the way for targeted experiments to elucidate the phenotypic characteristic of M. africanum. Moreover, availability of the whole genome data allows for verification of conservation of targets used for the next generation of diagnostics and vaccines, in order to ensure similar efficacy in West Africa. PMID:22389744

  18. Novel clinical associations with specific C9ORF72 transcripts in patients with repeat expansions in C9ORF72.

    PubMed

    van Blitterswijk, Marka; Gendron, Tania F; Baker, Matthew C; DeJesus-Hernandez, Mariely; Finch, NiCole A; Brown, Patricia H; Daughrity, Lillian M; Murray, Melissa E; Heckman, Michael G; Jiang, Jie; Lagier-Tourenne, Clotilde; Edbauer, Dieter; Cleveland, Don W; Josephs, Keith A; Parisi, Joseph E; Knopman, David S; Petersen, Ronald C; Petrucelli, Leonard; Boeve, Bradley F; Graff-Radford, Neill R; Boylan, Kevin B; Dickson, Dennis W; Rademakers, Rosa

    2015-12-01

    The loss of chromosome 9 open reading frame 72 (C9ORF72) expression, associated with C9ORF72 repeat expansions, has not been examined systematically. Three C9ORF72 transcript variants have been described thus far; the GGGGCC repeat is located between two non-coding exons (exon 1a and exon 1b) in the promoter region of transcript variant 2 (NM_018325.4) or in the first intron of variant 1 (NM_145005.6) and variant 3 (NM_001256054.2). We studied C9ORF72 expression in expansion carriers (n = 56) for whom cerebellum and/or frontal cortex was available. Using quantitative real-time PCR and digital molecular barcoding techniques, we assessed total C9ORF72 transcripts, variant 1, variant 2, variant 3, and intron containing transcripts [upstream of the expansion (intron 1a) and downstream of the expansion (intron 1b)]; the latter were correlated with levels of poly(GP) and poly(GA) proteins aberrantly translated from the expansion as measured by immunoassay (n = 50). We detected a decrease in expansion carriers as compared to controls for total C9ORF72 transcripts, variant 1, and variant 2: the strongest association was observed for variant 2 (quantitative real-time PCR cerebellum: median 43 %, p = 1.26e-06, and frontal cortex: median 58 %, p = 1.11e-05; digital molecular barcoding cerebellum: median 31 %, p = 5.23e-10, and frontal cortex: median 53 %, p = 5.07e-10). Importantly, we revealed that variant 1 levels greater than the 25th percentile conferred a survival advantage [digital molecular barcoding cerebellum: hazard ratio (HR) 0.31, p = 0.003, and frontal cortex: HR 0.23, p = 0.0001]. When focusing on intron containing transcripts, analysis of the frontal cortex revealed an increase of potentially truncated transcripts in expansion carriers as compared to controls [digital molecular barcoding frontal cortex (intron 1a): median 272 %, p = 0.003], with the highest levels in patients pathologically diagnosed with frontotemporal lobar degeneration

  19. Sequencing analysis of 20,000 full-length cDNA clones from cassava reveals lineage specific expansions in gene families related to stress response

    PubMed Central

    Sakurai, Tetsuya; Plata, Germán; Rodríguez-Zapata, Fausto; Seki, Motoaki; Salcedo, Andrés; Toyoda, Atsushi; Ishiwata, Atsushi; Tohme, Joe; Sakaki, Yoshiyuki; Shinozaki, Kazuo; Ishitani, Manabu

    2007-01-01

    Background Cassava, an allotetraploid known for its remarkable tolerance to abiotic stresses is an important source of energy for humans and animals and a raw material for many industrial processes. A full-length cDNA library of cassava plants under normal, heat, drought, aluminum and post harvest physiological deterioration conditions was built; 19968 clones were sequence-characterized using expressed sequence tags (ESTs). Results The ESTs were assembled into 6355 contigs and 9026 singletons that were further grouped into 10577 scaffolds; we found 4621 new cassava sequences and 1521 sequences with no significant similarity to plant protein databases. Transcripts of 7796 distinct genes were captured and we were able to assign a functional classification to 78% of them while finding more than half of the enzymes annotated in metabolic pathways in Arabidopsis. The annotation of sequences that were not paired to transcripts of other species included many stress-related functional categories showing that our library is enriched with stress-induced genes. Finally, we detected 230 putative gene duplications that include key enzymes in reactive oxygen species signaling pathways and could play a role in cassava stress response features. Conclusion The cassava full-length cDNA library here presented contains transcripts of genes involved in stress response as well as genes important for different areas of cassava research. This library will be an important resource for gene discovery, characterization and cloning; in the near future it will aid the annotation of the cassava genome. PMID:18096061

  20. Site-specific labeling of RNA by combining genetic alphabet expansion transcription and copper-free click chemistry.

    PubMed

    Someya, Tatsuhiko; Ando, Ami; Kimoto, Michiko; Hirao, Ichiro

    2015-08-18

    Site-specific labeling of long-chain RNAs with desired molecular probes is an imperative technique to facilitate studies of functional RNA molecules. By genetic alphabet expansion using an artificial third base pair, called an unnatural base pair, we present a post-transcriptional modification method for RNA transcripts containing an incorporated azide-linked unnatural base at specific positions, using a copper-free click reaction. The unnatural base pair between 7-(2-thienyl)imidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (Ds) and pyrrole-2-carbaldehyde (Pa) functions in transcription. Thus, we chemically synthesized a triphosphate substrate of 4-(4-azidopentyl)-pyrrole-2-carbaldehyde (N3-PaTP), which can be site-specifically introduced into RNA, opposite Ds in templates by T7 transcription. The N3-Pa incorporated in the transcripts was modified with dibenzocyclooctyne (DIBO) derivatives. We demonstrated the transcription of 17-, 76- and 260-mer RNA molecules and their site-specific labeling with Alexa 488, Alexa 594 and biotin. This method will be useful for preparing RNA molecules labeled with any functional groups of interest, toward in vivo experiments. PMID:26130718

  1. Nitric Oxide Limits the Expansion of Antigen-Specific T Cells in Mice Infected with the Microfilariae of Brugia pahangi

    PubMed Central

    O'Connor, Richard A.; Devaney, Eileen

    2002-01-01

    Infection of BALB/c mice with the microfilariae (Mf) of the filarial nematode Brugia pahangi results in an antigen-specific proliferative defect that is induced by high levels of NO. Using carboxyfluorescein diacetate succinimydl ester and cell surface labeling, it was possible to identify a population of antigen-specific T cells from Mf-infected BALB/c mice that expressed particularly high levels of CD4 (CD4hi). These cells proliferated in culture only when inducible NO synthase was inhibited and accounted for almost all of the antigen-specific proliferative response under those conditions. CD4hi cells also expressed high levels of CD44, consistent with their status as activated T cells. A similar population of CD4hi cells was observed in cultures from Mf-infected gamma interferon receptor knockout (IFN-γR−/−) mice. Terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling staining revealed that the CD4+ T cells from Mf-infected wild-type mice were preferentially susceptible to apoptosis compared to CD4+ T cells from IFN-γR−/− mice. These studies suggest that the expansion of antigen-specific T cells in Mf-infected mice is limited by NO. PMID:12379675

  2. Genome Evolution and Innovation across the Four Major Lineages of Cryptococcus gattii

    PubMed Central

    Farrer, Rhys A.; Desjardins, Christopher A.; Sakthikumar, Sharadha; Gujja, Sharvari; Saif, Sakina; Zeng, Qiandong; Chen, Yuan; Voelz, Kerstin; Heitman, Joseph; May, Robin C.; Fisher, Matthew C.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Cryptococcus gattii is a fungal pathogen of humans, causing pulmonary infections in otherwise healthy hosts. To characterize genomic variation among the four major lineages of C. gattii (VGI, -II, -III, and -IV), we generated, annotated, and compared 16 de novo genome assemblies, including the first for the rarely isolated lineages VGIII and VGIV. By identifying syntenic regions across assemblies, we found 15 structural rearrangements, which were almost exclusive to the VGI-III-IV lineages. Using synteny to inform orthology prediction, we identified a core set of 87% of C. gattii genes present as single copies in all four lineages. Remarkably, 737 genes are variably inherited across lineages and are overrepresented for response to oxidative stress, mitochondrial import, and metal binding and transport. Specifically, VGI has an expanded set of iron-binding genes thought to be important to the virulence of Cryptococcus, while VGII has expansions in the stress-related heat shock proteins relative to the other lineages. We also characterized genes uniquely absent in each lineage, including a copper transporter absent from VGIV, which influences Cryptococcus survival during pulmonary infection and the onset of meningoencephalitis. Through inclusion of population-level data for an additional 37 isolates, we identified a new transcontinental clonal group that we name VGIIx, mitochondrial recombination between VGII and VGIII, and positive selection of multidrug transporters and the iron-sulfur protein aconitase along multiple branches of the phylogenetic tree. Our results suggest that gene expansion or contraction and positive selection have introduced substantial variation with links to mechanisms of pathogenicity across this species complex. PMID:26330512

  3. The analysis of novel distal Cebpa enhancers and silencers using a transcriptional model reveals the complex regulatory logic of hematopoietic lineage specification.

    PubMed

    Bertolino, Eric; Reinitz, John; Manu

    2016-05-01

    C/EBPα plays an instructive role in the macrophage-neutrophil cell-fate decision and its expression is necessary for neutrophil development. How Cebpa itself is regulated in the myeloid lineage is not known. We decoded the cis-regulatory logic of Cebpa, and two other myeloid transcription factors, Egr1 and Egr2, using a combined experimental-computational approach. With a reporter design capable of detecting both distal enhancers and silencers, we analyzed 46 putative cis-regulatory modules (CRMs) in cells representing myeloid progenitors, and derived early macrophages or neutrophils. In addition to novel enhancers, this analysis revealed a surprisingly large number of silencers. We determined the regulatory roles of 15 potential transcriptional regulators by testing 32,768 alternative sequence-based transcriptional models against CRM activity data. This comprehensive analysis allowed us to infer the cis-regulatory logic for most of the CRMs. Silencer-mediated repression of Cebpa was found to be effected mainly by TFs expressed in non-myeloid lineages, highlighting a previously unappreciated contribution of long-distance silencing to hematopoietic lineage resolution. The repression of Cebpa by multiple factors expressed in alternative lineages suggests that hematopoietic genes are organized into densely interconnected repressive networks instead of hierarchies of mutually repressive pairs of pivotal TFs. More generally, our results demonstrate that de novo cis-regulatory dissection is feasible on a large scale with the aid of transcriptional modeling. Current address: Department of Biology, University of North Dakota, 10 Cornell Street, Stop 9019, Grand Forks, ND 58202-9019, USA. PMID:26945717

  4. Postembryonic lineages of the Drosophila brain: I. Development of the lineage-associated fiber tracts

    PubMed Central

    Lovick, Jennifer K.; Ngo, Kathy T.; Omoto, Jaison J.; Wong, Darren C.; Nguyen, Joseph D.; Hartenstein, Volker

    2013-01-01

    Neurons of the Drosophila central brain fall into approximately 100 paired groups, termed lineages. Each lineage is derived from a single asymmetrically-dividing neuroblast. Embryonic neuroblasts produce 1,500 primary neurons (per hemisphere) that make up the larval CNS followed by a second mitotic period in the larva that generates approximately 10,000 secondary, adult-specific neurons. Clonal analyses based on previous works using lineage-specific Gal4 drivers have established that such lineages form highly invariant morphological units. All neurons of a lineage project as one or a few axon tracts (secondary axon tracts, SATs) with characteristic trajectories, thereby representing unique hallmarks. In the neuropil, SATs assemble into larger fiber bundles (fascicles) which interconnect different neuropil compartments. We have analyzed the SATs and fascicles formed by lineages during larval, pupal, and adult stages using antibodies against membrane molecules (Neurotactin/Neuroglian) and synaptic proteins (Bruchpilot/N-Cadherin). The use of these markers allows one to identify fiber bundles of the adult brain and associate them with SATs and fascicles of the larval brain. This work lays the foundation for assigning the lineage identity of GFP-labeled MARCM clones on the basis of their close association with specific SATs and neuropil fascicles, as described in the accompanying paper (Wong et al., 2013. Postembryonic lineages of the Drosophila brain: II. Identification of lineage projection patterns based on MARCM clones. Submitted.). PMID:23880429

  5. Postembryonic lineages of the Drosophila brain: I. Development of the lineage-associated fiber tracts.

    PubMed

    Lovick, Jennifer K; Ngo, Kathy T; Omoto, Jaison J; Wong, Darren C; Nguyen, Joseph D; Hartenstein, Volker

    2013-12-15

    Neurons of the Drosophila central brain fall into approximately 100 paired groups, termed lineages. Each lineage is derived from a single asymmetrically-dividing neuroblast. Embryonic neuroblasts produce 1,500 primary neurons (per hemisphere) that make up the larval CNS followed by a second mitotic period in the larva that generates approximately 10,000 secondary, adult-specific neurons. Clonal analyses based on previous works using lineage-specific Gal4 drivers have established that such lineages form highly invariant morphological units. All neurons of a lineage project as one or a few axon tracts (secondary axon tracts, SATs) with characteristic trajectories, thereby representing unique hallmarks. In the neuropil, SATs assemble into larger fiber bundles (fascicles) which interconnect different neuropil compartments. We have analyzed the SATs and fascicles formed by lineages during larval, pupal, and adult stages using antibodies against membrane molecules (Neurotactin/Neuroglian) and synaptic proteins (Bruchpilot/N-Cadherin). The use of these markers allows one to identify fiber bundles of the adult brain and associate them with SATs and fascicles of the larval brain. This work lays the foundation for assigning the lineage identity of GFP-labeled MARCM clones on the basis of their close association with specific SATs and neuropil fascicles, as described in the accompanying paper (Wong et al., 2013. Postembryonic lineages of the Drosophila brain: II. Identification of lineage projection patterns based on MARCM clones. Submitted.). PMID:23880429

  6. Methicillin resistance in Staphylococcus isolates: the "mec alphabet" with specific consideration of mecC, a mec homolog associated with zoonotic S. aureus lineages.

    PubMed

    Becker, Karsten; Ballhausen, Britta; Köck, Robin; Kriegeskorte, André

    2014-10-01

    Livestock-associated (LA) methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) have globally emerged during the past decade. In Europe, this was particularly due to the occurrence of LA-MRSA strains associated with the clonal complex (CC) 398 as defined by multilocus sequence typing. However, more recently animal-adapted clonal lineages of S. aureus showing phenotypic methicillin resistance have been identified such as CC130, CC599, CC59, CC1943 and CC425. These newly emerging LA-MRSA CCs/STs caused infections in animals and zoonoses in humans. In contrast to other S. aureus clonal lineages, the methicillin resistance of the latter CCs/STs is based on a mecA gene homolog, designated mecC, which is part of a distinct SCCmec type (SCCmec XI). Including mecB found in Macrococcus caseolyticus, henceforth, the "mec alphabet" comprises three major gene types with several allotypes. As known for mecA, the gene homolog mecC is also not restricted to S. aureus, but found in several staphylococcal species including S. sciuri, S. stepanovicii and S. xylosus (mecC1 allotype). First investigations showed a wide geographical distribution of mecC-MRSA in Europe and a broad diversity of host species including livestock, companion and wildlife animals. In particular, wild rodents and insectivores might serve as reservoir for staphylococci harboring mecC. Economic burden may be caused by mastitis of dairy cattle. Livestock animals may likely serve as source for human infections with mecC-MRSA; reported cases comprise skin and soft tissue infections, osteomyelitis and bacteremia. Due to the divergent molecular nature of mecC-MRSA, its diagnostics is hampered by difficulties to verify the methicillin resistance using phenotypic as well as DNA-based procedures, which could have negative consequences for therapy of mecC-MRSA-caused infections. PMID:25034857

  7. Trinucleotide repeat expansion in the FRAXE locus is not common among institutionalized individuals with non-specific developmental disabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Holden, J.J.A.; Julien-Inalsingh, C.; Fidler, K.

    1996-08-09

    Expansion of a polymorphic GCC-repeat at the FRAXE locus has been associated with expression of chromosome fragility at this site and cognitive impairment in some individuals previously testing negative for CGG-repeat expansion in the fragile X mental retardation-1 (FMR1) gene. To determine the frequency of FRAXE triplet repeat expansion among persons with developmental disability, 396 individuals from two institutions were studied, all of whom were negative for FMR1 repeat expansion. Clinically, there was a wide range of mental impairment, with the majority (61.1%) being severely to profoundly affected. The distribution of FRAXE GCC-repeat numbers in the study population was 5-38:28 (5.6%) with 10-14 repeats; 366 (73.8%) with 15-19 repeats; 74 (14.9%) with 20-24 repeats; 20 (4.0%) with 25-29 repeats; and 5 (1.0%) with 30-38 repeats, with no individuals demonstrating repeat expansion. One profoundly retarded male was found to have a deletion of about 40 bp. Southern blots of HindIII-digested DNAs from individuals with {ge}26 repeats all showed normal patterns. These results suggest that FRAXE GCC-repeat expansion is not a common cause of developmental disability in institutionalized persons with mild to profound mental retardation. 15 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  8. Generation of a Novel T Cell Specific Interleukin-1 Receptor Type 1 Conditional Knock Out Mouse Reveals Intrinsic Defects in Survival, Expansion and Cytokine Production of CD4 T Cells

    PubMed Central

    Mufazalov, Ilgiz A.; Regen, Tommy; Schelmbauer, Carsten; Kuschmann, Janina; Muratova, Alisa M.; Nikolaev, Alexei; Müller, Werner; Pinteaux, Emmanuel; Waisman, Ari

    2016-01-01

    Interleukin-1 (IL-1) plays a crucial role in numerous inflammatory diseases via action on its only known signaling IL-1 receptor type 1 (IL-1R1). To investigate the role of IL-1 signaling in selected cell types, we generated a new mouse strain in which exon 5 of the Il1r1 gene is flanked by loxP sites. Crossing of these mice with CD4-Cre transgenic mice resulted in IL-1R1 loss of function specifically in T cells. These mice, termed IL-1R1ΔT, displayed normal development under steady state conditions. Importantly, isolated CD4 positive T cells retained their capacity to differentiate toward Th1 or Th17 cell lineages in vitro, and strongly proliferated in cultures supplemented with either anti-CD3/CD28 or Concanavalin A, but, as predicted, were completely unresponsive to IL-1β administration. Furthermore, IL-1R1ΔT mice were protected from gut inflammation in the anti-CD3 treatment model, due to dramatically reduced frequencies and absolute numbers of IL-17A and interferon (IFN)-γ producing cells. Taken together, our data shows the necessity of intact IL-1 signaling for survival and expansion of CD4 T cells that were developed in an otherwise IL-1 sufficient environment. PMID:27551932

  9. Phylogenetic lineages in Entomophthoromycota

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Entomophthoromycota Humber is one of five major phylogenetic lineages among the former phylum Zygomycota. These early terrestrial fungi share evolutionarily ancestral characters such as coenocytic mycelium and gametangiogamy as a sexual process resulting in zygospore formation. Previous molecular st...

  10. NKG2C+CD57+ Natural Killer Cell Expansion Parallels Cytomegalovirus-Specific CD8+ T Cell Evolution towards Senescence

    PubMed Central

    Heath, John; Newhook, Nicholas; Comeau, Emilie; Gallant, Maureen; Fudge, Neva

    2016-01-01

    Objective. Measuring NKG2C+CD57+ natural killer (NK) cell expansion to investigate NK responses against human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) and assessing relationships with adaptive immunity against HCMV. Methods. Expansion of NKG2C+CD57+ NK was measured in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from groups distinguished by HCMV and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection status. Anti-HCMV antibody levels against HCMV-infected MRC-5 cell lysate were assessed by ELISA and HCMV-specific CD8+ T cell responses characterized by intracellular flow cytometry following PBMC stimulation with immunodominant HCMV peptides. Results. Median NK, antibody, and CD8+ T cell responses against HCMV were significantly greater in the HCMV/HIV coinfected group than the group infected with CMV alone. The fraction of CMV-specific CD8+ T cells expressing CD28 correlated inversely with NKG2C+CD57+ NK expansion in HIV infection. Conclusion. Our data reveal no significant direct relationships between NK and adaptive immunity against HCMV. However, stronger NK and adaptive immune responses against HCMV and an inverse correlation between NKG2C+CD57+ NK expansion and proliferative reserve of HCMV-specific CD8+ T cells, as signified by CD28 expression, indicate parallel evolution of NK and T cell responses against HCMV in HIV infection. Similar aspects of chronic HCMV infection may drive both NK and CD8+ T cell memory inflation. PMID:27314055

  11. Seagrass (Zostera marina) Colonization Promotes the Accumulation of Diazotrophic Bacteria and Alters the Relative Abundances of Specific Bacterial Lineages Involved in Benthic Carbon and Sulfur Cycling.

    PubMed

    Sun, Feifei; Zhang, Xiaoli; Zhang, Qianqian; Liu, Fanghua; Zhang, Jianping; Gong, Jun

    2015-10-01

    Seagrass colonization changes the chemistry and biogeochemical cycles mediated by microbes in coastal sediments. In this study, we molecularly characterized the diazotrophic assemblages and entire bacterial community in surface sediments of a Zostera marina-colonized coastal lagoon in northern China. Higher nitrogenase gene (nifH) copy numbers were detected in the sediments from the vegetated region than in the sediments from the unvegetated region nearby. The nifH phylotypes detected were mostly affiliated with the Geobacteraceae, Desulfobulbus, Desulfocapsa, and Pseudomonas. Redundancy analysis based on terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis showed that the distribution of nifH genotypes was mostly shaped by the ratio of total organic carbon to total organic nitrogen, the concentration of cadmium in the sediments, and the pH of the overlying water. High-throughput sequencing and phylogenetic analyses of bacterial 16S rRNA genes also indicated the presence of Geobacteraceae and Desulfobulbaceae phylotypes in these samples. A comparison of these results with those of previous studies suggests the prevalence and predominance of iron(III)-reducing Geobacteraceae and sulfate-reducing Desulfobulbaceae diazotrophs in coastal sedimentary environments. Although the entire bacterial community structure was not significantly different between these two niches, Desulfococcus (Deltaproteobacteria) and Anaerolineae (Chloroflexi) presented with much higher proportions in the vegetated sediments, and Flavobacteriaceae (Bacteroidetes) occurred more frequently in the bare sediments. These data suggest that the high bioavailability of organic matter (indicated by relatively lower carbon-to-nitrogen ratios) and the less-reducing anaerobic condition in vegetated sediments may favor Desulfococcus and Anaerolineae lineages, which are potentially important populations in benthic carbon and sulfur cycling in the highly productive seagrass ecosystem. PMID:26209674

  12. Regional and Stage-Specific Effects of Prospectively Purified Vascular Cells on the Adult V-SVZ Neural Stem Cell Lineage

    PubMed Central

    Crouch, Elizabeth E.; Liu, Chang; Silva-Vargas, Violeta

    2015-01-01

    Adult neural stem cells reside in specialized niches. In the ventricular-subventricular zone (V-SVZ), quiescent neural stem cells (qNSCs) become activated (aNSCs), and generate transit amplifying cells (TACs), which give rise to neuroblasts that migrate to the olfactory bulb. The vasculature is an important component of the adult neural stem cell niche, but whether vascular cells in neurogenic areas are intrinsically different from those elsewhere in the brain is unknown. Moreover, the contribution of pericytes to the neural stem cell niche has not been defined. Here, we describe a rapid FACS purification strategy to simultaneously isolate primary endothelial cells and pericytes from brain microregions of nontransgenic mice using CD31 and CD13 as surface markers. We compared the effect of purified vascular cells from a neurogenic (V-SVZ) and non-neurogenic brain region (cortex) on the V-SVZ stem cell lineage in vitro. Endothelial and pericyte diffusible signals from both regions differentially promote the proliferation and neuronal differentiation of qNSCs, aNSCs, and TACs. Unexpectedly, diffusible cortical signals had the most potent effects on V-SVZ proliferation and neurogenesis, highlighting the intrinsic capacity of non-neurogenic vasculature to support stem cell behavior. Finally, we identify PlGF-2 as an endothelial-derived mitogen that promotes V-SVZ cell proliferation. This purification strategy provides a platform to define the functional and molecular contribution of vascular cells to stem cell niches and other brain regions under different physiological and pathological states. PMID:25788671

  13. Seagrass (Zostera marina) Colonization Promotes the Accumulation of Diazotrophic Bacteria and Alters the Relative Abundances of Specific Bacterial Lineages Involved in Benthic Carbon and Sulfur Cycling

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Feifei; Zhang, Xiaoli; Zhang, Qianqian; Liu, Fanghua

    2015-01-01

    Seagrass colonization changes the chemistry and biogeochemical cycles mediated by microbes in coastal sediments. In this study, we molecularly characterized the diazotrophic assemblages and entire bacterial community in surface sediments of a Zostera marina-colonized coastal lagoon in northern China. Higher nitrogenase gene (nifH) copy numbers were detected in the sediments from the vegetated region than in the sediments from the unvegetated region nearby. The nifH phylotypes detected were mostly affiliated with the Geobacteraceae, Desulfobulbus, Desulfocapsa, and Pseudomonas. Redundancy analysis based on terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis showed that the distribution of nifH genotypes was mostly shaped by the ratio of total organic carbon to total organic nitrogen, the concentration of cadmium in the sediments, and the pH of the overlying water. High-throughput sequencing and phylogenetic analyses of bacterial 16S rRNA genes also indicated the presence of Geobacteraceae and Desulfobulbaceae phylotypes in these samples. A comparison of these results with those of previous studies suggests the prevalence and predominance of iron(III)-reducing Geobacteraceae and sulfate-reducing Desulfobulbaceae diazotrophs in coastal sedimentary environments. Although the entire bacterial community structure was not significantly different between these two niches, Desulfococcus (Deltaproteobacteria) and Anaerolineae (Chloroflexi) presented with much higher proportions in the vegetated sediments, and Flavobacteriaceae (Bacteroidetes) occurred more frequently in the bare sediments. These data suggest that the high bioavailability of organic matter (indicated by relatively lower carbon-to-nitrogen ratios) and the less-reducing anaerobic condition in vegetated sediments may favor Desulfococcus and Anaerolineae lineages, which are potentially important populations in benthic carbon and sulfur cycling in the highly productive seagrass ecosystem. PMID:26209674

  14. CopyRighter: a rapid tool for improving the accuracy of microbial community profiles through lineage-specific gene copy number correction

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Culture-independent molecular surveys targeting conserved marker genes, most notably 16S rRNA, to assess microbial diversity remain semi-quantitative due to variations in the number of gene copies between species. Results Based on 2,900 sequenced reference genomes, we show that 16S rRNA gene copy number (GCN) is strongly linked to microbial phylogenetic taxonomy, potentially under-representing Archaea in amplicon microbial profiles. Using this relationship, we inferred the GCN of all bacterial and archaeal lineages in the Greengenes database within a phylogenetic framework. We created CopyRighter, new software which uses these estimates to correct 16S rRNA amplicon microbial profiles and associated quantitative (q)PCR total abundance. CopyRighter parses microbial profiles and, because GCN estimates are pre-computed for all taxa in the reference taxonomy, rapidly corrects GCN bias. Software validation with in silico and in vitro mock communities indicated that GCN correction results in more accurate estimates of microbial relative abundance and improves the agreement between metagenomic and amplicon profiles. Analyses of human-associated and anaerobic digester microbiomes illustrate that correction makes tangible changes to estimates of qPCR total abundance, α and β diversity, and can significantly change biological interpretation. For example, human gut microbiomes from twins were reclassified into three rather than two enterotypes after GCN correction. Conclusions The CopyRighter bioinformatic tools permits rapid correction of GCN in microbial surveys, resulting in improved estimates of microbial abundance, α and β diversity. PMID:24708850

  15. Regional profiling for determination of genotype diversity of mastitis-specific Staphylococcus aureus lineage in Canada by use of clumping factor A, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, and spa typing.

    PubMed

    Said, Kamaleldin B; Ismail, Johanne; Campbell, Jennifer; Mulvey, Michael R; Bourgault, Anne-Marie; Messier, Serge; Zhao, Xin

    2010-02-01

    One of the major concerns in global public health and the dairy industry is the emergence of host-specific virulent Staphylococcus aureus strains. The high degree of stability of the species genome renders detection of genetic microvariations difficult. Thus, approaches for the rapid tracking of specialized lineages are urgently needed. We used clumping factor A (clfA) to profile 87 bovine mastitis isolates from four regions in Canada and compared the results to those obtained by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and spa typing. Twenty-five pulsotypes were obtained by PFGE with an index of discrimination of 0.91. These were assigned to six PFGE lineage groups A to F and seven spa types, including two novel ones. Group A had 48.3% of the isolates and group D had 43.7% of the isolates, while only 8% of the isolates were variable. The results of antimicrobial susceptibility testing indicated that all isolates were sensitive to methicillin and the non-beta-lactam antibiotics, while three isolates were resistant to penicillin and one isolate was resistant to tetracycline. All isolates had the clfA gene and belonged to 20 clfA repeat types with an index of discrimination of 0.90. The dominant clfA types, types X, Q, C, and Z, formed 82% and 43% of PFGE groups A and D, respectively, and had copy numbers that varied only within a narrow range of between 46 and 52 copies, implying clonal selection. The rest were variable and region specific. Furthermore, the dominant groups contained subpopulations in different regions across Canada. Sequence information confirmed the relatedness obtained by the use of clfA repeat copy numbers and other methods and further revealed the occurrence of full-repeat deletions and conserved host-specific codon-triplet position biases at 18-bp units. Thus, concordant with the results of PFGE and spa typing, clfA typing proved useful for revealing the clonal nature of the mastitis isolate lineage and for the rapid profiling of subpopulations

  16. Reproductive isolation between phylogeographic lineages scales with divergence

    PubMed Central

    Singhal, Sonal; Moritz, Craig

    2013-01-01

    Phylogeographic studies frequently reveal multiple morphologically cryptic lineages within species. What is not yet clear is whether such lineages represent nascent species or evolutionary ephemera. To address this question, we compare five contact zones, each of which occurs between ecomorphologically cryptic lineages of skinks from the rainforests of the Australian Wet Tropics. Although the contacts probably formed concurrently in response to Holocene expansion from glacial refugia, we estimate that the divergence times (τ) of the lineage pairs range from 3.1 to 11.5 Ma. Multi-locus analyses of the contact zones yielded estimates of reproductive isolation that are tightly correlated with divergence time and, for lineages with older divergence times (τ > 5 Myr), substantial. These results show that phylogeographic splits of increasing depth represent stages along the speciation continuum, even in the absence of overt change in ecologically relevant morphology. PMID:24107536

  17. Different Patterns of Expansion, Contraction and Memory Differentiation of HIV-1 Gag-Specific CD8 T Cells Elicited by Adenovirus Type 5 and Modified Vaccinia Ankara Vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Pillai, Vinod Kumar Bhaskara; Kannanganat, Sunil; Penaloza-MacMaster, Pablo; Chennareddi, Lakshmi; Robinson, Harriet L.; Blackwell, Jerry; Amara, Rama Rao

    2011-01-01

    The magnitude and functional quality of antiviral CD8 T cell responses are critical for the efficacy of T cell based vaccines. Here, we investigate the influence of two popular viral vectors, adenovirus type 5 (Ad5) and modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA), on expansion, contraction and memory differentiation of HIV-1 Gag insert-specific CD8 T cell responses following immunization and show different patterns for the two recombinant viral vectors. The Ad5 vector primed 6-fold higher levels of insert-specific CD8 effector T cells than the MVA vector. The Ad5-primed effector cells also underwent less contraction (< 2-fold) than the MVA-primed cells (>5-fold). The Ad5-primed memory cells were predominantly CD62L negative (effector memory) whereas the MVA-primed memory cells were predominantly CD62L positive (central memory). Consistent with their memory phenotype, MVA-primed CD8 T cells underwent higher fold expansion than Ad5-primed CD8 T cells following a homologous or heterologous boost. Impressively, the Ad5 boost changed the quality of MVA-primed memory response such that they undergo less contraction with effector memory phenotype. However, the MVA boost did not influence the contraction and memory phenotype of Ad5-primed response. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that vaccine vector strongly influences the expansion, contraction and the functional quality of insert-specific CD8 T cell responses and have implications for vaccine development against infectious diseases. PMID:21651938

  18. The origins of the Polynesians: an interpretation from mitochondrial lineage analysis.

    PubMed

    Sykes, B; Leiboff, A; Low-Beer, J; Tetzner, S; Richards, M

    1995-12-01

    Using mitochondrial lineage analysis of 1,178 individuals from Polynesia, the western Pacific, and Taiwan, we show that the major prehistoric settlement of Polynesia was from the west and involved two or possibly three genetically distinct populations. The predominant lineage group, accounting for 94% of Polynesian mtDNA, shares a 9-bp COII/tRNA(Lys) intergenic deletion and characteristic control region transition variants, compared to the Cambridge reference sequence. In Polynesia, the diversity of this group is extremely restricted, while related lineages in Indonesia, the Philippines, and Taiwan are increasingly diverse. This suggests a relatively recent major eastward expansion into Polynesia, perhaps originating from Taiwan, in agreement with archeological and linguistic evidence, but which experienced one or more severe population bottlenecks. The second mitochondrial lineage group, accounting for 3.5% of Polynesian mtDNA haplotypes, does not have the 9-bp deletion and its characterized by an A-C transversional variant at nt position 16265. Specific oligonucleotides for this variant were used to select individuals from the population sample who, with other sequences, show that the Polynesian lineages were part of a diverse group in Vanuatu and Papua New Guinea. The very low overall diversity of both lineage groups in Polynesia suggests there was severe population restriction during the colonization of remote Oceania. A third group, represented by only four individuals (0.6%) in Polynesia but also present in the Philippines, shares variants at nt positions 16172 and 16304. Two Polynesians had unrelated haplotypes matching published sequences from native South Americans, which may be the first genetic evidence of prehistoric human contact between Polynesia and South America. PMID:8533777

  19. Fine Dissection of Human Mitochondrial DNA Haplogroup HV Lineages Reveals Paleolithic Signatures from European Glacial Refugia

    PubMed Central

    Sarno, Stefania; Sevini, Federica; Vianello, Dario; Tamm, Erika; Metspalu, Ene; van Oven, Mannis; Hübner, Alexander; Sazzini, Marco; Franceschi, Claudio; Pettener, Davide; Luiselli, Donata

    2015-01-01

    Genetic signatures from the Paleolithic inhabitants of Eurasia can be traced from the early divergent mitochondrial DNA lineages still present in contemporary human populations. Previous studies already suggested a pre-Neolithic diffusion of mitochondrial haplogroup HV*(xH,V) lineages, a relatively rare class of mtDNA types that includes parallel branches mainly distributed across Europe and West Asia with a certain degree of structure. Up till now, variation within haplogroup HV was addressed mainly by analyzing sequence data from the mtDNA control region, except for specific sub-branches, such as HV4 or the widely distributed haplogroups H and V. In this study, we present a revised HV topology based on full mtDNA genome data, and we include a comprehensive dataset consisting of 316 complete mtDNA sequences including 60 new samples from the Italian peninsula, a previously underrepresented geographic area. We highlight points of instability in the particular topology of this haplogroup, reconstructed with BEAST-generated trees and networks. We also confirm a major lineage expansion that probably followed the Late Glacial Maximum and preceded Neolithic population movements. We finally observe that Italy harbors a reservoir of mtDNA diversity, with deep-rooting HV lineages often related to sequences present in the Caucasus and the Middle East. The resulting hypothesis of a glacial refugium in Southern Italy has implications for the understanding of late Paleolithic population movements and is discussed within the archaeological cultural shifts occurred over the entire continent. PMID:26640946

  20. A novel begomovirus isolated from sida contains putative cis- and trans-acting replication specificity determinants that have evolved independently in several geographical lineages.

    PubMed

    Mauricio-Castillo, J A; Torres-Herrera, S I; Cárdenas-Conejo, Y; Pastor-Palacios, G; Méndez-Lozano, J; Argüello-Astorga, G R

    2014-09-01

    A novel begomovirus isolated from a Sida rhombifolia plant collected in Sinaloa, Mexico, was characterized. The genomic components of sida mosaic Sinaloa virus (SiMSinV) shared highest sequence identity with DNA-A and DNA-B components of chino del tomate virus (CdTV), suggesting a vertical evolutionary relationship between these viruses. However, recombination analysis indicated that a short segment of SiMSinV DNA-A encompassing the plus-strand replication origin and the 5´-proximal 43 codons of the Rep gene was derived from tomato mottle Taino virus (ToMoTV). Accordingly, the putative cis- and trans-acting replication specificity determinants of SiMSinV were identical to those of ToMoTV but differed from those of CdTV. Modeling of the SiMSinV and CdTV Rep proteins revealed significant differences in the region comprising the small β1/β5 sheet element, where five putative DNA-binding specificity determinants (SPDs) of Rep (i.e., amino acid residues 5, 8, 10, 69 and 71) were previously identified. Computer-assisted searches of public databases led to identification of 33 begomoviruses from three continents encoding proteins with SPDs identical to those of the Rep encoded by SiMSinV. Sequence analysis of the replication origins demonstrated that all 33 begomoviruses harbor potential Rep-binding sites identical to those of SiMSinV. These data support the hypothesis that the Rep β1/β5 sheet region determines specificity of this protein for DNA replication origin sequences. PMID:24737005

  1. Antigen-presenting cells containing multiple costimulatory molecules promote activation and expansion of antigen-specific memory CD8+ T cells

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Sixun; Schlom, Jeffrey

    2009-01-01

    We have previously demonstrated that multiple immunizations with vector-based vaccines containing transgenes for tumor Ags and a triad of costimulatory molecules (TRICOM) enhance the expansion and functional avidity of Ag-specific memory CD8+ T cells in a mouse model. However, the effect of enhanced costimulation on human memory CD8+ T cells is still unclear. The study reported here was an in vitro investigation of the proliferation and function of CEA-specific human memory CD8+ T cells following enhanced costimulation. Our results demonstrated that TRICOM costimulation enhanced production of multiple cytokines and expansion of CEA-specific memory CD8+ T cells. The lytic capacity of memory CTLs toward CEA+ tumors was also significantly enhanced. IL-2Rα (CD25) was upregulated dramatically following APC-TRICOM stimulation, suggesting that the enhanced expansion of memory CD8+ T cells may be mediated by increased expression of IL-2R on memory T cells. The enhanced cytokine production and proliferation following TRICOM signaling was completely blocked by the combination of neutralizing Abs against B7-1, ICAM-1, and LFA-3, the costimulatory molecules comprising TRICOM. No difference in T-cell apoptosis was observed between APC-TRICOM and APC-wild-type groups, as determined by annexin V, Bcl-2, and active caspase-3 staining. Results indicated that enhanced costimulation greatly expanded human CEA-specific CD8+ T cells and enhanced T-cell function, without inducing increased apoptosis of CEA-specific memory CD8+ T cells. PMID:18690438

  2. Deficiency of the oxidative damage-specific DNA glycosylase NEIL1 leads to reduced germinal center B cell expansion

    PubMed Central

    Mori, Hiromi; Ouchida, Rika; Hijikata, Atsushi; Kitamura, Hiroshi; Ohara, Osamu; Li, Yingqian; Gao, Xiang; Yasui, Akira; Lloyd, R. Stephen; Wang, Ji-Yang

    2016-01-01

    Mammalian cells possess multiple DNA glycosylases, including OGG1, NTH1, NEIL1, NEIL2 and NEIL3, for the repair of oxidative DNA damage. Among these, NEIL1 and NEIL2 are able to excise oxidized bases on single stranded or bubble-structured DNA and has been implicated in repair of oxidative damage associated with DNA replication or transcription. We found that Neil1 was highly constitutively expressed in the germinal center (GC) B cells, a rapidly dividing cell population that is undergoing immunoglobulin (Ig) gene hypermutation and isotype switching. While Neil1−/− mice exhibited normal B and T cell development and maturation, these mice contained a significantly lower frequency of GC B cells than did WT mice after immunization with a T-dependent antigen. Consistent with the reduced expansion of GC B cells, Neil1−/− mice had a decreased frequency of Ig gene hypermutation and produced less antibody against a T-dependent antigen during both primary and secondary immune responses. These results suggest that repair of endogenous oxidative DNA damage by NEIL1 is important for the rapid expansion of GC B cells and efficient induction of humoral immune responses. PMID:19782007

  3. Hematopoietic expression of oncogenic BRAF promotes aberrant growth of monocyte-lineage cells resistant to PLX4720

    PubMed Central

    Kamata, Tamihiro; Dankort, David; Kang, Jing; Giblett, Susan; Pritchard, Catrin A.; McMahon, Martin; Leavitt, Andrew D.

    2013-01-01

    Mutational activation of BRAF leading to expression of the BRAFV600E oncoprotein was recently identified in a high percentage of specific hematopoietic neoplasms in monocyte/histiocyte and mature B-cell lineages. Although BRAFV600E is a driver oncoprotein and pharmacological target in solid tumors such as melanoma, lung and thyroid cancer, it remains unknown whether BRAFV600E is an appropriate therapeutic target in hematopoietic neoplasms. To address this critical question, we generated a mouse model expressing inducible BRAFV600E in the hematopoietic system, and evaluated the efficacy of pathway-targeted therapeutics against primary hematopoietic cells. In this model, BRAFV600E expression conferred cytokine-independent growth to monocyte/macrophage-lineage progenitors leading to aberrant in vivo and in vitro monocyte/macrophage expansion. Furthermore, transplantation of BRAFV600E-expressing bone marrow cells promoted an in vivo pathology most notable for monocytosis in hematopoietic tissues and visceral organs. In vitro analysis revealed that MEK inhibition, but not RAF inhibition, effectively suppressed cytokine-independent clonal growth of monocyte/macrophage-lineage progenitors. However, combined RAF and PI3K inhibition effectively inhibited cytokine-independent colony formation, suggesting autocrine PI3K pathway activation. Taken together, these results provide evidence that constitutively activated BRAFV600E drives aberrant proliferation of monocyte-lineage cells. This study supports the development of pathway-targeted therapeutics in the treatment of BRAFV600E-expressing hematopoietic neoplasms in the monocyte/histiocyte lineage. PMID:24152792

  4. Lysine-specific demethylase-1 (LSD1) is compartmentalized at nuclear chromocenters in early post-mitotic cells of the olfactory sensory neuronal lineage.

    PubMed

    Kilinc, Seda; Savarino, Alyssa; Coleman, Julie H; Schwob, James E; Lane, Robert P

    2016-07-01

    Mammalian olfaction depends on the development of specialized olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) that each express one odorant receptor (OR) protein from a large family of OR genes encoded in the genome. The lysine-specific demethylase-1 (LSD1) protein removes activating H3K4 or silencing H3K9 methylation marks at gene promoters and is required for proper OR regulation. We show that LSD1 protein exhibits variable organization within nuclei of developing OSNs, and tends to consolidate into a single dominant compartment at the edges of chromocenters within nuclei of early post-mitotic cells of the mouse olfactory epithelium (MOE). Using an immortalized cell line derived from developing olfactory placode, we show that consolidation of LSD1 appears to be cell-cycle regulated, with a peak occurrence in early G1. LSD1 co-compartmentalizes with CoREST, a protein known to collaborate with LSD1 to carry out a variety of chromatin-modifying functions. We show that LSD1 compartments co-localize with 1-3 OR loci at the exclusion of most OR genes, and commonly associate with Lhx2, a transcription factor involved in OR regulation. Together, our data suggests that LSD1 is sequestered into a distinct nuclear space that might restrict a histone-modifying function to a narrow developmental time window and/or range of OR gene targets. PMID:26947098

  5. Defects in the synthetic pathway prevent DIF-1 mediated stalk lineage specification cascade in the non-differentiating social amoeba, Acytostelium subglobosum.

    PubMed

    Mohri, Kurato; Hata, Takashi; Kikuchi, Haruhisa; Oshima, Yoshiteru; Urushihara, Hideko

    2014-01-01

    Separation of somatic cells from germ-line cells is a crucial event for multicellular organisms, but how this step was achieved during evolution remains elusive. In Dictyostelium discoideum and many other dictyostelid species, solitary amoebae gather and form a multicellular fruiting body in which germ-line spores and somatic stalk cells differentiate, whereas in Acytostelium subglobosum, acellular stalks form and all aggregated amoebae become spores. In this study, because most D. discoideum genes known to be required for stalk cell differentiation have homologs in A. subglobosum, we inferred functional variations in these genes and examined conservation of the stalk cell specification cascade of D. discoideum mediated by the polyketide differentiation-inducing factor-1 (DIF-1) in A. subglobosum. Through heterologous expression of A. subglobosum orthologs of DIF-1 biosynthesis genes in D. discoideum, we confirmed that two of the three genes were functional equivalents, while DIF-methyltransferase (As-dmtA) involved at the final step of DIF-1 synthesis was not. In fact, DIF-1 activity was undetectable in A. subglobosum lysates and amoebae of this species were not responsive to DIF-1, suggesting a lack of DIF-1 production in this species. On the other hand, the molecular function of an A. subglobosum ortholog of DIF-1 responsive transcription factor was equivalent with that of D. discoideum and inhibition of polyketide synthesis caused developmental arrest in A. subglobosum, which could not be rescued by DIF-1 addition. These results suggest that non-DIF-1 polyketide cascades involving downstream transcription factors are required for fruiting body development of A. subglobosum. PMID:24876391

  6. Postembryonic lineages of the Drosophila brain: II. Identification of lineage projection patterns based on MARCM clones

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Darren C.; Lovick, Jennifer K.; Ngo, Kathy T.; Borisuthirattana, Wichanee; Omoto, Jaison J.; Hartenstein, Volker

    2014-01-01

    The Drosophila central brain is largely composed of lineages, units of sibling neurons derived from a single progenitor cell or neuroblast. During the early embryonic period neuroblast generate the primary neurons that constitute the larval brain. Neuroblasts reactivate in the larva, adding to their lineages a large number of secondary neurons which, according to previous studies in which selected lineages were labeled by stably expressed markers, differentiate during metamorphosis, sending terminal axonal and dendritic branches into defined volumes of the brain neuropil. We call the overall projection pattern of neurons forming a given lineage the “projection envelope” of that lineage. By inducing MARCM clones at the early larval stage, we labeled the secondary progeny of each neuroblast. For the supraesophageal ganglion excluding mushroom body (the part of the brain investigated in the present work) we obtained 81 different types of clones, Based on the trajectory of their secondary axon tracts (described in the accompanying paper), we assigned these clones to specific lineages defined in the larva. Since a labeled clone reveals all aspects (cell bodies, axon tracts, terminal arborization) of a lineage, we were able to describe projection envelopes for all secondary lineages of the supraesophageal ganglion. This work provides a framework by which the secondary neurons (forming the vast majority of adult brain neurons) can be assigned to genetically and developmentally defined groups. It also represents a step towards the goal to establish, for each lineage, the link between its mature anatomical and functional phenotype, and the genetic make-up of the neuroblast it descends from. PMID:23872236

  7. Postembryonic lineages of the Drosophila brain: II. Identification of lineage projection patterns based on MARCM clones.

    PubMed

    Wong, Darren C; Lovick, Jennifer K; Ngo, Kathy T; Borisuthirattana, Wichanee; Omoto, Jaison J; Hartenstein, Volker

    2013-12-15

    The Drosophila central brain is largely composed of lineages, units of sibling neurons derived from a single progenitor cell or neuroblast. During the early embryonic period, neuroblasts generate the primary neurons that constitute the larval brain. Neuroblasts reactivate in the larva, adding to their lineages a large number of secondary neurons which, according to previous studies in which selected lineages were labeled by stably expressed markers, differentiate during metamorphosis, sending terminal axonal and dendritic branches into defined volumes of the brain neuropil. We call the overall projection pattern of neurons forming a given lineage the "projection envelope" of that lineage. By inducing MARCM clones at the early larval stage, we labeled the secondary progeny of each neuroblast. For the supraesophageal ganglion excluding mushroom body (the part of the brain investigated in the present work) we obtained 81 different types of clones. Based on the trajectory of their secondary axon tracts (described in the accompanying paper, Lovick et al., 2013), we assigned these clones to specific lineages defined in the larva. Since a labeled clone reveals all aspects (cell bodies, axon tracts, terminal arborization) of a lineage, we were able to describe projection envelopes for all secondary lineages of the supraesophageal ganglion. This work provides a framework by which the secondary neurons (forming the vast majority of adult brain neurons) can be assigned to genetically and developmentally defined groups. It also represents a step towards the goal to establish, for each lineage, the link between its mature anatomical and functional phenotype, and the genetic make-up of the neuroblast it descends from. PMID:23872236

  8. HLA-B27-Homodimer-Specific Antibody Modulates the Expansion of Pro-Inflammatory T-Cells in HLA-B27 Transgenic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Marroquin Belaunzaran, Osiris; Kleber, Sascha; Schauer, Stefan; Hausmann, Martin; Nicholls, Flora; Van den Broek, Maries; Payeli, Sravan; Ciurea, Adrian; Milling, Simon; Stenner, Frank; Shaw, Jackie; Kollnberger, Simon; Bowness, Paul; Petrausch, Ulf; Renner, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    Objectives HLA-B27 is a common genetic risk factor for the development of Spondyloarthritides (SpA). HLA-B27 can misfold to form cell-surface heavy chain homodimers (B272) and induce pro-inflammatory responses that may lead to SpA pathogenesis. The presence of B272 can be detected on leukocytes of HLA-B27+ Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) patients and HLA-B27 transgenic rats. We characterized a novel B272–specific monoclonal antibody to study its therapeutic use in HLA-B27 associated disorders. Methods The monoclonal HD5 antibody was selected from a phage library to target cell-surface B272 homodimers and characterized for affinity, specificity and ligand binding. The immune modulating effect of HD5 was tested in HLA-B27 transgenic rats. Onset and progression of disease profiles were monitored during therapy. Cell-surface B272 and expansion of pro-inflammatory cells from blood, spleen and draining lymph nodes were assessed by flow cytometry. Results HD5 bound B272 with high specificity and affinity (Kd = 0.32 nM). HD5 blocked cell-surface interaction of B272 with immune regulatory receptors KIR3DL2, LILRB2 and Pirb. In addition, HD5 modulated the production of TNF from CD4+ T-cells by limiting B272 interactions in vitro. In an HLA-B27 transgenic rat model repetitive dosing of HD5 reduced the expansion of pro-inflammatory CD4+ T-cells, and decreased the levels of soluble TNF and number of cell-surface B272 molecules. Conclusion HD5 predominantly inhibits early TNF production and expansion of pro-inflammatory CD4+ T-cells in HLA-B27 transgenic rats. Monoclonal antibodies targeting cell-surface B272 propose a new concept for the modulation of inflammatory responses in HLA-B27 related disorders. PMID:26125554

  9. Parasite antigen-specific, IL-4-, TGFβ- and IL-1- dependent expansion of Th9 cells is associated with clinical pathology in human lymphatic filariasis

    PubMed Central

    Anuradha, Rajamanickam; George, Parakkal Jovvian; Hanna, Luke E.; Chandrasekaran, Vedachalam; Kumaran, Paul; Nutman, Thomas B.; Babu, Subash

    2013-01-01

    Th9 cells are a subset of CD4+ T cells, shown to be important in allergy, autoimmunity and anti-tumor responses. However, their role in human infectious diseases has not been explored in detail. We identified a population of IL-9 and IL-10 co-expressing cells (lacking IL-4 expression) in normal individuals that respond to antigenic and mitogenic stimulation but are distinct from IL-9+ Th2 cells. We also demonstrate that these Th9 cells exhibit antigen –specific expansion in a chronic helminth infection (lymphatic filariasis). Comparison of Th9 responses reveals that individuals with pathology associated with filarial infection exhibit significantly expanded frequencies of filarial antigen induced Th9 cells but not of IL9+Th2 cells in comparison to filarial-infected individuals without associated disease. Moreover, the per cell production of IL-9 is significantly higher in Th9 cells compared to IL9+Th2 cells, indicating that the Th9 cells are the predominant CD4+ T cell subset producing IL-9 in the context of human infection. This expansion was reflected in elevated antigen stimulated IL-9 cytokine levels in whole blood culture supernatants. Finally, the frequencies of Th9 cells correlated positively with the severity of lymphedema (and presumed inflammation) in filarial diseased individuals. This expansion of Th9 cells was dependent on IL-4, TGFβ and IL-1 in vitro. We have therefore a identified an important human CD4+ T cell subpopulation co – expressing IL-9 and IL-10 but not IL-4 that is whose expansion is associated with disease in chronic lymphatic filariasis and could potentially play an important role in the pathogenesis of other inflammatory disorders. PMID:23913964

  10. Epithelial cell-specific Act1 adaptor mediates interleukin-25-dependent helminth expulsion through expansion of Lin−c-Kit+ innate cell population

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Zizhen; Swaidani, Shadi; Yin, Weiguo; Wang, Chenhui; Barlow, Jillian L.; Gulen, Muhammet Fatih; Bulek, Katarzyna; Do, Jeong-su; Aronica, Mark; McKenzie, Andrew N. J.; Min, Booki; Li, Xiaoxia

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY Interleukin-25 (IL-25 or IL-17E), a member of the structurally related IL-17 family, functions as an important mediator of T helper 2 cell-type (type 2) responses. We examined the cell-type specific role of IL-25-induced Act1-mediated signaling in protective immunity against helminth infection. Targeted Act1 deficiency in epithelial cells resulted in a marked delay in worm expulsion and abolished the expansion of the Lin−c-kit+ innate cell population in the mesenteric lymph node, lung and liver. Th2 cell-inducing cytokines (IL-25 and IL-33) expression were reduced in the intestinal epithelial cells from the infected and IL-25-injected epithelial-specific Act1-deficient mice. Adoptive transfer of Lin−c-kit+ cells or combined injection of IL-25 and IL-33 restored the type 2 responses in these mice. Taken together, these results suggest that epithelial-specific Act1 mediates the expansion of the Lin−c-kit+ innate cell population through the positive feedback loop of IL-25, initiating the type 2 immunity against helminth infection. PMID:22608496

  11. Epithelial cell-specific Act1 adaptor mediates interleukin-25-dependent helminth expulsion through expansion of Lin(-)c-Kit(+) innate cell population.

    PubMed

    Kang, Zizhen; Swaidani, Shadi; Yin, Weiguo; Wang, Chenhui; Barlow, Jillian L; Gulen, Muhammet Fatih; Bulek, Katarzyna; Do, Jeong-su; Aronica, Mark; McKenzie, Andrew N J; Min, Booki; Li, Xiaoxia

    2012-05-25

    Interleukin-25 (IL-25 or IL-17E), a member of the structurally related IL-17 family, functions as an important mediator of T helper 2 cell-type (type 2) responses. We examined the cell type-specific role of IL-25-induced Act1-mediated signaling in protective immunity against helminth infection. Targeted Act1 deficiency in epithelial cells resulted in a marked delay in worm expulsion and abolished the expansion of the Lin(-)c-Kit(+) innate cell population in the mesenteric lymph node, lung, and liver. Th2 cell-inducing cytokine (IL-25 and IL-33) expression were reduced in the intestinal epithelial cells from the infected and IL-25-injected epithelial-specific Act1-deficient mice. Adoptive transfer of Lin(-)c-Kit(+) cells or combined injection of IL-25 and IL-33 restored the type 2 responses in these mice. Taken together, these results suggest that epithelial-specific Act1 mediates the expansion of the Lin(-)c-Kit(+) innate cell population through the positive-feedback loop of IL-25, initiating the type 2 immunity against helminth infection. PMID:22608496

  12. Analysis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Genotypic Lineage Distribution in Chile and Neighboring Countries.

    PubMed

    Lagos, Jaime; Couvin, David; Arata, Loredana; Tognarelli, Javier; Aguayo, Carolina; Leiva, Tamara; Arias, Fabiola; Hormazabal, Juan Carlos; Rastogi, Nalin; Fernández, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB), caused by the pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB), remains a disease of high importance to global public health. Studies into the population structure of MTB have become vital to monitoring possible outbreaks and also to develop strategies regarding disease control. Although Chile has a low incidence of MTB, the current rates of migration have the potential to change this scenario. We collected and analyzed a total of 458 M. tuberculosis isolates (1 isolate per patient) originating from all 15 regions of Chile. The isolates were genotyped using the spoligotyping method and the data obtained were analyzed and compared with the SITVIT2 database. A total of 169 different patterns were identified, of which, 119 patterns (408 strains) corresponded to Spoligotype International Types (SITs) and 50 patterns corresponded to orphan strains. The most abundantly represented SITs/lineages were: SIT53/T1 (11.57%), SIT33/LAM3 (9.6%), SIT42/LAM9 (9.39%), SIT50/H3 (5.9%), SIT37/T3 (5%); analysis of the spoligotyping minimum spanning tree as well as spoligoforest were suggestive of a recent expansion of SIT42, SIT50 and SIT37; all of which potentially evolved from SIT53. The most abundantly represented lineages were LAM (40.6%), T (34.1%) and Haarlem (13.5%). LAM was more prevalent in the Santiago (43.6%) and Concepción (44.1%) isolates, rather than the Iquique (29.4%) strains. The proportion of X lineage was appreciably higher in Iquique and Concepción (11.7% in both) as compared to Santiago (1.6%). Global analysis of MTB lineage distribution in Chile versus neighboring countries showed that evolutionary recent lineages (LAM, T and Haarlem) accounted together for 88.2% of isolates in Chile, a pattern which mirrored MTB lineage distribution in neighboring countries (n = 7378 isolates recorded in SITVIT2 database for Peru, Brazil, Paraguay, and Argentina; and published studies), highlighting epidemiological advantage of Euro-American lineages in this region

  13. Analysis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Genotypic Lineage Distribution in Chile and Neighboring Countries

    PubMed Central

    Lagos, Jaime; Couvin, David; Arata, Loredana; Tognarelli, Javier; Aguayo, Carolina; Leiva, Tamara; Arias, Fabiola; Hormazabal, Juan Carlos; Rastogi, Nalin; Fernández, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB), caused by the pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB), remains a disease of high importance to global public health. Studies into the population structure of MTB have become vital to monitoring possible outbreaks and also to develop strategies regarding disease control. Although Chile has a low incidence of MTB, the current rates of migration have the potential to change this scenario. We collected and analyzed a total of 458 M. tuberculosis isolates (1 isolate per patient) originating from all 15 regions of Chile. The isolates were genotyped using the spoligotyping method and the data obtained were analyzed and compared with the SITVIT2 database. A total of 169 different patterns were identified, of which, 119 patterns (408 strains) corresponded to Spoligotype International Types (SITs) and 50 patterns corresponded to orphan strains. The most abundantly represented SITs/lineages were: SIT53/T1 (11.57%), SIT33/LAM3 (9.6%), SIT42/LAM9 (9.39%), SIT50/H3 (5.9%), SIT37/T3 (5%); analysis of the spoligotyping minimum spanning tree as well as spoligoforest were suggestive of a recent expansion of SIT42, SIT50 and SIT37; all of which potentially evolved from SIT53. The most abundantly represented lineages were LAM (40.6%), T (34.1%) and Haarlem (13.5%). LAM was more prevalent in the Santiago (43.6%) and Concepción (44.1%) isolates, rather than the Iquique (29.4%) strains. The proportion of X lineage was appreciably higher in Iquique and Concepción (11.7% in both) as compared to Santiago (1.6%). Global analysis of MTB lineage distribution in Chile versus neighboring countries showed that evolutionary recent lineages (LAM, T and Haarlem) accounted together for 88.2% of isolates in Chile, a pattern which mirrored MTB lineage distribution in neighboring countries (n = 7378 isolates recorded in SITVIT2 database for Peru, Brazil, Paraguay, and Argentina; and published studies), highlighting epidemiological advantage of Euro-American lineages in this region

  14. Identification and characterization of mouse otic sensory lineage genes

    PubMed Central

    Hartman, Byron H.; Durruthy-Durruthy, Robert; Laske, Roman D.; Losorelli, Steven; Heller, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Vertebrate embryogenesis gives rise to all cell types of an organism through the development of many unique lineages derived from the three primordial germ layers. The otic sensory lineage arises from the otic vesicle, a structure formed through invagination of placodal non-neural ectoderm. This developmental lineage possesses unique differentiation potential, giving rise to otic sensory cell populations including hair cells, supporting cells, and ganglion neurons of the auditory and vestibular organs. Here we present a systematic approach to identify transcriptional features that distinguish the otic sensory lineage (from early otic progenitors to otic sensory populations) from other major lineages of vertebrate development. We used a microarray approach to analyze otic sensory lineage populations including microdissected otic vesicles (embryonic day 10.5) as well as isolated neonatal cochlear hair cells and supporting cells at postnatal day 3. Non-otic tissue samples including periotic tissues and whole embryos with otic regions removed were used as reference populations to evaluate otic specificity. Otic populations shared transcriptome-wide correlations in expression profiles that distinguish members of this lineage from non-otic populations. We further analyzed the microarray data using comparative and dimension reduction methods to identify individual genes that are specifically expressed in the otic sensory lineage. This analysis identified and ranked top otic sensory lineage-specific transcripts including Fbxo2, Col9a2, and Oc90, and additional novel otic lineage markers. To validate these results we performed expression analysis on select genes using immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization. Fbxo2 showed the most striking pattern of specificity to the otic sensory lineage, including robust expression in the early otic vesicle and sustained expression in prosensory progenitors and auditory and vestibular hair cells and supporting cells. PMID:25852475

  15. Mitochondrial lineage M1 traces an early human backflow to Africa

    PubMed Central

    González, Ana M; Larruga, José M; Abu-Amero, Khaled K; Shi, Yufei; Pestano, José; Cabrera, Vicente M

    2007-01-01

    Background The out of Africa hypothesis has gained generalized consensus. However, many specific questions remain unsettled. To know whether the two M and N macrohaplogroups that colonized Eurasia were already present in Africa before the exit is puzzling. It has been proposed that the east African clade M1 supports a single origin of haplogroup M in Africa. To test the validity of that hypothesis, the phylogeographic analysis of 13 complete mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequences and 261 partial sequences belonging to haplogroup M1 was carried out. Results The coalescence age of the African haplogroup M1 is younger than those for other M Asiatic clades. In contradiction to the hypothesis of an eastern Africa origin for modern human expansions out of Africa, the most ancestral M1 lineages have been found in Northwest Africa and in the Near East, instead of in East Africa. The M1 geographic distribution and the relative ages of its different subclades clearly correlate with those of haplogroup U6, for which an Eurasian ancestor has been demonstrated. Conclusion This study provides evidence that M1, or its ancestor, had an Asiatic origin. The earliest M1 expansion into Africa occurred in northwestern instead of eastern areas; this early spread reached the Iberian Peninsula even affecting the Basques. The majority of the M1a lineages found outside and inside Africa had a more recent eastern Africa origin. Both western and eastern M1 lineages participated in the Neolithic colonization of the Sahara. The striking parallelism between subclade ages and geographic distribution of M1 and its North African U6 counterpart strongly reinforces this scenario. Finally, a relevant fraction of M1a lineages present today in the European Continent and nearby islands possibly had a Jewish instead of the commonly proposed Arab/Berber maternal ascendance. PMID:17620140

  16. B lymphocyte lineage cells and the respiratory system

    PubMed Central

    Kato, Atsushi; Hulse, Kathryn E.; Tan, Bruce K.; Schleimer, Robert P.

    2013-01-01

    Adaptive humoral immune responses in the airways are mediated by B cells and plasma cells that express highly evolved and specific receptors and produce immunoglobulins of most isotypes. In some cases, such as autoimmune diseases or inflammatory diseases caused by excessive exposure to foreign antigens, these same immune cells can cause disease by virtue of overly vigorous responses. This review discusses the generation, differentiation, signaling, activation and recruitment pathways of B cells and plasma cells, with special emphasis on unique characteristics of subsets of these cells functioning within the respiratory system. The primary sensitization events that generate B cells responsible for effector responses throughout the airways usually occur in the upper airways, in tonsils and adenoid structures that make up Waldeyer’s Ring. Upon secondary exposure to antigen in the airways, antigen-processing dendritic cells migrate into secondary lymphoid organs such as lymph nodes that drain the upper and lower airways and further B cell expansion takes place at those sites. Antigen exposure in the upper or lower airways can also drive expansion of B lineage cells in the airway mucosal tissue and lead to the formation of inducible lymphoid follicles or aggregates that can mediate local immunity or disease. PMID:23540615

  17. B-lymphocyte lineage cells and the respiratory system.

    PubMed

    Kato, Atsushi; Hulse, Kathryn E; Tan, Bruce K; Schleimer, Robert P

    2013-04-01

    Adaptive humoral immune responses in the airways are mediated by B cells and plasma cells that express highly evolved and specific receptors and produce immunoglobulins of most isotypes. In some cases, such as autoimmune diseases or inflammatory diseases caused by excessive exposure to foreign antigens, these same immune cells can cause disease by virtue of overly vigorous responses. This review discusses the generation, differentiation, signaling, activation, and recruitment pathways of B cells and plasma cells, with special emphasis on unique characteristics of subsets of these cells functioning within the respiratory system. The primary sensitization events that generate B cells responsible for effector responses throughout the airways usually occur in the upper airways, tonsils, and adenoid structures that make up the Waldeyer ring. On secondary exposure to antigen in the airways, antigen-processing dendritic cells migrate into secondary lymphoid organs, such as lymph nodes, that drain the upper and lower airways, and further B-cell expansion takes place at those sites. Antigen exposure in the upper or lower airways can also drive expansion of B-lineage cells in the airway mucosal tissue and lead to the formation of inducible lymphoid follicles or aggregates that can mediate local immunity or disease. PMID:23540615

  18. Long-term outcome and lineage-specific chimerism in 194 patients with Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome treated by hematopoietic cell transplantation in the period 1980-2009: an international collaborative study.

    PubMed

    Moratto, Daniele; Giliani, Silvia; Bonfim, Carmem; Mazzolari, Evelina; Fischer, Alain; Ochs, Hans D; Cant, Andrew J; Thrasher, Adrian J; Cowan, Morton J; Albert, Michael H; Small, Trudy; Pai, Sung-Yun; Haddad, Elie; Lisa, Antonella; Hambleton, Sophie; Slatter, Mary; Cavazzana-Calvo, Marina; Mahlaoui, Nizar; Picard, Capucine; Torgerson, Troy R; Burroughs, Lauri; Koliski, Adriana; Neto, Jose Zanis; Porta, Fulvio; Qasim, Waseem; Veys, Paul; Kavanau, Kristina; Hönig, Manfred; Schulz, Ansgar; Friedrich, Wilhelm; Notarangelo, Luigi D

    2011-08-11

    In this retrospective collaborative study, we have analyzed long-term outcome and donor cell engraftment in 194 patients with Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome (WAS) who have been treated by hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) in the period 1980- 2009. Overall survival was 84.0% and was even higher (89.1% 5-year survival) for those who received HCT since the year 2000, reflecting recent improvement of outcome after transplantation from mismatched family donors and for patients who received HCT from an unrelated donor at older than 5 years. Patients who went to transplantation in better clinical conditions had a lower rate of post-HCT complications. Retrospective analysis of lineage-specific donor cell engraftment showed that stable full donor chimerism was attained by 72.3% of the patients who survived for at least 1 year after HCT. Mixed chimerism was associated with an increased risk of incomplete reconstitution of lymphocyte count and post-HCT autoimmunity, and myeloid donor cell chimerism < 50% was associated with persistent thrombocytopenia. These observations indicate continuous improvement of outcome after HCT for WAS and may have important implications for the development of novel protocols aiming to obtain full correction of the disease and reduce post-HCT complications. PMID:21659547

  19. Analysis of a new strain of Euphorbia mosaic virus with distinct replication specificity unveils a lineage of begomoviruses with short Rep sequences in the DNA-B intergenic region

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Euphorbia mosaic virus (EuMV) is a member of the SLCV clade, a lineage of New World begomoviruses that display distinctive features in their replication-associated protein (Rep) and virion-strand replication origin. The first entirely characterized EuMV isolate is native from Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico; subsequently, EuMV was detected in weeds and pepper plants from another region of Mexico, and partial DNA-A sequences revealed significant differences in their putative replication specificity determinants with respect to EuMV-YP. This study was aimed to investigate the replication compatibility between two EuMV isolates from the same country. Results A new isolate of EuMV was obtained from pepper plants collected at Jalisco, Mexico. Full-length clones of both genomic components of EuMV-Jal were biolistically inoculated into plants of three different species, which developed symptoms indistinguishable from those induced by EuMV-YP. Pseudorecombination experiments with EuMV-Jal and EuMV-YP genomic components demonstrated that these viruses do not form infectious reassortants in Nicotiana benthamiana, presumably because of Rep-iteron incompatibility. Sequence analysis of the EuMV-Jal DNA-B intergenic region (IR) led to the unexpected discovery of a 35-nt-long sequence that is identical to a segment of the rep gene in the cognate viral DNA-A. Similar short rep sequences ranging from 35- to 51-nt in length were identified in all EuMV isolates and in three distinct viruses from South America related to EuMV. These short rep sequences in the DNA-B IR are positioned downstream to a ~160-nt non-coding domain highly similar to the CP promoter of begomoviruses belonging to the SLCV clade. Conclusions EuMV strains are not compatible in replication, indicating that this begomovirus species probably is not a replicating lineage in nature. The genomic analysis of EuMV-Jal led to the discovery of a subgroup of SLCV clade viruses that contain in the non-coding region of

  20. Two C or not two C: recurrent disruption of Zn-ribbons, gene duplication, lineage-specific gene loss, and horizontal gene transfer in evolution of bacterial ribosomal proteins

    PubMed Central

    Makarova, Kira S; Ponomarev, Vladimir A; Koonin, Eugene V

    2001-01-01

    + and C- forms in different lineages. Additionally, evidence was obtained for a role of horizontal gene transfer in the evolution of these ribosomal proteins, with multiple cases of gene displacement 'in situ', that is, without a change of the gene order in the recipient genome. Conclusions A more complex picture of evolution of bacterial ribosomal proteins than previously suspected is emerging from these results, with major contributions of lineage-specific gene loss and horizontal gene transfer. The recurrent theme of emergence and disruption of Zn-ribbons in bacterial ribosomal proteins awaits a functional interpretation. PMID:11574053

  1. Nfil3-independent lineage maintenance and antiviral response of natural killer cells.

    PubMed

    Firth, Matthew A; Madera, Sharline; Beaulieu, Aimee M; Gasteiger, Georg; Castillo, Eliseo F; Schluns, Kimberly S; Kubo, Masato; Rothman, Paul B; Vivier, Eric; Sun, Joseph C

    2013-12-16

    Development of the natural killer (NK) cell lineage is dependent on the transcription factor Nfil3 (or E4BP4), which is thought to act downstream of IL-15 signaling. Nfil3-deficient mice lack NK cells, whereas other lymphocyte lineages (B, T, and NKT cells) remain largely intact. We report the appearance of Ly49H-expressing NK cells in Nfil3(-/-) mice infected with mouse cytomegalovirus (MCMV) or recombinant viruses expressing the viral m157 glycoprotein. Nfil3(-/-) NK cells at the peak of antigen-driven expansion were functionally similar to NK cells from infected wild-type mice with respect to IFN-γ production and cytotoxicity, and could comparably produce long-lived memory NK cells that persisted in lymphoid and nonlymphoid tissues for >60 d. We demonstrate that generation and maintenance of NK cell memory is an Nfil3-independent but IL-15-dependent process. Furthermore, specific ablation of Nfil3 in either immature NK cells in the bone marrow or mature peripheral NK cells had no observable effect on NK cell lineage maintenance or homeostasis. Thus, expression of Nfil3 is crucial only early in the development of NK cells, and signals through activating receptors and proinflammatory cytokines during viral infection can bypass the requirement for Nfil3, promoting the proliferation and long-term survival of virus-specific NK cells. PMID:24277151

  2. Expansion Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Fei; Tillberg, Paul W.; Boyden, Edward S.

    2014-01-01

    In optical microscopy, fine structural details are resolved by using refraction to magnify images of a specimen. Here we report the discovery that, by synthesizing a swellable polymer network within a specimen, it can be physically expanded, resulting in physical magnification. By covalently anchoring specific labels located within the specimen directly to the polymer network, labels spaced closer than the optical diffraction limit can be isotropically separated and optically resolved, a process we call expansion microscopy (ExM). Thus, this process can be used to perform scalable super-resolution microscopy with diffraction-limited microscopes. We demonstrate ExM with effective ~70 nm lateral resolution in both cultured cells and brain tissue, performing three-color super-resolution imaging of ~107 μm3 of the mouse hippocampus with a conventional confocal microscope. PMID:25592419

  3. Comparison of Shiga-like Toxin II expression between two diverse lineages of Escherichia coli O157:H7

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The existence of two separate lineages of E. coli O157:H7 has previously been reported, and research points to one specific lineage, lineage I, possessing more pathogenicity towards human hosts. We postulate that the more pathogenic lineage expresses higher levels of shiga-like toxin 2 (Stx2) than t...

  4. Gender difference in calcification diseases: is it the result of gender-specific ways of nano-bacterial expansion?

    PubMed

    Schwartsburd, P M; Agababov, R; Vainshtein, M

    2013-11-01

    Gender difference has been reported for frequency of the calcification diseases in urogenital system: according to published statistics data, they are more numerous in males. We suggest that the male increasing is due to nanobacterial infections and ways of their dissemination. There are specific gender-dependent ways for these infections which bring infection to the different target organs, namely: urinary tract, kidney, prostate in men and placenta in women. Identification of the suggested microbial pathogens and investigation of sex-determined pathways for the dissemination are the following steps to get ascertaining events of gender reasons for different calcification diseases. PMID:24018282

  5. PD-1 and Tim-3 regulate the expansion of tumor antigen-specific CD8⁺ T cells induced by melanoma vaccines.

    PubMed

    Fourcade, Julien; Sun, Zhaojun; Pagliano, Ornella; Chauvin, Joe-Marc; Sander, Cindy; Janjic, Bratislav; Tarhini, Ahmad A; Tawbi, Hussein A; Kirkwood, John M; Moschos, Stergios; Wang, Hong; Guillaume, Philippe; Luescher, Immanuel F; Krieg, Arthur; Anderson, Ana C; Kuchroo, Vijay K; Zarour, Hassane M

    2014-02-15

    Although melanoma vaccines stimulate tumor antigen-specific CD8(+) T cells, objective clinical responses are rarely observed. To investigate this discrepancy, we evaluated the character of vaccine-induced CD8(+) T cells with regard to the inhibitory T-cell coreceptors PD-1 and Tim-3 in patients with metastatic melanoma who were administered tumor vaccines. The vaccines included incomplete Freund's adjuvant, CpG oligodeoxynucleotide (CpG), and the HLA-A2-restricted analog peptide NY-ESO-1 157-165V, either by itself or in combination with the pan-DR epitope NY-ESO-1 119-143. Both vaccines stimulated rapid tumor antigen-specific CD8(+) T-cell responses detected ex vivo, however, tumor antigen-specific CD8(+) T cells produced more IFN-γ and exhibited higher lytic function upon immunization with MHC class I and class II epitopes. Notably, the vast majority of vaccine-induced CD8(+) T cells upregulated PD-1 and a minority also upregulated Tim-3. Levels of PD-1 and Tim-3 expression by vaccine-induced CD8(+) T cells at the time of vaccine administration correlated inversely with their expansion in vivo. Dual blockade of PD-1 and Tim-3 enhanced the expansion and cytokine production of vaccine-induced CD8(+) T cells in vitro. Collectively, our findings support the use of PD-1 and Tim-3 blockades with cancer vaccines to stimulate potent antitumor T-cell responses and increase the likelihood of clinical responses in patients with advanced melanoma. PMID:24343228

  6. Species-specific expansion of C2H2 zinc-finger genes and their expression profiles in silkworm, Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Duan, Jun; Xia, Qingyou; Cheng, Daojun; Zha, Xingfu; Zhao, Ping; Xiang, Zhonghuai

    2008-12-01

    Most C2H2 zinc-finger proteins (ZFPs) function as sequence-specific DNA-binding transcription factors, and play important roles in a variety of biology processes, such as development, differentiation, and tumor suppression. By searching the silkworm genome with a HMM model of C2H2 zinc-fingers, we have identified a total of 338 C2H2 ZFPs. Most of the ZFP genes were clustered on chromosomes and showed uneven distribution in the genome. Over one third of genes were concentrated on chromosome 11, 15 and 24. Phylogenetic analysis classified all silkworm C2H2 ZFPs into 75 families; 63 of which belong to evolutionarily conserved families. In addition, 188 C2H2 ZFP genes (55.6%) are species-specific to the silkworm. A species-specific expansion of a family with 39 members in a tandem array on chromosome 24 may explain the higher number of species-specific ZFPs in silkworm compared to other organisms. The expression patterns of C2H2 ZFP genes were also examined by microarray analysis. Most of these genes were actively expressed among different tissues on day 3 of the fifth instar. The results provide insight into the biological functions of the silkworm C2H2 ZFP genes in metamorphism and development. PMID:18835444

  7. Expansion of CMV-mediated NKG2C+ NK cells associates with the development of specific de novo malignancies in liver-transplanted patients.

    PubMed

    Achour, Abla; Baychelier, Florence; Besson, Caroline; Arnoux, Armelle; Marty, Michel; Hannoun, Laurent; Samuel, Didier; Debré, Patrice; Vieillard, Vincent

    2014-01-01

    Solid cancers are a major adverse outcome of orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT). Although the use of chronic immunosuppression is known to play a role in T cell impairment, recent insights into the specificities of NK cells led us to reassess the potential modulation of this innate immune cell compartment after transplantation. Our extensive phenotypic and functional study reveals that the development of specific de novo noncutaneous tumors post-OLT is linked to unusual NK cell subsets with maturation defects and to uncommon cytokine production associated with the development of specific cancers. Remarkably, in CMV(+) patients, the development de novo head/neck or colorectal tumors is linked to an aberrant expansion of NK cells expressing NKG2C and a high level of intracellular TNF-α, which impact on their polyfunctional capacities. In contrast, NK cells from patients diagnosed with genitourinary tumors possessed a standard immature signature, including high expression of NKG2A and a robust production of IFN-γ. Taken together, our results suggest that under an immunosuppressive environment, the interplay between the modulation of NK repertoire and CMV status may greatly hamper the spectrum of immune surveillance and thus favor outgrowth and the development of specific de novo tumors after OLT. PMID:24307732

  8. Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells Retain Multilineage Differentiation Capacity Including Neural Marker Expression after Extended In Vitro Expansion

    PubMed Central

    Okolicsanyi, Rachel K.; Camilleri, Emily T.; Oikari, Lotta E; Yu, Chieh; Cool, Simon M.; van Wijnen, Andre J.; Griffiths, Lyn R.; Haupt, Larisa M.

    2015-01-01

    The suitability of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) in regenerative medicine relies on retention of their proliferative expansion potential in conjunction with the ability to differentiate toward multiple lineages. Successful utilisation of these cells in clinical applications linked to tissue regeneration requires consideration of biomarker expression, time in culture and donor age, as well as their ability to differentiate towards mesenchymal (bone, cartilage, fat) or non-mesenchymal (e.g., neural) lineages. To identify potential therapeutic suitability we examined hMSCs after extended expansion including morphological changes, potency (stemness) and multilineage potential. Commercially available hMSC populations were expanded in vitro for > 20 passages, equating to > 60 days and > 50 population doublings. Distinct growth phases (A-C) were observed during serial passaging and cells were characterised for stemness and lineage markers at representative stages (Phase A: P+5, approximately 13 days in culture; Phase B: P+7, approximately 20 days in culture; and Phase C: P+13, approximately 43 days in culture). Cell surface markers, stem cell markers and lineage-specific markers were characterised by FACS, ICC and Q-PCR revealing MSCs maintained their multilineage potential, including neural lineages throughout expansion. Co-expression of multiple lineage markers along with continued CD45 expression in MSCs did not affect completion of osteogenic and adipogenic specification or the formation of neurospheres. Improved standardised isolation and characterisation of MSCs may facilitate the identification of biomarkers to improve therapeutic efficacy to ensure increased reproducibility and routine production of MSCs for therapeutic applications including neural repair. PMID:26356539

  9. Expansion of Pathogen-Specific Mono- and Multifunctional Th1 and Th17 Cells in Multi-Focal Tuberculous Lymphadenitis

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Nathella Pavan; Sridhar, Rathinam; Banurekha, Vaithilingam V.; Nair, Dina; Jawahar, Mohideen S.; Nutman, Thomas B.; Babu, Subash

    2013-01-01

    Background Th1 and Th17 responses are known to play an important role in immunity to pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB), although little is known about their role in extrapulmonary forms of tuberculosis (TB). Methods To identify the role of Th1, Th17, and Th22 cells in multi-focal TB lymphadenitis (TBL), we examined mycobacteria–specific immune responses in the whole blood of individuals with PTB (n = 20) and compared them with those with TBL (n = 25). Results Elevated frequencies of CD4+ T cells expressing IFN- γ, TNF-α, and IL-2 were present in individuals with TBL compared with those with PTB at baseline and in response to ESAT-6 and CFP-10. Similarly, increased frequencies of CD4+ T cells expressing IL-17A, IL-17F, and IFN-γ were also present in individuals with TBL at baseline and following ESAT-6 and CFP-10 stimulation although no significant difference in frequency of Th22 cells was observed. Finally, frequencies of Th1 (but not Th17) cells exhibited a significantly negative correlation with natural regulatory T cell frequencies at baseline. Conclusions Multi-focal TB lymphadenitis is therefore characterized by elevated frequencies of Th1 and Th17 cells, indicating that Th1 and Th17 responses in TB disease are probably correlates of disease severity rather than of protective immunity. PMID:23451159

  10. Chitosan thermogels for local expansion and delivery of tumor-specific T lymphocytes towards enhanced cancer immunotherapies.

    PubMed

    Monette, Anne; Ceccaldi, Caroline; Assaad, Elias; Lerouge, Sophie; Lapointe, Réjean

    2016-01-01

    The success of promising anti-cancer adoptive cell therapies relies on the abilities of the perfused CD8(+) T lymphocytes to gain access to and persist within the tumor microenvironment to carry out their cytotoxic functions. We propose a new method for their local delivery as a living concentrate, which may not only reduce the numbers of cells required for treatment but also enhance their site-specific mobilization. Using combinations of sodium hydrogen carbonate and phosphate buffer as gelling agents, novel injectable chitosan-based biocompatible thermogels (CTGels) having excellent mechanical properties and cytocompatibility have been developed. Three thermogel formulations with acceptable physicochemical properties, such as physiological pH and osmolality, macroporosity, and gelation rates were compared. The CTGel2 formulation outperformed the others by providing an environment suitable for the encapsulation of viable CD8(+) T lymphocytes, supporting their proliferation and gradual release. In addition, the encapsulated T cell phenotypes were influenced by surrounding conditions and by tumor cells, while maintaining their capacity to kill tumor cells. This strongly suggests that cells encapsulated in this formulation retain their anti-cancer functions, and that this locally injectable hydrogel may be further developed to complement a wide variety of existing immunotherapies. PMID:26513416

  11. Phylogeography of Diadophis punctatus: extensive lineage diversity and repeated patterns of historical demography in a trans-continental snake.

    PubMed

    Fontanella, Frank M; Feldman, Chris R; Siddall, Mark E; Burbrink, Frank T

    2008-03-01

    Dynamic climatic oscillations during the Pleistocene had profound effects on the distributions of species across North America. Although the role of historical climate change on speciation remains controversial, the impact on genetic variation within species has been well documented. We examined mtDNA sequences from the cytochrome b gene (1117 bp) and a portion of the NADH-4 gene (659 bp) for 286 individuals of Diadophis punctatus to infer phylogeographic patterns and population structure and to examine historical demographic patterns in both glaciated and unglaciated regions of North America. We inferred 14 lineages that replace each other geographically across the United States. Several of these lineages appear to be confined to specific habitats (floodplains, grasslands, montane environments) and traverse previously identified genetic barriers for terrestrial vertebrates including the Mississippi and Apalachicola Rivers, the Appalachian Mountains, and the western continental divide. We also observed overlapping ranges between some haplotype groups and several instances of secondary contact associated with ecological transition zones in eastern South Carolina, southern Oklahoma and central California. Within the US, diversification began during the late Miocene and continued into the mid-Pleistocene, suggesting these lineages pre-dated the last glacial maximum. Coalescent and non-coalescent demographic analyses indicate that independent lineages currently occupying previously glaciated or unsuitable areas in eastern, central and western US underwent post-glacial population expansion likely from southern refugia during the late Pleistocene/early Holocene. Conversely, southern lineages display patterns consistent with long-term population stability. Such long-term persistence of genetic structure may be due to the competitive effects between lineages or ecosystem stability in more southern latitudes. PMID:18055224

  12. Histone Demethylase KDM6A Controls the Mammary Luminal Lineage through Enzyme-Independent Mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Kyung Hyun; Oh, Sumin; Kang, Keunsoo; Wang, Chaochen; Robinson, Gertraud W; Ge, Kai; Hennighausen, Lothar

    2016-08-15

    Establishment of the mammary luminal cell lineage is controlled primarily by hormones and through specific transcription factors (TFs). Previous studies have linked histone methyltransferases to the differentiation of mammary epithelium, thus opening the possibility of biological significance of counteracting demethylases. We have now demonstrated an essential role for the H3K27me3 demethylase KDM6A in generating a balanced alveolar compartment. Deletion of Kdm6a in the mammary luminal cell lineage led to a paucity of luminal cells and an excessive expansion of basal cells, both in vivo and in vitro The inability to form structurally normal ducts and alveoli during pregnancy resulted in lactation failure. Mutant luminal cells did not exhibit their distinctive transcription factor pattern and displayed basal characteristics. The genomic H3K27me3 landscape was unaltered in mutant tissue, and support for a demethylase-independent mechanism came from mice expressing a catalytically inactive KDM6A. Mammary tissue developed normally in these mice. Chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing (ChIP-seq) experiments demonstrated KDM6A binding to putative enhancers enriched for key mammary TFs and H3K27ac. This study demonstrated for the first time that the mammary luminal lineage relies on KDM6A to ensure a transcription program leading to differentiated alveoli. Failure to fully implement this program results in structurally and functionally impaired mammary tissue. PMID:27215382

  13. Bayesian Inference Reveals Host-Specific Contributions to the Epidemic Expansion of Influenza A H5N1.

    PubMed

    Trovão, Nídia Sequeira; Suchard, Marc A; Baele, Guy; Gilbert, Marius; Lemey, Philippe

    2015-12-01

    Since its first isolation in 1996 in Guangdong, China, the highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) H5N1 has circulated in avian hosts for almost two decades and spread to more than 60 countries worldwide. The role of different avian hosts and the domestic-wild bird interface has been critical in shaping the complex HPAIV H5N1 disease ecology, but remains difficult to ascertain. To shed light on the large-scale H5N1 transmission patterns and disentangle the contributions of different avian hosts on the tempo and mode of HPAIV H5N1 dispersal, we apply Bayesian evolutionary inference techniques to comprehensive sets of hemagglutinin and neuraminidase gene sequences sampled between 1996 and 2011 throughout Asia and Russia. Our analyses demonstrate that the large-scale H5N1 transmission dynamics are structured according to different avian flyways, and that the incursion of the Central Asian flyway specifically was driven by Anatidae hosts coinciding with rapid rate of spread and an epidemic wavefront acceleration. This also resulted in long-distance dispersal that is likely to be explained by wild bird migration. We identify a significant degree of asymmetry in the large-scale transmission dynamics between Anatidae and Phasianidae, with the latter largely representing poultry as an evolutionary sink. A joint analysis of host dynamics and continuous spatial diffusion demonstrates that the rate of viral dispersal and host diffusivity is significantly higher for Anatidae compared with Phasianidae. These findings complement risk modeling studies and satellite tracking of wild birds in demonstrating a continental-scale structuring into areas of H5N1 persistence that are connected through migratory waterfowl. PMID:26341298

  14. MtDNA analysis of global populations support that major population expansions began before Neolithic Time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Hong-Xiang; Yan, Shi; Qin, Zhen-Dong; Jin, Li

    2012-10-01

    Agriculture resulted in extensive population growths and human activities. However, whether major human expansions started after Neolithic Time still remained controversial. With the benefit of 1000 Genome Project, we were able to analyze a total of 910 samples from 11 populations in Africa, Europe and Americas. From these random samples, we identified the expansion lineages and reconstructed the historical demographic variations. In all the three continents, we found that most major lineage expansions (11 out of 15 star lineages in Africa, all autochthonous lineages in Europe and America) coalesced before the first appearance of agriculture. Furthermore, major population expansions were estimated after Last Glacial Maximum but before Neolithic Time, also corresponding to the result of major lineage expansions. Considering results in current and previous study, global mtDNA evidence showed that rising temperature after Last Glacial Maximum offered amiable environments and might be the most important factor for prehistorical human expansions.

  15. Differential protein network analysis of the immune cell lineage.

    PubMed

    Clancy, Trevor; Hovig, Eivind

    2014-01-01

    Recently, the Immunological Genome Project (ImmGen) completed the first phase of the goal to understand the molecular circuitry underlying the immune cell lineage in mice. That milestone resulted in the creation of the most comprehensive collection of gene expression profiles in the immune cell lineage in any model organism of human disease. There is now a requisite to examine this resource using bioinformatics integration with other molecular information, with the aim of gaining deeper insights into the underlying processes that characterize this immune cell lineage. We present here a bioinformatics approach to study differential protein interaction mechanisms across the entire immune cell lineage, achieved using affinity propagation applied to a protein interaction network similarity matrix. We demonstrate that the integration of protein interaction networks with the most comprehensive database of gene expression profiles of the immune cells can be used to generate hypotheses into the underlying mechanisms governing the differentiation and the differential functional activity across the immune cell lineage. This approach may not only serve as a hypothesis engine to derive understanding of differentiation and mechanisms across the immune cell lineage, but also help identify possible immune lineage specific and common lineage mechanism in the cells protein networks. PMID:25309909

  16. Human paternal lineages, languages, and environment in the Caucasus.

    PubMed

    Tarkhnishvili, David; Gavashelishvili, Alexander; Murtskhvaladze, Marine; Gabelaia, Mariam; Tevzadze, Gigi

    2014-01-01

    Publications that describe the composition of the human Y-DNA haplogroup in diffferent ethnic or linguistic groups and geographic regions provide no explicit explanation of the distribution of human paternal lineages in relation to specific ecological conditions. Our research attempts to address this topic for the Caucasus, a geographic region that encompasses a relatively small area but harbors high linguistic, ethnic, and Y-DNA haplogroup diversity. We genotyped 224 men that identified themselves as ethnic Georgian for 23 Y-chromosome short tandem-repeat markers and assigned them to their geographic places of origin. The genotyped data were supplemented with published data on haplogroup composition and location of other ethnic groups of the Caucasus. We used multivariate statistical methods to see if linguistics, climate, and landscape accounted for geographical diffferences in frequencies of the Y-DNA haplogroups G2, R1a, R1b, J1, and J2. The analysis showed significant associations of (1) G2 with wellforested mountains, (2) J2 with warm areas or poorly forested mountains, and (3) J1 with poorly forested mountains. R1b showed no association with environment. Haplogroups J1 and R1a were significantly associated with Daghestanian and Kipchak speakers, respectively, but the other haplogroups showed no such simple associations with languages. Climate and landscape in the context of competition over productive areas among diffferent paternal lineages, arriving in the Caucasus in diffferent times, have played an important role in shaping the present-day spatial distribution of patrilineages in the Caucasus. This spatial pattern had formed before linguistic subdivisions were finally shaped, probably in the Neolithic to Bronze Age. Later historical turmoil had little influence on the patrilineage composition and spatial distribution. Based on our results, the scenario of postglacial expansions of humans and their languages to the Caucasus from the Middle East, western

  17. Heightened self-reactivity associated with selective survival, but not expansion, of naïve virus-specific CD8+ T cells in aged mice

    PubMed Central

    Quinn, Kylie M.; Zaloumis, Sophie G.; Cukalac, Tania; Kan, Wan-Ting; Sng, Xavier Y. X.; Mirams, Michiko; Watson, Katherine A.; Doherty, Peter C.; Thomas, Paul G.; Handel, Andreas; La Gruta, Nicole L.

    2016-01-01

    In advanced age, decreased CD8+ cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) responses to novel pathogens and cancer is paralleled by a decline in the number and function of naïve CTL precursors (CTLp). Although the age-related fall in CD8+ T-cell numbers is well established, neither the underlying mechanisms nor the extent of variation for different epitope specificities have been defined. Furthermore, naïve CD8+ T cells expressing high levels of CD44 accumulate with age, but it is unknown whether this accumulation reflects their preferential survival or an age-dependent driver of CD8+ T-cell proliferation. Here, we track the number and phenotype of four influenza A virus (IAV)-specific CTLp populations in naïve C57BL/6 (B6) mice during aging, and compare T-cell receptor (TCR) clonal diversity for the CD44hi and CD44lo subsets of one such population. We show differential onset of decline for several IAV-specific CD8+ T-cell populations with advanced age that parallel age-associated changes in the B6 immunodominance hierarchy, suggestive of distinct impacts of aging on different epitope-specific populations. Despite finding no evidence of clonal expansions in an aged, epitope-specific TCR repertoire, nonrandom alterations in TCR usage were observed, along with elevated CD5 and CD8 coreceptor expression. Collectively, these data demonstrate that naïve CD8+ T cells expressing markers of heightened self-recognition are selectively retained, but not clonally expanded, during aging. PMID:26787864

  18. Heightened self-reactivity associated with selective survival, but not expansion, of naïve virus-specific CD8+ T cells in aged mice.

    PubMed

    Quinn, Kylie M; Zaloumis, Sophie G; Cukalac, Tania; Kan, Wan-Ting; Sng, Xavier Y X; Mirams, Michiko; Watson, Katherine A; McCaw, James M; Doherty, Peter C; Thomas, Paul G; Handel, Andreas; La Gruta, Nicole L

    2016-02-01

    In advanced age, decreased CD8(+) cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) responses to novel pathogens and cancer is paralleled by a decline in the number and function of naïve CTL precursors (CTLp). Although the age-related fall in CD8(+) T-cell numbers is well established, neither the underlying mechanisms nor the extent of variation for different epitope specificities have been defined. Furthermore, naïve CD8(+) T cells expressing high levels of CD44 accumulate with age, but it is unknown whether this accumulation reflects their preferential survival or an age-dependent driver of CD8(+) T-cell proliferation. Here, we track the number and phenotype of four influenza A virus (IAV)-specific CTLp populations in naïve C57BL/6 (B6) mice during aging, and compare T-cell receptor (TCR) clonal diversity for the CD44hi and CD44lo subsets of one such population. We show differential onset of decline for several IAV-specific CD8(+) T-cell populations with advanced age that parallel age-associated changes in the B6 immunodominance hierarchy, suggestive of distinct impacts of aging on different epitope-specific populations. Despite finding no evidence of clonal expansions in an aged, epitope-specific TCR repertoire, nonrandom alterations in TCR usage were observed, along with elevated CD5 and CD8 coreceptor expression. Collectively, these data demonstrate that naïve CD8(+) T cells expressing markers of heightened self-recognition are selectively retained, but not clonally expanded, during aging. PMID:26787864

  19. Mice transgenic for a soluble form of murine CTLA-4 show enhanced expansion of antigen-specific CD4+ T cells and defective antibody production in vivo.

    PubMed

    Ronchese, F; Hausmann, B; Hubele, S; Lane, P

    1994-03-01

    CD4+ T cell responses were analyzed in transgenic mice expressing a soluble form of murine CTLA-4, mCTLA4-H gamma 1, which blocks the interaction of the T cell activation molecules CD28 and CTLA-4 with their costimulatory ligands. Consistent with previous reports (Linsley, P. S., P. M. Wallace, J. Johnson, M. G. Gibson, J. L. Greene, J. A. Ledbetter, C. Singh, and M. A. Tepper. 1992. Science (Wash. DC). 257:792), T cell-dependent antibody production was profoundly inhibited in mCTLA4-H gamma 1 transgenic mice immunized with a protein antigen. Surprisingly, however, transgenic mice could generate quantitatively and qualitatively normal primary T cell responses, as measured by limiting dilution assays and lymphokine production. In addition, in vivo expansion of antigen-specific T cells after secondary or tertiary immunization was enhanced in mCTLA4-H gamma 1 transgenics as compared with normal mice. Although unable to deliver cognate help to B cells in vivo, T cells from mCTLA4-H gamma 1 transgenic mice were not anergic as they could help B cells to produce specific antibodies when adoptively transferred into nude hosts. Taken together, these data suggest that the engagement of CD28 and/or CTLA-4 may not be required for the induction of T cell responses, as is currently understood, but rather for the expression of T cell effector function such as the delivery of T cell help to B cells. PMID:8113677

  20. Loci under selection during multiple range expansions of an invasive plant are mostly population specific, but patterns are associated with climate.

    PubMed

    Zenni, Rafael D; Hoban, Sean M

    2015-07-01

    Identifying the genes underlying rapid evolutionary changes, describing their function and ascertaining the environmental pressures that determine fitness are the central elements needed for understanding of evolutionary processes and phenotypic changes that improve the fitness of populations. It has been hypothesized that rapid adaptive changes in new environments may contribute to the rapid spread and success of invasive plants and animals. As yet, studies of adaptation during invasion are scarce, as is knowledge of the genes underlying adaptation, especially in multiple replicated invasions. Here, we quantified how genotype frequencies change during invasions, resulting in rapid evolution of naturalized populations. We used six fully replicated common garden experiments in Brazil where Pinus taeda (loblolly pine) was introduced at the same time, in the same numbers, from the same seed sources, and has formed naturalized populations expanding outward from the plantations. We used a combination of nonparametric, population genetics and multivariate statistics to detect changes in genotype frequencies along each of the six naturalization gradients and their association with climate as well as shifts in allele frequencies compared to the source populations. Results show 25 genes with significant shifts in genotype frequencies. Six genes had shifts in more than one population. Climate explained 25% of the variation in the groups of genes under selection across all locations, but specific genes under strong selection during invasions did not show climate-related convergence. In conclusion, we detected rapid evolutionary changes during invasive range expansions, but the particular gene-level patterns of evolution may be population specific. PMID:25958932

  1. Universal Expansion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McArdle, Heather K.

    1997-01-01

    Describes a week-long activity for general to honors-level students that addresses Hubble's law and the universal expansion theory. Uses a discrepant event-type activity to lead up to the abstract principles of the universal expansion theory. (JRH)

  2. The developmental origins and lineage contributions of endocardial endothelium.

    PubMed

    Nakano, Atsushi; Nakano, Haruko; Smith, Kelly A; Palpant, Nathan J

    2016-07-01

    Endocardial development involves a complex orchestration of cell fate decisions that coordinate with endoderm formation and other mesodermal cell lineages. Historically, investigations into the contribution of endocardium in the developing embryo was constrained to the heart where these cells give rise to the inner lining of the myocardium and are a major contributor to valve formation. In recent years, studies have continued to elucidate the complexities of endocardial fate commitment revealing a much broader scope of lineage potential from developing endocardium. These studies cover a wide range of species and model systems and show direct contribution or fate potential of endocardium giving rise to cardiac vasculature, blood, fibroblast, and cardiomyocyte lineages. This review focuses on the marked expansion of knowledge in the area of endocardial fate potential. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Cardiomyocyte Biology: Integration of Developmental and Environmental Cues in the Heart edited by Marcus Schaub and Hughes Abriel. PMID:26828773

  3. Divergence patterns of genic copy number variation in natural populations of the house mouse (Mus musculus domesticus) reveal three conserved genes with major population-specific expansions

    PubMed Central

    Pezer, Željka; Harr, Bettina; Teschke, Meike; Babiker, Hiba; Tautz, Diethard

    2015-01-01

    Copy number variation represents a major source of genetic divergence, yet the evolutionary dynamics of genic copy number variation in natural populations during differentiation and adaptation remain unclear. We applied a read depth approach to genome resequencing data to detect copy number variants (CNVs) ≥1 kb in wild-caught mice belonging to four populations of Mus musculus domesticus. We complemented the bioinformatics analyses with experimental validation using droplet digital PCR. The specific focus of our analysis is CNVs that include complete genes, as these CNVs could be expected to contribute most directly to evolutionary divergence. In total, 1863 transcription units appear to be completely encompassed within CNVs in at least one individual when compared to the reference assembly. Further, 179 of these CNVs show population-specific copy number differences, and 325 are subject to complete deletion in multiple individuals. Among the most copy-number variable genes are three highly conserved genes that encode the splicing factor CWC22, the spindle protein SFI1, and the Holliday junction recognition protein HJURP. These genes exhibit population-specific expansion patterns that suggest involvement in local adaptations. We found that genes that overlap with large segmental duplications are generally more copy-number variable. These genes encode proteins that are relevant for environmental and behavioral interactions, such as vomeronasal and olfactory receptors, as well as major urinary proteins and several proteins of unknown function. The overall analysis shows that genic CNVs contribute more to population differentiation in mice than in humans and may promote and speed up population divergence. PMID:26149421

  4. Launching the T-Lineage Developmental Programme

    PubMed Central

    Rothenberg, Ellen V.; Moore, Jonathan E.; Yui, Mary A.

    2011-01-01

    Preface Multipotent blood progenitor cells enter the thymus and begin a protracted differentiation process in which they gradually acquire T-cell characteristics while shedding their legacy of developmental plasticity. Notch signalling and basic helix-loop-helix E-protein transcription factors collaborate repeatedly to trigger and sustain this process throughout the period leading up to T-cell lineage commitment. Nevertheless, the process is discontinuous with separately regulated steps that demand roles for additional collaborating factors. This review discusses new evidence on the coordination of specification and commitment in the early T-cell pathway; effects of microenvironmental signals; the inheritance of stem-cell regulatory factors; and the ensemble of transcription factors that modulate the effects of Notch and E proteins, to distinguish individual stages and to polarize T-lineage fate determination. PMID:18097446

  5. A Predominantly Neolithic Origin for European Paternal Lineages

    PubMed Central

    Balaresque, Patricia; Bowden, Georgina R.; Adams, Susan M.; Leung, Ho-Yee; King, Turi E.; Rosser, Zoë H.; Goodwin, Jane; Moisan, Jean-Paul; Richard, Christelle; Millward, Ann; Demaine, Andrew G.; Barbujani, Guido; Previderè, Carlo; Wilson, Ian J.; Tyler-Smith, Chris; Jobling, Mark A.

    2010-01-01

    The relative contributions to modern European populations of Paleolithic hunter-gatherers and Neolithic farmers from the Near East have been intensely debated. Haplogroup R1b1b2 (R-M269) is the commonest European Y-chromosomal lineage, increasing in frequency from east to west, and carried by 110 million European men. Previous studies suggested a Paleolithic origin, but here we show that the geographical distribution of its microsatellite diversity is best explained by spread from a single source in the Near East via Anatolia during the Neolithic. Taken with evidence on the origins of other haplogroups, this indicates that most European Y chromosomes originate in the Neolithic expansion. This reinterpretation makes Europe a prime example of how technological and cultural change is linked with the expansion of a Y-chromosomal lineage, and the contrast of this pattern with that shown by maternally inherited mitochondrial DNA suggests a unique role for males in the transition. PMID:20087410

  6. Adenovirus-Based Vaccines against Rhesus Lymphocryptovirus EBNA-1 Induce Expansion of Specific CD8+ and CD4+ T Cells in Persistently Infected Rhesus Macaques

    PubMed Central

    Leskowitz, R.; Fogg, M. H.; Zhou, X. Y.; Kaur, A.; Silveira, E. L. V.; Villinger, F.; Lieberman, P. M.; Wang, F.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The impact of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) on human health is substantial, but vaccines that prevent primary EBV infections or treat EBV-associated diseases are not yet available. The Epstein-Barr nuclear antigen 1 (EBNA-1) is an important target for vaccination because it is the only protein expressed in all EBV-associated malignancies. We have designed and tested two therapeutic EBV vaccines that target the rhesus (rh) lymphocryptovirus (LCV) EBNA-1 to determine if ongoing T cell responses during persistent rhLCV infection in rhesus macaques can be expanded upon vaccination. Vaccines were based on two serotypes of E1-deleted simian adenovirus and were administered in a prime-boost regimen. To further modulate the response, rhEBNA-1 was fused to herpes simplex virus glycoprotein D (HSV-gD), which acts to block an inhibitory signaling pathway during T cell activation. We found that vaccines expressing rhEBNA-1 with or without functional HSV-gD led to expansion of rhEBNA-1-specific CD8+ and CD4+ T cells in 33% and 83% of the vaccinated animals, respectively. Additional animals developed significant changes within T cell subsets without changes in total numbers. Vaccination did not increase T cell responses to rhBZLF-1, an immediate early lytic phase antigen of rhLCV, thus indicating that increases of rhEBNA-1-specific responses were a direct result of vaccination. Vaccine-induced rhEBNA-1-specific T cells were highly functional and produced various combinations of cytokines as well as the cytolytic molecule granzyme B. These results serve as an important proof of principle that functional EBNA-1-specific T cells can be expanded by vaccination. IMPORTANCE EBV is a common human pathogen that establishes a persistent infection through latency in B cells, where it occasionally reactivates. EBV infection is typically benign and is well controlled by the host adaptive immune system; however, it is considered carcinogenic due to its strong association with lymphoid

  7. Transduction of Human Antigen-Presenting Cells with Integrase-Defective Lentiviral Vector Enables Functional Expansion of Primed Antigen-Specific CD8+ T Cells

    PubMed Central

    Bona, Roberta; Michelini, Zuleika; Leone, Pasqualina; Macchia, Iole; Klotman, Mary E.; Salvatore, Mirella

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Nonintegrating lentiviral vectors are being developed as a efficient and safe delivery system for both gene therapy and vaccine purposes. Several reports have demonstrated that a single immunization with integration-defective lentiviral vectors (IDLVs) delivering viral or tumor model antigens in mice was able to elicit broad and long-lasting specific immune responses in the absence of vector integration. At present, no evidence has been reported showing that IDLVs are able to expand preexisting immune responses in the human context. In the present study, we demonstrate that infection of human antigen-presenting cells (APCs), such as monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DCs) and macrophages with IDLVs expressing influenza matrix M1 protein resulted in effective induction of in vitro expansion of M1-primed CD8+ T cells, as evaluated by both pentamer staining and cytokine production. This is the first demonstration that IDLVs represent an efficient delivery system for gene transfer and expression in human APCs, useful for immunotherapeutic applications. PMID:20210625

  8. Auxin Import and Local Auxin Biosynthesis Are Required for Mitotic Divisions, Cell Expansion and Cell Specification during Female Gametophyte Development in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Panoli, Aneesh; Martin, Maria Victoria; Alandete-Saez, Monica; Simon, Marissa; Neff, Christina; Swarup, Ranjan; Bellido, Andrés; Yuan, Li; Pagnussat, Gabriela C.; Sundaresan, Venkatesan

    2015-01-01

    The female gametophyte of flowering plants, called the embryo sac, develops from a haploid cell named the functional megaspore, which is specified after meiosis by the diploid sporophyte. In Arabidopsis, the functional megaspore undergoes three syncitial mitotic divisions followed by cellularization to form seven cells of four cell types including two female gametes. The plant hormone auxin is important for sporophytic developmental processes, and auxin levels are known to be regulated by biosynthesis and transport. Here, we investigated the role of auxin biosynthetic genes and auxin influx carriers in embryo sac development. We find that genes from the YUCCA/TAA pathway (YUC1, YUC2, YUC8, TAA1, TAR2) are expressed asymmetrically in the developing ovule and embryo sac from the two-nuclear syncitial stage until cellularization. Mutants for YUC1 and YUC2 exhibited defects in cell specification, whereas mutations in YUC8, as well as mutations in TAA1 and TAR2, caused defects in nuclear proliferation, vacuole formation and anisotropic growth of the embryo sac. Additionally, expression of the auxin influx carriers AUX1 and LAX1 were observed at the micropylar pole of the embryo sac and in the adjacent cells of the ovule, and the aux1 lax1 lax2 triple mutant shows multiple gametophyte defects. These results indicate that both localized auxin biosynthesis and auxin import, are required for mitotic divisions, cell expansion and patterning during embryo sac development. PMID:25970627

  9. Auxin Import and Local Auxin Biosynthesis Are Required for Mitotic Divisions, Cell Expansion and Cell Specification during Female Gametophyte Development in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Panoli, Aneesh; Martin, Maria Victoria; Alandete-Saez, Monica; Simon, Marissa; Neff, Christina; Swarup, Ranjan; Bellido, Andrés; Yuan, Li; Pagnussat, Gabriela C; Sundaresan, Venkatesan

    2015-01-01

    The female gametophyte of flowering plants, called the embryo sac, develops from a haploid cell named the functional megaspore, which is specified after meiosis by the diploid sporophyte. In Arabidopsis, the functional megaspore undergoes three syncitial mitotic divisions followed by cellularization to form seven cells of four cell types including two female gametes. The plant hormone auxin is important for sporophytic developmental processes, and auxin levels are known to be regulated by biosynthesis and transport. Here, we investigated the role of auxin biosynthetic genes and auxin influx carriers in embryo sac development. We find that genes from the YUCCA/TAA pathway (YUC1, YUC2, YUC8, TAA1, TAR2) are expressed asymmetrically in the developing ovule and embryo sac from the two-nuclear syncitial stage until cellularization. Mutants for YUC1 and YUC2 exhibited defects in cell specification, whereas mutations in YUC8, as well as mutations in TAA1 and TAR2, caused defects in nuclear proliferation, vacuole formation and anisotropic growth of the embryo sac. Additionally, expression of the auxin influx carriers AUX1 and LAX1 were observed at the micropylar pole of the embryo sac and in the adjacent cells of the ovule, and the aux1 lax1 lax2 triple mutant shows multiple gametophyte defects. These results indicate that both localized auxin biosynthesis and auxin import, are required for mitotic divisions, cell expansion and patterning during embryo sac development. PMID:25970627

  10. Species-specific expansion and molecular evolution of the 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HMGR) gene family in plants.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei; Liu, Wei; Wei, Hengling; He, Qiuling; Chen, Jinhong; Zhang, Baohong; Zhu, Shuijin

    2014-01-01

    The terpene compounds represent the largest and most diverse class of plant secondary metabolites which are important in plant growth and development. The 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HMGR; EC 1.1.1.34) is one of the key enzymes contributed to terpene biosynthesis. To better understand the basic characteristics and evolutionary history of the HMGR gene family in plants, a genome-wide analysis of HMGR genes from 20 representative species was carried out. A total of 56 HMGR genes in the 14 land plant genomes were identified, but no genes were found in all 6 algal genomes. The gene structure and protein architecture of all plant HMGR genes were highly conserved. The phylogenetic analysis revealed that the plant HMGRs were derived from one ancestor gene and finally developed into four distinct groups, two in the monocot plants and two in dicot plants. Species-specific gene duplications, caused mainly by segmental duplication, led to the limited expansion of HMGR genes in Zea mays, Gossypium raimondii, Populus trichocarpa and Glycine max after the species diverged. The analysis of Ka/Ks ratios and expression profiles indicated that functional divergence after the gene duplications was restricted. The results suggested that the function and evolution of HMGR gene family were dramatically conserved throughout the plant kingdom. PMID:24722776

  11. Slit/Robo signaling regulates cell fate decisions in the intestinal stem cell lineage of Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Biteau, Benoît; Jasper, Heinrich

    2014-01-01

    To maintain tissue homeostasis, cell fate decisions within stem cell lineages have to respond to the needs of the tissue. This coordination of lineage choices with regenerative demand remains poorly characterized. Here we identify a signal from enteroendocrine cells (EEs) that controls lineage specification in the Drosophila intestine. We find that EEs secrete Slit, a ligand for the Robo2 receptor in stem cells (ISCs) that limits ISC commitment to the endocrine lineage, establishing negative feedback control of EE regeneration. We further show that this lineage decision is made within ISCs and requires induction of the transcription factor Prospero in ISCs. Our work identifies a new function for the conserved Slit/Robo pathway in the regulation of adult stem cells, establishing negative feedback control of ISC lineage specification as a critical strategy to preserve tissue homeostasis. Our results further amend the current understanding of cell fate commitment within the Drosophila ISC lineage. PMID:24931602

  12. Slit/Robo signaling regulates cell fate decisions in the intestinal stem cell lineage of Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Biteau, Benoît; Jasper, Heinrich

    2014-06-26

    In order to maintain tissue homeostasis, cell fate decisions within stem cell lineages have to respond to the needs of the tissue. This coordination of lineage choices with regenerative demand remains poorly characterized. Here, we identify a signal from enteroendocrine cells (EEs) that controls lineage specification in the Drosophila intestine. We find that EEs secrete Slit, a ligand for the Robo2 receptor in intestinal stem cells (ISCs) that limits ISC commitment to the endocrine lineage, establishing negative feedback control of EE regeneration. Furthermore, we show that this lineage decision is made within ISCs and requires induction of the transcription factor Prospero in ISCs. Our work identifies a function for the conserved Slit/Robo pathway in the regulation of adult stem cells, establishing negative feedback control of ISC lineage specification as a critical strategy to preserve tissue homeostasis. Our results further amend the current understanding of cell fate commitment within the Drosophila ISC lineage. PMID:24931602

  13. Instruction of hematopoietic lineage choice by cytokine signaling

    SciTech Connect

    Endele, Max; Etzrodt, Martin; Schroeder, Timm

    2014-12-10

    Hematopoiesis is the cumulative consequence of finely tuned signaling pathways activated through extrinsic factors, such as local niche signals and systemic hematopoietic cytokines. Whether extrinsic factors actively instruct the lineage choice of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells or are only selectively allowing survival and proliferation of already intrinsically lineage-committed cells has been debated over decades. Recent results demonstrated that cytokines can instruct lineage choice. However, the precise function of individual cytokine-triggered signaling molecules in inducing cellular events like proliferation, lineage choice, and differentiation remains largely elusive. Signal transduction pathways activated by different cytokine receptors are highly overlapping, but support the production of distinct hematopoietic lineages. Cellular context, signaling dynamics, and the crosstalk of different signaling pathways determine the cellular response of a given extrinsic signal. New tools to manipulate and continuously quantify signaling events at the single cell level are therefore required to thoroughly interrogate how dynamic signaling networks yield a specific cellular response. - Highlights: • Recent studies provided definite proof for lineage-instructive action of cytokines. • Signaling pathways involved in hematopoietic lineage instruction remain elusive. • New tools are emerging to quantitatively study dynamic signaling networks over time.

  14. Polynesian mitochondrial DNAs reveal three deep maternal lineage clusters.

    PubMed

    Lum, J K; Rickards, O; Ching, C; Cann, R L

    1994-08-01

    The 4000-year-old human population expansion into Remote Oceania has been studied from a variety of genetic perspectives. Here, we report the discovery that Polynesians, traditionally considered to be a single cohesive linguistic and cultural unit, exhibit at least three distinct mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) groups that probably shared a common maternal ancestor more than 85,000 years ago. The major lineage groups were first identified by PCR amplification of the mitochondrial region V deletion marker, known to be present at high frequency in Polynesian populations. Sequence analysis of mtDNA hypervariable control regions reveals a surprising number of lineages in Polynesia. We also note high sequence divergence between lineage groups deleted and not deleted in region V. Major group I lineages are common in Remote Oceania and include about 95% of the Native Hawaiian, 90% of the Samoan, and 100% of the Tongan donors in our sample. They contain the region V deletion and generally share three control region transition substitutions. This group also contains non-Polynesian individuals, such as Indonesians, Native Americans, Micronesians, Malaysians, Japanese, and Chinese. The group I Polynesians differ by 4.4% in sequence identity from major lineage group II Polynesians, who do not have the region V deletion and who share among themselves four distinct single-base substitutions. Group II individuals are seen at low frequency (< 10%) in Hawaii, Samoa, and the Cook Islands and may represent the predominant maternal lineage group of Papuan Melanesia. Major lineage group III, not found in Hawaii, tentatively links Samoa to Indonesia. Our observation of deep maternal genetic branches in Polynesia today confirms the notion that during the colonization of the Pacific, mainland Asian immigrants mixed with Melanesian peoples already inhabiting Near Oceania and carried a complex assortment of maternal genotypes derived from two distinct geographic sources to isolated island

  15. Lymphatic endothelial lineage assemblage during corneal lymphangiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Connor, Alicia L; Kelley, Philip M; Tempero, Richard M

    2016-03-01

    Postnatal inflammatory lymphangiogenesis presumably requires precise regulatory processes to properly assemble proliferating lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs). The specific mechanisms that regulate the assembly of LECs during new lymphatic vessel synthesis are unclear. Dynamic endothelial shuffling and rearrangement has been proposed as a mechanism of blood vessel growth. We developed genetic lineage-tracing strategies using an inductive transgenic technology to track the fate of entire tandem dimer tomato-positive (tdT) lymphatic vessels or small, in some cases clonal, populations of LECs. We coupled this platform with a suture-induced mouse model of corneal lymphangiogenesis and used different analytic microscopy techniques including serial live imaging to study the spatial properties of proliferating tdT(+) LEC progenies. LEC precursors and their progeny expanded from the corneal limbal lymphatic vessel and were assembled contiguously to comprise a subunit within a new lymphatic vessel. VE-cadherin blockade induced morphologic abnormalities in newly synthesized lymphatic vessels, but did not disrupt the tdT(+) lymphatic endothelial lineage assembly. Analysis of this static and dynamic data based largely on direct in vivo observations supports a model of lymphatic endothelial lineage assemblage during corneal inflammatory lymphangiogenesis. PMID:26658452

  16. Lymphatic endothelial lineage assemblage during corneal lymphangiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Connor, Alicia L.; Kelley, Philip M.; Tempero, Richard M.

    2015-01-01

    Post natal inflammatory lymphangiogenesis presumably requires precise regulatory processes to properly assemble proliferating lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs). The specific mechanisms that regulate the assembly of LECs during new lymphatic vessel synthesis are unclear. Dynamic endothelial shuffling and rearrangement has been proposed as a mechanism of blood vessel growth. We developed genetic lineage tracing strategies using an inductive transgenic technology to track the fate of entire tandem dimer tomato positive (tdT) lymphatic vessels or small, in some cases clonal, populations of LECs. We coupled this platform with a suture induced mouse model of corneal lymphangiogenesis and used different analytic microscopy techniques including serial live imaging to study the spatial properties of proliferating tdT+ LEC progenies. LEC precursors and their progeny expanded from the corneal limbal lymphatic vessel and were assembled contiguously to comprise a subunit within a new lymphatic vessel. VE-cadherin blockade induced morphologic abnormalities in newly synthesized lymphatic vessels, but did not disrupt the tdT+ lymphatic endothelial lineage assembly. Analysis of this static and dynamic data based largely on direct in vivo observations supports a model of lymphatic endothelial lineage assemblage during corneal inflammatory lymphangiogenesis. PMID:26658452

  17. Sequence and expression analysis of rainbow trout CXCR2, CXCR3a and CXCR3b aids interpretation of lineage-specific conversion, loss and expansion of these receptors during vertebrate evolution.

    PubMed

    Xu, Qiaoqing; Li, Ronggai; Monte, Milena M; Jiang, Yousheng; Nie, Pin; Holland, Jason W; Secombes, Chris J; Wang, Tiehui

    2014-08-01

    The chemokine receptors CXCR1-3 bind to 11 chemokines (CXCL1-11) that are clustered on the same chromosome in mammals but are largely missing in ray-finned fish. A second CXCR1/2, and a CXCR3a and CXCR3b gene have been cloned in rainbow trout. Analysis of CXCR1-R3 genes in lobe-finned fish, ray-finned fish and tetrapod genomes revealed that the teleostomian ancestor likely possessed loci containing both CXCR1 and CXCR2, and CXCR3a and CXCR3b. Based on this synteny analysis the first trout CXCR1/2 gene was renamed CXCR1, and the new gene CXCR2. The CXCR1/R2 locus was shown to have further expanded in ray-finned fish. In relation to CXCR3, mammals appear to have lost CXCR3b and birds both CXCR3a and CXCR3b during evolution. Trout CXCR1-R3 have distinct tissue expression patterns and are differentially modulated by PAMPs, proinflammatory cytokines and infections. They are highly expressed in macrophages and neutrophils, with CXCR1 and CXCR2 also expressed in B-cells. PMID:24613851

  18. Lineages of varicella-zoster virus.

    PubMed

    McGeoch, Duncan J

    2009-04-01

    Relationships among varicella-zoster virus (VZV; Human herpesvirus 3) genome sequences were examined to evaluate descent of strains, structures of lineages and incidence of recombination events. Eighteen complete, published genome sequences were aligned and 494 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) extracted, each as two alleles. At 281 SNPs, a single sequence differed from all the others. Distributions of the remaining 213 SNPs indicated that the sequences fell into five groups, which coincided with previously recognized phylogenetic groupings, termed E1, E2, J, M1 and M2. The 213-SNP set was divisible into 104 SNPs that were specific to a single group, and 109 cross-group SNPs that defined relationships among groups. This last set was evaluated by criteria of continuities in relationships between groups and breaks in such patterns, to identify crossover points and ascribe them to lineages. For the 99 cross-group SNPs in the genome's long unique region, it was seen that the E2 and M2 groups were almost completely distinct in their SNP alleles, and the E1 group was derived from a recombinant of E2 and M2. A valid phylogenetic tree could thus be constructed for the four E2 and two M2 strains. There was no substantive evidence for recombination within the E2 group or the E1 group (ten strains). The J and M1 groups each contained only one strain, and both were interpreted as having substantial distinct histories plus possible recombinant elements from the E2 and M2 lineages. The view of VZV recombination and phylogeny reached represents a major clarification of deep relationships among VZV lineages. PMID:19264671

  19. Gender and cell-type specific effects of the transcription coupled repair protein, ERCC6/CSB, on repeat expansion in a mouse model of the Fragile X-related disorders

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Xiao-Nan; Usdin, Karen

    2014-01-01

    The Repeat Expansion Diseases (REDs) are human genetic disorders that arise from expansion of a tandem repeat tract. The Fragile X-related disorders are members of this disease group in which the repeat unit is CGG/CCG and is located in the 5′ untranslated region of the FMR1 gene. Affected individuals often show mosaicism with respect to repeat number resulting from both expansion and contraction of the repeat tract, however, the mechanism responsible for these changes in repeat number are unknown. Work from a variety of model systems suggests that Transcription Coupled Repair (TCR) may contribute to repeat instability in diseases resulting from CAG/CTG-repeat expansion. To test whether TCR could contribute to repeat instability in the Fragile X-related disorders, we tested the effect of mutations in Csb (Cockayne Syndrome group B), a gene essential for TCR, in a knock-in mouse model of these disorders. We found that the loss of CSB affects expansions in a gender and cell type-specific manner. Our data also show an unanticipated gender difference in instability even in Csb+/+ animals that may have implications for our understanding of the mechanism of repeat expansion in the FX mouse model and perhaps for humans as well. PMID:24352881

  20. Data defining markers of human neural stem cell lineage potential

    PubMed Central

    Oikari, Lotta E.; Okolicsanyi, Rachel K.; Griffiths, Lyn R.; Haupt, Larisa M.

    2016-01-01

    Neural stem cells (NSCs) and neural progenitor cells (NPCs) are self-renewing and multipotent cells, however, NPCs are considered to be more lineage-restricted with a reduced self-renewing capacity. We present data comparing the expression of 21 markers encompassing pluripotency, self-renewal (NSC) as well as neuronal and glial (astrocyte and oligodendrocyte) lineage specification and 28 extracellular proteoglycan (PG) genes and their regulatory enzymes between embryonic stem cell (ESC)-derived human NSCs (hNSC H9 cells, Thermo Fisher) and human cortex-derived normal human NPCs (nhNPCs, Lonza). The data demonstrates expression differences of multiple lineage and proteoglycan-associated genes between hNSC H9 cells and nhNPCs. Data interpretation of markers and proteoglycans defining NSC and neural cell lineage characterisation can be found in “Cell surface heparan sulfate proteoglycans as novel markers of human neural stem cell fate determination” (Oikari et al. 2015) [1]. PMID:26958640

  1. Data defining markers of human neural stem cell lineage potential.

    PubMed

    Oikari, Lotta E; Okolicsanyi, Rachel K; Griffiths, Lyn R; Haupt, Larisa M

    2016-06-01

    Neural stem cells (NSCs) and neural progenitor cells (NPCs) are self-renewing and multipotent cells, however, NPCs are considered to be more lineage-restricted with a reduced self-renewing capacity. We present data comparing the expression of 21 markers encompassing pluripotency, self-renewal (NSC) as well as neuronal and glial (astrocyte and oligodendrocyte) lineage specification and 28 extracellular proteoglycan (PG) genes and their regulatory enzymes between embryonic stem cell (ESC)-derived human NSCs (hNSC H9 cells, Thermo Fisher) and human cortex-derived normal human NPCs (nhNPCs, Lonza). The data demonstrates expression differences of multiple lineage and proteoglycan-associated genes between hNSC H9 cells and nhNPCs. Data interpretation of markers and proteoglycans defining NSC and neural cell lineage characterisation can be found in "Cell surface heparan sulfate proteoglycans as novel markers of human neural stem cell fate determination" (Oikari et al. 2015) [1]. PMID:26958640

  2. Single-cell analysis defines the divergence between the innate lymphoid cell lineage and lymphoid tissue-inducer cell lineage.

    PubMed

    Ishizuka, Isabel E; Chea, Sylvestre; Gudjonson, Herman; Constantinides, Michael G; Dinner, Aaron R; Bendelac, Albert; Golub, Rachel

    2016-03-01

    The precise lineage relationship between innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) and lymphoid tissue-inducer (LTi) cells is poorly understood. Using single-cell multiplex transcriptional analysis of 100 lymphoid genes and single-cell cultures of fetal liver precursor cells, we identified the common proximal precursor to these lineages and found that its bifurcation was marked by differential induction of the transcription factors PLZF and TCF1. Acquisition of individual effector programs specific to the ILC subsets ILC1, ILC2 and ILC3 was initiated later, at the common ILC precursor stage, by transient expression of mixed ILC1, ILC2 and ILC3 transcriptional patterns, whereas, in contrast, the development of LTi cells did not go through multilineage priming. Our findings provide insight into the divergent mechanisms of the differentiation of the ILC lineage and LTi cell lineage and establish a high-resolution 'blueprint' of their development. PMID:26779601

  3. Evolutionary history and global spread of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis Beijing lineage.

    PubMed

    Merker, Matthias; Blin, Camille; Mona, Stefano; Duforet-Frebourg, Nicolas; Lecher, Sophie; Willery, Eve; Blum, Michael G B; Rüsch-Gerdes, Sabine; Mokrousov, Igor; Aleksic, Eman; Allix-Béguec, Caroline; Antierens, Annick; Augustynowicz-Kopeć, Ewa; Ballif, Marie; Barletta, Francesca; Beck, Hans Peter; Barry, Clifton E; Bonnet, Maryline; Borroni, Emanuele; Campos-Herrero, Isolina; Cirillo, Daniela; Cox, Helen; Crowe, Suzanne; Crudu, Valeriu; Diel, Roland; Drobniewski, Francis; Fauville-Dufaux, Maryse; Gagneux, Sébastien; Ghebremichael, Solomon; Hanekom, Madeleine; Hoffner, Sven; Jiao, Wei-wei; Kalon, Stobdan; Kohl, Thomas A; Kontsevaya, Irina; Lillebæk, Troels; Maeda, Shinji; Nikolayevskyy, Vladyslav; Rasmussen, Michael; Rastogi, Nalin; Samper, Sofia; Sanchez-Padilla, Elisabeth; Savic, Branislava; Shamputa, Isdore Chola; Shen, Adong; Sng, Li-Hwei; Stakenas, Petras; Toit, Kadri; Varaine, Francis; Vukovic, Dragana; Wahl, Céline; Warren, Robin; Supply, Philip; Niemann, Stefan; Wirth, Thierry

    2015-03-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains of the Beijing lineage are globally distributed and are associated with the massive spread of multidrug-resistant (MDR) tuberculosis in Eurasia. Here we reconstructed the biogeographical structure and evolutionary history of this lineage by genetic analysis of 4,987 isolates from 99 countries and whole-genome sequencing of 110 representative isolates. We show that this lineage initially originated in the Far East, from where it radiated worldwide in several waves. We detected successive increases in population size for this pathogen over the last 200 years, practically coinciding with the Industrial Revolution, the First World War and HIV epidemics. Two MDR clones of this lineage started to spread throughout central Asia and Russia concomitantly with the collapse of the public health system in the former Soviet Union. Mutations identified in genes putatively under positive selection and associated with virulence might have favored the expansion of the most successful branches of the lineage. PMID:25599400

  4. COBRA, an Arabidopsis Extracellular Glycosyl-Phosphatidyl Inositol-Anchored Protein, Specifically Controls Highly Anisotropic Expansion through Its Involvement in Cellulose Microfibril OrientationW⃞

    PubMed Central

    Roudier, François; Fernandez, Anita G.; Fujita, Miki; Himmelspach, Regina; Borner, Georg H.H.; Schindelman, Gary; Song, Shuang; Baskin, Tobias I.; Dupree, Paul; Wasteneys, Geoffrey O.; Benfey, Philip N.

    2005-01-01

    The orientation of cell expansion is a process at the heart of plant morphogenesis. Cellulose microfibrils are the primary anisotropic material in the cell wall and thus are likely to be the main determinant of the orientation of cell expansion. COBRA (COB) has been identified previously as a potential regulator of cellulose biogenesis. In this study, characterization of a null allele, cob-4, establishes the key role of COB in controlling anisotropic expansion in most developing organs. Quantitative polarized-light and field-emission scanning electron microscopy reveal that loss of anisotropic expansion in cob mutants is accompanied by disorganization of the orientation of cellulose microfibrils and subsequent reduction of crystalline cellulose. Analyses of the conditional cob-1 allele suggested that COB is primarily implicated in microfibril deposition during rapid elongation. Immunodetection analysis in elongating root cells revealed that, in agreement with its substitution by a glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchor, COB was polarly targeted to both the plasma membrane and the longitudinal cell walls and was distributed in a banding pattern perpendicular to the longitudinal axis via a microtubule-dependent mechanism. Our observations suggest that COB, through its involvement in cellulose microfibril orientation, is an essential factor in highly anisotropic expansion during plant morphogenesis. PMID:15849274

  5. Patterns of growth, axonal extension and axonal arborization of neuronal lineages in the developing Drosophila brain.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Camilla; Shy, Diana; Spindler, Shana R; Fung, Siaumin; Pereanu, Wayne; Younossi-Hartenstein, Amelia; Hartenstein, Volker

    2009-11-15

    The Drosophila central brain is composed of approximately 100 paired lineages, with most lineages comprising 100-150 neurons. Most lineages have a number of important characteristics in common. Typically, neurons of a lineage stay together as a coherent cluster and project their axons into a coherent bundle visible from late embryo to adult. Neurons born during the embryonic period form the primary axon tracts (PATs) that follow stereotyped pathways in the neuropile. Apoptotic cell death removes an average of 30-40% of primary neurons around the time of hatching. Secondary neurons generated during the larval period form secondary axon tracts (SATs) that typically fasciculate with their corresponding primary axon tract. SATs develop into the long fascicles that interconnect the different compartments of the adult brain. Structurally, we distinguish between three types of lineages: PD lineages, characterized by distinct, spatially separate proximal and distal arborizations; C lineages with arborizations distributed continuously along the entire length of their tract; D lineages that lack proximal arborizations. Arborizations of many lineages, in particular those of the PD type, are restricted to distinct neuropile compartments. We propose that compartments are "scaffolded" by individual lineages, or small groups thereof. Thereby, the relatively small number of primary neurons of each primary lineage set up the compartment map in the late embryo. Compartments grow during the larval period simply by an increase in arbor volume of primary neurons. Arbors of secondary neurons form within or adjacent to the larval compartments, resulting in smaller compartment subdivisions and additional, adult specific compartments. PMID:19538956

  6. Non-LTR R2 element evolutionary patterns: phylogenetic incongruences, rapid radiation and the maintenance of multiple lineages.

    PubMed

    Luchetti, Andrea; Mantovani, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    Retrotransposons of the R2 superclade specifically insert within the 28S ribosomal gene. They have been isolated from a variety of metazoan genomes and were found vertically inherited even if their phylogeny does not always agree with that of the host species. This was explained with the diversification/extinction of paralogous lineages, being proved the absence of horizontal transfer. We here analyze the widest available collection of R2 sequences, either newly isolated from recently sequenced genomes or drawn from public databases, in a phylogenetic framework. Results are congruent with previous analyses, but new important issues emerge. First, the N-terminal end of the R2-B clade protein, so far unknown, presents a new zinc fingers configuration. Second, the phylogenetic pattern is consistent with an ancient, rapid radiation of R2 lineages: being the estimated time of R2 origin (850-600 Million years ago) placed just before the metazoan Cambrian explosion, the wide element diversity and the incongruence with the host phylogeny could be attributable to the sudden expansion of available niches represented by host's 28S ribosomal genes. Finally, we detect instances of coexisting multiple R2 lineages showing a non-random phylogenetic pattern, strongly similar to that of the "library" model known for tandem repeats: a collection of R2s were present in the ancestral genome and then differentially activated/repressed in the derived species. Models for activation/repression as well as mechanisms for sequence maintenance are also discussed within this framework. PMID:23451148

  7. Phylogenetic lineages in Pseudocercospora

    PubMed Central

    Crous, P.W.; Braun, U.; Hunter, G.C.; Wingfield, M.J.; Verkley, G.J.M.; Shin, H.-D.; Nakashima, C.; Groenewald, J.Z.

    2013-01-01

    Pseudocercospora is a large cosmopolitan genus of plant pathogenic fungi that are commonly associated with leaf and fruit spots as well as blights on a wide range of plant hosts. They occur in arid as well as wet environments and in a wide range of climates including cool temperate, sub-tropical and tropical regions. Pseudocercospora is now treated as a genus in its own right, although formerly recognised as either an anamorphic state of Mycosphaerella or having mycosphaerella-like teleomorphs. The aim of this study was to sequence the partial 28S nuclear ribosomal RNA gene of a selected set of isolates to resolve phylogenetic generic limits within the Pseudocercospora complex. From these data, 14 clades are recognised, six of which cluster in Mycosphaerellaceae. Pseudocercospora s. str. represents a distinct clade, sister to Passalora eucalypti, and a clade representing the genera Scolecostigmina, Trochophora and Pallidocercospora gen. nov., taxa formerly accommodated in the Mycosphaerella heimii complex and characterised by smooth, pale brown conidia, as well as the formation of red crystals in agar media. Other clades in Mycosphaerellaceae include Sonderhenia, Microcyclosporella, and Paracercospora. Pseudocercosporella resides in a large clade along with Phloeospora, Miuraea, Cercospora and Septoria. Additional clades represent Dissoconiaceae, Teratosphaeriaceae, Cladosporiaceae, and the genera Xenostigmina, Strelitziana, Cyphellophora and Thedgonia. The genus Phaeomycocentrospora is introduced to accommodate Mycocentrospora cantuariensis, primarily distinguished from Pseudocercospora based on its hyaline hyphae, broad conidiogenous loci and hila. Host specificity was considered for 146 species of Pseudocercospora occurring on 115 host genera from 33 countries. Partial nucleotide sequence data for three gene loci, ITS, EF-1α, and ACT suggest that the majority of these species are host specific. Species identified on the basis of host, symptomatology and general

  8. Enhanced Ex Vivo Expansion of Human Hematopoietic Progenitors on Native and Spin Coated Acellular Matrices Prepared from Bone Marrow Stromal Cells

    PubMed Central

    Wasnik, Samiksha; Kantipudi, Suma; Kirkland, Mark A.; Pande, Gopal

    2016-01-01

    The extracellular microenvironment in bone marrow (BM) is known to regulate the growth and differentiation of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPC). We have developed cell-free matrices from a BM stromal cell line (HS-5), which can be used as substrates either in native form or as tissue engineered coatings, for the enhanced ex vivo expansion of umbilical cord blood (UCB) derived HSPC. The physicochemical properties (surface roughness, thickness, and uniformity) of native and spin coated acellular matrices (ACM) were studied using scanning and atomic force microscopy (SEM and AFM). Lineage-specific expansion of HSPC, grown on these substrates, was evaluated by immunophenotypic (flow cytometry) and functional (colony forming) assays. Our results show that the most efficient expansion of lineage-specific HSPC occurred on spin coated ACM. Our method provides an improved protocol for ex vivo HSPC expansion and it offers a system to study the in vivo roles of specific molecules in the hematopoietic niche that influence HSPC expansion. PMID:26981135

  9. E protein transcription factors are required for the development of CD4(+) lineage T cells.

    PubMed

    Jones-Mason, Mary Elizabeth; Zhao, Xudong; Kappes, Dietmar; Lasorella, Anna; Iavarone, Antonio; Zhuang, Yuan

    2012-03-23

    The double-positive (DP) to single-positive (SP) transition during T cell development is initiated by downregulation of the E protein transcription factors HEB and E2A. Here, we have demonstrated that in addition to regulating the onset of this transition, HEB and E2A also play a separate role in CD4(+) lineage choice. Deletion of HEB and E2A in DP thymocytes specifically blocked the development of CD4(+) lineage T cells. Furthermore, deletion of the E protein inhibitors Id2 and Id3 allowed CD4(+) T cell development but blocked CD8(+) lineage development. Analysis of the CD4(+) lineage transcriptional regulators ThPOK and Gata3 placed HEB and E2A upstream of CD4(+) lineage specification. These studies identify an important role for E proteins in the activation of CD4(+) lineage differentiation as thymocytes undergo the DP to SP transition. PMID:22425249

  10. Functions of Huntingtin in Germ Layer Specification and Organogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Giang D.; Molero, Aldrin E.; Gokhan, Solen; Mehler, Mark F.

    2013-01-01

    Huntington’s disease (HD) is a neurodegenerative disease caused by abnormal polyglutamine expansion in the huntingtin protein (Htt). Although both Htt and the HD pathogenic mutation (mHtt) are implicated in early developmental events, their individual involvement has not been adequately explored. In order to better define the developmental functions and pathological consequences of the normal and mutant proteins, respectively, we employed embryonic stem cell (ESC) expansion, differentiation and induction experiments using huntingtin knock-out (KO) and mutant huntingtin knock-in (Q111) mouse ESC lines. In KO ESCs, we observed impairments in the spontaneous specification and survival of ectodermal and mesodermal lineages during embryoid body formation and under inductive conditions using retinoic acid and Wnt3A, respectively. Ablation of BAX improves cell survival, but failed to correct defects in germ layer specification. In addition, we observed ensuing impairments in the specification and maturation of neural, hepatic, pancreatic and cardiomyocyte lineages. These developmental deficits occurred in concert with alterations in Notch, Hes1 and STAT3 signaling pathways. Moreover, in Q111 ESCs, we observed differential developmental stage-specific alterations in lineage specification and maturation. We also observed changes in Notch/STAT3 expression and activation. Our observations underscore essential roles of Htt in the specification of ectoderm, endoderm and mesoderm, in the specification of neural and non-neural organ-specific lineages, as well as cell survival during early embryogenesis. Remarkably, these developmental events are differentially deregulated by mHtt, raising the possibility that HD-associated early developmental impairments may contribute not only to region-specific neurodegeneration, but also to non-neural co-morbidities. PMID:23967334

  11. Zebrabow: multispectral cell labeling for cell tracing and lineage analysis in zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Y. Albert; Freundlich, Tom; Weissman, Tamily A.; Schoppik, David; Wang, X. Cindy; Zimmerman, Steve; Ciruna, Brian; Sanes, Joshua R.; Lichtman, Jeff W.; Schier, Alexander F.

    2013-01-01

    Advances in imaging and cell-labeling techniques have greatly enhanced our understanding of developmental and neurobiological processes. Among vertebrates, zebrafish is uniquely suited for in vivo imaging owing to its small size and optical translucency. However, distinguishing and following cells over extended time periods remains difficult. Previous studies have demonstrated that Cre recombinase-mediated recombination can lead to combinatorial expression of spectrally distinct fluorescent proteins (RFP, YFP and CFP) in neighboring cells, creating a ‘Brainbow’ of colors. The random combination of fluorescent proteins provides a way to distinguish adjacent cells, visualize cellular interactions and perform lineage analyses. Here, we describe Zebrabow (Zebrafish Brainbow) tools for in vivo multicolor imaging in zebrafish. First, we show that the broadly expressed ubi:Zebrabow line provides diverse color profiles that can be optimized by modulating Cre activity. Second, we find that colors are inherited equally among daughter cells and remain stable throughout embryonic and larval stages. Third, we show that UAS:Zebrabow lines can be used in combination with Gal4 to generate broad or tissue-specific expression patterns and facilitate tracing of axonal processes. Fourth, we demonstrate that Zebrabow can be used for long-term lineage analysis. Using the cornea as a model system, we provide evidence that embryonic corneal epithelial clones are replaced by large, wedge-shaped clones formed by centripetal expansion of cells from the peripheral cornea. The Zebrabow tool set presented here provides a resource for next-generation color-based anatomical and lineage analyses in zebrafish. PMID:23757414

  12. Wider sampling reveals a non-sister relationship for geographically contiguous lineages of a marine mussel

    PubMed Central

    Cunha, Regina L; Nicastro, Katy R; Costa, Joana; McQuaid, Christopher D; Serrão, Ester A; Zardi, Gerardo I

    2014-01-01

    The accuracy of phylogenetic inference can be significantly improved by the addition of more taxa and by increasing the spatial coverage of sampling. In previous studies, the brown mussel Perna perna showed a sister–lineage relationship between eastern and western individuals contiguously distributed along the South African coastline. We used mitochondrial (COI) and nuclear (ITS) sequence data to further analyze phylogeographic patterns within P. perna. Significant expansion of the geographical coverage revealed an unexpected pattern. The western South African lineage shared the most recent common ancestor (MRCA) with specimens from Angola, Venezuela, and Namibia, whereas eastern South African specimens and Mozambique grouped together, indicating a non-sister relationship for the two South African lineages. Two plausible biogeographic scenarios to explain their origin were both supported by the hypotheses-testing analysis. One includes an Indo-Pacific origin for P. perna, dispersal into the Mediterranean and Atlantic through the Tethys seaway, followed by recent secondary contact after southward expansion of the western and eastern South African lineages. The other scenario (Out of South Africa) suggests an ancient vicariant divergence of the two lineages followed by their northward expansion. Nevertheless, the “Out of South Africa” hypothesis would require a more ancient divergence between the two lineages. Instead, our estimates indicated that they diverged very recently (310 kyr), providing a better support for an Indo-Pacific origin of the two South African lineages. The arrival of the MRCA of P. perna in Brazil was estimated at 10 [0–40] kyr. Thus, the hypothesis of a recent introduction in Brazil through hull fouling in wooden vessels involved in the transatlantic itineraries of the slave trade did not receive strong support, but given the range for this estimate, it could not be discarded. Wider geographic sampling of marine organisms shows that

  13. Wider sampling reveals a non-sister relationship for geographically contiguous lineages of a marine mussel.

    PubMed

    Cunha, Regina L; Nicastro, Katy R; Costa, Joana; McQuaid, Christopher D; Serrão, Ester A; Zardi, Gerardo I

    2014-06-01

    The accuracy of phylogenetic inference can be significantly improved by the addition of more taxa and by increasing the spatial coverage of sampling. In previous studies, the brown mussel Perna perna showed a sister-lineage relationship between eastern and western individuals contiguously distributed along the South African coastline. We used mitochondrial (COI) and nuclear (ITS) sequence data to further analyze phylogeographic patterns within P. perna. Significant expansion of the geographical coverage revealed an unexpected pattern. The western South African lineage shared the most recent common ancestor (MRCA) with specimens from Angola, Venezuela, and Namibia, whereas eastern South African specimens and Mozambique grouped together, indicating a non-sister relationship for the two South African lineages. Two plausible biogeographic scenarios to explain their origin were both supported by the hypotheses-testing analysis. One includes an Indo-Pacific origin for P. perna, dispersal into the Mediterranean and Atlantic through the Tethys seaway, followed by recent secondary contact after southward expansion of the western and eastern South African lineages. The other scenario (Out of South Africa) suggests an ancient vicariant divergence of the two lineages followed by their northward expansion. Nevertheless, the "Out of South Africa" hypothesis would require a more ancient divergence between the two lineages. Instead, our estimates indicated that they diverged very recently (310 kyr), providing a better support for an Indo-Pacific origin of the two South African lineages. The arrival of the MRCA of P. perna in Brazil was estimated at 10 [0-40] kyr. Thus, the hypothesis of a recent introduction in Brazil through hull fouling in wooden vessels involved in the transatlantic itineraries of the slave trade did not receive strong support, but given the range for this estimate, it could not be discarded. Wider geographic sampling of marine organisms shows that lineages

  14. Major Population Expansion of East Asians Began before Neolithic Time: Evidence of mtDNA Genomes

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Zhen-Dong; Wang, Yi; Tan, Jing-Ze; Li, Hui; Jin, Li

    2011-01-01

    It is a major question in archaeology and anthropology whether human populations started to grow primarily after the advent of agriculture, i.e., the Neolithic time, especially in East Asia, which was one of the centers of ancient agricultural civilization. To answer this question requires an accurate estimation of the time of lineage expansion as well as that of population expansion in a population sample without ascertainment bias. In this study, we analyzed all available mtDNA genomes of East Asians ascertained by random sampling, a total of 367 complete mtDNA sequences generated by the 1000 Genome Project, including 249 Chinese (CHB, CHD, and CHS) and 118 Japanese (JPT). We found that major mtDNA lineages underwent expansions, all of which, except for two JPT-specific lineages, including D4, D4b2b, D4a, D4j, D5a2a, A, N9a, F1a1'4, F2, B4, B4a, G2a1 and M7b1'2'4, occurred before 10 kya, i.e., before the Neolithic time (symbolized by Dadiwan Culture at 7.9 kya) in East Asia. Consistent to this observation, the further analysis showed that the population expansion in East Asia started at 13 kya and lasted until 4 kya. The results suggest that the population growth in East Asia constituted a need for the introduction of agriculture and might be one of the driving forces that led to the further development of agriculture. PMID:21998705

  15. Comparative phylogeography reveals deep lineages and regional evolutionary hotspots in the Mojave and Sonoran Deserts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wood, Dustin A.; Vandergast, Amy G.; Barr, Kelly R.; Inman, Richard D.; Esque, Todd C.; Nussear, Kenneth E.; Fisher, Robert N.

    2013-01-01

    Aim: We explored lineage diversification within desert-dwelling fauna. Our goals were (1) to determine whether phylogenetic lineages and population expansions were consistent with younger Pleistocene climate fluctuation hypotheses or much older events predicted by pre-Pleistocene vicariance hypotheses, (2) to assess concordance in spatial patterns of genetic divergence and diversity among species and (3) to identify regional evolutionary hotspots of divergence and diversity and assess their conservation status. Location: Mojave, Colorado, and Sonoran Deserts, USA. Methods: We analysed previously published gene sequence data for twelve species. We used Bayesian gene tree methods to estimate lineages and divergence times. Within each lineage, we tested for population expansion and age of expansion using coalescent approaches. We mapped interpopulation genetic divergence and intra-population genetic diversity in a GIS to identify hotspots of highest genetic divergence and diversity and to assess whether protected lands overlapped with evolutionary hotspots. Results: In seven of the 12 species, lineage divergence substantially predated the Pleistocene. Historical population expansion was found in eight species, but expansion events postdated the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) in only four. For all species assessed, six hotspots of high genetic divergence and diversity were concentrated in the Colorado Desert, along the Colorado River and in the Mojave/Sonoran ecotone. At least some proportion of the land within each recovered hotspot was categorized as protected, yet four of the six also overlapped with major areas of human development. Main conclusions: Most of the species studied here diversified into distinct Mojave and Sonoran lineages prior to the LGM – supporting older diversification hypotheses. Several evolutionary hotspots were recovered but are not strategically paired with areas of protected land. Long-term preservation of species-level biodiversity would

  16. Rbm24 Regulates Alternative Splicing Switch in Embryonic Stem Cell Cardiac Lineage Differentiation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tao; Lin, Yu; Liu, Jing; Zhang, Zi Guan; Fu, Wei; Guo, Li Yan; Pan, Lei; Kong, Xu; Zhang, Meng Kai; Lu, Ying Hua; Huang, Zheng Rong; Xie, Qiang; Li, Wei Hua; Xu, Xiu Qin

    2016-07-01

    The transition of embryonic stem cell (ESC) pluripotency to differentiation is accompanied by an expansion of mRNA and proteomic diversity. Post-transcriptional regulation of ESCs is critically governed by cell type-specific splicing. However, little is known about the splicing factors and the molecular mechanisms directing ESC early lineage differentiation. Our study identifies RNA binding motif protein 24 (Rbm24) as a key splicing regulator that plays an essential role in controlling post-transcriptional networks during ESC transition into cardiac differentiation. Using an inducible mouse ESC line in which gene expression could be temporally regulated, we demonstrated that forced expression of Rbm24 in ESCs dramatically induced a switch to cardiac specification. Genome-wide RNA sequencing analysis identified more than 200 Rbm24-regulated alternative splicing events (AS) which occurred in genes essential for the ESC pluripotency or differentiation. Remarkably, AS genes regulated by Rbm24 composed of transcriptional factors, cytoskeleton proteins, and ATPase gene family members which are critical components required for cardiac development and functionality. Furthermore, we show that Rbm24 regulates ESC differentiation by promoting alternative splicing of pluripotency genes. Among the Rbm24-regulated events, Tpm1, an actin filament family gene, was identified to possess ESC/tissue specific isoforms. We demonstrated that these isoforms were functionally distinct and that their exon AS switch was essential for ESC differentiation. Our results suggest that ESC's switching into the differentiation state can be initiated by a tissue-specific splicing regulator, Rbm24. This finding offers a global view on how an RNA binding protein influences ESC lineage differentiation by a splicing-mediated regulatory mechanism. Stem Cells 2016;34:1776-1789. PMID:26990106

  17. Genetic diversity and lineage dynamic of dengue virus serotype 1 (DENV-1) in Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Duong, Veasna; Simmons, Cameron; Gavotte, Laurent; Viari, Alain; Ong, Sivuth; Chantha, Ngan; Lennon, Niall J; Birren, Bruce W; Vong, Sirenda; Farrar, Jeremy J; Henn, Matthew R; Deubel, Vincent; Frutos, Roger; Buchy, Philippe

    2013-04-01

    In Cambodia, dengue virus (DENV) was first isolated in 1963 and has become endemic with peak epidemic during raining season. Since 2000, the Dengue National Control Program has reported from 10,000 to 40,000 cases per year with fatality rates ranging from 0.7 to 1.7. All four dengue serotypes are found circulating in Cambodia with alternative predominance of serotypes DENV-2 and DENV-3. The DENV-1 represents from 5% to 20% of all circulating viruses, depending upon the year. In this work, 79 clinical strains of DENV-1 were isolated between 2000 and 2009 and their genome fully sequenced. Four distinct lineages with different dynamics were identified. The main evolutionary drive was negative selective pressure but each lineage was characterized by the presence of specific mutations acquired through evolution. Coexistence, extinction and replacement of lineages occurred over the 10-year period. Lineages 1, 2 and 3 were all detected since 2000-2002 and disappeared in 2003, 2004-2005 and 2007, respectively. Lineages 1 and 2 displayed different dynamics. Lineage 1 was very diverse whereas lineage 2 was very homogeneous. Lineage 4 which derived from lineage 3 in 2003 remained the only one at the end of the sampling period in 2008-2009 owing to a selective sweep. The lineages dynamic of DENV-1 viruses and consequences for molecular epidemiology are discussed. PMID:21757030

  18. Two Cell Lineages, myf5 and myf5-Independent, Participate in Mouse Skeletal Myogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Haldar, Malay; Karan, Goutam; Tvrdik, Petr; Capecchi, Mario R.

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY In skeletal muscle development, the myogenic regulatory factors myf5 and myoD play redundant roles in the specification and maintenance of myoblasts, whereas myf6 has a downstream role in differentiating myocytes and myofibers. It is not clear whether the redundancy between myf5 and myoD is within the same cell lineage or between distinct lineages. Using lineage tracing and conditional cell ablation in mice, we demonstrate the existence of two distinct lineages in myogenesis: a myf5 lineage and a myf5-independent lineage. Ablating the myf5 lineage is compatible with myogenesis sustained by myf5-independent, myoD-expressing myoblasts, whereas ablation of the myf6 lineage leads to an absence of all differentiated myofibers, although early myogenesis appears to be unaffected. We also demonstrate here the existence of a significant myf5 lineage within ribs that has an important role in rib development, suggested by severe rib defects upon ablating the myf5 lineage. PMID:18331721

  19. Sequencing of Sylvilagus VDJ genes reveals a new VHa allelic lineage and shows that ancient VH lineages were retained differently in leporids.

    PubMed

    Pinheiro, Ana; Melo-Ferreira, José; Abrantes, Joana; Martinelli, Nicola; Lavazza, Antonio; Alves, Paulo C; Gortázar, Christian; Esteves, Pedro J

    2014-12-01

    Antigen recognition by immunoglobulins depends upon initial rearrangements of heavy chain V, D, and J genes. In leporids, a unique system exists for the VH genes usage that exhibit highly divergent lineages: the VHa allotypes, the Lepus sL lineage and the VHn genes. For the European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus), four VHa lineages have been described, the a1, a2, a3 and a4. For hares (Lepus sp.), one VHa lineage was described, the a2L, as well as a more ancient sL lineage. Both genera use the VHn genes in a low frequency of their VDJ rearrangements. To address the hypothesis that the VH specificities could be associated with different environments, we sequenced VDJ genes from a third leporid genus, Sylvilagus. We found a fifth and equally divergent VHa lineage, the a5, and an ancient lineage, the sS, related to the hares' sL, but failed to obtain VHn genes. These results show that the studied leporids employ different VH lineages in the generation of the antibody repertoire, suggesting that the leporid VH genes are subject to strong selective pressure likely imposed by specific pathogens. PMID:25267061

  20. Cytoskeleton-based forecasting of stem cell lineage fates

    PubMed Central

    Treiser, Matthew D.; Yang, Eric H.; Gordonov, Simon; Cohen, Daniel M.; Androulakis, Ioannis P.; Kohn, Joachim; Chen, Christopher S.; Moghe, Prabhas V.

    2010-01-01

    Stem cells that adopt distinct lineages cannot be distinguished based on traditional cell shape. This study reports that higher-order variations in cell shape and cytoskeletal organization that occur within hours of stimulation forecast the lineage commitment fates of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs). The unique approach captures numerous early (24 h), quantitative features of actin fluororeporter shapes, intensities, textures, and spatial distributions (collectively termed morphometric descriptors). The large number of descriptors are reduced into “combinations” through which distinct subpopulations of cells featuring unique combinations are identified. We demonstrate that hMSCs cultured on fibronectin-treated glass substrates under environments permissive to bone lineage induction could be readily discerned within the first 24 h from those cultured in basal- or fat-inductive conditions by such cytoskeletal feature groupings. We extend the utility of this approach to forecast osteogenic stem cell lineage fates across a series of synthetic polymeric materials of diverse physicochemical properties. Within the first 24 h following stem cell seeding, we could successfully “profile” the substrate responsiveness prospectively in terms of the degree of bone versus nonbone predisposition. The morphometric methodology also provided insights into how substrates may modulate the pace of osteogenic lineage specification. Cells on glass substrates deficient in fibronectin showed a similar divergence of lineage fates, but delayed beyond 48 h. In summary, this high-content imaging and single cell modeling approach offers a framework to elucidate and manipulate determinants of stem cell behaviors, as well as to screen stem cell lineage modulating materials and environments. PMID:20080726

  1. Systems Genetic Analysis of Osteoblast-Lineage Cells

    PubMed Central

    Calabrese, Gina; Bennett, Brian J.; Orozco, Luz; Kang, Hyun M.; Eskin, Eleazar; Dombret, Carlos; De Backer, Olivier; Lusis, Aldons J.; Farber, Charles R.

    2012-01-01

    The osteoblast-lineage consists of cells at various stages of maturation that are essential for skeletal development, growth, and maintenance. Over the past decade, many of the signaling cascades that regulate this lineage have been elucidated; however, little is known of the networks that coordinate, modulate, and transmit these signals. Here, we identify a gene network specific to the osteoblast-lineage through the reconstruction of a bone co-expression network using microarray profiles collected on 96 Hybrid Mouse Diversity Panel (HMDP) inbred strains. Of the 21 modules that comprised the bone network, module 9 (M9) contained genes that were highly correlated with prototypical osteoblast maker genes and were more highly expressed in osteoblasts relative to other bone cells. In addition, the M9 contained many of the key genes that define the osteoblast-lineage, which together suggested that it was specific to this lineage. To use the M9 to identify novel osteoblast genes and highlight its biological relevance, we knocked-down the expression of its two most connected “hub” genes, Maged1 and Pard6g. Their perturbation altered both osteoblast proliferation and differentiation. Furthermore, we demonstrated the mice deficient in Maged1 had decreased bone mineral density (BMD). It was also discovered that a local expression quantitative trait locus (eQTL) regulating the Wnt signaling antagonist Sfrp1 was a key driver of the M9. We also show that the M9 is associated with BMD in the HMDP and is enriched for genes implicated in the regulation of human BMD through genome-wide association studies. In conclusion, we have identified a physiologically relevant gene network and used it to discover novel genes and regulatory mechanisms involved in the function of osteoblast-lineage cells. Our results highlight the power of harnessing natural genetic variation to generate co-expression networks that can be used to gain insight into the function of specific cell-types. PMID

  2. Paternal lineages in Libya inferred from Y-chromosome haplogroups.

    PubMed

    Triki-Fendri, Soumaya; Sánchez-Diz, Paula; Rey-González, Danel; Ayadi, Imen; Carracedo, Ángel; Rebai, Ahmed

    2015-06-01

    Many studies based on genetic diversity of North African populations have contributed to elucidate the modelling of the genetic landscape in this region. North Africa is considered as a distinct spatial-temporal entity on geographic, archaeological, and historical grounds, which has undergone the influence of different human migrations along its shaping. For instance, Libya, a North African country, was first inhabited by Berbers and then colonized by a variety of ethnic groups like Phoenicians, Greeks, Romans, Arabs and, in recent times, Italians. In this study, we contribute to clarify the genetic variation of Libya and consequently, of North African modern populations, by the study of Libyan male lineages. A total of 22 Y-chromosome-specific SNPs were genotyped in a sample of 175 Libyan males, allowing the characterization of 18 Y-chromosomal haplogroups. The obtained data revealed a predominant Northwest African component represented by haplogroup E-M81 (33.7%) followed by J(xJ1a,J2)-M304 (27.4%), which is postulated to have a Middle Eastern origin. The comparative study with other populations (∼5,400 individuals from North Africa, Middle East, Sub-Saharan Africa, and Europe) revealed a general genetic homogeneity among North African populations (FST = 5.3 %; P-value < 0.0001). Overall, the Y-haplogroup diversity in Libya and in North Africa is characterized by two genetic components. The first signature is typical of Berber-speaking people (E-M81), the autochthonous inhabitants, whereas the second is (J(xJ1a,J2)-M304), originating from Arabic populations. This is in agreement with the hypothesis of an Arabic expansion from the Middle East, shaping the North African genetic landscape. PMID:25677690

  3. Lineage-associated tracts defining the anatomy of the Drosophila first instar larval brain.

    PubMed

    Hartenstein, Volker; Younossi-Hartenstein, Amelia; Lovick, Jennifer K; Kong, Angel; Omoto, Jaison J; Ngo, Kathy T; Viktorin, Gudrun

    2015-10-01

    Fixed lineages derived from unique, genetically specified neuroblasts form the anatomical building blocks of the Drosophila brain. Neurons belonging to the same lineage project their axons in a common tract, which is labeled by neuronal markers. In this paper, we present a detailed atlas of the lineage-associated tracts forming the brain of the early Drosophila larva, based on the use of global markers (anti-Neuroglian, anti-Neurotactin, inscuteable-Gal4>UAS-chRFP-Tub) and lineage-specific reporters. We describe 68 discrete fiber bundles that contain axons of one lineage or pairs/small sets of adjacent lineages. Bundles enter the neuropil at invariant locations, the lineage tract entry portals. Within the neuropil, these fiber bundles form larger fascicles that can be classified, by their main orientation, into longitudinal, transverse, and vertical (ascending/descending) fascicles. We present 3D digital models of lineage tract entry portals and neuropil fascicles, set into relationship to commonly used, easily recognizable reference structures such as the mushroom body, the antennal lobe, the optic lobe, and the Fasciclin II-positive fiber bundles that connect the brain and ventral nerve cord. Correspondences and differences between early larval tract anatomy and the previously described late larval and adult lineage patterns are highlighted. Our L1 neuro-anatomical atlas of lineages constitutes an essential step towards following morphologically defined lineages to the neuroblasts of the early embryo, which will ultimately make it possible to link the structure and connectivity of a lineage to the expression of genes in the particular neuroblast that gives rise to that lineage. Furthermore, the L1 atlas will be important for a host of ongoing work that attempts to reconstruct neuronal connectivity at the level of resolution of single neurons and their synapses. PMID:26141956

  4. Mimicking Stem Cell Niches to Increase Stem Cell Expansion

    PubMed Central

    Dellatore, Shara M.; Garcia, A. Sofia; Miller, William M.

    2008-01-01

    Summary Niches regulate lineage-specific stem cell self-renewal vs. differentiation in vivo and are comprised of supportive cells and extracellular matrix components arranged in a 3-dimensional topography of controlled stiffness in the presence of oxygen and growth factor gradients. Mimicking stem cell niches in a defined manner will facilitate production of the large numbers of stem cells needed to realize the promise of regenerative medicine and gene therapy. Progress has been made in mimicking components of the niche. Immobilizing cell-associated Notch ligands increased the self-renewal of hematopoietic (blood) stem cells. Culture on a fibrous scaffold that mimics basement membrane texture increased the expansion of hematopoietic and embryonic stem cells. Finally, researchers have created intricate patterns of cell-binding domains and complex oxygen gradients. PMID:18725291

  5. Identification of six Trypanosoma cruzi lineages by sequence-characterised amplified region markers.

    PubMed

    Brisse, S; Dujardin, J C; Tibayrenc, M

    2000-11-01

    Six discrete phylogenetic lineages were recently identified in Trypanosoma cruzi, on the basis of multilocus enzyme electrophoresis and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) characterisation. The objective of the present study was to develop specific PCR-based markers for the identification of each of the six lineages. Eighty-seven T. cruzi stocks representative of all the lineages were characterised by RAPD with three primers, resulting in the identification of three fragments that were specifically amplified in the given sets of lineages. After cloning and sequencing these fragments, three pairs of sequence-characterised amplified region (SCAR) primers were designed. After PCR amplification using the SCAR primers, the initial polymorphism was retained either as the presence or absence of amplification, or as size variation between the PCR products. Although most PCR products, taken individually, were distributed across several lineages, the combination of the three SCAR markers resulted in characteristic patterns that were distinct in the six lineages. Furthermore, T. cruzi lineages were distinguished from Trypanosoma rangeli, T. cruzi marinkellei and T. cruzi-like organisms. The excellent correspondence of these new PCR markers with the phylogenetic lineages, allied with their sensitivity, makes them reliable tools for lineage identification and strain characterisation in T. cruzi. The approach described here could be generalised to any species of microorganism harbouring clear-cut phylogenetic subdivisions. PMID:11087920

  6. Reduction and Expansion in Microsporidian Genome Evolution: New Insights from Comparative Genomics

    PubMed Central

    Heinz, Eva; Watson, Andrew K.; Foster, Peter G.; Sendra, Kacper M.; Heaps, Sarah E.; Hirt, Robert P.; Martin Embley, T.

    2013-01-01

    Microsporidia are an abundant group of obligate intracellular parasites of other eukaryotes, including immunocompromised humans, but the molecular basis of their intracellular lifestyle and pathobiology are poorly understood. New genomes from a taxonomically broad range of microsporidians, complemented by published expression data, provide an opportunity for comparative analyses to identify conserved and lineage-specific patterns of microsporidian genome evolution that have underpinned this success. In this study, we infer that a dramatic bottleneck in the last common microsporidian ancestor (LCMA) left a small conserved core of genes that was subsequently embellished by gene family expansion driven by gene acquisition in different lineages. Novel expressed protein families represent a substantial fraction of sequenced microsporidian genomes and are significantly enriched for signals consistent with secretion or membrane location. Further evidence of selection is inferred from the gain and reciprocal loss of functional domains between paralogous genes, for example, affecting transport proteins. Gene expansions among transporter families preferentially affect those that are located on the plasma membrane of model organisms, consistent with recruitment to plug conserved gaps in microsporidian biosynthesis and metabolism. Core microsporidian genes shared with other eukaryotes are enriched in orthologs that, in yeast, are highly expressed, highly connected, and often essential, consistent with strong negative selection against further reduction of the conserved gene set since the LCMA. Our study reveals that microsporidian genome evolution is a highly dynamic process that has balanced constraint, reductive evolution, and genome expansion during adaptation to an extraordinarily successful obligate intracellular lifestyle. PMID:24259309

  7. Cellular and molecular investigations of the adhesion and mechanics of Listeria monocytogenes lineages' I and II environmental and epidemic strains.

    PubMed

    Eskhan, Asma O; Abu-Lail, Nehal I

    2013-03-15

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used to probe the mechanical and adherence properties of eight Listeria monocytogenes' strains representative of the species' two phylogenetic lineages I and II. From a functional perspective, lineage' I strains were characterized by lower overall adhesion forces and higher specific and nonspecific forces compared to lineage' II strains. From a structural perspective, lineage' II strains were characterized by higher Young's moduli and longer and stiffer biopolymers compared to lineage' I strains. Both lineages' I and II strains were similar in their grafting densities. Finally, our results indicated that epidemic and environmental strains of L. monocytogenes and irrespective of their lineage group were characterized by similar Young's moduli of elasticities and adhesion forces at the cellular level. However, at the molecular level, epidemic strains were characterized by higher specific and nonspecific forces, shorter, denser, and more flexible biopolymers compared to environmental strains. PMID:23261349

  8. Phylogenetic lineages in the Botryosphaeriaceae

    PubMed Central

    Crous, Pedro W.; Slippers, Bernard; Wingfield, Michael J.; Rheeder, John; Marasas, Walter F.O.; Philips, Alan J.L.; Alves, Artur; Burgess, Treena; Barber, Paul; Groenewald, Johannes Z.

    2006-01-01

    Botryosphaeria is a species-rich genus with a cosmopolitan distribution, commonly associated with dieback and cankers of woody plants. As many as 18 anamorph genera have been associated with Botryosphaeria, most of which have been reduced to synonymy under Diplodia (conidia mostly ovoid, pigmented, thick-walled), or Fusicoccum (conidia mostly fusoid, hyaline, thin-walled). However, there are numerous conidial anamorphs having morphological characteristics intermediate between Diplodia and Fusicoccum, and there are several records of species outside the Botryosphaeriaceae that have anamorphs apparently typical of Botryosphaeria s.str. Recent studies have also linked Botryosphaeria to species with pigmented, septate ascospores, and Dothiorella anamorphs, or Fusicoccum anamorphs with Dichomera synanamorphs. The aim of this study was to employ DNA sequence data of the 28S rDNA to resolve apparent lineages within the Botryosphaeriaceae. From these data, 12 clades are recognised. Two of these lineages clustered outside the Botryosphaeriaceae, namely Diplodia-like anamorphs occurring on maize, which are best accommodated in Stenocarpella (Diaporthales), as well as an unresolved clade including species of Camarosporium/Microdiplodia. We recognise 10 lineages within the Botryosphaeriaceae, including an unresolved clade (Diplodia/Lasiodiplodia/Tiarosporella), Botryosphaeria s.str. (Fusicoccum anamorphs), Macrophomina, Neoscytalidium gen. nov., Dothidotthia (Dothiorella anamorphs), Neofusicoccum gen. nov. (Botryosphaeria-like teleomorphs, Dichomera-like synanamorphs), Pseudofusicoccum gen. nov., Saccharata (Fusicoccum- and Diplodia-like synanamorphs), “Botryosphaeria” quercuum (Diplodia-like anamorph), and Guignardia (Phyllosticta anamorphs). Separate teleomorph and anamorph names are not provided for newly introduced genera, even where both morphs are known. The taxonomy of some clades and isolates (e.g. B. mamane) remains unresolved due to the absence of ex

  9. Neonatal Colonisation Expands a Specific Intestinal Antigen-Presenting Cell Subset Prior to CD4 T-Cell Expansion, without Altering T-Cell Repertoire

    PubMed Central

    Mitchard, Louisa; Harley, Ross; Warwick, James; Burt, Rachel; van Diemen, Pauline M.; Stevens, Mark; Bailey, Mick

    2012-01-01

    Interactions between the early-life colonising intestinal microbiota and the developing immune system are critical in determining the nature of immune responses in later life. Studies in neonatal animals in which this interaction can be examined are central to understanding the mechanisms by which the microbiota impacts on immune development and to developing therapies based on manipulation of the microbiome. The inbred piglet model represents a system that is comparable to human neonates and allows for control of the impact of maternal factors. Here we show that colonisation with a defined microbiota produces expansion of mucosal plasma cells and of T-lymphocytes without altering the repertoire of alpha beta T-cells in the intestine. Importantly, this is preceded by microbially-induced expansion of a signal regulatory protein α-positive (SIRPα+) antigen-presenting cell subset, whilst SIRPα−CD11R1+ antigen-presenting cells (APCs) are unaffected by colonisation. The central role of intestinal APCs in the induction and maintenance of mucosal immunity implicates SIRPα+ antigen-presenting cells as orchestrators of early-life mucosal immune development. PMID:22442714

  10. The melanocyte lineage in development and disease

    PubMed Central

    Mort, Richard L.; Jackson, Ian J.; Patton, E. Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Melanocyte development provides an excellent model for studying more complex developmental processes. Melanocytes have an apparently simple aetiology, differentiating from the neural crest and migrating through the developing embryo to specific locations within the skin and hair follicles, and to other sites in the body. The study of pigmentation mutations in the mouse provided the initial key to identifying the genes and proteins involved in melanocyte development. In addition, work on chicken has provided important embryological and molecular insights, whereas studies in zebrafish have allowed live imaging as well as genetic and transgenic approaches. This cross-species approach is powerful and, as we review here, has resulted in a detailed understanding of melanocyte development and differentiation, melanocyte stem cells and the role of the melanocyte lineage in diseases such as melanoma. PMID:25670789

  11. Thermal Expansion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ventura, Guglielmo; Perfetti, Mauro

    All solid materials, when cooled to low temperatures experience a change in physical dimensions which called "thermal contraction" and is typically lower than 1 % in volume in the 4-300 K temperature range. Although the effect is small, it can have a heavy impact on the design of cryogenic devices. The thermal contraction of different materials may vary by as much as an order of magnitude: since cryogenic devices are constructed at room temperature with a lot of different materials, one of the major concerns is the effect of the different thermal contraction and the resulting thermal stress that may occur when two dissimilar materials are bonded together. In this chapter, theory of thermal contraction is reported in Sect. 1.2 . Section 1.3 is devoted to the phenomenon of negative thermal expansion and its applications.

  12. Global evolution of multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii clonal lineages.

    PubMed

    Zarrilli, Raffaele; Pournaras, Spyros; Giannouli, Maria; Tsakris, Athanassios

    2013-01-01

    The rapid expansion of Acinetobacter baumannii clinical isolates exhibiting resistance to carbapenems and most or all available antibiotics during the last decade is a worrying evolution. The apparent predominance of a few successful multidrug-resistant lineages worldwide underlines the importance of elucidating the mode of spread and the epidemiology of A. baumannii isolates in single hospitals, at a country-wide level and on a global scale. The evolutionary advantage of the dominant clonal lineages relies on the capability of the A. baumannii pangenome to incorporate resistance determinants. In particular, the simultaneous presence of divergent strains of the international clone II and their increasing prevalence in international hospitals further support the ongoing adaptation of this lineage to the hospital environment. Indeed, genomic and genetic studies have elucidated the role of mobile genetic elements in the transfer of antibiotic resistance genes and substantiate the rate of genetic alterations associated with acquisition in A. baumannii of various resistance genes, including OXA- and metallo-β-lactamase-type carbapenemase genes. The significance of single nucleotide polymorphisms and transposon mutagenesis in the evolution of A. baumannii has been also documented. Establishment of a network of reference laboratories in different countries would generate a more complete picture and a fuller understanding of the importance of high-risk A. baumannii clones in the international dissemination of antibiotic resistance. PMID:23127486

  13. Expansion and diversification of the Populus R2R3-MYB family of transcription factors.

    PubMed

    Wilkins, Olivia; Nahal, Hardeep; Foong, Justin; Provart, Nicholas J; Campbell, Malcolm M

    2009-02-01

    The R2R3-MYB proteins comprise one of the largest families of transcription factors in plants. R2R3-MYB family members regulate plant-specific processes, such as the elaboration of specialized cell types, including xylem, guard cells, trichomes, and root hairs, and the biosynthesis of specialized branches of metabolism, including phenylpropanoid biosynthesis. As such, R2R3-MYB family members are hypothesized to contribute to the emergence of evolutionary innovations that have arisen in specific plant lineages. As a first step in determining the role played by R2R3-MYB family members in the emergence of lineage-specific innovations in the genus Populus, the entire Populus trichocarpa R2R3-MYB family was characterized. The Populus R2R3-MYB complement is much larger than that found in other angiosperms with fully sequenced genomes. Phylogenetic analyses, together with chromosome placement, showed that the expansion of the Populus R2R3-MYB family was not only attributable to whole genome duplication but also involved selective expansion of specific R2R3-MYB clades. Expansion of the Populus R2R3-MYB family prominently involved members with expression patterns that suggested a role in specific components of Populus life history, including wood formation and reproductive development. An expandable compendium of microarray-based expression data (PopGenExpress) and associated Web-based tools were developed to better enable within- and between-species comparisons of Populus R2R3-MYB gene expression. This resource, which includes intuitive graphic visualization of gene expression data across multiple tissues, organs, and treatments, is freely available to, and expandable by, scientists wishing to better understand the genome biology of Populus, an ecologically dominant and economically important forest tree genus. PMID:19091872

  14. T-Cell-Specific Deletion of Map3k1 Reveals the Critical Role for Mekk1 and Jnks in Cdkn1b-Dependent Proliferative Expansion.

    PubMed

    Suddason, Tesha; Anwar, Saba; Charlaftis, Nikolaos; Gallagher, Ewen

    2016-01-26

    MAPK signaling is important for T lymphocyte development, homeostasis, and effector responses. To better understand the role of Mekk1 (encoded by Map3k1) in T cells, we conditionally deleted Map3k1 in Lck(Cre/+)Map3k1(f/f) mice, and these display larger iNKT cell populations within the liver, spleen, and bone marrow. Mekk1 signaling controls splenic and liver iNKT cell expansion in response to glycolipid antigen. Lck(Cre/+)Map3k1(f/f) mice have enhanced liver damage in response to glycolipid antigen. Mekk1 regulates Jnk activation in iNKT cells and binds and transfers Lys63-linked poly-ubiquitin onto Carma1. Map3k1 is critical for the regulation of p27(Kip1) (encoded by Cdkn1b). PMID:26774476

  15. T-Cell-Specific Deletion of Map3k1 Reveals the Critical Role for Mekk1 and Jnks in Cdkn1b-Dependent Proliferative Expansion

    PubMed Central

    Suddason, Tesha; Anwar, Saba; Charlaftis, Nikolaos; Gallagher, Ewen

    2016-01-01

    Summary MAPK signaling is important for T lymphocyte development, homeostasis, and effector responses. To better understand the role of Mekk1 (encoded by Map3k1) in T cells, we conditionally deleted Map3k1 in LckCre/+Map3k1f/f mice, and these display larger iNKT cell populations within the liver, spleen, and bone marrow. Mekk1 signaling controls splenic and liver iNKT cell expansion in response to glycolipid antigen. LckCre/+Map3k1f/f mice have enhanced liver damage in response to glycolipid antigen. Mekk1 regulates Jnk activation in iNKT cells and binds and transfers Lys63-linked poly-ubiquitin onto Carma1. Map3k1 is critical for the regulation of p27Kip1 (encoded by Cdkn1b). PMID:26774476

  16. LECT2 drives haematopoietic stem cell expansion and mobilization via regulating the macrophages and osteolineage cells.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xin-Jiang; Chen, Qiang; Rong, Ye-Jing; Yang, Guan-Jun; Li, Chang-Hong; Xu, Ning-Yi; Yu, Chao-Hui; Wang, Hui-Ying; Zhang, Shun; Shi, Yu-Hong; Chen, Jiong

    2016-01-01

    Haematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) can differentiate into cells of all lineages in the blood. However, the mechanisms by which cytokines in the blood affect HSC homeostasis remain largely unknown. Here we show that leukocyte cell-derived chemotaxin 2 (LECT2), a multifunctional cytokine, induces HSC expansion and mobilization. Recombinant LECT2 administration results in HSC expansion in the bone marrow and mobilization to the blood via CD209a. The effect of LECT2 on HSCs is reduced after specific depletion of macrophages or reduction of osteolineage cells. LECT2 treatment reduces the tumour necrosis factor (TNF) expression in macrophages and osteolineage cells. In TNF knockout mice, the effect of LECT2 on HSCs is reduced. Moreover, LECT2 induces HSC mobilization in irradiated mice, while granulocyte colony-stimulating factor does not. Our results illustrate that LECT2 is an extramedullar cytokine that contributes to HSC homeostasis and may be useful to induce HSC mobilization. PMID:27596364

  17. Induction of Pluripotency in Mouse Somatic Cells with Lineage Specifiers

    PubMed Central

    Shu, Jian; Wu, Chen; Wu, Yetao; Li, Zhiyuan; Shao, Sida; Zhao, Wenhui; Tang, Xing; Yang, Huan; Shen, Lijun; Zuo, Xiaohan; Yang, Weifeng; Shi, Yan; Chi, Xiaochun; Zhang, Hongquan; Gao, Ge; Shu, Youmin; Yuan, Kehu; He, Weiwu; Tang, Chao; Zhao, Yang; Deng, Hongkui

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY The reprogramming factors that induce pluripotency have been identified primarily from embryonic stem cell (ESC)-enriched, pluripotency-associated factors. Here we report that during mouse somatic cell reprogramming, pluripotency can be induced with lineage specifiers that are pluripotency rivals to suppress ESC identity, most of which are not enriched in ESCs. We found that OCT4 and SOX2, the core regulators of pluripotency, can be replaced by lineage specifiers that are involved in mesendodermal (ME) specification and in ectodermal (ECT) specification, respectively. OCT4 and its substitutes attenuated the elevated expression of a group of ECT genes whereas SOX2 and its substitutes curtailed a group of ME genes during reprogramming. Surprisingly, the two counteracting lineage specifiers can synergistically induce pluripotency in the absence of both OCT4 and SOX2. Our study suggests a “seesaw model,” in which a balance that is established using pluripotency factors and/or counteracting lineage specifiers can facilitate reprogramming. PMID:23706735

  18. Niche adaptation by expansion and reprogramming of general transcription factors

    PubMed Central

    Turkarslan, Serdar; Reiss, David J; Gibbins, Goodwin; Su, Wan Lin; Pan, Min; Bare, J Christopher; Plaisier, Christopher L; Baliga, Nitin S

    2011-01-01

    Numerous lineage-specific expansions of the transcription factor B (TFB) family in archaea suggests an important role for expanded TFBs in encoding environment-specific gene regulatory programs. Given the characteristics of hypersaline lakes, the unusually large numbers of TFBs in halophilic archaea further suggests that they might be especially important in rapid adaptation to the challenges of a dynamically changing environment. Motivated by these observations, we have investigated the implications of TFB expansions by correlating sequence variations, regulation, and physical interactions of all seven TFBs in Halobacterium salinarum NRC-1 to their fitness landscapes, functional hierarchies, and genetic interactions across 2488 experiments covering combinatorial variations in salt, pH, temperature, and Cu stress. This systems analysis has revealed an elegant scheme in which completely novel fitness landscapes are generated by gene conversion events that introduce subtle changes to the regulation or physical interactions of duplicated TFBs. Based on these insights, we have introduced a synthetically redesigned TFB and altered the regulation of existing TFBs to illustrate how archaea can rapidly generate novel phenotypes by simply reprogramming their TFB regulatory network. PMID:22108796

  19. Niche adaptation by expansion and reprogramming of general transcription factors.

    PubMed

    Turkarslan, Serdar; Reiss, David J; Gibbins, Goodwin; Su, Wan Lin; Pan, Min; Bare, J Christopher; Plaisier, Christopher L; Baliga, Nitin S

    2011-01-01

    Numerous lineage-specific expansions of the transcription factor B (TFB) family in archaea suggests an important role for expanded TFBs in encoding environment-specific gene regulatory programs. Given the characteristics of hypersaline lakes, the unusually large numbers of TFBs in halophilic archaea further suggests that they might be especially important in rapid adaptation to the challenges of a dynamically changing environment. Motivated by these observations, we have investigated the implications of TFB expansions by correlating sequence variations, regulation, and physical interactions of all seven TFBs in Halobacterium salinarum NRC-1 to their fitness landscapes, functional hierarchies, and genetic interactions across 2488 experiments covering combinatorial variations in salt, pH, temperature, and Cu stress. This systems analysis has revealed an elegant scheme in which completely novel fitness landscapes are generated by gene conversion events that introduce subtle changes to the regulation or physical interactions of duplicated TFBs. Based on these insights, we have introduced a synthetically redesigned TFB and altered the regulation of existing TFBs to illustrate how archaea can rapidly generate novel phenotypes by simply reprogramming their TFB regulatory network. PMID:22108796

  20. Theory and Practice of Lineage Tracing.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Ya-Chieh

    2015-11-01

    Lineage tracing is a method that delineates all progeny produced by a single cell or a group of cells. The possibility of performing lineage tracing initiated the field of Developmental Biology and continues to revolutionize Stem Cell Biology. Here, I introduce the principles behind a successful lineage-tracing experiment. In addition, I summarize and compare different methods for conducting lineage tracing and provide examples of how these strategies can be implemented to answer fundamental questions in development and regeneration. The advantages and limitations of each method are also discussed. PMID:26284340

  1. Th17-related cytokines contribute to recall-like expansion/effector function of HMBPP-specific Vγ2Vδ2 T cells after Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection or vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Hongbo; Wang, Yunqi; Chen, Crystal Y.; Frencher, James; Huang, Dan; Yang, Enzhuo; Ryan-Payseur, Bridgett; Chen, Zheng W.

    2016-01-01

    Whether cytokines can influence the adaptive immune response by antigen-specific γδ T cells during infections or vaccinations remains unknown. We previously demonstrated that, during BCG/Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infections, Th17-related cytokines markedly upregulated when phosphoantigen-specific VγVδ2 T cells expanded. In this study, we examined the involvement of Th17-related cytokines in the recall-like responses of Vγ2Vδ2 T cells following Mtb infection or vaccination against TB. Treatment with IL-17A/IL-17F or IL-22 expanded phosphoantigen 4-hydroxy-3-methyl-but-enyl pyrophosphate (HMBPP)-stimulated Vγ2Vδ2 T cells from BCG-vaccinated macaques but not from naïve animals, and IL-23 induced greater expansion than the other Th17-related cytokines. Consistently, Mtb infection of macaques also enhanced the ability of IL-17/IL-22 or IL-23 to expand HMBPP-stimulated Vγ2Vδ2 T cells. When evaluating IL-23 signaling as a prototype, we found that HMBPP/IL-23-expanded Vγ2Vδ2 T cells from macaques infected with Mtb or vaccinated with BCG or Listeria ΔactA prfA*-ESAT6/Ag85B produced IL-17, IL-22, IL-2, and IFN-γ. Interestingly, HMBPP/IL-23-induced production of IFN-γ in turn facilitated IL-23-induced expansion of HMBPP-activated Vγ2Vδ2 T cells. Furthermore, HMBPP/IL-23-induced proliferation of Vγ2Vδ2 T cells appeared to require APC contact and involve the conventional and novel protein kinase C signaling pathways. These findings suggest that Th17-related cytokines can contribute to recall-like expansion and effector function of Ag-specific γδ T cells after infection or vaccination. PMID:25141829

  2. Comparative Genomic Analyses of the Moraxella catarrhalis Serosensitive and Seroresistant Lineages Demonstrate Their Independent Evolution.

    PubMed

    Earl, Joshua P; de Vries, Stefan P W; Ahmed, Azad; Powell, Evan; Schultz, Matthew P; Hermans, Peter W M; Hill, Darryl J; Zhou, Zhemin; Constantinidou, Crystala I; Hu, Fen Z; Bootsma, Hester J; Ehrlich, Garth D

    2016-01-01

    The bacterial speciesMoraxella catarrhalishas been hypothesized as being composed of two distinct lineages (referred to as the seroresistant [SR] and serosensitive [SS]) with separate evolutionary histories based on several molecular typing methods, whereas 16S ribotyping has suggested an additional split within the SS lineage. Previously, we characterized whole-genome sequences of 12 SR-lineage isolates, which revealed a relatively small supragenome when compared with other opportunistic nasopharyngeal pathogens, suggestive of a relatively short evolutionary history. Here, we performed whole-genome sequencing on 18 strains from both ribotypes of the SS lineage, an additional SR strain, as well as four previously identified highly divergent strains based on multilocus sequence typing analyses. All 35 strains were subjected to a battery of comparative genomic analyses which clearly show that there are three lineages-the SR, SS, and the divergent. The SR and SS lineages are closely related, but distinct from each other based on three different methods of comparison: Allelic differences observed among core genes; possession of lineage-specific sets of core and distributed genes; and by an alignment of concatenated core sequences irrespective of gene annotation. All these methods show that the SS lineage has much longer interstrain branches than the SR lineage indicating that this lineage has likely been evolving either longer or faster than the SR lineage. There is evidence of extensive horizontal gene transfer (HGT) within both of these lineages, and to a lesser degree between them. In particular, we identified very high rates of HGT between these two lineages for ß-lactamase genes. The four divergent strains aresui generis, being much more distantly related to both the SR and SS groups than these other two groups are to each other. Based on average nucleotide identities, gene content, GC content, and genome size, this group could be considered as a separate

  3. The effect of medium selection on adipose-derived stem cell expansion and differentiation: implications for application in regenerative medicine.

    PubMed

    Roxburgh, J; Metcalfe, A D; Martin, Y H

    2016-08-01

    The use of adipose-derived stem cells is wide-spread in both basic biology and regenerative medicine, due to the abundance of adipose tissue and the multipotent differentiation potential of the cells. However, the methods used to isolate and culture cells vary greatly between different research groups. Identification of medium formulations which provide rapid cell expansion while maintaining cell phenotype would have clear advantages. We compared growth and differentiation potential along the adipogenic lineage in human ADSCs in nine different media. We further assessed induced and spontaneous differentiation along the adipogenic, chondrogenic and osteogenic lineage in three different media. There was significant variation in the rate of growth between different media. All media supported ADSC phenotype and adipogenic differentiation, although there was variation between the different media. Differentiation along the adipogenic, chondrogenic and osteogenic lineages in the three media was confirmed, with some upregulation of specific genes observed when cells were left to spontaneously differentiate. Our study shows a direct comparison of human ADSCs grown in different media, both reported in the literature and commercially available. It indicates that rapid proliferation occurs most often in media which contain 10 % foetal bovine serum and that differentiation along different lineages can be induced but also occurs spontaneously once cells become confluent. These data provide a tool for other researchers to facilitate the choice of medium formulation most appropriate for different applications. PMID:25795468

  4. Lineage determinants in early endocrine development

    PubMed Central

    Rieck, Sebastian; Bankaitis, Eric D.; Wright, Christopher V.E.

    2013-01-01

    Pancreatic endocrine cells are produced from a dynamic epithelium in a process that, as in any developing organ, is driven by interacting programs of spatiotemporally regulated intercellular signals and autonomous gene regulatory networks. These algorithms work to push progenitors and their transitional intermediates through a series of railroad-station-like switching decisions to regulate flux along specific differentiation tracks. Extensive research on pancreas organogenesis over the last 20 years, greatly spurred by the potential to restore functional β-cell mass in diabetic patients by transplantation therapy, is advancing our knowledge of how endocrine lineage bias is established and allocation is promoted. The field is working towards the goal of generating a detailed blueprint of how heterogeneous cell populations interact and respond to each other, and other influences such as the extracellular matrix, to move into progressively refined and mature cell states. Here, we highlight how signaling codes and transcriptional networks might determine endocrine lineage within a complex and dynamic architecture, based largely on studies in the mouse. The process begins with the designation of multipotent progenitor cells (MPC) to pancreatic buds that subsequently move through a newly proposed period involving epithelial plexus formation-remodeling, and ends with formation of clustered endocrine islets connected to the vascular and peripheral nervous systems. Developing this knowledge base, and increasing the emphasis on direct comparisons between mouse and human, will yield a more complete and focused picture of pancreas development, and thereby inform β-cell-directed differentiation from human embryonic stem or induced pluripotent stem cells (hESC, iPSC). Additionally, a deeper understanding may provide surprising therapeutic angles by defining conditions that allow the controllable reprogramming of endodermal or pancreatic cell populations. PMID:22728667

  5. Expansion of Polyfunctional HIV-Specific T Cells upon Stimulation with mRNA Electroporated Dendritic Cells in the Presence of Immunomodulatory Drugs

    PubMed Central

    Allard, Sabine D.; Lacor, Patrick; Schots, Rik; Thielemans, Kris; Aerts, Joeri L.

    2012-01-01

    Recently, it has been demonstrated that disease progression during HIV infection is not determined merely by the number of HIV-specific T cells but also by their quality (J. R. Almeida, et al., J. Exp. Med. 204:2473–2485, 2007; C. T. Berger, et al., J. Virol. 85:9334–9345, 2011; M. R. Betts, et al., Blood 107:4781–4789, 2006; V. V. Ganusov, et al., J. Virol. 85:10518–10528, 2011; P. Kiepiela, et al., Nat. Med. 13:46–53, 2007; and F. Pereyra, et al., J. Infect. Dis. 197:563–571, 2008). Therefore, strategies to specifically enhance or induce high-quality, HIV-specific T-cell responses are necessary to develop effective immune therapies. Thalidomide, lenalidomide, and pomalidomide have a strong capacity to boost immune responses and are therefore referred to as immunomodulatory drugs (IMiDs). We evaluated the effects of lenalidomide and pomalidomide on HIV-specific T cells. We found that the presence of IMiDs during in vitro T-cell stimulation with dendritic cells electroporated with Gag- or Nef-encoding mRNA resulted in higher numbers of cytokine-secreting HIV-specific CD8+ T cells, particularly inducing polyfunctional HIV-specific CD8+ T cells with an enhanced lytic capacity. Furthermore, CD8+ T-cell responses were detected upon stimulation with lower antigenic peptide concentrations, and a higher number of Gag epitopes was recognized upon addition of IMiDs. Finally, IMiDs reduced the proliferation of the HIV-specific CD4+ T cells while increasing the number of polyfunctional CD4+ T cells. These results provide new information about the effects of IMiDs on antigen-specific T cells and suggest that these drugs increase the efficacy of immune therapies for infectious diseases and cancer. PMID:22718823

  6. The mitochondrial lineage U8a reveals a Paleolithic settlement in the Basque country

    PubMed Central

    González, Ana M; García, Oscar; Larruga, José M; Cabrera, Vicente M

    2006-01-01

    Background It is customary, in population genetics studies, to consider Basques as the direct descendants of the Paleolithic Europeans. However, until now there has been no irrefutable genetic proof to support this supposition. Even studies based on mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), an ideal molecule for constructing datable maternal genealogies, have failed to achieve this. It could be that incoming gene flow has replaced the Basque ancient lineages but it could also be that these lineages have not been detected due to a lack of resolution of the Basque mtDNA genealogies. To assess this possibility we analyzed here the mtDNA of a large sample of autochthonous Basques using mtDNA genomic sequencing for those lineages that could not be unequivocally classified by diagnostic RFLP analysis and control region (HVSI and HVSII) sequencing. Results We show that Basques have the most ancestral phylogeny in Europe for the rare mitochondrial subhaplogroup U8a. Divergence times situate the Basque origin of this lineage in the Upper Palaeolithic. Most probably, their primitive founders came from West Asia. The lack of U8a lineages in Africa points to an European and not a North African route of entrance. Phylogeographic analysis suggest that U8a had two expansion periods in Europe, the first, from a south-western area including the Iberian peninsula and Mediterranean France before 30,000 years ago, and the second, from Central Europe around 15,000–10,000 years ago. Conclusion It has been demonstrated, for the first time, that Basques show the oldest lineages in Europe for subhaplogroup U8a. Coalescence times for these lineages suggest their presence in the Basque country since the Upper Paleolithic. The European U8 phylogeography is congruent with the supposition that Basques could have participated in demographic re-expansions to repopulate central Europe in the last interglacial periods. PMID:16719915

  7. Patterns of growth, axonal extension and axonal arborization of neuronal lineages in the developing Drosophila brain

    PubMed Central

    Larsen, Camilla; Shy, Diana; Spindler, Shana R.; Fung, Siaumin; Pereanu, Wayne; Younossi -Hartenstein, Amelia; Hartenstein, Volker

    2009-01-01

    The Drosophila central brain is composed of approximately 100 paired lineages, with most lineages comprising 100–150 neurons. Most lineages have a number of important characteristics in common. Typically, neurons of a lineage stay together as a coherent cluster and project their axons into a coherent bundle visible from late embryo to adult. Neurons born during the embryonic period form the primary axon tracts (PATs) that follow stereotyped pathways in the neuropile. Apoptotic cell death removes an average of 30–40% of primary neurons around the time of hatching. Secondary neurons generated during the larval period form secondary axon tracts (SATs) that typically fasciculate with their corresponding primary axon tract. SATs develop into the long fascicles that interconnect the different compartments of the adult brain. Structurally, we distinguish between three types of lineages: PD lineages, characterized by distinct, spatially separate proximal and distal arborizations; C lineages with arborizations distributed continuously along the entire length of their tract; D lineages that lack proximal arborizations. Arborizations of many lineages, in particular those of the PD type, are restricted to distinct neuropile compartments. We propose that compartments are ‘scaffolded” by individual lineages, or small groups thereof. Thereby, the relatively small number of primary neurons of each primary lineage set up the compartment map in the late embryo. Compartments grow during the larval period simply by an increase in arbor volume of primary neurons. Arbors of secondary neurons form within or adjacent to the larval compartments, resulting in smaller compartment subdivisions and additional, adult specific compartments. PMID:19538956

  8. Mapping differentiation pathways from hematopoietic stem cells using Flk2/Flt3 lineage tracing

    PubMed Central

    Boyer, Scott W.; Beaudin, Anna E.; Forsberg, E. Camilla

    2012-01-01

    Genetic fate-mapping approaches provide a unique opportunity to assess differentiation pathways under physiological conditions. We have recently employed a lineage tracing approach to define hematopoietic differentiation pathways in relation to expression of the tyrosine kinase receptor Flk2.1 Based on our examination of reporter activity across all stem, progenitor and mature populations in our Flk2-Cre lineage model, we concluded that all mature blood lineages are derived through a Flk2+ intermediate, both at steady-state and under stress conditions. Here, we re-examine in depth our initial conclusions and perform additional experiments to test alternative options of lineage specification. Our data unequivocally support the conclusion that onset of Flk2 expression results in loss of self-renewal but preservation of multilineage differentiation potential. We discuss the implications of these data for defining stem cell identity and lineage potential among hematopoietic populations. PMID:22895180

  9. Distinct fibroblast lineages determine dermal architecture in skin development and repair

    PubMed Central

    Driskell, Ryan R.; Simons, Ben D.; Charalambous, Marika; Ferron, Sacri R.; Herault, Yann; Pavlovic, Guillaume; Ferguson-Smith, Anne C.; Watt, Fiona M.

    2013-01-01

    Fibroblasts are the major mesenchymal cell type in connective tissue and deposit the collagen and elastic fibers of the extracellular matrix (ECM)1. Even within a single tissue fibroblasts exhibit remarkable functional diversity, but it is not known whether this reflects the existence of a differentiation hierarchy or is a response to different environmental factors. Here we show, using transplantation assays and lineage tracing, that the fibroblasts of skin connective tissue arise from two distinct lineages. One forms the upper dermis, including the dermal papilla that regulates hair growth and the arrector pili muscle (APM), which controls piloerection. The other forms the lower dermis, including the reticular fibroblasts that synthesise the bulk of the fibrillar ECM, and the pre-adipocytes and adipocytes of the hypodermis. The upper lineage is required for hair follicle formation. In wounded adult skin, the initial wave of dermal repair is mediated by the lower lineage and upper dermal fibroblasts are recruited only during re-epithelialisation. Epidermal beta-catenin activation stimulates expansion of the upper dermal lineage, rendering wounds permissive for hair follicle formation. Our findings explain why wounding is linked to formation of ECM-rich scar tissue that lacks hair follicles2-4. They also form a platform for discovering fibroblast lineages in other tissues and for examining fibroblast changes in ageing and disease. PMID:24336287

  10. Comparative Genomic Analyses of the Moraxella catarrhalis Serosensitive and Seroresistant Lineages Demonstrate Their Independent Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Earl, Joshua P.; de Vries, Stefan P.W.; Ahmed, Azad; Powell, Evan; Schultz, Matthew P.; Hermans, Peter W.M.; Hill, Darryl J.; Zhou, Zhemin; Constantinidou, Crystala I.; Hu, Fen Z.; Bootsma, Hester J.; Ehrlich, Garth D.

    2016-01-01

    The bacterial species Moraxella catarrhalis has been hypothesized as being composed of two distinct lineages (referred to as the seroresistant [SR] and serosensitive [SS]) with separate evolutionary histories based on several molecular typing methods, whereas 16S ribotyping has suggested an additional split within the SS lineage. Previously, we characterized whole-genome sequences of 12 SR-lineage isolates, which revealed a relatively small supragenome when compared with other opportunistic nasopharyngeal pathogens, suggestive of a relatively short evolutionary history. Here, we performed whole-genome sequencing on 18 strains from both ribotypes of the SS lineage, an additional SR strain, as well as four previously identified highly divergent strains based on multilocus sequence typing analyses. All 35 strains were subjected to a battery of comparative genomic analyses which clearly show that there are three lineages—the SR, SS, and the divergent. The SR and SS lineages are closely related, but distinct from each other based on three different methods of comparison: Allelic differences observed among core genes; possession of lineage-specific sets of core and distributed genes; and by an alignment of concatenated core sequences irrespective of gene annotation. All these methods show that the SS lineage has much longer interstrain branches than the SR lineage indicating that this lineage has likely been evolving either longer or faster than the SR lineage. There is evidence of extensive horizontal gene transfer (HGT) within both of these lineages, and to a lesser degree between them. In particular, we identified very high rates of HGT between these two lineages for ß-lactamase genes. The four divergent strains are sui generis, being much more distantly related to both the SR and SS groups than these other two groups are to each other. Based on average nucleotide identities, gene content, GC content, and genome size, this group could be considered as a separate

  11. Encephalization and allometric trajectories in the genus Homo: Evidence from the Neandertal and modern lineages

    PubMed Central

    Bruner, Emiliano; Manzi, Giorgio; Arsuaga, Juan Luis

    2003-01-01

    The term “encephalization” is commonly used to describe an enlargement in brain size, considered as either absolute endocranial volumes or relative values in relation to body size. It is widely recognized that a considerable endocranial expansion occurred throughout the evolution of the genus Homo. This article aims to evaluate whether this phenomenon was the outcome of distinct evolutionary lineages, reaching similar brain expansions but through different trajectories. Endocranial morphology was studied in a sample of fossil hominines by multivariate approaches using both traditional metrics and geometric morphometrics. The analysis was focused on the transition from a generalized archaic pattern within the genus Homo to the modern morphology and compared with changes that occurred along the Neandertal lineage. The main result was the identification of two different evolutionary trajectories, in which a similar expansion in endocranial size has been reached by different changes in shape. Along the Neandertal lineage we observed maintenance of an “archaic” endocranial model, in which a large amount of variability is based on a single allometric trend. By contrast, when modern endocasts were compared with nonmodern ones, we found important differences apparently led by a parietal expansion. In this light, the origin of our species may have represented the opportunity to surpass the constraints imposed on encephalization by the ontogenetic pattern shared by nonmodern Homo representatives. PMID:14673084

  12. Multi-lineage MSC Differentiation via Engineered Morphogen Fields

    PubMed Central

    Arany, P.R.; Huang, G.X.; Gadish, O.; Feliz, J.; Weaver, J.C.; Kim, J.; Yuen, W.W.; Mooney, D.J.

    2014-01-01

    Tissue loss due to oral diseases requires the healing and regeneration of tissues of multiple lineages. While stem cells are native to oral tissues, a current major limitation to regeneration is the ability to direct their lineage-specific differentiation. This work utilizes polymeric scaffold systems with spatiotemporally controlled morphogen cues to develop precise morphogen fields to direct mesenchymal stem cell differentiation. First, a simple three-layer scaffold design was developed that presented two spatially segregated, lineage-specific cues (Dentinogenic TGF-β1 and Osteogenic BMP4). However, this system resulted in diffuse morphogen fields, as assessed by the in vitro imaging of cell-signaling pathways triggered by the morphogens. Mathematical modeling was then exploited, in combination with incorporation of specific inhibitors (neutralizing antibodies or a small molecule kinase inhibitor) into each morphogen in an opposing spatial pattern as the respective morphogen, to design a five-layer scaffold that was predicted to yield distinct, spatially segregated zones of morphogen signaling. To validate this system, undifferentiated MSCs were uniformly seeded in these scaffold systems, and distinct mineralized tissue differentiation were noted within these morphogen zones. Finally, to demonstrate temporal control over morphogen signaling, latent TGF-β1 was incorporated into one region of a concentric scaffold design, and laser treatment was used to activate the morphogen on-demand and to induce dentin differentiation solely within that specific spatial zone. This study demonstrates a significant advance in scaffold design to generate precise morphogen fields that can be used to develop in situ models to explore tissue differentiation and may ultimately be useful in engineering multi-lineage tissues in clinical dentistry. PMID:25143513

  13. Colponemids represent multiple ancient alveolate lineages.

    PubMed

    Janouškovec, Jan; Tikhonenkov, Denis V; Mikhailov, Kirill V; Simdyanov, Timur G; Aleoshin, Vladimir V; Mylnikov, Alexander P; Keeling, Patrick J

    2013-12-16

    The alveolates comprise three well-studied protist lineages of significant environmental, medical, and economical importance: apicomplexans (e.g., Plasmodium), dinoflagellates (e.g., Symbiodinium), and ciliates (e.g., Tetrahymena). These major lineages have evolved distinct and unusual characteristics, the origins of which have proved to be difficult evolutionary puzzles. Mitochondrial genomes are a prime example: all three groups depart from canonical form and content, but in different ways. Reconstructing such ancient transitions is difficult without deep-branching lineages that retain ancestral characteristics. Here we describe two such lineages and how they illuminate the ancestral state of alveolate mitochondrial genomes. We established five clonal cultures of colponemids, predatory alveolates without cultured representatives and molecular data. Colponemids represent at least two independent lineages at the phylum level in multilocus phylogenetic analysis; one sister to apicomplexans and dinoflagellates, and the other at a deeper position. A genome survey from one strain showed that ancestral state of the mitochondrial genomes in the three major alveolate lineages consisted of an unusual linear chromosome with telomeres and a substantially larger gene set than known alveolates. Colponemid sequences also identified several environmental lineages as colponemids, altogether suggesting an untapped potential for understanding the origin and evolution of apicomplexans, dinoflagellates, and ciliates. PMID:24316202

  14. Expansion of Pathogen-Specific T-Helper 1 and T-Helper 17 Cells in Pulmonary Tuberculosis With Coincident Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Nathella Pavan; Sridhar, Rathinam; Banurekha, Vaithilingam V.; Jawahar, Mohideen S.; Nutman, Thomas B.; Babu, Subash

    2013-01-01

    Background. Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) is a major risk factor for the development of active pulmonary tuberculosis, although the immunological mechanisms underlying this interaction remain unexplored. The influence of poorly controlled diabetes on pathogen-specific T-helper 1 (Th1) and T-helper 17 (Th17) responses have not been examined. Methods. To identify the role of Th1 and Th17 cells in tuberculosis with coincident DM, we examined mycobacteria-specific immune responses in the whole blood of individuals who had tuberculosis with DM and compared them to those in individuals who had tuberculosis without DM. Results. Tuberculosis coincident with DM is characterized by elevated frequencies of monofunctional and dual-functional CD4+ Th1 cells following Mycobacterium tuberculosis antigen stimulation and elevated frequencies of Th17 subsets at both baseline and following antigen stimulation. This was associated with increased systemic (plasma) levels of both Th1 and Th17 cytokines and decreased baseline frequencies of natural regulatory T cells but not interleukin 10 or transforming growth factor β. Conclusions. Therefore, our data reveal that tuberculosis in persons with DM is characterized by elevated frequencies of Th1 and Th17 cells, indicating that DM is associated with an alteration in the immune response to tuberculosis, leading to a biased induction of Th1- and Th17-mediated cellular responses and likely contributing to increased immune pathology in M. tuberculosis infection. PMID:23715661

  15. Positive selection on mitochondrial M7 lineages among the Gelong people in Hainan.

    PubMed

    Yang, Kun; Zheng, Hongxiang; Qin, Zhendong; Lu, Yan; Farina, Sara E; Li, Shilin; Jin, Li; Li, Dongna; Li, Hui

    2011-03-01

    Selections on human mitochondrial variations are difficult to examine. In this study, we found possible signs of selection on mitochondrial M7 lineages among the Gelong people who migrated from Guizhou to Hainan (the hottest province in China) throughout the last 1000 years. The genetic structure of the Gelong people shows an obvious sex-biased population admixture pattern with only 4.9% paternal contribution but 30.7% maternal contribution from indigenous Hlai people. According to frequency spectrum tests for deviation from neutrality and mismatch tests of demographic expansion, part of the maternal mitochondrial M7 lineages among the Gelong came from the Hlai had spread quickly and therefore might have undergone positive selection. In the future, whole mitochondrial genome sequencing might reveal the functional advantage of the M7 lineages. PMID:21179103

  16. The Tangled Evolutionary Legacies of Range Expansion and Hybridization.

    PubMed

    Canestrelli, Daniele; Porretta, Daniele; Lowe, Winsor H; Bisconti, Roberta; Carere, Claudio; Nascetti, Giuseppe

    2016-09-01

    Spatial sorting of dispersal-enhancing traits has been implicated in substantial directional changes in the phenotypic and genotypic makeup of populations undergoing range expansion. We explore here the evolutionary consequences of such changes when two divergent lineages come into secondary contact. We combine instances from the study of contemporary range expansions and historical hybridizations, and highlight links between dispersal, sexual, and physiological traits during the non-equilibrium conditions imposed by range expansions. We argue that a stronger research focus on processes of spatial sorting of multiple traits will improve our understanding of subsequent hybridization dynamics and their evolutionary outcomes, including genomic introgression and speciation. PMID:27450753

  17. IκBε is a key regulator of B-cell expansion by providing negative feedback on cRel and RelA in a stimulus-specific manner

    PubMed Central

    Alves, Bryce N.; Tsui, Rachel; Almaden, Jon; Shokhirev, Maxim N.; Davis-Turak, Jeremy; Fujimoto, Jessica; Birnbaum, Harry; Ponomarenko, Julia; Hoffmann, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    The transcription factor NFκB is a regulator of inflammatory and adaptive immune responses, yet only IκBα has been shown to limit NFκB activation and inflammatory responses. We investigated another negative feedback regulator, IκBε, in regulating B cell proliferation and survival. The loss of IκBε showed increased B cell proliferation and survival in response to both antigenic and innate stimulation. NFκB activity was elevated during late phase activation, but the dimer composition was stimulus-specific. In response to IgM, cRel dimers were elevated in IκBε-deficient cells, yet in response to LPS, RelA dimers were elevated also. The corresponding dimer-specific sequences were found in the promoters of hyper-activated genes. Using a mathematical model of the NFκB signaling system in B cells, we demonstrated that kinetic considerations of the IKK signaling input and IκBε’s interactions with RelA- and cRel-specific dimers could account for this stimulus-specificity. cRel is known to be the key regulator of B cell expansion. We found that RelA-specific phenotype in LPS-stimulated cells was physiologically relevant: unbiased transcriptome profiling identified the inflammatory cytokine, interleukin 6 (IL-6) to be hyper-activated in IκBε−/− B cells. When the IL-6 receptor was blocked, LPS-responsive IκBε−/− B cell proliferation was specifically reduced to near wild type levels. Our results provide novel evidence of a critical role of immune-response functions for IκBε in B cells; it regulates proliferative capacity via at least two mechanisms involving cRel and RelA-containing NFκB dimers. This study illustrates the importance of kinetic considerations in understanding the functional specificity of negative feedback regulators. PMID:24591377

  18. Pluripotency Factors on Their Lineage Move

    PubMed Central

    Weidgang, Clair E.; Seufferlein, Thomas; Kleger, Alexander; Mueller, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Pluripotent stem cells are characterised by continuous self-renewal while maintaining the potential to differentiate into cells of all three germ layers. Regulatory networks of maintaining pluripotency have been described in great detail and, similarly, there is great knowledge on key players that regulate their differentiation. Interestingly, pluripotency has various shades with distinct developmental potential, an observation that coined the term of a ground state of pluripotency. A precise interplay of signalling axes regulates ground state conditions and acts in concert with a combination of key transcription factors. The balance between these transcription factors greatly influences the integrity of the pluripotency network and latest research suggests that minute changes in their expression can strengthen but also collapse the network. Moreover, recent studies reveal different facets of these core factors in balancing a controlled and directed exit from pluripotency. Thereby, subsets of pluripotency-maintaining factors have been shown to adopt new roles during lineage specification and have been globally defined towards neuroectodermal and mesendodermal sets of embryonic stem cell genes. However, detailed underlying insights into how these transcription factors orchestrate cell fate decisions remain largely elusive. Our group and others unravelled complex interactions in the regulation of this controlled exit. Herein, we summarise recent findings and discuss the potential mechanisms involved. PMID:26770212

  19. Whole genome sequencing identifies circulating Beijing-lineage Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains in Guatemala and an associated urban outbreak

    PubMed Central

    Saelens, Joseph W.; Lau-Bonilla, Dalia; Moller, Anneliese; Medina, Narda; Guzmán, Brenda; Calderón, Maylena; Herrera, Raúl; Sisk, Dana M.; Xet-Mull, Ana M.; Stout, Jason E.; Arathoon, Eduardo; Samayoa, Blanca; Tobin, David M.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Limited data are available regarding the molecular epidemiology of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) strains circulating in Guatemala. Beijing-lineage Mtb strains have gained prevalence worldwide and are associated with increased virulence and drug resistance, but there have been only a few cases reported in Central America. Here we report the first whole genome sequencing of Central American Beijing-lineage strains of Mtb. We find that multiple Beijing-lineage strains, derived from independent founding events, are currently circulating in Guatemala, but overall still represent a relatively small proportion of disease burden. Finally, we identify a specific Beijing-lineage outbreak centered on a poor neighborhood in Guatemala City. PMID:26542222

  20. Whole genome sequencing identifies circulating Beijing-lineage Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains in Guatemala and an associated urban outbreak.

    PubMed

    Saelens, Joseph W; Lau-Bonilla, Dalia; Moller, Anneliese; Medina, Narda; Guzmán, Brenda; Calderón, Maylena; Herrera, Raúl; Sisk, Dana M; Xet-Mull, Ana M; Stout, Jason E; Arathoon, Eduardo; Samayoa, Blanca; Tobin, David M

    2015-12-01

    Limited data are available regarding the molecular epidemiology of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) strains circulating in Guatemala. Beijing-lineage Mtb strains have gained prevalence worldwide and are associated with increased virulence and drug resistance, but there have been only a few cases reported in Central America. Here we report the first whole genome sequencing of Central American Beijing-lineage strains of Mtb. We find that multiple Beijing-lineage strains, derived from independent founding events, are currently circulating in Guatemala, but overall still represent a relatively small proportion of disease burden. Finally, we identify a specific Beijing-lineage outbreak centered on a poor neighborhood in Guatemala City. PMID:26542222

  1. Rapid detection of lineage IV peste des petits ruminants virus by real-time RT-PCR.

    PubMed

    Li, Lin; Wu, Xiaodong; Liu, Fuxiao; Wang, Zhiliang; Liu, Chunju; Wang, Qinghua; Bao, Jingyue

    2016-09-01

    Peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) is the cause agent of peste des petitis ruminants (PPR). A novel lineage IV PPRV has reemerged in China in 2013 and 2014. Mass vaccination was implemented in most provinces in China. In order to detect lineage IV PPRV in clinical samples and to distinguish rapidly it from the other lineages PPRVs, a real-time RT-PCR assay was developed. This assay showed high sensitivity, specificity and efficiency in differentiating the lineage IV PPRV from others. The performance of this assay was evaluated by positive clinical samples of lineage IV viruses. This new real-time RT-PCR assay will facilitate epidemiological investigations and rapid differentiatial diagnosis in areas where lineage IV viruses are circulating. PMID:27260657

  2. Runx3 specifies lineage commitment of innate lymphoid cells

    PubMed Central

    Ebihara, Takashi; Song, Christina; Ryu, Stacy H.; Plougastel-Douglas, Beatrice; Yang, Liping; Levanon, Ditsa; Groner, Yoram; Bern, Michael D.; Stappenbeck, Thaddeus S.; Colonna, Marco; Egawa, Takeshi; Yokoyama, Wayne M.

    2015-01-01

    Subsets of innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) reside in the mucosa and regulate immune responses against external pathogens. While ILCs can be phenotypically classified into ILC1, ILC2 and ILC3 cells, the transcriptional control of lineage commitment for each ILC subset is incompletely understood. Here we report that the transcription factor Runx3 was essential for normal development of ILC1 and ILC3, but not ILC2 cells. Runx3 controlled the survival of ILC1, but not ILC3 cells. Runx3 was required for the expression of RORγt and its downstream target, aryl hydrocarbon receptor, in ILC3 cells. The absence of Runx3 in ILCs exacerbated C. rodentium infections. Therefore, our data establish Runx3 as a key transcription factor for lineage-specific differentiation of ILC1 and ILC3 cells. PMID:26414766

  3. Multiplex cell and lineage tracking with combinatorial labels.

    PubMed

    Loulier, Karine; Barry, Raphaëlle; Mahou, Pierre; Le Franc, Yann; Supatto, Willy; Matho, Katherine S; Ieng, Siohoi; Fouquet, Stéphane; Dupin, Elisabeth; Benosman, Ryad; Chédotal, Alain; Beaurepaire, Emmanuel; Morin, Xavier; Livet, Jean

    2014-02-01

    We present a method to label and trace the lineage of multiple neural progenitors simultaneously in vertebrate animals via multiaddressable genome-integrative color (MAGIC) markers. We achieve permanent expression of combinatorial labels from new Brainbow transgenes introduced in embryonic neural progenitors with electroporation of transposon vectors. In the mouse forebrain and chicken spinal cord, this approach allows us to track neural progenitor's descent during pre- and postnatal neurogenesis or perinatal gliogenesis in long-term experiments. Color labels delineate cytoarchitecture, resolve spatially intermixed clones, and specify the lineage of astroglial subtypes and adult neural stem cells. Combining colors and subcellular locations provides an expanded marker palette to individualize clones. We show that this approach is also applicable to modulate specific signaling pathways in a mosaic manner while color-coding the status of individual cells regarding induced molecular perturbations. This method opens new avenues for clonal and functional analysis in varied experimental models and contexts. PMID:24507188

  4. Control of regulatory T cell lineage commitment and maintenance

    PubMed Central

    Josefowicz, Steven Z.; Rudensky, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Foxp3-expressing regulatory T (Treg) cells suppress pathology mediated by immune responses against self and foreign antigens, and commensal microorganisms. Sustained expression of the transcription factor Foxp3, a key distinguishing feature of Treg cells, is required for their differentiation and suppressor function. In addition, Foxp3 expression prevents deviation of Treg cells into effector T cell lineages and confers dependence of Treg cell survival and expansion on growth factors, foremost interleukin-2, provided by activated effector T cells. In this review we discuss Treg cell differentiation and maintenance with a particular emphasis on molecular regulation of Foxp3 expression, arguably a key to mechanistic understanding of biology of regulatory T cells. PMID:19464984

  5. Lineage associated expression of virulence traits in bovine-adapted Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Budd, Kathleen E; Mitchell, Jennifer; Keane, Orla M

    2016-06-30

    Bovine mastitis is the most costly disease to the dairy industry worldwide with Staphylococcus aureus commonly associated with intramammary infections that are persistent and refractory to treatment. The strains of S. aureus that cause mastitis predominantly belong to a number of well-described bovine-adapted lineages. The objective of this study was to determine if a variety of potential virulence traits were associated with lineage. Bovine-adapted S. aureus isolates (n=120), belonging to lineages CC97, CC151 and ST136, were tested for their ability to adhere to and internalise within cultured bovine mammary epithelial cells (bMEC), to bind bovine fibronectin, to form a biofilm in TSB, TSB+1% glucose and TSB+4% NaCl, and to induce an immune response from bMEC. There were no significant differences between the lineages in ability to adhere to or internalise within bMEC although there were significant differences between individual isolates. For lineages CC97 and ST136, mammalian cell adherence was correlated with the ability to bind bovine fibronectin, however isolates from CC151 could not bind bovine fibronectin in vitro, but adhered to bMEC in a fibronectin-independent manner. There were significant differences between the lineages in ability to form a biofilm in all three growth media with ST136 forming the strongest biofilm while CC151 formed the weakest biofilm. Lineages also differed in their ability to elicit an immune response from bMEC with CC97 eliciting a stronger immune response than CC151 and ST136. These data indicate the potential for both lineage and strain-specific virulence and a strain-specific response to infection in vivo and caution against extrapolating an effect from a single strain of S. aureus to draw conclusions regarding virulence or the host response to infection in unrelated lineages. PMID:27259823

  6. Lineage Selection and the Maintenance of Sex

    PubMed Central

    de Vienne, Damien M.; Giraud, Tatiana; Gouyon, Pierre-Henri

    2013-01-01

    Sex predominates in eukaryotes, despite its short-term disadvantage when compared to asexuality. Myriad models have suggested that short-term advantages of sex may be sufficient to counterbalance its twofold costs. However, despite decades of experimental work seeking such evidence, no evolutionary mechanism has yet achieved broad recognition as explanation for the maintenance of sex. We explore here, through lineage-selection models, the conditions favouring the maintenance of sex. In the first model, we allowed the rate of transition to asexuality to evolve, to determine whether lineage selection favoured species with the strongest constraints preventing the loss of sex. In the second model, we simulated more explicitly the mechanisms underlying the higher extinction rates of asexual lineages than of their sexual counterparts. We linked extinction rates to the ecological and/or genetic features of lineages, thereby providing a formalisation of the only figure included in Darwin's “The origin of species”. Our results reinforce the view that the long-term advantages of sex and lineage selection may provide the most satisfactory explanations for the maintenance of sex in eukaryotes, which is still poorly recognized, and provide figures and a simulation website for training and educational purposes. Short-term benefits may play a role, but it is also essential to take into account the selection of lineages for a thorough understanding of the maintenance of sex. PMID:23825582

  7. Expansion of Parasite-Specific CD4+ and CD8+ T Cells Expressing IL-10 Superfamily Cytokine Members and Their Regulation in Human Lymphatic Filariasis

    PubMed Central

    Anuradha, Rajamanickam; George, Parakkal Jovvian; Hanna, Luke E.; Kumaran, Paul; Chandrasekaran, Vedachalam; Nutman, Thomas B.; Babu, Subash

    2014-01-01

    Background Lymphatic filariasis (LF) is known to be associated with an increased production of IL-10. The role of the other IL-10 family members in the pathogenesis of infection and/or disease is not known. Methodology/Principal Findings We examined the expression patterns of IL-10 family members – IL-19, IL-24 and IL-26 in LF. We demonstrate that both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells express IL-19, IL-24 and IL-26 and that the frequency of CD4+ T cells expressing IL-19 and IL-24 (as well as IL-10) is significantly increased at baseline and following filarial antigen stimulation in patients with LF in comparison to individuals with filarial lymphedema and uninfected individuals. This CD4+ T cell expression pattern was associated with increased production of IL-19 and IL-24 by filarial – antigen stimulated PBMC. Moreover, the frequency of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells expressing IL-26 was significantly increased following filarial antigen stimulation in filarial lymphedema individuals. Interestingly, IL-10 blockade resulted in diminished frequencies of IL-19+ and IL-24+ T cells, whereas the addition of recombinant IL-10 resulted in significantly increased frequency of IL-19+ and IL-24+ T cells as well as significantly up regulated IL-19 and IL-24 gene expression, suggesting that IL-10 regulates IL-19 and IL-24 expression in T cells. In addition, IL-1β and IL-23 blockade also induced a diminution in the frequency of IL-19+ and IL-24+ T cells, indicating a novel role for these cytokines in the induction of IL-19 and IL-24 expressing T cells. Finally, elimination of infection resulted in significantly decreased frequencies of antigen – specific CD4+ T cells expressing IL-10, IL-19 and IL-24. Conclusions Our findings, therefore, suggest that IL-19 and IL-24 are associated with the regulation of immune responses in active filarial infection and potentially with protection against development of pathology, while IL-26 is predominantly associated with pathology in LF. PMID:24699268

  8. Patterns of growth and tract formation during the early development of secondary lineages in the Drosophila larval brain.

    PubMed

    Lovick, Jennifer K; Kong, Angel; Omoto, Jaison J; Ngo, Kathy T; Younossi-Hartenstein, Amelia; Hartenstein, Volker

    2016-04-01

    The Drosophila brain consists of a relatively small number of invariant, genetically determined lineages which provide a model to study the relationship between gene function and neuronal architecture. In following this long-term goal, we reconstruct the morphology (projection pattern and connectivity) and gene expression patterns of brain lineages throughout development. In this article, we focus on the secondary phase of lineage morphogenesis, from the reactivation of neuroblast proliferation in the first larval instar to the time when proliferation ends and secondary axon tracts have fully extended in the late third larval instar. We have reconstructed the location and projection of secondary lineages at close (4 h) intervals and produced a detailed map in the form of confocal z-projections and digital three-dimensional models of all lineages at successive larval stages. Based on these reconstructions, we could compare the spatio-temporal pattern of axon formation and morphogenetic movements of different lineages in normal brain development. In addition to wild type, we reconstructed lineage morphology in two mutant conditions. (1) Expressing the construct UAS-p35 which rescues programmed cell death we could systematically determine which lineages normally lose hemilineages to apoptosis. (2) so-Gal4-driven expression of dominant-negative EGFR ablated the optic lobe, which allowed us to conclude that the global centrifugal movement normally affecting the cell bodies of lateral lineages in the late larva is causally related to the expansion of the optic lobe, and that the central pattern of axonal projections of these lineages is independent of the presence or absence of the optic lobe. PMID:26178322

  9. Lineage factors and differentiation states in lung cancer progression.

    PubMed

    Cheung, W K C; Nguyen, D X

    2015-11-19

    Lung cancer encompasses a heterogeneous group of malignancies. Here we discuss how the remarkable diversity of major lung cancer subtypes is manifested in their transforming cell of origin, oncogenic dependencies, phenotypic plasticity, metastatic competence and response to therapy. More specifically, we review the increasing evidence that links this biological heterogeneity to the deregulation of cell lineage-specific pathways and the transcription factors that ultimately control them. As determinants of pulmonary epithelial differentiation, these poorly characterized transcriptional networks may underlie the etiology and biological progression of distinct lung cancers, while providing insight into innovative therapeutic strategies. PMID:25823023

  10. Lineage specific transcriptional regulation of DICER by MITF in melanocytes

    PubMed Central

    Levy, Carmit; Khaled, Mehdi; Robinson, Kathleen C.; Veguilla, Rosa A.; Chen, Po-Hao; Yokoyama, Satoru; Makino, Eiichi; Lu, Jun; Larue, Lionel; Beermann, Friedrich; Chin, Lynda; Bosenberg, Marcus; Song, Jun. S.; Fisher, David E.

    2010-01-01

    Summary DICER is a central regulator of microRNA maturation. However little is known about mechanisms regulating its expression in development or disease. While profiling miRNA expression in differentiating melanocytes, two populations were observed: some upregulated at the pre-miRNA stage, and others upregulated as “mature” miRNAs (with stable pre-miRNA levels). Conversion of pre-miRNAs to fully processed miRNAs appeared to be dependent upon stimulation of DICER expression—an event found to occur via direct transcriptional targeting of DICER by the melanocyte master transcriptional regulator MITF. MITF binds and activates a conserved regulatory element upstream of DICER’s transcriptional start site upon melanocyte differentiation. Targeted KO of DICER is lethal to melanocytes, at least partly via DICER-dependent processing of the pre-miRNA-17~92 cluster thus targeting BIM, a known pro-apoptotic regulator of melanocyte survival. These observations highlight a central mechanism underlying miRNA regulation which could exist for other cell types during development. PMID:20550935

  11. Lineage-specific Virulence Determinants of Haemophilus influenzae Biogroup aegyptius

    PubMed Central

    Strouts, Fiona R.; Power, Peter; Croucher, Nicholas J.; Corton, Nicola; van Tonder, Andries; Quail, Michael A.; Langford, Paul R.; Hudson, Michael J.; Parkhill, Julian; Bentley, Stephen D.

    2012-01-01

    An emergent clone of Haemophilus influenzae biogroup aegyptius (Hae) is responsible for outbreaks of Brazilian purpuric fever (BPF). First recorded in Brazil in 1984, the so-called BPF clone of Hae caused a fulminant disease that started with conjunctivitis but developed into septicemic shock; mortality rates were as high as 70%. To identify virulence determinants, we conducted a pan-genomic analysis. Sequencing of the genomes of the BPF clone strain F3031 and a noninvasive conjunctivitis strain, F3047, and comparison of these sequences with 5 other complete H. influenzae genomes showed that >77% of the F3031 genome is shared among all H. influenzae strains. Delineation of the Hae accessory genome enabled characterization of 163 predicted protein-coding genes; identified differences in established autotransporter adhesins; and revealed a suite of novel adhesins unique to Hae, including novel trimeric autotransporter adhesins and 4 new fimbrial operons. These novel adhesins might play a critical role in host–pathogen interactions. PMID:22377449

  12. Adipose lineage specification of bone marrow-derived myeloid cells

    PubMed Central

    Majka, Susan M.; Miller, Heidi L.; Sullivan, Timothy; Erickson, Paul F.; Kong, Raymond; Weiser-Evans, Mary; Nemenoff, Raphael; Moldovan, Radu; Morandi, Shelley A.; Davis, James A.; Klemm, Dwight J.

    2012-01-01

    We have reported the production of white adipocytes in adipose tissue from hematopoietic progenitors arising from bone marrow. However, technical challenges have hindered detection of this adipocyte population by certain other laboratories. These disparate results highlight the need for sensitive and definitive techniques to identify bone marrow progenitor (BMP)-derived adipocytes. In these studies we exploited new models and methods to enhance detection of this adipocyte population. Here we showed that confocal microscopy with spectrum acquisition could effectively identify green fluorescent protein (GFP) positive BMP-derived adipocytes by matching their fluorescence spectrum to that of native GFP. Likewise, imaging flow cytometry made it possible to visualize intact unilocular and multilocular GFP-positive BMP-derived adipocytes and distinguished them from non-fluorescent adipocytes and cell debris in the cytometer flow stream. We also devised a strategy to detect marker genes in flow-enriched adipocytes from which stromal cells were excluded. This technique also proved to be an efficient means for detecting genetically labeled adipocytes and should be applicable to models in which marker gene expression is low or absent. Finally, in vivo imaging of mice transplanted with BM from adipocyte-targeted luciferase donors showed a time-dependent increase in luciferase activity, with the bulk of luciferase activity confined to adipocytes rather than stromal cells. These results confirmed and extended our previous reports and provided proof-of-principle for sensitive techniques and models for detection and study of these unique cells. PMID:23700536

  13. Lineage-specific biomarkers predict response to FGFR inhibition.

    PubMed

    Loch, David C; Pollock, Pamela M

    2012-12-01

    In this issue of Cancer Discovery, Guagnano and colleagues use a large and diverse annotated collection of cancer cell lines, the Cancer Cell Line Encyclopedia, to correlate whole-genome expression and genomic alteration datasets with cell line sensitivity data to the novel pan-fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) inhibitor NVP-BGJ398. Their findings underscore not only the preclinical use of such cell line panels in identifying predictive biomarkers, but also the emergence of the FGFRs as valid therapeutic targets, across an increasingly broad range of malignancies. PMID:23230185

  14. IL12B expression is sustained by a heterogenous population of myeloid lineages during tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Reeme, Allison E.; Miller, Halli E.; Robinson, Richard T.

    2015-01-01

    Summary IL12B is required for resistance to Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection, promoting the initiation and maintenance of Mtb-specific effector responses. While this makes the IL12-pathway an attractive target for experimental tuberculosis (TB) therapies, data regarding what lineages express IL12B after infection is established are limited. This is not obvious in the lung, an organ in which both hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic lineages produce IL12p40 upon pathogen encounter. Here, we use radiation bone marrow chimeras and Yet40 reporter mice to determine what lineages produce IL12p40 during experimental TB. We observed that hematopoietic IL12p40-production was sufficient to control Mtb, with no contribution by non-hematopoietic lineages. Furthermore, rather than being produced by a single subset, IL12p40 was produced by cells that were heterogenous in their size, granularity, autofluorescence and expression of CD11c, CD11b and CD8α. While depending on the timepoint and tissue examined, the surface phenotype of IL12p40-producers most closely resembled macrophages based on previous surveys of lung myeloid lineages. Importantly, depletion of CDllchi cells during infection had no affect on lung IL12p40-concentrations. Collectively, our data demonstrate that IL12p40 production is sustained by a heterogenous population of myeloid lineages during experimental TB, and that redundant mechanisms of IL12p40-production exist when CD11chi lineages are absent. PMID:23491716

  15. Arborization pattern of engrailed-positive neural lineages reveal neuromere boundaries in the Drosophila brain neuropil.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Abhilasha; Fung, S; Lichtneckert, Robert; Reichert, Heinrich; Hartenstein, Volker

    2009-11-01

    The Drosophila brain is a highly complex structure composed of thousands of neurons that are interconnected in numerous exquisitely organized neuropil structures such as the mushroom bodies, central complex, antennal lobes, and other specialized neuropils. While the neurons of the insect brain are known to derive in a lineage-specific fashion from a stereotyped set of segmentally organized neuroblasts, the developmental origin and neuromeric organization of the neuropil formed by these neurons is still unclear. In this study we used genetic labeling techniques to characterize the neuropil innervation pattern of engrailed-expressing brain lineages of known neuromeric origin. We show that the neurons of these lineages project to and form most arborizations, in particular all of their proximal branches, in the same brain neuropil compartments in embryonic, larval and adult stages. Moreover, we show that engrailed-positive neurons of differing neuromeric origin respect boundaries between neuromere-specific compartments in the brain. This is confirmed by an analysis of the arborization pattern of empty spiracles-expressing lineages. These findings indicate that arborizations of lineages deriving from different brain neuromeres innervate a nonoverlapping set of neuropil compartments. This supports a model for neuromere-specific brain neuropil, in which a given lineage forms its proximal arborizations predominantly in the compartments that correspond to its neuromere of origin. PMID:19711412

  16. Brg1 modulates enhancer activation in mesoderm lineage commitment

    SciTech Connect

    Alexander, Jeffrey M.; Hota, Swetansu K.; He, Daniel; Thomas, Sean; Ho, Lena; Pennacchio, Len A.; Bruneau, B. G.

    2015-03-26

    The interplay between different levels of gene regulation in modulating developmental transcriptional programs, such as histone modifications and chromatin remodeling, is not well understood. Here, we show that the chromatin remodeling factor Brg1 is required for enhancer activation in mesoderm induction. In an embryonic stem cell-based directed differentiation assay, the absence of Brg1 results in a failure of cardiomyocyte differentiation and broad deregulation of lineage-specific gene expression during mesoderm induction. We find that Brg1 co-localizes with H3K27ac at distal enhancers and is required for robust H3K27 acetylation at distal enhancers that are activated during mesoderm induction. Brg1 is also required to maintain Polycomb-mediated repression of non-mesodermal developmental regulators, suggesting cooperativity between Brg1 and Polycomb complexes. Thus, Brg1 is essential for modulating active and repressive chromatin states during mesoderm lineage commitment, in particular the activation of developmentally important enhancers. In conclusion, these findings demonstrate interplay between chromatin remodeling complexes and histone modifications that, together, ensure robust and broad gene regulation during crucial lineage commitment decisions.

  17. Brg1 modulates enhancer activation in mesoderm lineage commitment

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Alexander, Jeffrey M.; Hota, Swetansu K.; He, Daniel; Thomas, Sean; Ho, Lena; Pennacchio, Len A.; Bruneau, B. G.

    2015-03-26

    The interplay between different levels of gene regulation in modulating developmental transcriptional programs, such as histone modifications and chromatin remodeling, is not well understood. Here, we show that the chromatin remodeling factor Brg1 is required for enhancer activation in mesoderm induction. In an embryonic stem cell-based directed differentiation assay, the absence of Brg1 results in a failure of cardiomyocyte differentiation and broad deregulation of lineage-specific gene expression during mesoderm induction. We find that Brg1 co-localizes with H3K27ac at distal enhancers and is required for robust H3K27 acetylation at distal enhancers that are activated during mesoderm induction. Brg1 is also requiredmore » to maintain Polycomb-mediated repression of non-mesodermal developmental regulators, suggesting cooperativity between Brg1 and Polycomb complexes. Thus, Brg1 is essential for modulating active and repressive chromatin states during mesoderm lineage commitment, in particular the activation of developmentally important enhancers. In conclusion, these findings demonstrate interplay between chromatin remodeling complexes and histone modifications that, together, ensure robust and broad gene regulation during crucial lineage commitment decisions.« less

  18. Cartilage on the Move: Cartilage Lineage Tracing During Tadpole Metamorphosis

    PubMed Central

    Kerney, Ryan R.; Brittain, Alison L.; Hall, Brian K.; Buchholz, Daniel R.

    2012-01-01

    The reorganization of cranial cartilages during tadpole metamorphosis is a set of complex processes. The fates of larval cartilage-forming cells (chondrocytes) and sources of adult chondrocytes are largely unknown. Individual larval cranial cartilages may either degenerate or remodel, while many adult cartilages appear to form de novo during metamorphosis. Determining the extent to which adult chondrocytes/cartilages are derived from larval chondrocytes during metamorphosis requires new techniques in chondrocyte lineage tracing. We have developed two transgenic systems to label cartilage cells throughout the body with fluorescent proteins. One system strongly labels early tadpole cartilages only. The other system inducibly labels forming cartilages at any developmental stage. We examined cartilages of the skull (viscero- and neurocranium), and identified larval cartilages that either resorb or remodel into adult cartilages. Our data show that the adult otic capsules, tecti anterius and posterius, hyale, and portions of Meckel’s cartilage are derived from larval chondrocytes. Our data also suggest that most adult cartilages form de novo, though we cannot rule out the potential for extreme larval chondrocyte proliferation or de- and re-differentiation, which could dilute our fluorescent protein signal. The transgenic lineage tracing strategies developed here are the first examples of inducible, skeleton-specific, lineage tracing in Xenopus. PMID:23036161

  19. Context-dependent regulation of hematopoietic lineage choice by HEBAlt.

    PubMed

    Wang, Duncheng; Claus, Carol L; Rajkumar, Paula; Braunstein, Marsela; Moore, Amanda J; Sigvardsson, Mikael; Anderson, Michele K

    2010-10-01

    Hematopoietic development is controlled by combinatorial interactions between E-protein transcription factors and other lineage regulators that operate in the context of gene-regulatory networks. The E-proteins HEB and E2A are critical for T cell and B cell development, but the mechanisms by which their activities are directed to different genes in each lineage are unclear. We found that a short form of HEB, HEBAlt, acts downstream of Delta-like (DL)-Notch signaling to promote T cell development. In this paper, we show that forced expression of HEBAlt in mouse hematopoietic progenitors inhibited B cell development, but it allowed them to adopt a myeloid fate. HEBAlt interfered with the activity of E2A homodimers and with the expression of the transcription factor Pax5, both of which are critical for B cell development. However, when combined with DL-Notch signaling, HEBAlt enhanced the generation of T cell progenitors at the expense of myeloid cells. The longer form of HEB, HEBCan, also inhibited E47 activity and Pax5 expression, but it did not collaborate with DL-Notch signaling to suppress myeloid potential. Therefore, HEBAlt can suppress B cell or myeloid potential in a context-specific manner, which suggests a role for this factor in maintaining T lineage priming prior to commitment. PMID:20826759

  20. Targeted Disruption of Mapk14 (p38MAPKα) in Granulosa Cells and Cumulus Cells Causes Cell-Specific Changes in Gene Expression Profiles that Rescue COC Expansion and Maintain Fertility

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhilin; Fan, Heng-Yu; Wang, Yibin; Richards, JoAnne S.

    2010-01-01

    MAPK14 (p38MAPKα) is critical for FSH and prostaglandin E (PGE)2 signaling cascades in granulosa cells (GCs) and cumulus cell-oocyte complexes (COCs) in culture, indicating that this kinase might impact follicular development and COC expansion in vivo. Because Mapk14 knockout mice are embryonic lethal, we generated GC specific Mapk14 knockout mice (Mapk14gc−/−) by mating Mapk14fl/fl and Cyp19-Cre mice. Unexpectedly, the Mapk14gc−/− female mice were fertile. Analyses of gene expression patterns showed that amphiregulin (Areg) and epiregulin (Ereg), two key regulators of ovulation and COC expansion, were up-regulated in the GCs but down-regulated in cumulus cells of the mutant mice in vivo. COCs from the mutant mice expanded and expressed matrix-related genes, if cultured with AREG, but not when cultured with forskolin or PGE2, the latter being a key factor regulating MAPK14 activity in cumulus cells. Conversely, when GCs from the Mapk14gc−/− mice were cultured with forskolin, they produced more Areg and Ereg mRNA than did wild-type GCs. These results indicate that disruption of Mapk14 selectively alters the expression of Areg and other genes in each cell type. Greater AREG and EREG produced by the GCs appears to by-pass and compensate for the critical need for MAPK14 signaling and induction of Areg/Ereg (and hence matrix genes) by PGE2 in cumulus cells of the mutant mice. In conclusion, although MAPK14 is not overtly essential for preovulatory follicle development or events associated with ovulation and luteinization in vivo, it does impact gene expression profiles. PMID:20610537

  1. Quantifying Selective Pressures Driving Bacterial Evolution Using Lineage Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lambert, Guillaume; Kussell, Edo

    2015-01-01

    Organisms use a variety of strategies to adapt to their environments and maximize long-term growth potential, but quantitative characterization of the benefits conferred by the use of such strategies, as well as their impact on the whole population's rate of growth, remains challenging. Here, we use a path-integral framework that describes how selection acts on lineages—i.e., the life histories of individuals and their ancestors—to demonstrate that lineage-based measurements can be used to quantify the selective pressures acting on a population. We apply this analysis to Escherichia coli bacteria exposed to cyclical treatments of carbenicillin, an antibiotic that interferes with cell-wall synthesis and affects cells in an age-dependent manner. While the extensive characterization of the life history of thousands of cells is necessary to accurately extract the age-dependent selective pressures caused by carbenicillin, the same measurement can be recapitulated using lineage-based statistics of a single surviving cell. Population-wide evolutionary pressures can be extracted from the properties of the surviving lineages within a population, providing an alternative and efficient procedure to quantify the evolutionary forces acting on a population. Importantly, this approach is not limited to age-dependent selection, and the framework can be generalized to detect signatures of other trait-specific selection using lineage-based measurements. Our results establish a powerful way to study the evolutionary dynamics of life under selection and may be broadly useful in elucidating selective pressures driving the emergence of antibiotic resistance and the evolution of survival strategies in biological systems.

  2. Archaeal Lineages within the Human Microbiome: Absent, Rare or Elusive?

    PubMed

    Horz, Hans-Peter

    2015-01-01

    Archaea are well-recognized components of the human microbiome. However, they appear to be drastically underrepresented compared to the high diversity of bacterial taxa which can be found on various human anatomic sites, such as the gastrointestinal environment, the oral cavity and the skin. As our "microbial" view of the human body, including the methodological concepts used to describe them, has been traditionally biased on bacteria, the question arises whether our current knowledge reflects the actual ratio of archaea versus bacteria or whether we have failed so far to unravel the full diversity of human-associated archaea. This review article hypothesizes that distinct archaeal lineages within humans exist, which still await our detection. First, previously unrecognized taxa might be quite common but they have eluded conventional detection methods. Two recent prime examples are described that demonstrate that this might be the case for specific archaeal lineages. Second, some archaeal taxa might be overlooked because they are rare and/or in low abundance. Evidence for this exists for a broad range of phylogenetic lineages, however we currently do not know whether these sporadically appearing organisms are mere transients or important members of the so called "rare biosphere" with probably basic ecosystem functions. Lastly, evidence exists that different human populations harbor different archaeal taxa and/or the abundance and activity of shared archaeal taxa may differ and thus their impact on the overall microbiome. This research line is rather unexplored and warrants further investigation. While not recapitulating exhaustively all studies on archaeal diversity in humans, this review highlights pertinent recent findings that show that the choice of appropriate methodological approaches and the consideration of different human populations may lead to the detection of archaeal lineages previously not associated with humans. This in turn will help understand

  3. Analysis of the T-cell receptor repertoire of human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) Tax-specific CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes from patients with HTLV-1-associated disease: evidence for oligoclonal expansion.

    PubMed

    Utz, U; Banks, D; Jacobson, S; Biddison, W E

    1996-02-01

    Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1)-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) is a chronic, progressive neurological disease characterized by marked degeneration of the spinal cord and the presence of antibodies against HTLV-1. Patients with HAM/TSP, but not asymptomatic carriers, show very high precursor frequencies of HTLV-1-specific CD8+ T cells in peripheral blood and cerebrospinal fluid, suggestive of a role of these T cells in the pathogenesis of the disease. In HLA-A2+ HAM/TSP patients, HTLV-1-specific T cells were demonstrated to be directed predominantly against one HTLV-1 epitope, namely, Tax11-19. In the present study, we analyzed HLA-A2-restricted HTLV-1 Tax11-19-specific cytotoxic T cells from three patients with HAM/TSP. An analysis of the T-cell receptor (TCR) repertoire of these cells revealed an absence of restricted variable (V) region usage. Different combinations of TCR V alpha and V beta genes were utilized between, but also within, the individual patients for the recognition of Tax11-19. Sequence analysis of the TCR showed evidence for an oligoclonal expansion of few founder T cells in each patient. Apparent structural motifs were identified for the CDR3 regions of the TCR beta chains. One T-cell clone could be detected within the same patient over a period of 3 years. We suggest that these in vivo clonally expanded T cells might play a role in the pathogenesis of HAM/TSP and provide information on HTLV-1-specific TCR which may elucidate the nature of the T cells that infiltrate the central nervous system in HAM/TSP patients. PMID:8551623

  4. EXTRA SPINDLE POLES (Separase) controls anisotropic cell expansion in Norway spruce (Picea abies) embryos independently of its role in anaphase progression.

    PubMed

    Moschou, Panagiotis N; Savenkov, Eugene I; Minina, Elena A; Fukada, Kazutake; Reza, Salim Hossain; Gutierrez-Beltran, Emilio; Sanchez-Vera, Victoria; Suarez, Maria F; Hussey, Patrick J; Smertenko, Andrei P; Bozhkov, Peter V

    2016-10-01

    The caspase-related protease separase (EXTRA SPINDLE POLES, ESP) plays a major role in chromatid disjunction and cell expansion in Arabidopsis thaliana. Whether the expansion phenotypes are linked to defects in cell division in Arabidopsis ESP mutants remains elusive. Here we present the identification, cloning and characterization of the gymnosperm Norway spruce (Picea abies, Pa) ESP. We used the P. abies somatic embryo system and a combination of reverse genetics and microscopy to explore the roles of Pa ESP during embryogenesis. Pa ESP was expressed in the proliferating embryonal mass, while it was absent in the suspensor cells. Pa ESP associated with kinetochore microtubules in metaphase and then with anaphase spindle midzone. During cytokinesis, it localized on the phragmoplast microtubules and on the cell plate. Pa ESP deficiency perturbed anisotropic expansion and reduced mitotic divisions in cotyledonary embryos. Furthermore, whilst Pa ESP can rescue the chromatid nondisjunction phenotype of Arabidopsis ESP mutants, it cannot rescue anisotropic cell expansion. Our data demonstrate that the roles of ESP in daughter chromatid separation and cell expansion are conserved between gymnosperms and angiosperms. However, the mechanisms of ESP-mediated regulation of cell expansion seem to be lineage-specific. PMID:27229374

  5. SIg-E- ("null-cell") non-Hodgkin's lymphomas. Multiparametric determination of their B- or T-cell lineage.

    PubMed Central

    Knowles, D. M.; Dodson, L.; Burke, J. S.; Wang, J. M.; Bonetti, F.; Pelicci, P. G.; Flug, F.; Dalla-Favera, R.; Wang, C. Y.

    1985-01-01

    The authors performed immunophenotypic, functional, and molecular analysis of the neoplastic cells from 20 cases of SIg-, E-("null-cell") non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) in order to determine their lineage, better define this category of NHL, and evaluate the lineage specificity of selected phenotypic markers and the individual and collective utility of these approaches. They assigned 4 cases to the T-cell lineage, and 15 cases to the B-cell lineage, and 1 case remained indeterminant on the basis of immunophenotypic analysis. The cells from 2 cases assigned to the T-cell lineage expressed unusual phenotypes, but their T-cell derivation was confirmed by the demonstration of helper function in vitro. The 15 cases assigned to the B-cell lineage expressed a variety of B-cell-associated antigens, consistent with various stages of B-cell differentiation. Monoclonal antibodies OKT3, OKT4, OKT6, and OKT8 exhibited T-cell lineage restriction; and monoclonal antibodies OKB2, BL1, and B1 exhibited B-cell lineage restriction. Ia, TdT, cALLa, OKT9, and OKT10 exhibited lineage infidelity. Southern blot analysis for immunoglobulin heavy chain gene rearrangements confirmed 18 of the 19 lineage assignments made by immunophenotypic analysis and suggested that the 1 case of indeterminate phenotype was a B-cell neoplasm. One T-cell (OKT3+, T4+) neoplasm exhibited rearranged immunoglobulin heavy chain genes. Thus, neither immunophenotypic analysis nor the demonstration of rearranged immunoglobulin heavy chain genes alone permitted the satisfactory lineage assignment of every case of SIg-, E- NHL. However, combined immunophenotypic, functional, and genotypic analysis allowed us to assign every SIg-, E-NHL to the B- or T-cell lineage and to demonstrate that truly "null-cell" NHLs are probably very uncommon. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:2931028

  6. Irreversible fate commitment in the Arabidopsis stomatal lineage requires a FAMA and RETINOBLASTOMA-RELATED module

    PubMed Central

    Matos, Juliana L; Lau, On Sun; Hachez, Charles; Cruz-Ramírez, Alfredo; Scheres, Ben; Bergmann, Dominique C

    2014-01-01

    The presumed totipotency of plant cells leads to questions about how specific stem cell lineages and terminal fates could be established. In the Arabidopsis stomatal lineage, a transient self-renewing phase creates precursors that differentiate into one of two epidermal cell types, guard cells or pavement cells. We found that irreversible differentiation of guard cells involves RETINOBLASTOMA-RELATED (RBR) recruitment to regulatory regions of master regulators of stomatal initiation, facilitated through interaction with a terminal stomatal lineage transcription factor, FAMA. Disrupting physical interactions between FAMA and RBR preferentially reveals the role of RBR in enforcing fate commitment over its role in cell-cycle control in this developmental context. Analysis of the phenotypes linked to the modulation of FAMA and RBR sheds new light on the way iterative divisions and terminal differentiation are coordinately regulated in a plant stem-cell lineage. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.03271.001 PMID:25303364

  7. Single-Cell RNA-Seq Reveals Lineage and X Chromosome Dynamics in Human Preimplantation Embryos.

    PubMed

    Petropoulos, Sophie; Edsgärd, Daniel; Reinius, Björn; Deng, Qiaolin; Panula, Sarita Pauliina; Codeluppi, Simone; Plaza Reyes, Alvaro; Linnarsson, Sten; Sandberg, Rickard; Lanner, Fredrik

    2016-05-01

    Mouse studies have been instrumental in forming our current understanding of early cell-lineage decisions; however, similar insights into the early human development are severely limited. Here, we present a comprehensive transcriptional map of human embryo development, including the sequenced transcriptomes of 1,529 individual cells from 88 human preimplantation embryos. These data show that cells undergo an intermediate state of co-expression of lineage-specific genes, followed by a concurrent establishment of the trophectoderm, epiblast, and primitive endoderm lineages, which coincide with blastocyst formation. Female cells of all three lineages achieve dosage compensation of X chromosome RNA levels prior to implantation. However, in contrast to the mouse, XIST is transcribed from both alleles throughout the progression of this expression dampening, and X chromosome genes maintain biallelic expression while dosage compensation proceeds. We envision broad utility of this transcriptional atlas in future studies on human development as well as in stem cell research. PMID:27062923

  8. Single-Cell RNA-Seq Reveals Lineage and X Chromosome Dynamics in Human Preimplantation Embryos

    PubMed Central

    Petropoulos, Sophie; Edsgärd, Daniel; Reinius, Björn; Deng, Qiaolin; Panula, Sarita Pauliina; Codeluppi, Simone; Plaza Reyes, Alvaro; Linnarsson, Sten; Sandberg, Rickard; Lanner, Fredrik

    2016-01-01

    Summary Mouse studies have been instrumental in forming our current understanding of early cell-lineage decisions; however, similar insights into the early human development are severely limited. Here, we present a comprehensive transcriptional map of human embryo development, including the sequenced transcriptomes of 1,529 individual cells from 88 human preimplantation embryos. These data show that cells undergo an intermediate state of co-expression of lineage-specific genes, followed by a concurrent establishment of the trophectoderm, epiblast, and primitive endoderm lineages, which coincide with blastocyst formation. Female cells of all three lineages achieve dosage compensation of X chromosome RNA levels prior to implantation. However, in contrast to the mouse, XIST is transcribed from both alleles throughout the progression of this expression dampening, and X chromosome genes maintain biallelic expression while dosage compensation proceeds. We envision broad utility of this transcriptional atlas in future studies on human development as well as in stem cell research. PMID:27062923

  9. Notch and hippo converge on Cdx2 to specify the trophectoderm lineage in the mouse blastocyst.

    PubMed

    Rayon, Teresa; Menchero, Sergio; Nieto, Andres; Xenopoulos, Panagiotis; Crespo, Miguel; Cockburn, Katie; Cañon, Susana; Sasaki, Hiroshi; Hadjantonakis, Anna-Katerina; de la Pompa, Jose Luis; Rossant, Janet; Manzanares, Miguel

    2014-08-25

    The first lineage choice in mammalian embryogenesis is that between the trophectoderm, which gives rise to the trophoblast of the placenta, and the inner cell mass, from which is derived the embryo proper and the yolk sac. The establishment of these lineages is preceded by the inside-versus-outside positioning of cells in the early embryo and stochastic expression of key transcription factors, which is then resolved into lineage-restricted expression. The regulatory inputs that drive this restriction and how they relate to cell position are largely unknown. Here, we show an unsuspected role of Notch signaling in regulating trophectoderm-specific expression of Cdx2 in cooperation with TEAD4. Notch activity is restricted to outer cells and is able to influence positional allocation of blastomeres, mediating preferential localization to the trophectoderm. Our results show that multiple signaling inputs at preimplantation stages specify the first embryonic lineages. PMID:25127056

  10. Comprehensive Evolutionary and Expression Analysis of FCS-Like Zinc finger Gene Family Yields Insights into Their Origin, Expansion and Divergence

    PubMed Central

    Jamsheer K, Muhammed; Mannully, Chanchal Thomas; Gopan, Nandu; Laxmi, Ashverya

    2015-01-01

    Plant evolution is characterized by frequent genome duplication events. Expansion of habitat resulted in the origin of many novel genes and genome duplication events which in turn resulted in the expansion of many regulatory gene families. The plant-specific FCS-Like Zinc finger (FLZ) gene family is characterized by the presence of a FCS-Like Zinc finger (FLZ) domain which mediates the protein-protein interaction. In this study, we identified that the expansion of FLZ gene family size in different species is correlated with ancestral and lineage-specific whole genome duplication events. The subsequent gene loss found to have a greater role in determining the size of this gene family in many species. However, genomic block duplications played the significant role in the expansion of FLZ gene family in some species. Comparison of Arabidopsis thaliana and Oryza sativa FLZ gene family revealed monocot and dicot specific evolutionary trends. The FLZ genes were found to be under high purifying selection. The spatiotemporal expression analyses of Arabidopsis thaliana FLZ gene family revealed that majority of the members are highly expressed in reproductive organs. FLZ genes were also found to be highly expressed during vegetative-to-reproductive phase transition which is correlated with the proposed role of this gene family in sugar signaling. The comparison of sequence, structural and expression features of duplicated genes identified lineage-specific redundancy and divergence. This extensive evolutionary analysis and expression analysis of Arabidopsis thaliana FLZ genes will pave the way for further functional analysis of FLZ genes. PMID:26252898

  11. Divergent functions of hematopoietic transcription factors in lineage priming and differentiation during erythro-megakaryopoiesis.

    PubMed

    Pimkin, Maxim; Kossenkov, Andrew V; Mishra, Tejaswini; Morrissey, Christapher S; Wu, Weisheng; Keller, Cheryl A; Blobel, Gerd A; Lee, Dongwon; Beer, Michael A; Hardison, Ross C; Weiss, Mitchell J

    2014-12-01

    Combinatorial actions of relatively few transcription factors control hematopoietic differentiation. To investigate this process in erythro-megakaryopoiesis, we correlated the genome-wide chromatin occupancy signatures of four master hematopoietic transcription factors (GATA1, GATA2, TAL1, and FLI1) and three diagnostic histone modification marks with the gene expression changes that occur during development of primary cultured megakaryocytes (MEG) and primary erythroblasts (ERY) from murine fetal liver hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells. We identified a robust, genome-wide mechanism of MEG-specific lineage priming by a previously described stem/progenitor cell-expressed transcription factor heptad (GATA2, LYL1, TAL1, FLI1, ERG, RUNX1, LMO2) binding to MEG-associated cis-regulatory modules (CRMs) in multipotential progenitors. This is followed by genome-wide GATA factor switching that mediates further induction of MEG-specific genes following lineage commitment. Interaction between GATA and ETS factors appears to be a key determinant of these processes. In contrast, ERY-specific lineage priming is biased toward GATA2-independent mechanisms. In addition to its role in MEG lineage priming, GATA2 plays an extensive role in late megakaryopoiesis as a transcriptional repressor at loci defined by a specific DNA signature. Our findings reveal important new insights into how ERY and MEG lineages arise from a common bipotential progenitor via overlapping and divergent functions of shared hematopoietic transcription factors. PMID:25319996

  12. Regulatory T cell reprogramming towards a Th2 cell-like lineage impairs oral tolerance and promotes food allergy

    PubMed Central

    Rivas, Magali Noval; Burton, Oliver T.; Wise, Petra; Charbonnier, Louis-Marie; Georgiev, Peter; Oettgen, Hans C.; Rachid, Rima; Chatila, Talal

    2015-01-01

    Summary Oral immunotherapy has had limited success in establishing tolerance in food allergy, reflecting failure to elicit an effective regulatory T (Treg) cell response. We show that disease-susceptible mice (Il4raF709) with enhanced IL-4 receptor (IL-4R) signaling exhibited STAT6-dependent impaired generation and function of mucosal allergen-specific Treg cells. This failure was associated with the acquisition by Treg cells of T helper 2 (Th2) cell-like phenotype, also found in peripheral blood allergen-specific Treg cells of food allergic children. Selective augmentation of IL-4R signaling in Treg cells induced their reprogramming into Th2-like cells and disease susceptibility, whereas Treg cell lineage-specific deletion of Il4 and Il13 was protective. IL-4R signaling impaired the capacity of Treg cells to suppress mast cell activation and expansion, which in turn drove Treg cell Th2 cell reprogramming. Interruption of Treg cell Th2 cell reprogramming may thus provide novel therapeutic strategies in food allergy. PMID:25769611

  13. Reversible Defects in Natural Killer and Memory Cd8 T Cell Lineages in Interleukin 15–Deficient Mice

    PubMed Central

    Kennedy, Mary K.; Glaccum, Moira; Brown, Sandra N.; Butz, Eric A.; Viney, Joanne L.; Embers, Monica; Matsuki, Naoto; Charrier, Keith; Sedger, Lisa; Willis, Cynthia R.; Brasel, Kenneth; Morrissey, Philip J.; Stocking, Kim; Schuh, JoAnn C. L.; Joyce, Sebastian; Peschon, Jacques J.

    2000-01-01

    C57BL/6 mice genetically deficient in interleukin 15 (IL-15−/− mice) were generated by gene targeting. IL-15−/− mice displayed marked reductions in numbers of thymic and peripheral natural killer (NK) T cells, memory phenotype CD8+ T cells, and distinct subpopulations of intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs). The reduction but not absence of these populations in IL-15−/− mice likely reflects an important role for IL-15 for expansion and/or survival of these cells. IL-15−/− mice lacked NK cells, as assessed by both immunophenotyping and functional criteria, indicating an obligate role for IL-15 in the development and functional maturation of NK cells. Specific defects associated with IL-15 deficiency were reversed by in vivo administration of exogenous IL-15. Despite their immunological defects, IL-15−/− mice remained healthy when maintained under specific pathogen-free conditions. However, IL-15−/− mice are likely to have compromised host defense responses to various pathogens, as they were unable to mount a protective response to challenge with vaccinia virus. These data reveal critical roles for IL-15 in the development of specific lymphoid lineages. Moreover, the ability to rescue lymphoid defects in IL-15−/− mice by IL-15 administration represents a powerful means by which to further elucidate the biological roles of this cytokine. PMID:10704459

  14. Regulatory T cell reprogramming toward a Th2-cell-like lineage impairs oral tolerance and promotes food allergy.

    PubMed

    Noval Rivas, Magali; Burton, Oliver T; Wise, Petra; Charbonnier, Louis-Marie; Georgiev, Peter; Oettgen, Hans C; Rachid, Rima; Chatila, Talal A

    2015-03-17

    Oral immunotherapy has had limited success in establishing tolerance in food allergy, reflecting failure to elicit an effective regulatory T (Treg) cell response. We show that disease-susceptible (Il4ra(F709)) mice with enhanced interleukin-4 receptor (IL-4R) signaling exhibited STAT6-dependent impaired generation and function of mucosal allergen-specific Treg cells. This failure was associated with the acquisition by Treg cells of a T helper 2 (Th2)-cell-like phenotype, also found in peripheral-blood allergen-specific Treg cells of food-allergic children. Selective augmentation of IL-4R signaling in Treg cells induced their reprogramming into Th2-like cells and disease susceptibility, whereas Treg-cell-lineage-specific deletion of Il4 and Il13 was protective. IL-4R signaling impaired the capacity of Treg cells to suppress mast cell activation and expansion, which in turn drove Th2 cell reprogramming of Treg cells. Interruption of Th2 cell reprogramming of Treg cells might thus provide candidate therapeutic strategies in food allergy. PMID:25769611

  15. Role of LRF/Pokemon in lineage fate decisions.

    PubMed

    Lunardi, Andrea; Guarnerio, Jlenia; Wang, Guocan; Maeda, Takahiro; Pandolfi, Pier Paolo

    2013-04-11

    In the human genome, 43 different genes are found that encode proteins belonging to the family of the POK (poxvirus and zinc finger and Krüppel)/ZBTB (zinc finger and broad complex, tramtrack, and bric à brac) factors. Generally considered transcriptional repressors, several of these genes play fundamental roles in cell lineage fate decision in various tissues, programming specific tasks throughout the life of the organism. Here, we focus on functions of leukemia/lymphoma-related factor/POK erythroid myeloid ontogenic factor, which is probably one of the most exciting and yet enigmatic members of the POK/ZBTB family. PMID:23396304

  16. Identifying Genetic Traces of Historical Expansions: Phoenician Footprints in the Mediterranean

    PubMed Central

    Zalloua, Pierre A.; Platt, Daniel E.; El Sibai, Mirvat; Khalife, Jade; Makhoul, Nadine; Haber, Marc; Xue, Yali; Izaabel, Hassan; Bosch, Elena; Adams, Susan M.; Arroyo, Eduardo; López-Parra, Ana María; Aler, Mercedes; Picornell, Antònia; Ramon, Misericordia; Jobling, Mark A.; Comas, David; Bertranpetit, Jaume; Wells, R. Spencer; Tyler-Smith, Chris

    2008-01-01

    The Phoenicians were the dominant traders in the Mediterranean Sea two thousand to three thousand years ago and expanded from their homeland in the Levant to establish colonies and trading posts throughout the Mediterranean, but then they disappeared from history. We wished to identify their male genetic traces in modern populations. Therefore, we chose Phoenician-influenced sites on the basis of well-documented historical records and collected new Y-chromosomal data from 1330 men from six such sites, as well as comparative data from the literature. We then developed an analytical strategy to distinguish between lineages specifically associated with the Phoenicians and those spread by geographically similar but historically distinct events, such as the Neolithic, Greek, and Jewish expansions. This involved comparing historically documented Phoenician sites with neighboring non-Phoenician sites for the identification of weak but systematic signatures shared by the Phoenician sites that could not readily be explained by chance or by other expansions. From these comparisons, we found that haplogroup J2, in general, and six Y-STR haplotypes, in particular, exhibited a Phoenician signature that contributed > 6% to the modern Phoenician-influenced populations examined. Our methodology can be applied to any historically documented expansion in which contact and noncontact sites can be identified. PMID:18976729

  17. Paternal and maternal lineages in Guinea-Bissau population.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, M; Brito, P; Bento, A M; Gomes, V; Antunes, H; Costa, H Afonso; Lopes, V; Serra, A; Balsa, F; Andrade, L; Anjos, M J; Corte-Real, F; Gusmão, L

    2011-03-01

    The aim of the present work was to study the origin of paternal and maternal lineages in Guinea-Bissau population, inferred by phylogeographic analyses of mtDNA and Y chromosome defined haplogroups. To determine the male lineages present in Guinea-Bissau, 33 unrelated males were typed using a PCR-SNaPshot multiplex based method including 24 Y-SNPs, which characterize the main haplogroups in sub-Saharan Africa and Western Europe. In the same samples, 17 Y-STRs (included in the YFiler kit, Applied Biosystems) were additionally typed. The most frequent lineages observed were E1b1a (xE1b1a4,7)-M2 (68%) and E1a-M33 (15%). The European haplogroup R1b1-P25 was represented with a frequency of 12%. The two hypervariable mtDNA regions were sequenced in 79 unrelated individuals from Guinea-Bissau, and haplogroups were classified based on control region motifs using mtDNA manager. A high diversity of haplogroups was determined in our sample being the most frequent haplogroups characteristic of populations from sub-Saharan Africa, namely L2a1 (15%), L3d (13%), L2c (9%), L3e4 (9%), L0a1 (8%), L1b (6%) and L1c1 (6%). None of the typical European haplogroups (H, J and T) were found in the present sample of Guinea-Bissau. From our results, it is possible to confirm that Guinea-Bissau presents a typically West African profile, marked by a high frequency of the Y chromosome haplogroup E1b1a(xE1b1a4,7)-M2 and a high proportion of mtDNA lineages belonging to the sub-Saharan specific sub-clusters L1 to L3 (89%). A small European influx has been also detected, although restricted to the male lineages. PMID:21051306

  18. The expansion and functional diversification of the mammalian ribonuclease a superfamily epitomizes the efficiency of multigene families at generating biological novelty.

    PubMed

    Goo, Stephen M; Cho, Soochin

    2013-01-01

    The ribonuclease (RNase) A superfamily is a vertebrate-specific gene family. Because of a massive expansion that occurred during the early mammalian evolution, extant mammals in general have much more RNase genes than nonmammalian vertebrates. Mammalian RNases have been associated with diverse physiological functions including digestion, cytotoxicity, angiogenesis, male reproduction, and host defense. However, it is still uncertain when their expansion occurred and how a wide array of functions arose during their evolution. To answer these questions, we generate a compendium of all RNase genes identified in 20 complete mammalian genomes including the platypus, Ornithorhynchus anatinus. Using this, we delineate 13 ancient RNase gene lineages that arose before the divergence between the monotreme and the other mammals (∼220 Ma). These 13 ancient gene lineages are differentially retained in the 20 mammals, and the rate of protein sequence evolution is highly variable among them, which suggest that they have undergone extensive functional diversification. In addition, we identify 22 episodes of recent expansion of RNase genes, many of which have signatures of adaptive functional differentiation. Exemplifying this, bursts of gene duplication occurred for the RNase1, RNase4, and RNase5 genes of the little brown bat (Myotis lucifugus), which might have contributed to the species' effective defense against heavier pathogen loads caused by its communal roosting behavior. Our study illustrates how host-defense systems can generate new functions efficiently by employing a multigene family, which is crucial for a host organism to adapt to its ever-changing pathogen environment. PMID:24162010

  19. Phylogeographical Analysis of mtDNA Data Indicates Postglacial Expansion from Multiple Glacial Refugia in Woodland Caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou)

    PubMed Central

    Klütsch, Cornelya F. C.; Manseau, Micheline; Wilson, Paul J.

    2012-01-01

    Glacial refugia considerably shaped the phylogeographical structure of species and may influence intra-specific morphological, genetic, and adaptive differentiation. However, the impact of the Quaternary ice ages on the phylogeographical structure of North American temperate mammalian species is not well-studied. Here, we surveyed ∼1600 individuals of the widely distributed woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou) using mtDNA control region sequences to investigate if glacial refugia contributed to the phylogeographical structure in this subspecies. Phylogenetic tree reconstruction, a median-joining network, and mismatch distributions supported postglacial expansions of woodland caribou from three glacial refugia dating back to 13544–22005 years. These three lineages consisted almost exclusively of woodland caribou mtDNA haplotypes, indicating that phylogeographical structure was mainly shaped by postglacial expansions. The putative centres of these lineages are geographically separated; indicating disconnected glacial refugia in the Rocky Mountains, east of the Mississippi, and the Appalachian Mountains. This is in congruence with the fossil record th