Exploring stochasticity and imprecise knowledge based on linear inequality constraints.
Subbey, Sam; Planque, Benjamin; Lindstrøm, Ulf
2016-09-01
This paper explores the stochastic dynamics of a simple foodweb system using a network model that mimics interacting species in a biosystem. It is shown that the system can be described by a set of ordinary differential equations with real-valued uncertain parameters, which satisfy a set of linear inequality constraints. The constraints restrict the solution space to a bounded convex polytope. We present results from numerical experiments to show how the stochasticity and uncertainty characterizing the system can be captured by sampling the interior of the polytope with a prescribed probability rule, using the Hit-and-Run algorithm. The examples illustrate a parsimonious approach to modeling complex biosystems under vague knowledge. PMID:26746217
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Michalopoulos, C. D.
1974-01-01
Optimal control theory is applied to analyze the transient response of discrete linear systems to forcing functions with unknown time dependence but having known bounds. Particular attention is given to forcing functions which include: (1) maximum displacement of any given mass element, (2) maximum relative displacement of any two adjacent masses, and (3) maximum acceleration of a given mass. Linear mechanical systems with an arbitrary number of degrees of freedom and only one forcing function acting are considered. In the general case, the desired forcing function is found to be a function that switches from the upper-to-lower bound and vice-versa at certain moments of time. A general procedure for finding such switching times is set forth.
Response of discrete linear systems to forcing functions with inequality constraints.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Michalopoulos, C. D.; Riley, T. A.
1972-01-01
An analysis is made of the maximum response of discrete, linear mechanical systems to arbitrary forcing functions which lie within specified bounds. Primary attention is focused on the complete determination of the forcing function which will engender maximum displacement to any particular mass element of a multi-degree-of-freedom system. In general, the desired forcing function is found to be a bang-bang type function, i.e., a function which switches from the maximum to the minimum bound and vice-versa at certain instants of time. Examples of two-degree-of-freedom systems, with and without damping, are presented in detail. Conclusions are drawn concerning the effect of damping on the switching times and the general procedure for finding these times is discussed.
Data assimilation with inequality constraints
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Thacker, W. C.
If values of variables in a numerical model are limited to specified ranges, these restrictions should be enforced when data are assimilated. The simplest option is to assimilate without regard for constraints and then to correct any violations without worrying about additional corrections implied by correlated errors. This paper addresses the incorporation of inequality constraints into the standard variational framework of optimal interpolation with emphasis on our limited knowledge of the underlying probability distributions. Simple examples involving only two or three variables are used to illustrate graphically how active constraints can be treated as error-free data when background errors obey a truncated multi-normal distribution. Using Lagrange multipliers, the formalism is expanded to encompass the active constraints. Two algorithms are presented, both relying on a solution ignoring the inequality constraints to discover violations to be enforced. While explicitly enforcing a subset can, via correlations, correct the others, pragmatism based on our poor knowledge of the underlying probability distributions suggests the expedient of enforcing them all explicitly to avoid the computationally expensive task of determining the minimum active set. If additional violations are encountered with these solutions, the process can be repeated. Simple examples are used to illustrate the algorithms and to examine the nature of the corrections implied by correlated errors.
Kalman Filtering with Inequality Constraints for Turbofan Engine Health Estimation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Simon, Dan; Simon, Donald L.
2003-01-01
Kalman filters are often used to estimate the state variables of a dynamic system. However, in the application of Kalman filters some known signal information is often either ignored or dealt with heuristically. For instance, state variable constraints (which may be based on physical considerations) are often neglected because they do not fit easily into the structure of the Kalman filter. This paper develops two analytic methods of incorporating state variable inequality constraints in the Kalman filter. The first method is a general technique of using hard constraints to enforce inequalities on the state variable estimates. The resultant filter is a combination of a standard Kalman filter and a quadratic programming problem. The second method uses soft constraints to estimate state variables that are known to vary slowly with time. (Soft constraints are constraints that are required to be approximately satisfied rather than exactly satisfied.) The incorporation of state variable constraints increases the computational effort of the filter but significantly improves its estimation accuracy. The improvement is proven theoretically and shown via simulation results. The use of the algorithm is demonstrated on a linearized simulation of a turbofan engine to estimate health parameters. The turbofan engine model contains 16 state variables, 12 measurements, and 8 component health parameters. It is shown that the new algorithms provide improved performance in this example over unconstrained Kalman filtering.
On partial errors-in-variables models with inequality constraints of parameters and variables
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zeng, Wenxian; Liu, Jingnan; Yao, Yibin
2015-02-01
Recent studies have extensively discussed total least squares (TLS) algorithms for solving the errors-in-variables (EIV) model with equality constraints but rarely investigated the inequality-constrained EIV model. The most existing inequality-constrained TLS algorithms assume that all the elements in the coefficient matrix are random and independent and that their numerical efficiency is significantly limited due to combinatorial difficulty. To solve the above issues, we formulate a partial EIV model with inequality constraints of both unknown parameters and the random elements of the coefficient matrix. Based on the formulated EIV model, the inequality-constrained TLS problem is transformed into a linear complementarity problem through linearization. In this way, the inequality-constrained TLS method remains applicable even when the elements of the coefficient matrix are subject to inequality constraints. Furthermore, the precision of the constrained estimates is put forward from a frequentist point of view. Three numerical examples are presented to demonstrate the efficiency and superiority of the proposed algorithm. The application is accomplished by preserving the structure of random coefficient matrix and satisfying the constraints simultaneously, without any combinatorial difficulty.
CT metal artifact reduction by soft inequality constraints
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chukalina, Marina; Nikolaev, Dmitry; Sokolov, Valerii; Ingacheva, Anastasiya; Buzmakov, Alexey; Prun, Victor
2015-12-01
The artifacts (known as metal-like artifacts) arising from incorrect reconstruction may obscure or simulate pathology in medical applications, hide or mimic cracks and cavities in the scanned objects in industrial tomographic scans. One of the main reasons caused such artifacts is photon starvation on the rays which go through highly absorbing regions. We indroduce a way to suppress such artifacts in the reconstructions using soft penalty mimicing linear inequalities on the photon starved rays. An efficient algorithm to use such information is provided and the effect of those inequalities on the reconstruction quality is studied.
Consistency and inconsistency radii for solving systems of linear equations and inequalities
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Murav'eva, O. V.
2015-03-01
Problems that reduce to consistency or inconsistency of systems of linear equations or inequalities arise in many divisions of theoretical informatics. The examples are problems in linear programming, machine learning, multicriteria optimization, etc. There exist different stability measures for the property of consistency or inconsistency, and different information constituents are possible (all the input parameters, the coefficient matrix, the vector of constraints). In this paper, variations of all parameters are examined in combination with an additional constraint important in applications, namely, the nonnegativity of feasible points.
Motorcycle suspension design using matrix inequalities and passivity constraints
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sharma, Amrit; Limebeer, David J. N.
2012-03-01
This paper presents a design methodology for the suspension system of a novel aerodynamically efficient motorcycle. Since the machine's layout and the rider's seating position are unconventional, several aspects of the machine design, including the suspension, must be reviewed afresh. The design process is based on matrix inequalities that are used to optimise a road-grip objective function - others could be used equally well. The design problem is cast as the minimisation of an H 2 cost with passivity constraints imposed on the suspension transference. The resulting bilinear matrix inequality problem is solved using a locally optimal iterative algorithm. The matrix inequality-type characterisation of positive real functions permits the optimisation of the suspension system over an entire class of passive admittances. Torsional springs, dampers and inerters are then used to construct networks corresponding to the optimal (positive real) admittances. Networks of first, second, third and fourth orders are considered, and an argument based on the compromise between complexity and improved grip is made for the most suitable suspension configuration. Finally, the effects of improved road grip on the stability of the vehicle's lateral dynamics are analysed.
Finite element solution of optimal control problems with inequality constraints
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bless, Robert R.; Hodges, Dewey H.
1990-01-01
A finite-element method based on a weak Hamiltonian form of the necessary conditions is summarized for optimal control problems. Very crude shape functions (so simple that element numerical quadrature is not necessary) can be used to develop an efficient procedure for obtaining candidate solutions (i.e., those which satisfy all the necessary conditions) even for highly nonlinear problems. An extension of the formulation allowing for discontinuities in the states and derivatives of the states is given. A theory that includes control inequality constraints is fully developed. An advanced launch vehicle (ALV) model is presented. The model involves staging and control constraints, thus demonstrating the full power of the weak formulation to date. Numerical results are presented along with total elapsed computer time required to obtain the results. The speed and accuracy in obtaining the results make this method a strong candidate for a real-time guidance algorithm.
On the development of HSCT tail sizing criteria using linear matrix inequalities
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kaminer, Isaac
1995-01-01
This report presents the results of a study to extend existing high speed civil transport (HSCT) tail sizing criteria using linear matrix inequalities (LMI). In particular, the effects of feedback specifications, such as MIL STD 1797 Level 1 and 2 flying qualities requirements, and actuator amplitude and rate constraints on the maximum allowable cg travel for a given set of tail sizes are considered. Results comparing previously developed industry criteria and the LMI methodology on an HSCT concept airplane are presented.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Vaiyavutjamai, Pongchawee; Clements, M. A.
2006-01-01
Two-hundred and thirty-one students in 6 Grade 9 classes in 2 secondary schools in Thailand attempted 54 pencil-and-paper tasks related to linear equations and linear inequalities immediately before and after they participated in 13 lessons on those topics. Students' written responses, and transcripts of pre- and postteaching interviews with 18…
On non-combinatorial weighted total least squares with inequality constraints
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fang, Xing
2014-08-01
Observation systems known as errors-in-variables (EIV) models with model parameters estimated by total least squares (TLS) have been discussed for more than a century, though the terms EIV and TLS were coined much more recently. So far, it has only been shown that the inequality-constrained TLS (ICTLS) solution can be obtained by the combinatorial methods, assuming that the weight matrices of observations involved in the data vector and the data matrix are identity matrices. Although the previous works test all combinations of active sets or solution schemes in a clear way, some aspects have received little or no attention such as admissible weights, solution characteristics and numerical efficiency. Therefore, the aim of this study was to adjust the EIV model, subject to linear inequality constraints. In particular, (1) This work deals with a symmetrical positive-definite cofactor matrix that could otherwise be quite arbitrary. It also considers cross-correlations between cofactor matrices for the random coefficient matrix and the random observation vector. (2) From a theoretical perspective, we present first-order Karush-Kuhn-Tucker (KKT) necessary conditions and the second-order sufficient conditions of the inequality-constrained weighted TLS (ICWTLS) solution by analytical formulation. (3) From a numerical perspective, an active set method without combinatorial tests as well as a method based on sequential quadratic programming (SQP) is established. By way of applications, computational costs of the proposed algorithms are shown to be significantly lower than the currently existing ICTLS methods. It is also shown that the proposed methods can treat the ICWTLS problem in the case of more general weight matrices. Finally, we study the ICWTLS solution in terms of non-convex weighted TLS contours from a geometrical perspective.
Solving linear inequalities in a least squares sense
Bramley, R.; Winnicka, B.
1994-12-31
Let A {element_of} {Re}{sup mxn} be an arbitrary real matrix, and let b {element_of} {Re}{sup m} a given vector. A familiar problem in computational linear algebra is to solve the system Ax = b in a least squares sense; that is, to find an x* minimizing {parallel}Ax {minus} b{parallel}, where {parallel} {center_dot} {parallel} refers to the vector two-norm. Such an x* solves the normal equations A{sup T}(Ax {minus} b) = 0, and the optimal residual r* = b {minus} Ax* is unique (although x* need not be). The least squares problem is usually interpreted as corresponding to multiple observations, represented by the rows of A and b, on a vector of data x. The observations may be inconsistent, and in this case a solution is sought that minimizes the norm of the residuals. A less familiar problem to numerical linear algebraists is the solution of systems of linear inequalities Ax {le} b in a least squares sense, but the motivation is similar: if a set of observations places upper or lower bounds on linear combinations of variables, the authors want to find x* minimizing {parallel} (Ax {minus} b){sub +} {parallel}, where the i{sup th} component of the vector v{sub +} is the maximum of zero and the i{sup th} component of v.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Theodore, Zachary B.
A robust proportional-integral (PI) controller was synthesized for the F-16 VISTA (Variable stability In-flight Simulator Test Aircraft) using a linear matrix inequality (LMI) approach, with the goal of eventually designing and implementing a linear parameter-varying PI controller on high performance aircraft. The combination of classical and modern control theory provides theoretically guaranteed stability and performance throughout the flight envelope and ease of implementation due to the simplicity of the PI controller structure. The controller is designed by solving a set of LMIs with pole placement constraints. This closed-loop system was simulated in MATLAB/Simulink to analyze the performance of the controller. A robust Hinfinity controller was also developed to compare performance with PI controller. The simulation results showed stability, albeit with poor performance compared to the Hinfinity controlle.
Review of LFTs, LMIs, and mu. [Linear Fractional Transformations, Linear Matrix Inequalities
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Doyle, John; Packard, Andy; Zhou, Kemin
1991-01-01
The authors present a tutorial overview of linear fractional transformations (LFTs) and the role of the structured singular value, mu, and linear matrix inequalities (LMIs) in solving LFT problems. The authors first introduce the notation for LFTs and briefly discuss some of their properties. They then describe mu and its connections with LFTs. They focus on two standard notions of robust stability and performance, mu stability and performance and Q stability and performance, and their relationship is discussed. Comparisons with the L1 theory of robust performance with structured uncertainty are considered.
Optimal control of singularly perturbed nonlinear systems with state-variable inequality constraints
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Calise, A. J.; Corban, J. E.
1990-01-01
The established necessary conditions for optimality in nonlinear control problems that involve state-variable inequality constraints are applied to a class of singularly perturbed systems. The distinguishing feature of this class of two-time-scale systems is a transformation of the state-variable inequality constraint, present in the full order problem, to a constraint involving states and controls in the reduced problem. It is shown that, when a state constraint is active in the reduced problem, the boundary layer problem can be of finite time in the stretched time variable. Thus, the usual requirement for asymptotic stability of the boundary layer system is not applicable, and cannot be used to construct approximate boundary layer solutions. Several alternative solution methods are explored and illustrated with simple examples.
Optimization technique for problems with an inequality constraint
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Russell, K. J.
1972-01-01
General technique uses a modified version of an existing technique termed the pattern search technique. New procedure called the parallel move strategy permits pattern search technique to be used with problems involving a constraint.
Optimal control problems with mixed control-phase variable equality and inequality constraints
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Makowski, K.; Neustad, L. W.
1974-01-01
In this paper, necessary conditions are obtained for optimal control problems containing equality constraints defined in terms of functions of the control and phase variables. The control system is assumed to be characterized by an ordinary differential equation, and more conventional constraints, including phase inequality constraints, are also assumed to be present. Because the first-mentioned equality constraint must be satisfied for all t (the independent variable of the differential equation) belonging to an arbitrary (prescribed) measurable set, this problem gives rise to infinite-dimensional equality constraints. To obtain the necessary conditions, which are in the form of a maximum principle, an implicit-function-type theorem in Banach spaces is derived.
Finite element solution of optimal control problems with state-control inequality constraints
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bless, Robert R.; Hodges, Dewey H.
1992-01-01
It is demonstrated that the weak Hamiltonian finite-element formulation is amenable to the solution of optimal control problems with inequality constraints which are functions of both state and control variables. Difficult problems can be treated on account of the ease with which algebraic equations can be generated before having to specify the problem. These equations yield very accurate solutions. Owing to the sparse structure of the resulting Jacobian, computer solutions can be obtained quickly when the sparsity is exploited.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Markopoulos, N.; Calise, A. J.
1993-01-01
The class of all piecewise time-continuous controllers tracking a given hypersurface in the state space of a dynamical system can be split by the present transformation technique into two disjoint classes; while the first of these contains all controllers which track the hypersurface in finite time, the second contains all controllers that track the hypersurface asymptotically. On this basis, a reformulation is presented for optimal control problems involving state-variable inequality constraints. If the state constraint is regarded as 'soft', there may exist controllers which are asymptotic, two-sided, and able to yield the optimal value of the performance index.
An Improved Algorithm for Linear Inequalities in Pattern Recognition and Switching Theory.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Geary, Leo C.
This thesis presents a new iterative algorithm for solving an n by l solution vector w, if one exists, to a set of linear inequalities, A w greater than zero which arises in pattern recognition and switching theory. The algorithm is an extension of the Ho-Kashyap algorithm, utilizing the gradient descent procedure to minimize a criterion function…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Preda, Vasile; Dedu, Silvia; Gheorghe, Carmen
2015-10-01
In this paper, by using the entropy maximization principle with Tsallis entropy, new distribution families for modeling the income distribution are derived. Also, new classes of Lorenz curves are obtained by applying the entropy maximization principle with Tsallis entropy, under mean and Gini index equality and inequality constraints.
First class models from linear and nonlinear second class constraints
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dehghani, Mehdi; Mardaani, Maryam; Monemzadeh, Majid; Nejad, Salman Abarghouei
2015-10-01
Two models with linear and nonlinear second class constraints are considered and gauged by embedding in an extended phase space. These models are studied by considering a free non-relativistic particle on the hyperplane and hypersphere in the configuration space. The gauged theory of the first model is obtained by converting the very second class system to the first class one directly. In contrast, the first class system related to the free particle on the hypersphere is derived with the help of the infinite Batalin-Fradkin-Tyutin (BFT) embedding procedure. We propose a practical formula, based on the simplified BFT method, which is practical in gauging linear and some nonlinear second class systems. As a result of gauging these two models, we show that in the conversion of second class constraints to the first class ones, the minimum number of phase space degrees of freedom for both systems is a pair of phase space coordinates. This pair is made up of a coordinate and its conjugate momentum for the first model, but the corresponding Poisson structure of the embedded non-relativistic particle on hypersphere is a nontrivial one. We derive infinite correction terms for the Hamiltonian of the nonlinear constraints and an interacting gauged Hamiltonian is constructed by summing over them. At the end, we find an open algebra for three first class objects of the embedded nonlinear system.
Linear perturbation constraints on multi-coupled dark energy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Piloyan, Arpine; Marra, Valerio; Baldi, Marco; Amendola, Luca
2014-02-01
The Multi-coupled Dark Energy (McDE) scenario has been recently proposed as a specific example of a cosmological model characterized by a non-standard physics of the dark sector of the universe that nevertheless gives an expansion history which does not significantly differ from the one of the standard ΛCDM model. Thanks to a dynamical screening mechanism, in fact, the interaction between the Dark Energy field and the Dark Matter sector is effectively suppressed at the background level during matter domination. As a consequence, background observables cannot discriminate a McDE cosmology from ΛCDM for a wide range of model parameters. On the other hand, linear perturbations are expected to provide tighter bounds due to the existence of attractive and repulsive fifth-forces associated with the dark interactions. In this work, we present the first constraints on the McDE scenario obtained by comparing the predicted evolution of linear density perturbations with a large compilation of recent data sets for the growth rate fσ8, including 6dFGS, LRG, BOSS, WiggleZ and VIPERS. Confirming qualitative expectations, growth rate data provide much tighter bounds on the model parameters as compared to the extremely loose bounds that can be obtained when only the background expansion history is considered. In particular, the 95% confidence level on the coupling strength |β| is reduced from |β| <= 83 (background constraints only) to |β| <= 0.88 (background and linear perturbation constraints). We also investigate how these constraints further improve when using data from future wide-field surveys such as supernova data from LSST and growth rate data from Euclid-type missions. In this case the 95% confidence level on the coupling further reduce to |β| <= 0.85. Such constraints are in any case still consistent with a scalar fifth-force of gravitational strength, and we foresee that tighter bounds might be possibly obtained from the investigation of nonlinear structure
Linear perturbation constraints on multi-coupled dark energy
Piloyan, Arpine; Marra, Valerio; Amendola, Luca; Baldi, Marco E-mail: valerio.marra@me.com E-mail: l.amendola@thphys.uni-heidelberg.de
2014-02-01
The Multi-coupled Dark Energy (McDE) scenario has been recently proposed as a specific example of a cosmological model characterized by a non-standard physics of the dark sector of the universe that nevertheless gives an expansion history which does not significantly differ from the one of the standard ΛCDM model. Thanks to a dynamical screening mechanism, in fact, the interaction between the Dark Energy field and the Dark Matter sector is effectively suppressed at the background level during matter domination. As a consequence, background observables cannot discriminate a McDE cosmology from ΛCDM for a wide range of model parameters. On the other hand, linear perturbations are expected to provide tighter bounds due to the existence of attractive and repulsive fifth-forces associated with the dark interactions. In this work, we present the first constraints on the McDE scenario obtained by comparing the predicted evolution of linear density perturbations with a large compilation of recent data sets for the growth rate fσ{sub 8}, including 6dFGS, LRG, BOSS, WiggleZ and VIPERS. Confirming qualitative expectations, growth rate data provide much tighter bounds on the model parameters as compared to the extremely loose bounds that can be obtained when only the background expansion history is considered. In particular, the 95% confidence level on the coupling strength |β| is reduced from |β| ≤ 83 (background constraints only) to |β| ≤ 0.88 (background and linear perturbation constraints). We also investigate how these constraints further improve when using data from future wide-field surveys such as supernova data from LSST and growth rate data from Euclid-type missions. In this case the 95% confidence level on the coupling further reduce to |β| ≤ 0.85. Such constraints are in any case still consistent with a scalar fifth-force of gravitational strength, and we foresee that tighter bounds might be possibly obtained from the investigation of nonlinear
State control of discrete-time linear systems to be bound in state variables by equality constraints
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Filasová, Anna; Krokavec, Dušan; Serbák, Vladimír
2014-12-01
The paper is concerned with the problem of designing the discrete-time equivalent PI controller to control the discrete-time linear systems in such a way that the closed-loop state variables satisfy the prescribed equality constraints. Since the problem is generally singular, using standard form of the Lyapunov function and a symmetric positive definite slack matrix, the design conditions are proposed in the form of the enhanced Lyapunov inequality. The results, offering the conditions of the control existence and the optimal performance with respect to the prescribed equality constraints for square discrete-time linear systems, are illustrated with the numerical example to note effectiveness and applicability of the considered approach.
Interactive Analysis of Hyperspectral Data under Linearity Constraints
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schmidt, A.; Treguier, E.; Schmidt, F.; Moussaoui, S.; Pelloquin, C.
2010-12-01
Large data sets delivered by imaging spectrometers are interesting in many ways in the Planetary Sciences. Due to the size of the data and lack of ground truth, which often prohibit conventional exploratory data analysis methods, interactive but unsupervised analysis methods could be a way of discovering relevant information about the sources that make up the data. In this work, we investigate some of the opportunities and limitations of such analyses based on non-negative matrix approximation in planetary settings. Since typically there often is no ground truth to compare to, the degrees of freedom inherent in the aforementioned approximation techniques often has to be constrained by users to discover physically valid sources and patterns. One way of going about this is to present users with different valid solutions have them choose the one or ones that fit their knowledge of the environment best. Recent developments have made it possible to exploit linear mixing constraints and present results to users in real or near-real time; thus, the approach has become practicable. The general setting of the problem is as follows: By considering P pixels of an hyperspectral image acquired at L frequency bands, the observed spectra are gathered in a PxL data matrix X. Each row of this matrix contains a measured spectrum at a pixel with spatial index p=1..P. According to the linear mixing model, the p-th spectrum, 1<=p<=P, can be expressed as a linear combination of r, 1<=r<=R, pure spectra of the surface components. Thus, X=AxS+E, E being an error matrix, should be minimised, where X, A, and S have only non-negative entries. The rows of matrix S now contain the pure surface spectra of the R components, and each entry of A corresponds to the abundance of the r-th component in pixel with spatial index p. For a qualitative and quantitative description of the observed scene composition, the estimation problem consists of finding matrices S and A which allow to explain the data
Linear constraint minimum variance beamformer functional magnetic resonance inverse imaging
Lin, Fa-Hsuan; Witzel, Thomas; Zeffiro, Thomas A.; Belliveau, John W.
2011-01-01
Accurate estimation of the timing of neural activity is required to fully model the information flow among functionally specialized regions whose joint activity underlies perception, cognition and action. Attempts to detect the fine temporal structure of task-related activity would benefit from functional imaging methods allowing higher sampling rates. Spatial filtering techniques have been used in magnetoencephalography source imaging applications. In this work, we use the linear constraint minimal variance (LCMV) beamformer localization method to reconstruct single-shot volumetric functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data using signals acquired simultaneously from all channels of a high density radio-frequency (RF) coil array. The LCMV beamformer method generalizes the existing volumetric magnetic resonance inverse imaging (InI) technique, achieving higher detection sensitivity while maintaining whole-brain spatial coverage and 100 ms temporal resolution. In this paper, we begin by introducing the LCMV reconstruction formulation and then quantitatively assess its performance using both simulated and empirical data. To demonstrate the sensitivity and inter-subject reliability of volumetric LCMV InI, we employ an event-related design to probe the spatial and temporal properties of task-related hemodynamic signal modulations in primary visual cortex. Compared to minimum-norm estimate (MNE) reconstructions, LCMV offers better localization accuracy and superior detection sensitivity. Robust results from both single subject and group analyses demonstrate the excellent sensitivity and specificity of volumetric InI in detecting the spatial and temporal structure of task-related brain activity. PMID:18672071
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, C. H.; Park, H. J.; Lee, J.; Lee, H. W.; Lee, K. D.
2015-05-01
This paper develops a discrete optimal control based on the multi-rate observer method for electromagnetic suspension systems in order to levitate the vehicle, maintaining the desired gap. The proposed multi-rate compensator consists of two parts which are the discrete Kalman filter and the optimal control law. The Kalman filter estimates all states with fast sampling rate time, using a slowly measured output from the gap sensor. The optimal control law is determined by linear matrix inequality optimization for the discrete time multiple input system obtained by the lifting operator. The proposed multi-rate controller has the advantages to guarantee the stability of the slow-rate optimal control and maintain the performance of fast-rate control. The simulation and experiment show the effectiveness of the proposed control method.
Construction of Lyapunov Function for Power System based on Solving Linear Matrix Inequality
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ishigame, Atsushi; Sakaguchi, Hiromu; Takashima, Jun; Suzaki, Shirou
This paper presents a constructing Lyapunov function for power system based on solving the Linear Matrix Inequality (LMI) derived from the Lyapunov stability theorem considering with dynamics of load characteristic and AVR control system. The proposed Lyapunov function is constructed as a quadratic form of state variables and an integral term which satisfies the curl equation and the sector condition. An induction machine and a synchronous machine are considered as load characteristics. One machine and one load infinite bus system is considered taking into account the flux decay effects and AVR with one time constant of the generator. To verify the proposed Lyapunov function, the transient stability assessment is shown. The critical clearing times given by the proposed Lyapunov function are compared with those obtained by the numerical integration method, and they are shown to be practical.
Rucci, A.; Vasco, D.W.; Novali, F.
2010-04-01
Deformation in the overburden proves useful in deducing spatial and temporal changes in the volume of a producing reservoir. Based upon these changes we estimate diffusive travel times associated with the transient flow due to production, and then, as the solution of a linear inverse problem, the effective permeability of the reservoir. An advantage an approach based upon travel times, as opposed to one based upon the amplitude of surface deformation, is that it is much less sensitive to the exact geomechanical properties of the reservoir and overburden. Inequalities constrain the inversion, under the assumption that the fluid production only results in pore volume decreases within the reservoir. We apply the formulation to satellite-based estimates of deformation in the material overlying a thin gas production zone at the Krechba field in Algeria. The peak displacement after three years of gas production is approximately 0.5 cm, overlying the eastern margin of the anticlinal structure defining the gas field. Using data from 15 irregularly-spaced images of range change, we calculate the diffusive travel times associated with the startup of a gas production well. The inequality constraints are incorporated into the estimates of model parameter resolution and covariance, improving the resolution by roughly 30 to 40%.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Waldron-Moore, Pamela; Jacobs, Leslie R.
2010-01-01
Of all the social constructs impacting the contemporary world, gender is perhaps the most pervasive and the most insidious. Its inequities creep into our everyday lives with impunity. Across the globe, gender construction has evoked challenge, undergone reform and, in some instances, transformed thinking in societies. Yet, for all the gains made…
An Evaluation of an Algorithm for Linear Inequalities and Its Applications
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jurgensen, J.
1973-01-01
An algorithm is presented for obtaining a solution alpha to a set of inequalities (A alpha) 0 where A is an N x m-matrix and alpha is an m-vector. If the set of inequalities is consistant, then the algorithm is guaranteed to arrive at a solution in a finite number of steps. Also, if in the iteration, a negative vector is obtained, then the initial set of inequalities is inconsistant, and the iteration is terminated.
On the existence of touch points for first-order state inequality constraints
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Seywald, Hans; Cliff, Eugene M.
1993-01-01
The appearance of touch points in state constrained optimal control problems with general vector-valued control is studied. Under the assumption that the Hamiltonian is regular, touch points for first-order state inequalities are shown to exist only under very special conditions. In many cases of practical importance these conditions can be used to exclude touch points a priori without solving an optimal control problem. The results are demonstrated on a simple example.
Pre-Service Teachers' Linear and Quadratic Inequalities Understandings
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bicer, Ali; Capraro, Robert M.; Capraro, Mary M.
2014-01-01
The National Council of Teachers of Mathematics [NCTM] noted that middle and high school students are expected to be able to both explain inequalities by using mathematical symbols and understand meanings by interpreting the solutions of inequalities. Unfortunately, research has revealed that not only do middle and high school students hold…
Superlinear convergence of an interior-point method for monotone variational inequalities
Ralph, D.; Wright, S.
1996-01-03
We describe an infeasible-interior-point algorithm for monotone variational inequality problems and prove that it converges globally and superlinearly under standard conditions plus a constant rank constraint qualification. The latter condition represents a generalization of the two types of assumptions made in existing superlinear analyses; namely, linearity of the constraints and linear independence of the active constraint gradients.
Nonlinear optimization with linear constraints using a projection method
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Fox, T.
1982-01-01
Nonlinear optimization problems that are encountered in science and industry are examined. A method of projecting the gradient vector onto a set of linear contraints is developed, and a program that uses this method is presented. The algorithm that generates this projection matrix is based on the Gram-Schmidt method and overcomes some of the objections to the Rosen projection method.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kun, David William
Unmanned aircraft systems (UASs) are gaining popularity in civil and commercial applications as their lightweight on-board computers become more powerful and affordable, their power storage devices improve, and the Federal Aviation Administration addresses the legal and safety concerns of integrating UASs in the national airspace. Consequently, many researchers are pursuing novel methods to control UASs in order to improve their capabilities, dependability, and safety assurance. The nonlinear control approach is a common choice as it offers several benefits for these highly nonlinear aerospace systems (e.g., the quadrotor). First, the controller design is physically intuitive and is derived from well known dynamic equations. Second, the final control law is valid in a larger region of operation, including far from the equilibrium states. And third, the procedure is largely methodical, requiring less expertise with gain tuning, which can be arduous for a novice engineer. Considering these facts, this thesis proposes a nonlinear controller design method that combines the advantages of adaptive robust control (ARC) with the powerful design tools of linear matrix inequalities (LMI). The ARC-LMI controller is designed with a discontinuous projection-based adaptation law, and guarantees a prescribed transient and steady state tracking performance for uncertain systems in the presence of matched disturbances. The norm of the tracking error is bounded by a known function that depends on the controller design parameters in a known form. Furthermore, the LMI-based part of the controller ensures the stability of the system while overcoming polytopic uncertainties, and minimizes the control effort. This can reduce the number of parameters that require adaptation, and helps to avoid control input saturation. These desirable characteristics make the ARC-LMI control algorithm well suited for the quadrotor UAS, which may have unknown parameters and may encounter external
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
El-khateeb, Mahmoud M. A.
2016-01-01
The purpose of this study aims to investigate the errors classes occurred by the Preparatory year students at King Saud University, through analysis student responses to the items of the study test, and to identify the varieties of the common errors and ratios of common errors that occurred in solving inequalities. In the collection of the data,…
On Implicit Active Constraints in Linear Semi-Infinite Programs with Unbounded Coefficients
Goberna, M. A.; Lancho, G. A.; Todorov, M. I.; Vera de Serio, V. N.
2011-04-15
The concept of implicit active constraints at a given point provides useful local information about the solution set of linear semi-infinite systems and about the optimal set in linear semi-infinite programming provided the set of gradient vectors of the constraints is bounded, commonly under the additional assumption that there exists some strong Slater point. This paper shows that the mentioned global boundedness condition can be replaced by a weaker local condition (LUB) based on locally active constraints (active in a ball of small radius whose center is some nominal point), providing geometric information about the solution set and Karush-Kuhn-Tucker type conditions for the optimal solution to be strongly unique. The maintaining of the latter property under sufficiently small perturbations of all the data is also analyzed, giving a characterization of its stability with respect to these perturbations in terms of the strong Slater condition, the so-called Extended-Nuernberger condition, and the LUB condition.
2011-01-01
Background There is need for new information about the socio-economic and geographic differences in health seeking and expenditures on many health conditions, so to help to design interventions that will reduce inequity in utilisation of healthcare services and ensure universal coverage. Objectives The paper contributes additional knowledge about health seeking and economic burden of different health conditions. It also shows the level of healthcare payments in public and private sector and their distribution across socioeconomic and geographic population groups. Methods A questionnaire was used to collect data from randomly selected householders from 4,873 households (2,483 urban and 2,390 rural) in southeast Nigeria. Data was collected on: health problems that people had and sought care for; type of care sought, outpatient department (OPD) visits and inpatient department (IPD) stays; providers visited; expenditures; and preferences for improving access to care. Data was disaggregated by socio-economic status (SES) and geographic location (urban versus rural) of the households. Results Malaria and hypertension were the major communicable and non-communicable diseases respectively that required OPD and IPD. Patent medicine dealers (PMDs) were the most commonly used providers (41.1%), followed by private hospitals (19.7%) and pharmacies (16.4%). The rural dwellers and poorer SES groups mostly used low-level and informal providers. The average monthly treatment expenditure in urban area was 2444 Naira (US$20.4) and 2267 Naira (US$18.9) in the rural area. Higher SES groups and urbanites incurred higher health expenditures. People that needed healthcare services did not seek care mostly because the health condition was not serious enough or they could not afford the cost of services. Conclusion There were inequities in use of the different providers, and also in expenditures on treatment. Reforms should aim to decrease barriers to access to public and formal health
Zhao, Yingfeng; Liu, Sanyang
2016-01-01
We present a practical branch and bound algorithm for globally solving generalized linear multiplicative programming problem with multiplicative constraints. To solve the problem, a relaxation programming problem which is equivalent to a linear programming is proposed by utilizing a new two-phase relaxation technique. In the algorithm, lower and upper bounds are simultaneously obtained by solving some linear relaxation programming problems. Global convergence has been proved and results of some sample examples and a small random experiment show that the proposed algorithm is feasible and efficient. PMID:27547676
Iterated non-linear model predictive control based on tubes and contractive constraints.
Murillo, M; Sánchez, G; Giovanini, L
2016-05-01
This paper presents a predictive control algorithm for non-linear systems based on successive linearizations of the non-linear dynamic around a given trajectory. A linear time varying model is obtained and the non-convex constrained optimization problem is transformed into a sequence of locally convex ones. The robustness of the proposed algorithm is addressed adding a convex contractive constraint. To account for linearization errors and to obtain more accurate results an inner iteration loop is added to the algorithm. A simple methodology to obtain an outer bounding-tube for state trajectories is also presented. The convergence of the iterative process and the stability of the closed-loop system are analyzed. The simulation results show the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm in controlling a quadcopter type unmanned aerial vehicle. PMID:26850752
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chaves, Rafael
2016-01-01
It is a recent realization that many of the concepts and tools of causal discovery in machine learning are highly relevant to problems in quantum information, in particular quantum nonlocality. The crucial ingredient in the connection between both fields is the mathematical theory of causality, allowing for the representation of arbitrary causal structures and providing a rigorous tool to reason about probabilistic causation. Indeed, Bell's theorem concerns a very particular kind of causal structure and Bell inequalities are a special case of linear constraints following from such models. It is thus natural to look for generalizations involving more complex Bell scenarios. The problem, however, relies on the fact that such generalized scenarios are characterized by polynomial Bell inequalities and no current method is available to derive them beyond very simple cases. In this work, we make a significant step in that direction, providing a new, general, and conceptually clear method for the derivation of polynomial Bell inequalities in a wide class of scenarios. We also show how our construction can be used to allow for relaxations of causal constraints and naturally gives rise to a notion of nonsignaling in generalized Bell networks.
Linear Quadratic Tracking Design for a Generic Transport Aircraft with Structural Load Constraints
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Burken, John J.; Frost, Susan A.; Taylor, Brian R.
2011-01-01
When designing control laws for systems with constraints added to the tracking performance, control allocation methods can be utilized. Control allocations methods are used when there are more command inputs than controlled variables. Constraints that require allocators are such task as; surface saturation limits, structural load limits, drag reduction constraints or actuator failures. Most transport aircraft have many actuated surfaces compared to the three controlled variables (such as angle of attack, roll rate & angle of side slip). To distribute the control effort among the redundant set of actuators a fixed mixer approach can be utilized or online control allocation techniques. The benefit of an online allocator is that constraints can be considered in the design whereas the fixed mixer cannot. However, an online control allocator mixer has a disadvantage of not guaranteeing a surface schedule, which can then produce ill defined loads on the aircraft. The load uncertainty and complexity has prevented some controller designs from using advanced allocation techniques. This paper considers actuator redundancy management for a class of over actuated systems with real-time structural load limits using linear quadratic tracking applied to the generic transport model. A roll maneuver example of an artificial load limit constraint is shown and compared to the same no load limitation maneuver.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ye, Hong-Ling; Wang, Wei-Wei; Chen, Ning; Sui, Yun-Kang
2016-08-01
In this paper, a model of topology optimization with linear buckling constraints is established based on an independent and continuous mapping method to minimize the plate/shell structure weight. A composite exponential function (CEF) is selected as filtering functions for element weight, the element stiffness matrix and the element geometric stiffness matrix, which recognize the design variables, and to implement the changing process of design variables from "discrete" to "continuous" and back to "discrete". The buckling constraints are approximated as explicit formulations based on the Taylor expansion and the filtering function. The optimization model is transformed to dual programming and solved by the dual sequence quadratic programming algorithm. Finally, three numerical examples with power function and CEF as filter function are analyzed and discussed to demonstrate the feasibility and efficiency of the proposed method.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brake, M. R.
2011-06-01
The analysis of continuous systems with piecewise-linear constraints in their domains have previously been limited to either numerical approaches, or analytical methods that are constrained in the parameter space, boundary conditions, or order of the system. The present analysis develops a robust method for studying continuous systems with arbitrary boundary conditions and discrete piecewise-linear constraints. A superposition method is used to generate homogeneous boundary conditions, and modal analysis is used to find the displacement of the system in each state of the piecewise-linear constraint. In order to develop a mapping across each slope discontinuity in the piecewise-linear force-deflection profile, a variational calculus approach is taken that minimizes the L 2 energy norm between the previous and current states. An approach for calculating the finite-time Lyapunov exponents is presented in order to determine chaotic regimes. To illustrate this method, two examples are presented: a pinned-pinned beam with a deadband constraint, and a leaf spring coupled with a connector pin immersed in a viscous fluid. The pinned-pinned beam example illustrates the method for a non-operator based analysis. Results are used to show that the present method does not necessitate the need of a large number of basis functions to adequately map the displacement and velocity of the system across states. In the second example, the leaf spring is modeled as a clamped-free beam. The interaction between the beam and the connector pin is modeled with a preload and a penalty stiffness. Several experiments are conducted in order to validate aspects of the leaf spring model. From the results of the convergence and parameter studies, a high correlation between the finite-time Lyapunov exponents and the contact time per period of the excitation is observed. The parameter studies also indicate that when the system's parameters are changed in order to reduce the magnitude of the impact
Separability of quantum states and the violation of Bell-type inequalities
Loubenets, Elena R.
2004-04-01
In contrast to the widespread opinion that any separable quantum state satisfies every classical probabilistic constraint, we present a simple example where separable quantum state does not satisfy the original Bell inequality although the latter inequality, in its perfect correlation form, is valid for all joint classical measurements. In a very general setting, we discuss inequalities for joint experiments upon a bipartite quantum system. For any separable quantum state, we derive quantum analogs of the original Bell inequality and specify the conditions sufficient for a separable state to satisfy the original Bell inequality. We introduce the extended Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt inequality and prove that, for any separable quantum state, this inequality holds for a variety of linear combinations.
LQR problem of linear discrete time systems with nonnegative state constraints
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kostova, S.; Imsland, L.; Ivanov, I.
2015-10-01
In the paper the infinite-horizon Linear Quadratic Regulator (LQR) problem of linear discrete time systems with non-negative state constraints is presented. Such kind of constraints on the system determine the class of positive systems. They have big application in many fields like economics, biology, ecology, ICT and others. The standard infinite LQR-optimal state feedback law is used for solving the problem. In order to guarantee the nonnegativity of the system states, we define the admissible set of initial states. It is proven that, for each initial state from this set the nonnegative orthant is invariant set. Two cases are considered, first, when the initial state belongs to the admissible set, and the second, when the initial state does not belong to the admissible set. The procedures for solving the problem are given for two cases. In second case we use a dual-mode approach for solving the problem. The first mode is until the state trajectory enters the admissible set and after that the procedure for the first case is used. The illustrative examples are given for both cases.
Linear Approximation to Optimal Control Allocation for Rocket Nozzles with Elliptical Constraints
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Orr, Jeb S.; Wall, Johnm W.
2011-01-01
In this paper we present a straightforward technique for assessing and realizing the maximum control moment effectiveness for a launch vehicle with multiple constrained rocket nozzles, where elliptical deflection limits in gimbal axes are expressed as an ensemble of independent quadratic constraints. A direct method of determining an approximating ellipsoid that inscribes the set of attainable angular accelerations is derived. In the case of a parameterized linear generalized inverse, the geometry of the attainable set is computationally expensive to obtain but can be approximated to a high degree of accuracy with the proposed method. A linear inverse can then be optimized to maximize the volume of the true attainable set by maximizing the volume of the approximating ellipsoid. The use of a linear inverse does not preclude the use of linear methods for stability analysis and control design, preferred in practice for assessing the stability characteristics of the inertial and servoelastic coupling appearing in large boosters. The present techniques are demonstrated via application to the control allocation scheme for a concept heavy-lift launch vehicle.
A Refined Cauchy-Schwarz Inequality
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Mercer, Peter R.
2007-01-01
The author presents a refinement of the Cauchy-Schwarz inequality. He shows his computations in which refinements of the triangle inequality and its reverse inequality are obtained for nonzero x and y in a normed linear space.
Generalized linear joint PP-PS inversion based on two constraints
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fang, Yuan; Zhang, Feng-Qi; Wang, Yan-Chun
2016-03-01
Conventional joint PP—PS inversion is based on approximations of the Zoeppritz equations and assumes constant VP/VS; therefore, the inversion precision and stability cannot satisfy current exploration requirements. We propose a joint PP—PS inversion method based on the exact Zoeppritz equations that combines Bayesian statistics and generalized linear inversion. A forward model based on the exact Zoeppritz equations is built to minimize the error of the approximations in the large-angle data, the prior distribution of the model parameters is added as a regularization item to decrease the ill-posed nature of the inversion, low-frequency constraints are introduced to stabilize the low-frequency data and improve robustness, and a fast algorithm is used to solve the objective function while minimizing the computational load. The proposed method has superior antinoising properties and well reproduces real data.
Rosenblatt, Marcus; Timmer, Jens; Kaschek, Daniel
2016-01-01
Ordinary differential equation models have become a wide-spread approach to analyze dynamical systems and understand underlying mechanisms. Model parameters are often unknown and have to be estimated from experimental data, e.g., by maximum-likelihood estimation. In particular, models of biological systems contain a large number of parameters. To reduce the dimensionality of the parameter space, steady-state information is incorporated in the parameter estimation process. For non-linear models, analytical steady-state calculation typically leads to higher-order polynomial equations for which no closed-form solutions can be obtained. This can be circumvented by solving the steady-state equations for kinetic parameters, which results in a linear equation system with comparatively simple solutions. At the same time multiplicity of steady-state solutions is avoided, which otherwise is problematic for optimization. When solved for kinetic parameters, however, steady-state constraints tend to become negative for particular model specifications, thus, generating new types of optimization problems. Here, we present an algorithm based on graph theory that derives non-negative, analytical steady-state expressions by stepwise removal of cyclic dependencies between dynamical variables. The algorithm avoids multiple steady-state solutions by construction. We show that our method is applicable to most common classes of biochemical reaction networks containing inhibition terms, mass-action and Hill-type kinetic equations. Comparing the performance of parameter estimation for different analytical and numerical methods of incorporating steady-state information, we show that our approach is especially well-tailored to guarantee a high success rate of optimization. PMID:27243005
Rosenblatt, Marcus; Timmer, Jens; Kaschek, Daniel
2016-01-01
Ordinary differential equation models have become a wide-spread approach to analyze dynamical systems and understand underlying mechanisms. Model parameters are often unknown and have to be estimated from experimental data, e.g., by maximum-likelihood estimation. In particular, models of biological systems contain a large number of parameters. To reduce the dimensionality of the parameter space, steady-state information is incorporated in the parameter estimation process. For non-linear models, analytical steady-state calculation typically leads to higher-order polynomial equations for which no closed-form solutions can be obtained. This can be circumvented by solving the steady-state equations for kinetic parameters, which results in a linear equation system with comparatively simple solutions. At the same time multiplicity of steady-state solutions is avoided, which otherwise is problematic for optimization. When solved for kinetic parameters, however, steady-state constraints tend to become negative for particular model specifications, thus, generating new types of optimization problems. Here, we present an algorithm based on graph theory that derives non-negative, analytical steady-state expressions by stepwise removal of cyclic dependencies between dynamical variables. The algorithm avoids multiple steady-state solutions by construction. We show that our method is applicable to most common classes of biochemical reaction networks containing inhibition terms, mass-action and Hill-type kinetic equations. Comparing the performance of parameter estimation for different analytical and numerical methods of incorporating steady-state information, we show that our approach is especially well-tailored to guarantee a high success rate of optimization. PMID:27243005
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vorwerk, Kristoffer; Kennings, Andrew; Anjos, Miguel
2008-06-01
In VLSI layout, floorplanning refers to the task of placing macrocells on a chip without overlap while minimizing design objectives such as timing, congestion, and wire length. Experienced VLSI designers have traditionally been able to produce more efficient floorplans than automated methods. However, with the increasing complexity of modern circuits, manual design flows have become infeasible. An efficient top-down strategy for overlap removal which repairs overlaps in floorplans produced by placement algorithms or rough floorplanning methodologies is presented in this article. The algorithmic framework proposed incorporates a novel geometric shifting technique coupled with topological constraint graphs and linear programming within a top-down flow. The effectiveness of this framework is quantified across a broad range of floorplans produced by multiple tools. The method succeeds in producing valid placements in almost all cases; moreover, compared with leading methods, it requires only one-fifth of the run-time and produces placements with 4-13% less wire length and up to 43% less cell movement.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wei, Peng; Sridhar, Banavar; Chen, Neil Yi-Nan; Sun, Dengfent
2012-01-01
A class of strategies has been proposed to reduce contrail formation in the United States airspace. A 3D grid based on weather data and the cruising altitude level of aircraft is adjusted to avoid the persistent contrail potential area with the consideration to fuel-efficiency. In this paper, the authors introduce a contrail avoidance strategy on 3D grid by considering additional operationally feasible constraints from an air traffic controller's aspect. First, shifting too many aircraft to the same cruising level will make the miles-in-trail at this level smaller than the safety separation threshold. Furthermore, the high density of aircraft at one cruising level may exceed the workload for the traffic controller. Therefore, in our new model we restrict the number of total aircraft at each level. Second, the aircraft count variation for successive intervals cannot be too drastic since the workload to manage climbing/descending aircraft is much larger than managing cruising aircraft. The contrail reduction is formulated as an integer-programming problem and the problem is shown to have the property of total unimodularity. Solving the corresponding relaxed linear programming with the simplex method provides an optimal and integral solution to the problem. Simulation results are provided to illustrate the methodology.
Lewis, Robert Michael (College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA); Torczon, Virginia Joanne (College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA); Kolda, Tamara Gibson
2006-08-01
We consider the solution of nonlinear programs in the case where derivatives of the objective function and nonlinear constraints are unavailable. To solve such problems, we propose an adaptation of a method due to Conn, Gould, Sartenaer, and Toint that proceeds by approximately minimizing a succession of linearly constrained augmented Lagrangians. Our modification is to use a derivative-free generating set direct search algorithm to solve the linearly constrained subproblems. The stopping criterion proposed by Conn, Gould, Sartenaer and Toint for the approximate solution of the subproblems requires explicit knowledge of derivatives. Such information is presumed absent in the generating set search method we employ. Instead, we show that stationarity results for linearly constrained generating set search methods provide a derivative-free stopping criterion, based on a step-length control parameter, that is sufficient to preserve the convergence properties of the original augmented Lagrangian algorithm.
Minkowski–Weyl Priors for Models With Parameter Constraints: An Analysis of the BioCycle Study
Danaher, Michelle R.; Roy, Anindya; Chen, Zhen; Mumford, Sunni L.; Schisterman, Enrique F.
2016-01-01
We propose a general framework for performing full Bayesian analysis under linear inequality parameter constraints. The proposal is motivated by the BioCycle Study, a large cohort study of hormone levels of healthy women where certain well-established linear inequality constraints on the log-hormone levels should be accounted for in the statistical inferential procedure. Based on the Minkowski–Weyl decomposition of polyhedral regions, we propose a class of priors that are fully supported on the parameter space with linear inequality constraints, and we fit a Bayesian linear mixed model to the BioCycle data using such a prior. We observe positive associations between estrogen and progesterone levels and F2-isoprostanes, a marker for oxidative stress. These findings are of particular interest to reproductive epidemiologists. PMID:27099406
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Hua; Li, Zhao-Liang; Tang, Bo-Hui; Tang, Rong-Lin
2015-12-01
In this study, an improved linear emissivity constraint temperature and emissivity separation (I-LECTES) method was first proposed to overcome the discontinuities problem of the retrieved land surface emissivities (LSEs) in the former linear emissivity constraint temperature and emissivity separation (LECTES) method. Consequently, the hyperspectral thermal infrared data were carefully simulated according to the configuration of Designs & Prototypes microFTIR Model 102, and were used to evaluate the performance of the I-LECTES method. Meanwhile, the I-LECTES method was also compared with the LECTES method. Different the atmosphere and surface circumstances were considered, as well as the different levels of noise equivalent temperature difference (NEΔT). The results showed that the proposed I-LECTES method is of a better accuracy compared with the LECTES method and has the characteristic of keeping the retrieved LSEs continuous, which sounds more reasonable. Because the noises in the ground measured radiance may have more effects on the accuracies of land surface temperature (LST) and LSEs than those in the atmospheric downwelling radiance, the noise in the ground measured radiance should be removed as much as possible to improve the accuracies of retrieved LST and LSEs. Furthermore, taken into account the lower retrieval accuracies for the cold and dry atmosphere, both the I-LECTES method and the LECTES method should be taken a full consideration. The proposed method is regarded to be promising because of its holding continuity and noise-immune.
A fresh look at linear cosmological constraints on a decaying Dark Matter component
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Poulin, Vivian; Serpico, Pasquale D.; Lesgourgues, Julien
2016-08-01
We consider a cosmological model in which a fraction fdcdm of the Dark Matter (DM) is allowed to decay in an invisible relativistic component, and compute the resulting constraints on both the decay width (or inverse lifetime) Γdcdm and fdcdm from purely gravitational arguments. We report a full derivation of the Boltzmann hierarchy, correcting a mistake in previous literature, and compute the impact of the decay—as a function of the lifetime—on the CMB and matter power spectra. From CMB only, we obtain that no more than 3.8% of the DM could have decayed in the time between recombination and today (all bounds quoted at 95% CL). We also comment on the important application of this bound to the case where primordial black holes constitute DM, a scenario notoriously difficult to constrain. For lifetimes longer than the age of the Universe, the bounds can be cast as fdcdmΓdcdm < 6.3×10‑3 Gyr‑1. For the first time, we also checked that degeneracies with massive neutrinos are broken when information from the large scale structure is used. Even secondary effects like CMB lensing suffice to this purpose. Decaying DM models have been invoked to solve a possible tension between low redshift astronomical measurements of σ8 and Ωm and the ones inferred by Planck. We reassess this claim finding that with the most recent BAO, HST and σ8 data extracted from the CFHT survey, the tension is only slightly reduced despite the two additional free parameters. Nonetheless, the existing tension explains why the bound on fdcdmΓdcdm loosens to fdcdmΓdcdm < 15.9×10‑3 Gyr‑1 when including such additional data. The bound however improves to fdcdmΓdcdm < 5.9 ×10‑3 Gyr‑1 if only data consistent with the CMB are included. This highlights the importance of establishing whether the tension is due to real physical effects or unaccounted systematics, for settling the reach of achievable constraints on decaying DM.
Zhuk, Sergiy
2013-10-15
In this paper we present Kalman duality principle for a class of linear Differential-Algebraic Equations (DAE) with arbitrary index and time-varying coefficients. We apply it to an ill-posed minimax control problem with DAE constraint and derive a corresponding dual control problem. It turns out that the dual problem is ill-posed as well and so classical optimality conditions are not applicable in the general case. We construct a minimizing sequence u-circumflex{sub {epsilon}} for the dual problem applying Tikhonov method. Finally we represent u-circumflex{sub {epsilon}} in the feedback form using Riccati equation on a subspace which corresponds to the differential part of the DAE.
Yu, Huapeng; Zhu, Hai; Gao, Dayuan; Yu, Meng; Wu, Wenqi
2015-01-01
The Kalman filter (KF) has always been used to improve north-finding performance under practical conditions. By analyzing the characteristics of the azimuth rotational inertial measurement unit (ARIMU) on a stationary base, a linear state equality constraint for the conventional KF used in the fine north-finding filtering phase is derived. Then, a constrained KF using the state equality constraint is proposed and studied in depth. Estimation behaviors of the concerned navigation errors when implementing the conventional KF scheme and the constrained KF scheme during stationary north-finding are investigated analytically by the stochastic observability approach, which can provide explicit formulations of the navigation errors with influencing variables. Finally, multiple practical experimental tests at a fixed position are done on a postulate system to compare the stationary north-finding performance of the two filtering schemes. In conclusion, this study has successfully extended the utilization of the stochastic observability approach for analytic descriptions of estimation behaviors of the concerned navigation errors, and the constrained KF scheme has demonstrated its superiority over the conventional KF scheme for ARIMU stationary north-finding both theoretically and practically. PMID:25688588
Yu, Huapeng; Zhu, Hai; Gao, Dayuan; Yu, Meng; Wu, Wenqi
2015-01-01
The Kalman filter (KF) has always been used to improve north-finding performance under practical conditions. By analyzing the characteristics of the azimuth rotational inertial measurement unit (ARIMU) on a stationary base, a linear state equality constraint for the conventional KF used in the fine north-finding filtering phase is derived. Then, a constrained KF using the state equality constraint is proposed and studied in depth. Estimation behaviors of the concerned navigation errors when implementing the conventional KF scheme and the constrained KF scheme during stationary north-finding are investigated analytically by the stochastic observability approach, which can provide explicit formulations of the navigation errors with influencing variables. Finally, multiple practical experimental tests at a fixed position are done on a postulate system to compare the stationary north-finding performance of the two filtering schemes. In conclusion, this study has successfully extended the utilization of the stochastic observability approach for analytic descriptions of estimation behaviors of the concerned navigation errors, and the constrained KF scheme has demonstrated its superiority over the conventional KF scheme for ARIMU stationary north-finding both theoretically and practically. PMID:25688588
Solution of two-level variational inequality
Kalashnikov, V.V.; Kalashnikova, N.I.
1995-03-01
The mathematical programming problem with variational inequality constraints, or the complementary problem, often arises in the analysis of physical and socio-economic systems. At present, such problems are mostly solved by heuristic methods. In a recent paper, Harker and Choi described an approach based on external penalty functions, which is applied after restating the variational inequality constraint in optimization form. An alternative approach to the solution of the problem conversely involves restating its optimization part in the form of an appropriate variational inequality, whose solution is then sought on the set of feasible vectors that satisfy the original inequality constraint. In this paper, we propose a penalty technique for solving the resulting problem, which is accordingly reduced to a one-level variational inequality dependent on a penalty parameter.
A fast multigrid algorithm for energy minimization under planar density constraints.
Ron, D.; Safro, I.; Brandt, A.; Mathematics and Computer Science; Weizmann Inst. of Science
2010-09-07
The two-dimensional layout optimization problem reinforced by the efficient space utilization demand has a wide spectrum of practical applications. Formulating the problem as a nonlinear minimization problem under planar equality and/or inequality density constraints, we present a linear time multigrid algorithm for solving a correction to this problem. The method is demonstrated in various graph drawing (visualization) instances.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hoheisel, C.; Vogelsang, R.; Schoen, M.
1987-01-01
The vectorization of FORTRAN programmes for the computation of the forces in molecular dynamics (MD) calculations are described. For systems containing linear molecules, two equivalent MD methods can be used: the Singer method and the constraints method. The FORTRAN vector code is presented and discussed for both methods. A comparison of computational times on the CYBER 205 is presented. For the two-centre Lennard-Jones potential, the constraints algorithm becomes increasingly less efficient than the Singer algorithm when executed on the CYBER 205. The reason for this is the difference in the neighbour-list which is made for the centre of each molecule in the Singer method and for each site in the molecule in the constraints method. Both programmes run about a factor of 15 faster on the Cyber 205 than on the conventional computer Cyber 175, for 108 or 256 linear molecules.
Strong monogamy inequalities for four qubits
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Regula, Bartosz; Osterloh, Andreas; Adesso, Gerardo
2016-05-01
We investigate possible generalizations of the Coffman-Kundu-Wootters monogamy inequality to four qubits, accounting for multipartite entanglement in addition to the bipartite terms. We show that the most natural extension of the inequality does not hold in general, and we describe the violations of this inequality in detail. We investigate alternative ways to extend the monogamy inequality to express a constraint on entanglement sharing valid for all four-qubit states, and perform an extensive numerical analysis of randomly generated four-qubit states to explore the properties of such extensions.
Bardhan, Jaydeep P.; Altman, Michael D.
2009-01-01
We present a partial-differential-equation (PDE)-constrained approach for optimizing a molecule’s electrostatic interactions with a target molecule. The approach, which we call reverse-Schur co-optimization, can be more than two orders of magnitude faster than the traditional approach to electrostatic optimization. The efficiency of the co-optimization approach may enhance the value of electrostatic optimization for ligand-design efforts–in such projects, it is often desirable to screen many candidate ligands for their viability, and the optimization of electrostatic interactions can improve ligand binding affinity and specificity. The theoretical basis for electrostatic optimization derives from linear-response theory, most commonly continuum models, and simple assumptions about molecular binding processes. Although the theory has been used successfully to study a wide variety of molecular binding events, its implications have not yet been fully explored, in part due to the computational expense associated with the optimization. The co-optimization algorithm achieves improved performance by solving the optimization and electrostatic simulation problems simultaneously, and is applicable to both unconstrained and constrained optimization problems. Reverse-Schur co-optimization resembles other well-known techniques for solving optimization problems with PDE constraints. Model problems as well as realistic examples validate the reverse-Schur method, and demonstrate that our technique and alternative PDE-constrained methods scale very favorably compared to the standard approach. Regularization, which ordinarily requires an explicit representation of the objective function, can be included using an approximate Hessian calculated using the new BIBEE/P (boundary-integral-based electrostatics estimation by preconditioning) method. PMID:23055839
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Eliazar, Iddo
2016-07-01
The study of socioeconomic inequality is of substantial importance, scientific and general alike. The graphic visualization of inequality is commonly conveyed by Lorenz curves. While Lorenz curves are a highly effective statistical tool for quantifying the distribution of wealth in human societies, they are less effective a tool for the visual depiction of socioeconomic inequality. This paper introduces an alternative to Lorenz curves-the hill curves. On the one hand, the hill curves are a potent scientific tool: they provide detailed scans of the rich-poor gaps in human societies under consideration, and are capable of accommodating infinitely many degrees of freedom. On the other hand, the hill curves are a powerful infographic tool: they visualize inequality in a most vivid and tangible way, with no quantitative skills that are required in order to grasp the visualization. The application of hill curves extends far beyond socioeconomic inequality. Indeed, the hill curves are highly effective 'hyperspectral' measures of statistical variability that are applicable in the context of size distributions at large. This paper establishes the notion of hill curves, analyzes them, and describes their application in the context of general size distributions.
QCD inequalities for hadron interactions.
Detmold, William
2015-06-01
We derive generalizations of the Weingarten-Witten QCD mass inequalities for particular multihadron systems. For systems of any number of identical pseudoscalar mesons of maximal isospin, these inequalities prove that near threshold interactions between the constituent mesons must be repulsive and that no bound states can form in these channels. Similar constraints in less symmetric systems are also extracted. These results are compatible with experimental results (where known) and recent lattice QCD calculations, and also lead to a more stringent bound on the nucleon mass than previously derived, m_{N}≥3/2m_{π}. PMID:26196617
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Spekkens, Robert
2010-03-01
The Bell-Kochen-Specker theorem demonstrates that the predictions of quantum theory are inconsistent with a noncontextual hidden variable model. Significantly, the notion of noncontextuality to which it appeals is only well-defined for models of quantum theory as opposed to models of an arbitrary physical theory and then only for projective measurements and deterministic models thereof. By contrast, the notion of local causality introduced by Bell is not so restricted in its scope. In this talk, I present an operational definition of noncontextuality that recovers the traditional notion as a special case and allows one to define ``noncontextuality inequalities'' for experimental statistics. I will demonstrate that a particular two-party information-processing task, ``parity-oblivious multiplexing,'' is powered by contextuality in the sense that there is an inequality that bounds its performance in noncontextual models, and I will report on an experimental violation of this inequality in good agreement with the quantum predictions. Joint work with Daniel Buzacott, Tony Keehn, Ben Toner and Geoff Pryde.
Entropy inequalities and Bell inequalities for two-qubit systems
Santos, Emilio
2004-02-01
Sufficient conditions for the nonviolation of the Bell-Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt inequalities in a mixed state of a two-qubit system are: (1) the linear entropy of the state is not smaller than 0.457; (2) the sum of the conditional linear entropies is not smaller than -0.086; (3) the von Neumann entropy is not smaller than 0.833; and (4) the sum of the conditional von Neumann entropies is not smaller than 0.280.
Vladas Tvaskis; John Arrington; Michael Christy; Rolf Ent; Cynthia Keppel; Yongguang Liang; Grahame Vittorini
2006-01-26
The effects of two-photon exchange corrections, suggested to explain the difference between measurements of the proton elastic electromagnetic form factors using the polarization transfer and Rosenbluth techniques, have been studied in elastic and inelastic scattering data. Such corrections could introduce epsilon-dependent non-linearities in inelastic Rosenbluth separations, where epsilon is the virtual photon polarization parameter. It is concluded that such non-linear effects are consistent with zero for elastic, resonance, and deep-inelastic scattering for all Q{sup 2} and W{sup 2} values measured.
Agnor, Craig B.; Lin, D. N. C.
2012-02-01
We examine how the late divergent migration of Jupiter and Saturn may have perturbed the terrestrial planets. Using a modified secular model we have identified six secular resonances between the {nu}{sub 5} frequency of Jupiter and Saturn and the four apsidal eigenfrequencies of the terrestrial planets (g{sub 1-4}). We derive analytic upper limits on the eccentricity and orbital migration timescale of Jupiter and Saturn when these resonances were encountered to avoid perturbing the eccentricities of the terrestrial planets to values larger than the observed ones. Because of the small amplitudes of the j = 2, 3 terrestrial eigenmodes the g{sub 2} - {nu}{sub 5} and g{sub 3} - {nu}{sub 5} resonances provide the strongest constraints on giant planet migration. If Jupiter and Saturn migrated with eccentricities comparable to their present-day values, smooth migration with exponential timescales characteristic of planetesimal-driven migration ({tau} {approx} 5-10 Myr) would have perturbed the eccentricities of the terrestrial planets to values greatly exceeding the observed ones. This excitation may be mitigated if the eccentricity of Jupiter was small during the migration epoch, migration was very rapid (e.g., {tau} {approx}< 0.5 Myr perhaps via planet-planet scattering or instability-driven migration) or the observed small eccentricity amplitudes of the j = 2, 3 terrestrial modes result from low probability cancellation of several large amplitude contributions. Results of orbital integrations show that very short migration timescales ({tau} < 0.5 Myr), characteristic of instability-driven migration, may also perturb the terrestrial planets' eccentricities by amounts comparable to their observed values. We discuss the implications of these constraints for the relative timing of terrestrial planet formation, giant planet migration, and the origin of the so-called Late Heavy Bombardment of the Moon 3.9 {+-} 0.1 Ga ago. We suggest that the simplest way to satisfy these
Quantum Griffiths Inequalities
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Miyao, Tadahiro
2016-07-01
We present a general framework of Griffiths inequalities for quantum systems. Our approach is based on operator inequalities associated with self-dual cones and provides a consistent viewpoint of the Griffiths inequality. As examples, we discuss the quantum Ising model, quantum rotor model, Bose-Hubbard model, and Hubbard model. We present a model-independent structure that governs the correlation inequalities.
Quantum Griffiths Inequalities
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Miyao, Tadahiro
2016-06-01
We present a general framework of Griffiths inequalities for quantum systems. Our approach is based on operator inequalities associated with self-dual cones and provides a consistent viewpoint of the Griffiths inequality. As examples, we discuss the quantum Ising model, quantum rotor model, Bose-Hubbard model, and Hubbard model. We present a model-independent structure that governs the correlation inequalities.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sawada, Natsuki; Morota, Tomokatsu; Kato, Shinsuke; Ishihara, Yoshiaki; Hiramatsu, Yoshihiro
2016-05-01
Gravity data obtained from the Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory have revealed linear gravity anomalies (LGAs) formed by the early global expansion of the Moon and subsequent magma intrusion. In this study, using Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter topographic data, we investigated topographic profiles across LGAs to verify that they were formed by extensional tectonics. We found that 17 of the 20 LGAs investigated exhibited a valley structure, suggesting that they were formed by tensile stress. Assuming that these topographic depressions accompanied graben formation, the increase in the lunar radius is estimated to be on the order of several tens of meters. On the other hand, assuming that these topographic depressions accompanied flexure of elastic lithosphere due to the LGA load, the elastic thickness during the LGA formation is estimated as ~10 km. The crater frequencies in the vicinity of LGAs indicate that the peak tectonic activity occurred before the basin-forming epoch.
Input-output finite-time stabilization of linear systems with finite-time boundedness.
Guo, Yang; Yao, Yu; Wang, Shicheng; Ma, Kemao; Liu, Kai; Guo, Jian
2014-07-01
The paper presents linear system Input-Output Finite-Time Stabilization (IO-FTS) method under Finite-Time Boundedness (FTB) constraint. A state feedback controller is designed, via Linear Matrix Inequalities (LMIs), to guarantee the system both IO-FTS and FTB. The proposed methods are applied to the guidance design of a class of terminal guidance systems to suppress disturbances with IO-FTS method and FTB constraints simultaneously satisfied. The simulation results illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed methods. PMID:24947432
Isoperimetric inequality on conformally hyperbolic manifolds
Kesel'man, V M
2003-04-30
It is shown that on an arbitrary non-compact Riemannian manifold of conformally hyperbolic type the isoperimetric inequality can be taken by a conformal change of the metric to the same canonical linear form as in the case of the standard hyperbolic Lobachevskii space. Both the absolute isoperimetric inequality and the relative one (for manifolds with boundary) are obtained. This work develops the results and methods of a joint paper with Zorich, in which the absolute isoperimetric inequality was obtained under a certain additional condition; the resulting statements are definitive in a certain sense.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Skielboe, Andreas; Pancoast, Anna; Treu, Tommaso; Park, Daeseong; Barth, Aaron J.; Bentz, Misty C.
2015-11-01
Reverberation mapping probes the structure of the broad emission-line region (BLR) in active galactic nuclei (AGN). The kinematics of the BLR gas can be used to measure the mass of the central supermassive black hole. The main uncertainty affecting black hole mass determinations is the structure of the BLR. We present a new method for reverberation mapping based on regularized linear inversion (RLI) that includes modelling of the AGN continuum light curves. This enables fast calculation of velocity-resolved response maps to constrain BLR structure. RLI allows for negative response, such as when some areas of the BLR respond in inverse proportion to a change in ionizing continuum luminosity. We present time delays, integrated response functions, and velocity-delay maps for the H β broad emission line in five nearby AGN, as well as for H α and H γ in Arp 151, using data from the Lick AGN Monitoring Project 2008. We find indications of prompt response in three of the objects (Arp 151, NGC 5548, and SBS 1116+583A) with additional prompt response in the red wing of H β. In SBS 1116+583A we find evidence for a multimodal broad prompt response followed by a second narrow response at 10 d. We find no clear indications of negative response. The results are complementary to, and consistent with, other methods such as cross-correlation, maximum entropy, and dynamical modelling. RLI with continuum light-curve modelling provides a fast, complementary method for velocity-resolved reverberation mapping and is suitable for use on large data sets.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Jensen, Arthur R.
1975-01-01
Some of the key problems of educational equality -- equality of opportunities and inequality of performance; individual differences vs. group differences, coping with group inequality -- are made explicit. (Author/KM)
Kalman Filter Constraint Tuning for Turbofan Engine Health Estimation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Simon, Dan; Simon, Donald L.
2005-01-01
Kalman filters are often used to estimate the state variables of a dynamic system. However, in the application of Kalman filters some known signal information is often either ignored or dealt with heuristically. For instance, state variable constraints are often neglected because they do not fit easily into the structure of the Kalman filter. Recently published work has shown a new method for incorporating state variable inequality constraints in the Kalman filter, which has been shown to generally improve the filter s estimation accuracy. However, the incorporation of inequality constraints poses some risk to the estimation accuracy as the Kalman filter is theoretically optimal. This paper proposes a way to tune the filter constraints so that the state estimates follow the unconstrained (theoretically optimal) filter when the confidence in the unconstrained filter is high. When confidence in the unconstrained filter is not so high, then we use our heuristic knowledge to constrain the state estimates. The confidence measure is based on the agreement of measurement residuals with their theoretical values. The algorithm is demonstrated on a linearized simulation of a turbofan engine to estimate engine health.
Graphing Inequalities, Connecting Meaning
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Switzer, J. Matt
2014-01-01
Students often have difficulty with graphing inequalities (see Filloy, Rojano, and Rubio 2002; Drijvers 2002), and J. Matt Switzer's students were no exception. Although students can produce graphs for simple inequalities, they often struggle when the format of the inequality is unfamiliar. Even when producing a correct graph of an…
Inequality aversion, health inequalities and health achievement.
Wagstaff, Adam
2002-07-01
This paper addresses two issues. The first is how health inequalities can be measured in such a way as to take into account policymakers' attitudes towards inequality. The Gini coefficient and the related concentration index embody one particular set of value judgements. By generalising these indices, alternative sets of value judgements can be reflected. The other issue addressed is how information on health inequality can be used together with information on the mean of the relevant distribution to obtain an overall measure of health "achievement". PMID:12146594
Darzi, Soodabeh; Kiong, Tiong Sieh; Islam, Mohammad Tariqul; Ismail, Mahamod; Kibria, Salehin; Salem, Balasem
2014-01-01
Linear constraint minimum variance (LCMV) is one of the adaptive beamforming techniques that is commonly applied to cancel interfering signals and steer or produce a strong beam to the desired signal through its computed weight vectors. However, weights computed by LCMV usually are not able to form the radiation beam towards the target user precisely and not good enough to reduce the interference by placing null at the interference sources. It is difficult to improve and optimize the LCMV beamforming technique through conventional empirical approach. To provide a solution to this problem, artificial intelligence (AI) technique is explored in order to enhance the LCMV beamforming ability. In this paper, particle swarm optimization (PSO), dynamic mutated artificial immune system (DM-AIS), and gravitational search algorithm (GSA) are incorporated into the existing LCMV technique in order to improve the weights of LCMV. The simulation result demonstrates that received signal to interference and noise ratio (SINR) of target user can be significantly improved by the integration of PSO, DM-AIS, and GSA in LCMV through the suppression of interference in undesired direction. Furthermore, the proposed GSA can be applied as a more effective technique in LCMV beamforming optimization as compared to the PSO technique. The algorithms were implemented using Matlab program. PMID:25147859
Sieh Kiong, Tiong; Tariqul Islam, Mohammad; Ismail, Mahamod; Salem, Balasem
2014-01-01
Linear constraint minimum variance (LCMV) is one of the adaptive beamforming techniques that is commonly applied to cancel interfering signals and steer or produce a strong beam to the desired signal through its computed weight vectors. However, weights computed by LCMV usually are not able to form the radiation beam towards the target user precisely and not good enough to reduce the interference by placing null at the interference sources. It is difficult to improve and optimize the LCMV beamforming technique through conventional empirical approach. To provide a solution to this problem, artificial intelligence (AI) technique is explored in order to enhance the LCMV beamforming ability. In this paper, particle swarm optimization (PSO), dynamic mutated artificial immune system (DM-AIS), and gravitational search algorithm (GSA) are incorporated into the existing LCMV technique in order to improve the weights of LCMV. The simulation result demonstrates that received signal to interference and noise ratio (SINR) of target user can be significantly improved by the integration of PSO, DM-AIS, and GSA in LCMV through the suppression of interference in undesired direction. Furthermore, the proposed GSA can be applied as a more effective technique in LCMV beamforming optimization as compared to the PSO technique. The algorithms were implemented using Matlab program. PMID:25147859
Educational Inequality and Income Inequality: An Empirical Study on China
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Yang, Jun; Huang, Xiao; Li, Xiaoyu
2009-01-01
Based on the endogenous growth theory, this paper uses the Gini coefficient to measure educational inequality and studies the empirical relationship between educational inequality and income inequality through a simultaneous equation model. The results show that: (1) Income inequality leads to educational inequality while the reduction of…
Aggregation-based fuzzy dual-mode control for nonlinear systems with mixed constraints
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wen, Jiwei; Liu, Fei
2012-05-01
A new receding horizon dual-mode control method is proposed for a class of discrete-time nonlinear systems represented by Takagi-Sugeno (T-S) fuzzy models subject to mixed constraints including hard input constraint and soft state constraint. On the one hand, our receding horizon scheme is based upon an online optimisation that utilises optimised sequence plus local linear feedback. On the other hand, due to the consideration of computation burden, an amplitude decaying aggregation strategy is introduced to reduce the number of optimisation variables. The proposed controller is obtained using semi-definite programming, which can be easily solved by means of linear matrix inequalities. A numerical example is given to verify the feasibility and efficiency of the proposed method.
A stochastic framework for inequality constrained estimation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Roese-Koerner, Lutz; Devaraju, Balaji; Sneeuw, Nico; Schuh, Wolf-Dieter
2012-11-01
Quality description is one of the key features of geodetic inference. This is even more true if additional information about the parameters is available that could improve the accuracy of the estimate. However, if such additional information is provided in the form of inequality constraints, most of the standard tools of quality description (variance propagation, confidence ellipses, etc.) cannot be applied, as there is no analytical relationship between parameters and observations. Some analytical methods have been developed for describing the quality of inequality constrained estimates. However, these methods either ignore the probability mass in the infeasible region or the influence of inactive constraints and therefore yield only approximate results. In this article, a frequentist framework for quality description of inequality constrained least-squares estimates is developed, based on the Monte Carlo method. The quality is described in terms of highest probability density regions. Beyond this accuracy estimate, the proposed method allows to determine the influence and contribution of each constraint on each parameter using Lagrange multipliers. Plausibility of the constraints is checked by hypothesis testing and estimating the probability mass in the infeasible region. As more probability mass concentrates in less space, applying the proposed method results in smaller confidence regions compared to the unconstrained ordinary least-squares solution. The method is applied to describe the quality of estimates in the problem of approximating a time series with positive definite functions.
Mattison, Siobhán M; Smith, Eric A; Shenk, Mary K; Cochrane, Ethan E
2016-07-01
Understanding how systems of political and economic inequality evolved from relatively egalitarian origins has long been a focus of anthropological inquiry. Many hypotheses have been suggested to link socio-ecological features with the rise and spread of inequality, and empirical tests of these hypotheses in prehistoric and extant societies are increasing. In this review, we synthesize several streams of theory relevant to understanding the evolutionary origins, spread, and adaptive significance of inequality. We argue that while inequality may be produced by a variety of localized processes, its evolution is fundamentally dependent on the economic defensibility and transmissibility of wealth. Furthermore, these properties of wealth could become persistent drivers of inequality only following a shift to a more stable climate in the Holocene. We conclude by noting several key areas for future empirical research, emphasizing the need for more analyses of contemporary shifts toward institutionalized inequality as well as prehistoric cases. PMID:27519458
Xie, Y.
2014-01-01
Inequalities in scientists’ contributions to science and their rewards have always been very high. There are good reasons to propose that inequalities in science across research institutions and across individual scientists have increased in recent years. In the meantime, however, globalization and internet technology have narrowed inequalities in science across nations and facilitated the expansion of science and rapid production of scientific discoveries through international collaborative networks. PMID:24855244
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zohren, Stefan; Gill, Richard D.
2008-03-01
We present a much simplified version of the Collins-Gisin-Linden-Massar-Popescu inequality for the 2×2×d Bell scenario. Numerical maximization of the violation of this inequality over all states and measurements suggests that the optimal state is far from maximally entangled, while the best measurements are the same as conjectured best measurements for the maximally entangled state. For very large values of d the inequality seems to reach its minimal value given by the probability constraints. This gives numerical evidence for a tight quantum Bell inequality (or generalized Csirelson inequality) for the 2×2×∞ scenario.
An Application of Sylvester's Rank Inequality
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kung, Sidney H.
2011-01-01
Using two well known criteria for the diagonalizability of a square matrix plus an extended form of Sylvester's Rank Inequality, the author presents a new condition for the diagonalization of a real matrix from which one can obtain the eigenvectors by simply multiplying some associated matrices without solving a linear system of simultaneous…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Robertson, Peter J.
2014-01-01
Structural explanations of career choice and development are well established. Socioeconomic inequality represents a powerful factor shaping career trajectories and economic outcomes achieved by individuals. However, a robust and growing body of evidence demonstrates a strong link between socioeconomic inequality and health outcomes. Work is a key…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Sloyer, Clifford W.
1975-01-01
The inequality involving the arithmetic and geometric means is a powerful tool in dealing with applications of mathematics. It is very important in geometric programming. The article discusses this inequality and demonstrates two real world applications accessible to secondary teachers and students. (Author/KM)
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Smith, Dorothy E.
2000-01-01
Inequalities produced by the school system are an important topic for feminist thought and debate. Schools are an integral part of the institutional processes for the differential allocation of agency. They reproduce the social organization of inequality and exclusion at multiple levels. School systems are well-insulated from change initiatives…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Jensen, Arthur R.
1975-01-01
An examination of the implications of attempting to reconcile philosophical beliefs concerning equality of opportunity with observed differences in equality of performance, which argues that there can be no real escape from inequality. Efforts to ignore, deny, or cope with the issue of group differences and group inequality must exact a price,…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Eliazar, Iddo
2015-11-01
How are growth and inequality related? Evidently, this question is of prime importance in the social sciences, as socioeconomic inequality is one of the major forces shaping the course of human history. Moreover, this question is of importance also in the physical sciences, as the notion of socioeconomic inequality can be applied to analyze physical growth. In this paper we consider general growth processes whose dynamics are governed by ordinary differential equations, and present a comprehensive inequality-based socioeconophysical study of their evolutions. From a social-sciences perspective, the results established describe the inequality that will be generated by different types of economic growth. From a physical-sciences perspective, the results established provide a socioeconomic classification of growth processes.
Social inequalities and health inequity in Morocco
Boutayeb, Abdesslam
2006-01-01
Background According to the last census, Morocco has a population approaching 30 million people. The country has made good progress in the control of preventable childhood diseases but social inequalities and health inequities remain major problems for the third millennium. Despite the progress achieved during the last decade, the country still ranks at the 125th place according to the Human Development Index. This unpleasant position is mainly explained by illiteracy, education and health indicators. Method Our study was based mainly on annual reports and regular publications released by the United Nations (UN), United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), World Health Organisation (WHO), The Moroccan Health Ministry and related papers published in international journals. Results and discussion As indicated by the last Arab Human Development Reports (AHDR 2002, AHDR 2003, AHDR 2004) and implicitly confirmed by the "National Initiative for Human Development" (NIHD) launched in May 2005 by the King of Morocco, many districts and shanty towns, urban or peri-urban, and a multitude of rural communes live in situations characterized by difficult access to basic social services of which education and health are examples. Conclusion Recent evidence showed that improved health is more than a consequence of development. It is a central input into economic and social development and poverty reduction. Serious initiatives for human development should consider the reduction of social inequalities and health inequities as a first priority. Otherwise, the eventual development achieved cannot be sustained. PMID:16522204
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Emary, Clive; Lambert, Neill; Nori, Franco
2014-01-01
In contrast to the spatial Bell's inequalities which probe entanglement between spatially separated systems, the Leggett-Garg inequalities test the correlations of a single system measured at different times. Violation of a genuine Leggett-Garg test implies either the absence of a realistic description of the system or the impossibility of measuring the system without disturbing it. Quantum mechanics violates the inequalities on both accounts and the original motivation for these inequalities was as a test for quantum coherence in macroscopic systems. The last few years has seen a number of experimental tests and violations of these inequalities in a variety of microscopic systems such as superconducting qubits, nuclear spins, and photons. In this article, we provide an introduction to the Leggett-Garg inequalities and review these latest experimental developments. We discuss important topics such as the significance of the non-invasive measurability assumption, the clumsiness loophole, and the role of weak measurements. Also covered are some recent theoretical proposals for the application of Leggett-Garg inequalities in quantum transport, quantum biology and nano-mechanical systems.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Yueh-Nan; Li, Che-Ming; Lambert, Neill; Chen, Shin-Liang; Ota, Yukihiro; Chen, Guang-Yin; Nori, Franco
2014-03-01
Quantum steering is the ability to remotely prepare different quantum states by using entangled pairs as a resource. Very recently, the concept of steering has been quantified with the use of inequalities, leading to substantial applications in quantum information and communication science. Here, we highlight that there exists a natural temporal analog of the steering inequality when considering measurements on a single object at different times. We give nontrivial operational meaning to violations of this temporal inequality by showing that it is connected to the security bound in the Bennett-Brassard 1984 protocol and thus may have applications in quantum communication.
Constraint Handling in Transmission Network Expansion Planning
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mallipeddi, R.; Verma, Ashu; Suganthan, P. N.; Panigrahi, B. K.; Bijwe, P. R.
Transmission network expansion planning (TNEP) is a very important and complex problem in power system. Recently, the use of metaheuristic techniques to solve TNEP is gaining more importance due to their effectiveness in handling the inequality constraints and discrete values over the conventional gradient based methods. Evolutionary algorithms (EAs) generally perform unconstrained search and require some additional mechanism to handle constraints. In EA literature, various constraint handling techniques have been proposed. However, to solve TNEP the penalty function approach is commonly used while the other constraint handling methods are untested. In this paper, we evaluate the performance of different constraint handling methods like Superiority of Feasible Solutions (SF), Self adaptive Penalty (SP),E-Constraint (EC), Stochastic Ranking (SR) and the ensemble of constraint handling techniques (ECHT) on TNEP. The potential of different constraint handling methods and their ensemble is evaluated using an IEEE 24 bus system with and without security constraints.
Entanglement estimation from Bell inequality violation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bartkiewicz, Karol; Horst, Bohdan; Lemr, Karel; Miranowicz, Adam
2013-11-01
It is well known that the violation of Bell's inequality in the form given by Clauser, Horne, Shimony, and Holt (CHSH) in two-qubit systems requires entanglement, but not vice versa, i.e., there are entangled states which do not violate the CHSH inequality. Here we compare some standard entanglement measures with violations of the CHSH inequality (as given by the Horodecki measure) for two-qubit states generated by Monte Carlo simulations. We describe states that have extremal entanglement according to the negativity, concurrence, and relative entropy of entanglement for a given value of the CHSH violation. We explicitly find these extremal states by applying the generalized method of Lagrange multipliers based on the Karush-Kuhn-Tucker conditions. The found minimal and maximal states define the range of entanglement accessible for any two-qubit states that violate the CHSH inequality by the same amount. We also find extremal states for the concurrence versus negativity by considering only such states which do not violate the CHSH inequality. Furthermore, we describe an experimentally efficient linear-optical method to determine the highest Horodecki degree of the CHSH violation for arbitrary mixed states of two polarization qubits. By assuming to have access simultaneously to two copies of the states, our method requires only six discrete measurement settings instead of nine settings, which are usually considered.
Generalized quasi variational inequalities
Noor, M.A.
1996-12-31
In this paper, we establish the equivalence between the generalized quasi variational inequalities and the generalized implicit Wiener-Hopf equations using essentially the projection technique. This equivalence is used to suggest and analyze a number of new iterative algorithms for solving generalized quasi variational inequalities and the related complementarity problems. The convergence criteria is also considered. The results proved in this paper represent a significant improvement and refinement of the previously known results.
Michielsen, K.; De Raedt, H.; Hess, K.
2011-03-28
We discuss the relation between Bell's and Boole's inequality. We apply both to the analysis of measurement results in idealized Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen-Bohm experiments. We present a local realist model that violates Bell's and Boole's inequality due to the absence of Boole's one-to-one correspondence between the two-valued variables of the mathematical description and the two-valued measurement results.
Robust tracking control for an air-breathing hypersonic vehicle with input constraints
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gao, Gang; Wang, Jinzhi; Wang, Xianghua
2014-12-01
The focus of this paper is on the design and simulation of robust tracking control for an air-breathing hypersonic vehicle (AHV), which is affected by high nonlinearity, uncertain parameters and input constraints. The linearisation method is employed for the longitudinal AHV model about a specific trim condition, and then considering the additive uncertainties of three parameters, the linearised model is just in the form of affine parameter dependence. From this point, the linear parameter-varying method is applied to design the desired controller. The poles for the closed-loop system of the linearised model are placed into a desired vertical strip, and the quadratic stability of the closed-loop system is guaranteed. Input constraints of the AHV are addressed by additional linear matrix inequalities. Finally, the designed controller is evaluated on the nonlinear AHV model and simulation results demonstrate excellent tracking performance with good robustness.
Chen, Pang-Chia
2013-01-01
This paper investigates multi-objective controller design approaches for nonlinear boiler-turbine dynamics subject to actuator magnitude and rate constraints. System nonlinearity is handled by a suitable linear parameter varying system representation with drum pressure as the system varying parameter. Variation of the drum pressure is represented by suitable norm-bounded uncertainty and affine dependence on system matrices. Based on linear matrix inequality algorithms, the magnitude and rate constraints on the actuator and the deviations of fluid density and water level are formulated while the tracking abilities on the drum pressure and power output are optimized. Variation ranges of drum pressure and magnitude tracking commands are used as controller design parameters, determined according to the boiler-turbine's operation range. PMID:22959740
Global Oral Health Inequalities
Garcia, I.; Tabak, L.A.
2011-01-01
Despite impressive worldwide improvements in oral health, inequalities in oral health status among and within countries remain a daunting public health challenge. Oral health inequalities arise from a complex web of health determinants, including social, behavioral, economic, genetic, environmental, and health system factors. Eliminating these inequalities cannot be accomplished in isolation of oral health from overall health, or without recognizing that oral health is influenced at multiple individual, family, community, and health systems levels. For several reasons, this is an opportune time for global efforts targeted at reducing oral health inequalities. Global health is increasingly viewed not just as a humanitarian obligation, but also as a vehicle for health diplomacy and part of the broader mission to reduce poverty, build stronger economies, and strengthen global security. Despite the global economic recession, there are trends that portend well for support of global health efforts: increased globalization of research and development, growing investment from private philanthropy, an absolute growth of spending in research and innovation, and an enhanced interest in global health among young people. More systematic and far-reaching efforts will be required to address oral health inequalities through the engagement of oral health funders and sponsors of research, with partners from multiple public and private sectors. The oral health community must be “at the table” with other health disciplines and create opportunities for eliminating inequalities through collaborations that can harness both the intellectual and financial resources of multiple sectors and institutions. PMID:21490232
[Inequalities in health in Italy].
Caiazzo, Antonio; Cardano, Mario; Cois, Ester; Costa, Giuseppe; Marinacci, Chiara; Spadea, Teresa; Vannoni, Francesca; Venturini, Lorenzo
2004-01-01
Socioeconomic inequality and its impact on health is a growing concern in the European public health debate. In many countries, the issue is moving away from description towards the identification of the determinants of inequalities and the development of policies explicitly aimed at reducing inequalities in health. In Italy, ten years after the publication of the first report on inequalities in health, this topic is seldom present on the agenda of public policy makers. The purpose of this report is to update the Italian profile of social variation in health and health care in order to stimulate the debate on ways to tackle inequalities in health that are preventable. In the first section of this book, the threefold objective is to describe the principal mechanisms involved in the generation of social inequalities in health (Introduction); to report Italian data on the distribution and magnitude of this phenomenon in the last decade; and to evaluate policies and interventions in both the social (chapter 1.9, Section I) and the health sector (chapter 2.3, Section I), which are potentially useful to reduce health inequalities. It is intended for anyone who is in a position to contribute t o decision-making that will benefit the health of communities. For this reason, chapters are organized by specific determinants of inequalities on which interentions may have an impact. The methodological approach in the second section focuses on the best methods to monitor social inequalities including recommendations on social indicators, sources of information and study models, based on European guidelines revised for the Italian situation. According to data from national and local studies, mortality increases linearly with social disadvantage for a wide range of indicators at both the individual (education, social class, income, quality of housing) and the geographical level (deprivation indexes computed at different levels of aggregation). This positive correlation is evident
Observers for Systems with Nonlinearities Satisfying an Incremental Quadratic Inequality
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Acikmese, Ahmet Behcet; Corless, Martin
2004-01-01
We consider the problem of state estimation for nonlinear time-varying systems whose nonlinearities satisfy an incremental quadratic inequality. These observer results unifies earlier results in the literature; and extend it to some additional classes of nonlinearities. Observers are presented which guarantee that the state estimation error exponentially converges to zero. Observer design involves solving linear matrix inequalities for the observer gain matrices. Results are illustrated by application to a simple model of an underwater.
The Relationship between Income Inequality and Inequality in Schooling
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Mayer, Susan E.
2010-01-01
Children of affluent parents get more schooling than children of poor parents, which seems to imply that reducing income inequality would reduce inequality in schooling. Similarly, one of the best predictors of an individual's income is his educational attainment, which seems to imply that reducing inequality in schooling will reduce income…
The demographics of inequality.
Pestieau, P
1989-01-01
"This paper presents a survey of recent literature on the effects of demographic variables on economic inequality. First, a number of conceptual and methodological questions are raised and discussed. They pertain to what is meant by inequality, what the range of demographic variables is, and how variable and endogenous are the demographic variables most widely used. The paper then turns to a review of empirical works on the distributive incidence of the following demographic variables: baby boomers entering the job market, aging population, variable fertility and mortality rates, internal and external migrations, divorce and widowhood, and finally donations and bequests. It appears that a lot of caution is needed when assessing the incidence of any demographic variable changing the size of the population because in this case standard inequality measures yield conflicting signals." The geographical focus is on developed countries. PMID:12315947
Trends in Global Gender Inequality
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Dorius, Shawn F.; Firebaugh, Glenn
2010-01-01
This study investigates trends in gender inequality throughout the world. Using data encompassing a large majority of the world's population, we examine trends in recent decades for key indicators of gender inequality in education, mortality, political representation and economic activity. We find that gender inequality is declining in virtually…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bracey, Gerald W.
2003-01-01
Reviews two recent books on different aspects of socioeconomic-status-based inequalities in the school readiness of children entering kindergarten: Lee and Burkam's "Inequality at the Starting Gate" and Coley's "An Uneven Start: Indicators of Inequality in School Readiness." Also discusses "America's Children: Key National Indicators of Well-Being…
Lorentz-invariant Bell's inequality
Kim, Won Tae; Son, Edwin J.
2005-01-01
We study Bell's inequality in relation to the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen paradox in the relativistic regime. For this purpose, a relativistically covariant analysis is used in the calculation of the Bell's inequality, which results in the maximally violated Bell's inequality in any reference frame.
Optimizing Inequality Constrained Priors in Bayesian Networks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Holmes, Dawn E.
2005-11-01
Intelligent systems based on Bayesian networks have been successful in medical diagnosis, finance and many other areas. Updating probabilities in Bayesian networks relies on algorithms that require complete causal information. Sensitivity analysis now strongly indicates that probabilities in Bayesian networks are not robust and this reinforces the view that a sound theoretical model for finding a minimally prejudiced estimate of the prior distribution is desirable. In this paper we are concerned with how to find the optimum prior distribution, given all and only the knowledge available. In particular, we show how to integrate prior knowledge expressed in terms of inequality constraints, into a Bayesian network based intelligent system.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Macqueen, Suzanne Elizabeth
2013-01-01
The inequity of streaming as a method of organising classes was established by research conducted in the 1960s and 1970s. While the practice produces small advantages for limited groups of students, it hinders the academic and social advancement of the majority. Although streaming has declined, new forms of achievement grouping have emerged, with…
Cole, Elaine
2016-06-15
A team of nursing students has won a prestigious RCNi award for organising a conference aimed at reducing health inequalities affecting people with learning disabilities. The Learning Disability Awareness Network (LDAN) team was crowned winner of the RCNi Andrew Parker Student Nurse award 2016 at a ceremony held at London's Westminster Park Plaza on May 6. PMID:27305237
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Jacobs, Jerry A., Ed.
These 14 papers address many dimensions of gender inequality at work. The empirical studies include examinations of original surveys, secondary analyses of large data sets, and historical reports assaying the significance of personal, family, and structural factors with regard to gender in the workplace. An introduction (Jacobs) sketches how sex…
Racial Inequality in Education.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Troyna, Barry, Ed.
Contributors to this book are united in their commitment to combating racial inequality in education and in outlining the extent and manner in which racism and its associated practices have become embedded in the institutional and sociopolitical structures of the United Kingdom. The following chapters are included: (1) "A Conceptual Overview of…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Melamed, David; North, Michael S.
2010-01-01
Recently an article in "Personality and Social Psychology Review" urged social psychologists to reacquire their "sociological imagination" and incorporate broader, structural factors in their work (Oishi, Kesebir, and Snyder 2009). Studies of social inequality in particular seem ripe for this kind of collaboration. Psychological investigations…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Jones, Faustine C.
1973-01-01
Critically reviews the current combined writing of Moynihan, Glazer, Herrnstein, Armor, Banfield, Jensen and others, discussing historical perspectives on inequality, the idea of equality, access to schooling as a means toward equality, unequal economic opportunity, and misrepresentations of the adequacies of the Black family. (JM)
Marginality and Triangle Inequality
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nánásiová, O. L̆ga; Valášková, L̆ubica
2010-12-01
In this paper we study conditions for the existence of a 3-dimensional s-map on a quantum logic under assumption that marginal s-maps are known. We show that the existence of such a 3-dimensional s-map depends on the triangle inequality of d-map, which on a Boolean algebra represents a measure of symmetric difference.
How Colleges Perpetuate Inequality
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Sacks, Peter
2007-01-01
Colleges, once seen as beacons of egalitarian hope, are becoming bastions of wealth and privilege that perpetuate inequality. The chance of a low-income child obtaining a bachelor's degree has not budged in three decades: Just 6 percent of students from the lowest-income families earned a bachelor's degree by age 24 in 1970, and in 2002 still only…
Looking for symmetric Bell inequalities
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bancal, Jean-Daniel; Gisin, Nicolas; Pironio, Stefano
2010-09-01
Finding all Bell inequalities for a given number of parties, measurement settings and measurement outcomes is in general a computationally hard task. We show that all Bell inequalities which are symmetric under the exchange of parties can be found by examining a symmetrized polytope which is simpler than the full Bell polytope. As an illustration of our method, we generate 238 885 new Bell inequalities and 1085 new Svetlichny inequalities. We find, in particular, facet inequalities for Bell experiments involving two parties and two measurement settings that are not of the Collins-Gisin-Linden-Massar-Popescu type.
Generalized Bell-inequality experiments and computation
Hoban, Matty J.; Wallman, Joel J.; Browne, Dan E.
2011-12-15
We consider general settings of Bell inequality experiments with many parties, where each party chooses from a finite number of measurement settings each with a finite number of outcomes. We investigate the constraints that Bell inequalities place upon the correlations possible in local hidden variable theories using a geometrical picture of correlations. We show that local hidden variable theories can be characterized in terms of limited computational expressiveness, which allows us to characterize families of Bell inequalities. The limited computational expressiveness for many settings (each with many outcomes) generalizes previous results about the many-party situation each with a choice of two possible measurements (each with two outcomes). Using this computational picture we present generalizations of the Popescu-Rohrlich nonlocal box for many parties and nonbinary inputs and outputs at each site. Finally, we comment on the effect of preprocessing on measurement data in our generalized setting and show that it becomes problematic outside of the binary setting, in that it allows local hidden variable theories to simulate maximally nonlocal correlations such as those of these generalized Popescu-Rohrlich nonlocal boxes.
Tuning of power system controllers using symbolic eigensensitivity analysis and linear programming
Xu, L.; Ahmed-Zaid, S.
1995-02-01
In this paper, a systematic method for the tuning of multiple power system controllers using symbolic eigensensitivity analysis and linear programming is presented. The concept of eigenvalue sensitivity is used here to formulate the linear first-order variation of the real part of the dominant system eigenvalue as a symbolic function of controller parameters. This eigenvalue variation is minimized iteratively subject to linear equality and inequality constraints. All controller parameters are tuned correctly when the objective function meets the desired performance criteria. In this method, no special assumptions are made on the type of power devices and linear feedback controllers present in the system. The proposed method is illustrated with three examples of a single-machine system with a power system stabilizer and a controller for a thyristor-controlled series capacitor. The tested configurations are supplemented with nonlinear time-domain simulations validating the small-signal stability results.
An algorithm for the solution of dynamic linear programs
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Psiaki, Mark L.
1989-01-01
The algorithm's objective is to efficiently solve Dynamic Linear Programs (DLP) by taking advantage of their special staircase structure. This algorithm constitutes a stepping stone to an improved algorithm for solving Dynamic Quadratic Programs, which, in turn, would make the nonlinear programming method of Successive Quadratic Programs more practical for solving trajectory optimization problems. The ultimate goal is to being trajectory optimization solution speeds into the realm of real-time control. The algorithm exploits the staircase nature of the large constraint matrix of the equality-constrained DLPs encountered when solving inequality-constrained DLPs by an active set approach. A numerically-stable, staircase QL factorization of the staircase constraint matrix is carried out starting from its last rows and columns. The resulting recursion is like the time-varying Riccati equation from multi-stage LQR theory. The resulting factorization increases the efficiency of all of the typical LP solution operations over that of a dense matrix LP code. At the same time numerical stability is ensured. The algorithm also takes advantage of dynamic programming ideas about the cost-to-go by relaxing active pseudo constraints in a backwards sweeping process. This further decreases the cost per update of the LP rank-1 updating procedure, although it may result in more changes of the active set that if pseudo constraints were relaxed in a non-stagewise fashion. The usual stability of closed-loop Linear/Quadratic optimally-controlled systems, if it carries over to strictly linear cost functions, implies that the saving due to reduced factor update effort may outweigh the cost of an increased number of updates. An aerospace example is presented in which a ground-to-ground rocket's distance is maximized. This example demonstrates the applicability of this class of algorithms to aerospace guidance. It also sheds light on the efficacy of the proposed pseudo constraint relaxation
Addressing Environmental Health Inequalities.
Gouveia, Nelson
2016-01-01
Environmental health inequalities refer to health hazards disproportionately or unfairly distributed among the most vulnerable social groups, which are generally the most discriminated, poor populations and minorities affected by environmental risks. Although it has been known for a long time that health and disease are socially determined, only recently has this idea been incorporated into the conceptual and practical framework for the formulation of policies and strategies regarding health. In this Special Issue of the International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (IJERPH), "Addressing Environmental Health Inequalities-Proceedings from the ISEE Conference 2015", we incorporate nine papers that were presented at the 27th Conference of the International Society for Environmental Epidemiology (ISEE), held in Sao Paulo, Brazil, in 2015. This small collection of articles provides a brief overview of the different aspects of this topic. Addressing environmental health inequalities is important for the transformation of our reality and for changing the actual development model towards more just, democratic, and sustainable societies driven by another form of relationship between nature, economy, science, and politics. PMID:27618906
Affine Isoperimetry and Information Theoretic Inequalities
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lv, Songjun
2012-01-01
There are essential connections between the isoperimetric theory and information theoretic inequalities. In general, the Brunn-Minkowski inequality and the entropy power inequality, as well as the classical isoperimetric inequality and the classical entropy-moment inequality, turn out to be equivalent in some certain sense, respectively. Based on…
Income inequality and mortality in metropolitan areas of the United States.
Lynch, J W; Kaplan, G A; Pamuk, E R; Cohen, R D; Heck, K E; Balfour, J L; Yen, I H
1998-01-01
OBJECTIVES: This study examined associations between income inequality and mortality in 282 US metropolitan areas. METHODS: Income inequality measures were calculated from the 1990 US Census. Mortality was calculated from National Center for Health Statistics data and modeled with weighted linear regressions of the log age-adjusted rate. RESULTS: Excess mortality between metropolitan areas with high and low income inequality ranged from 64.7 to 95.8 deaths per 100,000 depending on the inequality measure. In age-specific analyses, income inequality was most evident for infant mortality and for mortality between ages 15 and 64. CONCLUSIONS: Higher income inequality is associated with increased mortality at all per capita income levels. Areas with high income inequality and low average income had excess mortality of 139.8 deaths per 100,000 compared with areas with low inequality and high income. The magnitude of this mortality difference is comparable to the combined loss of life from lung cancer, diabetes, motor vehicle crashes, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, suicide, and homicide in 1995. Given the mortality burden associated with income inequality, public and private sector initiatives to reduce economic inequalities should be a high priority. Images FIGURE 1 PMID:9663157
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kontou, Eleni-Alexandra; Olum, Ken D.
2015-12-01
Quantum inequalities are constraints on how negative the weighted average of the renormalized stress-energy tensor of a quantum field can be. A null-projected quantum inequality can be used to prove the averaged null energy condition, which would then rule out exotic phenomena such as wormholes and time machines. In this work we derive such an inequality for a massless minimally coupled scalar field, working to first order of the Riemann tensor and its derivatives. We then use this inequality to prove the averaged null energy condition on achronal geodesics in a curved background that obeys the null convergence condition.
Unification of multiqubit polygamy inequalities
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, Jeong San
2012-03-01
I establish a unified view of polygamy of multiqubit entanglement. I first introduce a two-parameter generalization of the entanglement of assistance, namely, the unified entanglement of assistance for bipartite quantum states, and provide an analytic lower bound in two-qubit systems. I show a broad class of polygamy inequalities of multiqubit entanglement in terms of the unified entanglement of assistance that encapsulates all known multiqubit polygamy inequalities as special cases. I further show that this class of polygamy inequalities can be improved into tighter inequalities for three-qubit systems.
Multisetting Bell inequality for qudits
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ji, Se-Wan; Lee, Jinhyoung; Lim, James; Nagata, Koji; Lee, Hai-Woong
2008-11-01
We propose a generalized Bell inequality for two three-dimensional systems with three settings in each local measurement. It is shown that this inequality is maximally violated if local measurements are configured to be mutually unbiased and a composite state is maximally entangled. This feature is similar to Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt inequality for two qubits but is in contrast with the two types of inequalities, Collins-Gisin-Linden-Massar-Popescu and Son-Lee-Kim, for high-dimensional systems. The generalization to aribitrary prime-dimensional systems is discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Obata, Kenta; Huete, Alfredo R.
2014-01-01
This study investigated the mechanisms underlying the scaling effects that apply to a fraction of vegetation cover (FVC) estimates derived using two-band spectral vegetation index (VI) isoline-based linear mixture models (VI isoline-based LMM). The VIs included the normalized difference vegetation index, a soil-adjusted vegetation index, and a two-band enhanced vegetation index (EVI2). This study focused in part on the monotonicity of an area-averaged FVC estimate as a function of spatial resolution. The proof of monotonicity yielded measures of the intrinsic area-averaged FVC uncertainties due to scaling effects. The derived results demonstrate that a factor ξ, which was defined as a function of "true" and "estimated" endmember spectra of the vegetated and nonvegetated surfaces, was responsible for conveying monotonicity or nonmonotonicity. The monotonic FVC values displayed a uniform increasing or decreasing trend that was independent of the choice of the two-band VI. Conditions under which scaling effects were eliminated from the FVC were identified. Numerical simulations verifying the monotonicity and the practical utility of the scaling theory were evaluated using numerical experiments applied to Landsat7-Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) data. The findings contribute to developing scale-invariant FVC estimation algorithms for multisensor and data continuity.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wawerzinek, B.; Ritter, J. R. R.; Roy, C.
2013-08-01
We analyse travel times of shear waves, which were recorded at the MAGNUS network, to determine the 3D shear wave velocity (vS) structure underneath Southern Scandinavia. The travel time residuals are corrected for the known crustal structure of Southern Norway and weighted to account for data quality and pick uncertainties. The resulting residual pattern of subvertically incident waves is very uniform and simple. It shows delayed arrivals underneath Southern Norway compared to fast arrivals underneath the Oslo Graben and the Baltic Shield. The 3D upper mantle vS structure underneath the station network is determined by performing non-linear travel time tomography. As expected from the residual pattern the resulting tomographic model shows a simple and continuous vS perturbation pattern: a negative vS anomaly is visible underneath Southern Norway relative to the Baltic Shield in the east with a contrast of up to 4% vS and a sharp W-E dipping transition zone. Reconstruction tests reveal besides vertical smearing a good lateral reconstruction of the dipping vS transition zone and suggest that a deep-seated anomaly at 330-410 km depth is real and not an inversion artefact. The upper part of the reduced vS anomaly underneath Southern Norway (down to 250 km depth) might be due to an increase in lithospheric thickness from the Caledonian Southern Scandes in the west towards the Proterozoic Baltic Shield in Sweden in the east. The deeper-seated negative vS anomaly (330-410 km depth) could be caused by a temperature anomaly possibly combined with effects due to fluids or hydrous minerals. The determined simple 3D vS structure underneath Southern Scandinavia indicates that mantle processes might influence and contribute to a Neogene uplift of Southern Norway.
[Inequities in access to information and inequities in health].
Filho, Alberto Pellegrini
2002-01-01
This piece presents evidence that inequities in information are an important determinant of health inequities and that eliminating these inequities in access to information, especially by using new information and communication technologies (ICTs), could represent a significant advance in terms of guaranteeing the right to health for all. The piece reviews the most important international scientific research findings on the determinants of the health of populations, emphasizing the role of socioeconomic inequities and of deteriorating social capital as factors that worsen health conditions. It is noteworthy that Latin America has both socioeconomic inequities and major sectors of the population living in poverty. Among the fundamental strategies for overcoming the inequalities and the poverty are greater participation by the poor in civic life and the strengthening of social capital. The contribution that the new ICTs could make to these strategies is analyzed, and the Virtual Health Library (VHL) is discussed. Coordinated by the Latin American and Caribbean Center on Health Sciences Information (BIREME), the VHL is a contribution by the Pan American Health Organization that takes advantage of the potential of ICTs to democratize information and knowledge and consequently promote equity in health. The "digital gap" is discussed as something that can produce inequity itself and also increase other inequities, including ones in health. Prospects are discussed for overcoming this gap, emphasizing the role that governments and international organizations should play in order to expand access to the global public good that information for social development is. PMID:12162837
Cheng, Jun; Xiang, Huili; Wang, Hailing; Liu, Zhijun; Hou, Liyuan
2016-01-01
This paper studies the finite-time stochastic contractive boundedness problem for a class of Markovian jump linear systems subject to input constraints. First of all, by employing exogenous disturbance, two novel concepts, namely finite-time stochastic contractive stability (FTSCS) and finite-time stochastic contractive boundedness (FTSCB) are introduced. Secondly, a relaxation scheme for incomplete (i.e., partly known, unknown, and uncertain) transition probability descriptions is introduced. Then, two kinds of design methodology of observer-based controllers are proposed. All the design conditions are established by employing a set of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs). At last, numerical examples are given to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach. PMID:26596242
On New Proofs of Fundamental Inequalities with Applications
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ray, Partha
2010-01-01
By using the Cauchy-Schwarz inequality a new proof of several standard inequalities is given. A new proof of Young's inequality is given by using Holder's inequality. A new application of the above inequalities is included.
Inequalities, Assessment and Computer Algebra
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Sangwin, Christopher J.
2015-01-01
The goal of this paper is to examine single variable real inequalities that arise as tutorial problems and to examine the extent to which current computer algebra systems (CAS) can (1) automatically solve such problems and (2) determine whether students' own answers to such problems are correct. We review how inequalities arise in…
The Geography of Gender Inequality
Fisher, Brendan; Naidoo, Robin
2016-01-01
Reducing gender inequality is a major policy concern worldwide, and one of the Sustainable Development Goals. However, our understanding of the magnitude and spatial distribution of gender inequality results either from limited-scale case studies or from national-level statistics. Here, we produce the first high resolution map of gender inequality by analyzing over 689,000 households in 47 countries. Across these countries, we find that male-headed households have, on average, 13% more asset wealth and 303% more land for agriculture than do female-headed households. However, this aggregate global result masks a high degree of spatial heterogeneity, with bands of both high inequality and high equality apparent in countries and regions of the world. Further, areas where inequality is highest when measured by land ownership generally are not the same areas that have high inequality as measured by asset wealth. Our metrics of gender inequality in land and wealth are not strongly correlated with existing metrics of poverty, development, and income inequality, and therefore provide new information to increase the understanding of one critical dimension of poverty across the globe. PMID:26930356
The Geography of Gender Inequality.
Fisher, Brendan; Naidoo, Robin
2016-01-01
Reducing gender inequality is a major policy concern worldwide, and one of the Sustainable Development Goals. However, our understanding of the magnitude and spatial distribution of gender inequality results either from limited-scale case studies or from national-level statistics. Here, we produce the first high resolution map of gender inequality by analyzing over 689,000 households in 47 countries. Across these countries, we find that male-headed households have, on average, 13% more asset wealth and 303% more land for agriculture than do female-headed households. However, this aggregate global result masks a high degree of spatial heterogeneity, with bands of both high inequality and high equality apparent in countries and regions of the world. Further, areas where inequality is highest when measured by land ownership generally are not the same areas that have high inequality as measured by asset wealth. Our metrics of gender inequality in land and wealth are not strongly correlated with existing metrics of poverty, development, and income inequality, and therefore provide new information to increase the understanding of one critical dimension of poverty across the globe. PMID:26930356
Three Centuries of American Inequality.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lindert, Peter H.; Williamson, Jeffrey G.
Income inequality in the United States displays considerable variance since the seventeenth century. There is no eternal constancy to the degree of inequality in total income, in labor earnings, or in income from conventional nonhuman wealth either before or after the effects of government taxes and spending. When all the necessary adjustments to…
Universal patterns of inequality
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Banerjee, Anand; Yakovenko, Victor M.
2010-07-01
Probability distributions of money, income and energy consumption per capita are studied for ensembles of economic agents. The principle of entropy maximization for partitioning of a limited resource gives exponential distributions for the investigated variables. A non-equilibrium difference of money temperatures between different systems generates net fluxes of money and population. To describe income distribution, a stochastic process with additive and multiplicative components is introduced. The resultant distribution interpolates between exponential at the low end and power law at the high end, in agreement with the empirical data for the USA. We show that the increase in income inequality in the USA originates primarily from the increase in the income fraction going to the upper tail, which now exceeds 20% of the total income. Analyzing the data from the World Resources Institute, we find that the distribution of energy consumption per capita around the world can be approximately described by the exponential function. Comparing the data for 1990, 2000 and 2005, we discuss the effect of globalization on the inequality of energy consumption.
On moments-based Heisenberg inequalities
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zozor, Steeve; Portesi, Mariela; Sanchez-Moreno, Pablo; Dehesa, Jesus S.
2011-03-01
In this paper we revisit the quantitative formulation of the Heisenberg uncertainty principle. The primary version of this principle establishes the impossibility of refined simultaneous measurement of position x and momentum u for a (1-dimensional) quantum particle in terms of variances: <‖x‖2><‖u‖2>⩾1/4. Since this inequality applies provided each variance exists, some authors proposed entropic versions of this principle as an alternative (employing Shannon's or Rényi's entropies). As another alternative, we consider moments-based formulations and show that inequalities involving moments of orders other than 2 can be found. Our procedure is based on the Rényi entropic versions of the Heisenberg relation together with the search for the maximal entropy under statistical moments' constraints (<‖x‖a> and <‖u‖b>). Our result improves a relation proposed very recently by Dehesa et al.. [1] where the same approach was used but starting with the Shannon version of the entropic uncertainty relation. Furthermore, we show that when a =b, the best bound we can find with our approach coincides with that of Ref. [1] and, in addition, for a = b = 2 the variance-based Heisenberg relation is recovered. Finally, we illustrate our results in the cases of d-dimensional hydrogenic systems.
Happiness Inequality: How Much Is Reasonable?
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Gandelman, Nestor; Porzecanski, Rafael
2013-01-01
We compute the Gini indexes for income, happiness and various simulated utility levels. Due to decreasing marginal utility of income, happiness inequality should be lower than income inequality. We find that happiness inequality is about half that of income inequality. To compute the utility levels we need to assume values for a key parameter that…
Generalized convexity and inequalities
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Anderson, G. D.; Vamanamurthy, M. K.; Vuorinen, M.
2007-11-01
Let and let be the family of all mean values of two numbers in (some examples are the arithmetic, geometric, and harmonic means). Given , we say that a function is (m1,m2)-convex if f(m1(x,y))[less-than-or-equals, slant]m2(f(x),f(y)) for all . The usual convexity is the special case when both mean values are arithmetic means. We study the dependence of (m1,m2)-convexity on m1 and m2 and give sufficient conditions for (m1,m2)-convexity of functions defined by Maclaurin series. The criteria involve the Maclaurin coefficients. Our results yield a class of new inequalities for several special functions such as the Gaussian hypergeometric function and a generalized Bessel function.
Poverty and health sector inequalities.
Wagstaff, Adam
2002-01-01
Poverty and ill-health are intertwined. Poor countries tend to have worse health outcomes than better-off countries. Within countries, poor people have worse health outcomes than better-off people. This association reflects causality running in both directions: poverty breeds ill-health, and ill-health keeps poor people poor. The evidence on inequalities in health between the poor and non-poor and on the consequences for impoverishment and income inequality associated with health care expenses is discussed in this article. An outline is given of what is known about the causes of inequalities and about the effectiveness of policies intended to combat them. It is argued that too little is known about the impacts of such policies, notwithstanding a wealth of measurement techniques and considerable evidence on the extent and causes of inequalities. PMID:11953787
Penrose inequality and apparent horizons
Ben-Dov, Ishai
2004-12-15
A spherically symmetric spacetime is presented with an initial data set that is asymptotically flat, satisfies the dominant energy condition, and such that on this initial data M<{radical}(A/16{pi}), where M is the total mass and A is the area of the apparent horizon. This provides a counterexample to a commonly stated version of the Penrose inequality, though it does not contradict the true Penrose inequality.
Rogers, Deborah S.; Deshpande, Omkar; Feldman, Marcus W.
2011-01-01
The causes of socioeconomic inequality have been debated since the time of Plato. Many reasons for the development of stratification have been proposed, from the need for hierarchical control over large-scale irrigation systems to the accumulation of small differences in wealth over time via inheritance processes. However, none of these explains how unequal societies came to completely displace egalitarian cultural norms over time. Our study models demographic consequences associated with the unequal distribution of resources in stratified societies. Agent-based simulation results show that in constant environments, unequal access to resources can be demographically destabilizing, resulting in the outward migration and spread of such societies even when population size is relatively small. In variable environments, stratified societies spread more and are also better able to survive resource shortages by sequestering mortality in the lower classes. The predictions of our simulation are provided modest support by a range of existing empirical studies. In short, the fact that stratified societies today vastly outnumber egalitarian societies may not be due to the transformation of egalitarian norms and structures, but may instead reflect the more rapid migration of stratified societies and consequent conquest or displacement of egalitarian societies over time. PMID:21957457
Malnutrition: another health inequality?
Stratton, Rebecca J
2007-11-01
Malnutrition (undernutrition) is one of the many health inequalities facing governments in the 21st century. Malnutrition is a common condition affecting millions of individuals in the UK, particularly older adults, the sick and those cared for within the healthcare system. It costs the National Health Service > pound sterling 7.3 x 109 annually. New data highlight marked geographical differences in the prevalence of malnutrition across England and an inter-relationship between deprivation, malnutrition and poor outcome. As malnutrition is a largely treatable condition, prompt identification and effective prevention and treatment of this costly condition is imperative. Routine screening for malnutrition in high-risk groups (e.g. the elderly and those in areas with high deprivation) and within the healthcare system should be a priority, with screening linked to appropriate plans for the management of malnutrition. Use should be made of specialised interventions, including oral nutritional supplements and artificial nutrition, to aid recovery and improve outcome, with skilled health professionals, including dietitians, involved where possible. Equity of access to nutritional services and treatments for malnutrition needs to occur across the UK and, although complex and multi-factorial, the effects of deprivation and other relevant socio-economic and geographical factors should be addressed. Ultimately, as malnutrition is a public health problem, its identification and treatment must become a priority for governments, healthcare planners and professionals. PMID:17961273
Biondi, Franco; Qeadan, Fares
2008-04-01
Paleorecords provide information on past environmental variability, and help define ecological reference conditions by means of changes in their characteristics (accumulation rate, geochemical composition, density, etc.). A measure of temporal dissimilarity, which has traditionally been used in dendrochronology and is called "mean sensitivity," only focuses on first-order time-series lags. In this paper mean sensitivity was extended to all possible lags to derive a mean sensitivity function (MSF). The MSF is equivalent to a one-dimensional form of the paired relative madogram, a tool used in geostatistics to quantify spatial dependence. We then showed that the sum of madograms for all possible time-series lags is encapsulated by a single parameter, the Gini coefficient. This parameter has long been used by econometricians, social scientists, and ecologists as a synthetic, quantitative measure of inequality and diversity. Considering the connection between the MSF and the madogram, and the convenience of summarizing data heterogeneity with a single number, the Gini coefficient is therefore particularly appropriate for succinctly evaluating the diversity of paleorecords. An example of this application is provided by focusing on public domain dendrochronological data for the western conterminous United States. PMID:18481530
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yi, Zhiyu; Huang, Baochun; Yang, Liekun; Tang, Xiangde; Yan, Yonggang; Qiao, Qingqing; Zhao, Jie; Chen, Liwei
2015-07-01
We report the first combined geochronologic and paleomagnetic study of volcanic rocks from the Shiquanhe and Yare Basins at the westernmost Lhasa Terrane, which aims to provide an accurate constraint on the shape and paleoposition of the southern margin of Asia prior to the India-Asia collision. Three new 40Ar/39Ar ages of 92.5 ± 2.9 Ma, 92.4 ± 0.9 Ma, and 79.6 ± 0.7 Ma determined by fresh matrix or feldspar from lava flows suggest a Late Cretaceous age for the investigated units. Characteristic remanent magnetizations have been successfully isolated from 38 sites which pass positive fold and/or reversal, conglomerate tests and are hence interpreted as primary in origin. The two paleopoles obtained from Yare and Shiquanhe yield consistent paleolatitudes of 13.6°N ± 9.6°N and 14.2°N ± 2.7°N, respectively (for a reference site of 31.5°N, 80°E), indicating that the southern margin of Asia near the western syntaxis was located far south during the Late Cretaceous time. A reconstruction of the Lhasa Terrane in the frame of Eurasia with paleomagnetic data obtained from its western and eastern parts indicates that the southern margin of Eurasia probably had a quasi-linear orientation prior to the collision formerly trending approximately 315°E. This is compatible with the shape of the Neo-Tethys slab observed from seismic tomographic studies. Our findings provide a solid basis for evaluating Cenozoic crustal shortening in the Asian interior and the size of Greater India near the western syntaxis.
Bayesian Evaluation of Inequality-Constrained Hypotheses in SEM Models Using M"plus"
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
van de Schoot, Rens; Hoijtink, Herbert; Hallquist, Michael N.; Boelen, Paul A.
2012-01-01
Researchers in the behavioral and social sciences often have expectations that can be expressed in the form of inequality constraints among the parameters of a structural equation model resulting in an informative hypothesis. The questions they would like an answer to are "Is the hypothesis Correct" or "Is the hypothesis incorrect?" We demonstrate…
The Interplay between socioeconomic inequalities and clinical oral health.
Steele, J; Shen, J; Tsakos, G; Fuller, E; Morris, S; Watt, R; Guarnizo-Herreño, C; Wildman, J
2015-01-01
Oral health inequalities associated with socioeconomic status are widely observed but may depend on the way that both oral health and socioeconomic status are measured. Our aim was to investigate inequalities using diverse indicators of oral health and 4 socioeconomic determinants, in the context of age and cohort. Multiple linear or logistic regressions were estimated for 7 oral health measures representing very different outcomes (2 caries prevalence measures, decayed/missing/filled teeth, 6-mm pockets, number of teeth, anterior spaces, and excellent oral health) against 4 socioeconomic measures (income, education, Index of Multiple Deprivation, and occupational social class) for adults aged ≥21 y in the 2009 UK Adult Dental Health Survey data set. Confounders were adjusted and marginal effects calculated. The results showed highly variable relationships for the different combinations of variables and that age group was critical, with different relationships at different ages. There were significant income inequalities in caries prevalence in the youngest age group, marginal effects of 0.10 to 0.18, representing a 10- to 18-percentage point increase in the probability of caries between the wealthiest and every other quintile, but there was not a clear gradient across the quintiles. With number of teeth as an outcome, there were significant income gradients after adjustment in older groups, up to 4.5 teeth (95% confidence interval, 2.2-6.8) between richest and poorest but none for the younger groups. For periodontal disease, income inequalities were mediated by other socioeconomic variables and smoking, while for anterior spaces, the relationships were age dependent and complex. In conclusion, oral health inequalities manifest in different ways in different age groups, representing age and cohort effects. Income sometimes has an independent relationship, but education and area of residence are also contributory. Appropriate choices of measures in relation to age
Johnson, Timothy C.; Versteeg, Roelof; Thomle, Jonathan N.; Hammond, Glenn E.; Chen, Xingyuan; Zachara, John M.
2015-08-01
This paper describes and demonstrates two methods of providing a-priori information to a surface-based time-lapse three-dimensional electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) problem for monitoring stage-driven river bank storage along the Columbia River in the state of Washington, USA. First, a transient warping mesh boundary is implemented that conforms to the known location of the water table boundary through time, thereby enabling the inversion to place a sharp bulk-conductivity contrast at that boundary without penalty. Second, because river water specific conductance is less than groundwater specific conductance, a non-linear inequality constraint is used to allow only negative transient changes in bulk conductivity to occur within the saturated zone during periods of elevated river stage with respect to baseline conditions. Whereas time-lapse imaging results using traditional smoothness constraints are unable to delineate river bank storage, the water table and inequality constraints provide the inversion with the additional information necessary to resolve the spatial extent of river water intrusion through time. A surface based ERT array of 352 electrodes was used to autonomously produce four images per day of changes in bulk conductivity associated with river water intrusion over an area of approximately 300 m2 from April through October of 2013. Results are validated by comparing changes in bulk conductivity time series with corresponding changes in fluid specific conductance at several inland monitoring wells.
STRUCTURAL RACISM AND HEALTH INEQUITIES
Gee, Gilbert C.; Ford, Chandra L.
2014-01-01
Racial minorities bear a disproportionate burden of morbidity and mortality. These inequities might be explained by racism, given the fact that racism has restricted the lives of racial minorities and immigrants throughout history. Recent studies have documented that individuals who report experiencing racism have greater rates of illnesses. While this body of research has been invaluable in advancing knowledge on health inequities, it still locates the experiences of racism at the individual level. Yet, the health of social groups is likely most strongly affected by structural, rather than individual, phenomena. The structural forms of racism and their relationship to health inequities remain under-studied. This article reviews several ways of conceptualizing structural racism, with a focus on social segregation, immigration policy, and intergenerational effects. Studies of disparities should more seriously consider the multiple dimensions of structural racism as fundamental causes of health disparities. PMID:25632292
Bell inequalities with communication assistance
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maxwell, Katherine; Chitambar, Eric
2014-04-01
In this paper, we consider the possible correlations between two parties using local machines and shared randomness with an additional amount of classical communication. This is a continuation of the work initiated by Bacon and Toner [Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 157904 (2003), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.90.157904] who characterized the correlation polytope for 2×2 measurement settings with binary outcomes plus one bit of communication. Here, we derive a complete set of Bell inequalities for 3×2 measurement settings and a shared bit of communication. When the communication direction is fixed, nine Bell inequalities characterize the correlation polytope, whereas when the communication direction is bidirectional, 143 inequalities describe the correlations. We then prove a tight lower bound on the amount of communication needed to simulate all no-signaling correlations for a given number of measurement settings.
The sociogeometry of inequality: Part I
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Eliazar, Iddo
2015-05-01
The study of socioeconomic inequality is of prime economic and social importance, and the key quantitative gauges of socioeconomic inequality are Lorenz curves and inequality indices-the most notable of the latter being the popular Gini index. In this series of papers we present a sociogeometric framework to the study of socioeconomic inequality. In this part we shift from the notion of Lorenz curves to the notion of Lorenz sets, define inequality indices in terms of Lorenz sets, and introduce and explore a collection of distance-based and width-based inequality indices stemming from the geometry of Lorenz sets. In particular, three principle diameters of Lorenz sets are established as meaningful quantitative gauges of socioeconomic inequality-thus indeed providing a geometric quantification of socioeconomic inequality.
Educational inequality in the occurrence of abdominal obesity: Pró-Saúde Study
Alves, Ronaldo Fernandes Santos; Faerstein, Eduardo
2015-01-01
OBJECTIVE To estimate the degree of educational inequality in the occurrence of abdominal obesity in a population of non-faculty civil servants at university campi. METHODS In this cross-sectional study, we used data from 3,117 subjects of both genders aged 24 to 65-years old, regarding the baseline of Pró-Saúde Study, 1999-2001. Abdominal obesity was defined according to abdominal circumference thresholds of 88 cm for women and 102 cm for men. A multi-dimensional, self-administered questionnaire was used to evaluate education levels and demographic variables. Slope and relative indices of inequality, and Chi-squared test for linear trend were used in the data analysis. All analyses were stratified by genders, and the indices of inequality were standardized by age. RESULTS Abdominal obesity was the most prevalent among women (43.5%; 95%CI 41.2;45.9), as compared to men (24.3%; 95%CI 22.1;26.7), in all educational strata and age ranges. The association between education levels and abdominal obesity was an inverse one among women (p < 0.001); it was not statistically significant among men (p = 0.436). The educational inequality regarding abdominal obesity in the female population, in absolute terms (slope index of inequality), was 24.0% (95%CI 15.5;32.6). In relative terms (relative index of inequality), it was 2.8 (95%CI 1.9;4.1), after the age adjustment. CONCLUSIONS Gender inequality in the prevalence of abdominal obesity increases with older age and lower education. The slope and relative indices of inequality summarize the strictly monotonous trend between education levels and abdominal obesity, and it described educational inequality regarding abdominal obesity among women. Such indices provide relevant quantitative estimates for monitoring abdominal obesity and dealing with health inequalities. PMID:26465669
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nussinov, S.
1983-12-01
It is suggested that the inequality mB>32mM is a rigorous result in quantum chromodynamics. The analog for a (q1...qN) baryon in SU(N) is mB>(12N)mM. The inequality is proved for weak coupling and a version of the strong-coupling expansion where a separation Hq1q2q3=H12+H23+H31 of the problem can be achieved. Implications for quantum chromodynamics and composite models are briefly discussed.
Measures of Inequality: Application to Happiness in Nations.
Kalmijn, W M; Arends, L R
2010-10-01
What is a good measure for happiness inequality? In the context of this question, we have developed an approach in which individual happiness values in a sample are considered as elements of a set and inequality as a binary relation on that set. The total number of inequality relations, each weighed by the distance on the scale of measurement between the pair partners, has been adopted as an indicator for the inequality of the distribution as a whole. For models in which the happiness occurs as a continuous latent variable, an analogous approach has been developed on the basis of differentials. In principle, this fundamental approach results in a (zero) minimum value, and, more importantly, also in a maximum value. In the case where happiness is measured using a k-points scale, the maximum inequality is obtained if all ½N sample members select the lowest possible rating (Eq. 1) and the other ½N the highest possible one (k). This finding even applies to the truly ordinal case, i.e., if the distances between the successive ratings on the scale are unknown. It is, however, impossible to quantify the inequality of some measured sample distribution, unless all distances of the k categories of the scale of measurement are known or at least estimated, either on an empirical basis or on the basis of assumptions. In general, the numerical application of the method to continuous distributions is very complicated. An exploration on the basis of a relatively simple model with a linear probability density function suggests that the inequality of a beta probability distribution with shape parameters a and b increases as the value of these parameters decreases. A contour plot, obtained by numerical integration, demonstrates this relationship in a quantitative way. This approach is applicable to judge the aptness of common statistics of dispersion, among which the standard deviation and the Gini coefficient. The former is shown to be more appropriate than the latter for
Remainder terms for some quantum entropy inequalities
Carlen, Eric A.; Lieb, Elliott H.
2014-04-15
We consider three von Neumann entropy inequalities: subadditivity; Pinsker's inequality for relative entropy; and the monotonicity of relative entropy. For these we state conditions for equality, and we prove some new error bounds away from equality, including an improved version of Pinsker's inequality.
Urban Inequality. NBER Working Paper No. 14419
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Glaeser, Edward L.; Resseger, Matthew G.; Tobio, Kristina
2008-01-01
What impact does inequality have on metropolitan areas? Crime rates are higher in places with more inequality, and people in unequal cities are more likely to say that they are unhappy. There is also a negative association between local inequality and the growth of both income and population, once we control for the initial distribution of skills.…
Declaring Bankruptcy on Educational Inequity
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bass, Lisa; Gerstl-Pepin, Cynthia
2011-01-01
The authors consider Ladson-Billings' (2006) charge to reframe the way the "achievement gap" is viewed, and put forth the metaphor of "bankruptcy" as a way to acknowledge the educational debt and educational inequity and move towards debt forgiveness in public education. Specifically, the bankruptcy metaphor is used to examine the debt embedded in…
Racial Inequity in Special Education.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Losen, Daniel J., Ed.; Orfield, Gary, Ed.
This collection of papers discusses issues related to the overidentification of minority students in special education. After a "Foreword" (Senator James M. Jeffords) and an introduction, "Racial Inequality in Special Education" (Daniel J. Losen and Gary Orfield), 11 chapters include: (1) "Community and School Predictors…
Voice, Schooling, Inequality, and Scale
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Collins, James
2013-01-01
The rich studies in this collection show that the investigation of voice requires analysis of "recognition" across layered spatial-temporal and sociolinguistic scales. I argue that the concepts of voice, recognition, and scale provide insight into contemporary educational inequality and that their study benefits, in turn, from paying attention to…
Retirement Patterns and Income Inequality
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Fasang, Anette Eva
2012-01-01
How do social policies shape life courses, and which consequences do different life course patterns hold for individuals? This article engages the example of retirement in Germany and Britain to analyze life course patterns and their consequences for income inequality. Sequence analysis is used to measure retirement trajectories. The liberal…
Environmental Racial Inequality in Detroit
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Downey, Liam
2006-01-01
This study uses industrial pollution data from the Environmental Protection Agency's Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) and tract-level demographic data from the 2000 U.S. census to determine whether environmental racial inequality existed in the Detroit metropolitan area in the year 2000. This study differs from prior environmental inequality…
The sociogeometry of inequality: Part II
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Eliazar, Iddo
2015-05-01
The study of socioeconomic inequality is of prime economic and social importance, and the key quantitative gauges of socioeconomic inequality are Lorenz curves and inequality indices - the most notable of the latter being the popular Gini index. In this series of papers we present a sociogeometric framework to the study of socioeconomic inequality. In this part we focus on the gap between the rich and the poor, which is quantified by gauges termed disparity curves. We shift from disparity curves to disparity sets, define inequality indices in terms of disparity sets, and introduce and explore a collection of distance-based and width-based inequality indices stemming from the geometry of disparity sets. We conclude with mean-absolute-deviation (MAD) representations of the inequality indices established in this series of papers, and with a comparison of these indices to the popular Gini index.
Stabilizer information inequalities from phase space distributions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gross, David; Walter, Michael
2013-08-01
The Shannon entropy of a collection of random variables is subject to a number of constraints, the best-known examples being monotonicity and strong subadditivity. It remains an open question to decide which of these "laws of information theory" are also respected by the von Neumann entropy of many-body quantum states. In this article, we consider a toy version of this difficult problem by analyzing the von Neumann entropy of stabilizer states. We find that the von Neumann entropy of stabilizer states satisfies all balanced information inequalities that hold in the classical case. Our argument is built on the fact that stabilizer states have a classical model, provided by the discrete Wigner function: The phase-space entropy of the Wigner function corresponds directly to the von Neumann entropy of the state, which allows us to reduce to the classical case. Our result has a natural counterpart for multi-mode Gaussian states, which sheds some light on the general properties of the construction. We also discuss the relation of our results to recent work by Linden, Ruskai, and Winter ["The quantum entropy cone of stabiliser states," e-print arXiv:1302.5453].
Quantum inequality restrictions on negative energy densities in curved spacetimes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pfenning, Michael John
1998-10-01
In quantum field theory, there exist states in which the expectation value of the energy density for a quantized field is negative. These negative energy densities lead to several problems such as the failure of the classical energy conditions, the production of closed timelike curves and faster than light travel, violations of the second law of thermodynamics, and the possible production of naked singularities. Although quantum field theory introduces negative energies, it also provides constraints in the form of quantum inequalities (QI's). These uncertainty principle- type relations limit the magnitude and duration of any negative energy. We derive a general form of the QI on the energy density for both the quantized scalar and electromagnetic fields in static curved spacetimes. In the case of the scalar field, the QI can be written as the Euclidean wave operator acting on the Euclidean Green's function. Additionally, a small distance expansion on the Green's function is used to derive the QI in the short sampling time limit. It is found that the QI in this limit reduces to the flat space form with subdominant correction terms which depend on the spacetime geometry. Several example spacetimes are studied in which exact forms of the QI's can be found. These include the three- and four-dimensional static Robertson-Walker spacetimes, flat space with perfectly reflecting mirrors, Rindler and static de Sitter space, and the spacetime outside a black hole. In all of the above cases, we find that the quantum inequalities give a lower limit on how much negative energy may be observed relative to the vacuum energy density of the spacetime. For the particular case of the black hole, it is found that the quantum inequality on the energy density is measured relative to the Boulware vacuum. Finally, the application of the quantum inequalities to the Alcubierre warp drive spacetime leads to strict constraints on the thickness of the negative energy region needed to maintain
Magnetotail dynamics under isobaric constraints
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Birn, Joachim; Schindler, Karl; Janicke, Lutz; Hesse, Michael
1994-01-01
Using linear theory and nonlinear MHD simulations, we investigate the resistive and ideal MHD stability of two-dimensional plasma configurations under the isobaric constraint dP/dt = 0, which in ideal MHD is equivalent to conserving the pressure function P = P(A), where A denotes the magnetic flux. This constraint is satisfied for incompressible modes, such as Alfven waves, and for systems undergoing energy losses. The linear stability analysis leads to a Schroedinger equation, which can be investigated by standard quantum mechanics procedures. We present an application to a typical stretched magnetotail configuration. For a one-dimensional sheet equilibrium characteristic properties of tearing instability are rediscovered. However, the maximum growth rate scales with the 1/7 power of the resistivity, which implies much faster growth than for the standard tearing mode (assuming that the resistivity is small). The same basic eigen-mode is found also for weakly two-dimensional equilibria, even in the ideal MHD limit. In this case the growth rate scales with the 1/4 power of the normal magnetic field. The results of the linear stability analysis are confirmed qualitatively by nonlinear dynamic MHD simulations. These results suggest the interesting possibility that substorm onset, or the thinning in the late growth phase, is caused by the release of a thermodynamic constraint without the (immediate) necessity of releasing the ideal MHD constraint. In the nonlinear regime the resistive and ideal developments differ in that the ideal mode does not lead to neutral line formation without the further release of the ideal MHD constraint; instead a thin current sheet forms. The isobaric constraint is critically discussed. Under perhaps more realistic adiabatic conditions the ideal mode appears to be stable but could be driven by external perturbations and thus generate the thin current sheet in the late growth phase, before a nonideal instability sets in.
INEQUITY IN THE FACE OF DEATH.
García-Gómez, Pilar; Schokkaert, Erik; Van Ourti, Tom; Bago d'Uva, Teresa
2014-07-30
We apply the theory of inequality of opportunity to the measurement of inequity in mortality. Using a rich data set linking records of mortality and health events to survey data on lifestyles for the Netherlands (1998-2007), we test the sensitivity of estimated inequity to different normative choices and conclude that the location of the responsibility cut is of vital importance. Traditional measures of inequity (such as socioeconomic and regional inequalities) only capture part of more comprehensive notions of unfairness. We show that distinguishing between different routes via which variables might be associated to mortality is essential to the application of different normative positions. Using the fairness gap (direct unfairness), measured inequity according to our implementation of the 'control' and 'preference' approaches ranges between 0.0229 and 0.0239 (0.0102-0.0218), while regional and socioeconomic inequalities are smaller than 0.0020 (0.0001). The usual practice of standardizing for age and gender has large effects on measured inequity. Finally, we use our model to measure inequity in simulated counterfactual situations. While it is a big challenge to identify all causal relationships involved in this empirical context, this does not affect our main conclusions regarding the importance of normative choices in the measurement of inequity. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:25073459
On measuring inequalities in health.
Wolfson, M.; Rowe, G.
2001-01-01
In a recent series of papers, Murray et al. have put forward a number of important ideas regarding the measurement of inequalities in health. In this paper we agree with some of these ideas but draw attention to one key aspect of their approach--measuring inequalities on the basis of small area data--which is flawed. A numerical example is presented to illustrate the problem. An alternative approach drawing on longitudinal data is outlined, which preserves and enhances the most desirable aspects of their proposal. These include the use of a life course perspective, and the consideration of non-fatal health outcomes as well as the more usual information on mortality patterns. PMID:11436478
[Social inequalities in maternal health].
Azria, E; Stewart, Z; Gonthier, C; Estellat, C; Deneux-Tharaux, C
2015-10-01
Although medical literature on social inequalities in perinatal health is qualitatively heterogeneous, it is quantitatively important and reveals the existence of a social gradient in terms of perinatal risk. However, published data regarding maternal health, if also qualitatively heterogeneous, are relatively less numerous. Nevertheless, it appears that social inequalities also exist concerning severe maternal morbidity as well as maternal mortality. Analyses are still insufficient to understand the mechanisms involved and explain how the various dimensions of the women social condition interact with maternal health indicators. Inadequate prenatal care and suboptimal obstetric care may be intermediary factors, as they are related to both social status and maternal outcomes, in terms of maternal morbidity, its worsening or progression, and maternal mortality. PMID:26433316
Inequalities of Income and Inequalities of Longevity: A Cross-Country Study
Plümper, Thomas
2016-01-01
Objectives. We examined the effects of market income inequality (income inequality before taxes and transfers) and income redistribution via taxes and transfers on inequality in longevity. Methods. We used life tables to compute Gini coefficients of longevity inequality for all individuals and for individuals who survived to at least 10 years of age. We regressed longevity inequality on market income inequality and income redistribution, and we controlled for potential confounders, in a cross-sectional time-series sample of up to 28 predominantly Western developed countries and up to 37 years (1974–2011). Results. Income inequality before taxes and transfers was positively associated with inequality in the number of years lived; income redistribution (the difference between market income inequality and income inequality after taxes and transfers were accounted for) was negatively associated with longevity inequality. Conclusions. To the extent that our estimated effects derived from observational data are causal, governments can reduce longevity inequality not only via public health policies, but also via their influence on market income inequality and the redistribution of incomes from the relatively rich to the relatively poor. PMID:26562120
Inequalities for the quantum privacy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Trindade, M. A. S.; Pinto, E.
2016-02-01
In this work, we investigate the asymptotic behavior related to the quantum privacy for multipartite systems. In this context, an inequality for quantum privacy was obtained by exploiting of quantum entropy properties. Subsequently, we derive a lower limit for the quantum privacy through the entanglement fidelity. In particular, we show that there is an interval where an increase in entanglement fidelity implies a decrease in quantum privacy.
[Globalization, inequity and Chagas disease].
Dias, João Carlos Pinto
2007-01-01
Chagas disease (American trypanosomiasis) bears a close relationship to multiple social and political aspects involving issues of globalization and inequity. Such relations concern the process of disease production and control in parallel with medical management. Despite the poverty in Latin America and various problems related to inequities and globalization, Chagas disease has been controlled in several areas, a fact that reinforces the countries' self-reliance. Several problems and challenges related to the disease can be expected in the future, mainly concerning medical care for already infected individuals and the sustainability of effective epidemiological surveillance. Both points depend heavily on improved performance by the national health systems, principally in terms of their efficiency and their capacity to overcome inequity. A particularly important role has been attributed to the Latin American scientific and academic community in the implementation and sustainability of efficient control policies. Control activities have now evolved towards internationally shared initiatives, a major new stride forward in the region's political context. PMID:17308713
Climate policies under wealth inequality
Vasconcelos, Vítor V.; Santos, Francisco C.; Pacheco, Jorge M.; Levin, Simon A.
2014-01-01
Taming the planet’s climate requires cooperation. Previous failures to reach consensus in climate summits have been attributed, among other factors, to conflicting policies between rich and poor countries, which disagree on the implementation of mitigation measures. Here we implement wealth inequality in a threshold public goods dilemma of cooperation in which players also face the risk of potential future losses. We consider a population exhibiting an asymmetric distribution of rich and poor players that reflects the present-day status of nations and study the behavioral interplay between rich and poor in time, regarding their willingness to cooperate. Individuals are also allowed to exhibit a variable degree of homophily, which acts to limit those that constitute one’s sphere of influence. Under the premises of our model, and in the absence of homophily, comparison between scenarios with wealth inequality and without wealth inequality shows that the former leads to more global cooperation than the latter. Furthermore, we find that the rich generally contribute more than the poor and will often compensate for the lower contribution of the latter. Contributions from the poor, which are crucial to overcome the climate change dilemma, are shown to be very sensitive to homophily, which, if prevalent, can lead to a collapse of their overall contribution. In such cases, however, we also find that obstinate cooperative behavior by a few poor may largely compensate for homophilic behavior. PMID:24469806
Sparse linear programming subprogram
Hanson, R.J.; Hiebert, K.L.
1981-12-01
This report describes a subprogram, SPLP(), for solving linear programming problems. The package of subprogram units comprising SPLP() is written in Fortran 77. The subprogram SPLP() is intended for problems involving at most a few thousand constraints and variables. The subprograms are written to take advantage of sparsity in the constraint matrix. A very general problem statement is accepted by SPLP(). It allows upper, lower, or no bounds on the variables. Both the primal and dual solutions are returned as output parameters. The package has many optional features. Among them is the ability to save partial results and then use them to continue the computation at a later time.
On a (β, q)-generalized Fisher information and inequalities involving q-Gaussian distributions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bercher, J.-F.
2012-06-01
In the present paper, we would like to draw attention to a possible generalized Fisher information that fits well in the formalism of nonextensive thermostatistics. This generalized Fisher information is defined for densities on {R}n. Just as the maximum Rényi or Tsallis entropy subject to an elliptic moment constraint is a generalized q-Gaussian, we show that the minimization of the generalized Fisher information also leads a generalized q-Gaussian. This yields a generalized Cramér-Rao inequality. In addition, we show that the generalized Fisher information naturally pops up in a simple inequality that links the generalized entropies, the generalized Fisher information, and an elliptic moment. Finally, we give an extended Stam inequality. In this series of results, the extremal functions are the generalized q-Gaussians. Thus, these results complement the classical characterization of the generalized q-Gaussian and introduce a generalized Fisher information as a new information measure in nonextensive thermostatistics.
Linear game non-contextuality and Bell inequalities—a graph-theoretic approach
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rosicka, M.; Ramanathan, R.; Gnaciński, P.; Horodecki, K.; Horodecki, M.; Horodecki, P.; Severini, S.
2016-04-01
We study the classical and quantum values of a class of one- and two-party unique games, that generalizes the well-known XOR games to the case of non-binary outcomes. In the bipartite case the generalized XOR (XOR-d) games we study are a subclass of the well-known linear games. We introduce a ‘constraint graph’ associated to such a game, with the constraints defining the game represented by an edge-coloring of the graph. We use the graph-theoretic characterization to relate the task of finding equivalent games to the notion of signed graphs and switching equivalence from graph theory. We relate the problem of computing the classical value of single-party anti-correlation XOR games to finding the edge bipartization number of a graph, which is known to be MaxSNP hard, and connect the computation of the classical value of XOR-d games to the identification of specific cycles in the graph. We construct an orthogonality graph of the game from the constraint graph and study its Lovász theta number as a general upper bound on the quantum value even in the case of single-party contextual XOR-d games. XOR-d games possess appealing properties for use in device-independent applications such as randomness of the local correlated outcomes in the optimal quantum strategy. We study the possibility of obtaining quantum algebraic violation of these games, and show that no finite XOR-d game possesses the property of pseudo-telepathy leaving the frequently used chained Bell inequalities as the natural candidates for such applications. We also show this lack of pseudo-telepathy for multi-party XOR-type inequalities involving two-body correlation functions.
Unbounded Violation of Quantum Steering Inequalities
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Marciniak, M.; Rutkowski, A.; Yin, Z.; Horodecki, M.; Horodecki, R.
2015-10-01
We construct steering inequalities that exhibit unbounded violation. The concept was to exploit the relationship between steering violation and the uncertainty relation. To this end, we apply mutually unbiased bases and anticommuting observables, known to exhibit the strongest uncertainty. In both cases, we are able to procure unbounded violations. Our approach is much more constructive and transparent than the operator space theory approach employed to obtain large violation of Bell inequalities. Importantly, using anticommuting observables we are able to obtain a dichotomic steering inequality with unbounded violation. Thus far, there is no analogous result for Bell inequalities. Interestingly, both the dichotomic inequality and one of our inequalities cannot be directly obtained from existing uncertainty relations, which strongly suggest the existence of an unknown kind of uncertainty relation.
Generalized Input-Output Inequality Systems
Liu Yingfan Zhang Qinghong
2006-09-15
In this paper two types of generalized Leontief input-output inequality systems are introduced. The minimax properties for a class of functions associated with the inequalities are studied. Sufficient and necessary conditions for the inequality systems to have solutions are obtained in terms of the minimax value. Stability analysis for the solution set is provided in terms of upper semi-continuity and hemi-continuity of set-valued maps.
Nagata, Koji
2007-08-15
We show that positivity of every partial transpose of N-partite quantum states implies inequalities on Bell correlations which are stronger than standard Bell inequalities by a factor of 2{sup (N-1)/2}. A violation of the inequality implies that the system is in a bipartite distillable entangled state. It turns out that a family of N-qubit bound entangled states proposed by Duer [Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 230402 (2001)] violates the inequality for N{>=}4.
Hard and Soft Constraints in Reliability-Based Design Optimization
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Crespo, L.uis G.; Giesy, Daniel P.; Kenny, Sean P.
2006-01-01
This paper proposes a framework for the analysis and design optimization of models subject to parametric uncertainty where design requirements in the form of inequality constraints are present. Emphasis is given to uncertainty models prescribed by norm bounded perturbations from a nominal parameter value and by sets of componentwise bounded uncertain variables. These models, which often arise in engineering problems, allow for a sharp mathematical manipulation. Constraints can be implemented in the hard sense, i.e., constraints must be satisfied for all parameter realizations in the uncertainty model, and in the soft sense, i.e., constraints can be violated by some realizations of the uncertain parameter. In regard to hard constraints, this methodology allows (i) to determine if a hard constraint can be satisfied for a given uncertainty model and constraint structure, (ii) to generate conclusive, formally verifiable reliability assessments that allow for unprejudiced comparisons of competing design alternatives and (iii) to identify the critical combination of uncertain parameters leading to constraint violations. In regard to soft constraints, the methodology allows the designer (i) to use probabilistic uncertainty models, (ii) to calculate upper bounds to the probability of constraint violation, and (iii) to efficiently estimate failure probabilities via a hybrid method. This method integrates the upper bounds, for which closed form expressions are derived, along with conditional sampling. In addition, an l(sub infinity) formulation for the efficient manipulation of hyper-rectangular sets is also proposed.
Compact Bell inequalities for multipartite experiments
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Yu-Chun; Żukowski, Marek; Chen, Jing-Ling; Guo, Guang-Can
2013-08-01
A method for construction of multipartite Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt- (CHSH-) type Bell inequalities, for the case of local binary observables, is presented. The standard CHSH-type Bell inequalities can be obtained as special cases. An iterative method for deriving (N+1)-partite CHSH-type Bell inequalities from N-partite ones is derived. As an application, compact Bell inequalities for eight observers involving just four correlation functions are proposed. They require much less experimental effort than standard methods and thus are experimentally friendly in multiphoton experiments.
Scalable Bell inequalities for multiqubit systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
He, Yingqiu; Ding, Dong; Yan, Fengli; Gao, Ting
2015-08-01
Based on Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt inequality, we show a fruitful method to exploit Bell inequalities for multipartite qubit systems. These Bell inequalities are designed with a simpler architecture tailored to experimental demonstration. With the point of view of the stabilizer formalism, we suggest a method to investigate quantum nonlocality for multipartite systems. Under the optimal setting we derive a set of compact Mermin-type inequalities and then discuss quantum violations for generalized Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GGHZ) states and two kinds of mixed states. Also, as an example, we reveal relationship between quantum nonlocality and four-partite entanglement for four-qubit GGHZ states.
When does inequality freeze an economy?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jerico, João Pedro; Landes, François P.; Marsili, Matteo; Pérez Castillo, Isaac; Volpati, Valerio
2016-07-01
Inequality and its consequences are the subject of intense recent debate. Using a simplified model of the economy, we address the relation between inequality and liquidity, the latter understood as the frequency of economic exchanges. Assuming a Pareto distribution of wealth for the agents, that is consistent with empirical findings, we find an inverse relation between wealth inequality and overall liquidity. We show that an increase in the inequality of wealth results in an even sharper concentration of the liquid financial resources. This leads to a congestion of the flow of goods and the arrest of the economy when the Pareto exponent reaches one.
Griffiths' inequalities for Ashkin-Teller model
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lee, C. T.
1973-01-01
The two Griffiths' (1967) inequalities for the correlation functions of Ising ferromagnets with two-body interactions, and two other inequalities obtained by Kelly and Sherman (1968) and by Sherman (1969) are shown to hold not only for the Ashkin-Teller (1943) model but also for a generalized Ashkin-Teller model (Kihara et al., 1954) with many-body interactions involving arbitrary clusters of particles. A cluster of particles is understood to mean a collection of pairs of particles rather than a group of particles. The four generalized inequalities under consideration are presented in the form of theorems, and a new inequality is obtained.
Kenyon, Chris R; Buyze, Jozefien
2015-01-01
The prevalence of both gender inequality and HIV prevalence vary considerably both within all developing countries and within those in sub-Saharan Africa. We test the hypothesis that the extent of gender inequality is associated with national peak HIV prevalence. Linear regression was used to test the association between national peak HIV prevalence and three markers of gender equality - the gender-related development index (GDI), the gender empowerment measure (GEM), and the gender inequality index (GII). No evidence was found of a positive relationship between gender inequality and HIV prevalence, either in the analyses of all developing countries or those limited to Africa. In the bivariate analyses limited to Africa, there was a positive association between the two measures of gender "equality" and peak HIV prevalence (GDI: coefficient 28, 95% confidence interval (CI) 9.1-46.8; GEM: coefficient 54.8, 95% CI 20.5-89.1). There was also a negative association between the marker of gender "inequality" and peak HIV prevalence (GII: coefficient -66.9, 95% CI -112.8 to -21.0). These associations all disappeared on multivariate analyses. We could not find any evidence to support the hypothesis that variations in the extent of gender inequality explain variations in HIV prevalence in developing countries. PMID:25279690
Linear-time algorithms for scheduling on parallel processors
Monma, C.L.
1982-01-01
Linear-time algorithms are presented for several problems of scheduling n equal-length tasks on m identical parallel processors subject to precedence constraints. This improves upon previous time bounds for the maximum lateness problem with treelike precedence constraints, the number-of-late-tasks problem without precedence constraints, and the one machine maximum lateness problem with general precedence constraints. 5 references.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Veera Raghavan, Srikant
Semidefinite programming (SDP) is a relatively modern subfield of convex optimization which has been applied to many problems in the reduced density matrix (RDM) formulation of electronic structure. SDPs deal with minimization (or maximization) of linear objective functions of matrices, subject to linear equality and inequality constraints and positivity constraints on the eigenvalues of the matrices. Energies of chemical systems can be expressed as linear functions of RDMs, whose eigenvalues are electron occupation numbers or their products which are expected to be non-negative. Therefore, it is perhaps not surprising that SDPs fit rather naturally in the RDM framework in electronic structure. This dissertation presents SDP applications to two electronic structure theories. The first part of this dissertation (chaps. 1-3) reformulates Hartree-Fock theory in terms of SDPs in order to obtain upper and lower bounds to global Hartree-Fock energies. The upper and lower bounds on the energies are frequently equal thereby providing a first-ever certificate of global optimality for many Hartree-Fock solutions. The SDP approach provides an alternative to the conventional self-consistent field method of obtaining Hartree-Fock energies and densities with the added benefit of global optimality or a rigorous lower bound. Applications are made to the potential energy curves of (H 4)2, N2, C2, CN, Cr2 and NO2. Energies of the first-row transition elements are also calculated. In chapter 4, the effect of using the Hartree-Fock solutions that we calculate as references for coupled cluster singles doubles calculations is presented for some of the above molecules. The second part of this dissertation (chap. 5) presents a SDP approach to electronic structure methods which scale linearly with system size. Linear scaling electronic structure methods are essential in order to make calculations on large systems feasible. Among these methods the so-called density matrix based ones seek to
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hookham, Maurice; Holloway, Clive
Open University course units are presented on the philosophy of equality and inequality (Unit 3) and on personal inequality as an ideological concept (Unit 4). The substance of Unit 3 consists of extracts from the writings of eight philosophers. The role of the philosopher in forming legitimatizing ideologies is also illustrated. The eight…
Correlations between Income Inequality and Antimicrobial Resistance
Kirby, Andrew; Herbert, Annie
2013-01-01
Objectives The aim of this study is to investigate if correlations exist between income inequality and antimicrobial resistance. This study’s hypothesis is that income inequality at the national level is positively correlated with antimicrobial resistance within developed countries. Data collection and analysis Income inequality data were obtained from the Standardized World Income Inequality Database. Antimicrobial resistance data were obtained from the European antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance Network and outpatient antimicrobial consumption data, measured by Defined daily Doses per 1000 inhabitants per day, from the European Surveillance of antimicrobial Consumption group. Spearman’s correlation coefficient (r) defined strengths of correlations of: > 0.8 as strong, > 0.5 as moderate and > 0.2 as weak. Confidence intervals and p values were defined for all r values. Correlations were calculated for the time period 2003-10, for 15 European countries. Results Income inequality and antimicrobial resistance correlations which were moderate or strong, with 95% confidence intervals > 0, included the following. Enterococcus faecalis resistance to aminopenicillins, vancomycin and high level gentamicin was moderately associated with income inequality (r= ≥0.54 for all three antimicrobials). Escherichia coli resistance to aminoglycosides, aminopenicillins, third generation cephalosporins and fluoroquinolones was moderately-strongly associated with income inequality (r= ≥0.7 for all four antimicrobials). Klebsiella pneumoniae resistance to third generation cephalosporins, aminoglycosides and fluoroquinolones was moderately associated with income inequality (r= ≥0.5 for all three antimicrobials). Staphylococcus aureus methicillin resistance and income inequality were strongly associated (r=0.87). Conclusion As income inequality increases in European countries so do the rates of antimicrobial resistance for bacteria including E. faecalis, E. coli, K. pneumoniae
Li, Zhijun; Xia, Yuanqing; Wang, Dehong; Zhai, Di-Hua; Su, Chun-Yi; Zhao, Xingang
2016-05-01
Most studies on bilateral teleoperation assume known system kinematics and only consider dynamical uncertainties. However, many practical applications involve tasks with both kinematics and dynamics uncertainties. In this paper, trilateral teleoperation systems with dual-master-single-slave framework are investigated, where a single robotic manipulator constrained by an unknown geometrical environment is controlled by dual masters. The network delay in the teleoperation system is modeled as Markov chain-based stochastic delay, then asymmetric stochastic time-varying delays, kinematics and dynamics uncertainties are all considered in the force-motion control design. First, a unified dynamical model is introduced by incorporating unknown environmental constraints. Then, by exact identification of constraint Jacobian matrix, adaptive neural network approximation method is employed, and the motion/force synchronization with time delays are achieved without persistency of excitation condition. The neural networks and parameter adaptive mechanism are combined to deal with the system uncertainties and unknown kinematics. It is shown that the system is stable with the strict linear matrix inequality-based controllers. Finally, the extensive simulation experiment studies are provided to demonstrate the performance of the proposed approach. PMID:25956001
Inequality, deprivation and alcohol use.
Marmot, M
1997-03-01
There are major social inequalities in health within societies. Alcohol and tobacco are major preventable causes of ill health. Using data from the United Kingdom, this paper examines the social distribution of tobacco and alcohol consumption; the role that tobacco and alcohol may play in mediating or modifying social inequalities in health; and the implications of social distribution for policies to reduce harm associated with consumption of alcohol and tobacco. In the United Kingdom, as in many other countries, there is clear inverse association between socio-economic position and consumption of cigarettes. Over the past three decades, the decline in smoking has been more rapid in men and women in higher socio-economic groups. United Kingdom suggest that among employed men and women, the prevalence of non-drinking shows an inverse association with occupational status; heavy drinking differs little; and moderate drinking is more common among those of higher socio-economic status. Smoking accounts for perhaps 25% of the social class difference in coronary heart disease (CHD) mortality, more for lung cancer, less for some other diseases. healthier patterns of drinking may contribute to the lower CHD rates of higher social classes. Although other factors are clearly important in generating social inequalities, it is important to take the social distribution of alcohol and tobacco into account when formulating policy. For cigarette consumption, there is evidence that in lower socio-economic groups demand is more sensitive to price; higher socio-economic groups are more responsive to health education. There has been less research of this nature for alcohol. Available analyses suggest that price responsiveness of heavy drinking may be greatest in young men and in those with lower incomes. A pricing strategy has important equity implications. PMID:9167283
Bell inequality tests of four-photon six-qubit graph states
Gao Weibo; Yao Xingcan; Xu Ping; Lu He; Lu Chaoyang; Yang Tao; Chen Zengbing; Guehne, Otfried; Cabello, Adan; Pan Jianwei
2010-10-15
We now experimentally demonstrate a Y-shaped graph state with photons' polarization and spatial modes as qubits. Based on this state and a linear-type graph state, we report on the experimental realization of two different Bell inequality tests, which represent higher violation than previous Bell tests.
Socioeconomic Inequalities in Heart Failure.
Díaz-Toro, Felipe; Verdejo, Hugo E; Castro, Pablo F
2015-10-01
Prevalence and incidence of chronic heart failure (CHF) has increased during the past decades. Beyond its impact on mortality rates, CHF severely impairs quality of life, particularly with the elderly and vulnerable population. Several studies have shown that CHF takes its toll mostly on the uneducated, low-income population, who exhibit impaired access to health care systems, less knowledge regarding its pathology and poorer self-care behaviors. This review summarizes the available evidence linking socioeconomic inequalities and CHF, focusing on the modifiable factors that may explain the impaired health outcomes in socioeconomically deprived populations. PMID:26462090
Entropy power inequalities for qudits
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Audenaert, Koenraad; Datta, Nilanjana; Ozols, Maris
2016-05-01
Shannon's entropy power inequality (EPI) can be viewed as a statement of concavity of an entropic function of a continuous random variable under a scaled addition rule: f ( √{ a } X + √{ 1 - a } Y ) ≥ a f ( X ) + ( 1 - a ) f ( Y ) ∀ a ∈ [ 0 , 1 ] . Here, X and Y are continuous random variables and the function f is either the differential entropy or the entropy power. König and Smith [IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 60(3), 1536-1548 (2014)] and De Palma, Mari, and Giovannetti [Nat. Photonics 8(12), 958-964 (2014)] obtained quantum analogues of these inequalities for continuous-variable quantum systems, where X and Y are replaced by bosonic fields and the addition rule is the action of a beam splitter with transmissivity a on those fields. In this paper, we similarly establish a class of EPI analogues for d-level quantum systems (i.e., qudits). The underlying addition rule for which these inequalities hold is given by a quantum channel that depends on the parameter a ∈ [0, 1] and acts like a finite-dimensional analogue of a beam splitter with transmissivity a, converting a two-qudit product state into a single qudit state. We refer to this channel as a partial swap channel because of the particular way its output interpolates between the states of the two qudits in the input as a is changed from zero to one. We obtain analogues of Shannon's EPI, not only for the von Neumann entropy and the entropy power for the output of such channels, but also for a much larger class of functions. This class includes the Rényi entropies and the subentropy. We also prove a qudit analogue of the entropy photon number inequality (EPnI). Finally, for the subclass of partial swap channels for which one of the qudit states in the input is fixed, our EPIs and EPnI yield lower bounds on the minimum output entropy and upper bounds on the Holevo capacity.
An Isoperimetric Inequality for Fundamental Tones of Free Plates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chasman, L. M.
2010-03-01
We establish an isoperimetric inequality for the fundamental tone (first nonzero eigenvalue) of the free plate of a given area, proving the ball is maximal. Given τ>0, the free plate eigenvalues omega and eigenfunctions u are determined by the equation DeltaDelta u-τDelta u = omega u together with certain natural boundary conditions. The boundary conditions are complicated but arise naturally from the plate Rayleigh quotient, which contains a Hessian squared term |D^2u|^2. We adapt Weinberger's method from the corresponding free membrane problem, taking the fundamental modes of the unit ball as trial functions. These solutions are a linear combination of Bessel and modified Bessel functions.
Some properties of constraints in theories with degenerate Lagrangians
Nesterenko, V.V.; Chervyakov, A.M.
1986-01-01
The Poisson brackets of the primary constraints are expressed by means of linear differential operators in terms of Lagrangian constraints. In the framework of the Lagrangian formalism the authors propose a sufficient criterion for existence in the theory of second class constraints. It is shown that invariance of the action with respect to transformations with arbitrary functions of the time leads to primary constraints that are in involution with one another and with the canonical Hamiltonian, at least in the weak sense. It follows from the analysis of the functional arbitrariness in the solutions of the Hamilton equations that such primary constraints must be first-class constraints.
Hispanic Population Growth and Rural Income Inequality
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Parrado, Emilio A.; Kandel, William A.
2010-01-01
We analyze the relationship between Hispanic population growth and changes in U.S. rural income inequality from 1990 through 2000. Applying comparative approaches used for urban areas we disentangle Hispanic population growth's contribution to inequality by comparing and statistically modeling changes in the family income Gini coefficient across…
American Higher Education and Income Inequality
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hill, Catharine B.
2016-01-01
This paper demonstrates that increasing income inequality can contribute to the trends we see in American higher education, particularly in the selective, private nonprofit and public sectors. Given these institutions' selective admissions and commitment to socioeconomic diversity, the paper demonstrates how increasing income inequality leads to…
Children Discard a Resource to Avoid Inequity
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Shaw, Alex; Olson, Kristina R.
2012-01-01
Elucidating how inequity aversion (a tendency to dislike and correct unequal outcomes) functions as one develops is important to understanding more complex fairness considerations in adulthood. Although previous research has demonstrated that adults and children reduce inequity, it is unclear if people are actually responding negatively to…
Health Inequities: Evaluation of Two Paradigms
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ashcroft, Rachelle
2010-01-01
Social work practice in health is shaped by underlying paradigms. To effectively target health inequities, practitioners need to consider appropriate paradigms. In this exploration of how six health paradigms shape theory and practice, the two health paradigms that most attended to health inequalities are social determinants of health and…
Children discard a resource to avoid inequity.
Shaw, Alex; Olson, Kristina R
2012-05-01
Elucidating how inequity aversion (a tendency to dislike and correct unequal outcomes) functions as one develops is important to understanding more complex fairness considerations in adulthood. Although previous research has demonstrated that adults and children reduce inequity, it is unclear if people are actually responding negatively to inequity or if people dislike others getting more than them (motivated by social comparison) and like to share maximal resources, especially with those who have few resources (motivated by social welfare preferences). In order to evaluate if children are truly averse to inequity, we had 3- to 8-year-old children distribute resources to 3rd parties and found that 6- to 8-year-old children would rather throw a resource in the trash than distribute unequally, suggesting that concerns with equity can trump concerns with maximal sharing. We also demonstrated that children's reactions were not based on wanting to avoid upsetting the recipients or based on a preference for visual symmetry and that children will even throw away a resource that could have gone to themselves in order to avoid inequity. These results demonstrate the existence of inequity aversion in children, provide a new method for studying inequity aversion specifically, and suggest the need for new models to explain why inequity aversion may have evolved. PMID:22004168
Inequality of Paediatric Workforce Distribution in China.
Song, Peige; Ren, Zhenghong; Chang, Xinlei; Liu, Xuebei; An, Lin
2016-01-01
Child health has been addressed as a priority at both global and national levels for many decades. In China, difficulty of accessing paediatricians has been of debate for a long time, however, there is limited evidence to assess the population- and geography-related inequality of paediatric workforce distribution. This study aimed to analyse the inequality of the distributions of the paediatric workforce (including paediatricians and paediatric nurses) in China by using Lorenz curve, Gini coefficient, and Theil L index, data were obtained from the national maternal and child health human resource sampling survey conducted in 2010. In this study, we found that the paediatric workforce was the most inequitable regarding the distribution of children <7 years, the geographic distribution of the paediatric workforce highlighted very severe inequality across the nation, except the Central region. For different professional types, we found that, except the Central region, the level of inequality of paediatric nurses was higher than that of the paediatricians regarding both the demographic and geographic distributions. The inner-regional inequalities were the main sources of the paediatric workforce distribution inequality. To conclude, this study revealed the inadequate distribution of the paediatric workforce in China for the first time, substantial inequality of paediatric workforce distribution still existed across the nation in 2010, more research is still needed to explore the in-depth sources of inequality, especially the urban-rural variance and the inner- and inter-provincial differences, and to guide national and local health policy-making and resource allocation. PMID:27420083
Students' Understandings and Misconceptions of Algebraic Inequalities
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Rowntree, Rebecca V.
2009-01-01
The National Council of Teachers of Mathematics [NCTM] requires students in grades nine through 12 to be able to explain inequalities using mathematical relational symbols and be able to understand the meaning of inequalities and their solutions (NCTM, 2000). Studies have shown that not only middle and high school students have difficulties with…
Growing Income Inequality Threatens American Education
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Duncan, Greg J.; Murnane, Richard J.
2014-01-01
The first of two articles in consecutive months describes the origins and nature of growing income inequality, and some of its consequences for American children. It documents the increased family income inequality that's occurred over the past 40 years and shows that the increased income disparity has been more than matched by an expanding…
Income Inequality and the Education Divide.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Welch, Mary A., Ed.
1998-01-01
The economics of the decision to go to college or obtain technical training is discussed in this booklet. To stay competitive in the job market requires constant educational updating. The following questions are discussed: (1) how income inequality is measured; (2) how income is distributed in the United States; (3) why income inequality is…
Aspects of Territorial Inequality in Education
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ryba, Raymond
1976-01-01
Draws attention to two territorial aspects of educational inequality and considers the implications which studying them helps to highlight. The two aspects are: (1) the high degree of success which researchers have experienced in dealing with educational phenomena in this way; (2) the fact that these inequalities prevail from the international to…
Inequality of Paediatric Workforce Distribution in China
Song, Peige; Ren, Zhenghong; Chang, Xinlei; Liu, Xuebei; An, Lin
2016-01-01
Child health has been addressed as a priority at both global and national levels for many decades. In China, difficulty of accessing paediatricians has been of debate for a long time, however, there is limited evidence to assess the population- and geography-related inequality of paediatric workforce distribution. This study aimed to analyse the inequality of the distributions of the paediatric workforce (including paediatricians and paediatric nurses) in China by using Lorenz curve, Gini coefficient, and Theil L index, data were obtained from the national maternal and child health human resource sampling survey conducted in 2010. In this study, we found that the paediatric workforce was the most inequitable regarding the distribution of children <7 years, the geographic distribution of the paediatric workforce highlighted very severe inequality across the nation, except the Central region. For different professional types, we found that, except the Central region, the level of inequality of paediatric nurses was higher than that of the paediatricians regarding both the demographic and geographic distributions. The inner-regional inequalities were the main sources of the paediatric workforce distribution inequality. To conclude, this study revealed the inadequate distribution of the paediatric workforce in China for the first time, substantial inequality of paediatric workforce distribution still existed across the nation in 2010, more research is still needed to explore the in-depth sources of inequality, especially the urban-rural variance and the inner- and inter-provincial differences, and to guide national and local health policy-making and resource allocation. PMID:27420083
Income Inequality, Global Economy and the State
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lee, Cheol-Sung; Nielsen, Francois; Alderson, Arthur S.
2007-01-01
We investigate interrelationship among income inequality, global economy and the role of the state using an unbalanced panel data set with 311 observations on 60 countries, dated from 1970 to 1994. The analysis proceeds in two stages. First, we test for effects on income inequality of variables characterizing the situation of a society in the…
The effect of ageing on health inequalities.
Matthews, David
The final article in this five-part series on the relationship between sociology and nursing practice discusses age-related health inequalities. Age has a direct influence on individuals' health and wellbeing. From a sociological viewpoint, individuals' health status in old age is a reflection of experiences throughout their lifetime, which means that health inequalities accumulate. PMID:26665634
Warid, Warid; Hizam, Hashim; Mariun, Norman; Abdul-Wahab, Noor Izzri
2016-01-01
This paper proposes a new formulation for the multi-objective optimal power flow (MOOPF) problem for meshed power networks considering distributed generation. An efficacious multi-objective fuzzy linear programming optimization (MFLP) algorithm is proposed to solve the aforementioned problem with and without considering the distributed generation (DG) effect. A variant combination of objectives is considered for simultaneous optimization, including power loss, voltage stability, and shunt capacitors MVAR reserve. Fuzzy membership functions for these objectives are designed with extreme targets, whereas the inequality constraints are treated as hard constraints. The multi-objective fuzzy optimal power flow (OPF) formulation was converted into a crisp OPF in a successive linear programming (SLP) framework and solved using an efficient interior point method (IPM). To test the efficacy of the proposed approach, simulations are performed on the IEEE 30-busand IEEE 118-bus test systems. The MFLP optimization is solved for several optimization cases. The obtained results are compared with those presented in the literature. A unique solution with a high satisfaction for the assigned targets is gained. Results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed MFLP technique in terms of solution optimality and rapid convergence. Moreover, the results indicate that using the optimal DG location with the MFLP algorithm provides the solution with the highest quality. PMID:26954783
Warid, Warid; Hizam, Hashim; Mariun, Norman; Abdul-Wahab, Noor Izzri
2016-01-01
This paper proposes a new formulation for the multi-objective optimal power flow (MOOPF) problem for meshed power networks considering distributed generation. An efficacious multi-objective fuzzy linear programming optimization (MFLP) algorithm is proposed to solve the aforementioned problem with and without considering the distributed generation (DG) effect. A variant combination of objectives is considered for simultaneous optimization, including power loss, voltage stability, and shunt capacitors MVAR reserve. Fuzzy membership functions for these objectives are designed with extreme targets, whereas the inequality constraints are treated as hard constraints. The multi-objective fuzzy optimal power flow (OPF) formulation was converted into a crisp OPF in a successive linear programming (SLP) framework and solved using an efficient interior point method (IPM). To test the efficacy of the proposed approach, simulations are performed on the IEEE 30-busand IEEE 118-bus test systems. The MFLP optimization is solved for several optimization cases. The obtained results are compared with those presented in the literature. A unique solution with a high satisfaction for the assigned targets is gained. Results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed MFLP technique in terms of solution optimality and rapid convergence. Moreover, the results indicate that using the optimal DG location with the MFLP algorithm provides the solution with the highest quality. PMID:26954783
Inequalities for a polynomial and its derivative
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chanam, Barchand; Dewan, K. K.
2007-12-01
Let , 1[less-than-or-equals, slant][mu][less-than-or-equals, slant]n, be a polynomial of degree n such that p(z)[not equal to]0 in z
Health Inequalities: Trends, Progress, and Policy
Bleich, Sara N.; Jarlenski, Marian P.; Bell, Caryn N.; LaVeist, Thomas A.
2013-01-01
Health inequalities, which have been well documented for decades, have more recently become policy targets in developed countries. This review describes time trends in health inequalities (by sex, race/ethnicity, and socioeconomic status), commitments to reduce health inequalities, and progress made to eliminate health inequalities in the United States, United Kingdom, and other OECD countries. Time-trend data in the United States indicate a narrowing of the gap between the best- and worst-off groups in some health indicators, such as life expectancy, but a widening of the gap in others, such as diabetes prevalence. Similarly, time-trend data in the United Kingdom indicate a narrowing of the gap between the best- and worst-off groups in some indicators, such as hypertension prevalence, whereas the gap between social classes has increased for life expectancy. More research and better methods are needed to measure precisely the relationships between stated policy goals and observed trends in health inequalities. PMID:22224876
Inequalities in health and gender.
Haavio-Mannila, E
1986-01-01
Gender inequalities in health are studied in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden on the basis of survey data on morbidity and symptoms of anxiety, and of mental hospitalization statistics. Women have higher rates of illness than men in countries where, and in periods when, they have to a great extent stayed at home as full-time housewives. Participation in paid economic activity and the resulting economical independence thus seems to be beneficial to women's health on the macro-level of society. On the micro-level of individual families, inequality in morbidity by gender is smaller in families with two economical providers than in families where the wife stays at home. The anxiety rates of employed wives are, however, relatively high compared with those of men and non-employed wives. Only in Sweden is the mental health of employed wives good, perhaps because of supportive social policies favouring women's work outside the home. The strain involved in combining family and work among women thus becomes manifest in the appearance of symptoms of anxiety but not in physical morbidity nor mental hospitalization. PMID:3961534
A global approach to kinematic path planning to robots with holonomic and nonholonomic constraints
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Divelbiss, Adam; Seereeram, Sanjeev; Wen, John T.
1993-01-01
Robots in applications may be subject to holonomic or nonholonomic constraints. Examples of holonomic constraints include a manipulator constrained through the contact with the environment, e.g., inserting a part, turning a crank, etc., and multiple manipulators constrained through a common payload. Examples of nonholonomic constraints include no-slip constraints on mobile robot wheels, local normal rotation constraints for soft finger and rolling contacts in grasping, and conservation of angular momentum of in-orbit space robots. The above examples all involve equality constraints; in applications, there are usually additional inequality constraints such as robot joint limits, self collision and environment collision avoidance constraints, steering angle constraints in mobile robots, etc. The problem of finding a kinematically feasible path that satisfies a given set of holonomic and nonholonomic constraints, of both equality and inequality types is addressed. The path planning problem is first posed as a finite time nonlinear control problem. This problem is subsequently transformed to a static root finding problem in an augmented space which can then be iteratively solved. The algorithm has shown promising results in planning feasible paths for redundant arms satisfying Cartesian path following and goal endpoint specifications, and mobile vehicles with multiple trailers. In contrast to local approaches, this algorithm is less prone to problems such as singularities and local minima.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Li, Yuan H.; Yang, Yu N.; Tompkins, Leroy J.; Modarresi, Shahpar
2005-01-01
The statistical technique, "Zero-One Linear Programming," that has successfully been used to create multiple tests with similar characteristics (e.g., item difficulties, test information and test specifications) in the area of educational measurement, was deemed to be a suitable method for creating multiple sets of matched samples to be used as…
Constraint monitoring in TOSCA
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Beck, Howard
1992-01-01
The Job-Shop Scheduling Problem (JSSP) deals with the allocation of resources over time to factory operations. Allocations are subject to various constraints (e.g., production precedence relationships, factory capacity constraints, and limits on the allowable number of machine setups) which must be satisfied for a schedule to be valid. The identification of constraint violations and the monitoring of constraint threats plays a vital role in schedule generation in terms of the following: (1) directing the scheduling process; and (2) informing scheduling decisions. This paper describes a general mechanism for identifying constraint violations and monitoring threats to the satisfaction of constraints throughout schedule generation.
A Gibbons-Penrose Inequality for Surfaces in Schwarzschild Spacetime
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brendle, Simon; Wang, Mu-Tao
2014-08-01
We propose a geometric inequality for two-dimensional spacelike surfaces in the Schwarzschild spacetime. This inequality implies the Penrose inequality for collapsing dust shells in general relativity, as proposed by Penrose and Gibbons. We prove that the inequality holds in several important cases.
On the Penrose inequality along null hypersurfaces
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mars, Marc; Soria, Alberto
2016-06-01
The null Penrose inequality, i.e. the Penrose inequality in terms of the Bondi energy, is studied by introducing a functional on surfaces and studying its properties along a null hypersurface Ω extending to past null infinity. We prove a general Penrose-type inequality which involves the limit at infinity of the Hawking energy along a specific class of geodesic foliations called Geodesic Asymptotically Bondi (GAB), which are shown to always exist. Whenever this foliation approaches large spheres, this inequality becomes the null Penrose inequality and we recover the results of Ludvigsen–Vickers (1983 J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 16 3349–53) and Bergqvist (1997 Class. Quantum Grav. 14 2577–83). By exploiting further properties of the functional along general geodesic foliations, we introduce an approach to the null Penrose inequality called the Renormalized Area Method and find a set of two conditions which imply the validity of the null Penrose inequality. One of the conditions involves a limit at infinity and the other a restriction on the spacetime curvature along the flow. We investigate their range of applicability in two particular but interesting cases, namely the shear-free and vacuum case, where the null Penrose inequality is known to hold from the results by Sauter (2008 PhD Thesis Zürich ETH), and the case of null shells propagating in the Minkowski spacetime. Finally, a general inequality bounding the area of the quasi-local black hole in terms of an asymptotic quantity intrinsic of Ω is derived.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sidorin, Anatoly
2010-01-01
In linear accelerators the particles are accelerated by either electrostatic fields or oscillating Radio Frequency (RF) fields. Accordingly the linear accelerators are divided in three large groups: electrostatic, induction and RF accelerators. Overview of the different types of accelerators is given. Stability of longitudinal and transverse motion in the RF linear accelerators is briefly discussed. The methods of beam focusing in linacs are described.
Sidorin, Anatoly
2010-01-05
In linear accelerators the particles are accelerated by either electrostatic fields or oscillating Radio Frequency (RF) fields. Accordingly the linear accelerators are divided in three large groups: electrostatic, induction and RF accelerators. Overview of the different types of accelerators is given. Stability of longitudinal and transverse motion in the RF linear accelerators is briefly discussed. The methods of beam focusing in linacs are described.
[Society, economy, inequities and dengue].
Kouri, Gustavo; Pelegrino, José L; Munster, Blanca María; Guzmán, María G
2007-01-01
Dengue and dengue hemorrhagic fever in the Americas have been on the rise throughout the 1990s, with the highest number -over one million cases- reported in 2002. This paper analyzed the situation of dengue in the region and discussed the determining factors that account for the rise of the disease, making emphasis on socioeconomic factors, such as poverty, inequality, migrations and the lack of access to basic services, which are the most influential in perpetuating this disease in most countries. Considering that a safe and accessible vaccine is now unavailable, basic principles of vector control combined with political willingness, inter-sectoral involvement, active community participation and the tightening of health legislation were also examined as the only viable solution at present. PMID:23427454
Discrimination, Perceived Social Inequity, and Mental Health Among Rural-to-Urban Migrants in China
Lin, Danhua; Wang, Bo; Hong, Yan; Qin, Xiong; Stanton, Bonita
2010-01-01
Status-based discrimination and inequity have been associated with the process of migration, especially with economics-driven internal migration. However, their association with mental health among economy-driven internal migrants in developing countries is rarely assessed. This study examines discriminatory experiences and perceived social inequity in relation to mental health status among rural-to-urban migrants in China. Cross-sectional data were collected from 1,006 rural-to-urban migrants in 2004–2005 in Beijing, China. Participants reported their perceptions and experiences of being discriminated in daily life in urban destination and perceived social inequity. Mental health was measured using the symptom checklist-90 (SCL-90). Multivariate analyses using general linear model were performed to test the effect of discriminatory experience and perceived social inequity on mental health. Experience of discrimination was positively associated with male gender, being married at least once, poorer health status, shorter duration of migration, and middle range of personal income. Likewise, perceived social inequity was associated with poorer health status, higher education attainment, and lower personal income. Multivariate analyses indicate that both experience of discrimination and perceived social inequity were strongly associated with mental health problems of rural-to-urban migrants. Experience of discrimination in daily life and perceived social inequity have a significant influence on mental health among rural-to-urban migrants. The findings underscore the needs to reduce public or societal discrimination against rural-to-urban migrants, to eliminate structural barriers (i.e., dual household registrations) for migrants to fully benefit from the urban economic development, and to create a positive atmosphere to improve migrant's psychological well-being. PMID:20033772
Towards information inequalities for generalized graph entropies.
Sivakumar, Lavanya; Dehmer, Matthias
2012-01-01
In this article, we discuss the problem of establishing relations between information measures for network structures. Two types of entropy based measures namely, the Shannon entropy and its generalization, the Rényi entropy have been considered for this study. Our main results involve establishing formal relationships, by means of inequalities, between these two kinds of measures. Further, we also state and prove inequalities connecting the classical partition-based graph entropies and partition-independent entropy measures. In addition, several explicit inequalities are derived for special classes of graphs. PMID:22715375
Symbolic Capital, Consumption, and Health Inequality
2011-01-01
Research on economic inequalities in health has been largely polarized between psychosocial and neomaterial approaches. Examination of symbolic capital—the material display of social status and how it is structurally constrained—is an underutilized way of exploring economic disparities in health and may help to resolve the existing theoretical polarization. In contemporary society, what people do with money and how they consume and display symbols of wealth may be as important as income itself. After tracing the historical rise of consumption in capitalist society and its interrelationship with economic inequality, I discuss evidence for the role of symbolic capital in health inequalities and suggest directions for future research. PMID:21164087
A simple proof of Bell's inequality
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maccone, Lorenzo
2013-11-01
Bell's theorem is a fundamental result in quantum mechanics: it discriminates between quantum mechanics and all theories where probabilities in measurement results arise from the ignorance of pre-existing local properties. We give an extremely simple proof of Bell's inequality; a single figure suffices. This simplicity may be useful in the unending debate over what exactly the Bell inequality means, because the hypotheses underlying the proof become transparent. It is also a useful didactic tool, as the Bell inequality can be explained in a single intuitive lecture.
Linear matrix inequalities for analysis and control of linear vector second-order systems
Adegas, Fabiano D.; Stoustrup, Jakob
2014-10-06
Many dynamical systems are modeled as vector second-order differential equations. This paper presents analysis and synthesis conditions in terms of LMI with explicit dependence in the coefficient matrices of vector second-order systems. These conditions benefit from the separation between the Lyapunov matrix and the system matrices by introducing matrix multipliers, which potentially reduce conservativeness in hard control problems. Multipliers facilitate the usage of parameter-dependent Lyapunov functions as certificates of stability of uncertain and time-varying vector second-order systems. The conditions introduced in this work have the potential to increase the practice of analyzing and controlling systems directly in vector second-order form.
Rodríguez-Sanz, Maica; Gotsens, Mercè; Marí-Dell'Olmo, Marc; Mehdipanah, Roshanak; Borrell, Carme
2016-05-01
The objective of this study was to analyse trends in socioeconomic inequalities in premature mortality in Barcelona from 1992 to 2011, accounting for population changes. We conducted a repeated cross-sectional study of the Barcelona population (25-64 years) using generalized linear mixed models for trend analysis, and found that socioeconomic inequalities in premature mortality persisted between neighbourhoods, but tended to diminish. However, the reduction in inequality was related to an increase in the number of foreign-born individuals mainly in socioeconomic disadvantaged neighbourhoods, in which the decrease in premature mortality was more marked. To study trends in geographical inequalities in mortality, it is essential to understand demographic changes occurred in different places related to local levels of deprivation. PMID:27105035
Alsamawi, Ali; Murray, Joy; Lenzen, Manfred; Moran, Daniel; Kanemoto, Keiichiro
2014-01-01
In this study we use economic input-output analysis to calculate the inequality footprint of nations. An inequality footprint shows the link that each country's domestic economic activity has to income distribution elsewhere in the world. To this end we use employment and household income accounts for 187 countries and an historical time series dating back to 1990. Our results show that in 2010, most developed countries had an inequality footprint that was higher than their within-country inequality, meaning that in order to support domestic lifestyles, these countries source imports from more unequal economies. Amongst exceptions are the United States and United Kingdom, which placed them on a par with many developing countries. Russia has a high within-country inequality nevertheless it has the lowest inequality footprint in the world, which is because of its trade connections with the Commonwealth of Independent States and Europe. Our findings show that the commodities that are inequality-intensive, such as electronic components, chemicals, fertilizers, minerals, and agricultural products often originate in developing countries characterized by high levels of inequality. Consumption of these commodities may implicate within-country inequality in both developing and developed countries. PMID:25353333
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Das, Siddhartha; Aravinda, S.; Srikanth, R.; Home, Dipankar
2013-12-01
The Bell-type (spatial), Kochen-Specker (contextuality) or Leggett-Garg (temporal) inequalities are based on classically plausible but otherwise quite distinct assumptions. For any of these inequalities, satisfaction is equivalent to a joint probability distribution for all observables in the experiment. This implies a joint distribution for all pairs of observables, and is indifferent to whether or not they commute in the theory. This indifference underpins a unification of the above inequalities into a general framework of correlation inequalities. When the physical scenario is such that the correlated pairs are all compatible, the resulting correlation is nonsignaling, which may be local or multi-particle, corresponding to contextuality or Bell-type inequalities. If the pairs are incompatible, the resulting correlation corresponds to Leggett-Garg (LG) inequalities. That quantum mechanics (QM) violates all these inequalities suggests a close connection between the local, spatial and temporal properties of the theory. As a concrete manifestation of the unification, we extend the method due to Roy and Singh (J. Phys. A, 11 (1978) L167) to derive and study a new class of hybrid spatio-temporal inequalities, where the correlated pairs in the experiment are both compatible or incompatible. The implications for cryptography and monogamy inequalities of the unification are briefly touched upon.
A note on a model for quay crane scheduling with non-crossing constraints
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Santini, Alberto; Alsing Friberg, Henrik; Ropke, Stefan
2015-06-01
This article studies the quay crane scheduling problem with non-crossing constraints, which is an operational problem that arises in container terminals. An enhancement to a mixed integer programming model for the problem is proposed and a new class of valid inequalities is introduced. Computational results show the effectiveness of these enhancements in solving the problem to optimality.
Geometric-Harmonic convexity and integral inequalities
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Akdemir, Ahmet Ocak; Yalçin, Abdüllatif; Polat, Fatma; Kavurmaci-Önalan, Havva
2016-04-01
In this paper, some new integral inequalities have been proved for functions whose absolute value of derivatives are GH-convex functions by using integral equalities that have been obtained previously.
Inequality, income, and poverty: comparative global evidence.
Fosu, Augustin Kwasi
2010-01-01
Objectives. The study seeks to provide comparative global evidence on the role of income inequality, relative to income growth, in poverty reduction.Methods. An analysis-of-covariance model is estimated using a large global sample of 1980–2004 unbalanced panel data, with the headcount measure of poverty as the dependent variable, and the Gini coefficient and PPP-adjusted mean income as explanatory variables. Both random-effects and fixed-effects methods are employed in the estimation.Results. The responsiveness of poverty to income is a decreasing function of inequality, and the inequality elasticity of poverty is actually larger than the income elasticity of poverty. Furthermore, there is a large variation across regions (and countries) in the relative effects of inequality on poverty.Conclusion. Income distribution plays a more important role than might be traditionally acknowledged in poverty reduction, though this importance varies widely across regions and countries. PMID:21125764
Neural responses to advantageous and disadvantageous inequity.
Fliessbach, Klaus; Phillipps, Courtney B; Trautner, Peter; Schnabel, Marieke; Elger, Christian E; Falk, Armin; Weber, Bernd
2012-01-01
In this paper we study neural responses to inequitable distributions of rewards despite equal performance. We specifically focus on differences between advantageous inequity (AI) and disadvantageous inequity (DI). AI and DI were realized in a hyperscanning functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiment with pairs of subjects simultaneously performing a task in adjacent scanners and observing both subjects' rewards. Results showed (1) hypoactivation of the ventral striatum (VS) under DI but not under AI; (2) inequity induced activation of the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) that was stronger under DI than under AI; (3) correlations between subjective evaluations of AI evaluation and bilateral ventrolateral prefrontal and left insular activity. Our study provides neurophysiological evidence for different cognitive processes that occur when exposed to DI and AI, respectively. One possible interpretation is that any form of inequity represents a norm violation, but that important differences between AI and DI emerge from an asymmetric involvement of status concerns. PMID:22701414
Neural responses to advantageous and disadvantageous inequity
Fliessbach, Klaus; Phillipps, Courtney B.; Trautner, Peter; Schnabel, Marieke; Elger, Christian E.; Falk, Armin; Weber, Bernd
2012-01-01
In this paper we study neural responses to inequitable distributions of rewards despite equal performance. We specifically focus on differences between advantageous inequity (AI) and disadvantageous inequity (DI). AI and DI were realized in a hyperscanning functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiment with pairs of subjects simultaneously performing a task in adjacent scanners and observing both subjects' rewards. Results showed (1) hypoactivation of the ventral striatum (VS) under DI but not under AI; (2) inequity induced activation of the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) that was stronger under DI than under AI; (3) correlations between subjective evaluations of AI evaluation and bilateral ventrolateral prefrontal and left insular activity. Our study provides neurophysiological evidence for different cognitive processes that occur when exposed to DI and AI, respectively. One possible interpretation is that any form of inequity represents a norm violation, but that important differences between AI and DI emerge from an asymmetric involvement of status concerns. PMID:22701414
Income inequality in today’s China
Xie, Yu; Zhou, Xiang
2014-01-01
Using multiple data sources, we establish that China's income inequality since 2005 has reached very high levels, with the Gini coefficient in the range of 0.53–0.55. Analyzing comparable survey data collected in 2010 in China and the United States, we examine social determinants that help explain China’s high income inequality. Our results indicate that a substantial part of China’s high income inequality is due to regional disparities and the rural-urban gap. The contributions of these two structural forces are particularly strong in China, but they play a negligible role in generating the overall income inequality in the United States, where individual-level and family-level income determinants, such as family structure and race/ethnicity, play a much larger role. PMID:24778237
Should we worry about income inequality?
Wade, Robert Hunter
2006-01-01
Liberals (in the European sense) argue that a liberal free-market economic policy regime-nationally and globally-is good for economic growth and poverty reduction and for keeping income inequality within tolerable limits. Second, they argue that substantial income inequality is desirable because of its good effects on other things, notably incentives, innovation, and panache; and conversely, they dismiss concerns about growing inequality as "the politics of envy." Third, they argue that the core liberal theory of capitalist political economy satisfactorily explains the central tendencies in the role of the state in advanced capitalist economies. This essay challenges all three arguments on both conceptual and empirical grounds. It then suggests why the arguments are nevertheless widely accepted, proposes criteria for deciding how much inequality is fair, and ends by suggesting ways for achieving higher salience for income redistribution (downwards) in political agendas. PMID:16878393
Bell inequalities resistant to detector inefficiency
Massar, Serge; Pironio, Stefano; Roland, Jeremie; Gisin, Bernard
2002-11-01
We derive both numerically and analytically Bell inequalities and quantum measurements that present enhanced resistance to detector inefficiency. In particular, we describe several Bell inequalities which appear to be optimal with respect to inefficient detectors for small dimensionality d=2,3,4 and two or more measurement settings at each side. We also generalize the family of Bell inequalities described by Collins et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 040404 (2002)] to take into account the inefficiency of detectors. In addition, we consider the possibility for pairs of entangled particles to be produced with probability less than 1. We show that when the pair production probability is small, one should in general use different Bell inequalities than when the pair production probability is high.
Schooling and Inequality from Generation to Generation
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bowles, Samuel
1972-01-01
Shows that substantial inequality of economic opportunity exists in the U.S. and that the educational system is a major vehicle for the transmission of economic status from one generation to the next. (RJ)
Evolutionary problems driven by variational inequalities
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Zhenhai; Zeng, Shengda; Motreanu, Dumitru
2016-05-01
In this paper we introduce the differential system obtained by mixing an evolution equation and a variational inequality ((EEVI), for short). First, by using KKM theorem and monotonicity arguments, we prove the superpositional measurability and upper semicontinuity for the solution set of a general variational inequality. Then we establish that the solution set of (EEVI) is nonempty and compact. Our approach is based on the theory of semigroups, Filippov implicit function lemma and fixed point theory for set-valued mappings.
Inequalities in health and social policy.
Zieliński, Andrzej
2015-01-01
WHO and the European Commission impart great importance to promoting activities aimed at reducing inequalities in health. The article raised methodological problems of studies on the causes of inequalities in health. Author draws attention to the need for field studies focused on comparing well-specified population groups in order to achieve greater accuracy of studies to obtain preventive actions better fit to the specific needs of a given population. He also indicates the difficulties related to the comparisons made on an international scale due to the large number of variables that could interfere with investigated exposure. A significant part of the article is devoted to the interpretation of the measurement of poverty and the relationship between economic inequality and inequities in health. The author points out that there are no simple relations in this area, but the impact of economic inequality is particularly pronounced where inequalities in income of families bring large fractions of a society below the threshold of poverty. PMID:27139342
Clausius inequality beyond the weak-coupling limit: the quantum Brownian oscillator.
Kim, Ilki; Mahler, Günter
2010-01-01
We consider a quantum linear oscillator coupled at an arbitrary strength to a bath at an arbitrary temperature. We find an exact closed expression for the oscillator density operator. This state is noncanonical but can be shown to be equivalent to that of an uncoupled linear oscillator at an effective temperature T*(eff) with an effective mass and an effective spring constant. We derive an effective Clausius inequality deltaQ*(eff)< or =T*(eff)dS , where deltaQ*(eff) is the heat exchanged between the effective (weakly coupled) oscillator and the bath, and S represents a thermal entropy of the effective oscillator, being identical to the von-Neumann entropy of the coupled oscillator. Using this inequality (for a cyclic process in terms of a variation of the coupling strength) we confirm the validity of the second law. For a fixed coupling strength this inequality can also be tested for a process in terms of a variation of either the oscillator mass or its spring constant. Then it is never violated. The properly defined Clausius inequality is thus more robust than assumed previously. PMID:20365317
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bierhorst, Peter
2014-07-01
The Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt (CHSH) inequality is a constraint that local hidden variable theories must obey. Quantum Mechanics predicts a violation of this inequality in certain experimental settings. Treatments of this subject frequently make simplifying assumptions about the probability spaces available to a local hidden variable theory, such as assuming the state of the system is a discrete or absolutely continuous random variable, or assuming that repeated experimental trials are independent and identically distributed. In this paper, we do two things: first, show that the CHSH inequality holds even for completely general state variables in the measure-theoretic setting, and second, demonstrate how to drop the assumption of independence of subsequent trials while still being able to perform a hypothesis test that will distinguish Quantum Mechanics from local theories. The statistical strength of such a test is computed.
Hard Constraints in Optimization Under Uncertainty
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Crespo, Luis G.; Giesy, Daniel P.; Kenny, Sean P.
2008-01-01
This paper proposes a methodology for the analysis and design of systems subject to parametric uncertainty where design requirements are specified via hard inequality constraints. Hard constraints are those that must be satisfied for all parameter realizations within a given uncertainty model. Uncertainty models given by norm-bounded perturbations from a nominal parameter value, i.e., hyper-spheres, and by sets of independently bounded uncertain variables, i.e., hyper-rectangles, are the focus of this paper. These models, which are also quite practical, allow for a rigorous mathematical treatment within the proposed framework. Hard constraint feasibility is determined by sizing the largest uncertainty set for which the design requirements are satisfied. Analytically verifiable assessments of robustness are attained by comparing this set with the actual uncertainty model. Strategies that enable the comparison of the robustness characteristics of competing design alternatives, the description and approximation of the robust design space, and the systematic search for designs with improved robustness are also proposed. Since the problem formulation is generic and the tools derived only require standard optimization algorithms for their implementation, this methodology is applicable to a broad range of engineering problems.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Walkiewicz, T. A.; Newby, N. D., Jr.
1972-01-01
A discussion of linear collisions between two or three objects is related to a junior-level course in analytical mechanics. The theoretical discussion uses a geometrical approach that treats elastic and inelastic collisions from a unified point of view. Experiments with a linear air track are described. (Author/TS)
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Shavit, Yossi, Ed.; Blossfeld, Hans-Peter, Ed.
This book encompasses a systematic, comparative study of change in educational stratification in 13 industrialized countries, exploring which societal conditions help reduce existing inequalities in educational opportunity. The contributors show that in most industrialized countries inequalities in educational opportunity among students from…
From general discrimination to segmented inequality: Migration and inequality in urban China.
Lu, Yao; Wang, Feng
2013-11-01
Internal migration in China during the last three decades, the largest in human history, offers a rare opportunity to understand inequalities in the making. Using data spanning 10years from China's largest metropolis, Shanghai, this study assesses how enduring state institutions interplay with the spread of market forces to shape income inequality between migrants and native urban workers. Though the wages of both Chinese migrants and urban workers rose considerably, economic restructuring during the decade under study resulted in diminished privileges for urbanites and subsequently increased collision between migrants and urban workers in the private sectors. These shifts, rather than substantially reducing inequality, have led to an evolving form of inequality, from an initial general blatant discrimination against migrants across the board, to a new and more subtle form of inequality characterized by substantial segmented discrimination against migrants within economic sectors, with the degree of inequality varying from sector to sector. We discuss how this changing inequality reflects complementary rather than competing roles of the state and market institutions in inequality creation and maintenance. PMID:24090844
Aging and Cumulative Inequality: How Does Inequality Get Under the Skin?
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ferraro, Kenneth F.; Shippee, Tetyana Pylypiv
2009-01-01
Purpose: This article draws from cumulative disadvantage and life course theories to develop a new theory for the social scientific study of aging. Design and Methods: Five axioms of "cumulative inequality (CI) theory" are articulated to identify how life course trajectories are influenced by early and accumulated inequalities but can be modified…
Beyond the income inequality hypothesis: class, neo-liberalism, and health inequalities.
Coburn, David
2004-01-01
This paper describes and critiques the income inequality approach to health inequalities. It then presents an alternative class-based model through a focus on the causes and not only the consequences of income inequalities. In this model, the relationship between income inequality and health appears as a special case within a broader causal chain. It is argued that global and national socio-political-economic trends have increased the power of business classes and lowered that of working classes. The neo-liberal policies accompanying these trends led to increased income inequality but also poverty and unequal access to many other health-relevant resources. But international pressures towards neo-liberal doctrines and policies are differentially resisted by various nations because of historically embedded variation in class and institutional structures. Data presented indicates that neo-liberalism is associated with greater poverty and income inequalities, and greater health inequalities within nations. Furthermore, countries with Social Democratic forms of welfare regimes (i.e., those that are less neo-liberal) have better health than do those that are more neo-liberal. The paper concludes with discussion of what further steps are needed to "go beyond" the income inequality hypothesis towards consideration of a broader set of the social determinants of health. PMID:14572920
Identification and robust control of linear parameter-varying systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, Lawton Hubert
This dissertation deals with linear parameter-varying (LPV) systems: linear dynamic systems that depend on time-varying parameters. These systems appear in gain scheduling problems, and much recent research has been devoted to their prospective usefulness for systematic gain scheduling. We primarily focus on robust control of uncertain LPV systems and identification of LPV systems that are modelable as linear-fractional transformations (LFTs). Using parameter-dependent quadratic Lyapunov functions, linear matrix inequalities (LMIs), and scaled small-gain arguments, we define notions of stability and induced-{cal L}sb2 performance for uncertain LPV systems whose parameters and rates of parameter variation satisfy given bounds. The performance criterion involves integral quadratic constraints and implies naturally parameter-dependent induced-{cal L}sb2 norm bounds. We formulate and solve an {cal H}sb{infty}-like control problem for an LPV plant with measurable parameters and an "Output/State Feedback" structure: the feedback outputs include some noiselessly measured states. Necessary and sufficient solvability conditions reduce to LMIs that can be solved approximately using finite-dimensional convex programming. Reduced-order LPV controllers are constructed from the LMI solutions. A D-K iteration-like procedure provides robustness to structured, time-varying, parametric uncertainty. The design method is applied to a motivating example: flight control for the F-16 VISTA throughout its subsonic flight envelope. Parameter-dependent weights and {cal H}sb{infty} design principles describe the performance objectives. Closed-loop responses exhibited by nonlinear simulations indicate satisfactory flying qualities. Identification of linear-fractional LPV systems is treated using maximum-likelihood parameter estimation. Computing the gradient and Hessian of a maximum-likelihood cost function reduces to simulating one LPV filter per identified parameter. We use nonlinear
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Provencher, Stephen W.
1982-09-01
CONTIN is a portable Fortran IV package for inverting noisy linear operator equations. These problems occur in the analysis of data from a wide variety experiments. They are generally ill-posed problems, which means that errors in an unregularized inversion are unbounded. Instead, CONTIN seeks the optimal solution by incorporating parsimony and any statistical prior knowledge into the regularizor and absolute prior knowledge into equallity and inequality constraints. This can be greatly increase the resolution and accuracyh of the solution. CONTIN is very flexible, consisting of a core of about 50 subprograms plus 13 small "USER" subprograms, which the user can easily modify to specify special-purpose constraints, regularizors, operator equations, simulations, statistical weighting, etc. Specjial collections of USER subprograms are available for photon correlation spectroscopy, multicomponent spectra, and Fourier-Bessel, Fourier and Laplace transforms. Numerically stable algorithms are used throughout CONTIN. A fairly precise definition of information content in terms of degrees of freedom is given. The regularization parameter can be automatically chosen on the basis of an F-test and confidence region. The interpretation of the latter and of error estimates based on the covariance matrix of the constrained regularized solution are discussed. The strategies, methods and options in CONTIN are outlined. The program itself is described in the following paper.
Ito, Tsuyoshi; Imai, Hiroshi; Avis, David
2006-04-15
We show that some two-party Bell inequalities with two-valued observables are stronger than the CHSH inequality for 3x3 isotropic states in the sense that they are violated by some isotropic states in the 3x3 system that do not violate the CHSH inequality. These Bell inequalities are obtained by applying triangular elimination to the list of known facet inequalities of the cut polytope on nine points. This gives a partial solution to an open problem posed by Collins and Gisin. The results of numerical optimization suggest that they are candidates for being stronger than the I{sub 3322} Bell inequality for 3x3 isotropic states. On the other hand, we found no Bell inequalities stronger than the CHSH inequality for 2x2 isotropic states. In addition, we illustrate an inclusion relation among some Bell inequalities derived by triangular elimination.
Kinematics and constraints associated with swashplate blade pitch control
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Leyland, Jane A.
1993-01-01
An important class of techniques to reduce helicopter vibration is based on using a Higher Harmonic controller to optimally define the Higher Harmonic blade pitch. These techniques typically require solution of a general optimization problem requiring the determination of a control vector which minimizes a performance index where functions of the control vector are subject to inequality constraints. Six possible constraint functions associated with swashplate blade pitch control were identified and defined. These functions constrain: (1) blade pitch Fourier Coefficients expressed in the Rotating System, (2) blade pitch Fourier Coefficients expressed in the Nonrotating System, (3) stroke of the individual actuators expressed in the Nonrotating System, (4) blade pitch expressed as a function of blade azimuth and actuator stroke, (5) time rate-of-change of the aforementioned parameters, and (6) required actuator power. The aforementioned constraints and the associated kinematics of swashplate blade pitch control by means of the strokes of the individual actuators are documented.
Highly irregular quantum constraints
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Klauder, John R.; Little, J. Scott
2006-05-01
Motivated by a recent paper of Louko and Molgado, we consider a simple system with a single classical constraint R(q) = 0. If ql denotes a generic solution to R(q) = 0, our examples include cases where R'(ql) ≠ 0 (regular constraint) and R'(ql) = 0 (irregular constraint) of varying order as well as the case where R(q) = 0 for an interval, such as a <= q <= b. Quantization of irregular constraints is normally not considered; however, using the projection operator formalism we provide a satisfactory quantization which reduces to the constrained classical system when planck → 0. It is noteworthy that irregular constraints change the observable aspects of a theory as compared to strictly regular constraints.
Socioeconomic inequalities in the quality of life of older Europeans in different welfare regimes
Katikireddi, Srinivasa Vittal; Pell, Jill P.; Mitchell, Richard
2014-01-01
Background: Whether socioeconomic inequalities in health and well-being persist into old age and are narrower in more generous welfare states is debated. We investigated the magnitude of socioeconomic inequality in the quality of life of Europeans in early old age and the influence of the welfare regime type on these relationships. Methods: Data from individuals aged 50–75 years (n = 16 074) residing in 13 European countries were derived from Waves 2 and 3 of the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe. Slope indices of inequality (SIIs) were calculated for the association between socioeconomic position and CASP-12, a measure of positive quality of life. Multilevel linear regression was used to assess the overall relationship between socioeconomic position and quality of life, using interaction terms to investigate the influence of the type of welfare regime (Southern, Scandinavian, Post-communist or Bismarckian). Results: Socioeconomic inequalities in quality of life were narrowest in the Scandinavian and Bismarckian regimes, and were largest by measures of current wealth. Compared with the Scandinavian welfare regime, where narrow inequalities in quality of life by education level were found in both men (SII = 0.02, 95% CI: −1.09 to 1.13) and women (SII = 1.11, 95% CI: 0.05–2.17), the difference in quality of life between the least and most educated was particularly wide in Southern and Post-communist regimes. Conclusion: Individuals in more generous welfare regimes experienced higher levels of quality of life, as well as narrower socioeconomic inequalities in quality of life. PMID:24568754
Higher derivative theories with constraints: exorcising Ostrogradski's ghost
Chen, Tai-jun; Lim, Eugene A.; Fasiello, Matteo; Tolley, Andrew J. E-mail: matte@case.edu E-mail: andrew.j.tolley@case.edu
2013-02-01
We prove that the linear instability in a non-degenerate higher derivative theory, the Ostrogradski instability, can only be removed by the addition of constraints if the original theory's phase space is reduced.
Bell inequalities for quantum optical fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Żukowski, Marek; Wieśniak, Marcin; Laskowski, Wiesław
2016-08-01
The commonly used "practical" Bell inequalities for quantum optical fields, which use intensities as the observables, are derivable only if specific additional assumptions hold. This limits the range of local hidden variable theories, which are invalidated by their violation. We present alternative Bell inequalities, which do not suffer from any (theoretical) loophole. The inequalities are for correlations of averaged products of local rates. By rates we mean ratios of the measured intensity in the given local output channel to the total local measured intensity, in the given run of the experiment. Bell inequalities of this type detect entanglement in situations in which the "practical" ones fail. Thus, we have full consistency with Bell's theorem, and better device-independent entanglement indicators. Strongly driven type-II parametric down conversion (bright squeezed vacuum) is our working example. The approach can be used to modify many types of standard Bell inequalities, to the case of undefined particle numbers. The rule is to replace the usual probabilities by rates.
[Inequalities in health: definitions, concepts, and theories].
Arcaya, Mariana C; Arcaya, Alyssa L; Subramanian, S V
2015-10-01
Individuals from different backgrounds, social groups, and countries enjoy different levels of health. This article defines and distinguishes between unavoidable health inequalities and unjust and preventable health inequities. We describe the dimensions along which health inequalities are commonly examined, including across the global population, between countries or states, and within geographies, by socially relevant groupings such as race/ethnicity, gender, education, caste, income, occupation, and more. Different theories attempt to explain group-level differences in health, including psychosocial, material deprivation, health behavior, environmental, and selection explanations. Concepts of relative versus absolute; dose response versus threshold; composition versus context; place versus space; the life course perspective on health; causal pathways to health; conditional health effects; and group-level versus individual differences are vital in understanding health inequalities. We close by reflecting on what conditions make health inequalities unjust, and to consider the merits of policies that prioritize the elimination of health disparities versus those that focus on raising the overall standard of health in a population. PMID:26758216
Inequalities in health: definitions, concepts, and theories.
Arcaya, Mariana C; Arcaya, Alyssa L; Subramanian, S V
2015-01-01
Individuals from different backgrounds, social groups, and countries enjoy different levels of health. This article defines and distinguishes between unavoidable health inequalities and unjust and preventable health inequities. We describe the dimensions along which health inequalities are commonly examined, including across the global population, between countries or states, and within geographies, by socially relevant groupings such as race/ethnicity, gender, education, caste, income, occupation, and more. Different theories attempt to explain group-level differences in health, including psychosocial, material deprivation, health behavior, environmental, and selection explanations. Concepts of relative versus absolute; dose-response versus threshold; composition versus context; place versus space; the life course perspective on health; causal pathways to health; conditional health effects; and group-level versus individual differences are vital in understanding health inequalities. We close by reflecting on what conditions make health inequalities unjust, and to consider the merits of policies that prioritize the elimination of health disparities versus those that focus on raising the overall standard of health in a population. PMID:26112142
Convolution Inequalities for the Boltzmann Collision Operator
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Alonso, Ricardo J.; Carneiro, Emanuel; Gamba, Irene M.
2010-09-01
We study integrability properties of a general version of the Boltzmann collision operator for hard and soft potentials in n-dimensions. A reformulation of the collisional integrals allows us to write the weak form of the collision operator as a weighted convolution, where the weight is given by an operator invariant under rotations. Using a symmetrization technique in L p we prove a Young’s inequality for hard potentials, which is sharp for Maxwell molecules in the L 2 case. Further, we find a new Hardy-Littlewood-Sobolev type of inequality for Boltzmann collision integrals with soft potentials. The same method extends to radially symmetric, non-increasing potentials that lie in some {Ls_{weak}} or L s . The method we use resembles a Brascamp, Lieb and Luttinger approach for multilinear weighted convolution inequalities and follows a weak formulation setting. Consequently, it is closely connected to the classical analysis of Young and Hardy-Littlewood-Sobolev inequalities. In all cases, the inequality constants are explicitly given by formulas depending on integrability conditions of the angular cross section (in the spirit of Grad cut-off). As an additional application of the technique we also obtain estimates with exponential weights for hard potentials in both conservative and dissipative interactions.
Inequalities in health: definitions, concepts, and theories
Arcaya, Mariana C.; Arcaya, Alyssa L.; Subramanian, S. V.
2015-01-01
Individuals from different backgrounds, social groups, and countries enjoy different levels of health. This article defines and distinguishes between unavoidable health inequalities and unjust and preventable health inequities. We describe the dimensions along which health inequalities are commonly examined, including across the global population, between countries or states, and within geographies, by socially relevant groupings such as race/ethnicity, gender, education, caste, income, occupation, and more. Different theories attempt to explain group-level differences in health, including psychosocial, material deprivation, health behavior, environmental, and selection explanations. Concepts of relative versus absolute; dose–response versus threshold; composition versus context; place versus space; the life course perspective on health; causal pathways to health; conditional health effects; and group-level versus individual differences are vital in understanding health inequalities. We close by reflecting on what conditions make health inequalities unjust, and to consider the merits of policies that prioritize the elimination of health disparities versus those that focus on raising the overall standard of health in a population. PMID:26112142
Children rectify inequalities for disadvantaged groups.
Elenbaas, Laura; Killen, Melanie
2016-08-01
Children's decisions regarding the allocation of societal resources in the context of preexisting inequalities were investigated. African American and European American children ages 5 to 6 years (n = 91) and 10 to 11 years (n = 94) judged the acceptability of a medical resource inequality on the basis of race, allocated medical supplies, evaluated different resource allocation strategies, and completed a measure of status awareness based on race. With age, children were increasingly aware of wealth status disparities between African Americans and European Americans, and judged a medical resource inequality between groups more negatively. Further, with age, children rectified the resource inequality over perpetuating it, but only when African American children were disadvantaged. With age, children also referenced rights when reasoning about their judgments concerning the disadvantaged African American group. When European American children were disadvantaged, children did not systematically allocate more resources to one group over another. The results are discussed in terms of social inequalities, disadvantaged status, moral judgments, and intergroup attitudes. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27455190
Lies, Damned Lies, and Health Inequality Measurements
Gerdtham, Ulf-G; Petrie, Dennis
2015-01-01
Measuring and monitoring socioeconomic health inequalities are critical for understanding the impact of policy decisions. However, the measurement of health inequality is far from value neutral, and one can easily present the measure that best supports one’s chosen conclusion or selectively exclude measures. Improving people’s understanding of the often implicit value judgments is therefore important to reduce the risk that researchers mislead or policymakers are misled. While the choice between relative and absolute inequality is already value laden, further complexities arise when, as is often the case, health variables have both a lower and upper bound, and thus can be expressed in terms of either attainments or shortfalls, such as for mortality/survival. We bring together the recent parallel discussions from epidemiology and health economics regarding health inequality measurement and provide a deeper understanding of the different value judgments within absolute and relative measures expressed both in attainments and shortfalls, by graphically illustrating both hypothetical and real examples. We show that relative measures in terms of attainments and shortfalls have distinct value judgments, highlighting that for health variables with two bounds the choice is no longer only between an absolute and a relative measure but between an absolute, an attainment- relative and a shortfall-relative one. We illustrate how these three value judgments can be combined onto a single graph which shows the rankings according to all three measures, and illustrates how the three measures provide ethical benchmarks against which to judge the difference in inequality between populations. PMID:26133019
Teaching Australian Football in Physical Education: Constraints Theory in Practice
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Pill, Shane
2013-01-01
This article outlines a constraints-led process of exploring, modifying, experimenting, adapting, and developing game appreciation known as Game Sense (Australian Sports Commission, 1997; den Duyn, 1996, 1997) for the teaching of Australian football. The game acts as teacher in this constraints-led process. Rather than a linear system that…
Christofilos, N.C.; Polk, I.J.
1959-02-17
Improvements in linear particle accelerators are described. A drift tube system for a linear ion accelerator reduces gap capacity between adjacent drift tube ends. This is accomplished by reducing the ratio of the diameter of the drift tube to the diameter of the resonant cavity. Concentration of magnetic field intensity at the longitudinal midpoint of the external sunface of each drift tube is reduced by increasing the external drift tube diameter at the longitudinal center region.
Inequity aversion and the evolution of cooperation.
Ahmed, Asrar; Karlapalem, Kamalakar
2014-02-01
Evolution of cooperation is a widely studied problem in biology, social science, economics, and artificial intelligence. Most of the existing approaches that explain cooperation rely on some notion of direct or indirect reciprocity. These reciprocity based models assume agents recognize their partner and know their previous interactions, which requires advanced cognitive abilities. In this paper we are interested in developing a model that produces cooperation without requiring any explicit memory of previous game plays. Our model is based on the notion of inequity aversion, a concept introduced within behavioral economics, whereby individuals care about payoff equality in outcomes. Here we explore the effect of using income inequality to guide partner selection and interaction. We study our model by considering both the well-mixed and the spatially structured population and present the conditions under which cooperation becomes dominant. Our results support the hypothesis that inequity aversion promotes cooperative relationship among nonkin. PMID:25353529
Radial fractional Laplace operators and Hessian inequalities
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ferrari, Fausto; Verbitsky, Igor E.
In this paper we deduce a formula for the fractional Laplace operator ( on radially symmetric functions useful for some applications. We give a criterion of subharmonicity associated with (, and apply it to a problem related to the Hessian inequality of Sobolev type: ∫Rn |(u| dx⩽C∫Rn -uFk[u] dx, where Fk is the k-Hessian operator on Rn, 1⩽k
Fairness and the development of inequality acceptance.
Almås, Ingvild; Cappelen, Alexander W; Sørensen, Erik Ø; Tungodden, Bertil
2010-05-28
Fairness considerations fundamentally affect human behavior, but our understanding of the nature and development of people's fairness preferences is limited. The dictator game has been the standard experimental design for studying fairness preferences, but it only captures a situation where there is broad agreement that fairness requires equality. In real life, people often disagree on what is fair because they disagree on whether individual achievements, luck, and efficiency considerations of what maximizes total benefits can justify inequalities. We modified the dictator game to capture these features and studied how inequality acceptance develops in adolescence. We found that as children enter adolescence, they increasingly view inequalities reflecting differences in individual achievements, but not luck, as fair, whereas efficiency considerations mainly play a role in late adolescence. PMID:20508132
Health, inequality and the politics of genes.
Whittle, Patrick M
2010-08-13
Research into the possible genetic basis of health inequalities between different ethnic or racial groups raises many scientific, ethical and political concerns. Proponents of such research point to the possible benefits for marginalised groups of understanding genetic influences on health outcomes; opponents indicate the potential social costs, citing historical use of Darwinian concepts to explain and justify inequalities between different peoples. Many health researchers may avoid the subject due to its potential for controversy--e.g. the recent media furore over the so-called 'warrior gene', and its apparent genetic explanations for negative health and social statistics among Maori. This article argues for a more nuanced account of the evolutionary history of marginalised groups such as Maori, one that accepts the possibility of relevant genetic differences between sub-populations, but which also acknowledges genuine ethical and political concerns. Such an account may assist health researchers in addressing the politically sensitive subject of 'race' and social inequality. PMID:20720605
Inequity aversion and the evolution of cooperation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ahmed, Asrar; Karlapalem, Kamalakar
2014-02-01
Evolution of cooperation is a widely studied problem in biology, social science, economics, and artificial intelligence. Most of the existing approaches that explain cooperation rely on some notion of direct or indirect reciprocity. These reciprocity based models assume agents recognize their partner and know their previous interactions, which requires advanced cognitive abilities. In this paper we are interested in developing a model that produces cooperation without requiring any explicit memory of previous game plays. Our model is based on the notion of inequity aversion, a concept introduced within behavioral economics, whereby individuals care about payoff equality in outcomes. Here we explore the effect of using income inequality to guide partner selection and interaction. We study our model by considering both the well-mixed and the spatially structured population and present the conditions under which cooperation becomes dominant. Our results support the hypothesis that inequity aversion promotes cooperative relationship among nonkin.
CDC Health Disparities and Inequalities Report--U.S. 2013
... to Community Health Tribal Support Women's Health CDC Health Disparities & Inequalities Report (CHDIR) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... Sheets 2011 Report More Information CDC Releases Second Health Disparities & Inequalities Report - United States, 2013 CDC and its partners ...
Creating Positive Task Constraints
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Mally, Kristi K.
2006-01-01
Constraints are characteristics of the individual, the task, or the environment that mold and shape movement choices and performances. Constraints can be positive--encouraging proficient movements or negative--discouraging movement or promoting ineffective movements. Physical educators must analyze, evaluate, and determine the effect various…
Constraint Reasoning Over Strings
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Koga, Dennis (Technical Monitor); Golden, Keith; Pang, Wanlin
2003-01-01
This paper discusses an approach to representing and reasoning about constraints over strings. We discuss how many string domains can often be concisely represented using regular languages, and how constraints over strings, and domain operations on sets of strings, can be carried out using this representation.
Credit Constraints in Education
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lochner, Lance; Monge-Naranjo, Alexander
2012-01-01
We review studies of the impact of credit constraints on the accumulation of human capital. Evidence suggests that credit constraints have recently become important for schooling and other aspects of households' behavior. We highlight the importance of early childhood investments, as their response largely determines the impact of credit…
An Isoperimetric Inequality for Fundamental Tones of Free Plates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chasman, L. M.
2011-04-01
We establish an isoperimetric inequality for the fundamental tone (first nonzero eigenvalue) of the free plate of a given area, proving the ball is maximal. Given τ > 0, the free plate eigenvalues ω and eigenfunctions u are determined by the equation ΔΔ u - τΔ u = ωu together with certain natural boundary conditions. The boundary conditions are complicated but arise naturally from the plate Rayleigh quotient, which contains a Hessian squared term | D 2 u|2. We adapt Weinberger's method from the corresponding free membrane problem, taking the fundamental modes of the unit ball as trial functions. These solutions are a linear combination of Bessel and modified Bessel functions.
Testing noncontextuality inequalities that are building blocks of quantum correlations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Arias, Mauricio; Cañas, Gustavo; Gómez, Esteban S.; Barra, Johanna F.; Xavier, Guilherme B.; Lima, Gustavo; D'Ambrosio, Vincenzo; Baccari, Flavio; Sciarrino, Fabio; Cabello, Adán
2015-09-01
Measurement scenarios containing events with relations of exclusivity represented by pentagons, heptagons, nonagons, etc., or their complements are the only ones in which quantum probabilities cannot be described classically. Interestingly, quantum theory predicts that the maximum values for any of these graphs cannot be achieved in Bell inequality scenarios. With the exception of the pentagon, this prediction remained experimentally unexplored. Here we test the quantum maxima for the heptagon and the complement of the heptagon using three- and five-dimensional quantum states, respectively. In both cases, we adopt two different encodings: linear transverse momentum and orbital angular momentum of single photons. Our results exclude maximally noncontextual hidden-variable theories and are in good agreement with the maxima predicted by quantum theory.
Linear Logistic Test Modeling with R
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Baghaei, Purya; Kubinger, Klaus D.
2015-01-01
The present paper gives a general introduction to the linear logistic test model (Fischer, 1973), an extension of the Rasch model with linear constraints on item parameters, along with eRm (an R package to estimate different types of Rasch models; Mair, Hatzinger, & Mair, 2014) functions to estimate the model and interpret its parameters. The…
Constraints in Quantum Geometrodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gentle, Adrian P.; George, Nathan D.; Miller, Warner A.; Kheyfets, Arkady
We compare different treatments of the constraints in canonical quantum gravity. The standard approach on the superspace of 3-geometries treats the constraints as the sole carriers of the dynamic content of the theory, thus rendering the traditional dynamical equations obsolete. Quantization of the constraints in both the Dirac and ADM square root Hamiltonian approaches leads to the well known problems of time evolution. These problems of time are of both an interpretational and technical nature. In contrast, the geometrodynamic quantization procedure on the superspace of the true dynamical variables separates the issues of quantization from the enforcement of the constraints. The resulting theory takes into account states that are off-shell with respect to the constraints, and thus avoids the problems of time. We develop, for the first time, the geometrodynamic quantization formalism in a general setting and show that it retains all essential features previously illustrated in the context of homogeneous cosmologies.
Informing Investment to Reduce Inequalities: A Modelling Approach
McAuley, Andrew; Denny, Cheryl; Taulbut, Martin; Mitchell, Rory; Fischbacher, Colin; Graham, Barbara; Grant, Ian; O’Hagan, Paul; McAllister, David; McCartney, Gerry
2016-01-01
Background Reducing health inequalities is an important policy objective but there is limited quantitative information about the impact of specific interventions. Objectives To provide estimates of the impact of a range of interventions on health and health inequalities. Materials and Methods Literature reviews were conducted to identify the best evidence linking interventions to mortality and hospital admissions. We examined interventions across the determinants of health: a ‘living wage’; changes to benefits, taxation and employment; active travel; tobacco taxation; smoking cessation, alcohol brief interventions, and weight management services. A model was developed to estimate mortality and years of life lost (YLL) in intervention and comparison populations over a 20-year time period following interventions delivered only in the first year. We estimated changes in inequalities using the relative index of inequality (RII). Results Introduction of a ‘living wage’ generated the largest beneficial health impact, with modest reductions in health inequalities. Benefits increases had modest positive impacts on health and health inequalities. Income tax increases had negative impacts on population health but reduced inequalities, while council tax increases worsened both health and health inequalities. Active travel increases had minimally positive effects on population health but widened health inequalities. Increases in employment reduced inequalities only when targeted to the most deprived groups. Tobacco taxation had modestly positive impacts on health but little impact on health inequalities. Alcohol brief interventions had modestly positive impacts on health and health inequalities only when strongly socially targeted, while smoking cessation and weight-reduction programmes had minimal impacts on health and health inequalities even when socially targeted. Conclusions Interventions have markedly different effects on mortality, hospitalisations and
Inequalities for formal power series and entire functions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grinshpan, Arcadii Z.
2008-02-01
We present several integral and exponential inequalities for formal power series and for both arbitrary entire functions of exponential type and generalized Borel transforms. They are obtained through certain limit procedures which involve the multiparameter binomial inequalities, integral inequalities for continuous functions, and weighted norm inequalities for analytic functions. Some applications to the confluent hypergeometric functions, Bessel functions, Laguerre polynomials, and trigonometric functions are discussed. Also some generalizations are given.
Wigner's inequalities in quantum field theory
Nikitin, Nikolai; Toms, Konstantin
2010-09-15
We present a relativistic generalization of the Wigner inequality for the scalar and pseudoscalar particles decaying to two particles with spin (fermions and photons.) We consider Wigner's inequality with the full spin anticorrelation (with the nonrelativistic analog), as well as the case with the full spin correlation. The latter case may be obtained by a special choice of the plane of measurement of the spin projections on the direction of propagation of fermions. The possibility for relativistic testing of Bohr's complementarity principle is shown.
Prolate horizons and the Penrose inequality
Tippett, Benjamin K.
2009-05-15
The Penrose inequality has so far been proven in cases of spherical symmetry and in cases of zero extrinsic curvature. The next simplest case worth exploring would be nonspherical, nonrotating black holes with nonzero extrinsic curvature. Following Karkowski et al.'s construction of prolate black holes, we define initial data on an asymptotically flat spacelike 3-surface with nonzero extrinsic curvature that may be chosen freely. This gives us the freedom to define the location of the apparent horizon such that the Penrose inequality is violated. We show that the dominant energy condition is violated at the poles for all cases considered.
Inequality aversion and voting on redistribution☆
Höchtl, Wolfgang; Sausgruber, Rupert; Tyran, Jean-Robert
2012-01-01
Some people have a concern for a fair distribution of incomes while others do not. Does such a concern matter for majority voting on redistribution? Fairness preferences are relevant for redistribution outcomes only if fair-minded voters are pivotal. Pivotality, in turn, depends on the structure of income classes. We experimentally study voting on redistribution between two income classes and show that the effect of inequality aversion is asymmetric. Inequality aversion is more likely to matter if the “rich” are in majority. With a “poor” majority, we find that redistribution outcomes look as if all voters were exclusively motivated by self-interest. PMID:23564967
Social inequalities and perceived health.
Hunt, S M; McEwen, J; McKenna, S P
1985-01-01
impoverishment rather than by the gross poverty and grinding labour of the past. The results of this study indicate that changes in the allocation of health care resources may have only a minor influence on inequalities in health. Remedial action would, rather, need to take the more radical form of providing fulfillment for aspirations and enhancing well-being by introducing fundamental social, economic and environmental reforms. PMID:10270615
Teaching about Inequality: Student Resistance, Paralysis, and Rage.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Davis, Nancy J.
1992-01-01
Discusses three classroom climates that are often encountered in teaching about inequality and social stratification: resistance, paralysis, and rage. Describes resistance as denying the existence or importance of inequality. Defines paralysis as classes that see little chance of overcoming inequality. Suggests that the enraged class is unable to…
Earnings Inequality in the Nonmetropolitan United States: 1967-1990.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Tolbert, Charles M.; Lyson, Thomas A.
1992-01-01
Analysis of census data indicates that earnings inequality among full-time workers increased in the 1980s. Compared to metropolitan areas, nonmetro economic inequality was greater and was explained better by both neoclassical and restructuring frameworks. Gender and college education accounted for far more earnings inequality than other sources…
Absolute Value Inequalities: High School Students' Solutions and Misconceptions
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Almog, Nava; Ilany, Bat-Sheva
2012-01-01
Inequalities are one of the foundational subjects in high school math curricula, but there is a lack of academic research into how students learn certain types of inequalities. This article fills part of the research gap by presenting the findings of a study that examined high school students' methods of approaching absolute value inequalities,…
Income Inequality and U.S. Tax Policy
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Crocco, Margaret S.; Marri, Anand R.; Wylie, Scott
2011-01-01
Many social scientists have recently commented on the high levels of income inequality in the United States. Indeed, the last time income inequality was as great as it is today was 1928, the year before the stock market crash ushered in the Great Depression. In this article, the authors offer a historical look at income inequality and taxation in…
Quantum violation of entropic noncontextual inequality in four dimensions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pan, A. K.; Sumanth, M.; Panigrahi, P. K.
2013-01-01
Using joint Shannon entropy, we propose an inequality for a four-level system, which is satisfied in a noncontextual realist hidden variable model. We show that this entropic inequality is violated by quantum mechanics for a range of entangled, as well as product states. Our inequality can be experimentally tested using the existing technology.
How Culture Affects Female Inequality across Countries: An Empirical Study
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Cheung, Hoi Yan; Chan, Alex W. H.
2007-01-01
Many studies have commented that culture has an influence on gender inequality. However, few studies have provided data that could be used to investigate how culture actually influences female inequality. One of the aims of this study is to investigate whether Hofstede's cultural dimensions have an impact on female inequality in education in terms…
Income Inequality and Economic Development, A Case Study: Japan.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Watanabe, Tsunehiko
The changes in income inequality during the post-war period in Japan are investigated quantitatively and extensively in order to shed some light on the relationship between income inequality and the rapid economic development experienced in Japan. Following a presentation of some summary pictures on income inequality in the Japanese society the…
Some Geometric Inequalities Relating to an Interior Point in Triangle
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Wu, Yu-Dong; Zhang, Zhi-Hua; Liang, Chun-Lei
2010-01-01
In this short note, by using one of Li and Liu's theorems [K.-H. Li, "The solution of CIQ. 39," "Commun. Stud. Inequal." 11(1) (2004), p. 162 (in Chinese)], "s-R-r" method, Cauchy's inequality and the theory of convex function, we solve some geometric inequalities conjectures relating to an interior point in triangle. (Contains 1 figure.)
The Unintended Significance of Race: Environmental Racial Inequality in Detroit
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Downey, Liam
2005-01-01
This article addresses shortcomings in the literature on environmental inequality by (a) setting forth and testing four models of environmental inequality and (b) explicitly linking environmental inequality research to spatial mismatch theory and to the debate on the declining significance of race. The explanatory models ask whether the…
Information-theoretic temporal Bell inequality and quantum computation
Morikoshi, Fumiaki
2006-05-15
An information-theoretic temporal Bell inequality is formulated to contrast classical and quantum computations. Any classical algorithm satisfies the inequality, while quantum ones can violate it. Therefore, the violation of the inequality is an immediate consequence of the quantumness in the computation. Furthermore, this approach suggests a notion of temporal nonlocality in quantum computation.
Preschoolers Reduce Inequality While Favoring Individuals with More
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Li, Vivian; Spitzer, Brian; Olson, Kristina R.
2014-01-01
Inequalities are everywhere, yet little is known about how children respond to people affected by inequalities. This article explores two responses--minimizing inequalities and favoring those who are advantaged by them. In Studies 1a (N = 37) and 1b (N = 38), 4- and 5-year-olds allocated a resource to a disadvantaged recipient, but judged…
Jensen inequalities for tunneling probabilities in complex systems
Andrade, D. M.; Hussein, M. S.
2009-09-15
The Jensen theorem is used to derive inequalities for semiclassical tunneling probabilities for systems involving several degrees of freedom. These Jensen inequalities are used to discuss several aspects of sub-barrier heavy-ion fusion reactions. The inequality hinges on general convexity properties of the tunneling coefficient calculated with the classical action in the classically forbidden region.
Education's Effect on Income Inequality: An Economic Globalisation Perspective
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Wells, Ryan
2006-01-01
Utilising a globalisation framework this study contributes to discussions concerning inequality, education, and development by re-examining the effects of educational and economic variables on income inequality. This research shows that the effects of education on income inequality are affected by the level of economic freedom in a country, and…
Measures of Inequality: Application to Happiness in Nations
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kalmijn, W. M.; Arends, L. R.
2010-01-01
What is a good measure for happiness inequality? In the context of this question, we have developed an approach in which individual happiness values in a sample are considered as elements of a set and inequality as a binary relation on that set. The total number of inequality relations, each weighed by the distance on the scale of measurement…
An integrated approach to the synthesis of geometrically non-linear structures
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Smaoui, H.; Schmit, L. A.
1988-01-01
An integrated approach to the minimum weight design of geometrically nonlinear three-dimensional truss structures with geometric imperfections, subject to inequality constraints on static displacements, stresses, local buckling and cross sectional areas, is investigated. The integrated structural synthesis problem involves design and response quantities as independent variables and equilibrium equations, describing the finite element model, as equality constraints. The nonlinear structural analysis and the optimization are thus merged together into a single process. A computer program developed to compute the constraint values and analytical gradients is coupled with a generalized reduced gradient algorithm to solve the integrated problem. Numerical results for a geometrically nonlinear shallow dome example problem are presented for various types of imperfections. Furthermore, it is found that the algorithm is capable of detecting and guarding against system as well as element elastic instability using equilibrium information only, that is, without imposing system and local buckling inequality constraints.
Children of Misfortune: Early Adversity and Cumulative Inequality in Perceived Life Trajectories1
Schafer, Markus H.; Ferraro, Kenneth F.; Mustillo, Sarah A.
2011-01-01
Adversity early in life may alter pathways of aging, but what interpretive processes can soften the blow of early insults? Drawing from cumulative inequality theory, the authors analyze trajectories of life evaluations and then consider whether early adversity offsets favorable expectations for the future. Results reveal that early adversity contributes to more negative views of the past but rising expectations for the future. Early adversity also has enduring effects on life evaluations, offsetting the influence of buoyant expectations. The findings draw attention to the limits of human agency under the constraints of early adversity—a process described as biographical structuration. PMID:21648247
Pawlowski, M.
2010-09-15
We show that monogamy of Bell's inequality violations, which is strictly weaker condition than the no-signaling principle is enough to prove security of quantum key distribution. We derive our results for a whole class of monogamy constraints and generalize our results to any theory that communicating parties may have access to. Some of these theories do not respect the no-signaling principle yet still allow for secure communication. This proves that no signaling is only a sufficient condition for the possibility of secure communication, but not the necessary one. We also present some new qualitative results concerning the security of existing quantum key distribution protocols.
Role of control constraints in quantum optimal control
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhdanov, Dmitry V.; Seideman, Tamar
2015-11-01
The problems of optimizing the value of an arbitrary observable of a two-level system at both a fixed time and the shortest possible time is theoretically explored. Complete identification and classification along with comprehensive analysis of globally optimal control policies and traps (i.e., policies which are locally but not globally optimal) are presented. The central question addressed is whether the control landscape remains trap-free if control constraints of the inequality type are imposed. The answer is astonishingly controversial: Although the traps are proven always to exist in this case, in practice they become trivially escapable once the control time is fixed and chosen long enough.
Evolving Polygons Revisited: Inequalities and Computer Graphing
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Abramovich, Sergei; Brouwer, Peter
2009-01-01
This paper was developed with the goal of enhancing the mathematical preparation of secondary school teachers in the technological paradigm. It shows how two-variable inequalities can be utilized as models for the construction of geometric objects using the software Graphing Calculator 3.5 (produced by Pacific Tech) as a relation grapher. An…
Ethnicity, Inequality, and Higher Education in Malaysia.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Selvaratnam, Viswanathan
1988-01-01
Traces the development since 1957 of Malaysian education policies aimed at providing equitable access to higher education. Suggests that these policies have increased representation of the Malay underclass in tertiary institutions and the professions, but have had little effect on intraethnic class inequalities. 46 references. (SV)
General polygamy inequality of multiparty quantum entanglement
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, Jeong San
2012-06-01
Using entanglement of assistance, we establish a general polygamy inequality of multiparty entanglement in arbitrary-dimensional quantum systems. For multiparty closed quantum systems, we relate our result with the monogamy of entanglement, and clarify that the entropy of entanglement bounds both monogamy and polygamy of multiparty quantum entanglement.
Maternal Depression and Childhood Health Inequalities
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Turney, Kristin
2011-01-01
An increasing body of literature documents considerable inequalities in the health of young children in the United States, though maternal depression is one important, yet often overlooked, determinant of children's health. In this article, the author uses data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (N = 4,048) and finds that maternal…
Teaching Absolute Value Inequalities to Mature Students
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Sierpinska, Anna; Bobos, Georgeana; Pruncut, Andreea
2011-01-01
This paper gives an account of a teaching experiment on absolute value inequalities, whose aim was to identify characteristics of an approach that would realize the potential of the topic to develop theoretical thinking in students enrolled in prerequisite mathematics courses at a large, urban North American university. The potential is…
Savage Inequalities: An Interview with Jonathan Kozol.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Educational Theory, 1993
1993-01-01
An interview with Jonathan Kozol, author of "Savage Inequalities," documents disparities in spending between African-American and white public school students nationwide. The interview examines the disparities, issues about resegregation and integration in schools, and implications of the book for a progressive view of school reform. (SM)
Social Comparison of Pay and Inequity Theory.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Judd, Ben
Inequity theory differs from social exchange theory in its analysis of a worker's reaction to pay by asserting that effects on work performance caused by high or low pay are due to social comparison of fairness rather than principles of direct exchange, such as reciprocity and power. The present experiment held piece-rate pay constant at two…
Prolonging Inequality? Education in Germany after Unification
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Arps, Sebastian
2005-01-01
This research examines educational stratification cross-nationally through the context of German division and unity. Drawing upon representative German Social Survey (ALLBUS) data from 1991 to 1998 on cohorts schooled in the 1980s and 1990s, the analysis explores educational inequality at the secondary school level with respect to social origins…
Colonial Continuities and Educational Inequalities in Indonesia.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Carpenter, Harold F., Jr.
This paper explores the effect of 350 years of Dutch colonial rule upon Indonesian educational policies and the resulting regional inequalities in education. It was Dutch policy not to educate most of the children from the poorer social classes, but to use education to maintain and strengthen the existing social structure. Education was also used…
Bridging Inequality from Both Sides Now
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Fiske, Susan T.; Molm, Linda D.
2010-01-01
Because inequality is one of the central concerns of sociologists, it has been addressed, in various ways, by virtually all of the major traditions of sociological social psychology--social structure and personality, symbolic interactionism, and group processes. For those who work in the social structure and personality tradition, inequality…
Race, Inequality of Opportunity, and School Choice
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Darby, Derrick; Saatcioglu, Argun
2015-01-01
Both neoliberals and liberals call for mitigating inequality of educational opportunity stemming from circumstances beyond an individual's control. In this article, we challenge the wisdom of making equality of opportunity hinge on emphasizing the distinction rather than the relationship between choices and circumstances. We utilize an empirical…
Gender Inequality in Academia: Evidences from Nigeria
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ogbogu, Christiana O.
2011-01-01
Universities and other institutions of higher education in Nigeria see themselves as liberal and open-minded. They support social movements that encourage principles of democracy and social justice, yet their mode of governance is male dominated and patriarchal. This study, therefore, identified the causes of gender inequality in academia and the…
Inequity in the Australian Education System
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Gorey, Aybek
2007-01-01
This article deals with the current situation of the Australian education system--particularly the public schools in disadvantaged areas. Research undertaken in the last decade show that while Australia has developed intensively in economic terms in the last ten years, inequality has spread nonetheless. Furthermore, there are legal barriers for…
Education and Income Inequality among Asian Americans.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Macaranas, Federico M.
The reduction of social inequalities through education is widely believed to be possible. In the past decade however, social scientists have increasingly questioned the posited conventional relationship between education and socio-economic equality. Factors other than the number of years and/or the quality of schooling have to be considered in…
Violation of Bell's inequalities in quantum optics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Reid, M. D.; Walls, D. F.
1984-01-01
An optical field produced by intracavity four-wave mixing is shown to exhibit the following nonclassical features: photon antibunching, squeezing, and violation of Cauchy-Schwarz and Bell's inequalities. These intrinsic quantum mechanical effects are shown to be associated with the nonexistence of a positive normalizable Glauber-Sudarshan P function.
Correlation Inequalities for the Quantum XY Model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Benassi, Costanza; Lees, Benjamin; Ueltschi, Daniel
2016-09-01
We show the positivity or negativity of truncated correlation functions in the quantum XY model with spin 1/2 (at any temperature) and spin 1 (in the ground state). These Griffiths-Ginibre inequalities of the second kind generalise an earlier result of Gallavotti.
Static black hole uniqueness and Penrose inequality
Mizuno, Ryosuke; Shiromizu, Tetsuya; Ohashi, Seiju
2010-02-15
Under certain conditions, we offer a new way to prove the uniqueness of the static black hole in higher dimensional asymptotically flat spacetimes. In the proof, the Penrose inequality plays a key role in higher dimensions as well as four dimensions.
Building the Movement to End Educational Inequity
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kopp, Wendy
2009-01-01
Teach for America (TFA) exists to address educational inequity--the stunning reality that in this nation, which aspires so admirably to be a land of equal opportunity, where one is born still largely determines one's educational outcomes. Despite plenty of evidence that children growing up in poverty can do well academically--when given the…
Building the Movement to End Educational Inequity
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kopp, Wendy
2008-01-01
Teach for America exists to address educational inequity--the stunning reality that the American nation, which aspires so admirably to be a land of equal opportunity, where one is born still largely determines one's educational outcomes. Despite plenty of evidence that children growing up in poverty can do well academically--when given the…
The Dual Gap Function for Variational Inequalities
Zhang Jianzhong Wan Changyu; Xiu Naihua
2003-08-15
In this paper we further study the dual gap function G, which was introduced by Marcotte and Zhu, for the variational inequality problem (VIP). We characterize the directional derivative and subdifferential of G. Based on these, we get a better understanding of the concepts of a global error bound, weak sharpness, and minimum principle sufficiency property for the pseudo-monotone.
Education and the Inequalities of Place
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Roscigno, Vincent J.; Tomaskovic-Devey, Donald; Crowley, Martha L.
2006-01-01
Students living in inner city and rural areas of the United States exhibit lower educational achievement and a higher likelihood of dropping out of high school than do their suburban counterparts. Educational research and policy has tended to neglect these inequalities or, at best, focus on one type but not the other. In this article, we integrate…
Inequality and School Reform in Bahia, Brazil
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Reiter, Bernd
2009-01-01
This article compares public and community schools in Salvador, the state capital of Bahia, Brazil. Based on quantitative data analysis and qualitative research conducted on-site during three research trips in 2001, 2003 and 2005, the author finds that Brazil's extreme inequality and the associated concentration of state power in a few hands stand…
Gender Inequality in British and German Universities
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Pritchard, Rosalind
2007-01-01
Gender inequality exists within higher education in the UK and Germany. In the UK only 15.3% of professors in pre-and post-1992 universities were women (2003), whilst in Germany only 8.6% attained the highest grade of professorship (2003). The research uses existing data sets combined with theoretical constructs to investigate the reasons for…
Gender Inequalities in the Transition to College
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Buchmann, Claudia
2009-01-01
Background: In terms of high school graduation, college entry, and persistence to earning a college degree, young women now consistently outperform their male peers. Yet most research on gender inequalities in education continues to focus on aspects of education where women trail men, such as women's underrepresentation at top-tier institutions…
Can Education Expenditures Reduce Income Inequality?
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Sylwester, Kevin
2002-01-01
Examines whether devoting more resources to education can positively affect the distribution of income within a country. Finds that public-education expenditures appear to be associated with a subsequent decrease in the level of income inequality. Finding is robust to the inclusion of various control variables and appears to be larger in…
Education, Inequality and Erosion of Social Cohesion
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Green, Andy
2009-01-01
Income inequality has been rising in Britain for two decades and wealth is also more unequally distributed now than when New Labour first came to power. Various factors have contributed to this, including education which, according to the PISA 2006 data, has more unequal outcomes in the UK than in all but 2 of the 29 tested countries. Comparative…
Beyond inequality: Acknowledging the complexity of social determinants of health.
Eckersley, Richard
2015-12-01
The impact of inequality on health is gaining more attention as public and political concern grows over increasing inequality. The income inequality hypothesis, which holds that inequality is detrimental to overall population health, is especially pertinent. However the emphasis on inequality can be challenged on both empirical and theoretical grounds. Empirically, the evidence is contradictory and contested; theoretically, it is inconsistent with our understanding of human societies as complex systems. Research and discussion, both scientific and political, need to reflect better this complexity, and give greater recognition to other social determinants of health. PMID:26560411
Bound on Bell inequalities by fraction of determinism and reverse triangle inequality
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Joshi, P.; Horodecki, K.; Horodecki, M.; Horodecki, P.; Horodecki, R.; Li, Ben; Szarek, S. J.; Szarek, T.
2015-09-01
It is an established fact that entanglement is a resource. Sharing an entangled state leads to nonlocal correlations and to violations of Bell inequalities. Such nonlocal correlations illustrate the advantage of quantum resources over classical resources. In this paper, we quantitatively study Bell inequalities with 2 ×n inputs. As found in Gisin et al. [Int. J. Quantum. Inform. 05, 525 (2007), 10.1142/S021974990700289X], quantum mechanical correlations cannot reach the algebraic bound for such inequalities. Here we uncover the heart of this effect, which we call the fraction of determinism. We show that any quantum statistics with two parties and 2 ×n inputs exhibit a nonzero fraction of determinism, and we supply a quantitative bound for it. We then apply it to provide an explicit universal upper bound for Bell inequalities with 2 ×n inputs. As our main mathematical tool, we introduce and prove a reverse triangle inequality, stating in a quantitative way that if some states are far away from a given state, then their mixture is also. The inequality is crucial in deriving the lower bound for the fraction of determinism, but is also of interest on its own.
Steady state decoupling and design of linear multivariable systems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Huang, J. Y.; Thaler, G. J.
1974-01-01
A constructive criterion for decoupling the steady states of linear multivariable systems is developed. The criterion consists of n(n-1) inequalities with the type numbers of the compensator transfer functions as the unknowns. These unknowns can be chosen to satisfy the inequalities and hence achieve a steady state decoupling scheme. It turns out that pure integrators in the loops play an important role. An extended root locus design method is then developed to take care of the stability and transient response. The overall procedure is applied to the compensation design for STOL C-8A aircraft in the approach mode.
[Inequalities in access to care in Africa].
Livinec, Bertrand; Milleliri, Jean-Marie; Rey, Jean-Loup; Saliou, Pierre
2013-05-01
Social inequalities in health are increasingly in the news in Africa. While appeals, international declarations and new strategies for health in Africa have succeeded one another over the years, we must admit that the health inequalities are increasing. It is perhaps time to take health out of its compartment and understand that it is one of the components of overall development and that we cannot act effectively against these health inequalities unless we also act on the pressing need to see all States (in the North and South) finally meet their financial commitments, demand of African leaders that they provide good government and fight against corruption, the leaders of African good government and a fight against corruption, and finally ensure that the strategies proposed in Africa focus on the health priorities of each country. If we mention the Scandinavian example, we must admit that the Nordic countries have demonstrated their capacity to obtain excellent results in health, to narrow social inequalities, and provide public transparency and aid to development. They constitute today an excellent example for most Western countries and for African countries - and also for African and western civil societies, which can be inspired by the concrete measures of transparency and strong public activity, which promote improvement in the overall statistics of their societies, in particular, in health. Accordingly we propose a new approach that looks at health statistics in the light of inequalities (especially via the Gini coefficient) and public transparency (especially via the benchmarks of perceived corruption). A New Deal for health in Africa is needed, and all the organization involved should be asked to act together for a holistic public health vision that will benefit the populations of Africa. Health cannot be separated from a political, ethical and equitable vision of society. PMID:23694842
Health Inequalities Policy in Korea: Current Status and Future Challenges
Lee, Sang-il
2012-01-01
In recent years, health inequalities have become an important public health concern and the subject of both research and policy attention in Korea. Government reports, as well as many epidemiological studies, have provided evidence that a wide range of health outcomes and health-related behaviors are socioeconomically patterned, and that the magnitude of health inequalities is even increasing. However, except for the revised Health Plan 2010 targets for health equity, few government policies have explicitly addressed health inequalities. Although a number of economic and social policies may have had an impact on health inequalities, such impact has scarcely been evaluated. In this review, we describe the current status of research and policy on health inequalities in Korea. We also suggest future challenges of approaches and policies to reduce health inequalities and highlight the active and intensive engagement of many policy sectors and good evidence for interventions that will make meaningful reduction of health inequalities possible. PMID:22661869
Finite-time H∞ filtering for non-linear stochastic systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hou, Mingzhe; Deng, Zongquan; Duan, Guangren
2016-09-01
This paper describes the robust H∞ filtering analysis and the synthesis of general non-linear stochastic systems with finite settling time. We assume that the system dynamic is modelled by Itô-type stochastic differential equations of which the state and the measurement are corrupted by state-dependent noises and exogenous disturbances. A sufficient condition for non-linear stochastic systems to have the finite-time H∞ performance with gain less than or equal to a prescribed positive number is established in terms of a certain Hamilton-Jacobi inequality. Based on this result, the existence of a finite-time H∞ filter is given for the general non-linear stochastic system by a second-order non-linear partial differential inequality, and the filter can be obtained by solving this inequality. The effectiveness of the obtained result is illustrated by a numerical example.
Perturbative Solutions of the Extended Constraint Equations in General Relativity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Butscher, Adrian
2007-05-01
The extended constraint equations arise as a special case of the conformal constraint equations that are satisfied by an initial data hypersurface {mathcal{Z}} in an asymptotically simple space-time satisfying the vacuum conformal Einstein equations developed by H. Friedrich. The extended constraint equations consist of a quasi-linear system of partial differential equations for the induced metric, the second fundamental form and two other tensorial quantities defined on {mathcal{Z}} , and are equivalent to the usual constraint equations that {mathcal{Z}} satisfies as a space-like hypersurface in a space-time satisfying Einstein’s vacuum equation. This article develops a method for finding perturbative, asymptotically flat solutions of the extended constraint equations in a neighbourhood of the flat solution on Euclidean space. This method is fundamentally different from the ‘classical’ method of Lichnerowicz and York that is used to solve the usual constraint equations.
BenAbdallah, Abdallah; Hammami, Mohamed Ali; Kallel, Jalel
2009-03-05
In this paper we present some sufficient conditions for the robust stability and stabilization of time invariant uncertain piecewise linear system using homogenous piecewise polynomial Lyapunov function. The proposed conditions are given in terms of linear matrix inequalities which can be numerically solved. An application of the obtained result is given. It consists in resolving the stabilization of piecewise uncertain linear control systems by using a state piecewise linear feedback.
Tawfik, A.
2013-07-01
We investigate the impacts of Generalized Uncertainty Principle (GUP) proposed by some approaches to quantum gravity such as String Theory and Doubly Special Relativity on black hole thermodynamics and Salecker-Wigner inequalities. Utilizing Heisenberg uncertainty principle, the Hawking temperature, Bekenstein entropy, specific heat, emission rate and decay time are calculated. As the evaporation entirely eats up the black hole mass, the specific heat vanishes and the temperature approaches infinity with an infinite radiation rate. It is found that the GUP approach prevents the black hole from the entire evaporation. It implies the existence of remnants at which the specific heat vanishes. The same role is played by the Heisenberg uncertainty principle in constructing the hydrogen atom. We discuss how the linear GUP approach solves the entire-evaporation-problem. Furthermore, the black hole lifetime can be estimated using another approach; the Salecker-Wigner inequalities. Assuming that the quantum position uncertainty is limited to the minimum wavelength of measuring signal, Wigner second inequality can be obtained. If the spread of quantum clock is limited to some minimum value, then the modified black hole lifetime can be deduced. Based on linear GUP approach, the resulting lifetime difference depends on black hole relative mass and the difference between black hole mass with and without GUP is not negligible.
A fast full constraints unmixing method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ye, Zhang; Wei, Ran; Wang, Qing Yan
2012-10-01
Mixed pixels are inevitable due to low-spatial resolutions of hyperspectral image (HSI). Linear spectrum mixture model (LSMM) is a classical mathematical model to relate the spectrum of mixing substance to corresponding individual components. The solving of LSMM, namely unmixing, is essentially a linear optimization problem with constraints, which is usually consisting of iterations implemented on decent direction and stopping criterion to terminate algorithms. Such criterion must be properly set in order to balance the accuracy and speed of solution. However, the criterion in existing algorithm is too strict, which maybe lead to convergence rate reducing. In this paper, by broaden constraints in unmixing, a new stopping rule is proposed, which can reduce rate of convergence. The experiments results prove both in runtime and iteration numbers that our method can accelerate convergence processing with only cost of little quality decrease in resulting.
MONTE CARLO STUDIES OF THE CLASSIFICATIONS MADE BY NONPARAMETRIC LINEAR DISCRIMINANT FUNCTIONS
Chance factors in pattern recognition studies utilizing nonparametric linear discriminant functions are examined. The relationship between complete linear separation of a data set and the dimensionality of the study is well-known. Also, due to the nature of the inequalities from ...
On Local Constraints of D=4 Euclidean Supergravity in Terms of Dirac Eigenvalues
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pauna, N.; Vancea, Ion V.
It has recently been shown that in order to have Dirac eigenvalues as observables of Euclidean supergravity, certain constraints should be imposed on the covariant phase space as well as on Dirac eigenspinors. We investigate the relationships among the constraints in the first set and argue that these relationships are not linear. We also derive a set of equations that should be satisfied by some arbitrary functions that enter as coefficients in the equation expressing the linear dependency of the constraints in order that the second set of constraints be linearly independent.
Colgate, S.A.
1958-05-27
An improvement is presented in linear accelerators for charged particles with respect to the stable focusing of the particle beam. The improvement consists of providing a radial electric field transverse to the accelerating electric fields and angularly introducing the beam of particles in the field. The results of the foregoing is to achieve a beam which spirals about the axis of the acceleration path. The combination of the electric fields and angular motion of the particles cooperate to provide a stable and focused particle beam.
Direct handling of equality constraints in multilevel optimization
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Renaud, John E.; Gabriele, Gary A.
1990-01-01
In recent years there have been several hierarchic multilevel optimization algorithms proposed and implemented in design studies. Equality constraints are often imposed between levels in these multilevel optimizations to maintain system and subsystem variable continuity. Equality constraints of this nature will be referred to as coupling equality constraints. In many implementation studies these coupling equality constraints have been handled indirectly. This indirect handling has been accomplished using the coupling equality constraints' explicit functional relations to eliminate design variables (generally at the subsystem level), with the resulting optimization taking place in a reduced design space. In one multilevel optimization study where the coupling equality constraints were handled directly, the researchers encountered numerical difficulties which prevented their multilevel optimization from reaching the same minimum found in conventional single level solutions. The researchers did not explain the exact nature of the numerical difficulties other than to associate them with the direct handling of the coupling equality constraints. The coupling equality constraints are handled directly, by employing the Generalized Reduced Gradient (GRG) method as the optimizer within a multilevel linear decomposition scheme based on the Sobieski hierarchic algorithm. Two engineering design examples are solved using this approach. The results show that the direct handling of coupling equality constraints in a multilevel optimization does not introduce any problems when the GRG method is employed as the internal optimizer. The optimums achieved are comparable to those achieved in single level solutions and in multilevel studies where the equality constraints have been handled indirectly.
Corruption, inequality and population perception of healthcare quality in Europe
2013-01-01
Background Evaluating the quality of healthcare and patient safety using general population questionnaires is important from research and policy perspective. Using a special wave of the Eurobarometer survey, we analysed the general population’s perception of health care quality and patient safety in a cross-country setting. Methods We used ordered probit, ordinary least squares and probit analysis to estimate the determinants of health care quality, and ordered logit analysis to analyse the likelihood of being harmed by a specific medical procedure. The models used population weights as well as country-clustered standard errors. Results We found robust evidence for the impact of socio-demographic variables on the perception of quality of health care. More specifically, we found a non-linear impact of age on the perception of quality of health care and patient safety, as well as a negative impact of poverty on both perception of quality and patient safety. We also found robust evidence that countries with higher corruption levels were associated with worse perceptions of quality of health care. Finally, we found evidence that income inequality affects patients’ perception vis-à-vis safety, thus feeding into the poverty/health care quality nexus. Conclusions Socio-demographic factors and two macro variables (corruption and income inequality) explain the perception of quality of health care and likelihood of being harmed by adverse events. The results carry significant policy weight and could explain why targeting only the health care sector (without an overall reform of the public sector) could potentially be challenging. PMID:24215401
Constraints in Genetic Programming
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Janikow, Cezary Z.
1996-01-01
Genetic programming refers to a class of genetic algorithms utilizing generic representation in the form of program trees. For a particular application, one needs to provide the set of functions, whose compositions determine the space of program structures being evolved, and the set of terminals, which determine the space of specific instances of those programs. The algorithm searches the space for the best program for a given problem, applying evolutionary mechanisms borrowed from nature. Genetic algorithms have shown great capabilities in approximately solving optimization problems which could not be approximated or solved with other methods. Genetic programming extends their capabilities to deal with a broader variety of problems. However, it also extends the size of the search space, which often becomes too large to be effectively searched even by evolutionary methods. Therefore, our objective is to utilize problem constraints, if such can be identified, to restrict this space. In this publication, we propose a generic constraint specification language, powerful enough for a broad class of problem constraints. This language has two elements -- one reduces only the number of program instances, the other reduces both the space of program structures as well as their instances. With this language, we define the minimal set of complete constraints, and a set of operators guaranteeing offspring validity from valid parents. We also show that these operators are not less efficient than the standard genetic programming operators if one preprocesses the constraints - the necessary mechanisms are identified.
Matijasevich, Alicia; Howe, Laura D; Tilling, Kate; Santos, Iná S; Barros, Aluísio J D; Lawlor, Debbie A
2012-01-01
Summary Matijasevich A, Howe LD, Tilling K, Santos IS, Barros AJD, Lawlor DA. Maternal education inequalities in height growth rates in early childhood: 2004 Pelotas birth cohort study. Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology 2012; 26: 236–249. Socio-economic inequalities in attained height have been reported in many countries. The aim of this study was to explore the age at which maternal education inequalities in child height emerge among children from a middle-income country. Using data from the 2004 Pelotas cohort study from Brazil we modelled individual height growth trajectories in 2106 boys and 1947 girls from birth to 4 years using a linear spline mixed-effects model. We examined the associations of maternal education with birth length and trajectories of growth in length/height, and explored the effect of adjusting for a number of potential confounder or mediator factors. We showed linear and positive associations of maternal education with birth length and length/height growth rates at 0–3 months and 12–29/32 months with very little association at 3–12 months, particularly in boys. By age 4 years the mean height of boys was 101.06 cm (SE = 0.28) in the lowest and 104.20 cm (SE = 0.15) in the highest education category (mean difference 3.14 cm, SE = 0.32, P < 0.001). Among girls the mean height was 100.02 cm (SE = 0.27) and 103.03 cm (SE = 0.15) in the lowest and highest education categories, respectively (mean difference 3.01 cm, SE = 0.31, P < 0.001). For both boys and girls there was on average a 3-cm difference between the extreme education categories. Adjusting for maternal height reduced the observed birth length differences across maternal education categories, but differences in postnatal growth rates persisted. Our data demonstrate an increase in the absolute and relative inequality in height after birth; inequality increases from approximately 0.2 standard deviations of birth length to approximately 0.7 standard deviations of height at age
Educational inequalities in tuberculosis mortality in sixteen European populations
Álvarez, J. L.; Kunst, A. E.; Leinsalu, M.; Bopp, M.; Strand, B. H.; Menvielle, Gwenn; Lundberg, O.; Martikainen, P.; Deboosere, P.; Kalediene, R.; Artnik, B.; Mackenbach, J. P.; Richardus, J. H.
2011-01-01
Objective We aim to describe the magnitude of socioeconomic inequalities in tuberculosis (TB) mortality by level of education in male, female, urban, and rural populations in several European countries. Design Data were obtained from the Eurothine project covering 16 populations between 1990 and 2003. Age- and sex-standardized mortality rates, the Relative Index of Inequality, and the slope index of inequality were used to assess educational inequalities. Results The number of TB deaths reported was 8530, with a death rate of 3 per 100 000 per year, of which 73% were males. Educational inequalities in TB mortality were present in all European populations. Inequalities in TB mortality were larger than in total mortality. Relative and absolute inequalities were large in Eastern Europe, and Baltic countries but relatively small in Southern countries and in Norway, Finland, and Sweden. Mortality inequalities were observed among both men and women, and in both rural and urban populations. Conclusions Socioeconomic inequalities in TB mortality exist in all European countries. Firm political commitment is required to reduce inequalities in the social determinants of TB incidence. Targeted public health measures are called for to improve vulnerable groups’ access to treatment and thereby reduce TB mortality. PMID:22008757
Income Inequality, Alcohol Use, and Alcohol-Related Problems
C. M. Roberts, Sarah; Bond, Jason
2013-01-01
Objectives. We examined the relationship between state-level income inequality and alcohol outcomes and sought to determine whether associations of inequality with alcohol consumption and problems would be more evident with between-race inequality measures than with the Gini coefficient. We also sought to determine whether inequality would be most detrimental for disadvantaged individuals. Methods. Data from 2 nationally representative samples of adults (n = 13 997) from the 2000 and 2005 National Alcohol Surveys were merged with state-level inequality and neighborhood disadvantage indicators from the 2000 US Census. We measured income inequality using the Gini coefficient and between-race poverty ratios (Black–White and Hispanic–White). Multilevel models accounted for clustering of respondents within states. Results. Inequality measured by poverty ratios was positively associated with light and heavy drinking. Associations between poverty ratios and alcohol problems were strongest for Blacks and Hispanics compared with Whites. Household poverty did not moderate associations with income inequality. Conclusions. Poverty ratios were associated with alcohol use and problems, whereas overall income inequality was not. Higher levels of alcohol problems in high-inequality states may be partly due to social context. PMID:23237183
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
2006-01-01
[figure removed for brevity, see original site] Context image for PIA03667 Linear Clouds
These clouds are located near the edge of the south polar region. The cloud tops are the puffy white features in the bottom half of the image.
Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -80.1N, Longitude 52.1E. 17 meter/pixel resolution.
Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.
NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.
Constraints complicate centrifugal compressor depressurization
Key, B. ); Colbert, F.L. )
1993-05-10
Blowdown of a centrifugal compressor is complicated by process constraints that might require slowing the depressurization rate and by mechanical constraints for which a faster rate might be preferred. The paper describes design constraints such as gas leaks; thrust-bearing overload; system constraints; flare extinguishing; heat levels; and pressure drop.
Inequality and School reform in Bahia, Brazil
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Reiter, Bernd
2009-07-01
This article compares public and community schools in Salvador, the state capital of Bahia, Brazil. Based on quantitative data analysis and qualitative research conducted on-site during three research trips in 2001, 2003 and 2005, the author finds that Brazil's extreme inequality and the associated concentration of state power in a few hands stand in the way of an effective reform. In 1999, the state of Bahia started to reform its basic education cycle, but the author's research shows that Bahian elites use access to basic education to defend their inherited privilege. The analysis of community schools further demonstrates that inequality also blocks effective community and parental involvement in school management, as schools tend to distance themselves from neighbourhoods portrayed as poor and black, and thus "dangerous".
Bell's inequality violation with spins in silicon
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dehollain, Juan P.; Simmons, Stephanie; Muhonen, Juha T.; Kalra, Rachpon; Laucht, Arne; Hudson, Fay; Itoh, Kohei M.; Jamieson, David N.; McCallum, Jeffrey C.; Dzurak, Andrew S.; Morello, Andrea
2016-03-01
Bell's theorem proves the existence of entangled quantum states with no classical counterpart. An experimental violation of Bell's inequality demands simultaneously high fidelities in the preparation, manipulation and measurement of multipartite quantum entangled states, and provides a single-number benchmark for the performance of devices that use such states for quantum computing. We demonstrate a Bell/ Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt inequality violation with Bell signals up to 2.70(9), using the electron and the nuclear spins of a single phosphorus atom embedded in a silicon nanoelectronic device. Two-qubit state tomography reveals that our prepared states match the target maximally entangled Bell states with >96% fidelity. These experiments demonstrate complete control of the two-qubit Hilbert space of a phosphorus atom and highlight the important function of the nuclear qubit to expand the computational basis and maximize the readout fidelity.
Bell's inequality violation with spins in silicon.
Dehollain, Juan P; Simmons, Stephanie; Muhonen, Juha T; Kalra, Rachpon; Laucht, Arne; Hudson, Fay; Itoh, Kohei M; Jamieson, David N; McCallum, Jeffrey C; Dzurak, Andrew S; Morello, Andrea
2016-03-01
Bell's theorem proves the existence of entangled quantum states with no classical counterpart. An experimental violation of Bell's inequality demands simultaneously high fidelities in the preparation, manipulation and measurement of multipartite quantum entangled states, and provides a single-number benchmark for the performance of devices that use such states for quantum computing. We demonstrate a Bell/ Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt inequality violation with Bell signals up to 2.70(9), using the electron and the nuclear spins of a single phosphorus atom embedded in a silicon nanoelectronic device. Two-qubit state tomography reveals that our prepared states match the target maximally entangled Bell states with >96% fidelity. These experiments demonstrate complete control of the two-qubit Hilbert space of a phosphorus atom and highlight the important function of the nuclear qubit to expand the computational basis and maximize the readout fidelity. PMID:26571006
Entropic inequalities in classical and quantum domains
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Man'ko, Margarita A.
2010-09-01
Different kinds of entropy associated with probability distribution functions characterizing the system state in classical and quantum domains are reviewed. Shannon entropy and Rényi entropy are discussed. The notion of tomographic entropy determined by the probability distribution in the phase space of the classical system and by the density operator of the quantum system is considered. Inequalities for the tomographic entropies in classical and quantum domains are studied, and a difference in the form of these inequalities in corresponding domains is suggested as a test to clarify the classicality and quantumness of the system state in quantum optics experiments. A new bound for tomographic entropy (ln πe)Φ(θ) depending on the local oscillator phase difference in homodyne photon detection experiments is discussed.
Social inequalities in probabilistic labor markets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Inoue, Jun-Ichi; Chen, He
2015-03-01
We discuss social inequalities in labor markets for university graduates in Japan by using the Gini and k-indices . Feature vectors which specify the abilities of candidates (students) are built-into the probabilistic labor market model. Here we systematically examine what kind of selection processes (strategies) by companies according to the weighted feature vector of each candidate could induce what type of inequalities in the number of informal acceptances leading to a large mismatch between students and companies. This work was financially supported by Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (C) of Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS) No. 2533027803 and Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research on Innovative Area No. 2512001313.
Relations between entanglement witnesses and Bell inequalities
Hyllus, Philipp; Guehne, Otfried; Bruss, Dagmar; Lewenstein, Maciej
2005-07-15
Bell inequalities, considered within quantum mechanics, can be regarded as nonoptimal witness operators. We discuss the relationship between such Bell witnesses and general entanglement witnesses in detail for the Bell inequality derived by Clauser, Horne, Shimony, and Holt (CHSH) [Phys. Rev. Lett. 23, 880 (1969)]. We derive bounds on how much an optimal witness has to be shifted by adding the identity operator to make it positive on all states admitting a local hidden variable model. In the opposite direction, we obtain tight bounds for the maximal proportion of the identity operator that can be subtracted from such a CHSH witness, while preserving the witness properties. Finally, we investigate the structure of CHSH witnesses directly by relating their diagonalized form to optimal witnesses of two different classes.
Poverty and inequity in adolescent health care.
Girard, Gustavo A
2009-12-01
Although poverty is not a new phenomenon, currently it has peculiar characteristics: globalization, inequity, new features in education, exclusion, gender inequalities, marginalization of native peoples and migrations, difficulties found by different sectors to have access to technology, and unemployment. These characteristics are seen not only in countries considered to be developing nations, but affect the whole world. The present international financial crisis, this time originating in industrialized countries, represents an aggravating factor, the consequences of which are still difficult to estimate. It has a particular impact on adolescents and young people in terms of health as a whole, mortality rates, violence, nutrition, reproductive health, HIV/AIDS, substance abuse, mental health, and disabilities, all being aggravated by the difficulties of access to ap propriate health services. Social capital is seriously affected, and this entails a strong and deleterious impact not only on present generations but also on future ones. It is a challenge that cannot be ignored. PMID:20653207
Inequalities for angular derivatives and boundary interpolation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bolotnikov, Vladimir; Elin, Mark; Shoikhet, David
2013-03-01
The classical Julia-Wolff-Carathéodory theorem asserts that the angular derivative of a holomorphic self-mapping of the open unit disk (Schur function) at its boundary fixed point is a positive number. Cowen and Pommerenke (J Lond Math Soc 26:271-289, 1982) proved that if a Schur function has several boundary regular fixed (or mutual contact) points, then the angular derivatives at these points are subject to certain inequalities. We develop a unified approach to establish relations between angular derivatives of Schur functions with a prescribed (possibly, infinite) collection of either mutual contact points or boundary fixed points. This approach yields diverse inequalities improving both classical and more recent results. We apply them to study the Nevanlinna-Pick interpolation problem with boundary data. Our methods lead to fairly explicit formulas describing the set of solutions.
Health inequalities after austerity in Greece.
Karanikolos, Marina; Kentikelenis, Alexander
2016-01-01
Since the beginning of economic crisis, Greece has been experiencing unprecedented levels of unemployment and profound cuts to public budgets. Health and welfare sectors were subject to severe austerity measures, which have endangered provision of as well as access to services, potentially widening health inequality gap. European Union Statistics on Income and Living Conditions data show that the proportion of individuals on low incomes reporting unmet medical need due to cost doubled from 7 % in 2008 to 13.9 % in 2013, while the relative gap in access to care between the richest and poorest population groups increased almost ten-fold. In addition, austerity cuts have affected other vulnerable groups, such as undocumented migrants and injecting drug users. Steps have been taken in attempt to mitigate the impact of the austerity, however addressing the growing health inequality gap will require persistent effort of the country's leadership for years to come. PMID:27245588
Constraint algebra in bigravity
Soloviev, V. O.
2015-07-15
The number of degrees of freedom in bigravity theory is found for a potential of general form and also for the potential proposed by de Rham, Gabadadze, and Tolley (dRGT). This aim is pursued via constructing a Hamiltonian formalismand studying the Poisson algebra of constraints. A general potential leads to a theory featuring four first-class constraints generated by general covariance. The vanishing of the respective Hessian is a crucial property of the dRGT potential, and this leads to the appearance of two additional second-class constraints and, hence, to the exclusion of a superfluous degree of freedom—that is, the Boulware—Deser ghost. The use of a method that permits avoiding an explicit expression for the dRGT potential is a distinctive feature of the present study.
Monogamy inequality for distributed gaussian entanglement.
Hiroshima, Tohya; Adesso, Gerardo; Illuminati, Fabrizio
2007-02-01
We show that for all n-mode Gaussian states of continuous variable systems, the entanglement shared among n parties exhibits the fundamental monogamy property. The monogamy inequality is proven by introducing the Gaussian tangle, an entanglement monotone under Gaussian local operations and classical communication, which is defined in terms of the squared negativity in complete analogy with the case of n-qubit systems. Our results elucidate the structure of quantum correlations in many-body harmonic lattice systems. PMID:17358836
Power inequality between patients and nurses.
Corless, Louise; Buckley, Alison; Mee, Steve
Many factors can result in an imbalance of power between patients and nurses. This can have a range of negative effects on patients' experience of care. This third article in a seven-part series on the use of patient narratives to reflect on care focuses on power inequalities and their effects, and suggests points that nurses can use to reflect on their own practice. PMID:27180461
[Reducing inequality by improving preventing measures].
Valsecchi, M
2014-01-01
Terms of inequalities issue in health service are defined and the consolidated scientific acquisitions are recalled. Three prioritary areas of action are defined and described, that Prevention Departments are suggested to activate through focused programs in order to reduce specific inequalities. First area of action: includes three types of vital interventions: vaccinations, contrasting of tuberculosis infection and oncological screening that have to be granted to specific disadvantaged groups of population as Rom communities, immigrant women, prisoners e psychiatric patients. Second area of action: actions on focused urban planning aiming to improve conditions of social housing (with a special focus on thermal insulation, minimal distances to be kept towards streets of havy traffic), increase of increase of urban green spaces enjoyed by the population and contrasting degradation of housing (with particular attention to poisoning by carbon monoxide). Third area of action: actions contrasting cardiovascular diseases, that is the leading cause of death and inequalities in health for the working class population. A coordinated intervention directly in the workplace is proposed, where a particularly high percentage of individuals exposed to specific risk factors is present. PMID:25486690
Social inequalities and emerging infectious diseases.
Farmer, P.
1996-01-01
Although many who study emerging infections subscribe to social-production-of-disease theories, few have examined the contribution of social inequalities to disease emergence. Yet such inequalities have powerfully sculpted not only the distribution of infectious diseases, but also the course of disease in those affected. Outbreaks of Ebola, AIDS, and tuberculosis suggest that models of disease emergence need to be dynamic, systemic, and critical. Such models--which strive to incorporate change and complexity, and are global yet alive to local variation--are critical of facile claims of causality, particularly those that scant the pathogenic roles of social inequalities. Critical perspectives on emerging infections ask how large-scale social forces influence unequally positioned individuals in increasingly interconnected populations; a critical epistemology of emerging infectious diseases asks what features of disease emergence are obscured by dominant analytic frameworks. Research questions stemming from such a reexamination of disease emergence would demand close collaboration between basic scientists, clinicians, and the social scientists and epidemiologists who adopt such perspectives. PMID:8969243
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Riezler, Stefan
2000-08-01
In this thesis, we present two approaches to a rigorous mathematical and algorithmic foundation of quantitative and statistical inference in constraint-based natural language processing. The first approach, called quantitative constraint logic programming, is conceptualized in a clear logical framework, and presents a sound and complete system of quantitative inference for definite clauses annotated with subjective weights. This approach combines a rigorous formal semantics for quantitative inference based on subjective weights with efficient weight-based pruning for constraint-based systems. The second approach, called probabilistic constraint logic programming, introduces a log-linear probability distribution on the proof trees of a constraint logic program and an algorithm for statistical inference of the parameters and properties of such probability models from incomplete, i.e., unparsed data. The possibility of defining arbitrary properties of proof trees as properties of the log-linear probability model and efficiently estimating appropriate parameter values for them permits the probabilistic modeling of arbitrary context-dependencies in constraint logic programs. The usefulness of these ideas is evaluated empirically in a small-scale experiment on finding the correct parses of a constraint-based grammar. In addition, we address the problem of computational intractability of the calculation of expectations in the inference task and present various techniques to approximately solve this task. Moreover, we present an approximate heuristic technique for searching for the most probable analysis in probabilistic constraint logic programs.
Hypocoercivity of linear degenerately dissipative kinetic equations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Duan, Renjun
2011-08-01
In this paper we develop a general approach of studying the hypocoercivity for a class of linear kinetic equations with both transport and degenerately dissipative terms. As concrete examples, the relaxation operator, Fokker-Planck operator and linearized Boltzmann operator are considered when the spatial domain takes the whole space or torus and when there is a confining force or not. The key part of the developed approach is to construct some equivalent temporal energy functionals for obtaining time rates of the solution trending towards equilibrium in some Hilbert spaces. The result in the case of the linear Boltzmann equation with confining forces is new. The proof mainly makes use of the macro-micro decomposition combined with Kawashima's argument on dissipation of the hyperbolic-parabolic system. At the end, a Korn-type inequality with probability measure is provided to deal with dissipation of momentum components.
Testing Leggett's Inequality Using Aharonov-Casher Effect
Su, Hong-Yi; Chen, Jing-Ling; Wu, Chunfeng; Deng, Dong-Ling; Oh, C. H.
2013-01-01
Bell's inequality is established based on local realism. The violation of Bell's inequality by quantum mechanics implies either locality or realism or both are untenable. Leggett's inequality is derived based on nonlocal realism. The violation of Leggett's inequality implies that quantum mechanics is neither local realistic nor nonlocal realistic. The incompatibility of nonlocal realism and quantum mechanics has been currently confirmed by photon experiments. In our work, we propose to test Leggett's inequality using the Aharonov-Casher effect. In our scheme, four entangled particles emitted from two sources manifest a two-qubit-typed correlation that may result in the violation of the Leggett inequality, while satisfying the no-signaling condition for spacelike separation. Our scheme is tolerant to some local inaccuracies due to the topological nature of the Aharonov-Casher phase. The experimental implementation of our scheme can be possibly realized by a calcium atomic polarization interferometer experiment. PMID:23966132
Thermodynamics of inequalities: From precariousness to economic stratification
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Smerlak, Matteo
2016-01-01
Growing economic inequalities are observed in several countries throughout the world. Following Pareto, the power-law structure of these inequalities has been the subject of much theoretical and empirical work. But their nonequilibrium dynamics, e.g. after a policy change, remains incompletely understood. Here we introduce a thermodynamical theory of inequalities based on the analogy between economic stratification and statistical entropy. Within this framework we identify the combination of upward mobility with precariousness as a fundamental driver of inequality. We formalize this statement by a "second-law" inequality displaying upward mobility and precariousness as thermodynamic conjugate variables. We estimate the time scale for the "relaxation" of the wealth distribution after a sudden change of the after-tax return on capital. Our method can be generalized to gain insight into the dynamics of inequalities in any Markovian model of socioeconomic interactions.
Avoiding loopholes with hybrid Bell-Leggett-Garg inequalities
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dressel, Justin; Korotkov, Alexander N.
2014-01-01
By combining the postulates of macrorealism with Bell locality, we derive a qualitatively different hybrid inequality that avoids two loopholes that commonly appear in Leggett-Garg and Bell inequalities. First, locally invasive measurements can be used, which avoids the "clumsiness" Leggett-Garg inequality loophole. Second, a single experimental ensemble with fixed analyzer settings is sampled, which avoids the "disjoint sampling" Bell inequality loophole. The derived hybrid inequality has the same form as the Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt Bell inequality; however, its quantum violation intriguingly requires weak measurements. A realistic explanation of an observed violation requires either the failure of Bell locality or a preparation conspiracy of finely tuned and nonlocally correlated noise. Modern superconducting and optical systems are poised to implement this test.
Avoiding Loopholes with Hybrid Bell-Leggett-Garg Inequalities
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dressel, Justin; Korotkov, Alexander
2014-03-01
By combining the postulates of macrorealism with Bell-locality, we derive a qualitatively different hybrid inequality that avoids two loopholes that commonly appear in Leggett-Garg and Bell inequalities. First, locally-invasive measurements can be used, which avoids the ``clumsiness'' Leggett-Garg inequality loophole. Second, a single experimental ensemble with fixed analyzer settings is sampled, which avoids the ``disjoint sampling'' Bell inequality loophole. The derived hybrid inequality has the same form as the Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt Bell inequality; however, its quantum violation intriguingly requires weak measurements. A realistic explanation of an observed violation requires either the failure of Bell-locality, or a preparation-conspiracy of finely tuned and nonlocally-correlated noise. Modern superconducting and optical implementations of this test are considered.
Noblesse Oblige? Social Status and Economic Inequality Maintenance among Politicians
Kraus, Michael W.; Callaghan, Bennett
2014-01-01
Economic inequality is at historically high levels in the United States and is among the most pressing issues facing society. And yet, predicting the behavior of politicians with respect to their support of economic inequality remains a significant challenge. Given that high status individuals tend to conceive of the current structure of society as fair and just, we expected that high status members of the U.S. House of Representatives would be more likely to support economic inequality in their legislative behavior than would their low status counterparts. Results supported this prediction particularly among Democratic members of Congress: Whereas Republicans tended to support legislation increasing economic inequality regardless of their social status, the social status of Democrats – measured in terms of average wealth, race, or gender – was a significant predictor of support for economic inequality. Policy implications of the observed relationship between social status and support for economic inequality are considered. PMID:24465526
Logarithmic Sobolev inequalities in non-commutative algebras
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Carbone, Raffaella; Martinelli, Andrea
2015-06-01
We study the relations between (tight) logarithmic Sobolev inequalities, entropy decay and spectral gap inequalities for Markov evolutions on von Neumann algebras. We prove that log-Sobolev inequalities (in the non-commutative form defined by Olkiewicz and Zegarlinski in Ref. 25) imply spectral gap inequalities, with optimal relation between the constants. Furthermore, we show that a uniform exponential decay of a proper relative entropy is equivalent to a modified version of log-Sobolev inequalities. The relations among the mentioned inequalities are investigated and often depend on some regularity conditions, which are also discussed. With regard to this aspect, we provide an example of a positive identity-preserving semigroup not verifying the usually requested regularity conditions (which are always fulfilled for reversible classical Markov processes).
Fine-grained Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen-steering inequalities
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pramanik, Tanumoy; Kaplan, Marc; Majumdar, A. S.
2014-11-01
We derive a steering inequality based on a fine-grained uncertainty relation to capture Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen steering for bipartite systems. Our steering inequality improves over previous ones since it can experimentally detect all steerable two-qubit Werner state with only two measurement settings on each side. According to our inequality, pure entangled states are maximally steerable. Moreover, by slightly changing the setting, we can express the amount of violation of our inequality as a function of their violation of the Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt inequality. Finally, after deriving a monogamy relation we prove that the amount of violation of our steering inequality is, up to a constant factor, a lower bound on the key rate of a one-sided device-independent quantum key distribution protocol secure against individual attacks.
Health inequalities and social group differences: what should we measure?
Murray, C. J.; Gakidou, E. E.; Frenk, J.
1999-01-01
Both health inequalities and social group health differences are important aspects of measuring population health. Despite widespread recognition of their magnitude in many high- and low-income countries, there is considerable debate about the meaning and measurement of health inequalities, social group health differences and inequities. The lack of standard definitions, measurement strategies and indicators has and will continue to limit comparisons--between and within countries, and over time--of health inequalities, and perhaps more importantly comparative analyses of their determinants. Such comparative work, however, will be essential to find effective policies for governments to reduce health inequalities. This article addresses the question of whether we should be measuring health inequalities or social group health differences. To help clarify the strengths and weaknesses of these two approaches, we review some of the major arguments for and against each of them. PMID:10444876
Inequality or injustice in water use for food?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Carr, J. A.; Seekell, D. A.; D'Odorico, P.
2015-02-01
The global distributions of water availability and population density are uneven and therefore inequality exists in human access to freshwater resources. Is this inequality unjust or only regrettable? To examine this question we formulated and evaluated elementary principles of water ethics relative to human rights for water, and the need for global trade to improve societal access to water by transferring ‘virtual water’ embedded in plant and animal commodities. We defined human welfare benchmarks and evaluated patterns of water use with and without trade over a 25-year period to identify the influence of trade and inequality on equitability of water use. We found that trade improves mean water use and wellbeing, relative to human welfare benchmarks, suggesting that inequality is regrettable but not necessarily unjust. However, trade has not significantly contributed to redressing inequality. Hence, directed trade decisions can improve future conditions of water and food scarcity through reduced inequality.
Evaluating Inequality or Injustice in Water Use for Food
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
D'Odorico, P.; Carr, J. A.; Seekell, D. A.
2014-12-01
Water availability and population density distributions are uneven and therefore inequality exists in human access to freshwater resources; but is this inequality unjust or only regrettable? To examine this question we formulated and evaluated elementary principles of water ethics relative to human rights for water and explored the need for global trade to improve societal access to water by transferring plant and animal commodities and the "virtual water" embedded in them. We defined human welfare benchmarks and evaluated country specific patterns of water use for food with, and without trade, over a 25-year period in order to elucidate the influence of trade and inequality on equability of water use. We found that trade improves mean water use and wellbeing, when related to human welfare benchmarks, suggesting that inequality is regrettable but not necessarily unjust. However, trade has not significantly contributed to redressing inequality. Hence, directed trade decisions can improve future conditions of water and food scarcity through reduced inequality.
Saito, Eiko; Gilmour, Stuart; Yoneoka, Daisuke; Gautam, Ghan Shyam; Rahman, Md Mizanur; Shrestha, Pradeep Krishna; Shibuya, Kenji
2016-09-01
Inequality in access to quality healthcare is a major health policy challenge in many low- and middle-income countries. This study aimed to identify the major sources of inequity in healthcare utilization using a population-based household survey from urban Nepal. A cross-sectional survey was conducted covering 9177 individuals residing in 1997 households in five municipalities of Kathmandu valley between 2011 and 2012. The concentration index was calculated and a decomposition method was used to measure inequality in healthcare utilization, along with a horizontal inequity index (HI) to estimate socioeconomic inequalities in healthcare utilization. Results showed a significant pro-rich distribution of general healthcare utilization in all service providers (Concentration Index: 0.062, P < 0.001; HI: 0.029, P < 0.05) and private service providers (Concentration Index: 0.070, P < 0.001; HI: 0.030, P < 0.05). The pro-rich distribution of probability in general healthcare utilization was attributable to inequalities in the level of household economic status (percentage contribution: 67.8%) and in the self-reported prevalence of non-communicable diseases such as hypertension (36.7%) and diabetes (14.4%). Despite the provision of free services by public healthcare providers, our analysis found no evidence of the poor making more use of public health services (Concentration Index: 0.041, P = 0.094). Interventions to reduce the household economic burden of major illnesses, coupled with improvement in the management of public health facilities, warrant further attention by policy-makers. PMID:26856362
Saito, Eiko; Gilmour, Stuart; Yoneoka, Daisuke; Gautam, Ghan Shyam; Rahman, Md Mizanur; Shrestha, Pradeep Krishna; Shibuya, Kenji
2016-01-01
Inequality in access to quality healthcare is a major health policy challenge in many low- and middle-income countries. This study aimed to identify the major sources of inequity in healthcare utilization using a population-based household survey from urban Nepal. A cross-sectional survey was conducted covering 9177 individuals residing in 1997 households in five municipalities of Kathmandu valley between 2011 and 2012. The concentration index was calculated and a decomposition method was used to measure inequality in healthcare utilization, along with a horizontal inequity index (HI) to estimate socioeconomic inequalities in healthcare utilization. Results showed a significant pro-rich distribution of general healthcare utilization in all service providers (Concentration Index: 0.062, P < 0.001; HI: 0.029, P < 0.05) and private service providers (Concentration Index: 0.070, P < 0.001; HI: 0.030, P < 0.05). The pro-rich distribution of probability in general healthcare utilization was attributable to inequalities in the level of household economic status (percentage contribution: 67.8%) and in the self-reported prevalence of non-communicable diseases such as hypertension (36.7%) and diabetes (14.4%). Despite the provision of free services by public healthcare providers, our analysis found no evidence of the poor making more use of public health services (Concentration Index: 0.041, P = 0.094). Interventions to reduce the household economic burden of major illnesses, coupled with improvement in the management of public health facilities, warrant further attention by policy-makers. PMID:26856362
Asymptotic relation between Bell-inequality violations and entanglement distillability
Kwon, Younghun
2010-11-15
We investigate the asymptotic relation between violations of the Mermin-Belinskii-Klyshko inequality and the entanglement distillability of multipartite entangled states, as the number of parties increases. We in particular consider noisy multiqubit GHZ and so-called Duer states in the Mermin-Belinskii-Klyshko inequality, and show that, in the asymptotic limit of the number of parties, the violation of the inequality implies the distillability in almost all bipartitions.
Level-Set Topology Optimization with Aeroelastic Constraints
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dunning, Peter D.; Stanford, Bret K.; Kim, H. Alicia
2015-01-01
Level-set topology optimization is used to design a wing considering skin buckling under static aeroelastic trim loading, as well as dynamic aeroelastic stability (flutter). The level-set function is defined over the entire 3D volume of a transport aircraft wing box. Therefore, the approach is not limited by any predefined structure and can explore novel configurations. The Sequential Linear Programming (SLP) level-set method is used to solve the constrained optimization problems. The proposed method is demonstrated using three problems with mass, linear buckling and flutter objective and/or constraints. A constraint aggregation method is used to handle multiple buckling constraints in the wing skins. A continuous flutter constraint formulation is used to handle difficulties arising from discontinuities in the design space caused by a switching of the critical flutter mode.
Trends in Global Gender Inequality (Forthcoming, Social Forces)
Dorius, Shawn F.; Firebaugh, Glenn
2011-01-01
This study investigates trends in gender inequality for the world as a whole. Using data encompassing a large majority of the world’s population, we examine world trends over recent decades for key indicators of gender inequality in education, mortality, political representation, and economic activity. We find that gender inequality is declining in virtually all major domains, that the decline is occurring across diverse religious and cultural traditions, and that population growth is slowing the decline because populations are growing faster in countries where there is the greatest gender inequality. PMID:21643494
Higher-dimensional Bell inequalities with noisy qudits
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Polozova, Elena; Strauch, Frederick W.
2016-03-01
Generalizations of the classic Bell inequality to higher-dimensional quantum systems known as qudits are reputed to exhibit a higher degree of robustness to noise but such claims are based on one particular noise model. We analyze the violation of the Collins-Gisin-Linden-Massar-Popescu inequality subject to more realistic noise sources and their scaling with dimension. This analysis is inspired by potential Bell inequality experiments with superconducting resonator-based qudits. We find that the robustness of the inequality to noise generally decreases with increasing qudit dimension.
Inequalities in oral health: the role of sociology.
Gibson, L B; Blake, M; Baker, S
2016-06-01
This paper seeks to identify an important point of contact between the literature on inequalities in oral health and the sociology of power. The paper begins by exploring the problem of social inequalities in oral health from the point of view of human freedom. It then goes on to briefly consider why inequalities in oral health matter before providing a brief overview of current approaches to reducing inequalities in oral health. After this the paper briefly introduces the problem of power in sociology before going on to outline why the problem of power matters in the problem of inequalities in oral health. Here the paper discusses how two key principles associated with the social bond have become central to how we think about health related inequalities. These principles are the principle of treating everyone the same (the principle of autonomy) and the related principle of allowing everyone to pursue their own goals (the principle of intimacy). These principles are outlined and subsequently discussed in detail with application to debates about interventions to reduce oral health related inequalities including that of water fluoridation. The paper highlights how the 'Childsmile' programme in Scotland appears to successfully negotiate the tensions inherent in attempting to do something about inequalities in oral health. It then concludes by highlighting some of the tensions that remain in attempting to alleviate oral health related inequalities. PMID:27352473
Addressing inequities in alcohol consumption and related harms.
Roche, Ann; Kostadinov, Victoria; Fischer, Jane; Nicholas, Roger; O'Rourke, Kerryn; Pidd, Ken; Trifonoff, Allan
2015-09-01
Social determinants, or the conditions in which individuals are born, grow, live, work and age, can result in inequities in health and well-being. However, to-date little research has examined alcohol use and alcohol-related problems from an inequities and social determinants perspective. This study reviewed the evidence base regarding inequities in alcohol consumption and alcohol-related health outcomes in Australia and identified promising approaches for promoting health equity. Fair Foundations: the VicHealth framework for health equity was used as an organizing schema. The review found that social determinants can strongly influence inequities in alcohol consumption and related harms. In general, lower socioeconomic groups experience more harm than wealthier groups with the same level of alcohol consumption. While Australia has implemented numerous alcohol-related interventions and policies, most do not explicitly aim to reduce inequities, and some may inadvertently exacerbate existing inequities. Interventions with the greatest potential to decrease inequities in alcohol consumption and alcohol-related harms include town planning, zoning and licensing to prevent disproportionate clustering of outlets in disadvantaged areas; interventions targeting licensed venues; and interventions targeting vulnerable populations. Interventions that may worsen inequities include national guidelines, technological interventions and public drinking bans. There is a need for further research into the best methods for reducing inequities in alcohol consumption and related harms. PMID:26420810
Better Bell-inequality violation by collective measurements
Liang, Y.-C.; Doherty, Andrew C.
2006-05-15
The standard Bell-inequality experiments test for violation of local realism by repeatedly making local measurements on individual copies of an entangled quantum state. Here we investigate the possibility of increasing the violation of a Bell inequality by making collective measurements. We show that the nonlocality of bipartite pure entangled states, quantified by their maximal violation of the Bell-Clauser-Horne inequality, can always be enhanced by collective measurements, even without communication between the parties. For mixed states we also show that collective measurements can increase the violation of Bell inequalities, although numerical evidence suggests that the phenomenon is not common as it is for pure states.
Constraint identification and algorithm stabilization for degenerate nonlinear programs.
Wright, S. J.; Mathematics and Computer Science
2003-01-01
In the vicinity of a solution of a nonlinear programming problem at which both strict complementarity and linear independence of the active constraints may fail to hold, we describe a technique for distinguishing weakly active from strongly active constraints. We show that this information can be used to modify the sequential quadratic programming algorithm so that it exhibits superlinear convergence to the solution under assumptions weaker than those made in previous analyses.
Neighboring extremals of dynamic optimization problems with path equality constraints
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lee, A. Y.
1988-01-01
Neighboring extremals of dynamic optimization problems with path equality constraints and with an unknown parameter vector are considered in this paper. With some simplifications, the problem is reduced to solving a linear, time-varying two-point boundary-value problem with integral path equality constraints. A modified backward sweep method is used to solve this problem. Two example problems are solved to illustrate the validity and usefulness of the solution technique.
Race, Risk and Responsibility: Editorial Constraint in the Framing of Inequality.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Goshorn, Kent; Gandy, Oscar H., Jr.
1995-01-01
Examines the presentation of racially comparative risk by 49 leading daily newspapers, revealing a tendency to frame stories of difference in terms of black loss. Suggests that the greater the presence of blacks in the market, the more likely the newspapers were to use a lead emphasizing the high probability of black failure. (SR)
Optimal autorotational descent of a helicopter with control and state inequality constraints
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lee, Allan Y.
1990-01-01
A point-mass model of the OH-58A helicopter has been used to ascertain the autorotation profiles which minimize helicopter impact velocity while remaining within the bounds of the main rotor's collective pitch and angular speed. The optimal control strategies are comparable to those employed by pilots in autorotational landings. It is noted that a possibility exists for the reduction of the height-sink rate restriction zone of OH-58A helicopters, using optimal energy-management techniques.
Earthquake mechanisms from linear-programming inversion of seismic-wave amplitude ratios
Julian, B.R.; Foulger, G.R.
1996-01-01
The amplitudes of radiated seismic waves contain far more information about earthquake source mechanisms than do first-motion polarities, but amplitudes are severely distorted by the effects of heterogeneity in the Earth. This distortion can be reduced greatly by using the ratios of amplitudes of appropriately chosen seismic phases, rather than simple amplitudes, but existing methods for inverting amplitude ratios are severely nonlinear and require computationally intensive searching methods to ensure that solutions are globally optimal. Searching methods are particularly costly if general (moment tensor) mechanisms are allowed. Efficient linear-programming methods, which do not suffer from these problems, have previously been applied to inverting polarities and wave amplitudes. We extend these methods to amplitude ratios, in which formulation on inequality constraint for an amplitude ratio takes the same mathematical form as a polarity observation. Three-component digital data for an earthquake at the Hengill-Grensdalur geothermal area in southwestern Iceland illustrate the power of the method. Polarities of P, SH, and SV waves, unusually well distributed on the focal sphere, cannot distinguish between diverse mechanisms, including a double couple. Amplitude ratios, on the other hand, clearly rule out the double-couple solution and require a large explosive isotropic component.
Singh, Gopal K.; Azuine, Romuladus E.; Siahpush, Mohammad
2012-01-01
Objectives This study examined global inequalities in cervical cancer incidence and mortality rates as a function of cross-national variations in the Human Development Index (HDI), socioeconomic factors, Gender Inequality Index (GII), and healthcare expenditure. Methods Age-adjusted incidence and mortality rates were calculated for women in 184 countries using the 2008 GLOBOCAN database, and incidence and mortality trends were analyzed using the WHO cancer mortality database. Log-linear regression was used to model annual trends, while OLS and Poisson regression models were used to estimate the impact of socioeconomic and human development factors on incidence and mortality rates. Results Cervical cancer incidence and mortality rates varied widely, with many African countries such as Guinea, Zambia, Comoros, Tanzania, and Malawi having at least 10-to-20-fold higher rates than several West Asian, Middle East, and European countries, including Iran, Saudi Arabia, Syria, Egypt, and Switzerland. HDI, GII, poverty rate, health expenditure per capita, urbanization, and literacy rate were all significantly related to cervical cancer incidence and mortality, with HDI and poverty rate each explaining >52% of the global variance in mortality. Both incidence and mortality rates increased in relation to lower human development and higher gender inequality levels. A 0.2 unit increase in HDI was associated with a 20% decrease in cervical cancer risk and a 33% decrease in cervical cancer mortality risk. The risk of a cervical cancer diagnosis increased by 24% and of cervical cancer death by 42% for a 0.2 unit increase in GII. Higher health expenditure levels were independently associated with decreased incidence and mortality risks. Conclusions and Public Health Implications Global inequalities in cervical cancer are clearly linked to disparities in human development, social inequality, and living standards. Reductions in cervical cancer rates are achievable by reducing
Long term fuel scheduling linear programming
Asgarpoor, S. . Dept. of Electrical Engineering); Gul, N. )
1992-01-01
This paper presents an application of linear programming (LP) revised simplex method in order to solve the fuel scheduling problem. A regression method is applied to determine the polynomial cost curves, and a separable programming technique is used to linearize the objective function and the constraints for LP application. Results based on sample data obtained from Omaha Public Power District (OPPD) are presented to demonstrate the LP application to this problem.
Rosinberg, M L; Munakata, T; Tarjus, G
2015-04-01
Response lags are generic to almost any physical system and often play a crucial role in the feedback loops present in artificial nanodevices and biological molecular machines. In this paper, we perform a comprehensive study of small stochastic systems governed by an underdamped Langevin equation and driven out of equilibrium by a time-delayed continuous feedback control. In their normal operating regime, these systems settle in a nonequilibrium steady state in which work is permanently extracted from the surrounding heat bath. By using the Fokker-Planck representation of the dynamics, we derive a set of second-law-like inequalities that provide bounds to the rate of extracted work. These inequalities involve additional contributions characterizing the reduction of entropy production due to the continuous measurement process. We also show that the non-Markovian nature of the dynamics requires a modification of the basic relation linking dissipation to the breaking of time-reversal symmetry at the level of trajectories. The modified relation includes a contribution arising from the acausal character of the reverse process. This, in turn, leads to another second-law-like inequality. We illustrate the general formalism with a detailed analytical and numerical study of a harmonic oscillator driven by a linear feedback, which describes actual experimental setups. PMID:25974446
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rosinberg, M. L.; Munakata, T.; Tarjus, G.
2015-04-01
Response lags are generic to almost any physical system and often play a crucial role in the feedback loops present in artificial nanodevices and biological molecular machines. In this paper, we perform a comprehensive study of small stochastic systems governed by an underdamped Langevin equation and driven out of equilibrium by a time-delayed continuous feedback control. In their normal operating regime, these systems settle in a nonequilibrium steady state in which work is permanently extracted from the surrounding heat bath. By using the Fokker-Planck representation of the dynamics, we derive a set of second-law-like inequalities that provide bounds to the rate of extracted work. These inequalities involve additional contributions characterizing the reduction of entropy production due to the continuous measurement process. We also show that the non-Markovian nature of the dynamics requires a modification of the basic relation linking dissipation to the breaking of time-reversal symmetry at the level of trajectories. The modified relation includes a contribution arising from the acausal character of the reverse process. This, in turn, leads to another second-law-like inequality. We illustrate the general formalism with a detailed analytical and numerical study of a harmonic oscillator driven by a linear feedback, which describes actual experimental setups.
Economic Inequalities in Latin America at the Base of Adverse Health Indicators.
Ferre, Juan Cruz
2016-07-01
There is increasing evidence supporting the existence of a link between income inequalities and health outcomes. The main purpose of this article is to test whether economic inequalities are associated with poor population health in Latin American countries. Multi-country data from 1970 to 2012 were used to assess this question. The results show that the Gini coefficient has a strong correlation with health outcomes. Moreover, multiple linear regression analysis using fixed effects shows that after controlling for gross national income per capita, literacy rate, and health expenditure, the Gini coefficient is independently negatively associated with health outcomes. In Latin American countries, for every percentage point increase in the Gini coefficient, the infant mortality rate grows by 0.467 deaths per 1,000 live births, holding all other variables constant. Additionally, an ordinary least squares estimation model suggests that countries that do not use International Monetary Fund loans perform better on health outcomes. These findings should alert policymakers, elected officials, and the public of the need to fight income inequalities and rethink the role of international financial institutions that dictate state policies. PMID:27287670
A Framework for Dynamic Constraint Reasoning Using Procedural Constraints
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jonsson, Ari K.; Frank, Jeremy D.
1999-01-01
Many complex real-world decision and control problems contain an underlying constraint reasoning problem. This is particularly evident in a recently developed approach to planning, where almost all planning decisions are represented by constrained variables. This translates a significant part of the planning problem into a constraint network whose consistency determines the validity of the plan candidate. Since higher-level choices about control actions can add or remove variables and constraints, the underlying constraint network is invariably highly dynamic. Arbitrary domain-dependent constraints may be added to the constraint network and the constraint reasoning mechanism must be able to handle such constraints effectively. Additionally, real problems often require handling constraints over continuous variables. These requirements present a number of significant challenges for a constraint reasoning mechanism. In this paper, we introduce a general framework for handling dynamic constraint networks with real-valued variables, by using procedures to represent and effectively reason about general constraints. The framework is based on a sound theoretical foundation, and can be proven to be sound and complete under well-defined conditions. Furthermore, the framework provides hybrid reasoning capabilities, as alternative solution methods like mathematical programming can be incorporated into the framework, in the form of procedures.
[Inequalities in mortality in the Italian longitudinal studies].
Cardano, M; Costa, G; Demaria, M; Merler, E; Biggeri, A
1999-01-01
The article presents some of the most relevant results on inequalities in mortality, obtained by the two Italian longitudinal studies carried out in Turin, and Tuscany (in Leghorn and Florence). The two studies share the same methodology. Each database contains census data, information from population register and from death certificates. The authors approach this issue not in an analytical way (as they did in the works cited in the reference list), but answering some questions, relevant both from a scientific and a political point of view. How big are the health inequalities in Italy? Are the health inequalities in Italy increasing or decreasing? Are the health inequalities due to absolute or to relative deprivation? Does the mortality profile of the Italian population express the presence of old or new health inequalities? Can the health inequalities be reduced? The study's results prove that the health inequalities in Italy are deep and strictly related to individuals' position in the social fabric. Facing the other questions the authors focus only in the Turin data. From the 1970's to the 1990's the health inequalities in Turin have increased, despite of general improvement of population's health condition and the progressive reduction of the size of deprived groups. Turin data support both the hypotheses on the source of health inequalities, using long term unemployment as absolute deprivation's indicator, and status' inconsistency as (a row) indicator of relative deprivation. The growth of drug-related causes of death (AIDS and overdose) shows that in the Turin and--quite reasonably--Italian population old and new health inequalities live together. The essay closes offering evidence on the possibility to reduce health inequalities. For this purpose the authors analyses the Turin trend of avoidable deaths and infant and adolescent mortality. PMID:10605247
Ethnic minority health in Vietnam: a review exposing horizontal inequity
Målqvist, Mats; Hoa, Dinh Thi Phuong; Liem, Nguyen Thanh; Thorson, Anna; Thomsen, Sarah
2013-01-01
Background Equity in health is a pressing concern and reaching disadvantaged populations is necessary to close the inequity gap. To date, the discourse has predominately focussed on reaching the poor. At the same time and in addition to wealth, other structural determinants that influence health outcomes exist, one of which is ethnicity. Inequities based on group belongings are recognised as ‘horizontal’, as opposed to the more commonly used notion of ‘vertical’ inequity based on individual characteristics. Objective The aim of the present review is to highlight ethnicity as a source of horizontal inequity in health and to expose mechanisms that cause and maintain this inequity in Vietnam. Design Through a systematic search of available academic and grey literature, 49 publications were selected for review. Information was extracted on: a) quantitative measures of health inequities based on ethnicity and b) qualitative descriptions explaining potential reasons for ethnicity-based health inequities. Results Five main areas were identified: health-care-seeking and utilization, maternal and child health, nutrition, infectious diseases, and oral health and hygiene. Evidence suggests the presence of severe health inequity in health along ethnic lines in all these areas. Research evidence also offers explanations derived from both external and internal group dynamics to this inequity. It is reported that government policies and programs appear to be lacking in culturally adaptation and sensitivity, and examples of bad attitudes and discrimination from health staff toward minority persons were identified. In addition, traditions and patriarchal structures within ethnic minority groups were seen to contribute to the maintenance of harmful health behaviors within these groups. Conclusion Better understandings of the scope and pathways of horizontal inequities are required to address ethnic inequities in health. Awareness of ethnicity as a determinant of health, not
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Krumsvik, Rune J.
2008-01-01
This position paper highlights existing and emerging, prospective digital divides in Norwegian schools and asks whether we are now moving from traditional digital divides to digital inequality in our digitized society and schools. Despite very good technology density in Norwegian society and schools in general, there is the reason to pay attention…
Education Expansion, Educational Inequality, and Income Inequality: Evidence from Taiwan, 1976-2003
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lin, Chun-Hung A.
2007-01-01
The expansion of higher education in Taiwan starting from the late 1980s has successfully raised the average level of education. Using the concept of the education Gini, we find that the educational inequality declined as average schooling rose during the period of 1976-2003. The impacts of a rising average schooling and a declining educational…
Gadgets, approximation, and linear programming
Trevisan, L.; Sudan, M.; Sorkin, G.B.; Williamson, D.P.
1996-12-31
We present a linear-programming based method for finding {open_quotes}gadgets{close_quotes}, i.e., combinatorial structures reducing constraints of one optimization problems to constraints of another. A key step in this method is a simple observation which limits the search space to a finite one. Using this new method we present a number of new, computer-constructed gadgets for several different reductions. This method also answers a question posed by on how to prove the optimality of gadgets-we show how LP duality gives such proofs. The new gadgets improve hardness results for MAX CUT and MAX DICUT, showing that approximating these problems to within factors of 60/61 and 44/45 respectively is N P-hard. We also use the gadgets to obtain an improved approximation algorithm for MAX 3SAT which guarantees an approximation ratio of .801. This improves upon the previous best bound of .7704.
Rispel, Laetitia C; de Sousa, César A D Palha; Molomo, Boitumelo G
2009-08-01
The global resurgence of interest in the social determinants of health provides an opportunity for determined action on unacceptable and unjust health inequalities that exist within and between countries. This paper reviews three categories of social inclusion policies: cash-transfers; free social services; and specific institutional arrangements for programme integration in six selected countries--Botswana, Mozambique, South Africa, Ethiopia, Nigeria, and Zimbabwe. The policies were appraised as part of the Social Exclusion Knowledge Network (SEKN) set up under the auspices of the World Health Organization's Commission on Social Determinants of Health. The paper highlights the development landscape in sub-Saharan Africa and presents available indicators of the scale of inequity in the six countries. A summary of the policies appraised is presented, including whether or what the impact of these policies has been on health inequalities. Cross-cutting benefits include poverty alleviation, notably among vulnerable children and youths, improved economic opportunities for disadvantaged households, reduction in access barriers to social services, and improved nutrition intake. The impact of these benefits, and hence the policies, on health status can only be inferred. Among the policies reviewed, weaknesses or constraints were in design and implementation. The policy design weaknesses include targeting criteria, their enforcement and latent costs, inadequate participation of the community and failure to take the cultural context into account. A major weakness of most policies was the lack of a monitoring and evaluation system, with clear indicators that incorporate system responsiveness. The policy implementation weaknesses include uneven regional implementation with rural areas worst affected; inadequate or poor administrative and implementation capacity; insufficient resources; problems of fraud and corruption; and lack of involvement of civil servants, exacerbating
Palha de Sousa, César A.D; Molomo, Boitumelo G
2009-01-01
The global resurgence of interest in the social determinants of health provides an opportunity for determined action on unacceptable and unjust health inequalities that exist within and between countries. This paper reviews three categories of social inclusion policies: cash-transfers; free social services; and specific institutional arrangements for programme integration in six selected countries—Botswana, Mozambique, South Africa, Ethiopia, Nigeria, and Zimbabwe. The policies were appraised as part of the Social Exclusion Knowledge Network (SEKN) set up under the auspices of the World Health Organization's Commission on Social Determinants of Health. The paper highlights the development landscape in sub-Saharan Africa and presents available indicators of the scale of inequity in the six countries. A summary of the policies appraised is presented, including whether or what the impact of these policies has been on health inequalities. Cross-cutting benefits include poverty alleviation, notably among vulnerable children and youths, improved economic opportunities for disadvantaged households, reduction in access barriers to social services, and improved nutrition intake. The impact of these benefits, and hence the policies, on health status can only be inferred. Among the policies reviewed, weaknesses or constraints were in design and implementation. The policy design weaknesses include targeting criteria, their enforcement and latent costs, inadequate parti-cipation of the community and failure to take the cultural context into account. A major weakness of most policies was the lack of a monitoring and evaluation system, with clear indicators that incorporate system responsiveness. The policy implementation weaknesses include uneven regional implementation with rural areas worst affected; inadequate or poor administrative and implementation capacity; insufficient resources; problems of fraud and corruption; and lack of involvement of civil servants, exacerbating
Global oral inequalities in HIV infection.
Challacombe, S J
2016-04-01
Analysis of the prevalence and incidence of HIV infection globally reveal striking variances with regard to continent, country, region and gender. Of the global total of 33 million people infected with HIV, approximately 65% are in sub-Saharan African countries and 15% in South and South-East Asia with the remaining 20% spread over the rest of the world. As a percentage of the population, the Caribbean at 1.1% is second only to sub-Saharan Africa (5.5%). The majority of the world's HIV is in women. Deaths from HIV are twenty-fold greater in Africa than in Europe or the USA. Individual countries in sub-Saharan Africa show huge variances in the HIV+ prevalence with most West African countries having a rate of less than 2% whilst southern African countries including Swaziland and Botswana have rates of around 25%. Environment, education and social habits all contribute to the HIV infection rates. Similar variations between countries are seen in SE Asia with Cambodia and Papua New Guinea having rates three times greater than Pakistan. One of the most striking examples of inequality is in life years added to HIV populations as a result of antiretroviral therapy. UN AIDS figures over 1996-2008 suggest an average of 2.88 added years in the USA and Europe, but only 0.1 in sub-Saharan Africa, a thirty-fold difference largely due to accessibility to ART. ART leads to a reduction in oral lesions but it is estimated that some 10 million HIV+ subjects do not have access to oral care. Thus, inequalities exist both for HIV infection and for the associated oral lesions, mainly related to ART access. HIV infection and oral mucosal lesions both appear to be related to general social determinants of health. Oral HCW must be part of mainstream healthcare teams to address these inequalities. PMID:27109270
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zweben, Monte
1991-01-01
The GERRY scheduling system developed by NASA Ames with assistance from the Lockheed Space Operations Company, and the Lockheed Artificial Intelligence Center, uses a method called constraint-based iterative repair. Using this technique, one encodes both hard rules and preference criteria into data structures called constraints. GERRY repeatedly attempts to improve schedules by seeking repairs for violated constraints. The system provides a general scheduling framework which is being tested on two NASA applications. The larger of the two is the Space Shuttle Ground Processing problem which entails the scheduling of all the inspection, repair, and maintenance tasks required to prepare the orbiter for flight. The other application involves power allocation for the NASA Ames wind tunnels. Here the system will be used to schedule wind tunnel tests with the goal of minimizing power costs. In this paper, we describe the GERRY system and its application to the Space Shuttle problem. We also speculate as to how the system would be used for manufacturing, transportation, and military problems.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zweben, Monte
1993-01-01
The GERRY scheduling system developed by NASA Ames with assistance from the Lockheed Space Operations Company, and the Lockheed Artificial Intelligence Center, uses a method called constraint-based iterative repair. Using this technique, one encodes both hard rules and preference criteria into data structures called constraints. GERRY repeatedly attempts to improve schedules by seeking repairs for violated constraints. The system provides a general scheduling framework which is being tested on two NASA applications. The larger of the two is the Space Shuttle Ground Processing problem which entails the scheduling of all the inspection, repair, and maintenance tasks required to prepare the orbiter for flight. The other application involves power allocation for the NASA Ames wind tunnels. Here the system will be used to schedule wind tunnel tests with the goal of minimizing power costs. In this paper, we describe the GERRY system and its application to the Space Shuttle problem. We also speculate as to how the system would be used for manufacturing, transportation, and military problems.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zweben, Monte
1991-01-01
The GERRY scheduling system developed by NASA Ames with assistance from the Lockheed Space Operations Company, and the Lockheed Artificial Intelligence Center, uses a method called constraint based iterative repair. Using this technique, one encodes both hard rules and preference criteria into data structures called constraints. GERRY repeatedly attempts to improve schedules by seeking repairs for violated constraints. The system provides a general scheduling framework which is being tested on two NASA applications. The larger of the two is the Space Shuttle Ground Processing problem which entails the scheduling of all inspection, repair, and maintenance tasks required to prepare the orbiter for flight. The other application involves power allocations for the NASA Ames wind tunnels. Here the system will be used to schedule wind tunnel tests with the goal of minimizing power costs. In this paper, we describe the GERRY system and its applications to the Space Shuttle problem. We also speculate as to how the system would be used for manufacturing, transportation, and military problems.
Bell's Inequalities, Superquantum Correlations, and String Theory
Chang, Lay Nam; Lewis, Zachary; Minic, Djordje; Takeuchi, Tatsu; Tze, Chia-Hsiung
2011-01-01
We offermore » an interpretation of superquantum correlations in terms of a “doubly” quantum theory. We argue that string theory, viewed as a quantum theory with two deformation parameters, the string tension α ' , and the string coupling constant g s , is such a superquantum theory that transgresses the usual quantum violations of Bell's inequalities. We also discuss the ℏ → ∞ limit of quantum mechanics in this context. As a superquantum theory, string theory should display distinct experimentally observable supercorrelations of entangled stringy states.« less
[Inequity in health: its historical development].
Salaverry García, Oswaldo
2013-01-01
Health inequity, main issue of contemporary debates on public health, is based on philosophical and historical concepts that date back to the idea of justice from classic Greece. The Aristotelian approach on distributive justice and its higher form, epiekeia or equity, has been reviewed, as well as how this evolves from the Middle Ages and modernity to the heart of the debate of a variety of thinkers such as liberal Rawls and Nobel laureate Amartya Sen. On this conceptual debate lies the World Health Organization version that links equity to health determinants and intends to make it operational through the equitable provision of health services. PMID:24448954
Proposed test for temporal Bell inequalities
Paz, J.P. ); Mahler, G. )
1993-11-15
Temporal Bell inequalities can be violated for sequences of events (histories) for which probabilities satisfying consistent sum rules cannot be defined. We discuss possible experiments in which such violations, never observed so far, may indeed be seen. The basic scheme, which uses three optically driven and mutually interacting two-level systems, could be implemented in a variety of nanostructures. It could even be mapped onto the dynamics of a single electron four-level system thus allowing for a realization in atomic physics.
The probabilistic origin of Bell's inequality
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Krenn, Guenther
1994-01-01
The concept of local realism entails certain restrictions concerning the possible occurrence of correlated events. Although these restrictions are inherent in classical physics they have never been noticed until Bell showed in 1964 that general correlations in quantum mechanics can not be interpreted in a classical way. We demonstrate how a local realistic way of thinking about measurement results necessarily leads to limitations with regard to the possible appearance of correlated events. These limitations, which are equivalent to Bell's inequality can be easily formulated as an immediate consequence of our discussion.
Entropy Inequality Violations from Ultraspinning Black Holes.
Hennigar, Robie A; Mann, Robert B; Kubizňák, David
2015-07-17
We construct a new class of rotating anti-de Sitter (AdS) black hole solutions with noncompact event horizons of finite area in any dimension and study their thermodynamics. In four dimensions these black holes are solutions to gauged supergravity. We find that their entropy exceeds the maximum implied from the conjectured reverse isoperimetric inequality, which states that for a given thermodynamic volume, the black hole entropy is maximized for Schwarzschild-AdS space. We use this result to suggest more stringent conditions under which this conjecture may hold. PMID:26230779
Income inequality and health: pathways and mechanisms.
Kawachi, I; Kennedy, B P
1999-01-01
The relationship between income and health is well established: the higher an individual's income, the better his or her health. However, recent research suggests that health may also be affected by the distribution of income within society. We outline the potential mechanisms underlying the so-called relative income hypothesis, which predicts that an individual's health status is better in societies with a more equal distribution of incomes. The effects of income inequality on health may be mediated by underinvestment in social goods, such as public education and health care; disruption of social cohesion and the erosion of social capital; and the harmful psychosocial effects of invidious social comparisons. PMID:10199670
The social organization of nutritional inequities.
Travers, K D
1996-08-01
An institutional ethnography, a qualitative research methodology grounded in critical social science, was undertaken with the purpose of explicating the social organization of nutritional inequities among socially/economically disadvantaged women and their families living in an urban centre in Nova Scotia, Canada. Methods included participant observation of food and nutrition practices in the homes of five socially disadvantaged families and at a community drop-in center in a low-income neighborhood; in-depth individual interviews with family members; and group interviews with an additional 28 participants at the community center. Tape recordings and field observation notes were analyzed thematically, preserving the perspectives of the research participants. The explication began with the examination of the everyday household work of feeding the family which provided an entry point to broader social relations working outside of the households, but evident within them. At the household level, the gendered, 'invisible' nature of feeding work became readily apparent. The class context of feeding work became particularly evident upon examination of the practice of procuring food. The apparently simple act of buying groceries was complicated by limited access to inexpensive stores. The families developed innovative strategies to enhance their abilities to procure food within their limited means. However, because of inadequacies of subsistence welfare policies, they frequently were sufficiently short of funds to necessitate reliance on charity for food. Analysis of such social policy revealed that public and professional discourses organizing nutritional inequities were informed by individualistic ideology. Yet, individualistic discourses could not provide an adequate understanding of the experiences of the research participants. The impact of individualistic professional discourse included the irrelevance of nutrition education practices based upon information
A linear-programming approach to temporal reasoning
Jonsson, P.; Baeckstroem, C.
1996-12-31
We present a new formalism, Horn Disjunctive Linear Relations (Horn DLRs), for reasoning about temporal constraints. We prove that deciding satisfiability of sets of Horn DLRs is polynomial by exhibiting an algorithm based upon linear programming. Furthermore, we prove that most other approaches to tractable temporal constraint reasoning can be encoded as Horn DLRs, including the ORD-Horn algebra and most methods for purely quantitative reasoning.
Tang, Yongli; Ban, Tao
2016-01-01
Let [Formula: see text] be a generalized Calderón-Zygmund operator or [Formula: see text] ( the identity operator), let [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] be the linear operators, and let [Formula: see text]. Denote the Toeplitz type operator by [Formula: see text]where [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] is fractional integral operator. In this paper, we establish the sharp maximal function estimates for [Formula: see text] when b belongs to weighted Lipschitz function space, and the weighted norm inequalities of [Formula: see text] on weighted Lebesgue space are obtained. PMID:27588245
Understanding socio-economic inequalities in food choice behaviour: can Maslow's pyramid help?
van Lenthe, Frank J; Jansen, Tessa; Kamphuis, Carlijn B M
2015-04-14
Socio-economic groups differ in their material, living, working and social circumstances, which may result in different priorities about their daily-life needs, including the priority to make healthy food choices. Following Maslow's hierarchy of human needs, we hypothesised that socio-economic inequalities in healthy food choices can be explained by differences in the levels of need fulfilment. Postal survey data collected in 2011 (67·2 % response) from 2903 participants aged 20-75 years in the Dutch GLOBE (Gezondheid en Levens Omstandigheden Bevolking Eindhoven en omstreken) study were analysed. Maslow's hierarchy of human needs (measured with the Basic Need Satisfaction Inventory) was added to age- and sex-adjusted linear regression models that linked education and net household income levels to healthy food choices (measured by a FFQ). Most participants (38·6 %) were in the self-actualisation layer of the pyramid. This proportion was highest among the highest education group (47·6 %). Being in a higher level of the hierarchy was associated with a higher consumption of fruits and vegetables as well as more healthy than unhealthy bread, snack and dairy consumption. Educational inequalities in fruit and vegetable intake (B= -1·79, 95 % CI -2·31, -1·28 in the lowest education group) were most reduced after the hierarchy of needs score was included (B= -1·57, 95 % CI - ·09, -1·05). Inequalities in other healthy food choices hardly changed after the hierarchy of needs score was included. People who are satisfied with higher-level needs make healthier food choices. Studies aimed at understanding socio-economic inequalities in food choice behaviour need to take differences in the priority given to daily-life needs by different socio-economic groups into account, but Maslow's pyramid offers little help. PMID:25784199
Structure Constraints in a Constraint-Based Planner
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pang, Wan-Lin; Golden, Keith
2004-01-01
In this paper we report our work on a new constraint domain, where variables can take structured values. Earth-science data processing (ESDP) is a planning domain that requires the ability to represent and reason about complex constraints over structured data, such as satellite images. This paper reports on a constraint-based planner for ESDP and similar domains. We discuss our approach for translating a planning problem into a constraint satisfaction problem (CSP) and for representing and reasoning about structured objects and constraints over structures.
New results on switched linear systems with actuator saturation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Duan, Chang; Wu, Fen
2016-04-01
This paper further studies the analysis and control problems of continuous-time switched linear systems subject to actuator saturation. Using the norm-bounded differential inclusion description of the saturated systems and the minimal switching rule, a set of switched output feedback controllers is designed to minimise the disturbance attenuation level defined by the regional ? gain over a class of energy-bounded disturbances. The synthesis conditions are expressed as bilinear matrix inequalities, and can be solved by numerical search coupled with linear matrix inequality optimisation. Compared to the previous method based on polytopic differential inclusion, the proposed approach has good scalability and potentially renders better performance. Numerical examples are provided to verify the effectiveness of the proposed approach.
Popham, Frank; Dibben, Chris; Bambra, Clare
2013-01-01
Background Research comparing mortality by socioeconomic status has found that inequalities are not the smallest in the Nordic countries. This is in contrast to expectations given these countries’ policy focus on equity. An alternative way of studying inequality has been little used to compare inequalities across welfare states and may yield a different conclusion. Methods We used average life expectancy lost per death as a measure of total inequality in mortality derived from death rates from the Human Mortality Database for 37 countries in 2006 that we grouped by welfare state type. We constructed a theoretical ‘lowest mortality comparator country’ to study, by age, why countries were not achieving the smallest inequality and the highest life expectancy. We also studied life expectancy as there is an important correlation between it and inequality. Results On average, Nordic countries had the highest life expectancy and smallest inequalities for men but not women. For both men and women, Nordic countries had particularly low younger age mortality contributing to smaller inequality and higher life expectancy. Although older age mortality in the Nordic countries is not the smallest. There was variation within Nordic countries with Sweden, Iceland and Norway having higher life expectancy and smaller inequalities than Denmark and Finland (for men). Conclusions Our analysis suggests that the Nordic countries do have the smallest inequalities in mortality for men and for younger age groups. However, this is not the case for women. Reducing premature mortality among older age groups would increase life expectancy and reduce inequality further in Nordic countries. PMID:23386671
Inequality between size and charge in spherical symmetry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Anglada, Pablo; Dain, Sergio; Ortiz, Omar E.
2016-02-01
We prove that, for a charged spherically symmetric body, twice the radius is always strictly greater than the charge of the body. We also prove that this inequality is sharp. Finally, we discuss the physical implications of this geometrical inequality and present numerical examples that illustrate this theorem.
Economic Inequality and Higher Education: Access, Persistence, and Success
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Dickert-Conlin, Stacy, Ed.; Rubenstein, Ross, Ed.
2007-01-01
The vast disparities in college attendance and graduation rates between students from different class backgrounds is a growing social concern. "Economic Inequality and Higher Education" investigates the connection between income inequality and unequal access to higher education, and proposes solutions that the state and federal governments and…
Experimental eavesdropping attack against Ekert's protocol based on Wigner's inequality
Bovino, F. A.; Colla, A. M.; Castagnoli, G.; Castelletto, S.; Degiovanni, I. P.; Rastello, M. L.
2003-09-01
We experimentally implemented an eavesdropping attack against the Ekert protocol for quantum key distribution based on the Wigner inequality. We demonstrate a serious lack of security of this protocol when the eavesdropper gains total control of the source. In addition we tested a modified Wigner inequality which should guarantee a secure quantum key distribution.
The Sources of American Inequality, 1896-1948.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Williamson, Jeffrey G.
This paper discusses American long-term experience with changes in the distribution of income since the turn of the century. It supplies quantitative documentation of a pronunced secular swing in inequality. Inequality indicators were on the rise up to 1914, exhibited no trend to 1926 or 1929, and traced out a well known egalitatian leveling up to…
Wage Inequality and Demand for Skill: Evidence from Five Decades.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Juhn, Chinhui
1999-01-01
Using 1940-90 Censuses, a study of changes in male wage inequality and skill premiums shows that relative demand for most skilled workers rose steadily over the years. The pace of industrial change, especially in blue-collar manufacturing, was inversely related to the overall growth in wage inequality. (SK)
New report highlights epidemic of tobacco and global health inequalities
A new set of 11 global health studies calls attention to the burden of tobacco-related inequalities in low- and middle-income countries and finds that socioeconomic inequalities are associated with increased tobacco use, second-hand smoke exposure and tob
Does Income Inequality Harm Health? New Cross-National Evidence
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Beckfield, Jason
2004-01-01
The provocative hypothesis that income inequality harms population health has sparked a large body of research, some of which has reported strong associations between income inequality and population health. Cross-national evidence is frequently cited in support of this important hypothesis, but the hypothesis remains controversial, and the…
Perceiving Social Cleavages and Inequalities: The Case of Israeli Adolescents.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Dar, Yechezkel; Erhard, Rachel; Resh, Nura
1998-01-01
An analysis of perceptions of social cleavage and inequality among approximately 9000 Israeli eighth and ninth graders showed students accurately comprehended a multifaceted society with major social divisions. A social map with inequality was revealed in which ethnicity played the least prominent role. Personal and social traits influenced…
Children's and Adolescents' Developing Perceptions of Gender Inequality
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Neff, Kristin D.; Cooper, Carey E.; Woodruff, Althea L.
2007-01-01
Two studies examined children's and adolescents' developing perceptions of gender inequality. The first study examined perceptions of inequality among 272 early, middle, and late adolescents, focusing on the spheres of politics, business, and the home. Results indicated an age-related increase in perceptions of male dominance. Men were seen to…
DEVELOPMENT MONOPOLY: A Simulation Game on Poverty and Inequality
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ansoms, An; Geenen, Sara
2012-01-01
DEVELOPMENT MONOPOLY is a simulation game that allows players to experience how power relations influence the agency of different socioeconomic groups, and how this can induce poverty and inequality. Players alter the original rules of the MONOPOLY board game so that they more accurately reflect social stratification and inequalities in the…
Inequality by Design: Cracking the Bell Curve Myth [book review].
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Carroll, John B.
2002-01-01
This book, a critique of "The Bell Curve" by R. Herrnstein and C. Murray, explores what "inequality" in society means, how it arises, and how it can be measured or dealt with quantitatively. It also considers how societal and other variables work to increase or decrease inequality. The book argues that "The Bell Curve" vastly overestimates the…
Roots of Inequity and Injustice: The Challenges for Music Education
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Reimer, Bennett
2007-01-01
Equity and justice are human constructs; the inventions of human imagination. They exist nowhere in nature, in which inequality--the root cause of inequity and injustice--is essential for survival. Our history as a race traces back some two million years, when survival had to trump justice, the latter being an historically recent conception. Music…
Educational Systems and Rising Inequality: Eastern Germany after Unification
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
von Below, Susanne; Powell, Justin J. W.; Roberts, Lance W.
2013-01-01
Educational systems considerably influence educational opportunities and the resulting social inequalities. Contrasting institutional regulations of both structures and contents, the authors present a typology of educational system types in Germany to analyze their effects on social inequality in eastern Germany after unification. After 1990, the…
Educating for a Civil Society: The Core Issue Is Inequality.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Karp, Stan
1997-01-01
A Paterson (New Jersey) teacher criticizes well-meaning prescriptions for educating students for a civil society. Reforms based on skills-based instruction and test-driven assessment are failing. Inequality is the core issue. Schools cannot compensate for class and racial inequalities, particularly if inequitable funding mechanisms persist.…
Economic Inequality and Economic Crisis: A Challenge for Social Workers
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Goldberg, Gertrude Schaffner
2012-01-01
To social workers, extreme economic inequality is primarily a violation of social justice, but this article shows how growing economic inequality since the mid-1970s was not only unjust, but also dysfunctional to the U.S. economy and linked to the recent economic crisis with its devastating effects, particularly on the social work clientele. The…
Urban Inequality and Racial Differences in Risk for Violent Victimization
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Like, Toya Z.
2011-01-01
Past research has shown that racial inequality in urban areas--Black and White residential segregation and economic inequality--is associated with increased levels of homicide offending and that victimization among Blacks yet serves as a protection mechanism against such violence among Whites. However, few studies have considered alternative…
Measuring Cognitive Achievement Gaps and Inequalities: The Case of Brazil
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Soares, Jose Francisco
2006-01-01
This paper introduces a new measure of educational inequalities based on cognitive achievement data, and uses it to examine achievement inequalities in mathematics between groups of students enrolled in basic education in Brazil. The groups of students are defined by their race, sex, socioeconomic status (SES), and region of residence. The…
Capital, Inequality and Education in Conflict-Affected Contexts
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Novelli, Mario
2016-01-01
Piketty's "Capital in the Twenty-First Century" has brought the issue of inequality to the centre of political debate. This article explores contemporary research on the relationship between education and inequality in conflict-affected contexts with a view to seeing how Piketty's work speaks to these issues as a field of research and…
Simulating Poverty and Inequality Dynamics in Developing Countries
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ansoms, An; Geenen, Sara
2012-01-01
This article considers how the simulation game of DEVELOPMENT MONOPOLY provides insight into poverty and inequality dynamics in a development context. It first discusses how the game is rooted in theoretical and conceptual frameworks on poverty and inequality. Subsequently, it reflects on selected playing experiences, with special focus on the…
Inequalities for frequency-moment sum rules of electron liquids
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Iwamoto, N.
1986-01-01
The relations between the various frequency-moment sum rules of electron liquids, which include even-power moments, are systematically examined by using the Cauchy-Schwarz and Hoelder inequalities. A relation involving the isothermal sound velocity and the kinetic and potential energies is obtained from one of the inequalities in the long-wavelength limit, and is generalized to arbitrary spatial dimensions.
An uncertainty inequality for Fourier-Dunkl series
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ciaurri, Óscar; Varona, Juan L.
2010-01-01
An uncertainty inequality for the Fourier-Dunkl series, introduced by the authors in [Ó. Ciaurri, J.L. Varona, A Whittaker-Shannon-Kotel'nikov sampling theorem related to the Dunkl transform, Proc. Amer. Math. Soc. 135 (2007) 2939-2947], is proved. This result is an extension of the classical uncertainty inequality for the Fourier series.
Inequalities and Crossings: Literacy and the Spaces-in-Between
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kell, Catherine
2011-01-01
Debates on literacy inequalities have been powerfully advanced through Jan Blommaert's work, which demonstrates the ways in which discourse forms can lose function as they are moved into different environments. Looking through a south-north lens, Blommaert maps this feature of loss of function against world wide inequalities conceptualised through…
Inequalities, Signum Functions and Wrinkles in Wiggle Graphs.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Priest, Dean B.; Wood, Dianne
Presented is a graphical approach to teaching higher degree, rational function, and absolute value inequalities that simplifies the solution of these inequalities and thereby reduces the amount of classroom time that has to be devoted to this topic. Applications are also given for signum functions, maximum-minimum, and points of inflection…
Are UNDP Indices Appropriate to Capture Gender Inequalities in Europe?
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Permanyer, Inaki
2013-01-01
This study critically investigates the suitability of United Nations' composite indices and other related measures--among which the Gender Inequality Index just released in 2010--to capture gender inequalities in the context of "highly developed" countries, focusing on the case of Europe. Our results indicate that many of the gender gaps in health…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Malmquist, Eve, Ed.
Organized to focus world-wide public attention on the massive gender inequalities in many areas of the world, a seminar entitled "Women and Literacy Development--Constraints and Prospects" was held in Sweden during August 1991. This book presents conference papers by female literacy experts from 12 developing nations (three in Latin America, five…
Income-related health inequalities across regions in Korea
2011-01-01
Introduction In addition to economic inequalities, there has been growing concern over socioeconomic inequalities in health across income levels and/or regions. This study measures income-related health inequalities within and between regions and assesses the possibility of convergence of socioeconomic inequalities in health as regional incomes converge. Methods We considered a total of 45,233 subjects (≥ 19 years) drawn from the four waves of the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). We considered true health as a latent variable following a lognormal distribution. We obtained ill-health scores by matching self-rated health (SRH) to its distribution and used the Gini Coefficient (GC) and an income-related ill-health Concentration Index (CI) to examine inequalities in income and health, respectively. Results The GC estimates were 0.3763 and 0.0657 for overall and spatial inequalities, respectively. The overall CI was -0.1309, and the spatial CI was -0.0473. The spatial GC and CI estimates were smaller than their counterparts, indicating substantial inequalities in income (from 0.3199 in Daejeon to 0.4233 Chungnam) and income-related health inequalities (from -0.1596 in Jeju and -0.0844 in Ulsan) within regions. The results indicate a positive relationship between the GC and the average ill-health and a negative relationship between the CI and the average ill-health. Those regions with a low level of health tended to show an unequal distribution of income and health. In addition, there was a negative relationship between the GC and the CI, that is, the larger the income inequalities, the larger the health inequalities were. The GC was negatively related to the average regional income, indicating that an increase in a region's average income reduced income inequalities in the region. On the other hand, the CI showed a positive relationship, indicating that an increase in a region's average income reduced health inequalities in the
Hamiltonian quantum dynamics with separability constraints
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Burić, Nikola
2008-01-01
Schroedinger equation on a Hilbert space H, represents a linear Hamiltonian dynamical system on the space of quantum pure states, the projective Hilbert space PH. Separable states of a bipartite quantum system form a special submanifold of PH. We analyze the Hamiltonian dynamics that corresponds to the quantum system constrained on the manifold of separable states, using as an important example the system of two interacting qubits. The constraints introduce nonlinearities which render the dynamics nontrivial. We show that the qualitative properties of the constrained dynamics clearly manifest the symmetry of the qubits system. In particular, if the quantum Hamilton's operator has not enough symmetry, the constrained dynamics is nonintegrable, and displays the typical features of a Hamiltonian dynamical system with mixed phase space. Possible physical realizations of the separability constraints are discussed.
Violation of the Leggett-Garg Inequality in Neutrino Oscillations.
Formaggio, J A; Kaiser, D I; Murskyj, M M; Weiss, T E
2016-07-29
The Leggett-Garg inequality, an analogue of Bell's inequality involving correlations of measurements on a system at different times, stands as one of the hallmark tests of quantum mechanics against classical predictions. The phenomenon of neutrino oscillations should adhere to quantum-mechanical predictions and provide an observable violation of the Leggett-Garg inequality. We demonstrate how oscillation phenomena can be used to test for violations of the classical bound by performing measurements on an ensemble of neutrinos at distinct energies, as opposed to a single neutrino at distinct times. A study of the MINOS experiment's data shows a greater than 6σ violation over a distance of 735 km, representing the longest distance over which either the Leggett-Garg inequality or Bell's inequality has been tested. PMID:27517759
Violation of the Leggett-Garg Inequality in Neutrino Oscillations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Formaggio, J. A.; Kaiser, D. I.; Murskyj, M. M.; Weiss, T. E.
2016-07-01
The Leggett-Garg inequality, an analogue of Bell's inequality involving correlations of measurements on a system at different times, stands as one of the hallmark tests of quantum mechanics against classical predictions. The phenomenon of neutrino oscillations should adhere to quantum-mechanical predictions and provide an observable violation of the Leggett-Garg inequality. We demonstrate how oscillation phenomena can be used to test for violations of the classical bound by performing measurements on an ensemble of neutrinos at distinct energies, as opposed to a single neutrino at distinct times. A study of the MINOS experiment's data shows a greater than 6 σ violation over a distance of 735 km, representing the longest distance over which either the Leggett-Garg inequality or Bell's inequality has been tested.
Mathematical and physical meaning of the Bell inequalities
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Santos, Emilio
2016-09-01
It is shown that the Bell inequalities are closely related to the triangle inequalities involving distance functions amongst pairs of random variables with values \\{0,1\\}. A hidden variables model may be defined as a mapping between a set of quantum projection operators and a set of random variables. The model is noncontextual if there is a joint probability distribution. The Bell inequalities are necessary conditions for its existence. The inequalities are most relevant when measurements are performed at space-like separation, thus showing a conflict between quantum mechanics and local realism (Bell's theorem). The relations of the Bell inequalities with contextuality, the Kochen–Specker theorem, and quantum entanglement are briefly discussed.
Social inequalities in health: a proper concern of epidemiology.
Marmot, Michael; Bell, Ruth
2016-04-01
Social inequalities are a proper concern of epidemiology. Epidemiological thinking and modes of analysis are central, but epidemiological research is one among many areas of study that provide the evidence for understanding the causes of social inequalities in health and what can be done to reduce them. Understanding the causes of health inequalities requires insights from social, behavioral and biological sciences, and a chain of reasoning that examines how the accumulation of positive and negative influences over the life course leads to health inequalities in adult life. Evidence that the social gradient in health can be reduced should make us optimistic that reducing health inequalities is a realistic goal for all societies. PMID:27084546
Stated and revealed inequality aversion in three subject pools
Beranek, Benjamin; Cubitt, Robin; Gächter, Simon
2016-01-01
This paper reports data from three subject pools (n=717 subjects) using techniques based on those of Loewenstein, et al. (1989) and Blanco, et al. (2011) to obtain parameters, respectively, of stated and revealed inequality aversion. We provide a replication opportunity for those papers, with two innovations: (i) a design which allows stated and revealed preferences to be compared at the individual level; (ii) assessment of robustness of findings across subjects from a UK university, a Turkish university and Amazon Mechanical Turk. Our findings on stated aversion to inequality are qualitatively similar to those of Loewenstein, et al. in each of our subject pools, whereas there are notable differences between some of our findings on revealed preference and those of Blanco, et al. We find that revealed advantageous inequality aversion is often stronger than revealed dis-advantageous inequality aversion. In most subject pools, we find some (weak) correlation between corresponding parameters of stated and revealed inequality aversion. PMID:27069847
Does income inequality have lasting effects on health and trust?
Rözer, Jesper Jelle; Volker, Beate
2016-01-01
According to the income inequality hypothesis, income inequality is associated with poorer health. One important proposed mechanism for this effect is reduced trust. In this study, we argue that income inequality during a person's formative years (i.e., around age 16) may have lasting consequences for trust and health. Multilevel analyses of data from the combined World Values Survey and European Values Study that were collected between 1981 and 2014 support our prediction and show that income inequality is associated with ill health in young adults, in part because it reduces their social trust. The negative consequences of income inequality remain stable for a substantial period of life but eventually fade away and have no effect after age 36. PMID:26704353
Inequality reversal: Effects of the savings propensity and correlated returns
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chakrabarti, Anindya S.; Chakrabarti, Bikas K.
2010-09-01
In the last decade, a large body of literature has been developed to explain the universal features of inequality in terms of income and wealth. By now, it is established that the distributions of income and wealth in various economies show a number of statistical regularities. There are several models to explain such static features of inequality in a unifying framework, and the kinetic exchange models in particular provide one such framework. Here we focus on the dynamic features of inequality. In the process of development and growth, inequality in an economy in terms of income and wealth follows a particular pattern of rising in the initial stage followed by an eventual fall. This inverted U-shaped curve is known as the Kuznets Curve. We examine the possibilities of such behavior of an economy in the context of a generalized kinetic exchange model. It is shown that under some specific conditions, our model economy indeed shows inequality reversal.
Environmental protection, inequality, and institutional change.
Magnani, Elisabetta
2011-02-01
The contemporary world faces an unprecedented environmental challenge. Past international research has amply shown that we cannot afford to wait for a "development path" that automatically takes us on a sustainable future. Whether we look at global or local problems, the international debate increasingly points to the importance of popular support for environmental protection by a broad spectrum of stakeholders. Because environmental sustainability questions the way we produce, consume, and distribute the product of our work, an economic analysis that is limited to one market is insufficient. In addressing Bromley's question, "How do we wish the future to unfold for us?" this paper argues for the need to devote resources to understanding the spillovers between institutional settings and preferences toward the provision of global public goods. Here, this review focuses on labor-market institutions, as labor markets are traditionally the context in which inequality is created at the local and global levels. Labor-market institutional design, via its impact on risk and uncertainty and inequality, may have sizable implications on the provision of environmental care. PMID:21332500
Worldwide inequality in production of systematic reviews
Jamali, Arsia; Nedjat, Saharnaz; Heidari, Kazem; Jamali, Raika; Hassanpour, Kiana; Nedjat, Sima; Anvari, Pasha; Majdzadeh, Reza
2015-01-01
Background: Investment in science is vital for the development and well-being of societies. This study aims to assess the scientific productivity of countries by quantifying their publication of systematic reviews taking the gross national income per capita (GNIPC) into account. Methods: Medline and ISI Web of Science were searched for systematic reviews published between 1st January 2006 and 31st December 2010. The productivity of each country was quantified by exploring the authors’ affiliation. The GNIPC was used according to the World Bank Report. Concentration index (CI) was calculated as the index of inequality. Results: CI of percentage of systematic reviews as a function of percentage of countries ranked by GNIPC was 0.82 which indicates inequality in production of systematic reviews in pro rich countries. Countries with high income produced 206.23 times more systematic reviews than low income countries, while this ratio for lower middle and upper middle countries was 9.67 and 12.97, respectively. The highest concentration index was observed in clinical sciences (0.76) and the lowest in public health (0.61). Conclusion: This study demonstrates a significant gap between industrialized and nonindustrialized countries in the production of systematic reviews. Addressing this gap needs tremendous national and international efforts. PMID:26913272
[Territorial and social healthcare inequalities in France].
Vigneron, Emmanuel
2012-01-01
Geographic analyses of health-related issues have a long tradition in France, and have often consisted of observational studies conducted by practitioners themselves. Such geographic approaches were gradually abandoned during the 20th century as the pace of clinical progress increased. The few healthcare studies conducted by geographers have had little impact among the medical community. However, our studies show that geographic inequalities in health still persist. During the last 10 years or so, the social and economic crisis has dangerously accentuated health inequalities at every level In France, where equality is supposed to be the watchword of the entire healthcare system, this situation is particularly regrettable. Access to care decreases with distance from medical services. With the increasing urban and suburban concentration of the population, public healthcare policy must focus on finding solutions for people living in remote areas or too poor to access medical care. Geographic analyses of healthcare organization can help to make medical care available for all, especially those who need it most. PMID:23550454
Black-White Health Inequalities in Canada.
Veenstra, Gerry; Patterson, Andrew C
2016-02-01
Little is known about Black-White health inequalities in Canada or the applicability of competing explanations for them. To address this gap, we used nine cycles of the Canadian Community Health Survey to analyze multiple health outcomes in a sample of 3,127 Black women, 309,720 White women, 2,529 Black men and 250,511 White men. Adjusting for age, marital status, urban/rural residence and immigrant status, Black women and men were more likely than their White counterparts to report diabetes and hypertension, Black women were less likely than White women to report cancer and fair/poor mental health and Black men were less likely than White men to report heart disease. These health inequalities persisted after controlling for education, household income, smoking, physical activity and body-mass index. We conclude that high rates of diabetes and hypertension among Black Canadians may stem from experiences of racism in everyday life, low rates of heart disease and cancer among Black Canadians may reflect survival bias and low rates of fair/poor mental health among Black Canadian women represent a mental health paradox similar to the one that exists for African Americans in the United States. PMID:25894533
Modern statistical estimation via oracle inequalities
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Candès, Emmanuel J.
A number of fundamental results in modern statistical theory involve thresholding estimators. This survey paper aims at reconstructing the history of how thresholding rules came to be popular in statistics and describing, in a not overly technical way, the domain of their application. Two notions play a fundamental role in our narrative: sparsity and oracle inequalities. Sparsity is a property of the object to estimate, which seems to be characteristic of many modern problems, in statistics as well as applied mathematics and theoretical computer science, to name a few. `Oracle inequalities' are a powerful decision-theoretic tool which has served to understand the optimality of thresholding rules, but which has many other potential applications, some of which we will discuss.Our story is also the story of the dialogue between statistics and applied harmonic analysis. Starting with the work of Wiener, we will see that certain representations emerge as being optimal for estimation. A leitmotif throughout our exposition is that efficient representations lead to efficient estimation.
Poverty, inequality and a political economy of mental health.
Burns, J K
2015-04-01
The relationship between poverty and mental health is indisputable. However, to have an influence on the next set of sustainable global development goals, we need to understand the causal relationships between social determinants such as poverty, inequality, lack of education and unemployment; thereby clarifying which aspects of poverty are the key drivers of mental illness. Some of the major challenges identified by Lund (2014) in understanding the poverty-mental health relationship are discussed including: the need for appropriate poverty indicators; extending this research agenda to a broader range of mental health outcomes; the need to engage with theoretical concepts such as Amartya Sen's capability framework; and the need to integrate the concept of income/economic inequality into studies of poverty and mental health. Although income inequality is a powerful driver of poor physical and mental health outcomes, it features rarely in research and discourse on social determinants of mental health. This paper interrogates in detail the relationships between poverty, income inequality and mental health, specifically: the role of income inequality as a mediator of the poverty-mental health relationship; the relative utility of commonly used income inequality metrics; and the likely mechanisms underlying the impact of inequality on mental health, including direct stress due to the setting up of social comparisons as well as the erosion of social capital leading to social fragmentation. Finally, we need to interrogate the upstream political, social and economic causes of inequality itself, since these should also become potential targets in efforts to promote sustainable development goals and improve population (mental) health. In particular, neoliberal (market-oriented) political doctrines lead to both increased income inequality and reduced social cohesion. In conclusion, understanding the relationships between politics, poverty, inequality and mental health
Optimal Stopping with Information Constraint
Lempa, Jukka
2012-10-15
We study the optimal stopping problem proposed by Dupuis and Wang (Adv. Appl. Probab. 34:141-157, 2002). In this maximization problem of the expected present value of the exercise payoff, the underlying dynamics follow a linear diffusion. The decision maker is not allowed to stop at any time she chooses but rather on the jump times of an independent Poisson process. Dupuis and Wang (Adv. Appl. Probab. 34:141-157, 2002), solve this problem in the case where the underlying is a geometric Brownian motion and the payoff function is of American call option type. In the current study, we propose a mild set of conditions (covering the setup of Dupuis and Wang in Adv. Appl. Probab. 34:141-157, 2002) on both the underlying and the payoff and build and use a Markovian apparatus based on the Bellman principle of optimality to solve the problem under these conditions. We also discuss the interpretation of this model as optimal timing of an irreversible investment decision under an exogenous information constraint.
Percolation of spatially constraint networks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Daqing; Li, Guanliang; Kosmidis, Kosmas; Stanley, H. E.; Bunde, Armin; Havlin, Shlomo
2011-03-01
We study how spatial constraints are reflected in the percolation properties of networks embedded in one-dimensional chains and two-dimensional lattices. We assume long-range connections between sites on the lattice where two sites at distance r are chosen to be linked with probability p(r)~r-δ. Similar distributions have been found in spatially embedded real networks such as social and airline networks. We find that for networks embedded in two dimensions, with 2<δ<4, the percolation properties show new intermediate behavior different from mean field, with critical exponents that depend on δ. For δ<2, the percolation transition belongs to the universality class of percolation in Erdös-Rényi networks (mean field), while for δ>4 it belongs to the universality class of percolation in regular lattices. For networks embedded in one dimension, we find that, for δ<1, the percolation transition is mean field. For 1<δ<2, the critical exponents depend on δ, while for δ>2 there is no percolation transition as in regular linear chains.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Parsons, Eileen Carlton; Turner, Kea
2014-01-01
Racial equality and racial equity in U.S. education has been elusive although decades of education reform have them as goals. Current discourse advocate colorblind and post-racial solutions to racial inequality and racial inequity in education; these solutions implicate presentism, a view that exclusively circumscribes the existence of present-day…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Chiu, Ming Ming
2015-01-01
Background/Context: While many studies show that greater economic inequality widens the achievement gap between rich and poor students, recent studies indicate that countries with greater economic inequality have lower overall student achievement. Purpose/Objective/Research Question/Focus of Study: This study explores whether family inequalities…
Urban Inequality: Evidence from Four Cities. A Volume in the Multi-City Study of Urban Inequality.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
O'Connor, Alice, Ed.; Tilly, Chris, Ed.; Bobo, Lawrence D., Ed.
This collection of papers focuses on urban inequalities in Atlanta, Boston, Detroit, and Los Angeles. There are 11 chapters in 3 parts. The book begins with an introduction, "Understanding Inequality in the Late Twentieth-Century Metropolis: New Perspectives on the Enduring Racial Divide" (Alice O'Connor) and chapter 1, "Metropolises of the…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Avent-Holt, Dustin; Tomaskovic-Devey, Donald
2012-01-01
We examine the relational model of inequality using samples of employer-employee matched data from manufacturing plants in the United States and Japan. We argue that gender is a salient status characteristic in both the United States and Japan, but because of differences in gender politics, wage inequality will vary more across U.S. workplaces…
Univariate normalization of bispectrum using Hölder's inequality.
Shahbazi, Forooz; Ewald, Arne; Nolte, Guido
2014-08-15
Considering that many biological systems including the brain are complex non-linear systems, suitable methods capable of detecting these non-linearities are required to study the dynamical properties of these systems. One of these tools is the third order cummulant or cross-bispectrum, which is a measure of interfrequency interactions between three signals. For convenient interpretation, interaction measures are most commonly normalized to be independent of constant scales of the signals such that its absolute values are bounded by one, with this limit reflecting perfect coupling. Although many different normalization factors for cross-bispectra were suggested in the literature these either do not lead to bounded measures or are themselves dependent on the coupling and not only on the scale of the signals. In this paper we suggest a normalization factor which is univariate, i.e., dependent only on the amplitude of each signal and not on the interactions between signals. Using a generalization of Hölder's inequality it is proven that the absolute value of this univariate bicoherence is bounded by zero and one. We compared three widely used normalizations to the univariate normalization concerning the significance of bicoherence values gained from resampling tests. Bicoherence values are calculated from real EEG data recorded in an eyes closed experiment from 10 subjects. The results show slightly more significant values for the univariate normalization but in general, the differences are very small or even vanishing in some subjects. Therefore, we conclude that the normalization factor does not play an important role in the bicoherence values with regard to statistical power, although a univariate normalization is the only normalization factor which fulfills all the required conditions of a proper normalization. PMID:24975293
A Comparative Study of Randomized Constraint Solvers for Random-Symbolic Testing
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Takaki, Mitsuo; Cavalcanti, Diego; Gheyi, Rohit; Iyoda, Juliano; dAmorim, Marcelo; Prudencio, Ricardo
2009-01-01
The complexity of constraints is a major obstacle for constraint-based software verification. Automatic constraint solvers are fundamentally incomplete: input constraints often build on some undecidable theory or some theory the solver does not support. This paper proposes and evaluates several randomized solvers to address this issue. We compare the effectiveness of a symbolic solver (CVC3), a random solver, three hybrid solvers (i.e., mix of random and symbolic), and two heuristic search solvers. We evaluate the solvers on two benchmarks: one consisting of manually generated constraints and another generated with a concolic execution of 8 subjects. In addition to fully decidable constraints, the benchmarks include constraints with non-linear integer arithmetic, integer modulo and division, bitwise arithmetic, and floating-point arithmetic. As expected symbolic solving (in particular, CVC3) subsumes the other solvers for the concolic execution of subjects that only generate decidable constraints. For the remaining subjects the solvers are complementary.
Asteroseismic constraints for Gaia
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Creevey, O. L.; Thévenin, F.
2012-12-01
Distances from the Gaia mission will no doubt improve our understanding of stellar physics by providing an excellent constraint on the luminosity of the star. However, it is also clear that high precision stellar properties from, for example, asteroseismology, will also provide a needed input constraint in order to calibrate the methods that Gaia will use, e.g. stellar models or GSP_Phot. For solar-like stars (F, G, K IV/V), asteroseismic data delivers at the least two very important quantities: (1) the average large frequency separation < Δ ν > and (2) the frequency corresponding to the maximum of the modulated-amplitude spectrum ν_{max}. Both of these quantities are related directly to stellar parameters (radius and mass) and in particular their combination (gravity and density). We show how the precision in < Δ ν >, ν_{max}, and atmospheric parameters T_{eff} and [Fe/H] affect the determination of gravity (log g) for a sample of well-known stars. We find that log g can be determined within less than 0.02 dex accuracy for our sample while considering precisions in the data expected for V˜12 stars from Kepler data. We also derive masses and radii which are accurate to within 1σ of the accepted values. This study validates the subsequent use of all of the available asteroseismic data on solar-like stars from the Kepler field (>500 IV/V stars) in order to provide a very important constraint for Gaia calibration of GSP_Phot} through the use of log g. We note that while we concentrate on IV/V stars, both the CoRoT and Kepler fields contain asteroseismic data on thousands of giant stars which will also provide useful calibration measures.
Practical Cleanroom Operations Constraints
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hughes, David; Ginyard, Amani
2007-01-01
This viewgraph presentation reviews the GSFC Cleanroom Facility i.e., Spacecraft Systems Development and Integration Facility (SSDIF) with particular interest in its use during the development of the Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3). The SSDIF is described and a diagram of the SSDIF is shown. A Constraint Table was created for consistency within Contamination Control Team. This table is shown. Another table that shows the activities that were allowed during the integration under given WFC3 condition and activity location is presented. Three decision trees are shown for different phases of the work: (1) Hardware Relocation, Hardware Work, and Contamination Control Operations.
Superresolution via sparsity constraints
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Donoho, David L.
1992-01-01
The problem of recovering a measure mu supported on a lattice of span Delta is considered under the condition that measurements are only available concerning the Fourier Transform at frequencies of Omega or less. If Omega is much smaller than the Nyquist frequency pi/Delta and the measurements are noisy, then stable recovery of mu is generally impossible. It is shown here that if, in addition, it is known that mu satisfies certain sparsity constraints, then stable recovery is possible. This finding validates practical efforts in spectroscopy, seismic prospecting, and astronomy to provide superresolution by imposing support limitations in reconstruction.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kindrachuk, Vitaliy M.; Galanov, Boris A.
2014-02-01
A computationally efficient solution scheme is presented for the mechanical problems whose formulations include the Kuhn-Tucker or Signorini-Fichera conditions. It is proposed to reformulate these problems replacing inequalities in these conditions by equations with respect to new unknowns. The solutions of the modified problems have simple physical meanings and determine uniquely the unknowns of the original problems. The approach avoids application of multi-valued operators (inclusions or inequalities) in formulation of the problems. Hence, the modified formulations are suitable for numerical analysis using established powerful mathematical methods and corresponding solvers developed for solving systems of non-linear equations.
Time to address gender discrimination and inequality in the health workforce
2014-01-01
Gender is a key factor operating in the health workforce. Recent research evidence points to systemic gender discrimination and inequalities in health pre-service and in-service education and employment systems. Human resources for health (HRH) leaders’ and researchers’ lack of concerted attention to these inequalities is striking, given the recognition of other forms of discrimination in international labour rights and employment law discourse. If not acted upon, gender discrimination and inequalities result in systems inefficiencies that impede the development of the robust workforces needed to respond to today’s critical health care needs. This commentary makes the case that there is a clear need for sex- and age-disaggregated and qualitative data to more precisely illuminate gender-related trends and dynamics in the health workforce. Because of their importance for measurement, the paper also presents definitions and examples of sex or gender discrimination and offers specific case examples. At a broader level, the commentary argues that gender equality should be an HRH research, leadership, and governance priority, where the aim is to strengthen health pre-service and continuing professional education and employment systems to achieve better health systems outcomes, including better health coverage. Good HRH leadership, governance, and management involve recognizing the diversity of health workforces, acknowledging gender constraints and opportunities, eliminating gender discrimination and equalizing opportunity, making health systems responsive to life course events, and protecting health workers’ labour rights at all levels. A number of global, national and institution-level actions are proposed to move the gender equality and HRH agendas forward. PMID:24885565
Schröders, Julia; Wall, Stig; Kusnanto, Hari; Ng, Nawi
2015-01-01
, detain, and overcome inequities in child health in resource constraint settings like Indonesia and the promotion of actionable health policy recommendations and tailored investments. PMID:25942491
Time to address gender discrimination and inequality in the health workforce.
Newman, Constance
2014-01-01
Gender is a key factor operating in the health workforce. Recent research evidence points to systemic gender discrimination and inequalities in health pre-service and in-service education and employment systems. Human resources for health (HRH) leaders' and researchers' lack of concerted attention to these inequalities is striking, given the recognition of other forms of discrimination in international labour rights and employment law discourse. If not acted upon, gender discrimination and inequalities result in systems inefficiencies that impede the development of the robust workforces needed to respond to today's critical health care needs.This commentary makes the case that there is a clear need for sex- and age-disaggregated and qualitative data to more precisely illuminate gender-related trends and dynamics in the health workforce. Because of their importance for measurement, the paper also presents definitions and examples of sex or gender discrimination and offers specific case examples.At a broader level, the commentary argues that gender equality should be an HRH research, leadership, and governance priority, where the aim is to strengthen health pre-service and continuing professional education and employment systems to achieve better health systems outcomes, including better health coverage. Good HRH leadership, governance, and management involve recognizing the diversity of health workforces, acknowledging gender constraints and opportunities, eliminating gender discrimination and equalizing opportunity, making health systems responsive to life course events, and protecting health workers' labour rights at all levels. A number of global, national and institution-level actions are proposed to move the gender equality and HRH agendas forward. PMID:24885565
Stigma, social inequality, and HIV risk disclosure among Dominican male sex workers☆
Padilla, Mark; Castellanos, Daniel; Guilamo-Ramos, Vincent; Reyes, Armando Matiz; Sánchez Marte, Leonardo E.; Soriano, Martha Arredondo
2010-01-01
Some quantitative behavioral studies in the USA have concluded that bisexually behaving Latino men are less likely than White men to disclose to their female partners that they have engaged in same-sex risk behavior and/or are HIV-positive, presumably exposing female partners to elevated risk for HIV infection. Nevertheless, very little theoretical or empirical research has been conducted to understand the social factors that promote or inhibit sexual risk disclosure among Latino men who have sex with men (MSM), and much of the existing literature has neglected to contextualize disclosure patterns within broader experiences of stigma and social inequality. This paper examines decisions about disclosure of sex work, same-sex behavior, and sexual risk for HIV among male sex workers in two cities in the Dominican Republic. Data derive from long-term ethnography and qualitative in-depth interviews with 72 male sex workers were used to analyze the relationships among experiences of stigma, social inequality, and patterns of sexual risk disclosure. Thematic analysis of interviews and ethnographic evidence revealed a wide range of stigma management techniques utilized by sex workers to minimize the effects of marginality due to their engagement in homosexuality and sex work. These techniques imposed severe constraints on men’s sexual risk disclosure, and potentially elevated their own and their female partners’ vulnerability to HIV infection. Based on the study’s findings, we conclude that future studies of sexual risk disclosure among ethnic minority MSM should avoid analyzing disclosure as a decontextualized variable, and should seek to examine sexual risk communication as a dynamic social process constrained by hierarchical systems of power and inequality. PMID:18410986
How much inequality in income is fair? A microeconomic game theoretic perspective
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Venkatasubramanian, Venkat; Luo, Yu; Sethuraman, Jay
2015-10-01
The increasing inequality in income and wealth in recent years, and the associated excessive pay packages of CEOs in the US and elsewhere, is of growing concern among policy makers as well as the common person. However, there seems to be no satisfactory answer, in conventional economic theories and models, to the fundamental questions of what kind of income distribution we ought to see, at least under ideal conditions, in a free market environment, and whether this distribution is fair. We propose a novel microeconomic game theoretic framework that addresses these questions and proves that the lognormal distribution is the fairest inequality of pay in an organization comprising of homogeneous agents, under ideal free market conditions at equilibrium. We also show that for a population of two different classes of agents, the equilibrium distribution is a combination of two different lognormal distributions where one of them, corresponding to the top ˜3-5% of the population, can be misidentified as a Pareto distribution. We compare our predictions with empirical data on global income inequality trends provided by Piketty and others. Our analysis suggests that the Scandinavian countries, and to a lesser extent Switzerland, Netherlands and Australia, have managed to get close to the ideal distribution for the bottom ˜99% of the population, while the US and UK remain less fair at the other extreme. Other European countries such as France and Germany, and Japan and Canada, are in the middle. Our theory also shows the deep and direct connection between potential game theory and statistical mechanics through entropy, which we identify as a measure of fairness in a distribution. This leads us to propose the fair market hypothesis, that the self-organizing dynamics of the ideal free market, i.e., Adam Smith's "invisible hand", not only promotes efficiency but also maximizes fairness under the given constraints.
Modular Constraints on Calabi-Yau Compactifications
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Keller, Christoph A.; Ooguri, Hirosi
2013-11-01
We derive global constraints on the non-BPS sector of supersymmetric 2d sigma-models whose target space is a Calabi-Yau manifold. When the total Hodge number of the Calabi-Yau threefold is sufficiently large, we show that there must be non-BPS primary states whose total conformal weights are less than 0.656. Moreover, the number of such primary states grows at least linearly in the total Hodge number. We discuss implications of these results for Calabi-Yau geometry.
Symbolic Constraint Maintenance Grid
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
James, Mark
2006-01-01
Version 3.1 of Symbolic Constraint Maintenance Grid (SCMG) is a software system that provides a general conceptual framework for utilizing pre-existing programming techniques to perform symbolic transformations of data. SCMG also provides a language (and an associated communication method and protocol) for representing constraints on the original non-symbolic data. SCMG provides a facility for exchanging information between numeric and symbolic components without knowing the details of the components themselves. In essence, it integrates symbolic software tools (for diagnosis, prognosis, and planning) with non-artificial-intelligence software. SCMG executes a process of symbolic summarization and monitoring of continuous time series data that are being abstractly represented as symbolic templates of information exchange. This summarization process enables such symbolic- reasoning computing systems as artificial- intelligence planning systems to evaluate the significance and effects of channels of data more efficiently than would otherwise be possible. As a result of the increased efficiency in representation, reasoning software can monitor more channels and is thus able to perform monitoring and control functions more effectively.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nisoli, Cristiano; Mahault, Benoit; Saxena, Avadh
We introduce a minimal agent-based model to qualitatively conceptualize the allocation of limited wealth among more abundant opportunities. There the interplay of power, satisfaction and frustration determines the distribution, concentration, and inequality of wealth. Our framework allows us to compare subjective measures of frustration and satisfaction to collective measures of fairness in wealth distribution, such as the Lorenz curve and the Gini index. We find that a completely libertarian, law-of-the-jungle setting, where every agent can acquire wealth from, or lose wealth to, anybody else invariably leads to large inequality. The picture is however dramatically modified when hard constraints are imposed over agents, and they are limited to share wealth with neighbors on a network. We address dynamical societies via an out of equilibrium coevolution of the network, driven by a competition between power and frustration. The ratio between power and frustration controls different dynamical regimes separated by kinetic transitions and characterized by drastically different values of the indices of equality. In particular, it leads to the emergence of three self-organized social classes, lower, middle, and upper class, whose interactions drive a cyclical regime.
Leggett-Garg inequality violations with a large ensemble of qubits
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lambert, Neill; Debnath, Kamanasish; Kockum, Anton Frisk; Knee, George C.; Munro, William J.; Nori, Franco
2016-07-01
We investigate how discrete internal degrees of freedom in a quasimacroscopic system affect the violation of the Leggett-Garg inequality, a test of macroscopic realism based on temporal correlation functions. As a specific example, we focus on an ensemble of qubits subject to collective and individual noise. This generic model can describe a range of physical systems, including atoms in cavities, electron or nuclear spins in nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers in diamond, erbium in Y2SiO5 , bismuth impurities in silicon, or arrays of superconducting circuits, to indicate but a few. Such large ensembles are potentially more macroscopic than other systems that have been used so far for testing the Leggett-Garg inequality and open a route toward probing the boundaries of quantum mechanics at macroscopic scales. We find that, because of the nontrivial internal structure of such an ensemble, the behavior of different measurement schemes, under the influence of noise, can be surprising. We discuss which measurement schemes are optimal for flux qubits and NV centers, and some of the technological constraints and difficulties for observing such violations with present-day experiments.
Strict Constraint Feasibility in Analysis and Design of Uncertain Systems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Crespo, Luis G.; Giesy, Daniel P.; Kenny, Sean P.
2006-01-01
This paper proposes a methodology for the analysis and design optimization of models subject to parametric uncertainty, where hard inequality constraints are present. Hard constraints are those that must be satisfied for all parameter realizations prescribed by the uncertainty model. Emphasis is given to uncertainty models prescribed by norm-bounded perturbations from a nominal parameter value, i.e., hyper-spheres, and by sets of independently bounded uncertain variables, i.e., hyper-rectangles. These models make it possible to consider sets of parameters having comparable as well as dissimilar levels of uncertainty. Two alternative formulations for hyper-rectangular sets are proposed, one based on a transformation of variables and another based on an infinity norm approach. The suite of tools developed enable us to determine if the satisfaction of hard constraints is feasible by identifying critical combinations of uncertain parameters. Since this practice is performed without sampling or partitioning the parameter space, the resulting assessments of robustness are analytically verifiable. Strategies that enable the comparison of the robustness of competing design alternatives, the approximation of the robust design space, and the systematic search for designs with improved robustness characteristics are also proposed. Since the problem formulation is generic and the solution methods only require standard optimization algorithms for their implementation, the tools developed are applicable to a broad range of problems in several disciplines.
Burns, Jonathan Kenneth
2009-01-01
Mental disability and mental health care have been neglected in the discourse around health, human rights, and equality. This is perplexing as mental disabilities are pervasive, affecting approximately 8% of the world population. Furthermore, the experience of persons with mental disability is one characterized by multiple interlinked levels of inequality and discrimination within society. Efforts directed toward achieving formal equality should not stand alone without similar efforts to achieve substantive equality for persons with mental disabilities. Structural factors such as poverty, inequality, homelessness, and discrimination contribute to risk for mental disability and impact negatively on the course and outcome of such disabilities. A human rights approach to mental disability means affirming the full personhood of those with mental disabilities by respecting their inherent dignity, their individual autonomy and independence, and their freedom to make their own choices. A rights-based approach requires us to examine and transform the language, terminology, and models of mental disability that have previously prevailed especially within health discourse. Such an approach also requires us to examine the multiple ways in which inequality and discrimination characterize the lives of persons with mental disabilities and to formulate a response based on a human rights framework. In this article, I examine issues of terminology, models of understanding mental disability, and the implications of international treaties such as the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities for our response to the inequalities and discrimination that exist within society--both within and outside the health care system. Finally, while acknowledging that health care professionals have a role to play as advocates for equality, non-discrimination, and justice, I argue that it is persons with mental disabilities themselves who have the right to exercise agency
Physical and situational inequality on airplanes predicts air rage.
DeCelles, Katherine A; Norton, Michael I
2016-05-17
We posit that the modern airplane is a social microcosm of class-based society, and that the increasing incidence of "air rage" can be understood through the lens of inequality. Research on inequality typically examines the effects of relatively fixed, macrostructural forms of inequality, such as socioeconomic status; we examine how temporary exposure to both physical and situational inequality, induced by the design of environments, can foster antisocial behavior. We use a complete set of all onboard air rage incidents over several years from a large, international airline to test our predictions. Physical inequality on airplanes-that is, the presence of a first class cabin-is associated with more frequent air rage incidents in economy class. Situational inequality-boarding from the front (requiring walking through the first class cabin) versus the middle of the plane-also significantly increases the odds of air rage in both economy and first class. We show that physical design that highlights inequality can trigger antisocial behavior on airplanes. More broadly, these results point to the importance of considering the design of environments-from airplanes to office layouts to stadium seating-in understanding both the form and emergence of antisocial behavior. PMID:27140642
Exploring inequality violations by classical hidden variables numerically
Vongehr, Sascha
2013-12-15
There are increasingly suggestions for computer simulations of quantum statistics which try to violate Bell type inequalities via classical, common cause correlations. The Clauser–Horne–Shimony–Holt (CHSH) inequality is very robust. However, we argue that with the Einstein–Podolsky–Rosen setup, the CHSH is inferior to the Bell inequality, although and because the latter must assume anti-correlation of entangled photon singlet states. We simulate how often quantum behavior violates both inequalities, depending on the number of photons. Violating Bell 99% of the time is argued to be an ideal benchmark. We present hidden variables that violate the Bell and CHSH inequalities with 50% probability, and ones which violate Bell 85% of the time when missing 13% anti-correlation. We discuss how to present the quantum correlations to a wide audience and conclude that, when defending against claims of hidden classicality, one should demand numerical simulations and insist on anti-correlation and the full amount of Bell violation. -- Highlights: •The widely assumed superiority of the CHSH fails in the EPR problem. •We simulate Bell type inequalities behavior depending on the number of photons. •The core of Bell’s theorem in the EPR setup is introduced in a simple way understandable to a wide audience. •We present hidden variables that violate both inequalities with 50% probability. •Algorithms have been supplied in form of Mathematica programs.
Income Inequality and Intergenerational Income Mobility in the United States
Bloome, Deirdre
2015-01-01
Is there a relationship between family income inequality and income mobility across generations in the United States? As family income inequality rose in the United States, parental resources available for improving children’s health, education, and care diverged. The amount and rate of divergence also varied across US states. Researchers and policy analysts have expressed concern that relatively high inequality might be accompanied by relatively low mobility, tightening the connection between individuals’ incomes during childhood and adulthood. Using data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics, the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, and various government sources, this paper exploits state and cohort variation to estimate the relationship between inequality and mobility. Results provide very little support for the hypothesis that inequality shapes mobility in the United States. The inequality children experienced during youth had no robust association with their economic mobility as adults. Formal analysis reveals that offsetting effects could underlie this result. In theory, mobility-enhancing forces may counterbalance mobility-reducing effects. In practice, the results suggest that in the US context, the intergenerational transmission of income may not be very responsive to changes in inequality. PMID:26388653
Asset Inequality and Economic Activity in Artificial Societies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kikuchi, Toshiko
In this paper, using multi-agent simulations, the effect asset inequality has on an artificial society is analyzed. It is shown that it is possible for a sustainable society to decrease in asset inequality and at the same time increase economic activity. In sustainable societies, the asset inequality increases as the consumption tax rate is raised, and in artificial societies where the tax rate is the same, inequality increases in the society in which agents with even small a surplus undertake unselfish actions. In sustainable societies which employ both income and consumption tax, an increase in asset inequalities leads to an increase economic activity. But, in sustainable societies which levy only the income tax, this result does not necessarily hold. These results show that if economic activity is increased in sustainable societies where the consumption tax rate is raised for the fiscal stability, an inequality expansion is an acceptable consequence. However, the sustainable society with the highest economic activity is realized when only the income tax is levied. In sustainable societies which levy only the income tax, it is possible to decrease inequality while simultaneously increasing economic activity.
Consistencies and Inconsistencies in Students' Solutions to Algebraic 'Single-Value' Inequalities
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Tsamir, Pessia; Bazzini, Luciana
2004-01-01
This paper describes students' solutions to a commonly taught and not commonly taught inequality. The findings showed students' difficulties. Participants implicitly and explicitly exhibited two intuitive beliefs: inequalities must result in inequalities and solving inequalities and equations are the same process. Following the analysis of…
Intercountry and Intracountry Inequalities in School Enrollments: A Broad International Perspective.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ram, Rati
1995-01-01
Computes intercountry and intracountry inequalities in developing countries' school enrollment rates for three educational levels, using a 1960-86 UNESCO data set. Intercountry inequality is lowest at level one and highest at level three. Intercountry and intracountry inequalities are declining. Inequalities in female enrollments are greater for…
Cognitive Maps of Class, Racial, and Appalachian Inequalities among Rural Appalachians.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Smith, Kevin B.; Bylund, Robert A.
1983-01-01
Cognitive maps of social inequities are explored via data collected from 105 rural Appalachian Kentuckians' perceptions of social class, racial, and Appalachian inequities. Looks at: (1) the degree of perceived inequity and (2) the perceptual interrelatedness among the three dimensions of social inequity. (AH)
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Boliver, Vikki
2011-01-01
Conventional political wisdom has it that educational expansion helps to reduce socioeconomic inequalities of access to education by increasing equality of educational opportunity. The counterarguments of Maximally Maintained Inequality (MMI) and Effectively Maintained Inequality (EMI), in contrast, contend that educational inequalities tend to…
The Israeli Medical Association's discourse on health inequity.
Avni, Shlomit; Filc, Dani; Davidovitch, Nadav
2015-11-01
The present paper analyses the emergence and characteristics of Israeli Medical Association (IMA) discourse on health inequality in Israel during the years 1977-2010. The IMA addressed the issue of health inequality at a relatively late stage in time (2000), as compared to other OECD countries such as the UK, and did so in a relatively limited way, focusing primarily on professional or economic interests. The dominant discourses on health inequalities within the IMA are biomedical and behavioral, characterized by a focus on medical and/or cultural and behavioral differences, the predominant use of medical terminology, and an individualistic rather than a structural conceptualization of the social characteristics of health differences. Additionally, IMA discourses emphasize certain aspects of health inequality such as the geographical and material inequities, and in doing so overlook the role played by class, nationality and the unequal structure of citizenship. Paradoxically, by disregarding the latter, the IMA's discourse on health inequality has the potential to reinforce the structural causes of these inequities. Our research is based on a textual critical discourse analysis (CDA) of hundreds of documents from the IMA's scientific medical journal, the IMA's members journal and public IMA documents such as press-releases, Knesset protocols, publications, and public surveys. By providing knowledge on the different ways in which the IMA, a key stakeholder in the health field, de-codifies, understands, explains, and attempts to deal with health inequality, the article illuminates possible implications on health policy and seeks to evaluate the direct interventions carried out by the IMA, or by other actors influenced by it, pertaining to health inequality. PMID:26409421
Regional inequality in health and its determinants: evidence from China.
Fang, Pengqian; Dong, Siping; Xiao, Jingjing; Liu, Chaojie; Feng, Xianwei; Wang, Yiping
2010-01-01
Health inequality is a problem with great political importance all over the world. Urban-rural inequality in health has attracted great attentions in recent years in China, but very few researches have been undertaken into regional discrepancies in health. This research aims at measuring the degree of regional health inequality in China and identifying its determinants. Indicators for health, socioeconomic status, health resources and health services delivery were selected through Delphi consultations from 18 experts. With cross-sectional data from 31 provinces, composite health indexes were generated. The regional inequality in health was described by Lorenz curve and measured by Gini coefficient. The determinants of health inequality were identified through canonical correlation analysis. The results showed that there existed distinct regional disparities in health in China, which were mainly reflected in "Maternal & Child Health" and "Infectious Diseases", not in the most commonly used health indicator average life expectancy. The regional health inequality in China was increasing with the rapid economic growth. The regional health inequality was associated with not only the distribution of wealth, but also the distribution of health resources and primary health care services. Policy makers need to be aware of three major challenges when they try to achieve and maintain equality in distribution of health: First, the most commonly used health indicators are not necessarily sensitive enough to detect health inequalities. Second, increase in health inequality is often accompanied with rapid economic growth and increase in life expectancy. Countries in transition are facing the greatest challenge in developing a fair and equitable health care system. Finally, investment in health resources does bring about differences in distribution of health. However, primary health care plays a more important role than hospital services in reducing regional disparities in health