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Sample records for linear slit scanning

  1. Virtual slit scanning microscopy.

    PubMed

    Fiolka, Reto; Stemmer, Andreas; Belyaev, Yury

    2007-12-01

    We present a novel slit scanning confocal microscope with a CCD camera image sensor and a virtual slit aperture for descanning that can be adjusted during post-processing. A very efficient data structure and mathematical criteria for aligning the virtual aperture guarantee the ease of use. We further introduce a method to reduce the anisotropic lateral resolution of slit scanning microscopes. System performance is evaluated against a spinning disk confocal microscope on identical specimens. The virtual slit scanning microscope works as the spinning disk type and outperforms on thick specimens. PMID:17891411

  2. Electronic scanning-slit fluorography.

    PubMed

    Plenkovich, D

    1989-01-01

    Scattered radiation degrades contrast and signal-to-noise ratio of an x-ray image. If an image intensifier is used as the image receptor, scattering of light photons and electrons within the image intensifier, optical system, and video camera produces veiling glare. anti-scatter grids, air gaps, and paired scanning slits have been used for rejection of scattered radiation. However, none of these methods is effective against veiling glare, because veiling glare is generated after the radiation has passed through any of these anti-scatter devices. In chapter 1 is introduced an innovative approach for highly efficient rejection of both scattered radiation and veiling glare in digital fluorography. This method has been named electronic collimation, and the x-ray imaging technique based upon it is called electronic scanning-slit fluorography. It involves replacing paired fore and aft slits for scatter rejection with only one beam-defining tantalum fore aperture. As this aperture scans across the portion of the patient to be imaged, pulsed x-ray exposures produce images which are digitized and stored in the computer memory. Since the video signal within the projection of the aperture on the image intensifier is much more intense than behind the tantalum, one can discriminate electronically between these two signals and thus eliminate the unwanted x-ray scatter and veiling glare. Such electronic collimation does not require synchronization between the slit scanning and detector readout, which makes it much simpler than alternative methods and potentially adaptable to any digital fluorography system. Theoretical considerations relevant for the construction and evaluation of a prototype unit for electronic scanning slit fluorography are presented in Chapter 2. This chapter consists of four sections. In the first section 'Principles of image detection' the concepts of quantum efficiency and detective quantum efficiency (DQE) are introduced as the most meaningful way to

  3. Real-time multiprocessing of slit scan chromosome profiles.

    PubMed

    Zuse, P; Hauser, R; Männer, R; Hausmann, M; Cremer, C

    1990-01-01

    The multiprocessor NERV and its application to slit scan flow cytometry is described. Up to 320 processors and 640 MBytes of RAM may be used in one VME crate, providing a computing power of less than or equal to 1300 MIPS. The multiprocessor is controlled by a host computer that provides a friendly user interface and comfortable program development tools. All hardware and software has been tested on a prototype NERV system with 5 processors. For a real-time classification/detection of normal and aberrant chromosomes, the centromeric index or the number of centromeres are computed or specifically labeled DNA sequences are detected. The program is partitioned into 60 tasks that can be executed concurrently. A total analysis time of less than 600 microseconds including system overhead will be achieved according to timing measurements which have been done for all individual tasks. PMID:2286080

  4. Depth of field and improved resolution of slit-scan flow systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hausmann, Michael; Crone, Martin; Cremer, Christoph G.

    1996-12-01

    In a slit-scan flow cytometer particles specifically labelled by fluorochromes (e.g., cells, chromosomes) are aligned coaxially in a flow stream. One by another they pass a ribbon-like shaped laser beam with a diameter smaller than the particle length. Although several slit-scan flow systems have been developed during the last two decades, a complete description of the theory of optical resolution under the real experimental conditions used as well as a description how to overcome experimental limitations are missing. Often, resolution values are estimated under the assumption of ideal Gaussian beam propagation. These estimates suffer from a discrepancy to practical implementation, Here, some of these effects in slit-scan optics are discussed from a more theoretical point of view. In order to obtain an acceptable depth of field, a focal width around 2 micrometer appears to be an optimum under the regime of Gaussian beam propagation. However, in practice, effects due to thick lenses, finite apertures, chromatic aberrations, or the ellipticity of the laser beam overshadow this result and influence the laser beam shape. To further improve the resolution with a high depth of field, new concepts are required. Therefore, a combination of an interference fringe pattern of two coherent laser beams for excitation (fringe-scanning) with a slit-scan detection of the incoherent fluorescence light is introduced. Preliminary experiences of the first experimental realization are discussed.

  5. Optics and experimental resolution of the Heidelberg slit-scan flow fluorometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hausmann, Michael; Wickert, Burkhard; Vogel, Michael; Schurwanz, Michael; Doelle, Juergen; Wolf, Dietmar; Aldinger, Klaus; Cremer, Christoph G.

    1996-01-01

    Slit-scan flow fluorometry is a laser-technological approach for accelerated screening and sorting of fluorescence labelled metaphase chromosomes. Details of the optics of the Heidelberg slit-scan sorter are presented. In a fluid stream the fluorescence labelled chromosomes rapidly pass one at a time by a scanning laser beam. The laser can be focused by a less complex optic consisting of only a few commercially available lenses. The laser intensity distribution around the focus was measured for 488 nm for two lens configurations. Although the light distribution obtained by such an optic is normally not aberration free, the requirements of a 'ribbonlike' shape in the center of the fluid stream can be fulfilled. Since the chromosomes are oriented perpendicularly to the laser beam by hydrodynamic focusing of the fluid stream, the fluorescence intensity along the chromosome axis can be measured time (equals spatially) resolved. According to their intensity profiles the chromosomes can be classified. Signal processing of the profiles can be performed in less than 600 microseconds, so that in the order of hundred chromosomes per second can be sorted out by a computer controlled electro-acoustic sorting unit. The final spatial resolution of a slit-scan flow sorter is not only affected by the focusing optics of the laser but also by the fluid stream, the detection optics and electronics, as well as by the computer analysis algorithm. Calculations often consider only the optics under ideal conditions. Here, a method is shown how to estimate the overall resolution of a slit-scan flow fluorometer experimentally. According to this criterion the resolution of the Heidelberg slit-scan sorter for 488 nm fluorescence excitation was estimated to be 2.4 micrometer in its basic optical configuration and 1.7 micrometer with additional correction of chromatic aberration effects.

  6. Line-scanning fiber bundle endomicroscopy with a virtual detector slit

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Michael; Yang, Guang-Zhong

    2016-01-01

    Coherent fiber bundles can be used to relay the image plane from the distal tip of an endomicroscope to an external confocal microscopy system. The frame rate is therefore determined by the speed of the microscope’s laser scanning system which, at 10-20 Hz, may be undesirably low for in vivo clinical applications. Line-scanning allows an increase in the frame rate by an order of magnitude in exchange for some loss of optical sectioning, but the width of the detector slit cannot easily be adapted to suit different imaging conditions. The rolling shutter of a CMOS camera can be used as a virtual detector slit for a bench-top line-scanning confocal microscope, and here we extend this idea to endomicroscopy. By synchronizing the camera rolling shutter with a scanning laser line we achieve confocal imaging with an electronically variable detector slit. This architecture allows us to acquire every other frame with the detector slit offset by a known distance, and we show that subtracting this second image leads to improved optical sectioning. PMID:27375942

  7. Line-scanning fiber bundle endomicroscopy with a virtual detector slit.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Michael; Yang, Guang-Zhong

    2016-06-01

    Coherent fiber bundles can be used to relay the image plane from the distal tip of an endomicroscope to an external confocal microscopy system. The frame rate is therefore determined by the speed of the microscope's laser scanning system which, at 10-20 Hz, may be undesirably low for in vivo clinical applications. Line-scanning allows an increase in the frame rate by an order of magnitude in exchange for some loss of optical sectioning, but the width of the detector slit cannot easily be adapted to suit different imaging conditions. The rolling shutter of a CMOS camera can be used as a virtual detector slit for a bench-top line-scanning confocal microscope, and here we extend this idea to endomicroscopy. By synchronizing the camera rolling shutter with a scanning laser line we achieve confocal imaging with an electronically variable detector slit. This architecture allows us to acquire every other frame with the detector slit offset by a known distance, and we show that subtracting this second image leads to improved optical sectioning. PMID:27375942

  8. A scanning-slit x-ray videoabsorptiometric technique for bone mineral measurement.

    PubMed

    Dobbins, J T; Pedersen, P L; Mazess, R B; Cameron, J R; Hansen, J L; Hefner, L V

    1984-01-01

    An x-ray videoabsorptiometric technique was developed for measurement of bone mineral content (BMC) in vivo. The principle utility of this technique is the precise measurement of commonly fractured bones, such as the femoral neck, that are difficult to measure by other techniques because of repositioning problems. Scanning slits reduce scattered radiation and improve linearity of measurements. Heavily filtered, high-kVp beams are used to minimize errors from beam hardening, and data renormalization is employed to compensate for spatial nonuniformities of the beam and detector. Linearity of measured BMC over the range 0.8 to 5 g/cm2 is very good (r = 0.998) and compares well to single- and dual-photon absorptiometry. A 1.6% change in measured BMC is observed for a 10% change (approximately 2 cm) in tissue thickness while a 10% change in marrow type causes a 0.6%-0.8% change in BMC. Manual repositioning of a femur phantom revealed a variation of 0.84% over ten measurements when femur values were referenced to standards. A computer repositioning algorithm provides much easier identification of the region for analysis and yields comparable variation (0.9%). PMID:6503872

  9. Fast slit-scan method for MTF and MRTD characterization in the HITL environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, James L.

    1996-06-01

    A method based on the line scan of a narrow slit pattern is described for MTF and MRTD determinations. A digital signal analyzer and automatic computer worksheet are utilized for executing this methodology. This single-scan procedure can replace a series of measurements with different sized bar patterns, and it facilitates rapid imaging system characterization for weapons scheduled for intensive hardware-in-the-loop testing. The challenge of this method was to overcome the practical data processing problems encountered. MRTD determinations using the slit-scan method agree very well with conventional bar pattern measurements and has been validated for a variety of imaging sensors. The automatic worksheet analysis determines MTF and both the objective, line scan MRTD as well as the 'eye-brain MRTD' based on a human vision model.

  10. Slit-scanning analysis of dicentric chromosomes: Different approaches for an automated biological dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Beisker, W.; Weller, E.M.; Nuesse, M. )

    1993-01-01

    The analysis of dicentric chromosomes is an important method for applications in biological dosimetry. Automation using slit-scanning flow cytometric analysis requires a careful estimation of preparational and instrumental artifacts. As long as reliable techniques for FISH techniques or immunological kinetochore staining in suspension have not been developed, special interest is directed to methods for evaluating artifacts by instrumental or mathematical procedures. The authors present applications for detection of dicentric chromosomes in mammalian cell cultures as well as in human lymphocytes by multiparameter slit-scanning techniques. The improvement of the sensitivity by mathematical analysis of the profiles as well as by simultaneous use of different DNA dyes with multilaser fluorescence excitation is discussed.

  11. The SL SCAN-1: Fourier Domain Optical Coherence Tomography Integrated into a Slit Lamp

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verbraak, F. D.; Stehouwer, M.

    The detailed cross-sectional images of OCT can be used for diagnosis and follow-up, assessing therapeutic success or failure. Recently, the OCT technology has been implemented in a small unit compatible with existing slit lamps. This increases the efficiency of the routine clinical examination of a patient, will increase the comfort of the patient, and saves time. Additionally, the posterior segment can be scanned through a handheld lens and even through a three-mirror lens.

  12. Scatter correction method for cone-beam CT based on interlacing-slit scan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Kui-Dong; Zhang, Hua; Shi, Yi-Kai; Zhang, Liang; Xu, Zhe

    2014-09-01

    Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) has the notable features of high efficiency and high precision, and is widely used in areas such as medical imaging and industrial non-destructive testing. However, the presence of the ray scatter reduces the quality of CT images. By referencing the slit collimation approach, a scatter correction method for CBCT based on the interlacing-slit scan is proposed. Firstly, according to the characteristics of CBCT imaging, a scatter suppression plate with interlacing slits is designed and fabricated. Then the imaging of the scatter suppression plate is analyzed, and a scatter correction calculation method for CBCT based on the image fusion is proposed, which can splice out a complete set of scatter suppression projection images according to the interlacing-slit projection images of the left and the right imaging regions in the scatter suppression plate, and simultaneously complete the scatter correction within the flat panel detector (FPD). Finally, the overall process of scatter suppression and correction is provided. The experimental results show that this method can significantly improve the clarity of the slice images and achieve a good scatter correction.

  13. Contrast analysis of near-field scanning microscopy using a metal slit probe at millimeter wavelengths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nozokido, Tatsuo; Ishino, Manabu; Seto, Ryosuke; Bae, Jongsuck

    2015-09-01

    We describe an analytical method for investigating the signal contrast obtained in near-field scanning microscopy using a metal slit probe. The probe has a slit-like aperture at the open end of a rectangular or a parallel plate waveguide. In our method, the electromagnetic field around the metal slit aperture at the probe tip is calculated from Maxwell's equations in the Fourier domain in order to derive the electrical admittance of a sample system consisting of layered dielectrics as seen from the probe tip. A simple two-port electrical circuit terminated by this admittance is then established to calculate the complex reflection coefficient of the probe as a signal. The validity of the method is verified at millimeter wavelengths by a full-wave high frequency 3-D finite element modeler and also by experiment. The signal contrast when varying the short dimension of the slit aperture, the separation between the probe tip and the sample, and the sample thickness are successfully explained in terms of the variation in the product of the admittance and the characteristic impedance of the waveguide at the probe tip. In particular, the cause of the local minimum in the signal intensity when varying the separation is clarified.

  14. Orbscan Evaluation of Corneal Power after Myopic PRK: Placido Disc-Based vs Scanning Slit Topography

    PubMed Central

    Rosa, Nicola; Capasso, Luigi; Minutillo, Emma; Borrelli, Maria; De Bernardo, Maddalena; Lanza, Michele

    2010-01-01

    Purpose To compare Placido disc-based and scanning slit topography in the evaluation of corneal power changes after PRK. Methods The changes in corneal power, evaluated with an Orbscan II utilizing both Placido disc-based and Scanning Slit topography, before and 1, 3 and 6 months after PRK were compared with refractive changes in 109 individuals (149 eyes) who underwent photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) with a sphero equivalent refraction, calculated at the corneal apex, ranging from -0.25 to -12 D (mean -4.58±2.54 D). Results 1,3 and 6 months refractive changes showed a good correlation with changes in BFS (r2=0.64, r2= 0.53, r2= 0.62, respectively); in Sim K's (r2= 0.77, r2= 0.8, r2= 0.78, respectively) in Mean Power 3 mm (r2= 0.81, r2= 0.88, r2= 0.87, respectively) in Mean Power 5 mm (r2= 0.68, r2= 0.78, r2= 0.78, respectively) in Anterior Mean Power 3 mm (r2= 0.88, r2= 0.85, r2= 0.85, respectively) in Anterior Mean Power 5 mm (r2= 0.75, r2= 0.7, r2= 0.75, respectively) in Total Mean Power 3 mm (r2= 0.75, r2= 0.71, r2= 0.79, respectively) in Total Mean Power 5 mm (r2= 0.75, r2= 0.71, r2= 0.78, respectively). However, all differences were statistically significant (P<0.001). Conclusion The data obtained with the scanning slit system seem to be more reliable, but need correcting factors to improve their precision.

  15. Beam-shaping optics for a slit-scan flow cytometer.

    PubMed

    Noguchi, Y; Kashima, S; Aikata, T

    1993-10-01

    Two sets of beam-shaping optical systems for slit-scan flow cytometry were made for 360 nm and 488 nm wavelength argon-ion lasers. A thin, ribbonlike laser beam was formed by compressing the zero-order component of Fraunhofer diffraction patterns caused by a slit vertically long and horizontally narrow by means of an objective with a numerical aperture of 0.5. The objectives were designed to include a jet stream that performed as a cylindrical lens. The characteristic values of the optical systems and lens alignments of the systems are described in this work. The beam size at focus was 0.95 micron in thinness and 85.0 microns in width on design values. The actual beam thinness for the UV laser was estimated to be 1.3 microns, based on shapes of pulses generated when fluorescence microspheres of diameter 1.0 microns passed across the beam. The usefulness of the optical systems was also proved by its ability to measure HeLa chromosomes. PMID:8243211

  16. Imaging of aphakic intraocular lens with a slit-scanning tomography system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, Cristina M.; Almeida, J. B.; Franco, S.

    2011-05-01

    Nowadays, cataract extraction with IOL implantation aims not only to restore the crystalline lens' transparency, but also to improve patients' retinal image quality. The refractive outcome and visual quality in pseudophakic eyes is mainly determined by the combination of corneal and internal optics resulting from the implanted IOLs. The optical function of the IOLs depends on its position in the eye. The IOL distance to the corneal apex determines the optical power needed for optical correction. In this paper it is described the usage of a slit-scanning imaging system to determine IOL positioning. Through the projection of the light from a slit onto the eye, this tomography system allows to acquire multiple sections of the anterior eye segment, at different meridians. The developed system's software corrects geometric and optical distortion of the images and provides 3-dimentional models of the eye's structures from the 2-dimensional sections. With this noninvasive technique, cross-sectional images of an eye with an aphakic IOL were obtained in order to reconstruct its 3- dimensional model of the lens and assess its position in the anterior segment camera.

  17. Breadboard linear array scan imager program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The performance was evaluated of large scale integration photodiode arrays in a linear array scan imaging system breadboard for application to multispectral remote sensing of the earth's resources. Objectives, approach, implementation, and test results of the program are presented.

  18. Quantification of mammalian sperm morphology by slit-scan flow cytometry

    SciTech Connect

    Benaron, D.A.; Gray, J.W.; Gledhill, B.L.; Lake, S.; Wyrobek, A.J.; Young, I.T.

    1982-03-01

    The head shapes of mammalian sperm have been measured by slit-scan flow cytometry (SSFCM). In this approach, the distribution of fluorescence along acriflavine stained mammalian sperm is recorded and used as a measure of head shape. Fluorescence profiles were measured for sperm from mice, rabbits, hamsters, and bulls, and for sperm from mice exposed to testicular x-irradiation from 0 to 900 rads. The profiles for sperm from nonirradiated animals were characteristic of each species and were reproducible from sperm to sperm. Some of the fluorescence profiles for sperm from the irradiated mice differed significantly from the profiles usually measured for sperm from exposed mice. An algorithm was developed to determine the frequency of these sperm. The estimated frequencies of atypical profiles correlated well (r . 0.99) with the frequencies of abnormally shaped sperm determined by microscopic scoring. The maximum SSFCM sensitivity (minimum detectable dose . 199 rad) was not as high as that for the visual assay (minimum detectable dose . 116 rad). However, only 100 profiles were measured by SSFCM at each dose while at least 500 sperm were scored visually at each dose. The sensitivity of the SSFCM assay should be increased substantially by measuring more profiles. The objective nature of SSFCM couple with the high correlation with results from the visually based assay of morphology suggests the use of SSFCM to measure frequencies of misshapen sperm when testing for mutagens or monitoring for effects of environmental contaminants.

  19. Estimation of the frequency of malformed sperm by slit scan flow cytometry

    SciTech Connect

    Halamka, J.; Gray, J.W.; Gledhill, B.L.; Lake, S.; Wyrobek, A.J.

    1984-01-01

    An investigation was made of the utility of Slit Scan Flow Cytometry (SSFCM) for measuring the frequencies of malformed sperm heads in control and mutagen treated B6C3F1/CRL mice. In SSFCM, fluorescence profiles of sperm heads stained with the DNA-specific fluorescent dye acriflavine were recorded for sperm flowing lengthwise through a 2.5-..mu..m-thick laser beam. Malformed sperm were detected as having fluorescence profiles that differed substantially from an average fluorescence profile for sperm from untreated mice. Fluorescence profiles were measured for 500 sperm per mouse from five control mice, five mice injected intraperitoneally daily for 5 days with a total of 375 mg/kg of body weight methyl methane sulfonate (MMS), and for 30 mice injected intraperitoneally daily for 5 days with total doses of procarbazine ranging from 125 mg/kg to 1250 mg/kg. Sperm were collected from the caudae epididymides 35 days after the last injection. Frequencies of malformed sperm in these samples were also estimated by visual analysis. All samples were analyzed in double blind fashion. The visual and SSFCM malformed sperm frequencies for the samples from control, MMS-treated, and procarbazine-treated mice were correlated. A dose effect was seen with both the visual and SSFCM estimates for the sperm from the procarbazine-treated mice. 8 references 3 figures.

  20. Quantification of mammalian sperm morphology by slit-scan flow cytometry

    SciTech Connect

    Benaron, D.A.; Gray, J.W.; Gledhill, B.L.; Lake, S.; Wyrobek, A.J.; Young, I.T.

    1982-01-01

    The head shapes of mammalian sperm were measured by slit-scan flow cytometry (SSFCM). Fluorescence profiles were measured for sperm from mice, rabbits, hamsters, and bulls, and for sperm from mice, rabbits, hamsters, and bulls, and for sperm from mice exposed to testicular x-irradiation from 0 to 900 rads. Some of the fluorescence profiles for sperm from the irradiated mice differed significantly from the profiles usually measured for sperm from unexposed mice. An algorithm was developed to determine the frequency of these sperm. The estimated frequencies of atypical profiles correlated well with the frequencies of abnormally shaped sperm determined by microscopic scoring. The maximum SSFCM sensitivity was not as high as that for the visual assay. However, only 100 profiles were measured by SSFCM at each dose while at least 500 sperm were scored visually at each dose. The sensitivity of the SSFCM assay should be increased substantially by measuring more profiles. The objective nature of SSFCM coupled with the high correlation with results from the visually based assay of morphology suggests the use of SSFCM to measure frequencies of misshapen sperm when testing for mutagens or monitoring for effects of environmental contaminants.

  1. Remote-access slit-scanning confocal microscope for in vivo tumor diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabharwal, Yashvinder Singh

    Microscopic fluorescence imaging of thick biological tissue has been successfully demonstrated with a fiber- based, slit-scanning, confocal microscope. The system developed under this research consists of an illumination arm, a fiber-optic imaging system, and a detection arm. The illumination arm is an anamorphic optical system that converts a circular, laser beam into a cylindrical beam forming a line image at the proximal face of the fiber- optic relay. This relay system is comprised of a fiber- optic imaging bundle, a miniature objective lens, and a miniature hydraulic positioning mechanism. It delivers illumination to a remote sample and simultaneously collects the fluorescence from the sample. The miniature objective lens and positioning mechanism were specially designed and fabricated for this system, allowing for high resolution imaging and optical sectioning in-vivo. The detection arm relays the fluorescence image at the proximal face of the fiber-optic relay with magnification onto a two-dimensional CCD. Characterization of the system has demonstrated a lateral resolution of three microns. The axial resolution when imaging a point object is 10 microns. When imaging a planar object, the axial resolution is 25 microns. Images are acquired at a rate of 2-4 frames per second and the imaging performance has been evaluated with different biological models including animal peritoneal tissue and human prostate tissue in-vitro. In-vivo images of human skin and rat peritoneum have also been acquired to demonstrate that patient motion does not adversely affect the performance of the system. These in-vitro and in vivo images demonstrate the capability of the system to resolve cell nuclear morphology, to visualize cell density and organization, and to image at selected depths below the tissue surface.

  2. A Linear Magnetic Field Scan Driver.

    PubMed

    Quine, Richard W; Czechowski, Tomasz; Eaton, Gareth R

    2009-02-01

    A linear magnetic field scan driver was developed to provide a rapidly scanning magnetic field for use in electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. The driver consists of two parts: a digitally synthesized ramp waveform generator and a power amplifier to drive the magnetic field coils. Additionally, the driver provides a trigger signal to a data collection digitizer that is synchronized to the ramp waveform. The driver can also drive an arbitrary current waveform supplied from an external source. The waveform generator is computer controlled through a serial data interface. Additional functions are controlled by the user from the driver front panel. The frequency and amplitude of the waveform are each separately controlled with 12-bit resolution (one part in 4,096). Several versions of the driver have been built with different frequency and amplitude ranges. Frequencies range from 500 to 20,000 Hz. Field sweep amplitudes range up to 80 G(pp). This article also gives a brief description of the field coils that are driven by the driver. PMID:19838315

  3. A Linear Magnetic Field Scan Driver

    PubMed Central

    QUINE, RICHARD W.; CZECHOWSKI, TOMASZ; EATON, GARETH R.

    2009-01-01

    A linear magnetic field scan driver was developed to provide a rapidly scanning magnetic field for use in electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. The driver consists of two parts: a digitally synthesized ramp waveform generator and a power amplifier to drive the magnetic field coils. Additionally, the driver provides a trigger signal to a data collection digitizer that is synchronized to the ramp waveform. The driver can also drive an arbitrary current waveform supplied from an external source. The waveform generator is computer controlled through a serial data interface. Additional functions are controlled by the user from the driver front panel. The frequency and amplitude of the waveform are each separately controlled with 12-bit resolution (one part in 4,096). Several versions of the driver have been built with different frequency and amplitude ranges. Frequencies range from 500 to 20,000 Hz. Field sweep amplitudes range up to 80 Gpp. This article also gives a brief description of the field coils that are driven by the driver. PMID:19838315

  4. Development of a two-parameter slit-scan flow cytometer for screening of normal and aberrant chromosomes: application to a karyotype of Sus scrofa domestica (pig)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hausmann, Michael; Doelle, Juergen; Arnold, Armin; Stepanow, Boris; Wickert, Burkhard; Boscher, Jeannine; Popescu, Paul C.; Cremer, Christoph

    1992-07-01

    Laser fluorescence activated slit-scan flow cytometry offers an approach to a fast, quantitative characterization of chromosomes due to morphological features. It can be applied for screening of chromosomal abnormalities. We give a preliminary report on the development of the Heidelberg slit-scan flow cytometer. Time-resolved measurement of the fluorescence intensity along the chromosome axis can be registered simultaneously for two parameters when the chromosome axis can be registered simultaneously for two parameters when the chromosome passes perpendicularly through a narrowly focused laser beam combined by a detection slit in the image plane. So far automated data analysis has been performed off-line on a PC. In its final performance, the Heidelberg slit-scan flow cytometer will achieve on-line data analysis that allows an electro-acoustical sorting of chromosomes of interest. Interest is high in the agriculture field to study chromosome aberrations that influence the size of litters in pig (Sus scrofa domestica) breeding. Slit-scan measurements have been performed to characterize chromosomes of pigs; we present results for chromosome 1 and a translocation chromosome 6/15.

  5. Clinical applications of a real-time scanning-slit confocal microscope designed for real-time observations of the in-vivo human cornea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masters, Barry R.

    1995-05-01

    We describe a new, real-time, flying slit confocal microscope, that has unique features and imaging characteristics for in vivo human ocular imaging. In vivo real-time confocal microscopy is currently used to investigate the tear film, renewal of the ocular surface, the role of epithelial innervation in epithelial cell proliferation, wound healing, kinetics of drug penetration, the effects of laser refractive surgery on the keratocyte activation and distribution in the stroma, and the nature of endothelial defects. The following clinical examples will be presented and discussed: confocal microscopy of normal human basal and wing cells in the epithelium, confocal microscopy of lamellar and penetrating corneal grafts, confocal microscopy of corneal ulcer, confocal microscopy of scar formation after herpes keratitis, and confocal microscopy of corneal innervation. The use of scanning slit confocal microscopes has unique advantages over other instrumental systems based on pinhole-containing Nipkow disks (tandem-scanning confocal microscopes) for clinical in vivo confocal microscopy.

  6. A light sheet confocal microscope for image cytometry with a variable linear slit detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hutcheson, Joshua A.; Khan, Foysal Z.; Powless, Amy J.; Benson, Devin; Hunter, Courtney; Fritsch, Ingrid; Muldoon, Timothy J.

    2016-03-01

    We present a light sheet confocal microscope (LSCM) capable of high-resolution imaging of cell suspensions in a microfluidic environment. In lieu of conventional pressure-driven flow or mechanical translation of the samples, we have employed a novel method of fluid transport, redox-magnetohydrodynamics (redox-MHD). This method achieves fluid motion by inducing a small current into the suspension in the presence of a magnetic field via electrodes patterned onto a silicon chip. This on-chip transportation requires no moving parts, and is coupled to the remainder of the imaging system. The microscopy system comprises a 450 nm diode 20 mW laser coupled to a single mode fiber and a cylindrical lens that converges the light sheet into the back aperture of a 10x, 0.3 NA objective lens in an epi-illumination configuration. The emission pathway contains a 150 mm tube lens that focuses the light onto the linear sensor at the conjugate image plane. The linear sensor (ELiiXA+ 8k/4k) has three lateral binning modes which enables variable detection aperture widths between 5, 10, or 20 μm, which can be used to vary axial resolution. We have demonstrated redox-MHD-enabled light sheet microscopy in suspension of fluorescent polystyrene beads. This approach has potential as a high-throughput image cytometer with myriad cellular diagnostic applications.

  7. LINEAR SCANNING METHOD BASED ON THE SAFT COARRAY

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, C. J.; Martinez-Graullera, O.; Romero, D.; Ullate, L. G.; Higuti, R. T.

    2010-02-22

    This work presents a method to obtain B-scan images based on linear array scanning and 2R-SAFT. Using this technique some advantages are obtained: the ultrasonic system is very simple; it avoids the grating lobes formation, characteristic in conventional SAFT; and subaperture size and focussing lens (to compensate emission-reception) can be adapted dynamically to every image point. The proposed method has been experimentally tested in the inspection of CFRP samples.

  8. Application of linear systems theory to characterize coherence scanning interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandal, Rahul; Palodhi, Kanik; Coupland, Jeremy; Leach, Richard; Mansfield, Daniel

    2012-04-01

    This paper considers coherence scanning interferometry as a linear filtering operation that is characterised by a point spread function in the space domain or equivalently a transfer function in the frequency domain. The applicability of the theory is discussed and the effects of these functions on the measured interferograms, and their influence on the resulting surface measurements, are described. The practical characterisation of coherence scanning interferometers using a spherical reference artefact is then considered and a new method to compensate measurement errors, based on a modified inverse filter, is demonstrated.

  9. Linearization of scan velocity of resonant vibrating-mirror beam deflectors

    DOEpatents

    Yeung, E.S.; Chen, S.L.

    1991-01-15

    A means and method for producing linearization of scan velocity of resonant vibrating-mirror beam deflectors in laser scanning system including presenting an elliptical convex surface to the scanning beam to reflect the scanning beam to the focal plane of the scanning line. The elliptical surface is shaped to produce linear velocity of the reflective scanning beam at the focal plane. Maximization of linearization is accomplished by considering sets of criteria for different scanning applications. 6 figures.

  10. Linearization of scan velocity of resonant vibrating-mirror beam deflectors

    DOEpatents

    Yeung, Edward S.; Chen, Shun-Le

    1991-01-15

    A means and method for producing linerization of scan velocity of resonant vibrating-mirror beam deflectors in laser scanning system including presenting an elliptical convex surface to the scanning beam to reflect the scanning beam to the focal plane of the scanning line. The elliptical surface is shaped to produce linear velocity of the reflective scanning beam at the focal plane. Maximization of linerization is accomplished by considering sets of criteria for different scanning applications.

  11. Day to Day Clinically Relevant Corneal Elevation, Thickness, and Curvature Parameters Using the Orbscan II Scanning Slit Topographer and the Pentacam Scheimpflug Imaging Device

    PubMed Central

    Hashemi, Hassan; Mehravaran, Shiva

    2010-01-01

    The introduction of different techniques and computerized devices into clinical ophthalmology has significantly improved our knowledge of the eyes, optics, and eye conditions. Today, corneal topography is performed with a wide range of devices that implement a variety of techniques. Advance computerized analysis systems provide us with simple and quick evaluation procedures, yet the sophisticated data and clinical information that is generated can only be interpreted with adequate knowledge of the system itself as well as the accepted normal ranges of various properties assessed with these systems. Two computerized topography systems that are in common use are the Orbscan (Bausch and Lomb Inc., Rochester, NY, USA) and the Pentacam (Oculus GmBH, Wetzlar, Germany). The Orbscan is a slit-scanning device and the Pentacam is Scheimpflug imaging device. In this review, we present a brief description of both technologies, the techniques implemented in each device and the acquisition process with each. This will be followed by a list of corneal parameters that need to be assessed in screening patients for refractive surgery. We will discuss how these parameters are displayed, how each parameter may serve as clinic criteria, and how data should be interpreted. We will also try to provide evidence regarding the accuracy of different measurements, and the comparability of the two devices. PMID:20543936

  12. Non-linear optical measurements using a scanned, Bessel beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collier, Bradley B.; Awasthi, Samir; Lieu, Deborah K.; Chan, James W.

    2015-03-01

    Oftentimes cells are removed from the body for disease diagnosis or cellular research. This typically requires fluorescent labeling followed by sorting with a flow cytometer; however, possible disruption of cellular function or even cell death due to the presence of the label can occur. This may be acceptable for ex vivo applications, but as cells are more frequently moving from the lab to the body, label-free methods of cell sorting are needed to eliminate these issues. This is especially true of the growing field of stem cell research where specialized cells are needed for treatments. Because differentiation processes are not completely efficient, cells must be sorted to eliminate any unwanted cells (i.e. un-differentiated or differentiated into an unwanted cell type). In order to perform label-free measurements, non-linear optics (NLO) have been increasingly utilized for single cell analysis because of their ability to not disrupt cellular function. An optical system was developed for the measurement of NLO in a microfluidic channel similar to a flow cytometer. In order to improve the excitation efficiency of NLO, a scanned Bessel beam was utilized to create a light-sheet across the channel. The system was tested by monitoring twophoton fluorescence from polystyrene microbeads of different sizes. Fluorescence intensity obtained from light-sheet measurements were significantly greater than measurements made using a static Gaussian beam. In addition, the increase in intensity from larger sized beads was more evident for the light-sheet system.

  13. Scanning linear estimation: improvements over region of interest (ROI) methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kupinski, Meredith K.; Clarkson, Eric W.; Barrett, Harrison H.

    2013-03-01

    In tomographic medical imaging, a signal activity is typically estimated by summing voxels from a reconstructed image. We introduce an alternative estimation scheme that operates on the raw projection data and offers a substantial improvement, as measured by the ensemble mean-square error (EMSE), when compared to using voxel values from a maximum-likelihood expectation-maximization (MLEM) reconstruction. The scanning-linear (SL) estimator operates on the raw projection data and is derived as a special case of maximum-likelihood estimation with a series of approximations to make the calculation tractable. The approximated likelihood accounts for background randomness, measurement noise and variability in the parameters to be estimated. When signal size and location are known, the SL estimate of signal activity is unbiased, i.e. the average estimate equals the true value. By contrast, unpredictable bias arising from the null functions of the imaging system affect standard algorithms that operate on reconstructed data. The SL method is demonstrated for two different tasks: (1) simultaneously estimating a signal’s size, location and activity; (2) for a fixed signal size and location, estimating activity. Noisy projection data are realistically simulated using measured calibration data from the multi-module multi-resolution small-animal SPECT imaging system. For both tasks, the same set of images is reconstructed using the MLEM algorithm (80 iterations), and the average and maximum values within the region of interest (ROI) are calculated for comparison. This comparison shows dramatic improvements in EMSE for the SL estimates. To show that the bias in ROI estimates affects not only absolute values but also relative differences, such as those used to monitor the response to therapy, the activity estimation task is repeated for three different signal sizes.

  14. Optical sensors with MEMS, slit masks, and micromechanical devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riesenberg, Rainer; Wuttig, Andreas

    2001-10-01

    Concepts to increase the performance of optical sensors by combination with optical MEMS are discussed. Architectures of subsystems are reviewed, which modulate or switch the amplitude of the light by scanning, multiplexing and selecting interesting signal components (multi-object-mode). Arrangements with MEMS for optical sensors and instruments can decrease the pixel size and increase their number by creating virtual pixels. A number of signal components can be detected with a smaller number of detectors (detector pixels) by scanning. If the scanning is substituted by multiplexing the best efficiency is achieved. The measurement time can be reduced by selecting interesting objects or signal components to be detected. Architectures which combine single sensors, linear sensor arrays or two dimensional detector arrays with MEMS, slit masks, and micro-mechanical devices are discussed. Such devices are micro-mirrors, micro-shutters, the slit positioning system, the fibre positioning system, and other optical switches.

  15. Experimental demonstration of tomographic slit technique for measurement of arbitrary intensity profiles of light beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soto, José; Rendón, Manuel; Martín, Manuel

    1997-10-01

    We demonstrate experimentally an optical imaging method that makes use of a slit to collect tomographic projection data of arbitrarily shaped light beams; a tomographic backprojection algorithm is then used to reconstruct the intensity profiles of these beams. Two different implementations of the method are presented. In one, a single slit is scanned and rotated in front of the laser beam. In the other, the sides of a polygonal slit, which is linearly displaced in a x-y plane perpendicular to the beam, are used to collect the data. This latter version is more suitable than the other for adaptation at micrometer-size scale. A mathematical justification is given here for the superior performance against laser-power fluctuations of the tomographic slit technique compared with the better-known tomographic knife-edge technique.

  16. Slit-Robo signaling.

    PubMed

    Blockus, Heike; Chédotal, Alain

    2016-09-01

    Slits are secreted proteins that bind to Roundabout (Robo) receptors. Slit-Robo signaling is best known for mediating axon repulsion in the developing nervous system. However, in recent years the functional repertoire of Slits and Robo has expanded tremendously and Slit-Robo signaling has been linked to roles in neurogenesis, angiogenesis and cancer progression among other processes. Likewise, our mechanistic understanding of Slit-Robo signaling has progressed enormously. Here, we summarize new insights into Slit-Robo evolutionary and system-dependent diversity, receptor-ligand interactions, signaling crosstalk and receptor activation. PMID:27578174

  17. Image distortion and its correction in linear galvanometric mirrors-based laser-scanning microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wenbo; Wu, Zhenguo; Zeng, Haishan

    2015-05-01

    To simplify imaging focusing and calibration tasks, a laser-scanning microscope needs to scan at a moderate frame rate. The inertia of a galvanometric scanner leads to time delays when following external commands, which subsequently introduces image distortions that deteriorate as scan frequency increases. Sinusoidal and triangular waveforms were examined as fast axis driving patterns. The interplay among driving pattern, frequency, sampling rate, phase shift, linear scanning range, and their effect on reconstructed images was discussed. Utilizing position feedback from the linear galvo scanners, the effect of response time could be automatically compensated in real time. Precompensated triangular driving waveform offered the least amount of image distortion.

  18. Femoral neck anteversion measurement using linear slot scanning radiography.

    PubMed

    Chimhundu, Chipo; Sivarasu, Sudesh; Steiner, Stefan; Smit, Julian; Douglas, Tania S

    2016-02-01

    Measurements between anatomical landmarks on radiographs are useful for diagnosis and treatment planning in the orthopedic field. Direct measurement on single radiographic images, however, does not truly reflect spatial relationships, as depth information is lost. We used stereo images from a slot scanning X-ray machine to estimate coordinates of three-dimensional (3D) bony landmarks for femoral neck anteversion (FNA) measurement. A set of 7 landmarks consisting of the centre of the femoral head; the centre of the base of the femoral neck; the medial and lateral condyles; the medial and lateral posterior condyles; and finally the centre of the knee; were found to be identifiable and suitable for radiographic measurement. The reconstructed 3D coordinates were then used to define the 3D geometry of the anatomical axes required to estimate FNA. Stereophotogrammetric measurements on a sample of 30 dry right adult femurs were compared to reference values obtained using the Kingsley Olmstead method applied to photographic images. A strong positive correlation (0.998) was found and the mean ± standard deviation of the stereophotogrammetric approach (13.08 ± 6.87)° was comparable to that of the Kingsley Olmstead method (13.14 ± 6.88)°. Intra- and inter-observer reliability were high, with the lower bound of the 95% confidence interval above 0.98 for the intra-class correlation coefficient. The results merit further validation against three dimensional imaging technology such as computed tomography, to confirm stereophotogrammetry as a suitable alternative for FNA measurement. PMID:26776374

  19. Electronic linearization of piezoelectric actuators and noise budget in scanning probe microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aloisi, G.; Santucci, A.; Carlà, M.; Dolci, D.; Lanzi, L.

    2006-07-01

    The maximum resolution achievable with a scanning probe microscope is limited by the probe size, by the mechanism of interaction with the sample, as is widely known, and by the electronic noise in the instrument. The evaluation of this noise for the three motion axes of a linearized high resolution scanning electrochemical microscope has been carried through and the intrinsic maximum resolution is discussed.

  20. Angle extended linear MEMS scanning system for 3D laser vision sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pang, Yajun; Zhang, Yinxin; Yang, Huaidong; Zhu, Pan; Gai, Ye; Zhao, Jian; Huang, Zhanhua

    2016-09-01

    Scanning system is often considered as the most important part for 3D laser vision sensor. In this paper, we propose a method for the optical system design of angle extended linear MEMS scanning system, which has features of huge scanning degree, small beam divergence angle and small spot size for 3D laser vision sensor. The principle of design and theoretical formulas are derived strictly. With the help of software ZEMAX, a linear scanning optical system based on MEMS has been designed. Results show that the designed system can extend scanning angle from ±8° to ±26.5° with a divergence angle small than 3.5 mr, and the spot size is reduced for 4.545 times.

  1. Real-time prompt gamma monitoring in spot-scanning proton therapy using imaging through a knife-edge-shaped slit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bom, Victor; Joulaeizadeh, Leila; Beekman, Freek

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we report on Monte Carlo simulations to investigate real-time monitoring of the track depth profile in particle therapy by measuring prompt gamma ray emissions: a high sensitivity imaging system employing a knife-edge-shaped slit combined with a position-sensitive gamma detector was evaluated. Calculations to test this new concept were performed for a head-sized software phantom. Clear spatial correlation is shown between the distribution of gamma rays detected with energies above 1.5 MeV and the distribution of prompt gamma rays emitted from the phantom. The number of neutrons originating from nuclear reactions in the phantom that are detected at these high energies is small. Most importantly it is shown that under common therapy conditions enough data may be collected during one spot-step (of the order of 10 ms) to locate the distal dose edge with a 1σ accuracy of better than 1 mm. This indicates that simple slit cameras have high potential for accurate real-time particle therapy adjustment and may become a practical way to improve particle therapy accuracy.

  2. Scan power-aware deterministic test scheme using a low-transition linear decompressor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Weizheng; Shuo, Cai; Xiang, Lingyun

    2015-04-01

    Growing test data volume and excessive testing power are both serious challenges in the testing of very large-scale integrated circuits. This article presents a scan power-aware deterministic test method based on a new linear decompressor which is composed of a traditional linear decompressor, k-input AND gates and T flip-flops. This decompression architecture can generate the low-transition deterministic test set for a circuit under test. When applying the test patterns generated by the linear decompressor, only a few transitions occur in the scan chains, and hence the switching activity during testing decreases significantly. Entire test flow compatible with the design is also presented. Experimental results on several large International Symposium on Circuits and Systems'89 and International Test Conference'99 benchmark circuits demonstrate that the proposed methodology can reduce test power significantly while providing a high compression ratio with limited hardware overhead.

  3. Breadboard linear array scan imager using LSI solid-state technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tracy, R. A.; Brennan, J. A.; Frankel, D. G.; Noll, R. E.

    1976-01-01

    The performance of large scale integration photodiode arrays in a linear array scan (pushbroom) breadboard was evaluated for application to multispectral remote sensing of the earth's resources. The technical approach, implementation, and test results of the program are described. Several self scanned linear array visible photodetector focal plane arrays were fabricated and evaluated in an optical bench configuration. A 1728-detector array operating in four bands (0.5 - 1.1 micrometer) was evaluated for noise, spectral response, dynamic range, crosstalk, MTF, noise equivalent irradiance, linearity, and image quality. Other results include image artifact data, temporal characteristics, radiometric accuracy, calibration experience, chip alignment, and array fabrication experience. Special studies and experimentation were included in long array fabrication and real-time image processing for low-cost ground stations, including the use of computer image processing. High quality images were produced and all objectives of the program were attained.

  4. Handheld Thermoacoustic Scanning System Based on a Linear-array Transducer.

    PubMed

    Ji, Zhong; Ding, Wenzheng; Ye, Fanghao; Lou, Cunguang

    2016-07-01

    To receive the information necessary for imaging, traditional microwave-induced thermoacoustic imaging systems (MITISs) use a type of circular-scanning mode using single or arc detectors. However, the use of MITISs for body scanning is complicated by restrictions in space and imaging time. A linear-array detector, the most widely used transducer in medical ultrasound imaging systems for body scanning, is a possible alternative to MITISs for scanning biological tissues, such as from the breast or limbs. In this paper, a handheld MITIS, based on a linear-array detector and a multiple data acquisition system, is described, and the capacity of the system is explored experimentally. First, the vertical and lateral resolution of the system is discussed. Next, real-time imaging of a moving object, obtained with an image capture rate of 20 frame/s, is described. Finally, a phantom experiment is detailed, investigating the overall imaging capability. The results show that this system achieves rapid scanning with a large field of view. The system has the obvious advantages of being handheld, not using coupled fluids, and achieving real-time imaging with a large field of view, which make this MITIS more suitable for clinical applications. PMID:26294659

  5. Slit-lamp exam

    MedlinePlus

    ... to light for a few hours after the exam if dilating drops are used. ... The slit lamp exam may detect many diseases of the eye, including: Clouding of the lens of the eye ( cataract ) Injury to the ...

  6. A novel hybrid approach for the extraction of linear/cylindrical features from laser scanning data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lari, Z.; Habib, A.

    2013-10-01

    However, the collected point cloud should undergo manipulation approaches to be utilized for diverse civil, industrial, and military applications. Different processing techniques have consequently been implemented for the extraction of low-level features from this data. Linear/cylindrical features are among the most important primitives that could be extracted from laser scanning data, especially those collected in industrial sites and urban areas. This paper presents a novel approach for the identification, parameterization, and segmentation of these features in a laser point cloud. In the first step of the proposed approach, the points which belong to linear/cylindrical features are detected and their appropriate representation models are chosen based on the principal component analysis of their local neighborhood. The approximate direction and position parameters of the identified linear/cylindrical features are then refined using an iterative line/cylinder fitting procedure. A parameter-domain segmentation method is finally applied to isolate the points which belong to individual linear/cylindrical features in direction and position attribute spaces, respectively. Experimental results from real datasets will demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed approach for the extraction of linear/cylindrical features from laser scanning data.

  7. Non-Linear Structural Dynamics Characterization using a Scanning Laser Vibrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pai, P. F.; Lee, S.-Y.

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents the use of a scanning laser vibrometer and a signal decomposition method to characterize non-linear dynamics of highly flexible structures. A Polytec PI PSV-200 scanning laser vibrometer is used to measure transverse velocities of points on a structure subjected to a harmonic excitation. Velocity profiles at different times are constructed using the measured velocities, and then each velocity profile is decomposed using the first four linear mode shapes and a least-squares curve-fitting method. From the variations of the obtained modal \\ielocities with time we search for possible non-linear phenomena. A cantilevered titanium alloy beam subjected to harmonic base-excitations around the second. third, and fourth natural frequencies are examined in detail. Influences of the fixture mass. gravity. mass centers of mode shapes. and non-linearities are evaluated. Geometrically exact equations governing the planar, harmonic large-amplitude vibrations of beams are solved for operational deflection shapes using the multiple shooting method. Experimental results show the existence of 1:3 and 1:2:3 external and internal resonances. energy transfer from high-frequency modes to the first mode. and amplitude- and phase- modulation among several modes. Moreover, the existence of non-linear normal modes is found to be questionable.

  8. Scanning differential polarization microscope: Its use to image linear and circular differential scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Mickols, W.; Maestre, M.F.

    1988-06-01

    A differential polarization microscope that couples the sensitivity of single-beam measurement of circular dichroism and circular differential scattering with the simultaneous measurement of linear dichroism and linear differential scattering has been developed. The microscope uses a scanning microscope stage and single-point illumination to give the very shallow depth of field found in confocal microscopy. This microscope can operate in the confocal mode as well as in the near confocal condition that can allow one to program the coherence and spatial resolution of the microscope. This microscope has been used to study the change in the structure of chromatin during the development of sperm in Drosophila.

  9. Frequency-scanning MALDI linear ion trap mass spectrometer for large biomolecular ion detection.

    PubMed

    Lu, I-Chung; Lin, Jung Lee; Lai, Szu-Hsueh; Chen, Chung-Hsuan

    2011-11-01

    This study presents the first report on the development of a matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) linear ion trap mass spectrometer for large biomolecular ion detection by frequency scan. We designed, installed, and tested this radio frequency (RF) scan linear ion trap mass spectrometer and its associated electronics to dramatically extend the mass region to be detected. The RF circuit can be adjusted from 300 to 10 kHz with a set of operation amplifiers. To trap the ions produced by MALDI, a high pressure of helium buffer gas was employed to quench extra kinetic energy of the heavy ions produced by MALDI. The successful detection of the singly charged secretory immunoglobulin A ions indicates that the detectable mass-to-charge ratio (m/z) of this system can reach ~385 000 or beyond. PMID:21932813

  10. A novel method of drift-scanning stars suppression based on the standardized linear filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Jianlin; Ping, Xijian; Hou, Guanghua; Ma, Debao

    2011-11-01

    A large number of stars in the drift-scanning star image have interfered with the detection of small target, this paper proposes an adaptive linear filtering method to achieve the small target detection by suppressing the stars. Firstly, the characteristics of stars, interest target and noise three different representative objects in the star image are analyzed, then the standardized linear filter is constructed to suppress the stars. For the purpose of decreasing the influence region of stars filtering uniformly, a gradient linear filter is constructed to modify the stars suppression method with the standardized linear filter. Then the filter parameter selection method is given. Finally, a multi-frame target track experiment on the real drift-scanning data is made to testify the validity of the proposed method. With the processing results of different methods, it has been showed that the proposed method for suppressing stars with different length and lean angle has a better effect, higher robustness and easier application than the others.

  11. The fundus slit lamp.

    PubMed

    Gellrich, Marcus-Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Fundus biomicroscopy with the slit lamp as it is practiced widely nowadays was not established until the 1980-es with the introduction of the Volk lenses +90 and +60D. Thereafter little progress has been made in retinal imaging with the slit lamp. It is the aim of this paper to fully exploit the potential of a video slit lamp for fundus documentation by using easily accessible additions. Suitable still images are easily retrieved from videorecordings of slit lamp examinations. The effects of changements in the slit lamp itself (slit beam and apertures) and its examination equipment (converging lenses from +40 to +90D) on quality and spectrum of fundus images are demonstrated. Imaging software is applied for reconstruction of larger fundus areas in a mosaic pattern (Hugin®) and to perform the flicker test in order to visualize changes in the same fundus area at different points of time (Power Point®). The three lenses +90/+60/+40D are a good choice for imaging the whole spectrum of retinal diseases. Displacement of the oblique slit light can be used to assess changes in the surface profile of the inner retina which occurs e.g. in macular holes or pigment epithelial detachment. The mosaic function in its easiest form (one strip macula adapted to one strip with the optic disc) provides an overview of the posterior pole comparable to a fundus camera's image. A reconstruction of larger fundus areas is feasible for imaging in vitreoretinal surgery or occlusive vessel disease. The flicker test is a fine tool for monitoring progressive glaucoma by changes in the optic disc, and it is also a valuable diagnostic tool in macular disease. Nearly all retinal diseases can be imaged with the slit lamp - irrespective whether they affect the posterior pole, mainly the optic nerve or the macula, the whole retina or only its periphery. Even a basic fundus controlled perimetry is possible. Therefore fundus videography with the slit lamp is a worthwhile approach especially for the

  12. A matterless double slit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, Ben; di Piazza, Antonino; Keitel, Christoph H.

    2010-02-01

    Double slits provide incoming particles with a choice. Those that survive passage through the slits have chosen from two possible paths, which interfere to distribute them in a wave-like manner. Such wave-particle duality continues to be challenged and investigated in a broad range of disciplines with electrons, neutrons, helium atoms, C60 fullerenes, Bose-Einstein condensates and biological molecules. All variants have hitherto involved material constituents. We present a matterless double-slit scenario in which photons generated from virtual electron-positron pair annihilation in head-on collisions of a probe laser field with two ultra-intense laser beams form a double-slit interference pattern. Such electromagnetic fields are predicted to induce material-like behaviour in vacuum, supporting elastic scattering between photons. Our double-slit scenario presents, on the one hand, a realizable method with which to observe photon-photon scattering and, on the other hand, demonstrates the possibility of both controlling light with light and non-locally investigating features of the quantum vacuum structure.

  13. Kinetics of linear domains in LiNbO{sub 3} single crystals polarized by scanning probe microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Bo, Huifeng; College of Science, Hebei United University, Tangshan 063009 ; Jin, Yaming; Xu, Tingting; Du, Yingchao; Kan, Yi; Lu, Xiaomei Zhu, Jinsong

    2013-12-16

    Growth and decay processes of linear domains in lithium niobate single crystals fabricated utilizing scanning probe microscopy were investigated. It is found that the initial configuration of linear domains is dependent on the fabrication parameters as scan velocity and voltage. The linear domains decay at the part where the domain width is small for two different processes. A comparison of critical stable domain size between dot and linear domains was carried out. The critical linear domain width is 0.7 times as large as the critical diameter of dot domain at the same sample thickness due to their smaller surface energy.

  14. SLIT ADJUSTMENT CLAMP

    DOEpatents

    McKenzie, K.R.

    1959-07-01

    An electrode support which permits accurate alignment and adjustment of the electrode in a plurality of planes and about a plurality of axes in a calutron is described. The support will align the slits in the electrode with the slits of an ionizing chamber so as to provide for the egress of ions. The support comprises an insulator, a leveling plate carried by the insulator and having diametrically opposed attaching screws screwed to the plate and the insulator and diametrically opposed adjusting screws for bearing against the insulator, and an electrode associated with the plate for adjustment therewith.

  15. Scanning Electron Microscope Calibration Using a Multi-Image Non-Linear Minimization Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Le; Marchand, Éric

    2015-04-01

    A scanning electron microscope (SEM) calibrating approach based on non-linear minimization procedure is presented in this article. A part of this article has been published in IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation (ICRA), 2014. . Both the intrinsic parameters and the extrinsic parameters estimations are achieved simultaneously by minimizing the registration error. The proposed approach considers multi-images of a multi-scale calibration pattern view from different positions and orientations. Since the projection geometry of the scanning electron microscope is different from that of a classical optical sensor, the perspective projection model and the parallel projection model are considered and compared with distortion models. Experiments are realized by varying the position and the orientation of a multi-scale chessboard calibration pattern from 300× to 10,000×. The experimental results show the efficiency and the accuracy of this approach.

  16. Relating Linear and Volumetric Variables Through Body Scanning to Improve Human Interfaces in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Margerum, Sarah E.; Ferrer, Mike A.; Young, Karen S.; Rajulu, Sudhakar

    2010-01-01

    Designing space suits and vehicles for the diverse human population present unique challenges for the methods of traditional anthropometry. Space suits are bulky and allow the operator to shift position within the suit and inhibit the ability to identify body landmarks. Limited suit sizing options also cause variability in fit and performance between similarly sized individuals. Space vehicles are restrictive in volume in both the fit and the ability to collect data. NASA's Anthropometric and Biomechanics Facility (ABF) has utilized 3D scanning to shift from traditional linear anthropometry to explore and examine volumetric capabilities to provide anthropometric solutions for design. Overall, the key goals are to improve the human-system performance and develop new processes to aid in the design and evaluation of space systems. Four case studies are presented that illustrate the shift from purely linear analyses to an augmented volumetric toolset to predict and analyze the human within the space suit and vehicle. The first case study involves the calculation of maximal head volume to estimate total free volume in the helmet for proper air exchange. Traditional linear measurements resulted in an inaccurate representation of the head shape, yet limited data exists for the determination of a large head volume. Steps were first taken to identify and classify a maximum head volume and the resulting comparisons to the estimate are presented in this paper. This study illustrates the gap between linear components of anthropometry and the need for overall volume metrics in order to provide solutions. A second case study examines the overlay of the space suit scans and components onto scanned individuals to quantify fit and clearance to aid in sizing the suit to the individual. Restrictions in space suit size availability present unique challenges to optimally fit the individual within a limited sizing range while maintaining performance. Quantification of the clearance and

  17. The orthoptic slit lamp.

    PubMed

    Gellrich, Marcus-Matthias

    2013-12-01

    Recently we presented our concept of "videography with the slit lamp," which provides an imaging solution for nearly every pathological finding in ophthalmology. This paper deals with the changes that must be made to prepare the slit lamp for documenting squint. To achieve this goal we propose: 1. Changes in the observation system: minus lenses in front of the objective of the slit lamp to achieve a sharp image of both eyes (eg, -8 diopters [dpt] if the patient sits at a distance of 50 cm). 2. Changes in the illumination system: minimizing the narrowed angle between illumination and observation axis by holding a "recentration" prism of 14 dpt horizontally in front of the slit light. This procedure creates equally sufficient illumination of the patient's face and central corneal reflexes. 3. Recording clinical findings with a digital recorder. This enables us to identify binocular eye positions, which sometimes last only part of a second, eg, in latent or intermittent strabism. 4. Visualizing clinical findings by using Microsoft PowerPoint® to build up 9-gaze composites or adjust corneal reflexes on subsequent foils. Changes in binocular eye positions (eg, after surgery, but also during diagnostic covering) can be made visible by flickering between the foils to compare. PMID:24090104

  18. Radiation energy transport through hydrodynamically evolving slits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foster, J. M.; Graham, P.; Taylor, M.; Moore, A.; Sorce, C.; Reighard, A.; MacLaren, S.; Young, P.; Glendinning, G.; Blue, B.; Back, C.; Hund, J.

    2008-11-01

    Radiation transport through enclosed spaces with inwardly moving walls is a key component of the physics of laser-heated hohlraums. It arises in the cavity itself (where inward motion of the wall results in late-time stagnation of dense plasma on the hohlraum axis), and also in the laser-entry and diagnostic holes (where an understanding of hole-closure is important to hohlraum design and the interpretation of diagnostic data). To understand these phenomena better, we have carried out a series of experiments at the Omega laser facility. A laser-heated hohlraum is used to illuminate linear and annular slits machined in samples of solid-density tantalum and low-density, tantalum-oxide foam. Measurements of the transmitted energy are made indirectly (by measuring the temperature rise of a ``calorimeter'' hohlraum) and directly (by measuring the emission from the slit component, using a target in which the calorimeter hohlraum was omitted). The hydrodynamics is investigated by self-emission and absorption (backlighting) x-ray imaging of the closing slits. Simulations (using a 2-D Eulerian hydrocode) reproduce the overall energetics, the detail of the deceleration shock and axial stagnation region at the centre of the slit, and the complex shock interactions that occur at corners of the slits.

  19. Dual acting slit control mechanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Struthoff, G. L. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    A dual acting control system for mass spectrometers is described, which permits adjustment of the collimating slit width and centering of the collimating slit while using only one vacuum penetration. Coaxial shafts, each with independent vacuum bellows are used to independently move the entire collimating assembly or to adjust the slit dimension through a parallelogram linkage.

  20. SCAN+

    SciTech Connect

    Kenneth Krebs, John Svoboda

    2009-11-01

    SCAN+ is a software application specifically designed to control the positioning of a gamma spectrometer by a two dimensional translation system above spent fuel bundles located in a sealed spent fuel cask. The gamma spectrometer collects gamma spectrum information for the purpose of spent fuel cask fuel loading verification. SCAN+ performs manual and automatic gamma spectrometer positioning functions as-well-as exercising control of the gamma spectrometer data acquisitioning functions. Cask configuration files are used to determine the positions of spent fuel bundles. Cask scanning files are used to determine the desired scan paths for scanning a spent fuel cask allowing for automatic unattended cask scanning that may take several hours.

  1. Efficient linear phase contrast in scanning transmission electron microscopy with matched illumination and detector interferometry

    PubMed Central

    Ophus, Colin; Ciston, Jim; Pierce, Jordan; Harvey, Tyler R.; Chess, Jordan; McMorran, Benjamin J.; Czarnik, Cory; Rose, Harald H.; Ercius, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The ability to image light elements in soft matter at atomic resolution enables unprecedented insight into the structure and properties of molecular heterostructures and beam-sensitive nanomaterials. In this study, we introduce a scanning transmission electron microscopy technique combining a pre-specimen phase plate designed to produce a probe with structured phase with a high-speed direct electron detector to generate nearly linear contrast images with high efficiency. We demonstrate this method by using both experiment and simulation to simultaneously image the atomic-scale structure of weakly scattering amorphous carbon and strongly scattering gold nanoparticles. Our method demonstrates strong contrast for both materials, making it a promising candidate for structural determination of heterogeneous soft/hard matter samples even at low electron doses comparable to traditional phase-contrast transmission electron microscopy. Simulated images demonstrate the extension of this technique to the challenging problem of structural determination of biological material at the surface of inorganic crystals. PMID:26923483

  2. Non-Linear Optical Flow Cytometry Using a Scanned, Bessel Beam Light-Sheet

    PubMed Central

    Collier, Bradley B.; Awasthi, Samir; Lieu, Deborah K.; Chan, James W.

    2015-01-01

    Modern flow cytometry instruments have become vital tools for high-throughput analysis of single cells. However, as issues with the cellular labeling techniques often used in flow cytometry have become more of a concern, the development of label-free modalities for cellular analysis is increasingly desired. Non-linear optical phenomena (NLO) are of growing interest for label-free analysis because of the ability to measure the intrinsic optical response of biomolecules found in cells. We demonstrate that a light-sheet consisting of a scanned Bessel beam is an optimal excitation geometry for efficiently generating NLO signals in a microfluidic environment. The balance of photon density and cross-sectional area provided by the light-sheet allowed significantly larger two-photon fluorescence intensities to be measured in a model polystyrene microparticle system compared to measurements made using other excitation focal geometries, including a relaxed Gaussian excitation beam often used in conventional flow cytometers. PMID:26021750

  3. Efficient linear phase contrast in scanning transmission electron microscopy with matched illumination and detector interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ophus, Colin; Ciston, Jim; Pierce, Jordan; Harvey, Tyler R.; Chess, Jordan; McMorran, Benjamin J.; Czarnik, Cory; Rose, Harald H.; Ercius, Peter

    2016-02-01

    The ability to image light elements in soft matter at atomic resolution enables unprecedented insight into the structure and properties of molecular heterostructures and beam-sensitive nanomaterials. In this study, we introduce a scanning transmission electron microscopy technique combining a pre-specimen phase plate designed to produce a probe with structured phase with a high-speed direct electron detector to generate nearly linear contrast images with high efficiency. We demonstrate this method by using both experiment and simulation to simultaneously image the atomic-scale structure of weakly scattering amorphous carbon and strongly scattering gold nanoparticles. Our method demonstrates strong contrast for both materials, making it a promising candidate for structural determination of heterogeneous soft/hard matter samples even at low electron doses comparable to traditional phase-contrast transmission electron microscopy. Simulated images demonstrate the extension of this technique to the challenging problem of structural determination of biological material at the surface of inorganic crystals.

  4. Efficient linear phase contrast in scanning transmission electron microscopy with matched illumination and detector interferometry.

    PubMed

    Ophus, Colin; Ciston, Jim; Pierce, Jordan; Harvey, Tyler R; Chess, Jordan; McMorran, Benjamin J; Czarnik, Cory; Rose, Harald H; Ercius, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The ability to image light elements in soft matter at atomic resolution enables unprecedented insight into the structure and properties of molecular heterostructures and beam-sensitive nanomaterials. In this study, we introduce a scanning transmission electron microscopy technique combining a pre-specimen phase plate designed to produce a probe with structured phase with a high-speed direct electron detector to generate nearly linear contrast images with high efficiency. We demonstrate this method by using both experiment and simulation to simultaneously image the atomic-scale structure of weakly scattering amorphous carbon and strongly scattering gold nanoparticles. Our method demonstrates strong contrast for both materials, making it a promising candidate for structural determination of heterogeneous soft/hard matter samples even at low electron doses comparable to traditional phase-contrast transmission electron microscopy. Simulated images demonstrate the extension of this technique to the challenging problem of structural determination of biological material at the surface of inorganic crystals. PMID:26923483

  5. In situ azimuthal rotation device for linear dichroism measurements in scanning transmission x-ray microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernández-Cruz, D.; Hitchcock, A. P.; Tyliszczak, T.; Rousseau, M.-E.; Pézolet, M.

    2007-03-01

    A novel miniature rotation device used in conjunction with a scanning transmission x-ray microscope is described. It provides convenient in situ sample rotation to enable measurements of linear dichroism at high spatial resolution. The design, fabrication, and mechanical characterization are presented. This device has been used to generate quantitative maps of the spatial distribution of the orientation of proteins in several different spider and silkworm silks. Specifically, quantitative maps of the dichroic signal at the C 1s→π*amide transition in longitudinal sections of the silk fibers give information about the spatial orientation, degree of alignment, and spatial distribution of protein peptide bonds. A new approach for analyzing the dichroic signal to extract orientation distributions, in addition to magnitudes of aligned components, is presented and illustrated with results from Nephila clavipes dragline spider silk measured using the in situ rotation device.

  6. Non-linear optical flow cytometry using a scanned, Bessel beam light-sheet.

    PubMed

    Collier, Bradley B; Awasthi, Samir; Lieu, Deborah K; Chan, James W

    2015-01-01

    Modern flow cytometry instruments have become vital tools for high-throughput analysis of single cells. However, as issues with the cellular labeling techniques often used in flow cytometry have become more of a concern, the development of label-free modalities for cellular analysis is increasingly desired. Non-linear optical phenomena (NLO) are of growing interest for label-free analysis because of the ability to measure the intrinsic optical response of biomolecules found in cells. We demonstrate that a light-sheet consisting of a scanned Bessel beam is an optimal excitation geometry for efficiently generating NLO signals in a microfluidic environment. The balance of photon density and cross-sectional area provided by the light-sheet allowed significantly larger two-photon fluorescence intensities to be measured in a model polystyrene microparticle system compared to measurements made using other excitation focal geometries, including a relaxed Gaussian excitation beam often used in conventional flow cytometers. PMID:26021750

  7. Filtration to reduce paediatric dose for a linear slot-scanning digital X-ray machine.

    PubMed

    Perks, T D; Dendere, R; Irving, B; Hartley, T; Scholtz, P; Lawson, A; Trauernicht, C; Steiner, S; Douglas, T S

    2015-12-01

    This paper describes modelling, application and validation of a filtration technique for a linear slot-scanning digital X-ray system to reduce radiation dose to paediatric patients while preserving diagnostic image quality. A dose prediction model was implemented, which calculates patient entrance doses using variable input parameters. Effective dose is calculated using a Monte Carlo simulation. An added filter of 1.8-mm aluminium was predicted to lower the radiation dose significantly. An objective image quality study was conducted using detective quantum efficiency (DQE). The PTW Normi 4FLU test phantom was used for quantitative assessment, showing that image contrast and spatial resolution were maintained with the proposed filter. A paediatric cadaver full-body imaging trial assessed the diagnostic quality of the images and measured the dose reduction using a 1.8-mm aluminium filter. Assessment by radiologists indicated that diagnostic quality was maintained with the added filtration, despite a reduction in DQE. A new filtration technique for full-body paediatric scanning on the Lodox Statscan has been validated, reducing entrance dose for paediatric patients by 36 % on average and effective dose by 27 % on average, while maintaining image quality. PMID:25433049

  8. SCAN+

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2009-11-01

    SCAN+ is a software application specifically designed to control the positioning of a gamma spectrometer by a two dimensional translation system above spent fuel bundles located in a sealed spent fuel cask. The gamma spectrometer collects gamma spectrum information for the purpose of spent fuel cask fuel loading verification. SCAN+ performs manual and automatic gamma spectrometer positioning functions as-well-as exercising control of the gamma spectrometer data acquisitioning functions. Cask configuration files are used to determinemore » the positions of spent fuel bundles. Cask scanning files are used to determine the desired scan paths for scanning a spent fuel cask allowing for automatic unattended cask scanning that may take several hours.« less

  9. Pink-Beam, Highly-Accurate Compact Water Cooled Slits

    SciTech Connect

    Lyndaker, Aaron; Deyhim, Alex; Jayne, Richard; Waterman, Dave; Caletka, Dave; Steadman, Paul; Dhesi, Sarnjeet

    2007-01-19

    Advanced Design Consulting, Inc. (ADC) has designed accurate compact slits for applications where high precision is required. The system consists of vertical and horizontal slit mechanisms, a vacuum vessel which houses them, water cooling lines with vacuum guards connected to the individual blades, stepper motors with linear encoders, limit (home position) switches and electrical connections including internal wiring for a drain current measurement system. The total slit size is adjustable from 0 to 15 mm both vertically and horizontally. Each of the four blades are individually controlled and motorized. In this paper, a summary of the design and Finite Element Analysis of the system are presented.

  10. Attosecond Double-Slit Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Lindner, F.; Schaetzel, M.G.; Baltuska, A.; Goulielmakis, E.; Walther, H.; Krausz, F.; Milosevic, D.B.; Bauer, D.; Becker, W.; Paulus, G.G.

    2005-07-22

    A new scheme for a double-slit experiment in the time domain is presented. Phase-stabilized few-cycle laser pulses open one to two windows (slits) of attosecond duration for photoionization. Fringes in the angle-resolved energy spectrum of varying visibility depending on the degree of which-way information are measured. A situation in which one and the same electron encounters a single and a double slit at the same time is observed. The investigation of the fringes makes possible interferometry on the attosecond time scale. From the number of visible fringes, for example, one derives that the slits are extended over about 500 as.

  11. Top-level design and pilot analysis of low-end CT scanners based on linear scanning for developing countries.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fenglin; Yu, Hengyong; Cong, Wenxiang; Wang, Ge

    2014-01-01

    The goal is to develop new architectures for computed tomography (CT) which are at an ultra-low-cost for developing countries, especially in rural areas. The proposed general scheme is inspired by the recently developed compressive sensing and interior tomography techniques, where the data acquisition system targets a region of interest (ROI) to acquire limited and truncated data. Similar to linear tomosynthesis, the source and detector are translated in opposite directions but in contrast to conventional tomosynthesis, our proposal is for either ROI reconstruction with one or more localized linear scans or global reconstruction by combining multiple ROI reconstructions. In other words, the popular slip ring is replaced by a translation based setup, and the instrumentation cost is reduced by a relaxation of the imaging speed requirement. The various translational scanning modes are theoretically analyzed, and the scanning parameters are optimized. The numerical simulation results from different numbers of linear scans confirm the feasibility of the proposed scheme, and suggest two preferred low-end systems for horizontal and vertical patient positions respectively. Ultra-low-cost x-ray CT is feasible with our proposed combination of linear scanning, compressive sensing, and interior tomography. The proposed architecture can be tailored into permanent, movable, or reconfigurable systems as desirable. Advanced image registration and spectral imaging features can be included as well. PMID:25265926

  12. Optimization of an adaptive SPECT system with the scanning linear estimator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghanbari, Nasrin; Clarkson, Eric; Kupinski, Matthew A.; Li, Xin

    2015-08-01

    The adaptive single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) system studied here acquires an initial scout image to obtain preliminary information about the object. Then the configuration is adjusted by selecting the size of the pinhole and the magnification that optimize system performance on an ensemble of virtual objects generated to be consistent with the scout data. In this study the object is a lumpy background that contains a Gaussian signal with a variable width and amplitude. The virtual objects in the ensemble are imaged by all of the available configurations and the subsequent images are evaluated with the scanning linear estimator to obtain an estimate of the signal width and amplitude. The ensemble mean squared error (EMSE) on the virtual ensemble between the estimated and the true parameters serves as the performance figure of merit for selecting the optimum configuration. The results indicate that variability in the original object background, noise and signal parameters leads to a specific optimum configuration in each case. A statistical study carried out for a number of objects show that the adaptive system on average performs better than its nonadaptive counterpart.

  13. Fourier-based reconstruction via alternating direction total variation minimization in linear scan CT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Ailong; Wang, Linyuan; Yan, Bin; Zhang, Hanming; Li, Lei; Xi, Xiaoqi; Li, Jianxin

    2015-03-01

    In this study, we consider a novel form of computed tomography (CT), that is, linear scan CT (LCT), which applies a straight line trajectory. Furthermore, an iterative algorithm is proposed for pseudo-polar Fourier reconstruction through total variation minimization (PPF-TVM). Considering that the sampled Fourier data are distributed in pseudo-polar coordinates, the reconstruction model minimizes the TV of the image subject to the constraint that the estimated 2D Fourier data for the image are consistent with the 1D Fourier transform of the projection data. PPF-TVM employs the alternating direction method (ADM) to develop a robust and efficient iteration scheme, which ensures stable convergence provided that appropriate parameter values are given. In the ADM scheme, PPF-TVM applies the pseudo-polar fast Fourier transform and its adjoint to iterate back and forth between the image and frequency domains. Thus, there is no interpolation in the Fourier domain, which makes the algorithm both fast and accurate. PPF-TVM is particularly useful for limited angle reconstruction in LCT and it appears to be robust against artifacts. The PPF-TVM algorithm was tested with the FORBILD head phantom and real data in comparisons with state-of-the-art algorithms. Simulation studies and real data verification suggest that PPF-TVM can reconstruct higher accuracy images with lower time consumption.

  14. Efficient linear phase contrast in scanning transmission electron microscopy with matched illumination and detector interferometry

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Ophus, Colin; Ciston, Jim; Pierce, Jordan; Harvey, Tyler R.; Chess, Jordan; McMorran, Benjamin J.; Czarnik, Cory; Rose, Harald H.; Ercius, Peter

    2016-02-29

    The ability to image light elements in soft matter at atomic resolution enables unprecedented insight into the structure and properties of molecular heterostructures and beam-sensitive nanomaterials. In this study, we introduce a scanning transmission electron microscopy technique combining a pre-specimen phase plate designed to produce a probe with structured phase with a high-speed direct electron detector to generate nearly linear contrast images with high efficiency. We demonstrate this method by using both experiment and simulation to simultaneously image the atomic-scale structure of weakly scattering amorphous carbon and strongly scattering gold nanoparticles. Our method demonstrates strong contrast for both materials, makingmore » it a promising candidate for structural determination of heterogeneous soft/hard matter samples even at low electron doses comparable to traditional phase-contrast transmission electron microscopy. Ultimately, simulated images demonstrate the extension of this technique to the challenging problem of structural determination of biological material at the surface of inorganic crystals.« less

  15. Combination of detection and estimation tasks using channelized scanning linear observer for CT imaging systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tseng, Hsin-Wu; Fan, Jiahua; Kupinski, Matthew A.

    2015-03-01

    Maintaining or even improving image quality while lowering patient dose is always the desire in clinical CT imaging. Iterative reconstruction (IR) algorithms have been designed to help reduce dose and/or provide better image quality. In this work, the channelized scanning linear observer (CSLO) is applied to study the combination of detection and estimation task performance using CT image data. The purpose of this work is to design a task-­-based approach to quantitatively evaluate image-­-quality for different reconstruction algorithms. Low-­-contrast objects embedded in head-­-size and body-­-size phantoms are imaged multiple times and reconstructed by FBP and an IR algorithm for this study. Independent signal present and absent ROIs cropped from images are channelized by Difference of Gauss channels for CSLO training and testing. Estimation receiver operating characteristic (EROC) curves and the area under EROC curve (EAUC) are calculated by CSLO as the figure of merit. The One-­- Shot method is used to compute the variance of the EAUC values. Results suggest that the IR algorithm studied in this work could efficiently reduce the dose approximately 54% to achieve an image quality comparable to conventional FBP reconstruction for the combined detection and estimation tasks.

  16. Assessment of cardiac single-photon emission computed tomography performance using a scanning linear observer

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Chih-Jie; Kupinski, Matthew A.; Volokh, Lana

    2013-01-15

    Purpose: Single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) is widely used to detect myocardial ischemia and myocardial infarction. It is important to assess and compare different SPECT system designs in order to achieve the highest detectability of cardiac defects. Methods: Whitaker et al.'s study ['Estimating random signal parameters from noisy images with nuisance parameters: linear and scanning-linear methods,' Opt. Express 16(11), 8150-8173 (2008)] on the scanning linear observer (SLO) shows that the SLO can be used to estimate the location and size of signals. One major advantage of the SLO is that it can be used with projection data rather than with reconstruction data. Thus, this observer model assesses the overall hardware performance independent of any reconstruction algorithm. In addition, the computation time of image quality studies is significantly reduced. In this study, three systems based on the design of the GE cadmium zinc telluride-based dedicated cardiac SPECT camera Discovery 530c were assessed. This design, which is officially named the Alcyone Technology: Discovery NM 530c, was commercialized in August, 2009. The three systems, GE27, GE19, and GE13, contain 27, 19, and 13 detectors, respectively. Clinically, a human heart can be virtually segmented into three coronary artery territories: the left-anterior descending artery, left-circumflex artery, and right coronary artery. One of the most important functions of a cardiac SPECT system is to produce images from which a radiologist can accurately predict in which territory the defect exists [http://www.asnc.org/media/PDFs/PPReporting081511.pdf, Guideline from American Society of Nuclear Cardiology]. A good estimation of the extent of the defect from the projection images is also very helpful for determining the seriousness of the myocardial ischemia. In this study, both the location and extent of defects were estimated by the SLO, and the system performance was assessed by localization

  17. Assessment of cardiac single-photon emission computed tomography performance using a scanning linear observer

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chih-Jie; Kupinski, Matthew A.; Volokh, Lana

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) is widely used to detect myocardial ischemia and myocardial infarction. It is important to assess and compare different SPECT system designs in order to achieve the highest detectability of cardiac defects. Methods:Whitaker ’s study [“Estimating random signal parameters from noisy images with nuisance parameters: linear and scanning-linear methods,” Opt. Express 16(11), 8150–8173 (2008)]10.1364/OE.16.008150 on the scanning linear observer (SLO) shows that the SLO can be used to estimate the location and size of signals. One major advantage of the SLO is that it can be used with projection data rather than with reconstruction data. Thus, this observer model assesses the overall hardware performance independent of any reconstruction algorithm. In addition, the computation time of image quality studies is significantly reduced. In this study, three systems based on the design of the GE cadmium zinc telluride-based dedicated cardiac SPECT camera Discovery 530c were assessed. This design, which is officially named the Alcyone Technology: Discovery NM 530c, was commercialized in August, 2009. The three systems, GE27, GE19, and GE13, contain 27, 19, and 13 detectors, respectively. Clinically, a human heart can be virtually segmented into three coronary artery territories: the left-anterior descending artery, left-circumflex artery, and right coronary artery. One of the most important functions of a cardiac SPECT system is to produce images from which a radiologist can accurately predict in which territory the defect exists [http://www.asnc.org/media/PDFs/PPReporting081511.pdf, Guideline from American Society of Nuclear Cardiology]. A good estimation of the extent of the defect from the projection images is also very helpful for determining the seriousness of the myocardial ischemia. In this study, both the location and extent of defects were estimated by the SLO, and the system performance was assessed by

  18. Biphoton double-slit experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Brida, G.; Cagliero, E.; Falzetta, G.; Genovese, M.; Gramegna, M.; Predazzi, E.

    2003-09-01

    In this paper we present a double-slit experiment where two indistinguishable photons produced by type-I parametric down-conversion are each sent to a well-defined slit. Data about the diffraction and interference patterns for coincidences are presented and discussed. An analysis of these data allows a test of standard quantum mechanics against the de Broglie-Bohm theory.

  19. Comparison of the scanning linear estimator (SLE) and ROI methods for quantitative SPECT imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Könik, Arda; Kupinski, Meredith; Hendrik Pretorius, P.; King, Michael A.; Barrett, Harrison H.

    2015-08-01

    In quantitative emission tomography, tumor activity is typically estimated from calculations on a region of interest (ROI) identified in the reconstructed slices. In these calculations, unpredictable bias arising from the null functions of the imaging system affects ROI estimates. The magnitude of this bias depends upon the tumor size and location. In prior work it has been shown that the scanning linear estimator (SLE), which operates on the raw projection data, is an unbiased estimator of activity when the size and location of the tumor are known. In this work, we performed analytic simulation of SPECT imaging with a parallel-hole medium-energy collimator. Distance-dependent system spatial resolution and non-uniform attenuation were included in the imaging simulation. We compared the task of activity estimation by the ROI and SLE methods for a range of tumor sizes (diameter: 1-3 cm) and activities (contrast ratio: 1-10) added to uniform and non-uniform liver backgrounds. Using the correct value for the tumor shape and location is an idealized approximation to how task estimation would occur clinically. Thus we determined how perturbing this idealized prior knowledge impacted the performance of both techniques. To implement the SLE for the non-uniform background, we used a novel iterative algorithm for pre-whitening stationary noise within a compact region. Estimation task performance was compared using the ensemble mean-squared error (EMSE) as the criterion. The SLE method performed substantially better than the ROI method (i.e. EMSE(SLE) was 23-174 times lower) when the background is uniform and tumor location and size are known accurately. The variance of the SLE increased when a non-uniform liver texture was introduced but the EMSE(SLE) continued to be 5-20 times lower than the ROI method. In summary, SLE outperformed ROI under almost all conditions that we tested.

  20. Comparison of the scanning linear estimator (SLE) and ROI methods for quantitative SPECT imaging.

    PubMed

    Könik, Arda; Kupinski, Meredith; Pretorius, P Hendrik; King, Michael A; Barrett, Harrison H

    2015-08-21

    In quantitative emission tomography, tumor activity is typically estimated from calculations on a region of interest (ROI) identified in the reconstructed slices. In these calculations, unpredictable bias arising from the null functions of the imaging system affects ROI estimates. The magnitude of this bias depends upon the tumor size and location. In prior work it has been shown that the scanning linear estimator (SLE), which operates on the raw projection data, is an unbiased estimator of activity when the size and location of the tumor are known. In this work, we performed analytic simulation of SPECT imaging with a parallel-hole medium-energy collimator. Distance-dependent system spatial resolution and non-uniform attenuation were included in the imaging simulation. We compared the task of activity estimation by the ROI and SLE methods for a range of tumor sizes (diameter: 1-3 cm) and activities (contrast ratio: 1-10) added to uniform and non-uniform liver backgrounds. Using the correct value for the tumor shape and location is an idealized approximation to how task estimation would occur clinically. Thus we determined how perturbing this idealized prior knowledge impacted the performance of both techniques. To implement the SLE for the non-uniform background, we used a novel iterative algorithm for pre-whitening stationary noise within a compact region. Estimation task performance was compared using the ensemble mean-squared error (EMSE) as the criterion. The SLE method performed substantially better than the ROI method (i.e. EMSE(SLE) was 23-174 times lower) when the background is uniform and tumor location and size are known accurately. The variance of the SLE increased when a non-uniform liver texture was introduced but the EMSE(SLE) continued to be 5-20 times lower than the ROI method. In summary, SLE outperformed ROI under almost all conditions that we tested. PMID:26247228

  1. Optical double-slit particle measuring system

    DOEpatents

    Tichenor, D.A.; Wang, J.C.F.; Hencken, K.R.

    1982-03-25

    A method for in situ measurement of particle size is described. The size information is obtained by scanning an image of the particle across a double-slit mask and observing the transmitted light. This method is useful when the particle size of primary interest is 3..mu..m and larger. The technique is well suited to applications in which the particles are non-spherical and have unknown refractive index. It is particularly well suited to high temperature environments in which the particle incandescence provides the light source.

  2. Optical double-slit particle measuring system

    DOEpatents

    Hencken, Kenneth R.; Tichenor, Daniel A.; Wang, James C. F.

    1984-01-01

    A method for in situ measurement of particle size is described. The size information is obtained by scanning an image of the particle across a double-slit mask and observing the transmitted light. This method is useful when the particle size of primary interest is 3 .mu.m and larger. The technique is well suited to applications in which the particles are non-spherical and have unknown refractive index. It is particularly well suited to high temperature environments in which the particle incandescence provides the light source.

  3. High-performance hyperspectral imaging using virtual slit optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behr, Bradford B.; Bismilla, Yusuf; Cenko, Andrew T.; DesRoches, Brandon; Meade, Jeffrey T.; Munro, Elizabeth A.; Slaa, Jared; Hajian, Arsen R.

    2014-05-01

    Tornado Spectral Systems (TSS) has developed High Throughput Virtual Slit (HTVS) technology that improves the performance of spectrometers by factors of several while maintaining system size. In the simplest configuration, the HTVS allows optical designers to remove the lossy slit from a spectrometer, greatly increasing throughput without a loss of resolution. This is especially useful in many standoff applications, where every photon matters. TSS has tested multiple configurations of HTVS spectral sensing and spectral imaging technology, including standoff sensing, point scan imaging, long-slit pushbroom imaging and similar configurations. The HTVS throughput-resolution advantage allows us to increase scanning speed, decrease system size, decrease aperture, decrease source intensity requirements or some combination of all four. HTVS technology expands the realm of viable spectral imaging applications. We discuss the applicability of this technology to spectral imaging and standoff sensing and present experimental results from several prototype and production spectrometers.

  4. Micromachined Slits for Imaging Spectrometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Daniel; Kenny, James; White, Victor

    2008-01-01

    Slits for imaging spectrometers can now be fabricated to a precision much greater than previously attainable. What makes this possible is a micromachining process that involves the use of microlithographic techniques.

  5. Specific expression and methylation of SLIT1, SLIT2, SLIT3, and miR-218 in gastric cancer subtypes.

    PubMed

    Kim, Mirang; Kim, Jong-Hwan; Baek, Su-Jin; Kim, Seon-Young; Kim, Yong Sung

    2016-06-01

    SLIT has been suggested as a key regulator of cancer development and a promising therapeutic target for cancer treatment. Herein, we analyzed expression and methylation of SLIT1/SLIT2/SLIT3 in 11 gastric cancer cell lines, 96 paired gastric tumors and adjacent normal gastric tissues, and 250 gastric cancers provided by The Cancer Genome Atlas. Methylation of SLIT1/SLIT2/SLIT3 was found both in early gastric cancers, and in advanced gastric cancers. Even normal gastric tissue showed increased methylation of SLIT1 and SLIT3 that correlated with patient age. Furthermore, epigenetic inactivation of SLIT occurred in a gastric cancer subtype-dependent manner. SLIT2 and SLIT3 expression was reduced in Epstein-Barr virus-positive and microsatellite instability subtypes, but increased in the genomically stable subtype. Expression of miR‑218 correlated negatively with methylation of SLIT2 or SLIT3. These findings suggest that a molecular subtype-specific therapeutic strategy is needed for targeting SLITs and miR-218 in treatment of gastric cancer. PMID:27082735

  6. Bandwidth control of forbidden transmission gaps in compound structures with subwavelength slits.

    PubMed

    Skigin, Diana C; Loui, Hung; Popovic, Zoya; Kuester, Edward F

    2007-07-01

    Phase resonances in transmission compound structures with subwavelength slits produce sharp dips in the transmission response. For all equal slits, the wavelengths of these sharp transmission minima can be varied by changing the width or the length of all the slits. In this paper we show that the width of the dip, i.e., the frequency range of minimum transmittance, can be controlled by making at least one slit different from the rest within a compound unit cell. In particular, we investigate the effect that a change in the dielectric filling, or in the length of a single slit, produces in the transmission response. We also analyze the scan angle behavior of these structures by means of band diagrams and compare them with previous results for all-equal slit structures. PMID:17677582

  7. Image reconstruction based on total-variation minimization and alternating direction method in linear scan computed tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Han-Ming; Wang, Lin-Yuan; Yan, Bin; Li, Lei; Xi, Xiao-Qi; Lu, Li-Zhong

    2013-07-01

    Linear scan computed tomography (LCT) is of great benefit to online industrial scanning and security inspection due to its characteristics of straight-line source trajectory and high scanning speed. However, in practical applications of LCT, there are challenges to image reconstruction due to limited-angle and insufficient data. In this paper, a new reconstruction algorithm based on total-variation (TV) minimization is developed to reconstruct images from limited-angle and insufficient data in LCT. The main idea of our approach is to reformulate a TV problem as a linear equality constrained problem where the objective function is separable, and then minimize its augmented Lagrangian function by using alternating direction method (ADM) to solve subproblems. The proposed method is robust and efficient in the task of reconstruction by showing the convergence of ADM. The numerical simulations and real data reconstructions show that the proposed reconstruction method brings reasonable performance and outperforms some previous ones when applied to an LCT imaging problem.

  8. SEM analysis of ionizing radiation effects in linear integrated circuits. [Scanning Electron Microscope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanley, A. G.; Gauthier, M. K.

    1977-01-01

    A successful diagnostic technique was developed using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) as a precision tool to determine ionization effects in integrated circuits. Previous SEM methods radiated the entire semiconductor chip or major areas. The large area exposure methods do not reveal the exact components which are sensitive to radiation. To locate these sensitive components a new method was developed, which consisted in successively irradiating selected components on the device chip with equal doses of electrons /10 to the 6th rad (Si)/, while the whole device was subjected to representative bias conditions. A suitable device parameter was measured in situ after each successive irradiation with the beam off.

  9. "Quantum Interference with Slits" Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothman, Tony; Boughn, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    Marcella has presented a straightforward technique employing the Dirac formalism to calculate single- and double-slit interference patterns. He claims that no reference is made to classical optics or scattering theory and that his method therefore provides a purely quantum mechanical description of these experiments. He also presents his…

  10. [The linear hyperspectral camera rotating scan imaging geometric correction based on the precise spectral sampling].

    PubMed

    Wang, Shu-min; Zhang, Ai-wu; Hu, Shao-xing; Wang, Jing-meng; Meng, Xian-gang; Duan, Yi-hao; Sun, Wei-dong

    2015-02-01

    As the rotation speed of ground based hyperspectral imaging system is too fast in the image collection process, which exceeds the speed limitation, there is data missed in the rectified image, it shows as the_black lines. At the same time, there is serious distortion in the collected raw images, which effects the feature information classification and identification. To solve these problems, in this paper, we introduce the each component of the ground based hyperspectral imaging system at first, and give the general process of data collection. The rotation speed is controlled in data collection process, according to the image cover area of each frame and the image collection speed of the ground based hyperspectral imaging system, And then the spatial orientation model is deduced in detail combining with the star scanning angle, stop scanning angle and the minimum distance between the sensor and the scanned object etc. The oriented image is divided into grids and resampled with new spectral. The general flow of distortion image corrected is presented in this paper. Since the image spatial resolution is different between the adjacent frames, and in order to keep the highest image resolution of corrected image, the minimum ground sampling distance is employed as the grid unit to divide the geo-referenced image. Taking the spectral distortion into account caused by direct sampling method when the new uniform grids and the old uneven grids are superimposed to take the pixel value, the precise spectral sampling method based on the position distribution is proposed. The distortion image collected in Lao Si Cheng ruin which is in the Zhang Jiajie town Hunan province is corrected through the algorithm proposed on above. The features keep the original geometric characteristics. It verifies the validity of the algorithm. And we extract the spectral of different features to compute the correlation coefficient. The results show that the improved spectral sampling method is

  11. Spatial light interference tomography (SLIT).

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhuo; Marks, Daniel L; Carney, Paul Scott; Millet, Larry J; Gillette, Martha U; Mihi, Agustin; Braun, Paul V; Shen, Zhen; Prasanth, Supriya G; Popescu, Gabriel

    2011-10-10

    We present spatial light interference tomography (SLIT), a label-free method for 3D imaging of transparent structures such as live cells. SLIT uses the principle of interferometric imaging with broadband fields and combines the optical gating due to the micron-scale coherence length with that of the high numerical aperture objective lens. Measuring the phase shift map associated with the object as it is translated through focus provides full information about the 3D distribution associated with the refractive index. Using a reconstruction algorithm based on the Born approximation, we show that the sample structure may be recovered via a 3D, complex field deconvolution. We illustrate the method with reconstructed tomographic refractive index distributions of microspheres, photonic crystals, and unstained living cells. PMID:21996999

  12. Inhibition of medulloblastoma cell invasion by Slit.

    PubMed

    Werbowetski-Ogilvie, T E; Seyed Sadr, M; Jabado, N; Angers-Loustau, A; Agar, N Y R; Wu, J; Bjerkvig, R; Antel, J P; Faury, D; Rao, Y; Del Maestro, R F

    2006-08-24

    Invasion of brain tumor cells has made primary malignant brain neoplasms among the most recalcitrant to therapeutic strategies. We tested whether the secreted protein Slit2, which guides the projection of axons and developing neurons, could modulate brain tumor cell invasion. Slit2 inhibited the invasion of medulloblastoma cells in a variety of in vitro models. The effect of Slit2 was inhibited by the Robo ectodomain. Time-lapse videomicroscopy indicated that Slit2 reduced medulloblastoma invasion rate without affecting cell direction or proliferation. Both medulloblastoma and glioma tumors express Robo1 and Slit2, but only medulloblastoma invasion is inhibited by recombinant Slit2 protein. Downregulation of activated Cdc42 may contribute to this differential response. Our findings reinforce the concept that neurodevelopmental cues such as Slit2 may provide insights into brain tumor invasion. PMID:16636676

  13. Slit Function Measurement of An Imaging Spectrograph Using Fourier Transform Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, Hongwoo; Swimyard, Bruce; Jakobsen, Peter; Moseley, Harvey; Greenhouse, Matthew

    2004-01-01

    Knowledge of a spectrograph slit function is necessary to interpret the unresolved lines in an observed spectrum. A theoretical slit function can be calculated from the sizes of the entrance slit, the detector aperture when it functions as an exit slit, the dispersion characteristic of the disperser, and the point spread function of the spectrograph. A measured slit function is preferred to the theoretical one for the correct interpretation of the spectral data. In a scanning spectrometer with a single exit slit, the slit function is easily measured. In a fixed grating/or disperser spectrograph, illuminating the entrance slit with a near monochromatic light from a pre-monochrmator or a tunable laser and varying the wavelength of the incident light can measure the slit function. Even though the latter technique had been used successfully for the slit function measurements, it had been very laborious and it would be prohibitive to an imaging spectrograph or a multi-object spectrograph that has a large field of view. We explore an alternative technique that is manageable for the measurements. In the proposed technique, the imaging spectrograph is used as a detector of a Fourier transform spectrometer. This method can be applied not only to an IR spectrograph but also has a potential to a visible/UV spectrograph including a wedge filter spectrograph. This technique will require a blackbody source of known temperature and a bolometer to characterize the interferometer part of the Fourier Transform spectrometer. This pa?er will describe the alternative slit function measurement technique using a Fourier transform spectrometer.

  14. Automatic multidiagnosis system for slit lamp

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ventura, Liliane; Chiaradia, Caio; Vieira Messias, Andre M.; Faria de Sousa, Sidney J.; Isaac, Flavio; Caetano, Cesar A. C.; Rosa Filho, Andre B.

    2001-06-01

    We have developed a system for several automatic diagnose in Slit Lamp in order to provide 04 additional measurements to the biomicroscope: (1) counting of the endothelial cells of donated corneas; (2) automatic keratometry; (3) corneal ulcer evaluation; (4) measurement of linear distances and areas of the ocular image. The system consists in a Slit Lamp, a beam-splitter, some optical components, a CCD detector, a frame grabber and a PC. The optical components attached to the beam-splitter are the same for all the functions, except for 1. For function 1, we have developed an optical system that magnifies the image 290X and a software that counts the cells interactively and automatically. Results are in good agreement with commercial specular microscopes (correlation coefficient is 0,98081). The automatic keratometry function is able to measure cylinders over 30 di and also irregular astigmatisms. The system consists of projecting a light ring at the patient's cornea and the further analysis of the deformation of the ring provides the radius of curvature as well as the axis of the astigmatism. The nominal precision is 0,005 mm for the curvature radius and 2 degree(s) for the axis component. The results are in good agreement with commercial systems (correlation coefficient of 0,99347). For function 3, the ulcer is isolated by the usual clinical ways and the image of the green area is automatically detected by the developed software in order to evaluate the evolution of the disease. Function 4 simply allows the clinician do any linear or area measurement of the ocular image. The system is a low cost multi evaluation equipment and it is being used in a public hospital in Brazil.

  15. Optimal design of the pulse tube refrigerator with slit-type heat exchangers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ki, Taekyung; Jeong, Sangkwon

    2010-09-01

    A single-stage inline pulse tube refrigerator (PTR) with tapered slit-type heat exchangers utilized as the aftercooler and the cold end heat exchanger has been designed, fabricated and investigated. Simple energy conservation equation is applied for the design of the tapered slit-type heat exchangers with which the PTR is optimized. The air-cooled aftercoolers with different slit configurations have been compared in this paper with regard to its cooling capacity. The optimized PTRs driven by a single-piston linear compressor achieve the lowest temperature of 53.1 K and 53.5 K, and the cooling capacity of 3.0 W at 60 K and 3.5 W at 60 K, respectively. The result shows that the tapered slit-type heat exchangers can replace the mesh-type heat exchanger, but the geometric configuration of slits and the compressible volume should be carefully considered for optimum performance of the cooler.

  16. High-performance hyperspectral imaging using virtual slit optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behr, Bradford B.; Meade, Jeffrey T.; Hajian, Arsen R.; Cenko, Andrew T.

    2013-05-01

    The High Throughput Virtual Slit (or HTVS) is a new optical technology which can significantly increase the throughput and resolution of a dispersive spectrometer. The HTVS is able to preserve spectrometer étendue, mitigating photon losses normally associated with a slit. Originally implemented in multimode fiber-input spectrometers, HTVS has now been shown to be broadly applicable to a wide variety of spatially scanning hyperspectral imagers and standoff sensors, enhancing their performance and unlocking new application areas. In essence, the anamorphic elements of the HTVS optical system provide a means to decouple the spatial (iFOV) and spectral resolution of nearly any HSI system. In some scenarios, HTVS can be used to achieve better spectral resolution with the same input slit width. Alternatively, the slit can be widened (to increase the collected signal) while maintaining the same spectral resolution. This newfound flexibility in optimizing critical performance parameters not only improves the performance of HSI systems in existing remote sensing contexts, but also opens up numerous new application areas which were previously inaccessible to hyperspectral techniques. This method adds substantial value to existing HSI designs, particularly in applications involving targets with large spatial extent and requiring high spectral resolution (e.g. standoff Raman spectroscopy). We present recent experimental results from our prototype HTVS pushbroom imager and discuss case studies of standoff Raman detection of hazardous materials, passive detection of faint narrowband and monochromatic sources, and optimal disentangling of target spectral signatures from the solar spectrum under daytime illumination.

  17. Fano resonance generated by magnetic scatterer in micro metal slit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Yun-Song; Wang, Pei-Jie; Wang, Hai; Feng, Sheng-Fei

    2014-09-01

    A micro metal slit/magnetic scatterer structure is proposed to generate electromagnetic Fano resonance. The magnetic scatterer is formed by infinite long split cylinder resonator array. The analytical transmissivity formulas are deduced from Maxwell electromagnetic theory and the Fano resonance transmission is achieved by the theoretical calculations. The enhancement of environment refractive index leads to an ultrasensitive and linear red shift of resonance peak in the THz range.

  18. Ramsey fringes and time-domain multiple-slit interference from vacuum.

    PubMed

    Akkermans, Eric; Dunne, Gerald V

    2012-01-20

    Sequences of alternating-sign time-dependent electric field pulses lead to coherent interference effects in Schwinger vacuum pair production, producing a Ramsey interferometer, an all-optical time-domain realization of the multiple-slit interference effect, directly from the quantum vacuum. The interference, obeying fermionic quantum statistics, is manifest in the momentum dependence of the number of produced electrons and positrons along the linearly polarized electric field. The central value grows like N(2) for N pulses [i.e., N "slits"], and the functional form is well described by a coherent multiple-slit expression. This behavior is generic for many driven quantum systems. PMID:22400718

  19. Slit device for FOCCoS-PFS-Subaru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Oliveira, Antonio Cesar; Gunn, James E.; de Oliveira, Ligia Souza; Vital de Arruda, Marcio; Souza Marrara, Lucas; dos Santos, Leandro Henrique; Ferreira, Décio; dos Santos, Jesulino Bispo; Rosa, Josimar Aparecido; Ribeiro, Flavio Felipe; Vilaça, Rodrigo de Paiva; Verducci, Orlando; Sodré, Laerte; Oliveira, Claudia Mendes

    2014-07-01

    The Fiber Optical Cable and Connector System, "FOCCoS", subsystem of the Prime Focus Spectrograph, "PFS", for Subaru telescope, is responsible to feed four spectrographs with a set of optical fibers cables. The light injection for each spectrograph is assured by a convex curved slit with a linear array of 616 optical fibers. In this paper we present a design of a slit that ensures the right direction of the fibers by using masks of micro holes. This kind of mask is made by a technique called electroforming, which is able to produce a nickel plate with holes in a linear sequence. The precision error is around 1-μm in the diameter and 1-μm in the positions of the holes. This nickel plate may be produced with a thickness between 50 and 200 microns, so it may be very flexible. This flexibility allows the mask to be bent into the shape necessary for a curved slit. The concept requires two masks, which we call Front Mask, and Rear Mask, separated by a gap that defines the thickness of the slit. The pitch and the diameter of the holes define the linear geometry of the slit; the curvature of each mask defines the angular geometry of the slit. Obviously, this assembly must be mounted inside a structure rigid and strong enough to be supported inside the spectrograph. This structure must have a CTE optimized to avoid displacement of the fibers or increased FRD of the fibers when the device is submitted to temperatures around 3 degrees Celsius, the temperature of operation of the spectrograph. We have produced two models. Both are mounted inside a very compact Invar case, and both have their front surfaces covered by a dark composite, to reduce stray light. Furthermore, we have conducted experiments with two different internal structures to minimize effects caused by temperature gradients. This concept has several advantages relative to a design based on Vgrooves, which is the classical option. It is much easier and quicker to assemble, much cheaper, more accurate, easier to

  20. A subset of chicken statoacoustic ganglion neurites are repelled by Slit1 and Slit2

    PubMed Central

    Battisti, Andrea C.; Fantetti, Kristen N.; Moyers, Bryan A.; Fekete, Donna M.

    2014-01-01

    Mechanosensory hair cells in the chicken inner ear are innervated by bipolar afferent neurons of the statoacoustic ganglion (SAG). During development, individual SAG neurons project their peripheral process to only one of eight distinct sensory organs. These neuronal subtypes may respond differently to guidance cues as they explore the periphery in search of their target. Previous gene expression data suggested that Slit repellants might channel SAG neurites into the sensory primordia, based on the presence of robo transcripts in the neurons and the confinement of slit transcripts to the flanks of the prosensory domains. This led to the prediction that excess Slit proteins would impede the outgrowth of SAG neurites. As predicted, axonal projections to the primordium of the anterior crista were reduced 2-3 days after electroporation of either slit1 or slit2 expression plasmids into the anterior pole of the otocyst on embryonic day 3 (E3). The posterior crista afferents, which normally grow through and adjacent to slit expression domains as they are navigating towards the posterior pole of the otocyst, did not show Slit responsiveness when similarly challenged by ectopic delivery of slit to their targets. The sensitivity to ectopic Slits shown by the anterior crista afferents was more the exception than the rule: responsiveness to Slits was not observed when the entire E4 SAG was challenged with Slits for 40 hours in vitro. The corona of neurites emanating from SAG explants was unaffected by the presence of purified human Slit1 and Slit2 in the culture medium. Reduced axon outgrowth from E8 olfactory bulbs cultured under similar conditions for 24 hours confirmed bioactivity of purified human Slits on chicken neurons. In summary, differential sensitivity to Slit repellents may influence the directional outgrowth of otic axons toward either the anterior or posterior otocyst. PMID:24456709

  1. SLIT: indications, follow-up, and management.

    PubMed

    Dávila, I; Navarro, A; Domínguez-Ortega, J; Alonso, A; Antolín-Amérigo, D; Diéguez, M C; González-Mancebo, E; Martíns, C; Martínez, C; Núñez, B; Prior, N; Rechel, M; Rosado, A; Ruiz-Hornillos, J; Sansosti, A; Torrecillas, M; Jerez, M J

    2014-01-01

    Specific sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) has been proved to be a safe and effective approach in respiratory allergy. However, further research is required on aspects such as patient selection, use of optimal dosing, effects on asthma, long-term effects, and management of adverse reactions. In addition, the widely heterogeneous nature of studies on SLIT performed to date and the application of the criteria for subcutaneous immunotherapy make it difficult for the prescribing clinician to draw accurate and useful conclusions. Therefore, the QUASAR Group (QUality in the Administration of SLIT in Allergic Rhinitis), which comprises allergologists with broad clinical experience in SLIT, investigated the latest research findings and available data on this approach. Working parties were formed in 3 different categories: selection of candidates for SLIT, treatment efficacy, and adverse reactions. We performed a PubMed search for articles that were representative of each category and found 850. From these, we finally selected 266 articles, which were reviewed to retrieve data on SLIT. Evidence for each clinical question was graded according to the Oxford classification. The resulting text was evaluated on 3 occasions by all the members of the group until the final version was agreed upon. In this version, we review available evidence on SLIT, particularly with pollens, which is the subject of most articles. In areas where evidence is insufficient, an alternative agreed upon by the members of the QUASAR group is presented. Finally, we propose algorithms for selecting candidates for SLIT and for management of adverse events. PMID:25011377

  2. Acoustic transmission through compound subwavelength slit arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, G. P.; Hibbins, A. P.; Sambles, J. R.; Smith, J. D.

    2016-07-01

    The angular dependence of the transmission of sound in air through four types of two-dimensional slit arrays formed of aluminium slats is explored, both experimentally and numerically. For a simple, subwavelength periodic slit array, it is well known that Fabry-Perot-like waveguide resonances, supported by the slit cavities, coupled to diffracted evanescent waves, result in enhanced acoustic transmission at frequencies determined by the length, width, and separation of each slit cavity. We demonstrate that altering the spacing or width of some of the slits to form a compound array (i.e., an array having a basis comprised of more than one slit) results in sharp dips in the transmission spectra, which may have a strong angular dependence. These features correspond to phase resonances, which have been studied extensively in the electromagnetic case. This geometry allows for additional near-field configurations compared to the simple array, whereby the field in adjacent cavities can be out of phase. Several types of compound slit arrays are investigated; one such structure is optimized to minimize the effect of boundary-layer loss mechanisms present in each slit cavity, thereby achieving a deep, sharp transmission minimum in a broad maximum.

  3. Time-resolved double-slit interference pattern measurement with entangled photons

    PubMed Central

    Kolenderski, Piotr; Scarcella, Carmelo; Johnsen, Kelsey D.; Hamel, Deny R.; Holloway, Catherine; Shalm, Lynden K.; Tisa, Simone; Tosi, Alberto; Resch, Kevin J.; Jennewein, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    The double-slit experiment strikingly demonstrates the wave-particle duality of quantum objects. In this famous experiment, particles pass one-by-one through a pair of slits and are detected on a distant screen. A distinct wave-like pattern emerges after many discrete particle impacts as if each particle is passing through both slits and interfering with itself. Here we present a temporally- and spatially-resolved measurement of the double-slit interference pattern using single photons. We send single photons through a birefringent double-slit apparatus and use a linear array of single-photon detectors to observe the developing interference pattern. The analysis of the buildup allows us to compare quantum mechanics and the corpuscular model, which aims to explain the mystery of single-particle interference. Finally, we send one photon from an entangled pair through our double-slit setup and show the dependence of the resulting interference pattern on the twin photon's measured state. Our results provide new insight into the dynamics of the buildup process in the double-slit experiment, and can be used as a valuable resource in quantum information applications. PMID:24770360

  4. Time-resolved double-slit interference pattern measurement with entangled photons.

    PubMed

    Kolenderski, Piotr; Scarcella, Carmelo; Johnsen, Kelsey D; Hamel, Deny R; Holloway, Catherine; Shalm, Lynden K; Tisa, Simone; Tosi, Alberto; Resch, Kevin J; Jennewein, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    The double-slit experiment strikingly demonstrates the wave-particle duality of quantum objects. In this famous experiment, particles pass one-by-one through a pair of slits and are detected on a distant screen. A distinct wave-like pattern emerges after many discrete particle impacts as if each particle is passing through both slits and interfering with itself. Here we present a temporally- and spatially-resolved measurement of the double-slit interference pattern using single photons. We send single photons through a birefringent double-slit apparatus and use a linear array of single-photon detectors to observe the developing interference pattern. The analysis of the buildup allows us to compare quantum mechanics and the corpuscular model, which aims to explain the mystery of single-particle interference. Finally, we send one photon from an entangled pair through our double-slit setup and show the dependence of the resulting interference pattern on the twin photon's measured state. Our results provide new insight into the dynamics of the buildup process in the double-slit experiment, and can be used as a valuable resource in quantum information applications. PMID:24770360

  5. Improved 6-Plex Tandem Mass Tags Quantification Throughput Using a Linear Ion Trap-High-Energy Collision Induced Dissociation MS(3) Scan.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jane M; Sweredoski, Michael J; Hess, Sonja

    2016-08-01

    The use of tandem mass tags (TMT) as an isobaric labeling strategy is a powerful method for quantitative proteomics, yet its accuracy has traditionally suffered from interference. This interference can be largely overcome by selecting MS(2) fragment precursor ions for high-energy collision induced dissociation (HCD) MS(3) analysis in an Orbitrap scan. While this approach minimizes the interference effect, sensitivity suffers due to the high AGC targets and long acquisition times associated with MS(3) Orbitrap detection. We investigated whether acquiring the MS(3) scan in a linear ion trap with its lower AGC target would increase overall quantification levels with a minimal effect on precision and accuracy. Trypsin-digested proteins from Saccharomyces cerevisiae were tagged with 6-plex TMT reagents. The sample was subjected to replicate analyses using either the Orbitrap or the linear ion trap for the HCD MS(3) scan. HCD MS(3) detection in the linear ion trap vs Orbitrap increased protein identification by 66% with minor loss in precision and accuracy. Thus, the use of a linear ion trap-HCD MS(3) scan during a 6-plex TMT experiment can improve overall identification levels while maintaining the power of multiplexed quantitative analysis. PMID:27377715

  6. Accuracy of pregnancy diagnosis and prediction of foetal numbers in sheep with linear-array real-time ultrasound scanning.

    PubMed

    Taverne, M A; Lavoir, M C; van Oord, R; van der Weyden, G C

    1985-10-01

    Pregnancy diagnosis was carried out in sheep by means of transabdominal linear-array real-time ultrasound scanning. Animals were restrained standing, and the transducer was placed on the hairless area of the ventral abdominal wall just in front of the udder. Of a total of 818 tests, 724 were performed between days 29 and 89 of pregnancy, 598 animals subsequently lambed and 126 were non-lambing animals. Only 8 of these tests were wrong: 3 false positive and 5 false negative diagnoses. Sensitivity, specificity, positive- and negative predictive values for these tests were 99.2%, 97.6%, 99.5%, and 96% respectively. There was evidence to indicate that the three false positive tests were caused by foetal mortality or unobserved abortions that took place after testing. Only 2 of the 5 false negative tests were carried out after day 39 of gestation. Counting of foetal numbers (1, 2 or 3) was performed in only some animals (n = 210) between days 45 and 77 of gestation. Three groups of animals (A: 89 ewes; B: 27 PMSG-treated ewes; C: 94 ewes) were analyzed separately. Overall accuracy of all predictions was 83.1%, 37.0% and 78.7% for the 3 groups respectively. Animals in group B produced only 3 or more lambs. Sensitivity of the countings of singles, twins and triplets or more were 90.4%, 90.4% and 50% respectively for the animals from group A and 91.9%, 86% and 21.4% for the animals from group C.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3907116

  7. Spectrally encoded slit confocal microscopy using a wavelength-swept laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Soocheol; Hwang, Jaehyun; Heo, Jung; Ryu, Suho; Lee, Donghak; Kim, Sang-Hoon; Oh, Seung Jae; Joo, Chulmin

    2015-03-01

    We present an implementation of spectrally encoded slit confocal microscopy. The method employs a rapid wavelength-swept laser as the light source and illuminates a specimen with a line focus that scans through the specimen as the wavelength sweeps. The reflected light from the specimen is imaged with a stationary line scan camera, in which the finite pixel height serves as a slit aperture. This scanner-free operation enables a simple and cost-effective implementation in a small form factor, while allowing for the three-dimensional imaging of biological samples.

  8. DNA Partitioning in Confining Nanofluidic Slits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenier, Madeline; Levy, Stephen

    We measure the partitioning of double stranded DNA molecules in moderately and strongly confining nanofluidic slit-like structures. Using fluorescent microscopy, the free energy penalty of confinement is inferred by comparing the concentration of DNA molecules in adjoining slits of different depths. These depths range in size from several persistence lengths to the DNA molecule's radius of gyration. The partition coefficient is determined as a function of the slit depth, DNA contour length, and DNA topology. We compare our results to theory and Monte Carlo simulations that predict the loss of free energy for ideal and semiflexible excluded volume polymers confined between parallel plates.

  9. Multilayer hexagonal silicon forming in slit nanopore

    PubMed Central

    He, Yezeng; Li, Hui; Sui, Yanwei; Qi, Jiqiu; Wang, Yanqing; Chen, Zheng; Dong, Jichen; Li, Xiongying

    2015-01-01

    The solidification of two-dimensional liquid silicon confined to a slit nanopore has been studied using molecular dynamics simulations. The results clearly show that the system undergoes an obvious transition from liquid to multilayer hexagonal film with the decrease of temperature, accompanied by dramatic change in potential energy, atomic volume, coordination number and lateral radial distribution function. During the cooling process, some hexagonal islands randomly appear in the liquid first, then grow up to grain nuclei, and finally connect together to form a complete polycrystalline film. Moreover, it is found that the quenching rate and slit size are of vital importance to the freezing structure of silicon film. The results also indicate that the slit nanopore induces the layering of liquid silicon, which further induces the slit size dependent solidification behavior of silicon film with different electrical properties. PMID:26435518

  10. Multilayer hexagonal silicon forming in slit nanopore.

    PubMed

    He, Yezeng; Li, Hui; Sui, Yanwei; Qi, Jiqiu; Wang, Yanqing; Chen, Zheng; Dong, Jichen; Li, Xiongying

    2015-01-01

    The solidification of two-dimensional liquid silicon confined to a slit nanopore has been studied using molecular dynamics simulations. The results clearly show that the system undergoes an obvious transition from liquid to multilayer hexagonal film with the decrease of temperature, accompanied by dramatic change in potential energy, atomic volume, coordination number and lateral radial distribution function. During the cooling process, some hexagonal islands randomly appear in the liquid first, then grow up to grain nuclei, and finally connect together to form a complete polycrystalline film. Moreover, it is found that the quenching rate and slit size are of vital importance to the freezing structure of silicon film. The results also indicate that the slit nanopore induces the layering of liquid silicon, which further induces the slit size dependent solidification behavior of silicon film with different electrical properties. PMID:26435518

  11. Radiation absorbed from dental implant radiography: a comparison of linear tomography, CT scan, and panoramic and intra-oral techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, D.E.; Danforth, R.A.; Barnes, R.W.; Burtch, M.L. )

    1990-01-01

    Absorbed radiation dose in bone marrow, thyroid, salivary gland, eye, and skin entrance was determined by placement of lithium fluoride thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD's) at selected anatomical sites within and on a human-like x-ray phantom. The phantom was exposed to radiation from linear tomographic and computer-assisted tomographic (CT) simulated dental implant radiographic examinations. The mean dose was determined for each anatomical site. Resulting dose measurements from linear tomography and computer-assisted tomography are compared with reported panoramic and intra-oral doses. CT examination delivered the greatest dose, while linear tomography was generally lowest. Panoramic and intra-oral doses were similar to those of linear tomography.

  12. Precision white-beam slit design for high power density x-ray undulator beamlines at the Advanced Photon Source

    SciTech Connect

    Shu, D.; Brite, C.; Nian, T.

    1994-12-01

    A set of precision horizontal and vertical white-beam slits has been designed for the Advanced Photon Source (APS) X-ray undulator beamlines at Argonne National Laboratory. There are several new design concepts applied in this slit set, including: grazing-incidence knife-edge configuration to minimize the scattering of X-rays downstream, enhanced heat transfer tubing to provide water cooling, and a second slit to eliminate the thermal distortion on the slit knife edge. The novel aspect of this design is the use of two L-shaped knife-edge assemblies, which are manipulated by two precision X-Z stepping linear actuators. The principal and structural details of the design for this slit set are presented in this paper.

  13. Three-slit interference: A duality relation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asad Siddiqui, Mohd; Qureshi, Tabish

    2015-08-01

    The issue of interference and which-way information is addressed in the context of three-slit interference experiments. A new path distinguishability DQ is introduced, based on unambiguous quantum state discrimination. An inequality connecting the interference visibility and path distinguishability, V + {2D_Qover 3- D_Q} ≤ 1, is derived which puts a bound on how much fringe visibility and which-way information can be simultaneously obtained. It is argued that this bound is tight. For two-slit interference, we derive a new duality relation which reduces to Englert's duality relation and the Greenberger-Yasin duality relation, in different limits.

  14. Training package 1 for slitting data analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Prime, Michael Bruce

    2015-03-23

    This document and accompanying files are intended as a first training package on how to analyze slitting data. The end goal is to have Idaho National Laboratory (INL) personnel trained to analyze future slitting data taken in the INL Hot Cell on clad, Low-Enriched Uranium (LEU) fuel plates. This first data package will cover data analysis for a monolithic material (as compared to a layered material like the clad fuel plates). The additional issues for layered specimens will be covered in a future training package.

  15. Diagnostic Accuracy of Ultrasound B scan using 10 MHz linear probe in ocular trauma;results from a high burden country

    PubMed Central

    Shazlee, Muhammad Kashif; Ali, Muhammad; SaadAhmed, Muhammad; Hussain, Ammad; Hameed, Kamran; Lutfi, Irfan Amjad; Khan, Muhammad Tahir

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To study the diagnostic accuracy of Ultrasound B scan using 10 MHz linear probe in ocular trauma. Methods: A total of 61 patients with 63 ocular injuries were assessed during July 2013 to January 2014. All patients were referred to the department of Radiology from Emergency Room since adequate clinical assessment of the fundus was impossible because of the presence of opaque ocular media. Based on radiological diagnosis, the patients were provided treatment (surgical or medical). Clinical diagnosis was confirmed during surgical procedures or clinical follow-up. Results: A total of 63 ocular injuries were examined in 61 patients. The overall sensitivity was 91.5%, Specificity was 98.87%, Positive predictive value was 87.62 and Negative predictive value was 99%. Conclusion: Ultrasound B-scan is a sensitive, non invasive and rapid way of assessing intraocular damage caused by blunt or penetrating eye injuries. PMID:27182245

  16. Polish device for FOCCoS/PFS slit system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Oliveira, Antonio Cesar; de Oliveira, Ligia Souza; de Arruda, Marcio V.; Souza Marrara, Lucas; dos Santos, Leandro Henrique; Ferreira, Décio; dos Santos, Jesulino Bispo; de Paiva Vilaça, Rodrigo; Rosa, Josimar Aparecido; Sodré Junior, Laerte; de Oliveira, Claudia Mendes

    2014-07-01

    The Fiber Optical Cable and Connector System, "FOCCoS", for the Prime Focus Spectrograph, "PFS", is responsible for transporting light from the Subaru Telescope focal plane to a set of four spectrographs. Each spectrograph will be fed by a convex curved slit with 616 optical fibers organized in a linear arrangement. The slit frontal surface is covered with a special dark composite, made with refractory oxide, which is able to sustain its properties with minimum quantities of abrasives during the polishing process; this stability is obtained This stability is obtained by the detachment of the refractory oxide nanoparticles, which then gently reinforce gently the polishing process and increase its the efficiency. The surface roughness measured in several samples after high performance polishing was about 0.01 microns. Furthermore, the time for obtaining a polished surface with this quality is about 10 times less than the time required for polishing a brass, glass or ceramic surface of the same size. In this paper, we describe the procedure developed for high quality polishing of this type of slit. The cylindrical polishing described here, uses cylindrical concave metal bases on which glass paper is based. The polishing process consists to use grid sequences of 30μm, 12μm, 9μm, 5μm, 3μm, 1μm and, finally, a colloidal silica on a chemical cloth. To obtain the maximum throughput, the surface of the fibers should be polished in such a way that they are optically flat and free from scratches. The optical fibers are inspected with a microscope at all stages of the polishing process to ensure high quality. The efficiency of the process may be improved by using a cylindrical concave composite base as a substrate suitable for diamond liquid solutions. Despite this process being completely by hand, the final result shows a very high quality.

  17. Flow Through Surface Mounted Continuous Slits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tariq, A.; Ali, M. A.; Gad-El-Hak, M.

    2014-11-01

    Ribs are used inside certain gas-turbine blades as passive devices to enhance heat transfer. Slits in those ribs are utilized to control the primary shear layer. The role of secondary flow through a continuous slit behind a surface mounted rib is investigated herein in a rectangular duct using hotwire anemometry and particle image velocimetry. Changing the open-area-ratio and the slit's location within the rib dominate the observed shear layer. The behavior of discrete Fourier modes of the velocity fluctuations generated by different configurations is explored. Two distinct flow mechanisms are observed in the rib's wake. Both mechanisms are explained on the basis of large-scale spectral peak in the shear layer. The results show the successful impact of changing the open-area-ratio by manipulating the small-scale vortices at the leeward corner of the rib, which is suspected to be the potential cause of surface ``hot spots'' in a variety of engineering devices with heat transfer. Eventually, the size and location of the slit are seen to be an additional parameter that can be used to control the fluid flow structures behind rib turbulators.

  18. Static and dynamic infrared linear dichroic study of a polyester/polyurethane copolymer using step-scan FT-IR and a photoelastic modulator

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, H.; Palmer, R.A.; Graff, D.K.; Schoonover, J.R.

    1999-06-01

    Dynamic infrared linear dichroism (DIRLD) measurements of films of a thermo-plastic polyester/polyurethane random copolymer (Estane 5703, B. F. Goodrich) are reported. Step-scan Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) is used for dynamic measurements, and a photoelastic modulator (PEM) is used to create broadband polarization modulation as the carrier frequency for the strain modulation. A novel modulation/demodulation strategy has been employed that simplifies the triple-modulation experiment into a double-modulation experiment; the theory is thoroughly discussed. Both static and dynamic dichroic absorption difference spectra have been measured on the prestretched polymer film. The results are of high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and clearly indicate the static and dynamic orientation of the transition dipole moments due to the tensile deformation. The dynamic orientation responses are primarily in phase with the perturbation. The orientation magnitudes of the infrared absorption bands are quantified and compared, and the orientations of the hard and soft domains are differentiated. To assist in the interpretation of the dynamically measured data, we also describe a static linear dichroic measurement using a wire-grid polarizer and FT-IR in the rapid-scan mode for a sample incrementally drawn until the point of breaking. The orientation functions of selected bands have been calculated, and the static results agree with the dynamic data, indicating the dependency of the dynamic orientation response on the preorientation state. {copyright} {ital 1999} {ital Society for Applied Spectroscopy}

  19. Analytical and Experimental Characterization of a Linear-Array Thermopile Scanning Radiometer for Geo-Synchronous Earth Radiation Budget Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sorensen, Ira J.

    1998-01-01

    The Thermal Radiation Group, a laboratory in the department of Mechanical Engineering at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, is currently working towards the development of a new technology for cavity-based radiometers. The radiometer consists of a 256-element linear-array thermopile detector mounted on the wall of a mirrored wedgeshaped cavity. The objective of this research is to provide analytical and experimental characterization of the proposed radiometer. A dynamic end-to-end opto-electrothermal model is developed to simulate the performance of the radiometer. Experimental results for prototype thermopile detectors are included. Also presented is the concept of the discrete Green's function to characterize the optical scattering of radiant energy in the cavity, along with a data-processing algorithm to correct for the scattering. Finally, a parametric study of the sensitivity of the discrete Green's function to uncertainties in the surface properties of the cavity is presented.

  20. Emittance formula for slits and pepper-pot measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, M.

    1996-10-01

    In this note, a rigid formula for slits and pepper-pot emittance measurement is derived. The derivation is based on the one- dimensional slit measurement setup. A mathematical generalization of the slit emittance formula to the pepper-pot measurement is discussed.

  1. Measuring Slit Width and Separation in a Diffraction Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gan, K. K.; Law, A. T.

    2009-01-01

    We present a procedure for measuring slit width and separation in single- and double-slit diffraction experiments. Intensity spectra of diffracted laser light are measured with an optical sensor (PIN diode). Slit widths and separations are extracted by fitting to the measured spectra. We present a simple fitting procedure to account for the…

  2. An antenna can be used for terahertz scanning imaging instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hanqi; Liu, Xin; Guo, Lantao; Deng, Chao; Zhang, Cunlin

    2015-08-01

    In order to satisfy needs which are efficient detection and miniaturization of terahertz scanning imaging instrument, a rectangular wave-guide antenna with lengthwise slits on the broad face is designed. The antenna has the advantages which are high aperture efficiency, compact structure, small volume, light weight, low cost, low side-lobe performance, narrow beam scanning and so on. At first, these parameters include slit length, slit distance, slit width and slit offset along the central axial of the broad face are calculated with the aid of related theory, then the antenna is modeled and optimized in the software. The simulation results show that the antenna can directly transmit and receive the terahertz wave at 0.1THz, the gain of the main lobe is higher, the gain of the side lobe is lower and main lobe presents the pencil beam. The results can provide reference for the revised design of terahertz scanning imaging instrument.

  3. Multi-long-slit Spectroscopy For Kinematic Studies. I. Implementation And Demonstration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walterbos, Rene A. M.; Choi, J.; Cisneros, S.; Patterson, M.; Wu, C.

    2007-12-01

    Several methods exist for spectroscopy of ionized gas to measure the kinematics of galaxies. These include single long-slit spectroscopy, or integral field spectroscopy where a multi-fiber or lenslet-array feeds a spectrograph, or an imaging Fabry-Perot. We demonstrate here another method for 2-dimensional spectroscopy, using a mask with several parallel long slits in combination with a narrow band filter. This enables observations at H-alpha for up to 16 slits simultaneously with the Apache Point Observatory's ARC-3.5m telescope, using a conventional optical spectrograph (the Double Imaging Spectrograph). Compared to most multi-fiber and lenslet integral field instruments, this setup allows for larger field of view. For our system, the 16 slits are distributed over a 4x5 arcmin sq. area. Compared to a Fabry-Perot, our method can be faster for obtaining 2-D velocity fields for disk galaxies since we do not require scanning an etalon through all velocity channels. Complete 2-D coverage can be obtained with our method too by stepping the telescope in position between exposures. Galaxies at different redshifts or other emission lines can be observed by changing the narrow band filter. The implementation is very inexpensive in terms of hardware cost and involves only production of a set of multi-long-slit masks and suitable filters. The spectral resolution we can obtain is typical of that of a medium resolution spectrograph, about 2-4 Angstrom depending on slit width and grating. We demonstrate the implementation through observations of the Owl nebula and the nearby spiral M33. This research was supported by an award from Research Corporation.

  4. Polarization dependent color switching by extra-ordinary transmission in H-slit plasmonic metasurface

    SciTech Connect

    Mandal, P.; Anantha Ramakrishna, S.; Patil, Raj; Venu Gopal, Achanta

    2013-12-14

    An array of H-shaped subwavelength slits in a plasmonic film has a polarization dependent extra-ordinary transmission due to shape anisotropy. Non-overlapping extra-ordinary transmission bands for the orthogonal linear polarization states of the input light are used to demonstrate a polarization dependent color switch. The fabricated array of submicron sized H-slits on a gold film displayed two transmission bands for the linear x- and y-polarized light at visible (650–850 nm) and near-infra-red (1150–1450 nm) bands, respectively. The relative transmitted light in these two bands can be controlled by changing the linear polarization state of the input radiation from 0° to 90°.

  5. Enhanced nonresonant light transmission through subwavelength slits in metal.

    PubMed

    Pors, Anders; Nerkararyan, Khachatur V; Sahakyan, Khachik; Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I

    2016-01-15

    We analytically describe light transmission through a single subwavelength slit in a thin perfect electric conductor screen for the incident polarization being perpendicular to the slit, and derive simple, yet accurate, expressions for the average electric field in the slit and the transmission efficiency. The analytic results are consistent with full-wave numerical calculations and demonstrate that slits of widths ∼100  nm in real metals may feature nonresonant (i.e., broadband) field enhancements of ∼100 and transmission efficiency of ∼10 at infrared or terahertz frequencies, with the associated metasurface-like array of slits becoming transparent to the incident light. PMID:26766684

  6. Development and Preliminary Testing of a High Precision Long Stroke Slit Change Mechanism for the SPICE Instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paciotti, Gabriel; Humphries, Martin; Rottmeier, Fabrice; Blecha, Luc

    2014-01-01

    In the frame of ESA's Solar Orbiter scientific mission, Almatech has been selected to design, develop and test the Slit Change Mechanism of the SPICE (SPectral Imaging of the Coronal Environment) instrument. In order to guaranty optical cleanliness level while fulfilling stringent positioning accuracies and repeatability requirements for slit positioning in the optical path of the instrument, a linear guiding system based on a double flexible blade arrangement has been selected. The four different slits to be used for the SPICE instrument resulted in a total stroke of 16.5 mm in this linear slit changer arrangement. The combination of long stroke and high precision positioning requirements has been identified as the main design challenge to be validated through breadboard models testing. This paper presents the development of SPICE's Slit Change Mechanism (SCM) and the two-step validation tests successfully performed on breadboard models of its flexible blade support system. The validation test results have demonstrated the full adequacy of the flexible blade guiding system implemented in SPICE's Slit Change Mechanism in a stand-alone configuration. Further breadboard test results, studying the influence of the compliant connection to the SCM linear actuator on an enhanced flexible guiding system design have shown significant enhancements in the positioning accuracy and repeatability of the selected flexible guiding system. Preliminary evaluation of the linear actuator design, including a detailed tolerance analyses, has shown the suitability of this satellite roller screw based mechanism for the actuation of the tested flexible guiding system and compliant connection. The presented development and preliminary testing of the high-precision long-stroke Slit Change Mechanism for the SPICE Instrument are considered fully successful such that future tests considering the full Slit Change Mechanism can be performed, with the gained confidence, directly on a

  7. Defect detection and size estimation in billet from profile of time-of-flight using ultrasonic transmission method with linear scanning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyamoto, Ryusuke; Mizutani, Koichi; Ebihara, Tadashi; Wakatsuki, Naoto

    2015-07-01

    In this study, defect detection and size estimation in billet by transmission method with linear scanning were carried out and the validity of the method was evaluated by numerical simulation. In addition, the suitable signal frequency and aperture of transducers were clarified. As a result, the following were found: a defect can be detected, signals with frequencies lower than those generally used in conventional ultrasonic testing (i.e., 0.5-1.5 MHz) are desirable, and the time-of-flight (TOF) deviation Δτ becomes largest when the wavelength at center frequency and the aperture of transducers are comparable. Defect size can be estimated when a single defect exists alone and the defect is not near the surface of a billet. Although defect size estimation becomes difficult when the defect is near the surface of a billet, the defect can be detected by our proposed method.

  8. The mechanics of slitting and cutting webs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meehan, Richard Raymond

    The quality of edges formed during cutting and slitting of thin polymer webs is important for many industrial applications. In order to control the edge quality of the separated material, it is necessary to understand cutting. A model is proposed and the mechanics of cutting are described. An apparatus was constructed to instrument, monitor and control the web slitting process. The slitting speed, tension in the web, blade sharpness and angle of cut were varied during tests. This allowed a quantitative understanding of the cutting mechanisms to be established. The results of the experiments showed the in-plane cutting forces were minimally affected by changes in rate or speed and independent of web tension for sharp blades. The angle of cut had a pronounced effect on the in-plane cutting forces and the stability of the cut. Further experimentation was designed to relate force to plastic deformation caused by a wedge indenting the edge surface of a polymer sample. These experiments clearly revealed the shape of the plastic deformation zone ahead of and around the wedges. Data from the experiments showed increasing cutting force with wedge displacement until the sample fractured. Plastic deformation of the samples was then examined in detail. The results showed out-of-plane plastic volume was equal to the volume displaced by the wedge. Samples also exhibited constant hardness during initial phases of wedge indenting. A finite element model concurred with the empirical plastic zone data. An innovative method was developed to take a dynamic "snapshot" of web displacement around the blade. The results clearly showed the web buckling ahead of the blade producing major instability during the cutting and slitting of thin webs. A finite element model supported the characteristics of the buckling phenomena observed in thin webs. An understanding of the interaction of cutting parameters and the buckling instability will allow quality web edges with minimal deformation and

  9. Precision white-beam slit design for high power-density x-ray undulator beamlines at the Advanced Photon Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shu, D.; Brite, C.; Nian, T.; Yun, W.; Haeffner, D. R.; Alp, E. E.; Ryding, D.; Collins, J.; Li, Y.; Kuzay, T. M.

    1995-02-01

    A set of precision horizontal and vertical white-beam slits has been designed for the Advanced Photon Source x-ray undulator beamlines at Argonne National Laboratory. There are several new design concepts applied in this slit set, including a grazing-incidence knife-edge configuration to minimize the scattering of x rays downstream, enhanced heat transfer tubing to provide water cooling, and a secondary slit to eliminate the thermal distortion on the slit knife edge. The novel aspect of this design is the use of two L-shaped knife-edge assemblies, which are manipulated by two precision X-Z stepping linear actuators. The principal and structural details of the design for this slit set are presented in this paper.

  10. An Eye-adapted Beamforming for Axial B-scans Free from Crystalline Lens Aberration: In vitro and ex vivo Results with a 20 MHz Linear Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matéo, Tony; Mofid, Yassine; Grégoire, Jean-Marc; Ossant, Frédéric

    In ophtalmic ultrasonography, axial B-scans are seriously deteriorated owing to the presence of the crystalline lens. This strongly aberrating medium affects both spatial and contrast resolution and causes important distortions. To deal with this issue, an adapted beamforming (BF) has been developed and experimented with a 20 MHz linear array working with a custom US research scanner. The adapted BF computes focusing delays that compensate for crystalline phase aberration, including refraction effects. This BF was tested in vitro by imaging a wire phantom through an eye phantom consisting of a synthetic gelatin lens, shaped according to the unaccommodated state of an adult human crystalline lens, anatomically set up in an appropriate liquid (turpentine) to approach the in vivo velocity ratio. Both image quality and fidelity from the adapted BF were assessed and compared with conventional delay-and-sum BF over the aberrating medium. Results showed 2-fold improvement of the lateral resolution, greater sensitivity and 90% reduction of the spatial error (from 758 μm to 76 μm) with adapted BF compared to conventional BF. Finally, promising first ex vivo axial B-scans of a human eye are presented.

  11. Interaction of the guidance molecule Slit with cellular receptors.

    PubMed

    Hohenester, E; Hussain, S; Howitt, J A

    2006-06-01

    Slits are large secreted glycoproteins characterized by an unusual tandem of four LRR (leucine-rich repeat) domains in their N-terminal half. Slit proteins were initially described as repulsive guidance cues in neural development, but it has become clear that they have additional important functions, for instance in the vasculature and immune system. Genetic studies have identified two types of cellular receptors for Slits: Robos (Roundabout) and the HS (heparan sulphate) proteoglycan syndecan. The intracellular signalling cascade downstream of Robo activation is slowly being elucidated, but the mechanism of transmembrane signalling by Robo has remained obscure. No active signalling role for syndecan has yet been demonstrated. Slit-HS interactions may be important for shaping the presumed Slit gradient or presenting Slit at its target cell surface. Recent studies have mapped the binding sites for Robos and HS/heparin to discrete Slit domains. Robos bind to the second LRR domain of Slit, whereas HS/heparin binds with very high affinity to the C-terminal portion of Slit. Slit activity is likely to be modulated by physiological proteolytic cleavage in the region separating the Robo and HS/heparin-binding sites. PMID:16709176

  12. Approximation theory for boundary layer suction through individual slits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walz, A.

    1979-01-01

    The basic concepts of influencing boundary layers are summarized, especially the prevention of flow detachment and the reduction of frictional resistance. A mathematical analysis of suction through a slit is presented with two parameters, for thickness and for shape of the boundary layer, being introduced to specify the flow's velocity profile behind the slit. An approximation of the shape parameter produces a useful formula, which can be used to determine the most favorable position of the slit. An aerodynamic example is given.

  13. Transmission resonances of metallic compound gratings with subwavelength slits.

    PubMed

    Skigin, Diana C; Depine, Ricardo A

    2005-11-18

    Transmission metallic gratings with subwavelength slits are known to produce enhanced transmitted intensity for certain resonant wavelengths. One of the mechanisms that produce these resonances is the excitation of waveguide modes inside the slits. We show that by adding slits to the period, the transmission maxima are widened and, simultaneously, this generates phase resonances that appear as sharp dips in the transmission response. These resonances are characterized by a significant enhancement of the interior field. PMID:16384182

  14. Note: Compact, two-dimension translatable slit aperture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, R. S.; Thornberry, T. D.; McLaughlin, R. J.; Fahey, D. W.

    2013-11-01

    A compact, light-weight, two-dimension translatable slit aperture is described. The slit dimensions are scalable, allowing for wide application. With all metal construction, the device would be suitable for high temperature degassing and vacuum compatible. Alternatively, the main structure may be printed using a 3D printer for rapid prototyping and/or lighter weight. The precision of the slit movement is 0.014 mm.

  15. Axial ultrasound B-scans of the entire eye with a 20-MHz linear array: correction of crystalline lens phase aberration by applying Fermat's principle.

    PubMed

    Mateo, Tony; Chang, Alexandre; Mofid, Yassine; Pisella, Pierre-Jean; Ossant, Frederic

    2014-11-01

    In ophthalmic ultrasonography the crystalline lens is known to be the main source of phase aberration, causing a significant decrease in resolution and distortion effects on axial B-scans. This paper proposes a computationally efficient method to correct the phase aberration arising from the crystalline lens, including refraction effects using a bending ray tracing approach based on Fermat's principle. This method is used as a basis to perform eye-adapted beamforming (BF), with appropriate focusing delays for a 128-element 20-MHz linear array in both emission and reception. Implementation was achieved on an in-house developed experimental ultrasound scanning device, the ECODERM. The proposed BF was tested in vitro by imaging a wire phantom through an eye phantom consisting of a synthetic gelatin lens anatomically set up in an appropriate liquid (turpentine) to approach the in vivo velocity ratio. Both extremes of accommodation shapes of the human crystalline lens were investigated. The performance of the developed BF was evaluated in relation to that in homogeneous medium and compared to a conventional delay-and-sum (DAS) BF and a second adapted BF which was simplified to ignore the lens refraction. Global expectations provided by our method with the transducer array are reviewed by an analysis quantifying both image quality and spatial fidelity, as well as the detrimental effects of a crystalline lens in conventional reconstruction. Compared to conventional array imaging, the results indicated a two-fold improvement in the lateral resolution, greater sensitivity and a considerable reduction of spatial distortions that were sufficient to envisage reliable biometry directly in B-mode, especially phakometry. PMID:24988589

  16. Modifications to improve entrance slit thermal stability for grasshopper monochromators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallace, Daniel J.; Rogers, Gregory C.; Crossley, Sherry L.

    1994-08-01

    As new monochromators are designed for high-flux storage rings, computer modeling and thermal engineering can be done to process increased heat loads and achieve mechanical stability. Several older monochromators, such as the Mark 2 and Mark 5 Grasshopper monochromators, which were designed in 1974, have thermal instabilities in their entrance slit mechanisms. The Grasshoppers operating with narrow slits experience closure of the entrance slit from thermal expansion. In extreme cases, the thermal expansion of the precision components has caused permanent mechanical damage, leaving the slit uncalibrated and/or inoperable. For the Mark 2 and Mark 5 Grasshopper monochromators at the Synchrotron Radiation Center, the original 440 stainless steel entrance slit jaws were retrofitted with an Invar (low expansion Fe, Ni alloy) slit jaw. To transfer the heat from the critical components, two flexible heat straps of Cu were attached. These changes allow safe operation with a 10 μm entrance slit width where the previous limit was 30 μm. After an initial 2 min equilibration, the slit remains stable to 10%, with 100 mA of beam current. Additional improvements in slit thermal stability are planned for a third Grasshopper.

  17. Multi-slit mask fabrication on spherical electroformed shell substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Brien, Thomas P.; Eastman, Jason D.

    2006-06-01

    We discuss the application of modern precision electroforming technology to the fabrication of multi-slit masks used for multi-object spectroscopy. Electroforming technology is capable of producing very accurate compound curved thin metal shells using nickel or nickel-cobalt material. The curved slit masks can be fabricated to conform to a curved focal surface of spherical, conic, or arbitrary shape. A variety of optical coatings including gold and extremely low reflectivity copper oxide can be applied to the electroformed mask substrate prior to cutting slits. Precise rectangular slits and apertures of arbitrary shape are readily machined in the nickel materials using a three axis YAG laser machining system.

  18. Extreme Multi-Slit Spectroscopy with GMOX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robberto, Massimo; Heckman, Tim; Gennaro, Mario; Deustua, Susana; MacKenty, John W.; Ninkov, Zoran; Becker, George; Bianchi, Luciana; Bellini, Andrea; Calamida, Annalisa; Kalirai, Jason; Lotz, Jennifer; Sabbi, Elena; Tumlinson, Jason; Smee, Stephen; Barkhouser, Robert

    2015-08-01

    GMOX is a wide-bandwidth, moderate-resolution, multi-object spectrograph recently selected in the last Gemini Instrument Feasibility Study phase for the next facility instrument (Gen4#3). It is designed to operate at the Multi-Conjugate AO system of Gemini South (GeMs), which delivers a 90"x90" AO corrected field of view with Strehl ratio as high as 0.3 in the K-band. GMOX uses two dichroics to split the field in three modules (Blue, Red, and IR) covering the full spectral range from U to K. Each module is equipped with a Digital Micromirror Devices (DMDs) of the latest generation providing 1.1 million randomly addressable slits. Each DMD feeds a spectroscopic channel at R=4000 and a parallel imaging channel for slit alignment, monitoring and ancillary science. Exploiting the exquisit optical quality of GeMs, GMOX reaches unparalleled sensitivity and spatial resolution in crowded fields; it will represent an ideal tool to advance our understanding of star clusters and stellar populations in our Galaxy and beyond.

  19. Stowage and Deployment of Slit Tube Booms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, Larry (Inventor); Turse, Dana (Inventor); Richardson, Doug (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A system comprising a boom having a first end, a longitudinal length, and a slit that extends along the longitudinal length of the boom; a drum having an elliptic cross section and a longitudinal length; an attachment mechanism coupled with the first end of the boom and the drum such that the boom and the drum are substantially perpendicular relative to one another; an inner shaft having a longitudinal length, the inner shaft disposed within the drum, the longitudinal length of the inner shaft is aligned substantially parallel with the longitudinal length of the drum, the inner shaft at least partially rotatable relative to the drum, and the inner shaft is at least partially rotatable with the drum; and at least two cords coupled with the inner shaft and portions of the boom near the first end of the boom.

  20. Single-Slit Diffraction and the Uncertainty Principle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rioux, Frank

    2005-01-01

    A theoretical analysis of single-slit diffraction based on the Fourier transform between coordinate and momentum space is presented. The transform between position and momentum is used to illuminate the intimate relationship between single-slit diffraction and uncertainty principle.

  1. A virtual slit for atom optics and nanolithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, A. P.; Berggren, K. K.; Johnson, K. S.; Prentiss, M. G.

    1996-06-01

    We propose a simple `virtual slit' for atoms based on the position- and velocity-dependent optical pumping of atoms into an undetected internal state. We show how this slit can be used as a nanometre scale, high-contrast tool for atom lithography as well as a subrecoil collimator for atomic beams.

  2. Mobilizing slit lamp to the field: A new affordable solution.

    PubMed

    Farooqui, Javed Hussain; Jorgenson, Richard; Gomaa, Ahmed

    2015-11-01

    We are describing a simple and affordable design to pack and carry the slit lamp to the field. Orbis staff working on the Flying Eye Hospital (FEH) developed this design to facilitate mobilization of the slit lamp to the field during various FEH programs. The solution involves using a big toolbox, a central plywood apparatus, and foam. These supplies were cut to measure and used to support the slit lamp after being fitted snuggly in the box. This design allows easy and safe mobilization of the slit lamp to remote places. It was developed with the efficient use of space in mind and it can be easily reproduced in developing countries using same or similar supplies. Mobilizing slit lamp will be of great help for staff and institutes doing regular outreach clinical work. PMID:26669342

  3. Mobilizing slit lamp to the field: A new affordable solution

    PubMed Central

    Farooqui, Javed Hussain; Jorgenson, Richard; Gomaa, Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    We are describing a simple and affordable design to pack and carry the slit lamp to the field. Orbis staff working on the Flying Eye Hospital (FEH) developed this design to facilitate mobilization of the slit lamp to the field during various FEH programs. The solution involves using a big toolbox, a central plywood apparatus, and foam. These supplies were cut to measure and used to support the slit lamp after being fitted snuggly in the box. This design allows easy and safe mobilization of the slit lamp to remote places. It was developed with the efficient use of space in mind and it can be easily reproduced in developing countries using same or similar supplies. Mobilizing slit lamp will be of great help for staff and institutes doing regular outreach clinical work. PMID:26669342

  4. White Beam Slits and Pink Beam Slits for the Hard X-ray Nanoprobe Beamline at the Advanced Photon Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benson, C.; Jaski, Y.; Maser, J.; Powers, T.; Schmidt, O.; Rossi, E.

    2007-01-01

    A new type of slit has been designed for use in the hard x-ray nanoprobe beamline at the Advanced Photon Source (APS). The design incorporates monolithic GlidCop slit bodies mounted to commercially available x-y drive systems. Long, tapered apertures with adjacent water-cooling channels intercept the x-ray beam, removing the high heat load produced by two collinear APS undulators. The apertures are L-shaped and provide both horizontal and vertical slits. The beam-defining edges, positioned at the end of the tapered surfaces, consist of two sets of tungsten blades. These blades produce an exit beam with sharp corners and assure a clean cut-off for the white beam edges. The slit assembly is designed to allow overlap of the slit edges to stop the beam. The white beam slit design accommodates 3100 W of total power with a peak power density of 763 W/mm2. The pink beam slit design accommodates 400 W of total power with a peak power density of 180 W/mm2. Detailed thermal analyses were performed to verify the slits' accuracy under full beam loading. The new concept allows beamline operations to 180 mA with a simplified design approach.

  5. White beam slits and pink beam slits for the hard x-ray nanoprobe beamline at the Advanced Photon Source.

    SciTech Connect

    Benson, C.; Jaski, Y.; Maser, J.; Powers, T.; Schmidt, O.; Rossi, E.

    2007-01-01

    A new type of slit has been designed for use in the hard x-ray nanoprobe beamline at the Advanced Photon Source (APS). The design incorporates monolithic GlidCop slit bodies mounted to commercially available x-y drive systems. Long, tapered apertures with adjacent water-cooling channels intercept the x-ray beam, removing the high heat load produced by two collinear APS undulators. The apertures are L-shaped and provide both horizontal and vertical slits. The beam-defining edges, positioned at the end of the tapered surfaces, consist of two sets of tungsten blades. These blades produce an exit beam with sharp corners and assure a clean cut-off for the white beam edges. The slit assembly is designed to allow overlap of the slit edges to stop the beam. The white beam slit design accommodates 3100 W of total power with a peak power density of 763 W/mm2. The pink beam slit design accommodates 400 W of total power with a peak power density of 180 W/mm2. Detailed thermal analyses were performed to verify the slits accuracy under full beam loading. The new concept allows beamline operations to 180 mA with a simplified design approach.

  6. White Beam Slits and Pink Beam Slits for the Hard X-ray Nanoprobe Beamline at the Advanced Photon Source

    SciTech Connect

    Benson, C.; Jaski, Y.; Powers, T.; Schmidt, O.; Rossi, E.; Maser, J.

    2007-01-19

    A new type of slit has been designed for use in the hard x-ray nanoprobe beamline at the Advanced Photon Source (APS). The design incorporates monolithic GlidCop slit bodies mounted to commercially available x-y drive systems. Long, tapered apertures with adjacent water-cooling channels intercept the x-ray beam, removing the high heat load produced by two collinear APS undulators. The apertures are L-shaped and provide both horizontal and vertical slits. The beam-defining edges, positioned at the end of the tapered surfaces, consist of two sets of tungsten blades. These blades produce an exit beam with sharp corners and assure a clean cut-off for the white beam edges. The slit assembly is designed to allow overlap of the slit edges to stop the beam.The white beam slit design accommodates 3100 W of total power with a peak power density of 763 W/mm2. The pink beam slit design accommodates 400 W of total power with a peak power density of 180 W/mm2. Detailed thermal analyses were performed to verify the slits' accuracy under full beam loading. The new concept allows beamline operations to 180 mA with a simplified design approach.

  7. A system for slit-lamp polaroid photography.

    PubMed

    Miller, D; Taube, J; Miller, R; Gleason, W; Babyn, P; Moon, J; Weiss, J N

    1981-05-01

    A system is described in which a SX-70, Alpha Model II, Polaroid, single lens reflex camera, and photoflash unit can be quickly and sturdily mounted to a slit lamp. Such a system can take sharp anterior segment prints of the eye at all slit-lamp magnifications, with white light and in the flourescein mode. The heart of the unit is the modification of an assembly initially designed to attach the camera to a light microscope. The small flash unit and power supply were designed specifically for slit lamp usage. Examples of "instant" photos of the anterior segment at different magnifications are presented. PMID:7266974

  8. Long slit spectroscopy of NGC 5506

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanga, R. M.; Maiolino, R.; Rodriguezespinosa, J. M.

    1993-01-01

    The galaxy NGC 5506 hosts an active nucleus, that presents characteristics that are intermediate between Sy1 and Sy2. We discuss long slit spectra of NGC 5506 in the ranges 4675-5475 A and 6300-7125 A, that were obtained at three different position angles, in Apr. 1991 at the WHT 4.2 m telescope. The peculiar kinematics of the emitting gas has already been observed by other researchers; following the model proposed by the other researchers, that the emitting gas is located in two cones, we determined the aperture of the cones. The data, moreover, support the hypothesis that the gas is receding from the nucleus. We modelled the intensity and the ratios of the emission lines, and verified that the active nucleus of NGC 5506 can be described as a Sy1 nucleus, with the UV-X source that is partially obscured to our line of sight. On the contrary, a good fraction of the interstellar gas of the galaxy is directly illuminated and photoionized by the central source. Our data show evidence of star formation close to the nucleus; we estimated the star formation rate, that is high with respect to 'normal' spirals, but not high enough to be comparable to star formation rates in a starburst galaxy.

  9. Corneal astigmatism measuring module for slit lamps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ventura, L.; Riul, C.; Sousa, S. J. F.; DeGroote, J. G. S.; Rosa Filho, A. B.; Oliveira, G. C. D.

    2006-06-01

    We have developed an automatic keratometer module for slit lamps that provides automatic measurements of the radii of the corneal curvature. The system projects 72 light spots displayed in a precise circle at the examined cornea. The displacement and deformation of the reflected image of these light spots are analysed providing the keratometry. Measurements in the range of 26.8-75 D can be obtained and a self-calibration system has been specially designed in order to keep the system calibrated. Infrared LEDs indicate automatically which eye is being examined. Volunteer patients (492) have been submitted to the system and the results show that our system has a high correlation factor with the commercially available manual keratometers and the keratometry measurements from a topographer. Our developed system is 95% in agreement with the corneal topographer (Humphrey—Atlas 995 CZM) and the manual keratometer (Topcon OM-4). The system's nominal precision is 0.05 mm for the radii of curvature and 1° for the associated axis. This research has been supported by Fundação de Apoio à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP).

  10. Springback Prediction on Slit-Ring Test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xiao Ming; Shi, Ming F.; Ren, Feng; Xia, Z. Cedric

    2005-08-01

    Advanced high strength steels (AHSS) are increasingly being used in the automotive industry to reduce vehicle weight while improving vehicle crash performance. One of the concerns in manufacturing is springback control after stamping. Although computer simulation technologies have been successfully applied to predict stamping formability, they still face major challenges in springback prediction, particularly for AHSS. Springback analysis is very complicated and involves large deformation problems in the forming stage and mechanical multiplying effect during the elastic recovery after releasing a part from the die. Therefore, the predictions are very sensitive to the simulation parameters used. It is very critical in springback simulation to choose an appropriate material model, element formulation and contact algorithm. In this study, a springback benchmark test, the slit ring cup, is used in the springback simulation with commercially available finite element analysis (FEA) software, LS-DYNA. The sensitivity of seven simulation variables on springback predictions was investigated, and a set of parameters with stable simulation results was identified. Final simulations using the selected set of parameters were conducted on six different materials including two AHSS steels, two conventional high strength steels, one mild steel and an aluminum alloy. The simulation results are compared with experimental measurements for all six materials and a favorable result is achieved. Simulation errors as compared against test results falls within 10%.

  11. Springback Prediction on Slit-Ring Test

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Xiaoming; Shi, Ming F.; Ren Feng; Xia, Z. Cedric

    2005-08-05

    Advanced high strength steels (AHSS) are increasingly being used in the automotive industry to reduce vehicle weight while improving vehicle crash performance. One of the concerns in manufacturing is springback control after stamping. Although computer simulation technologies have been successfully applied to predict stamping formability, they still face major challenges in springback prediction, particularly for AHSS. Springback analysis is very complicated and involves large deformation problems in the forming stage and mechanical multiplying effect during the elastic recovery after releasing a part from the die. Therefore, the predictions are very sensitive to the simulation parameters used. It is very critical in springback simulation to choose an appropriate material model, element formulation and contact algorithm. In this study, a springback benchmark test, the slit ring cup, is used in the springback simulation with commercially available finite element analysis (FEA) software, LS-DYNA. The sensitivity of seven simulation variables on springback predictions was investigated, and a set of parameters with stable simulation results was identified. Final simulations using the selected set of parameters were conducted on six different materials including two AHSS steels, two conventional high strength steels, one mild steel and an aluminum alloy. The simulation results are compared with experimental measurements for all six materials and a favorable result is achieved. Simulation errors as compared against test results falls within 10%.

  12. Semiclassical simulation of the double-slit experiments with single photons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rashkovskiy, Sergey A.

    2015-12-01

    Many quantum phenomena, traditionally described by quantum electrodynamics, can be calculated within the framework of so-called semiclassical theory, in which atoms are described by the wave equations of quantum mechanics (Schrödinger, Dirac, etc.), while light is described by classical electrodynamics without quantization of the radiation. These phenomena include the photoelectric effect, the Compton effect, the Lamb shift, radiative effects, spontaneous emission, the Hanbury Brown and Twiss effect, etc. In this paper, I show that the double-slit experiment can also be calculated in detail in terms of semiclassical theory if we take into account the discrete (atomic) structure of matter. I show that the results of a semiclassical simulation of the "linear" double-slit experiment coincide with predictions of wave theory only for low-intensity light and for short exposure time, while stricter dependences exist for long-term exposure. The semiclassical theory is used for calculation of the "nonlinear" double-slit experiment with an intense laser beam in which multiphoton and tunnel excitation of atoms on a photographic plate occurs. The Born rule for light is derived from the semiclassical theory.

  13. A Computational and Experimental Study of Slit Resonators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tam, C. K. W.; Ju, H.; Jones, M. G.; Watson, W. R.; Parrott, T. L.

    2003-01-01

    Computational and experimental studies are carried out to offer validation of the results obtained from direct numerical simulation (DNS) of the flow and acoustic fields of slit resonators. The test cases include slits with 90-degree corners and slits with 45-degree bevel angle housed inside an acoustic impedance tube. Three slit widths are used. Six frequencies from 0.5 to 3.0 kHz are chosen. Good agreement is found between computed and measured reflection factors. In addition, incident sound waves having white noise spectrum and a prescribed pseudo-random noise spectrum are used in subsequent series of tests. The computed broadband results are again found to agree well with experimental data. It is believed the present results provide strong support that DNS can eventually be a useful and accurate prediction tool for liner aeroacoustics. The usage of DNS as a design tool is discussed and illustrated by a simple example.

  14. Optical design of MWIR imaging spectrometer with a cold slit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Shiyao; Wang, Yueming; Qian, Liqun; Yuan, Liyin; Wang, Jianyu

    2016-05-01

    MWIR imaging spectrometer is promising in detecting spectral signature of high temperature object such as jet steam, guided missile and explosive gas. This paper introduces an optical design of a MWIR imaging spectrometer with a cold slit sharply reducing the stray radiation from exterior environment and interior structure. The spectrometer is composed of a slit, a spherical prism as disperser, two concentric spheres and a correction lens. It has a real entrance pupil to match the objective and for setting the infrared cold shield near the slit and a real exit pupil to match the cold shield of the focal plane array (FPA). There are two cooled parts, one includes the aperture stop and slit, and the other is the exit pupil and the FPA with two specially positioned cooled shields. A detailed stray radiation analysis is represented which demonstrates the outstanding effect of this system in background radiation restraint.

  15. Slit observations and empirical calculations for HII regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandes, I. F.; Gruenwald, R.; Viegas, S. M.

    2005-12-01

    When analysing HII regions, a possible source of systematic error on empirically derived quantities, such as the gas temperature and the chemical composition, is the limited size of the slit used for the observations. In order to evaluate this type of systematic error, we use the photoionization code AANGABA to create a virtual photoionized region and mimic the effect of a slit observation. A grid of models was built varying the ionizing radiation spectrum emitted by a central stellar cluster, as well as the gas abundance. The calculated line surface brightness was then used to simulate slit observations and to derive empirical parameters using the usual methods described in the literature. Depending on the fraction of the object covered by the slit, the empirically derived physical parameters and chemical composition can be different from those obtained from observations of the whole object. This effect is mainly dependent on the age of the ionizing stellar cluster. The low-ionization lines, which originate in the outer layers of the ionized gas, are more sensitive to the size of the area covered by the slit than the high-ionization forbidden lines or recombination lines, because these lines are mainly produced closer to the inner radius of the nebula. For a slit covering 50 per cent or less of the total area, the measured [OIII], [OII] and [OI] line intensities are less than 78, 62 and 58 per cent of the total intensity for a young HII region (t < 3 Myr); for older objects the effect due to the slit is less significant. Regarding the temperature indicator T[OIII], the slit effects are small (usually less than 5 per cent) because this temperature is derived from [OIII] high-ionization lines. On the other hand, for the abundance (and temperature) indicator R23, which depends also on the [OII] line, the slit effect is slightly higher. Therefore, the systematic error due to slit observations on the O abundance is low, being usually less than 10 per cent, except for

  16. Young's double-slit experiment in photonic crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Lei; Koschny, Thomas; Soukoulis, Costas M.

    2012-10-01

    We present an experimental and numerical study of the transmission of a photonic crystal perforated by two sub-wavelength slits, separated by two wavelengths.The experimental near-field image of the double-slit design of the photonic crystal shows an interference pattern, which is analogous to Young’s experiment. This interference arises as a consequence of the excitation of surface states of the photonic crystals and agrees very well with the simulations.

  17. Construction of pre-slit system of Chinese SONG spectrograph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Pengfei; Hu, Zhongwen; Dai, Songxin

    2015-10-01

    The pre-slit system of Chinese SONG spectrograph is a multi-function unit. The main function is to direct the incoming light from the coudé path to the entrance slit of the spectrograph. The specific functions includes maintaining exit pupil stable, fast guiding and telescope focus corrections. The original optics of this pre-slit system were designed by Aarhus University in Denmark. We built the system and designed the software for it. This system holds a guide/slit-viewing camera, a pupil-viewing camera, two tip-tilt mirrors and its tip-tilt controllers. So it includes two sets of the fast-steering mirror systems applied to image tracking and correction. When this image tracking and correction systems is running, the real-time software algorithm will be presented and simulated simultaneously. From the images taken with camera, a closed loop signals are generated for the tip-tilt mirror to correct image motion. When the camera exposure time is 25ms,the correcting frequency of slit imge tip-tilt motion is about 30Hz. The correcting frequency of pupil imge tip-tilt motion is about 1Hz. In addition, a temperature control system surrounding the spectrograph is necessary to keep spectrograph at a constant temperature. The test results shows that the error is about +/-0.005°C in 69.4 hours. The results prove that the pre-slit system of Chinese SONG spectrograph is effective and feasible.

  18. Scanning, Scanning, Everywhere.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ekhaml, Leticia; Myers, Brenda

    1997-01-01

    Discusses uses of scanning (process of copying or converting text, images, and objects into information that the computer can recognize and manipulate) in schools and notes possible desktop publishing projects. Describes popular scanners and ways to edit a scanned image. A sidebar gives costs and telephone numbers for nine scanners. (AEF)

  19. Nanoscale plasmonic devices for dynamically controllable beam focusing and scanning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Çetin, A. E.; Sennaroglu, A.; Müstecaplıoğlu, Ö. E.

    2010-01-01

    We have performed simulations to investigate the variable focusing and scanning capability of metallic nano-slit configurations. In a symmetric nanorod configuration inside an aperture with adjustable offset of the center rod, the focal position is found to be variable in the 0.5-3.5 μm range. In a ladder configuration of the rods, the transmitted beam is found to be deflected up to 23°. Horizontal displacement of rods allows for finer control of angular scanning up to 4°. Such slit geometries offer the potential to be controlled by using nano-positioning systems for applications in dynamic beam shaping and scanning on the nanoscale.

  20. Boundary-Layer Effects on Acoustic Transmission Through Narrow Slit Cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, G. P.; Lovelock, R. K.; Murray, A. R. J.; Hibbins, A. P.; Sambles, J. R.; Smith, J. D.

    2015-07-01

    We explore the slit-width dependence of the resonant transmission of sound in air through both a slit array formed of aluminum slats and a single open-ended slit cavity in an aluminum plate. Our experimental results accord well with Lord Rayleigh's theory concerning how thin viscous and thermal boundary layers at a slit's walls affect the acoustic wave across the whole slit cavity. By measuring accurately the frequencies of the Fabry-Perot-like cavity resonances, we find a significant 5% reduction in the effective speed of sound through the slits when an individual viscous boundary layer occupies only 5% of the total slit width. Importantly, this effect is true for any airborne slit cavity, with the reduction being achieved despite the slit width being on a far larger scale than an individual boundary layer's thickness. This work demonstrates that the recent prevalent loss-free treatment of narrow slit cavities within acoustic metamaterials is unrealistic.

  1. Weighted slit extraction of low-dispersion IUE spectral data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kinney, A. L.; Bohlin, R. C.; Neill, J. D.

    1991-01-01

    The weighted slit extraction has been chosen by the IUE project as the standard extraction for low-dispersion spectra in the final IUE archives. In order to properly weight the data within the extraction slit and obtain the optimal evaluation of the true spectrum, a noise model is derived for IUE data. The exclusion of cosmic rays is demonstrated and the improvement in signal-to-noise ratio is quantified for spectra taken with a wide range of flux level. Problematic spectra, such as trailed spectra, multiple spectra, discontinuous spectra, and emission-line spectra, are extracted to demonstrate the robust nature of the method. Comparisons are made between the standard IUE Standard Image Processing System (IUESIPS) extraction, nonstandard narrow slit extraction, trailed IUESIPS extraction, and weighted extraction for these data. Other weighted slit extractions are briefly discussed. The advantages of the weighted slit extraction are: (1) the extraction improves the signal-to-noise ratio of the spectrum while conserving total flux; (2) most of the cosmic rays are automatically removed; (3) the output includes an error estimate for each point in the flux spectrum; and (4) the algorithm can be run in a batch mode that requires no special input parameters.

  2. Optical Scanner for Linear Arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finkel, M. W.

    1986-01-01

    Optical scanner instantaneously reads contiguous lines forming scene or target in object plane. Reading active or passive and scans, continuous or discrete. Scans essentially linear with scan angle and symmetric about axial ray. Nominal focal error, resulting from curvature of scan, well within Rayleigh limit. Scanner specifically designed to be fully compatible with general requirements of linear arrays.

  3. Point source diffraction by a slit in a moving fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nawaz, Rab; Naeem, Amjad; Ayub, Muhammad; Javaid, Akmal

    2014-10-01

    The diffraction of a spherical acoustic wave generated by a point source from impedance slit in a moving fluid is investigated. The diffracted wave is calculated in the far field regime as a sum of fields produced by the edges of the slit and an incident field. The Myers' impedance conditions are assumed along the edges of the slit. Such conditions are well adopted for the boundaries of the impedance barriers and yield reliable predictions of the diffraction patterns. A Wiener-Hopf technique is invoked to resolve the problem in combination with Fourier transform techniques and asymptotic analysis. The appositeness of the results and the effect of pertinent physical parameters on the separated field are presented and analyzed graphically.

  4. Optical field and attractive force at the subwavelength slit.

    PubMed

    Shapiro, David; Nies, Daniel; Belai, Oleg; Wurm, Matthias; Nesterov, Vladimir

    2016-07-11

    In recent works, a novel light-induced attractive force was predicted between two metal plates. This force arises by the interaction of surface plasmons which are excited at the metal when a transverse magnetic mode propagates through a subwavelength slit between two metal bodies. In this paper, the analytical and numerical calculations of this magnetic field are presented for the perfect metal and for gold. The amplitude and the phase transient curves between the known limiting cases of narrow and wide slits compared to the wavelength are found. The curve is shown to oscillate due to the emergence of new waveguide modes. The analytic solution for the perfect metal is in agreement with the computation for gold by means of the finite element method. The simple asymptotic formula for the light-induced attractive force is found in the limit of a narrow slit. PMID:27410865

  5. Arachnoid cyst slit valves: the mechanism for arachnoid cyst enlargement.

    PubMed

    Halani, Sameer H; Safain, Mina G; Heilman, Carl B

    2013-07-01

    Arachnoid cysts are common, accounting for approximately 1% of intracranial mass lesions. Most are congenital, clinically silent, and remain static in size. Occasionally, they increase in size and produce symptoms due to mass effect or obstruction. The mechanism of enlargement of arachnoid cysts is controversial. One-way slit valves are often hypothesized as the mechanism for enlargement. The authors present 4 cases of suprasellar prepontine arachnoid cysts in which a slit valve was identified. The patients presented with hydrocephalus due to enlargement of the cyst. The valve was located in the arachnoid wall of the cyst directly over the basilar artery. The authors believe this slit valve was responsible for the net influx of CSF into the cyst and for its enlargement. They also present 1 case of an arachnoid cyst in the middle cranial fossa that had a small circular opening but lacked a slit valve. This cyst did not enlarge but surgery was required because of rupture and the development of a subdural hygroma. One-way slit valves exist and are a possible mechanism of enlargement of suprasellar prepontine arachnoid cysts. The valve was located directly over the basilar artery in each of these cases. Caudad-to-cephalad CSF flow during the cardiac cycle increased the opening of the valve, whereas cephalad-to-caudad CSF flow during the remainder of the cardiac cycle pushed the slit opening against the basilar artery and decreased the size of the opening. Arachnoid cysts that communicate CSF via circular, nonslit valves are probably more likely to remain stable. PMID:23662935

  6. Diffractive patterns superimposed over propagating N-slit interferograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duarte, F. J.; Taylor, T. S.; Black, A. M.; Olivares, I. E.

    2013-01-01

    Transparent, microscopic spider web silk fibers were used to softly intrude into the propagating path of N-slit interferograms. The resulting interferograms, with superimposed diffractive signals, were recorded using digital means and reproduced using N-slit interferometric calculations. We also show, for the first time, very slight and subtle alterations of the propagating interferograms via the soft insertion of spider web silk fibers into the intra-interferometric path. The experiments were performed at an overall intra-interferometric propagation path length of 7.235 m.

  7. Nanofabrication and the realization of Feynman's two-slit experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frabboni, Stefano; Gazzadi, Gian Carlo; Pozzi, Giulio

    2008-08-01

    Two nanosized slits are opened by focused ion beam milling in a membrane to observe, with a transmission electron microscope, electron interference fringes. Then, on the same sample, one of the slits is closed by focused ion beam induced deposition and the corresponding transmitted intensity is recorded. The comparison between the two measurements provides an impressive experimental evidence of the probability amplitude of quantum mechanics following step by step the original idea proposed by Feynman [The Feynman Lectures on Physics (Addison-Wesley, Reading, MA, 1966), Vol. 3, Chap. 1].

  8. SPECIAL ANALYSIS OF OPERATIONAL STORMWATER RUNOFF COVERS OVER SLIT TRENCHES

    SciTech Connect

    Collard, L; Luther Hamm, L

    2008-12-18

    Solid Waste Management (SWM) commissioned this Special Analysis (SA) to determine the effects of placing operational stormwater runoff covers (referred to as covers in the remainder of this document) over slit trench (ST) disposal units ST1 through ST7 (the center set of slit trenches). Previously the United States Department of Energy (DOE) entered into an agreement with the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC) to place covers over Slit Trenches 1 and 2 to be able to continue disposing Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) solid waste (see USDOE 2008). Because the covers changed the operating conditions, DOE Order 435.1 (DOE 1999) required that an SA be performed to assess the impact. This Special Analysis has been prepared to determine the effects of placing covers over slit trenches at about years 5, 10 and 15 of the 30-year operational period. Because some slit trenches have already been operational for about 15 years, results from analyzing covers at 5 years and 10 years provide trend analysis information only. This SA also examined alternatives of covering Slit Trenches 1 and 2 with one cover and Slit Trenches 3 and 4 with a second cover versus covering them all with a single cover. Based on modeling results, minimal differences exist between covering Slit Trench groups 1-2 and 3-4 with two covers or one large cover. This SA demonstrates that placement of covers over slit trenches will slow the subsequent release and transport of radionuclides in the vadose zone in the early time periods (from time of placement until about 100 years). Release and transport of some radionuclides in the vadose zone beyond 100 years were somewhat higher than for the case without covers. The sums-of-fractions (SOFs) were examined for the current waste inventory in ST1 and ST2 and for estimated inventories at closure for ST3 through ST7. In all

  9. Influence of annealing on the linear and nonlinear optical properties of Mn doped ZnO thin films examined by z-scan technique in CW regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagaraja, K. K.; Pramodini, S.; Poornesh, P.; Rao, Ashok; Nagaraja, H. S.

    2016-08-01

    We present the studies on the influence of annealing on the third-order nonlinear optical properties of RF magnetron sputtered manganese doped zinc oxide (MZO) thin films with different doping concentration. It is revealed that the incorporation of Mn into ZnO and annealing lead to prominent changes in the third order nonlinearity. Nonlinear optical measurements were carried out by employing the z-scan technique using a continuous wave (CW) Hesbnd Ne laser of 633 nm. The z-scan results reveal that the films exhibit self-defocusing thermal nonlinearity. The third-order nonlinear optical susceptibility χ(3) was found to be of the order of 10-3 esu and 10-2 esu for annealed MZO thin films at 200 °C and 400 °C respectively. The dependence of grain size on the observed nonlinearity was revealed by atomic force microscopy analysis. Optical limiting studies were carried out for a range of input power levels and an optical limiting of about ∼8 mW was observed indicating the possible application for photonic devices.

  10. Linear models for airborne-laser-scanning-based operational forest inventory with small field sample size and highly correlated LiDAR data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Junttila, Virpi; Kauranne, Tuomo; Finley, Andrew O.; Bradford, John B.

    2015-01-01

    Modern operational forest inventory often uses remotely sensed data that cover the whole inventory area to produce spatially explicit estimates of forest properties through statistical models. The data obtained by airborne light detection and ranging (LiDAR) correlate well with many forest inventory variables, such as the tree height, the timber volume, and the biomass. To construct an accurate model over thousands of hectares, LiDAR data must be supplemented with several hundred field sample measurements of forest inventory variables. This can be costly and time consuming. Different LiDAR-data-based and spatial-data-based sampling designs can reduce the number of field sample plots needed. However, problems arising from the features of the LiDAR data, such as a large number of predictors compared with the sample size (overfitting) or a strong correlation among predictors (multicollinearity), may decrease the accuracy and precision of the estimates and predictions. To overcome these problems, a Bayesian linear model with the singular value decomposition of predictors, combined with regularization, is proposed. The model performance in predicting different forest inventory variables is verified in ten inventory areas from two continents, where the number of field sample plots is reduced using different sampling designs. The results show that, with an appropriate field plot selection strategy and the proposed linear model, the total relative error of the predicted forest inventory variables is only 5%–15% larger using 50 field sample plots than the error of a linear model estimated with several hundred field sample plots when we sum up the error due to both the model noise variance and the model’s lack of fit.

  11. Robust scatter correction method for cone-beam CT using an interlacing-slit plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Kui-Dong; Xu, Zhe; Zhang, Ding-Hua; Zhang, Hua; Shi, Wen-Long

    2016-06-01

    Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) has been widely used in medical imaging and industrial nondestructive testing, but the presence of scattered radiation will cause significant reduction of image quality. In this article, a robust scatter correction method for CBCT using an interlacing-slit plate (ISP) is carried out for convenient practice. Firstly, a Gaussian filtering method is proposed to compensate the missing data of the inner scatter image, and simultaneously avoid too-large values of calculated inner scatter and smooth the inner scatter field. Secondly, an interlacing-slit scan without detector gain correction is carried out to enhance the practicality and convenience of the scatter correction method. Finally, a denoising step for scatter-corrected projection images is added in the process flow to control the noise amplification The experimental results show that the improved method can not only make the scatter correction more robust and convenient, but also achieve a good quality of scatter-corrected slice images. Supported by National Science and Technology Major Project of the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology of China (2012ZX04007021), Aeronautical Science Fund of China (2014ZE53059), and Fundamental Research Funds for Central Universities of China (3102014KYJD022)

  12. A Variant of Young's Double Slit Experiment for Educational Purposes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henault, Francois; Spang, Alain

    2011-01-01

    We describe a variant of the classical Young's double slit experiment that can be easily realized in any classroom, in order to evidence the wave nature of light. The proposed apparatus and its simplified theory are described and pictures of fringes, readily obtained using only cheap and off-the-shelf optical components, are reproduced. The…

  13. The nephridial hypothesis of the gill slit origin.

    PubMed

    Ezhova, Olga V; Malakhov, Vladimir V

    2015-12-01

    Metameric gill slits are mysterious structures, unique for Chordata and Hemichordata, and also, perhaps, for the extinct Cambrian Calcichordata. There is a discussed hypothesis of the gill slits origin from the metameric nephridia. According to the hypothesis, the hypothetical metameric deuterostome ancestor had in each segment a pair of coelomoducts and a pair of intestinal pockets. In the anterior segments, the coelomoducts have fused with the intestinal pockets. As a result, each nephridium opened both into the gut and into the environment. Then the dissepiments and funnels reduced in all segments except the collar one. Thus, in recent enteropneusts, only the first pair of gill slits keeps the ancestral arrangement communicating at the same time with the gut, with the environment, and with the coelom of the preceding (collar) segment. In the anterior part of the branchio-genital trunk region of enteropneusts, the metameric intestinal pockets remained, as well as the metameric coelomoducts functioning as the ducts of the metameric gonads, i.e., as the gonoducts. The consequence of the hypothesis is that the metameric gill pores originate from the metameric excreting pores, and the metameric branchial sacs originate from the metameric endodermal pockets of the gut fused with the coelomoducts. The metameric gill slits by themselves correspond with metameric openings connecting the gut with metameric intestinal pockets. J. Exp. Zool. (Mol. Dev. Evol.) 324B: 647-652, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26227807

  14. A tool for cutting ultra thin slits in metals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcmahon, W.

    1972-01-01

    Tool produces slits of 0.0305 mm widths in materials up to RC 50 hardness, minimizes material waste and improves precision. Device may be used for general metal cutting and for producing simulated cracks in metal samples used in fatigue tests.

  15. A Portable Double-Slit Quantum Eraser with Individual Photons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dimitrova, T. L.; Weis, A.

    2011-01-01

    The double-slit experiment has played an important role in physics, from supporting the wave theory of light, via the discussions of the wave-particle duality of light (and matter) to the foundations of modern quantum optics. Today it keeps playing an active role in the context of quantum optics experiments involving single photons. In this paper,…

  16. WBC scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... in the body. It is a type of nuclear scan . How the Test is Performed Blood will ... radiation. Due to the slight radiation exposure, most nuclear scans (including WBC scan) are not recommended for ...

  17. CT scan

    MedlinePlus

    CAT scan; Computed axial tomography scan; Computed tomography scan ... Shaw AS, Prokop M. Computed tomography. In: Adam A, Dixon AK, Gillard JH, et al. eds. Grainger & Allison's Diagnostic Radiology: A Textbook of Medical Imaging . 6th ...

  18. Nuclear Scans

    MedlinePlus

    Nuclear scans use radioactive substances to see structures and functions inside your body. They use a special ... images. Most scans take 20 to 45 minutes. Nuclear scans can help doctors diagnose many conditions, including ...

  19. Duplication of the SLIT3 Locus on 5q35.1 Predisposes to Major Depressive Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Glessner, Joseph T.; Wang, Kai; Sleiman, Patrick M. A.; Zhang, Haitao; Kim, Cecilia E.; Flory, James H.; Bradfield, Jonathan P.; Imielinski, Marcin; Frackelton, Edward C.; Qiu, Haijun; Mentch, Frank; Grant, Struan F. A.; Hakonarson, Hakon

    2010-01-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a common psychiatric and behavioral disorder. To discover novel variants conferring risk to MDD, we conducted a whole-genome scan of copy number variation (CNV), including 1,693 MDD cases and 4,506 controls genotyped on the Perlegen 600K platform. The most significant locus was observed on 5q35.1, harboring the SLIT3 gene (P = 2×10−3). Extending the controls with 30,000 subjects typed on the Illumina 550 k array, we found the CNV to remain exclusive to MDD cases (P = 3.2×10−9). Duplication was observed in 5 unrelated MDD cases encompassing 646 kb with highly similar breakpoints. SLIT3 is integral to repulsive axon guidance based on binding to Roundabout receptors. Duplication of 5q35.1 is a highly penetrant variation accounting for 0.7% of the subset of 647 cases harboring large CNVs, using a threshold of a minimum of 10 SNPs and 100 kb. This study leverages a large dataset of MDD cases and controls for the analysis of CNVs with matched platform and ethnicity. SLIT3 duplication is a novel association which explains a definitive proportion of the largely unknown etiology of MDD. PMID:21152026

  20. Cross slit-grooves grid structure for surface plasmon resonant sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jooho; Nakarmi, Bikash; Kim, Bongho; Jang, Wonjae; Bang, Yousung; Lee, Muyoung; Won, Y. H.

    2016-03-01

    Surface plasmon resonant (SPR) phenomenon is widely researched for various purposes, among which biomedical sensing is getting more attentions as they are suitable for surface functionalization acting as a bio recognition element to detect different biological infections. The common method of surface resonant is propagating SPR such as reflection method. Another method which is widely used for SPR is localized SPR which use nanostructures in thin metal. Various structures such as slit only, slit- groove and slit-multiple groove are used for generation of SPR and obtaining the optimum optical transmittance through the structure. The number and position of slits and grooves affect transmittance through the structure. In this paper we propose a new structure of cross slit-grooves structure, which includes slit-groove structure in grid form. The slit-grooves structures are arranged in such a way that it forms symmetrical structure in two dimension with slit and groove and hence the transmittance with cross slit-grooves structure increases significantly. The cross slit-grooves structure takes the advantage of symmetrical slit and groove by using both dimensional structures for generating SPR which increases the transmittance through the structure. A comparison of proposed slit-grooves grid structure with straight slit-grooves structure is carried out to show the increase in transmittance through the cross slit-grooves grid structure. Plane wavelength of 400 nm to 900 nm is used for the analysis of transmittance through the Ag slit-grooves grid structures with glass substrate. We also measure the change in transmittance with change in refractive index, which can be helpful for measuring different chemical analytes, and hence can be used for different chemical and biosensors applications.

  1. PET scan

    MedlinePlus

    You may feel a sharp sting when the needle with the tracer is placed into your vein. A PET scan causes no pain. The table may be ... The amount of radiation used in a PET scan is about the same amount as used in most CT scans. These scans use ...

  2. Comparison of spatial resolution between tomographic images and ghosts in rotational panoramic radiography: the effect of the first slit width.

    PubMed

    Wakoh, M; Yamamoto, K; Fujimori, H; Kuroyanagi, K

    1992-11-01

    Rotational panoramic radiography projects the object placed within the focal trough as tomographic images with minimal distortion. However, even if an object is within the focal trough, the sharpness of the image is affected by the position of the object, the difference in the relative speed of the X-ray source against the film and the difference in the direction of rotation. In this study, spatial resolutions of ghosts and tomographic images were compared. Ghosts, as well as tomographic images, were obtained from the object placed in the focal trough. The effects of the width of the first slit, a major parameter affecting image quality, were the primary concern in this study. With regard to ghosts, the influence of the position of object, in terms of central, buccal and lingual regions the focal trough, was also analyzed. The target of analysis was the mandibular ramus region. An Orthopantomograph OP5, a conventional panoramic apparatus, was used. An X-ray test chart, X-ray beams, and H-D curve were prepared for calculation of the Modulation Transfer Function (MTF), and the slit method using the Fourier transforms was applied. When the width of the first slit was changed displacement of MTF curves was most remarkable for the superimposed tomographic image which was scanned 10 mm posterior to the X-axis connecting the right and left lateral rotation centers. For reduction of the spatial resolution of ghosts, it was found effective to use a wider slit and place the object at a position lingual to the central plane. PMID:1303325

  3. Unwanted reflections during slit lamp assisted binocular indirect ophthalmoscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheehan, Matthew; Goncharov, Alexander

    2011-11-01

    Binocular indirect ophthalmoscopy is a routine ophthalmic examination procedure. Two different apparatus setups are commonly employed; the head/spectacle mounted designs of Schepens and slit lamp assisted ophthalmoscopy, both typically performed through a fundus lens of high positive power. It can be difficult for clinicians to avoid unwanted back reflections primarily emanating from the fundus lens and the pre-corneal tear film, particularly when initially learning the skills required to perform the examination. In this investigation the illumination system of a slit lamp was modified to include a variety of obscuration designs optically conjugate to surfaces responsible for creating unwanted reflections. The modified apparatus was then used to perform binocular indirect ophthalmoscopy on an artificial eye and on real eyes. Clinicians used questionnaires to score the appearance of reflections. The mean scores were similar across all trials, including the control unmodified trial, indicating general consensus that the modified illumination system provided no substantial effect on the perception of these unwanted reflections.

  4. The two-particle two-slit experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sancho, Pedro

    2014-02-01

    Identical two-particle interferometry provides a scenario where interference and exchange effects manifest at once. We present a detailed calculation of the detection patterns in the two-particle two-slit experiment by extending Feynman's Gaussian slit approach to multi-mode states. We show the existence of two regimes depending on the mode distributions. In one of them we find a novel behavior for bosons, with detection patterns almost equal to those of distinguishable particles although the overlapping is large. As a byproduct of our analysis we conclude that the interaction at the diffraction grating is an efficient method to increase the initial overlapping. We propose a scheme, within the reach of present day technology, to experimentally verify our results.

  5. Virtual cathode microwave generator having annular anode slit

    SciTech Connect

    Kwan, Thomas J. T.; Snell, Charles M.

    1988-01-01

    A microwave generator is provided for generating microwaves substantially from virtual cathode oscillation. Electrons are emitted from a cathode and accelerated to an anode which is spaced apart from the cathode. The anode has an annular slit therethrough effective to form the virtual cathode. The anode is at least one range thickness relative to electrons reflecting from the virtual cathode. A magnet is provided to produce an optimum magnetic field having the field strength effective to form an annular beam from the emitted electrons in substantial alignment with the annular anode slit. The magnetic field, however, does permit the reflected electrons to axially diverge from the annular beam. The reflected electrons are absorbed by the anode in returning to the real cathode, such that substantially no reflexing electrons occur. The resulting microwaves are produced with a single dominant mode and are substantially monochromatic relative to conventional virtual cathode microwave generators.

  6. Virtual cathode microwave generator having annular anode slit

    SciTech Connect

    Kwan, T.J.T.; Snell, C.M.

    1988-03-08

    A microwave generator using an oscillating virtual cathode is described comprising: a cathode for emitting electrons; an anode for accelerating emitted electrons from the cathode, the anode having an annular slit therethrough effective for forming the virtual cathode and having at least one range thickness relative to electrons reflected from the virtual cathode; and magnet means for producing a magnetic field having a field strength effective to form an annular beam from the emitted electrons in substantial alignment with the annular anode slit and to enable the electrons reflected from the virtual cathode to axially diverge from the annular beam. The reflected electrons return toward the cathode diverge from the annular beam and are absorbed by the anode to substantially eliminate electrons reflexing between the cathode and the virtual cathode.

  7. Mechanisms for photon sorting based on slit-groove arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villate-Guío, F.; Martín-Moreno, L.; de León-Pérez, F.

    2015-01-01

    Mechanisms for one-dimensional photon sorting are theoretically studied in the framework of a coupled-mode method. The considered system is a nanopatterned structure composed of two different pixels drilled on the surface of a thin gold layer. Each pixel consists of a slit-groove array designed to squeeze a large fraction of the incident light into the central slit. The Double-Pixel is optimized to resolve two different frequencies in the near infrared. This system shows high transmission efficiencies and a small crosstalk. It is found that the response of the system strongly depends on the effective area shared by overlapping pixels. According to such degree of overlap, photon sorting can be achieved within three different regimes, which are discussed in detail. Optimal photon-sorting efficiencies are obtained for a moderate number of grooves that overlap with grooves of the neighbor pixel. These results could be applied to both optical and infrared detectors.

  8. Double-Slit Interference Pattern for a Macroscopic Quantum System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naeij, Hamid Reza; Shafiee, Afshin

    2016-07-01

    In this study, we solve analytically the Schrödinger equation for a macroscopic quantum oscillator as a central system coupled to two environmental micro-oscillating particles. Then, the double-slit interference patterns are investigated in two limiting cases, considering the limits of uncertainty in the position probability distribution. Moreover, we analyze the interference patterns based on a recent proposal called stochastic electrodynamics with spin. Our results show that when the quantum character of the macro-system is decreased, the diffraction pattern becomes more similar to a classical one. We also show that, depending on the size of the slits, the predictions of quantum approach could be apparently different with those of the aforementioned stochastic description.

  9. Low pressure drop, multi-slit virtual impactor

    DOEpatents

    Bergman, Werner

    2002-01-01

    Fluid flow is directed into a multiplicity of slit nozzles positioned so that the fluid flow is directed into a gap between the nozzles and (a) a number of receiving chambers and (b) a number of exhaust chambers. The nozzles and chambers are select so that the fluid flow will be separated into a first particle flow component with larger and a second particle flow component with the smaller particles.

  10. Grazing incidence off Rowland spectrometer with shifted slit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antsiferov, P. S.; Dorokhin, L. A.; Krainov, P. V.

    2016-05-01

    The article presents the analysis of the scheme of grazing incidence spectrometer with the normal to the line of site registration of the spectrum. The scheme is intended for the usage of the micro channel plate assembly as a spectrum detector. The main feature is the displacement of the entrance slit from the Rowland circle. The results of the experimental test of the spectral resolution (λ/δλ around 200) are presented and compared with the theoretical estimations.

  11. Grazing incidence off Rowland spectrometer with shifted slit.

    PubMed

    Antsiferov, P S; Dorokhin, L A; Krainov, P V

    2016-05-01

    The article presents the analysis of the scheme of grazing incidence spectrometer with the normal to the line of site registration of the spectrum. The scheme is intended for the usage of the micro channel plate assembly as a spectrum detector. The main feature is the displacement of the entrance slit from the Rowland circle. The results of the experimental test of the spectral resolution (λ/δλ around 200) are presented and compared with the theoretical estimations. PMID:27250391

  12. Rapid Prototyping of Nanofluidic Slits in a Silicone Bilayer

    PubMed Central

    Kole, Thomas P.; Liao, Kuo-Tang; Schiffels, Daniel; Ilic, B. Robert; Strychalski, Elizabeth A.; Kralj, Jason G.; Liddle, J. Alexander; Dritschilo, Anatoly; Stavis, Samuel M.

    2015-01-01

    This article reports a process for rapidly prototyping nanofluidic devices, particularly those comprising slits with microscale widths and nanoscale depths, in silicone. This process consists of designing a nanofluidic device, fabricating a photomask, fabricating a device mold in epoxy photoresist, molding a device in silicone, cutting and punching a molded silicone device, bonding a silicone device to a glass substrate, and filling the device with aqueous solution. By using a bilayer of hard and soft silicone, we have formed and filled nanofluidic slits with depths of less than 400 nm and aspect ratios of width to depth exceeding 250 without collapse of the slits. An important attribute of this article is that the description of this rapid prototyping process is very comprehensive, presenting context and details which are highly relevant to the rational implementation and reliable repetition of the process. Moreover, this process makes use of equipment commonly found in nanofabrication facilities and research laboratories, facilitating the broad adaptation and application of the process. Therefore, while this article specifically informs users of the Center for Nanoscale Science and Technology (CNST) at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), we anticipate that this information will be generally useful for the nanofabrication and nanofluidics research communities at large, and particularly useful for neophyte nanofabricators and nanofluidicists. PMID:26958449

  13. Improving FAIMS Sensitivity Using a Planar Geometry with Slit Interfaces

    PubMed Central

    Mabrouki, Ridha; Kelly, Ryan T.; Prior, David C.; Shvartsburg, Alexandre A.; Tang, Keqi; Smith, Richard D.

    2010-01-01

    Differential mobility spectrometry or field asymmetric waveform ion mobility spectrometry (FAIMS) is gaining broad acceptance for analyses of gas-phase ions, especially in conjunction with largely orthogonal separation methods such as mass spectrometry (MS) and/or conventional (drift tube) ion mobility spectrometry. In FAIMS, ions are filtered while passing through a gap between two electrodes that may have planar or curved (in particular, cylindrical) geometry. Despite substantial inherent advantages of the planar configuration and its near-universal adoption in current stand-alone FAIMS devices, commercial FAIMS/MS systems have employed curved FAIMS geometries that could be interfaced to MS more effectively. Here we report a new planar (p-) FAIMS design with slit-shaped entrance and exit apertures that substantially increase ion transmission in and out of the analyzer. The front slit interface effectively couples p-FAIMS to multi-emitter electrospray ionization (ESI) sources, improving greatly the ion current introduced to the device and allowing liquid flow rates up to ~50 μL/min. The back slit interface increases the transmission of ribbon-shaped ion beams output by the p-FAIMS to downstream stages such as a MS. Overall, the ion signal in ESI/FAIMS/MS analyses increases by over an order of magnitude without affecting FAIMS resolution. PMID:19616967

  14. Rapid Prototyping of Nanofluidic Slits in a Silicone Bilayer.

    PubMed

    Kole, Thomas P; Liao, Kuo-Tang; Schiffels, Daniel; Ilic, B Robert; Strychalski, Elizabeth A; Kralj, Jason G; Liddle, J Alexander; Dritschilo, Anatoly; Stavis, Samuel M

    2015-01-01

    This article reports a process for rapidly prototyping nanofluidic devices, particularly those comprising slits with microscale widths and nanoscale depths, in silicone. This process consists of designing a nanofluidic device, fabricating a photomask, fabricating a device mold in epoxy photoresist, molding a device in silicone, cutting and punching a molded silicone device, bonding a silicone device to a glass substrate, and filling the device with aqueous solution. By using a bilayer of hard and soft silicone, we have formed and filled nanofluidic slits with depths of less than 400 nm and aspect ratios of width to depth exceeding 250 without collapse of the slits. An important attribute of this article is that the description of this rapid prototyping process is very comprehensive, presenting context and details which are highly relevant to the rational implementation and reliable repetition of the process. Moreover, this process makes use of equipment commonly found in nanofabrication facilities and research laboratories, facilitating the broad adaptation and application of the process. Therefore, while this article specifically informs users of the Center for Nanoscale Science and Technology (CNST) at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), we anticipate that this information will be generally useful for the nanofabrication and nanofluidics research communities at large, and particularly useful for neophyte nanofabricators and nanofluidicists. PMID:26958449

  15. Plasmonic ultra-broadband polarizers based on Ag nano wire-slit arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Chunrui; Tam, Wing Yim

    2015-02-01

    We propose ultra-broadband reflective and absorptive polarizers in the visible range using multi-scaled Ag nano wire-slit arrays. The nano arrays can be tuned from reflective to absorptive by incorporating Ag wires/strips with different lengths/widths. The ultra-broadband nature of the absorptive array, with averaged absorption as high as ˜80%, is due to collective excitations of plasmonic resonances in the Ag wires/strips with different length scales. The nano arrays are realized experimentally by using a simple two-times shadowing vapor deposition method. They exhibit broadband transmission difference, in good agreement with simulations. Our multi-scaled nano array design has potential applications as broadband linear polarizers and anti-reflective materials in both optics and photovoltaics.

  16. Bone scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... scan is an imaging test used to diagnose bone diseases and find out how severe they are. How ... a 3-phase bone scan. To evaluate metastatic bone disease, images are taken only after the 3- to ...

  17. Thyroid scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... Read More Anaplastic thyroid cancer Cancer Goiter - simple Hyperthyroidism Multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) II PET scan Skin ... A.M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Hyperthyroidism Hypothyroidism Nuclear Scans Thyroid Cancer Thyroid Diseases Thyroid ...

  18. Bone scan

    MedlinePlus

    A bone scan is an imaging test used to diagnose bone diseases and find out how severe they are. ... A bone scan involves injecting a very small amount of radioactive material (radiotracer) into a vein. The substance travels through ...

  19. CT Scans

    MedlinePlus

    ... cross-sectional pictures of your body. Doctors use CT scans to look for Broken bones Cancers Blood clots Signs of heart disease Internal bleeding During a CT scan, you lie still on a table. The table ...

  20. Gallium scan

    MedlinePlus

    Liver gallium scan; Bony gallium scan ... You will get a radioactive material called gallium injected into your vein. The gallium travels through the bloodstream and collects in the bones and certain organs. Your health care provider will ...

  1. Bone scanning.

    PubMed

    Greenfield, L D; Bennett, L R

    1975-03-01

    Scanning is based on the uptake of a nuclide by the crystal lattice of bone and is related to bone blood flow. Cancer cells do not take up the tracer. Normally, the scan visualizes the highly vascular bones. Scans are useful and are indicated in metastatic bone disease, primary bone tumors, hematologic malignancies and some non-neoplastic diseases. The scan is more sensitive than x-ray in the detection of malignant diseases of the skeleton. PMID:1054210

  2. A molecular mechanism for the heparan sulfate dependence of slit-robo signaling.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Sadaf-Ahmahni; Piper, Michael; Fukuhara, Noémi; Strochlic, Laure; Cho, Gian; Howitt, Jason A; Ahmed, Yassir; Powell, Andrew K; Turnbull, Jeremy E; Holt, Christine E; Hohenester, Erhard

    2006-12-22

    Slit is a large secreted protein that provides important guidance cues in the developing nervous system and in other organs. Signaling by Slit requires two receptors, Robo transmembrane proteins and heparan sulfate (HS) proteoglycans. How HS controls Slit-Robo signaling is unclear. Here we show that the second leucine-rich repeat domain (D2) of Slit, which mediates binding to Robo receptors, also contains a functionally important binding site for heparin, a highly sulfated variant of HS. Heparin markedly enhances the affinity of the Slit-Robo interaction in a solid-phase binding assay. Analytical gel filtration chromatography demonstrates that Slit D2 associates with a soluble Robo fragment and a heparin-derived oligosaccharide to form a ternary complex. Retinal growth cone collapse triggered by Slit D2 requires cell surface HS or exogenously added heparin. Mutation of conserved basic residues in the C-terminal cap region of Slit D2 reduces heparin binding and abolishes biological activity. We conclude that heparin/HS is an integral component of the minimal Slit-Robo signaling complex and serves to stabilize the relatively weak Slit-Robo interaction. PMID:17062560

  3. Einstein-Bohr recoiling double-slit gedanken experiment performed at the molecular level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiao-Jing; Miao, Quan; Gel'Mukhanov, Faris; Patanen, Minna; Travnikova, Oksana; Nicolas, Christophe; Ågren, Hans; Ueda, Kiyoshi; Miron, Catalin

    2015-02-01

    Double-slit experiments illustrate the quintessential proof for wave-particle complementarity. If information is missing about which slit the particle has traversed, the particle, behaving as a wave, passes simultaneously through both slits. This wave-like behaviour and corresponding interference is absent if ‘which-slit’ information exists. The essence of Einstein-Bohr's debate about wave-particle duality was whether the momentum transfer between a particle and a recoiling slit could mark the path, thus destroying the interference. To measure the recoil of a slit, the slits should move independently. We showcase a materialization of this recoiling double-slit gedanken experiment by resonant X-ray photoemission from molecular oxygen for geometries near equilibrium (coupled slits) and in a dissociative state far away from equilibrium (decoupled slits). Interference is observed in the former case, while the electron momentum transfer quenches the interference in the latter case owing to Doppler labelling of the counter-propagating atomic slits, in full agreement with Bohr's complementarity.

  4. [Purkinje images in slit lamp videography : Video article].

    PubMed

    Gellrich, M-M; Kandzia, C

    2016-09-01

    Reflexes that accompany every examination with the slit lamp are usually regarded as annoying and therefore do not receive much attention. In the video available online, clinical information "hidden" in the Purkinje images is analyzed according to our concept of slit lamp videography. In the first part of the video, the four Purkinje images which are reflections on the eye's optical surfaces are introduced for the phakic eye. In the pseudophakic eye, however, the refracting surfaces of the intraocular lens (IOL) have excellent optical properties and therefore form Purkinje images 3 and 4 of high quality. Especially the third Purkinje image from the anterior IOL surface, which is usually hardly visible in the phakic eye can be detected deep in the vitreous, enlarged through the eye's own optics like a magnifying glass. Its area of reflection can be used to visualize changes of the anterior segment at high contrast. The third Purkinje image carries valuable information about the anterior curvature and, thus, about the power of the IOL. If the same IOL type is implanted in a patient, often a difference between right and left of 0.5 diopter in its power can be detected by the difference in size of the respective third Purkinje image. In a historical excursion to the "prenatal phase" of the slit lamp in Uppsala, we show that our most important instrument in clinical work was originally designed for catoptric investigations (of specular reflections). Accordingly A. Gullstrand called it an ophthalmometric Nernst lamp. PMID:27558688

  5. Electron capture acceleration channel in a slit laser beam

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, P. X.; Scheid, W.; Ho, Y. K.

    2007-03-12

    Using numerical simulations, the authors find that the electrons can be captured and accelerated to high energies (GeV) in a slit laser beam with an intensity of I{lambda}{sup 2}{approx}10{sup 20} W/cm{sup 2} {mu}m{sup 2}, where {lambda} is the laser wavelength in units of {mu}m. The range of the optimum incident energy is very wide, even up to GeV. These results are of interest for experiments because the relatively low intensity can be achieved with present chirped pulse amplification technique and a wide range of incident energies means that a multistage acceleration is possible.

  6. Dorsal Slit-Sleeve Technique for Male Circumcision

    PubMed Central

    Lukong, Christopher Suiye

    2012-01-01

    Male circumcision is a commonly performed surgical procedure. There are several techniques of circumcision. The device methods are thought to have lower complication rates when compared to the open methods. The devices for circumcision may not be readily available or may be expensive. The open methods are therefore still commonly used in this setting. The dorsal slit-sleeve technique combines strategies from two open methods. The technique is described, together with its merit and demerits. This technique is feasible, safe, and the general outcome is good. PMID:23741584

  7. Critical discharge of initially subcooled water through slits. [PWR; BWR

    SciTech Connect

    Amos, C N; Schrock, V E

    1983-09-01

    This report describes an experimental investigation into the critical flow of initially subcooled water through rectangular slits. The study of such flows is relevant to the prediction of leak flow rates from cracks in piping, or pressure vessels, which contain sufficient enthalpy that vaporization will occur if they are allowed to expand to the ambient pressure. Two new analytical models, which allow for the generation of a metastable liquid phase, are developed. Experimental results are compared with the predictions of both these new models and with a Fanno Homogeneous Equilibrium Model.

  8. Precision optical slit for high heat load or ultra high vacuum

    DOEpatents

    Andresen, N.C.; DiGennaro, R.S.; Swain, T.L.

    1995-01-24

    This invention relates generally to slits used in optics that must be precisely aligned and adjusted. The optical slits of the present invention are useful in x-ray optics, x-ray beam lines, optical systems in which the entrance slit is critical for high wavelength resolution. The invention is particularly useful in ultra high vacuum systems where lubricants are difficult to use and designs which avoid the movement of metal parts against one another are important, such as monochromators for high wavelength resolution with ultra high vacuum systems. The invention further relates to optical systems in which temperature characteristics of the slit materials is important. The present invention yet additionally relates to precision slits wherein the opposing edges of the slit must be precisely moved relative to a center line between the edges with each edge retaining its parallel orientation with respect to the other edge and/or the center line. 21 figures.

  9. Precision optical slit for high heat load or ultra high vacuum

    DOEpatents

    Andresen, Nord C.; DiGennaro, Richard S.; Swain, Thomas L.

    1995-01-01

    This invention relates generally to slits used in optics that must be precisely aligned and adjusted. The optical slits of the present invention are useful in x-ray optics, x-ray beam lines, optical systems in which the entrance slit is critical for high wavelength resolution. The invention is particularly useful in ultra high vacuum systems where lubricants are difficult to use and designs which avoid the movement of metal parts against one another are important, such as monochrometers for high wavelength resolution with ultra high vacuum systems. The invention further relates to optical systems in which temperature characteristics of the slit materials is important. The present invention yet additionally relates to precision slits wherein the opposing edges of the slit must be precisely moved relative to a center line between the edges with each edge retaining its parallel orientation with respect to the other edge and/or the center line.

  10. Involvement of the SLIT/ROBO pathway in follicle development in the fetal ovary.

    PubMed

    Dickinson, Rachel E; Hryhorskyj, Lynn; Tremewan, Hannah; Hogg, Kirsten; Thomson, Axel A; McNeilly, Alan S; Duncan, W Colin

    2010-02-01

    In humans and domestic mammals, pivotal processes in ovary development, including primordial follicle assembly, occur prenatally. These events are essential for determining fertility in adult life; however, they remain poorly understood at the mechanistic level. In mammals, the SLITs (SLIT1, SLIT2 and SLIT3) and their ROBO (ROBO1, ROBO2, ROBO3/RIG-1 and ROBO4/MAGIC ROBO) receptors regulate neural, leukocyte, vascular smooth muscle cell and endothelial cell migration. In addition, the SLIT/ROBO pathway has functional roles in embryonic development and in the adult ovary by inhibiting cell migration and promoting apoptosis. We therefore characterised follicle formation and investigated the expression and localisation of the ROBO/SLIT pathway in the ovine fetal ovary. Using RT-PCR, we identified SLIT2, SLIT3, ROBO1, ROBO2 and ROBO4 in sheep ovaries harvested across gestation. The real-time quantitative PCR results implied that ROBO2 expression and ROBO4 expression were elevated during the early stages of follicle formation and stayed abundant during primordial follicle maturation (P<0.05). Immunohistochemistry examination demonstrated that ROBO1 was localised to the pre-granulosa cells, while ROBO2, ROBO4 and SLIT2 were expressed in the oocytes of the developing primordial follicle. This indicates that in the fetal ovary, SLIT-ROBO signalling may require an autocrine and paracrine interaction. Furthermore, at the time of increased SLIT-ROBO expression, there was a significant reduction in the number of proliferating oocytes in the developing ovary (P<0.0001). Overall, these results suggest, for the first time, that the SLIT-ROBO pathway is expressed at the time of follicle formation during fetal ovary development. PMID:19900988

  11. An error compensation method for a linear array sun sensor with a V-shaped slit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Qiao-yun; Tan, Xiao-feng

    2015-11-01

    Existing methods of improving measurement accuracy, such as polynomial fitting and increasing pixel numbers, cannot guarantee high precision and good miniaturization specifications of a microsun sensor at the same time. Therefore, a novel integrated and accurate error compensation method is proposed. A mathematical error model is established according to the analysis results of all the contributing factors, and the model parameters are calculated through multi-sets simultaneous calibration. The numerical simulation results prove that the calibration method is unaffected by installation errors introduced by the calibration process, and is capable of separating the sensor’s intrinsic and extrinsic parameters precisely, and obtaining accurate and robust intrinsic parameters. In laboratorial calibration, the calibration data are generated by using a two-axis rotation table and a sun simulator. The experimental results show that owing to the proposed error compensation method, the sun sensor’s measurement accuracy is improved by 30 times throughout its field of view (±60°  ×  ±60°), with a RMS error of 0.1°.

  12. Slit Modulates Cerebrovascular Inflammation and Mediates Neuroprotection Against Global Cerebral Ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Altay, Tamer; McLaughlin, BethAnn; Wu, Jane Y.; Park, T.S.; Gidday, Jeffrey M.

    2008-01-01

    Cerebrovascular inflammation contributes to secondary brain injury following ischemia. Recent in vitro studies of cell migration and molecular guidance mechanisms have indicated that the Slit family of secreted proteins can exert repellant effects on leukocyte recruitment in response to chemoattractants. Utilizing intravital microscopy, we addressed the role of Slit in modulating leukocyte dynamics in the mouse cortical venular microcirculation in vivo following TNFα application or global cerebral ischemia. We also studied whether Slit affected neuronal survival in the mouse global ischemia model as well as in mixed neuronal-glial cultures subjected to oxygen-glucose deprivation. We found that systemically administered Slit significantly attenuated cerebral microvessel leukocyte-endothelial adherence occurring 4 h after TNFα and 24 h after global cerebral ischemia. Administration of RoboN, the soluble receptor for Slit, exacerbated the acute chemotactic response to TNFα. These findings are indicative of a tonic repellant effect of endogenous Slit in brain under acute proinflammatory conditions. Three days of continuous systemic administration of Slit following global ischemia significantly attenuated the delayed neuronal death of hippocampal CA1 pyramidal cells. Moreover, Slit abrogated neuronal death in mixed neuronal-glial cultures exposed to oxygen-glucose deprivation. The ability of Slit to reduce the recruitment of immune cells to ischemic brain and to provide cytoprotective effects suggests that this protein may serve as a novel anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective target for stroke therapy. PMID:17714707

  13. Maximal Expression of the Evolutionarily Conserved Slit2 Gene Promoter Requires Sp1.

    PubMed

    Saunders, Jacquelyn; Wisidagama, D Roonalika; Morford, Travis; Malone, Cindy S

    2016-08-01

    Slit2 is a neural axon guidance and chemorepellent protein that stimulates motility in a variety of cell types. The role of Slit2 in neural development and neoplastic growth and migration has been well established, while the genetic mechanisms underlying regulation of the Slit2 gene have not. We identified the core and proximal promoter of Slit2 by mapping multiple transcriptional start sites, analyzing transcriptional activity, and confirming sequence homology for the Slit2 proximal promoter among a number of species. Deletion series and transient transfection identified the Slit2 proximal promoter as within 399 base pairs upstream of the start of transcription. A crucial region for full expression of the Slit2 proximal promoter lies between 399 base pairs and 296 base pairs upstream of the start of transcription. Computer modeling identified three transcription factor-binding consensus sites within this region, of which only site-directed mutagenesis of one of the two identified Sp1 consensus sites inhibited transcriptional activity of the Slit2 proximal promoter (-399 to +253). Bioinformatics analysis of the Slit2 proximal promoter -399 base pair to -296 base pair region shows high sequence conservation over twenty-two species, and that this region follows an expected pattern of sequence divergence through evolution. PMID:26456684

  14. Axon guidance factor SLIT2 inhibits neural invasion and metastasis in pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Göhrig, Andreas; Detjen, Katharina M; Hilfenhaus, Georg; Körner, Jan L; Welzel, Martina; Arsenic, Ruza; Schmuck, Rosa; Bahra, Marcus; Wu, Jane Y; Wiedenmann, Bertram; Fischer, Christian

    2014-03-01

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) metastasizes by neural, vascular, and local invasion routes, which limit patient survival. In nerves and vessels, SLIT2 and its ROBO receptors constitute repellent guidance cues that also direct epithelial branching. Thus, the SLIT2-ROBO system may represent a key pinch point to regulate PDAC spread. In this study, we examined the hypothesis that escaping from repellent SLIT2-ROBO signaling is essential to enable PDAC cells to appropriate their local stromal infrastructure for dissemination. Through immunohistochemical analysis, we detected SLIT2 receptors ROBO1 and ROBO4 on epithelia, nerves, and vessels in healthy pancreas and PDAC specimens, respectively. SLIT2 mRNA expression was reduced in PDAC compared with nontransformed pancreatic tissues and cell lines, suggesting a reduction in SLIT2-ROBO pathway activity in PDAC. In support of this interpretation, restoring the SLIT2 expression in SLIT2-deficient PDAC cells inhibited their bidirectional chemoattraction with neural cells, and more specifically, impaired unidirectional PDAC cell navigation along outgrowing neurites in models of neural invasion. Restoring autocrine/paracrine SLIT2 signaling was also sufficient to inhibit the directed motility of PDAC cells, but not their random movement. Conversely, RNA interference-mediated silencing of ROBO1 stimulated the motility of SLIT2-competent PDAC cells. Furthermore, culture supernatants from SLIT2-competent PDAC cells impaired migration of endothelial cells (human umbilical vein endothelial cells), whereas an N-terminal SLIT2 cleavage fragment stimulated such migration. In vivo investigations of pancreatic tumors with restored SLIT2 expression demonstrated reduced invasion, metastasis, and vascularization, with opposing effects produced by ROBO1 silencing in tumor cells or sequestration of endogenous SLIT2. Analysis of clinical specimens of PDAC showed that those with low SLIT2 mRNA expression exhibited a higher incidence

  15. Slit2 signaling through Robo1 and Robo2 is required for retinal neovascularization

    PubMed Central

    Rama, Nicolas; Dubrac, Alexandre; Mathivet, Thomas; Chárthaigh, Róisín-Ana Ní; Genet, Gael; Cristofaro, Brunella; Pibouin-Fragner, Laurence; Ma, Le; Eichmann, Anne; Chédotal, Alain

    2016-01-01

    Ocular neovascular diseases are a leading cause of blindness. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) blockade improves vision, but not all individuals respond to anti-VEGF treatment, making additional means to prevent neovascularization necessary. Slit-family proteins (Slits) are ligands of Roundabout (Robo) receptors that repel developing axons in the nervous system. Robo1 expression is altered in ocular neovascular diseases, and previous in vitro studies have reported both pro- and anti-angiogenic effects of Slits. However, genetic evidence supporting a role for Slits in ocular neovascularization is lacking. Here we generated conditional knockout mice deficient in various Slit and Robo proteins and found that Slit2 potently and selectively promoted angiogenesis via Robo1 and Robo2 in mouse postnatal retina and in a model of ocular neovascular disease. Mechanistically, Slit2 acting through Robo1 and Robo2 promoted the migration of endothelial cells. These receptors are required for both Slit2- and VEGF-induced Rac1 activation and lamellipodia formation. Thus, Slit2 blockade could potentially be used therapeutically to inhibit angiogenesis in individuals with ocular neovascular disease. PMID:25894826

  16. Tree Scanning

    PubMed Central

    Templeton, Alan R.; Maxwell, Taylor; Posada, David; Stengård, Jari H.; Boerwinkle, Eric; Sing, Charles F.

    2005-01-01

    We use evolutionary trees of haplotypes to study phenotypic associations by exhaustively examining all possible biallelic partitions of the tree, a technique we call tree scanning. If the first scan detects significant associations, additional rounds of tree scanning are used to partition the tree into three or more allelic classes. Two worked examples are presented. The first is a reanalysis of associations between haplotypes at the Alcohol Dehydrogenase locus in Drosophila melanogaster that was previously analyzed using a nested clade analysis, a more complicated technique for using haplotype trees to detect phenotypic associations. Tree scanning and the nested clade analysis yield the same inferences when permutation testing is used with both approaches. The second example is an analysis of associations between variation in various lipid traits and genetic variation at the Apolipoprotein E (APOE) gene in three human populations. Tree scanning successfully identified phenotypic associations expected from previous analyses. Tree scanning for the most part detected more associations and provided a better biological interpretative framework than single SNP analyses. We also show how prior information can be incorporated into the tree scan by starting with the traditional three electrophoretic alleles at APOE. Tree scanning detected genetically determined phenotypic heterogeneity within all three electrophoretic allelic classes. Overall, tree scanning is a simple, powerful, and flexible method for using haplotype trees to detect phenotype/genotype associations at candidate loci. PMID:15371364

  17. A new fiber slit assembly for the FOCES spectrograph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kellermann, Hanna; Grupp, Frank; Brucalassi, Anna; Lang-Bardl, Florian; Franik, Christian; Hopp, Ulrich; Bender, Ralf

    2015-09-01

    After successful operation at the Calar Alto telescope until 2009, and extensive lab tests at the Munich University Observatory the high resolution Échelle spectrograph FOCES (Fiber Optics Cassegrain Échelle Spectrograph) is now about to be reinstalled at the 2 m Wendelstein Observatory in the German Alps. For this new phase of operation FOCES will be equipped with new components that will improve time stability and wavelength calibration. With these modifications FOCES will meet the requirements for performing precision radial velocity measurements on a competitive level. One of the key features of the upgraded spectrograph is the new calibration system, which uses a laser frequency comb as reference light source. Another aspect is the possibility to perform simultaneous wavelength calibration, while recording science data. For this purpose a new 4-fiber slit has been developed, which opens up the possibility to feed light from different sources at the same time through the entrance slit of the spectrograph. We present a detailed characterization of this new device, based on the results of extensive lab tests performed at the Munich University Observatory.

  18. Novel multi-slit large-volume air sampler.

    PubMed

    Buchanan, L M; Decker, H M; Frisque, D E; Phillips, C R; Dahlgren, C M

    1968-08-01

    Scientific investigators who are interested in the various facets of airborne transmission of disease in research laboratories and hospitals need a simple, continuous, high-volume sampling device that will recover a high percentage of viable microorganisms from the atmosphere. Such a device must sample a large quantity of air. It should effect direct transfer of the air into an all-purpose liquid medium in order to collect bacteria, viruses, rickettsia, and fungi, and it should be easy to use. A simple multi-slit impinger sampler that fulfills these requirements has been developed. It operates at an air-sampling rate of 500 liters/min, has a high collection efficiency, functions at a low pressure drop, and, in contrast to some earlier instruments, does not depend upon electrostatic precipitation at high voltages. When compared to the all-glass impinger, the multi-slit impinger sampler collected microbial aerosols of Serratia marcescens at 82% efficiency, and aerosols of Bacillus subtilis var. niger at 78% efficiency. PMID:4970892

  19. High resolution hyperspectral imaging with a high throughput virtual slit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gooding, Edward A.; Gunn, Thomas; Cenko, Andrew T.; Hajian, Arsen R.

    2016-05-01

    Hyperspectral imaging (HSI) device users often require both high spectral resolution, on the order of 1 nm, and high light-gathering power. A wide entrance slit assures reasonable étendue but degrades spectral resolution. Spectrometers built using High Throughput Virtual Slit™ (HTVS) technology optimize both parameters simultaneously. Two remote sensing use cases that require high spectral resolution are discussed. First, detection of atmospheric gases with intrinsically narrow absorption lines, such as hydrocarbon vapors or combustion exhaust gases such as NOx and CO2. Detecting exhaust gas species with high precision has become increasingly important in the light of recent events in the automobile industry. Second, distinguishing reflected daylight from emission spectra in the visible and NIR (VNIR) regions is most easily accomplished using the Fraunhofer absorption lines in solar spectra. While ground reflectance spectral features in the VNIR are generally quite broad, the Fraunhofer lines are narrow and provide a signature of intrinsic vs. extrinsic illumination. The High Throughput Virtual Slit enables higher spectral resolution than is achievable with conventional spectrometers by manipulating the beam profile in pupil space. By reshaping the instrument pupil with reflective optics, HTVS-equipped instruments create a tall, narrow image profile at the exit focal plane, typically delivering 5X or better the spectral resolution achievable with a conventional design.

  20. Superfocusing the light through the nanosize slit via photonic tornado

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Seong Soo; Jha, Vinaya; Suwal, Om; Park, Myoung Jin; Park, Nam Kyu; Kim, Daisik

    2010-03-01

    The macro size pyramidal horn probe such as klystron horn antenna has been used to provide the excellent focusing capabilities in microwave region. In the similar way, the pyramidal probe with the micron size mirror (pyramidal horn probe) has been fabricated with a nano-size aperture with diameter ranging from ˜1 nm to ˜30 nm. Light transmission through the micro-fabricated pyramidal horn probe has been measured to enhance the light transmission due to resonant effects between the cavity mode and the slit modes in the probe, along with improved directionality of the transmitted beam. The resonant tunneling between two standing waves in the input groove and in the output groove can provide the transmission enhancements. With decreasing slit width, the transmission is found to increasing tremendously.[1] The transmission is measured to be inversely proportional to the area.[2,3] References:[1] R. Gordon, Phys. Rev. B 73, 153405 (2006).[2] R. Harrington, IEEE Trans. Antennas Propagat. Ap-30, 205(1982).[3] Y Leviatan, R. Harrington, J. Maut, IEEE Trans. Antennas Propagat. Ap-30, 1533(1982)

  1. Adaptive SPECT imaging with crossed-slit apertures

    PubMed Central

    Durko, Heather L.; Furenlid, Lars R.

    2015-01-01

    Preclinical single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) is an essential tool for studying the progression, response to treatment, and physiological changes in small animal models of human disease. The wide range of imaging applications is often limited by the static design of many preclinical SPECT systems. We have developed a prototype imaging system that replaces the standard static pinhole aperture with two sets of movable, keel-edged copper-tungsten blades configured as crossed (skewed) slits. These apertures can be positioned independently between the object and detector, producing a continuum of imaging configurations in which the axial and transaxial magnifications are not constrained to be equal. We incorporated a megapixel silicon double-sided strip detector to permit ultrahigh-resolution imaging. We describe the configuration of the adjustable slit aperture imaging system and discuss its application toward adaptive imaging, and reconstruction techniques using an accurate imaging forward model, a novel geometric calibration technique, and a GPU-based ultra-high-resolution reconstruction code. PMID:26190884

  2. Line-scanning, stage scanning confocal microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carucci, John A.; Stevenson, Mary; Gareau, Daniel

    2016-03-01

    We created a line-scanning, stage scanning confocal microscope as part of a new procedure: video assisted micrographic surgery (VAMS). The need for rapid pathological assessment of the tissue on the surface of skin excisions very large since there are 3.5 million new skin cancers diagnosed annually in the United States. The new design presented here is a confocal microscope without any scanning optics. Instead, a line is focused in space and the sample, which is flattened, is physically translated such that the line scans across its face in a direction perpendicular to the line its self. The line is 6mm long and the stage is capable of scanning 50 mm, hence the field of view is quite large. The theoretical diffraction-limited resolution is 0.7um lateral and 3.7um axial. However, in this preliminary report, we present initial results that are a factor of 5-7 poorer in resolution. The results are encouraging because they demonstrate that the linear array detector measures sufficient signal from fluorescently labeled tissue and also demonstrate the large field of view achievable with VAMS.

  3. The influence of topology on the free energy and metric properties of ring polymer confined in a slit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Zhao-Yan; Li, Bing; An, Li-Jia; Wang, Zhen-Gang

    2014-03-01

    An off-lattice model with no excluded volume is used to study the effect of topological constraint on the free energy and metric properties of ring polymer confined in a slit with height d. The topological state is conserved by forbidding bond crossing. This model was applied to ring polymers with chain length up to N =103 . Umbrella sampling and weighted histogram analysis method (WHAM) are used to calculate the free energy and the radius of gyration. In the strong confinement limit, free energy of linear chain in our model scales as d-2 and the in-plane radius of gyration R| | is independent of confinement, which agrees with the theoretical prediction very well. However, unlike the linear chain, the scaling behavior of ring polymer shows a different trend. This abnormal scaling behavior is thought to be caused by the topological constraint: the knotting probability of ring polymer increases with decreasing the slit height, and in this case, ring polymer is forced to expand itself to conserve its topological unknotted state. This work is subsidized by the National Basic Research Program of China (973 Program, 2012CB821500), and supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (21222407, 21074137, 50930001) programs.

  4. Physical characterization of a scanning photon counting digital mammography system based on Si-strip detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Aaslund, Magnus; Cederstroem, Bjoern; Lundqvist, Mats; Danielsson, Mats

    2007-06-15

    The physical performance of a scanning multislit full field digital mammography system was determined using basic image quality parameters. The system employs a direct detection detector comprised of linear silicon strip sensors in an edge-on geometry connected to photon counting electronics. The pixel size is 50 {mu}m and the field of view 24x26 cm{sup 2}. The performance was quantified using the presampled modulation transfer function, the normalized noise power spectrum and the detective quantum efficiency (DQE). Compared to conventional DQE methods, the scanning geometry with its intrinsic scatter rejection poses additional requirements on the measurement setup, which are investigated in this work. The DQE of the photon counting system was found to be independent of the dose level to the detector in the 7.6-206 {mu}Gy range. The peak DQE was 72% and 73% in the scan and slit direction, respectively, measured with a 28 kV W-0.5 mm Al anode-filter combination with an added 2 mm Al filtration.

  5. Physical characterization of a scanning photon counting digital mammography system based on Si-strip detectors.

    PubMed

    Aslund, Magnus; Cederström, Björn; Lundqvist, Mats; Danielsson, Mats

    2007-06-01

    The physical performance of a scanning multislit full field digital mammography system was determined using basic image quality parameters. The system employs a direct detection detector comprised of linear silicon strip sensors in an edge-on geometry connected to photon counting electronics. The pixel size is 50 microm and the field of view 24 x 26 cm2. The performance was quantified using the presampled modulation transfer function, the normalized noise power spectrum and the detective quantum efficiency (DQE). Compared to conventional DQE methods, the scanning geometry with its intrinsic scatter rejection poses additional requirements on the measurement setup, which are investigated in this work. The DQE of the photon counting system was found to be independent of the dose level to the detector in the 7.6-206 microGy range. The peak DQE was 72% and 73% in the scan and slit direction, respectively, measured with a 28 kV W-0.5 mm Al anode-filter combination with an added 2 mm Al filtration. PMID:17654894

  6. UNREVIEWED DISPOSAL QUESTION EVALUATION: CENTER SLIT TRENCHES ONE THROUGH FIVE OPERATIONAL COVERS REANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, F.; Swingle, R.

    2011-05-26

    Operational inventory limits for the disposal of solid low-level waste in Slit Trenches 1-7 were established by the Special Analysis (SA) performed by Collard and Hamm (2008). To determine disposal limits for the Slit Trenches, the SA followed the methodology used in the 2008 PA (WSRC, 2008) which assumed that the inventories in each trench were instantaneously placed in 12/1995, which is the date when SLIT1 began operation. The 2008 SA analyzed the impact from placing storm-water runoff covers simultaneously over Slit Trenches 1-7 at 5, 10 and 15 years after the inventory was introduced. To include a measure of conservatism in the limits, the lowest of the limits calculated for any storm-water runoff cover placement time or that calculated in the original 2008 PA was chosen as the operational limit for each radionuclide. Through the availability of funding provided by the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA), storm-water runoff covers were placed over Slit Trenches 1-5 in December 2010. SRNL was requested to perform a UDQE for this accelerated action. Table 1 below lists the operational dates for Slit Trenches 1-5 and the time elapsed between when the first waste package was disposed in each Slit Trench and when the storm-water runoff covers were placed. As shown in Table 1, SLIT1 was covered 15.0 years after the date of the first waste package disposal. SLIT2 was covered 9.2 years after the date of the first waste package disposal in SLIT2 which falls within the window of {+-} 1.0 year within which the 2008 SA cover time analysis was assumed to be valid (Crowley and Butcher, 2008). Therefore, the analysis of SLIT1 and SLIT2 in the 2008 SA is considered adequate. However, the cover timings for SLIT3, SLIT4 and SLIT5 are from 2.2 to 1.6 years beyond the nearest cover time of 5 years assumed in the 2008 SA analysis and fall outside of the acceptable one-year margin. Therefore, an additional study was conducted by Collard et al. (2011) that assessed the

  7. Production of Slit2 LRR domains in mammalian cells for structural studies and the structure of human Slit2 domain 3.

    PubMed

    Morlot, Cecile; Hemrika, Wieger; Romijn, Roland A; Gros, Piet; Cusack, Stephen; McCarthy, Andrew A

    2007-09-01

    Slit2 and Roundabout 1 (Robo1) provide a key ligand-receptor interaction for the navigation of commissural neurons during the development of the central nervous system. Slit2 is a large multidomain protein containing an unusual domain organization of four tandem leucine-rich repeat (LRR) domains at its N-terminus. These domains are well known to mediate protein-protein interactions; indeed, the Robo1-binding region has been mapped to the concave face of the second LRR domain. It has also been shown that the fourth LRR domain may mediate Slit dimerization and that both the first and second domains can bind heparin. Thus, while roles have been ascribed for three of the LRR domains, there is still no known role for the third domain. Each of the four LRR domains from human Slit2 have now been successfully expressed in milligram quantities using expression in mammalian cells. Here, the crystallization of the second and third LRR domains and the structure of the third LRR domain are presented. This is the first structure of an LRR domain from human Slit2, which has an extra repeat compared with the Drosophila homologue. It is proposed that a highly conserved patch of surface residues on the concave face may mediate any protein-protein interactions involving this LRR domain, a result that will be useful in guiding further studies on Slit2. PMID:17704564

  8. SILSS: SPHERE/IRDIS Long-Slit Spectroscopy pipeline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vigan, Arthur

    2016-03-01

    The ESO's VLT/SPHERE instrument includes a unique long-slit spectroscopy (LSS) mode coupled with Lyot coronagraphy in its infrared dual-band imager and spectrograph (IRDIS) for spectral characterization of young, giant exoplanets detected by direct imaging. The SILSS pipeline is a combination of the official SPHERE pipeline and additional custom IDL routines developed within the SPHERE consortium for the speckle subtraction and spectral extraction of a companion's spectrum; it offers a complete end-to-end pipeline, from raw data (science+calibrations) to a final spectrum of the companion. SILSS works on both the low-resolution (LRS) and medium-resolution (MRS) data, and allows correction for some of the known biases of the instrument. Documentation is included in the header of the main routine of the pipeline.

  9. 3-D Printed Slit Nozzles for Fourier Transform Microwave Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dewberry, Chris; Mackenzie, Becca; Green, Susan; Leopold, Ken

    2015-06-01

    3-D printing is a new technology whose applications are only beginning to be explored. In this report, we describe the application of 3-D printing to the facile design and construction of supersonic nozzles. The efficacy of a variety of designs is assessed by examining rotational spectra OCS and Ar-OCS using a Fourier transform microwave spectrometer with tandem cavity and chirped-pulse capabilities. This work focuses primarily on the use of slit nozzles but other designs have been tested as well. New nozzles can be created for 0.50 or less each, and the ease and low cost should facilitate the optimization of nozzle performance (e.g., jet temperature or cluster size distribution) for the needs of any particular experiment.

  10. REDUCEME: Long-slit spectroscopic data reduction and analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardiel, N.; Gorgas, J.; Pedraz, S.; Cenarro, J.; Alonso, O.; Gil de Paz, A.; García-Dabó, E.; Sánchez-Blázquez, P.; Mármol-Queraltó, E.; Toloba, E.

    2015-08-01

    The astronomical data reduction package REDUCEME reduces and analyzes long-slit spectroscopic data. The package uses the unformatted FORTRAN raw data format, so requires FITS files be transformed to REDUCEME format; the reverse operation (from REDUCEME to FITS format) is also available. The package is a set of programs written in FORTRAN 77 and includes shell scripts (using the C shell syntax) to perform routine tasks; it can be extended by the inclusion of external programs. REDUCEME uses PGPLOT (ascl:1103.002) for line plots and images, and a subset of subroutines, called BUTTON, enables the user to communicate interactively with the image display employing graphic buttons. One advantage of using REDUCEME is that for each image an associated error image can also be processed throughout the reduction process, allowing for a careful control of the error propagation.

  11. The optical slit sensor as a standard sensor for spacecraft attitude determination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wertz, J.

    1975-01-01

    The basic concept of an optical slit sensor as a standard altitude sensor is considered for any missions using a spinning spacecraft or where rotating sensors or mirrors could be used. Information available from a single sensor or from two sensors is analyzed. A standard slit sensor package is compared with the altitude package flown on the first synchronous meteorological satellite.

  12. Suppression of Slit2/Robo1 mediated HUVEC migration by Robo4.

    PubMed

    Enomoto, Satoshi; Mitsui, Kenichi; Kawamura, Takeshi; Iwanari, Hiroko; Daigo, Kenji; Horiuchi, Keiko; Minami, Takashi; Kodama, Tatsuhiko; Hamakubo, Takao

    2016-01-22

    Slit proteins and their receptors, the Roundabout (Robo) family, are known to have a pivotal role in the vascular system. Slit2/Robo1 regulates the migration of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and tumor-associated endothelial cells. Robo4, the endothelial-specific Robo, is also considered to be involved in vascular cell migration. However, the Slit/Robo signaling pathway is still unclear. Using a Boyden chamber assay, we found that Slit2 induces the migration of HUVECs under a Robo4 knockdown condition. This effect disappeared in Robo1 knockdown cells. The co-existence of the N-terminal extracellular portion of Robo1 blocked the Slit2-evoked migration of HUVECs, while that of Robo4 caused no effect. These results show that the Slit2 signal is transduced through Robo1, while the negative regulation of Robo4 is an intracellular event. Targeted proteomics using an anti-Robo1 monoclonal antibody identified CdGAP, an adhesion-localized Rac1-and Cdc42-specific GTPase activating protein, as a candidate for Slit2/Robo1 signaling. Robo1 and CdGAP were co-immunoprecipitated from CHO cells co-transfected with Robo1 and CdGAP genes. These results suggest that Slit2/Robo1 binding exerts an effect on cell migration, which is negatively regulated by Robo4, and Robo1 may function by interacting with CdGAP in HUVECs. PMID:26713366

  13. Dimensional reduction of duplex DNA under confinement to nanofluidic slits.

    PubMed

    Vargas-Lara, Fernando; Stavis, Samuel M; Strychalski, Elizabeth A; Nablo, Brian J; Geist, Jon; Starr, Francis W; Douglas, Jack F

    2015-11-14

    There has been much interest in the dimensional properties of double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) confined to nanoscale environments as a problem of fundamental importance in both biological and technological fields. This has led to a series of measurements by fluorescence microscopy of single dsDNA molecules under confinement to nanofluidic slits. Despite the efforts expended on such experiments and the corresponding theory and simulations of confined polymers, a consistent description of changes of the radius of gyration of dsDNA under strong confinement has not yet emerged. Here, we perform molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to identify relevant factors that might account for this inconsistency. Our simulations indicate a significant amplification of excluded volume interactions under confinement at the nanoscale due to the reduction of the effective dimensionality of the system. Thus, any factor influencing the excluded volume interaction of dsDNA, such as ionic strength, solution chemistry, and even fluorescent labels, can greatly influence the dsDNA size under strong confinement. These factors, which are normally less important in bulk solutions of dsDNA at moderate ionic strengths because of the relative weakness of the excluded volume interaction, must therefore be under tight control to achieve reproducible measurements of dsDNA under conditions of dimensional reduction. By simulating semi-flexible polymers over a range of parameter values relevant to the experimental systems and exploiting past theoretical treatments of the dimensional variation of swelling exponents and prefactors, we have developed a novel predictive relationship for the in-plane radius of gyration of long semi-flexible polymers under slit-like confinement. Importantly, these analytic expressions allow us to estimate the properties of dsDNA for the experimentally and biologically relevant range of contour lengths that is not currently accessible by state-of-the-art MD simulations. PMID

  14. Degenerate four wave mixing of pyridazine from a slit nozzle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hongzhi; Kong, Wei

    1998-09-01

    Using a pulsed supersonic slit nozzle, the nonfluorescing π*←n transition of pyridazine was investigated. The degenerate four wave mixing (DFWM) spectra showed numerous vibrational bands over a 1200 cm-1 region. Most of these bands were parallel transitions with a strong Q branch and weaker but observable P and R branches. Based on our previous model [H. Li and W. Kong, J. Chem. Phys. 107, 3774 (1997)], these transitions were simulated with success. The polarization dependence of the rotational branching ratios suggested that primary contributions to the DFWM signal were from large spaced gratings formed by ground state molecules. The lack of contributions from excited state gratings and small spaced gratings was attributed to the fast internal conversion process on the S1 surface of pyridazine (0.3-3 ns), the wash-out time due to movements of the sample in a molecular beam, and the duration time of the excitation laser (7 ns). Two vibrational bands showed unexpected enhancement in the P or R branch, but for each band, one adjustment factor was sufficient to reproduce the spectra recorded under all different polarization combinations. Perturbations were observable from the rotationally resolved spectra, however in most cases, rotational progressions did not seem to be affected by the perturbation in terms of both line positions and intensities. A more detailed analysis of the supersonically cooled spectra, together with data from a room temperature gas cell and ab initio calculations, will be necessary to completely interpret the spectroscopy of pyridazine. This paper demonstrates that with the increased sensitivity achievable through a slit nozzle, DFWM is an effective technique for detailed spectroscopic studies, particularly for nonfluorescing species.

  15. Two-slit experiment: quantum and classical probabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khrennikov, Andrei

    2015-06-01

    Inter-relation between quantum and classical probability models is one of the most fundamental problems of quantum foundations. Nowadays this problem also plays an important role in quantum technologies, in quantum cryptography and the theory of quantum random generators. In this letter, we compare the viewpoint of Richard Feynman that the behavior of quantum particles cannot be described by classical probability theory with the viewpoint that quantum-classical inter-relation is more complicated (cf, in particular, with the tomographic model of quantum mechanics developed in detail by Vladimir Man'ko). As a basic example, we consider the two-slit experiment, which played a crucial role in quantum foundational debates at the beginning of quantum mechanics (QM). In particular, its analysis led Niels Bohr to the formulation of the principle of complementarity. First, we demonstrate that in complete accordance with Feynman's viewpoint, the probabilities for the two-slit experiment have the non-Kolmogorovian structure, since they violate one of basic laws of classical probability theory, the law of total probability (the heart of the Bayesian analysis). However, then we show that these probabilities can be embedded in a natural way into the classical (Kolmogorov, 1933) probability model. To do this, one has to take into account the randomness of selection of different experimental contexts, the joint consideration of which led Feynman to a conclusion about the non-classicality of quantum probability. We compare this embedding of non-Kolmogorovian quantum probabilities into the Kolmogorov model with well-known embeddings of non-Euclidean geometries into Euclidean space (e.g., the Poincaré disk model for the Lobachvesky plane).

  16. Nuclear Scans

    MedlinePlus

    ... functions inside your body. They use a special camera that detects radioactivity. Before the test, you receive ... you lie still on a table while the camera makes images. Most scans take 20 to 45 ...

  17. MRI Scans

    MedlinePlus

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) uses a large magnet and radio waves to look at organs and structures inside your body. Health care professionals use MRI scans to diagnose a variety of conditions, from torn ...

  18. Photometric oculometry. I. An analysis of the optical principles in slit-lamp fluorophotometry.

    PubMed

    Krogsaa, B; Fledelius, H; Larsen, J; Lund-Andersen, H

    1984-04-01

    The optical principles of slit-lamp fluorophotometry are analysed by aid of a mathematical model of the optical system. The analysis forms the theoretical basis for a slit-lamp technique called photometric oculometry, which makes possible an estimation of intraocular axial distances and axial length. The technique is based on a calculation--by aid of a mathematical model of the eye--of the ratio between intraocular movement of the slit-lamp focal plane and corresponding movement of the slit-lamp. Intraocular axial distances can be calculated by aid of this ratio and a direct measurement of the slit-lamp movement when the focal plane is moved in the optical axis from retina to cornea. These items are prerequisites for a quantitative determination of the blood-retinal barrier permeability to fluorescein during vitreous fluorophotometry. PMID:6720293

  19. DEVELOPMENT OF A HYDROSTATIC JOURNAL BEARING WITH SLIT-STEP COMPENSATION

    SciTech Connect

    Hale, L C; Donaldson, R R; Castro, C; Chung, C A; Hopkins, D J

    2006-07-28

    This paper describes the mathematical modeling and initial testing of an oil-hydrostatic bearing that derives compensation from both a central radial slit where fluid enters and stepped clearances near each end. Bearings using either a radial slit or stepped clearances for compensation were well studied over forty years ago by Donaldson. These bearings have smooth bores uninterrupted with multiple recesses around the circumference. The present slit-step bearing achieves the best of both types with somewhat higher hydrostatic stiffness than the slit bearing and fluid shear drag lower than the step bearing. This is apparent in TABLE 1, which compares calculated values of initial (i.e., centered) hydrostatic stiffness for each type. The slit-step bearing is one of several types being studied at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory for possible use on the Precision Optical Grinder and Lathe (POGAL).

  20. Slit-Surface Electrospinning: A Novel Process Developed for High-Throughput Fabrication of Core-Sheath Fibers

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Xuri; Marini, John; Mulligan, Robert; Deleault, Abby; Sharma, Upma; Brenner, Michael P.; Rutledge, Gregory C.; Freyman, Toby; Pham, Quynh P.

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we report on the development of slit-surface electrospinning – a process that co-localizes two solutions along a slit surface to spontaneously emit multiple core-sheath cone-jets at rates of up to 1 L/h. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that production of electrospun core-sheath fibers has been scaled to this magnitude. Fibers produced in this study were defect-free (i.e. non-beaded) and core-sheath geometry was visually confirmed under scanning electron microscopy. The versatility of our system was demonstrated by fabrication of (1) fibers encapsulating a drug, (2) bicomponent fibers, (3) hollow fibers, and (4) fibers from a polymer that is not normally electrospinnable. Additionally, we demonstrate control of the process by modulating parameters such as flow rate, solution viscosity, and fixture design. The technological achievements demonstrated in this work significantly advance core-sheath electrospinning towards commercial and manufacturing viability. PMID:25938411

  1. USING A NEW FINITE SLIT PORE MODEL FOR NLDFT ANALYSIS OF CARBON PORE STRUCTURE

    SciTech Connect

    Jagiello, Jacek; Kenvin, Jeffrey; Oliver, James P; Lupini, Andrew R; Contescu, Cristian I

    2011-01-01

    In this work, we present a model for analyzing activated carbon micropore structures based on graphene sheet walls of finite thickness and extent. This is a two-dimensional modification of the widely used infinite slit pore model that assumes graphite-like infinitely extended pore walls. The proposed model has two versions: (1) a strip pore constructed with graphene strip walls that have finite length L in the x direction and are infinite in the y direction. Strip pores are open on both sides in the x direction. (2) A channel pore is a strip pore partially closed along one edge by a perpendicularly oriented graphene wall. This more realistic model allows pore termination via both physical pore entrances and pore blockage. The model consequently introduces heterogeneity of the adsorption potential that is reduced near pore entrances and enhanced near corners of pore walls. These energetically heterogeneous structures fill with adsorbate more gradually than homogeneous pores of the same width. As a result, the calculated adsorption isotherms are smoother and less steep for the finite versus the infinite pore model. In the application of this model for carbon characterization it is necessary to make an assumption about the pore length. In this work we made this assumption based on the high resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) results. We find the agreement between the experiment and the model significantly better for the finite than for the infinite pore model.

  2. Solid particle impingement erosion characteristics of cylindrical surfaces, pre-existing holes and slits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rao, P. V.; Buckley, D. H.

    1983-01-01

    The erosion characteristics of aluminum cylinders sand-blasted with both spherical and angular erodent particles were studied and compared with results from previously studied flat surfaces. The cylindrical results are discussed with respect to impact conditions. The relationship between erosion rate and pit morphology (width, depth, and width to depth ratio) is established. The aspects of (1) erosion rate versus time curves on cylindrical surfaces; (2) long-term exposures; and (3) erosion rate versus time curves with spherical and angular particles are presented. The erosion morphology and characteristics of aluminum surfaces with pre-existing circular cylindrical and conical holes of different sizes were examined using weight loss measurements, scanning electron microscopy, a profilometer, and a depth gage. The morphological features (radial and concentric rings) are discussed with reference to flat surfaces, and the erosion features with spherical microglass beads. The similarities and differences of erosion and morphological features are highlighted. The erosion versus time curves of various shapes of holes are discussed and are compared with those of a flat surface. The erosion process at slits is considered.

  3. Novel regulated expression of the SLIT/ROBO pathway in the ovary: possible role during luteolysis in women.

    PubMed

    Dickinson, Rachel E; Myers, Michelle; Duncan, W Colin

    2008-10-01

    The human corpus luteum (CL) undergoes luteolysis, associated with marked tissue and vascular remodeling, unless conception occurs and the gland is rescued by human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG). In Drosophila the Slit gene product, a secreted glycoprotein, acts as a ligand for the roundabout (robo) transmembrane receptor. Together they influence the guidance and migration of neuronal and nonneuronal cells. In vertebrates three Slit (Slit1, Slit2, Slit3) and four Robo (Robo1, Robo2, Robo3/Rig-1, Robo4/Magic Robo) genes have been identified. ROBO1, SLIT2, and SLIT3 are also inactivated in human cancers and may regulate apoptosis and metastasis. Because processes such as apoptosis and tissue remodeling occur during the regression of the CL, the aim of this study was to investigate the expression, regulation, and effects of the SLIT and ROBO genes in human luteal cells. Immunohistochemistry and RT-PCR revealed that SLIT2, SLIT3, ROBO1, and ROBO2 are expressed in luteal steroidogenic cells and fibroblast-like cells of the human CL. Furthermore, using real-time quantitative PCR, expression of SLIT2, SLIT3, and ROBO2 was maximal in the late-luteal phase and significantly reduced after luteal rescue in vivo with exogenous hCG (P<0.05). Additionally, hCG significantly inhibited SLIT2, SLIT3, and ROBO2 expression in cultured luteinized granulosa cells (P<0.05). Blocking SLIT-ROBO activity increased migration and significantly decreased levels of apoptosis in primary cultures of luteal cells (P<0.05). Overall, these results suggest the SLIT/ROBO pathway could play an important role in luteolysis in women. PMID:18566128

  4. Slit/Robo1 signaling regulates neural tube development by balancing neuroepithelial cell proliferation and differentiation

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Guang; Li, Yan; Wang, Xiao-yu; Han, Zhe; Chuai, Manli; Wang, Li-jing; Ho Lee, Kenneth Ka; Geng, Jian-guo; Yang, Xuesong

    2013-05-01

    Formation of the neural tube is the morphological hallmark for development of the embryonic central nervous system (CNS). Therefore, neural tube development is a crucial step in the neurulation process. Slit/Robo signaling was initially identified as a chemo-repellent that regulated axon growth cone elongation, but its role in controlling neural tube development is currently unknown. To address this issue, we investigated Slit/Robo1 signaling in the development of chick neCollege of Life Sciences Biocentre, University of Dundee, Dundee DD1 5EH, UKural tube and transgenic mice over-expressing Slit2. We disrupted Slit/Robo1 signaling by injecting R5 monoclonal antibodies into HH10 neural tubes to block the Robo1 receptor. This inhibited the normal development of the ventral body curvature and caused the spinal cord to curl up into a S-shape. Next, Slit/Robo1 signaling on one half-side of the chick embryo neural tube was disturbed by electroporation in ovo. We found that the morphology of the neural tube was dramatically abnormal after we interfered with Slit/Robo1 signaling. Furthermore, we established that silencing Robo1 inhibited cell proliferation while over-expressing Robo1 enhanced cell proliferation. We also investigated the effects of altering Slit/Robo1 expression on Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) and Pax7 expression in the developing neural tube. We demonstrated that over-expressing Robo1 down-regulated Shh expression in the ventral neural tube and resulted in the production of fewer HNK-1{sup +} migrating neural crest cells (NCCs). In addition, Robo1 over-expression enhanced Pax7 expression in the dorsal neural tube and increased the number of Slug{sup +} pre-migratory NCCs. Conversely, silencing Robo1 expression resulted in an enhanced Shh expression and more HNK-1{sup +} migrating NCCs but reduced Pax7 expression and fewer Slug{sup +} pre-migratory NCCs were observed. In conclusion, we propose that Slit/Robo1 signaling is involved in regulating neural tube

  5. `Mathematical' Cracks Versus Artificial Slits: Implications in the Determination of Fracture Toughness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markides, Ch. F.; Kourkoulis, S. K.

    2016-03-01

    An analytic solution is introduced for the stress field developed in a circular finite disc weakened by a central slit of arbitrary ratio of its edges and slightly rounded corners. The disc is loaded by radial pressure applied along two finite arcs of its periphery, anti-symmetric with respect to the disc's center. The motive of the study is to consider the stress field in a disc with a mechanically machined slit (finite distance between the two lips) in juxtaposition to the respective field in the same disc with a `mathematical' crack (zero distance between lips), which is the configuration adopted in case the fracture toughness of brittle materials is determined according to the standardized cracked Brazilian-disc test. The solution is obtained using Muskhelishvili's complex potentials' technique adopting a suitable conformal mapping function found, also, in Savin's milestone book. For the task to be accomplished, an auxiliary problem is first solved, namely, the infinite plate with a rectangular slit (in case the resultant force on the slit is zero and also the stresses and rotations at infinity are zero), by mapping conformally the area outside the slit onto the mathematical plane with a unit hole. The formulae obtained for the complex potentials permit the analytic exploration of the stress field along some loci of crucial practical importance. The influence of the slit's width on the local stress amplification and also on the stress concentration around the crown of the slit is quantitatively described. In addition, the role of the load-application mode (compression along the slit's longitudinal symmetry axis and tension normal to it) is explored. Results indicate that the two configurations are not equivalent in terms of the stress concentration factor. In addition, depending on the combination of the slit's width and the load-application mode, the point where the normal stress along the slit's boundary is maximized `oscillates' between the central point of

  6. Infrared Scanning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    United Scanning Technologies, Inc.'s Infrared thermography is a relatively new noncontact, nondestructive inspection and testing tool which makes temperatures visible to the human eye. Infrared scanning devices produce images that show, by color or black and white shading differences, heat losses through damaged or inadequately insulated walls or roofs. The MISS Aeroscan services are designed to take the guesswork out of industrial roof maintenance and provide companies big savings by identifying the location of moisture damage from roof leaks, effectively targeting maintenance attention.

  7. Influence of polymer architecture and polymer-wall interaction on the adsorption of polymers into a slit-pore.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhong; Escobedo, Fernando A

    2004-02-01

    The effects of molecular topology and polymer-surface interaction on the properties of isolated polymer chains trapped in a slit were investigated using off-lattice Monte Carlo simulations. Various methods were implemented to allow efficient simulation of molecular structure, confinement force, and free energy for a chain interacting with such "sticky" surfaces. The simulations were performed in the canonical ensemble, and the free energy was sampled via virtual slit-separation moves. Six different chain architectures were studied: linear, star-branched, dendritic, cyclic, two-node (i.e., containing two tetrafunctional intramolecular crosslinks), and six-node molecules. The first three topologies entail increasing degrees of branching, and the last three topologies entail increasing degrees of intramolecular bonding. The confinement force, monomer density profile, and conformational properties for all these systems were compared (for identical molecular weight N) and analyzed as a function of adsorption strength. The compensation point where the wall attraction counterbalances the polymer-slit exclusion effects was the focus of our study. It was found that the attractive energy at the compensation point, epsilon(c), is a weak increasing function of the chain length for excluded-volume chains. The value of epsilon(c) differs significantly for different topologies, and smaller values are associated with better-adsorbing molecules. Due to their globular shape and numerous chain ends, branched molecules (e.g., stars and dendrimers) experience a relatively small entropic penalty for adsorption at low adsorption force and moderate confinement. However, as the adsorption force increases, the more flexible linear chains reach the compensation point at a weaker attractive energy because of the ease with which monomers can be packed near the walls. In moderate to weak confinement, molecules with intramolecular cross-links, such as cyclic, two-node, and six-node molecules

  8. Influence of polymer architecture and polymer-wall interaction on the adsorption of polymers into a slit-pore

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhong; Escobedo, Fernando A.

    2004-02-01

    The effects of molecular topology and polymer-surface interaction on the properties of isolated polymer chains trapped in a slit were investigated using off-lattice Monte Carlo simulations. Various methods were implemented to allow efficient simulation of molecular structure, confinement force, and free energy for a chain interacting with such “sticky” surfaces. The simulations were performed in the canonical ensemble, and the free energy was sampled via virtual slit-separation moves. Six different chain architectures were studied: linear, star-branched, dendritic, cyclic, two-node (i.e., containing two tetrafunctional intramolecular crosslinks), and six-node molecules. The first three topologies entail increasing degrees of branching, and the last three topologies entail increasing degrees of intramolecular bonding. The confinement force, monomer density profile, and conformational properties for all these systems were compared (for identical molecular weight N) and analyzed as a function of adsorption strength. The compensation point where the wall attraction counterbalances the polymer-slit exclusion effects was the focus of our study. It was found that the attractive energy at the compensation point, ɛc, is a weak increasing function of the chain length for excluded-volume chains. The value of ɛc differs significantly for different topologies, and smaller values are associated with better-adsorbing molecules. Due to their globular shape and numerous chain ends, branched molecules (e.g., stars and dendrimers) experience a relatively small entropic penalty for adsorption at low adsorption force and moderate confinement. However, as the adsorption force increases, the more flexible linear chains reach the compensation point at a weaker attractive energy because of the ease with which monomers can be packed near the walls. In moderate to weak confinement, molecules with intramolecular cross-links, such as cyclic, two-node, and six-node molecules, always

  9. Investigation of digital sun sensor technology with an N-shaped slit mask.

    PubMed

    Wei, Min-Song; Xing, Fei; Li, Bin; You, Zheng

    2011-01-01

    Nowadays sun sensors are being more widely used in satellites to determine the sunray orientation, thus development of a new version of sun sensor with lighter mass, lower power consumption and smaller size it of considerable interest. This paper introduces such a novel digital sun sensor, which is composed of a micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS) mask with an N-shaped slit as well as a single linear array charge-coupled device (CCD). The sun sensor can achieve the measurement of two-axis sunray angles according to the three sun spot images on the CCD formed by sun light illumination through the mask. Given the CCD glass layer, an iterative algorithm is established to correct the refraction error. Thus, system resolution, update rate and other characteristics are improved based on the model simulation and system design. The test of sun sensor prototype is carried out on a three-axis rotating platform with a sun simulator. The test results show that the field of view (FOV) is ±60° × ±60° and the accuracy is 0.08 degrees of arc (3σ) in the whole FOV. Since the power consumption of the prototype is only 300 mW and the update rate is 14 Hz, the novel digital sun sensor can be applied broadly in micro/nano-satellites, even pico-satellites. PMID:22163724

  10. [Study on the wavelength accuracy of the 2-D slit-array Hadamard spectrometer].

    PubMed

    Chi, Ming-Bo; Hao, Peng; Wu, Yi-Hui

    2013-01-01

    The 2-D slit array mask is a new design of Hadamard spectrometer mask. Having discussed the influence of the inconsistency caused by the machining errors in the size and location between the slits in the same column on the wavelength accuracy of the Hadamard spectrometer, the authors bring up with the way to decrease the influence on the wavelength accuracy of the spectrometer caused by the difference in the height and location vertical to the spectrum between the slits in the same column, and then estimate the spectral shift caused by the relative location shift along the spectrum between the slits in the same column. A model for simulation was built, and the measurement errors in the decoded spectrum generated by one column of the slits on the mask were calculated, when there are inconsistency errors in width and location along the spectrum between the slits in another column. Based on the simulation calculation, we can determine the machining precision of the mask. The research will be meaningful to the design of the 2-D slit array mask using MEMS(micro-electro-mechanism system) technique and the revise of the decoded spectrum, which can provide the spectrometer with a reasonable wavelength accuracy. PMID:23586265

  11. Frequency characteristics of defect states in a two-dimensional phononic crystal with slit structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, X. P.; Jiang, P.; Chen, T. N.; Yu, K. P.

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, the defect state and band gap characteristics in a two-dimensional slit structure phononic crystal, consisting of slotted steel tubes embedded in an air matrix, are investigated theoretically and experimentally. Using the finite element method and supercell technique, the dispersion relationships and power transmission spectra of the slit structures are calculated. The vibration modes of the band gap edges are analyzed to clarify the mechanism of the generation of the band gaps. Additionally, the influence of the slit width on the band gaps in slit structure is investigated. The slit width was found to influence the band gaps; this is critical to understand for practical applications. Based on this finding, a method to form defect scatterers by changing the slit width of a single central scatterer, or one row of scatterers, in the perfect PC was developed. Defect bands can be induced by creating defects inside the original complete band gaps. The frequency can then be tuned by changing the slit width of defect scatterers. Meanwhile, the relationship between point defect and line defect is investigated. Finally, we verify the results of theoretical research by experiments. These results will help in fabricating devices such as acoustic filters and waveguides whose band frequency can be modulated.

  12. USP33 mediates Slit-Robo signaling in inhibiting colorectal cancer cell migration

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Zhaohui; Wen, Pushuai; Kong, Ruirui; Cheng, Haipeng; Zhang, Binbin; Quan, Cao; Bian, Zehua; Chen, Mengmeng; Zhang, Zhenfeng; Chen, Xiaoping; Du, Xiang; Liu, Jianghong; Zhu, Li; Fushimi, Kazuo; Hua, Dong; Wu, Jane Y.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Originally discovered in neuronal guidance, the Slit-Robo pathway is emerging as an important player in human cancers. However, its involvement and mechanism in colorectal cancer (CRC) remains to be elucidated. Here, we report that Slit2 expression is reduced in CRC tissues compared with adjacent non-cancerous tissues. Extensive promoter hypermethylation of the Slit2 gene has been observed in CRC cells, which provides a mechanistic explanation for the Slit2 downregulation in CRC. Functional studies showed that Slit2 inhibits CRC cell migration in a Robo-dependent manner. Robo-interacting ubiquitin-specific protease 33 (USP33) is required for the inhibitory function of Slit2 on CRC cell migration by deubiquitinating and stabilizing Robo1. USP33 expression is downregulated in CRC samples, and reduced USP33 mRNA levels are correlated with increased tumor grade, lymph node metastasis and poor patient survival. Taken together, our data reveal USP33 as a previously unknown tumor-suppressing gene for CRC by mediating the inhibitory function of Slit-Robo signaling on CRC cell migration. Our work suggests the potential value of USP33 as an independent prognostic marker of CRC. PMID:25242263

  13. Ultrathin multi-slit metamaterial as excellent sound absorber: Influence of micro-structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, S. W.; Meng, H.; Xin, F. X.; Lu, T. J.

    2016-01-01

    An ultrathin (subwavelength) hierarchy multi-slit metamaterial with simultaneous negative effective density and negative compressibility is proposed to absorb sound over a wide frequency range. Different from conventional acoustic metamaterials having only negative real parts of acoustic parameters, the imaginary parts of effective density and compressibility are both negative for the proposed metamaterial, which result in superior viscous and thermal dissipation of sound energy. By combining the slit theory of sound absorption with the double porosity theory for porous media, a theoretical model is developed to investigate the sound absorption performance of the metamaterial. To verify the model, a finite element model is established to calculate the effective density, compressibility, and sound absorption of the metamaterial. It is theoretically and numerically confirmed that, upon introducing micro-slits into the meso-slits matrix, the multi-slit metamaterial possesses indeed negative imaginary parts of effective density and compressibility. The influence of micro-slits on the acoustical performance of the metamaterial is analyzed in the context of its specific surface area and static flow resistivity. This work shows great potential of multi-slit metamaterials in noise control applications that require both small volume and small weight of sound-absorbing materials.

  14. Finding Optimized Conditions of Slit-Slat and Multislit-Slat Collimation for Breast Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Kau, Daekwang; Metzler, Scott D.

    2013-01-01

    In order to develop a breast-imaging system for Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) using slit-slat and multislit-slat collimators, we searched for optimized geometric parameters of the collimators. For this study, we employed two independent metrics to validate each result: 1) Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) based on the Cramer-Rao lower Bound (CRB) and 2) contrast at the same noise level from an ensemble. We calculated SNR values using forward-projection data of an anthropomorphic digital phantom containing two lesions in the breast (one at the chest wall and the other at the center) with a simulated slit-slat collimator as a function of the collimator’s geometric parameters. We also calculated contrast values from reconstructed images with noise. Based on the results from the slit-slat case, we investigated angular range, SNR, and contrast for the multislit-slat. We saw similar trends of the two metrics. One interesting property of the multislit-slat is that the imaging performance depends on the orientation of the field of view (FOV) of the side slits. When we compared the metric values for the slit-slat and multislit-slat, improvement was seen only when the lesion was in the FOV of the side slits. Therefore, tuning the parameters of the multislit-slat to optimally detect lesions at the chest wall might be a sensible option since the slit-slat already provides good image quality for center and superficial lesions. PMID:24347677

  15. Semiconductor fabrication techniques for producing an ultra-flat reflective slit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vandervelde, Thomas E.; Cabral, Michael J.; Wilson, John; Skrutskie, Michael

    2006-06-01

    The most difficult aspects in manufacturing a reflective slit substrate are achieving a precisely fabricated slit surrounded by an optically flat surface. A commonly used technique is to polish a metal substrate that has a slit cut by electric discharge machine (EDM) methods. This process can produce 'optically flat' surfaces; however, the EDM can produce a slit with edge roughness on the order of 10 microns and a RMS field roughness of ~1 micron. Here, we present a departure from these traditional methods and employ the advantages inherent in integrated circuit fabrication. By starting with a silicon wafer, we begin with a nearly atomically flat surface. In addition, the fabrication tools and methodologies employed are traditionally used for high precision applications: this allows for the placement and definition of the slit with high accuracy. If greater accuracy in slit definition is required, additional tools, such as a focused ion beam, are used to define the slit edge down to tens of nanometers. The deposition of gold, after that of a suitable bonding layer, in an ultra-high vacuum chamber creates a final surface without the need of polishing. Typical results yield a surface RMS-roughness of approximately 2nm. Most of the techniques and tools required for this process are commonly available at research universities and the cost to manufacture said mirrors is a small fraction of the purchase price of the traditional ones.

  16. Narrow band imaging and long slit spectroscopy of UGC 5101

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanga, R. M.; Mannucci, F.; Rodriguezespinosa, J. M.

    1993-01-01

    UGC 5101 (z = 0.04; D is approximately equal to 240 Mpc) is one of the so called Ultraluminous IRAS sources. Two important properties of the members of this group are their L(sub IR) is greater than or equal to 10(exp 12) solar luminosity, and their space density in the universe up to z is less than 0.1 is equal or even larger than the space density of the quasars. Further noteworthy features of the Ultraluminous IRAS sources are their being morphologically peculiar and the fact that they all seem to host active nuclei in their center. We have observed UGC 5101 in an effort to study the interplay between the gas ionized by the central active nucleus and that gas ionized by other processes which may hold important clues to the understanding of the entire picture of this object. In particular these other ionizing processes could well be massive stars formed recently after the galactic encounter and shocks possibly also related to the galaxy collision. The data that we discuss were obtained between Dec. 1989 and Jan. 1992 with the WHT 4.2 m telescope using the two-arm spectrograph ISIS. Several spectral frames were obtained at three different position angles: PA 84--along the tail of the galaxy; PA 32--along the dust lane; and PA 110. The blue spectra are centered on the H beta line, while the red spectra are centered on the H alpha line. In the configuration we used for the long slit spectra, the spectral scale was 0.74 A per pixel, and the spatial scale was .37 arcsec per pixel; we also observed the H alpha region with a spectral scale of .37 A per pixel, at position angle 84. The narrow band images were obtained at the auxiliary port of ISIS, with a scale of .2 arcsec per pixel, and were centered at the H alpha wavelength, and on the adjacent continuum. The H alpha images and the spectra support the following model. UGC 5101 hosts an active nucleus; the NLR extends up to about 1.5 kpc and shows a complex velocity field, superimposed on the rotation curve of the

  17. Detection optimization using linear systems analysis of a coded aperture laser sensor system

    SciTech Connect

    Gentry, S.M.

    1994-09-01

    Minimum detectable irradiance levels for a diffraction grating based laser sensor were calculated to be governed by clutter noise resulting from reflected earth albedo. Features on the earth surface caused pseudo-imaging effects on the sensor`s detector arras that resulted in the limiting noise in the detection domain. It was theorized that a custom aperture transmission function existed that would optimize the detection of laser sources against this clutter background. Amplitude and phase aperture functions were investigated. Compared to the diffraction grating technique, a classical Young`s double-slit aperture technique was investigated as a possible optimized solution but was not shown to produce a system that had better clutter-noise limited minimum detectable irradiance. Even though the double-slit concept was not found to have a detection advantage over the slit-grating concept, one interesting concept grew out of the double-slit design that deserved mention in this report, namely the Barker-coded double-slit. This diffractive aperture design possessed properties that significantly improved the wavelength accuracy of the double-slit design. While a concept was not found to beat the slit-grating concept, the methodology used for the analysis and optimization is an example of the application of optoelectronic system-level linear analysis. The techniques outlined here can be used as a template for analysis of a wide range of optoelectronic systems where the entire system, both optical and electronic, contribute to the detection of complex spatial and temporal signals.

  18. Mutations of the SLIT2-ROBO2 pathway genes SLIT2 and SRGAP1 confer risk for congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Daw-Yang; Kohl, Stefan; Fan, Xueping; Vivante, Asaf; Chan, Stefanie; Dworschak, Gabriel C; Schulz, Julian; van Eerde, Albertien M; Hilger, Alina C; Gee, Heon Yung; Pennimpede, Tracie; Herrmann, Bernhard G; van de Hoek, Glenn; Renkema, Kirsten Y; Schell, Christoph; Huber, Tobias B; Reutter, Heiko M; Soliman, Neveen A; Stajic, Natasa; Bogdanovic, Radovan; Kehinde, Elijah O; Lifton, Richard P; Tasic, Velibor; Lu, Weining; Hildebrandt, Friedhelm

    2015-08-01

    Congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT) account for 40-50% of chronic kidney disease that manifests in the first two decades of life. Thus far, 31 monogenic causes of isolated CAKUT have been described, explaining ~12% of cases. To identify additional CAKUT-causing genes, we performed whole-exome sequencing followed by a genetic burden analysis in 26 genetically unsolved families with CAKUT. We identified two heterozygous mutations in SRGAP1 in 2 unrelated families. SRGAP1 is a small GTPase-activating protein in the SLIT2-ROBO2 signaling pathway, which is essential for development of the metanephric kidney. We then examined the pathway-derived candidate gene SLIT2 for mutations in cohort of 749 individuals with CAKUT and we identified 3 unrelated individuals with heterozygous mutations. The clinical phenotypes of individuals with mutations in SLIT2 or SRGAP1 were cystic dysplastic kidneys, unilateral renal agenesis, and duplicated collecting system. We show that SRGAP1 is expressed in early mouse nephrogenic mesenchyme and that it is coexpressed with ROBO2 in SIX2-positive nephron progenitor cells of the cap mesenchyme in developing rat kidney. We demonstrate that the newly identified mutations in SRGAP1 lead to an augmented inhibition of RAC1 in cultured human embryonic kidney cells and that the SLIT2 mutations compromise the ability of the SLIT2 ligand to inhibit cell migration. Thus, we report on two novel candidate genes for causing monogenic isolated CAKUT in humans. PMID:26026792

  19. The role of Fabry–Perot resonance for a periodic array of gold nano-slits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Siwen; Sun, Xiaodong; Wu, Feng; Yang, Jianing

    2016-06-01

    Comprehensive investigations of electromagnetic enhancement and transmittance by a periodic array of gold nano-slits are presented. Rigorous numerical data can be well predicted by a simple Fabry-Perot model. By virtue of the model, the role of Fabry-Perot resonance that enables giant electromagnetic enhancement and high transmittance by a gold nano-slit array is studied. Distinct impacts of array period and slit width on electromagnetic enhancement and those on transmittance are explored. Numerical results imply that contributions of electromagnetic enhancement and transmittance should be considered together in determining the actual enhanced effect of sample signals in surface-enhanced Raman scattering application.

  20. Slit-based supersonic microplasma jets: Scalable sources for nanostructured thin film deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koh, T.; Chiles, I.; Gordon, M.

    2013-10-01

    Slit-based, hollow cathode microplasma jets operating in under-expanded supersonic flow were investigated as spray deposition sources to realize nanostructured metal oxide thin films. Design of the slit cathode, its operation (e.g., IV characteristics, fluorescence imaging of supersonic flow shock structures, etc.), and companion CuO nanowire deposition experiments are discussed. Overall, this work demonstrates that slit-based, flow-through microplasmas are a promising way to scale up hollow cathode discharges for large area deposition of thin films at high pressures (>10 Torr).

  1. Fabrication and Visualization of Capillary Bridges in Slit Pore Geometry

    PubMed Central

    Broesch, David J.; Frechette, Joelle

    2014-01-01

    A procedure for creating and imaging capillary bridges in slit-pore geometry is presented. High aspect ratio hydrophobic pillars are fabricated and functionalized to render their top surfaces hydrophilic. The combination of a physical feature (the pillar) with a chemical boundary (the hydrophilic film on the top of the pillar) provides both a physical and chemical heterogeneity that pins the triple contact line, a necessary feature to create stable long but narrow capillary bridges. The substrates with the pillars are attached to glass slides and secured into custom holders. The holders are then mounted onto four axis microstages and positioned such that the pillars are parallel and facing each other. The capillary bridges are formed by introducing a fluid in the gap between the two substrates once the separation between the facing pillars has been reduced to a few hundred micrometers. The custom microstage is then employed to vary the height of the capillary bridge. A CCD camera is positioned to image either the length or the width of the capillary bridge to characterize the morphology of the fluid interface. Pillars with widths down to 250 µm and lengths up to 70 mm were fabricated with this method, leading to capillary bridges with aspect ratios (length/width) of over 1001. PMID:24457446

  2. Fast slit-beam extraction and chopping for neutron generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalvas, T.; Hahto, S. K.; Gicquel, F.; King, M.; Vainionpää, J. H.; Reijonen, J.; Leung, K. N.; Miller, T. G.

    2006-03-01

    High-intensity fast white neutron pulses are needed for pulsed fast neutron transmission spectroscopy (PFNTS). A compact tritium-tritium fusion reaction neutron generator with an integrated ion beam chopping system has been designed, simulated, and tested for PFNTS. The design consists of a toroidal plasma chamber with 20 extraction slits, concentric cylindrical electrodes, chopper plates, and a central titanium-coated beam target. The total ion beam current is 1A. The beam chopping is done at 30keV energy with a parallel-plate deflector integrated with an Einzel lens. Beam pulses with 5ns width can be achieved with a 15ns rise/fall time ±1500V sweep on the chopper plates. The neutrons are produced at 120keV energy. A three-dimensional simulation code based on Vlasov iteration was developed for simulating the ion optics of this system. The results with this code were found to be consistent with other simulation codes. So far we have measured 50ns ion beam pulses from the system.

  3. Fast slit-beam extraction and chopping for neutron generator

    SciTech Connect

    Kalvas, T.; Hahto, S.K.; Gicquel, F.; King, M.; Vainionpaeae, J.H.; Reijonen, J.; Leung, K.N.; Miller, T.G.

    2006-03-15

    High-intensity fast white neutron pulses are needed for pulsed fast neutron transmission spectroscopy (PFNTS). A compact tritium-tritium fusion reaction neutron generator with an integrated ion beam chopping system has been designed, simulated, and tested for PFNTS. The design consists of a toroidal plasma chamber with 20 extraction slits, concentric cylindrical electrodes, chopper plates, and a central titanium-coated beam target. The total ion beam current is 1 A. The beam chopping is done at 30 keV energy with a parallel-plate deflector integrated with an Einzel lens. Beam pulses with 5 ns width can be achieved with a 15 ns rise/fall time {+-}1500 V sweep on the chopper plates. The neutrons are produced at 120 keV energy. A three-dimensional simulation code based on Vlasov iteration was developed for simulating the ion optics of this system. The results with this code were found to be consistent with other simulation codes. So far we have measured 50 ns ion beam pulses from the system.

  4. Binary mixtures of simple fluids in structured slit micropores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curry, J. E.; Cushman, John H.

    The grand canonical Monte Carlo method is used to study a binary mixture of Lennard-Jones atoms confined to an atomically structured slit micropore which is in thermodynamic equilibrium with its bulk phase counterpart. In one example, the mixture consists of atoms of two distinct sizes, but with the same minimum depth in potential energy. In another example a binary mixture of different size atoms is again considered, but in the latter case the larger atom has a deeper potential energy minimum. Three mechanisms are found which influence selective adsorption of a mixture species: (i) liquid-like fluid layering, (ii) inplane solid-like ordering and (iii) molecular sieving. The large atoms are completely eliminated from the pore when the wall separation is physically too small for the large atoms to fit, or when both species physically fit in the pore and the small component epitaxially aligns with the surface or freezes. Complete elimination of the small species is not observed. A significant excess of large atoms in the pore relative to the composition in the bulk phase is found only when the large atoms attain transverse order within the fluid layers. The adsorption of the large component is either enhanced or reduced depending on the relative magnitude of the potential energy well depth of the fluid and wall species.

  5. Numerical simulation of rarefied gas flow through a slit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keith, Theo G., Jr.; Jeng, Duen-Ren; De Witt, Kenneth J.; Chung, Chan-Hong

    1990-01-01

    Two different approaches, the finite-difference method coupled with the discrete-ordinate method (FDDO), and the direct-simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method, are used in the analysis of the flow of a rarefied gas from one reservoir to another through a two-dimensional slit. The cases considered are for hard vacuum downstream pressure, finite pressure ratios, and isobaric pressure with thermal diffusion, which are not well established in spite of the simplicity of the flow field. In the FDDO analysis, by employing the discrete-ordinate method, the Boltzmann equation simplified by a model collision integral is transformed to a set of partial differential equations which are continuous in physical space but are point functions in molecular velocity space. The set of partial differential equations are solved by means of a finite-difference approximation. In the DSMC analysis, three kinds of collision sampling techniques, the time counter (TC) method, the null collision (NC) method, and the no time counter (NTC) method, are used.

  6. New perspectives on the renal slit diaphragm protein podocin

    PubMed Central

    Relle, Manfred; Cash, Hannes; Brochhausen, Christoph; Strand, Dennis; Menke, Julia; Galle, Peter R; Schwarting, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    Podocin is a critical component of the glomerular filtration barrier, its mutations causing recessive steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome. A GenBank analysis of the human podocin (NPHS2) gene resulted in the possible existence of a new splice variant of podocin in the kidney, missing the in-frame of exon 5, encoding the prohibitin homology domain. Using RT–polymerase chain reaction and immunoblotting followed by sequence analysis, we are for the first time able to prove the expression of a novel podocin isoform (isoform 2), exclusively and constitutively expressed in human podocytes. Furthermore, we reveal singular extrarenal podocin expression in human and murine testis. Our data show the Sertoli cells of the seminiferous tubules to be the origin of testicular podocin. Confocal laser microscopy illustrates the co-localization of podocin with filamentous actin within Sertoli cells, suggesting a role of podocin in the blood/testis barrier. These results led to the rationale to examine podocin expression in testes of men with Sertoli cell-only syndrome, a disorder characterized by azoospermia. Interestingly, we observed a complete down-regulation of podocin mRNA in Sertoli cell-only syndrome, indicating a possible role of podocin in the pathogenesis of this germinal aplasia. Men with Sertoli cell-only syndrome show normal renal podocin expression, suggesting an alternate regulation of the testicular promoter. Our findings may change the perception of podocin and give new insights into the ultrastructure of glomerular slit diaphragm and the blood/testis barrier. PMID:21499232

  7. Early regimes of water capillary flow in slit silica nanochannels.

    PubMed

    Oyarzua, Elton; Walther, Jens H; Mejía, Andrés; Zambrano, Harvey A

    2015-06-14

    Molecular dynamics simulations are conducted to investigate the initial stages of spontaneous imbibition of water in slit silica nanochannels surrounded by air. An analysis is performed for the effects of nanoscopic confinement, initial conditions of liquid uptake and air pressurization on the dynamics of capillary filling. The results indicate that the nanoscale imbibition process is divided into three main flow regimes: an initial regime where the capillary force is balanced only by the inertial drag and characterized by a constant velocity and a plug flow profile. In this regime, the meniscus formation process plays a central role in the imbibition rate. Thereafter, a transitional regime takes place, in which, the force balance has significant contributions from both inertia and viscous friction. Subsequently, a regime wherein viscous forces dominate the capillary force balance is attained. Flow velocity profiles identify the passage from an inviscid flow to a developing Poiseuille flow. Gas density profiles ahead of the capillary front indicate a transient accumulation of air on the advancing meniscus. Furthermore, slower capillary filling rates computed for higher air pressures reveal a significant retarding effect of the gas displaced by the advancing meniscus. PMID:25976034

  8. Properties of Aqueous Electrolytes within Narrow Slit-Shaped Pores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, Tuan A.; Argyris, Dimitrios; Striolo, Alberto

    2011-03-01

    We report equilibrium molecular dynamics simulation results for structural and dynamic properties of aqueous electrolyte solutions confined within narrow pores. The slit-shaped pores are carved from cristobalite silica, corundum alumina, magnesium oxide, and other materials. The pore width is in the range 0.8 -- 2.0 nm. The aqueous solutions contain NaCl, CsCl, CaCl 2 , and SrCl 2 electrolytes at 1M concentration or larger. Equilibrium simulations are performed at ambient conditions within the NVT ensemble. The data suggest the formation of layered structures, which are consistent with results obtained for thin films of solution supported on free-standing surfaces. However, confinement enhances the differences in transport properties observed between those ions that are near the solid and those at the pore center. Because the self-diffusion coefficient is faster as the distance from the solid increases, the ions that are at the pore center diffuse more quickly through the pore than those adsorbed closer to the wall. Thus our results could be used to design membranes to separate, e.g., aqueous NaCl from CsCl solutions. Research supported by the Department of Energy and, in part, by the National Science Foundation.

  9. Full controlling of Fano resonances in metal-slit superlattice.

    PubMed

    Deng, Zi-Lan; Yogesh, Natesan; Chen, Xiao-Dong; Chen, Wen-Jie; Dong, Jian-Wen; Ouyang, Zhengbiao; Wang, Guo Ping

    2015-01-01

    Controlling of the lineshape of Fano resonance attracts much attention recently due to its wide capabilities for lasing, biosensing, slow-light applications and so on. However, the controllable Fano resonance always requires stringent alignment of complex symmetry-breaking structures and thus the manipulation could only be performed with limited degrees of freedom and narrow tuning range. Furthermore, there is no report so far on independent controlling of both the bright and dark modes in a single structure. Here, we semi-analytically show that the spectral position and linewidth of both the bright and dark modes can be tuned independently and/or simultaneously in a simple and symmetric metal-slit superlattice, and thus allowing for a free and continuous controlling of the lineshape of both the single and multiple Fano resonances. The independent controlling scheme is applicable for an extremely large electromagnetic spectrum range from optical to microwave frequencies, which is demonstrated by the numerical simulations with real metal and a microwave experiment. Our findings may provide convenient and flexible strategies for future tunable electromagnetic devices. PMID:26680258

  10. X-Shooter slit observations of GRB host galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piranomonte, Silvia; Vergani, Susanna D.

    Considering that Gamma Ray Bursts (GRB) are supposed to explode in faint star forming galaxies they represent a very powerful way to investigate these kind of galaxies which seemed to be the bulk of galaxies at high redshift and to obtain a better estimate of the star formation density value. Currently observational estimates could underpredict ther real value of cosmic star formation density, because of their inability to observe this population of galaxies. The Italian-French X-shooter GRB host galaxies program which started at the end of 2009 allowed us to collect the spectra of about 30 GRB host galaxies in the 300-2400nm range from a redshift of about z=0.1 to z=2.7. We are using these spectra to retrieve information on the host metallicities, star formation rates and extinctions. In this talk I will show the state of the art of this work and which is the information on GRB hosts that we are collecting from the slit observations.

  11. Fabrication and visualization of capillary bridges in slit pore geometry.

    PubMed

    Broesch, David J; Frechette, Joelle

    2014-01-01

    A procedure for creating and imaging capillary bridges in slit-pore geometry is presented. High aspect ratio hydrophobic pillars are fabricated and functionalized to render their top surfaces hydrophilic. The combination of a physical feature (the pillar) with a chemical boundary (the hydrophilic film on the top of the pillar) provides both a physical and chemical heterogeneity that pins the triple contact line, a necessary feature to create stable long but narrow capillary bridges. The substrates with the pillars are attached to glass slides and secured into custom holders. The holders are then mounted onto four axis microstages and positioned such that the pillars are parallel and facing each other. The capillary bridges are formed by introducing a fluid in the gap between the two substrates once the separation between the facing pillars has been reduced to a few hundred micrometers. The custom microstage is then employed to vary the height of the capillary bridge. A CCD camera is positioned to image either the length or the width of the capillary bridge to characterize the morphology of the fluid interface. Pillars with widths down to 250 µm and lengths up to 70 mm were fabricated with this method, leading to capillary bridges with aspect ratios (length/width) of over 100(1). PMID:24457446

  12. Low-cost endothelium cell counter for slit lamp

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ventura, Liliane; Faria de Sousa, Sidney J.; Ribeiro, Paulo E. M., Jr.; Caetano, Cesar A. C.

    1998-06-01

    One of the optical ways to evaluate the donated cornea in order to provide a diagnostic regarding its indication for transplant is to count the number of the living endothelial cells (over 2000 cells/mm2), which are responsible for maintaining the corneal transparency. Specular Microscopes are equipments which are exclusively dedicated for this kind of evaluation. However they are of high cost and most of the Eye Banks are not provided by them. Hence, the usual evaluation is done in a Slit Lamp (SL) -- 40X magnification -- and just the aspect of the cells are subjectively observed. In order to overcome the limitations of subjective assessment and high cost, we have developed a system attached to the SL (optical system with 250X magnification image captured by a CCD detector which displays the image of the cells on a PC monitor and a dedicated software) which is able to count the endothelial cells providing a lower cost objective diagnostic of the donated cornea.

  13. Full controlling of Fano resonances in metal-slit superlattice

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Zi-Lan; Yogesh, Natesan; Chen, Xiao-Dong; Chen, Wen-Jie; Dong, Jian-Wen; Ouyang, Zhengbiao; Wang, Guo Ping

    2015-01-01

    Controlling of the lineshape of Fano resonance attracts much attention recently due to its wide capabilities for lasing, biosensing, slow-light applications and so on. However, the controllable Fano resonance always requires stringent alignment of complex symmetry-breaking structures and thus the manipulation could only be performed with limited degrees of freedom and narrow tuning range. Furthermore, there is no report so far on independent controlling of both the bright and dark modes in a single structure. Here, we semi-analytically show that the spectral position and linewidth of both the bright and dark modes can be tuned independently and/or simultaneously in a simple and symmetric metal-slit superlattice, and thus allowing for a free and continuous controlling of the lineshape of both the single and multiple Fano resonances. The independent controlling scheme is applicable for an extremely large electromagnetic spectrum range from optical to microwave frequencies, which is demonstrated by the numerical simulations with real metal and a microwave experiment. Our findings may provide convenient and flexible strategies for future tunable electromagnetic devices. PMID:26680258

  14. Nanofocusing enhancement in a tapered slit by using a dielectric micro isosceles triangle prism and tuning the entrance aperture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuang, Dengfeng; Ouyang, Sheng; Du, Zhongxun

    2012-07-01

    We present a combined configuration consisting of a dielectric micro isosceles triangular prism and a metallic tapered slit for enhanced nanofocusing. The dielectric micro isosceles triangular prism collects the incident light first and then the tapered slit guides the beam to form naofocusing with higher intensity at the exit aperture of the tapered slit, which overcomes the limit of the extremely small entrance aperture diaphragm of the slit. With the help of the dielectric micro isosceles triangular prism, the intensity of the nanofocused electric field at the exit aperture of the tapered slit can be increased more than 4 folds.

  15. Micro digital sun sensor with linear detector.

    PubMed

    Fan, Qiao-Yun; Peng, Jia-Wen; Gao, Xin-Yang

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, the design of a novel micro digital sun sensor is described. It relies on V-shaped slit and linear array CCD to measure sun-ray angle against two axes. A highly integrated microprogram control unit) is used to make a very simple and compact system. V-shaped slit can simplify algorithm and achieve a wider field of view. Error compensation and accurate calibration are employed to improve accuracy. Adaptive threshold and adjustable expose time further improve reliability. Experiments and flight validation show that the FOV (Field of View) of the sun sensor is ±65°  ×   ± 65° and the accuracy is 0.1° in the whole FOV. It can work reliably at an update rate of 25 Hz, while the consumption is only 200 mW. This sun sensor is proved to have a good prospect in micro/nanosatellites. PMID:27475588

  16. Micro digital sun sensor with linear detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Qiao-yun; Peng, Jia-wen; Gao, Xin-yang

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, the design of a novel micro digital sun sensor is described. It relies on V-shaped slit and linear array CCD to measure sun-ray angle against two axes. A highly integrated microprogram control unit) is used to make a very simple and compact system. V-shaped slit can simplify algorithm and achieve a wider field of view. Error compensation and accurate calibration are employed to improve accuracy. Adaptive threshold and adjustable expose time further improve reliability. Experiments and flight validation show that the FOV (Field of View) of the sun sensor is ±65° × ± 65° and the accuracy is 0.1° in the whole FOV. It can work reliably at an update rate of 25 Hz, while the consumption is only 200 mW. This sun sensor is proved to have a good prospect in micro/nanosatellites.

  17. Demonstrations Using a Fabry-Perot. I. Multiple-Slit Interference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roychoudhuri, Chandrasekhar

    1975-01-01

    Describes a demonstration technique for showing multiple-slit interference patterns with the use of a Fabry-Perot etalon and a laser beam. A simple derivation of the analytical expression for such fringes is presented. (Author/CP)

  18. Multi-slit triode ion optical system with ballistic beam focusing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davydenko, V.; Amirov, V.; Gorbovsky, A.; Deichuli, P.; Ivanov, A.; Kolmogorov, A.; Kapitonov, V.; Mishagin, V.; Shikhovtsev, I.; Sorokin, A.; Stupishin, N.; Karpushov, A. N.; Smirnov, A.; Uhlemann, R.

    2016-02-01

    Multi-slit triode ion-optical systems with spherical electrodes are of interest for formation of intense focused neutral beams for plasma heating. At present, two versions of focusing multi-slit triode ion optical system are developed. The first ion optical system forms the proton beam with 15 keV energy, 140 A current, and 30 ms duration. The second ion optical system is intended for heating neutral beam injector of Tokamak Configuration Variable (TCV). The injector produces focused deuterium neutral beam with 35 keV energy, 1 MW power, and 2 s duration. In the later case, the angular beam divergence of the neutral beam is 20-22 mrad in the direction across the slits of the ion optical system and 12 mrad in the direction along the slits.

  19. Squeezing Millimeter Waves through a Single, Nanometer-wide, Centimeter-long Slit

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xiaoshu; Park, Hyeong-Ryeol; Lindquist, Nathan C.; Shaver, Jonah; Pelton, Matthew; Oh, Sang-Hyun

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate broadband non-resonant squeezing of terahertz (THz) waves through an isolated 2-nm-wide, 2-cm-long slit (aspect ratio of 107), representing a maximum intensity enhancement factor of one million. Unlike resonant nanogap structures, a single, effectively infinitely-long slit passes incident electromagnetic waves with no cutoff, enhances the electric field within the gap with a broad 1/f spectral response, and eliminates interference effects due to finite sample boundaries and adjacent elements. To construct such a uniform, isolated slit that is much longer than the millimeter-scale spot of a THz beam, we use atomic layer lithography to pattern vertical nanogaps in a metal film over an entire 4-inch wafer. We observe an increasing field enhancement as the slit width decreases from 20 nm to 2 nm, in agreement with numerical calculations. PMID:25342288

  20. Squeezing millimeter waves through a single, nanometer-wide, centimeter-long slit.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaoshu; Park, Hyeong-Ryeol; Lindquist, Nathan C; Shaver, Jonah; Pelton, Matthew; Oh, Sang-Hyun

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate broadband non-resonant squeezing of terahertz (THz) waves through an isolated 2-nm-wide, 2-cm-long slit (aspect ratio of 10(7)), representing a maximum intensity enhancement factor of one million. Unlike resonant nanogap structures, a single, effectively infinitely-long slit passes incident electromagnetic waves with no cutoff, enhances the electric field within the gap with a broad 1/f spectral response, and eliminates interference effects due to finite sample boundaries and adjacent elements. To construct such a uniform, isolated slit that is much longer than the millimeter-scale spot of a THz beam, we use atomic layer lithography to pattern vertical nanogaps in a metal film over an entire 4-inch wafer. We observe an increasing field enhancement as the slit width decreases from 20 nm to 2 nm, in agreement with numerical calculations. PMID:25342288

  1. Multi-slit triode ion optical system with ballistic beam focusing.

    PubMed

    Davydenko, V; Amirov, V; Gorbovsky, A; Deichuli, P; Ivanov, A; Kolmogorov, A; Kapitonov, V; Mishagin, V; Shikhovtsev, I; Sorokin, A; Stupishin, N; Karpushov, A N; Smirnov, A; Uhlemann, R

    2016-02-01

    Multi-slit triode ion-optical systems with spherical electrodes are of interest for formation of intense focused neutral beams for plasma heating. At present, two versions of focusing multi-slit triode ion optical system are developed. The first ion optical system forms the proton beam with 15 keV energy, 140 A current, and 30 ms duration. The second ion optical system is intended for heating neutral beam injector of Tokamak Configuration Variable (TCV). The injector produces focused deuterium neutral beam with 35 keV energy, 1 MW power, and 2 s duration. In the later case, the angular beam divergence of the neutral beam is 20-22 mrad in the direction across the slits of the ion optical system and 12 mrad in the direction along the slits. PMID:26932031

  2. How diffraction limits ultrasonic screening in phononic plate composed of a periodic array of resonant slits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elayouch, Aliyasin; Addouche, Mahmoud; Lasaygues, Philippe; Achaoui, Younes; Ouisse, Morvan; Khelif, Abdelkrim

    2016-05-01

    We explore experimentally the role played by diffraction in the phenomenon of acoustic shielding provided by a plate that is periodically perforated with subwavelength slits and immersed in water. We carried out ultrasonic transmission measurements for all directions of propagation in order to check the omnidirectionality of acoustic shielding. While a single slit acts as a Fabry-Perot resonator in the frequency range of interest, the coupling between adjacent slits provides an attenuation frequency band centered around the resonant frequency that is mostly independent of the angle of incidence. Beyond the incident angle of 45 degrees, however, we observe the appearance of scattered radiation that limits the attenuation of ultrasound. This spurious scattering is shown to arise from diffraction by the grating of slits. xml:lang="fr"

  3. Slit disk for modified faraday cup diagnostic for determining power density of electron and ion beams

    DOEpatents

    Teruya, Alan T.; Elmer; John W.; Palmer, Todd A.

    2011-03-08

    A diagnostic system for characterization of an electron beam or an ion beam includes an electrical conducting disk of refractory material having a circumference, a center, and a Faraday cup assembly positioned to receive the electron beam or ion beam. At least one slit in the disk provides diagnostic characterization of the electron beam or ion beam. The at least one slit is located between the circumference and the center of the disk and includes a radial portion that is in radial alignment with the center and a portion that deviates from radial alignment with the center. The electron beam or ion beam is directed onto the disk and translated to the at least one slit wherein the electron beam or ion beam enters the at least one slit for providing diagnostic characterization of the electron beam or ion beam.

  4. Myo9b is a key player in SLIT/ROBO-mediated lung tumor suppression

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Ruirui; Yi, Fengshuang; Wen, Pushuai; Liu, Jianghong; Chen, Xiaoping; Ren, Jinqi; Li, Xiaofei; Shang, Yulong; Nie, Yongzhan; Wu, Kaichun; Fan, Daiming; Zhu, Li; Feng, Wei; Wu, Jane Y.

    2015-01-01

    Emerging evidence indicates that the neuronal guidance molecule SLIT plays a role in tumor suppression, as SLIT-encoding genes are inactivated in several types of cancer, including lung cancer; however, it is not clear how SLIT functions in lung cancer. Here, our data show that SLIT inhibits cancer cell migration by activating RhoA and that myosin 9b (Myo9b) is a ROBO-interacting protein that suppresses RhoA activity in lung cancer cells. Structural analyses revealed that the RhoGAP domain of Myo9b contains a unique patch that specifically recognizes RhoA. We also determined that the ROBO intracellular domain interacts with the Myo9b RhoGAP domain and inhibits its activity; therefore, SLIT-dependent activation of RhoA is mediated by ROBO inhibition of Myo9b. In a murine model, compared with control lung cancer cells, SLIT-expressing cells had a decreased capacity for tumor formation and lung metastasis. Evaluation of human lung cancer and adjacent nontumor tissues revealed that Myo9b is upregulated in the cancer tissue. Moreover, elevated Myo9b expression was associated with lung cancer progression and poor prognosis. Together, our data identify Myo9b as a key player in lung cancer and as a ROBO-interacting protein in what is, to the best of our knowledge, a newly defined SLIT/ROBO/Myo9b/RhoA signaling pathway that restricts lung cancer progression and metastasis. Additionally, our work suggests that targeting the SLIT/ROBO/Myo9b/RhoA pathway has potential as a diagnostic and therapeutic strategy for lung cancer. PMID:26529257

  5. Are snakes particles or waves? Scattering of a limbless locomotor through a single slit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Feifei; Dai, Jin; Gong, Chaohui; Choset, Howie; Goldman, Daniel

    Droplets on vertically vibrated fluid surfaces can walk and diffract through a single slit by a pilot wave hydrodynamic interaction [Couder, 2006; Bush, 2015]. Inspired by the correspondence between emergent macroscale dynamics and phenomena in quantum systems, we tested if robotic snakes, which resemble wave packets, behave emergently like particles or waves when interacting with an obstacle. In lab experiments and numerical simulations we measured how a multi-module snake-like robot swam through a single slit. We controlled the snake undulation gait as a fixed serpenoid traveling wave pattern with varying amplitude and initial phase, and we examined the snake trajectory as it swam through a slit with width d. Robot trajectories were straight before interaction with the slit, then exited at different scattering angle θ after the interaction due to a complex interaction of the body wave with the slit. For fixed amplitude and large d, the snake passed through the slit with minimal interaction and theta was ~ 0 . For sufficiently small d, θ was finite and bimodally distributed, depending on the initial phase. For intermediate d, θ was sensitive to initial phase, and the width of the distribution of θ increased with decreasing d.

  6. Heart CT scan

    MedlinePlus

    CAT scan - heart; Computed axial tomography scan - heart; Computed tomography scan - heart; Calcium scoring; Multi-detector CT scan - heart; Electron beam computed tomography - heart; Agaston score; Coronary calcium scan

  7. Linear Accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sidorin, Anatoly

    2010-01-01

    In linear accelerators the particles are accelerated by either electrostatic fields or oscillating Radio Frequency (RF) fields. Accordingly the linear accelerators are divided in three large groups: electrostatic, induction and RF accelerators. Overview of the different types of accelerators is given. Stability of longitudinal and transverse motion in the RF linear accelerators is briefly discussed. The methods of beam focusing in linacs are described.

  8. Linear Accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Sidorin, Anatoly

    2010-01-05

    In linear accelerators the particles are accelerated by either electrostatic fields or oscillating Radio Frequency (RF) fields. Accordingly the linear accelerators are divided in three large groups: electrostatic, induction and RF accelerators. Overview of the different types of accelerators is given. Stability of longitudinal and transverse motion in the RF linear accelerators is briefly discussed. The methods of beam focusing in linacs are described.

  9. Pioneer midbrain longitudinal axons navigate using a balance of Netrin attraction and Slit repulsion

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Longitudinal axons grow parallel to the embryonic midline to connect distant regions of the central nervous system. Previous studies suggested that repulsive midline signals guide pioneer longitudinal axons by blocking their entry into the floor plate; however, the role of midline attractants, and whether attractant signals may cooperate with repulsive signals, remains unclear. In this study we investigated the navigation of a set of pioneer longitudinal axons, the medial longitudinal fasciculus, in mouse embryos mutant for the Netrin/Deleted in Colorectal Cancer (DCC) attractants, and for Slit repellents, as well as the responses of explanted longitudinal axons in vitro. Results In mutants for Netrin1 chemoattractant or DCC receptor signaling, longitudinal axons shifted away from the ventral midline, suggesting that Netrin1/DCC signals act attractively to pull axons ventrally. Analysis of mutants in the three Slit genes, including Slit1/2/3 triple mutants, suggest that concurrent repulsive Slit/Robo signals push pioneer axons away from the ventral midline. Combinations of mutations between the Netrin and Slit guidance systems provided genetic evidence that the attractive and repulsive signals balance against each other. This balance is demonstrated in vitro using explant culture, finding that the cues can act directly on longitudinal axons. The explants also reveal an unexpected synergy of Netrin1 and Slit2 that promotes outgrowth. Conclusions These results support a mechanism in which longitudinal trajectories are positioned by a push-pull balance between opposing Netrin and Slit signals. Our evidence suggests that longitudinal axons respond directly and simultaneously to both attractants and repellents, and that the combined signals constrain axons to grow longitudinally. PMID:25056828

  10. Analysis of transmission through slit and multiple grooves structures for biosensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Bong Ho; Nakarmi, Bikash; Won, Yong Hyub

    2015-03-01

    We analyze the transmission property of nanostructures made on silver and gold metal for the applications in optical biosensors. Various structures such as slit only, slit groove slit, and multiple slit and groove structures are taken into account to find the effect of various physical parameters such as number of grooves, number of slits and others on the transmission of different wavelength light sources through the structure. A broad wavelength of 400 nm to 900 nm is used to analyze the transmission through the structure. With these structures and broad light source, change in transmission intensity is analyzed with the change in the refractive index. The change in refractive index of the analyte varies transmission intensity and wavelength shift at the output beam which can be used for sensing the amount of analyte such as monitoring glucose amount on blood/saliva, hydrogen peroxide and others. The detection of these analytes can be used to detect the different disease. The analysis of the transmittance through the nanostructure can be used for the detection of several disease such as diabetes and others through the saliva, blood and others non-invasively.

  11. Regeneration and maintenance of the planarian midline is regulated by a slit orthologue.

    PubMed

    Cebrià, Francesc; Guo, Tingxia; Jopek, Jessica; Newmark, Phillip A

    2007-07-15

    Several families of evolutionarily conserved axon guidance cues orchestrate the precise wiring of the nervous system during embryonic development. The remarkable plasticity of freshwater planarians provides the opportunity to study these molecules in the context of neural regeneration and maintenance. Here we characterize a homologue of the Slit family of guidance cues from the planarian Schmidtea mediterranea. Smed-slit is expressed along the planarian midline, in both dorsal and ventral domains. RNA interference (RNAi) targeting Smed-slit results in the collapse of many newly regenerated tissues at the midline; these include the cephalic ganglia, ventral nerve cords, photoreceptors, and the posterior digestive system. Surprisingly, Smed-slit RNAi knockdown animals also develop morphologically distinguishable, ectopic neural structures near the midline in uninjured regions of intact and regenerating planarians. These results suggest that Smed-slit acts not only as a repulsive cue required for proper midline formation during regeneration but that it may also act to regulate the behavior of neural precursors at the midline in intact planarians. PMID:17553481

  12. Effect of excluded volume on the force-extension of wormlike chains in slit confinement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiaolan; Dorfman, Kevin D.

    2016-03-01

    We use pruned-enriched Rosenbluth method simulations to develop a quantitative phase diagram for the stretching of a real wormlike chain confined in a slit. Our simulations confirm the existence of a "confined Pincus" regime in slit confinement, analogous to the Pincus regime in free solution, where excluded volume effects are sensible. The lower bound for the confined Pincus regime in the force-molecular weight plane, as well as the scaling of the extension with force and slit size, agree with an existing scaling theory for this regime. The upper bound of the confined Pincus regime depends on the strength of the confinement. For strong confinement, the confined Pincus regime ends when the contour length in the Pincus blob is too short to have intrablob excluded volume. As a result, the chain statistics become ideal and the confined Pincus regime at low forces is connected directly to ideal chain stretching at large forces. In contrast, for weak confinement, the confined Pincus regime ends when the Pincus blobs no longer fit inside the slit, even though there is sufficient contour length to have excluded volume inside the Pincus blob. As a result, weak confinement leads to a free-solution Pincus regime intervening between the confined Pincus regime for weak forces and ideal chain stretching at strong forces. Our results highlight shortcomings in existing models for the stretching of wormlike chains in slits.

  13. Quantitative trait gene Slit2 positively regulates murine hematopoietic stem cell numbers.

    PubMed

    Waterstrat, Amanda; Rector, Kyle; Geiger, Hartmut; Liang, Ying

    2016-01-01

    Hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) demonstrate natural variation in number and function. The genetic factors responsible for the variations (or quantitative traits) are largely unknown. We previously identified a gene whose differential expression underlies the natural variation of HSC numbers in C57BL/6 (B6) and DBA/2 (D2) mice. We now report the finding of another gene, Slit2, on chromosome 5 that also accounts for variation in HSC number. In reciprocal chromosome 5 congenic mice, introgressed D2 alleles increased HSC numbers, whereas B6 alleles had the opposite effect. Using gene array and quantitative polymerase chain reaction, we identified Slit2 as a quantitative trait gene whose expression was positively correlated with the number of HSCs. Ectopic expression of Slit2 not only increased the number of the long-term colony forming HSCs, but also enhanced their repopulation capacity upon transplantation. Therefore, Slit2 is a novel quantitative trait gene and a positive regulator of the number and function of murine HSCs. This finding suggests that Slit2 may be a potential therapeutic target for the effective in vitro and in vivo expansion of HSCs without compromising normal hematopoiesis. PMID:27503415

  14. Mechanical slit mask mechanism for the James Webb Space Telescope Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henein, Simon; Spanoudakis, Peter; Schwab, Philippe; Giriens, Laurent; Lisowski, Leszek; Onillon, Emmanuel; Myklebust, Leif I.

    2003-09-01

    This paper presents the mechanical slit mask designed for the Near Infrared Spectrograph of the James Webb Space Telescope. This mechanism is designed to function at a cryogenic temperature of 30K, in vacuum. The reconfigurable mask allows to form 24 optical slits in a 137×137 mm2 field of view. The slit length is fixed (4.8 mm) and their width can range from 50 μm to 137 mm. The slit positioning accuracy is ±5 μm and the slit width accuracy is ±8 μm. The paper concentrates on the working principle of the mechanism which is based on an improved "inch-worm" stepping motion of 48 masking bars forming the optical curtain. Voice coil actuators are used to drive the various clutches and the principal mobile stage. Ratchets which engage in the teeth of a rack machined on the bars allow to cancel the accumulation of motion errors as steps succeed one another. The design makes significant use flexure structures. Cryogenic performance and life tests have been performed successfully on subassemblies of the mechanism.

  15. Mechanical slit mask mechanism for the James Webb Space Telescope spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henein, Simon; Spanoudakis, Peter; Schwab, Philippe; Giriens, Laurent; Lisowski, Leszek; Onillon, Emmanuel; Myklebust, Leif I.

    2004-10-01

    A mechanical slit mask mechanism has been designed for the Near Infrared Spectrograph of the James Webb Space Telescope. This mechanism was successfully tested at a cryogenic temperature of 30K, in vacuum. The reconfigurable mask allows to form 24 optical slits in a 137 x 137 mm2 field of view. The slit length is fixed (4.8 mm) and their width can range from 50 μm to 137 mm. The slit positioning accuracy is +/- 5 μm and the slit width accuracy is +/- 8 μm. The working principle of the mechanism is based on an improved "inch-worm" stepping motion of 48 masking bars forming the optical curtain. Voice coil actuators are used to drive the various clutches and the principal mobile stage. Ratchets which engage in the teeth of a rack machined on the bars allow to cancel the accumulation of motion errors as steps succeed one another. The design makes significant use flexure structures. Cryogenic performance, life and vibration tests have been performed successfully on subassemblies of the mechanism and a full-scale prototype.

  16. Effect of excluded volume on the force-extension of wormlike chains in slit confinement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiaolan; Dorfman, Kevin

    We will present a quantitative phase diagram for the stretching of a wormlike chain confined in a slit with excluded volume interactions. Using pruned-enriched Rosenbluth method (PERM) simulations, we demonstrate the existence of a ``confined Pincus'' regime in slit confinement. This regime is similar to the Pincus regime in free solution, where excluded volume effects are sensible. The lower bound for the confined Pincus regime in the force-contour length plane and the dependence of the extension with force and slit size are in agreement with scaling theory. The upper bound of the confined Pincus regime depends on the confinement strength; it ends in strong confinement when the Pincus blobs do not have excluded volume, while it ends in weak confinement when the Pincus blobs do not fit in the slit. We also show the existence of a free-solution Pincus regime in weak confinement that exists before ideal chain behavior sets in under strong forces. We will discuss the implication of our results on the analysis of experiments on the ``tug-of-war'' stretching of DNA partially confined to a slit.

  17. Final report on LDRD project : biodiesel production from vegetable oils using slit-channel reactors.

    SciTech Connect

    Kalu, E. Eric; Chen, Ken Shuang

    2008-01-01

    This report documents work done for a late-start LDRD project, which was carried out during the last quarter of FY07. The objective of this project was to experimentally explore the feasibility of converting vegetable (e.g., soybean) oils to biodiesel by employing slit-channel reactors and solid catalysts. We first designed and fabricated several slit-channel reactors with varying channel depths, and employed them to investigate the improved performance of slit-channel reactors over traditional batch reactors using a NaOH liquid catalyst. We then evaluated the effectiveness of several solid catalysts, including CaO, ZnO, MgO, ZrO{sub 2}, calcium gluconate, and heteropolyacid or HPA (Cs{sub 2.5}H{sub 0.5}PW{sub 12}O{sub 40}), for catalyzing the soybean oil-to-biodiesel transesterification reaction. We found that the slit-channel reactor performance improves as channel depth decreases, as expected; and the conversion efficiency of a slit-channel reactor is significantly higher when its channel is very shallow. We further confirmed CaO as having the highest catalytic activity among the solid catalysts tested, and we demonstrated for the first time calcium gluconate as a promising solid catalyst for converting soybean oil to biodiesel, based on our preliminary batch-mode conversion experiments.

  18. Convergent differential regulation of SLIT-ROBO axon guidance genes in the brains of vocal learners.

    PubMed

    Wang, Rui; Chen, Chun-Chun; Hara, Erina; Rivas, Miriam V; Roulhac, Petra L; Howard, Jason T; Chakraborty, Mukta; Audet, Jean-Nicolas; Jarvis, Erich D

    2015-04-15

    Only a few distantly related mammals and birds have the trait of complex vocal learning, which is the ability to imitate novel sounds. This ability is critical for speech acquisition and production in humans, and is attributed to specialized forebrain vocal control circuits that have several unique connections relative to adjacent brain circuits. As a result, it has been hypothesized that there could exist convergent changes in genes involved in neural connectivity of vocal learning circuits. In support of this hypothesis, expanding on our related study (Pfenning et al. [2014] Science 346: 1256846), here we show that the forebrain part of this circuit that makes a relatively rare direct connection to brainstem vocal motor neurons in independent lineages of vocal learning birds (songbird, parrot, and hummingbird) has specialized regulation of axon guidance genes from the SLIT-ROBO molecular pathway. The SLIT1 ligand was differentially downregulated in the motor song output nucleus that makes the direct projection, whereas its receptor ROBO1 was developmentally upregulated during critical periods for vocal learning. Vocal nonlearning bird species and male mice, which have much more limited vocal plasticity and associated circuits, did not show comparable specialized regulation of SLIT-ROBO genes in their nonvocal motor cortical regions. These findings are consistent with SLIT and ROBO gene dysfunctions associated with autism, dyslexia, and speech sound language disorders and suggest that convergent evolution of vocal learning was associated with convergent changes in the SLIT-ROBO axon guidance pathway. PMID:25424606

  19. Stromal SLIT2 impacts on pancreatic cancer-associated neural remodeling.

    PubMed

    Secq, V; Leca, J; Bressy, C; Guillaumond, F; Skrobuk, P; Nigri, J; Lac, S; Lavaut, M-N; Bui, T-T; Thakur, A K; Callizot, N; Steinschneider, R; Berthezene, P; Dusetti, N; Ouaissi, M; Moutardier, V; Calvo, E; Bousquet, C; Garcia, S; Bidaut, G; Vasseur, S; Iovanna, J L; Tomasini, R

    2015-01-01

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA) is a critical health issue in the field of cancer, with few therapeutic options. Evidence supports an implication of the intratumoral microenvironment (stroma) on PDA progression. However, its contribution to the role of neuroplastic changes within the pathophysiology and clinical course of PDA, through tumor recurrence and neuropathic pain, remains unknown, neglecting a putative, therapeutic window. Here, we report that the intratumoral microenvironment is a mediator of PDA-associated neural remodeling (PANR), and we highlight factors such as 'SLIT2' (an axon guidance molecule), which is expressed by cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs), that impact on neuroplastic changes in human PDA. We showed that 'CAF-secreted SLIT2' increases neurite outgrowth from dorsal root ganglia neurons as well as from Schwann cell migration/proliferation by modulating N-cadherin/β-catenin signaling. Importantly, SLIT2/ROBO signaling inhibition disrupts this stromal/neural connection. Finally, we revealed that SLIT2 expression and CAFs are correlated with neural remodeling within human and mouse PDA. All together, our data demonstrate the implication of CAFs, through the secretion of axon guidance molecule, in PANR. Furthermore, it provides rationale to investigate the disruption of the stromal/neural compartment connection with SLIT2/ROBO inhibitors for the treatment of pancreatic cancer recurrence and pain. PMID:25590802

  20. Stromal SLIT2 impacts on pancreatic cancer-associated neural remodeling

    PubMed Central

    Secq, V; Leca, J; Bressy, C; Guillaumond, F; Skrobuk, P; Nigri, J; Lac, S; Lavaut, M-N; Bui, T-t; Thakur, A K; Callizot, N; Steinschneider, R; Berthezene, P; Dusetti, N; Ouaissi, M; Moutardier, V; Calvo, E; Bousquet, C; Garcia, S; Bidaut, G; Vasseur, S; Iovanna, J L; Tomasini, R

    2015-01-01

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA) is a critical health issue in the field of cancer, with few therapeutic options. Evidence supports an implication of the intratumoral microenvironment (stroma) on PDA progression. However, its contribution to the role of neuroplastic changes within the pathophysiology and clinical course of PDA, through tumor recurrence and neuropathic pain, remains unknown, neglecting a putative, therapeutic window. Here, we report that the intratumoral microenvironment is a mediator of PDA-associated neural remodeling (PANR), and we highlight factors such as ‘SLIT2' (an axon guidance molecule), which is expressed by cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs), that impact on neuroplastic changes in human PDA. We showed that ‘CAF-secreted SLIT2' increases neurite outgrowth from dorsal root ganglia neurons as well as from Schwann cell migration/proliferation by modulating N-cadherin/β-catenin signaling. Importantly, SLIT2/ROBO signaling inhibition disrupts this stromal/neural connection. Finally, we revealed that SLIT2 expression and CAFs are correlated with neural remodeling within human and mouse PDA. All together, our data demonstrate the implication of CAFs, through the secretion of axon guidance molecule, in PANR. Furthermore, it provides rationale to investigate the disruption of the stromal/neural compartment connection with SLIT2/ROBO inhibitors for the treatment of pancreatic cancer recurrence and pain. PMID:25590802

  1. Quantitative trait gene Slit2 positively regulates murine hematopoietic stem cell numbers

    PubMed Central

    Waterstrat, Amanda; Rector, Kyle; Geiger, Hartmut; Liang, Ying

    2016-01-01

    Hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) demonstrate natural variation in number and function. The genetic factors responsible for the variations (or quantitative traits) are largely unknown. We previously identified a gene whose differential expression underlies the natural variation of HSC numbers in C57BL/6 (B6) and DBA/2 (D2) mice. We now report the finding of another gene, Slit2, on chromosome 5 that also accounts for variation in HSC number. In reciprocal chromosome 5 congenic mice, introgressed D2 alleles increased HSC numbers, whereas B6 alleles had the opposite effect. Using gene array and quantitative polymerase chain reaction, we identified Slit2 as a quantitative trait gene whose expression was positively correlated with the number of HSCs. Ectopic expression of Slit2 not only increased the number of the long-term colony forming HSCs, but also enhanced their repopulation capacity upon transplantation. Therefore, Slit2 is a novel quantitative trait gene and a positive regulator of the number and function of murine HSCs. This finding suggests that Slit2 may be a potential therapeutic target for the effective in vitro and in vivo expansion of HSCs without compromising normal hematopoiesis. PMID:27503415

  2. Slits Affect the Timely Migration of Neural Crest Cells via Robo Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Giovannone, Dion; Reyes, Michelle; Reyes, Rachel; Correa, Lisa; Martinez, Darwin; Ra, Hannah; Gomez, Gustavo; Kaiser, Josh; Ma, Le; Stein, Mary-Pat; de Bellard, Maria Elena

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Background Neural crest cells emerge by delamination from the dorsal neural tube and give rise to various components of the peripheral nervous system in vertebrate embryos. These cells change from non-motile into highly motile cells migrating to distant areas before further differentiation. Mechanisms controlling delamination and subsequent migration of neural crest cells are not fully understood. Slit2, a chemorepellant for axonal guidance that repels and stimulates motility of trunk neural crest cells away from the gut has recently been suggested to be a tumor suppressor molecule. The goal of this study was to further investigate the role of Slit2 in trunk neural crest cell migration by constitutive expression in neural crest cells. Results We found that Slit gain-of-function significantly impaired neural crest cell migration while Slit loss-of-function favored migration. In addition, we observed that the distribution of key cytoskeletal markers was disrupted in both gain and loss of function instances. Conclusions These findings suggest that Slit molecules might be involved in the processes that allow neural crest cells to begin migration and transitioning to a mesenchymal type. PMID:22689303

  3. Slit slat collimator optimization with respect to MTF.

    PubMed

    Kamali-Asl, A; Sarkar, S; Shahriari, M; Agha-Hosseini, H

    2005-03-01

    Conventional single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) collimators are not suitable for 511 keV imaging. In order to use a SPECT system for single positron emission tomography (SPET), we need to design high-efficiency collimators capable of absorbing 511 keV photons. Slit slat (SS) collimators have been proposed for this purpose even though the optimization of such collimators has not yet been performed. In order to investigate the reliability of the system with SS collimator, it was decided to evaluate such a system. A gamma camera system with both parallel hole (PH) and SS collimators was simulated by Monte Carlo method. In these simulation parameters of the simulated system having 3/8 in NaI(Tl) crystal for 140 keV gamma-rays with PH collimator was compared with practical results and a good correlation was found between the simulated and practical results. In this way, the validity of our simulation code was confirmed. The crystal thickness for simulated gamma-camera system with SS collimator for detection of 511 keV photons was set to be 5/8 in which resulted in an intrinsic spatial resolution of 4mm. The simulated SS collimators consisted of 50 lead plates of various height, thickness and spacing. The imaging was performed by rotating the SS collimator from 0 degrees to 180 degrees in 73 steps of 2.5 degrees each. The physical parameters such as spatial resolution, efficiency and modulation transfer function (MTF) of this system for different SS collimator designs, (i.e. SS(64,3,3), SS(80,3,3), SS(64,4,5), SS(80,4,5), SS(85,4,5), where in SS(h,s,t) is used to indicate the septal height (h), septal separation (s), and septal thickness (t) in millimeters were evaluated. The value of these parameters were compared with the values obtained employing a 511 keV PH(85,4,2.5) collimator. Based on MTF values, our result showed that the SS(85,4,5) collimator has an optimum performance to the other SS collimators. The relative efficiency of the system with SS(85

  4. Gallbladder radionuclide scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... Gallbladder scan; Biliary scan; Cholescintigraphy: HIDA; Hepatobiliary nuclear imaging scan ... test results. This test is combined with other imaging (such as CT or ultrasound). After the gallbladder ...

  5. One-dimensional longitudinal-torsional vibration converter with multiple diagonally slitted parts

    PubMed

    Tsujino; Ueoka; Otoda; Fujimi

    2000-03-01

    For increasing the available vibration velocity of the one-dimensional longitudinal-torsional vibration converter, a new type of complex vibration converter with multiple slitted parts installed in the positions avoiding longitudinal nodal positions along the converter for decreasing the maximum vibration stress level at the vibration nodal part was studied. The free end of the converter vibrates in an elliptical or circular locus. Complex vibration systems with elliptical to circular or rectangular to square loci can be applied effectively for various high-power applications, including ultrasonic welding of metal or plastics, ultrasonic wire bonding of IC, LSI and electronic devices, and also ultrasonic motors. The converter with multiple slitted parts was improved in the vibration stress level and the quality factor compared with the converter with single slitted part. PMID:10829632

  6. Measurement-induced decoherence and information in double-slit interference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kincaid, Joshua; McLelland, Kyle; Zwolak, Michael

    2016-07-01

    The double slit experiment provides a classic example of both interference and the effect of observation in quantum physics. When particles are sent individually through a pair of slits, a wave-like interference pattern develops, but no such interference is found when one observes which "path" the particles take. We present a model of interference, dephasing, and measurement-induced decoherence in a one-dimensional version of the double-slit experiment. Using this model, we demonstrate how the loss of interference in the system is correlated with the information gain by the measuring apparatus/observer. In doing so, we give a modern account of measurement in this paradigmatic example of quantum physics that is accessible to students taking quantum mechanics at the graduate or senior undergraduate levels.

  7. Magneto-optic observation of anomalous Meissner current flow in superconducting thin films with slits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baziljevich, M.; Johansen, T. H.; Bratsberg, H.; Shen, Y.; Vase, P.

    1996-12-01

    Slits patterned into a YBa2Cu3O7-δ thin film were observed to obstruct Meissner sheet currents leading to an imbalance in the local Meissner screening properties. The new phenomenon was studied with magneto-optic imaging where twin lobes of opposite flux polarity were seen to form near the slits and inside the Meissner region. The lobe closest to the sample edge is always polarized opposite to the applied field. At weak fields, the anomalous flux generation is reversible. At higher fields, but still sufficiently small to keep the vortex penetration front away from the slits, the anomalous current starts nucleating flux lines which become trapped when the field is removed.

  8. Electronically tunable extraordinary optical transmission in graphene plasmonic ribbons coupled to subwavelength metallic slit arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Seyoon; Jang, Min Seok; Brar, Victor W.; Tolstova, Yulia; Mauser, Kelly W.; Atwater, Harry A.

    2016-08-01

    Subwavelength metallic slit arrays have been shown to exhibit extraordinary optical transmission, whereby tunnelling surface plasmonic waves constructively interfere to create large forward light propagation. The intricate balancing needed for this interference to occur allows for resonant transmission to be highly sensitive to changes in the environment. Here we demonstrate that extraordinary optical transmission resonance can be coupled to electrostatically tunable graphene plasmonic ribbons to create electrostatic modulation of mid-infrared light. Absorption in graphene plasmonic ribbons situated inside metallic slits can efficiently block the coupling channel for resonant transmission, leading to a suppression of transmission. Full-wave simulations predict a transmission modulation of 95.7% via this mechanism. Experimental measurements reveal a modulation efficiency of 28.6% in transmission at 1,397 cm-1, corresponding to a 2.67-fold improvement over transmission without a metallic slit array. This work paves the way for enhancing light modulation in graphene plasmonics by employing noble metal plasmonic structures.

  9. Narrow gaps for transmission through metallic structured gratings with subwavelength slits.

    PubMed

    Skigin, Diana C; Depine, Ricardo A

    2006-10-01

    Transmission dips in the response of metallic compound gratings formed by several wires and slits in each period have been recently reported for normal illumination. These anomalies are generated by a particular arrangement of the magnetic field phases inside the subwavelength slits, and they are characterized by a significant enhancement of the interior field. We investigate the microwave response of such systems under non-normal illumination and show that new phase modes appear in this configuration. Contrary to the effect produced by a defect in a photonic crystal, these systems exhibit forbidden channels within a permitted band. We also found that the appearance of these resonances is not highly dependent on the slits' width and thickness, even though these parameters modify the overall transmittance. PMID:17155191

  10. Controlling surface-plasmon-polaritons launching with hot spot cylindrical waves in a metallic slit structure.

    PubMed

    Yao, Wenjie; Sun, Chengwei; Gong, Qihuang; Chen, Jianjun

    2016-09-23

    Plasmonic nanostructures, which are used to generate surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs), always involve sharp corners where the charges can accumulate. This can result in strong localized electromagnetic fields at the metallic corners, forming the hot spots. The influence of the hot spots on the propagating SPPs are investigated theoretically and experimentally in a metallic slit structure. It is found that the electromagnetic fields radiated from the hot spots, termed as the hot spot cylindrical wave (HSCW), can greatly manipulate the SPP launching in the slit structure. The physical mechanism behind the manipulation of the SPP launching with the HSCW is explicated by a semi-analytic model. By using the HSCW, unidirectional SPP launching is experimentally realized in an ultra-small metallic step-slit structure. The HSCW bridges the localized surface plasmons and the propagating surface plasmons in an integrated platform and thus may pave a new route to the design of plasmonic devices and circuits. PMID:27533591

  11. Use of Soller slits to remove reference foil fluorescence from transmission spectra

    PubMed Central

    Tse, Justin J.; George, Graham N.; Pickering, Ingrid J.

    2011-01-01

    Measurement of X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) in transmission is the method of choice for strong or concentrated samples. In a typical XAS experiment above 5 keV the sample is placed between the first (I 0) and second (I 1) ion chambers and a standard foil is placed between the second (I 1) and third (I 2) ion chambers for simultaneous calibration of energy during sample analysis. However, some fluorescence from the foil may be registered in I 1, causing anomalies in the transmission signal of the sample, especially when the sample edge jump is relatively small. To remedy this, Soller slits were constructed and placed between the foil and I 1 to minimize back-fluorescence from the foil. A comparison of blank and standard samples, measured with or without Soller slits or under a worst-case scenario, demonstrates the advantages of Soller slits when analyzing weak signal samples via transmission XAS. PMID:21525664

  12. Linear birefringence in split-ring resonators.

    PubMed

    Iyer, Srinivasan; Popov, Sergei; Friberg, Ari T

    2012-06-01

    We study polarization-dependent transmission of light through arrays of single-slit split-ring resonator (SSRR) based systems at normal incidence using finite integration time domain (FITD) and finite element methods (FEM). It is found that a conventional planar array of SSRRs acts as an effective optical wave plate at certain polarizations of incident light. The effect is attributed to the intrinsic linear birefringence of individual SSRRs. A comparison is made with other split-ring resonator-based systems exhibiting wave-plate-like properties due to inter-SSRR coupling. PMID:22660115

  13. Characterization of PSD of activated carbons by using slit and triangular pore geometries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azevedo, D. C. S.; Rios, R. B.; López, R. H.; Torres, A. E. B.; Cavalcante, C. L.; Toso, J. P.; Zgrablich, G.

    2010-06-01

    A mixed geometry model for activated carbons, representing the porous space as a collection of an undetermined proportion of slit and triangular pores, is developed, evaluated theoretically and applied to the characterization of a controlled series of samples of activated carbon obtained from the same precursor material. A method is proposed for the determination of the Pore Size Distribution (PSD) for such a mixed geometry model, leading to the unique determination of the proportion of pores of the two geometries fitting adsorption data. By using the Grand Canonical Monte Carlo (GCMC) simulation method in the continuum space, families of N2 adsorption isotherms are generated both for slit and triangular geometry corresponding to different pore sizes. The problem of the uniqueness in the determination of the PSD by fitting an adsorption isotherm using the mixed geometry model is then discussed and the effects of the addition of triangular pores on the PSD are analyzed by performing a test where the adsorption isotherm corresponding to the known PSD is generated and used as the "experimental" isotherm. It is found that a pure slit geometry model would widen the PSD and shift it to smaller sizes, whereas a pure triangular geometry model would produce the opposite effect. The slit and triangular geometry families of isotherms are finally used to the fit experimental N 2 adsorption data corresponding to a family of activated carbons obtained from coconut shells through a one-step chemical activation process with phosphoric acid in air, allowing for the determination of the micropore volume, the proportion of slit and triangular pores and the PSD corresponding to the mixed geometry. The same experimental data were fit using both the conventional slit pore model and the mixed geometry model. From the analysis of the effect of different preparation procedures on the resulting PSDs, it is concluded that the proposed mixed geometry model may probably better capture the

  14. Focusing and directional beaming effects of airborne sound through a planar lens with zigzag slits

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, Kun; Qiu, Chunyin Lu, Jiuyang; Ke, Manzhu; Liu, Zhengyou

    2015-01-14

    Based on the Huygens-Fresnel principle, we design a planar lens to efficiently realize the interconversion between the point-like sound source and Gaussian beam in ambient air. The lens is constructed by a planar plate perforated elaborately with a nonuniform array of zigzag slits, where the slit exits act as subwavelength-sized secondary sources carrying desired sound responses. The experiments operated at audible regime agree well with the theoretical predictions. This compact device could be useful in daily life applications, such as for medical and detection purposes.

  15. Theoretical investigation of maintaining the boundary layer of revolution laminar using suction slits in incompressible flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thiede, P.

    1978-01-01

    The transition of the laminar boundary layer into the turbulent state, which results in an increased drag, can be avoided by sucking of the boundary layer particles near the wall. The technically-interesting case of sucking the particles using individual slits is investigated for bodies of revolution in incompressible flow. The results of the variational calculations show that there is an optimum suction height, where the slot separations are maximum. Combined with favorable shaping of the body, it is possible to keep the boundary layer over bodies of revolution laminar at high Reynolds numbers using relatively few suction slits and small amounts of suction flow.

  16. Noseleaf pit in Egyptian slit-faced bat as a doubly curved reflector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuang, Qiao; Wang, Xiao-Min; Li, Ming-Xuan; Mao, Jie; Wang, Fu-Xun

    2012-02-01

    Noseleaves in slit-faced bats have been hypothesized to affect the sonar beam. Using numerical methods, we show that the pit in the noseleaf of an Egyptian slit-faced bat has an effect on focusing the acoustic near field as well as shaping the radiation patterns and hence enhancing the directionality. The underlying physical mechanism suggested by the properties of the effect is that the pit acts as a doubly curved reflector. Thanks to the pit the beam shape is overall directional and more selectively widened at the high end of the biosonar frequency range to improve spatial coverage and detectability of targets.

  17. Generation of Electron Bessel Beams with Nondiffractive Spreading by a Nanofabricated Annular Slit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saitoh, Koh; Hirakawa, Kazuma; Nambu, Hiroki; Tanaka, Nobuo; Uchida, Masaya

    2016-04-01

    The shaping of a wavefront of free electrons has been experimentally realized very recently. We report the generation of an electron Bessel beam using a nanofabricated annular slit. We directly observe that electron Bessel beams propagate while maintaining a narrow beam width over a long propagation distance. In addition, we experimentally verify the self-healing property of these electron beams, which can reconstruct their shape after passing an obstacle. The experimental results are compared with simulation results of the propagation including a hexagonal slit. The present technique of electron Bessel beam generation can be used to develop a novel electron-beam-shaping, an atomic manipulation technique, and a new electron microscopy.

  18. Linear Collisions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walkiewicz, T. A.; Newby, N. D., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    A discussion of linear collisions between two or three objects is related to a junior-level course in analytical mechanics. The theoretical discussion uses a geometrical approach that treats elastic and inelastic collisions from a unified point of view. Experiments with a linear air track are described. (Author/TS)

  19. Potential Role of Axonal Chemorepellent Slit2 in Modulating Adventitial Inflammation in a Rat Carotid Artery Balloon Injury Model.

    PubMed

    Liu, Dong; Xiao, Yan; Subramanian, Romesh R; Okamoto, Ei-Ichi; Wilcox, Josiah N; Anderson, Leonard; De Leon, Hector

    2016-05-01

    Leukocyte infiltration of adventitial and perivascular tissues is an early event in the development of vascular remodeling after injury. We investigated whether Slit/Robo-an axonal chemorepellent system in vertebrate and invertebrate development-is activated during the inflammatory phase that follows endothelial denudation. Using the rat carotid artery model of angioplasty, we conducted a time course analysis of mRNAs encoding Slit ligands (Slit2 and Slit3) and Robo receptors (Robo1, Robo2, and Robo4), as well as proinflammatory cell adhesion molecule (CAM) genes. Adventitial inflammatory cells were counted in immunostained arterial sections. E-selectin, vascular CAM-1, and intercellular CAM-1 were upregulated 2-3 hours after injury, followed by infiltration of neutrophils and monocytes as evidenced by real-time polymerase chain reaction, in situ hybridization, and immunohistochemistry. Slit2, Slit3, and Robo genes exhibited no expression changes at 3 hours; however, they were markedly upregulated 1 day after angioplasty. Intercellular CAM-1 expression was reduced by 50%, and the number of adventitial neutrophils decreased by >75% 1 day after angioplasty. Slit2 has been shown to be a potent chemorepelent of leukocytes, endothelial cells, and smooth muscle cells. Thus, we decided to further investigate the localization of Slit2 in injured vessels. Immunohistochemical stainings revealed the presence of Slit2 within the vessel wall and in the perivascular vasa vasorum of naive and injured arteries. Double immunohistochemical analyses showed that infiltrating monocytes expressed Slit2 in the perivascular and adventitial tissues of injured arteries 1 and 3 days postangioplasty. In addition, recombinant full-length Slit2 and Slit2-N/1118, an N-terminal fragment of Slit2, inhibited stromal cell-derived factor 1-mediated migration of circulating rat peripheral blood mononuclear cells. In summary, adventitial activation of CAM genes and neutrophil infiltration preceded

  20. Abscess scan - radioactive

    MedlinePlus

    Radioactive abscess scan; Abscess scan; Indium Scan; Indium-labelled white blood cell scan ... the white blood cells are tagged with a radioactive substance called indium. The cells are then injected ...

  1. Arm CT scan

    MedlinePlus

    CAT scan - arm; Computed axial tomography scan - arm; Computed tomography scan - arm; CT scan - arm ... Mosby; 2013:chap 57. Shaw AS, Prokop M. Computed tomography. In: Adam A, Dixon AK, Gillard JH, Schaefer- ...

  2. Sinus CT scan

    MedlinePlus

    CAT scan - sinus; Computed axial tomography scan - sinus; Computed tomography scan - sinus; CT scan - sinus ... 2014:chap 67. Shaw AS, Dixon AK. Multidetector computed tomography. In: Adam A, Dixon AK, eds. Grainger & Allison's ...

  3. Leg CT scan

    MedlinePlus

    CAT scan - leg; Computed axial tomography scan - leg; Computed tomography scan - leg; CT scan - leg ... Saunders; 2012:chap 11. Shaw AS, Prokop M. Computed tomography. In: Adam A, Dixon AK, Gillard JH, Schaefer- ...

  4. Pelvic CT scan

    MedlinePlus

    CAT scan - pelvis; Computed axial tomography scan - pelvis; Computed tomography scan - pelvis; CT scan - pelvis ... gov/pubmed/18381118 . Shaw AS, Dixon AK. Multidetector computed tomography. In: Grainger RC, Allison D, Adam, Dixon AK, ...

  5. Shoulder CT scan

    MedlinePlus

    CAT scan - shoulder; Computed axial tomography scan - shoulder; Computed tomography scan - shoulder; CT scan - shoulder ... Mosby; 2012:chap 57. Shaw AS, Prokop M. Computed tomography. In: Adam A, Dixon AK, Gillard JH, Schaefer- ...

  6. Head CT scan

    MedlinePlus

    Brain CT; Cranial CT; CT scan - skull; CT scan - head; CT scan - orbits; CT scan - sinuses; Computed tomography - cranial ... or other growth (mass) Cerebral atrophy (loss of brain tissue) ... with the hearing nerve Stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA)

  7. Digital adaptive optics line-scanning confocal imaging system.

    PubMed

    Liu, Changgeng; Kim, Myung K

    2015-01-01

    A digital adaptive optics line-scanning confocal imaging (DAOLCI) system is proposed by applying digital holographic adaptive optics to a digital form of line-scanning confocal imaging system. In DAOLCI, each line scan is recorded by a digital hologram, which allows access to the complex optical field from one slice of the sample through digital holography. This complex optical field contains both the information of one slice of the sample and the optical aberration of the system, thus allowing us to compensate for the effect of the optical aberration, which can be sensed by a complex guide star hologram. After numerical aberration compensation, the corrected optical fields of a sequence of line scans are stitched into the final corrected confocal image. In DAOLCI, a numerical slit is applied to realize the confocality at the sensor end. The width of this slit can be adjusted to control the image contrast and speckle noise for scattering samples. DAOLCI dispenses with the hardware pieces, such as Shack–Hartmann wavefront sensor and deformable mirror, and the closed-loop feedbacks adopted in the conventional adaptive optics confocal imaging system, thus reducing the optomechanical complexity and cost. Numerical simulations and proof-of-principle experiments are presented that demonstrate the feasibility of this idea. PMID:26140334

  8. Digital adaptive optics line-scanning confocal imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Changgeng; Kim, Myung K.

    2015-11-01

    A digital adaptive optics line-scanning confocal imaging (DAOLCI) system is proposed by applying digital holographic adaptive optics to a digital form of line-scanning confocal imaging system. In DAOLCI, each line scan is recorded by a digital hologram, which allows access to the complex optical field from one slice of the sample through digital holography. This complex optical field contains both the information of one slice of the sample and the optical aberration of the system, thus allowing us to compensate for the effect of the optical aberration, which can be sensed by a complex guide star hologram. After numerical aberration compensation, the corrected optical fields of a sequence of line scans are stitched into the final corrected confocal image. In DAOLCI, a numerical slit is applied to realize the confocality at the sensor end. The width of this slit can be adjusted to control the image contrast and speckle noise for scattering samples. DAOLCI dispenses with the hardware pieces, such as Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor and deformable mirror, and the closed-loop feedbacks adopted in the conventional adaptive optics confocal imaging system, thus reducing the optomechanical complexity and cost. Numerical simulations and proof-of-principle experiments are presented that demonstrate the feasibility of this idea.

  9. Flat Gauss illumination for the step-and-scan lithographic system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ming; Wang, Ying; Zeng, Aijun; Zhu, Jing; Yang, Baoxi; Huang, Huijie

    2016-08-01

    To meet the uniform dose exposure in optical lithography, it is desirable to get uniform illumination in the scanning direction on wafer for the step-and-scan lithographic system. We present a flat Gauss illumination for the step-and-scan lithographic system in this paper. Through flat Gauss illumination in scanning direction, pulse quantization effect could be reduced effectively. Correspondingly, the uniformity of the reticle and wafer is improved. Compared with the trapezoid illumination, flat Gauss illumination could keep the slit edge fixed, and pulse quantization effect will not be enhanced. Moreover flat Gauss illumination could be obtained directly without defocusing and blocking, which results in high energy efficiency and high throughput of the lithography. A design strategy for flat Gauss illumination is also proposed which offers high uniformity illumination, fixed slope and integral energy of flat Gauss illumination in different coherence factors. The strategy describes a light uniform device which contains first microlens array, second microlens array, one-dimensional Gauss diffuser and a Fourier lens. The device produces flat Gauss illumination directly at the scanning slit. The design and simulation results show that the uniformity of flat Gauss illumination in two directions satisfy the requirements of lithographic illumination system and the slope. In addition, slit edge of flat Gauss illumination does not change.

  10. Fast scanning mode and its realization in a scanning acoustic microscope.

    PubMed

    Ju, Bing-Feng; Bai, Xiaolong; Chen, Jian

    2012-03-01

    The scanning speed of the two-dimensional stage dominates the efficiency of mechanical scanning measurement systems. This paper focused on a detailed scanning time analysis of conventional raster and spiral scan modes and then proposed two fast alternative scanning modes. Performed on a self-developed scanning acoustic microscope (SAM), the measured images obtained by using the conventional scan mode and fast scan modes are compared. The total scanning time is reduced by 29% of the two proposed fast scan modes. It will offer a better solution for high speed scanning without sacrificing the system stability, and will not introduce additional difficulties to the configuration of scanning measurement systems. They can be easily applied to the mechanical scanning measuring systems with different driving actuators such as piezoelectric, linear motor, dc motor, and so on. The proposed fast raster and square spiral scan modes are realized in SAM, but not specially designed for it. Therefore, they have universal adaptability and can be applied to other scanning measurement systems with two-dimensional mechanical scanning stages, such as atomic force microscope or scanning tunneling microscope. PMID:22462966

  11. Fast scanning mode and its realization in a scanning acoustic microscope

    SciTech Connect

    Ju Bingfeng; Bai Xiaolong; Chen Jian

    2012-03-15

    The scanning speed of the two-dimensional stage dominates the efficiency of mechanical scanning measurement systems. This paper focused on a detailed scanning time analysis of conventional raster and spiral scan modes and then proposed two fast alternative scanning modes. Performed on a self-developed scanning acoustic microscope (SAM), the measured images obtained by using the conventional scan mode and fast scan modes are compared. The total scanning time is reduced by 29% of the two proposed fast scan modes. It will offer a better solution for high speed scanning without sacrificing the system stability, and will not introduce additional difficulties to the configuration of scanning measurement systems. They can be easily applied to the mechanical scanning measuring systems with different driving actuators such as piezoelectric, linear motor, dc motor, and so on. The proposed fast raster and square spiral scan modes are realized in SAM, but not specially designed for it. Therefore, they have universal adaptability and can be applied to other scanning measurement systems with two-dimensional mechanical scanning stages, such as atomic force microscope or scanning tunneling microscope.

  12. Slit1 promotes regenerative neurite outgrowth of adult dorsal root ganglion neurons in vitro via binding to the Robo receptor.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hai Ying; Zheng, Lin Feng; Yi, Xi Nan; Chen, Zhi Bin; He, Zhong Ping; Zhao, Dan; Zhang, Xian Fang; Ma, Zhi Jian

    2010-07-01

    Secreted Slit proteins have previously been shown to signal through Roundabout (Robo) receptors to negatively regulate axon guidance and cell migration. During vertebrate development, Slit proteins have also been shown to stimulate branching and elongation of sensory axons and cortical dendrites. In this study, Slit1/Robo2 mRNA and protein expressions were detected in adult rat dorsal root ganglion (DRG) and in cultured DRG neurons. Treatment of both models with recombinant, soluble Slit1 protein was found to promote neurite outgrowth and elongation. In contrast, treatment with a recombinant human Robo2/Fc chimera inhibited neurite outgrowth and elongation. When adult DRG and cultured DRG neurons were pretreated with soluble recombinant human Robo2/Fc chimera, neurite outgrowth and elongation was not induced. These findings indicate that Slit1/Robo2 signaling may have a role in regulating peripheral nerve regeneration. PMID:20172023

  13. LINEAR ACCELERATOR

    DOEpatents

    Christofilos, N.C.; Polk, I.J.

    1959-02-17

    Improvements in linear particle accelerators are described. A drift tube system for a linear ion accelerator reduces gap capacity between adjacent drift tube ends. This is accomplished by reducing the ratio of the diameter of the drift tube to the diameter of the resonant cavity. Concentration of magnetic field intensity at the longitudinal midpoint of the external sunface of each drift tube is reduced by increasing the external drift tube diameter at the longitudinal center region.

  14. Endocannabinoids modulate cortical development by configuring Slit2/Robo1 signaling

    PubMed Central

    Alpár, Alán; Tortoriello, Giuseppe; Calvigioni, Daniela; Niphakis, Micah J; Milenkovic, Ivan; Bakker, Joanne; Cameron, Gary A; Hanics, János; Morris, Claudia V; Fuzik, János; Kovacs, Gabor G; Cravatt, Benjamin F; Parnavelas, John G; Andrews, William D; Hurd, Yasmin L; Keimpema, Erik; Harkany, Tibor

    2014-01-01

    Local environmental cues are indispensable for axonal growth and guidance during brain circuit formation. Here, we combine genetic and pharmacological tools, as well as systems neuroanatomy in human fetuses and mouse models, to study the role of endocannabinoid and Slit/Robo signaling in axonal growth. We show that excess 2-arachidonoylglycerol, an endocannabinoid affecting directional axonal growth, triggers corpus callosum enlargement due to errant CB1 cannabinoid receptor (CB1R)-containing corticofugal axon spreading. This phenotype mechanistically relies on the premature differentiation and end-feet proliferation of CB2R-expressing oligodendrocytes. We further show the dependence of both axonal Robo1 positioning and oligodendroglial Slit2 production on cell-type specific cannabinoid receptor activation. Accordingly, Robo1 and/or Slit2 manipulation limits endocannabinoid modulation of axon guidance. We conclude that endocannabinoids can configure focal Slit2/Robo1 signaling to modulate directional axonal growth, which may provide a basis for understanding impaired brain wiring associated with metabolic deficits and prenatal drug exposure. PMID:25030704

  15. Feynman Path Integral Approach to Electron Diffraction for One and Two Slits: Analytical Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beau, Mathieu

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we present an analytic solution of the famous problem of diffraction and interference of electrons through one and two slits (for simplicity, only the one-dimensional case is considered). In addition to exact formulae, various approximations of the electron distribution are shown which facilitate the interpretation of the results.…

  16. Investigation of Conceptual Change about Double-Slit Interference in Secondary School Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kocakulah, Mustafa Sabri; Kural, Mehmet

    2010-01-01

    In this study, whether or not constructivist teaching of double-slit interference of light has a positive effect on the secondary school students' conceptual change is examined. An achievement test, a conceptual understanding test and semi-structured interviews were used as data collection tools in this mixed methods research. Experimental group…

  17. Slit-mask, acquisition, and guiding zone mechanisms of the ESOPO spectrograph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedrayes, M.; Gonzalez, J.; Luna, E.; Quiroz, F.; Sierra, G.; Arroyo, M.; Avila, G.; Cobos, F.; Colorado, E.; Córdova, A.; Costero, R.; Chapa, O.; Echevarria, J.; Farah, A.; García, B.; Garfias, F.; Guisa, G.; Granados, F.; Martínez, B.; Michel, R.; Murillo, F.; Murillo, J.; Quechol, S.; Tejada, C.

    2008-07-01

    This work presents the specifications, requirements, design, finite element analysis and results of the assembled subsystems: slit-mask, and the acquisition and guiding zone mechanisms of the ESOPO spectrograph. This spectrograph is a project of the Institute of Astronomy, National University of Mexico.

  18. Bottle-nosed dolphin: double-slit pupil yields equivalent aerial and underwater diurnal acuity.

    PubMed

    Herman, L M; Peacock, M F; Yunker, M P; Madsen, C J

    1975-08-22

    In bright daylight, and at best viewing distances, the bottlenosed dolphin resolves visual gratings approximately equally well in air and in water. Aerial resolution improves with increased viewing distance, while underwater resolution improves with decreased viewing distance. The double-slit pipil overcomes the gross myopia in air measured by ophthalmoscope and produces the indicated effects of viewing distance. PMID:1162351

  19. Slit2 as a β-catenin/Ctnnb1-dependent retrograde signal for presynaptic differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Haitao; Barik, Arnab; Lu, Yisheng; Shen, Chengyong; Bowman, Andrew; Li, Lei; Sathyamurthy, Anupama; Lin, Thiri W; Xiong, Wen-Cheng; Mei, Lin

    2015-01-01

    Neuromuscular junction formation requires proper interaction between motoneurons and muscle cells. β-Catenin (Ctnnb1) in muscle is critical for motoneuron differentiation; however, little is known about the relevant retrograde signal. In this paper, we dissected which functions of muscle Ctnnb1 are critical by an in vivo transgenic approach. We show that Ctnnb1 mutant without the transactivation domain was unable to rescue presynaptic deficits of Ctnnb1 mutation, indicating the involvement of transcription regulation. On the other hand, the cell-adhesion function of Ctnnb1 is dispensable. We screened for proteins that may serve as a Ctnnb1-directed retrograde factor and identified Slit2. Transgenic expression of Slit2 specifically in the muscle was able to diminish presynaptic deficits by Ctnnb1 mutation in mice. Slit2 immobilized on beads was able to induce synaptophysin puncta in axons of spinal cord explants. Together, these observations suggest that Slit2 serves as a factor utilized by muscle Ctnnb1 to direct presynaptic differentiation. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.07266.001 PMID:26159615

  20. The Time-Dependent Sensitivity of the MAMA and CCD Long-Slit Gratings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holland, Stephen T.; Aloisi, Alessandra; Bostroem, Azalee; Oliveria, Cristina; Proffitt, Charles

    2014-12-01

    We present the results of observing flux standard stars used to determine trends in the sensitivities of the five STIS low-resolution, long-slit gratings between 1997 and 2013. Also, the assumption that the sensitivity trends for the medium-resolution and echelle gratings are the same as those for the corresponding low-resolution gratings is tested.

  1. An analytical algorithm for skew-slit imaging geometry with nonuniform attenuation correction

    SciTech Connect

    Huang Qiu; Zeng, Gengsheng L.

    2006-04-15

    The pinhole collimator is currently the collimator of choice in small animal single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging because it can provide high spatial resolution and reasonable sensitivity when the animal is placed very close to the pinhole. It is well known that if the collimator rotates around the object (e.g., a small animal) in a circular orbit to form a cone-beam imaging geometry with a planar trajectory, the acquired data are not sufficient for an exact artifact-free image reconstruction. In this paper a novel skew-slit collimator is mounted instead of the pinhole collimator in order to significantly reduce the image artifacts caused by the geometry. The skew-slit imaging geometry is a more generalized version of the pinhole imaging geometry. The multiple pinhole geometry can also be extended to the multiple-skew-slit geometry. An analytical algorithm for image reconstruction based on the tilted fan-beam inversion is developed with nonuniform attenuation compensation. Numerical simulation shows that the axial artifacts are evidently suppressed in the skew-slit images compared to the pinhole images and the attenuation correction is effective.

  2. Probing Pre- and In-service Physics Teachers' Knowledge Using the Double-Slit Thought Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asikainen, Mervi A.; Hirvonen, Pekka E.

    2014-09-01

    This study describes the use of the double-slit thought experiment as a diagnostic tool for probing physics teachers' understanding. A total of 9 pre-service teachers and 18 in-service teachers with a variety of different experience in modern physics teaching at the upper secondary level responded in a paper-and-pencil test and three of these teachers were interviewed. The results showed that the physics teachers' thought experiments with classical particles, light, and electrons were often partial. Many teachers also suffered a lack of the basic ideas and principles of physics, which probably hindered thought experimenting. In particular, understanding the ontological nature of classical particles, light and electrons seemed to be essential in performing the double-slit experiment in an appropriate way. However, the in-service physics teachers who had teaching experience in modern physics were more prepared for the double-slit thought experiment than the pre-service teachers. The results suggest that both thought experiments and the double-slit experiment should be given more weight in physics teacher education, even if experience in modern physics teaching at upper secondary school seems to some extent to develop teachers' abilities.

  3. Single-Slit Diffraction Pattern of a Thermal Atomic Potassium Beam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leavitt, John A.; Bills, Francis A.

    1969-01-01

    The diffraction of a full thermal atomic potassium beam by a single slit was observed. Four experimental diffraction patterns were compared with that predicted by de Brogtie's hypothesis and simple scalar Fresnel diffraction theory. Possible reasons for the differences were discussed. (LC)

  4. Development of MEMS-based programmable slit mask for multi-object spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canonica, Michael; Waldis, Severin; Zamkotsian, Frederic; Lanzoni, Patrick; Noell, Wilfried; De Rooij, Nico

    2010-07-01

    We are developing MEMS-based programmable reflective slit masks for future generation infrared multi-object spectroscopy (MOS) for space and ground-based telescopes. These devices are composed of monocrystalline silicon micromirrors of size 200 × 100 um2 which can be tilted by electrostatic actuation yielding a tilt-angle of 20°. An electromechanical clamping mechanism has been demonstrated providing uniform tilt-angle within one arc minute precision over the whole array (5 × 5 micromirrors). Slit masks of different sizes have been produced; the largest one measures 25 × 22 mm2 and is composed of 20'000 micromirrors. Thanks to the architecture and the fabrication process of these slit masks; the micromirror peak-to-valley deformation (PTV) is uniform over the device and was measured being below 10 nm for uncoated micromirror. A slit mask of size 5 × 5 micromirrors was successfully tested in cryogenic conditions at 92 K; the micromirrors were actuated before, during and after the cryogenic experiment. To achieve for the large arrays a better fabrication yield and a higher reliability, the architecture, the process flow, the assembly and the electronics are being optimized. Optical characterizations as well as experiments of the large devices are underway.

  5. Development of Flight Slit-Jaw Optics for Chromospheric Lyman-Alpha SpectroPolarimeter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kubo, Masahito; Suematsu, Yoshinori; Kano, Ryohei; Bando, Takamasa; Hara, Hirohisa; Narukage, Noriyuki; Katsukawa, Yukio; Ishikawa, Ryoko; Ishikawa, Shin-nosuke; Kobiki, Toshihiko; Tsuneta, Saku; Kobayashi, Ken; Winebarger, Amy; Takeyama, Norihide; Kanai, Yoshikazu; Sakakibara, Yoshiko

    2015-01-01

    In sounding rocket experiment CLASP, I have placed a slit a mirror-finished around the focal point of the telescope. The light reflected by the mirror surface surrounding the slit is then imaged in Slit-jaw optical system, to obtain the a-ray Lyman secondary image. This image, not only to use the real-time image in rocket flight rocket oriented direction selection, and also used as a scientific data showing the spatial structure of the Lyman alpha emission line intensity distribution and solar chromosphere around the observation area of the polarimetric spectroscope. Slit-jaw optical system is a two off-axis mirror unit part including a parabolic mirror and folding mirror, Lyman alpha transmission filter, the optical system magnification 1x consisting camera. The camera is supplied from the United States, and the other was carried out fabrication and testing in all the Japanese side. Slit-jaw optical system, it is difficult to access the structure, it is necessary to install the low place clearance. Therefore, influence the optical performance, the fine adjustment is necessary optical elements are collectively in the form of the mirror unit. On the other hand, due to the alignment of the solar sensor in the US launch site, must be removed once the Lyman alpha transmission filter holder including a filter has a different part from the mirror unit. In order to make the structure simple, stray light measures Aru to concentrate around Lyman alpha transmission filter. To overcome the difficulties of performing optical alignment in Lyman alpha wavelength absorbed by the atmosphere, it was planned 'following four steps in order to reduce standing time alignment me. 1. is measured in advance refractive index at Lyman alpha wavelength of Lyman alpha transmission filter (121.567nm), to prepare a visible light Firuwo having the same optical path length in the visible light (630nm).2. The mirror structure CLASP before mounting unit standing, dummy slit and camera standing

  6. Development of Flight Slit-Jaw Optics for Chromospheric Lyman-Alpha SpectroPolarimeter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kubo, Masahito; Suematsu, Yoshinori; Kano, Ryohei; Bando, Takamasa; Hara, Hirohisa; Narukage, Noriyuki; Katsukawa, Yukio; Ishikawa, Ryoko; Ishikawa, Shin-nosuke; Kobiki, Toshihiko; Tsuneta, Saku; Kobayashi, Ken; Winebarger, Amy; Takeyama, Norihide; Kanai, Yoshikazu; Sakakibara, Yoshiko

    2015-01-01

    In sounding rocket experiment CLASP, I have placed a slit a mirror-finished around the focal point of the telescope. The light reflected by the mirror surface surrounding the slit is then imaged in Slit-jaw optical system, to obtain the alpha-ray Lyman secondary image. This image, not only to use the real-time image in rocket flight rocket oriented direction selection, and also used as a scientific data showing the spatial structure of the Lyman alpha emission line intensity distribution and solar chromosphere around the observation area of the polarimetric spectroscope. Slit-jaw optical system is a two off-axis mirror unit part including a parabolic mirror and folding mirror, Lyman alpha transmission filter, the optical system magnification 1x consisting camera. The camera is supplied from the United States, and the other was carried out fabrication and testing in all the Japanese side. Slit-jaw optical system, it is difficult to access the structure, it is necessary to install the low place clearance. Therefore, influence the optical performance, the fine adjustment is necessary optical elements are collectively in the form of the mirror unit. On the other hand, due to the alignment of the solar sensor in the US launch site, must be removed once the Lyman alpha transmission filter holder including a filter has a different part from the mirror unit. In order to make the structure simple, stray light measures Aru to concentrate around Lyman alpha transmission filter. To overcome the difficulties of performing optical alignment in Lyman alpha wavelength absorbed by the atmosphere, it was planned following four steps in order to reduce standing time alignment me. 1: is measured in advance refractive index at Lyman alpha wavelength of Lyman alpha transmission filter (121.567nm), to prepare a visible light Firuwo having the same optical path length in the visible light (630nm). 2: The mirror structure CLASP before mounting unit standing, dummy slit and camera standing

  7. Mathematical determination of /alpha/ and /beta/ for the rotating-slit enrichment monitor

    SciTech Connect

    Stirpe, D.; Hafer, J.F.

    1989-10-01

    To measure the /sup 235/U enrichment of UF/sub 6/ gas in header pipes of enrichment facilities using the enrichment monitor, it is necessary to determine the geometrical factors, /alpha/ and /beta/. We report on a method of calculating the values of these factors through numerical integration of Lambert's Law. The header pipe diameter, the dimensions of the collimating slit, the diameter of the gamma-ray detector, and the distance of this detector from the axis of the header pipe determine the geometrical configuration of the problem. The limits of integration are obtained by the condition that the radiating volume of UF/sub 6/ gas, dV, must be able to ''see'' the element of detector area, dA, through the collimating slit. Expressions for these limits are derived by using three-dimensional analytical geometry. Additional limits on dV are given by the pipe diameter, and additional limits on dA are given by the slit width or the detector diameter. Effects of attenuation of the gamma-ray signal through the pipe wall are also calculated. The distance of the gamma-ray signal through the pipe wall depends on the positions of dV and dA; this distance can also be obtained by using three-dimensional analytical geometry. Values for /alpha/ and /beta/ are given for the three pipe diameters, 4, 7, and 10 cm, for a slit length of 7.3 cm, and for the slit widths, 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 cm. 3 refs., 11 figs., 4 tabs.

  8. Ultrafast scanning tunneling microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Botkin, D.A. |

    1995-09-01

    I have developed an ultrafast scanning tunneling microscope (USTM) based on uniting stroboscopic methods of ultrafast optics and scanned probe microscopy to obtain nanometer spatial resolution and sub-picosecond temporal resolution. USTM increases the achievable time resolution of a STM by more than 6 orders of magnitude; this should enable exploration of mesoscopic and nanometer size systems on time scales corresponding to the period or decay of fundamental excitations. USTM consists of a photoconductive switch with subpicosecond response time in series with the tip of a STM. An optical pulse from a modelocked laser activates the switch to create a gate for the tunneling current, while a second laser pulse on the sample initiates a dynamic process which affects the tunneling current. By sending a large sequence of identical pulse pairs and measuring the average tunnel current as a function of the relative time delay between the pulses in each pair, one can map the time evolution of the surface process. USTM was used to measure the broadband response of the STM`s atomic size tunnel barrier in frequencies from tens to hundreds of GHz. The USTM signal amplitude decays linearly with the tunnel junction conductance, so the spatial resolution of the time-resolved signal is comparable to that of a conventional STM. Geometrical capacitance of the junction does not appear to play an important role in the measurement, but a capacitive effect intimately related to tunneling contributes to the measured signals and may limit the ultimate resolution of the USTM.

  9. Scanning scene tunnel for city traversing.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Jiang Yu; Zhou, Yu; Milli, Panayiotis

    2006-01-01

    This paper proposes a visual representation named scene tunnel for capturing urban scenes along routes and visualizing them on the Internet. We scan scenes with multiple cameras or a fish-eye camera on a moving vehicle, which generates a real scene archive along streets that is more complete than previously proposed route panoramas. Using a translating spherical eye, properly set planes of scanning, and unique parallel-central projection, we explore the image acquisition of the scene tunnel from camera selection and alignment, slit calculation, scene scanning, to image integration. The scene tunnels cover high buildings, ground, and various viewing directions and have uniformed resolutions along the street. The sequentially organized scene tunnel benefits texture mapping onto the urban models. We analyze the shape characteristics in the scene tunnels for designing visualization algorithms. After combining this with a global panorama and forward image caps, the capped scene tunnels can provide continuous views directly for virtual or real navigation in a city. We render scene tunnel dynamically by view warping, fast transmission, and flexible interaction. The compact and continuous scene tunnel facilitates model construction, data streaming, and seamless route traversing on the Internet and mobile devices. PMID:16509375

  10. DOSE ASSESSMENT OF THE FINAL INVENTORIES IN CENTER SLIT TRENCHES ONE THROUGH FIVE

    SciTech Connect

    Collard, L.; Hamm, L.; Smith, F.

    2011-05-02

    In response to a request from Solid Waste Management (SWM), this study evaluates the performance of waste disposed in Slit Trenches 1-5 by calculating exposure doses and concentrations. As of 8/19/2010, Slit Trenches 1-5 have been filled and are closed to future waste disposal in support of an ARRA-funded interim operational cover project. Slit Trenches 6 and 7 are currently in operation and are not addressed within this analysis. Their current inventory limits are based on the 2008 SA and are not being impacted by this study. This analysis considers the location and the timing of waste disposal in Slit Trenches 1-5 throughout their operational life. In addition, the following improvements to the modeling approach have been incorporated into this analysis: (1) Final waste inventories from WITS are used for the base case analysis where variance in the reported final disposal inventories is addressed through a sensitivity analysis; (2) Updated K{sub d} values are used; (3) Area percentages of non-crushable containers are used in the analysis to determine expected infiltration flows for cases that consider collapse of these containers; (4) An updated representation of ETF carbon column vessels disposed in SLIT3-Unit F is used. Preliminary analyses indicated a problem meeting the groundwater beta-gamma dose limit because of high H-3 and I-129 release from the ETF vessels. The updated model uses results from a recent structural analysis of the ETF vessels indicating that water does not penetrate the vessels for about 130 years and that the vessels remain structurally intact throughout the 1130-year period of assessment; and (5) Operational covers are included with revised installation dates and sets of Slit Trenches that have a common cover. With the exception of the modeling enhancements noted above, the analysis follows the same methodology used in the 2008 PA (WSRC, 2008) and the 2008 SA (Collard and Hamm, 2008). Infiltration flows through the vadose zone are

  11. Correcting nonlinear drift distortion of scanning probe and scanning transmission electron microscopies from image pairs with orthogonal scan directions.

    PubMed

    Ophus, Colin; Ciston, Jim; Nelson, Chris T

    2016-03-01

    Unwanted motion of the probe with respect to the sample is a ubiquitous problem in scanning probe and scanning transmission electron microscopies, causing both linear and nonlinear artifacts in experimental images. We have designed a procedure to correct these artifacts by using orthogonal scan pairs to align each measurement line-by-line along the slow scan direction, by fitting contrast variation along the lines. We demonstrate the accuracy of our algorithm on both synthetic and experimental data and provide an implementation of our method. PMID:26716724

  12. Heart PET scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... nuclear medicine scan; Heart positron emission tomography; Myocardial PET scan ... A PET scan requires a small amount of radioactive material (tracer). This tracer is given through a vein (IV), ...

  13. Knee CT scan

    MedlinePlus

    CAT scan - knee; Computed axial tomography scan - knee; Computed tomography scan - knee ... Saunders; 2015:chap 93. Shaw AS, Prokop M. Computed tomography. In: Adam A, Dixon AK, Gillard JH, Schaefer- ...

  14. Lumbar spine CT scan

    MedlinePlus

    CAT scan - lumbar spine; Computed axial tomography scan - lumbar spine; Computed tomography scan - lumbar spine; CT - lower back ... stopping.) A computer creates separate images of the spine area, called slices. These images can be stored, ...

  15. Coronary Calcium Scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is a Coronary Calcium Scan? A coronary calcium scan is a test ... you have calcifications in your coronary arteries. Coronary Calcium Scan Figure A shows the position of the ...

  16. Voltage divider based on submicron slits in a high Tc superconducting film and two bicrystal grain boundaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaplunenko, V. K.; Ivanov, Z. G.; Stepantsov, E. A.; Claeson, T.; Wikborg, E.

    1995-07-01

    Experiments on a model of rapid single flux quantum (RSFQ) flip-flop cell, based on high-Tc (HTS) Josephson junctions show that it can operate as a voltage divider at frequency up to 400 GHz. The junctions were formed in YBaCuO film, deposited on novel Y-ZrO2 bicrystals with two asymmetric 32° grain boundaries, about 10 μm apart, and allow a new design of RSFQ logic based on a single HTS layer. Small inductances (≂10 pH) were made as narrow, submicron size slits. The junction widths were between 4 and 10 μm and for ten junctions located close to the tested circuits, the linear critical current densities at T=4.4 K were 10.7 μA/μm±50% for one grain boundary and 8.3 μA/μm±50% for the other one. IcRn was about 1 mV±50%. A current density of half the expected value meant that the test circuit did not act as an ideal flip-flop down to the lowest frequency. As a voltage divider it gave a half value division up to 0.82 mV at T=4.4 K and to 0.4 mV at 30 K.

  17. Slit-Robo signaling induces malignant transformation through Hakai-mediated E-cadherin degradation during colorectal epithelial cell carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Wei-Jie; Geng, Zhen H; Chi, Shan; Zhang, Wenli; Niu, Xiao-Feng; Lan, Shu-Jue; Ma, Li; Yang, Xuesong; Wang, Li-Jing; Ding, Yan-Qing; Geng, Jian-Guo

    2011-01-01

    The Slit family of guidance cues binds to Roundabout (Robo) receptors and modulates cell migration. We report here that ectopic expression of Slit2 and Robo1 or recombinant Slit2 treatment of Robo1-expressing colorectal epithelial carcinoma cells recruited an ubiquitin ligase Hakai for E-cadherin (E-cad) ubiquitination and lysosomal degradation, epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), and tumor growth and liver metastasis, which were rescued by knockdown of Hakai. In contrast, knockdown of endogenous Robo1 or specific blockade of Slit2 binding to Robo1 prevented E-cad degradation and reversed EMT, resulting in diminished tumor growth and liver metastasis. Ectopic expression of Robo1 also triggered a malignant transformation in Slit2-positive human embryonic kidney 293 cells. Importantly, the expression of Slit2 and Robo1 was significantly associated with an increased metastatic risk and poorer overall survival in colorectal carcinoma patients. We conclude that engagement of Robo1 by Slit2 induces malignant transformation through Hakai-mediated E-cad ubiquitination and lysosomal degradation during colorectal epithelial cell carcinogenesis. PMID:21283129

  18. Characterization and verification of ACAM slit functions for trace-gas retrievals during the 2011 DISCOVER-AQ flight campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, C.; Liu, X.; Kowalewski, M. G.; Janz, S. J.; González Abad, G.; Pickering, K. E.; Chance, K.; Lamsal, L. N.

    2015-02-01

    The Airborne Compact Atmospheric Mapper (ACAM), an ultraviolet/visible/near-infrared spectrometer, has been flown on board the NASA UC-12 aircraft during the Deriving Information on Surface Conditions from Column and Vertically Resolved Observations Relevant to Air Quality (DISCOVER-AQ) campaigns to provide remote sensing observations of tropospheric and boundary-layer pollutants from its radiance measurements. To assure the trace-gas retrieval from ACAM measurements we perform detailed characterization and verification of ACAM slit functions. The wavelengths and slit functions of ACAM measurements are characterized for the air-quality channel (~304-500 nm) through cross-correlation with a high-resolution solar irradiance reference spectrum after necessarily accounting for atmospheric gas absorption and the ring effect in the calibration process. The derived slit functions, assuming a hybrid combination of asymmetric Gaussian and top-hat slit functions, agree very well with the laboratory-measured slit functions. Comparisons of trace-gas retrievals between using derived and measured slit functions demonstrate that the cross-correlation technique can be reliably used to characterize slit functions for trace-gas retrievals.

  19. Characterization and verification of ACAM slit functions for trace gas retrievals during the 2011 DISCOVER-AQ flight campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, C.; Liu, X.; Kowalewski, M. G.; Janz, S. J.; González Abad, G.; Pickering, K. E.; Chance, K.; Lamsal, L. N.

    2014-11-01

    The Airborne Compact Atmospheric Mapper (ACAM), an ultraviolet/visible/near-infrared spectrometer, has been flown on board the NASA UC-12 aircraft during the DISCOVER-AQ (Deriving Information on Surface Conditions from Column and Vertically Resolved Observations Relevant to Air Quality) campaigns to provide remote sensing observations of tropospheric and boundary layer pollutants from its radiance measurements. To improve the trace gas retrieval from ACAM measurements, we perform detailed characterization and verification of ACAM slit functions. The wavelengths and slit functions of ACAM measurements are characterized for the air quality channel (~304-500 nm) through cross-correlation with a high-resolution solar irradiance reference spectrum after necessarily accounting for atmospheric gas absorption and the Ring effect in the calibration process. The derived slit functions, assuming a hybrid combination of asymmetric Gaussian and top-hat slit functions, agree very well with the laboratory-measured slit functions. Comparisons of trace gas retrievals between using derived and measured slit functions demonstrate that the cross-correlation technique can be reliably used to characterize slit functions for trace gas retrievals.

  20. Rapid screening and characterization of drug metabolites using multiple ion monitoring dependent product ion scan and postacquisition data mining on a hybrid triple quadrupole-linear ion trap mass spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Yao, Ming; Ma, Li; Duchoslav, Eva; Zhu, Mingshe

    2009-06-01

    Multiple ion monitoring (MIM)-dependent acquisition with a triple quadrupole-linear ion trap mass spectrometer (Q-trap) was previously developed for drug metabolite profiling. In the analysis, multiple predicted metabolite ions are monitored in both Q1 and Q3 regardless of their fragmentations. The collision energy in Q2 is set to a low value to minimize fragmentation. Once an expected metabolite is detected by MIM, enhanced product ion (EPI) spectral acquisition of the metabolite is triggered. To analyze in vitro metabolites, MIM-EPI retains the sensitivity and selectivity similar to that of multiple reaction monitoring (MRM)-EPI in the analysis of in vitro metabolites. Here we present an improved approach utilizing MIM-EPI for data acquisition and multiple data mining techniques for detection of metabolite ions and recovery of their MS/MS spectra. The postacquisition data processing tools included extracted ion chromatographic analysis, product ion filtering and neutral loss filtering. The effectiveness of this approach was evaluated by analyzing oxidative metabolites of indinavir and glutathione (GSH) conjugates of clozapine and 4-ethylphenol in liver microsome incubations. Results showed that the MIM-EPI-based data mining approach allowed for comprehensive detection of metabolites based on predicted protonated molecules, product ions or neutral losses without predetermination of the parent drug MS/MS spectra. Additionally, it enabled metabolite detection and MS/MS acquisition in a single injection. This approach is potentially useful in high-throughout screening of metabolic soft spots and reactive metabolites at the drug discovery stage. PMID:19418486

  1. Design of high heat load white-beam slits for wiggler/undulator beamlines at the Advanced Photon Source

    SciTech Connect

    Shu, D.; Tcheskidov, V.; Nian, T.; Haeffner, D.R.; Alp, E.E.; Ryding, D.; Collins, J.; Li, Y.; Kuzay, T.M.

    1994-12-01

    A set of horizontal and vertical white-beam slits has been designed for the Advanced Photon Source wiggler/undulator beamlines at Argonne National Laboratory. While this slit set can handle the high heat flux from on e APS undulator source, it has large enough aperture to be compatible with a wiggler source also. A grazing-incidence, knife-edge configuration has been used in the design to eliminate downstream X-ray scattering. Enhanced heat transfer technology has been used in the water-cooling system. A unique stepping parallelogram driving structure provides precise vertical slit motion with large optical aperture. The full design detail is presented in this paper.

  2. Slit2 and Robo1 induce opposing effects on metastasis of hepatocellular carcinoma Sk-hep-1 cells.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Mingjing; Guo, Hui; Li, Jing; Sui, Chengzhi; Qin, Ying; Wang, Jingjing; Khan, Yasir Hayat; Ye, Liying; Xie, Fuan; Wang, Heng; Yuan, Li; Ye, Jun

    2016-07-01

    The neural guidance molecular, Slit2, and its cognate receptor, Robo1, play critical roles in the development of the nervous system, nevertheless, their functions are not limited to this system. Numerous studies have shown decreased Slit2 expression in a wide variety of cancers, highlighting its potential as a tumor suppressor. However, the Slit2/Robo1 signaling axis was reported to induce either suppressive or stimulatory effects on tumor growth and metastasis, depending on cellular context. There is a paucity of information on the effects of the Slit2/Robo1 signaling axis on the growth and metastasis of human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Large-scale data mining of the Oncomine database has revealed heterogeneous expression of Slit2 in HCC. We screened the Sk-hep-1, a cell line showing a relatively high level of Slit2, and low level of Robo1 expression. After Slit2 knockdown and Robo1 overexpression in these cells, we found Slit2 and Robo1 exerted opposing effects on tumor growth and metastasis both in in vitro and in vivo models. Slit2 knockdown and Robo1 overexpression in Sk-hep-1 cells promoted tumor growth and metastasis, suggesting a negative and positive role for Slit2 and Robo1, respectively, in tumor progression. Robo1 overexpression upregulated matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)2, -9 and membrane-type1 MMP (MT1-MMP) expression, stimulated MMP2, but not MMP9 activation, and downregulated expression of TIMP1 and 2. The PI3K/Akt signaling pathway is of importance in regulating MMP2 expression in Sk-hep-1 cells, since Robo1 overexpression stimulated phosphorylation of Akt while the PI3K inhibitor LY294002, significantly inhibited the upregulation of MMP2 and also the enhanced cell invasion induced by Robo1 overexpression. We postulate that Robo1 promotes tumor invasion partly by the upregulation of MMP2 after activation of PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. Notably, Slit2 knockdown caused the upregulation of Robo1 expression both at the mRNA and protein levels

  3. Slit/Robo signaling regulates cell fate decisions in the intestinal stem cell lineage of Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Biteau, Benoît; Jasper, Heinrich

    2014-01-01

    To maintain tissue homeostasis, cell fate decisions within stem cell lineages have to respond to the needs of the tissue. This coordination of lineage choices with regenerative demand remains poorly characterized. Here we identify a signal from enteroendocrine cells (EEs) that controls lineage specification in the Drosophila intestine. We find that EEs secrete Slit, a ligand for the Robo2 receptor in stem cells (ISCs) that limits ISC commitment to the endocrine lineage, establishing negative feedback control of EE regeneration. We further show that this lineage decision is made within ISCs and requires induction of the transcription factor Prospero in ISCs. Our work identifies a new function for the conserved Slit/Robo pathway in the regulation of adult stem cells, establishing negative feedback control of ISC lineage specification as a critical strategy to preserve tissue homeostasis. Our results further amend the current understanding of cell fate commitment within the Drosophila ISC lineage. PMID:24931602

  4. A tunable acoustic barrier based on periodic arrays of subwavelength slits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubio, Constanza; Uris, Antonio; Candelas, Pilar; Belmar, Francisco; Gomez-Lozano, Vicente

    2015-05-01

    The most usual method to reduce undesirable enviromental noise levels during its transmission is the use of acoustic barriers. A novel type of acoustic barrier based on sound transmission through subwavelength slits is presented. This system consists of two rows of periodic repetition of vertical rigid pickets separated by a slit of subwavelength width and with a misalignment between them. Here, both the experimental and the numerical analyses are presented. The acoustic barrier proposed can be easily built and is frequency tunable. The results demonstrated that the proposed barrier can be tuned to mitigate a band noise without excesive barrier thickness. The use of this system as an environmental acoustic barrier has certain advantages with regard to the ones currently used both from the constructive and the acoustical point of view.

  5. Towards a clean slit: how medicine and notions of normality are shaping female genital aesthetics.

    PubMed

    McDougall, Lindy Joan

    2013-01-01

    In the West, a specific ideal has emerged for female genitalia. The ideal is one of absence, a clean slit that can be attained through the removal of pubic hair and, increasingly, through female genital cosmetic surgery. This ideal is largely created in the media, which generates contradictory messages for women. The popular press, backed by medical opinion, explicitly acknowledges that a wide range of variation is normal--female genitals vary in appearance 'about as much as snowflakes'--but by showing only altered minimalist clean slits, it carries an implicit message that women should be worried if their genitals do not match up to this exacting ideal. Consequently, some women feel their genitals are not satisfactory and choose surgery. Using biomedicine to fix normal body parts in order to fashion desirable femininity, releases medicine from its rigid scientific underpinnings exposing it as an increasingly cultural and commercial pursuit. PMID:23656558

  6. Production rates for comet P/Temple 2 from long slit CCD spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fink, Uwe; Hicks, Michael

    1992-01-01

    Since comet P/Temple-2 is one of the potential targets for the CRAF (Comet Rendezvous Asteroid Flyby) mission, we obtained long slit spectroscopic data with our CCD spectrograph during its 1988 apparition. As the same spectrograph was extensively used for observations of P/Halley, this allowed a direct spectroscopic comparison between the two objects. Furthermore we could choose a P/Halley spectrum which was taken at a heliocentric distance very close to that of P/Temple-2. Finally, we could adjust the integration windows along the slit to compensate for the different geocentric distances, so that roughly the same projected distance of the comets' comae was observed. The parameters for our observations are given.

  7. Reduction of echelle and long-slit Zeeman spectra in MIDAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudryavtsev, D. O.

    The use of CCD detectors generates a need for elaboration of programmes for reduction of astronomical digital images. Zeeman spectra observed with echelle and long-slit spectrographs are a special sort of such images. The reduction of Zeeman spectra has a number of specific peculiarities which are not provided in standard spectral data reduction programmes. In this article we describe a set of programmes for the reduction of Zeeman spectra. The programmes have been designed as an ESO MIDAS context. The context allows the standard reduction of both echelle and long-slit Zeeman spectra to be made. Moreover the context contains programmes allowing automation of positional measurements for calculation of the effective magnetic field and measurement of radial velocities. An ability to reduce normal, not Zeeman, spectra has been provided.

  8. An Automatic Method of Reduction for Long Slit Spectra - Part One - Methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruynooghe, M.; Burgarella, D.; Llebaria, A.

    1990-08-01

    The development of a computerized reduction technique applicable to moderate spectral resolution, long slit spectrography is presented. Any frame composed of a central spectrum surrounded by two comparison spectra can be processed. Algorithms to correct for the various distortions and to set a reliable wavelength calibration are described. Assumptions on the mathematical shape of distortions, in connection with their origin, are made unnecessary by the use of a new automatic detection algorithm providing a self-determination of the model correction. The wavelength calibration procedure computes the dispersion for each row and corrects for the slit curvature. The resulting programmes are chained in an interactive or automatic procedure run on a VAX 780 computer in the context of the ESO/MIDAS environment, but the modular programming allows easy adaptations to other systems.

  9. Slit/Robo signaling regulates cell fate decisions in the intestinal stem cell lineage of Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Biteau, Benoît; Jasper, Heinrich

    2014-06-26

    In order to maintain tissue homeostasis, cell fate decisions within stem cell lineages have to respond to the needs of the tissue. This coordination of lineage choices with regenerative demand remains poorly characterized. Here, we identify a signal from enteroendocrine cells (EEs) that controls lineage specification in the Drosophila intestine. We find that EEs secrete Slit, a ligand for the Robo2 receptor in intestinal stem cells (ISCs) that limits ISC commitment to the endocrine lineage, establishing negative feedback control of EE regeneration. Furthermore, we show that this lineage decision is made within ISCs and requires induction of the transcription factor Prospero in ISCs. Our work identifies a function for the conserved Slit/Robo pathway in the regulation of adult stem cells, establishing negative feedback control of ISC lineage specification as a critical strategy to preserve tissue homeostasis. Our results further amend the current understanding of cell fate commitment within the Drosophila ISC lineage. PMID:24931602

  10. Implementation of rectangular slit-inserted ultra-wideband tapered slot antenna.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sun-Woong; Choi, Dong-You

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a tapered slot antenna capable of ultra-wideband communication was designed. In the proposed antenna, rectangular slits were inserted to enhance the bandwidth and reduce the area of the antenna. The rectangular slit-inserted tapered slot antenna operated at a bandwidth of 8.45 GHz, and the bandwidth improved upon the basic tapered slot antenna by 4.72 GHz. The radiation pattern of the antenna was suitable for location recognition in a certain direction owing to an appropriate 3 dB beam width. The antenna gain was analyzed within the proposed bandwidth, and the highest gain characteristic at 7.55 dBi was exhibited at a 5-GHz band. The simulation and measurement results of the proposed tapered slot antenna were similar. PMID:27610306

  11. Directional design of optical lens based on metallic nano-slits with variant widths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Qiaofen; Zhang, Yan

    2010-08-01

    The lens constructed with slits perforated on the thin metallic film is designed by simulated annealing algorithm. And two demonstrates are carried out to validate the directional design algorithm. First, the lens with one focal spot is considered. After the width of each slit is obtained, the finite-difference time-domain method is used to check the performance of the designed lens. It is found that the focal length is 800nm and the full-width at half-maximum of the focal spot is 252nm, which corresponds to the preset objective well. Then, the lens with three focal spots is also designed by this algorithm and the performance of the designed lens is quite close to the objective. This is the first work to introduce directional algorithm into design SPP lens. It may pave the way for the design sub-wavelength optic devices.

  12. The Electrochemistry with Lithium versus Sodium of Selenium Confined To Slit Micropores in Carbon.

    PubMed

    Xin, Sen; Yu, Le; You, Ya; Cong, Huai-Ping; Yin, Ya-Xia; Du, Xue-Li; Guo, Yu-Guo; Yu, Shu-Hong; Cui, Yi; Goodenough, John B

    2016-07-13

    Substitution of selenium for sulfur in the cathode of a rechargeable battery containing Sx molecules in microporous slits in carbon allows a better characterization of the electrochemical reactions that occur. Paired with a metallic lithium anode, the Sex chains are converted to Li2Se in a single-step reaction. With a sodium anode, a sequential chemical reaction is characterized by a continuous chain shortening of Sex upon initial discharge before completing the reduction to Na2Se; on charge, the reconstituted Sex molecules retain a smaller x value than the original Sex chain molecule. In both cases, the Se molecules remain almost completely confined to the micropore slits to give a long cycle life. PMID:27347697

  13. Angular beam width of a slit-diffracted wave with noncollinear group and phase velocities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lock, Edwin H.

    2012-12-01

    Taking magnetostatic surface wave diffraction as an example, this paper theoretically investigates the 2D diffraction pattern arising in the far-field region of a ferrite slab in the case of a plane wave with noncollinear group and phase velocities incident on a wide, arbitrarily oriented slit in an opaque screen. A universal analytical formula for the angular width of a diffracted beam is derived, which is valid for magnetostatic and other types of waves in anisotropic media and structures (including metamaterials) in 2D geometries. It is shown that the angular width of a diffracted beam in an anisotropic medium can not only take values greater or less than \\lambda _0/D (where \\lambda _0 is the incident wavelength, and D is the slit width), but can also be zero under certain conditions.

  14. The slit receptor EVA-1 coactivates a SAX-3/Robo mediated guidance signal in C. elegans.

    PubMed

    Fujisawa, Kazuko; Wrana, Jeffrey L; Culotti, Joseph G

    2007-09-28

    The SAX-3/roundabout (Robo) receptor has SLT-1/Slit-dependent and -independent functions in guiding cell and axon migrations. We identified enhancer of ventral-axon guidance defects of unc-40 mutants (EVA-1) as a Caenorhabditis elegans transmembrane receptor for SLT-1. EVA-1 has two predicted galactose-binding ectodomains, acts cell-autonomously for SLT-1/Slit-dependent axon migration functions of SAX-3/Robo, binds to SLT-1 and SAX-3, colocalizes with SAX-3 on cells, and provides cell specificity to the activation of SAX-3 signaling by SLT-1. Double mutants of eva-1 or slt-1 with sax-3 mutations suggest that SAX-3 can (when slt-1 or eva-1 function is reduced) inhibit a parallel-acting guidance mechanism, which involves UNC-40/deleted in colorectal cancer. PMID:17901337

  15. Surface-plasmon-polariton hybridized cavity modes in submicrometer slits in a thin Au film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walther, R.; Fritz, S.; Müller, E.; Schneider, R.; Maniv, T.; Cohen, H.; Matyssek, C.; Busch, K.; Gerthsen, D.

    2016-06-01

    The excitation of cavity standing waves in double-slit structures in thin gold films, with slit lengths between 400 and 2560 nm, was probed with a strongly focused electron beam in a transmission electron microscope. The energies and wavelengths of cavity modes up to the 11 th mode order were measured with electron energy loss spectroscopy to derive the corresponding dispersion relation. For all orders, a significant redshift of mode energies accompanied by a wavelength elongation relative to the expected resonator energies and wavelengths is observed. The resultant dispersion relation is found to closely follow the well-known dispersion law of surface-plasmon polaritons (SPPs) propagating on a gold/air interface, thus providing direct evidence for the hybridized nature of the detected cavity modes with SPPs.

  16. Design and characterization of a hybrid-integrated MEMS scanning grating spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grüger, Heinrich; Knobbe, Jens; Pügner, Tino; Schenk, Harald

    2013-03-01

    Grating spectrometer, like the well-established Czerny-Turner, are based on an optical design consisting of several components. Typically at least two slits, two mirrors, the grating stage and a detector are required. There has been much work to reduce this effort, setups using only one mirror (Ebert - Fastie) or the replacement of the entrance slit through the use of thin optical fibers as well as integrated electronic detector arrays instead of a moving grating and an exit slit and single detector device have been applied. Reduced effort comes along with performance limitations: Either the optical resolution or throughput is affected or the use of the system is limited to the availability of detectors arrays with reasonable price. Components in micro opto electro mechanical systems (MOEMS-) technology and spectroscopic systems based thereon have been developed to improve this situation. Miniaturized scanning gratings fabricated on bonded silicon on insulator (BSOI-) wafers were used to design grating spectrometer for the near infrared requiring single detectors only. Discrete components offer flexibility but also need for adjustment of two mirrors, grating stage, fiber mount and the detector with its slit and optionally a second slit in the entrance area. Further development leads towards the integration of the slits into the MOEMS chip, thus less effort for adjustment. Flexibility might be reduced as adjustments of the optical design or grating spacing would require a new chip with own set of masks. Nevertheless if extreme miniaturization is desired this approach seems to be promising. Besides this, high volume production might be able for a comparable low price. A new chip was developed offering grating, two slits and a cavity for the detector chip. The optical design was adjusted to a planar arrangement of grating and slits. A detector buried in a chip cavity required a new mounting strategy. Other optical components were optimized and fabricated then the

  17. Sub-Doppler infrared spectroscopy and formation dynamics of triacetylene in a slit supersonic expansion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Chih-Hsuan; Agarwal, Jay; Allen, Wesley D.; Nesbitt, David J.

    2016-02-01

    Infrared spectroscopy and formation dynamics of triacetylene are investigated in a slit jet supersonic discharge and probed with sub-Doppler resolution (≈60 MHz) on the fundamental antisymmetric CH stretch mode (ν5). The triacetylene is generated in the throat of the discharge by sequential attack of ethynyl radical with acetyelene and diacetylene: (i) HCCH → HCC + H, (ii) HCC + HCCH → HCCCCH + H, (iii) HCC + HCCCCH → HCCCCCCH + H, cooled rapidly in the slit expansion to 15 K, and probed by near shot-noise-limited absorption sensitivity with a tunable difference-frequency infrared laser. The combination of jet cooled temperatures (Trot = 15 K) and low spectral congestion permits (i) analysis of rotationally avoided crossings in the ν5 band ascribed to Coriolis interactions, as well as (ii) first detection of ν5 Π-Π hot band progressions built on the ν12 sym CC bend and definitively assigned via state-of-the-art ab initio vibration-rotation interaction parameters (αi), which make for interesting comparison with recent spectroscopic studies of Doney et al. [J. Mol. Spectrosc. 316, 54 (2015)]. The combined data provide direct evidence for significantly non-equilibrium populations in the CC bending manifold, dynamically consistent with a strongly bent radical intermediate and transition states for forming triacetylene product. The presence of intense triacetylene signals under cold, low density slit jet conditions provides support for (i) barrierless addition of HCC with HCCCCH and (ii) a high quantum yield for HCCCCCCH formation. Complete basis set calculations for energetics [CCSD(T)-f12/VnZ-f12, n = 2,3] and frequencies [CCSD(T)-f12/VdZ-f12] are presented for both radical intermediate and transition state species, predicting collision stabilization in the slit jet expansion to be competitive with unimolecular decomposition with increasing polyyne chain length.

  18. What dynamics can be expected for mixed states in two-slit experiments?

    SciTech Connect

    Luis, Alfredo; Sanz, Ángel S.

    2015-06-15

    Weak-measurement-based experiments (Kocsis et al., 2011) have shown that, at least for pure states, the average evolution of independent photons in Young’s two-slit experiment is in compliance with the trajectories prescribed by the Bohmian formulation of quantum mechanics. But, what happens if the same experiment is repeated assuming that the wave function associated with each particle is different, i.e., in the case of mixed (incoherent) states? This question is investigated here by means of two alternative numerical simulations of Young’s experiment, purposely devised to be easily implemented and tested in the laboratory. Contrary to what could be expected a priori, it is found that even for conditions of maximal mixedness or incoherence (total lack of interference fringes), experimental data will render a puzzling and challenging outcome: the average particle trajectories will still display features analogous to those for pure states, i.e., independently of how mixedness arises, the associated dynamics is influenced by both slits at the same time. Physically this simply means that weak measurements are not able to discriminate how mixedness arises in the experiment, since they only provide information about the averaged system dynamics. - Highlights: • The dynamics associated with mixture states in investigated by means of two simple Young’s two-slit models. • The models are prepared to be easily implemented and tested in the laboratory by means of weak measurements. • Bohmian mechanics has been generalized to encompass statistical mixtures. • Even for conditions of maximal mixedness numerical simulations show that the dynamics is strongly influenced by both slits. • Accordingly, weak measurements are unable to discriminate how mixedness arises in an experiment.

  19. Theoretical and numerical analyses of a slit-masked chicane for modulated bunch generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, X.; Broemmelsiek, D. R.; Shin, Y.-M.

    2015-10-01

    Density modulations on electron beams can improve machine performance of beam-driven accelerators and FELs with resonance beam-wave coupling. The beam modulation is studied with a masked chicane by the analytic model and simulations with the beam parameters of the Fermilab Accelerator Science and Technology (FAST) facility. With the chicane design parameters (bending angle of 18o, bending radius of 0.95 m and R56 ~ -0.19 m) and a nominal beam of 3 ps bunch length, the analytic model showed that a slit-mask with slit period 900 μ m and aperture width 300 μ m induces a modulation of bunch-to-bunch spacing ~ 100 μ m to the bunch with 2.4% correlated energy spread. With the designed slit mask and a 3 ps bunch, particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations, including nonlinear energy distributions, space charge force, and coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) effect, also result in beam modulation with bunch-to-bunch distance around 100 μ m and a corresponding modulation frequency of 3 THz. The beam modulation has been extensively examined with three different beam conditions, 2.25 ps (0.25 nC), 3.25 ps (1 nC), and 4.75 ps (3.2 nC), by tracking code Elegant. The simulation analysis indicates that the sliced beam by the slit-mask with 3 ~ 6% correlated energy spread has modulation lengths about 187 μ m (0.25 nC), 270 μ m (1 nC) and 325 μ m (3.2 nC). The theoretical and numerical data proved the capability of the designed masked chicane in producing modulated bunch train with micro-bunch length around 100 fs.

  20. Theoretical and numerical analyses of a slit-masked chicane for modulated bunch generation

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Xiaofang; Broemmelsiek, Daniel R.; Shin, Young -Min

    2015-10-28

    Density modulations on electron beams can improve machine performance of beam-driven accelerators and FELs with resonance beam-wave coupling. The beam modulation is studied with a masked chicane by the analytic model and simulations with the beam parameters of the Fermilab Accelerator Science and Technology (FAST) facility. With the chicane design parameters (bending angle of 18o, bending radius of 0.95 m and R56 ~ –0.19 m) and a nominal beam of 3 ps bunch length, the analytic model showed that a slit-mask with slit period 900 μ m and aperture width 300 μ m induces a modulation of bunch-to-bunch spacing ~ 100 μ m to the bunch with 2.4% correlated energy spread. With the designed slit mask and a 3 ps bunch, particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations, including nonlinear energy distributions, space charge force, and coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) effect, also result in beam modulation with bunch-to-bunch distance around 100 μ m and a corresponding modulation frequency of 3 THz. The beam modulation has been extensively examined with three different beam conditions, 2.25 ps (0.25 nC), 3.25 ps (1 nC), and 4.75 ps (3.2 nC), by tracking code Elegant. The simulation analysis indicates that the sliced beam by the slit-mask with 3 ~ 6% correlated energy spread has modulation lengths about 187 μ m (0.25 nC), 270 μ m (1 nC) and 325 μ m (3.2 nC). As a result, the theoretical and numerical data proved the capability of the designed masked chicane in producing modulated bunch train with micro-bunch length around 100 fs.

  1. Sub-Doppler infrared spectroscopy and formation dynamics of triacetylene in a slit supersonic expansion.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chih-Hsuan; Agarwal, Jay; Allen, Wesley D; Nesbitt, David J

    2016-02-21

    Infrared spectroscopy and formation dynamics of triacetylene are investigated in a slit jet supersonic discharge and probed with sub-Doppler resolution (≈60 MHz) on the fundamental antisymmetric CH stretch mode (ν5). The triacetylene is generated in the throat of the discharge by sequential attack of ethynyl radical with acetyelene and diacetylene: (i) HCCH → HCC + H, (ii) HCC + HCCH → HCCCCH + H, (iii) HCC + HCCCCH → HCCCCCCH + H, cooled rapidly in the slit expansion to 15 K, and probed by near shot-noise-limited absorption sensitivity with a tunable difference-frequency infrared laser. The combination of jet cooled temperatures (Trot = 15 K) and low spectral congestion permits (i) analysis of rotationally avoided crossings in the ν5 band ascribed to Coriolis interactions, as well as (ii) first detection of ν5 Π-Π hot band progressions built on the ν12 sym CC bend and definitively assigned via state-of-the-art ab initio vibration-rotation interaction parameters (αi), which make for interesting comparison with recent spectroscopic studies of Doney et al. [J. Mol. Spectrosc. 316, 54 (2015)]. The combined data provide direct evidence for significantly non-equilibrium populations in the CC bending manifold, dynamically consistent with a strongly bent radical intermediate and transition states for forming triacetylene product. The presence of intense triacetylene signals under cold, low density slit jet conditions provides support for (i) barrierless addition of HCC with HCCCCH and (ii) a high quantum yield for HCCCCCCH formation. Complete basis set calculations for energetics [CCSD(T)-f12/VnZ-f12, n = 2,3] and frequencies [CCSD(T)-f12/VdZ-f12] are presented for both radical intermediate and transition state species, predicting collision stabilization in the slit jet expansion to be competitive with unimolecular decomposition with increasing polyyne chain length. PMID:26896980

  2. Theoretical and numerical analyses of a slit-masked chicane for modulated bunch generation

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Zhu, Xiaofang; Broemmelsiek, Daniel R.; Shin, Young -Min; Fermi National Accelerator Lab.

    2015-10-28

    Density modulations on electron beams can improve machine performance of beam-driven accelerators and FELs with resonance beam-wave coupling. The beam modulation is studied with a masked chicane by the analytic model and simulations with the beam parameters of the Fermilab Accelerator Science and Technology (FAST) facility. With the chicane design parameters (bending angle of 18o, bending radius of 0.95 m and R56 ~ –0.19 m) and a nominal beam of 3 ps bunch length, the analytic model showed that a slit-mask with slit period 900 μ m and aperture width 300 μ m induces a modulation of bunch-to-bunch spacing ~more » 100 μ m to the bunch with 2.4% correlated energy spread. With the designed slit mask and a 3 ps bunch, particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations, including nonlinear energy distributions, space charge force, and coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) effect, also result in beam modulation with bunch-to-bunch distance around 100 μ m and a corresponding modulation frequency of 3 THz. The beam modulation has been extensively examined with three different beam conditions, 2.25 ps (0.25 nC), 3.25 ps (1 nC), and 4.75 ps (3.2 nC), by tracking code Elegant. The simulation analysis indicates that the sliced beam by the slit-mask with 3 ~ 6% correlated energy spread has modulation lengths about 187 μ m (0.25 nC), 270 μ m (1 nC) and 325 μ m (3.2 nC). As a result, the theoretical and numerical data proved the capability of the designed masked chicane in producing modulated bunch train with micro-bunch length around 100 fs.« less

  3. Comparison of circular and polygonal planar orbits for pinhole and slit-slat SPECT

    PubMed Central

    Accorsi, Roberto; Ayan, Ahmet S.; Metzler, Scott D.

    2010-01-01

    Analytic formulas and Monte Carlo simulation are used to calculate and compare the sensitivity of circular and polygonal orbits at different points in the Field of View (FoV) for both pinhole and slit-slat collimation. Results show that for a given slit-slat collimator an N-sided polygonal orbit tangent to the FoV generally provides average sensitivity lower than the tightest circular orbit consistent with the same aperture angle, but with better spatial resolution that can be traded for sensitivity for a constant-resolution comparison. This generally results in a slight advantage for the polygonal orbit. However, this advantage depends on the clearance that must be allowed between the orbit and the FoV and decreases quickly, vanishing when even a few millimeters of space are left, which in practice is necessary to accommodate mechanical constraints. For a pinhole collimator the advantage for the tangent polygonal orbit is more consistent, but similar conclusions are reached again when clearance is considered. A direct comparison at constant resolution between slit-slat and pinhole collimation in a single transverse plane is shown to be possible with parameters typical of small-animal imaging applications only for detectors with excellent intrinsic resolution; in this case, pinhole collimation is shown to be more sensitive in magnifying geometries, but reduced axial FoV and increased axial blurring should also be considered for a more complete comparison. PMID:20204152

  4. Electronically tunable extraordinary optical transmission in graphene plasmonic ribbons coupled to subwavelength metallic slit arrays

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Seyoon; Jang, Min Seok; Brar, Victor W.; Tolstova, Yulia; Mauser, Kelly W.; Atwater, Harry A.

    2016-01-01

    Subwavelength metallic slit arrays have been shown to exhibit extraordinary optical transmission, whereby tunnelling surface plasmonic waves constructively interfere to create large forward light propagation. The intricate balancing needed for this interference to occur allows for resonant transmission to be highly sensitive to changes in the environment. Here we demonstrate that extraordinary optical transmission resonance can be coupled to electrostatically tunable graphene plasmonic ribbons to create electrostatic modulation of mid-infrared light. Absorption in graphene plasmonic ribbons situated inside metallic slits can efficiently block the coupling channel for resonant transmission, leading to a suppression of transmission. Full-wave simulations predict a transmission modulation of 95.7% via this mechanism. Experimental measurements reveal a modulation efficiency of 28.6% in transmission at 1,397 cm−1, corresponding to a 2.67-fold improvement over transmission without a metallic slit array. This work paves the way for enhancing light modulation in graphene plasmonics by employing noble metal plasmonic structures. PMID:27499258

  5. MuSICa: the Multi-Slit Image Slicer for the est Spectrograph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calcines, A.; López, R. L.; Collados, M.

    2013-09-01

    Integral field spectroscopy (IFS) is a technique that allows one to obtain the spectra of all the points of a bidimensional field of view simultaneously. It is being applied to the new generation of the largest night-time telescopes but it is also an innovative technique for solar physics. This paper presents the design of a new image slicer, MuSICa (Multi-Slit Image slicer based on collimator-Camera), for the integral field spectrograph of the 4-m aperture European Solar Telescope (EST). MuSICa is a multi-slit image slicer that decomposes an 80 arcsec2 field of view into slices of 50 μm and reorganizes it into eight slits of 0.05 arcsec width × 200 arcsec length. It is a telecentric system with an optical quality at diffraction limit compatible with the two modes of operation of the spectrograph: spectroscopic and spectro-polarimetric. This paper shows the requirements, technical characteristics and layout of MuSICa, as well as other studied design options.

  6. Long slit spectroscopy of NH2 in comets Halley, Wilson, and Nishikawa-Takamizawa-Tago

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rettig, Terrence W.; Tegler, Stephen C.; Wyckoff, Susan; Heyd, Rodney; Stathkis, Raylee; Ramsay, D. A.

    1992-01-01

    Long-slit spectra of comets Halley, Wilson and Nishikawa-Takamizawa-Tago were obtained with the 3.9 meter Anglo-Australian Telescope. Spectra of comets Halley and Wilson were obtained with the IPCS at a spectral resolution of 0.5 A and a spatial resolution of 10(exp 3) km. Spectra of comets Wilson and Nishikawa-Takamizawa-Tago were obtained with a CCD at a spectral resolution of 1.5 A and a spatial resolution of approximately 3 x 10(exp 3) km. Surface brightness profiles for NH2 were extracted from the long-slit spectra of each comet. The observed surface brightness profiles extend along the slit to approximately 6 x 10(exp 4) km from the nucleus in both sunward and tailward directions. By comparing surface distribution calculated from an appropriate coma model with observed surface brightness distributions, the photodissociation timescale of the parent molecule of NH2 can be inferred. The observed NH2 surface brightness profiles in all three comets compares well with a surface brightness profile calculated using the vectorial model, an NH3 photodissociation timescale of 7 x 10(exp 3) seconds, and an NH2 photodissociation timescale of 34,000 seconds.

  7. Fundus image mosaicking for information augmentation in computer-assisted slit-lamp imaging.

    PubMed

    Richa, Rogério; Linhares, Rodrigo; Comunello, Eros; von Wangenheim, Aldo; Schnitzler, Jean-Yves; Wassmer, Benjamin; Guillemot, Claire; Thuret, Gilles; Gain, Philippe; Hager, Gregory; Taylor, Russell

    2014-06-01

    Laser photocoagulation is currently the standard treatment for sight-threatening diseases worldwide, namely diabetic retinopathy and retinal vein occlusions. The slit lamp biomicroscope is the most commonly used device for this procedure, specially for the treatment of the eye periphery. However, only a small portion of the retina can be visualized through the biomicroscope, complicating the task of localizing and identifying surgical targets, increasing treatment duration and patient discomfort. In order to assist surgeons, we propose a method for creating intraoperative retina maps for view expansion using a slit-lamp device. Based on the mosaicking method described by Richa et al, 2012, the proposed method is a combination of direct and feature-based methods, suitable for the textured nature of the human retina. In this paper, we describe three major enhancements to the original formulation. The first is a visual tracking method using local illumination compensation to cope with the challenging visualization conditions. The second is an efficient pixel selection scheme for increased computational efficiency. The third is an entropy-based mosaic update method to dynamically improve the retina map during exploration. To evaluate the performance of the proposed method, we conducted several experiments on human subjects with a computer-assisted slit-lamp prototype. We also demonstrate the practical value of the system for photo documentation, diagnosis and intraoperative navigation. PMID:24718569

  8. Virtual Young's Double Slit Experiment for Hard X-ray Photons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isakovic, Abdel; Evans-Lutterodt, K.; Siddons, D. P.; Stein, A.; Warren, J. B.; Sandy, A.; Narayanan, S.; Metzler, M.

    2010-03-01

    Coherent hard X-ray beams underlie many of the recent advances in X-ray imaging and characterization, and it is crucial to quantify the coherence properties of X-ray beams for further advances. The classic Young's double slit experiment is an accepted method from which one can deduce the transverse coherence length, but unfortunately the double slit experiment is difficult to implement at these wavelengths. Micro-fabricated prisms are used to implement a virtual Young's double slit experiment, and interference fringes are quantified by X-ray fluorescence from a 30 nm Cr film in addition to being recorded with YAG crystal and CCD. The maximum number of fringes in the classical overlap region is comparable to δ/4πβ, the ratio of real to imaginary parts of the X-ray refractive index of the prism material. We have measured the horizontal and vertical transverse coherence lengths at beamline APS 8-ID. We suggest this to be a flexible, easily applied method that can be implemented at X-ray laboratories for both, coherence measurements and interferometric imaging. http://arxiv.org/abs/0910.5524

  9. Effects of slits in a patch of omnidirectional Lamb-wave MPT on the transducer output

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Kiyean; Lee, Hyung Jin; Lee, Joo Kyung; Kim, Yoon Young

    2016-03-01

    An omnidirectional Lamb-wave magnetostrictive patch transducer (MPT) uses a thin circular magnetostrictive patch excited by the axisymmetric turns of a plane coil placed over it. Since the dynamic magnetic field applied by the coil induces an eddy current only on the top surface due to the skin effect, the mechanical deformation in the patch is confined only near the surface, considerably limiting the transducer output power. This study shows that if a radial slit is introduced in the patch, the circular flow of the eddy current on the top surface only becomes broken, and thus the eddy current flows on both the top and bottom surfaces. As a consequence, there is a substantial increase in the dynamic magnetic field in the patch and, in turn, an increased transducer output power. Interestingly, the material type, either metallic or nonmetallic, of the test waveguide plate affects the magnitude of the eddy current near the bottom surface and the overall magnetic field. If the number of slits is over a certain number, say, 8, and the slits are symmetrically made in the patch, the omni-directivity of the resulting MPT is virtually ensured. Finally, the present findings are verified both numerically and experimentally.

  10. High Amplitude Acoustic Behavior of a Slit-Orifice Backed by a Cavity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahuja, K. K.; Gaeta, R. J., Jr.; DAgostino, M.

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this study was to acquire detailed acoustic data and limited flow visualization data for numerical validation of a new model of sound absorption by a very narrow rectangular slit backed by a cavity. The sound absorption model is that being developed by Dr. C. K. W. Tam of Florida State University. This report documents normal incidence impedance measurements of a singular rectangular slit orifice with no mean flow. All impedance measurements are made within a 1.12 inch (28.5 mm) diameter impedance tube using the two-microphone method for several frequencies in the range 1000 - 6000Hz and incident sound pressure levels in the range 130 - 150 dB. In the interest of leaving the analysis of the data to the developers of more advanced Analytical and computational models of sound absorption by narrow slits, we authors have refrained from giving our own explanations of the observed results, although many of the observed results can be explained using the classical understanding of sound absorption by orifices.

  11. High Amplitude Acoustic Behavior of a Slit-Orifice Backed by a Cavity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahuja, K. K.; Gaeta, R. J., Jr.; DAgostino, M.; Jones, Mike (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The objective of the study reported here was to acquire detailed acoustic data and limited and flow visualization data for numerical validation a new model of sound absorption by a very narrow rectangular slit backed by a cavity. The sound absorption model is being developed by Dr. C. K. W. Tam of Florida State University. This report documents normal incidence impedance measurements of a singular rectangular slit orifice with no mean flow. All impedance measurements are made within a 1.12 inch (28.5 mm) diameter impedance tube using the two-microphone method for several frequencies in the range 1000-6000Hz and incident sound pressure levels in the range 130 - 150 dB. In the interest of leaving the analysis of the data to the developers of more advanced analytical and computational models of sound absorption by narrow slits, we have refrained from giving our own explanations of the observed results, although many of the observed results can be explained using the classical explanations of sound absorption by orifices.

  12. Molecular simulation of hydrogen adsorption in single-walled carbon nanotubes and idealized carbon slit pores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qinyu; Johnson, J. Karl

    1999-01-01

    The adsorption of hydrogen gas into single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) and idealized carbon slit pores is studied by computer simulation. Hydrogen-hydrogen interactions are modeled with the Silvera-Goldman potential. The Crowell-Brown potential is used to model the hydrogen-carbon interactions. Calculations include adsorption inside the tubes, in the interstitial regions of tube arrays, and on the outside surface of isolated tubes. Quantum effects are included through implementation of the path integral formalism. Comparison with classical simulations gives an indication of the importance of quantum effects for hydrogen adsorption. Quantum effects are important even at 298 K for adsorption in tube interstices. We compare our simulations with experimental data for SWNTs, graphitic nanofibers, and activated carbon. Adsorption isotherms from simulations are in reasonable agreement with experimental data for activated carbon, but do not confirm the large uptake reported for SWNTs and nanofibers. Although the adsorption potential for hydrogen in SWNTs is enhanced relative to slit pores of the same size, our calculations show that the storage capacity of an array of tubes is less than that for idealized slit pore geometries, except at very low pressures. Ambient temperature isotherms indicate that an array of nanotubes is not a suitable sorbent material for achieving DOE targets for vehicular hydrogen storage.

  13. Realization and characterization of a MEMS-based programmable slit mask for multi-object spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canonica, Michael; Waldis, Severin; Zamkotsian, Frederic; Lanzoni, Patrick; Noell, Wilfried; de Rooij, Nico

    2010-02-01

    Multi-object spectroscopy (MOS) is a powerful tool for space and ground-based telescopes for studying the formation of galaxies. This technique requires a programmable slit mask for astronomical object selection. A first sample of MEMS-based programmable reflective slit masks with elements of size 200×100 μm2 has been successfully tested in cryogenic conditions at 92 K. Devices of larger size were microfabricated, the largest chip measures 25×22 mm2 and is composed of 200×100 electrostatic actuated micromirrors. These devices are composed of two chips: the electrode chip and the mirror chip, which are processed separately and assembled consecutively. The mirror chip is bonded on top of the electrode chip and microfabricated pillars on the electrode chip provide the necessary spacing between the two parts. A process flow utilizing refilling techniques based on borophosphosilicate glass (BPSG) deposition and reflow was developed. Programmable reflective slit masks based on this fabrication process were microfabricated and characterized. These devices exhibit a micromirror deformation of 11 nm peak-to-valley and an actuation voltage of 145 V for a tilt angle of 9°. Preparation of samples for MOS experiments are underway.

  14. 3D numerical simulation on fluid flow and heat transfer characteristics in multistage heat exchanger with slit fins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, W. Q.; Cheng, Y. P.; Lee, T. S.

    2007-11-01

    In this paper, a numerical investigation is performed for three-stage heat exchangers with plain plate fins and slit fins respectively, with a three-dimensional laminar conjugated model. The tubes are arranged in a staggered way, and heat conduction in fins is considered. In order to save the computer resource and speed up the numerical simulation, the numerical modeling is carried out stage by stage. In order to avoid the large pressure drop penalty in enhancing heat transfer, a slit fin is presented with the strip arrangement of “front coarse and rear dense” along the flow direction. The numerical simulation shows that, compared to the plain plate fin heat exchanger, the increase in the heat transfer in the slit fin heat exchanger is higher than that of the pressure drop, which proves the excellent performance of this slit fin. The fluid flow and heat transfer performance along the stages is also provided.

  15. Turbulent transport of He II in active and passive phase separators using slit devices and porous media

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yuan, S. W. K.; Lee, J. M.; Frederking, T. H. K.

    1988-01-01

    The turbulent transport mode of vapor liquid phase separators (VLPS) for He II has been investigated comparing passive porous plug separators with active phase separators (APS) using slits of variable flow paths within a common frame of reference. It is concluded that the basic transport regimes in both devices are identical. An integrated Gorter-Mellink (1949) equation, found previously to predict VLPS results of porous plugs, is employed to analyze APS data published in the literature. It is found that the Gorter-Mellink flow rate parameter for 9-micron and 14-micron APS slit widths are relatively independent of the slit width, having a rate constant of about 9 + or - 10 percent. This agrees with the early heat flow results for He II entropy transport at zero net mass flow in wide capillaries and slits.

  16. LINEAR ACCELERATOR

    DOEpatents

    Colgate, S.A.

    1958-05-27

    An improvement is presented in linear accelerators for charged particles with respect to the stable focusing of the particle beam. The improvement consists of providing a radial electric field transverse to the accelerating electric fields and angularly introducing the beam of particles in the field. The results of the foregoing is to achieve a beam which spirals about the axis of the acceleration path. The combination of the electric fields and angular motion of the particles cooperate to provide a stable and focused particle beam.

  17. Sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT)--indications, mechanism, and efficacy: Position paper prepared by the Section of Immunotherapy, Polish Society of Allergy.

    PubMed

    Jutel, Marek; Bartkowiak-Emeryk, Małgorzata; Bręborowicz, Anna; Cichocka-Jarosz, Ewa; Emeryk, Andrzej; Gawlik, Radosław; Gonerko, Paweł; Rogala, Barbara; Nowak-Węgrzyn, Anna; Samoliński, Bolesław

    2016-01-01

    SLIT (sublingual immunotherapy,) induces allergen-specific immune tolerance by sublingual administration of a gradually increasing dose of an allergen. The mechanism of SLIT is comparable to those during SCIT (subcutaneous immunotherapy), with the exception of local oral dendritic cells, pre-programmed to elicit tolerance. In the SLIT dose, to achieve the same efficacy as in SCIT, it should be 50-100 times higher with better safety profile. The highest quality evidence supporting the efficacy of SLIT lasting 1-3 years has been provided by the large scale double-blind, placebo-controlled (DBPC) trials for grass pollen extracts, both in children and adults with allergic rhinitis. Current indications for SLIT are allergic rhinitis (and conjunctivitis) in both children and adults sensitized to pollen allergens (trees, grass, Parietaria), house dust mites (Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, Dermatophagoides farinae), cat fur, as well as mild to moderate controlled atopic asthma in children sensitized to house dust mites. There are positive findings for both asthma and new sensitization prevention. Severe adverse events, including anaphylaxis, are very rare, and no fatalities have been reported. Local adverse reactions develop in up to 70 - 80% of patients. Risk factors for SLIT adverse events have not been clearly identified. Risk factors of non-adherence to treatment might be dependent on the patient, disease treatment, physician-patient relationship, and variables in the health care system organization. PMID:27012173

  18. Slit-Robo Signals Regulate Pioneer Axon Pathfinding of the Tract of the Postoptic Commissure in the Mammalian Forebrain

    PubMed Central

    Ricaño-Cornejo, Itzel; Altick, Amy L.; García-Peña, Claudia M.; Nural, Hikmet Feyza; Echevarría, Diego; Miquelajáuregui, Amaya; Mastick, Grant S.; Varela-Echavarría, Alfredo

    2014-01-01

    During early vertebrate forebrain development, pioneer axons establish a symmetrical scaffold descending longitudinally through the rostral forebrain, thus forming the tract of the postoptic commissure (TPOC). In mouse embryos, this tract begins to appear at embryonic day 9.5 (E9.5) as a bundle of axons tightly constrained at a specific dorsoventral level. We have characterized the participation of the Slit chemorepellants and their Robo receptors in the control of TPOC axon projection. In E9.5–E11.5 mouse embryos, Robo1 and Robo2 are expressed in the nucleus origin of the TPOC (nTPOC), and Slit expression domains flank the TPOC trajectory. These findings suggested that these proteins are important factors in the dorsoventral positioning of the TPOC axons. Consistently with this role, Slit2 inhibited TPOC axon growth in collagen gel cultures, and interfering with Robo function in cultured embryos induced projection errors in TPOC axons. Moreover, absence of both Slit1 and Slit2 or Robo1 and Robo2 in mutant mouse embryos revealed aberrant TPOC trajectories, resulting in abnormal spreading of the tract and misprojections into both ventral and dorsal tissues. These results reveal that Slit-Robo signaling regulates the dorsoventral position of this pioneer tract in the developing forebrain. PMID:21688288

  19. Linear Clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Context image for PIA03667 Linear Clouds

    These clouds are located near the edge of the south polar region. The cloud tops are the puffy white features in the bottom half of the image.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -80.1N, Longitude 52.1E. 17 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  20. Synchronous scan-projection lithography on overall circumference of fine pipes with a diameter of 2 mm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horiuchi, Toshiyuki; Furuhata, Takahiro; Muro, Hideyuki

    2016-06-01

    The scan-projection exposure of small-diameter pipe surfaces was investigated using a newly developed prototype exposure system. It is necessary to secure a very large depth of focus for printing thick resist patterns on round pipe surfaces with a roughness larger than that of semiconductor wafers. For this reason, a camera lens with a low numerical aperture of 0.089 was used as a projection lens, and the momentary exposure area was limited by a narrow slit with a width of 800 µm. Thus, patterns on a flat reticle were replicated on a pipe surface by linearly moving the reticle and rotating the pipe synchronously. By using a reticle with inclined line-and-space patterns, helical patterns with a width of 30 µm were successfully replicated on stainless-steel pipes with an outer diameter of 2 mm and coated with a 10-µm-thick negative resist. The patterns replicated at the start and stop edges were smoothly stitched seamlessly.

  1. Laser beam scanning by rotary mirrors. I. Modeling mirror-scanning devices.

    PubMed

    Li, Y; Katz, J

    1995-10-01

    Avector approach to tracing the path of a laser beam through an optical system containing movable plane mirrors is described, which permits a unified treatment of a number of basic mirror-scanning devices. We show that the scan field produced by the mirror-scanning system is a curved surface with a straight line as its generating element. The cross section of the scan field can be a circle, an ellipse, or a curve in the shape of an egg. Based on this understanding, some advanced topics are addressed, e.g., the relationship between the scan field and the scan pattern, the dependence of the scan pattern on the location and orientation of the observation surface, optical distortions in a scan pattern, spot-size enlargement caused by non-normal incidence of the scan beam on the observation plane, and so on. Design equations and curves are derived for the mirror-scanning devices that most frequently exist in linear and circular scan technology. Part II contains an analysis of the galvanometer-based optical scanner paddle scanner and the regular polygon. In Part III, X-Y scanning systems are studied. PMID:21060488

  2. Scanning and storage of electrophoretic records

    DOEpatents

    McKean, Ronald A.; Stiegman, Jeff

    1990-01-01

    An electrophoretic record that includes at least one gel separation is mounted for motion laterally of the separation record. A light source is positioned to illuminate at least a portion of the record, and a linear array camera is positioned to have a field of view of the illuminated portion of the record and orthogonal to the direction of record motion. The elements of the linear array are scanned at increments of motion of the record across the field of view to develop a series of signals corresponding to intensity of light at each element at each scan increment.

  3. Heart PET scan

    MedlinePlus

    Heart nuclear medicine scan; Heart positron emission tomography; Myocardial PET scan ... Udelson JE, Dilsizian V, Bonow RO. Nuclear cardiology. In: Mann DL, ... A Textbook of Cardiovascular Medicine . 10th ed. Philadelphia, ...

  4. RBC nuclear scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003835.htm RBC nuclear scan To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. An RBC nuclear scan uses small amounts of radioactive material to ...

  5. Bone density scan (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... bone the higher the risk of fractures. A bone scan, along with a patient's medical history, is a ... and whether any preventative treatment is needed. A bone density scan has the advantage of being painless and exposing ...

  6. Breast PET scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007469.htm Breast PET scan To use the sharing features on this page, ... enable JavaScript. A breast positron emission tomography (PET) scan is an imaging test that uses a radioactive ...

  7. Lung gallium scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... any concerns you have about radiation with the health care provider who recommends the test. ... Usually the health care provider will recommend this scan based on ... the scan. For this reason, this test is not often done anymore.

  8. Orbit CT scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... results may mean: Bleeding Broken eye socket bone Graves disease Infection Tumor Risks CT scans and other x- ... Livingstone; 2014:chap 66. Read More CT scan Graves disease Tumor Update Date 1/18/2015 Updated by: ...

  9. Correlation-steered scanning for scanning probe microscopes to overcome thermal drift for ultra-long time scanning.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Liansheng; Long, Qian; Liu, Yongbin; Zhang, Jie; Feng, Zhihua

    2016-07-01

    The thermal effect is one of the most important factors that influence the accuracy of nanoscale measurement and the surface topography of samples in scanning probe microscopes (SPMs). We propose a method called correlation-steered scanning, which is capable of overcoming three-dimensional thermal drifts in real time for ultra-long time scanned images. The image is scanned band by band with overlapping parts between adjacent bands. The vertical drift can be considered as linear and can thus be eliminated together with the tilt of the sample by applying the flattening method. Each band is artificially divided into several blocks for conveniently calculating lateral drifts on the basis of the overlapping area of adjacent bands through digital image correlation. The calculated lateral drifts are compensated to steer the scanning of the subsequent blocks, thus ensuring that all bands are parallel to one another. Experimental results proved that images scanned by the proposed method exhibited less distortions than those obtained from the traditional raster scanning method. The nanoscale measurement results based on the image obtained by the proposed method also showed high accuracy, with an error of less than 1.5%. By scanning as many bands as needed, the correlation-steered scanning method can obtain a highly precise SPM image of an ultra-large area. PMID:27107628

  10. Linear polarization of rapidly rotating ultracool dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miles-Páez, P. A.; Zapatero Osorio, M. R.; Pallé, E.; Peña Ramírez, K.

    2013-08-01

    Aims: We aim to study the near-infrared linear polarization signal of rapidly rotating ultracool dwarfs with spectral types ranging from M7 through T2 and projected rotational velocities of v sin i ≳ 30 km s-1. These dwarfs are believed to have dusty atmospheres and oblate shapes, which is an appropriate scenario to produce measurable linear polarization of the continuum light. Methods: Linear polarimetric images were collected in the J-band for a sample of 18 fast-rotating ultracool dwarfs, of which five were also observed in the Z-band using the Long-slit Intermediate Resolution Infrared Spectrograph (LIRIS) on the Cassegrain focus of the 4.2-m William Herschel Telescope. The measured median uncertainty in the linear polarization degree is ±0.13% for our sample, which allowed us to detect polarization signatures above ~0.39% with a confidence interval of ≥3σ. Results: About 40 ± 15% of the sample is linearly polarized in the Z- and J-bands. All positive detections have linear polarization degrees ranging from 0.4% to 0.8% in both filters independent of spectral type and spectroscopic rotational velocity. However, simple statistics point at the fastest rotators (v sin i ≳ 60 km s-1) having a larger fraction of positive detections and a larger averaged linear polarization degree than the moderately rotating dwarfs (v sin i = 30-60 km s-1). Our data suggest little linear polarimetric variability on short timescales (i.e., observations separated by a few ten rotation periods), and significant variability on long timescales (i.e., hundred to thousand rotation cycles), supporting the presence of long-term weather in ultracool dwarf atmospheres.

  11. Multipurpose binocular scanning apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamberlain, F. R.; Parker, G. L.

    1969-01-01

    Optical gimballing apparatus directs narrow fields of view throughout solid angle approaching 4 pi steradians. Image rotation produced by scanning can be eliminated or altered by gear trains directly linked to the scanning drive assembly. It provides the basis for a binocular scanning capability.

  12. Optical scanning cryptography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poon, Ting-Chung

    2004-01-01

    We introduce a technique called optical scanning cryptography (OSC). The technique can perform encryption on-the-fly using laser beams and can be implemented using an optical heterodyne scanning. We shall first describe the optical heterodyne scanning system and then provide some computer simulations to clarify and confirm the idea of encryption and decryption.

  13. Apodization in high-contrast long-slit spectroscopy. Closer, deeper, fainter, cooler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vigan, A.; N'Diaye, M.; Dohlen, K.

    2013-07-01

    The spectroscopy of faint planetary-mass companions to nearby stars is one of the main challenges that new-generation high-contrast spectro-imagers are going to face. However, the high contrast ratio between main-sequence stars and young planets makes it difficult to extract a companion spectrum that is not biased by the signal from the star. In a previous work we demonstrated that coupling long-slit spectroscopy (LSS) and classical Lyot coronagraphy (CLC) to form a long-slit coronagraph (LSC) allows low-mass companions to be properly characterized when combined with an innovative a posteriori data analysis methods based on the spectral deconvolution (SD). However, the presence of a slit in the coronagraphic focal plane induces a complex distribution of energy in the Lyot pupil plane that cannot be easily masked with a binary Lyot stop, creating strong diffraction residuals at close angular separation. To alleviate this concern, we propose to use a pupil apodization to suppress diffraction, creating an apodized long-slit coronagraph (ALSC). We show that this concept allows looking at a closer separation from the star, at deeper contrast, which enables the characterization of fainter substellar companions. After describing how the apodization was optimized, we demonstrate its advantages with respect to the CLC in the context of SPHERE/IRDIS LSS mode at low resolution with a 0.12'' slit and 0.18'' coronagraphic mask. We performed different sets of simulations with and without aberrations, and with and without a slit to demonstrate that the apodization is a more appropriate concept for LSS, at the expense of a significantly reduced throughput (37%) compared to the LSC. Then we performed detailed end-to-end simulations of the LSC and the ALSC that include realistic levels of aberrations to obtain several datasets representing 1 h of integration time on stars of spectral type A0 to M0 located at 10 pc. We inserted the spectra of planetary companions at different

  14. Pulmonary ventilation/perfusion scan

    MedlinePlus

    V/Q scan; Ventilation/perfusion scan; Lung ventilation/perfusion scan ... A pulmonary ventilation/perfusion scan is actually two tests. They may be done separately or together. During the perfusion scan, a health ...

  15. Asymmetric profiles and prewetting lines in the filling of planar slits with Ne.

    PubMed

    Sartarelli, Salvador A; Szybisz, Leszek

    2013-05-23

    The filling of slits with identical planar walls is investigated in the frame of the density functional theory. For this kind of slit, the confining potential is symmetric with respect to its central plane. Closed and open systems are studied by applying, respectively, the canonical and grand canonical ensembles (CE and GCE). Results obtained for the confinement of fluid Ne by alkaline surfaces are reported. The behavior of these systems is analyzed by varying the strength of the Ne-substrate attraction, the temperature T, and the coverage Γ(l). It is assumed that the one-body density of the fluid, ρ(r), is uniform along the (x, y) planes parallel to the walls, becoming a function of the coordinate z perpendicular to those planes. Two sorts of solutions are found for the density profile: (i) symmetric ones that follow the left-right symmetry of the potential exerted by the walls and (ii) asymmetric ones that break the symmetry of the slit. The pores are wide enough for determining prewetting (PW) lines and wetting and critical PW temperatures, i.e., T(w) and T(cpw), from the analysis of symmetric solutions provided by both the CE and GCE schemes. Asymmetric species are examined in detail for T > T(w). It is shown that for a given Ne-substrate pair at a fixed T both the CE and GCE frames yield only one asymmetric 2-fold degenerate stable profile (formed by a "thin" wetting film at one wall and a "thick" wetting film at the other) coexisting with two symmetric profiles (formed by "thin" or "thick" wetting films at the two walls), while the remaining asymmetric states are at best metastable. This feature occurs along PW lines and disappears at T(cpw). PMID:23617543

  16. Detection of mixed-range proton pencil beams with a prompt gamma slit camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Priegnitz, M.; Helmbrecht, S.; Janssens, G.; Perali, I.; Smeets, J.; Vander Stappen, F.; Sterpin, E.; Fiedler, F.

    2016-01-01

    With increasing availability of proton and particle therapy centers for tumor treatment, the need for in vivo range verification methods comes more into the focus. Imaging of prompt gamma rays emitted during the treatment is one of the possibilities currently under investigation. A knife-edge shaped slit camera was recently proposed for this task and measurements proved the feasibility of range deviation detection in homogeneous and inhomogeneous targets. In the present paper, we concentrate on laterally inhomogeneous materials, which lead to range mixing situations when crossed by one pencil beam: different sections of the beam have different ranges. We chose exemplative cases from clinical irradiation and assembled idealized tissue equivalent targets. One-dimensional emission profiles were obtained by measuring the prompt gamma emission with the slit camera. It could be shown that the resulting range deviations can be detected by evaluation of the measured data with a previously developed range deviation detection algorithm. The retrieved value, however, strongly depends on the target composition, and is not necessarily in direct relation to the ranges of both parts of the beam. By combining the range deviation detection with an analysis of the slope of the distal edge of the measured prompt gamma profile, the origin of the detected range deviation, i.e. the mixed range of the beam, is also identified. It could be demonstrated that range mixed prompt gamma profiles exhibit less steep distal slopes than profiles from beams traversing laterally homogeneous material. For future application of the slit camera to patient irradiation with double scattered proton beams, situations similar to the range mixing cases are present and results could possibly apply.

  17. MEMS-based programmable reflective slit mask for multi-object spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canonica, Michael; Zamkotsian, Frederic; Lanzoni, Patrick; Noell, Wilfried; de Rooij, Nico

    2011-03-01

    Multi-object spectroscopy is a powerful tool for space and ground-based telescopes for the study of the formation of galaxies. This technique requires a programmable slit mask for astronomical object selection. We are developing MEMS-based programmable reflective slit masks for multi-object spectroscopy that consist of micromirror arrays on which each micromirror of size 100 x 200 μm2 is electrostatically tilted providing a precise angle. The main requirements for these arrays are cryogenic environment capabilities, precise and uniform tilt angle over the whole device, uniformity of the mirror voltage-tilt hysteresis and a low mirror deformation. A first generation of MEMS-based programmable reflective slit masks composed of 5 x 5 micromirrors was tested in cryogenic conditions at 92 K. Then, first prototypes of large arrays were microfabricated and characterized, but the reliability of these arrays had to be improved. To increase the reliability of these devices, a third generation of micromirror arrays composed of 64 x 32 micromirrors is under development. This generation was especially designed for individual actuation of each mirror, applying a line-column algorithm based on the voltage-tilt hysteresis of the actuator. The fabrication process was optimized and is now based on multiple wafer level bonding steps. Microfabricated devices have micromirror with a peak-to-valley deformation less than 3 nm. The mirrors can be tilted at 20° by an actuation voltage lower than 100 V. First experiments showed that our micromirrors are well suited for the line-column addressing of each micromirror.

  18. Linewidth oscillations in a nanometer-size double-slit interference experiment with single electrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrachina, R. O.; Frémont, F.; Fossez, K.; Gruyer, D.; Helaine, V.; Lepailleur, A.; Leredde, A.; Maclot, S.; Scamps, G.; Chesnel, Jean-Yves

    2010-06-01

    In this article we provide experimental evidence of an interference phenomenon that, to the best of our knowledge, has so far not been observed with either matter or light. In a nanometer-sized version of Feynman’s famous two-slit “thought” experiment with single electrons, we managed to observe that the width of a quasi-monochromatic line oscillates with the detection angle. Furthermore, we find that it occurs in counterphase with the line intensity. We discuss the underlying mechanism that produces this unexpected result.

  19. Subsidence Sensitivity Study for Low-Level Waste in Slit Trenches

    SciTech Connect

    Collard, L.B.

    2003-02-14

    This study evaluated two global and two local subsidence scenarios for slit trenches to determine the effect on well concentrations for three long-lived radionuclides as compared to Performance Assessment (PA, McDowell-Boyer, et al, 2000) results. Global subsidence, where all trenches and the land between the trenches were assumed to subside equally, increased well concentrations by about 25 percent in the worst case analyzed. Local subsidence, where only part of a trench was assumed to subside, decreased peak well concentrations,indicating that some local subsidence could be beneficial.

  20. Mapping of the Marangoni effect in soap films using Young's double-slit experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emile, Janine; Emile, Olivier

    2013-10-01

    We report on the thickness variation measurement of a soap film due to a local perturbation, using Young's double-slit experiment configuration. We map a laser-heated deformation of a vertical free-standing draining thin soap film using the differential change of optical path in the interferometer. The experiment has a resolution of about 0.1 nm and enables to follow the liquid flow dynamics. We evidence a bottleneck formation in the heated region of the film that perturbs the usual flow. Such an experimental set-up could then be adapted to measure other tiny variations in fluctuating hydrodynamics such as capillary waves for example.

  1. Behavioral model and simulator for the Multi-slit Optimized Spectrometer (MOS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tufillaro, Nicholas; Davis, Curtiss O.; Valle, Tim; Good, William; Stephens, Michelle; Spuhler, Peter

    2013-09-01

    The Multi-Slit Optimized Spectrometer (MOS) is a NASA funded Instrument Incubator Program (IIP) to advance an innovative dispersive spectrometer concept in support of the GEO-CAPE ocean science mission. As part of the instruments design and testing, we constructed a `behavioral model' of the instrument's optical engine which allows an end-to-end simulation from input radiances to nal product maps. Here we describe the model used for a rapid, but realistic, simulation of the MOS optical engine, and give illustrative examples of quantitatively tracking errors in the imaging chain from input radiances to bounds on nal product errors.

  2. Vacuum laser-driven acceleration by two slits-truncated Bessel beams

    SciTech Connect

    Li, D.; Imasaki, K.

    2005-08-29

    An approach of vacuum acceleration by two laser Bessel beams is presented in this letter. With elaborate arrangement, the two Bessel beams are truncated by a set of special annular slits to form consecutive acceleration field in the electron traveling direction. Therefore, the electron of a certain initial energy can be accelerated in the whole interaction region without experiencing deceleration even though the phase-slippage occurs. Furthermore, the Bessel beam can provide a rather long distance for the effective interaction between the electron and the laser field due to its 'diffraction-free' property, resulting in improvement of the energy exchange.

  3. The scattering of electromagnetic pulses by a slit in a conducting screen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ackerknecht, W. E., III; Chen, C.-L.

    1975-01-01

    A direct method for calculating the impulse response of a slit in a conducting screen is presented which is derived specifically for the analysis of transient scattering by two-dimensional objects illuminated by a plane incident wave. The impulse response is obtained by assuming that the total response is composed of two sequences of diffracted waves. The solution is determined for the first two waves in one sequence by using Green's functions and the equivalence principle, for additional waves in the sequence by iteration, and for the other sequence by a transformation of coordinates. The cases of E-polarization and H-polarization are considered.

  4. Classical two-slit interference effects in double photoionization of molecular hydrogen at high energies

    SciTech Connect

    Horner, Daniel A.; Miyabe, Shungo; Rescigno, Thomas N; McCurdy, C. William; Morales, Felipe; Martin, Fernando

    2008-07-06

    Recent experiments on double photoionization of H$_2$ with photon energies between 160 and 240 eV have revealed body-frame angular distributions that suggest classical two-slit interference effects may be present when one electron carries most of the available energy and the second electron is not observed. We report precise quantum mechanical calculations that reproduce the experimental findings. They reveal that the interpretation in terms of classical diffraction is only appropriate atsubstantially higher photon energies. At the energies considered in the experiment we offer an alternative explanation based on the mixing of two non-diffractive contributions by circularly polarized light.

  5. Micelle and Bilayer Formation of Amphiphilic Janus Particles in a Slit-Pore

    PubMed Central

    Rosenthal, Gerald; Klapp, Sabine H. L.

    2012-01-01

    We employ molecular dynamics simulations to investigate the self-assembly of amphiphilic Janus particles in a slit-pore consisting of two plane-parallel, soft walls. The Janus particles are modeled as soft spheres with an embedded unit vector pointing from the hydrophobic to the hydrophilic hemisphere. The structure formation is analyzed via cluster size distributions, density and polarization profiles, and in-plane correlation functions. At low temperatures and densities, the dominating structures are spherical micelles, whereas at higher densities we also observe wall-induced bilayer formation. Finally, we compare the MD results with those from a previous density functional study. PMID:22949806

  6. Broadband and stable acoustic vortex emitter with multi-arm coiling slits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Xue; Zhao, Jiajun; Liu, Shi-lei; Liang, Bin; Zou, Xin-ye; Yang, Jing; Qiu, Cheng-Wei; Cheng, Jian-chun

    2016-05-01

    We present the analytical design and experimental realization of a scheme based on multi-arm coiling slits to generate the stable acoustic vortices in a broadband. The proposed structure is able to spiral the acoustic wave spatially and generate the twisted acoustic vortices with invariant topological charge for a long propagation distance. Compared with conventional methods which require the electronic control of a bulky loudspeaker, this scheme provides an effective and compact solution to generate acoustic vortices with controllable topological charge in the broadband, which offers more initiatives in the demanding applications.

  7. Improvements of Power Factor and Torque of a Synchronous Reluctance Motor with a Slit Rotor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nashiki, Masayuki; Inoue, Yoshimitu; Kawai, Youichi; Yokochi, Takanori; Satake, Akiyoshi; Okuma, Shigeru

    Power factor and torque of synchronous reluctance motors with a slit rotor are studied. In there stators, divided teeth made of powder magnetic core are adopted and windings are improved to get high space factor of stator windings and to shorten coil ends. In there rotors, stainless sheets are inserted among soft magnetic metal sheets with adhesive to strengthen the rotors and rotor structure is improved to enlarge the saliency ratio (Ld/Lq). As the result, the power factor 0.78 and 1.6 times torque at same motor size are attained.

  8. Rapid frequency scan EPR.

    PubMed

    Tseitlin, Mark; Rinard, George A; Quine, Richard W; Eaton, Sandra S; Eaton, Gareth R

    2011-08-01

    In rapid frequency scan EPR with triangular scans, sufficient time must be allowed to insure that the magnetization in the x, y plane decays to baseline at the end of the scan, which typically is about 5T(2) after the spins are excited. To permit relaxation of signals excited toward the extremes of the scan the total scan time required may be much longer than 5T(2). However, with periodic, saw-tooth excitation, the slow-scan EPR spectrum can be recovered by Fourier deconvolution of data recorded with a total scan period of 5T(2), even if some spins are excited later in the scan. This scan time is similar to polyphase excitation methods. The peak power required for either polyphase excitation or rapid frequency scans is substantially smaller than for pulsed EPR. The use of an arbitrary waveform generator (AWG) and cross loop resonator facilitated implementation of the rapid frequency scan experiments reported here. The use of constant continuous low B(1), periodic excitation waveform, and constant external magnetic field is similar to polyphase excitation, but could be implemented without the AWG that is required for polyphase excitation. PMID:21664848

  9. Rapid Frequency Scan EPR

    PubMed Central

    Tseitlin, Mark; Rinard, George A.; Quine, Richard W.; Eaton, Sandra S.; Eaton, Gareth R.

    2011-01-01

    In rapid frequency scan EPR with triangular scans, sufficient time must be allowed to insure that the magnetization in the x,y plane decays to baseline at the end of the scan, which typically is about 5 T2 after the spins are excited. To permit relaxation of signals excited toward the extremes of the scan the total scan time required may be much longer than 5 T2. However, with periodic, saw-tooth excitation, the slow-scan EPR spectrum can be recovered by Fourier deconvolution of data recorded with a total scan period of 5 T2, even if some spins are excited later in the scan. This scan time is similar to polyphase excitation methods. The peak power required for either polyphase excitation or rapid frequency scans is substantially smaller than for pulsed EPR. The use of an arbitrary waveform generator (AWG) and cross loop resonator facilitated implementation of the rapid frequency scan experiments reported here. The use of constant continuous low B1, periodic excitation waveform, and constant external magnetic field is similar to polyphase excitation, but could be implemented without the AWG that is required for polyphase excitation. PMID:21664848

  10. A capillary holder for scanning detection of capillary isoelectric focusing with laser-induced fluorescence.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Katsuyoshi; Maruo, Yuji; Kitamori, Takehiko; Shimura, Kiyohito

    2009-02-01

    A holder for a 12 cm long capillary was designed for scanning LIF detection of CIEF. The polyimide coat of a fused-silica capillary has been removed, and 1.5 mm diameter flanges have been attached near both ends. The holder is fixed on the stage of a fluorescence microscope via a translational stage, and a capillary guide is directly fixed on the microscope stage. The guide has a groove and a pressure plate for the capillary to slide in. The holder has two pulling plates with slits of 1 mm to accept the capillary just inside the flanges. The slits and the groove of the guide have been aligned. The motion of the translational stage brings the pulling plate into contact with the flange at the pulled side, and slides the capillary through the guide. The other end of the capillary is free and produces no strain on the capillary. When the motion of the stage is reversed, an unstrained contact is achieved at the other end. The baseline noise from scanning was only 50% larger than that without scanning. The fluorescence-signal variation during scanning was about 4% of the total signal, which was about twice that without scanning. PMID:19142915

  11. Design analysis of a composite L5-80 slit for x-ray beamlines at the Advanced Photon Source

    SciTech Connect

    Nian, H.L.T.; Kuzay, T.M.; Shu, D.

    1996-12-31

    White-beam slits are precision high-heat-load devices used on beamlines of the Advanced Photon Source (APS) to trim and shape the incoming x-rays beam before the beam is transmitted to other optical components. At the APS, the insertion devices that generate the x-ray are very powerful. For example, the heat flux associated with an x- ray beam generated by Undulator A will be on the order of 207 W/mm{sup 2} at the L5-80 slit location (about 27.5 m away from the insertion device) at normal incidence. The total power is about 5.3 kW. The optical slits with micron-level precision are very challenging to design under such heat flux and total power considerations. A novel three-metal composite slit has been designed to meet the diverse thermal, structural, and precision requirements. A closed form solution, and a commercial code, ANSYS, have been used for the analysis of the optimized design for the slit set.

  12. Bilocal current densities and mean trajectories in a Young interferometer with two Gaussian slits and two detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Withers, L. P.; Narducci, F. A.

    2015-06-15

    The recent single-photon double-slit experiment of Steinberg et al., based on a weak measurement method proposed by Wiseman, showed that, by encoding the photon’s transverse momentum behind the slits into its polarization state, the momentum profile can subsequently be measured on average, from a difference of the separated fringe intensities for the two circular polarization components. They then integrated the measured average velocity field, to obtain the average trajectories of the photons enroute to the detector array. In this paper, we propose a modification of their experiment, to demonstrate that the average particle velocities and trajectories change when the mode of detection changes. The proposed experiment replaces a single detector by a pair of detectors with a given spacing between them. The pair of detectors is configured so that it is impossible to distinguish which detector received the particle. The pair of detectors is then analogous to the simple pair of slits, in that it is impossible to distinguish which slit the particle passed through. To establish the paradoxical outcome of the modified experiment, the theory and explicit three-dimensional formulas are developed for the bilocal probability and current densities, and for the average velocity field and trajectories as the particle wavefunction propagates in the volume of space behind the Gaussian slits. Examples of these predicted results are plotted. Implementation details of the proposed experiment are discussed.

  13. The UV multi-object slit-spectrograph FIREBall-2 simulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mège, P.; Pascal, S.; Quiret, S.; Corlies, L.; Vibert, D.; Grange, R.; Milliard, B.

    2015-08-01

    The FIREBall-2 Instrument Model (FIREBallIMO) is a piece of software simulating the optical behaviour of the Multi-Object Two-Curved Schmidt Slit Spectograph of FIREBall-2 (Faint Intergalactic Redshifted Emission BALLoon), a balloon-borne telescope (40 km in alt.) designed to perform a direct detection of the faint Circum Galactic Medium (CGM) in emission around low-z galaxies. The spectrograph has been optimized to operate in a narrow UV band [195-225] nanometers, the so-called atmospheric sweet spot, where the sky background presents no emission lines and can be considered approximately flat, a value of 500 continnum units, seen through an optical transmission of 50% at an atmospheric pressure of 3 millibars. This paper gives an overview of the software current modular architecture after a year of productive effort (in terms of parametric model space definition, associated data cubes generation and digital processing) starting from the instrument initial optical model designed under Zemax software to the final 2D-detected image. A special emphasis is put on the design of a cython-wrapped driver able to retrieve dense ray-sampled PSFs out of the Zemax box efficiently. The optical mappings and distortions from the sky to the spectrograph's entrance slit plane and from the sky to the detection plane are presented, as well as some end-to-end simulations leading to Signal-to-Noise Ratio estimates computed on artificial point-like or extended test sources.

  14. Free-slit shielding of stress waves by the photoelasticity method

    SciTech Connect

    Freishist, N.A.; Dmitrienko, O.L.

    1986-05-01

    This paper is devoted to the study of an experimental model investigation of the distribution of dynamic stresses beyond a free shielding slit as a longitudinal wave from a blast source strikes the shield. The studies were conducted by the method of photoelasticity on a dynamic polarization apparatus in the stress-study laboratory at the Moscow V.V. Kuibyshev Civil Engineering Institute. The problem was solved in the plane elastic statement on models in the form of plates made of an optically sensitive epoxy-resin-base material. The pulse effect was created by the detonation of a cylindrical lead azide microcharge. The dynamic stressed state at internal points of the model was evaluated from the magnitudes and distribution of maximum tangential stresses, and on the free perimeter of the model from the magnitudes and distribution of the normal stress parallel to the perimeter. The experimental studies indicated that a zone in which the stress amplitude is reduced as compared with the nominal stresses exists beyond the slit in all cases examined. The investigations made it possible to evaluate these relationships within the range of parameters under consideration.

  15. What dynamics can be expected for mixed states in two-slit experiments?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luis, Alfredo; Sanz, Ángel S.

    2015-06-01

    Weak-measurement-based experiments (Kocsis et al., 2011) have shown that, at least for pure states, the average evolution of independent photons in Young's two-slit experiment is in compliance with the trajectories prescribed by the Bohmian formulation of quantum mechanics. But, what happens if the same experiment is repeated assuming that the wave function associated with each particle is different, i.e., in the case of mixed (incoherent) states? This question is investigated here by means of two alternative numerical simulations of Young's experiment, purposely devised to be easily implemented and tested in the laboratory. Contrary to what could be expected a priori, it is found that even for conditions of maximal mixedness or incoherence (total lack of interference fringes), experimental data will render a puzzling and challenging outcome: the average particle trajectories will still display features analogous to those for pure states, i.e., independently of how mixedness arises, the associated dynamics is influenced by both slits at the same time. Physically this simply means that weak measurements are not able to discriminate how mixedness arises in the experiment, since they only provide information about the averaged system dynamics.

  16. Design Considerations of a Slit Diaphragm Flexure Used in a Precision Mirror Gimbal

    SciTech Connect

    Cox, B. C., Kaufman, M. I.

    2011-09-01

    Two precision mirror gimbals were designed using slit diaphragm flexures to provide two-axis precision mirror alignment in space-limited applications. Both gimbals are currently in use in diagnostics at the National Ignition Facility: one design in the Gamma Reaction History (GRH) diagnostic and the other in the Neutron Imaging System (NIS) diagnostic. The GRH gimbal has an adjustment sensitivity of 0.1 mrad about both axes and a total adjustment capability of ±6°; the NIS gimbal has an adjustment sensitivity of 0.8 μrad about both axes and a total adjustment range of ±3°. Both slit diaphragm flexures were electro-discharge machined out of high-strength titanium and utilize stainless steel stiffeners. The stiffener-flexure design results in adjustment axes with excellent orthogonality and centering with respect to the mirror in a single stage; a typical two-axis gimbal flexure requires two stages. Finite element analyses are presented for both flexure designs, and a design optimization of the GRH flexure is discussed.

  17. Design considerations of a slit diaphragm flexure used in a precision mirror gimbal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cox, Brian; Kaufman, Morris

    2011-09-01

    Two precision mirror gimbals were designed using slit diaphragm flexures to provide two-axis precision mirror alignment in space-limited applications. Both gimbals are currently in use in diagnostics at the National Ignition Facility: one design in the Gamma Reaction History (GRH) diagnostic and the other in the Neutron Imaging System (NIS) diagnostic. The GRH gimbal has an adjustment sensitivity of 0.1 mrad about both axes and a total adjustment capability of +/-6° the NIS gimbal has an adjustment sensitivity of 0.8 μrad about both axes and a total adjustment range of +/-3°. Both slit diaphragm flexures were electro-discharge machined out of high-strength titanium and utilize stainless steel stiffeners. The stiffener-flexure design results in adjustment axes with excellent orthogonality and centering with respect to the mirror in a single stage; a typical two-axis gimbal flexure requires two stages. Finite element analyses are presented for both flexure designs, and a design optimization of the GRH flexure is discussed.

  18. The Outcome of Multiple Slit on Plaque with Plication Technique for the Treatment of Peyronie's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Su Hwan; Jeong, Hyeong Guk; Park, Jong Jin; Chae, Ji Yun; Kim, Jong Wook; Oh, Mi Mi; Park, Hong Seok; Kim, Je Jong

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the postoperative outcome of the multiple slit on plaque plication technique for the treatment of Peyronie's disease. Materials and Methods We retrospectively evaluated 22 patients who underwent plaque incision with penile plication for the surgical treatment of Peyronie's disease, who had failed medical treatment between 2009 and 2014. Patients were grouped by preoperative degree of penile curvature into Group I: mild (n=5, 22.7%), Group II: moderate (n=11, 50.0%), and Group III: severe (n=6, 27.3%). After a thorough review of the medical records, we evaluated (a) the correction of the curvature; (b) sexual function; and (c) any penile shortening or other complications. Results The mean postoperative follow-up period was 39 months. Complete correction of the curvature was attained in 21 patients (95.5%). As an inevitable complication, minimal penile shortening (<1.5 cm) was reported by 14 patients (82.4%) but did not adversely affect sexual intercourse (0%), and all patients found the extent of penile shortening to be acceptable. Nineteen patients had good erectile function (International Index of Erectile Function >21). The most frequent complication was subcutaneous penile edema in three patients (13.6%), which was resolved within about 3 months following surgery. Conclusions As a modified technique, multiple slit on plaque with plication is a simple, minimally-invasive and effective technique for correcting penile curvature regardless of curvature severity. The degree of penile curvature does not significantly predict the amount of penile length loss. PMID:27169125

  19. Alkali Halide Interfacial Behavior in a Sequence of Charged Slit Pores

    SciTech Connect

    Wander, Matthew C. F.; Shuford, Kevin L.

    2011-12-01

    In this paper, a variety of alkali halide, aqueous electrolyte solutions in contact with charged, planar-graphite slit-pores are simulated using classical molecular dynamics. Size trends in structure and transport properties are examined by varying the choice of ions among the alkali metal and halide series. As with the uncharged pores, system dynamics are driven by changes in water hydration behavior and specifically by variations in the number of hydrogen bonds per water molecule. Overall, the larger ions diffuse more rapidly under high surface charge conditions than the smaller ions. In particular, for the 1 nm slit, ion diffusivity increased by a factor of 4 compared to the uncharged case. Finally, a quantitative fit to the interfacial charge structure is presented, which confirms the presence of two distinct types of layers in an aqueous interface. This model indicates that the chemistry of the interface is able to create a small interfacial potential, and it shows how water molecules can rotate to increase charge separation in response to a surface potential.

  20. Feasibility test for a V-slit star mapper for pioneer spacecraft terminal navigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gates, R. F.; Flannery, J. V.; Cragin, J. T.

    1973-01-01

    A laboratory demonstration of the feasibility of using a V-slit star mapper to meet the sensitivity and accuracy of on-board navigational requirements for future Pioneer Missions to the outer planets was conducted by the Control and Sensors Laboratory of TRW. The breadboard was extremely simple in configuration, consisting of an end-on photomultiplier tube and a V-slit reticle located at the focal plane of the objective lens. In addition, a plano-convex lens was used between the reticle and the PMT in a Fabry-Perot configuration. The analytical effort indicated that the sensor should easily meet the requirements. The Pioneer SRA test set was examined to determine its basic accuracy and modify it where necessary to bring its accuracy into the 1-3 arc second range. The test results show that it is feasible to use this type of star mapper in the 10 arc second accuracy range. The test equipment accuracy (approximately 5 arc Sec) was sufficient to bound the sensor errors at less than 10 arc seconds.

  1. Scanning For Hotspots In Lamp Filaments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powers, Charles E.; Van Sant, Tim; Leidecker, Henning

    1993-01-01

    Scanning photometer designed for use in investigation of failures of incandescent lamp filaments. Maps brightness as function of position along each filament to identify bright (hot) spots, occurring at notches and signifying incipient breaks or rewelds. Also used to measure nonuniformity in outputs of such linear devices as light-emitting diodes, and to measure diffraction patterns of lenses.

  2. Slit1b-Robo3 signaling and N-cadherin regulate apical process retraction in developing retinal ganglion cells.

    PubMed

    Wong, Grace K W; Baudet, Marie-Laure; Norden, Caren; Leung, Louis; Harris, William A

    2012-01-01

    When neurons exit the cell cycle after their terminal mitosis, they detach from the apical surface of the neuroepithelium. Despite the fact that this detachment is crucial for further neurogenesis and neuronal migration, the underlying mechanisms are still not understood. Here, taking advantage of the genetics and imaging possibilities of the zebrafish retina as a model system, we show by knockdown experiments that the guidance molecule Slit1b and its receptor Robo3 are required for apical retraction of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). In contrast, N-cadherin seems to be responsible for maintenance of apical attachment, as expression of dominant-negative N-cadherin causes RGCs to lose apical attachments prematurely and rescues retraction in slit1b morphants. These results suggest that Slit-Robo signaling downregulates N-cadherin activity to allow apical retraction in newly generated RGCs. PMID:22219284

  3. Computer programs for electromagnetic transmission through a filled slit of arbitrary cross section in a conducting plane of finite thickness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auckland, D. T.; Harrington, R. F.

    1980-03-01

    Three computer programs are presented for the analysis of electromagnetic transmission through a filled slit of arbitrary cross section in a conducting plane of finite thickness. The first and second programs utilize a non-modal and model formulation, respectively, which are derived in detail in an earlier report. Some approximate solutions are available when the slit cross section is a rectangular shape and these are investigated in the third program. The programs are all written in FORTRAN IV language. Quantities computed are equivalent electric and magnetic currents on the contour defining the slit cross section, transmission coefficients, gain patterns, and normalized field patterns. Sample input and output data are presented for each program. Detailed instructions concerning the use of each program and its capabilities are given.

  4. Slit1b-Robo3 signaling and N-cadherin regulate apical process retraction in developing retinal ganglion cells

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Grace K W; Baudet, Marie-Laure; Norden, Caren; Leung, Louis; Harris, William A.

    2012-01-01

    When neurons exit the cell cycle after their terminal mitosis, they detach from the apical surface of the neuroepithelium. Despite the fact that this detachment is crucial for further neurogenesis and neuronal migration, the underlying mechanisms are still not understood. Here, taking advantage of the genetics and imaging possibilities of the zebrafish retina as a model system, we show by knock down experiments that the guidance molecule Slit1b as well as its receptor Robo3 are required for apical retraction of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). In contrast, N-cadherin seems to be responsible for maintenance of apical attachment as expression of dominant-negative N-cadherin causes RGCs to lose apical attachments prematurely and rescues retraction in slit1b morphants. These results suggest that Slit-Robo signaling downregulates N-cadherin activity to allow apical retraction in newly generated RGCs. PMID:22219284

  5. Simulation study on the structure of rod-coil-rod triblock copolymer and nanoparticle mixture within slit.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jian-Hua; Fan, Zhong-Xiang; Luo, Meng-Bo

    2013-11-28

    Self-assembly structures of rod-coil-rod ABA triblock copolymer and nanoparticle mixture within a slit are simulated by dissipative particle dynamics method. Results show that the structures are dependent on the rigidity of the rod block kθ, the interaction between the rod block and slit a(wA), the fraction of rod block f(A), and the slit height H. With an increase in kθ, we observe a transition from parallel lamellae to hexagonal cylinders. While with the increase in a(wA), the parallel lamellae at small kθ and hexagonal cylinders at large kθ change to perpendicular lamellae at large a(wA) close to a(As). At last, we present a phase diagram of structure with respect to f(A) and H at large kθ. PMID:24289376

  6. Radionucleotide scanning in osteomyelitis

    SciTech Connect

    Sachs, W.; Kanat, I.O.

    1986-07-01

    Radionucleotide bone scanning can be an excellent adjunct to the standard radiograph and clinical findings in the diagnosis of osteomyelitis. Bone scans have the ability to detect osteomyelitis far in advance of the standard radiograph. The sequential use of technetium and gallium has been useful in differentiating cellulitis and osteomyelitis. Serial scanning with technetium and gallium may be used to monitor the response of osteomyelitis to antibiotic therapy.

  7. Noncontact scanning electrical impedance imaging.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hongze; Hawkins, Aaron; Schultz, Stephen; Oliphant, Travis E

    2004-01-01

    We are interested in applying electrical impedance imaging to a single cell because it has potential to reveal both cell anatomy and cell function. Unfortunately, classic impedance imaging techniques are not applicable to this small scale measurement due to their low resolution. In this paper, a different method of impedance imaging is developed based on a noncontact scanning system. In this system, the imaging sample is immersed in an aqueous solution allowing for the use of various probe designs. Among those designs, we discuss a novel shield-probe design that has the advantage of better signal-to-noise ratio with higher resolution compared to other probes. Images showing the magnitude of current for each scanned point were obtained using this configuration. A low-frequency linear physical model helps to relate the current to the conductivity at each point. Line-scan data of high impedance contrast structures can be shown to be a good fit to this model. The first two-dimensional impedance image of biological tissues generated by this technique is shown with resolution on the order of 100 mum. The image reveals details not present in the optical image. PMID:17271930

  8. Linear ion source with magnetron hollow cathode discharge

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, D.L.; Pu, S.H.; Wang, L.S.; Qiu, X.M.; Chu, Paul K.

    2005-11-15

    A linear ion source with magnetron hollow cathode discharge is described in this paper. The linear ion source is based on an anode layer thruster with closed-drift electrons that move in a closed path in the ExB fields. An open slit configuration is designed at the end of the ion source for the extraction of the linear ion beam produced by the magnetron hollow cathode discharge. The special configurations enable uninterrupted and expanded operation with oxygen as well as other reactive gases because of the absence of an electron source in the ion source. The ion current density and uniformity were experimentally evaluated. Using the ion source, surface modification was conducted on polyethylene terephthalate polymer films to improve the adhesion strength with ZnS coatings.

  9. Terahertz transparency at Fabry-Perot resonances of periodic slit arrays in a metal plate: experiment and theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, J. W.; Seo, M. A.; Park, D. J.; Jeoung, S. C.; Park, Q. H.; Lienau, Ch.; Kim, D. S.

    2006-12-01

    We report on a perfect transmission in one-dimensional metallic structure using time-domain terahertz spectroscopy. Fabry-Perot resonance appearing in spectral region below first Rayleigh minimum strongly enhances transmission up to over ninety-nine percent. Theoretical calculations reveal that under the perfect transmission condition, a symmetric eigenmode inside the slits is excited and a funneling of all incident energy onto the slits occurs, resulting in large energy concentration equivalent to the inverse sample coverage and high near-field enhancement of electric and magnetic field intensities. Our work opens way toward near-field terahertz amplification, applicable to high-field terahertz spectroscopy.

  10. Beam focusing and unidirectional excitation from four nanoslits filled with air and non-linear material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Yan; Quan, Wei; Wei, Qi; Qiu, Peng

    2016-05-01

    We theoretically design a device composed of four nanoslits to dynamically modulate the propagation direction of light beam by embedding non-linear material and air, respectively. Directions of radiation fields are determined by the phase difference of the surface waves at the exit interface and distance of each slit. Numerical simulations using finite element method verify that the unidirectional excitation and beam focusing can be achieved easily by changing the intensity of incident light.

  11. Diagnostic Comparisons of Near-Earth Object Identification using Slit Spectroscopy and Slitless Grating Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryan, E.; Ryan, W.

    2014-09-01

    Space object identification and characterization is an important component of Space Situational Awareness (SSA). Through an Air Force collaboration that has provided a visible wavelength, low-resolution spectrometer, researchers at the Magdalena Ridge Observatory 2.4-meter telescope (located in New Mexico) have been investigating the advantages and disadvantages of using slit spectroscopy versus slitless grating methods to characterize artificial Earth-orbiting objects. The objective is to develop a method that returns useful diagnostic information with a minimal investment in observational monitoring time. However, spectral measurements are a desirable component of characterization studies of natural objects in near-Earth orbit as well. Therefore, in 2012, we began to extend this instrumentation beyond its SSA applications to the study of Near-Earth asteroids (NEAs). The typical lifetimes of NEAs are up to three orders of magnitude shorter than the typical timescales associated with the main asteroid belt. Therefore, the current NEA population is a relatively recent product that has to be continually re-supplied. Spectroscopic analysis of NEAs helps characterize their taxonomic distribution and identify potential source regions which would then enhance our understanding of the origin of the current population. Although this is of interest scientifically, it can also help estimate the magnitude of the hazard threat from still undiscovered asteroids as well as provide guidance to optimize ground-based telescope search strategies. Slit-based spectroscopy is time consuming and has limitations on how faint an object can be studied. Therefore, the goal of this current project is to determine whether a lower resolution (by a factor of 10 with respect to the slit-based spectrometer), readily available slitless grating is sufficient for rough taxonomic classification in the study of fainter target-of-opportunity NEAs. The grating provides spectral information in 20nm

  12. A Paris-Edinburgh Cell for Liquid Silicate Structural Studies Using Monochromatic Diffraction and Soller Slits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Y.; Yu, T.; Prescher, C.; Prakapenka, V.; Eng, P. J.; Stubbs, J.; Kono, Y.; Shen, G.

    2014-12-01

    A Paris-Edinburgh Press (PEP) has been commissioned at the GSECARS beamline 13-ID-C, with a Si (311) high-energy monochromator and a multi-channel collimator (MC) assembly, which consists of two arrays of fine slits (WC blades) arranged in two concentric circular arcs. Both arrays consist of 75 slits with 0.8° separation and are located 50 and 200 mm, respectively, from the center. Slit widths of the inner and outer arrays are 0.05 and 0.20 mm, respectively. By oscillating the silts during data collection, background scattering can be effectively removed. Similar MC assemblies have been used extensively with PEP at ESRF for studying metallic liquids and low-Z materials [1]. The PEP is mounted on a general purpose diffractometer [2], with an area detector (MAR CCD) mounted on the two-theta arm. With unfocused incident monochromatic beam (65keV) collimated at 0.2 mm, 30 min is sufficient to collect weak signals of a 2 mm diameter amorphous silicate sample, with minimal background scatter from the surrounding solid pressure medium. An analysis shows that with a fine incident beam of 0.05 mm, a collimation depth of 0.5 mm can be achieved at two-theta angles above 10°. To increase pressure and temperature range, we have developed a cupped-toroidal Drickamer (CTD) anvil [3]. The anvil design, with a central depression, a toroidal groove and a small tapered angle, combines features of modified Drickamer anvil and the traditional PE anvil. By optimizing the parameters for the CTD anvil design, pressures corresponding to the mantle transition zone can be generated. Cell assemblies with thermally insulating materials have been developed and temperatures up to 2000°C have been maintained steadily over hours. In the future, the large horizontally focusing Kirkpatrick-Baez mirror will be applied to focus the incident beam, thus allowing samples with diameters below 0.5 mm in diameter to be studied. The excellent spatial selectivity provides an exciting opportunity for liquid

  13. Optical Scanning Applications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Hans

    The successful use of optical scanning at the University of the Pacific (UOP) indicates that such techniques can simplify a number of administrative data processing tasks. Optical scanning is regularly used at UOP to assist with data processing in the areas of admissions, registration and grade reporting and also has applications for other tasks…

  14. Getting a CAT Scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes Getting a CAT Scan (Video) KidsHealth > For Kids > Getting a CAT Scan (Video) Print A A A Text Size en español Obtención de una tomografía computada (video) CAT stands for "computerized axial tomography." Translated, that means ...

  15. Environmental Scanning Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Truckee Meadows Community Coll., Sparks, NV.

    This report describes Truckee Meadows Community College's (Nevada) environmental scanning process and results. The college decided that environmental scanning and forecasting techniques should be used to plan for both short-term and long-term external factors that impact programs, enrollment, and budgets. Strategic goals include: (1) keeping pace…

  16. Performance degradation in fast frequency-scanned circular arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arora, R. K.; Patel, M. R.

    1983-05-01

    The effects of high-speed scanning in frequency-scanned circular arrays are investigated. It is found that at high scanning rates the performance deteriorates with both a loss of main beam amplitude and an increase in side-lobe level. The performance of a circular array is similar to that of a linear array, although the deterioration observed in the case of a circular array is less than that observed in the case of a linear array having a length equal to the diameter of the circular array. However, in contrast with the case of a linear array, the circular array does not exhibit any significant changes in the 3 dB bandwidth, nor does it show a frequency spread associated with a fast scanning linear array. Examples from both radar and sonar are examined.

  17. Vascular control of the Drosophila haematopoietic microenvironment by Slit/Robo signalling

    PubMed Central

    Morin-Poulard, Ismaël; Sharma, Anurag; Louradour, Isabelle; Vanzo, Nathalie; Vincent, Alain; Crozatier, Michèle

    2016-01-01

    Self-renewal and differentiation of mammalian haematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are controlled by a specialized microenvironment called ‘the niche'. In the bone marrow, HSCs receive signals from both the endosteal and vascular niches. The posterior signalling centre (PSC) of the larval Drosophila haematopoietic organ, the lymph gland, regulates blood cell differentiation under normal conditions and also plays a key role in controlling haematopoiesis under immune challenge. Here we report that the Drosophila vascular system also contributes to the lymph gland homoeostasis. Vascular cells produce Slit that activates Robo receptors in the PSC. Robo activation controls proliferation and clustering of PSC cells by regulating Myc, and small GTPase and DE-cadherin activity, respectively. These findings reveal that signals from the vascular system contribute to regulating the rate of blood cell differentiation via the regulation of PSC morphology. PMID:27193394

  18. Dynamics of a self-avoiding polymer chain in slit, tube, and cube confinements.

    PubMed

    Cui, Ting; Ding, Jiandong; Chen, Jeff Z Y

    2008-12-01

    Monte Carlo simulations are presented for the observation of the dynamics of a self-avoiding polymer in three types of confinement: slit, tube, and cube. We pay special attention to the parameter regime where the characteristic confinement dimension is smaller than the radius of gyration of the unconfined polymer. On the basis of the bond-fluctuation model, we measured the rotation time of the end-to-end vector of the polymer, the diffusion time for the center of the polymer to move a distance comparable to the root mean square end-to-end distance, and the looping time for the ends of the polymer to approach each other from an open position. As functions of the confinement width and polymer length, these three time scales are discussed in light of scaling theories. PMID:19256859

  19. Long-Slit Spectrophotometry of the H II Regions Gum 38a and Gum 38b

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Girardi, Léo; Bica, Eduardo; Pastoriza, Miriani G.; Winge, Cláudia

    1997-09-01

    We present new long-slit spectrophotometric observations in the range 3700-7200 Å of the H II regions Gum 38a and Gum 38b (RCW 57). We study the spatial distribution of reddening and excitation throughout the complex by means of emission-line intensities. From the strong reddening difference, we confirm that Gum 38a and Gum 38b are two individual complexes, the former being in the foreground. We derive chemical abundances in both nebulae, the results of which are similar to those of the Orion Nebula. This is consistent with the fact that the three nebulae are located at similar Galactocentric distances. We also discuss the general ionization structure of the complexes based on the spectral properties of several filaments and diffuse emission around the central bright knots of Gum 38a and beyond. In particular, we found an interesting filament with strong [O I] λλ6300, 6364 lines.

  20. Dynamics of a self-avoiding polymer chain in slit, tube, and cube confinements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Ting; Ding, Jiandong; Chen, Jeff Z. Y.

    2008-12-01

    Monte Carlo simulations are presented for the observation of the dynamics of a self-avoiding polymer in three types of confinement: slit, tube, and cube. We pay special attention to the parameter regime where the characteristic confinement dimension is smaller than the radius of gyration of the unconfined polymer. On the basis of the bond-fluctuation model, we measured the rotation time of the end-to-end vector of the polymer, the diffusion time for the center of the polymer to move a distance comparable to the root mean square end-to-end distance, and the looping time for the ends of the polymer to approach each other from an open position. As functions of the confinement width and polymer length, these three time scales are discussed in light of scaling theories.

  1. A geometric model of a V-slit Sun sensor correcting for spacecraft wobble

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcmartin, W. P.; Gambhir, S. S.

    1994-01-01

    A V-Slit sun sensor is body-mounted on a spin-stabilized spacecraft. During injection from a parking or transfer orbit to some final orbit, the spacecraft may not be dynamically balanced. This may result in wobble about the spacecraft spin axis as the spin axis may not be aligned with the spacecraft's axis of symmetry. While the widely used models in Spacecraft Attitude Determination and Control, edited by Wertz, correct for separation, elevation, and azimuthal mounting biases, spacecraft wobble is not taken into consideration. A geometric approach is used to develop a method for measurement of the sun angle which corrects for the magnitude and phase of spacecraft wobble. The algorithm was implemented using a set of standard mathematical routines for spherical geometry on a unit sphere.

  2. Starting vortex behavior in flow through a time-varying rectangular slit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barry, Michael; Krane, Michael; Wei, Timothy

    2006-11-01

    The behavior of the starting vortex issuing from a time-varying rectangular slit with an imposed pressure gradient, representing the flow through the human glottis, is presented. The range of reduced frequency of vibration was 0.01-0.04 and the Reynolds number 8000. DPIV measurements of the velocity field on the plane of symmetry show that the starting vortex formation takes a longer fraction of the vibration period as the reduced frequency increases. The formation time and strength of the starting vortex are estimated from the velocity field measurements. In addition, the volume flow measurements allow the stroke ratio L/D to be estimated. The correlation L/D and pinch-off is also discussed.

  3. Observing the average momentum flow lines of particles in a double slit interferometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morley, Joel; Edmunds, Peter; Barker, Peter; Hiley, Basil; Flack, Rob; Monachello, Vincenzo; Experimental Weak Values Team

    2016-05-01

    The 1988 work on weak values by Aharonov et al., introduced a new kind of quantum variable. This created new perspectives when it came to the limits of quantum uncertainty. More recently, Kocsis et al. had used these techniques experimentally, claiming to have reconstructed the trajectories of photons after passing through an interferometer. This was done without destroying the interference pattern, an act apparently forbidden by standard quantum mechanics. We aim to replicate Kocsis' experiment using atoms. A ready made magneto-optical trap can routinely cool and trap, metastable argon atoms to the mK range. The ultra-cold temperatures offers particles with a large De Broglie wavelength. Here we present our intended method of reconstructing the atom's trajectories, while maintaining the interference pattern, as they fall below the slits. Thanks to the John E. Fetzer Memorial Fund.

  4. Mixtures of ions and amphiphilic molecules in slit-like pores: A density functional approach

    SciTech Connect

    Pizio, O.; Rżysko, W. Sokołowski, S.; Sokołowska, Z.

    2015-04-28

    We investigate microscopic structure and thermodynamic properties of a mixture that contains amphiphilic molecules and charged hard spheres confined in slit-like pores with uncharged hard walls. The model and the density functional approach are the same as described in details in our previous work [Pizio et al., J. Chem. Phys. 140, 174706 (2014)]. Our principal focus is in exploring the effects brought by the presence of ions on the structure of confined amphiphilic particles. We have found that for some cases of anisotropic interactions, the change of the structure of confined fluids occurs via the first-order transitions. Moreover, if anions and cations are attracted by different hemispheres of amphiphiles, a charge at the walls appears at the zero value of the wall electrostatic potential. For a given thermodynamic state, this charge is an oscillating function of the pore width.

  5. Long-slit spectroscopy of gas in the cores of X-ray luminous clusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hu, E. M.; Cowie, L. L.; Wang, Z.

    1985-01-01

    The results of long-slit spectroscopy obtained for the core regions of 14 clusters of galaxies are reported. The data are presented in detail. It is shown that the presence of optical emission is tied to the properties of the hot gas in the cluster and not to the morphology of the central galaxy or cluster, demonstrating that the optical systems are indeed formed by the cooling of hot gas. Cooling flows occur when the gas density exceeds a critical central value which corresponds to a cooling time scale which, it is argued, weakly favors low values of H(0). The kinematics of the gas flows are discussed. The excitation mechanisms, correlation of optical emission with radio properties, and upper limits on coronal line strengths from the hot gas are discussed.

  6. Odontomariinae, a new middle paleozoic subfamily of slit-bearing euophaloidean gastropods (Euophalomorpha, Gastropoda)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fryda, J.; Heidelberger, D.; Blodgett, R.B.

    2006-01-01

    A new subfamily, the Odontomariinae subfam. nov., is established herein for a distinctive group of uncoiled, slit-bearing Middle Devonian euomphalid gastropods. Its taxonomic position is based on the recent discovery of open coiled protoconchs and it is placed within the Euomphalomorpha. The genera Odontomaria Odontomaria C. F. Roemer and Tubiconcha n. gen. belonging to this new subfamily are enlarged based on studies on new material of the following species: Odontomaria semiplicata (Sandberger & Sandberger), Odontomaria gracilis n. sp., Odontomaria jankei n. sp., Odontomaria cheeneetnukensis n. sp., Odontomaria cindiprellerae n. sp. and Tubiconcha leunissi (Heidelberger, 2001). Members of the Odontomariinae were mainly sedentary organisms in high-energy, moderately shallow water. ?? 2006 E. Schweizerbart'sche Verlagsbuchhandlung.

  7. Vascular control of the Drosophila haematopoietic microenvironment by Slit/Robo signalling.

    PubMed

    Morin-Poulard, Ismaël; Sharma, Anurag; Louradour, Isabelle; Vanzo, Nathalie; Vincent, Alain; Crozatier, Michèle

    2016-01-01

    Self-renewal and differentiation of mammalian haematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are controlled by a specialized microenvironment called 'the niche'. In the bone marrow, HSCs receive signals from both the endosteal and vascular niches. The posterior signalling centre (PSC) of the larval Drosophila haematopoietic organ, the lymph gland, regulates blood cell differentiation under normal conditions and also plays a key role in controlling haematopoiesis under immune challenge. Here we report that the Drosophila vascular system also contributes to the lymph gland homoeostasis. Vascular cells produce Slit that activates Robo receptors in the PSC. Robo activation controls proliferation and clustering of PSC cells by regulating Myc, and small GTPase and DE-cadherin activity, respectively. These findings reveal that signals from the vascular system contribute to regulating the rate of blood cell differentiation via the regulation of PSC morphology. PMID:27193394

  8. Benchmarking Exercises To Validate The Updated ELLWF GoldSim Slit Trench Model

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, G. A.; Hiergesell, R. A.

    2013-11-12

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) results of the 2008 Performance Assessment (PA) (WSRC, 2008) sensitivity/uncertainty analyses conducted for the trenches located in the EArea LowLevel Waste Facility (ELLWF) were subject to review by the United States Department of Energy (U.S. DOE) Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility Federal Review Group (LFRG) (LFRG, 2008). LFRG comments were generally approving of the use of probabilistic modeling in GoldSim to support the quantitative sensitivity analysis. A recommendation was made, however, that the probabilistic models be revised and updated to bolster their defensibility. SRS committed to addressing those comments and, in response, contracted with Neptune and Company to rewrite the three GoldSim models. The initial portion of this work, development of Slit Trench (ST), Engineered Trench (ET) and Components-in-Grout (CIG) trench GoldSim models, has been completed. The work described in this report utilizes these revised models to test and evaluate the results against the 2008 PORFLOW model results. This was accomplished by first performing a rigorous code-to-code comparison of the PORFLOW and GoldSim codes and then performing a deterministic comparison of the two-dimensional (2D) unsaturated zone and three-dimensional (3D) saturated zone PORFLOW Slit Trench models against results from the one-dimensional (1D) GoldSim Slit Trench model. The results of the code-to-code comparison indicate that when the mechanisms of radioactive decay, partitioning of contaminants between solid and fluid, implementation of specific boundary conditions and the imposition of solubility controls were all tested using identical flow fields, that GoldSim and PORFLOW produce nearly identical results. It is also noted that GoldSim has an advantage over PORFLOW in that it simulates all radionuclides simultaneously - thus avoiding a potential problem as demonstrated in the Case Study (see Section 2.6). Hence, it was concluded that the follow

  9. Mechanics of LIRIS (long-slit intermediate-resolution infrared spectrograph) at first commissioning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernandez, Elvio; Acosta-Pulido, Jose; Cadavid, Emilio; Correa, Santiago; Peraza, Lorenzo; Redondo, Pablo; Sanchez, Vicente; Tenegi, Fabio; Manchado, Arturo; Barreto, Mary

    2004-09-01

    LIRIS is a near-infrared intermediate resolution spectrograph with added capabilities for multi-slit, imaging, coronography, and polarimetry, developed by the Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias (IAC). It will be a common user instrument for the Cassegrain focus of the William Herschel Telescope (WHT) at the Roque de los Muchachos Observatory in La Palma. At its first commissioning, that was held in February 2003, the functionality of the mechanisms (entrance wheel, central wheels and camera wheel) under variable orientation of the telescope was verified, and no thermal nor structural problems arose. The functionality of the mechanical interface with telescope (allows for up to 5 mm of lateral displacements in the attachment plane), of the LIRIS handling trolley, of the transport equipment and of all the equipments used in the integration was also checked. For the second commissioning of LIRIS, which has been held in March 2004, some modifications have been done. The results of both commissionings were satisfactory.

  10. Convergent Differential Regulation of SLIT-ROBO Axon Guidance Genes in the Brains of Vocal Learners

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Rui; Chen, Chun-Chun; Hara, Erina; Rivas, Miriam V; Roulhac, Petra L; Howard, Jason T; Chakraborty, Mukta; Audet, Jean-Nicolas; Jarvis, Erich D

    2015-01-01

    Only a few distantly related mammals and birds have the trait of complex vocal learning, which is the ability to imitate novel sounds. This ability is critical for speech acquisition and production in humans, and is attributed to specialized forebrain vocal control circuits that have several unique connections relative to adjacent brain circuits. As a result, it has been hypothesized that there could exist convergent changes in genes involved in neural connectivity of vocal learning circuits. In support of this hypothesis, expanding on our related study (Pfenning et al. [2014] Science 346: 1256846), here we show that the forebrain part of this circuit that makes a relatively rare direct connection to brainstem vocal motor neurons in independent lineages of vocal learning birds (songbird, parrot, and hummingbird) has specialized regulation of axon guidance genes from the SLIT–ROBO molecular pathway. The SLIT1 ligand was differentially downregulated in the motor song output nucleus that makes the direct projection, whereas its receptor ROBO1 was developmentally upregulated during critical periods for vocal learning. Vocal nonlearning bird species and male mice, which have much more limited vocal plasticity and associated circuits, did not show comparable specialized regulation of SLIT–ROBO genes in their nonvocal motor cortical regions. These findings are consistent with SLIT and ROBO gene dysfunctions associated with autism, dyslexia, and speech sound language disorders and suggest that convergent evolution of vocal learning was associated with convergent changes in the SLIT–ROBO axon guidance pathway. J. Comp. Neurol. 523:892–906, 2015. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25424606

  11. Near-infrared long-slit spectra of Seyfert galaxies: gas excitation across the central kiloparsec

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Laan, T. P. R.; Schinnerer, E.; Böker, T.; Armus, L.

    2013-12-01

    Context. The excitation of the gas phase of the interstellar medium can be driven by various mechanisms. In galaxies with an active nucleus, such as Seyfert galaxies, both radiative and mechanical energy from the central black hole, or the stars in the disk surrounding it may play a role. Aims: We investigate the relative importance and range of influence of the active galactic nucleus for the excitation of ionized and molecular gas in the central kiloparsec of its host galaxy. Methods: We present H- and K-band long-slit spectra for a sample of 21 nearby (D < 70 Mpc) Seyfert galaxies obtained with the NIRSPEC instrument on the Keck telescope. For each galaxy, we fit the nebular line emission, stellar continua, and warm molecular gas as a function of distance from the nucleus. Results: Our analysis does not reveal a clear difference between the nucleus proper and off-nuclear environment in terms of excitation mechanisms, suggesting that the influence of an AGN reaches far into the disk of the host galaxy. The radial variations in emission line ratios indicate that, while local mechanisms do affect the gas excitation, they are often averaged out when measuring over extended regions. The data presented herein were obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The Observatory was made possible by the generous financial support of the W. M. Keck Foundation.Table 4 and Appendix A are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.orgThe fully calibrated long-slit spectra and fitting are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/560/A99

  12. Large micromirror array for generating programmable slit masks for multi-object spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canonica, Michael; Zamkotsian, Frederic; Lanzoni, Patrick; Noell, Wilfried; de Rooij, Nico

    2012-09-01

    Multi-object spectroscopy (MOS) is a powerful tool for space and ground-based telescopes for the study of the formation and evolution of galaxies. This technique requires a programmable slit mask for astronomical object selection. We are engaged in a European development of micromirror arrays (MMA) for generating reflective slit masks in future MOS, called MIRA. The 100 x 200 μm2 micromirrors are electrostatically tilted providing a precise angle. The main requirements are cryogenic environment capabilities, precise and uniform tilt angle over the whole device, uniformity of the mirror voltage-tilt hysteresis and a low mirror deformation. A first MMA with single-crystal silicon micromirrors was successfully designed, fabricated and tested. A new generation of micromirror arrays composed of 2048 micromirrors (32 x 64) and modelled for individual addressing were fabricated using fusion and eutectic wafer-level bonding. These micromirrors without coating show a peak-to-valley deformation less than 10 nm, a tilt angle of 24° for an actuation voltage of 130 V. Individual addressing capability of each mirror has been demonstrated using a line-column algorithm based on an optimized voltage-tilt hysteresis. Devices are currently packaged, wire-bonded and integrated to a dedicated electronics to demonstrate the individual actuation of all micromirrors on an array. An operational test of this large array with gold coated mirrors has been done at cryogenic temperature (162 K): the micromirrors were actuated successfully before, during and after the cryogenic experiment. The micromirror surface deformation was measured at cryo and is below 30 nm peak-to-valley.

  13. Apparatus for controlling the scan width of a scanning laser beam

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, Gary W.

    1996-01-01

    Swept-wavelength lasers are often used in absorption spectroscopy applications. In experiments where high accuracy is required, it is desirable to continuously monitor and control the range of wavelengths scanned (the scan width). A system has been demonstrated whereby the scan width of a swept ring-dye laser, or semiconductor diode laser, can be measured and controlled in real-time with a resolution better than 0.1%. Scan linearity, or conformity to a nonlinear scan waveform, can be measured and controlled. The system of the invention consists of a Fabry-Perot interferometer, three CAMAC interface modules, and a microcomputer running a simple analysis and proportional-integral control algorithm. With additional modules, multiple lasers can be simultaneously controlled. The invention also includes an embodiment implemented on an ordinary PC with a multifunction plug-in board.

  14. Apparatus for controlling the scan width of a scanning laser beam

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, G.W.

    1996-10-22

    Swept-wavelength lasers are often used in absorption spectroscopy applications. In experiments where high accuracy is required, it is desirable to continuously monitor and control the range of wavelengths scanned (the scan width). A system has been demonstrated whereby the scan width of a swept ring-dye laser, or semiconductor diode laser, can be measured and controlled in real-time with a resolution better than 0.1%. Scan linearity, or conformity to a nonlinear scan waveform, can be measured and controlled. The system of the invention consists of a Fabry-Perot interferometer, three CAMAC interface modules, and a microcomputer running a simple analysis and proportional-integral control algorithm. With additional modules, multiple lasers can be simultaneously controlled. The invention also includes an embodiment implemented on an ordinary PC with a multifunction plug-in board. 8 figs.

  15. Laser Scanning In Inspection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    West, Patricia; Baker, Lionel R.

    1989-03-01

    This paper is a review of the applications of laser scanning in inspection. The reasons for the choice of a laser in flying spot scanning and the optical properties of a laser beam which are of value in a scanning instrument will be given. The many methods of scanning laser beams in both one and two dimensions will be described. The use of one dimensional laser scanners for automatic surface inspection for transmitting and reflective products will be covered in detail, with particular emphasis on light collection techniques. On-line inspection applications which will be mentioned include: photographic film web, metal strip products, paper web, glass sheet, car body paint surfaces and internal cylinder bores. Two dimensional laser scanning is employed in applications where increased resolution, increased depth of focus, and better contrast are required compared with conventional vidicon TV or solid state array cameras. Such examples as special microscope laser scanning systems and a TV compatible system for use in restricted areas of a nuclear reactor will be described. The technical and economic benefits and limitations of laser scanning video systems will be compared with conventional TV and CCD array devices.

  16. Experimental verification of motion mitigation of discrete proton spot scanning by re-scanning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schätti, A.; Zakova, M.; Meer, D.; Lomax, A. J.

    2013-12-01

    In order to be able to treat mobile tumours with active, scanned proton therapy, adequate motion mitigation techniques have to be applied. Re-scanning is such an approach, where the interplay effect between tumour motion and treatment delivery is statistically smeared out. Different re-scanning methods have been used for the irradiation of a spherical target volume and motion amplitudes of up to 10 mm. The resulting dose distributions have been captured in two dimensions by imaging a scintillating screen at the iso-centre for different motion starting phases. Dose inhomogeneity increased approximately linearly with motion amplitude, while the influence of motion period and direction was small. Re-scanning the whole target volume reduced the interplay effect more than re-scanning only the iso-energy layers. Even for 10 mm motion amplitude, no hot or cold spots were seen for 10 re-scans of the whole volume. A fast energy change and fast beam scanning is vital for this kind of re-scanning, as available on Gantry 2 at the Paul Scherrer Institute. For larger motion amplitudes, re-scanning should be combined with gating, breath-hold or tracking to reduce the internal target volume.

  17. Experimental verification of motion mitigation of discrete proton spot scanning by re-scanning.

    PubMed

    Schätti, A; Zakova, M; Meer, D; Lomax, A J

    2013-12-01

    In order to be able to treat mobile tumours with active, scanned proton therapy, adequate motion mitigation techniques have to be applied. Re-scanning is such an approach, where the interplay effect between tumour motion and treatment delivery is statistically smeared out. Different re-scanning methods have been used for the irradiation of a spherical target volume and motion amplitudes of up to 10 mm. The resulting dose distributions have been captured in two dimensions by imaging a scintillating screen at the iso-centre for different motion starting phases. Dose inhomogeneity increased approximately linearly with motion amplitude, while the influence of motion period and direction was small. Re-scanning the whole target volume reduced the interplay effect more than re-scanning only the iso-energy layers. Even for 10 mm motion amplitude, no hot or cold spots were seen for 10 re-scans of the whole volume. A fast energy change and fast beam scanning is vital for this kind of re-scanning, as available on Gantry 2 at the Paul Scherrer Institute. For larger motion amplitudes, re-scanning should be combined with gating, breath-hold or tracking to reduce the internal target volume. PMID:24254249

  18. Probing Pre-and In-Service Physics Teachers' Knowledge Using the Double-Slit Thought Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asikainen, Mervi A.; Hirvonen, Pekka E.

    2014-01-01

    This study describes the use of the double-slit thought experiment as a diagnostic tool for probing physics teachers' understanding. A total of 9 pre-service teachers and 18 in-service teachers with a variety of different experience in modern physics teaching at the upper secondary level responded in a paper-and-pencil test and three of these…

  19. Developmental guidance of the retroflex tract at its bending point involves Robo1-Slit2-mediated floor plate repulsion.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Bravo, Juan A; Martinez-Lopez, Jesus E; Madrigal, M Pilar; Kim, Minkyung; Mastick, Grant S; Lopez-Bendito, Guillermina; Martinez, Salvador; Puelles, Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    The retroflex tract contains medial habenula efferents that target the hindbrain interpeduncular complex and surrounding areas. This tract displays a singular course. Initially, habenular axons extend ventralwards in front of the pretectum until they reach the basal plate. Next, they avoid crossing the local floor plate, sharply changing course caudalwards (the retroflexion alluded by the tract name) and navigate strictly antero-posteriorly across basal pretectum, midbrain and isthmus. Once they reach rhombomere 1, the habenular axons criss-cross the floor plate several times within the interpeduncular nuclear complex as they innervate it. Here we described the timing and details of growth phenomena as these axons navigate to their target. The first dorsoventral course apparently obeys Ntn1 attraction. We checked the role of local floor plate signaling in the decision to avoid the thalamic floor plate and bend caudalwards. Analyzing the altered floor and basal plates of Gli2 knockout mice, we found a contralateral projection of most habenular axons, plus ulterior bizarre navigation rostralwards. This crossing phenotype was due to a reduced expression of Slit repulsive cues, suggesting involvement of the floor-derived Robo-Slit system in the normal guidance of this tract. Using Slit and Robo mutant mice, open neural tube and co-culture assays, we determined that Robo1-Slit2 interaction is specifically required for impeding that medial habenular axons cross the thalamic floor plate. This pathfinding mechanism is essential to establish the functionally important habenulo-interpeduncular connection. PMID:25366972

  20. Experimental solution for scattered imaging of the interference of plasmonic and photonic mode waves launched by metal nano-slits.

    PubMed

    Li, Xing; Gao, Yaru; Jiang, Shuna; Ma, Li; Liu, Chunxiang; Cheng, Chuanfu

    2015-02-01

    Using an L-shaped metal nanoslit to generate waves of the pure photonic and plasmonic modes simultaneously, we perform an experimental solution for the scattered imaging of the interference of the two waves. From the fringe data of interference, the amplitudes and the wavevector components of the two waves are obtained. The initial phases of the two waves are obtained from the phase map reconstructed with the interference of the scattered image and the reference wave in the interferometer. The difference in the wavevector components gives rise to an additional phase delay. We introduce the scattering theory under Kirchhoff's approximation to metal slit regime and explain the wavevector difference reasonably. The solution of the quantities is a comprehensive reflection of excitation, scattering and interference of the two waves. By decomposing the polarized incident field with respect to the slit element, the scattered image produced by slit of arbitrary shape can be solved with the nanoscale Huygens-Fresnel principle. This is demonstrated by the experimental intensity pattern and phase map produced by a ring-slit and its consistency with the calculated results. PMID:25836205

  1. Roundabout 1 exists predominantly as a basal dimeric complex and this is unaffected by binding of the ligand Slit2.

    PubMed

    Zakrys, Linas; Ward, Richard J; Pediani, John D; Godin, Antoine G; Graham, Gerard J; Milligan, Graeme

    2014-07-01

    Robo (Roundabout) receptors and their Slit polypeptide ligands are known to play key roles in neuronal development and have been implicated in both angiogenesis and cancer. Like the other family members, Robo1 is a large single transmembrane domain polypeptide containing a series of well-defined extracellular elements. However, the intracellular domain lacks structural definition and little is known about the quaternary structure of Robo receptors or how binding of a Slit might affect this. To address these questions combinations of both autofluorescent protein-based FRET imaging and time-resolved FRET were employed. Both approaches identified oligomeric organization of Robo1 that did not require the presence of the intracellular domain. SpIDA (spatial intensity distribution analysis) of eGFP-tagged forms of Robo1 indicated that for a C-terminally deleted version approximately two-thirds of the receptor was present as a dimer and one-third as a monomer. By contrast, full-length Robo1 was present almost exclusively as a dimer. In each case this was unaffected by the addition of Slit2, although parallel studies demonstrated the biological activity of Slit2 and its interaction with Robo1. Deletion of both the immunoglobulin and fibronectin type III extracellular repeats prevented dimer formation, with the immunoglobulin repeats providing the bulk of the protein-protein interaction affinity. PMID:24673457

  2. Coordinate Regulation of Stem Cell Competition by Slit-Robo and JAK-STAT Signaling in the Drosophila Testis

    PubMed Central

    Stine, Rachel R.; Greenspan, Leah J.; Ramachandran, Kapil V.; Matunis, Erika L.

    2014-01-01

    Stem cells in tissues reside in and receive signals from local microenvironments called niches. Understanding how multiple signals within niches integrate to control stem cell function is challenging. The Drosophila testis stem cell niche consists of somatic hub cells that maintain both germline stem cells and somatic cyst stem cells (CySCs). Here, we show a role for the axon guidance pathway Slit-Roundabout (Robo) in the testis niche. The ligand Slit is expressed specifically in hub cells while its receptor, Roundabout 2 (Robo2), is required in CySCs in order for them to compete for occupancy in the niche. CySCs also require the Slit-Robo effector Abelson tyrosine kinase (Abl) to prevent over-adhesion of CySCs to the niche, and CySCs mutant for Abl outcompete wild type CySCs for niche occupancy. Both Robo2 and Abl phenotypes can be rescued through modulation of adherens junction components, suggesting that the two work together to balance CySC adhesion levels. Interestingly, expression of Robo2 requires JAK-STAT signaling, an important maintenance pathway for both germline and cyst stem cells in the testis. Our work indicates that Slit-Robo signaling affects stem cell function downstream of the JAK-STAT pathway by controlling the ability of stem cells to compete for occupancy in their niche. PMID:25375180

  3. Sensitivity of laser flare photometry compared to slit-lamp cell evaluation in monitoring anterior chamber inflammation in uveitis.

    PubMed

    Bernasconi, Ottavio; Papadia, Marina; Herbort, Carl P

    2010-10-01

    To study the sensitivity of laser flare photometry (LFP) in monitoring anterior chamber inflammation by correlating LFP measurements with slit-lamp evaluation of aqueous cells in HLA-B27-related uveitis in a prospective trial. Slit-lamp cell evaluation was correlated with LFP-measured flare in a masked fashion in HLA-B27-related uveitis patients receiving standard topical therapy. At the time of 50 and 90% LFP flare reduction, the corresponding reduction of cells was recorded and statistically compared using the sign test. Forty-three episodes (in 43 patients) of acute anterior HLA-B27-related uveitis were included. LFP flare reduction and slit-lamp cell reduction were strongly correlated. LFP was significantly more sensitive for both 50% (P = 0.001) and 90% (P = 0.02) LFP flare reduction in assessing the decrease of anterior chamber inflammation. LFP was superior to slit-lamp cell evaluation in monitoring anterior chamber inflammation in uveitis. Flare, becoming a quantitative parameter when measured by LFP, rather than cells, should be considered the gold standard to measure anterior chamber inflammation in uveitis. PMID:20686916

  4. Knee MRI scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... magnetic resonance imaging) scan uses energy from strong magnets to create pictures of the knee joint and ... in your eyes) Because the MRI contains strong magnets, metal objects are not allowed into the room ...

  5. Leg MRI scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... resonance imaging) scan of the leg uses strong magnets to create pictures of the leg. This may ... in your eyes) Because the MRI contains strong magnets, metal objects are not allowed into the room ...

  6. Cervical MRI scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... magnetic resonance imaging) scan uses energy from strong magnets to create pictures of the part of the ... in your eyes) Because the MRI contains strong magnets, metal objects are not allowed into the room ...

  7. Arm MRI scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... arm MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) scan uses strong magnets to create pictures of the upper and lower ... in your eyes) Because the MRI contains strong magnets, metal objects are not allowed into the room ...

  8. Pediatric CT Scans

    Cancer.gov

    The Radiation Epidemiology Branch and collaborators have initiated a retrospective cohort study to evaluate the relationship between radiation exposure from CT scans conducted during childhood and adolescence and the subsequent development of cancer.

  9. CT scan (image)

    MedlinePlus

    CT stands for computerized tomography. In this procedure, a thin X-ray beam is rotated around the ... D image of a section through the body. CT scans are very detailed and provide excellent information ...

  10. Leg MRI scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... imaging - leg; Magnetic resonance imaging - lower extremity; MRI - ankle; Magnetic resonance imaging - ankle; MRI - femur; MRI - leg ... or bone scan Birth defects of the leg, ankle, or foot Bone pain and fever Broken bone ...

  11. Fiber-Scanned Microdisplays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crossman-Bosworth, Janet; Seibel, Eric

    2010-01-01

    Helmet- and head-mounted display systems, denoted fiber-scanned microdisplays, have been proposed to provide information in an "augmented reality" format (meaning that the information would be optically overlaid on the user's field of view).

  12. The Scanning Optical Microscope.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheppard, C. J. R.

    1978-01-01

    Describes the principle of the scanning optical microscope and explains its advantages over the conventional microscope in the improvement of resolution and contrast, as well as the possibility of producing a picture from optical harmonies generated within the specimen.

  13. Slow Scan Telemedicine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Originally developed under contract for NASA by Ball Bros. Research Corporation for acquiring visual information from lunar and planetary spacecraft, system uses standard closed circuit camera connected to a device called a scan converter, which slows the stream of images to match an audio circuit, such as a telephone line. Transmitted to its destination, the image is reconverted by another scan converter and displayed on a monitor. In addition to assist scans, technique allows transmission of x-rays, nuclear scans, ultrasonic imagery, thermograms, electrocardiograms or live views of patient. Also allows conferencing and consultation among medical centers, general practitioners, specialists and disease control centers. Commercialized by Colorado Video, Inc., major employment is in business and industry for teleconferencing, cable TV news, transmission of scientific/engineering data, security, information retrieval, insurance claim adjustment, instructional programs, and remote viewing of advertising layouts, real estate, construction sites or products.

  14. Chest CT Scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... pictures to create a very detailed, three-dimensional (3D) model of organs. Sometimes, a substance called contrast dye is injected into a vein in your arm for the CT scan. This substance highlights areas in your chest, which ...

  15. Brain PET scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... tests, such as magnetic resonance imaging ( MRI ) and computed tomography ( CT ) scans only reveal the structure of the ... a PET/CT. Alternative Names ... PT, Rijntjes M, Weiller C. Neuroimaging: Functional neuroimaging. In: Daroff RB, Fenichel GM, Jankovic ...

  16. Lumbar MRI scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... resonance imaging (MRI) scan uses energy from strong magnets to create pictures of the lower part of ... in your eyes) Because the MRI contains strong magnets, metal objects are not allowed into the room ...

  17. Hox Paralog Group 2 Genes Control the Migration of Mouse Pontine Neurons through Slit-Robo Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Pasqualetti, Massimo; Ducret, Sebastien; Brunet, Jean-François; Chedotal, Alain; Rijli, Filippo M

    2008-01-01

    The pontine neurons (PN) represent a major source of mossy fiber projections to the cerebellum. During mouse hindbrain development, PN migrate tangentially and sequentially along both the anteroposterior (AP) and dorsoventral (DV) axes. Unlike DV migration, which is controlled by the Netrin-1/Dcc attractive pathway, little is known about the molecular mechanisms guiding PN migration along the AP axis. Here, we show that Hoxa2 and Hoxb2 are required both intrinsically and extrinsically to maintain normal AP migration of subsets of PN, by preventing their premature ventral attraction towards the midline. Moreover, the migration defects observed in Hoxa2 and Hoxb2 mutant mice were phenocopied in compound Robo1;Robo2, Slit1;Slit2, and Robo2;Slit2 knockout animals, indicating that these guidance molecules act downstream of Hox genes to control PN migration. Indeed, using chromatin immunoprecipitation assays, we further demonstrated that Robo2 is a direct target of Hoxa2 in vivo and that maintenance of high Robo and Slit expression levels was impaired in Hoxa2 mutant mice. Lastly, the analysis of Phox2b-deficient mice indicated that the facial motor nucleus is a major Slit signaling source required to prevent premature ventral migration of PN. These findings provide novel insights into the molecular control of neuronal migration from transcription factor to regulation of guidance receptor and ligand expression. Specifically, they address the question of how exposure to multiple guidance cues along the AP and DV axes is regulated at the transcriptional level and in turn translated into stereotyped migratory responses during tangential migration of neurons in the developing mammalian brain. PMID:18547144

  18. The role of the Pax1/9 gene in the early development of amphioxus pharyngeal gill slits.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xin; Li, Guang; Liu, Xian; Wang, Yi-Quan

    2015-01-01

    The pharynx is a major characteristic of chordates. Compared with vertebrates, amphioxus has an advantage for the study of pharynx development, as embryos lack neural crest, and the pharynx is mainly derived from endoderm cells. The Pax1/9 subfamily genes have essential roles in vertebrate pharyngeal patterning, but it is not known if the Pax1/9 gene has similar functions in amphioxus pharynx development. To answer this question, we examined the Pax1/9 gene expression pattern in amphioxus embryos at different developmental stages, and observed morphological changes following Pax1/9 knockdown. RT-qPCR analysis indicated that Pax1/9 expression was initiated during early neurula stage and rapidly peaked during mid-neurula stage. Furthermore, in situ hybridization analysis showed that Pax1/9 transcripts were localized exclusively in the most endodermal region of the developing pharynx in early neurula stage embryos; however, Pax1/9 expression was strikingly down-regulated in the region where gill slits would form from the fusion of endoderm and ectoderm in subsequent developmental stages and was maintained in the border regions between adjacent gill slits. Knockdown of Pax1/9 function using both morpholino and siRNA approaches led to embryonic defects in the first three gill slits, and fusion of the first two gill slits. Moreover, the expression levels of the pharyngeal marker genes Six1/2 and Tbx1/10 were reduced in Pax1/9 knockdown embryos. From these observations, we concluded that the Pax1/9 gene has an important role in the initial differentiation of amphioxus pharyngeal endoderm and in the formation of gill slits, most likely via modulation of Six1/2 and Tbx1/10 expression. PMID:25504927

  19. Developmental guidance of the retroflex tract at its bending point involves Robo1-Slit2 mediated repulsion

    PubMed Central

    Moreno-Bravo, Juan A.; Martinez-Lopez, Jesus E.; Madrigal, M. Pilar; Kim, Minkyung; Mastick, Grant S.; Lopez-Bendito, Guillermina; Martinez, Salvador; Puelles, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    The retroflex tract contains medial habenula efferents that target the hindbrain interpeduncular complex and surrounding areas. This tract displays a singular course. Initially, the habenular axons extend ventralwards in front of the pretectum until they reach the basal plate. Next, they avoid crossing the local floor plate, sharply changing course caudalwards (the retroflexion alluded by the tract name) and navigate strictly antero-posteriorly across basal pretectum, midbrain and isthmus. Once they reach rhombomere 1, the habenular axons criss-cross the floor plate several times within the interpeduncular nuclear complex as they innervate it. Here we explored in vitro the timing and details of growth phenomena as these axons first change course, and examined the corresponding molecular background. The first dorsoventral course apparently obeys Ntn1 attraction. The decision to bend caudalwards next to the repelling thalamic floor plate seems related to Slit2 repulsive cues. We checked the role of local floor plate signaling by studying Gli2 knockout mice. We found reduced expression of the Slit repulsive cues, suggesting involvement of the floor-derived Robo-Slit system in the normal guidance of this tract. The Gli2−/− phenotype caused a contralateral projection of most habenular axons, plus ulterior bizarre navigation rostralwards. Using Slit and Robo mutant mice, and open neural tube and co-culture assays, we determined that a Robo1-Slit2 interaction is specifically required for impeding that habenular axons cross the thalamic floor plate. This pathfinding mechanism is essential to establish the functionally important habenulo-interpeduncular connection. PMID:25366972

  20. High resolution obtained by photoelectric scanning techniques.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, J. S.

    1972-01-01

    Several applications of linear scanning of different types of objects are described; examples include double stars, satellites, the Red Spot of Jupiter and a landing site on the moon. This technique allows one to achieve a gain of about an order of magnitude in resolution over conventional photoelectric techniques; it is also effective in providing sufficient data for removing background effects and for the application of deconvolution procedures. Brief consideration is given to two-dimensional scanning, either at the telescope or of electronographic images in the laboratory. It is suggested that some of the techniques described should be given serious consideration for space applications.