Total Dose Effects on Error Rates in Linear Bipolar Systems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Buchner, Stephen; McMorrow, Dale; Bernard, Muriel; Roche, Nicholas; Dusseau, Laurent
2007-01-01
The shapes of single event transients in linear bipolar circuits are distorted by exposure to total ionizing dose radiation. Some transients become broader and others become narrower. Such distortions may affect SET system error rates in a radiation environment. If the transients are broadened by TID, the error rate could increase during the course of a mission, a possibility that has implications for hardness assurance.
Total Dose Effects on Single Event Transients in Linear Bipolar Systems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Buchner, Stephen; McMorrow, Dale; Bernard, Muriel; Roche, Nicholas; Dusseau, Laurent
2008-01-01
Single Event Transients (SETs) originating in linear bipolar integrated circuits are known to undermine the reliability of electronic systems operating in the radiation environment of space. Ionizing particle radiation produces a variety of SETs in linear bipolar circuits. The extent to which these SETs threaten system reliability depends on both their shapes (amplitude and width) and their threshold energies. In general, SETs with large amplitudes and widths are the most likely to propagate from a bipolar circuit's output through a subsystem. The danger these SET pose is that, if they become latched in a follow-on circuit, they could cause an erroneous system response. Long-term exposure of linear bipolar circuits to particle radiation produces total ionizing dose (TID) and/or displacement damage dose (DDD) effects that are characterized by a gradual degradation in some of the circuit's electrical parameters. For example, an operational amplifier's gain-bandwidth product is reduced by exposure to ionizing radiation, and it is this reduction that contributes to the distortion of the SET shapes. In this paper, we compare SETs produced in a pristine LM124 operational amplifier with those produced in one exposed to ionizing radiation for three different operating configurations - voltage follower (VF), inverter with gain (IWG), and non-inverter with gain (NIWG). Each configuration produces a unique set of transient shapes that change following exposure to ionizing radiation. An important finding is that the changes depend on operating configuration; some SETs decrease in amplitude, some remain relatively unchanged, some become narrower and some become broader.
Dose Rate Effects in Linear Bipolar Transistors
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Johnston, Allan; Swimm, Randall; Harris, R. D.; Thorbourn, Dennis
2011-01-01
Dose rate effects are examined in linear bipolar transistors at high and low dose rates. At high dose rates, approximately 50% of the damage anneals at room temperature, even though these devices exhibit enhanced damage at low dose rate. The unexpected recovery of a significant fraction of the damage after tests at high dose rate requires changes in existing test standards. Tests at low temperature with a one-second radiation pulse width show that damage continues to increase for more than 3000 seconds afterward, consistent with predictions of the CTRW model for oxides with a thickness of 700 nm.
Total dose dependency and ELDRS effects on bipolar linear devices
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Yui, C. C.; McClure, S. S.; Rax, B. G.; Lehman, J. M.; Minto, T. D.; Wiedeman, M.
2002-01-01
The use of bipolar linear devices is prevalent in most satellite and some space applications. However, degradation as a result of low dose irradiations known as ELDERS (effects of enhanced low dose rate sensitivity) is a major concern when selecting flight hardware. Many studies and reports have been conducted on this possible phenomenon as well as their responsible physical mechanisms.
Displacement Damage in Bipolar Linear Integrated Circuits
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rax, B. G.; Johnston, A. H.; Miyahira, T.
2000-01-01
Although many different processes can be used to manufacture linear integrated circuits, the process that is used for most circuits is optimized for high voltage -- a total power supply voltage of about 40 V -- and low cost. This process, which has changed little during the last twenty years, uses lateral and substrate p-n-p transistors. These p-n-p transistors have very wide base regions, increasing their sensitivity to displacement damage from electrons and protons. Although displacement damage effects can be easily treated for individual transistors, the net effect on linear circuits can be far more complex because circuit operation often depends on the interaction of several internal transistors. Note also that some circuits are made with more advanced processes with much narrower base widths. Devices fabricated with these newer processes are not expected to be significantly affected by displacement damage for proton fluences below 1 x 10(exp 12) p/sq cm. This paper discusses displacement damage in linear integrated circuits with more complex failure modes than those exhibited by simpler devices, such as the LM111 comparator, where the dominant response mode is gain degradation of the input transistor. Some circuits fail catastrophically at much lower equivalent total dose levels compared to tests with gamma rays. The device works satisfactorily up to nearly 1 Mrad(Si) when it is irradiated with gamma rays, but fails catastrophically between 50 and 70 krad(Si) when it is irradiated with protons.
New non-linear photovoltaic effect in uniform bipolar semiconductor
Volovichev, I.
2014-11-21
A linear theory of the new non-linear photovoltaic effect in the closed circuit consisting of a non-uniformly illuminated uniform bipolar semiconductor with neutral impurities is developed. The non-uniform photo-excitation of impurities results in the position-dependant current carrier mobility that breaks the semiconductor homogeneity and induces the photo-electromotive force (emf). As both the electron (or hole) mobility gradient and the current carrier generation rate depend on the light intensity, the photo-emf and the short-circuit current prove to be non-linear functions of the incident light intensity at an arbitrarily low illumination. The influence of the sample size on the photovoltaic effect magnitude is studied. Physical relations and distinctions between the considered effect and the Dember and bulk photovoltaic effects are also discussed.
Continuing evaluation of bipolar linear devices for total dose bias dependency and ELDRS effects
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
McClure, Steven S.; Gorelick, Jerry L.; Yui, Candice; Rax, Bernard G.; Wiedeman, Michael D.
2003-01-01
We present results of continuing efforts to evaluate total dose bias dependency and ELDRS effects in bipolar linear microcircuits. Several devices were evaluated, each exhibiting moderate to significant bias and/or dose rate dependency.
A new bipolar Qtrim power supply system
Mi, C.; Bruno, D.; Drozd, J.; Nolan, T.; Orsatti, F.; Heppener, G.; Di Lieto, A.; Schultheiss, C.; Samms, T.; Zapasek, R.; Sandberg, J.
2015-05-03
This year marks the 15th run of RHIC (Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider) operations. The reliability of superconducting magnet power supplies is one of the essential factors in the entire accelerator complex. Besides maintaining existing power supplies and their associated equipment, newly designed systems are also required based on the physicist’s latest requirements. A bipolar power supply was required for this year’s main quadruple trim power supply. This paper will explain the design, prototype, testing, installation and operation of this recently installed power supply system.
Total dose bias dependency and ELDRS effects in bipolar linear devices
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Yui, C. C.; McClure, S. S.; Rex, B. G.; Lehman, J. M.; Minto, T. D.; Wiedeman, M.
2002-01-01
Total dose tests of several bipolar linear devices show sensitivity to both dose rate and bias during exposure. All devices exhibited Enhanced Low Dose Rate Sensitivity (ELDRS). An accelerated ELDRS test method for three different devices demonstrate results similar to tests at low dose rate. Behavior and critical parameters from these tests are compared and discussed.
Barnaby, H.; Tausch, H.J.; Turfler, R.; Cole, P.; Baker, P.; Pease, R.L.
1996-12-01
A methodology is presented for the identification of circuit total dose response mechanisms in bipolar linear microcircuits irradiated at high and low dose rates. This methodology includes manual circuit analysis, circuit simulations with SPICE using extracted device parameters, and selective irradiations of portions of the circuit using a scanning electron microscope.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Callier, Frank M.; Desoer, Charles A.
1991-01-01
The aim of this book is to provide a systematic and rigorous access to the main topics of linear state-space system theory in both the continuous-time case and the discrete-time case; and the I/O description of linear systems. The main thrusts of the work are the analysis of system descriptions and derivations of their properties, LQ-optimal control, state feedback and state estimation, and MIMO unity-feedback systems.
Radiation-induced 1/f noise degradation of bipolar linear voltage regulator
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Qifeng, Zhao; Yiqi, Zhuang; Junlin, Bao; Wei, Hu
2016-03-01
Radiation-induced 1/f noise degradation in the LM117 bipolar linear voltage regulator is studied. Based on the radiation-induced degradation mechanism of the output voltage, it is suggested that the band-gap reference subcircuit is the critical component which leads to the 1/f noise degradation of the LM117. The radiation makes the base surface current of the bipolar junction transistors of the band-gap reference subcircuit increase, which leads to an increase in the output 1/f noise of the LM117. Compared to the output voltage, the 1/f noise parameter is more sensitive, it may be used to evaluate the radiation resistance capability of LM117. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 61076101, 61204092).
Composite Bipolar Plate for Unitized Fuel Cell/Electrolyzer Systems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mittelsteadt, Cortney K.; Braff, William
2009-01-01
In a substantial improvement over present alkaline systems, an advanced hybrid bipolar plate for a unitized fuel cell/electrolyzer has been developed. This design, which operates on pure feed streams (H2/O2 and water, respectively) consists of a porous metallic foil filled with a polymer that has very high water transport properties. Combined with a second metallic plate, the pore-filled metallic plates form a bipolar plate with an empty cavity in the center.
Ultrasonic linear measurement system
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Marshall, Scot H. (Inventor)
1991-01-01
An ultrasonic linear measurement system uses the travel time of surface waves along the perimeter of a three-dimensional curvilinear body to determine the perimeter of the curvilinear body. The system can also be used piece-wise to measure distances along plane surfaces. The system can be used to measure perimeters where use of laser light, optical means or steel tape would be extremely difficult, time consuming or impossible. It can also be used to determine discontinuities in surfaces of known perimeter or dimension.
Effect of component design in retrieved bipolar hip hemiarthroplasty systems.
Hess, Matthew D; Baker, Erin A; Salisbury, Meagan R; Kaplan, Lige M; Greene, Ryan T; Greene, Perry W
2013-09-01
Primary articulation of bipolar hemiarthroplasty systems is at the femoral head-liner interface. The purpose of this study was to compare observed damage modes on 36 retrieved bipolar systems with implant, demographic, intraoperative, and radiographic data to elucidate the effects of component design, specifically locking mechanism, on clinical performance. Retrieved bipolar hip hemiarthroplasty systems of 3 different design types were obtained, disassembled, and evaluated macro- and microscopically for varying modes of wear, including abrasion, burnishing, embedding, scratching, and pitting. Clinical record review and radiographic analysis were performed by a senior orthopedic surgery resident. Average bipolar hip hemiarthroplasty system term of service was 46 months (range, 0.27-187 months). All devices contained wear debris captured within the articulating space between the femoral head and liner. In 31% of patients without infection, lucency was observed on immediate prerevision radiographs. The system with a leaf locking mechanism showed significantly increased radiographically observed osteolysis (P=.03) compared with a system with a stopper ring locking mechanism. In addition, implant design and observed damage modes, including pitting and third-body particle embedding, were significantly associated with radiographically observed osteolysis. PMID:24025011
Quasi-linear vacancy dynamics modeling and circuit analysis of the bipolar memristor.
Abraham, Isaac
2014-01-01
The quasi-linear transport equation is investigated for modeling the bipolar memory resistor. The solution accommodates vacancy and circuit level perspectives on memristance. For the first time in literature the component resistors that constitute the contemporary dual variable resistor circuit model are quantified using vacancy parameters and derived from a governing partial differential equation. The model describes known memristor dynamics even as it generates new insight about vacancy migration, bottlenecks to switching speed and elucidates subtle relationships between switching resistance range and device parameters. The model is shown to comply with Chua's generalized equations for the memristor. Independent experimental results are used throughout, to validate the insights obtained from the model. The paper concludes by implementing a memristor-capacitor filter and compares its performance to a reference resistor-capacitor filter to demonstrate that the model is usable for practical circuit analysis. PMID:25390634
Quasi-Linear Vacancy Dynamics Modeling and Circuit Analysis of the Bipolar Memristor
Abraham, Isaac
2014-01-01
The quasi-linear transport equation is investigated for modeling the bipolar memory resistor. The solution accommodates vacancy and circuit level perspectives on memristance. For the first time in literature the component resistors that constitute the contemporary dual variable resistor circuit model are quantified using vacancy parameters and derived from a governing partial differential equation. The model describes known memristor dynamics even as it generates new insight about vacancy migration, bottlenecks to switching speed and elucidates subtle relationships between switching resistance range and device parameters. The model is shown to comply with Chua's generalized equations for the memristor. Independent experimental results are used throughout, to validate the insights obtained from the model. The paper concludes by implementing a memristor-capacitor filter and compares its performance to a reference resistor-capacitor filter to demonstrate that the model is usable for practical circuit analysis. PMID:25390634
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hüttmann, Gereon; Koch, Peter; Birngruber, Reginald
Linear OCT (L-OCT) employs a parallel detection scheme to measure the interference pattern which is formed by the superposition of sample and reference light. L-OCT is one of four basic measurement implementations for OCT. It operates in the time domain like traditional TD-OCT systems but uses a parallel detection scheme by utilizing an image sensor. Therefore, the detection scheme has similarities with FD-OCT. L-OCT shares the lack of the twin-image and autocorrelation artefacts with FD-OCT and the increased noise with time-domain OCT. No moving parts and a simple optical design make L-OCT attractive for optically stable low-cost instruments. One of the main draw-backs is the large number of detector elements, which are needed to achieve a clinically relevant depth range. Gratings offer an elegant solution to reduce the fringe frequency of the interference pattern without influencing the image information. This chapter discusses, theory, implementation and performance of linear OCT systems, together with possible applications and extension, such as non-continuous depth range or line-field versions.
Nickel-hydrogen bipolar battery system
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Thaller, L. H.
1982-01-01
Rechargeable nickel-hydrogen systems are described that more closely resemble a fuel cell system than a traditional nickel-cadmium battery pack. This was stimulated by the currently emerging requirements related to large manned and unmanned low Earth orbit applications. The resultant nickel-hydrogen battery system should have a number of features that would lead to improved reliability, reduced costs as well as superior energy density and cycle lives as compared to battery systems constructed from the current state-of-the-art nickel-hydrogen individual pressure vessel cells.
Nickel-hydrogen bipolar battery systems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Thaller, L. H.
1982-01-01
Nickel-hydrogen cells are currently being manufactured on a semi-experimental basis. Rechargeable nickel-hydrogen systems are described that more closely resemble a fuel cell system than a traditional nickel-cadmium battery pack. This has been stimulated by the currently emerging requirements related to large manned and unmanned low earth orbit applications. The resultant nickel-hydrogen battery system should have a number of features that would lead to improved reliability, reduced costs as well as superior energy density and cycle lives as compared to battery systems constructed from the current state-of-the-art nickel-hydrogen individual pressure vessel cells.
Overdetermined Systems of Linear Equations.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Williams, Gareth
1990-01-01
Explored is an overdetermined system of linear equations to find an appropriate least squares solution. A geometrical interpretation of this solution is given. Included is a least squares point discussion. (KR)
Total Dose Effects on Single Event Transients in Digital CMOS and Linear Bipolar Circuits
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Buchner, S.; McMorrow, D.; Sibley, M.; Eaton, P.; Mavis, D.; Dusseau, L.; Roche, N. J-H.; Bernard, M.
2009-01-01
This presentation discusses the effects of ionizing radiation on single event transients (SETs) in circuits. The exposure of integrated circuits to ionizing radiation changes electrical parameters. The total ionizing dose effect is observed in both complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) and bipolar circuits. In bipolar circuits, transistors exhibit grain degradation, while in CMOS circuits, transistors exhibit threshold voltage shifts. Changes in electrical parameters can cause changes in single event upset(SEU)/SET rates. Depending on the effect, the rates may increase or decrease. Therefore, measures taken for SEU/SET mitigation might work at the beginning of a mission but not at the end following TID exposure. The effect of TID on SET rates should be considered if SETs cannot be tolerated.
Preconditioned quantum linear system algorithm.
Clader, B D; Jacobs, B C; Sprouse, C R
2013-06-21
We describe a quantum algorithm that generalizes the quantum linear system algorithm [Harrow et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 150502 (2009)] to arbitrary problem specifications. We develop a state preparation routine that can initialize generic states, show how simple ancilla measurements can be used to calculate many quantities of interest, and integrate a quantum-compatible preconditioner that greatly expands the number of problems that can achieve exponential speedup over classical linear systems solvers. To demonstrate the algorithm's applicability, we show how it can be used to compute the electromagnetic scattering cross section of an arbitrary target exponentially faster than the best classical algorithm. PMID:23829722
Nusslock, Robin; Abramson, Lyn Y.; Harmon-Jones, Eddie; Alloy, Lauren B.; Coan, James A.
2009-01-01
Research has emerged providing consistent support for the behavioral approach system (BAS) dysregulation theory of bipolar disorder. The objective of the current article is to examine the extent to which findings from the BAS dysregulation theory can inform psychosocial interventions for bipolar disorder. Towards this end, we first provide an overview of the BAS dysregulation theory. Second, we review extant research on psychosocial interventions for bipolar disorder. And, third, we discuss means by which research and theory in line with the BAS dysregulation model can inform psychosocial interventions for bipolar disorder. Particular attention is given to the clinical implications of research suggesting that bipolar disorder is characterized by high drive/incentive motivation, ambitious goal-setting, and perfectionism in the achievement domain. PMID:20161456
Urošević, Snez̆ana; Abramson, Lyn Y.; Harmon-Jones, Eddie; Alloy, Lauren B.
2008-01-01
In recent years, a call for increased research on bipolar disorder has been answered with methodologically diverse studies exploring goal striving, life events, cognitive style, decision-making, and neurobiological abnormalities in bipolar disorder. In order to further this spurt of research and to systematize our understanding of bipolar disorder, an integrative perspective is warranted. The behavioral approach system (BAS) dysregulation theory, proposed by Richard Depue and colleagues, provides such an integrated model for understanding psychosocial and biological aspects of bipolar disorder. In this paper, we review studies on life events, cognitive style and other psychosocial and neurobiological factors to examine whether the BAS dysregulation theory is supported by existing data. Then, we draw on recent advances in the study of emotion and motivation, and propose an expansion of the BAS dysregulation model of bipolar spectrum disorders to foster further biopsychosocial investigations of bipolar disorder. This expanded model provides greater specificity in predictions, especially about the nature of BAS dysregulation, environmental factors and psychological processes (e.g., appraisal processes) featured in a causal chain culminating in bipolar symptoms. Finally, we discuss the implications of the expanded BAS model for the course of bipolar spectrum disorders. PMID:18565633
Prochaska, Krystyna; Staszak, Katarzyna; Woźniak-Budych, Marta Joanna; Regel-Rosocka, Magdalena; Adamczak, Michalina; Wiśniewski, Maciej; Staniewski, Jacek
2014-09-01
A novel approach based on a hybrid system allowing nanofiltration, bipolar electrodialysis and reactive extraction, was proposed to remove fumaric acid from fermentation broth left after bioconversion of glycerol. The fumaric salts can be concentrated in the nanofiltration process to a high yield (80-95% depending on pressure), fumaric acid can be selectively separated from other fermentation components, as well as sodium fumarate can be conversed into the acid form in bipolar electrodialysis process (stack consists of bipolar and anion-exchange membranes). Reactive extraction with quaternary ammonium chloride (Aliquat 336) or alkylphosphine oxides (Cyanex 923) solutions (yield between 60% and 98%) was applied as the final step for fumaric acid recovery from aqueous streams after the membrane techniques. The hybrid system permitting nanofiltration, bipolar electrodialysis and reactive extraction was found effective for recovery of fumaric acid from the fermentation broth. PMID:24983693
Characterization of Radiation Hardened Bipolar Linear Devices for High Total Dose Missions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
McClure, Steven S.; Harris, Richard D.; Rax, Bernard G.; Thorbourn, Dennis O.
2012-01-01
Radiation hardened linear devices are characterized for performance in combined total dose and displacement damage environments for a mission scenario with a high radiation level. Performance at low and high dose rate for both biased and unbiased conditions is compared and the impact to hardness assurance methodology is discussed.
Linear control design for guaranteed stability of uncertain linear systems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Yedavalli, R. K.
1986-01-01
In this paper, a linear control design algorithm based on the elemental perturbation bounds developed recently is presented for a simple second order linear uncertain system satisfying matching conditions. The proposed method is compared with Guaranteed Cost Control (GCC), Multistep Guaranteed Cost Control (MGCC) and the Matching Condition (MC) methods and is shown to give guaranteed stability with lesser values for the control gains than some of the existing methods for the example considered.
... How Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Bipolar Disorder KidsHealth > For Teens > Bipolar Disorder Print A A ... Bipolar Disorder en español Trastorno bipolar What Is Bipolar Disorder? Bipolar disorders are one of several medical conditions ...
Obiora, Onwuameze; McCormick, Laurie May; Karim, Yasser; Gonzales, Pedro; Beeghly, James
2012-06-01
Multiple system atrophy is a rapidly progressive neurodegenerative disorder with no known cure. It is a clinical diagnosis with no confirmation available other than brain biopsy after death. We report the successful treatment of multiple system atrophy co-occurring with bipolar disorder in a 62-year-old man using electroconvulsive therapy. PMID:22622294
James, Timothy Y; Sun, Sheng; Li, Wenjun; Heitman, Joseph; Kuo, Hsiao-Che; Lee, Yong-Hwan; Asiegbu, Frederick O; Olson, Ake
2013-01-01
The process of mating in Basidiomycota is regulated by homeodomain-encoding genes (HD) and pheromones and G protein-coupled pheromone receptor genes (P/R). Whether these genes are actually involved in determining mating type distinguishes mating systems that are considered tetrapolar (two locus) from bipolar (one locus). Polyporales are a diverse group of wood-decay basidiomycetes displaying high variability in mating and decay systems. Many of the bipolar species appear to be brown-rot fungi, and it has been hypothesized that there is a functional basis for this correlation. Here we characterize mating genes in recently sequenced Polyporales and other Agaricomycete genomes. All Agaricomycete genomes encode HD and pheromone receptor genes regardless of whether they are bipolar or tetrapolar. The HD genes are organized into a MAT-HD locus with a high degree of gene order conservation among neighboring genes, with the gene encoding mitochondrial intermediate peptidase consistently syntenic but no linkage to the P/R genes. To have a complete dataset of species with known mating systems we determined that Wolfiporia cocos appears to be bipolar, using the criterion that DNA polymorphism of MAT genes should be extreme. Testing the correlation of mating and decay systems while controlling for phylogenetic relatedness failed to identify a statistical association, likely due to the small number of taxa employed. Using a phylogenetic analysis of Ste3 proteins, we identified clades of sequences that contain no known mating type-specific receptors and therefore might have evolved novel functions. The data are consistent with multiple origins of bipolarity within the Agaricomycetes and Polyporales, although the alternative hypothesis that tetrapolarity and bipolarity are reversible states needs better testing. PMID:23928418
Opinion Dynamics and Decision of Vote in Bipolar Political Systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Caruso, Filippo; Castorina, Paolo
A model of the opinion dynamics underlying the political decision is proposed. The analysis is restricted to a bipolar scheme with a possible third political area. The interaction among voters is local but the final decision strongly depends on global effects such as the rating of the governments. As in the realistic case, the individual decision making process is determined by the most relevant personal interests and problems. The phenomenological analysis of the national vote in Italy and Germany has been carried out and a prediction of the next Italian vote as a function of the government rating is presented.
Technology-Based Early Warning Systems for Bipolar Disorder: A Conceptual Framework.
Depp, Colin; Torous, John; Thompson, Wesley
2016-01-01
Recognition and timely action around "warning signs" of illness exacerbation is central to the self-management of bipolar disorder. Due to its heterogeneity and fluctuating course, passive and active mobile technologies have been increasingly evaluated as adjunctive or standalone tools to predict and prevent risk of worsening of course in bipolar disorder. As predictive analytics approaches to big data from mobile health (mHealth) applications and ancillary sensors advance, it is likely that early warning systems will increasingly become available to patients. Such systems could reduce the amount of time spent experiencing symptoms and diminish the immense disability experienced by people with bipolar disorder. However, in addition to the challenges in validating such systems, we argue that early warning systems may not be without harms. Probabilistic warnings may be delivered to individuals who may not be able to interpret the warning, have limited information about what behaviors to change, or are unprepared to or cannot feasibly act due to time or logistic constraints. We propose five essential elements for early warning systems and provide a conceptual framework for designing, incorporating stakeholder input, and validating early warning systems for bipolar disorder with a focus on pragmatic considerations. PMID:27604265
Utilization of a bipolar lead acid battery for the advanced launch system
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gentry, William O.; Vidas, Robin; Miles, Ronald; Eckles, Steven
1991-01-01
The development of a battery comprised of bipolar lead acid modules is discussed. The battery is designed to satisfy the requirements of the Advanced Launch System (ALS). The battery will have the following design features: (1) conventional lead acid chemistry; (2) thin electrode/active materials; (3) a thin separator; (4) sealed construction (gas recombinant); and (5) welded plastic frames for the external seal.
Kinematics of the Envelope and Two Bipolar Jets in the Class 0 Protostellar System L1157
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kwon, Woojin; Fernández-López, Manuel; Stephens, Ian W.; Looney, Leslie W.
2015-11-01
A massive envelope and a strong bipolar outflow are the two main structures characterizing the youngest protostellar systems. In order to understand the physical properties of a bipolar outflow and the relationship with those of the envelope, we obtained a mosaic map covering the whole bipolar outflow of the youngest protostellar system L1157 with about 5″ angular resolution in CO J = 2-1 using the Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy. By utilizing these observations of the whole bipolar outflow, we estimate its physical properties and show that they are consistent with multiple jets. We also constrain a preferred precession direction. In addition, we observed the central envelope structure with 2″ resolution in the λ =1.3 and 3 mm continua and various molecular lines: C17O, C18O, 13CO, CS, CN, N2H+, CH3OH, H2O, SO, and SO2. All of the CO isotopes and CS, CN, and N2H+ have been detected and imaged. We marginally detected the features that can be interpreted as a rotating inner envelope in C17O and C18O and as an infalling outer envelope in N2H+. We also estimated the envelope and central protostellar masses and found that the dust-opacity spectral index changes with radius.
Manic depression; Bipolar affective disorder; Mood disorder - bipolar; Manic depressive disorder ... Bipolar disorder affects men and women equally. It most often starts between ages 15 and 25. The exact ...
Trost, Sarah; Diekhof, Esther Kristina; Zvonik, Kerstin; Lewandowski, Mirjana; Usher, Juliana; Keil, Maria; Zilles, David; Falkai, Peter; Dechent, Peter; Gruber, Oliver
2014-07-01
Bipolar disorder (BD) is characterized by recurrent mood episodes ranging from severe depression to acute full-blown mania. Both states of this severe psychiatric disorder have been associated with alterations of reward processing in the brain. Here, we present results of a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study on the neural correlates and functional interactions underlying reward gain processing and reward dismissal in favor of a long-term goal in bipolar patients. Sixteen medicated patients diagnosed with bipolar I disorder, euthymic to mildly depressed, and sixteen matched healthy controls performed the 'desire-reason dilemma' (DRD) paradigm demanding rejection of priorly conditioned reward stimuli to successfully pursue a superordinate goal. Both groups exhibited significant activations in reward-related brain regions, particularly in the mesolimbic reward system. However, bipolar patients showed reduced neural responses of the ventral striatum (vStr) when exploiting a reward stimulus, and exhibited a decreased suppression of the reward-related activation of the mesolimbic reward system while having to reject immediate reward in favor of the long-term goal. Further, functional interaction between the anteroventral prefrontal cortex and the vStr in the 'DRD' was significantly impaired in the bipolar group. These findings provide evidence for a reduced responsivity of the vStr to reward stimuli in BD, possibly related to clinical features like anhedonia. The disturbed top-down control of mesolimbic reward signals by prefrontal brain regions in BD can be interpreted in terms of a disease-related enhanced impulsivity, a trait marker of BD. PMID:24535101
Pointwise estimates of solutions for the multi-dimensional bipolar Euler-Poisson system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Zhigang; Li, Yeping
2016-06-01
In the paper, we consider a multi-dimensional bipolar hydrodynamic model from semiconductor devices and plasmas. This system takes the form of Euler-Poisson with electric field and frictional damping added to the momentum equations. By making a new analysis on Green's functions for the Euler system with damping and the Euler-Poisson system with damping, we obtain the pointwise estimates of the solution for the multi-dimensions bipolar Euler-Poisson system. As a by-product, we extend decay rates of the densities {ρ_i(i=1,2)} in the usual L 2-norm to the L p -norm with {p≥1} and the time-decay rates of the momentums m i ( i = 1,2) in the L 2-norm to the L p -norm with p > 1 and all of the decay rates here are optimal.
Systems of Linear Equations on a Spreadsheet.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bosch, William W.; Strickland, Jeff
1998-01-01
The Optimizer in Quattro Pro and the Solver in Excel software programs make solving linear and nonlinear optimization problems feasible for business mathematics students. Proposes ways in which the Optimizer or Solver can be coaxed into solving systems of linear equations. (ASK)
Manic depression; Bipolar affective disorder; Mood disorder - bipolar; Manic depressive disorder ... happiness and high activity or energy (mania) or depression and low activity or energy (depression). The following ...
Buttram, M.T.; Ginn, J.W.
1988-06-21
A linear induction accelerator includes a plurality of adder cavities arranged in a series and provided in a structure which is evacuated so that a vacuum inductance is provided between each adder cavity and the structure. An energy storage system for the adder cavities includes a pulsed current source and a respective plurality of bipolar converting networks connected thereto. The bipolar high-voltage, high-repetition-rate square pulse train sets and resets the cavities. 4 figs.
Optimum design of bipolar plates for separate air flow cooling system of PEM fuel cells stacks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Franco, Alessandro
2015-12-01
The paper discusses about thermal management of PEM fuel cells. The objective is to define criteria and guidelines for the design of the air flow cooling system of fuel cells stacks for different combination of power density, bipolar plates material, air flow rate, operating temperature It is shown that the optimization of the geometry of the channel permits interesting margins for maintaining the use of separate air flow cooling systems for high power density PEM fuel cells.
Reachability analysis of rational eigenvalue linear systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xu, Ming; Chen, Liangyu; Zeng, Zhenbing; Li, Zhi-bin
2010-12-01
One of the key problems in the safety analysis of control systems is the exact computation of reachable state spaces for continuous-time systems. Issues related to the controllability and observability of these systems are well-studied in systems theory. However, there are not many results on reachability, even for general linear systems. In this study, we present a large class of linear systems with decidable reachable state spaces. This is approached by reducing the reachability analysis to real root isolation of exponential polynomials. Furthermore, we have implemented this method in a Maple package based on symbolic computation and applied to several examples successfully.
Simulation of linear mechanical systems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sirlin, S. W.
1993-01-01
A dynamics and controls analyst is typically presented with a structural dynamics model and must perform various input/output tests and design control laws. The required time/frequency simulations need to be done many times as models change and control designs evolve. This paper examines some simple ways that open and closed loop frequency and time domain simulations can be done using the special structure of the system equations usually available. Routines were developed to run under Pro-Matlab in a mixture of the Pro-Matlab interpreter and FORTRAN (using the .mex facility). These routines are often orders of magnitude faster than trying the typical 'brute force' approach of using built-in Pro-Matlab routines such as bode. This makes the analyst's job easier since not only does an individual run take less time, but much larger models can be attacked, often allowing the whole model reduction step to be eliminated.
Digital simulation of stiff linear dynamic systems.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Holland, L. D.; Walsh, J. R., Jr.; Kerr, J. H.
1972-01-01
A method is derived for digital computer simulation of linear time-invariant systems when the insignificant eigenvalues involved in such systems are eliminated by an ALSAP root removal technique. The method is applied to a thirteenth-order dynamic system representing a passive RLC network.
A program for identification of linear systems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Buell, J.; Kalaba, R.; Ruspini, E.; Yakush, A.
1971-01-01
A program has been written for the identification of parameters in certain linear systems. These systems appear in biomedical problems, particularly in compartmental models of pharmacokinetics. The method presented here assumes that some of the state variables are regularly modified by jump conditions. This simulates administration of drugs following some prescribed drug regime. Parameters are identified by a least-square fit of the linear differential system to a set of experimental observations. The method is especially suited when the interval of observation of the system is very long.
Aircraft engine mathematical model - linear system approach
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rotaru, Constantin; Roateşi, Simona; Cîrciu, Ionicǎ
2016-06-01
This paper examines a simplified mathematical model of the aircraft engine, based on the theory of linear and nonlinear systems. The dynamics of the engine was represented by a linear, time variant model, near a nominal operating point within a finite time interval. The linearized equations were expressed in a matrix form, suitable for the incorporation in the MAPLE program solver. The behavior of the engine was included in terms of variation of the rotational speed following a deflection of the throttle. The engine inlet parameters can cover a wide range of altitude and Mach numbers.
Park, Sinwook; Yossifon, Gilad
2016-06-01
The presence of a floating electrode array located within the depletion layer formed due to concentration polarization across a microchannel-membrane interface device may produce not only induced-charge electro-osmosis (ICEO) but also bipolar current resulting from the induced Faradaic reaction. It has been shown that there exists an optimal thickness of a thin dielectric coating that is sufficient to suppress bipolar currents but still enables ICEO vortices that stir the depletion layer, thereby affecting the system's current-voltage response. In addition, the use of alternating-current electro-osmosis by activating electrodes results in further enhancement of the fluid stirring and opens new routes for on-demand spatiotemporal control of the depletion layer length. PMID:27415327
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Park, Sinwook; Yossifon, Gilad
2016-06-01
The presence of a floating electrode array located within the depletion layer formed due to concentration polarization across a microchannel-membrane interface device may produce not only induced-charge electro-osmosis (ICEO) but also bipolar current resulting from the induced Faradaic reaction. It has been shown that there exists an optimal thickness of a thin dielectric coating that is sufficient to suppress bipolar currents but still enables ICEO vortices that stir the depletion layer, thereby affecting the system's current-voltage response. In addition, the use of alternating-current electro-osmosis by activating electrodes results in further enhancement of the fluid stirring and opens new routes for on-demand spatiotemporal control of the depletion layer length.
Relaxation-time limit in the multi-dimensional bipolar nonisentropic Euler-Poisson systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Yeping; Zhou, Zhiming
2015-05-01
In this paper, we consider the multi-dimensional bipolar nonisentropic Euler-Poisson systems, which model various physical phenomena in semiconductor devices, plasmas and channel proteins. We mainly study the relaxation-time limit of the initial value problem for the bipolar full Euler-Poisson equations with well-prepared initial data. Inspired by the Maxwell iteration, we construct the different approximation states for the case τσ = 1 and σ = 1, respectively, and show that periodic initial-value problems of the certain scaled bipolar nonisentropic Euler-Poisson systems in the case τσ = 1 and σ = 1 have unique smooth solutions in the time interval where the classical energy transport equation and the drift-diffusive equation have smooth solution. Moreover, it is also obtained that the smooth solutions converge to those of energy-transport models at the rate of τ2 and those of the drift-diffusive models at the rate of τ, respectively. The proof of these results is based on the continuation principle and the error estimates.
The linear regulator problem for parabolic systems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Banks, H. T.; Kunisch, K.
1983-01-01
An approximation framework is presented for computation (in finite imensional spaces) of Riccati operators that can be guaranteed to converge to the Riccati operator in feedback controls for abstract evolution systems in a Hilbert space. It is shown how these results may be used in the linear optimal regulator problem for a large class of parabolic systems.
Reset stabilisation of positive linear systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhao, Xudong; Yin, Yunfei; Shen, Jun
2016-09-01
In this paper, the problems of reset stabilisation for positive linear systems (PLSs) are investigated. Some properties relating to reset control of PLSs are first revealed. It is shown that these properties are different from the corresponding ones of general linear systems. Second, a class of periodic reset scheme is designed to exponentially stabilise an unstable PLS with a prescribed decay rate. Then, for a given PLS with reset control, some discussions on the upper bound of its decay rate are presented. Meanwhile, the reset stabilisation for PLSs in a special case is probed as well. Finally, two numerical examples are used to demonstrate the correctness and effectiveness of the obtained theoretical results.
Dual-range linearized transimpedance amplifier system
Wessendorf, Kurt O.
2010-11-02
A transimpedance amplifier system is disclosed which simultaneously generates a low-gain output signal and a high-gain output signal from an input current signal using a single transimpedance amplifier having two different feedback loops with different amplification factors to generate two different output voltage signals. One of the feedback loops includes a resistor, and the other feedback loop includes another resistor in series with one or more diodes. The transimpedance amplifier system includes a signal linearizer to linearize one or both of the low- and high-gain output signals by scaling and adding the two output voltage signals from the transimpedance amplifier. The signal linearizer can be formed either as an analog device using one or two summing amplifiers, or alternately can be formed as a digital device using two analog-to-digital converters and a digital signal processor (e.g. a microprocessor or a computer).
Taylor approximations of multidimensional linear differential systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lomadze, Vakhtang
2016-06-01
The Taylor approximations of a multidimensional linear differential system are of importance as they contain a complete information about it. It is shown that in order to construct them it is sufficient to truncate the exponential trajectories only. A computation of the Taylor approximations is provided using purely algebraic means, without requiring explicit knowledge of the trajectories.
Linear covariance analysis for gimbaled pointing systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Christensen, Randall S.
Linear covariance analysis has been utilized in a wide variety of applications. Historically, the theory has made significant contributions to navigation system design and analysis. More recently, the theory has been extended to capture the combined effect of navigation errors and closed-loop control on the performance of the system. These advancements have made possible rapid analysis and comprehensive trade studies of complicated systems ranging from autonomous rendezvous to vehicle ascent trajectory analysis. Comprehensive trade studies are also needed in the area of gimbaled pointing systems where the information needs are different from previous applications. It is therefore the objective of this research to extend the capabilities of linear covariance theory to analyze the closed-loop navigation and control of a gimbaled pointing system. The extensions developed in this research include modifying the linear covariance equations to accommodate a wider variety of controllers. This enables the analysis of controllers common to gimbaled pointing systems, with internal states and associated dynamics as well as actuator command filtering and auxiliary controller measurements. The second extension is the extraction of power spectral density estimates from information available in linear covariance analysis. This information is especially important to gimbaled pointing systems where not just the variance but also the spectrum of the pointing error impacts the performance. The extended theory is applied to a model of a gimbaled pointing system which includes both flexible and rigid body elements as well as input disturbances, sensor errors, and actuator errors. The results of the analysis are validated by direct comparison to a Monte Carlo-based analysis approach. Once the developed linear covariance theory is validated, analysis techniques that are often prohibitory with Monte Carlo analysis are used to gain further insight into the system. These include the creation
Alloy, Lauren B.; Bender, Rachel E.; Wagner, Clara A.; Whitehouse, Wayne G.; Abramson, Lyn Y.; Hogan, Michael E.; Sylvia, Louisa G.; Harmon-Jones, Eddie
2009-01-01
Bipolar disorders and substance use disorders (SUDs) show high co-occurrence. One explanation for this co-occurrence may be common personality vulnerabilities involved in both. We tested whether high Behavioral Approach System (BAS) sensitivity and impulsiveness are shared personality vulnerabilities in bipolar spectrum disorders and substance use problems and their co-occurrence in a longitudinal study of 132 bipolar spectrum and 153 normal individuals. At Time 1, participants completed the BIS/BAS Scales and the Impulsive Nonconformity Scale. Substance use problems were assessed via the Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test and the Drug Abuse Screening Test at 4 month intervals for one year. Bipolar participants had higher rates of lifetime SUDs and substance use problems during the follow-up, relative to normal controls. In line with hypotheses, higher BAS sensitivity and impulsiveness predicted bipolar status and increased substance use problems prospectively. BAS Total, BAS Fun-seeking, and impulsiveness mediated the association between bipolar spectrum status and prospective substance use problems, with impulsiveness as the most important mediator. High BAS sensitivity and impulsiveness may represent shared personality vulnerabilities for both disorders, and may partially account for their co-occurrence. PMID:19686007
Feedback linearization application for LLRF control system
Kwon, S.; Regan, A.; Wang, Y.M.; Rohlev, T.
1999-06-01
The Low Energy Demonstration Accelerator (LEDA) being constructed at Los Alamos National Laboratory will serve as the prototype for the low energy section of Acceleration Production of Tritium (APT) accelerator. This paper addresses the problem of the LLRF control system for LEDA. The authors propose a control law which is based on exact feedback linearization coupled with gain scheduling which reduces the effect of the deterministic klystron cathode voltage ripple that is due to harmonics of the high voltage power supply and achieves tracking of desired set points. Also, they propose an estimator of the ripple and its time derivative and the estimates based feedback linearization controller.
Feedback linearization application for LLRF control system
Kwon, S.; Regan, A.; Wang, Y.M.; Rohlev, T.
1998-12-31
The Low Energy Demonstration Accelerator (LEDA) being constructed at Los Alamos National Laboratory will serve as the prototype for the low energy section of Acceleration Production of Tritium (APT) accelerator. This paper addresses the problem of the LLRF control system for LEDA. The authors propose a control law which is based on exact feedback linearization coupled with gain scheduling which reduces the effect of the deterministic klystron cathode voltage ripple that is due to harmonics of the high voltage power supply and achieves tracking of desired set points. Also, they propose an estimator of the ripple and its time derivative and the estimates based feedback linearization controller.
Bipolar disorder is a serious mental illness. People who have it go through unusual mood changes. They go ... The down feeling is depression. The causes of bipolar disorder aren't always clear. It runs in families. ...
Lee, Kyung-Sang; Park, Young-Min
2012-01-01
Objective The loudness dependence of the auditory evoked potential (LDAEP) is suggested to be a marker of serotonin system function. This study explored the LDAEP of multiple mood statuses (depression, mania, and euthymia) and its clinical implication in bipolar disorder patients. Methods A total of 89 subjects, comprising 35 patients with bipolar disorder, 32 patients with schizophrenia, and 22 healthy controls were evaluated. The bipolar disorder cases comprised 10 depressed patients, 15 patients with mania, and 10 euthymic patients. The N1/P2 peak-to-peak amplitudes were measured at 5 stimulus intensities, and the LDAEP was calculated as the slope of the linear regression. Both cortical and source LDAEP values were calculated. Results LDAEP varied according to mood statuses, and was significantly stronger in cases of euthymia, depression, and mania. Cortical LDAEP was significantly stronger in patients with bipolar euthymia compared with schizophrenia, stronger in bipolar depression than in schizophrenia, stronger in healthy controls than in schizophrenia patients, and stronger in healthy controls than in patients with bipolar mania. Source LDAEP was significantly stronger in patients with bipolar euthymia, bipolar depression, and bipolar mania compared with schizophrenia, stronger in bipolar euthymia than in bipolar mania. Psychotic features weakened the source LDAEP relative to nonpsychotic features. The severity of the depressive symptom was negatively correlated with source LDAEP. Conclusion These findings suggest that the serotonin activity of patients with bipolar disorder may vary according to mood status. A longitudinal follow-up study should be pursued using drug-naive subjects. PMID:22993531
Averaging models for linear piezostructural systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, W.; Kurdila, A. J.; Stepanyan, V.; Inman, D. J.; Vignola, J.
2009-03-01
In this paper, we consider a linear piezoelectric structure which employs a fast-switched, capacitively shunted subsystem to yield a tunable vibration absorber or energy harvester. The dynamics of the system is modeled as a hybrid system, where the switching law is considered as a control input and the ambient vibration is regarded as an external disturbance. It is shown that under mild assumptions of existence and uniqueness of the solution of this hybrid system, averaging theory can be applied, provided that the original system dynamics is periodic. The resulting averaged system is controlled by the duty cycle of a driven pulse-width modulated signal. The response of the averaged system approximates the performance of the original fast-switched linear piezoelectric system. It is analytically shown that the averaging approximation can be used to predict the electromechanically coupled system modal response as a function of the duty cycle of the input switching signal. This prediction is experimentally validated for the system consisting of a piezoelectric bimorph connected to an electromagnetic exciter. Experimental results show that the analytical predictions are observed in practice over a fixed "effective range" of switching frequencies. The same experiments show that the response of the switched system is insensitive to an increase in switching frequency above the effective frequency range.
Identification of general linear mechanical systems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sirlin, S. W.; Longman, R. W.; Juang, J. N.
1983-01-01
Previous work in identification theory has been concerned with the general first order time derivative form. Linear mechanical systems, a large and important class, naturally have a second order form. This paper utilizes this additional structural information for the purpose of identification. A realization is obtained from input-output data, and then knowledge of the system input, output, and inertia matrices is used to determine a set of linear equations whereby we identify the remaining unknown system matrices. Necessary and sufficient conditions on the number, type and placement of sensors and actuators are given which guarantee identificability, and less stringent conditions are given which guarantee generic identifiability. Both a priori identifiability and a posteriori identifiability are considered, i.e., identifiability being insured prior to obtaining data, and identifiability being assured with a given data set.
Lectures on algebraic system theory: Linear systems over rings
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kamen, E. W.
1978-01-01
The presentation centers on four classes of systems that can be treated as linear systems over a ring. These are: (1) discrete-time systems over a ring of scalars such as the integers; (2) continuous-time systems containing time delays; (3) large-scale discrete-time systems; and (4) time-varying discrete-time systems.
Unsplit bipolar pulse forming line
Rhodes, Mark A.
2011-05-24
A bipolar pulse forming transmission line module and system for linear induction accelerators having first, second, third, and fourth planar conductors which form a sequentially arranged interleaved stack having opposing first and second ends, with dielectric layers between the conductors. The first and second planar conductors are connected to each other at the first end, and the first and fourth planar conductors are connected to each other at the second end via a shorting plate. The third planar conductor is electrically connectable to a high voltage source, and an internal switch functions to short at the first end a high voltage from the third planar conductor to the fourth planar conductor to produce a bipolar pulse at the acceleration axis with a zero net time integral. Improved access to the switch is enabled by an aperture through the shorting plate and the proximity of the aperture to the switch.
Linear relationships in systems with non linear kinetics.
Fagiolino, P; Savio, E; Stareczek, S
1991-01-01
The elimination rate of drug from a capacity-limited one-compartment model can be expressed by equation (1): [formula: see text] Traditionally equation (1) was linearized according to equation (2): [formula: see text] Here, an alternative linear relationships between concentration and the area under the curve of C/(Km + c]) is proposed: [formula: see text] By iteration of Km into equation (3) until the statistic of analysis of variance for the regression is maximized, both Km and Vmax can be obtained. Several cases were considered: a) Intravenous bolus (single dose): Km (mg/L), Vmax (mg/L h), Vd (L) and V (mg/h) can be estimated. b) Extravascular administration (single dose): by the method of residuals it is possible to make additional estimations of FD/Vd (mg/L) and Ka (1/h). c) Bioequivalence studies: with parameters obtained at single dose, the simulated levels at steady-state are considered for the bioequivalence assessments. d) Km, Vmax estimation with two (C,t) points (single dose): double iteration (Km values and interpolated fictitious third points) are needed. e) Multiple dose: [formula: see text] If t2-t1 = T (interval of administration) it is possible to calculate operatives Km, Vmax, FD/Vd and to estimate Css (steady-state concentration). C1 and C2 correspond to different intervals. All the areas were calculated by the trapezoidal rule. PMID:1820928
Linear digital imaging system fidelity analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Park, Stephen K.
1989-01-01
The combined effects of imaging gathering, sampling and reconstruction are analyzed in terms of image fidelity. The analysis is based upon a standard end-to-end linear system model which is sufficiently general so that the results apply to most line-scan and sensor-array imaging systems. Shift-variant sampling effects are accounted for with an expected value analysis based upon the use of a fixed deterministic input scene which is randomly shifted (mathematically) relative to the sampling grid. This random sample-scene phase approach has been used successfully by the author and associates in several previous related papers.
Flexible least squares for approximately linear systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kalaba, Robert; Tesfatsion, Leigh
1990-10-01
A probability-free multicriteria approach is presented to the problem of filtering and smoothing when prior beliefs concerning dynamics and measurements take an approximately linear form. Consideration is given to applications in the social and biological sciences, where obtaining agreement among researchers regarding probability relations for discrepancy terms is difficult. The essence of the proposed flexible-least-squares (FLS) procedure is the cost-efficient frontier, a curve in a two-dimensional cost plane which provides an explicit and systematic way to determine the efficient trade-offs between the separate costs incurred for dynamic and measurement specification errors. The FLS estimates show how the state vector could have evolved over time in a manner minimally incompatible with the prior dynamic and measurement specifications. A FORTRAN program for implementing the FLS filtering and smoothing procedure for approximately linear systems is provided.
Linear unsaturating magnetoresistance in disordered systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lai, Ying Tong; Lara, Silvia; Love, Cameron; Ramakrishnan, Navneeth; Adam, Shaffique
Theoretical works have shown that disordered systems exhibit classical magnetoresistance (MR). In this talk, we examine a variety of experimental systems that observe linear MR at high magnetic fields, including silver chalcogenides, graphene, graphite and Weyl semimetals. We show that a careful analysis of the magnitude of the MR, as well as the field strength at which the MR changes from quadratic to linear, reveal important properties of the system, such as the ratio of the root-mean-square fluctuations in the carrier density and the average carrier density. By looking at other properties such as the zero-field mobility, we show that this carrier density inhomogeneity is consistent with what is known about the microscopic impurities in these experiments. The application of this disorder-induced MR to a variety of different experimental scenarios underline the universality of these theoretical models. This work is supported by the Singapore National Research Foundation (NRF-NRFF2012-01) and the Singapore Ministry of Education and Yale-NUS College through Grant Number R-607-265-01312.
McElroy, James F.
1989-01-01
The present invention discloses an improved fuel cell utilizing an ion transporting membrane having a catalytic anode and a catalytic cathode bonded to opposite sides of the membrane, a wet-proofed carbon sheet in contact with the cathode surface opposite that bonded to the membrane and a bipolar separator positioned in electrical contact with the carbon sheet and the anode of the adjacent fuel cell. Said bipolar separator and carbon sheet forming an oxidant flowpath, wherein the improvement comprises an electrically conductive screen between and in contact with the wet-proofed carbon sheet and the bipolar separator improving the product water removal system of the fuel cell.
Systems tunnel linear shaped charge lightning strike
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cook, M.
1989-01-01
Simulated lightning strike testing of the systems tunnel linear shaped charge (LSC) was performed at the Thiokol Lightning Test Complex in Wendover, Utah, on 23 Jun. 1989. The test article consisted of a 160-in. section of the LSC enclosed within a section of the systems tunnel. The systems tunnel was bonded to a section of a solid rocket motor case. All test article components were full scale. The systems tunnel cover of the test article was subjected to three discharges (each discharge was over a different grounding strap) from the high-current generator. The LSC did not detonate. All three grounding straps debonded and violently struck the LSC through the openings in the systems tunnel floor plates. The LSC copper surface was discolored around the areas of grounding strap impact, and arcing occurred at the LSC clamps and LSC ends. This test verified that the present flight configuration of the redesigned solid rocket motor systems tunnel, when subjected to simulated lightning strikes with peak current levels within 71 percent of the worst-case lightning strike condition of NSTS-07636, is adequate to prevent LSC ignition. It is therefore recommended that the design remain unchanged.
Stochastic robustness of linear control systems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Stengel, Robert F.; Ryan, Laura E.
1990-01-01
A simple numerical procedure for estimating the stochastic robustness of a linear, time-invariant system is described. Monte Carlo evaluation of the system's eigenvalues allows the probability of instability and the related stochastic root locus to be estimated. This definition of robustness is an alternative to existing deterministic definitions that address both structured and unstructured parameter variations directly. This analysis approach treats not only Gaussian parameter uncertainties but non-Gaussian cases, including uncertain-but-bounded variations. Trivial extensions of the procedure admit alternate discriminants to be considered. Thus, the probabilities that stipulated degrees of instability will be exceeded or that closed-loop roots will leave desirable regions also can be estimated. Results are particularly amenable to graphical presentation.
Linear optical response of finite systems using multishift linear system solvers
Hübener, Hannes; Giustino, Feliciano
2014-07-28
We discuss the application of multishift linear system solvers to linear-response time-dependent density functional theory. Using this technique the complete frequency-dependent electronic density response of finite systems to an external perturbation can be calculated at the cost of a single solution of a linear system via conjugate gradients. We show that multishift time-dependent density functional theory yields excitation energies and oscillator strengths in perfect agreement with the standard diagonalization of the response matrix (Casida's method), while being computationally advantageous. We present test calculations for benzene, porphin, and chlorophyll molecules. We argue that multishift solvers may find broad applicability in the context of excited-state calculations within density-functional theory and beyond.
Lin Teng Shee, Fabrice; Arul, Joseph; Brunet, Serge; Bazinet, Laurent
2008-11-12
Chitosan, a linear polysaccharide composed of beta-1,4 linked d-glucosamine residues, can be depolymerized into oligomers by enzymatic reaction with chitosanase. Recently, bipolar membrane electrodialysis (BMED) has been used for chitosan solubilization and for terminating the enzymatic reaction by action of electrogenerated acid and base, respectively. The aim of the present study was to test a complete "3-in-1" process using a three-compartment BMED configuration to perform simultaneously the solubilization of chitosan, the inactivation of chitosanase, and the demineralization of the oligomers. In addition, the BMED process was compared to a conventional process using chemical acid and base. The BMED method was found to be as effective as the conventional method for solubilizing the chitosan and for inactivating the chitosanase. Furthermore, the use of BMED allowed a demineralization rate of 53% of the chito-oligomer solution in the diluate compartment. A global process of chitosan hydrolysis into its oligomers using a BMED system was proposed. This technology has great potential for industrial application in chitosan oligomer preparation, because it is convenient and ecological and it produces chito-oligomers with a lower mineral content compared with the conventional method. PMID:18937492
Linear-array systems for aerospace NDE
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Smith, Robert A.; Willsher, Stephen J.; Bending, Jamie M.
1999-12-01
Rapid large-area inspection of composite structures for impact damage and multi-layered aluminum skins for corrosion has been a recognized priority for several years in both military and civil aerospace applications. Approaches to this requirement have followed two clearly different routes: the development of novel large-area inspection systems, and the enhancement of current ultrasonic or eddy-current methods to reduce inspection times. Ultrasonic inspection is possible with standard flaw detection equipment but the addition of a linear ultrasonic array could reduce inspection times considerably. In order to investigate their potential, 9-element and 17-element linear ultrasonic arrays for composites, and 64-element arrays for aluminum skins, have been developed to DERA specifications for use with the ANDSCAN® area scanning system. A 5 m2 composite wing surface has been scanned with a scan resolution of approximately 3 mm in 6 hours. With subsequent software and hardware improvements all four composite wing surfaces (top/bottom, left/right) of a military fighter aircraft can potentially be inspected in less than a day. Array technology has been very widely used in the medical ultrasound field although rarely above 10 MHz, whereas lap-joint inspection requires a pulse center-frequency of 12 to 20 MHz in order to resolve the separate interfaces in the lap joint. A 128 mm-long multi-element array of 5 mm×2 mm ultrasonic elements for use with the ANDSCAN® scanning software was produced to a DERA specification by an NDT manufacturer with experience in the medical imaging field. This paper analyses the performance of the transducers that have been produced and evaluates their use in scanning systems of different configurations.
Linear-array systems for aerospace NDE
Smith, Robert A.; Willsher, Stephen J.; Bending, Jamie M.
1999-12-02
Rapid large-area inspection of composite structures for impact damage and multi-layered aluminum skins for corrosion has been a recognized priority for several years in both military and civil aerospace applications. Approaches to this requirement have followed two clearly different routes: the development of novel large-area inspection systems, and the enhancement of current ultrasonic or eddy-current methods to reduce inspection times. Ultrasonic inspection is possible with standard flaw detection equipment but the addition of a linear ultrasonic array could reduce inspection times considerably. In order to investigate their potential, 9-element and 17-element linear ultrasonic arrays for composites, and 64-element arrays for aluminum skins, have been developed to DERA specifications for use with the ANDSCAN area scanning system. A 5 m{sup 2} composite wing surface has been scanned with a scan resolution of approximately 3 mm in 6 hours. With subsequent software and hardware improvements all four composite wing surfaces (top/bottom, left/right) of a military fighter aircraft can potentially be inspected in less than a day. Array technology has been very widely used in the medical ultrasound field although rarely above 10 MHz, whereas lap-joint inspection requires a pulse center-frequency of 12 to 20 MHz in order to resolve the separate interfaces in the lap joint. A 128 mm-long multi-element array of 5 mmx2 mm ultrasonic elements for use with the ANDSCAN scanning software was produced to a DERA specification by an NDT manufacturer with experience in the medical imaging field. This paper analyses the performance of the transducers that have been produced and evaluates their use in scanning systems of different configurations.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Spearing, Melissa
Bipolar disorder, a brain disorder that causes unusual shifts in a person's mood, affects approximately one percent of the population. It commonly occurs in late adolescence and is often unrecognized. The diagnosis of bipolar disorder is made on the basis of symptoms, course of illness, and when possible, family history. Thoughts of suicide are…
... or digestive problems Problems sleeping, or wanting to sleep all of the time Feeling tired all of the time Thoughts about death and suicide Causes & Risk Factors What causes bipolar disorder? Bipolar disorder may be caused by a chemical imbalance in the brain. It sometimes runs in ...
System theory as applied differential geometry. [linear system
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hermann, R.
1979-01-01
The invariants of input-output systems under the action of the feedback group was examined. The approach used the theory of Lie groups and concepts of modern differential geometry, and illustrated how the latter provides a basis for the discussion of the analytic structure of systems. Finite dimensional linear systems in a single independent variable are considered. Lessons of more general situations (e.g., distributed parameter and multidimensional systems) which are increasingly encountered as technology advances are presented.
Grande, Iria; Berk, Michael; Birmaher, Boris; Vieta, Eduard
2016-04-01
Bipolar disorder is a recurrent chronic disorder characterised by fluctuations in mood state and energy. It affects more than 1% of the world's population irrespective of nationality, ethnic origin, or socioeconomic status. Bipolar disorder is one of the main causes of disability among young people, leading to cognitive and functional impairment and raised mortality, particularly death by suicide. A high prevalence of psychiatric and medical comorbidities is typical in affected individuals. Accurate diagnosis of bipolar disorder is difficult in clinical practice because onset is most commonly a depressive episode and looks similar to unipolar depression. Moreover, there are currently no valid biomarkers for the disorder. Therefore, the role of clinical assessment remains key. Detection of hypomanic periods and longitudinal assessment are crucial to differentiate bipolar disorder from other conditions. Current knowledge of the evolving pharmacological and psychological strategies in bipolar disorder is of utmost importance. PMID:26388529
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hoshino, Tasuku
This paper deals with an approximate linearization control of 2-DOF underactuated-by-1 nonlinear systems, proposing a novel linearization coordinate which reduces the approximation error over the state space around the operating point. The coordinate is analytically constructed in a systematic way by solving two first order linear partial differential equations and the solution is given in an infinite series of configuration variables. The resulting linearization feedback is highly nonlinear and the basin of attraction of the stabilized system using proposed coordinate is large, comparing with those of a conventional first order or other lower order linearization coordinates. The approximate linearization control based on the proposed coordinate is applied to the stabilization of a rotational inverted pendulum; the advantage is verified in simulations and experiments. Some perspectives on availability of the linearization coordinate are discussed and they are computed also for a mobile inverted pendulum, Acrobot, and for Pendubot as examples.
Linear tracking systems with applications to aircraft control system design
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lee, W. H.; Athans, M.; Castanon, D.; Bacchioloni, F.
1977-01-01
A class of optimal linear time invariant tracking systems, both in continuous time and discrete time, of which the number of inputs (which are restricted to be step functions) is equal to the number of system outputs, is studied. Along with derivation of equations and design procedures, two discretization schemes are presented, constraining either the control or its time derivative, to be a constant over each sampling period. Descriptions are given for the linearized model of the F-8C aircraft longitudinal dynamics, and the C* handling qualities criterion, which then serve as an illustration of the applications of these linear tracking designs. A suboptimal reduced state design is also presented. Numerical results are given for both the continuous time and discrete time designs.
Blond, Benjamin N; Fredericks, Carolyn A; Blumberg, Hilary P
2013-01-01
Objectives In past decades, neuroimaging research in bipolar disorder has demonstrated a convergence of findings in an amygdala–anterior paralimbic cortex neural system. This paper reviews behavioral neurology literature that first suggested a central role for this neural system in the disorder and the neuroimaging evidence that supports it. Methods Relevant articles are reviewed to provide an amygdala–anterior paralimbic cortex neural system model of bipolar disorder, including articles from the fields of behavioral neurology and neuroanatomy, and neuroimaging. Results The literature is highly supportive of key roles for the amygdala, anterior paralimbic cortices, and connections among these structures in the emotional dysregulation of bipolar disorder. The functions subserved by their more widely distributed connection sites suggest that broader system dysfunction could account for the range of functions—from neurovegetative to cognitive—disrupted in the disorder. Abnormalities in some components of this neural system are apparent by adolescence, while others, such as those in rostral prefrontal regions, appear to progress over adolescence and young adulthood, suggesting a neurodevelopmental model of the disorder. However, some findings conflict, which may reflect the small sample sizes of some studies, and clinical heterogeneity and methodological differences across studies. Conclusions Consistent with models derived from early behavioral neurology studies, neuroimaging studies support a central role for an amygdala–anterior paralimbic neural system in bipolar disorder, and implicate abnormalities in the development of this system in the disorder. This system will be an important focus of future studies on the developmental pathophysiology, detection, treatment, and prevention of the disorder. PMID:22631619
Symmetric linear systems - An application of algebraic systems theory
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hazewinkel, M.; Martin, C.
1983-01-01
Dynamical systems which contain several identical subsystems occur in a variety of applications ranging from command and control systems and discretization of partial differential equations, to the stability augmentation of pairs of helicopters lifting a large mass. Linear models for such systems display certain obvious symmetries. In this paper, we discuss how these symmetries can be incorporated into a mathematical model that utilizes the modern theory of algebraic systems. Such systems are inherently related to the representation theory of algebras over fields. We will show that any control scheme which respects the dynamical structure either implicitly or explicitly uses the underlying algebra.
Perfect decoupling of linear systems with discrete parameter uncertainties
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dorato, P.; Wang, S.-H.; Asher, R.
1977-01-01
A design procedure based on Gilbert's decoupling parameters for determining a fixed state feedback control law which decouples a linear system with discrete parameter uncertainties is described. Perfect decoupling conditions are established which involve a test for the existence of a solution to a system of linear equations. An actual solution of the linear equations yields the decoupling control law.
... health professional before making a commitment. Learn More Free Booklets and Brochures Bipolar Disorder: A brochure on ... in the public domain and available for use free of charge. Citation of the NIMH is appreciated. ...
Kaun, Thomas D.
1992-01-01
A bipolar battery having a plurality of cells. The bipolar battery includes: a negative electrode; a positive electrode and a separator element disposed between the negative electrode and the positive electrode, the separator element electrically insulating the electrodes from one another; an electrolyte disposed within at least one of the negative electrode, the positive electrode and the separator element; and an electrode containment structure including a cup-like electrode holder.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Shilong; Yin, Changchun; Lin, Jun; Yang, Yu; Hu, Xueyan
2016-03-01
Cooperative work of multiple magnetic transmitting sources is a new trend in the development of transient electromagnetic system. The key is the bipolar current waves shutdown, concurrently in the inductive load. In the past, it was difficult to use the constant clamping voltage technique to realize the synchronized shutdown of currents with different peak values. Based on clamping voltage technique, we introduce a new controlling method with constant shutdown time. We use the rising time to control shutdown time and use low voltage power source to control peak current. From the viewpoint of the circuit energy loss, by taking the high-voltage capacitor bypass resistance and the capacitor of the passive snubber circuit into account, we establish the relationship between the rising time and the shutdown time. Since the switch is not ideal, we propose a new method to test the shutdown time by the low voltage, the high voltage and the peak current. Experimental results show that adjustment of the current rising time can precisely control the value of the clamp voltage. When the rising time is fixed, the shutdown time is unchanged. The error for shutdown time deduced from the energy consumption is less than 6%. The new controlling method on current shutdown proposed in this paper can be used in the cooperative work of borehole and ground transmitting system.
Formal modeling and verification of fractional order linear systems.
Zhao, Chunna; Shi, Likun; Guan, Yong; Li, Xiaojuan; Shi, Zhiping
2016-05-01
This paper presents a formalization of a fractional order linear system in a higher-order logic (HOL) theorem proving system. Based on the formalization of the Grünwald-Letnikov (GL) definition, we formally specify and verify the linear and superposition properties of fractional order systems. The proof provides a rigor and solid underpinnings for verifying concrete fractional order linear control systems. Our implementation in HOL demonstrates the effectiveness of our approach in practical applications. PMID:27126601
Yan, Shengjie; Wu, Xiaomei; Wang, Weiqi
2016-05-01
Purpose In pulmonary veins (PVs) isolation (PVI), radiofrequency (RF) energy is often used to create a linear lesion for blocking the accessory conduction pathways around PVs. By using transient finite element analysis, this study compared the effectiveness of phase-shift mode (PsM) ablation with bipolar mode (BiM) and unipolar mode (UiM) in creating a continuous lesion and lesion depth in a 5-mm thick atrial wall. Materials and methods Computer models were developed to study the temperature distributions and lesion dimensions in atrial walls created through PsM, BiM, and UiM. Four phase-shift angles - 45°, 90°, 135°, and 180° - were considered in PsM ablation (hereafter, PsM-45°, PsM-90°, PsM-135°, and PsM-180°, respectively). Results At 60 s/30 V peak value of RF voltage, UiM and PsM-45° did not create an effective lesion, whereas BiM created a lesion of maximum depth and width approximately 1.01 and 1.62 mm, respectively. PsM-135° and PsM-180° not only created transmural lesions in 5-mm thick atrial walls but also created continuous lesions between electrodes spaced 4 mm apart; similarly, PsM-90° created a continuous lesion with a maximum depth and width of nearly 4.09 and 6.12 mm. Conclusions Compared with UiM and BiM, PsM-90°, PsM-135° and PsM-180° created continuous and larger lesions in a single ablation procedure and at 60 s/30 V peak value of RF voltage. Therefore, the proposed PsM ablation method is suitable for PVI and linear isolation at the left atrial roof for treating atrial fibrillation. PMID:26915712
Linear System of Equations, Matrix Inversion, and Linear Programming Using MS Excel
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
El-Gebeily, M.; Yushau, B.
2008-01-01
In this note, we demonstrate with illustrations two different ways that MS Excel can be used to solve Linear Systems of Equation, Linear Programming Problems, and Matrix Inversion Problems. The advantage of using MS Excel is its availability and transparency (the user is responsible for most of the details of how a problem is solved). Further, we…
Non-linear system identification in flow-induced vibration
Spanos, P.D.; Zeldin, B.A.; Lu, R.
1996-12-31
The paper introduces a method of identification of non-linear systems encountered in marine engineering applications. The non-linearity is accounted for by a combination of linear subsystems and known zero-memory non-linear transformations; an equivalent linear multi-input-single-output (MISO) system is developed for the identification problem. The unknown transfer functions of the MISO system are identified by assembling a system of linear equations in the frequency domain. This system is solved by performing the Cholesky decomposition of a related matrix. It is shown that the proposed identification method can be interpreted as a {open_quotes}Gram-Schmidt{close_quotes} type of orthogonal decomposition of the input-output quantities of the equivalent MISO system. A numerical example involving the identification of unknown parameters of flow (ocean wave) induced forces on offshore structures elucidates the applicability of the proposed method.
Utilizing QR decomposition for solving singular fuzzy linear systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nikuie, M.; Ahmad, M. Z.
2014-06-01
In this paper, we study the solution of n × n fuzzy linear system Ãx = ˜b where A is a singular crisp matrix, ˜x and ˜b are vectors of fuzzy numbers. We first convert the fuzzy linear system Ãx = ˜b to 2n × 2n crisp linear system SX = Y. where S is a singular matrix. We then apply the Drazin inverse to solve the 2n × 2n crisp linear system SX = Y. To investigate the effect of Drazin inverse, we apply the QR decomposition method. Several numerical examples are discussed.
A Cognitive Approach to Solving Systems of Linear Equations
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ramirez, Ariel A.
2009-01-01
Systems of linear equations are used in a variety of fields. Exposure to the concept of systems of equations initially occurs at the high school level and continues through college. Attempts to unearth what students understand about the solutions of linear systems have been limited. Gaps exist in our knowledge of how students understand systems…
Goodwin, Frederick K.; Ghaemi, S. Nassir
1999-01-01
Bipolar disorder's unique combination of three characteristics - clear genetic diathesis, distinctive clinical features, early availability of an effective treatment (lithium) - explains its special place in the history of psychiatry and its contribution to the current explosive growth of neuroscience. This article looks at the state of the art in bipolar disorder from the vantage point of: (i) genetics (possible linkages on chromosomes 18 and 21q, polygenic hypothesis, research into genetic markers); (ii) diagnosis (new focus on the subjective aspects of bipolar disorder to offset the current trend of underdiagnosis due to overreliance on standardized interviews and rating scales); (iii) outcome (increase in treatment-resistant forms signaling a change in the natural history of bipolar disorder); (iv) pathophysiology (research into circadian biological rhythms and the kindling hypothesis to explain recurrence); (v) treatment (emergence of the anticonvulsants, suggested role of chronic antidepressant treatment in the development of treatment resistance); (vi) neurobiology (evaluation of regulatory function in relation to affective disturbances, role of postsynaptic second-messenger mechanisms, advances in functional neuroimaging); and (vii) psychosocial research (shedding overly dualistic theories of the past to understand the mind and brain as an entity, thus emphasizing the importance of balancing the psychopharmacological and psychotherapeutic approaches). Future progress in the understanding and treatment of bipolar disorder will rely on successful integration of the biological and psychosocial lines of investigation. PMID:22033232
Asymptotic Stability of Interconnected Passive Non-Linear Systems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Isidori, A.; Joshi, S. M.; Kelkar, A. G.
1999-01-01
This paper addresses the problem of stabilization of a class of internally passive non-linear time-invariant dynamic systems. A class of non-linear marginally strictly passive (MSP) systems is defined, which is less restrictive than input-strictly passive systems. It is shown that the interconnection of a non-linear passive system and a non-linear MSP system is globally asymptotically stable. The result generalizes and weakens the conditions of the passivity theorem, which requires one of the systems to be input-strictly passive. In the case of linear time-invariant systems, it is shown that the MSP property is equivalent to the marginally strictly positive real (MSPR) property, which is much simpler to check.
Kaminaka, Chikako; Uede, Mikiko; Matsunaka, Hiroshi; Furukawa, Fukumi; Yamamoto, Yuki
2015-06-01
Few clinical studies have examined the utility of bipolar fractional radiofrequency (FRF) therapy as a treatment for atrophic acne scars and active acne in people with darker skin. This study was designed to compare the safety and efficacy of bipolar FRF therapy as a treatment for atrophic acne scars and acne vulgaris. Twenty-three Japanese patients with atrophic acne scars and mild to severe acne on both cheeks were treated with a bipolar FRF system (eMatrix; Syneron, Yokneam Illit, Israel). Five treatment sessions were carried out at 1-month intervals, and the patients were followed up for 3 months after the final treatment. Assessments of scar severity and the number of acne lesions and 3-D in vivo imaging analysis were performed. Evaluations of the treatment outcomes and their effects on the patients' quality of life (QOL) were also carried out. We demonstrated that the improvement in scar volume was marked in the patients with mild scars and was at least moderate in 23 (57.5%) of the treated areas. With regard to the number of acne lesions, the treated areas exhibited significantly fewer lesions compared with the baseline at each time point (P < 0.05). The patients' assessments of the treatment outcomes and their QOL indicated that both had improved significantly by the end of the study. Furthermore, significant reductions in the patients' sebum levels, skin roughness and scar depth were observed. Bipolar FRF treatment significantly improved the atrophic acne scars and acne of Japanese patients and had minimal side-effects. PMID:25855397
Self-characterization of linear and nonlinear adaptive optics systems.
Hampton, Peter J; Conan, Rodolphe; Keskin, Onur; Bradley, Colin; Agathoklis, Pan
2008-01-10
We present methods used to determine the linear or nonlinear static response and the linear dynamic response of an adaptive optics (AO) system. This AO system consists of a nonlinear microelectromechanical systems deformable mirror (DM), a linear tip-tilt mirror (TTM), a control computer, and a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor. The system is modeled using a single-input-single-output structure to determine the one-dimensional transfer function of the dynamic response of the chain of system hardware. An AO system has been shown to be able to characterize its own response without additional instrumentation. Experimentally determined models are given for a TTM and a DM. PMID:18188192
Electronic Non-Contacting Linear Position Measuring System
Post, Richard F.
2005-06-14
A non-contacting linear position location system employs a special transmission line to encode and transmit magnetic signals to a receiver on the object whose position is to be measured. The invention is useful as a non-contact linear locator of moving objects, e.g., to determine the location of a magnetic-levitation train for the operation of the linear-synchronous motor drive system.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pilkey, W. D.; Chen, Y. H.
1974-01-01
An indirect synthesis method is used in the efficient optimal design of multi-degree of freedom, multi-design element, nonlinear, transient systems. A limiting performance analysis which requires linear programming for a kinematically linear system is presented. The system is selected using system identification methods such that the designed system responds as closely as possible to the limiting performance. The efficiency is a result of the method avoiding the repetitive systems analyses accompanying other numerical optimization methods.
Development of a portable wireless system for bipolar concentric ECG recording
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Prats-Boluda, G.; Ye-Lin, Y.; Bueno Barrachina, J. M.; Senent, E.; Rodriguez de Sanabria, R.; Garcia-Casado, J.
2015-07-01
Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) remain the biggest cause of deaths worldwide. ECG monitoring is a key tool for early diagnosis of CVDs. Conventional monitors use monopolar electrodes resulting in poor spatial resolution surface recordings and requiring extensive wiring. High-spatial resolution surface electrocardiographic recordings provide valuable information for the diagnosis of a wide range of cardiac abnormalities, including infarction and arrhythmia. The aim of this work was to develop and test a wireless recording system for acquiring high spatial resolution ECG signals, based on a flexible tripolar concentric electrode (TCE) without cable wiring or external reference electrode which would make more comnfortable its use in clinical practice. For this, a portable, wireless sensor node for analogue conditioning, digitalization and transmission of a bipolar concentric ECG signal (BC-ECG) using a TCE and a Mason-likar Lead-I ECG (ML-Lead-I ECG) signal was developed. Experimental results from a total of 32 healthy volunteers showed that the ECG fiducial points in the BC-ECG signals, recorded with external and internal reference electrode, are consistent with those of simultaneous ML-Lead-I ECG. No statistically significant difference was found in either signal amplitude or morphology, regardless of the reference electrode used, being the signal-to-noise similar to that of ML-Lead-I ECG. Furthermore, it has been observed that BC-ECG signals contain information that could not available in conventional records, specially related to atria activity. The proposed wireless sensor node provides non-invasive high-local resolution ECG signals using only a TCE without additional wiring, which would have great potential in medical diagnosis of diseases such as atrial or ventricular fibrillations or arrhythmias that currently require invasive diagnostic procedures (catheterization).
Singular linear-quadratic control problem for systems with linear delay
Sesekin, A. N.
2013-12-18
A singular linear-quadratic optimization problem on the trajectories of non-autonomous linear differential equations with linear delay is considered. The peculiarity of this problem is the fact that this problem has no solution in the class of integrable controls. To ensure the existence of solutions is required to expand the class of controls including controls with impulse components. Dynamical systems with linear delay are used to describe the motion of pantograph from the current collector with electric traction, biology, etc. It should be noted that for practical problems fact singularity criterion of quality is quite commonly occurring, and therefore the study of these problems is surely important. For the problem under discussion optimal programming control contained impulse components at the initial and final moments of time is constructed under certain assumptions on the functional and the right side of the control system.
... might cause your mood changes. If not treated, bipolar disorder can lead to damaged relationships, poor job or school performance, and even suicide. However, there are effective treatments to control symptoms: medicine and talk therapy. A combination usually works best. NIH: National Institute ...
Alloy, Lauren B.; Bender, Rachel E.; Whitehouse, Wayne G.; Wagner, Clara A.; Liu, Richard T.; Grant, David A.; Jager-Hyman, Shari; Molz, Ashleigh; Choi, James Y.; Harmon-Jones, Eddie; Abramson, Lyn Y.
2012-01-01
A prospective, behavioral high-risk design provided a theoretically guided examination of vulnerability to first onset of bipolar spectrum disorder based on the Behavioral Approach System (BAS) model. Adolescents (ages 14–19) at an “age of risk” for bipolar disorder onset were screened on BAS sensitivity by interviewers blind to current symptoms, lifetime history, and family history of psychopathology. Participants were selected with high versus moderate levels of BAS sensitivity and administered a lifetime diagnostic interview. Those with a bipolar spectrum disorder, psychosis, or hypomanic episode with onset prior to the BAS sensitivity assessment were excluded. High BAS (n = 171) and Moderate BAS (n = 119) sensitivity participants in the final sample completed baseline measures of symptoms, goal-setting, and reward responsiveness and were followed prospectively with semistructured diagnostic interviews every 6 months. Consistent with the vulnerability hypothesis of the BAS model of bipolar disorder, high BAS participants had a greater likelihood, and shorter time to onset, of bipolar spectrum disorder than moderate BAS participants across an average of 12.8 months of follow-up (12.9% vs. 4.2%), controlling for baseline depressive and hypomanic symptoms, and family history of bipolar disorder. High reward responsiveness on a behavioral task and ambitious goal-striving for popular fame and financial success (but not impulsivity) also predicted first onset of bipolar spectrum disorder controlling for the covariates and BAS risk group, and ambitious goal-striving partially mediated the BAS risk group effect. We discuss implications of the findings for the BAS model of bipolar disorder and early intervention efforts. PMID:22004113
Linear System Control Using Stochastic Learning Automata
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ziyad, Nigel; Cox, E. Lucien; Chouikha, Mohamed F.
1998-01-01
This paper explains the use of a Stochastic Learning Automata (SLA) to control switching between three systems to produce the desired output response. The SLA learns the optimal choice of the damping ratio for each system to achieve a desired result. We show that the SLA can learn these states for the control of an unknown system with the proper choice of the error criteria. The results of using a single automaton are compared to using multiple automata.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhu, Huai-nian; Zhang, Cheng-ke; Bin, Ning
2014-05-01
In this paper, we deal with the problem of stochastic Nash differential games of Markov jump linear systems governed by Itô-type equation. Combining the stochastic stabilizability with the stochastic systems, a necessary and sufficient condition for the existence of the Nash strategy is presented by means of a set of cross-coupled stochastic algebraic Riccati equations. Moreover, the stochastic H2/H∞ control for stochastic Markov jump linear systems is discussed as an immediate application and an illustrative example is presented.
Virtual Estimator for Piecewise Linear Systems Based on Observability Analysis
Morales-Morales, Cornelio; Adam-Medina, Manuel; Cervantes, Ilse; Vela-Valdés and, Luis G.; García Beltrán, Carlos Daniel
2013-01-01
This article proposes a virtual sensor for piecewise linear systems based on observability analysis that is in function of a commutation law related with the system's outpu. This virtual sensor is also known as a state estimator. Besides, it presents a detector of active mode when the commutation sequences of each linear subsystem are arbitrary and unknown. For the previous, this article proposes a set of virtual estimators that discern the commutation paths of the system and allow estimating their output. In this work a methodology in order to test the observability for piecewise linear systems with discrete time is proposed. An academic example is presented to show the obtained results. PMID:23447007
Ensemble control of linear systems with parameter uncertainties
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kou, Kit Ian; Liu, Yang; Zhang, Dandan; Tu, Yanshuai
2016-07-01
In this paper, we study the optimal control problem for a class of four-dimensional linear systems based on quaternionic and Fourier analysis. When the control is unconstrained, the optimal ensemble controller for this linear ensemble control systems is given in terms of prolate spheroidal wave functions. For the constrained convex optimisation problem of such systems, the quadratic programming is presented to obtain the optimal control laws. Simulations are given to verity the effectiveness of the proposed theory.
Linear pattern dynamics in nonlinear threshold systems
Rundle, John B.; Klein, W.; Tiampo, Kristy; Gross, Susanna
2000-03-01
Complex nonlinear threshold systems frequently show space-time behavior that is difficult to interpret. We describe a technique based upon a Karhunen-Loeve expansion that allows dynamical patterns to be understood as eigenstates of suitably constructed correlation operators. The evolution of space-time patterns can then be viewed in terms of a ''pattern dynamics'' that can be obtained directly from observable data. As an example, we apply our methods to a particular threshold system to forecast the evolution of patterns of observed activity. Finally, we perform statistical tests to measure the quality of the forecasts. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society.
Kernel method and linear recurrence system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hou, Qing-Hu; Mansour, Toufik
2008-06-01
Based on the kernel method, we present systematic methods to solve equation systems on generating functions of two variables. Using these methods, we get the generating functions for the number of permutations which avoid 1234 and 12k(k-1)...3 and permutations which avoid 1243 and 12...k.
Linear decentralized systems with special structure. [for twin lift helicopters
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Martin, C. F.
1982-01-01
Certain fundamental structures associated with linear systems having internal symmetries are outlined. It is shown that the theory of finite-dimensional algebras and their representations are closely related to such systems. It is also demonstrated that certain problems in the decentralized control of symmetric systems are equivalent to long-standing problems of linear systems theory. Even though the structure imposed arose in considering the problems of twin-lift helicopters, any large system composed of several identical intercoupled control systems can be modeled by a linear system that satisfies the constraints imposed. Internal symmetry can be exploited to yield new system-theoretic invariants and a better understanding of the way in which the underlying structure affects overall system performance.
Decoupling in linear time-varying multivariable systems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sankaran, V.
1973-01-01
The necessary and sufficient conditions for the decoupling of an m-input, m-output, linear time varying dynamical system by state variable feedback is described. The class of feedback matrices which decouple the system are illustrated. Systems which do not satisfy these results are described and systems with disturbances are considered. Some examples are illustrated to clarify the results.
Fosdick, Stephen E; Knust, Kyle N; Scida, Karen; Crooks, Richard M
2013-09-27
A bipolar electrode (BPE) is an electrically conductive material that promotes electrochemical reactions at its extremities (poles) even in the absence of a direct ohmic contact. More specifically, when sufficient voltage is applied to an electrolyte solution in which a BPE is immersed, the potential difference between the BPE and the solution drives oxidation and reduction reactions. Because no direct electrical connection is required to activate redox reactions, large arrays of electrodes can be controlled with just a single DC power supply or even a battery. The wireless aspect of BPEs also makes it possible to electrosynthesize and screen novel materials for a wide variety of applications. Finally, bipolar electrochemistry enables mobile electrodes, dubbed microswimmers, that are able to move freely in solution. PMID:23843205
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jayarajan, Jayesh; Kumar, Nishant; Verma, Amarnath; Thaker, Ramkrishna
2016-05-01
Drive electronics for generating fast, bipolar clocks, which can drive capacitive loads of the order of 5-10nF are indispensable for present day Charge Coupled Devices (CCDs). Design of these high speed bipolar clocks is challenging because of the capacitive loads that have to be driven and a strict constraint on the rise and fall times. Designing drive electronics circuits for space applications becomes even more challenging due to limited number of available discrete devices, which can survive in the harsh radiation prone space environment. This paper presents the design, simulations and test results of a set of such high speed, bipolar clock drivers. The design has been tested under a thermal cycle of -15 deg C to +55 deg C under vacuum conditions and has been designed using radiation hardened components. The test results show that the design meets the stringent rise/fall time requirements of 50+/-10ns for Multiple Vertical CCD (VCCD) clocks and 20+/-5ns for Horizontal CCD (HCCD) clocks with sufficient design margins across full temperature range, with a pixel readout rate of 6.6MHz. The full design has been realized in flexi-rigid PCB with package volume of 140x160x50 mm3.
Decentralization, stabilization, and estimation of large-scale linear systems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Siljak, D. D.; Vukcevic, M. B.
1976-01-01
In this short paper we consider three closely related aspects of large-scale systems: decentralization, stabilization, and estimation. A method is proposed to decompose a large linear system into a number of interconnected subsystems with decentralized (scalar) inputs or outputs. The procedure is preliminary to the hierarchic stabilization and estimation of linear systems and is performed on the subsystem level. A multilevel control scheme based upon the decomposition-aggregation method is developed for stabilization of input-decentralized linear systems Local linear feedback controllers are used to stabilize each decoupled subsystem, while global linear feedback controllers are utilized to minimize the coupling effect among the subsystems. Systems stabilized by the method have a tolerance to a wide class of nonlinearities in subsystem coupling and high reliability with respect to structural perturbations. The proposed output-decentralization and stabilization schemes can be used directly to construct asymptotic state estimators for large linear systems on the subsystem level. The problem of dimensionality is resolved by constructing a number of low-order estimators, thus avoiding a design of a single estimator for the overall system.
... Research Studies Peer Support Research WeSearchTogether Types of Bipolar Disorder There are several kinds of bipolar disorder. Each ... like an illness. What is the difference between bipolar disorder and ordinary mood swings? The three main things ...
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rippel, Wally E.; Edwards, Dean B.
1988-01-01
Bipolar batteries fabricated in continuous quasi-automated process. Components of battery configured so processing steps run sequentially. Key components of battery, bipolar plate and bipolar separator, fabricated separately and later joined together.
Linear transformation and oscillation criteria for Hamiltonian systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zheng, Zhaowen
2007-08-01
Using a linear transformation similar to the Kummer transformation, some new oscillation criteria for linear Hamiltonian systems are established. These results generalize and improve the oscillation criteria due to I.S. Kumari and S. Umanaheswaram [I. Sowjaya Kumari, S. Umanaheswaram, Oscillation criteria for linear matrix Hamiltonian systems, J. Differential Equations 165 (2000) 174-198], Q. Yang et al. [Q. Yang, R. Mathsen, S. Zhu, Oscillation theorems for self-adjoint matrix Hamiltonian systems, J. Differential Equations 190 (2003) 306-329], and S. Chen and Z. Zheng [Shaozhu Chen, Zhaowen Zheng, Oscillation criteria of Yan type for linear Hamiltonian systems, Comput. Math. Appl. 46 (2003) 855-862]. These criteria also unify many of known criteria in literature and simplify the proofs.
An iterative method for indefinite systems of linear equations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ito, K.
1984-01-01
An iterative method for solving nonsymmetric indefinite linear systems is proposed. The method involves the successive use of a modified version of the conjugate residual method. A numerical example is given to illustrate the method.
Linear systems of equations solved using mathematical algorithms
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bareiss, E. H.
1968-01-01
New mathematical algorithm solves linear systems of equations, AX equals B, and preserves the integer properties of the coefficients. The algorithms presented can also be used for the efficient evaluation of determinates and their leading minors.
Psychotherapeutic Treatment of Bipolar Depression.
McMahon, Kibby; Herr, Nathaniel R; Zerubavel, Noga; Hoertel, Nicolas; Neacsiu, Andrada D
2016-03-01
The gold standard for treating bipolar depression is based on the combination of mood stabilizers and psychotherapy. Therefore, the authors present evidence-based models and promising approaches for psychotherapy for bipolar depression. Cognitive-behavioral therapy, family focused therapy, interpersonal and social rhythm therapy, mindfulness-based cognitive therapy, and dialectical behavior therapy are discussed. Behavioral activation, the cognitive behavioral analysis system of psychotherapy, and the unified protocol as promising future directions are presented. This review informs medical providers of the most appropriate referral guidelines for psychotherapy for bipolar depression. The authors conclude with a decision tree delineating optimal referrals to each psychotherapy approach. PMID:26876317
Indirect techniques for adaptive input-output linearization of non-linear systems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Teel, Andrew; Kadiyala, Raja; Kokotovic, Peter; Sastry, Shankar
1991-01-01
A technique of indirect adaptive control based on certainty equivalence for input output linearization of nonlinear systems is proven convergent. It does not suffer from the overparameterization drawbacks of the direct adaptive control techniques on the same plant. This paper also contains a semiindirect adaptive controller which has several attractive features of both the direct and indirect schemes.
Iterative algorithms for large sparse linear systems on parallel computers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Adams, L. M.
1982-01-01
Algorithms for assembling in parallel the sparse system of linear equations that result from finite difference or finite element discretizations of elliptic partial differential equations, such as those that arise in structural engineering are developed. Parallel linear stationary iterative algorithms and parallel preconditioned conjugate gradient algorithms are developed for solving these systems. In addition, a model for comparing parallel algorithms on array architectures is developed and results of this model for the algorithms are given.
Identification of linear system models and state estimators for controls
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chen, Chung-Wen
1992-01-01
The following paper is presented in viewgraph format and covers topics including: (1) linear state feedback control system; (2) Kalman filter state estimation; (3) relation between residual and stochastic part of output; (4) obtaining Kalman filter gain; (5) state estimation under unknown system model and unknown noises; and (6) relationship between filter Markov parameters and system Markov parameters.
Linear induction accelerator and pulse forming networks therefor
Buttram, Malcolm T.; Ginn, Jerry W.
1989-01-01
A linear induction accelerator includes a plurality of adder cavities arranged in a series and provided in a structure which is evacuated so that a vacuum inductance is provided between each adder cavity and the structure. An energy storage system for the adder cavities includes a pulsed current source and a respective plurality of bipolar converting networks connected thereto. The bipolar high-voltage, high-repetition-rate square pulse train sets and resets the cavities.
Designing a patient monitoring system for bipolar disorder using Semantic Web technologies.
Thermolia, Chryssa; Bei, Ekaterini S; Petrakis, Euripides G M; Kritsotakis, Vangelis; Tsiknakis, Manolis; Sakkalis, Vangelis
2015-01-01
The new movement to personalize treatment plans and improve prediction capabilities is greatly facilitated by intelligent remote patient monitoring and risk prevention. This paper focuses on patients suffering from bipolar disorder, a mental illness characterized by severe mood swings. We exploit the advantages of Semantic Web and Electronic Health Record Technologies to develop a patient monitoring platform to support clinicians. Relying on intelligently filtering of clinical evidence-based information and individual-specific knowledge, we aim to provide recommendations for treatment and monitoring at appropriate time or concluding into alerts for serious shifts in mood and patients' non response to treatment. PMID:26737852
Modal interaction in linear dynamic systems near degenerate modes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Afolabi, D.
1991-01-01
In various problems in structural dynamics, the eigenvalues of a linear system depend on a characteristic parameter of the system. Under certain conditions, two eigenvalues of the system approach each other as the characteristic parameter is varied, leading to modal interaction. In a system with conservative coupling, the two eigenvalues eventually repel each other, leading to the curve veering effect. In a system with nonconservative coupling, the eigenvalues continue to attract each other, eventually colliding, leading to eigenvalue degeneracy. Modal interaction is studied in linear systems with conservative and nonconservative coupling using singularity theory, sometimes known as catastrophe theory. The main result is this: eigenvalue degeneracy is a cause of instability; in systems with conservative coupling, it induces only geometric instability, whereas in systems with nonconservative coupling, eigenvalue degeneracy induces both geometric and elastic instability. Illustrative examples of mechanical systems are given.
Dynamic modeling of electrochemical systems using linear graph theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dao, Thanh-Son; McPhee, John
An electrochemical cell is a multidisciplinary system which involves complex chemical, electrical, and thermodynamical processes. The primary objective of this paper is to develop a linear graph-theoretical modeling for the dynamic description of electrochemical systems through the representation of the system topologies. After a brief introduction to the topic and a review of linear graphs, an approach to develop linear graphs for electrochemical systems using a circuitry representation is discussed, followed in turn by the use of the branch and chord transformation techniques to generate final dynamic equations governing the system. As an example, the application of linear graph theory to modeling a nickel metal hydride (NiMH) battery will be presented. Results show that not only the number of equations are reduced significantly, but also the linear graph model simulates faster compared to the original lumped parameter model. The approach presented in this paper can be extended to modeling complex systems such as an electric or hybrid electric vehicle where a battery pack is interconnected with other components in many different domains.
Minimum-variance fixed-form compensation of linear systems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Johnson, T. L.
1979-01-01
The problem of determining the linear time-invariant compensator of a specified dimension which minimizes the asymptotic expected value of a quadratic form in the state variables of a linear stochastic system of arbitrary order, is considered. It is shown that under appropriate assumptions, the solution of this problem can be interpreted as a minimum-order observer-based or dual observer-based compensator for an optimally aggregated model of the plant.
Tape measuring system using linear encoder and digital camera
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Eom, Tae Bong; Jeong, Don Young; Kim, Myung Soon; Kim, Jae Wan; Kim, Jong Ahn
2013-04-01
We have designed and constructed the calibration system of line standards such as tape and rule for the secondary calibration laboratories. The system consists of the main body with linear stage and linear encoder, the optical microscope with digital camera, and the computer. The base of the system is a aluminum profile with 2.9 m length, 0.09 m height and 0.18 m width. The linear stage and the linear encoder are fixed on the aluminum profile. The micro-stage driven by micrometer is fixed on the carriage of the long linear stage, and the optical microscope with digital camera and the tablet PC are on the this stage. The linear encoder counts the moving distance of the linear stage with resolution of 1 μm and its counting value is transferred to the tablet PC. The image of the scale mark of the tape is captured by the CCD camera of optical microscope and transferred to the PC through USB interface. The computer automatically determines the center of the scale mark by image processing technique and at the same time reads the moving distance of the linear stage. As a result, the computer can calculate the interval between the scale marks of the tape. In order to achieve the high accuracy, the linear encoder should be calibrated using the laser interferometer or the rigid steel rule. This calibration data of the linear encoder is stored at the computer and the computer corrects the reading value of the linear encoder. In order to determine the center of the scale mark, we use three different algorithms. First, the image profile over specified threshold level is fitted in even order polynomial and the axis of the polynomial is used as the center of the line. Second, the left side and right side areas at the center of the image profile are calculated so that two areas are same. Third, the left and right edges of the image profile are determined at every intensity level of the image and the center of the graduation is calculated as an average of the centers of the left
Powerful tool for design analysis of linear control systems
Maddux, Jr, A S
1982-05-10
The methods for designing linear controls for electronic or mechanical systems have been understood and put to practice. What has not been readily available to engineers, however, is a practical, quick and inexpensive method for analyzing these linear control (feedback) systems once they have been designed into the electronic or mechanical hardware. Now, the PET, manufactured by Commodore Business Machines (CBM), operating with several peripherals via the IEEE 488 Bus, brings to the engineer for about $4000 a complete set of office tools for analyzing these system designs.
Identification of linear stochastic systems through projection filters
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chen, Chung-Wen; Huang, Jen-Kuang; Juang, Jer-Nan
1992-01-01
A novel method is presented for identifying a state-space model and a state estimator for linear stochastic systems from input and output data. The method is primarily based on the relationship between the state-space model and the finite-difference model of linear stochastic systems derived through projection filters. It is proved that least-squares identification of a finite difference model converges to the model derived from the projection filters. System pulse response samples are computed from the coefficients of the finite difference model.
On identifying transfer functions and state equations for linear systems.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shieh, L. S.; Chen, C. F.; Huang, C. J.
1972-01-01
Two methods are established for identifying constant-coefficient, C to the 2n power type of noise-free linear systems if the time response data of the input-output or of all states are known. 2n response data are required to identify an nth-order transfer function or state equation for an unknown linear system. The order of the unknown system can be identified by checking a sequence of determinants. The Z transform and its inversion are mainly used.
Preprocessing Inconsistent Linear System for a Meaningful Least Squares Solution
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sen, Syamal K.; Shaykhian, Gholam Ali
2011-01-01
Mathematical models of many physical/statistical problems are systems of linear equations. Due to measurement and possible human errors/mistakes in modeling/data, as well as due to certain assumptions to reduce complexity, inconsistency (contradiction) is injected into the model, viz. the linear system. While any inconsistent system irrespective of the degree of inconsistency has always a least-squares solution, one needs to check whether an equation is too much inconsistent or, equivalently too much contradictory. Such an equation will affect/distort the least-squares solution to such an extent that renders it unacceptable/unfit to be used in a real-world application. We propose an algorithm which (i) prunes numerically redundant linear equations from the system as these do not add any new information to the model, (ii) detects contradictory linear equations along with their degree of contradiction (inconsistency index), (iii) removes those equations presumed to be too contradictory, and then (iv) obtain the minimum norm least-squares solution of the acceptably inconsistent reduced linear system. The algorithm presented in Matlab reduces the computational and storage complexities and also improves the accuracy of the solution. It also provides the necessary warning about the existence of too much contradiction in the model. In addition, we suggest a thorough relook into the mathematical modeling to determine the reason why unacceptable contradiction has occurred thus prompting us to make necessary corrections/modifications to the models - both mathematical and, if necessary, physical.
Non-linear dynamic analysis of geared systems, part 2
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Singh, Rajendra; Houser, Donald R.; Kahraman, Ahmet
1990-01-01
A good understanding of the steady state dynamic behavior of a geared system is required in order to design reliable and quiet transmissions. This study focuses on a system containing a spur gear pair with backlash and periodically time-varying mesh stiffness, and rolling element bearings with clearance type non-linearities. A dynamic finite element model of the linear time-invariant (LTI) system is developed. Effects of several system parameters, such as torsional and transverse flexibilities of the shafts and prime mover/load inertias, on free and force vibration characteristics are investigated. Several reduced order LTI models are developed and validated by comparing their eigen solution with the finite element model results. Several key system parameters such as mean load and damping ratio are identified and their effects on the non-linear frequency response are evaluated quantitatively. Other fundamental issues such as the dynamic coupling between non-linear modes, dynamic interactions between component non-linearities and time-varying mesh stiffness, and the existence of subharmonic and chaotic solutions including routes to chaos have also been examined in depth.
Chou, Yuan Hwa; Chu, Po-Chung; Wu, Szu-Wei; Lee, Jen-Chin; Lee, Yi-Hsuan; Sun, I-Wen; Chang, Chen-Lin; Huang, Chien-Liang; Liu, I-Chao; Tsai, Chia-Fen; Yen, Yung-Chieh
2015-08-31
Bipolar disorder (BD) is a major psychiatric disorder that is easily misdiagnosed. Patient adherence to a treatment regimen is of utmost importance for successful outcomes in BD. Several trials of antipsychotics suggested that depot antipsychotics, including long-acting first- and second-generation agents, are effective in preventing non-adherence, partial adherence, and in reducing relapse in BD. Various long-acting injectable (LAI) antipsychotics are available, including fluphenazine decanoate, haloperidol decanoate, olanzapine pamoate, risperidone microspheres, paliperidone palmitate, and aripiprazole monohydrate. Due to the increasing number of BD patients receiving LAI antipsychotics, treatment guidelines have been developed. However, the clinical applicability of LAI antipsychotics remains a global cause for concern, particularly in Asian countries. Expert physicians from Taiwan participated in a consensus meeting, which was held to review key areas based on both current literature and clinical practice. The purpose of this meeting was to generate a practical and implementable set of recommendations for LAI antipsychotic use to treat BD; target patient groups, dosage, administration, and adverse effects were considered. Experts recommended using LAI antipsychotics in patients with schizophrenia, rapid cycling BD, BD I, and bipolar-type schizoaffective disorder. LAI antipsychotic use was recommended in BD patients with the following characteristics: multiple episodes and low adherence; seldom yet serious episodes; low adherence potential per a physician's clinical judgment; preference for injectable agents over oral agents; and multiple oral agent users still experiencing residual symptoms. PMID:26243837
Chou, Yuan Hwa; Chu, Po-Chung; Wu, Szu-Wei; Lee, Jen-Chin; Lee, Yi-Hsuan; Sun, I-Wen; Chang, Chen-Lin; Huang, Chien-Liang; Liu, I-Chao; Tsai, Chia-Fen; Yen, Yung-Chieh
2015-01-01
Bipolar disorder (BD) is a major psychiatric disorder that is easily misdiagnosed. Patient adherence to a treatment regimen is of utmost importance for successful outcomes in BD. Several trials of antipsychotics suggested that depot antipsychotics, including long-acting first- and second-generation agents, are effective in preventing non-adherence, partial adherence, and in reducing relapse in BD. Various long-acting injectable (LAI) antipsychotics are available, including fluphenazine decanoate, haloperidol decanoate, olanzapine pamoate, risperidone microspheres, paliperidone palmitate, and aripiprazole monohydrate. Due to the increasing number of BD patients receiving LAI antipsychotics, treatment guidelines have been developed. However, the clinical applicability of LAI antipsychotics remains a global cause for concern, particularly in Asian countries. Expert physicians from Taiwan participated in a consensus meeting, which was held to review key areas based on both current literature and clinical practice. The purpose of this meeting was to generate a practical and implementable set of recommendations for LAI antipsychotic use to treat BD; target patient groups, dosage, administration, and adverse effects were considered. Experts recommended using LAI antipsychotics in patients with schizophrenia, rapid cycling BD, BD I, and bipolar-type schizoaffective disorder. LAI antipsychotic use was recommended in BD patients with the following characteristics: multiple episodes and low adherence; seldom yet serious episodes; low adherence potential per a physician’s clinical judgment; preference for injectable agents over oral agents; and multiple oral agent users still experiencing residual symptoms. PMID:26243837
A tearing-based hybrid parallel banded linear system solver
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Naumov, Maxim; Sameh, Ahmed H.
2009-04-01
A new parallel algorithm for the solution of banded linear systems is proposed. The scheme tears the coefficient matrix into several overlapped independent blocks in which the size of the overlap is equal to the system's bandwidth. A corresponding splitting of the right-hand side is also provided. The resulting independent, and smaller size, linear systems are solved under the constraint that the solutions corresponding to the overlap regions are identical. This results in a linear system whose size is proportional to the sum of the overlap regions which we refer to as the "balance" system. We propose a solution strategy that does not require obtaining this "balance" system explicitly. Once the balance system is solved, retrieving the rest of the solution can be realized with almost perfect parallelism. Our proposed algorithm is a hybrid scheme that combines direct and iterative methods for solving a single banded system of linear equations on parallel architectures. It has broad applications in finite-element analysis, particularly as a parallel solver of banded preconditioners that can be used in conjunction with outer Krylov iterative schemes.
Asymptotic behavior of coupled linear systems modeling suspension bridges
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dell'Oro, Filippo; Giorgi, Claudio; Pata, Vittorino
2015-06-01
We consider the coupled linear system describing the vibrations of a string-beam system related to the well-known Lazer-McKenna suspension bridge model. For ɛ > 0 and k > 0, the decay properties of the solution semigroup are discussed in dependence of the nonnegative parameters γ and h, which are responsible for the damping effects.
Stability theorems for multidimensional linear systems with variable parameters
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shrivastava, S. K.
1981-01-01
A Liapunov-type approach is used to derive two equivalent theorems which govern the stability of coupled linear systems with varying multiple parameters. The theorems generalize some of the existing theorems applicable to systems with constant parameters and the Sonin-Polya theorem applicable to a single-degree-of-freedom system with variable coefficients. As an illustration, the proposed theorems are applied to mechanical systems with varying inertia, stiffness, gyroscopic, and damping terms, and velocity and position-dependent forces.
Mathematical models of bipolar disorder
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Daugherty, Darryl; Roque-Urrea, Tairi; Urrea-Roque, John; Troyer, Jessica; Wirkus, Stephen; Porter, Mason A.
2009-07-01
We use limit cycle oscillators to model bipolar II disorder, which is characterized by alternating hypomanic and depressive episodes and afflicts about 1% of the United States adult population. We consider two non-linear oscillator models of a single bipolar patient. In both frameworks, we begin with an untreated individual and examine the mathematical effects and resulting biological consequences of treatment. We also briefly consider the dynamics of interacting bipolar II individuals using weakly-coupled, weakly-damped harmonic oscillators. We discuss how the proposed models can be used as a framework for refined models that incorporate additional biological data. We conclude with a discussion of possible generalizations of our work, as there are several biologically-motivated extensions that can be readily incorporated into the series of models presented here.
Parallel preconditioning for the solution of nonsymmetric banded linear systems
Amodio, P.; Mazzia, F.
1994-12-31
Many computational techniques require the solution of banded linear systems. Common examples derive from the solution of partial differential equations and of boundary value problems. In particular the authors are interested in the parallel solution of block Hessemberg linear systems Gx = f, arising from the solution of ordinary differential equations by means of boundary value methods (BVMs), even if the considered preconditioning may be applied to any block banded linear system. BVMs have been extensively investigated in the last few years and their stability properties give promising results. A new class of BVMs called Reverse Adams, which are BV-A-stable for orders up to 6, and BV-A{sub 0}-stable for orders up to 9, have been studied.
Fixed order dynamic compensation for multivariable linear systems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kramer, F. S.; Calise, A. J.
1986-01-01
This paper considers the design of fixed order dynamic compensators for multivariable time invariant linear systems, minimizing a linear quadratic performance cost functional. Attention is given to robustness issues in terms of multivariable frequency domain specifications. An output feedback formulation is adopted by suitably augmenting the system description to include the compensator states. Either a controller or observer canonical form is imposed on the compensator description to reduce the number of free parameters to its minimal number. The internal structure of the compensator is prespecified by assigning a set of ascending feedback invariant indices, thus forming a Brunovsky structure for the nominal compensator.
Conference on iterative methods for large linear systems
Kincaid, D.R.
1988-12-01
This conference is dedicated to providing an overview of the state of the art in the use of iterative methods for solving sparse linear systems with an eye to contributions of the past, present and future. The emphasis is on identifying current and future research directions in the mainstream of modern scientific computing. Recently, the use of iterative methods for solving linear systems has experienced a resurgence of activity as scientists attach extremely complicated three-dimensional problems using vector and parallel supercomputers. Many research advances in the development of iterative methods for high-speed computers over the past forty years are reviewed, as well as focusing on current research.
Solution of linear systems by a singular perturbation technique
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ardema, M. D.
1976-01-01
An approximate solution is obtained for a singularly perturbed system of initial valued, time invariant, linear differential equations with multiple boundary layers. Conditions are stated under which the approximate solution converges uniformly to the exact solution as the perturbation parameter tends to zero. The solution is obtained by the method of matched asymptotic expansions. Use of the results for obtaining approximate solutions of general linear systems is discussed. An example is considered to illustrate the method and it is shown that the formulas derived give a readily computed uniform approximation.
Estimability and stochastic observability of quantised linear systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Hui; Shen, Ying
2016-04-01
The estimability and stochastic observability of quantised discrete-time linear dynamic systems are discussed from information theoretic viewpoint. Algebraic conditions of estimability and stochastic observability for quantised linear Gaussian systems, i.e., certain Gramians having full rank, are proposed based on the measure of mutual information. The obtained conditions of estimability and observability are consistent with the intuition and provide us with valuable hints on quantiser design. It is shown analytically that the Gramians of quantised systems converge to that of unquantised systems when the quantisation intervals turn to zero, and a well-designed quantiser can preserve the estimability and stochastic observability of the original system even if it is as coarse as one bit. Furthermore, the relation between estimability and stochastic observability is established for quantised stochastically autonomous systems. The analytical results are verified by illustrative simulations.
Nonautonomous linear system of the terrestrial carbon cycle
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Luo, Y.
2012-12-01
Carbon cycle has been studied by uses of observation through various networks, field and laboratory experiments, and simulation models. Much less has been done on theoretical thinking and analysis to understand fundament properties of carbon cycle and then guide observatory, experimental, and modeling research. This presentation is to explore what would be the theoretical properties of terrestrial carbon cycle and how those properties can be used to make observatory, experimental, and modeling research more effective. Thousands of published data sets from litter decomposition and soil incubation studies almost all indicate that decay processes of litter and soil organic carbon can be well described by first order differential equations with one or more pools. Carbon pool dynamics in plants and soil after disturbances (e.g., wildfire, clear-cut of forests, and plows of soil for cropping) and during natural recovery or ecosystem restoration also exhibit characteristics of first-order linear systems. Thus, numerous lines of empirical evidence indicate that the terrestrial carbon cycle can be adequately described as a nonautonomous linear system. The linearity reflects the nature of the carbon cycle that carbon, once fixed by photosynthesis, is linearly transferred among pools within an ecosystem. The linear carbon transfer, however, is modified by nonlinear functions of external forcing variables. In addition, photosynthetic carbon influx is also nonlinearly influenced by external variables. This nonautonomous linear system can be mathematically expressed by a first-order linear ordinary matrix equation. We have recently used this theoretical property of terrestrial carbon cycle to develop a semi-analytic solution of spinup. The new methods have been applied to five global land models, including NCAR's CLM and CABLE models and can computationally accelerate spinup by two orders of magnitude. We also use this theoretical property to develop an analytic framework to
InP Double Heterojunction Bipolar Transistor for broadband terahertz detection and imaging systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Coquillat, D.; Nodjiadjim, V.; Konczykowska, A.; Dyakonova, N.; Consejo, C.; Ruffenach, S.; Teppe, F.; Riet, M.; Muraviev, A.; Gutin, A.; Shur, M.; Godin, J.; Knap, W.
2015-10-01
This paper presents terahertz detectors based on high performance 0.7-μm InP double heterojunction bipolar transistor (DHBT) technology and reports on the analysis of their voltage responsivity over a wide frequency range of the incoming terahertz radiation. The detectors operated without any spatial antennas to couple terahertz radiation to the device and have been characterized in the 0.25 - 3.1 THz range with the responsivities (normalized to 1 W radiant power) of 5 V/W and 200 μV/W measured at 0.35 THz and 3.11 THz, respectively. The InP DHBTs also performed as the imaging single-pixels at room temperature in the raster scanned transmission mode. A set of the sub-terahertz images of plant leaves suggest potential utility of InP DHBT detectors for terahertz imaging dedicated to non-invasive testing of plants.
Colorized linear CCD data acquisition system with automatic exposure control
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Xiaofan; Sui, Xiubao
2014-11-01
Colorized linear cameras deliver superb color fidelity at the fastest line rates in the industrial inspection. It's RGB trilinear sensor eliminates image artifacts by placing a separate row of pixels for each color on a single sensor. It's advanced design minimizes distance between rows to minimize image artifacts due to synchronization. In this paper, the high-speed colorized linear CCD data acquisition system was designed take advantages of the linear CCD sensor μpd3728. The hardware and software design of the system based on FPGA is introduced and the design of the functional modules is performed. The all system is composed of CCD driver module, data buffering module, data processing module and computer interface module. The image data was transferred to computer by Camera link interface. The system which automatically adjusts the exposure time of linear CCD, is realized with a new method. The integral time of CCD can be controlled by the program. The method can automatically adjust the integration time for different illumination intensity under controlling of FPGA, and respond quickly to brightness changes. The data acquisition system is also offering programmable gains and offsets for each color. The quality of image can be improved after calibration in FPGA. The design has high expansibility and application value. It can be used in many application situations.
Linear monogamy of entanglement in three-qubit systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Feng; Gao, Fei; Wen, Qiao-Yan
2015-11-01
For any three-qubit quantum systems ABC, Oliveira et al. numerically found that both the concurrence and the entanglement of formation (EoF) obey the linear monogamy relations in pure states. They also conjectured that the linear monogamy relations can be saturated when the focus qubit A is maximally entangled with the joint qubits BC. In this work, we prove analytically that both the concurrence and EoF obey linear monogamy relations in an arbitrary three-qubit state. Furthermore, we verify that all three-qubit pure states are maximally entangled in the bipartition A|BC when they saturate the linear monogamy relations. We also study the distribution of the concurrence and EoF. More specifically, when the amount of entanglement between A and B equals to that of A and C, we show that the sum of EoF itself saturates the linear monogamy relation, while the sum of the squared EoF is minimum. Different from EoF, the concurrence and the squared concurrence both saturate the linear monogamy relations when the entanglement between A and B equals to that of A and C.
Linear monogamy of entanglement in three-qubit systems
Liu, Feng; Gao, Fei; Wen, Qiao-Yan
2015-01-01
For any three-qubit quantum systems ABC, Oliveira et al. numerically found that both the concurrence and the entanglement of formation (EoF) obey the linear monogamy relations in pure states. They also conjectured that the linear monogamy relations can be saturated when the focus qubit A is maximally entangled with the joint qubits BC. In this work, we prove analytically that both the concurrence and EoF obey linear monogamy relations in an arbitrary three-qubit state. Furthermore, we verify that all three-qubit pure states are maximally entangled in the bipartition A|BC when they saturate the linear monogamy relations. We also study the distribution of the concurrence and EoF. More specifically, when the amount of entanglement between A and B equals to that of A and C, we show that the sum of EoF itself saturates the linear monogamy relation, while the sum of the squared EoF is minimum. Different from EoF, the concurrence and the squared concurrence both saturate the linear monogamy relations when the entanglement between A and B equals to that of A and C. PMID:26568265
Linear monogamy of entanglement in three-qubit systems.
Liu, Feng; Gao, Fei; Wen, Qiao-Yan
2015-01-01
For any three-qubit quantum systems ABC, Oliveira et al. numerically found that both the concurrence and the entanglement of formation (EoF) obey the linear monogamy relations in pure states. They also conjectured that the linear monogamy relations can be saturated when the focus qubit A is maximally entangled with the joint qubits BC. In this work, we prove analytically that both the concurrence and EoF obey linear monogamy relations in an arbitrary three-qubit state. Furthermore, we verify that all three-qubit pure states are maximally entangled in the bipartition A|BC when they saturate the linear monogamy relations. We also study the distribution of the concurrence and EoF. More specifically, when the amount of entanglement between A and B equals to that of A and C, we show that the sum of EoF itself saturates the linear monogamy relation, while the sum of the squared EoF is minimum. Different from EoF, the concurrence and the squared concurrence both saturate the linear monogamy relations when the entanglement between A and B equals to that of A and C. PMID:26568265
Stabilising compensators for linear time-varying differential systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Oberst, Ulrich
2016-04-01
In this paper, we describe a constructive test to decide whether a given linear time-varying (LTV) differential system admits a stabilising compensator for the control tasks of tracking, disturbance rejection or model matching and construct and parametrise all of them if at least one exists. In analogy to the linear time-invariant (LTI) case, the ring of stable rational functions, noncommutative in the LTV situation, and the Kučera-Youla parametrisation play prominent parts in the theory. We transfer Blumthaler's thesis from the LTI to the LTV case and sharpen, complete and simplify the corresponding results in the book 'Linear Time-Varying Systems' by Bourlès and Marinescu.
Scalable Library for the Parallel Solution of Sparse Linear Systems
Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)
1993-07-14
BlockSolve is a scalable parallel software library for the solution of large sparse, symmetric systems of linear equations. It runs on a variety of parallel architectures and can easily be ported to others. BlockSovle is primarily intended for the solution of sparse linear systems that arise from physical problems having multiple degrees of freedom at each node point. For example, when the finite element method is used to solve practical problems in structural engineering, eachmore » node will typically have anywhere from 3-6 degrees of freedom associated with it. BlockSolve is written to take advantage of problems of this nature; however, it is still reasonably efficient for problems that have only one degree of freedom associated with each node, such as the three-dimensional Poisson problem. It does not require that the matrices have any particular structure other than being sparse and symmetric. BlockSolve is intended to be used within real application codes. It is designed to work best in the context of our experience which indicated that most application codes solve the same linear systems with several different right-hand sides and/or linear systems with the same structure, but different matrix values multiple times.« less
Next-Generation Linear Collider Final Focus System Stability Tolerances
Roy, G.; Irwin, J.; /SLAC
2007-04-25
The design of final focus systems for the next generation of linear colliders has evolved largely from the experience gained with the design and operation of the Stanford Linear Collider (SLC) and with the design of the Final Focus Test Beam (FFTB). We will compare the tolerances for two typical designs for a next-generation linear collider final focus system. The chromaticity generated by strong focusing systems, like the final quadrupole doublet before the interaction point of a linear collider, can be canceled by the introduction of sextupoles in a dispersive region. These sextupoles must be inserted in pairs separated by a -I transformation (Chromatic Correction Section) in order to cancel the strong geometric aberrations generated by sextupoles. Designs proposed for both the JLC or NLC final focus systems have two separate chromatic correction sections, one for each transverse plane separated by a ''{beta}-exchanger'' to manipulate the {beta}-function between the two CCS. The introduction of sextupoles and bending magnets gives rise to higher order aberrations (long sextupole and chrome-geometries) and radiation induced aberrations (chromaticity unbalance and ''Oide effect'') and one must optimize the lattice accordingly.
Solving Systems of Linear Equations by Ratio and Proportion
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Katsaras, Vasilios J.
1978-01-01
The author describes and gives two illustrations of a method for solving a system of two linear equations. The ratio of left members is equated to the ratio of right members, the ratio of the two variables is solved for, and the resultant ratio is substituted into an original equation. (MN)
Generating Nice Linear Systems for Matrix Gaussian Elimination
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Homewood, L. James
2004-01-01
In this article an augmented matrix that represents a system of linear equations is called nice if a sequence of elementary row operations that reduces the matrix to row-echelon form, through matrix Gaussian elimination, does so by restricting all entries to integers in every step. Many instructors wish to use the example of matrix Gaussian…
Optimal Regulator Algorithms For The Control Of Linear Systems (ORACLS)
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Frisch, Harold P.
1990-01-01
Control theory design package offers engineer full range of subroutines to manipulate and solve Linear-Quadratic-Gaussian types of problems. ORACLS is rigorous tool, intended for multi-input and multi-output dynamic systems in both continuous and discrete form. Written in FORTRAN.
Stochastic Satbility and Performance Robustness of Linear Multivariable Systems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ryan, Laurie E.; Stengel, Robert F.
1990-01-01
Stochastic robustness, a simple technique used to estimate the robustness of linear, time invariant systems, is applied to a single-link robot arm control system. Concepts behind stochastic stability robustness are extended to systems with estimators and to stochastic performance robustness. Stochastic performance robustness measures based on classical design specifications are introduced, and the relationship between stochastic robustness measures and control system design parameters are discussed. The application of stochastic performance robustness, and the relationship between performance objectives and design parameters are demonstrated by means of example. The results prove stochastic robustness to be a good overall robustness analysis method that can relate robustness characteristics to control system design parameters.
Recent Developments In Theory Of Balanced Linear Systems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gawronski, Wodek
1994-01-01
Report presents theoretical study of some issues of controllability and observability of system represented by linear, time-invariant mathematical model of the form. x = Ax + Bu, y = Cx + Du, x(0) = xo where x is n-dimensional vector representing state of system; u is p-dimensional vector representing control input to system; y is q-dimensional vector representing output of system; n,p, and q are integers; x(0) is intial (zero-time) state vector; and set of matrices (A,B,C,D) said to constitute state-space representation of system.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sidar, M.
1976-01-01
The problem of identifying constant and variable parameters in multi-input, multi-output, linear and nonlinear systems is considered, using the maximum likelihood approach. An iterative algorithm, leading to recursive identification and tracking of the unknown parameters and the noise covariance matrix, is developed. Agile tracking and accurate and unbiased identified parameters are obtained. Necessary conditions for a globally asymptotically stable identification process are provided; the conditions proved to be useful and efficient. Among different cases studied, the stability derivatives of an aircraft were identified and some of the results are shown as examples.
Parallel/distributed direct method for solving linear systems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lin, Avi
1990-01-01
A new family of parallel schemes for directly solving linear systems is presented and analyzed. It is shown that these schemes exhibit a near optimal performance and enjoy several important features: (1) For large enough linear systems, the design of the appropriate paralleled algorithm is insensitive to the number of processors as its performance grows monotonically with them; (2) It is especially good for large matrices, with dimensions large relative to the number of processors in the system; (3) It can be used in both distributed parallel computing environments and tightly coupled parallel computing systems; and (4) This set of algorithms can be mapped onto any parallel architecture without any major programming difficulties or algorithmical changes.
Arithmetic coding as a non-linear dynamical system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nagaraj, Nithin; Vaidya, Prabhakar G.; Bhat, Kishor G.
2009-04-01
In order to perform source coding (data compression), we treat messages emitted by independent and identically distributed sources as imprecise measurements (symbolic sequence) of a chaotic, ergodic, Lebesgue measure preserving, non-linear dynamical system known as Generalized Luröth Series (GLS). GLS achieves Shannon's entropy bound and turns out to be a generalization of arithmetic coding, a popular source coding algorithm, used in international compression standards such as JPEG2000 and H.264. We further generalize GLS to piecewise non-linear maps (Skewed-nGLS). We motivate the use of Skewed-nGLS as a framework for joint source coding and encryption.
New timing system for the Stanford Linear Collider
Paffrath, L.; Bernstein, D.; Kang, H.; Koontz, R.; Leger, G.; Ross, M.; Pierce, W.; Wilmunder, A.
1984-11-01
In order to be able to meet the goals of the Stanford Linear Collider, a much more precise timing system had to be implemented. This paper describes the specification and design of this system, and the results obtained from its use on 1/3 of the SLAC linac. The functions of various elements are described, and a programmable delay unit (PDU) is described in detail.
Design and performance of the Stanford Linear Collider Control System
Melen, R.E.
1984-10-01
The success of the Stanford Linear Collider (SLC) will be dependent upon the implementation of a very large advanced computer-based instrumentation and control system. This paper describes the architectural design of this system as well as a critique of its performance. This critique is based on experience obtained from its use in the control and monitoring of 1/3 of the SLAC linac and in support of an expensive experimental machine physics experimental program. 11 references, 3 figures.
Optimum Damping in a Non-Linear Base Isolation System
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jangid, R. S.
1996-02-01
Optimum isolation damping for minimum acceleration of a base-isolated structure subjected to earthquake ground excitation is investigated. The stochastic model of the El-Centro1940 earthquake, which preserves the non-stationary evolution of amplitude and frequency content of ground motion, is used as an earthquake excitation. The base isolated structure consists of a linear flexible shear type multi-storey building supported on a base isolation system. The resilient-friction base isolator (R-FBI) is considered as an isolation system. The non-stationary stochastic response of the system is obtained by the time dependent equivalent linearization technique as the force-deformation of the R-FBI system is non-linear. The optimum damping of the R-FBI system is obtained under important parametric variations; i.e., the coefficient of friction of the R-FBI system, the period and damping of the superstructure; the effective period of base isolation. The criterion selected for optimality is the minimization of the top floor root mean square (r.m.s.) acceleration. It is shown that the above parameters have significant effects on optimum isolation damping.
String Stability of a Linear Formation Flight Control System
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Allen, Michael J.; Ryan, Jack; Hanson, Curtis E.; Parle, James F.
2002-01-01
String stability analysis of an autonomous formation flight system was performed using linear and nonlinear simulations. String stability is a measure of how position errors propagate from one vehicle to another in a cascaded system. In the formation flight system considered here, each i(sup th) aircraft uses information from itself and the preceding ((i-1)(sup th)) aircraft to track a commanded relative position. A possible solution for meeting performance requirements with such a system is to allow string instability. This paper explores two results of string instability and outlines analysis techniques for string unstable systems. The three analysis techniques presented here are: linear, nonlinear formation performance, and ride quality. The linear technique was developed from a worst-case scenario and could be applied to the design of a string unstable controller. The nonlinear formation performance and ride quality analysis techniques both use nonlinear formation simulation. Three of the four formation-controller gain-sets analyzed in this paper were limited more by ride quality than by performance. Formations of up to seven aircraft in a cascaded formation could be used in the presence of light gusts with this string unstable system.
An approximation theory for the identification of linear thermoelastic systems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rosen, I. G.; Su, Chien-Hua Frank
1990-01-01
An abstract approximation framework and convergence theory for the identification of thermoelastic systems is developed. Starting from an abstract operator formulation consisting of a coupled second order hyperbolic equation of elasticity and first order parabolic equation for heat conduction, well-posedness is established using linear semigroup theory in Hilbert space, and a class of parameter estimation problems is then defined involving mild solutions. The approximation framework is based upon generic Galerkin approximation of the mild solutions, and convergence of solutions of the resulting sequence of approximating finite dimensional parameter identification problems to a solution of the original infinite dimensional inverse problem is established using approximation results for operator semigroups. An example involving the basic equations of one dimensional linear thermoelasticity and a linear spline based scheme are discussed. Numerical results indicate how the approach might be used in a study of damping mechanisms in flexible structures.
Identification and robust control of linear parameter-varying systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, Lawton Hubert
This dissertation deals with linear parameter-varying (LPV) systems: linear dynamic systems that depend on time-varying parameters. These systems appear in gain scheduling problems, and much recent research has been devoted to their prospective usefulness for systematic gain scheduling. We primarily focus on robust control of uncertain LPV systems and identification of LPV systems that are modelable as linear-fractional transformations (LFTs). Using parameter-dependent quadratic Lyapunov functions, linear matrix inequalities (LMIs), and scaled small-gain arguments, we define notions of stability and induced-{cal L}sb2 performance for uncertain LPV systems whose parameters and rates of parameter variation satisfy given bounds. The performance criterion involves integral quadratic constraints and implies naturally parameter-dependent induced-{cal L}sb2 norm bounds. We formulate and solve an {cal H}sb{infty}-like control problem for an LPV plant with measurable parameters and an "Output/State Feedback" structure: the feedback outputs include some noiselessly measured states. Necessary and sufficient solvability conditions reduce to LMIs that can be solved approximately using finite-dimensional convex programming. Reduced-order LPV controllers are constructed from the LMI solutions. A D-K iteration-like procedure provides robustness to structured, time-varying, parametric uncertainty. The design method is applied to a motivating example: flight control for the F-16 VISTA throughout its subsonic flight envelope. Parameter-dependent weights and {cal H}sb{infty} design principles describe the performance objectives. Closed-loop responses exhibited by nonlinear simulations indicate satisfactory flying qualities. Identification of linear-fractional LPV systems is treated using maximum-likelihood parameter estimation. Computing the gradient and Hessian of a maximum-likelihood cost function reduces to simulating one LPV filter per identified parameter. We use nonlinear
Applications of equivalent linearization approaches to nonlinear piping systems
Park, Y.; Hofmayer, C.; Chokshi, N.
1997-04-01
The piping systems in nuclear power plants, even with conventional snubber supports, are highly complex nonlinear structures under severe earthquake loadings mainly due to various mechanical gaps in support structures. Some type of nonlinear analysis is necessary to accurately predict the piping responses under earthquake loadings. The application of equivalent linearization approaches (ELA) to seismic analyses of nonlinear piping systems is presented. Two types of ELA`s are studied; i.e., one based on the response spectrum method and the other based on the linear random vibration theory. The test results of main steam and feedwater piping systems supported by snubbers and energy absorbers are used to evaluate the numerical accuracy and limitations.
Parallel, iterative solution of sparse linear systems: Models and architectures
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Reed, D. A.; Patrick, M. L.
1984-01-01
A model of a general class of asynchronous, iterative solution methods for linear systems is developed. In the model, the system is solved by creating several cooperating tasks that each compute a portion of the solution vector. A data transfer model predicting both the probability that data must be transferred between two tasks and the amount of data to be transferred is presented. This model is used to derive an execution time model for predicting parallel execution time and an optimal number of tasks given the dimension and sparsity of the coefficient matrix and the costs of computation, synchronization, and communication. The suitability of different parallel architectures for solving randomly sparse linear systems is discussed. Based on the complexity of task scheduling, one parallel architecture, based on a broadcast bus, is presented and analyzed.
Galerkin projection methods for solving multiple related linear systems
Chan, T.F.; Ng, M.; Wan, W.L.
1996-12-31
We consider using Galerkin projection methods for solving multiple related linear systems A{sup (i)}x{sup (i)} = b{sup (i)} for 1 {le} i {le} s, where A{sup (i)} and b{sup (i)} are different in general. We start with the special case where A{sup (i)} = A and A is symmetric positive definite. The method generates a Krylov subspace from a set of direction vectors obtained by solving one of the systems, called the seed system, by the CG method and then projects the residuals of other systems orthogonally onto the generated Krylov subspace to get the approximate solutions. The whole process is repeated with another unsolved system as a seed until all the systems are solved. We observe in practice a super-convergence behaviour of the CG process of the seed system when compared with the usual CG process. We also observe that only a small number of restarts is required to solve all the systems if the right-hand sides are close to each other. These two features together make the method particularly effective. In this talk, we give theoretical proof to justify these observations. Furthermore, we combine the advantages of this method and the block CG method and propose a block extension of this single seed method. The above procedure can actually be modified for solving multiple linear systems A{sup (i)}x{sup (i)} = b{sup (i)}, where A{sup (i)} are now different. We can also extend the previous analytical results to this more general case. Applications of this method to multiple related linear systems arising from image restoration and recursive least squares computations are considered as examples.
Compressive spectral imaging systems based on linear detector
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Yanli; Zhong, Xiaoming; Zhao, Haibo; Li, Huan
2015-08-01
The spectrometers capture large amount of raw and 3-dimensional (3D) spatial-spectral scene information with 2- dimensional (2D) focal plane arrays(FPA). In many applications, including imaging system and video cameras, the Nyquist rate is so high that too many samples result, making compression a precondition to storage or transmission. Compressive sensing theory employs non-adaptive linear projections that preserve the structure of the signal, the signal is then reconstructed from these projections using an optimization process. This article overview the fundamental spectral imagers based on compressive sensing, the coded aperture snapshot spectral imagers (CASSI) and high-resolution imagers via moving random exposure. Besides that, the article propose a new method to implement spectral imagers with linear detector imager systems based on spectrum compressed. The article describes the system introduction and code process, and it illustrates results with real data and imagery. Simulations are shown to illustrate the performance improvement attained by the new model and complexity of the imaging system greatly reduced by using linear detector.
Steady-state decoupling and design of linear multivariable systems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Thaler, G. J.
1974-01-01
A constructive criterion for decoupling the steady states of a linear time-invariant multivariable system is presented. This criterion consists of a set of inequalities which, when satisfied, will cause the steady states of a system to be decoupled. Stability analysis and a new design technique for such systems are given. A new and simple connection between single-loop and multivariable cases is found. These results are then applied to the compensation design for NASA STOL C-8A aircraft. Both steady-state decoupling and stability are justified through computer simulations.
A beam waveguide linearly polarized KU band feed system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Flannery, J. B.
The linearly polarized KU band beam waveguide feed system considered was designed for use with large Cassegrain antennas typical of those associated with satellite comunications earth stations. The beam waveguide technique permits fixed ground installations of the transmitters and low noise receivers and eliminates the large equipment room usually mounted behind the reflector vertex. The feed system consists of a tapered corrugated wall horn, a matching network, a TE21 mode coupler, three differential phase shifters, a choke coupled rotatable, orthogonal mode transducer, and a servo amplifier system. Attention is given to TE21 mode coupler operation, TE21 mode coupling and directivity, a horn description, a beam wave description, and polarization control.
Dissipative control for linear systems by static output feedback
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Feng, Zhiguang; Lam, James; Shu, Zhan
2013-08-01
In this article, the problem of static output-feedback dissipative control is investigated for linear continuous-time system based on an augmented system approach. A necessary and sufficient condition for stability and strict (Q,S,R)-dissipativity of the closed-loop system is established in terms of a matrix inequality with free parametrisation matrix. An equivalent characterisation with some slack matrices for numerical solvability is then proposed. Based on this, a necessary and sufficient condition for the existence of a desired controller is given, and a corresponding iterative algorithm is developed to solve the condition. The effectiveness of results developed in this article is demonstrated by some numerical examples.
Coherent versus Measurement Feedback: Linear Systems Theory for Quantum Information
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yamamoto, Naoki
2014-10-01
To control a quantum system via feedback, we generally have two options in choosing a control scheme. One is the coherent feedback, which feeds the output field of the system, through a fully quantum device, back to manipulate the system without involving any measurement process. The other one is measurement-based feedback, which measures the output field and performs a real-time manipulation on the system based on the measurement results. Both schemes have advantages and disadvantages, depending on the system and the control goal; hence, their comparison in several situations is important. This paper considers a general open linear quantum system with the following specific control goals: backaction evasion, generation of a quantum nondemolished variable, and generation of a decoherence-free subsystem, all of which have important roles in quantum information science. Some no-go theorems are proven, clarifying that those goals cannot be achieved by any measurement-based feedback control. On the other hand, it is shown that, for each control goal there exists a coherent feedback controller accomplishing the task. The key idea to obtain all the results is system theoretic characterizations of the above three notions in terms of controllability and observability properties or transfer functions of linear systems, which are consistent with their standard definitions.
Rhodes, Mark A.
2008-10-21
A bipolar pulse forming transmission line module for linear induction accelerators having first, second, third, fourth, and fifth planar conductors which form an interleaved stack with dielectric layers between the conductors. Each conductor has a first end, and a second end adjacent an acceleration axis. The first and second planar conductors are connected to each other at the second ends, the fourth and fifth planar conductors are connected to each other at the second ends, and the first and fifth planar conductors are connected to each other at the first ends via a shorting plate adjacent the first ends. The third planar conductor is electrically connectable to a high voltage source, and an internal switch functions to short a high voltage from the first end of the third planar conductor to the first end of the fourth planar conductor to produce a bipolar pulse at the acceleration axis with a zero net time integral. Improved access to the switch is enabled by an aperture through the shorting plate and the proximity of the aperture to the switch.
New results on switched linear systems with actuator saturation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Duan, Chang; Wu, Fen
2016-04-01
This paper further studies the analysis and control problems of continuous-time switched linear systems subject to actuator saturation. Using the norm-bounded differential inclusion description of the saturated systems and the minimal switching rule, a set of switched output feedback controllers is designed to minimise the disturbance attenuation level defined by the regional ? gain over a class of energy-bounded disturbances. The synthesis conditions are expressed as bilinear matrix inequalities, and can be solved by numerical search coupled with linear matrix inequality optimisation. Compared to the previous method based on polytopic differential inclusion, the proposed approach has good scalability and potentially renders better performance. Numerical examples are provided to verify the effectiveness of the proposed approach.
An empirical investigation of methods for nonsymmetric linear systems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sherman, A. H.
1981-01-01
The present investigation is concerned with a comparison of methods for solving linear algebraic systems which arise from finite difference discretizations of the elliptic convection-diffusion equation in a planar region Omega with Dirichlet boundary conditions. Such linear systems are typically of the form Ax = b where A is an N x N sparse nonsymmetric matrix. In a discussion of discretizations, it is assumed that a regular rectilinear mesh of width h has been imposed on Omega. The discretizations considered include central differences, upstream differences, and modified upstream differences. Six methods for solving Ax = b are considered. Three variants of Gaussian elimination have been chosen as representatives of state-of-the-art software for direct methods under different assumptions about pivoting. Three iterative methods are also included.
Output feedback for linear multivariable systems with parameter uncertainty.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Basuthakur, S.; Knapp, C. H.
1973-01-01
A minimax design method is applied to the problem of obtaining an acceptable output feedback matrix for linear multivariable systems with parameter uncertainty. The result is a set of nonlinear matrix equations (similar to those obtained by Levine and Athans (1970)), which must be solved for the feedback matrix. An example illustrates the technique and the fact that better results are achieved for large parameter variation than with a purely nominal design.
AZTEC: A parallel iterative package for the solving linear systems
Hutchinson, S.A.; Shadid, J.N.; Tuminaro, R.S.
1996-12-31
We describe a parallel linear system package, AZTEC. The package incorporates a number of parallel iterative methods (e.g. GMRES, biCGSTAB, CGS, TFQMR) and preconditioners (e.g. Jacobi, Gauss-Seidel, polynomial, domain decomposition with LU or ILU within subdomains). Additionally, AZTEC allows for the reuse of previous preconditioning factorizations within Newton schemes for nonlinear methods. Currently, a number of different users are using this package to solve a variety of PDE applications.
A new multisplitting asynchronous iterative method for linear system
Da-Wei Chang
1995-12-01
The parallel multisplitting iterative method for solving large nonsingular N x N linear system Ax = b was first presented by O`Leary and White, and it has been further investigated by Neumman and Plemmous, Chang. For improvement and generalization model B by Bru et al, our idea is, if there are more than one processors output y`s concurrently, proc(0) input all these information concurrently and use them to update the old approximation.
A multi-level method for sparse linear systems
Shapira, Y.
1997-09-01
A multi-level method for the solution of sparse linear systems is introduced. The definition of the method is based on data from the coefficient matrix alone. An upper bound for the condition number is available for certain symmetric positive definite (SPD) problems. Numerical experiments confirm the analysis and illustrate the efficiency of the method for diffusion problems with discontinuous coefficients with discontinuities which are not aligned with the coarse meshes.
Bipolar offspring: a window into bipolar disorder evolution.
Chang, Kiki; Steiner, Hans; Dienes, Kimberly; Adleman, Nancy; Ketter, Terence
2003-06-01
Children of parents with bipolar disorder (bipolar offspring) represent a rich cohort for study with potential for illumination of prodromal forms of bipolar disorder. Due to their high-risk nature, bipolar offspring may present phenomenological, temperamental, and biological clues to early presentations of bipolar disorder. This article reviews the evidence for establishing bipolar offspring as a high-risk cohort, the studies which point to possible prodromal states in bipolar offspring, biological findings in bipolar offspring which may be indicators of even higher risk for bipolar disorder, initial attempts at early intervention in prodromal pediatric bipolar disorder, and implications for future research. PMID:12788239
... a Psychiatrist Patients & Families All Topics Help With Bipolar Disorders Curated and updated for the community by APA Topic Information Bipolar disorders are brain disorders that cause changes in a ...
Method of Conjugate Radii for Solving Linear and Nonlinear Systems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nachtsheim, Philip R.
1999-01-01
This paper describes a method to solve a system of N linear equations in N steps. A quadratic form is developed involving the sum of the squares of the residuals of the equations. Equating the quadratic form to a constant yields a surface which is an ellipsoid. For different constants, a family of similar ellipsoids can be generated. Starting at an arbitrary point an orthogonal basis is constructed and the center of the family of similar ellipsoids is found in this basis by a sequence of projections. The coordinates of the center in this basis are the solution of linear system of equations. A quadratic form in N variables requires N projections. That is, the current method is an exact method. It is shown that the sequence of projections is equivalent to a special case of the Gram-Schmidt orthogonalization process. The current method enjoys an advantage not shared by the classic Method of Conjugate Gradients. The current method can be extended to nonlinear systems without modification. For nonlinear equations the Method of Conjugate Gradients has to be augmented with a line-search procedure. Results for linear and nonlinear problems are presented.
Jiang, J; Ma, G M; Luo, D P; Li, C R; Li, Q M; Wang, W
2014-02-01
Damped AC voltages detection system (DAC) is a productive way to detect the faults in power cables. To solve the problems of large volume, complicated structure and electromagnetic interference in existing switches, this paper developed a compact solid state switch based on electromagnetic trigger, which is suitable for DAC test system. Synchronous electromagnetic trigger of 32 Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistors (IGBTs) in series was realized by the topological structure of single line based on pulse width modulation control technology. In this way, external extension was easily achieved. Electromagnetic trigger and resistor-capacitor-diode snubber circuit were optimized to reduce the switch turn-on time and circular layout. Epoxy encapsulating was chosen to enhance the level of partial discharge initial voltage (PDIV). The combination of synchronous trigger and power supply is proposed to reduce the switch volume. Moreover, we have overcome the drawback of the electromagnetic interference and improved the detection sensitivity of DAC by using capacitor storage energy to maintain IGBT gate driving voltage. The experimental results demonstrated that the solid-state switch, with compact size, whose turn-on time was less than 400 ns and PDIV was more than 65 kV, was able to meet the actual demands of 35 kV DAC test system. PMID:24593382
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jiang, J.; Ma, G. M.; Luo, D. P.; Li, C. R.; Li, Q. M.; Wang, W.
2014-02-01
Damped AC voltages detection system (DAC) is a productive way to detect the faults in power cables. To solve the problems of large volume, complicated structure and electromagnetic interference in existing switches, this paper developed a compact solid state switch based on electromagnetic trigger, which is suitable for DAC test system. Synchronous electromagnetic trigger of 32 Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistors (IGBTs) in series was realized by the topological structure of single line based on pulse width modulation control technology. In this way, external extension was easily achieved. Electromagnetic trigger and resistor-capacitor-diode snubber circuit were optimized to reduce the switch turn-on time and circular layout. Epoxy encapsulating was chosen to enhance the level of partial discharge initial voltage (PDIV). The combination of synchronous trigger and power supply is proposed to reduce the switch volume. Moreover, we have overcome the drawback of the electromagnetic interference and improved the detection sensitivity of DAC by using capacitor storage energy to maintain IGBT gate driving voltage. The experimental results demonstrated that the solid-state switch, with compact size, whose turn-on time was less than 400 ns and PDIV was more than 65 kV, was able to meet the actual demands of 35 kV DAC test system.
A survey of packages for large linear systems
Wu, Kesheng; Milne, Brent
2000-02-11
This paper evaluates portable software packages for the iterative solution of very large sparse linear systems on parallel architectures. While we cannot hope to tell individual users which package will best suit their needs, we do hope that our systematic evaluation provides essential unbiased information about the packages and the evaluation process may serve as an example on how to evaluate these packages. The information contained here include feature comparisons, usability evaluations and performance characterizations. This review is primarily focused on self-contained packages that can be easily integrated into an existing program and are capable of computing solutions to very large sparse linear systems of equations. More specifically, it concentrates on portable parallel linear system solution packages that provide iterative solution schemes and related preconditioning schemes because iterative methods are more frequently used than competing schemes such as direct methods. The eight packages evaluated are: Aztec, BlockSolve,ISIS++, LINSOL, P-SPARSLIB, PARASOL, PETSc, and PINEAPL. Among the eight portable parallel iterative linear system solvers reviewed, we recommend PETSc and Aztec for most application programmers because they have well designed user interface, extensive documentation and very responsive user support. Both PETSc and Aztec are written in the C language and are callable from Fortran. For those users interested in using Fortran 90, PARASOL is a good alternative. ISIS++is a good alternative for those who prefer the C++ language. Both PARASOL and ISIS++ are relatively new and are continuously evolving. Thus their user interface may change. In general, those packages written in Fortran 77 are more cumbersome to use because the user may need to directly deal with a number of arrays of varying sizes. Languages like C++ and Fortran 90 offer more convenient data encapsulation mechanisms which make it easier to implement a clean and intuitive user
Coupling analysis of linear vibration energy harvesting systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Xu; Liang, Xingyu; Shu, Gequn; Watkins, Simon
2016-03-01
This paper has disclosed the relationship of vibration energy harvester performance with dimensionless force factor. Numerical ranges of the dimensionless force factor have been defined for cases of weak, moderate and strong coupling. The relationships of coupling loss factor, dimensionless force factor, critical coupling strength, coupling quotient, electro-mechanical coupling factor, damping loss factor and modal densities have been established in linear vibration energy harvester systems. The new contribution of this paper is to determine a frequency range where the vibration energy harvesting systems are in a weak coupling and the statistical energy analysis is applicable.
Tracking studies of the Compact Linear Collider collimation system
Agapov, I.; Burkhardt, H.; Schulte, D.; Latina, A.; Blair, G.A.; Malton, S.; Resta-Lopez, J.; /Oxford U., JAI
2009-08-01
A collimation system performance study includes several types of computations performed by different codes. Optics calculations are performed with codes such as MADX, tracking studies including additional effects such as wakefields, halo and tail generation, and dynamical machine alignment are done with codes such as PLACET, and energy deposition can be studied with BDSIM. More detailed studies of hadron production in the beam halo interaction with collimators are better performed with GEANT4 and FLUKA. A procedure has been developed that allows one to perform a single tracking study using several codes simultaneously. In this paper we study the performance of the Compact Linear Collider collimation system using such a procedure.
Adaptive stochastic control for a class of linear systems.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tse, E.; Athans, M.
1972-01-01
The problem considered in this paper deals with the control of linear discrete-time stochastic systems with unknown (possibly time-varying and random) gain parameters. The philosophy of control is based on the use of an open-loop feedback optimal (OLFO) control using a quadratic index of performance. It is shown that the OLFO system consists of (1) an identifier that estimates the system state variables and gain parameters and (2) a controller described by an 'adaptive' gain and correction term. Several qualitative properties and asymptotic properties of the OLFO adaptive system are discussed. Simulation results dealing with the control of stable and unstable third-order plants are presented. The key quantitative result is the precise variation of the control system adaptive gains as a function of the future expected uncertainty of the parameters; thus, in this problem the ordinary 'separation theorem' does not hold.
Targeting astrocytes in bipolar disorder.
Peng, Liang; Li, Baoman; Verkhratsky, Alexei
2016-06-01
Astrocytes are homeostatic cells of the central nervous system, which are critical for development and maintenance of synaptic transmission and hence of synaptically connected neuronal ensembles. Astrocytic densities are reduced in bipolar disorder, and therefore deficient astroglial function may contribute to overall disbalance in neurotransmission and to pathological evolution. Classical anti-bipolar drugs (lithium salts, valproic acid and carbamazepine) affect expression of astroglial genes and modify astroglial signalling and homeostatic cascades. Many effects of both antidepressant and anti-bipolar drugs are exerted through regulation of glutamate homeostasis and glutamatergic transmission, through K(+) buffering, through regulation of calcium-dependent phospholipase A2 (that controls metabolism of arachidonic acid) or through Ca(2+) homeostatic and signalling pathways. Sometimes anti-depressant and anti-bipolar drugs exert opposite effects, and some effects on gene expression in drug treated animals are opposite in neurones vs. astrocytes. Changes in the intracellular pH induced by anti-bipolar drugs affect uptake of myo-inositol and thereby signalling via inositoltrisphosphate (InsP3), this being in accord with one of the main theories of mechanism of action for these drugs. PMID:27015045
Detecting and isolating abrupt changes in linear switching systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nazari, Sohail; Zhao, Qing; Huang, Biao
2015-04-01
In this paper, a novel fault detection and isolation (FDI) method for switching linear systems is developed. All input and output signals are assumed to be corrupted with measurement noises. In the proposed method, a 'lifted' linear model named as stochastic hybrid decoupling polynomial (SHDP) is introduced. The SHDP model governs the dynamics of the switching linear system with all different modes, and is independent of the switching sequence. The error-in-variable (EIV) representation of SHDP is derived, and is used for the fault residual generation and isolation following the well-adopted local approach. The proposed FDI method can detect and isolate the fault-induced abrupt changes in switching models' parameters without estimating the switching modes. Furthermore, in this paper, the analytical expressions of the gradient vector and Hessian matrix are obtained based on the EIV SHDP formulation, so that they can be used to implement the online fault detection scheme. The performance of the proposed method is then illustrated by simulation examples.
Distributed Control of Uncertain Systems using Superpositions of Linear operators
Sanger, Terence D.
2011-01-01
Control in the natural environment is difficult in part because of uncertainty in the effect of actions. Uncertainty can be due to added motor or sensory noise, unmodeled dynamics, or quantization of sensory feedback. Biological systems are faced with further difficulties, since control must be performed by networks of cooperating neurons and neural subsystems. Here, we propose a new mathematical framework for modeling and simulation of distributed control systems operating in an uncertain environment. Stochastic Differential Operators can be derived from the stochastic differential equation describing a system, and they map the current state density into the differential of the state density. Unlike discrete-time Markov update operators, stochastic differential operators combine linearly for a large class of linear and nonlinear systems, and therefore the combined effects of multiple controllable and uncontrollable subsystems can be predicted. Design using these operators yields systems whose statistical behavior can be specified throughout state space. The relationship to Bayesian estimation and discrete-time Markov processes is described. PMID:21521040
Linear optical coherence tomography system with extended measurement range.
Koch, Peter; Hellemanns, Volker; Hüttmann, Gereon
2006-10-01
Optical coherence tomography (OCT) sensors traditionally use scanning optical delay lines with moving parts and a single detector. OCT systems with a linear detector array (linear OCT or L-OCT) are simple and robust, but a detector with approximately 10,000 pixels is needed for an imaging depth of 2mm, which is necessary for most biomedical applications. We present a new optical setup for L-OCT with an increased measurement range. An additional grating performs a reduction of the spatial frequencies of the fringe pattern on the detector without loss in the signal-to-noise ratio, so the signal can be sampled with a minimal number of pixels. The theory for this approach is addressed and the first measurements are presented. PMID:16969410
Linear stability of shock profiles for systems of conservation laws with semi-linear relaxation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Godillon, Pauline
2001-01-01
The Evans function theory, which has recently been applied to the study of linear stability of viscous shock profiles, is developed below for semi-linear relaxation. We study the linear stability of shock profiles in the Lax, undercompressive and overcompressive cases. The results we obtain are similar to those found for viscous approximations by Gardner and Zumbrun [Commun. Pure Appl. Math. 51 (7) (1998) 797].
Linear systems approach to simulation of optical diffraction.
Lambert, A J; Fraser, D
1998-12-01
The diffractive processes within an optical system can be simulated by computer to compute the diffraction-altered electric-field distribution at the output of the system from the electric-field distribution at the input. In the paraxial approximation the system can be described by an ABCD ray matrix whose elements in turn can be used to simplify the computation such that only a single computational step is required. We describe two rearrangements of such computations that allow the simulation to be expressed in a linear systems formulation, in particular using the fast-Fourier-transform algorithm. We investigate the sampling requirements for the kernel-modifying function or chirp that arises. We also use the special properties of the chirp to determine the spreading imposed by the diffraction. This knowledge can be used to reduce the computation if only a limited region of either the input or the output is of interest. PMID:18301681
Identification of linear systems by an asymptotically stable observer
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Phan, Minh Q.; Horta, Lucas G.; Juang, Jer-Nan; Longman, Richard W.
1992-01-01
A formulation is presented for the identification of a linear multivariable system from single or multiple sets of input-output data. The system input-output relationship is expressed in terms of an observer, which is made asymptotically stable by an embedded eigenvalue assignment procedure. The prescribed eigenvalues for the observer may be real, complex, mixed real and complex, or zero. In this formulation, the Markov parameters of the observer are identified from input-output data. The Markov parameters of the actual system are then recovered from those of the observer and used to obtain a state space model of the system by standard realization techniques. The basic mathematical formulation is derived, and extensive numerical examples using simulated noise-free data are presented to illustrate the proposed method.
Indirect Identification of Linear Stochastic Systems with Known Feedback Dynamics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Huang, Jen-Kuang; Hsiao, Min-Hung; Cox, David E.
1996-01-01
An algorithm is presented for identifying a state-space model of linear stochastic systems operating under known feedback controller. In this algorithm, only the reference input and output of closed-loop data are required. No feedback signal needs to be recorded. The overall closed-loop system dynamics is first identified. Then a recursive formulation is derived to compute the open-loop plant dynamics from the identified closed-loop system dynamics and known feedback controller dynamics. The controller can be a dynamic or constant-gain full-state feedback controller. Numerical simulations and test data of a highly unstable large-gap magnetic suspension system are presented to demonstrate the feasibility of this indirect identification method.
Linear nonequilibrium thermodynamics describes the dynamics of an autocatalytic system.
Cortassa, S; Aon, M A; Westerhoff, H V
1991-01-01
A model simulating oscillations in glycolysis was formulated in terms of nonequilibrium thermodynamics. In the kinetic rate equations every metabolite concentration was replaced with an exponential function of its chemical potential. This led to nonlinear relations between rates and chemical potentials. Each chemical potential was then expanded around its steady-state value as a Taylor series. The linear (first order) term of the Taylor series sufficed to simulate the dynamic behavior of the system, including the damped and even sustained oscillations at low substrate input or high free-energy load. The glycolytic system is autocatalytic in the first half. Because oscillations were obtained only in the presence of that autocatalytic feed-back loop we conclude that this type of kinetic nonlinearity was sufficient to account for the oscillatory behavior. The matrix of phenomenological coefficients of the system is nonsymmetric. Our results indicate that this is the symmetry property and not the linearity of the flow-force relations in the near equilibrium domain that precludes oscillations. Given autocatalytic properties, a system exhibiting liner flow-force relations and being outside the near equilibrium domain may show bifurcations, leading to self-organized behavior. Images FIGURE 5 PMID:1742453
Sajatovic, Martha; Davis, Michael S; Cassidy, Kristin A; Nestor, Joseph; Sams, Johnny; Fuentes-Casiano, Edna
2015-01-01
Objective As poor medication adherence is common in bipolar disorder (BD), technology-assisted approaches may help to monitor and enhance adherence. This study evaluated preliminary feasibility, patient satisfaction and effects on adherence, BD knowledge, and BD symptoms associated with the use of a multicomponent technology-assisted adherence enhancement system. Methods This prospective study tested the system in five BD patients over a 15-day period. System components included: 1) an automated pill cap with remote monitoring sensor; 2) a multimedia adherence enhancement program; and 3) a treatment incentive program. This study evaluated system usability, patient satisfaction and effects on adherence (Morisky scale), knowledge (treatment knowledge test [TKT]), and symptoms (internal state scale [ISS]). Results Mean age of the sample was 62 years, 4/5 (80%) Caucasian, and 4/5 (80%) single/divorced or widowed. Most participants (4/5, 80%) were on a single BD medication. Participants had BD for an average of 21 years. Challenges included attaching the pill sensor to standard pharmacy bottles for individuals using very large pill containers or those with multiday pill boxes. Three of five (60%) individuals completed the full 15-day period. Usability scores were high overall. Mean Morisky scores improved. Means on all four subscales of the ISS were all in the direction of improvement. On the TKT, there was a 40% increase in mean scores. Conclusion A multicomponent technology-assisted BD adherence enhancement system is feasible. Challenges include accommodating multiple types of pill containers and monitoring multiple drugs simultaneously. The system can also generate adherence information that is potentially useful for treatment planning. PMID:26089652
Nutrition and Bipolar Depression.
Beyer, John L; Payne, Martha E
2016-03-01
As with physical conditions, bipolar disorder is likely to be impacted by diet and nutrition. Patients with bipolar disorder have been noted to have relatively unhealthy diets, which may in part be the reason they also have an elevated risk of metabolic syndrome and obesity. An improvement in the quality of the diet should improve a bipolar patient's overall health risk profile, but it may also improve their psychiatric outcomes. New insights into biological dysfunctions that may be present in bipolar disorder have presented new theoretic frameworks for understanding the relationship between diet and bipolar disorder. PMID:26876319
Trost, Sarah; Diekhof, Esther K; Mohr, Holger; Vieker, Henning; Krämer, Bernd; Wolf, Claudia; Keil, Maria; Dechent, Peter; Binder, Elisabeth B; Gruber, Oliver
2016-10-01
Recent genome-wide association studies have identified MAD1L1 (mitotic arrest deficient-like 1) as a susceptibility gene for bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. The minor allele of the single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs11764590 in MAD1L1 was associated with bipolar disorder. Both diseases, bipolar disorder and schizophrenia, are linked to functional alterations in the reward system. We aimed at investigating possible effects of the MAD1L1 rs11764590 risk allele on reward systems functioning in healthy adults. A large homogenous sample of 224 young (aged 18-31 years) participants was genotyped and underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). All participants performed the 'Desire-Reason Dilemma' paradigm investigating the neural correlates that underlie reward processing and active reward dismissal in favor of a long-term goal. We found significant hypoactivations of the ventral tegmental area (VTA), the bilateral striatum and bilateral frontal and parietal cortices in response to conditioned reward stimuli in the risk allele carriers compared with major allele carriers. In the dilemma situation, functional connectivity between prefrontal brain regions and the ventral striatum was significantly diminished in the risk allele carriers. Healthy risk allele carriers showed a significant deficit of their bottom-up response to conditioned reward stimuli in the bilateral VTA and striatum. Furthermore, functional connectivity between the ventral striatum and prefrontal areas exerting top-down control on the mesolimbic reward system was reduced in this group. Similar alterations in reward processing and disturbances of prefrontal control mechanisms on mesolimbic brain circuits have also been reported in bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. Together, these findings suggest the existence of an intermediate phenotype associated with MAD1L1. PMID:27184339
Phase reconstruction from intensity measurements in linear systems.
Bastiaans, Martin J; Wolf, Kurt Bernardo
2003-06-01
The phase of a signal at a plane is reconstructed from the intensity profiles at two close parallel screens connected by a small abcd canonical transform; this applies to propagation along harmonic and repulsive fibers and in free media. We analyze the relationship between the local spatial frequency (the signal phase derivative) and the derivative of the squared modulus of the signal under a one-parameter canonical transform with respect to the parameter. We thus generalize to all linear systems the results that have been obtained separately for Fresnel and fractional Fourier transforms. PMID:12801172
A RECIPE FOR LINEAR COLLIDER FINAL FOCUS SYSTEM DESIGN
Seryi, Andrei
2003-05-27
The design of Final Focus systems for linear colliders is challenging because of the large demagnifications needed to produce nanometer-sized beams at the interaction point. Simple first- and second-order matrix matching have proven insufficient for this task, and minimization of third- and higher-order aberrations is essential. An appropriate strategy is required for the latter to be successful. A recipe for Final Focus design, and a set of computational tools used to implement this approach, are described herein. An example of the use of this procedure is given.
Steady state decoupling and design of linear multivariable systems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Huang, J. Y.; Thaler, G. J.
1974-01-01
A constructive criterion for decoupling the steady states of linear multivariable systems is developed. The criterion consists of n(n-1) inequalities with the type numbers of the compensator transfer functions as the unknowns. These unknowns can be chosen to satisfy the inequalities and hence achieve a steady state decoupling scheme. It turns out that pure integrators in the loops play an important role. An extended root locus design method is then developed to take care of the stability and transient response. The overall procedure is applied to the compensation design for STOL C-8A aircraft in the approach mode.
On an unusual application of ODEs to solve linear systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pavani, R.
2016-06-01
Here we present an unusual iterative method to solve a given (possibly ill-conditioned) linear system, which exploits the solution of an associated vectorial differential equation. The aim of this work is to provide insight into an unusual way of building an iterative method, which does not want to compete with already well established iterative methods, but just introduces a different point of view. The presented method is compared with other well known iterative methods and reported numerical results confirm the effectiveness of this approach.
Modelling human balance using switched systems with linear feedback control.
Kowalczyk, Piotr; Glendinning, Paul; Brown, Martin; Medrano-Cerda, Gustavo; Dallali, Houman; Shapiro, Jonathan
2012-02-01
We are interested in understanding the mechanisms behind and the character of the sway motion of healthy human subjects during quiet standing. We assume that a human body can be modelled as a single-link inverted pendulum, and the balance is achieved using linear feedback control. Using these assumptions, we derive a switched model which we then investigate. Stable periodic motions (limit cycles) about an upright position are found. The existence of these limit cycles is studied as a function of system parameters. The exploration of the parameter space leads to the detection of multi-stability and homoclinic bifurcations. PMID:21697168
Practical application of equivalent linearization approaches to nonlinear piping systems
Park, Y.J.; Hofmayer, C.H.
1995-05-01
The use of mechanical energy absorbers as an alternative to conventional hydraulic and mechanical snubbers for piping supports has attracted a wide interest among researchers and practitioners in the nuclear industry. The basic design concept of energy absorbers (EA) is to dissipate the vibration energy of piping systems through nonlinear hysteretic actions of EA!s under design seismic loads. Therefore, some type of nonlinear analysis needs to be performed in the seismic design of piping systems with EA supports. The equivalent linearization approach (ELA) can be a practical analysis tool for this purpose, particularly when the response approach (RSA) is also incorporated in the analysis formulations. In this paper, the following ELA/RSA methods are presented and compared to each other regarding their practice and numerical accuracy: Response approach using the square root of sum of squares (SRSS) approximation (denoted RS in this paper). Classical ELA based on modal combinations and linear random vibration theory (denoted CELA in this paper). Stochastic ELA based on direct solution of response covariance matrix (denoted SELA in this paper). New algorithms to convert response spectra to the equivalent power spectral density (PSD) functions are presented for both the above CELA and SELA methods. The numerical accuracy of the three EL are studied through a parametric error analysis. Finally, the practicality of the presented analysis is demonstrated in two application examples for piping systems with EA supports.
Transparent Si-DLC coatings on metals with high repetition bi-polar pulses of a PBII system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ikeyama, Masami; Sonoda, Tsutomu
2013-07-01
Diamond-like carbon (DLC) is widely used because of its good properties. However, the color of DLC is usually dark brown or black. Recently, we have made fairly transparent Si contained DLC (Si-DLC) coatings in visible light region. The fairly transparent Si-DLC was made by using our original bi-polar pulse type plasma based ion implantation (PBII) system, with recently introduced high slew rate pulse power supply. The colors of metal sample surface were uniformly changed as subdued red, yellow, subdued green and subdued blue or violet, with the change of Si-DLC coating's thickness. The colors come from the interference between reflected lights at the surface of the Si-DLC coatings and the surface of the metal samples. The colors were also changed with the angle of glancing. Estimated refractive indexes show well agreements among almost all Si-DLC coatings, instead of the differences of coating conditions. Generally, the longer coating time or slower coating process makes the higher refractive index in near infrared region. Estimated band gap of a Si-DLC coating was about 1.5 eV. The developed Si-DLC coatings must be useful as not only protective but also decorative coatings.
Novel Approach to Linear Accelerator Superconducting Magnet System
Kashikhin, Vladimir; /Fermilab
2011-11-28
Superconducting Linear Accelerators include a superconducting magnet system for particle beam transportation that provides the beam focusing and steering. This system consists of a large number of quadrupole magnets and dipole correctors mounted inside or between cryomodules with SCRF cavities. Each magnet has current leads and powered from its own power supply. The paper proposes a novel approach to magnet powering based on using superconducting persistent current switches. A group of magnets is powered from the same power supply through the common, for the group of cryomodules, electrical bus and pair of current leads. Superconducting switches direct the current to the chosen magnet and close the circuit providing the magnet operation in a persistent current mode. Two persistent current switches were fabricated and tested. In the paper also presented the results of magnetic field simulations, decay time constants analysis, and a way of improving quadrupole magnetic center stability. Such approach substantially reduces the magnet system cost and increases the reliability.
Memristive non-linear system and hidden attractor
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Saha, P.; Saha, D. C.; Ray, A.; Chowdhury, A. R.
2015-07-01
Effects of memristor on non-linear dynamical systems exhibiting chaos are analysed both form the view point of theory and experiment. It is observed that the memristive system has always fewer number of fixed points than the original one. Sometimes there is no fixed point in the memristive system. But its chaotic properties are retained. As such we have a situation known as hidden attractor because if it is a stable fixed point then the attractor does not evolve from its basin of attraction(obtained from its stable fixed point) or if there is no fixed point, the question of basin of attraction from fixed point does not arise at all [1, 2]. Our analysis gives a detailed accounts of properties related to its chaotic behavior. Important observations are also obtained with the help of electronic circuits to support the numerical simulations.
High-yield positron systems for linear colliders
Clendenin, J.E.
1989-04-01
Linear colliders, such as the SLC, are among those accelerators for which a high-yield positron source operating at the repetition rate of the accelerator is desired. The SLC, having electron energies up to 50 GeV, presents the possibility of generating positron bunches with useful charge even exceeding that of the initial electron bunch. The exact positron yield to be obtained depends on the particular capture, transport and damping system employed. Using 31 GeV electrons impinging on a W-type converter phase-space at the target to the acceptance of the capture rf section, the SLC source is capable of producing, for every electron, up to two positrons within the acceptance of the positron damping ring. The design of this source and the performance of the positron system as built are described. Also, future prospects and limitations for high-yield positron systems are discussed. 11 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.
Arnoldi preconditioning for solving large linear biomedical systems.
Deo, Makarand; Vigmond, Edward
2005-01-01
Simulations of biomedical systems often involve solving large, sparse, linear systems of the form Ax = b. In initial value problems, this system is solved at every time step, so a quick solution is essential for tractability. Iterative solvers, especially preconditioned conjugate gradient, are attractive since memory demands are minimized compared to direct methods, albeit at a cost of solution speed. A proper preconditioner can drastically reduce computation and remains an area of active research. In this paper, we propose a novel preconditioner based on system order reduction using the Arnoldi method. Systems of orders up to a million, generated from a finite element method formulation of the elliptic portion of the bidomain equations, are solved with the new preconditioner and performance is compared with that of other preconditioners. Results indicate that the new method converges considerably faster, often within a single iteration. It also uses less memory than an incomplete LU decomposition (ILU). For solving a system repeatedly, the Arnoldi transformation must be continually recomputed, unlike ILU, but this can be done quickly. In conclusion, for solving a system once, the Arnoldi preconditioner offers a greatly reduced solution time, and for repeated solves, will still be faster than an ILU preconditioner. PMID:17282853
The Control System for the X-33 Linear Aerospike Engine
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jackson, Jerry E.; Espenschied, Erich; Klop, Jeffrey
1998-01-01
The linear aerospike engine is being developed for single-stage -to-orbit (SSTO) applications. The primary advantages of a linear aerospike engine over a conventional bell nozzle engine include altitude compensation, which provides enhanced performance, and lower vehicle weight resulting from the integration of the engine into the vehicle structure. A feature of this integration is the ability to provide thrust vector control (TVC) by differential throttling of the engine combustion elements, rather than the more conventional approach of gimballing the entire engine. An analysis of the X-33 flight trajectories has shown that it is necessary to provide +/- 15% roll, pitch and yaw TVC authority with an optional capability of +/- 30% pitch at select times during the mission. The TVC performance requirements for X-33 engine became a major driver in the design of the engine control system. The thrust level of the X-33 engine as well as the amount of TVC are managed by a control system which consists of electronic, instrumentation, propellant valves, electro-mechanical actuators, spark igniters, and harnesses. The engine control system is responsible for the thrust control, mixture ratio control, thrust vector control, engine health monitoring, and communication to the vehicle during all operational modes of the engine (checkout, pre-start, start, main-stage, shutdown and post shutdown). The methodology for thrust vector control, the health monitoring approach which includes failure detection, isolation, and response, and the basic control system design are the topic of this paper. As an additional point of interest a brief description of the X-33 engine system will be included in this paper.
The efficient parallel iterative solution of large sparse linear systems
Jones, M.T.; Plassmann, P.E.
1992-06-01
The development of efficient, general-purpose software for the iterative solution of sparse linear systems on a parallel MIMD computer requires an interesting combination of expertise. Parallel graph heuristics, convergence analysis, and basic linear algebra implementation issues must all be considered. In this paper, we discuss how we have incorporated recent results in these areas into a general-purpose iterative solver. First, we consider two recently developed parallel graph coloring heuristics. We show how the method proposed by Luby, based on determining maximal independent sets, can be modified to run in an asynchronous manner and give aa expected running time bound for this modified heuristic. In addition, a number of graph reduction heuristics are described that are used in our implementation to improve the individual processor performance. The effect of these various graph reductions on the solution of sparse triangular systems is categorized. Finally, we discuss the performance of this solver from the perspective of two large-scale applications: a piezoelectric crystal finite-element modeling problem, and a nonlinear optimization problem to determine the minimum energy configuration of a three-dimensional, layered superconductor model.
PSPIKE: A Parallel Hybrid Sparse Linear System Solver
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Manguoglu, Murat; Sameh, Ahmed H.; Schenk, Olaf
The availability of large-scale computing platforms comprised of tens of thousands of multicore processors motivates the need for the next generation of highly scalable sparse linear system solvers. These solvers must optimize parallel performance, processor (serial) performance, as well as memory requirements, while being robust across broad classes of applications and systems. In this paper, we present a new parallel solver that combines the desirable characteristics of direct methods (robustness) and effective iterative solvers (low computational cost), while alleviating their drawbacks (memory requirements, lack of robustness). Our proposed hybrid solver is based on the general sparse solver PARDISO, and the “Spike” family of hybrid solvers. The resulting algorithm, called PSPIKE, is as robust as direct solvers, more reliable than classical preconditioned Krylov subspace methods, and much more scalable than direct sparse solvers. We support our performance and parallel scalability claims using detailed experimental studies and comparison with direct solvers, as well as classical preconditioned Krylov methods.
Linear system identification via backward-time observer models
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Juang, Jer-Nan; Phan, Minh
1993-01-01
This paper presents an algorithm to identify a state-space model of a linear system using a backward-time approach. The procedure consists of three basic steps. First, the Markov parameters of a backward-time observer are computed from experimental input-output data. Second, the backward-time observer Markov parameters are decomposed to obtain the backward-time system Markov parameters (backward-time pulse response samples) from which a backward-time state-space model is realized using the Eigensystem Realization Algorithm. Third, the obtained backward-time state space model is converted to the usual forward-time representation. Stochastic properties of this approach will be discussed. Experimental results are given to illustrate when and to what extent this concept works.
Solving tridiagonal linear systems on the Butterfly parallel computer
Kumar, S.P.
1989-01-01
A parallel block partitioning method to solve a tri-diagonal system of linear equations is adapted to the BBN Butterfly multiprocessor. A performance analysis of the programming experiments on the 32-node Butterfly is presented. An upper bound on the number of processors to achieve the best performance with this method is derived. The computational results verify the theoretical speedup and efficiency results of the parallel algorithm over its serial counterpart. Also included is a study comparing performance runs of the same code on the Butterfly processor with a hardware floating point unit and on one with a software floating point facility. The total parallel time of the given code is considerably reduced by making use of the hardware floating point facility whereas the speedup and efficiency of the parallel program considerably improve on the system with software floating point capability. The achieved results are shown to be within 82% to 90% of the predicted performance.
Linear fraction P-Adic and adelic dynamical systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dragovich, Branko; Khrennikov, Andrei; Mihajlovic, Dusan
2007-08-01
Using an adelic approach we simultaneously consider real and p-adic aspects of dynamical systems whose states are mapped by linear fractional transformations isomorphic to some subgroups of GL(2, ℚ), SL(2, ℚ) and SL(2, ℤ) groups. In particular, we investigate behaviour of these adelic systems when fixed points are rational. It is shown that any of these rational fixed points is p-adic indifferent for all but a finite set of primes. Thus only for finite number of p-adic cases a rational fixed point may be attractive or repelling. Basins of attraction, the Siegel disks and adelic trajectory are examined. It is also shown that real and p-adic norms of any nonzero rational fixed point are connected by adelic product formula.
Linear operating region in the ozone dial photon counting system
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Andrawis, Madeleine
1995-01-01
Ozone is a relatively unstable molecule found in Earth's atmosphere. An ozone molecule is made up of three atoms of oxygen. Depending on where ozone resides, it can protect or harm life on Earth. High in the atmosphere, about 15 miles up, ozone acts as a shield to protect Earth's surface from the sun's harmful ultraviolet radiation. Without this shield, we would be more susceptible to skin cancer, cataracts, and impaired immune systems. Closer to Earth, in the air we breathe, ozone is a harmful pollutant that causes damage to lung tissue and plants. Since the early 1980's, airborne lidar systems have been used for making measurements of ozone. The differential absorption lidar (DIAL) technique is used in the remote measurement of O3. This system allows the O3 to be measured as function of the range in the atmosphere. Two frequency-doubled Nd:YAG lasers are used to pump tunable dye lasers. The lasers are operating at 289 nm for the DIAL on-line wavelength of O3, and the other one is operated at 300 nm for the off-line wavelength. The DIAL wavelengths are produced in sequential laser pulses with a time separation of 300 micro s. The backscattered laser energy is collected by telescopes and measured using photon counting systems. The photon counting system measures the light signal by making use of the photon nature of light. The output pulse from the Photo-Multiplier Tube (PE), caused by a photon striking the PMT photo-cathode, is amplified and passed to a pulse height discriminator. The peak value of the pulse is compared to a reference voltage (discrimination level). If the pulse amplitude exceeds the discrimination level, the discriminator generates a standard pulse which is counted by the digital counter. Non-linearity in the system is caused by the overlapping of pulses and the finite response time of the electronics. At low count rates one expects the system to register one event for each output pulse from the PMT corresponding to a photon incident upon the
Energy and environmental analysis of a linear concentrating photovoltaic system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kerzmann, Tony
The world is facing an imminent energy supply crisis. In order to sustain and increase our energy supply in an environmentally-conscious manner, it is necessary to advance renewable technologies. Despite this urgency, however, it is paramount to consider the larger environmental effects associated with using renewable energy resources. This research is meant to better understand linear concentrating photovoltaics (LCPVs) from an engineering and environmental standpoint. In order to analyze the LCPV system, a simulation and life cycle assessment (LCA) were developed. The LCPV system serves two major purposes: it produces electricity, and waste heat is collected for heating use. There are three parts to the LCPV simulation. The first part simulates the multijunction cell output so as to calculate the temperature-dependent electricity generation. The second part simulates the cell cooling and waste heat recovery system using a model consisting of heat transfer and fluid flow equations. The waste heat recovery in the LCPV system was linked to a hot water storage system, which was also modeled. Coupling the waste heat recovery simulation and the hot water storage system gives an overall integrated system that is useful for system design, optimization, and acts as a stepping stone for future multijunction cell Photovoltaic/Thermal (PV/T) systems. Finally, all of the LCPV system components were coded in Engineering Equation Solver (EES) and were used in an energy analysis under actual weather and solar conditions for the Phoenix, AZ, region. The life cycle assessment for the LCPV system allowed for an environmental analysis of the system where areas of the highest environmental impact were pinpointed. While conducting the LCA research, each component of the system was analyzed from a resource extraction, production, and use standpoint. The collective production processes of each LCPV system component were gathered into a single inventory of materials and energy flows
Predictability of extremes in non-linear hierarchically organized systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kossobokov, V. G.; Soloviev, A.
2011-12-01
Understanding the complexity of non-linear dynamics of hierarchically organized systems progresses to new approaches in assessing hazard and risk of the extreme catastrophic events. In particular, a series of interrelated step-by-step studies of seismic process along with its non-stationary though self-organized behaviors, has led already to reproducible intermediate-term middle-range earthquake forecast/prediction technique that has passed control in forward real-time applications during the last two decades. The observed seismic dynamics prior to and after many mega, great, major, and strong earthquakes demonstrate common features of predictability and diverse behavior in course durable phase transitions in complex hierarchical non-linear system of blocks-and-faults of the Earth lithosphere. The confirmed fractal nature of earthquakes and their distribution in space and time implies that many traditional estimations of seismic hazard (from term-less to short-term ones) are usually based on erroneous assumptions of easy tractable analytical models, which leads to widespread practice of their deceptive application. The consequences of underestimation of seismic hazard propagate non-linearly into inflicted underestimation of risk and, eventually, into unexpected societal losses due to earthquakes and associated phenomena (i.e., collapse of buildings, landslides, tsunamis, liquefaction, etc.). The studies aimed at forecast/prediction of extreme events (interpreted as critical transitions) in geophysical and socio-economical systems include: (i) large earthquakes in geophysical systems of the lithosphere blocks-and-faults, (ii) starts and ends of economic recessions, (iii) episodes of a sharp increase in the unemployment rate, (iv) surge of the homicides in socio-economic systems. These studies are based on a heuristic search of phenomena preceding critical transitions and application of methodologies of pattern recognition of infrequent events. Any study of rare
Domain walls and vortices in linearly coupled systems.
Dror, Nir; Malomed, Boris A; Zeng, Jianhua
2011-10-01
We investigate one- and two-dimensional radial domain-wall (DW) states in the system of two nonlinear-Schrödinger (NLS) or Gross-Pitaevskii (GP) equations, which are couple by linear mixing and by nonlinear XPM (cross-phase-modulation). The system has straightforward applications to two-component Bose-Einstein condensates, and to bimodal light propagation in nonlinear optics. In the former case the two components represent different hyperfine atomic states, while in the latter setting they correspond to orthogonal polarizations of light. Conditions guaranteeing the stability of flat continuous wave (CW) asymmetric bimodal states are established, followed by the study of families of the corresponding DW patterns. Approximate analytical solutions for the DWs are found near the point of the symmetry-breaking bifurcation of the CW states. An exact DW solution is produced for ratio 3:1 of the XPM and SPM (self-phase modulation) coefficients. The DWs between flat asymmetric states, which are mirror images of each other, are completely stable, and all other species of the DWs, with zero crossings in one or two components, are fully unstable. Interactions between two DWs are considered too, and an effective potential accounting for the attraction between them is derived analytically. Direct simulations demonstrate merger and annihilation of the interacting DWs. The analysis is extended for the system including single- and double-peak external potentials. Generic solutions for trapped DWs are obtained in a numerical form, and their stability is investigated. An exact stable solution is found for the DW trapped by a single-peak potential. In the 2D geometry, stable two-component vortices are found, with topological charges s=1,2,3. Radial oscillations of annular DW-shaped pulsons, with s=0,1,2, are studied too. A linear relation between the period of the oscillations and the mean radius of the DW ring is derived analytically. PMID:22181291
Domain walls and vortices in linearly coupled systems
Dror, Nir; Malomed, Boris A.; Zeng Jianhua
2011-10-15
We investigate one- and two-dimensional radial domain-wall (DW) states in the system of two nonlinear-Schroedinger (NLS) or Gross-Pitaevskii (GP) equations, which are couple by linear mixing and by nonlinear XPM (cross-phase-modulation). The system has straightforward applications to two-component Bose-Einstein condensates, and to bimodal light propagation in nonlinear optics. In the former case the two components represent different hyperfine atomic states, while in the latter setting they correspond to orthogonal polarizations of light. Conditions guaranteeing the stability of flat continuous wave (CW) asymmetric bimodal states are established, followed by the study of families of the corresponding DW patterns. Approximate analytical solutions for the DWs are found near the point of the symmetry-breaking bifurcation of the CW states. An exact DW solution is produced for ratio 3:1 of the XPM and SPM (self-phase modulation) coefficients. The DWs between flat asymmetric states, which are mirror images of each other, are completely stable, and all other species of the DWs, with zero crossings in one or two components, are fully unstable. Interactions between two DWs are considered too, and an effective potential accounting for the attraction between them is derived analytically. Direct simulations demonstrate merger and annihilation of the interacting DWs. The analysis is extended for the system including single- and double-peak external potentials. Generic solutions for trapped DWs are obtained in a numerical form, and their stability is investigated. An exact stable solution is found for the DW trapped by a single-peak potential. In the 2D geometry, stable two-component vortices are found, with topological charges s=1,2,3. Radial oscillations of annular DW-shaped pulsons, with s=0,1,2, are studied too. A linear relation between the period of the oscillations and the mean radius of the DW ring is derived analytically.
Three-dimensional linear system analysis for breast tomosynthesis.
Zhao, Bo; Zhao, Wei
2008-12-01
The optimization of digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) geometry and reconstruction is crucial for the clinical translation of this exciting new imaging technique. In the present work, the authors developed a three-dimensional (3D) cascaded linear system model for DBT to investigate the effects of detector performance, imaging geometry, and image reconstruction algorithm on the reconstructed image quality. The characteristics of a prototype DBT system equipped with an amorphous selenium flat-panel detector and filtered backprojection reconstruction were used as an example in the implementation of the linear system model. The propagation of signal and noise in the frequency domain was divided into six cascaded stages incorporating the detector performance, imaging geometry, and reconstruction filters. The reconstructed tomosynthesis imaging quality was characterized by spatial frequency dependent presampling modulation transfer function (MTF), noise power spectrum (NPS), and detective quantum efficiency (DQE) in 3D. The results showed that both MTF and NPS were affected by the angular range of the tomosynthesis scan and the reconstruction filters. For image planes parallel to the detector (in-plane), MTF at low frequencies was improved with increase in angular range. The shape of the NPS was affected by the reconstruction filters. Noise aliasing in 3D could be introduced by insufficient voxel sampling, especially in the z (slice-thickness) direction where the sampling distance (slice thickness) could be more than ten times that for in-plane images. Aliasing increases the noise at high frequencies, which causes degradation in DQE. Application of a reconstruction filter that limits the frequency components beyond the Nyquist frequency in the z direction, referred to as the slice thickness filter, eliminates noise aliasing and improves 3D DQE. The focal spot blur, which arises from continuous tube travel during tomosynthesis acquisition, could degrade DQE significantly
Linear System Models for Ultrasonic Imaging: Application to Signal Statistics
Zemp, Roger J.; Abbey, Craig K.; Insana, Michael F.
2009-01-01
Linear equations for modeling echo signals from shift-variant systems forming ultrasonic B-mode, Doppler, and strain images are analyzed and extended. The approach is based on a solution to the homogeneous wave equation for random inhomogeneous media. When the system is shift-variant, the spatial sensitivity function—defined as a spatial weighting function that determines the scattering volume for a fixed point of time—has advantages over the point-spread function traditionally used to analyze ultrasound systems. Spatial sensitivity functions are necessary for determining statistical moments in the context of rigorous image quality assessment, and they are time-reversed copies of point-spread functions for shift variant systems. A criterion is proposed to assess the validity of a local shift-invariance assumption. The analysis reveals realistic situations in which in-phase signals are correlated to the corresponding quadrature signals, which has strong implications for assessing lesion detectability. Also revealed is an opportunity to enhance near- and far-field spatial resolution by matched filtering unfocused beams. The analysis connects several well-known approaches to modeling ultrasonic echo signals. PMID:12839176
Versatile Low Level RF System For Linear Accelerators
Potter, James M.
2011-06-01
The Low Level RF (LLRF) system is the source of all of the rf signals required for an rf linear accelerator. These signals are amplified to drive accelerator and buncher cavities. It can even provide the synchronizing signal for the rf power for a synchrotron. The use of Direct Digital Synthesis (DDS) techniques results in a versatile system that can provide multiple coherent signals at the same or different frequencies with adjustable amplitudes and phase relations. Pulsing the DDS allows rf switching with an essentially infinite on/off ratio. The LLRF system includes a versatile phase detector that allows phase-locking the rf frequency to a cavity at any phase angle over the full 360 deg. range. With the use of stepper motor driven slug tuners multiple cavity resonant frequencies can be phase locked to the rf source frequency. No external phase shifters are required and there is no feedback loop phase setup required. All that is needed is to turn the frequency feedback on. The use of Digital Signal Processing (DSP) allows amplitude and phase control over the entire rf pulse. This paper describes the basic principles of a LLRF system that has been used for both proton accelerators and electron accelerators, including multiple tank accelerators, sub-harmonic and fundamental bunchers, and synchrotrons.
Aerodynamic preliminary analysis system. Part 1: Theory. [linearized potential theory
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bonner, E.; Clever, W.; Dunn, K.
1978-01-01
A comprehensive aerodynamic analysis program based on linearized potential theory is described. The solution treats thickness and attitude problems at subsonic and supersonic speeds. Three dimensional configurations with or without jet flaps having multiple non-planar surfaces of arbitrary planform and open or closed slender bodies of non-circular contour may be analyzed. Longitudinal and lateral-directional static and rotary derivative solutions may be generated. The analysis was implemented on a time sharing system in conjunction with an input tablet digitizer and an interactive graphics input/output display and editing terminal to maximize its responsiveness to the preliminary analysis problem. Nominal case computation time of 45 CPU seconds on the CDC 175 for a 200 panel simulation indicates the program provides an efficient analysis for systematically performing various aerodynamic configuration tradeoff and evaluation studies.
Convergence Results on Iteration Algorithms to Linear Systems
Wang, Zhuande; Yang, Chuansheng; Yuan, Yubo
2014-01-01
In order to solve the large scale linear systems, backward and Jacobi iteration algorithms are employed. The convergence is the most important issue. In this paper, a unified backward iterative matrix is proposed. It shows that some well-known iterative algorithms can be deduced with it. The most important result is that the convergence results have been proved. Firstly, the spectral radius of the Jacobi iterative matrix is positive and the one of backward iterative matrix is strongly positive (lager than a positive constant). Secondly, the mentioned two iterations have the same convergence results (convergence or divergence simultaneously). Finally, some numerical experiments show that the proposed algorithms are correct and have the merit of backward methods. PMID:24991640
Using parallel banded linear system solvers in generalized eigenvalue problems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zhang, Hong; Moss, William F.
1993-01-01
Subspace iteration is a reliable and cost effective method for solving positive definite banded symmetric generalized eigenproblems, especially in the case of large scale problems. This paper discusses an algorithm that makes use of two parallel banded solvers in subspace iteration. A shift is introduced to decompose the banded linear systems into relatively independent subsystems and to accelerate the iterations. With this shift, an eigenproblem is mapped efficiently into the memories of a multiprocessor and a high speed-up is obtained for parallel implementations. An optimal shift is a shift that balances total computation and communication costs. Under certain conditions, we show how to estimate an optimal shift analytically using the decay rate for the inverse of a banded matrix, and how to improve this estimate. Computational results on iPSC/2 and iPSC/860 multiprocessors are presented.
Stability and complexity of small random linear systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hastings, Harold
2010-03-01
We explore the stability of the small random linear systems, typically involving 10-20 variables, motivated by dynamics of the world trade network and the US and Canadian power grid. This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the US Government. Neither the US Government nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. Reference herein to any specific commercial product, process, or service by trade name, trademark, manufacturer, or otherwise does not necessarily constitute or imply its endorsement, recommendation, or favoring by the US Government or any agency thereof. The views and opinions of authors expressed herein do not necessarily state or reflect those of the US Government or any agency thereof.
Method and system for non-linear motion estimation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lu, Ligang (Inventor)
2011-01-01
A method and system for extrapolating and interpolating a visual signal including determining a first motion vector between a first pixel position in a first image to a second pixel position in a second image, determining a second motion vector between the second pixel position in the second image and a third pixel position in a third image, determining a third motion vector between one of the first pixel position in the first image and the second pixel position in the second image, and the second pixel position in the second image and the third pixel position in the third image using a non-linear model, determining a position of the fourth pixel in a fourth image based upon the third motion vector.
A linear geospatial streamflow modeling system for data sparse environments
Asante, Kwabena O.; Arlan, Guleid A.; Pervez, Md Shahriar; Rowland, James
2008-01-01
In many river basins around the world, inaccessibility of flow data is a major obstacle to water resource studies and operational monitoring. This paper describes a geospatial streamflow modeling system which is parameterized with global terrain, soils and land cover data and run operationally with satellite‐derived precipitation and evapotranspiration datasets. Simple linear methods transfer water through the subsurface, overland and river flow phases, and the resulting flows are expressed in terms of standard deviations from mean annual flow. In sample applications, the modeling system was used to simulate flow variations in the Congo, Niger, Nile, Zambezi, Orange and Lake Chad basins between 1998 and 2005, and the resulting flows were compared with mean monthly values from the open‐access Global River Discharge Database. While the uncalibrated model cannot predict the absolute magnitude of flow, it can quantify flow anomalies in terms of relative departures from mean flow. Most of the severe flood events identified in the flow anomalies were independently verified by the Dartmouth Flood Observatory (DFO) and the Emergency Disaster Database (EM‐DAT). Despite its limitations, the modeling system is valuable for rapid characterization of the relative magnitude of flood hazards and seasonal flow changes in data sparse settings.
Robust mean field games for coupled Markov jump linear systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moon, Jun; Başar, Tamer
2016-07-01
We consider robust stochastic large population games for coupled Markov jump linear systems (MJLSs). The N agents' individual MJLSs are governed by different infinitesimal generators, and are affected not only by the control input but also by an individual disturbance (or adversarial) input. The mean field term, representing the average behaviour of N agents, is included in the individual worst-case cost function to capture coupling effects among agents. To circumvent the computational complexity and analyse the worst-case effect of the disturbance, we use robust mean field game theory to design low-complexity robust decentralised controllers and to characterise the associated worst-case disturbance. We show that with the individual robust decentralised controller and the corresponding worst-case disturbance, which constitute a saddle-point solution to a generic stochastic differential game for MJLSs, the actual mean field behaviour can be approximated by a deterministic function which is a fixed-point solution to the constructed mean field system. We further show that the closed-loop system is uniformly stable independent of N, and an approximate optimality can be obtained in the sense of ε-Nash equilibrium, where ε can be taken to be arbitrarily close to zero as N becomes sufficiently large. A numerical example is included to illustrate the results.
A method to stabilize linear systems using eigenvalue gradient information
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wieseman, C. D.
1985-01-01
Formal optimization methods and eigenvalue gradient information are used to develop a stabilizing control law for a closed loop linear system that is initially unstable. The method was originally formulated by using direct, constrained optimization methods with the constraints being the real parts of the eigenvalues. However, because of problems in trying to achieve stabilizing control laws, the problem was reformulated to be solved differently. The method described uses the Davidon-Fletcher-Powell minimization technique to solve an indirect, constrained minimization problem in which the performance index is the Kreisselmeier-Steinhauser function of the real parts of all the eigenvalues. The method is applied successfully to solve two different problems: the determination of a fourth-order control law stabilizes a single-input single-output active flutter suppression system and the determination of a second-order control law for a multi-input multi-output lateral-directional flight control system. Various sets of design variables and initial starting points were chosen to show the robustness of the method.
2-D linear motion system. Innovative technology summary report
1998-11-01
The US Department of Energy's (DOE's) nuclear facility decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) program requires buildings to be decontaminated, decommissioned, and surveyed for radiological contamination in an expeditious and cost-effective manner. Simultaneously, the health and safety of personnel involved in the D and D activities is of primary concern. D and D workers must perform duties high off the ground, requiring the use of manlifts or scaffolding, often, in radiologically or chemically contaminated areas or in areas with limited access. Survey and decontamination instruments that are used are sometimes heavy or awkward to use, particularly when the worker is operating from a manlift or scaffolding. Finding alternative methods of performing such work on manlifts or scaffolding is important. The 2-D Linear Motion System (2-D LMS), also known as the Wall Walker{trademark}, is designed to remotely position tools and instruments on walls for use in such activities as radiation surveys, decontamination, and painting. Traditional (baseline) methods for operating equipment for these tasks require workers to perform duties on elevated platforms, sometimes several meters above the ground surface and near potential sources of contamination. The Wall Walker 2-D LMS significantly improves health and safety conditions by facilitating remote operation of equipment. The Wall Walker 2-D LMS performed well in a demonstration of its precision, accuracy, maneuverability, payload capacity, and ease of use. Thus, this innovative technology is demonstrated to be a viable alternative to standard methods of performing work on large, high walls, especially those that have potential contamination concerns. The Wall Walker was used to perform a final release radiological survey on over 167 m{sup 2} of walls. In this application, surveying using a traditional (baseline) method that employs an aerial lift for manual access was 64% of the total cost of the improved technology
Linear versus nonlinear response of a forced wave turbulence system.
Cadot, Olivier; Touzé, Cyril; Boudaoud, Arezki
2010-10-01
A vibrating plate is set into a chaotic state of wave turbulence by a forcing having periodic and random components. Both components are weighted in order to explore continuously intermediate forcing from the periodic to the random one, but keeping constant its rms value. The transverse velocity of the plate is measured at the application point of the force. It is found that whatever the detail of the forcing is, the velocity spectra exhibit a universal cascade for frequencies larger than the forcing frequency range. In contrast, the velocity spectra strongly depend on the nature of the forcing within the range of forcing frequencies. The coherence function is used to extract the contribution of the velocity fluctuations that display a linear relationship with the forcing. The nonlinear contribution to the velocity fluctuations is found to be almost constant, about 55% of the total velocity fluctuations whatever the nature of the forcing from random to periodic. On the other hand, the nonlinear contribution to the fluctuations of the injected power depends on the nature of the forcing; it is significantly larger for the periodic forcing (60%) and decreases continuously as the randomness is increased, reaching a value of 40% for the pure random forcing. For all the cases of intermediate forcing from random to periodic, a simple model of the velocity response recovers in a fairly good agreement the probability density function of the injected power. The consequence of the existence of a linear-response component is discussed in the context of the fluctuation-dissipation theorem validation in experiments of out-of-equilibrium systems. PMID:21230369
Simplified System Efficiency Functions for Linear Phased-Array Transducers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Margetan, F. J.; Gray, T. A.; Huang, Ruiju
2010-02-01
Computer models are often used to simulate ultrasonic inspections of industrial components. One ingredient of such simulations is a frequency dependent function which describes the efficiency of the inspection system for converting electrical energy to sound and vice versa. For a phased-array transducer there are many such efficiency functions, namely one for each independent pair of piezoelectric elements. In this paper we describe a simplified, approximate approach for specifying these functions. Element-to-element differences are accounted for by two "residual" parameters: (1) a strength factor which describes the relative "hotness" of an element compared to its peers; and (2) a time delay which describes the extent to which an element fires later or earlier than its peers when all elements are instructed to fire in unison. These residuals are used to relate the system efficiency function for any pair of elements to that of an average efficiency which can be readily measured. The use of this approach is demonstrated using front-wall and back-wall responses from a stainless steel block, as acquired using a 5-MHz, 32-element, linear phased-array transducer. Good agreement was found between measured and simulated surface responses.
Treatment of bipolar depression.
Musetti, Laura; Del Grande, Claudia; Marazziti, Donatella; Dell'Osso, Liliana
2013-08-01
Depressive symptoms and episodes dominate the long-term course of bipolar disorder and are associated with high levels of disability and an increased risk of suicide. However, the treatment of bipolar depression has been poorly investigated in comparison with that of manic episodes and unipolar major depressive disorder. The goal of treatment in bipolar depression is not only to achieve full remission of acute symptoms, but also to avoid long-term mood destabilization and to prevent relapses. A depressive presentation of bipolar disorder may often delay the appropriate management and, thus, worsen the long-term outcome. In these cases, an accurate screening for diagnostic indicators of a possible bipolar course of the illness should guide the therapeutic choices, and lead to prognostic improvement. Antidepressant use is still the most controversial issue in the treatment of bipolar depression. Despite inconclusive evidence of efficacy and tolerability, this class of agents is commonly prescribed in acute and long-term treatment, often in combination with mood stabilizers. In this article, we review available treatment options for bipolar depression, and we shall provide some suggestions for the management of the different presentations of depression in the course of bipolar disorder. PMID:23391164
A Linear Systems Approach to Segmented Watershed Contaminant Transport
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Carleton, J. N.
2013-12-01
The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) employs simulation models to estimate concentrations of pesticide residues in surface waters for risk assessment. These models have historically been used to simulate runoff loadings from homogeneous landscapes to isolated, well-mixed lentic systems that generically represent vulnerable waters. Recent efforts to refine this approach in terms of realism and geographic specificity have focused on enhancing the level of detail of the landscape representation, rather than that of receiving water hydrology. Linear systems theory and transfer function based approaches have been applied by various investigators to the representation of contaminant leaching through soils, and to surface water hydrology (e.g., unit hydrographs), but rarely to contaminant transport either within surface waters, or through multi-compartment systems such as stream networks. This poster describes a straightforward approach to simulating watersheds as segmented into collections of linked water bodies. The approach employs convolution integrals, impulse response functions, and the Discrete Fourier Transform to propagate concentration time series from upstream to downstream locations. Given knowledge only of estimated mean stream residence times, with appropriately-scaled segmentations of catchments, realistic representations of concentration dynamics are shown to be achievable. These representations are based upon high-frequency atrazine monitoring data sets collected over common time periods from upstream and downstream locations within the same small watersheds. Simulated concentrations are shown to match measured concentrations well in both the temporal and spectral domains without the need for calibration, and despite inherent simplifying assumptions such as steady flow. The approach may have utility for enhancing surface water hydrologic representation in contaminant modeling used for regulatory purposes.
Dosimetric comparison of linear accelerator-based stereotactic radiosurgery systems
Sharma, S. D.; Kumar, Sudhir; Dagaonkar, S. S.; Bisht, Geetika; Dayanand, S.; Devi, Reena; Deshpande, S. S.; Chaudhary, S.; Bhatt, B. C.; Kannan, S.
2007-01-01
Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) is a special radiotherapy technique used to irradiate intracranial lesions by 3-D arrangements of narrow photon beams eliminating the needs of invasive surgery. Three different tertiary collimators, namely BrainLab and Radionics circular cones and BrainLab micro multileaf collimator (mMLC), are used for linear accelerator-based SRS systems (X-Knife). Output factor (St), tissue maximum ratio (TMR) and off axis ratio (OAR) of these three SRS systems were measured using CC01 (Scanditronix/ Welhofer) and Pinpoint (PTW) cylindrical and Markus plane parallel ionization chambers as well as TLD and radiochromic film. Measurement results of CC01 and Pinpoint chambers were very close to each other which indicate that further reduction in volume and physical dimensions of cylindrical ionization chamber is not necessary for SRS/SRT dosimetry. Output factors of BrainLab and Radionics SRS cones were very close to each other while output factors of equivalent diameter mMLC field were different from SRS circular cones. TMR of the three SRS systems compared were very close to one another. OAR of Radionics cone and BrainLab mMLC were very close to each other, within 2%. However, OARs of BrainLab cone were found comparable to OARs of Radionics cone and BrainLab mMLC within maximum variation of 4%. In addition, user-measured similar data of other three mMLC X-Knives were compared with the mMLC X-Knife data measured in this work and found comparable. The concept of switching over to mMLC-based SRS/SRT is thus validated from dosimetric characteristics as well. PMID:21217914
Látalová, Klára
2012-09-01
Although there has been interest in insight in bipolar disorder, research has not been as developed as in schizophrenia. The Medline, Embase, and PsychInfo data bases were searched. The key words used in the search were "bipolar", "mania", "manic", "awareness", and "insight". Books, editorials, letters, and reports on pediatric subjects were excluded. Abstracts or full texts were screened for relevance. Better insight is associated with better adherence to treatment and better outcomes. Impairments of executive functions and memory, as well as higher severity of psychotic symptoms, are associated with impairments of insight. Insight is more impaired during an illness episode than during remission, in mixed than in pure manic episodes, in bipolar II than in bipolar I patients, in pure mania than in bipolar or unipolar depression. Psychosocial treatments improve insight and outcomes. There is a need for integration of quantitative assessment methods and their introduction into research and clinical practice. PMID:22101737
Blended Linear Models for Reduced Compliant Mechanical Systems.
Andrews, Sheldon; Teichmann, Marek; Kry, Paul G
2016-03-01
We present a method for the simulation of compliant, articulated structures using a plausible approximate model that focuses on modeling endpoint interaction. We approximate the structure's behavior about a reference configuration, resulting in a first order reduced compliant system, or FORK (-1) S. Several levels of approximation are available depending on which parts and surfaces we would like to have interactive contact forces, allowing various levels of detail to be selected. Our approach is fast and computation of the full structure's state may be parallelized. Furthermore, we present a method for reducing error by combining multiple FORK (-1)S models at different linearization points, through twist blending and matrix interpolation. Our approach is suitable for stiff, articulate grippers, such as those used in robotic simulation, or physics-based characters under static proportional derivative control. We demonstrate that simulations with our method can deal with kinematic chains and loops with non-uniform stiffness across joints, and that it produces plausible effects due to stiffness, damping, and inertia. PMID:26829238
Symmetry breaking in linearly coupled Korteweg-de Vries systems.
Espinosa-Cerón, A; Malomed, B A; Fujioka, J; Rodríguez, R F
2012-09-01
We consider solitons in a system of linearly coupled Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equations, which model two-layer settings in various physical media. We demonstrate that traveling symmetric solitons with identical components are stable at velocities lower than a certain threshold value. Above the threshold, which is found exactly, the symmetric modes are unstable against spontaneous symmetry breaking, which gives rise to stable asymmetric solitons. The shape of the asymmetric solitons is found by means of a variational approximation and in the numerical form. Simulations of the evolution of an unstable symmetric soliton sometimes produce its breakup into two different asymmetric modes. Collisions between moving stable solitons, symmetric and asymmetric ones, are studied numerically, featuring noteworthy features. In particular, collisions between asymmetric solitons with identical polarities are always elastic, while in the case of opposite polarities the collision leads to a switch of the polarities of both solitons. Three-soliton collisions are studied too, featuring quite complex interaction scenarios. PMID:23020484
Linear matrix inequalities for analysis and control of linear vector second-order systems
Adegas, Fabiano D.; Stoustrup, Jakob
2014-10-06
Many dynamical systems are modeled as vector second-order differential equations. This paper presents analysis and synthesis conditions in terms of LMI with explicit dependence in the coefficient matrices of vector second-order systems. These conditions benefit from the separation between the Lyapunov matrix and the system matrices by introducing matrix multipliers, which potentially reduce conservativeness in hard control problems. Multipliers facilitate the usage of parameter-dependent Lyapunov functions as certificates of stability of uncertain and time-varying vector second-order systems. The conditions introduced in this work have the potential to increase the practice of analyzing and controlling systems directly in vector second-order form.
BenAbdallah, Abdallah; Hammami, Mohamed Ali; Kallel, Jalel
2009-03-05
In this paper we present some sufficient conditions for the robust stability and stabilization of time invariant uncertain piecewise linear system using homogenous piecewise polynomial Lyapunov function. The proposed conditions are given in terms of linear matrix inequalities which can be numerically solved. An application of the obtained result is given. It consists in resolving the stabilization of piecewise uncertain linear control systems by using a state piecewise linear feedback.
Oblique reconstructions in tomosynthesis. I. Linear systems theory
Acciavatti, Raymond J.; Maidment, Andrew D. A.
2013-01-01
Purpose: By convention, slices in a tomosynthesis reconstruction are created on planes parallel to the detector. It has not yet been demonstrated that slices can be generated along oblique directions through the same volume, analogous to multiplanar reconstructions in computed tomography (CT). The purpose of this work is to give a proof-of-principle justification for oblique reconstructions in tomosynthesis, which acquires projection images over a smaller angular range than CT. Methods: To investigate the visibility of individual frequencies in an oblique reconstruction, a theoretical framework is developed in which the reconstruction of a sinusoidal input is calculated. The test frequency is pitched at an angle in a 2D parallel-beam acquisition geometry. Reconstructions are evaluated along the pitch of the object. The modulation transfer function (MTF) is calculated from the relative signal at various test frequencies. The MTF determines whether modulation is within detectable limits in oblique reconstructions. In the previous linear systems (LS) model [B. Zhao and W. Zhao, “Three-dimensional linear system analysis for breast tomosynthesis,” Med. Phys. 35(12), 5219–5232 (2008)], the MTF was calculated only in reconstructed slices parallel to the detector. This paper generalizes the MTF calculation to reconstructed slices at all possible pitches. Unlike the previous LS model, this paper also analyzes the effect of object thickness on the MTF. A second test object that is considered is a rod whose long axis is pitched similar to the sinusoidal input. The rod is used to assess whether the length of an object can be correctly estimated in oblique reconstructions. Results: To simulate the conventional display of the reconstruction, slices are first created along a 0° pitch. This direction is perpendicular to the rays of the central projection. The authors show that the input frequency of a pitched sinusoidal object cannot be determined using these slices. By
2014-01-01
Although bipolar disorder historically was thought to only occur rarely in children and adolescents, there has been a significant increase in children and adolescents who are receiving this diagnosis more recently (Carlson, 2005). Nonetheless, the applicability of the current bipolar disorder diagnostic criteria for children, particularly preschool children, remains unclear, even though much work has been focused on this area. As a result, more work needs to be done to further the understanding of bipolar symptoms in children. It is hoped that this paper can assist psychologists and other health service providers in gleaning a snapshot of the literature in this area so that they can gain an understanding of the diagnostic criteria and other behaviors that may be relevant and be informed about potential approaches for assessment and treatment with children who meet bipolar disorder criteria. First, the history of bipolar symptoms and current diagnostic criteria will be discussed. Next, assessment strategies that may prove helpful for identifying bipolar disorder will be discussed. Then, treatments that may have relevance to children and their families will be discussed. Finally, conclusions regarding work with children who may have a bipolar disorder diagnosis will be offered. PMID:24800202