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1

Trends in global temperature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Statistical models consisting of a trend plus serially correlated noise may be fitted to observed climate data such as global surface temperature, the trend and noise representing systematic change and other variations, respectively. When such a model is fitted, the estimated character of the noise determines the precision of the estimated trend, and hence the precision of the estimate of

Peter Bloomfield

1992-01-01

2

Trends in stratospheric temperature  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Stratospheric temperatures for long-term and recent trends and the determination of whether observed changes in upper stratospheric temperatures are consistent with observed ozone changes are discussed. The long-term temperature trends were determined up to 30mb from radiosonde analysis (since 1970) and rocketsondes (since 1969 and 1973) up to the lower mesosphere, principally in the Northern Hemisphere. The more recent trends (since 1979) incorporate satellite observations. The mechanisms that can produce recent temperature trends in the stratosphere are discussed. The following general effects are discussed: changes in ozone, changes in other radiatively active trace gases, changes in aerosols, changes in solar flux, and dynamical changes. Computations were made to estimate the temperature changes associated with the upper stratospheric ozone changes reported by the Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet (SBUV) instrument aboard Nimbus-7 and the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) instruments.

Schoeberl, M. R.; Newman, P. A.; Rosenfield, J. E.; Angell, J.; Barnett, J.; Boville, B. A.; Chandra, S.; Fels, S.; Fleming, E.; Gelman, M.

1989-01-01

3

Ozone and temperature trends  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An update of the extensive reviews of the state of knowledge of measured ozone trends published in the Report of the International Ozone Trends Panel is presented. The update contains a review of progress since these reports, including reviewing of the ozone records, in most cases through March 1991. Also included are some new, unpublished reanalyses of these records including a complete reevaluation of 29 stations located in the former Soviet Union. The major new advance in knowledge of the measured ozone trend is the existence of independently calibrated satellite data records from the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) and Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAG) instruments. These confirm many of the findings, originally derived from the Dobson record, concerning northern mid-latitude changes in ozone. We now have results from several instruments, whereas the previously reported changes were dependent on the calibration of a single instrument. This update will compare the ozone records from many different instruments to determine whether or not they provide a consistent picture of the ozone change that has occurred in the atmosphere. The update also briefly considers the problem of stratospheric temperature change. As in previous reports, this problem received significantly less attention, and the report is not nearly as complete. This area needs more attention in the future.

Stolarski, Richard S.; Fioletov, Vitali; Bishop, Lane; Godin, Sophie; Bojkov, Rumen D.; Kirchhoff, Volker; Chanin, Marie-Lise; Zawodny, Joseph M.; Zerefos, Christos S.; Chu, William

1991-01-01

4

Extraordinary long-term trends in temperature extremes across Germany  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Properly evaluating temporal changes in the occurrence of extreme high or low temperatures is of key importance for assessing the potential local impacts of ongoing climatic changes and estimating possible future trends. Notably, the applicability of traditional extreme value statistics to non-stationary climate data is often restricted by the available amount of data. As a possible alternative, quantile regression techniques allow estimating temporal trends in arbitrary quantiles of the distribution of observed temperatures. Here, we report results on the long-term evolution of daily mean, maximum and minimum temperatures across Germany based on station data. The obtained trends in very high and low quantiles reveal an extraordinary increase of high temperature extremes since the 1950s, which significantly exceeds the mean warming. In order to assess the robustness of these results, we compare the trend values for linear and nonlinear (spline-based) quantile trends with those obtained from (linearly) time-dependent extreme value analysis. A detailed analysis of the spatial patterns of trend values suggests the specific importance of urban areas, but also local geographical factors for the emergence of extreme trends in the highest temperatures.

Donner, Reik; Wagner, Janna; Mettin, Viola

2014-05-01

5

Temperature analysis over southwest Iran: trends and projections  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present study intends to show the effect of climate change on trends and patterns of temperature over the southwestern part of Iran. The research has been divided into two parts. The first part consists of an analysis of the temperature trends of mean temperature (TM), maximum temperature (TMAX), and minimum temperature (TMIN) over 39 stations in the study region for the period 1950-2007. The trends in these parameters were detected by linear regression, and significance was tested by t test. Mann-Kendall rank test (MK test) was also employed to confirm the results. The second part of the research involved future projection of temperature based on four models. The models used were Centre National de Recherches Meteorologiques, European Center Hamburg Model, Model for Interdisciplinary Research on Climate, and UK Meteorological Office. Temperature projections were done under B1 and A1B emissions scenarios. The analysis of temperature trends revealed a significant increase during summer and spring seasons. TMAX was stable than TMIN and TM, and winter was stable as compared with summer, spring, and autumn seasons. Results of modeling showed that temperature may increase between 1.69 and 6.88 C by 2100 in the study area. Summer temperatures may increase with higher rates than spring, winter, and autumn temperatures.

Zarenistanak, Mohammad; Dhorde, Amit G.; Kripalani, R. H.

2014-04-01

6

Condensation temperature trends among stars with planets  

E-print Network

Results from detailed spectroscopic analyses of stars hosting massive planets are employed to search for trends between abundances and condensation temperatures. The elements C, S, Na, Mg, Al, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni and Zn are included in the analysis of 64 stars with planets and 33 comparison stars. No significant trends are evident in the data. This null result suggests that accretion of rocky material onto the photospheres of stars with planets is not the primary explanation for their high metallicities. However, the differences between the solar photospheric and meteoritic abundances do display a weak but significant trend with condensation temperature. This suggests that the metallicity of the sun's envelope has been enriched relative to its interior by about 0.07 dex.

Guillermo Gonzalez

2005-12-08

7

22-Year Arctic Surface Temperature Trend  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This image shows the 22-year surface temperature trend over the Arctic region. Blue hues indicate areas that are cooling; gold hues depict areas that are warming. Lighter colors indicate less change while darker colors indicate more. The temperature scale steps from zero degrees Celsius in increments of .02 degrees. (See color bar below) The data ranges from -0.162 to +0.487 degrees Celsius.

Starr, Cindy; Comiso, Josefino

2004-12-13

8

20-Year Arctic Surface Temperature Trend  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Here the 20-year surface temperature trend is shown over the Arctic region. This animation shows the warming and cooling regions in steps from the regions of least change to the areas of greatest change. Blue hues indicate cooling regions; red hues depict warming. Light regions indicate less change while darker regions indicate more. The temperature scale used ranges from -0.4 to +0.4 degrees Celsius in increments of .02 degrees. (See color bar below)

Starr, Cindy; Comiso, Josefino

2003-10-23

9

Global trends of measured surface air temperature  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The paper presents the results of surface air temperature measurements from available meteorological stations for the period of 1880-1985. It is shown that the network of meteorological stations is sufficient to yield reliable long-term, decadal, and interannual temperature changes for both the Northern Hemisphere and the Southern Hemisphere, despite the fact that most stations are located on the continents. The results indicate a global warming of about 0.5-0.7 C in the past century, with warming of similar magnitude in both hemispheres. A strong warming trend between 1965 and 1980 raised the global mean temperature in 1980 and 1981 to the highest level in the period of instrumental records. Selected graphs of the temperature change in each of the eight latitude zones are included.

Hansen, James; Lebedeff, Sergej

1987-01-01

10

Spring phenology trends in Alberta, Canada: links to ocean temperature  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Warmer winter and spring temperatures have been noted over the last century in Western Canada. Earlier spring plant development in recent decades has been reported for Europe, but not for North America. The first-bloom dates for Edmonton, Alberta, were extracted from four historical data sets, and a spring flowering index showed progressively earlier development. For Populus tremuloides, a linear trend shows a 26-day shift to earlier blooming over the last century. The spring flowering index correlates with the incidence of El Nio events and with Pacific sea-surface temperatures.

Beaubien, E. G.; Freeland, H. J.

11

Regional Trends in the Statistical Distributions of Daily Temperature  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Trends in the evolutions of anomaly probability distribution functions (PDFs) of the averages of daily station maximum (Tmax) and minimum temperatures (Tmin), common proxies for average daily temperatures, are calculated from NOAA's Global Historical Climatology Network Daily (GHCND) dataset for each season relative to a 1961-1990 climatology. Distribution trends are represented as generalized linear regression coefficients on the mean, variance, skewness, and kurtosis values tabulated from decade length time bins over the twentieth century assuming an AR1 auto-covariance structure. The coefficients are supplemented with estimates of trend significance. To provide further insight into regional trends, various characteristic global regions are selected and their aggregate PDFs plotted on the same axis over time to illustrate the visual nature of the distribution shifts. The GHCND data suggests that seasonal PDFs of Tavg are non-Gaussian, and that these distributions have undergone systematic shifts over the twentieth century. When plotted geographically, distributional regions as well regional trends in the characterizing central moments over time are clearly evident. This work suggests that regional shifts in temperature distributions with climate change may occur in addition to the shifts suggested simply by changes in expectation. This work also suggests that further analysis in the context of extreme value theory is needed to more fully understand the evolution of tail behaviors in the climate system. Three toy examples utilizing extreme-value theory, cluster analysis, and Bayesian statistics are supplied as suggestions as ways to analyze tail probabilities and boundedness, regional homogeneity, and conditional expectations from the El Nino Southern Oscillation, respectively, within the context of distributions of daily weather.;

Cavanaugh, N.

2012-12-01

12

Analysis of spatial distribution in tropospheric temperature trends  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Regional patterns in tropospheric and sea surface temperature (SST) trends are examined for the period 1979-2001 using MSU, NCEP-NCAR, ECMWF reanalyses, NOAA OI SST, and the CARDS radiosonde data set. Trends are estimated using a nonparametric approach. Substantial regional variability in temperature trends is seen in all data sets, with the magnitude of the variability (including substantial regions with cooling trends) far exceeding the average warming trend. The global analyses from MSU and reanalyses are used to identify sampling problems in using radiosonde network to infer global trends. Analysis of tropospheric temperature trends concurrent with trends in SST shows regions where the signs disagree for both surface cooling and warming. Interpretation of these differing trends using the reanalyses suggest that the models used for the reanalyses are simulating the necessary dynamics/thermodynamics that could lead to a tropospheric cooling in contrast to a surface warming (and vice versa).

Agudelo, Paula A.; Curry, Judith A.

2004-11-01

13

Linearizing Thermistors for Use as Temperature  

E-print Network

. Since temperature measurement is defined in terms of the thermal expansion of materials, people have and the desired temperature range, calculates optimum cir- cuit valves which minimize the linearization error. 1

Rathbun, Julie A.

14

Trends in high temperature gas turbine materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

High performance - high technology materials are among the technologies that are required to allow the fruition of such improvements. Materials trends in hot section components are reviewed, and materials for future use are identified. For combustors, airfoils, and disks, a common trend of using multiple material construction to permit advances in technology is identified.

Grisaffe, S. J.; Dreshfield, R. L.

1981-01-01

15

A comparison of tropical temperature trends with model predictions  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examine tropospheric temperature trends of 67 runs from 22 'Climate of the 20th Century' model simulations and try to reconcile them with the best available updated observations (in the tropics during the satellite era). Model results and observed temperature trends are in disagreement in most of the tropical troposphere, being separated by more than twice the uncertainty of the

David H. Douglass; John R. Christy; Benjamin D. Pearsona; S. Fred Singer

2008-01-01

16

Trends in seasonal temperatures over the Indian region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An investigation has been carried out to identify the trends in maximum, minimum and mean temperatures and temperature range over the Indian land mass during the winter (January, and February), pre-monsoon (March-May), southwest monsoon (June-September) and post-monsoon (October-December) seasons by using high resolution daily gridded data set prepared by India Meteorological Department for the period of 1969-2005. It has been observed that the maximum temperatures over the west coast of India show rising trend in winter, southwest monsoon and post-monsoon seasons but the maximum temperatures do not show any significant trend over the other parts of the country. Minimum temperatures show increasing trend over the North Indian states in all seasons and they show an increasing trend over the west coast of India in winter and southwest monsoon seasons. Mean temperature shows an increasing trend over the west coast of India during winter and southwest monsoon seasons. Decreasing trend is observed in the temperature range over North India in all seasons due to increasing trend in minimum temperature.

Wagholikar, Nilesh K.; Sinha Ray, K. C.; Sen, P. N.; Kumar, P. Pradeep

2014-06-01

17

Disparity of tropospheric and surface temperature trends: New evidence  

E-print Network

Disparity of tropospheric and surface temperature trends: New evidence David H. Douglass,1 Benjamin (0312). Citation: Douglass, D. H., B. D. Pearson, S. F. Singer, P. C. Knappenberger, and P. J. Michaels [Douglass et al., 2004]. [3] The globally averaged surface temperature (ST) trend over the last 25 years

Douglass, David H.

18

Northern hemisphere temperature trends: A possible greenhouse gas effect  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radiosonde temperature data from 147 stations in the Northern Hemisphere for the period 1964-85 have been used to investigate recent temperature trends in the troposphere and lower stratosphere. Experiments with atmospheric general circulation models indicate that increased concentrations of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere will lead to reduced temperatures in the stratosphere as well as increased temperatures in the troposphere.

David J. Karoly

1989-01-01

19

ABUNDANCES OF STARS WITH PLANETS: TRENDS WITH CONDENSATION TEMPERATURE ,  

SciTech Connect

Precise abundances of 18 elements have been derived for 10 stars known to host giant planets from high signal-to-noise ratio, high-resolution echelle spectroscopy. Internal uncertainties in the derived abundances are typically {approx}< 0.05 dex. The stars in our sample have all been previously shown to have abundances that correlate with the condensation temperature (T{sub c}) of the elements in the sense of increasing abundances with increasing T{sub c}; these trends have been interpreted as evidence that the stars may have accreted H-depleted planetary material. Our newly derived abundances also correlate positively with T{sub c}, although slopes of linear least-square fits to the [m/H]-T{sub c} relations for all but two stars are smaller here than in previous studies. When considering the refractory elements (T{sub c} >900 K) only, which may be more sensitive to planet formation processes, the sample can be separated into a group with positive slopes (four stars) and a group with flat or negative slopes (six stars). The four stars with positive slopes have very close-in giant planets (three at 0.05 AU) and slopes that fall above the general Galactic chemical evolution trend. We suggest that these stars have accreted refractory-rich planet material but not to the extent that would increase significantly the overall stellar metallicity. The flat or negative slopes of the remaining six stars are consistent with recent suggestions of a planet formation signature, although we show that the trends may be the result of Galactic chemical evolution.

Schuler, Simon C.; Cunha, Katia; Smith, Verne V. [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, 950 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Flateau, Davin [Department of Physics, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45221 (United States); King, Jeremy R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Clemson University, 118 Kinard Laboratory, Clemson, SC 29634 (United States); Ghezzi, Luan, E-mail: sschuler@noao.edu, E-mail: kcunha@noao.edu, E-mail: vsmith@noao.edu, E-mail: flateadc@mail.uc.edu, E-mail: luan@on.br, E-mail: jking2@clemson.edu [Observatorio Nacional, Rua General Jose Cristino, 77, 20921-400 Sao Cristovao, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

2011-05-01

20

Simulation of recent global temperature trends  

Microsoft Academic Search

Observations show that global average tropospheric temperatures have been rising during the past century, with the most recent portion of record showing a sharp rise since the mid-1970s. This study shows that the most recent portion of the global temperature record (1970 to 1992) can be closely reproduced by atmospheric models forced only with observed ocean surface temperatures. In agreement

N. E. Graham

1995-01-01

21

SUMMER TEMPERATURE TRENDS IN A MEDITERRANEAN AREA (VALENCIA REGION)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Within the area of climate change, summer temperatures are of special interest because of the economic, social and environmental consequences that can derive from their hypothetical increase. A number of recent studies have shown a worldwide trend towards increasing summer temperatures. In this work, we analyse summer temperatures (July and August) in the Valencia region of Spain from 1958 to

J. J. MIR; M. J. ESTRELA; Charles R. Darwin

22

Trends in low-temperature watergas shift reactivity on transition metals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low-temperature watergas shift reactivity trends on transition metals were investigated with the use of a microkinetic model based on a redox mechanism. It is established that the adsorption energies for carbon monoxide and oxygen can describe to a large extent changes in the remaining activation and adsorption energies through linear correlations. In comparisons with experimental data it is found that

N. Schumacher; A. Boisen; S. Dahl; Amit A. Gokhale; Shampa Kandoi; Lars C. Grabow; James A. Dumesic; Manos Mavrikakis; I. Chorkendorff

2005-01-01

23

Global trends of measured surface air temperature  

Microsoft Academic Search

We analyze surface air temperature data from available meteorological stations with principal focus on the period 1880-1985. The temperature changes at mid- and high latitude stations separated by less than 1000 km are shown to be highly correlated; at low latitudes the correlation falls off more rapidly with distance for nearby stations. We combine the station data in a way

James Hansen; Sergej Lebedeff

1987-01-01

24

Reconciling tropospheric temperature trends from the microwave sounding unit  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The University of Alabama at Huntsville (UAH), Remote Sensing Systems (RSS), and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) have constructed long-term temperature records for deep atmospheric layers using satellite microwave sounding unit (MSU) and advanced microwave sounding unit (AMSU) observations. However, these groups disagree on the magnitude of global temperature trends since 1979, including the trend for the mid-tropospheric layer (TMT). This study evaluates the selection of the MSU TMT warm target factor for the NOAA-9 satellite using five homogenized radiosonde products as references. The analysis reveals that the UAH TMT product has a positive bias of 0.051 +/- 0.031 in the warm target factor that artificially reduces the global TMT trend by 0.042 K decade-1 for 1979--2009. Accounting for this bias, we estimate that the global UAH TMT trend should increase from 0.038 K decade-1 to 0.080 K decade-1, effectively eliminating the trend difference between UAH and RSS and decreasing the trend difference between UAH and NOAA by 47%. This warm target factor bias directly affects the UAH lower tropospheric (TLT) product and tropospheric temperature trends derived from a combination of TMT and lower stratospheric (TLS) channels.

Po-Chedley, Stephen

25

Trend analysis of river water temperatures in the Ebro River Basin (Spain)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water temperature is an important factor conditioning physical, biological and chemical processes in water courses. The huge changes along the last 50 years in land and water use (dam construction, urban development, nuclear power plants (NPP), riparian alteration, irrigation development, and return of agricultural lands to forests), along with climate change, call for the study of their influence on river water temperatures. This work analyzed the trends (1973-2010) in water temperature (Tw) along the Ebro River (14 water quality stations) in North-East Spain and its main tributaries (6 water quality stations), as a first step to assess its possible relationships with land use changes, climate change, and other factors. Water temperature trends (?Tw) were estimated by two different methods: (1) multiple regression incorporating year seasonality and linear trend; and (2) non-parametric Mann-Kendall seasonal trend estimator. A cluster analysis based on principal components (performed upon the variables Tw, ?Tw, annual Tw range, lag of the Tw annual cycle, coefficient of correlation between water and air temperature (Ta), and station altitude) allowed for grouping stations with similar behaviour in Tw (along the year, seasonality, and throughout the study period, trend). Trend analysis by the regression and Mann-Kendall methods produced similar results. They showed significant (P

Lorenzo-Gonzalez, Ma Angeles; Quilez, Dolores; Isidoro, Daniel

2014-05-01

26

Temperature trends during the Present and Last Interglacial periods - a multi-model-data comparison  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Though primarily driven by insolation changes associated with well-known variations in Earth's astronomical parameters, the response of the climate system during interglacials includes a diversity of feedbacks involving the atmosphere, ocean, sea ice, vegetation and land ice. A thorough multi-model-data comparison is essential to assess the ability of climate models to resolve interglacial temperature trends and to help in understanding the recorded climatic signal and the underlying climate dynamics. We present the first multi-model-data comparison of transient millennial-scale temperature changes through two intervals of the Present Interglacial (PIG; 8-1.2 ka) and the Last Interglacial (LIG; 123-116.2 ka) periods. We include temperature trends simulated by 9 different climate models, alkenone-based temperature reconstructions from 117 globally distributed locations (about 45% of them within the LIG) and 12 ice-core-based temperature trends from Greenland and Antarctica (50% of them within the LIG). The definitions of these specific interglacial intervals enable a consistent inter-comparison of the two intervals because both are characterised by minor changes in atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations and more importantly by insolation trends that show clear similarities. Our analysis shows that in general the reconstructed PIG and LIG Northern Hemisphere mid-to-high latitude cooling compares well with multi-model, mean-temperature trends for the warmest months and that these cooling trends reflect a linear response to the warmest-month insolation decrease over the interglacial intervals. The most notable exception is the strong LIG cooling trend reconstructed from Greenland ice cores that is not simulated by any of the models. A striking model-data mismatch is found for both the PIG and the LIG over large parts of the mid-to-high latitudes of the Southern Hemisphere where the data depicts negative temperature trends that are not in agreement with near zero trends in the simulations. In this area, the positive local summer insolation trend is counteracted in climate models by an enhancement of the Southern Ocean summer sea-ice cover and/or an increase in Southern Ocean upwelling. If the general picture emerging from reconstructions is realistic, then the model-data mismatch in mid and high Southern Hemisphere latitudes implies that none of the models is able to resolve the correct balance of these feedbacks, or, alternatively, that interglacial Southern Hemisphere temperature trends are driven by mechanisms which are not included in the transient simulations, such as changes in the Antarctic ice sheet or meltwater-induced changes in the overturning circulation.

Bakker, P.; Masson-Delmotte, V.; Martrat, B.; Charbit, S.; Renssen, H.; Grger, M.; Krebs-Kanzow, U.; Lohmann, G.; Lunt, D. J.; Pfeiffer, M.; Phipps, S. J.; Prange, M.; Ritz, S. P.; Schulz, M.; Stenni, B.; Stone, E. J.; Varma, V.

2014-09-01

27

20-Year Arctic Autumn Seasonal Surface Temperature Trend  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Here the 20-year seasonal surface temperature trend for the autumn is shown over the Arctic region. This animation shows the warming and cooling regions in steps from the regions of least change to the areas of greatest change. Blue hues indicate cooling regions; red hues depict warming. Light regions indicate less change while darker regions indicate more. The temperature scale used ranges from -0.4 to +0.4 degrees Celsius in increments of .02 degrees. (See color bar below)

Starr, Cindy; Comiso, Josefino

2003-10-23

28

20-Year Arctic Winter Seasonal Surface Temperature Trend  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Here the 20-year seasonal surface temperature trend for the winter is shown over the Arctic region. This animation shows the warming and cooling regions in steps from the regions of least change to the areas of greatest change. Blue hues indicate cooling regions; red hues depict warming. Light regions indicate less change while darker regions indicate more. The temperature scale used ranges from -0.4 to +0.4 degrees Celsius in increments of .02 degrees. (See color bar below)

Starr, Cindy; Comiso, Josefino

2003-10-23

29

20-Year Arctic Surface Temperature Trend with Alternate Color Scale  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Here the 20-year surface temperature trend is shown over the Arctic region. This still images shows the warming and cooling regions. Blue hues indicate cooling regions; red hues depict warming. Light regions indicate less change while darker regions indicate more. The temperature scale used ranges from -0.14 to +0.4 degrees Celsius in increments of .02 degrees. (See color bar below)

Starr, Cindy; Comiso, Josefino

2003-10-23

30

20-Year Arctic Spring Seasonal Surface Temperature Trend  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Here the 20-year seasonal surface temperature trend for the spring is shown over the Arctic region. This animation shows the warming and cooling regions in steps from the regions of least change to the areas of greatest change. Blue hues indicate cooling regions; red hues depict warming. Light regions indicate less change while darker regions indicate more. The temperature scale used ranges from -0.4 to +0.4 degrees Celsius in increments of .02 degrees. (See color bar below)

Starr, Cindy; Comiso, Josefino

2003-10-23

31

20-Year Arctic Summer Seasonal Surface Temperature Trend  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Here the 20-year seasonal surface temperature trend for the summer is shown over the Arctic region. This animation shows the warming and cooling regions in steps from the regions of least change to the areas of greatest change. Blue hues indicate cooling regions; red hues depict warming. Light regions indicate less change while darker regions indicate more. The temperature scale used ranges from -0.4 to +0.4 degrees Celsius in increments of .02 degrees. (See color bar below)

Starr, Cindy; Comiso, Josefino

2003-10-23

32

Interannual variations and trends in zonal mean series of total ozone, temperature, and zonal wind  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper considers zonal mean (65 S-65 N, with a step of 5) monthly mean NCEP/DOE reanalysis data on zonal wind and temperature at levels of 20 to 100 mb and the TOMS data of version 8 on total ozone (TO) for the period 1979-2005. The results of calculating linear-trend coefficients, correlation coefficients, and characteristic decay times and the data of spectral analysis are presented. In recent decades, the decrease in TO and the cooling of the lower stratosphere were accompanied by a weakening of the westerly wind. For deseasonalized series, the significance of their linear trends are evaluated with the use of the Monte Carlo method and it is shown that TO trends are significant at a level of 0.99 in extratropical latitudinal zones and that temperature trends are significant everywhere except in a narrow equatorial zone and in latitudes south of 50 S, whereas wind trends are significant only at a 50-mb level in the latitudinal belt 30-50 in both hemispheres. According to the results of spectral analysis, for the majority of latitudinal zones, a triplet in the range of quasibiennial oscillations and oscillations with periods of about 4-6 and 9-13 years manifest themselves most persistently in the series of temperature, wind, and TO. Maximum correlation coefficients of the series of TO, wind, and temperature are observed over the equator, and, depending on altitude and latitude, TO variations may lag or lead temperature and wind variations in phase. Latitudinal distributions of characteristic decay times show an increase in this parameter in tropical and equatorial zones and its opposite behavior with altitude for temperature and wind fields.

Visheratin, K. N.

2007-08-01

33

Trends in Snow Cover and Temperature in Alaska  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson is designed to help students gain knowledge in using the MY NASA DATA Live Access Server (LAS) to specify and download a microset of data, and then to use the data to compare NASA satellite data observations with surface measurements of snow cover and temperature. Students will obtain snow cover and surface temperature data for a locale in Alaska, plot the data, and then investigate seasonal trends in snow cover, and the relationship between snow cover and surface temperature at that locale. The lesson provides detailed procedure, related links and sample graphs, follow-up questions and extensions, and Teacher Notes.

2010-03-14

34

Bird population trends are linearly affected by climate change along species thermal ranges  

PubMed Central

Beyond the effects of temperature increase on local population trends and on species distribution shifts, how populations of a given species are affected by climate change along a species range is still unclear. We tested whether and how species responses to climate change are related to the populations locations within the species thermal range. We compared the average 20 year growth rates of 62 terrestrial breeding birds in three European countries along the latitudinal gradient of the species ranges. After controlling for factors already reported to affect bird population trends (habitat specialization, migration distance and body mass), we found that populations breeding close to the species thermal maximum have lower growth rates than those in other parts of the thermal range, while those breeding close to the species thermal minimum have higher growth rates. These results were maintained even after having controlled for the effect of latitude per se. Therefore, the results cannot solely be explained by latitudinal clines linked to the geographical structure in local spring warming. Indeed, we found that populations are not just responding to changes in temperature at the hottest and coolest parts of the species range, but that they show a linear graded response across their European thermal range. We thus provide insights into how populations respond to climate changes. We suggest that projections of future species distributions, and also management options and conservation assessments, cannot be based on the assumption of a uniform response to climate change across a species range or at range edges only. PMID:20554552

Jiguet, Frdric; Devictor, Vincent; Ottvall, Richard; Van Turnhout, Chris; Van der Jeugd, Henk; Lindstrm, ke

2010-01-01

35

Forcing, feedback and internal variability in global temperature trends.  

PubMed

Most present-generation climate models simulate an increase in global-mean surface temperature (GMST) since 1998, whereas observations suggest a warming hiatus. It is unclear to what extent this mismatch is caused by incorrect model forcing, by incorrect model response to forcing or by random factors. Here we analyse simulations and observations of GMST from 1900 to 2012, and show that the distribution of simulated 15-year trends shows no systematic bias against the observations. Using a multiple regression approach that is physically motivated by surface energy balance, we isolate the impact of radiative forcing, climate feedback and ocean heat uptake on GMST--with the regression residual interpreted as internal variability--and assess all possible 15- and 62-year trends. The differences between simulated and observed trends are dominated by random internal variability over the shorter timescale and by variations in the radiative forcings used to drive models over the longer timescale. For either trend length, spread in simulated climate feedback leaves no traceable imprint on GMST trends or, consequently, on the difference between simulations and observations. The claim that climate models systematically overestimate the response to radiative forcing from increasing greenhouse gas concentrations therefore seems to be unfounded. PMID:25631444

Marotzke, Jochem; Forster, Piers M

2015-01-29

36

Linear and nonlinear trending and prediction for AVHRR time series data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The variability of AVHRR calibration coefficient in time was analyzed using algorithms of linear and non-linear time series analysis. Specifically we have used the spline trend modeling, autoregressive process analysis, incremental neural network learning algorithm and redundancy functional testing. The analysis performed on available AVHRR data sets revealed that (1) the calibration data have nonlinear dependencies, (2) the calibration data depend strongly on the target temperature, (3) both calibration coefficients and the temperature time series can be modeled, in the first approximation, as autonomous dynamical systems, (4) the high frequency residuals of the analyzed data sets can be best modeled as an autoregressive process of the 10th degree. We have dealt with a nonlinear identification problem and the problem of noise filtering (data smoothing). The system identification and filtering are significant problems for AVHRR data sets. The algorithms outlined in this study can be used for the future EOS missions. Prediction and smoothing algorithms for time series of calibration data provide a functional characterization of the data. Those algorithms can be particularly useful when calibration data are incomplete or sparse.

Smid, J.; Volf, P.; Slama, M.; Palus, M.

1995-01-01

37

Precise monitoring of global temperature trends from satellites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Passive microwave radiometry from satellites provides more precise atmospheric temperature information than that obtained from the relatively sparse distribution of thermometers over the earth's surface. Accurate global atmospheric temperature estimates are needed for detection of possible greenhouse warming, evaluation of computer models of climate change, and for understanding important factors in the climate system. Analysis of the first 10 years (1979 to 1988) of satellite measurements of lower atmospheric temperature changes reveals a monthly precision of 0.01 C, large temperature variability on time scales from weeks to several years, but no obvious trend for the 10-year period. The warmest years, in descending order, were 1987, 1988, 1983, and 1980. The years 1984, 1985, and 1986 were the coolest.

Spencer, Roy W.; Christy, John R.

1990-01-01

38

Apply a hydrological model to estimate local temperature trends  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Continuous times series {f(x)} such as a depth of water is written f(x) = T(x)+P(x)+S(x)+C(x) in hydrological science where T(x),P(x),S(x) and C(x) are called the trend, periodic, stochastic and catastrophic components respectively. We simplify this model and apply it to the local temperature data such as given E. Halley (1693), the UK (1853-2010), Germany (1880-2010), Japan (1876-2010). We also apply the model to CO2 data. The model coefficients are evaluated by a symbolic computation by using a standard personal computer. The accuracy of obtained nonlinear curve is evaluated by the arithmetic mean of relative errors between the data and estimations. E. Halley estimated the temperature of Gresham College from 11/1692 to 11/1693. The simplified model shows that the temperature at the time rather cold compared with the recent of London. The UK and Germany data sets show that the maximum and minimum temperatures increased slowly from the 1890s to 1940s, increased rapidly from the 1940s to 1980s and have been decreasing since the 1980s with the exception of a few local stations. The trend of Japan is similar to these results.

Igarashi, Masao; Shinozawa, Tatsuya

2014-03-01

39

Temperature trends at the Mauna Loa Observatory, Hawaii: A direct measurement of global warming?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Observations at the Mauna Loa Observatory, Hawaii, established the systematic increase of anthropogenic CO2 in the atmosphere. Here, we examine the hourly temperature records at this observatory for the 30-year period (1977-2006). We determine the linear trends in the annual averaged data as a function of the time of day. For night-time data (22:00 to 6:00 local time) we find a near uniform warming trend, dT/dt ? 0.04 C/yr. During the day, the warming trend moderates to a slight cooling, with dT/dt ? -0.01 C/yr at 12:00 (noon). Our hourly data shows that there is a mean daily warming trend dT/dt = 0.022 C/yr for this period. The global temperature trend inferred from CO2 data by the IPCC in 2007 was dT/dt = 0.017(+0.009, -0.006) C/yr. The direct measurement from our observations is in quite good agreement with the IPCC value. A decrease in the diurnal temperature range (DTR) is a direct signature of a greenhouse effect of CO2. For the Mauna Loa Observatory data we find a relatively large decrease in DTR with a yearly DTR change of d(DTR)/dt = -0.051 C/yr over the 30 year period under consideration. It is of interest to compare the high altitude Mauna Loa data with the sea level data at the Tutuila Observatory, American Samoa, for the same period. At Tutuila, the mean temperature trend is dT/dt = -0.013 C/yr and d(DTR)/dt = -0.051 C/yr. The greenhouse effect is the same at the two observatories, but the temperature trend is quite different. The latter can be attributed to the buffering effect of the ocean. We suggest that the temperature trends observed at the Mauna Loa Observatory are consistent with the observed increases in CO2 concentrations at the observatory, and the role of CO2 as a greenhouse gas.

Turcotte, D. L.; Malamud, B. D.

2009-12-01

40

Unresolved issues with the assessment of multidecadal global land surface temperature trends  

E-print Network

Unresolved issues with the assessment of multidecadal global land surface temperature trends Roger documents various unresolved issues in using surface temperature trends as a metric for assessing global of multidecadal global land surface temperature trends, J. Geophys. Res., 112, D24S08, doi:10.1029/2006JD008229. 1

Niyogi, Dev

41

Technology and Development of High Temperature Superconducting Linear Motors  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the development of high temperature superconducting (HTS) materials, linear motor driving systems made using the HTS materials become available for practical applications. The HTS linear motor technology, especially structures and function characteristics, will be introduced in this paper. Comparison of the HTS linear motors with the conventional linear motors is also made and summarized with the potential HTS applications

Lu H. Zheng; Jian X. Jin; You G. Guo; Hai Y. Lu; Jian G. Zhu

42

Multi-decadal surface temperature trends in East Antarctica inferred from borehole firn temperature measurements and geophysical inverse methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The climate trend of the Antarctic interior remains unclear relative to the rest of the globe because of a lack of long-term weather records. Recent studies by other authors utilizing sparse available records, satellite data, and models have estimated a significant warming trend in the near-surface air temperature in West Antarctica and weak and poorly constrained warming trend in East Antarctica for the past 50 years. In this dissertation, firn thermal profiling was used to detect multi-decadal surface temperature trends in the interior of East Antarctica where few previous records of any kind exist. The surface temperature inversion from firn temperature profiles provides a climate reconstruction independent of firn chemistry, sparse weather data, satellite data, or ice cores, and therefore may be used in conjunction with these data sources for corroboration of climate trends over the large ice sheets. During the Norwegian-U.S. IPY Scientific Traverse of East Antarctica, in the austral summers of 2007--08 and 2008--09, thermal-profiling telemetry units were installed at five locations. Each unit consists of 16 PRTs (Platinum Resistance Thermometers) distributed in a back-filled borehole of 80 to 90 m deep. The accuracy of the temperature measurement is 0.03 K. Geophysical inverse methods (linearized and Monte Carlo inversion) were applied to one full year of data collected from three units installed near the ice divide in the Dome Fuji/Pole of Inaccessibility region and one on Recovery Lake B, situated >500 km south to south-west of and >1000 m lower in altitude than sites near the ice divide. Three sites near the ice divide indicate that the mean surface temperatures have increased approximately 1 to 1.5 K within the past 50 years although the onset and the duration of this warming vary by site. On the other hand, slight cooling to no change was detected at the Recovery Lake B site. Although uncertainties remain due to limitations of the method, these results raise the possibility of an interesting recent climate pattern in East Antarctica; significant warming trend near the ice divide and cooling to no change off the divide.

Muto, Atsuhiro

43

Time series requirements and trends of temperature and precipitation extremes over Italy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Extreme climate events have strong impacts on society and economy; accordingly,the knowledge of their trends on long period is crucial for the definition and implementation of a national adaptation strategy to climate change. The Research Programme on Climate Variability and Predictability (CLIVAR) identified a set of temperature and precipitation indices suited to investigate variability and trends of climate extremes. It is well known that extreme indices calculation is more demanding than first and second order statistics are: daily temperature and precipitation data are required and strict constrains in terms of continuity and completeness must be met. In addition, possible dishomogeneities affecting time series must be identified and adjusted before indices calculation. When metadata are not available, statistical methods can provide scientist a relevant support for homogeneity check; however, ad-hoc decision criteria (sometimes subjective) must be applied whenever contradictory results characterize different statistical homogeneity tests. In this work, a set of daily (minimum and maximum) temperature and precipitation time series for the period 1961-2011 were selected in order to guarantee a quite uniform spatial distribution of the stations over the Italian territory and according to the afore-said continuity and completeness criteria. Following the method described by Vincent, the homogeneity check of temperature time series was run at annual level. Two well-documented tests were employed (F-test and T-test), both implemented in the free R-package RHtestV3. The Vincent method was also used for a further investigation of time series homogeneity. Temperature dishomogeneous series were discarded. For precipitation series, no homogeneity check was run. The selected series were employed at daily level to calculate a reliable set of extreme indices. For each station, a linear model was employed for indices trend estimation. Finally, single station results were averaged to provide a "national" trend for Italy.

Fioravanti, Guido; Desiato, Franco; Fraschetti, Piero; Perconti, Walter; Piervitali, Emanuela

2013-04-01

44

Linear trends in cloud top height from passive observations in the oxygen A-band  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Measurements by the hyperspectral spectrometers GOME, SCIAMACHY and GOME-2 are used to determine the rate of linear change (and trends) in cloud top height (CTH) in the period between June 1996 and May 2012. The retrievals are obtained from Top-Of-Atmosphere (TOA) backscattered solar light in the oxygen A-band using the Semi-Analytical CloUd Retrieval Algorithm SACURA. The physical framework relies on the asymptotic equations of radiative transfer, valid for optically thick clouds. Using linear least-squares techniques, a global trend of -1.78 2.14 m yr-1 in deseasonalized CTH has been found, in the latitude belt within 60, with diverging tendencies over land (+0.27 3.2 m yr-1) and ocean (-2.51 2.8 m yr-1). The El Nio-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), strongly coupled to CTH, forces clouds to lower altitudes. The global ENSO-corrected trend in CTH amounts to -0.49 2.22 m yr-1. At a global scale, no explicit regional pattern of statistically significant trends (at 95% confidence level, estimated with bootstrap technique) have been found, which would be representative of typical natural synoptical features. One exception is North Africa, which exhibits the strongest upward trend in CTH sustained by an increasing trend in water vapour.

Lelli, L.; Kokhanovsky, A. A.; Rozanov, V. V.; Vountas, M.; Burrows, J. P.

2014-06-01

45

Examination of temporal DDT trends in Lake Erie fish communities using dynamic linear modeling  

E-print Network

Examination of temporal DDT trends in Lake Erie fish communities using dynamic linear modeling r t i c l e i n f o Article history: Received 11 November 2012 Accepted 2 June 2013 Available online modeling Lake Erie Fish contamination Pesticides The industrial pesticide dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane

Arhonditsis, George B.

46

Stratospheric temperature trends: impact of ozone variability and the QBO  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In most climate simulations used by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change 2007 fourth assessment report, stratospheric processes are only poorly represented. For example, climatological or simple specifications of time-varying ozone concentrations are imposed and the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO) of equatorial stratospheric zonal wind is absent. Here we investigate the impact of an improved stratospheric representation using two sets of perturbed simulations with the Hadley Centre coupled ocean atmosphere model HadGEM1 with natural and anthropogenic forcings for the 1979-2003 period. In the first set of simulations, the usual zonal mean ozone climatology with superimposed trends is replaced with a time series of observed zonal mean ozone distributions that includes interannual variability associated with the solar cycle, QBO and volcanic eruptions. In addition to this, the second set of perturbed simulations includes a scheme in which the stratospheric zonal wind in the tropics is relaxed to appropriate zonal mean values obtained from the ERA-40 re-analysis, thus forcing a QBO. Both of these changes are applied strictly to the stratosphere only. The improved ozone field results in an improved simulation of the stepwise temperature transitions observed in the lower stratosphere in the aftermath of the two major recent volcanic eruptions. The contribution of the solar cycle signal in the ozone field to this improved representation of the stepwise cooling is discussed. The improved ozone field and also the QBO result in an improved simulation of observed trends, both globally and at tropical latitudes. The Eulerian upwelling in the lower stratosphere in the equatorial region is enhanced by the improved ozone field and is affected by the QBO relaxation, yet neither induces a significant change in the upwelling trend.

Dall'Amico, Mauro; Gray, Lesley J.; Rosenlof, Karen H.; Scaife, Adam A.; Shine, Keith P.; Stott, Peter A.

2010-02-01

47

Statistical analysis of stratospheric temperature and ozone profile data for trends and model comparison  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Work performed during the project period July 1, 1990 to June 30, 1992 on the statistical analysis of stratospheric temperature data, rawinsonde temperature data, and ozone profile data for the detection of trends is described. Our principal topics of research are trend analysis of NOAA stratospheric temperature data over the period 1978-1989; trend analysis of rawinsonde temperature data for the period 1964-1988; trend analysis of Umkehr ozone profile data for the period 1977-1991; and comparison of observed ozone and temperature trends in the lower stratosphere. Analysis of NOAA stratospheric temperature data indicates the existence of large negative trends at 0.4 mb level, with magnitudes increasing with latitudes away from the equator. Trend analysis of rawinsonde temperature data over 184 stations shows significant positive trends about 0.2 C per decade at surface to 500 mb range, decreasing to negative trends about -0.3 C at 100 to 50 mb range, and increasing slightly at 30 mb level. There is little evidence of seasonal variation in trends. Analysis of Umkehr ozone data for 12 northern hemispheric stations shows significant negative trends about -.5 percent per year in Umkehr layers 7-9 and layer 3, but somewhat less negative trends in layers 4-6. There is no pronounced seasonal variation in trends, especially in layers 4-9. A comparison was made of empirical temperature trends from rawinsonde data in the lower stratosphere with temperature changes determined from a one-dimensional radiative transfer calculation that prescribed a given ozone change over the altitude region, surface to 50 km, obtained from trend analysis of ozonsonde and Umkehr profile data. The empirical and calculated temperature trends are found in substantive agreement in profile shape and magnitude.

Tiao, G. C.

1992-01-01

48

Amplification of surface temperature trends and variability in thetropical atmosphere  

SciTech Connect

The month-to-month variability of tropical temperatures is larger in the troposphere than at the Earth's surface. This amplification behavior is similar in a range of observations and climate model simulations, and is consistent with basic theory. On multi-decadal timescales, tropospheric amplification of surface warming is a robust feature of model simulations, but occurs in only one observational dataset. Other observations show weak or even negative amplification. These results suggest that either different physical mechanisms control amplification processes on monthly and decadal timescales, and models fail to capture such behavior, or (more plausibly) that residual errors in several observational datasets used here affect their representation of long-term trends.

Santer, B.D.; Wigley, T.M.L.; Mears, C.; Wentz, F.J.; Klein,S.A.; Seidel, D.J.; Taylor, K.E.; Thorne, P.W.; Wehner, M.F.; Gleckler,P.J.; Boyle, J.S.; Collins, W.D.; Dixon, K.W.; Doutriaux, C.; Free, M.; Fu, Q.; Hansen, J.E.; Jones, G.S.; Ruedy, R.; Karl, T.R.; Lanzante, J.R.; Meehl, G.A.; Ramaswamy, V.; Russell, G.; Schmidt, G.A.

2005-08-11

49

Industrial CO2 emissions as a proxy for anthropogenic influence on lower tropospheric temperature trends  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surface temperature trends during the last two decades show a significant increase which appears to be anthropogenic in origin. We investigate global temperature changes using surface as well as satellite measurements and show that lower tropospheric temperature trends for the period 19792001 are spatially correlated to anthropogenic surface CO2 emissions, which we use as a measure of industrialization. Furthermore, temperature

A. T. J. de Laat; A. N. Maurellis

2004-01-01

50

Trends and variability in East African rainfall and temperature observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The economy of East Africa is highly dependent on agriculture, leading to a strong vulnerability of local society to fluctuations in seasonal rainfall amounts, including extreme events. Hence, the knowledge about the evolution of seasonal rainfall under future climate conditions is crucial. Rainfall regimes over East Africa are influenced by multiple factors, including two monsoon systems, several convergence zones and the Rift Valley lakes. In addition, local conditions, like topography, modulate the large-scale rainfall pattern. East African rainfall variability is also influenced by various teleconnections like the Indian Ocean Zonal Mode and El Nio Southern Oscillation. Regarding future climate projections, regional and global climate models partly disagree on the increase or decrease of East African rainfall. The specific aim of the present study is the acquirement of historic data from weather stations in East Africa (Kenya, Tanzania, Ruanda and Uganda), the use of gridded satellite (rainfall) products (ARC2 and TRMM), and three-dimensional atmospheric reanalysis (e.g., ERA-Interim) to quantify climate variability in the recent past and to understand its causes. Climate variability and trends, including changes in extreme events, are evaluated using ETCCDI climate change and standardized precipitation indices. These climate indices are determined in order to investigate the variability of temperature and rainfall and their trends with the focus on most recent decades. In the follow-up, statistical and dynamical analyses are conducted to quantify the local impact of pertinent large-scale modes of climate variability (Indian Ocean Zonal Mode, El Nio Southern Oscillation, Sea Surface Temperature of the Indian Ocean).

Seregina, Larisa; Ermert, Volker; Fink, Andreas H.; Pinto, Joaquim G.

2014-05-01

51

Room Temperature Giant and Linear Magnetoresistance in Topological Insulator Bi2Te3 Nanosheets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Topological insulators, a new class of condensed matter having bulk insulating states and gapless metallic surface states, have demonstrated fascinating quantum effects. However, the potential practical applications of the topological insulators are still under exploration worldwide. We demonstrate that nanosheets of a Bi2Te3 topological insulator several quintuple layers thick display giant and linear magnetoresistance. The giant and linear magnetoresistance achieved is as high as over 600% at room temperature, with a trend towards further increase at higher temperatures, as well as being weakly temperature-dependent and linear with the field, without any sign of saturation at measured fields up to 13 T. Furthermore, we observed a magnetic field induced gap below 10 K. The observation of giant and linear magnetoresistance paves the way for 3D topological insulators to be useful for practical applications in magnetoelectronic sensors such as disk reading heads, mechatronics, and other multifunctional electromagnetic applications.

Wang, Xiaolin; Du, Yi; Dou, Shixue; Zhang, Chao

2012-06-01

52

Trends in extreme temperature and precipitation in Muscat, Oman  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Changes in frequency and intensity of weather events often result in more frequent and intensive disasters such as flash floods and persistent droughts. In Oman, changes in precipitation and temperature have already been detected, although a comprehensive analysis to determine long-term trends is yet to be conducted. We analysed daily precipitation and temperature records in Muscat, the capital city of Oman, mainly focusing on extremes. A set of climate indices, defined in the RClimDex software package, were derived from the longest available daily series (precipitation over the period 1977-2011 and temperature over the period 1986-2011). Results showed significant changes in temperature extremes associated with cooling. Annual maximum value of daily maximum temperature (TX), on average, decreased by 1C (0.42C/10 year). Similarly, the annual minimum value of daily minimum temperature (TN) decreased by 1.5C (0.61C/10 year), which, on average, cooled at a faster rate than the maximum temperature. Consequently, the annual count of days when TX > 45C (98th percentile) decreased from 8 to 3, by 5 days. Similarly, the annual count of days when TN < 15C (2nd percentile) increased from 5 to 15, by 10 days. Annual total precipitation averaged over the period 1977-2011 is 81 mm, which shows a tendency toward wetter conditions with a 6 mm/10 year rate. There is also a significant tendency for stronger precipitation extremes according to many indices. The contribution from very wet days to the annual precipitation totals steadily increases with significance at 75% level. When The General Extreme Value (GEV) probability distribution is fitted to annual maximum 1-day precipitation, the return level of a 10-year return period in 1995-2011 was estimated to be 95 mm. This return level in the recent decade is about 70% higher than the return level for the period of 1977-1994. These results indicate that the long-term wetting signal apparent in total precipitation can be attributed largely to the increases in extreme precipitation in recent decades.

Gunawardhana, L. N.; Al-Rawas, G. A.

2014-09-01

53

Trends in upper stratospheric temperatures as observed by rocketsondes (1965-1983)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recent interest in possible anthropogenically induced changes in stratospheric ozone has led to a number of modeling studies. These studies indicate that stratospheric temperature changes would be related to stratospheric ozone changes. Therefore, this study was motivated by a concern to find out whether or not any significant trend in upper stratospheric temperatures could be ascertained from available observational data. June monthly mean values for 40 to 45 km layer were calculated for all Western Hemisphere rocketsonde stations for which data was available. Mean temperatures for each June were then used to calculate linear least squares regression coefficients with latitude of the stations as the independent variable. The resulting coefficients were used to calculate area-weighted mean temperatures for 25 deg N to 55 deg N. A two-to-three degree temperature drop in the early 1970s is indicated. It was noted, however, that this temperature decline coincides with a change in the principal observing system from the Arcasconde system to the Datasonde system. In order to study this temperature decrease more closely, similar mean temperatures were calculated for the 25 to 30 km layer using both rocketsondes and support radiosondes.

Johnson, K. W.; Gelman, M. E.

1985-01-01

54

Long-term trends in shortgrass steppe vegetation during a 21-year period of increasing temperatures  

SciTech Connect

Long-term weather records from the Central Plains Experimental Range revealed a general warming trend in average annual temperatures from 1971 through 1991. This was largely the result of a significant increase in mean annual minimum temperature (T{sub min}). Permanently marked vegetation quadrants were monitored for much of this same period. We constructed linear correlational models to assess relationships of annual and seasonal temperature and precipitation with plant densities and aboveground net primary productivity (ANPP) within a grazing exclosure. Response variables correlated with T{sub min} included: (i) tiller densities of the dominant grass, Bouteloua gracilis, and other warm season grasses, (ii) forb densities and ANPP, and (iii) total ANPP. Responses correlated with T{sub max} included: (i) total basal cover and (ii) densities and ANPP of several species. Plant species diversity was correlated with spring precipitation. Some species responded to the interactive effects of spring temperatures and precipitation. This investigation suggests that shortgrass steppe vegetation may be sensitive to climate change and supports predictions that asymmetric changes in diurnal temperatures may be an important component of climate change.

Alward, R.D.; Milchunas, D.G.; Detling, J.K. [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States)

1995-06-01

55

Recalibration and merging of SSU observations for stratospheric temperature trend studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

observations from the Stratospheric Sounding Unit (SSU) during 1979-2006 onboard NOAA historical polar orbiting satellites were recalibrated for climate change investigation. A two-point linear calibration equation, with cold space and an internal blackbody warm target as end-point references, was used to transfer SSU raw counts data into radiances. The warm target temperature was represented by measurements from the space side thermistor on the blackbody, and the cold space radiance was assumed to be zero. Space view corrections due to an electrical interference were applied. Intersatellite calibration was conducted simultaneously by applying calibration offsets determined from residual intersatellite biases. The recalibration reached an accuracy of 0.1-0.2 K for global means and thus is expected to improve the consistency in stratospheric temperature time series in climate reanalyses. The recalibrated SSU radiances were further adjusted to develop Version 2 of the NOAA stratospheric temperature time series. The effects being adjusted included those from changes in instrument cell pressure and atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration, viewing angle differences, and semidiurnal tides due to orbital drift. Intersatellite biases were carefully removed to ensure smooth transitions between satellite pairs. Differences from Version 1 included improved radiance calibration, improved adjusting schemes for diurnal drift and intersatellite biases, removal of time-varying cell pressure adjustment for NOAA-9 channel 1, and excluding NOAA-7 channel 2 in the time series. In addition to the final merged data set, intermediate synthetic time series corresponding to different adjustments were also created to quantify their impact on the final trend as well as its reliability and uncertainty. Excellent matching between satellite pairs, especially the 7 year overlaps between NOAA-11 and NOAA-14 during 1997-2004, in intermediate as well as the final time series provided strong evidence on the validity of adjustments and thus confidence on the resulting trends. The Version 2 global mean trends for 1979-2006 were -0.69 0.18, -0.77 0.15, and -0.85 0.15 K/decade for SSU channels 1, 2, and 3, representing temperatures of middle stratosphere, upper stratosphere, and stratosphere-mesosphere, respectively. Among these, cooling of channel 2 was stronger and channel 3 weaker than those in UK Met Office (UKMO) data by about 1 K during the entire SSU period from 1979 to 2006. Finally, the average of the channel 1 and channel 3 anomalies in Version 2 was close to channel 2 anomalies to within 0.2 K for the entire 1979-2006 period with identical trends. This feature was found consistent with chemistry-climate model simulations.

Zou, Cheng-Zhi; Qian, Haifeng; Wang, Wenhui; Wang, Likun; Long, Craig

2014-12-01

56

A century of climate and ecosystem change in Western Montana: What do temperature trends portend?  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The physical science linking human-induced increases in greenhouse gasses to the warming of the global climate system is well established, but the implications of this warming for ecosystem processes and services at regional scales is still poorly understood. Thus, the objectives of this work were to: (1) describe rates of change in temperature averages and extremes for western Montana, a region containing sensitive resources and ecosystems, (2) investigate associations between Montana temperature change to hemispheric and global temperature change, (3) provide climate analysis tools for land and resource managers responsible for researching and maintaining renewable resources, habitat, and threatened/endangered species and (4) integrate our findings into a more general assessment of climate impacts on ecosystem processes and services over the past century. Over 100 years of daily and monthly temperature data collected in western Montana, USA are analyzed for long-term changes in seasonal averages and daily extremes. In particular, variability and trends in temperature above or below ecologically and socially meaningful thresholds within this region (e.g., -17.8??C (0??F), 0??C (32??F), and 32.2??C (90??F)) are assessed. The daily temperature time series reveal extremely cold days (??? -17.8??C) terminate on average 20 days earlier and decline in number, whereas extremely hot days (???32??C) show a three-fold increase in number and a 24-day increase in seasonal window during which they occur. Results show that regionally important thresholds have been exceeded, the most recent of which include the timing and number of the 0??C freeze/thaw temperatures during spring and fall. Finally, we close with a discussion on the implications for Montana's ecosystems. Special attention is given to critical processes that respond non-linearly as temperatures exceed critical thresholds, and have positive feedbacks that amplify the changes. ?? Springer Science + Business Media B.V. 2009.

Pederson, G.T.; Graumlich, L.J.; Fagre, D.B.; Kipfer, T.; Muhlfeld, C.C.

2010-01-01

57

Differences between near-surface equivalent temperature and temperature trends for the Eastern United States. Equivalent temperature as an alternative measure of heat content  

USGS Publications Warehouse

There is currently much attention being given to the observed increase in near-surface air temperatures during the last century. The proper investigation of heating trends, however, requires that we include surface heat content to monitor this aspect of the climate system. Changes in heat content of the Earth's climate are not fully described by temperature alone. Moist enthalpy or, alternatively, equivalent temperature, is more sensitive to surface vegetation properties than is air temperature and therefore more accurately depicts surface heating trends. The microclimates evident at many surface observation sites highlight the influence of land surface characteristics on local surface heating trends. Temperature and equivalent temperature trend differences from 1982-1997 are examined for surface sites in the Eastern U.S. Overall trend differences at the surface indicate equivalent temperature trends are relatively warmer than temperature trends in the Eastern U.S. Seasonally, equivalent temperature trends are relatively warmer than temperature trends in winter and are relatively cooler in the fall. These patterns, however, vary widely from site to site, so local microclimate is very important. ?? 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Davey, C.A.; Pielke, R.A., Sr.; Gallo, K.P.

2006-01-01

58

Linearized-moment analysis of the temperature jump and temperature defect in the Knudsen layer of a rarefied gas.  

PubMed

Understanding the thermal behavior of a rarefied gas remains a fundamental problem. In the present study, we investigate the predictive capabilities of the regularized 13 and 26 moment equations. In this paper, we consider low-speed problems with small gradients, and to simplify the analysis, a linearized set of moment equations is derived to explore a classic temperature problem. Analytical solutions obtained for the linearized 26 moment equations are compared with available kinetic models and can reliably capture all qualitative trends for the temperature-jump coefficient and the associated temperature defect in the thermal Knudsen layer. In contrast, the linearized 13 moment equations lack the necessary physics to capture these effects and consistently underpredict kinetic theory. The deviation from kinetic theory for the 13 moment equations increases significantly for specular reflection of gas molecules, whereas the 26 moment equations compare well with results from kinetic theory. To improve engineering analyses, expressions for the effective thermal conductivity and Prandtl number in the Knudsen layer are derived with the linearized 26 moment equations. PMID:25019892

Gu, Xiao-Jun; Emerson, David R

2014-06-01

59

Recent variability and trends of Antarctic near-surface temperature  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new monthly 1 1 Antarctic near-surface temperature reconstruction for 19602005 is presented. The use of numerical model fields to establish spatial relationships between fifteen continuous observational temperature records and the voids to which they are interpolated inherently accounts for the effects of the atmospheric circulation and topography on temperature variability. Employing a fixed observation network ensures that the

Andrew J. Monaghan; David H. Bromwich; William Chapman; Josefino C. Comiso

2008-01-01

60

Relating temperature, snow height and glacier characteristics to streamflow trends in Western Austria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The results of streamflow trend studies are often characterised by mostly insignificant trends. This applies especially for trends of annually averaged runoff: In our study region, Western Austria, we found that there is a trend gradient from high-altitude to low-altitude stations, i.e. a pattern of mostly positive annual trends at higher stations and negative ones at lower stations. At mid-altitudes, trends are mostly insignificant. The trends were most probably caused by the following two main processes: On the one hand, melting glaciers produce excess runoff at high-altitude watersheds. On the other hand, increasing evapotranspiration results in decreasing trends at low-altitude watersheds. However, these patterns are masked at mid-altitudes because the resulting positive and negative trends balance each other. To verify these theories, we attributed the detected trends to specific causes. For this purpose, we analysed trends on a daily basis, as the causes for these changes might be restricted to a smaller temporal scale than the annual one. The daily trends were assessed by calculating 30-day moving average subsets and then estimating significance and magnitude. This allowed for the explicit pointing out of the exact days of year (DOY) when certain streamflow trends emerge and then relating them to the according DOYs of trends and annual cycles of other observed variables, e.g. the DOYs when snow height trends occur or the DOY when temperature crosses the freezing point in spring. Concerning trends caused by increased glacial melt, we applied correlation analyses between glacier area and trend magnitudes during the corresponding DOYs. As a result, the positive trends in spring were attributed to an earlier and more intense snow melt. The ones that follow in late spring at upper stations could be related to increased glacial melt. The negative trends in summertime that turn up earlier at low-altitude stations and later at high-altitude stations are most probably an effect of earlier and increased melt-out and evapotranspiration. The negative trends at upper stations in late summer were linked to decreased melt due to decreasing glacier surface area. Finally, the original hypothesis concerning annual trends was confirmed with a high level of confidence.

Kormann, Christoph; Morin, Efrat; Renner, Maik; Francke, Till; Bronstert, Axel

2014-05-01

61

On summary measure analysis of linear trend repeated measures data: performance comparison with two competing methods  

PubMed Central

Background The summary measure approach (SMA) is sometimes the only applicable tool for the analysis of repeated measurements in medical research, especially when the number of measurements is relatively large. This study aimed to describe techniques based on summary measures for the analysis of linear trend repeated measures data and then to compare performances of SMA, linear mixed model (LMM), and unstructured multivariate approach (UMA). Methods Practical guidelines based on the least squares regression slope and mean of response over time for each subject were provided to test time, group, and interaction effects. Through Monte Carlo simulation studies, the efficacy of SMA vs. LMM and traditional UMA, under different types of covariance structures, was illustrated. All the methods were also employed to analyze two real data examples. Results Based on the simulation and example results, it was found that the SMA completely dominated the traditional UMA and performed convincingly close to the best-fitting LMM in testing all the effects. However, the LMM was not often robust and led to non-sensible results when the covariance structure for errors was misspecified. The results emphasized discarding the UMA which often yielded extremely conservative inferences as to such data. Conclusions It was shown that summary measure is a simple, safe and powerful approach in which the loss of efficiency compared to the best-fitting LMM was generally negligible. The SMA is recommended as the first choice to reliably analyze the linear trend data with a moderate to large number of measurements and/or small to moderate sample sizes. PMID:22439982

2012-01-01

62

Review of trend detection methods and their application to detect temperature changes in India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SummaryPresent study performs the spatial and temporal trend analysis of annual, monthly and seasonal maximum and minimum temperatures (tmax, tmin) in India. Recent trends in annual, monthly, winter, pre-monsoon, monsoon and post-monsoon extreme temperatures (tmax, tmin) have been analyzed for three time slots viz. 1901-2003, 1948-2003 and 1970-2003. For this purpose, time series of extreme temperatures of India as a whole and seven homogeneous regions, viz. Western Himalaya (WH), Northwest (NW), Northeast (NE), North Central (NC), East coast (EC), West coast (WC) and Interior Peninsula (IP) are considered. Rigorous trend detection analysis has been exercised using variety of non-parametric methods which consider the effect of serial correlation during analysis. During the last three decades minimum temperature trend is present in All India as well as in all temperature homogeneous regions of India either at annual or at any seasonal level (winter, pre-monsoon, monsoon, post-monsoon). Results agree with the earlier observation that the trend in minimum temperature is significant in the last three decades over India (Kothawale et al., 2010). Sequential MK test reveals that most of the trend both in maximum and minimum temperature began after 1970 either in annual or seasonal levels.

Sonali, P.; Nagesh Kumar, D.

2013-01-01

63

Filamentary microstructure and linear temperature dependence of normal state transport in optimized high temperature?superconductors  

PubMed Central

A filamentary model of metallic conduction in layered high temperature superconductive cuprates explains the concurrence of normal state resistivities (Hall mobilities) linear in T (T?2) with optimized superconductivity. The model predicts the lowest temperature T0 for which linearity holds and it also predicts the maximum superconductive transition temperature Tc. The theory abandons the effective medium approximation that includes Fermi liquid as well as all other nonpercolative models in favor of countable smart basis states. PMID:11038596

Phillips, J. C.

1997-01-01

64

Summer temperature trend over the past two millennia using air content in Himalayan ice  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two Himalayan ice cores display a factor-two decreasing trend of air content over the past two millennia, in contrast to the relatively stable values in Greenland and Antarctica ice cores over the same period. Because the air content can be related with the relative frequency and intensity of melt phenomena, its variations along the Himalayan ice cores provide an indication of summer temperature trend. Our reconstruction point toward an unprecedented warming trend in the 20th century but does not depict the usual trends associated with "Medieval Warm Period" (MWP), or "Little Ice Age" (LIA).

Hou, S.; Chappellaz, J.; Jouzel, J.; Chu, P. C.; Masson-Delmotte, V.; Qin, D.; Raynaud, D.; Mayewski, P. A.; Lipenkov, V. Y.; Kang, S.

2007-02-01

65

Summer temperature trend over the past two millennia using air content in Himalayan ice  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two Himalayan ice cores display a factor-two decreasing trend of air content over the past two millennia, in contrast to the relatively stable values in Greenland and Antarctica ice cores over the same period. Because the air content can be related with the relative frequency and intensity of melt phenomena, its variations along the Himalayan ice cores provide an indication of summer temperature trend. Our reconstruction point toward an unprecedented warming trend in the 20th century but does not depict the usual trends associated with "Medieval Warm Period" (MWP), or "Little Ice Age" (LIA).

Hou, S.; Chappellaz, J.; Jouzel, J.; Chu, P. C.; Masson-Delmotte, V.; Qin, D.; Raynaud, D.; Mayewski, P. A.; Lipenkov, V. Y.; Kang, S.

2005-09-01

66

Recent variability and trends of Antarctic near-surface temperature Andrew J. Monaghan,1  

E-print Network

Recent variability and trends of Antarctic near-surface temperature Andrew J. Monaghan,1 David H to anthropogenic influences or multidecadal variability. Citation: Monaghan, A. J., D. H. Bromwich, W. Chapman

Howat, Ian M.

67

Qualitative comparison of air temperature trends based on ncar/ncep reanalysis, model simulations and aerological observations data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the present study we discuss two points. The first one is related with applicability of reanalysis data to investigating long-term climate variability. We present results of comparison of long term air temperature trends for the troposphere and the low stratosphere calculated using monthly averaged NCAR/NCEP reanalysis data on one hand and direct rawinsond observations from 443 stations on the other. The trends and other statistical characteristics are calculated for two overlapping time periods, namely 1964 through 1998, and 1979 through 1998. These two intervals were chosen in order to examine the influence of satellite observations on the reanalysis data, given that most satellite data have appeared after 1979. Vertical profiles of air temperature trends are also analyzed using the two types of data for different seasons. A special criterion is applied to evaluate the degree of coincidence by sign between the air temperatures trends derived from the two types of data. Vertical sections of the linear trend averaged over the 10-degrees zones for the both hemispheres are analyzed. It is shown that the two types of data exhibit good coincidence in the terms of the trend sign for the low and middle troposphere and low stratosphere over the areas well covered by the rawinsond observation net. Significant differences of the air temperature trend values are observed near the land surface and in the tropopause layer. The absolute value of the cooling rate of the tropical low stratosphere based on the rawinsond data is larger then that based on the reanalysis data. The presence of a positive trend in the low troposphere in the belt from 40N to 70N is evident in the two data sets. A comparative analysis of the trends for the both periods of observation shows that introducing satellite information in the reanalysis data resulted in an increase of the number of stations where the signs of the trend derived from the two sets of data coincide, especially in the southeastern part of Eurasia. The second part of the present study is related with another question. How do well climate model simulations match temperature observations throughout the atmosphere? Estimates of monthly-mean troposphere and stratospheric temperature trends over the past twenty years, from different hydrodynamical models (INM - model of Institute of Numerical Mathematics, RHMC - model of Hydrometeorological Center of Russia) are compared both with each other and with the observed trend analyses using aerological observations. We verified if the agreement is good between models and observations in term of cooling in the lower stratosphere and the tropospheric warming, which are strong indicators of climate change. Spatial inconsistencies between the observed and modelled vertical patterns of temperature change are identified. This work was partially supported by RFFI foundation N 03-05-64312, NATO grant EST.CLG.978911 and INTAS grant 03515296.

Rubinstein, K. G.; Khan, V. M.; Sterin, A. M.

68

Linear analysis of surface temperature dynamics and climate sensitivity  

E-print Network

iii ABSTRACT Linear Analysis of Surface Temperature Dynamics and Climate Sensitivity. (December 2005) Wei Wu, B.S., Ocean University of China; M.S., Ocean University of China Co-Chairs of Advisory Committee: Dr. Gerald R. North......................................................................................................................... 81 ix LIST OF FIGURES FIGURE Page 1 Ocean-family modes...

Wu, Wei

2007-04-25

69

Sea Surface Temperature Trends of the Gulf Stream  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students use NASA satellite data to explore the seasonal changes in sea surface temperatures of the Gulf Stream. Students use NASA's Live Active Server (LAS) to generate data of sea surface temperatures in the Gulf Stream, which they then graph and analyze.

Rex Roettger

70

Precise monitoring of global temperature trends from satellites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Passive microwave radiometry from satellites provides more precise atmospheric temperature information than that obtained from the relatively sparse distribution of thermometers over the earth's surface. Accurate global atmospheric temperature estimates are needed for detection of possible greenhouse warming, evaluation of computer models of climate change, and for understanding important factors in the climate system. Analysis of the first 10 years

R. W. Spencer; J. R. Christy

1990-01-01

71

Problems in evaluating regional and local trends in temperature: An example from eastern Colorado, USA  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We evaluated long-term trends in average maximum and minimum temperatures, threshold temperatures, and growing season in eastern Colorado, USA, to explore the potential shortcomings of many climate-change studies that either: (1) generalize regional patterns from single stations, single seasons, or a few parameters over short duration from averaging dissimilar stations: or (2) generalize an average regional pattern from coarse-scale general circulation models. Based on 11 weather stations, some trends were weakly regionally consistent with previous studies of night-time temperature warming. Long-term (80 + years) mean minimum temperatures increased significantly (P < 0.2) in about half the stations in winter, spring, and autumn and six stations had significant decreases in the number of days per year with temperatures ??? - 17.8 ??C (???0??F). However, spatial and temporal variation in the direction of change was enormous for all the other weather parameters tested, and, in the majority of tests, few stations showed significant trends (even at P < 0.2). In summer, four stations had significant increases and three stations had significant decreases in minimum temperatures, producing a strongly mixed regional signal. Trends in maximum temperature varied seasonally and geographically, as did trends in threshold temperature days ???32.2??C (???90??F) or days ???37.8??C (???100??F). There was evidence of a subregional cooling in autumn's maximum temperatures, with five stations showing significant decreasing trends. There were many geographic anomalies where neighbouring weather stations differed greatly in the magnitude of change or where they had significant and opposite trends. We conclude that sub-regional spatial and seasonal variation cannot be ignored when evaluating the direction and magnitude of climate change. It is unlikely that one or a few weather stations are representative of regional climate trends, and equally unlikely that regionally projected climate change from coarse-scale general circulation models will accurately portray trends at sub-regional scales. However, the assessment of a group of stations for consistent more qualitative trends (such as the number of days less than - 17.8??C, such as we found) provides a reasonably robust procedure to evaluate climate trends and variability. Copyright ?? 2002 Royal Meteorological Society.

Pielke, R.A., Sr.; Stohlgren, T.; Schell, L.; Parton, W.; Doesken, N.; Redmond, K.; Moeny, J.; McKee, T.; Kittel, T.G.F.

2002-01-01

72

Recent trends in daily temperature extremes over southern Montenegro (1951-2010)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Montenegro so far has been poorly investigated in terms of climate extremes. The aim of this paper was to analyse the extreme ETCCDI (Expert Team on Climate Change Detection and Indices) temperature indices in the Mediterranean region of Montenegro for the period of 1951-2010. Four stations in the coastal area of Montenegro have been analysed: Herceg Novi, Ulcinj, Budva and Bar. Two periods (before 1980 and after 1980) were separately investigated in this study due to a well-known climate shift that occurred in the late 1970s. Seven indices of temperature extremes have been chosen. The trend was analysed using a Mann-Kendall non-parametric test, while the slope was estimated using Sen's slope estimator. A negative trend has been calculated for cold nights and cold days at almost all stations. The most significant positive trends were obtained for warm conditions. The two separately investigated periods have shown contrasting temperature trends.

Buri?, D.; Lukovi?, J.; Duci?, V.; Dragojlovi?, J.; Doderovi?, M.

2014-01-01

73

Recent trends in daily temperature extremes over southern Montenegro (1951-2010)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Montenegro so far has been poorly investigated in terms of climate extremes. The aim of this paper was to analyse the extreme ETCCD temperature indices in the Mediterranean region of Montenegro for the period of 1951-2010. Four stations in the coastal area of Montenegro have been analysed: Herceg Novi, Ulcinj, Budva and Bar. Two periods (before 1980 and after 1980) were separately investigated in this study due to a well known climate shift that occurred in the late 1970's. Seven indices of temperature extremes have been chosen. The trend was analysed using a Man-Kendall non parametric test while the slope was estimated using Sen's slope estimator. A negative trend has been calculated for cold nights and cold days at almost all stations. The most significant positive trends were obtained for warm conditions. Two separately investigated periods have shown contrasting temperature trends.

Buri?, D.; Lukovi?, J.; Duci?, V.; Dragojlovi?, J.; Doderovi?, M.

2013-10-01

74

Interpretation of interdecadal trends in northern hemisphere surface air temperature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Monthly mean time series of (1) surface air temperature anomalies averaged over the Northern Hemisphere based on data from land stations, (2) sea surface temperature anomalies averaged over the Northern Hemisphere oceans, and (3) 1000-500-mb thickness anomalies averaged over the region poleward of 40°N are examined. The data are stratified in terms of warm (May - October) and cold (November

J. M. Wallace; Yuan Zhang; L. Bajuk

1996-01-01

75

Interpretation of Interdecadal Trends in Northern Hemisphere Surface Air Temperature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Monthly Mean time series of 1) surface air temperature anomalies averaged over the Northern Hemisphere based on data from land stations, 2) sea surface temperature anomalies averaged over the Northern Hemisphere oceans, and 3) 1000-500-mb thickness anomalies averaged over the region poleward of 40N are examined. The data are stratified in terms of warm (May-October) and cold (November-April) seasons. Time

John M. Wallace; Yuan Zhang; Louis Bajuk

1996-01-01

76

Linear spatial temperature distribution fibre Bragg grating sensor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A study is presented of the application of commercially available FBGs (fibre Bragg gratings) to measure temperature gradients. The optical measurement system is based on an electronically tuned solid-state laser, S-TLD. FBG sensor calibration is carried out using a dual Peltier water-cooled system, with which linear temperature gradients are applied to the FBG, resulting in chirping along the grating. Spectral parameters are extracted from reflection intensity spectra using LabView software. A 'look-up table' approach is then used as a means of solving the inverse problem. Quantified worst-case errors associated with each estimated temperature value are presented, and in this way the accuracy of the temperature measurements are discussed. Based on our experimental results a novel proposal to use pre-chirped FBGs to optimize temperature gradient sensing is made.

Larkin, Alan G.; Sheridan, John T.

2004-04-01

77

Resistance thermometer has linear resistance-temperature coefficient at low temperatures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Resistance thermometer incorporating a germanium resistance element with a platinum resistance element in a wheatstone bridge circuit has a linear temperature-resistance coefficient over a range from approximately minus 140 deg C to approximately minus 253 deg C.

Kuzyk, W.

1966-01-01

78

Sea Surface Temperature Trends of the Gulf Stream  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

One of the most studied and important ocean currents of the world lies along the eastern coast of the United States and is called the Gulf Stream. It derives its name from its source region of warm water in the Gulf of Mexico. For the past two decades, scientists have been collecting sea surface temperature (SST) data from satellites, buoys and ships in the Gulf Stream and Atlantic Basin. In this three-part lesson, students will explore the Live Access Server (LAS) and produce plots of sea surface temperature. They then prepare a time series of data for particular location(s) on the Gulf Stream and use Excel to produce and analyze graphs of sea surface temperature. The lesson provides detailed procedure, related links, sample graphs, follow-up questions, extensions, and teacher notes.

2006-10-31

79

The paradox of cooling streams in a warming world: regional climate trends do not parallel variable local trends in stream temperature in the Pacific continental United States  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Temperature is a fundamentally important driver of ecosystem processes in streams. Recent warming of terrestrial climates around the globe has motivated concern about consequent increases in stream temperature. More specifically, observed trends of increasing air temperature and declining stream flow are widely believed to result in corresponding increases in stream temperature. Here, we examined the evidence for this using long-term stream temperature data from minimally and highly human-impacted sites located across the Pacific continental United States. Based on hypothesized climate impacts, we predicted that we should find warming trends in the maximum, mean and minimum temperatures, as well as increasing variability over time. These predictions were not fully realized. Warming trends were most prevalent in a small subset of locations with longer time series beginning in the 1950s. More recent series of observations (1987-2009) exhibited fewer warming trends and more cooling trends in both minimally and highly human-influenced systems. Trends in variability were much less evident, regardless of the length of time series. Based on these findings, we conclude that our perspective of climate impacts on stream temperatures is clouded considerably by a lack of long-termdata on minimally impacted streams, and biased spatio-temporal representation of existing time series. Overall our results highlight the need to develop more mechanistic, process-based understanding of linkages between climate change, other human impacts and stream temperature, and to deploy sensor networks that will provide better information on trends in stream temperatures in the future.

Arismendi, Ivan; Johnson, Sherri; Dunham, Jason; Haggerty, Roy; Hockman-Wert, David

2012-01-01

80

External Resource: Surface Air Temperature Trends of the Caribbean  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity allows learners/students to use real satellite data to determine the changes in near-surface air temperature at different times of the year over the Caribbean Sea. Upon completion of the activity, learners should be able to state how Earth's

1900-01-01

81

Recent Trends in Land Surface Temperature on the Tibetan Plateau  

Microsoft Academic Search

The diurnal, seasonal, and interannual variations in land surface temperature (LST) on the Tibetan Plateau from 1996 to 2002 are analyzed using the hourly LST dataset obtained by Japanese Geostationary Meteorological Satellite 5 (GMS-5) observations. Comparing LST retrieved from GMS-5 with independent precipitation amount data demonstrates the consistent and complementary relationship between them. The results indicate an increase in the

Yuichiro Oku; Hirohiko Ishikawa; Shigenori Haginoya; Yaoming Ma

2006-01-01

82

Effect of data homogenization on estimate of temperature trend: a case of Huairou station in Beijing Municipality  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Daily minimum temperature (Tmin) and maximum temperature (Tmax) data of Huairou station in Beijing from 1960 to 2008 are examined and adjusted for inhomogeneities by applying the data of two nearby reference stations. Urban effects on the linear trends of the original and adjusted temperature series are estimated and compared. Results show that relocations of station cause obvious discontinuities in the data series, and one of the discontinuities for Tmin are highly significant when the station was moved from downtown to suburb in 1996. The daily Tmin and Tmax data are adjusted for the inhomogeneities. The mean annual Tmin and Tmax at Huairou station drop by 1.377C and 0.271C respectively after homogenization. The adjustments for Tmin are larger than those for Tmax, especially in winter, and the seasonal differences of the adjustments are generally more obvious for Tmin than for Tmax. Urban effects on annual mean Tmin and Tmax trends are -0.004C/10 year and -0.035C/10 year respectively for the original data, but they increase to 0.388C/10 year and 0.096C/10 year respectively for the adjusted data. The increase is more significant for the annual mean Tmin series. Urban contributions to the overall trends of annual mean Tmin and Tmax reach 100% and 28.8% respectively for the adjusted data. Our analysis shows that data homogenization for the stations moved from downtowns to suburbs can lead to a significant overestimate of rising trends of surface air temperature, and this necessitates a careful evaluation and adjustment for urban biases before the data are applied in analyses of local and regional climate change.

Zhang, Lei; Ren, Guo-Yu; Ren, Yu-Yu; Zhang, Ai-Ying; Chu, Zi-Ying; Zhou, Ya-Qing

2014-02-01

83

Trends in ozone and temperature structure: comparison of theory and measurements  

SciTech Connect

Comparison of model calculated trends in ozone and temperature due to inferred variations in trace gas concentrations and solar flux, is made with available analyses of observations. In general, the calculated trends in total ozone and the vertical ozone distribution agree well with the measured trends. However, there are too many remaining theoretical and sampling uncertainties to establish causality. Although qualitatively in agreement, the observed temperature decrease in the upper stratosphere is significantly larger than that calculated. Theoretical results suggest a significant influence on stratospheric ozone from solar flux variations, but observational evidence is at best inconclusive. Overall, the trend comparisons tend to be consistent with the hypothesis that several different anthropogenic influences are affecting the present global atmosphere. 7 references, 3 figures, 2 tables.

Wuebbles, D.J.

1984-08-01

84

Evidence for influence of anthropogenic surface processes on lower tropospheric and surface temperature trends  

Microsoft Academic Search

In de Laat and Maurellis (2004), a new framework was introduced in the form of a spatial-thresholding trend technique for analyzing the correlation between anthropogenic surface processes (e.g. changes in land use, albedo, soil moisture, groundwater levels, solar absorption by soot or energy consumption) and lower tropospheric and surface temperature trends for the period 1979-2001. In situ measured surface and

A. T. J. De Laat; A. N. Maurellis

2006-01-01

85

Interdecadal oscillations and the warming trend in global temperature time series  

Microsoft Academic Search

THE ability to distinguish a warming trend from natural variability is critical for an understanding of the climatic response to increasing greenhouse-gas concentrations. Here we use singular spectrum analysis1 to analyse the time series of global surface air tem-peratures for the past 135 years2, allowing a secular warming trend and a small number of oscillatory modes to be separated from

M. Ghil; R. Vautard

1991-01-01

86

Analysis of sampling error uncertainties and trends in maximum and minimum temperatures in China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we report an analysis of sampling error uncertainties in mean maximum and minimum temperatures (Tmax and Tmin) carried out on monthly, seasonal and annual scales, including an examination of homogenized and original data collected at 731 meteorological stations across China for the period 1951-2004. Uncertainties of the gridded data and national average, linear trends and their uncertainties, as well as the homogenization effect on uncertainties are assessed. It is shown that the sampling error variances of homogenized Tmax and Tmin, which are larger in winter than in summer, have a marked northwest-southeast gradient distribution, while the sampling error variances of the original data are found to be larger and irregular. Tmax and Tmin increase in all months of the year in the study period 1951-2004, with the largest warming and uncertainties being 0.400C (10 yr)-1 0.269C (10 yr)-1 and 0.578C (10 yr)-1 0.211C (10 yr)-1 in February, and the least being 0.022C (10 yr)-1 0.085C (10 yr)-1 and 0.104C (10 yr)-1 0.070C (10 yr)-1 in August. Homogenization can remove large uncertainties in the original records resulting from various non-natural changes in China.

Hua, Wei; Shen, Samuel S. P.; Wang, Huijun

2014-03-01

87

Output trends, characteristics, and measurements of three megavoltage radiotherapy linear accelerators.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study is to characterize and understand the long-term behavior of the output from megavoltage radiotherapy linear accelerators. Output trends of nine beams from three linear accelerators over a period of more than three years are reported and analyzed. Output, taken during daily warm-up, forms the basis of this study. The output is measured using devices having ion chambers. These are not calibrated by accredited dosimetry laboratory, but are baseline-compared against monthly output which is measured using calibrated ion chambers. We consider the output from the daily check devices as it is, and sometimes normalized it by the actual output measured during the monthly calibration of the linacs. The data show noisy quasi-periodic behavior. The output variation, if normalized by monthly measured "real' output, is bounded between 3%. Beams of different energies from the same linac are correlated with a correlation coefficient as high as 0.97, for one particular linac, and as low as 0.44 for another. These maximum and minimum correlations drop to 0.78 and 0.25 when daily output is normalized by the monthly measurements. These results suggest that the origin of these correlations is both the linacs and the daily output check devices. Beams from different linacs, independent of their energies, have lower correlation coefficient, with a maximum of about 0.50 and a minimum of almost zero. The maximum correlation drops to almost zero if the output is normalized by the monthly measured output. Some scatter plots of pairs of beam output from the same linac show band-like structures. These structures are blurred when the output is normalized by the monthly calibrated output. Fourier decomposition of the quasi-periodic output is consistent with a 1/f power law. The output variation appears to come from a distorted normal distribution with a mean of slightly greater than unity. The quasi-periodic behavior is manifested in the seasonally averaged output, showing annual variability with negative variations in the winter and positive in the summer. This trend is weakened when the daily output is normalized by the monthly calibrated output, indicating that the variation of the periodic component may be intrinsic to both the linacs and the daily measurement devices. Actual linac output was measured monthly. It needs to be adjusted once every three to six months for our tolerance and action levels. If these adjustments are artificially removed, then there is an increase in output of about 2%-4% per year. PMID:25207404

Hossain, Murshed

2014-01-01

88

MY NASA DATA: Surface Air Temperature Trends of the Caribbean  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, students will use real satellite data to determine the changes in near-surface air temperature over the Caribbean Sea at different times of the year. Step-by-step instructions for use of the MY NASA DATA Live Access Server (LAS) guide students through selecting a data set, importing the data into a spreadsheet, creating graphs, and analyzing data plots. The lesson provides detailed procedures, related links and sample graphs, follow-up questions, extensions, and teacher notes. Designed for student use, MY NASA DATA LAS samples micro datasets from large scientific data archives, and provides structured investigations engaging students in exploration of real data to answer real world questions.

89

Global climate models bias in surface temperature trends and variability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Earth has warmed in the last century with the most rapid warming occurring near the surface in the Arctic. This Arctic amplification occurs partly because the extra heat is trapped in a thin layer of air near the surface due to the persistent stable-stratification found in this region. The amount of warming depends upon the extent of turbulent mixing in the atmosphere, which is described by the depth of the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL). Global climate models (GCMs) tend to over-estimate the depth of stably-stratified ABLs, and here we show that GCM biases in the ABL depth are strongly correlated with biases in the surface temperature variability. This highlights the need for a better description of the stably-stratified ABL in GCMs in order to constrain the current uncertainty in climate variability and projections of climate change in the surface layer.

Davy, Richard; Esau, Igor

2014-11-01

90

Regional features of the temperature trend in China based on Empirical Mode Decomposition  

Microsoft Academic Search

By the Empirical Mode Decomposition method, we analyzed the observed monthly average temperature in more than 700 stations\\u000a from 19512001 over China. Simultaneously, the temperature variability of each station is calculated by this method, and classification\\u000a chart of long term trend and temperature variability distributing chart of China are obtained, supported by GIS, 1 km1 km\\u000a resolution. The results show

Xian Sun; Zhenshan Lin; Xiaoxia Cheng; Chuangye Jiang

2008-01-01

91

Trends in summer extreme temperatures over the Iberian Peninsula using nonurban station data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Heat wave event trends over the Iberian Peninsula (IP) are studied using extreme value theory, specifically the peaks-over-threshold (POT) approach. Summer (June-August) daily temperature records from 20 observatories regularly distributed over Iberia in places far from urban effects were available for the common period 1961-2010. Heat waves are defined as days occurring above the 95th percentile of the temperature distribution, considering both maximum (Tmax) and minimum (Tmin) temperatures. These events were identified using a "run declustering" scheme to select independent extreme events exceeding the threshold. Also, the dates of occurrence of the independent events were fitted to a Poisson process. Trends in the following parameters were studied: the scale parameter of the POT approach, the Poisson intensity, mean, return level period, and low (25th percentile) and high (75th percentile) values. The optimal trends in the Poisson intensity considering both Tmax and Tmin show a major increase in the occurrence of heat waves. Also, the rise in the return level trend was less than that in the mean of Tmin and Tmax, and the analysis of the values of Tminand Tmax showed a greater increasing trend in the low values (25th percentile) than in the high values (75th percentile), especially for Tmax, leading to a decrease in the variance. Over the IP, temperature extremes are increasing but not as much as the mean because the variance is tending to decrease. This highlights the important role of variance in the evolution of extremes.

Acero, F. J.; Garca, Jos Agustn.; Gallego, Mara. Cruz; Parey, Sylvie; Dacunha-Castelle, Didier

2014-01-01

92

Recent warming trends inferred from borehole temperature data in Figuig area (Eastern Morocco)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ground surface temperature history (GSTH) reflecting the past climate conditions in eastern Morocco was evaluated by analyzing the temperature-depth profiles measured in four boreholes at the Figuig Oasis. The temperature-depth data were inverted using the functional space inversion method in order to reconstruct the surface temperature past changes. The results reveal a recent warming in the last century with an amplitude of 1-3 C for the four boreholes and a comparison with surface air temperature (SAT) variation from the Bouarfa and Bechar meteorological stations confirms this result. This warming trend is confirmed by other climate proxies.

Ouzzaouit, Lalla Amina; Bakraoui, Alae; Benalioulhaj, Nouredine; Carneiro, Julio; Correia, Antonio; Jilali, Abdelhakim; Rimi, Abdelkrim; Zarhloule, Yassine

2014-08-01

93

Forecasting Groundwater Temperature with Linear Regression Models Using Historical Data.  

PubMed

Although temperature is an important determinant of many biogeochemical processes in groundwater, very few studies have attempted to forecast the response of groundwater temperature to future climate warming. Using a composite linear regression model based on the lagged relationship between historical groundwater and regional air temperature data, empirical forecasts were made of groundwater temperature in several aquifers in Switzerland up to the end of the current century. The model was fed with regional air temperature projections calculated for greenhouse-gas emissions scenarios A2, A1B, and RCP3PD. Model evaluation revealed that the approach taken is adequate only when the data used to calibrate the models are sufficiently long and contain sufficient variability. These conditions were satisfied for three aquifers, all fed by riverbank infiltration. The forecasts suggest that with respect to the reference period 1980 to 2009, groundwater temperature in these aquifers will most likely increase by 1.1 to 3.8?K by the end of the current century, depending on the greenhouse-gas emissions scenario employed. PMID:25412761

Figura, Simon; Livingstone, David M; Kipfer, Rolf

2014-11-20

94

Global Temporal Trends in Surface and Free-Air Equivalent Temperatures at High Elevations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reconciling differences between temporal trends in surface (land station) and free-air (radiosonde and satellite) temperature data concerns the international scientific community. This paper examines the differences between temporal trends in surface temperature observations at high elevation and interpolated free-air equivalent temperatures from both NCEP/NCAR reanalyses and CARDS (radiosonde data) for recent decades. Preliminary analysis of screen maxima and minima from a range of high elevation SNOTEL (Snow-Telemetry) sites in the western U.S. vs free-air equivalent temperatures interpolated from the NCAR/NCEP reanalysis yielded systematic diurnal and annual signals in the free-air/surface temperature differences. Long-term trends in such differences over the last 20 years are significant at many locations, but vary by magnitude and sign, and are dependent on topography and elevation. Such temporal trends indicate that the Earth's surface may be responding to climate change in a contrasting way to the free atmosphere over this time horizon. Possible mechanisms for such decoupling are discussed.

Pepin, N. C.

2003-12-01

95

Temperature trends at the mesosphere and lower thermosphere based on rocket data, satellite data and numeric modeling.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The results of temperature trends at the mesosphere and lower thermosphere during last decades are presented. The data of the rocket sounding on Heis, Molodyozhnaya stations for period 1969-1995 and on Volgograd station for period 1969-2005 were used in analysis. Obtained results were compared with temperature trends simulated by CCSM-WACCM model for period 1955-2005. The temperature trends based on Saber instrument installed on TIMED satellite for period 2002-2014 are also presented.

Kiryushov, Boris; Yushkov, Vladimir; Fyodorov, Valery; Tsvetkova, Nataliya

96

Association between trends in daily rainfall percentiles and the global mean temperature  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Attributing changes in extreme daily precipitation to global warming is difficult, even when based on global climate model simulations or statistical trend analyses. The question about trends in extreme precipitation and their causes has been elusive because of climate models' limited precision and the fact that extremes are both rare and occur at irregular intervals. Here a newly discovered empirical relationship between the wet-day mean and percentiles in 24 h precipitation amounts was used to show that trends in the wet-day 95th percentiles worldwide have been influenced by the global mean temperature, consistent with an accelerated hydrological cycle caused by a global warming. A multiple regression analysis was used as a basis for an attribution analysis by matching temporal variability in precipitation statistics with the global mean temperature.

Benestad, R. E.

2013-10-01

97

Trends of temperature and precipitation extremes in areas with semiarid climate in the North Eastern Spain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The analysis of extreme events has attracted the attention of different researchers during the last decade. Some research points out that they are part of the decadal fluctuation while the possibility of being an indicative of longer trends related to the anthropogenic induced climate change also exist. This study tries to contribute to the analysis of climate trends and climate extremes related to temperature and precipitation in areas with Mediterranean semiarid climate with maritime and continental trends, areas with rainfed agriculture being vineyards one of the main land use. Data series from 1952 to 2006 of daily temperature and precipitation recorded at three observatories were analysed: Lleida (latitude: 41.23 N, longitude 0.22 E), Vilafranca del Peneds (41.22 N, 1.41 E) and Cabacs (latitude 41.25 longitude: 0.73 E). For temperature, daily temperature extremes (days with temperatures higher than the corresponding to the 90% percentile and temperatures below the 10% percentile) as well as number of days that exceed various temperature thresholds were analysed for each season of the year. For precipitation, seasonal precipitation and in particular that recorded during the main rainfall periods and their trends as well as the number of wet days with precipitation higher that the corresponding the 95th percentile) and very wet days (days with precipitation higher that the corresponding the percentiles and 99% are analysed. Trends for the whole period and for each season were analysed. The analysis showed an increase of the mean annual maximum temperatures in the three observatories, with a significant increase of the number with extreme temperatures (T> T95% percentile). Maximum temperature increased at a rate ranging between 0.039 and 0.078 C/year, with for the last 45 years implies a mean increase higher than 2C, being higher in the observatory with higher continental influence. However, minimum temperatures only increased significantly in all seasons of the year in Vilafranca del Peneds (observatory with maritime influence) (0.03 C/year), while in Cabacs increased only in spring and summer (0.039 C/year) and in Lleida the trends were not significant. The number of days with high extreme temperatures increased significantly in the three observatories, being higher in the most arid area. The number of days with T>30C, critical temperature for vineyard optimal development, presents an increasing trend. The number of low extreme temperatures decreased in the observatories with maritime influence but increased in the most arid area. For precipitation, there were not significant changes in annual precipitation, but in Vilafranca and Lleida observatories, significant trends were observed for spring (decreasing) and autumn (increasing). The total number of wet days per year increased significantly in Vilafranca, but not in other two observatories, although they were irregularly distributed over the year, with an increase of extreme events and the fraction of total rainfall that these events represent in autumn and winter, and with an increase of the strength of the events in autumn. Most of water recorded during extreme events is lost by runoff and water available for plants is reduced. Effective rainfall does not cover evapotranspiration water needs during the grapevine growing period in most years and with a decreasing trend.

Ramos, M. C.; Jones, G. V.; Martnez-Casasnovas, J. A.

2009-04-01

98

Recent trends in regional air temperature and precipitation and links to global climate change in the Maharlo watershed, Southwestern Iran  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Trends in air temperature and precipitation data are investigated for linkages to global warming and climate change. After checking for serial correlation with trend-free pre-whitening procedure, the Mann-Kendall test is used to detect monotonic trends and the Mann-Whitney test is used for trend step change. The case study is Maharlo watershed, Southwestern Iran, representing a semi-arid environment. Data are for the 1951-2011 period, from four temperature sites and seven precipitation sites. A homogeneity test investigates regional similarity of the time series data. The results include mean annual, mean annual maximum and minimum and seasonal analysis of air temperature and precipitation data. Mean annual temperature results indicate an increasing trend, while a non-significant trend in precipitation is observed in all the stations. Furthermore, significant phase change was detected in mean annual air temperature trend of Shiraz station in 1977, indicating decreasing trend during 1951-1976 and increasing trend during 1977-2011. The annual precipitation analysis for Shiraz shows a non-significant decrease during 1951-1976 and 1977-2011. The result of homogeneity test reveals that the studied stations form one homogeneous region. While air temperature trends appear as regional linkage to global warming/global climate change, more definite outcome requires analysis of longer time series data on precipitation and air temperature.

Abolverdi, Javad; Ferdosifar, Ghasem; Khalili, Davar; Kamgar-Haghighi, Ali Akbar; Abdolahipour Haghighi, Mohammad

2014-11-01

99

Linear trends in salinity for the World Ocean, 19551998 Timothy P. Boyer, S. Levitus, J. I. Antonov, R. A. Locarnini, and H. E. Garcia  

E-print Network

Linear trends in salinity for the World Ocean, 1955­­1998 Timothy P. Boyer, S. Levitus, J. I; published 6 January 2005. [1] Quality controlled oceanographic profile salinity measurements from the World Ocean Database 2001 (WOD01) were used to calculate linear trends of zonally averaged salinity anomalies

100

Decadal Variability and Temperature Trends in the Middle Atmosphere From Historical Rocketsonde Data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Observational studies were performed using historical rocketsonde data to investigate long-term temperature trends, solar-cycle variations, and interactions between tropical and extratropical latitudes in the middle atmosphere. Evidence from tropical, subtropical, and midlatitude North American rocketsonde stations indicated a consistent downward trend over 25 years, with a solar cycle component superposed. The trend is about -1.4 to -2.0 K per decade and the amplitude of the decadal oscillation is about 1.1 K. Prior to trend derivation it was necessary for us to correct temperatures for aerodynamic heating in the early years. The empirically derived correction profile agrees well with a theoretical profile of Krumins and Lyons. A study was also performed of the correlation between equatorial winds and north polar temperatures in winter, showing that the entire stratospheric wind profile near the equator -- including the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO) and stratopause semiannual oscillation (SAO) -- is important to the extratropical flow, not merely the QBO component as previously thought. A strong correlation was discovered between winter polar temperatures and equatorial winds in the upper stratosphere during the preceding September, suggesting a role for the second cycle of the SAO.

Dunkerton, Timothy J.

2000-01-01

101

Global and hemispheric temperature trends: Uncertainties related to inadequate spatial sampling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Long-term (50 to 100 years) and short-term (10 to 30 years) global and hemispheric trends of temperature have an inherent unknown error due to incomplete and nonrandom spatial sampling. Experiments have been conducted to quantify the potential magnitude of this error. The analysis includes errors introduced into the climate record because of both incomplete global coverage and inadequate sampling within

Thomas R. Karl; Richard W. Knight; John R. Christy

1994-01-01

102

Modeled Global vs. Coastal Impacts on 1970 and 2005 Summer Daytime Temperature Trends in Coastal California  

Microsoft Academic Search

California summertime July to August (JJA) mean monthly air temperatures (1970-2005) were analyzed for two California air basins: South Coast (SoCAB) and the San Francisco Bay Area (SFBA), which extended into the Central Valley (CV). Daily Tmin and Tmax values were used to produce average monthly values and spatial distributions of and Tmax values trends for each air basin. Results

B. L. Habtezion; J. Gonzalez; R. D. Bornstein

2010-01-01

103

Predicting of Trend of Hemoglobin A1c in Type 2 Diabetes: A Longitudinal Linear Mixed Model  

PubMed Central

Background: There are some evidences that control the blood sugar decreasing the risk of diabetes complications, and even fatal. There are so many studies, but they are mostly cross-sectional and ignore the trend and hence it is necessary to implement a longitudinal study. The aim of this prospective study is to find the trend of glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) over time and the associative factors on it. Methods: Participants of this longitudinal study were 3440 eligible diabetes patients referred to Isfahan Endocrine and Metabolism Research Center during 2000-2012 who are measured 2-40 times. A linear mixed model was applied to determine the association between HbA1c and variables, including lipids, systolic, diastolic blood pressure and complications such as nephropathy, and retinopathy. Furthermore, the effect of mentioned variables on trend of HbA1c was determined. Results: The fitted model showed total cholesterol, retinopathy, and the method of therapy including oral antidiabetic drugs (OADs) plus insulin and insulin therapy decreased the trend of HbA1c and high-density lipoprotein, weight, hyperlipidemia and the method of therapy including diet, and OADs increased the trend of HbA1c. Conclusions: The present study shows that regular visits of diabetic patients as well as controlling blood pressure, lipid profile, and weight loss can improve the trend of HbA1c levels during the time. PMID:25400886

Kazemi, Elahe; Hosseini, Seyed Mohsen; Bahrampour, Abbass; Faghihimani, Elham; Amini, Masood

2014-01-01

104

Rising minimum temperature trends over India in recent decades: Implications for agricultural production  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The success of kharif crops in India is largely dependent on the performance of South west monsoon, whereas the rabi crops which are largely irrigated are sensitive to changes in temperature. Trends in minimum temperature for the period 1971-2009 were analyzed using 0.5 grid data for annual, kharif and rabi cropping seasons at the district level. Annual mean minimum temperature showed warming @ 0.24 10 yr- 1 on all India basis. Large area (52.7% in kharif, 54.9% in rabi) showed strong and significant warming trend. The magnitude of rise in seasonal mean temperatures is more during rabi (0.28 C 10 yr-1 ) compared to kharif (0.19 C 10 yr-1 ). Kharif paddy yields in 268 districts across the country (57.2% of paddy growing area) were influenced by a rise in minimum temperature. Declines in kharif paddy yield ranged between 411 and 859 kg ha-1 per 1 C rise in minimum temperature across regions. This warming trend is likely to continue with significant implication on crop yields and calls for development of suitable adaptation strategies to sustain production.

Bapuji Rao, B.; Santhibhushan Chowdary, P.; Sandeep, V. M.; Rao, V. U. M.; Venkateswarlu, B.

2014-06-01

105

Linearity between temperature peak and bioenergy CO2 emission rates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many future energy and emission scenarios envisage an increase of bioenergy in the global primary energy mix. In most climate impact assessment models and policies, bioenergy systems are assumed to be carbon neutral, thus ignoring the time lag between CO2 emissions from biomass combustion and CO2 uptake by vegetation. Here, we show that the temperature peak caused by CO2 emissions from bioenergy is proportional to the maximum rate at which emissions occur and is almost insensitive to cumulative emissions. Whereas the carbon-climate response (CCR; ref. ) to fossil fuel emissions is approximately constant, the CCR to bioenergy emissions depends on time, biomass turnover times, and emission scenarios. The linearity between temperature peak and bioenergy CO2 emission rates resembles the characteristic of the temperature response to short-lived climate forcers. As for the latter, the timing of CO2 emissions from bioenergy matters. Under the international agreement to limit global warming to 2 C by 2100, early emissions from bioenergy thus have smaller contributions on the targeted temperature than emissions postponed later into the future, especially when bioenergy is sourced from biomass with medium (50-60 years) or long turnover times (100 years).

Cherubini, Francesco; Gasser, Thomas; Bright, Ryan M.; Ciais, Philippe; Strmman, Anders H.

2014-11-01

106

Variability and trends in dynamical forcing of tropical lower stratospheric temperatures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The contribution of dynamical forcing to variations and trends in tropical lower stratospheric 70 hPa temperature for the period 1980-2011 is estimated based on ERA-Interim and Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) reanalysis data. The dynamical forcing is estimated from the tropical mean residual upwelling calculated with the momentum balance equation, and with a simple proxy based on eddy heat fluxes averaged between 25 and 75 in both hemispheres. The thermodynamic energy equation with Newtonian cooling is used to relate the dynamical forcing to temperature. The deseasonalised, monthly mean time series of all four calculations are highly correlated (~ 0.85) with temperature for the period 1995-2011 when variations in radiatively active tracers are small. All four calculations provide additional support to previously noted prominent aspects of the temperature evolution 1980-2011: an anomalously strong dynamical cooling (~ -1 to -2 K) following the Pinatubo eruption that partially offsets the warming from enhanced aerosol, and a few years of enhanced dynamical cooling (~ -0.4 K) after October 2000 that contributes to the prominent drop in water entering the stratosphere at that time. The time series of dynamically forced temperature calculated with the same method are more highly correlated and have more similar trends than those from the same reanalysis but with different methods. For 1980-2011 (without volcanic periods), the eddy heat flux calculations give a dynamical cooling of ~ -0.1 to ~ -0.25 K decade-1 (magnitude sensitive to latitude belt considered and reanalysis), largely due to increasing high latitude eddy heat flux trends in September and December-January. The eddy heat flux trends also explain the seasonality of temperature trends very well, with maximum cooling in January-February. Trends derived from momentum balance calculations show near-zero annual mean dynamical cooling, with weaker seasonal trends especially in December-January. These contradictory results arising from uncertainties in data and methods are discussed and put in context to previous analyses.

Fueglistaler, S.; Abalos, M.; Flannaghan, T. J.; Lin, P.; Randel, W. J.

2014-12-01

107

Latitude and Altitude Dependence of the Interannual Variability and Trends of Atmospheric Temperatures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 4-season (12-month) running means of temperatures at five atmospheric levels (surface, 850-300 mb, 300-100 mb, 100-50 mb, 100-30 mb) and seven climatic zones (60N-90N, 30N-60N, 10N-30N, 10N-10S, 10S-30S, 30S-60S, 60S-90S) showed QBO (Quasi-biennial Oscillation), QTO (Quasi-triennial Oscillation) and larger periodicities. For stratosphere and tropopause, the temperature variations near the equator and North Pole somewhat resembled the 50mb low latitude zonal winds, mainly due to prominent QBO. For troposphere and surface, the temperature variations, especially those near the equator, resemble those of eastern equatorial Pacific sea-surface temperatures, mainly due to prominent QTO. In general, the temperature trends in the last 35 years show stratospheric cooling and tropospheric warming. But the trends are not monotonic. For example, the surface trends were downward during 1960-70, upward during 1970-82, downward during 1982-85 and upward thereafter. Models of green-house warming should take these non-uniformities into account.

Kane, R. P.; Buriti, R. A.

1997-08-01

108

Land use/land cover change effects on temperature trends at U.S. Climate Normals stations  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Alterations in land use/land cover (LULC) in areas near meteorological observation stations can influence the measurement of climatological variables such as temperature. Urbanization near climate stations has been the focus of considerable research attention, however conversions between non-urban LULC classes may also have an impact. In this study, trends of minimum, maximum, and average temperature at 366 U.S. Climate Normals stations are analyzed based on changes in LULC defined by the U.S. Land Cover Trends Project. Results indicate relatively few significant temperature trends before periods of greatest LULC change, and these are generally evenly divided between warming and cooling trends. In contrast, after the period of greatest LULC change was observed, 95% of the stations that exhibited significant trends (minimum, maximum, or mean temperature) displayed warming trends. Copyriht 2006 by the American Geophysical Union.

Hale, R.C.; Gallo, K.P.; Owen, T.W.; Loveland, T.R.

2006-01-01

109

Pan-Arctic trends (1982-2006) in temperature and bioclimatological indicators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Warming induced changes in Arctic vegetation have to date been studied mostly through field studies, or through the examination of trends in a single bioclimatological indicator over time. The central objective of this study was to analyze pan-Arctic trends in temperature in relation to four established bioclimatological indicators: spring onset, autumn onset, maximum annual Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and total annual Net Primary Productivity (NPP). A secondary objective was to assess agreement in short-term trends between model and field measured NPP. The following data sources were used: Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer Polar Pathfinder Extended for temperature; 2) Global Inventory Modeling and Mapping Studies for NDVI; and 3) Global Productivity Efficiency Model for NPP. Data sets were processed in Matlab, and regional scale trends were analyzed statistically using Mann-Kendall's test and Sen's slope. Increases in temperature, total annual NPP and maximum annual NDVI were observed. Many of the observed rises are located in regions of Alaska that have been the focus of numerous field studies. Increases in NDVI and NPP were found to be closely associated with increases in temperature, which indicates warming induced changes in Arctic carbon cycling and biomass. Variations in spring and autumn onset dates were largely non-significant although field studies have found significant shifts to earlier spring onset. Comparisons of the model NPP trend to a time series of field NPP estimates indicated low agreement, indicating a need for better calibration of Arctic NPP estimates. Conclusions focus on implications of these findings for future work.

Luus, K. A.; Kelly, R. E.

2009-12-01

110

Ozone and temperature decadal trends in the stratosphere, mesosphere and lower thermosphere, based on measurements from SABER on TIMED  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have derived ozone and temperature trends from years 2002 through 2012, from 20 to 100 km altitude, and 48 S to 48 N latitude, based on measurements from the Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission Radiometry (SABER) instrument on the Thermosphere, Ionosphere, Mesosphere Energetics and Dynamics (TIMED) satellite. For the first time, trends of ozone and temperature measured at the same times and locations are obtained, and their correlations should provide useful information about the relative importance of photochemistry versus dynamics over the longer term. We are not aware of comparable results covering this time period and spatial extent. For stratospheric ozone, until the late 1990s, previous studies found negative trends (decreasing amounts). In recent years, some empirical and modeling studies have shown the occurrence of a turnaround in the decreasing ozone, possibly beginning in the late 1990s, suggesting that the stratospheric ozone trend is leveling off or even turning positive. Our global results add more definitive evidence, expand the coverage, and show that at mid-latitudes (north and south) in the stratosphere, the ozone trends are indeed positive, with ozone having increased by a few percent from 2002 through 2012. However, in the tropics, we find negative ozone trends between 25 and 50 km. For stratospheric temperatures, the trends are mostly negatively correlated to the ozone trends. The temperature trends are positive in the tropics between 30 and 40 km, and between 20 and 25 km, at approximately 24 N and at 24 S latitude. The stratospheric temperature trends are otherwise mostly negative. In the mesosphere, the ozone trends are mostly flat, with suggestions of small positive trends at lower latitudes. The temperature trends in this region are mostly negative, showing decreases of up to ~ -3 K decade-1. In the lower thermosphere (between ~ 85 and 100 km), ozone and temperature trends are both negative. The ozone trend can approach ~ -10% decade-1, and the temperature trend can approach ~ -3 K decade-1. Aside from trends, these patterns of ozone-temperature correlations are consistent with previous studies of ozone and temperature perturbations such as the quasi-biennial (QBO) and semiannual (SAO) oscillations, and add confidence to the results.

Huang, F. T.; Mayr, H. G.; Russell, J. M., III; Mlynczak, M. G.

2014-08-01

111

MY NASA DATA: Trends in Snow Cover and Temperature in Alaska  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson is designed to help students gain knowledge in using the MY NASA DATA Live Access Server (LAS) to specify and download a microset of data, and then to use the data to compare NASA satellite observations data with surface measurements of snow cover and temperature. Students will obtain snow cover and surface temperature data for a locale in Alaska, plot the data, and then investigate seasonal trends in snow cover, and the relationship between snow cover and surface temperature at that locale. The lesson provides detailed procedure, related links and sample graphs, follow-up questions and extensions, and Teacher Notes.

2006-04-10

112

Investigation of the low-temperature performance of asphalt mixtures via fatigue and linear contraction and creep test  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three types of asphalt mixtures, including asphalt concrete (AC), stone mastic asphalt (SMA) and porous asphalt (PA) with a 13mm gradation, are chosen to study the fatigue behavior, linear contraction and creep performance of them. The analysis of the experimental results is summarized as follows. The asphalt mixture exhibits longer fatigue life at low temperature than that at high temperature. But the fatigue life is more sensitive to the loading stress at low temperature. At the same time, the fatigue lives of all the three mixture gradations show decreasing trends with the increasing stress, which implies that restraining over-loading of highways is quite important. The linear contractive quotiety shows great distinction with the types of asphalt mixture gradations and temperature span, which indicates that modified asphalt and lower air voids can benefit to the contractive properties of asphalt mixtures at low temperature. Additionally, the linear contractive quotiety decreases with the falling of the temperature, meanwhile the distinctions between different temperature spans tend to slower. The creep test indicates that lower air voids and larger asphalt content are beneficial to the low temperature performance of asphalt.

Liu, Conghui; Wu, Shaopeng; Li, Bo; Wang, Jingang

2008-11-01

113

Trends in surface air temperature and temperature extremes in the Great Basin during the 20th century from ground-based observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We analyzed trends in surface air temperature and temperature extremes in the Great Basin during 1901-2010. We found that annual average daily minimum temperature increased significantly (0.9 0.2C) during the study period, with daily maximum temperature increasing only slightly. The asymmetric increase in daily minimum and maximum temperature resulted in daily diurnal temperature range (DTR) decreasing significantly from 1901 to 2010. Seasonally, increases in daily minimum temperature and decreases in DTR occurred in winter, summer, and autumn, but the rate of increase was faster in winter. In contrast, daily maximum temperature showed no significant trend in any season. These trends in temperature measures, however, were not monotonic with decadal periods that included either reversal or acceleration of century-scale trends. The trend magnitudes in temperatures were not significantly associated with elevations. Increases in daily minimum temperature resulted in a decrease in the number of frost days (-0.14 0.04 day yr-1) and cool nights (-0.09 0.04 night yr-1) from 1901 to 2010, while the number of warm days (0.11 0.04 day yr-1) and warm nights (0.19 0.03 night yr-1) increased significantly. Surprisingly, the number of cool days and the length of the growing season showed no significant trend during the study period. Thus, the results of this study suggest that continuation of the overall warming trend would lead to markedly warmer conditions in upcoming decades.

Tang, Guoping; Arnone, John A.

2013-05-01

114

Trend analysis of temperature and precipitation in the Syr Darya Basin in Central Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

By investigating temperature and precipitation data from eight meteorological stations in the Syr Darya Basin (SDB) during 1881-2011 and 1891-2011, we analyzed trends using the Mann-Kendall (MK) test. Our results indicated that there was a notable increasing trend in annual temperature of 0.14 C/decade (P < 0.05) and step change points in 1989 (P < 0.05). Similarly, annual precipitation showed a significant rising trend (P < 0.001) at a rate of 4.44 mm/decade and step change points in 1991 (P < 0.05). Overall, temperature and precipitation increases were more rapid in the plains than in the mountain areas. Furthermore, we found that temperature in the SDB region is strongly associated with the Asian Polar Vortex Area Index (APVAI, correlation coefficient: R = -0.701, P < 0.01) rather than with carbon dioxide emissions, especially in the plains area. For precipitation, the correlation coefficient is strongly associated with the Tibet Plateau Index (TPI, R = 0.490, P < 0.01), followed by the Antarctic Oscillation Index (AAOI, R = 0.343, P < 0.01), and the correlations in the plains are higher than those in the mountains. It is anticipated that the results of this study will further the understanding surrounding climate change in the SDB.

Yao, Junqiang; Chen, Yaning

2014-06-01

115

Interannual Trends in Southern Ocean Sea Surface Temperatures and Sea Level from Remote Sensing Data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As is shown in last years researches climate changes in Antarctic result in interannual increase trend of surface air temperature and decrease of ice thickness These tendencies are must try in the Southern Ocean hydrological regime For that next remote sensing data AVHRR MCSST data and satellite altimetry data merged data of mission ERS TOPEX Poseidon Jason-1 ENVISAT GFO-1 are used to this task which give information about sea surface temperature SST and sea level anomaly SLA correspondingly According to obtained results SST has positive trend more 0 01 oC yr for 23-yr record 1982-2005 within 300-1000 km northward Antarctic coast However on average for the Southern Ocean SST have negative trend about -0 018 -0 035 oC yr In area of Pacific-Antarctic Ridge and of southern part of Mid Atlantic Ridge decrease rate is more than -0 075 oC yr SLA increases in all area of the Southern Ocean and has average rate about 0 024 -0 026 cm yr for 12-yr record 1993-2005 Around Antarctic SST rate good correspond with the trend analysis of surface air temperature of 8722 0 042 - 0 067oC yr inferred from the satellite 20-yr record Comiso 2000 Nevertheless the observed cooling is intriguing especially since it is compatible with the observed trend in the sea ice cover In the sea ice regions the northernmost positions of the ice edge are shown to be influenced by alternating warm and cold anomalies around the continent This work was partly supported by the Russian Fund of Basic Research Grant 06-05-65061

Lebedev, S. A.

116

21st Century Trends in Antarctic Temperature and Polar Stratospheric Cloud (PSC) Area in the GEOS Chemistry-Climate Model  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This study examines trends in Antarctic temperature and APSC, a temperature proxy for the area of polar stratospheric clouds, in an ensemble of Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS) chemistry-climate model (CCM) simulations of the 21st century. A selection of greenhouse gas, ozone-depleting substance, and sea surface temperature scenarios is used to test the trend sensitivity to these parameters. One scenario is used to compare temperature trends in two versions of the GEOS CCM. An extended austral winter season is examined in detail. In May, June, and July, the expected future increase in CO2-related radiative cooling drives temperature trends in the Antarctic lower stratosphere. At 50 hPa, a 1.3 K cooling is expected between 2000 and 2100. Ozone levels increase, despite this robust cooling signal and the consequent increase in APSC, suggesting the enhancement of stratospheric transport in future. In the lower stratosphere, the choice of climate change scenarios does not affect the magnitude of the early winter cooling. Midwinter temperature trends are generally small. In October, APSC trends have the same sign as the prescribed halogen trends. That is, there are negative APSC trends in "grealistic future" simulations, where halogen loading decreases in accordance with the Montreal Protocol and CO2 continues to increase. In these simulations, the speed of ozone recovery is not influenced by either the choice of sea surface temperature and greenhouse gas scenarios or by the model version.

Hurwitz, M. M.; Newman, P. A.

2010-01-01

117

Tropical temperature trends in Atmospheric General Circulation Model simulations and the impact of uncertainties in observed SSTs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

AbstractThe comparison of <span class="hlt">trends</span> in various climate indices in observations and models is of fundamental importance for judging the credibility of climate projections. Tropical tropospheric <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">trends</span> have attracted particular attention as this comparison may suggest a model deficiency. One can think of this problem as composed of two parts: one focused on tropical surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">trends</span> and the associated issues related to forcing, feedbacks, and ocean heat uptake and a second part focusing on connections between surface and tropospheric <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and the vertical profile of <span class="hlt">trends</span> in <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. Here we focus on the atmospheric component of the problem. We show that two ensembles of Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory HiRAM model runs (similar results are shown for National Center for Atmospheric Research's CAM4 model) with different commonly used prescribed sea surface <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> (SSTs), namely, the HadISST1 and "Hurrell" data sets, have a difference in upper tropical tropospheric <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">trends</span> (0.1 K/decade at 300 hPa for the period 1984-2008) that is about a factor 3 larger than expected from moist adiabatic scaling of the tropical average SST <span class="hlt">trend</span> difference. We show that this surprisingly large discrepancy in <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">trends</span> is a consequence of SST <span class="hlt">trend</span> differences being largest in regions of deep convection. Further, <span class="hlt">trends</span>, and the degree of agreement with observations, not only depend on SST data set and the particular atmospheric <span class="hlt">temperature</span> data set but also on the period chosen for comparison. Due to the large impact on atmospheric <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, these systematic uncertainties in SSTs need to be resolved before the fidelity of climate models' tropical <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">trend</span> profiles can be assessed.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Flannaghan, T. J.; Fueglistaler, S.; Held, I. M.; Po-Chedley, S.; Wyman, B.; Zhao, M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">118</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14.7911M"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Trend</span> analysis of air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and precipitation time series over Greece: 1955-2010</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this study, a database of air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and precipitation time series from the network of Hellenic National Meteorological Service has been developed in the framework of the project GEOCLIMA, co-financed by the European Union and Greek national funds through the Operational Program "Competitiveness and Entrepreneurship" of the Research Funding Program COOPERATION 2009. Initially, a quality test was applied to the raw data and then missing observations have been imputed with a regularized, spatial-temporal expectation - maximization algorithm to complete the climatic record. Next, a quantile - matching algorithm was applied in order to verify the homogeneity of the data. The processed time series were used for the calculation of temporal annual and seasonal <span class="hlt">trends</span> of air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and precipitation. Monthly maximum and minimum surface air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and precipitation means at all available stations in Greece were analyzed for temporal <span class="hlt">trends</span> and spatial variation patterns for the longest common time period of homogenous data (1955 - 2010), applying the Mann-Kendall test. The majority of the examined stations showed a significant increase in the summer maximum and minimum <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>; this could be possibly physically linked to the Etesian winds, because of the less frequent expansion of the low over the southeastern Mediterranean. Summer minimum <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> have been increasing at a faster rate than that of summer maximum <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, reflecting an asymmetric change of extreme <span class="hlt">temperature</span> distributions. Total annual precipitation has been significantly decreased at the stations located in western Greece, as well as in the southeast, while the remaining areas exhibit a non-significant negative <span class="hlt">trend</span>. This reduction is very likely linked to the positive phase of the NAO that resulted in an increase in the frequency and persistence of anticyclones over the Mediterranean.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Marougianni, G.; Melas, D.; Kioutsioukis, I.; Feidas, H.; Zanis, P.; Anandranistakis, E.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">119</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20080007106&hterms=Northern+Hemispheric+Winter+16+November&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3DNorthern%2BHemispheric%2BWinter%2B%252816%2BNovember%2529"> <span id="translatedtitle">A Reanalysis for the Seasonal and Longer-Period Cycles and the <span class="hlt">Trends</span> in Middle Atmosphere <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> from the HALOE</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Previously published analyses for the seasonal and longer-period cycles in middle atmosphere <span class="hlt">temperature</span> versus pressure (or T(p)) from the Halogen Occultation Experiment (HALOE) are extended to just over 14 years and updated to properly account for the effects of autocorrelation in its time series of zonally-averaged data. The updated seasonal terms and annual averages are provided, and they can be used to generate <span class="hlt">temperature</span> distributions that are representative of the period 1991-2005. QBO-like terms have also been resolved and are provided, and they exhibit good consistency across the range of latitudes and pressure-altitudes. Further, exploratory analyses of the residuals from each of the 221 time series have yielded significant 11-yr solar cycle (or SC-like) and <span class="hlt">linear</span> <span class="hlt">trend</span> terms at a number of latitudes and levels. The amplitudes of the SC-like terms for the upper mesosphere agree reasonably with calculations of the direct solar radiative effects for T(p). Those SC amplitudes increase by about a factor of 2 from the lower to the upper mesosphere and are also larger at the middle than at the low latitudes. The diagnosed cooling <span class="hlt">trends</span> for the subtropical latitudes are in the range, -0.5 to -1.0 K/decade, which is in good agreement with the findings from models of the radiative effects on pressure surfaces due to known increases in atmospheric CO2. The diagnosed <span class="hlt">trends</span> are somewhat larger than predicted with models for the upper mesosphere of the northern hemisphere middle latitudes.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Remsberg, Ellis E.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">120</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040110245&hterms=east+sea+Japan&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Deast%2B%2528sea%2BJapan%2529"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Trend</span> and Variability of China Precipitation in Spring and Summer: Linkage to Sea Surface <span class="hlt">Temperatures</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Observational records in the past 50 years show an upward <span class="hlt">trend</span> of boreal-summer precipitation over central eastern China and a downward <span class="hlt">trend</span> over northern China. During boreal spring, the <span class="hlt">trend</span> is upward over southeastern China and downward over central eastern China. This study explores the forcing mechanism of these <span class="hlt">trends</span> in association with the global sea-surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (SST) variations on the interannual and inter-decadal timescales. Results based on Singular Value Decomposition analyses (SVD) show that the interannual variability of China precipitation in boreal spring and summer can be well defined by two centers of actions for each season, which are co-varying with two interannual modes of SSTs. The first SVD modes of precipitation in spring and summer, which are centered in southeastern China and northern China, respectively, are linked to an ENSO-like mode of SSTs. The second SVD modes of precipitation in both seasons are confined to central eastern China, and are primarily linked to SST variations over the warm pool and Indian Ocean. Features of the anomalous 850-hPa winds and 700-Wa geopotential height corresponding to these modes support a physical mechanism that explains the causal links between the modal variations of precipitation and SSTs. On the decadal and longer timescale, similar causal links are found between the same modes of precipitation and SSTs, except for the case of springtime precipitation over central eastern China. For this case, while the interannual mode of precipitation is positively correlated with the interannual variations of SSTs over the warm pool and Indian Ocean; the inter-decadal mode is negatively correlated with a different SST mode, the North Pacific mode. The later is responsible for the observed downward <span class="hlt">trend</span> of springtime precipitation over central eastern China. For all other cases, both the interannual and inter-decadal variations of precipitation can be explained by the same mode of SSTs. The upward <span class="hlt">trend</span> of springtime precipitation over southeastern China and downward <span class="hlt">trend</span> of summertime precipitation over northern China are attributable to the warming <span class="hlt">trend</span> of the ENSO-like mode. The recent frequent summertime floods over central eastern China are linked to the warming <span class="hlt">trend</span> of SSTs over the warm pool and Indian Ocean.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Yang, Fanglin; Lau, K.-M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" 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id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">121</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.cgd.ucar.edu/cas/Trenberth/trenberth.papers/i1520-0442-011-05-0945.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Difficulties in Obtaining Reliable <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> <span class="hlt">Trends</span>: Reconciling the Surface and Satellite Microwave Sounding Unit Records</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">A chronic difficulty in obtaining reliable climate records from satellites has been changes in instruments, platforms, equator-crossing times, and algorithms. The microwave sounding unit (MSU) tropospheric <span class="hlt">temperature</span> record has overcome some of these problems, but evidence is presented that it too contains unreliable <span class="hlt">trends</span> over a 17-yr period (1979-95) because of transitions involving different satellites and complications arising from nonatmospheric</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">James W. Hurrell; Kevin E. Trenberth</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1998-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">122</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AtmRe.132..375N"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Trend</span> detection in surface air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in Ontario and Quebec, Canada during 1967-2006 using the discrete wavelet transform</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The main purpose of this study is to detect <span class="hlt">trends</span> in the mean surface air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> over the southern parts of Ontario and Quebec, Canada, for the period of 1967-2006. This is accomplished by determining the most dominant periodic components that affect <span class="hlt">trends</span> in different <span class="hlt">temperature</span> data categories (monthly, seasonally-based, seasonal, and annual), which were obtained from a total of five stations. The discrete wavelet transform (DWT) technique, the Mann-Kendall (MK) <span class="hlt">trend</span> test, and sequential Mann-Kendall analysis were used in this study - co-utilizing these techniques in <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">trend</span> studies has not been explored extensively. The mother wavelet, number of decomposition levels, and boundary condition were determined using a newly proposed criterion based on the relative error of the MK Z-values between the original data and the approximation component of the last decomposition level. This study found that all stations experienced positive <span class="hlt">trends</span>: significant <span class="hlt">trends</span> were observed in all of the monthly, seasonally-based, and annual data. For the different seasons, although the <span class="hlt">trend</span> values were all positive, not all stations experienced significant <span class="hlt">trends</span>. It was found that high-frequency components ranging from 2 to 12 months were more prominent for <span class="hlt">trends</span> in the higher resolution data (i.e. monthly and seasonally based). The positive <span class="hlt">trends</span> observed for the annual data are thought to be mostly attributable to warming during winter and summer seasons, which are manifested in the form of multiyear to decadal events (mostly between 8 and 16 years).</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Nalley, D.; Adamowski, J.; Khalil, B.; Ozga-Zielinski, B.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">123</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.V51B2654S"> <span id="translatedtitle">High <span class="hlt">temperature</span> garnet growth in New England: regional <span class="hlt">temperature</span>-time <span class="hlt">trends</span> revealed</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A series of localized ultrahigh-<span class="hlt">temperature</span> (UHT)/high-<span class="hlt">temperature</span> (HT) granulite facies regions have been identified within the regional amphibolite facies metamorphic zone of the Central Maine Terrane stretching from north-central New Hampshire, through central Massachusetts, and into northeastern Connecticut. Here, we aim to constrain the age and peak <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of metamorphism at three localities within this region: Bristol, NH, Phillipston, MA and Willington, CT. Garnet-forming reactions are linked directly to peak metamorphic <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> through thermodynamic modeling and/or Zr-in-rutile thermometry. Precise garnet geochronology allows us to identify the timing of these peak <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, as well as the duration of garnet growth. Geochronologic and thermodynamic work was done on 12 samples collected throughout a ~5 km2 metamorphic 'hotspot' previously identified in Bristol, NH (Chamberlain and Rumble, 1988; Journal of Petrology). The highest <span class="hlt">temperature</span> assemblage within this hotspot is characterized by the presence of garnet + sillimanite + K-feldspar + cordierite and reached <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> >820?C. The lowest <span class="hlt">temperature</span> periphery of the hotspot is characterized by sillimanite + muscovite + K-feldspar + minor garnet and reached a maximum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of 650?C. Bulk garnet ages from samples within the hotspot range significantly from at least 400.0 2.5 Ma to 352.7 1.8 Ma with the youngest ages associated with the lower <span class="hlt">temperature</span> samples. This collection of ages indicates a prolonged period (~50 Ma) of >650?C <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> interspersed by period(s) of garnet growth. Zoned garnet geochronology will help reveal whether garnet growth and related heating was continuous or episodic. Further south, in Phillipston, MA, zoned garnet geochronology performed on a 2.5 cm diameter garnet porphyroblast indicates garnet growth spanning 389 - 363 Ma, reaching peak <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> at the end of that time span of 920-940?C, followed by a younger event recorded in smaller 1-3mm garnet crystals at 351 Ma (which may also reflect resetting of the earlier event), reaching similar <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> of 920-960?C. These <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> were obtained by Zr-in-rutile thermometry performed on rutile inclusions within the garnet. Even farther south, in the UHT zone around Willington, CT, <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> of at least 1000?C were determined using Zr-in-rutile thermometry on rutile inclusions in garnet and reintegration of ternary feldspar compositions (Ague et al., 2013; Geology). The garnet age for a representative UHT sample from this site is 340.3 1.7 Ma. The geochronologic data presented here indicates a prolonged period of UHT/HT garnet growth within the Central Maine Terrane, beginning at ~400 Ma in Bristol, NH and ending at ~340 Ma in Willington, CT. Peak <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> are >820?C in NH, >950?C in MA, and ~1000?C in CT, resulting in a regional pattern of increasing <span class="hlt">temperature</span> with decreasing age from north to south across this 250 km long region.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sullivan, N.; Ostwald, C.; Chu, X.; Baxter, E. F.; Ague, J. J.; Eckert, J. O.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">124</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3718192"> <span id="translatedtitle">Forcing of anthropogenic aerosols on <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">trends</span> of the sub-thermocline southern Indian Ocean</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In the late twentieth century, the sub-thermocline waters of the southern tropical and subtropical Indian Ocean experienced a sharp cooling. This cooling has been previously attributed to an anthropogenic aerosol-induced strengthening of the global ocean conveyor, which transfers heat from the subtropical gyre latitudes toward the North Atlantic. From the mid-1990s the sub-thermocline southern Indian Ocean experienced a rapid <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">trend</span> reversal. Here we show, using climate models from phase 5 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project, that the late twentieth century sub-thermocline cooling of the southern Indian Ocean was primarily driven by increasing anthropogenic aerosols and greenhouse gases. The models simulate a slow-down in the sub-thermocline cooling followed by a rapid warming towards the mid twenty-first century. The simulated evolution of the Indian Ocean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">trend</span> is linked with the peak in aerosols and their subsequent decline in the twenty-first century, reinforcing the hypothesis that aerosols influence ocean circulation <span class="hlt">trends</span>. PMID:23873281</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Cowan, Tim; Cai, Wenju; Purich, Ariaan; Rotstayn, Leon; England, Matthew H.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">125</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70025680"> <span id="translatedtitle">Are there spurious <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">trends</span> in the United States Climate Division database?</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The United States (U.S.) Climate Division data set is commonly used in applied climatic studies in the United States. The divisional averages are calculated by including all available stations within a division at any given time. The averages are therefore vulnerable to shifts in average station location or elevation over time, which may introduce spurious <span class="hlt">trends</span> within these data. This paper examines <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">trends</span> within the 15 climate divisions of New England, comparing the NCDC's U.S. Divisional Data to the U.S. Historical Climate Network (USHCN) data. Correlation and multiple regression revealed that shifts in latitude, longitude, and elevation have affected the quality of the NCDC divisional data with respect to the USHCN. As a result, there may be issues with regard to their use in decadal-to century-scale climate change studies.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Keim, B.D.; Wilson, A.M.; Wake, C.P.; Huntington, T.G.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">126</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/982146"> <span id="translatedtitle">Higher <span class="hlt">trends</span> but larger uncertainty and geographic variability in 21st century <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and heat waves</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Generating credible climate change and extremes projections remains a high-priority challenge, especially since recent observed emissions are above the worst-case scenario. Bias and uncertainty analyses of ensemble simulations from a global earth systems model show increased warming and more intense heat waves combined with greater uncertainty and large regional variability in the 21st century. Global warming <span class="hlt">trends</span> are statistically validated across ensembles and investigated at regional scales. Observed heat wave intensities in the current decade are larger than worst-case projections. Model projections are relatively insensitive to initial conditions, while uncertainty bounds obtained by comparison with recent observations are wider than ensemble ranges. Increased <span class="hlt">trends</span> in <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and heat waves, concurrent with larger uncertainty and variability, suggest greater urgency and complexity of adaptation or mitigation decisions.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ganguly, Auroop R [ORNL; Steinhaeuser, Karsten J K [ORNL; Erickson III, David J [ORNL; Branstetter, Marcia L [ORNL; Parish, Esther S [ORNL; Singh, Nagendra [ORNL; Drake, John B [ORNL; Buja, Lawrence [ORNL</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">127</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ACPD...1413381F"> <span id="translatedtitle">Variability and <span class="hlt">trends</span> in dynamical forcing of tropical lower stratospheric <span class="hlt">temperatures</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We analyse the relation between tropical lower stratospheric <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and dynamical forcing over the period 1980-2011 using NCEP, MERRA and ERA-Interim reanalyses. The tropical mean thermodynamic energy equation with Newtonian cooling for radiation is forced with two dynamical predictors: (i) the average eddy heat flux of both hemispheres; and (ii) tropical upwelling estimated from momentum balance following Randel et al. (2002). The correlation (1995-2011) for deseasonalised tropical average <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> at 70 hPa with the eddy heat flux based predictor is 0.84 for ERA-Interim (0.77 for the momentum balance calculation), and 0.87 for MERRA. The eddy heat flux based predictor indicates a dynamically forced cooling of the tropics of ∼-0.1 K decade<super>-1 (∼-0.2 K decade-1 excluding volcanic periods) for the period 1980-2011 in MERRA and ERA-Interim. ERA-Interim eddy heat fluxes drift slightly relative to MERRA in the 2000's, possibly due to onset of GPS <span class="hlt">temperature</span> data assimilation. While NCEP gives a small warming <span class="hlt">trend</span>, all 3 reanalyses show a similar seasonality, with strongest cooling in January/February (∼-0.4 K decade-1, from northern hemispheric forcing) and October (∼-0.3 K decade-1, from southern hemispheric forcing). Months preceding and following the peaks in cooling <span class="hlt">trends</span> show pronounced smaller, or even warming, <span class="hlt">trends</span>. Consequently, the seasonality in the <span class="hlt">trends</span> arises in part due to a temporal shift in eddy activity. Over all months, the Southern Hemisphere contributes more to the tropical cooling in both MERRA and ERA-Interim. The residual time series (observed minus estimate of dynamically forced <span class="hlt">temperature</span>) are well correlated between ERA-Interim and MERRA, with differences largely due to <span class="hlt">temperature</span> differences. The residual time series is dominated by the modification of the radiative balance by volcanic aerosol following the eruption of El Chichon (maximum warming of ∼3 K at 70 hPa) and Pinatubo (maximum warming of ∼4 K at 70 hPa), with a strong dynamical response during Pinatubo partially masking the aerosol heating.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Fueglistaler, S.; Abalos, M.; Flannaghan, T. J.; Lin, P.; Randel, W. J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">128</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10185391"> <span id="translatedtitle">Historical <span class="hlt">trends</span> in tank 241-SY-101 waste <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and levels</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The gas release and fluctuating level of the waste in tank 241-SY-101 have prompted more detailed interest in its historical behavior, in hopes of achieving a better understanding of its current status. To examine the historical behavior, essentially all of the tank waste <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and level data record has been retrieved, examined, and plotted in various ways. To aid in interpreting the data, the depth of the non-convective waste layer was estimated by using a least-squares Chebyshev approximation to the <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. This report documents the retrieval critical examination, and graphic presentation of 241-SY-101 <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and waste level histories. The graphic presentations clearly indicate a tank cooling <span class="hlt">trend</span> that has become precipitous since late 1991. The plots also clearly show the decreasing frequency of waste gas release events, increasing height of the non-convective layer, and larger level drops per event.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Antoniak, Z.I.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1993-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">129</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/5303593"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">TEMPERATURE</span> <span class="hlt">TRENDS</span> AND THE DISTRIBUTION OF GROUNDFISH IN CONTINENTAL SHELF WATERS NOVA SCOTIA TO LONG ISLAND</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">ABSTRACT The 1953 to 1967 downward,<span class="hlt">trend</span> in seawater,<span class="hlt">temperature</span>,in continental,shelf waters between,Nova Scotia and,Long Island did not significantly,alter the distribution,of four species of groundfish.,There was,an extension,of the southern range of American,plaice and,a contraction,of the northern,range of butterfish. These shifts in distribution,were not extensive.,The equatorward,boundary,of American,plaice appears,to be limited,by summer,<span class="hlt">temperatures</span>,too high,for survival,and the poleward,boundary,of butterfish by summer,<span class="hlt">temperatures</span>,too low,for reproduction.,There was,no obvious,alteration in</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">John B. Colton</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">130</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20020022493&hterms=global+temperature&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dglobal%2Btemperature"> <span id="translatedtitle">Inference of Global Mean <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> <span class="hlt">Trend</span> and Climate Change from MSU and AMSU</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Microwave Sounding Unit (MSU) and Advanced MSU (AMSU) radiometers flown on the NOAA operational satellite series are potentially valuable as global <span class="hlt">temperature</span> monitoring devices. Spencer and Christy pioneered the analysis of mid-tropospheric <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, given by MSU Channel 2 (Ch 2) at 53.74 GHz, to derive the global <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">trend</span>. Also, in addition to monitoring global <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, these microwave radiometers have the potential to reveal interannual climate signals in tropics. We have analyzed the data of MSU Ch 2 and AMSU Ch 5 (53.6 GHz) from the NOAA operational satellites for the period 1980 to 2000, utilizing the NOAA calibration procedure. The data are corrected for the satellite orbital drift based on the temporal changes of the on-board warm blackbody <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. From our analysis, we find that the global <span class="hlt">temperature</span> increased at a rate of 0.13 +/- 0.05 Kdecade(sup -1) during 1980 to 2000. From an Empirical Orthogonal Function (EOF) analysis of the MSU global data, we find that the mid-tropospheric <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in middle and high latitudes responds to the ENSO forcing during the Northern Hemisphere Winter in a distinct manner. This mid-latitude response is opposite in phase to that in the tropics. This result is in accord with simulations performed with an ECMWF global spectral model. This study shows a potential use of the satellite observations for climatic change.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Prabhakara, Cuddapah; Iacovazzi, R. A., Jr.; Yoo, J.-M.; Lau, William K. M. (Technical Monitor)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2001-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">131</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014SPIE.9266E..1AS"> <span id="translatedtitle">Influence <span class="hlt">trend</span> of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> distribution in skin tissue generated by different exposure dose pulse laser</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Laser is widely applied in military and medicine fields because of its excellent capability. In order to effectively defend excess damage by laser, the thermal processing theory of skin tissue generated by laser should be carried out. The heating rate and thermal damage area should be studied. The mathematics model of bio-tissue heat transfer that is irradiated by laser is analyzed. And boundary conditions of bio-tissue are discussed. Three layer FEM grid model of bio-tissue is established. The <span class="hlt">temperature</span> rising inducing by pulse laser in the tissue is modeled numerically by adopting ANSYS software. The changing <span class="hlt">trend</span> of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in the tissue is imitated and studied under the conditions of different exposure dose pulse laser. The results show that <span class="hlt">temperature</span> rising in the tissue depends on the parameters of pulse laser largely. In the same conditions, the pulse width of laser is smaller and its instant power is higher. And <span class="hlt">temperature</span> rising effect in the tissue is very clear. On the contrary, <span class="hlt">temperature</span> rising effect in the tissue is lower. The cooling time inducing by <span class="hlt">temperature</span> rising effect in the tissue is longer along with pulse separation of laser is bigger. And the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> difference is bigger in the pulse period.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Shan, Ning; Wang, Zhijing; Liu, Xia</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">132</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70047758"> <span id="translatedtitle">Data-driven modeling of surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> anomaly and solar activity <span class="hlt">trends</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A novel two-step modeling scheme is used to reconstruct and analyze surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and solar activity data at global, hemispheric, and regional scales. First, the self-organizing map (SOM) technique is used to extend annual modern climate data from the century to millennial scale. The SOM component planes are used to identify and quantify strength of nonlinear relations among modern surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> anomalies (<150 years), tropical and extratropical teleconnections, and Palmer Drought Severity Indices (02000 years). Cross-validation of global sea and land surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> anomalies verifies that the SOM is an unbiased estimator with less uncertainty than the magnitude of anomalies. Second, the quantile modeling of SOM reconstructions reveal <span class="hlt">trends</span> and periods in surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> anomaly and solar activity whose timing agrees with published studies. Temporal features in surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> anomalies, such as the Medieval Warm Period, Little Ice Age, and Modern Warming Period, appear at all spatial scales but whose magnitudes increase when moving from ocean to land, from global to regional scales, and from southern to northern regions. Some caveats that apply when interpreting these data are the high-frequency filtering of climate signals based on quantile model selection and increased uncertainty when paleoclimatic data are limited. Even so, all models find the rate and magnitude of Modern Warming Period anomalies to be greater than those during the Medieval Warm Period. Lastly, quantile <span class="hlt">trends</span> among reconstructed equatorial Pacific <span class="hlt">temperature</span> profiles support the recent assertion of two primary El Nio Southern Oscillation types. These results demonstrate the efficacy of this alternative modeling approach for reconstructing and interpreting scale-dependent climate variables.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Friedel, Michael J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">133</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1997GeoRL..24.1499P"> <span id="translatedtitle">A new global gridded radiosonde <span class="hlt">temperature</span> data base and recent <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">trends</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We present a new analysis of global radiosonde <span class="hlt">temperature</span> data. From 1979 onwards, the data from the Australasian region have been corrected for instrument-related discontinuities with the help of comparisons with collocated retrievals from satellite-based Microwave Sounding Units (MSU) and metadata: in future work, adjustments will be applied worldwide and extended to earlier years. The data are stored as monthly anomalies from a 1971-1990 reference period on a 5 latitude 10 longitude grid at 8 levels from 50 hPa to 850 hPa. Seasonal and annual <span class="hlt">temperature</span> anomalies have also been created on a 10 20 grid using an eigenvector reconstruction method to filter noise. Latitude-height profiles of zonal-mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> changes since the 1960s show significant cooling in the lower stratosphere, especially in middle and high latitudes of the Southern Hemisphere, but the cooling over Australasia is less than shown by unadjusted data. Warming dominates the troposphere but is not a maximum in the tropical upper troposphere. In the annual mean, tropospheric warming is greatest around 45N and possibly in the data-sparse high latitudes of the Southern Hemisphere.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Parker, D. E.; Gordon, M.; Cullum, D. P. N.; Sexton, D. M. H.; Folland, C. K.; Rayner, N.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">134</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6061229"> <span id="translatedtitle">Solar variations and their influence on <span class="hlt">trends</span> in upper stratospheric ozone and <span class="hlt">temperature</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Over the past decade, knowledge of the magnitude and temporal structure of the variations in the sun's ultraviolet irradiance has increased steadily. A number of theoretical modeling studies have shown that changes in the solar ultraviolet flux during the 11-year solar cycle can have a significant effect on stratospheric ozone concentrations. With the exception of Brasseur et al., who examined a very broad range of solar flux variations, all of these studies assumed much larger changes in the ultraviolet flux than measurements now indicate. These studies either calculated the steady-state effect at solar maximum and solar minimum or assumed sinusoidal variations in the solar flux changes with time. It is now possible to narrow the uncertainty range of the expected effects on upper stratospheric ozone and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> resulting from the 11-year solar cycle. A more accurate representation of the solar flux changes with time is used in this analysis, as compared to previous published studies. This study also evaluates the relative roles of solar flux variations and increasing concentrations of long-lived trace gases in determining the observed <span class="hlt">trends</span> in upper stratospheric ozone and <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. The LLNL two-dimensional chemical-radiative-transport model of the global atmosphere is used to evaluate the combined effects on the stratosphere from changes in solar ultraviolet irradiances and trace gas concentrations over the last several decades. Derived <span class="hlt">trends</span> in upper stratospheric ozone concentrations and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> are then compared with available analyses of ground-based and satellite measurements over this time period.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wuebbles, D.J.; Kinnison, D.E. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (USA)); Lean, J.L. (Naval Research Lab., Washington, DC (USA). E.O. Hulburt Center for Space Research)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1990-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">135</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUSM.A31A..05S"> <span id="translatedtitle">Observed <span class="hlt">Trends</span> in Indices of Daily Precipitation and <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Extremes in Rio de Janeiro State (brazil)</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">One of the main concerns of contemporary society regarding prevailing climate change is related to possible changes in the frequency and intensity of extreme events. Strong heat and cold waves, droughts, severe floods, and other climatic extremes have been of great interest to researchers because of its huge impact on the environment and population, causing high monetary damages and, in some cases, loss of life. The frequency and intensity of extreme events associated with precipitation and air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> have been increased in several regions of the planet in recent years. These changes produce serious impacts on human activities such as agriculture, health, urban planning and development and management of water resources. In this paper, we analyze the <span class="hlt">trends</span> in indices of climatic extremes related to daily precipitation and maximum and minimum <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> at 22 meteorological stations of the National Institute of Meteorology (INMET) in Rio de Janeiro State (Brazil) in the last 50 years. The present <span class="hlt">trends</span> are evaluated using the software RClimdex (Canadian Meteorological Service) and are also subjected to statistical tests. Preliminary results indicate that periods of drought are getting longer in Rio de Janeiro State, except in the North/Northwest area. In "Vale do Paraba", "Regio Serrana" and "Regio dos Lagos" the increase of consecutive dry days is statistically significant. However, we also detected an increase in the total annual rainfall all over the State (taxes varying from +2 to +8 mm/year), which are statistically significant at "Regio Serrana". Moreover, the intensity of heavy rainfall is also growing in most of Rio de Janeiro, except in "Costa Verde". The <span class="hlt">trends</span> of heavy rainfall indices show significant increase in the "Metropolitan Region" and in "Regio Serrana", factor that increases the vulnerability to natural disasters in these areas. With respect to <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, it is found that the frequency of hot (cold) days and nights is increasing (reducing) with significance in almost all regions. "Regio dos Lagos" has the most significant <span class="hlt">trends</span> of increasing in <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, thereby influencing the local production of salt and alkaline minerals in medium and long term. The goal of this research is, through the analysis of results, support studies of vulnerability and adaptation to climate change scenarios in Rio de Janeiro State.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Silva, W. L.; Dereczynski, C. P.; Cavalcanti, I. F.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">136</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ACP....14.1679B"> <span id="translatedtitle">Radiative and dynamical contributions to past and future Arctic stratospheric <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">trends</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Arctic stratospheric ozone depletion is closely linked to the occurrence of low stratospheric <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. There are indications that cold winters in the Arctic stratosphere have been getting colder, raising the question if and to what extent a cooling of the Arctic stratosphere may continue into the future. We use meteorological reanalyses from the European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) ERA-Interim and NASA's Modern-Era Retrospective-Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) for the past 32 yr together with calculations of the chemistry-climate model (CCM) ECHAM/MESSy Atmospheric Chemistry (EMAC) and models from the Chemistry-Climate Model Validation (CCMVal) project to infer radiative and dynamical contributions to long-term Arctic stratospheric <span class="hlt">temperature</span> changes. For the past three decades the reanalyses show a warming <span class="hlt">trend</span> in winter and cooling <span class="hlt">trend</span> in spring and summer, which agree well with <span class="hlt">trends</span> from the Radiosonde Innovation Composite Homogenization (RICH) adjusted radiosonde data set. Changes in winter and spring are caused by a corresponding change of planetary wave activity with increases in winter and decreases in spring. During winter the increase of planetary wave activity is counteracted by a residual radiatively induced cooling. Stratospheric radiatively induced cooling is detected throughout all seasons, being highly significant in spring and summer. This means that for a given dynamical situation, according to ERA-Interim the annual mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of the Arctic lower stratosphere has been cooling by -0.41 0.11 K decade-1 at 50 hPa over the past 32 yr. Calculations with state-of-the-art models from CCMVal and the EMAC model qualitatively reproduce the radiatively induced cooling for the past decades, but underestimate the amount of radiatively induced cooling deduced from reanalyses. There are indications that this discrepancy could be partly related to a possible underestimation of past Arctic ozone <span class="hlt">trends</span> in the models. The models project a continued cooling of the Arctic stratosphere over the coming decades (2001-2049) that is for the annual mean about 40% less than the modeled cooling for the past, due to the reduction of ozone depleting substances and the resulting ozone recovery. This projected cooling in turn could offset between 15 and 40% of the Arctic ozone recovery.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bohlinger, P.; Sinnhuber, B.-M.; Ruhnke, R.; Kirner, O.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">137</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20070008218&hterms=Greenhouse+effect+Atmospheric&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3D%2528%2528Greenhouse%2Beffect%2529%2BAtmospheric%2529"> <span id="translatedtitle">Relative Contribution of Greenhouse Gases and Ozone Change to <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> <span class="hlt">Trends</span> in the Stratosphere: A Chemistry/Climate Model Study</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Long-term changes in greenhouse gases, primarily carbon dioxide, are expected to lead to a warming of the troposphere and a cooling of the stratosphere. We examine the cooling of the stratosphere and compare the contributions greenhouse gases and ozone change for the decades between 1980 and 2000. We use 150 years of simulation done with our coupled chemistry/climate model (GEOS 4 GCM with GSFC CTM chemistry) to calculate <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and constituents fiom,1950 through 2100. The contributions of greenhouse gases and ozone to <span class="hlt">temperature</span> change are separated by a time-series analysis using a <span class="hlt">linear</span> <span class="hlt">trend</span> term throughout the period to represent the effects of greenhouse gases and an equivalent effective stratospheric chlorine (EESC) term to represent the effects of ozone change. The <span class="hlt">temperature</span> changes over the 150 years of the simulation are dominated by the changes in greenhouse gases. Over the relatively short period (approx. 20 years) of ozone decline between 1980 and 2000 changes in ozone are competitive with changes in greenhouse gases. The changes in <span class="hlt">temperature</span> induced by the ozone change are comparable to, but smaller than, those of greenhouse gases in the upper stratosphere (1-3 hPa) at mid latitudes. The ozone term dominates the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> change near both poles with a negative <span class="hlt">temperature</span> change below about 3-5 hPa and a positive change above. At mid latitudes in the upper stratosphere and mesosphere (above about 1 hPa) and in the middle stratosphere (3 to 70 ma), the greenhouse has term dominates. From about 70 hPa down to the tropopause at mid latitudes, cooling due to ozone changes is the largest influence on <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. Over the 150 years of the simulation, the change in greenhouse gases is the most important contributor to <span class="hlt">temperature</span> change. Ozone caused a perturbation that is expected to reverse over the coming decades. We show a model simulation of the expected <span class="hlt">temperature</span> change over the next two decades (2006-2026). The simulation shows a crossover between lower atmospheric heating and upper atmospheric cooling that is located at about 90 hPa in the tropics and 30-40 hPa in the polar regions. This results from the combination of continuing increases in greehouse gases and recovery from ozone depletion.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Stolarski, Richard S.; Douglass, A. R.; Newman, P. A.; Pawson, S.; Schoeberl, M. R.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">138</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014GeoRL..41.7971D"> <span id="translatedtitle">Full-depth <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">trends</span> in the northeastern Atlantic through the early 21st century</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The vertical structure of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">trends</span> in the northeastern Atlantic (NEA) is investigated using a blend of Argo and hydrography data. The representativeness of sparse hydrography sampling in the basin mean is assessed using a numerical model. Between 2003 and 2013, the NEA underwent a strong surface cooling (0-450 m) and a significant warming at intermediate and deep levels (1000 m to 3000 m) that followed a strong cooling <span class="hlt">trend</span> observed between 1988 and 2003. During 2003-2013, gyre-specific changes are found in the upper 1000 m (warming and cooling of the subtropical and subpolar gyres, respectively), while the intermediate and deep warming primarily occurred in the subpolar gyre, with important contributions from isopycnal heave and water mass property changes. The full-depth <span class="hlt">temperature</span> change requires a local downward heat flux of 0.53 0.06 W m-2 through the sea surface, and its vertical distribution highlights the likely important role of the NEA in the recent global warming hiatus.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Desbruyres, D. G.; McDonagh, E. L.; King, B. A.; Garry, F. K.; Blaker, A. T.; Moat, B. I.; Mercier, H.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">139</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://engineering.case.edu/centers/sdle/sites/engineering.case.edu.centers.sdle/files/1406pvscmicroinverter-v2_0.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Predictive <span class="hlt">Linear</span> Regression Model for Microinverter Internal <span class="hlt">Temperature</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">speed diodes are also sensitive to thermal stressors. Although limited studies have been conducted-axis trackers. The predictive model is a function of statistically significant variables: ambient <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, photovoltaic (PV) module <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, irradiance and AC power data. Time-series environmental, <span class="hlt">temperature</span></p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Rollins, Andrew M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">140</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JESS..123..281Z"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Trend</span> analysis and change point detection of annual and seasonal precipitation and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> series over southwest Iran</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper presents results of <span class="hlt">trend</span> analysis and change point detection of annual and seasonal precipitation, and mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (TM), maximum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (TMAX) and minimum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (TMIN) time series of the period 1950-2007. Investigations were carried out for 50 precipitation stations and 39 <span class="hlt">temperature</span> stations located in southwest Iran. Three statistical tests including Pettitt's test, Sequential Mann-Kendall test (SQ-MK test) and Mann-Kendall rank test (MK-test) were used for the analysis. The results obtained for precipitation series indicated that most stations showed insignificant <span class="hlt">trends</span> in annual and seasonal series. Out of the stations which showed significant <span class="hlt">trends</span>, highest numbers were observed during winter season while no significant <span class="hlt">trends</span> were detected in summer precipitation. Moreover, no decreasing significant <span class="hlt">trends</span> were detected by statistical tests in annual and seasonal precipitation series. The analysis of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">trends</span> revealed a significant increase during summer and spring seasons. TMAX was more stable than TMIN and TM, and winter was stable compared to summer, spring and autumn seasons. The results of change point detection indicated that most of the positive significant mutation points in TM, TMAX and TMIN began in the 1990s.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Zarenistanak, Mohammad; Dhorde, Amit G.; Kripalani, R. H.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' 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src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#">5</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">8</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#">9</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#">10</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">141</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1615302C"> <span id="translatedtitle">Assessing the reliability of <span class="hlt">trends</span> in extremes of surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> across Europe in the ERA-Interim reanalysis dataset</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Reanalysis data are often used in climate studies as a surrogate for observations. This is particularly the case in model comparisons, where the spatial/temporal completeness of the reanalysis data allows direct comparisons with simulated data. However, reanalysis data are susceptible to certain limitations, including changes to the observed data input over time, deficiencies in the data-assimilation scheme and uncertainties in the numerical model. Temporal inhomogeneities arising from the increasing incorporation of remotely-sensed data since the late 1970s have been a significant problem in earlier reanalysis versions, and have confounded <span class="hlt">trend</span> evaluations in such datasets. Assessments of the reliability of reanalysis data compared to observed data is therefore vital, particularly with regard to long-term <span class="hlt">trends</span>. Most previous comparisons have evaluated <span class="hlt">trends</span> in mean values, and have shown that the ERA-Interim data are generally good at replicating <span class="hlt">trends</span> in means of surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in data-rich areas such as Europe. Relatively few attempts have been made to evaluate <span class="hlt">trends</span> in extreme values derived from reanalysis data. In this paper, <span class="hlt">trends</span> in extremes of daily maximum/minimum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> across Europe in the ERA-Interim reanalysis dataset over the period 1980-2011 are compared with <span class="hlt">trends</span> in both station data and the gridded E-OBS dataset. Reanalysis <span class="hlt">temperature</span> data that have been post-processed at 3- and 12-hourly resolutions are used, and the numbers of days per season/year that daily maximum/minimum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> exceeded the 10th and 90th base-period percentiles are employed as metrics (TX10/90 and TN10/90 respectively). The results in this paper indicate that, on the whole, the <span class="hlt">trends</span> in <span class="hlt">temperature</span> extremes are successfully replicated in the ERA-Interim reanalysis. The data are least successful in the spring and summer months and for the TX90 index. Significant <span class="hlt">trend</span> differences are observed at certain high-elevation sites, where <span class="hlt">trends</span> in extremes of maximum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in particular tend to be underestimated. The time-resolution of the post-processed <span class="hlt">temperature</span> reanalysis data also appears to have an effect on the depiction of <span class="hlt">trends</span> in <span class="hlt">temperature</span> extremes, with the 3-hourly resolution data out-performing the 12-hourly data.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Cornes, Richard; Jones, Phil</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">142</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ic.ncue.edu.tw/Seminar_new/9601/970107/970107_03.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">High <span class="hlt">Linear</span> Voltage References for on-chip CMOS <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Sensor</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">High <span class="hlt">linear</span> voltage reference circuitry is designed and implemented in TSMC 0.13 mum and 0.18 mum CMOS technology. Previous research has proposed the use of MOS transistors operating in the weak inversion region to replace the bipolar devices in conventional PTAT (proportional to absolute <span class="hlt">temperature</span>) circuits. However, such solutions often have <span class="hlt">linearity</span> problem in high <span class="hlt">temperature</span> region due to the</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Joseph Tzuo-sheng Tsai; Herming Chiueh</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">143</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/53079261"> <span id="translatedtitle">Comparison of thermistor <span class="hlt">linearization</span> techniques for accurate <span class="hlt">temperature</span> measurement in phase change materials</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Alternate energy technologies are developing rapidly in the recent years. A significant part of this <span class="hlt">trend</span> is the development of different phase change materials (PCMs). Proper utilization of PCMs requires accurate thermal characterization. There are several methodologies used in this field. This paper stresses the importance of accurate <span class="hlt">temperature</span> measurements during the implementation of T-history method. Since the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> sensor</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">S. B. Stankovic; P. A. Kyriacou</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">144</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24111928"> <span id="translatedtitle">Mercury <span class="hlt">trends</span> in predatory fish in Great Slave Lake: the influence of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and other climate drivers.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Here we report on <span class="hlt">trends</span> in mercury (Hg) concentrations in lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush), burbot (Lota lota), and northern pike (Esox lucius) from Great Slave Lake, located in the Mackenzie River Basin (MRB) and investigate how climate factors may be influencing these <span class="hlt">trends</span>. Hg concentrations in lake trout and burbot increased significantly over the early 1990s to 2012 in the two major regions of the lake; no <span class="hlt">trend</span> was evident for northern pike over 1999-2012. Temporal variations in Hg concentrations in lake trout and burbot were similar with respect to timing of peaks and troughs. Inclusion of climate variables based on annual means, particularly <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, improved explanatory power for variations in Hg over analyses based only on year and fish length; unexpectedly, the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> coefficient was negative. Climate analyses based on growing season means (defined as May-September) had less explanatory power suggesting that <span class="hlt">trends</span> were more strongly associated with colder months within the year. Inclusion of the Pacific/North American index improved explanatory power for the lake trout model suggesting that <span class="hlt">trends</span> may have been affected by air circulation patterns. Overall, while our study confirmed previously reported <span class="hlt">trends</span> of Hg increase in burbot in the MRB, we found no evidence that these <span class="hlt">trends</span> were directly driven by increasing <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and productivity. PMID:24111928</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Evans, Marlene; Muir, Derek; Brua, Robert B; Keating, Jonathan; Wang, Xiaowa</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-11-19</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">145</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014GPC...112...53Y"> <span id="translatedtitle">Projected <span class="hlt">trends</span> in mean, maximum, and minimum surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in China from simulations</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This study examines the projected characteristics of mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (Tmean), maximum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (Tmax) and minimum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (Tmin) in China during 2006-2100 from simulations of MPI-ESM-LR model within the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5). Periods of 2011-2040 and 2061-2090 are concentrated on the analysis under the three representative concentration pathway (RCP) scenarios: a high emission scenario (RCP8.5), a midrange mitigation emission scenario (RCP4.5), and a low emission scenario (RCP2.6). Under RCP8.5, the Tmean, Tmax and Tmin show pronounced warming with the annual rates of 0.43 C/decade, 0.42 C/decade, 0.45 C/decade during 2011-2040, and 0.72 C/decade, 0.70 C/decade, 0.76 C/decade during 2061-2090, which pronouncedly contributed by winter. Under RCP4.5, the Tmean, Tmax and Tmin display consistent increases during 2011-2040 with the <span class="hlt">trends</span> of 0.29 C/decade, 0.29 C/decade, 0.30 C/decade on the annual basis, respectively, and the increases calm down for Tmean, Tmax and Tmin up to 0.14 C/decade during 2061-2090. Under RCP2.6, the Tmean, Tmax and Tmin demonstrate positive <span class="hlt">trends</span> during 2011-2040 with the annual rates of 0.26 C/decade, 0.28 C/decade, 0.25 C/decade, respectively, and turn to negative afterwards. Moreover, the annual and seasonal Tmean, Tmax and Tmin are in agreement with the concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere and reflect the variability of the radiative forcing trajectories in the RCP. For the spatial patterns, the northeastern China and the Tibetan Plateau are more sensitive and susceptible to climate change in future emission scenarios. It fails to capture the asymmetric <span class="hlt">trends</span> for Tmax and Tmin projections, which do exist in the observations on the regional and global scales. This suggests that the projections have uncertainties in the models, and an understanding of causes is essential to improve the accuracies.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">You, Qinglong; Min, Jinzhong; Fraedrich, Klaus; Zhang, Wei; Kang, Shichang; Zhang, Ling; Meng, Xianhong</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">146</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011ApPhB.105..451M"> <span id="translatedtitle">Flame <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">trends</span> in reacting vanadium and tungsten ethoxide fluid sprays during CO2-laser pyrolysis</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We observe the "invisible-to-the-naked-eye" flames of tungsten and vanadium ethoxide aerosols when ignited at moderate laser excitation (0< P laser<70 W) by employing an IR thermo-graphic camera. No emission is seen in the visible range whether by the visible region cameras or by spectroscopy. The emissivity of the precursor solution measured was 0.80 and 0.75 for tungsten and vanadium ethoxide, respectively. The spectral emissivities of the tungsten and vanadium ethoxide flames measured using FTIR-spectrometer were used to calculate the pyrolysis flame <span class="hlt">temperature</span> at various laser intensities and wavelengths. New energy balance equations have been derivedthe transient <span class="hlt">temperature</span> one extended from Haggerty-Cannon equation and the other based on standard resonance analysis. Fitting these models to experimental data reveals that only small amounts (1.33% and 4.32%, respectively) of the laser power are used in the pyrolysis of the precursor ethoxide aerosols into the desired oxide nanostructures. The low levels of specific heat capacity values obtained in these sprays suggest that these are electronic heat capacities rather than lattice heat capacities; enthalpies are also obtained. The experimental <span class="hlt">temperature</span>-laser power <span class="hlt">trends</span> observed were in agreement with previous findings from Tenegal et al. (Chem. Phys. Lett. 335:155, 2001). The damping coefficients, and hence the saturation intensities confirm that the vanadium containing precursor liquid is harder to dissociate into final products than the tungsten precursor as observed experimentally.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Mwakikunga, B. W.; Mudau, A. E.; Brink, N.; Willers, C. J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">147</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUSM.U53A..01R"> <span id="translatedtitle">Annual <span class="hlt">temperature</span> anomaly <span class="hlt">trends</span> correlate with coral reef trajectory across the Pacific</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The future survival of coral reefs depends on the envelope of critical climatic conditions determining the severity of impacts on the ecosystem. While coral health is strongly determined by extreme heat events, that lead to bleaching and often death, chronic "heat loading" may also disadvantage corals by making them more susceptible to, for example, diseases. On the other hand, it has been shown that coral living in hotter areas have higher bleaching thresholds and may be affected by less mortality at extreme events. This level at which heat anomalies lead to coral mortality varies widely across oceans, from ~31 deg C across the Caribbean to ~32 deg C in the Great Barrier Reef to 37.5 deg C in the Persian/Arabian Gulf. Thus, there clearly exists local adaptation and the extremes required to kill reefs strongly vary among regions. This could be be interpreted as suggesting that as long as bleaching <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> are not reached, increased overall heat content expressed by a positive annual thermal anomaly, might actually foster coral resilience. Is there evidence for or against such an argument? Bleaching events have been occurring worldwide with variable recurrence and variable subsequent recovery. Despite demonstrated adaptation to higher-than-usual mean summer <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, reefs in the Arabian Gulf and the Red Sea are on a declining trajectory. This coincides with consistent warming in the region. Mean annual anomalies of ocean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (since 1870) and atmospheric <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> (since 1950) increase throughout the region. Since 1994 (Red Sea) and 1998 (southern Arabian Gulf) all mean annual anomalies have been positive and this period has coincided with repeated, severe bleaching events. In the Eastern Pacific (Galapagos and Easter Island), the <span class="hlt">trend</span> of mean annual <span class="hlt">temperature</span> anomalies has been declining and coral cover has been increasing. Thus, <span class="hlt">trends</span> in coral cover and mean annual anomaly are negatively correlated in both regions. Despite strong impacts due to bleaching in 1983 and 1998, and increasing variance in anomalies (both positive and negative) the E-Pacific presently maintains an upward <span class="hlt">trend</span> in coral cover and colony frequency. In the Red Sea , variance in anomalies increased but exclusively towards positive values. In the Gulf, variance declined towards stronger and only positive anomalies. In both regions, this raised thermal envelope is associated with reef decline. This is most dramatic in the Gulf, with six bleaching events since 1996, but also obvious in the Red Sea (bleaching in 1998, 2005 and 2010). Both Gulf and Red Sea suffer also from other mortality factors, such as diseases and predator outbreaks. Decline in reef health is therefore not uniquely linked to bleaching, but other mortality factors are also linked to changes in the thermal envelope. Chronic effects of increased average <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> seem to define a reef trajectory more closely than the effects of individual, albeit strong, episodic disturbances.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Riegl, B. M.; Wieters, E.; Bruckner, A.; Purkis, S.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">148</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015BGD....12..751B"> <span id="translatedtitle">Seasonal lake surface water <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">trends</span> reflected by heterocyst glycolipid based molecular thermometers</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">It has been demonstrated that the relative distribution of heterocyst glycolipids (HGs) in cultures of N2-fixing heterocystous cyanobacteria is largely controlled by growth <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, suggesting a potential use of these components in paleoenvironmental studies. Here, we investigated the effect of environmental parameters (e.g. surface water <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, oxygen concentrations and pH) on the distribution of HGs in a natural system using water column filtrates collected from Lake Schreventeich (Kiel, Germany) from late July to the end of October 2013. HPLC-ESI/MS analysis revealed a dominance of 1-(O-hexose)-3,25-hexacosanediols (HG26 diols) and 1-(O-hexose)-3-keto-25-hexacosanol (HG26 keto-ol) in the solvent extracted water column filtrates, which were accompanied by minor abundances of 1-(O-hexose)-3,27-octacosanediol (HG28 diol) and 1-(O-hexose)-3-keto-27-octacosanol (HG28 keto-ol) as well as 1-(O-hexose)-3,25,27-octacosanetriol (HG28 triol) and 1-(O-hexose)-3-keto-25,27-octacosanediol (HG28 keto-diol). Fractional abundances of alcoholic and ketonic HGs generally showed strong <span class="hlt">linear</span> correlations with surface water <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and no or only weak <span class="hlt">linear</span> correlations with both oxygen concentrations and pH. Changes in the distribution of the most abundant diol and keto-ol (e.g., HG26 diol and HG26 keto-ol) were quantitatively expressed as the HDI26 (heterocyst diol index of 26carbon atoms) with values of this index ranging from 0.89 in mid-August to 0.66 in mid-October. An average HDI26 value of 0.79, which translates into a calculated surface water <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of 15.8 0.3 C, was obtained from surface sediments collected from Lake Schreventeich. This <span class="hlt">temperature</span> - and <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> obtained from other HG indices (e.g., HDI28 and HTI28) - is similar to the one measured during maximum cyanobacterial productivity in early to mid-September and suggests that HGs preserved in Lake Schreventeich sediments record summer surface water <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. As N2-fixing heterocystous cyanobacteria are widespread in present-day freshwater and brackish environments, we conclude that the distribution of HGs in sediments may allow the reconstruction of surface water <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> of modern and potentially ancient lacustrine settings.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bauersachs, T.; Rochelmeier, J.; Schwark, L.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2015-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">149</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ACPD...15.1617K"> <span id="translatedtitle">An objective determination of optimal site locations for detecting expected <span class="hlt">trends</span> in upper-air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and total column ozone</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In the first study reported on here, requirements on random uncertainty of instantaneous <span class="hlt">temperature</span> measurements, sampling frequency, season and pressure, required to ensure a minimum random uncertainty of monthly mean <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, have been explored. These results then inform analyses conducted in a second study which seeks to identify the optimal location of sites for detecting projected <span class="hlt">trends</span> in upper-air <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> in the shortest possible time. The third part of the paper presents a similar analysis for the optimal locations of sites to detect projected <span class="hlt">trends</span> in total column ozone. Results from the first study show that only for individual measurement random uncertainties > 0.2 K does the measurement random uncertainty start to contribute significantly to the random uncertainty of the monthly mean. Analysis of the effects of the individual measurement random uncertainty and sampling strategy on the ability to detect upper-air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">trends</span> shows that only when the measurement random uncertainty exceeds 2 K, and measurements are made just once or twice a month, is the quality of the <span class="hlt">trend</span> determination compromised. The time to detect a <span class="hlt">trend</span> in some upper-air climate variable is a function of the unforced variance in the signal, the degree of autocorrelation, and the expected magnitude of the <span class="hlt">trend</span>. For middle tropospheric and lower stratospheric <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, the first two quantities were derived from Microwave Sounding Unit (MSU) and Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU) measurements while projected <span class="hlt">trends</span> were obtained by averaging 21st century <span class="hlt">trends</span> from simulations made by 11 chemistry-climate models (CCMs). For total column ozone, variance and autocorrelation were derived from the Bodeker Scientific total column ozone database with projected <span class="hlt">trends</span> obtained from median values from 21 CCM simulations of total column ozone changes over the 21st century. While the optimal sites identified in this analysis for detecting <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and total column ozone <span class="hlt">trends</span> in the shortest time possible result from our use of only one of a wide range of objective strategies, these results provide additional incentives for initiating measurement programmes at these sites or, if already in operation, to continue to be supported.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kreher, K.; Bodeker, G. E.; Sigmond, M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2015-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">150</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/50636203"> <span id="translatedtitle">A delay line with highly <span class="hlt">linear</span> thermal sensitivity for smart <span class="hlt">temperature</span> sensor</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">A highly <span class="hlt">linear</span> thermal sensitivity delay line for smart <span class="hlt">temperature</span> sensor is presented. The proposed delay line is a current starved inverter chain. A simple bias current source circuit is incorporated with the delay line to generate a current inversely proportional to <span class="hlt">temperature</span> based on the transconductance characteristics of a MOS device at the vicinity of the zero <span class="hlt">temperature</span> coefficient</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Nguyen Thanh Trung; Kwansu Shon; Soo-Won Kim</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">151</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012ApPhL.101g2902L"> <span id="translatedtitle">A high-<span class="hlt">temperature</span> double-mode piezoelectric ultrasonic <span class="hlt">linear</span> motor</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A miniature piezoelectric ultrasonic <span class="hlt">linear</span> motor (piezoelectric vibrator sizes: 4.7 13.5 2 mm3) has been studied for precise actuation at 200 C high-<span class="hlt">temperature</span>. This piezoelectric <span class="hlt">linear</span> motor was made of (1-x)BiScO3-xPbTiO3 piezoelectric ceramic with a high curie <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (428 C) and it was operated in first longitudinal and the second bending double-mode. Our experimental results showed that the <span class="hlt">linear</span> motor moves smoothly at the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> as high as 200 C with a driving force of 0.35 N and a speed up to 42 mm/s.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Li, Xiaotian; Chen, Jianguo; Chen, Zhijiang; Dong, Shuxiang</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">152</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ThApC.119..123W"> <span id="translatedtitle">Spatiotemporal analysis of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">trends</span> under climate change in the source region of the Yellow River, China</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Under global climate change, the change in <span class="hlt">temperature</span> has greatly affected the hydrological processes and water resource security in the source region of the Yellow River, which is located in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and serves as a major source of domestic and agricultural water supply in the watershed. Multiple spatiotemporal analysis methods, including the S-mode empirical orthogonal function analysis, the inverse distance weighted interpolation, the weighted moving average method, and the Mann-Kendall test method were used to comprehensively analyze the <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> of 14 meteorological stations at yearly and seasonal scales from 1961 to 2010. The results indicated that (1) general <span class="hlt">trends</span> of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> change have been rising, with an especially significant warming <span class="hlt">trend</span> since the late 1990s; (2) in the last five decades, <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">trends</span> in the study area underwent three stages, namely a cool stage (approximately 1961-1980), a fluctuating stage (approximately 1981-1997), and a warm stage (approximately 1998-2010); and (3) due to the combined effects of monsoons and geographic features, the source region could be divided into three zones according to the annual <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variations: a low-value zone centered on Henan station in the northeastern edge; a high-value zone situated in the central, southern, and western area; and a transitional zone between the two zones mentioned above. This study is helpful for understanding <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">trends</span> under climate change and can provide a basis for ecological protection.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wang, Yuli; Wang, Xuan; Li, Chunhui; Wu, Feifei; Yang, Zhifeng</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2015-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">153</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JGRD..118.9658G"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Temperature</span> <span class="hlt">trends</span> in the tropical upper troposphere and lower stratosphere: Connections with sea surface <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and implications for water vapor and ozone</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Satellite observations and chemistry-climate model experiments are used to understand the zonal structure of tropical lower stratospheric <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, water vapor, and ozone <span class="hlt">trends</span>. The warming in the tropical upper troposphere over the past 30 years is strongest near the Indo-Pacific warm pool, while the warming <span class="hlt">trend</span> in the western and central Pacific is much weaker. In the lower stratosphere, these <span class="hlt">trends</span> are reversed: the historical cooling <span class="hlt">trend</span> is strongest over the Indo-Pacific warm pool and is weakest in the western and central Pacific. These zonal variations are stronger than the zonal-mean response in boreal winter. Targeted experiments with a chemistry-climate model are used to demonstrate that sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (hereafter SST) <span class="hlt">trends</span> are driving the zonal asymmetry in upper tropospheric and lower stratospheric tropical <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">trends</span>. Warming SSTs in the Indian Ocean and in the warm pool region have led to enhanced moist heating in the upper troposphere, and in turn to a Gill-like response that extends into the lower stratosphere. The anomalous circulation has led to zonal structure in the ozone and water vapor <span class="hlt">trends</span> near the tropopause, and subsequently to less water vapor entering the stratosphere. The radiative impact of these changes in trace gases is smaller than the direct impact of the moist heating. Projected future SSTs appear to drive a <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and water vapor response whose zonal structure is similar to the historical response. In the lower stratosphere, the changes in water vapor and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> due to projected future SSTs are of similar strength to, though slightly weaker than, that due directly to projected future CO2, ozone, and methane.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Garfinkel, C. I.; Waugh, D. W.; Oman, L. D.; Wang, L.; Hurwitz, M. M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">154</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20140013023&hterms=ozone&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dozone"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Temperature</span> <span class="hlt">Trends</span> in the Tropical Upper Troposphere and Lower Stratosphere: Connections with Sea Surface <span class="hlt">Temperatures</span> and Implications for Water Vapor and Ozone</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Satellite observations and chemistry-climate model experiments are used to understand the zonal structure of tropical lower stratospheric <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, water vapor, and ozone <span class="hlt">trends</span>. The warming in the tropical upper troposphere over the past 30 years is strongest near the Indo-Pacific warm pool, while the warming <span class="hlt">trend</span> in the western and central Pacific is much weaker. In the lower stratosphere, these <span class="hlt">trends</span> are reversed: the historical cooling <span class="hlt">trend</span> is strongest over the Indo-Pacific warm pool and is weakest in the western and central Pacific. These zonal variations are stronger than the zonal-mean response in boreal winter. Targeted experiments with a chemistry-climate model are used to demonstrate that sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (hereafter SST) <span class="hlt">trends</span> are driving the zonal asymmetry in upper tropospheric and lower stratospheric tropical <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">trends</span>. Warming SSTs in the Indian Ocean and in the warm pool region have led to enhanced moist heating in the upper troposphere, and in turn to a Gill-like response that extends into the lower stratosphere. The anomalous circulation has led to zonal structure in the ozone and water vapor <span class="hlt">trends</span> near the tropopause, and subsequently to less water vapor entering the stratosphere. The radiative impact of these changes in trace gases is smaller than the direct impact of the moist heating. Projected future SSTs appear to drive a <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and water vapor response whose zonal structure is similar to the historical response. In the lower stratosphere, the changes in water vapor and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> due to projected future SSTs are of similar strength to, though slightly weaker than, that due directly to projected future CO2, ozone, and methane.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Garfinkel, C. I.; Waugh, D. W.; Oman, L. D.; Wang, L.; Hurwitz, M. M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">155</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013ApPhL.102e2902C"> <span id="translatedtitle">A high-<span class="hlt">temperature</span> piezoelectric <span class="hlt">linear</span> actuator operating in two orthogonal first bending modes</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Conventionally, piezoelectric ultrasonic <span class="hlt">linear</span> actuators operate in longitudinal and bending combination (degenerate) modes for producing an elliptic motion which drives a slider moving <span class="hlt">linearly</span>. With the increasing <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, the degenerate mode will split into two separated modes again, resulting in piezoelectric actuators working to fail. Here, we report a miniature piezoelectric ultrasonic <span class="hlt">linear</span> actuator made of Mn modified (1-x)BiScO3-xPbTiO3 piezoelectric ceramics operating in two orthogonal first bending modes (B1-B1). The B1-B1 mode <span class="hlt">linear</span> actuator showed much better load and speed <span class="hlt">temperature</span> stability than piezoelectric actuators operating in different combination mode in the investigated <span class="hlt">temperature</span> range of room <span class="hlt">temperature</span> to 200 C.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Chen, Jianguo; Chen, Zhijiang; Li, Xiaotian; Dong, Shuxiang</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">156</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.B52A..03P"> <span id="translatedtitle">Recent <span class="hlt">trends</span> in Inner Asian forest dynamics to <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and precipitation indicate high sensitivity to climate change</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Semi-arid ecosystems play an important role in regulating global climate and their response to climate change will depend on interactions between <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, precipitation, and CO2. However, in cool-arid environments, precipitation is not the only limitation to forest productivity. For example, interactions between changes in precipitation and air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> may enhance soil moisture stress while simultaneously extending growing season length, with unclear consequences for net carbon uptake. This presentation evaluates recent <span class="hlt">trends</span> in productivity and seasonality of forests located in Inner Asia (Mongolia and Northern China) using satellite remote sensing, dendrochronology, and dynamic global vegetation model (DGVM) simulations to quantify the sensitivity of forest dynamics to decadal climate variability and <span class="hlt">trends</span>. Long-term <span class="hlt">trends</span> from satellite observations of FPAR between 1982-2010 show a greening of 21% of the region in spring (March, April May), but with 10% of the area 'browning' during summertime (June, July, August), the results of which are corroborated by <span class="hlt">trends</span> in NPP simulated by the LPJ DGVM. Spring greening <span class="hlt">trends</span> in FPAR are mainly explained by long-term <span class="hlt">trends</span> in precipitation whereas summer browning <span class="hlt">trends</span> are correlated with decreasing precipitation. Tree ring data from 25 sites confirm annual growth increments are mainly limited by summer precipitation (June, July, August) in Mongolia, and spring precipitation in northern China (March, April, May), with relatively weak prior-year lag effects. An ensemble of climate projections from the IPCC CMIP3 models indicates that warming <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> (spring, summer) are expected to be associated with higher summer precipitation, which combined with CO2 causes large increases in NPP and eventual increase in forest cover in the Mongolian steppe. In the absence of a strong direct CO2 fertilization effect on plant growth (e.g., due to nutrient limitation), water stress or decreased carbon gain from higher autotrophic respiration results in decreased productivity and loss of forest cover.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Poulter, B.; Pederson, N.; Liu, H.; Zhu, Z.; D'Arrigo, R.; Ciais, P.; Davi, N.; Frank, D. C.; Leland, C.; Myneni, R.; Piao, S.; Wang, T.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">157</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22512159"> <span id="translatedtitle">[The <span class="hlt">linearity</span> analysis of ultrahigh <span class="hlt">temperature</span> FTIR spectral emissivity measurement system].</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">To study thermal radiation properties of special materials at high <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in aerospace fields, the ultrahigh <span class="hlt">temperature</span> spectral emissivity measurement system with Fourier spectrometer has been established. The <span class="hlt">linearity</span> of system is the guarantee of emissivity measurement precision. Through measuring spectral radiation signals of a blackbody source at different <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, the function relations between spectral signal values and blackbody spectral radiation luminance of every spectrum points were calculated with the method of multi-<span class="hlt">temperature</span> and multi-spectrum <span class="hlt">linear</span> fitting. The spectral radiation signals of blackbody were measured between 1 000 degrees C and 2 000 degrees C in the spectral region from 3 to 20 microm. The <span class="hlt">linear</span> relations between spectral signal and theory line at wavelength of 4 microm were calculated and introduced. The spectral response is well good between 4 and 18 microm, the spectral <span class="hlt">linearity</span> are less than 1% except CO2 strong absorption spectrum regions. The results show that when the errors of measured spectrum radiation and <span class="hlt">linear</span> fitting theory lines are certain, the higher the <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, the smaller the spectral errors on emissivity. The <span class="hlt">linearity</span> analysis of spectrum response is good at eliminating errors caused by individual <span class="hlt">temperature</span>' disturbance to the spectra. PMID:22512159</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wang, Zong-wei; Dai, Jing-min; He, Xiao-wa; Yang, Chun-ling</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">158</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ThApC.116..227F"> <span id="translatedtitle">The effects of urbanization on <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">trends</span> in different economic periods and geographical environments in northwestern China</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Using data collected from 22 urban and 65 rural meteorological stations in northwestern China between 1961 and 2009, this paper presents a study concerning the effects of urbanization on air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">trends</span>. To distinguish among the potential influences that stem from the economic development levels, population scales, and geographic environments of the cities in this region, the 49-year study period was divided into two periods: a period of less economic development, from 1961 to 1978, and a period of greater economic development, from 1979 to 2009. Each of the cities was classified as a megalopolis, large, or medium-small, depending on the population, and each was classified as a plateau, plain, or oasis city, depending on the surrounding geography. The differences in the air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">trends</span> between cities and the average of their rural counterparts were used to examine the warming effects of urbanization. The results of this study indicate that the magnitude of warming effects due to urbanization depends not only on a city's economic level, but also on the population scale and geographic environment of the city. The urbanization of most cities in northwestern China resulted in considerable negative warming effects during 1961-1978 but evidently positive effects during 1979-2009. The population scale of a city represents a significant factor: a city with a larger population has a stronger warming influence, regardless of whether the effect is negative or positive. Among the three geographic environments of the cities considered, plateaus and plains more significantly enhance warming effects than oases. The urban population <span class="hlt">trend</span> has a very significant logarithm relationship with the urban <span class="hlt">temperature</span> effect, but no clear relationships between urban <span class="hlt">temperature</span> effects and city elevation were detected. The majority of the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">trends</span>, accounting for more than 60 % of the <span class="hlt">trends</span> during 1961-2009, can be explained by natural factors, although urbanization has had some obvious effects on <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> in northwestern China.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Fang, Feng; Guo, Junqin; Sun, Landong; Wang, Jing; Wang, Xinping</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">159</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://climate.arm.ac.uk/publications/stanhill-2011.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">The role of water vapor and solar radiation in determining <span class="hlt">temperature</span> changes and <span class="hlt">trends</span> measured at Armagh, 18812000</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The role of water vapor and solar radiation in determining <span class="hlt">temperature</span> changes and <span class="hlt">trends</span> measured, D03105, doi:10.1029/2010JD014044. 1. Introduction [2] The downwelling fluxes of shortwave solar November 2010; published 8 February 2011. [1] A 120 year series of climate measurements at Armagh</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">160</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19890047789&hterms=SME&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3DSME"> <span id="translatedtitle">Climatology and <span class="hlt">trends</span> of mesospheric (58-90) <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> based upon 1982-1986 SME limb scattering profiles</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Atmospheric <span class="hlt">temperature</span> profiles for the altitude range 58-90 km were calculated using data on global UV limb radiances from the SME satellite. The major elements of this climatology include a high vertical resolution (about 4 km) and the coverage of the 70-90 km altitude region. The analysis of this extensive data set provides a global definition of mesospheric-lower thermospheric <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">trends</span> over the 1982-1986 period. The observations suggest a pattern of 1-2 K/year decreases in <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> at 80-90-km altitudes accompanied by 0.5-1.5 K/year increases in <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> at 65-80-km altitudes.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Clancy, R. Todd; Rusch, David W.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1989-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return 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id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#">5</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">9</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#">10</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">161</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/49246186"> <span id="translatedtitle">Analysis of thermoelectric energy conversion efficiency with <span class="hlt">linear</span> and nonlinear <span class="hlt">temperature</span> dependence in material properties</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">A novel approach to estimate energy conversion efficiency for a power-generating thermoelectric element, whose material properties possess both <span class="hlt">linear</span> (first order) and nonlinear (second order) dependence on <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, is developed by solving the differential equation governing its <span class="hlt">temperature</span> distribution, which includes both the Joule heat and the Thomson effect. In order to obtain analytic expressions for power output and energy</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Daehyun Wee</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">162</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70030819"> <span id="translatedtitle">Methodology and results of calculating central California surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">trends</span>: Evidence of human-induced climate change?</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A procedure is described to construct time series of regional surface <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and is then applied to interior central California stations to test the hypothesis that century-scale <span class="hlt">trend</span> differences between irrigated and nonirrigated regions may be identified. The procedure requires documentation of every point in time at which a discontinuity in a station record may have occurred through (a) the examination of metadata forms (e.g., station moves) and (b) simple statistical tests. From this "homogeneous segments" of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> records for each station are defined. Biases are determined for each segment relative to all others through a method employing mathematical graph theory. The debiased segments are then merged, forming a complete regional time series. Time series of daily maximum and minimum <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> for stations in the irrigated San Joaquin Valley (Valley) and nearby nonirrigated Sierra Nevada (Sierra) were generated for 1910-2003. Results show that twentieth-century Valley minimum <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> are warming at a highly significant rate in all seasons, being greatest in summer and fall (> +0.25??C decade-1). The Valley <span class="hlt">trend</span> of annual mean <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> is +0.07?? ?? 0.07??C decade-1. Sierra summer and fall minimum <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> appear to be cooling, but at a less significant rate, while the <span class="hlt">trend</span> of annual mean Sierra <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> is an unremarkable -0.02?? ?? 0.10??C decade-1. A working hypothesis is that the relative positive <span class="hlt">trends</span> in Valley minus Sierra minima (>0.4??C decade-1 for summer and fall) are related to the altered surface environment brought about by the growth of irrigated agriculture, essentially changing a high-albedo desert into a darker, moister, vegetated plain. ?? 2006 American Meteorological Society.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Christy, J.R.; Norris, W.B.; Redmond, K.; Gallo, K.P.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">163</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013ESDD....4.1065M"> <span id="translatedtitle">Problems with solar, volcanic, and ENSO attribution using multiple <span class="hlt">linear</span> regression methods on <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> from 1979-2012</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The effectiveness of multiple <span class="hlt">linear</span> regression approaches in removing solar, volcanic, and El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO) influences from the recent (1979-2012) surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> record is examined, using simple energy balance and global climate models (GCMs). These multiple regression methods are found to incorrectly diagnose the underlying signal - particularly in the presence of a deceleration - by generally overestimating the solar cooling contribution to an early 21st century pause while underestimating the warming contribution from the Mt. Pinatubo recovery. In fact, one-box models and GCMs suggest that the Pinatubo recovery has contributed more to post-2000 warming <span class="hlt">trends</span> than the solar minimum has contributed to cooling over the same period. After adjusting the observed surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> record based on the natural-only multi-model mean from several CMIP5 GCMs and an empirical ENSO adjustment, a significant deceleration in the surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> increase is found, ranging in magnitude from -0.06 to -0.12 K dec-2 depending on model sensitivity and the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> index used. This likely points to internal decadal variability beyond these solar, volcanic, and ENSO influences.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Masters, T.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">164</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17096677"> <span id="translatedtitle">The effects of SNP genotyping errors on the power of the Cochran-Armitage <span class="hlt">linear</span> <span class="hlt">trend</span> test for case/control association studies.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The questions addressed in this paper are: What single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping errors are most costly, in terms of minimum sample size necessary (MSSN) to maintain constant asymptotic power and significance level, when performing case-control studies of genetic association applying the Cochran-Armitage <span class="hlt">trend</span> test? And which <span class="hlt">trend</span> test or chi2 test is more powerful under standard genetic models with genotyping errors? Our strategy is to expand the non-centrality parameter of the asymptotic distribution of the <span class="hlt">trend</span> test to approximate the MSSN using a Taylor series <span class="hlt">linear</span> in the genotyping error rates. We apply our strategy to example scenarios that assume recessive, dominant, additive, or over-dominant disease models. The most costly errors are recording the more common homozygote as the less common homozygote, and the more common homozygote as the heterozygote, with MSSN that become indefinitely large as the minor SNP allele frequency approaches zero. Misclassifying the heterozygote as the less common homozygote is costly when using the recessive <span class="hlt">trend</span> test on data from a recessive model. The chi2 test has power close to, but less than, the optimal <span class="hlt">trend</span> test and is never dominated over all genetic models studied by any specific <span class="hlt">trend</span> test. PMID:17096677</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ahn, Kwangmi; Haynes, Chad; Kim, Wonkuk; Fleur, Rose St; Gordon, Derek; Finch, Stephen J</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">165</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ruby.fgcu.edu/courses/twimberley/EnviroPhilo/Altitude.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">(To be published in Geophysics Research Letters (GL020103) early July) Altitude Dependence of Atmospheric <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> <span class="hlt">Trends</span>: Climate Models vs Observation</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">As a consequence of greenhouse forcing, all state-of-the-art general circulation models predict a positive <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">trend</span> that is greater for the troposphere than the surface. This predicted positive <span class="hlt">trend</span> increases in value with altitude until it reaches a maximum ratio with respect to the surface of as much as 1.5 to 2.0 at about 200-400 hPa. However, the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">trends</span></p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">David H. Douglass; Benjamin D. Pearson; S. Fred Singer</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">166</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFMGC13A0680H"> <span id="translatedtitle">Modeled Global vs. Coastal Impacts on 1970 and 2005 Summer Daytime <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> <span class="hlt">Trends</span> in Coastal California</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">California summertime July to August (JJA) mean monthly air <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> (1970-2005) were analyzed for two California air basins: South Coast (SoCAB) and the San Francisco Bay Area (SFBA), which extended into the Central Valley (CV). Daily Tmin and Tmax values were used to produce average monthly values and spatial distributions of and Tmax values <span class="hlt">trends</span> for each air basin. Results showed concurrent cooling in coastal areas and warming at further inland areas. This pattern suggests that the regional-warming of inland areas resulted in increased coastal sea breeze activity. Further investigations by use of mesoscale model simulations with the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS) meso-met model with a horizontal grid resolution of 4 km on an inner grid over SoCAB were undertaken to investigate the effects of long-term changes due to green house gas (GHG) warming and land-use land-cover changes on coastal flows. Comparison of simulated present (2000-4) and past climate (1970-4) conditions showed significant increases in sea breeze activity and thus coastal cooling, which supports the observational analysis results that coastal cooling is an indirect reverse reaction of GHG warming. The magnitude and location of the simulated and observed coastal-cooling region were in good agreement. Urbanization effects on coastal environment were twofold: increased urban mechanical surface roughness retards sea breeze flows, while urban heat islands (UHIs) enhance them. Significant beneficial societal impacts will result from this observed reverse-reaction to global-warming, especially during UHI-growth periods, include decreased maximum: agricultural production, O3 levels, per-capita energy requirements for cooling, and human thermal-stress levels. Similar reverse-reaction effects should be found in other mid-latitude western coastal-regions.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Habtezion, B. L.; Gonzalez, J.; Bornstein, R. D.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">167</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ThApC.tmp..173D"> <span id="translatedtitle">Investigation of sea level anomalies related with NAO along the west coasts of Turkey and their consistency with sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">trends</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">It is well-known that North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), which is one of the large-scaled climate modes effective in the Northern Hemisphere, has a considerable affect on the water resources and climatic indicators especially in the Mediterranean basin. In recent years, also crucial studies about the sea level rise in relation to climate change have been accelerated. Turkey has about 20 modernized tide gauge stations equipped with permanent GPS receivers and targets to contribute to global sea level rise studies in the future. The aim of this study is to find out the effects of North Atlantic Oscillation on the national shores using the data of four tide-gauge stations located on the Aegean and Mediterranean coasts of Turkey. Implications from these four tide gauges would motivate researches to take into account the effect of NAO in calculating the true sea level rise at the national coasts. While studying the sea level changes, vertical crustal movement has been observed using the data of tide gauge GPS stations, and this situation has been taken into consideration in the evaluation of sea levels. Besides, in order to investigate the influences of thermal expansion on sea levels, sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> data of the meteorology stations near the tide gauges have been evaluated. The homogeneity of the data sets was analyzed using four statistical tests. As a result, all of the meteorology stations' <span class="hlt">temperature</span> series and tide gauges' data are subjected to <span class="hlt">trend</span> detection after the homogeneity analysis. Eventually, the effects of North Atlantic Oscillation on both sea levels and sea surface <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> have been introduced. The study results indicate high correlation between North Atlantic Oscillation and the sea level and sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> events. It is seen that the <span class="hlt">linear</span> correlation between the sea level <span class="hlt">trends</span> of the considered stations and the sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> data of the related meteorology stations is considerably significant.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Dogan, Mustafa; Cigizoglu, H. Kerem; Sanli, D. Ugur; Ulke, Asli</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">168</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002EGSGA..27.5938P"> <span id="translatedtitle">Combined Use of Multiple <span class="hlt">Linear</span> Regression, Optimal Interpolation and Gis In Producing <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Maps</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In intention to produce climate maps of monthly and annual average air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> for the CLINO period 1961-1990 the data from the meteorological stations are inter- polated to regular grid. Combined use of multiple <span class="hlt">linear</span> regression method and opti- mal interpolation was introduced. For every grid point, the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> anomaly from the corresponding average is assumed in the form of <span class="hlt">linear</span> combination of anoma- lies from the average on the meteorological stations. Weighting factors for every grid point are unique and calculated from the demand that the mean square difference be- tween grid point <span class="hlt">temperature</span> anomaly and suggested <span class="hlt">linear</span> combination is minimal. An interpolation technique using these weighting factors is optimal interpolation and is formulated in details by L. S. Gandin. The obtained anomaly field is then added to average <span class="hlt">temperature</span> field evaluated on regular grid using the regression equation to provide the final grided field. Multiple <span class="hlt">linear</span> regression with measured <span class="hlt">temperature</span> as predicted and stations altitude and geographic coordinates as predictors is used. Data for independent predictor variables are elaborated from 1 km resolution digital eleva- tion model (DEM). GIS is used for calculation of average <span class="hlt">temperature</span> field and for visualisation and producing final maps.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Percec Tadic, M.; Pandzic, K.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">169</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011JHyd..400..333P"> <span id="translatedtitle">Long-term <span class="hlt">trend</span> and multi-annual variability of water <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in the pristine Bela River basin (Slovakia)</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">SummaryBiological processes in surface waters appreciably depend on <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of water. This paper summarizes our investigations of water <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in the Bela River. The Bela River is a mountainous stream not influenced by direct human activities, draining the headwaters of the Vah River basin in the Tatra National Park (TANAP), Slovakia. Our primary aim was to identify the long-term <span class="hlt">trends</span> and multi-annual variability of the annual water <span class="hlt">temperature</span> at the Podbanske gauging station, using <span class="hlt">temperature</span> readings taken at 7.00 am for the period of 50 years (1959-2008). Long-term mean of the annual water <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of the Bela River at the Podbanske gauging station (922 m a.s.l.) was 4.2 C, the air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> at Podbanske meteorological station (972 m a.s.l.) was 5.0 C. Both, air and water <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, show an increasing <span class="hlt">trend</span>. While the air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> within 50-years increased significantly by 1.5 C, in the case of water <span class="hlt">temperature</span> this increase was merely by 0.12 C. On November 19, 2004, a wind-throw brushed the investigated area with an aftermath of 15.4% destroyed forest in the Bela basin, mainly along the area adjacent to the river. Therefore, in the second part of the study, the impact of the riparian vegetation growing along the river banks was evaluated for two distinctive periods, i.e. the period prior and after the wind-throw. We statistically analysed the changes in water <span class="hlt">temperature</span> on 6-year time series of daily water <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (November 2001 through November 2007). The results presented herein may be useful for defining boundary values for surface water <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, as required by the EC Water Framework Directive.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Pekrov, Pavla; Miklnek, Pavol; Halmov, Dana; Onderka, Milan; Pekr, Jn; Ku?rov, Katarna; Liov, So?a; koda, Peter</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">170</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AdAtS..30..779Z"> <span id="translatedtitle">A new weighting function for estimating microwave sounding unit channel 4 <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">trends</span> simulated by CMIP5 climate models</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A new static microwave sounding unit (MSU) channel 4 weighting function is obtained from using Coupled Model Inter-comparison Project, Phase 5 (CMIP5) historical multimodel simulations as inputs into the fast Radiative Transfer Model for TOVS (RTTOV v10). For the same CMIP5 model simulations, it is demonstrated that the computed MSU channel 4 brightness <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (T4) <span class="hlt">trends</span> in the lower stratosphere over both the globe and the tropics using the proposed weighting function are equivalent to those calculated by RTTOV, but show more cooling than those computed using the traditional UAH (University of Alabama at Huntsville) or RSS (Remote Sensing Systems in Santa Rosa, California) static weighting functions. The new static weighting function not only reduces the computational cost, but also reveals reasons why <span class="hlt">trends</span> using a radiative transfer model are different from those using a traditional static weighting function. This study also shows that CMIP5 model simulated T4 <span class="hlt">trends</span> using the traditional UAH or RSS static weighting functions show less cooling than satellite observations over the globe and the tropics. Although not completely removed, this difference can be reduced using the proposed weighting function to some extent, especially over the tropics. This work aims to explore the reasons for the <span class="hlt">trend</span> differences and to see to what extent they are related to the inaccurate weighting functions. This would also help distinguish other sources for <span class="hlt">trend</span> errors and thus better understand the climate change in the lower stratosphere.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Zhang, Xuanze; Zheng, Xiaogu; Yang, Chi; Luo, San</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">171</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70035488"> <span id="translatedtitle">Continuous salinity and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> data from san francisco estuary, 19822002: <span class="hlt">Trends</span> and the salinity-freshwater inflow relationship</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The U.S. Geological Survey and other federal and state agencies have been collecting continuous <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and salinity data, two critical estuarine habitat variables, throughout San Francisco estuary for over two decades. Although this dynamic, highly variable system has been well studied, many questions remain relating to the effects of freshwater inflow and other physical and biological linkages. This study examines up to 20 years of publically available, continuous <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and salinity data from 10 different San Francisco Bay stations to identify <span class="hlt">trends</span> in <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and salinity and quantify the salinityfreshwater inflow relationship. Several <span class="hlt">trends</span> in the salinity and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> records were identified, although the high degree of daily and interannual variability confounds the analysis. In addition, freshwater inflow to the estuary has a range of effects on salinity from -0.0020 to -0.0096 (m3 s-1) -1 discharge, depending on location in the estuary and the timescale of analyzed data. Finally, we documented that changes in freshwater inflow to the estuary that are within the range of typical management actions can affect bay-wide salinities by 0.61.4. This study reinforces the idea that multidecadal records are needed to identify <span class="hlt">trends</span> from decadal changes in water management and climate and, therefore, are extremely valuable. ?? 2011 Coastal Education & Research Foundation.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Shellenbarger, G.G.; Schoellhamer, D.H.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">172</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3435419"> <span id="translatedtitle">Elevation-Dependent <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> <span class="hlt">Trends</span> in the Rocky Mountain Front Range: Changes over a 56- and 20-Year Record</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Determining the magnitude of climate change patterns across elevational gradients is essential for an improved understanding of broader climate change patterns and for predicting hydrologic and ecosystem changes. We present <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">trends</span> from five long-term weather stations along a 2077-meter elevational transect in the Rocky Mountain Front Range of Colorado, USA. These <span class="hlt">trends</span> were measured over two time periods: a full 56-year record (19532008) and a shorter 20-year (19892008) record representing a period of widely reported accelerating change. The rate of change of biological indicators, season length and accumulated growing-degree days, were also measured over the 56 and 20-year records. Finally, we compared how well interpolated Parameter-elevation Regression on Independent Slopes Model (PRISM) datasets match the quality controlled and weather data from each station. Our results show that warming signals were strongest at mid-elevations over both temporal scales. Over the 56-year record, most sites show warming occurring largely through increases in maximum <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, while the 20-year record documents warming associated with increases in maximum <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> at lower elevations and increases in minimum <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> at higher elevations. Recent decades have also shown a shift from warming during springtime to warming in July and November. Warming along the gradient has contributed to increases in growing-degree days, although to differing degrees, over both temporal scales. However, the length of the growing season has remained unchanged. Finally, the actual and the PRISM interpolated yearly rates rarely showed strong correlations and suggest different warming and cooling <span class="hlt">trends</span> at most sites. Interpretation of climate <span class="hlt">trends</span> and their seasonal biases in the Rocky Mountain Front Range are dependent on both elevation and the temporal scale of analysis. Given mismatches between interpolated data and the directly measured station data, we caution against an over-reliance on interpolation methods for documenting local patterns of climatic change. PMID:22970205</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">McGuire, Chris R.; Nufio, Csar R.; Bowers, M. Deane; Guralnick, Robert P.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">173</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://cdsweb.cern.ch/record/1753727"> <span id="translatedtitle">Non-Markovian Quantum State Diffusion for <span class="hlt">Temperature</span>-Dependent <span class="hlt">Linear</span> Spectra of Light Harvesting Aggregates</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Non-Markovian Quantum State Diffusion (NMQSD) has turned out to be an effective method to calculate excitonic properties of aggregates composed of organic chromophores, taking into account the strong coupling of electronic transitions to vibrational modes of the chromophores. In this paper we show how to calculate <span class="hlt">linear</span> optical spectra at finite <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> in an efficient way. To this end we map a finite <span class="hlt">temperature</span> environment to the zero <span class="hlt">temperature</span> case using the so-called thermofield method. The zero <span class="hlt">temperature</span> case equations can then be solved efficiently by standard integrators. As an example we calculate absorption and circular dichroism spectra of a <span class="hlt">linear</span> aggregate. The formalism developed can be applied to calculate arbitrary correlation functions.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ritschel, Gerhard; Mbius, Sebastian; Strunz, Walter T; Eisfeld, Alexander</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">174</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014SPIE.9161E..0UA"> <span id="translatedtitle">Heating processes in plasmonic resonances: a non-<span class="hlt">linear</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> dependent permittivity model</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Heating processes in plasmonics are essential every time the interaction with electromagnetic fields induces dissipation within metallic nanostructures. In particular the capability to predict the final <span class="hlt">temperature</span> reached by a system (e.g. an ensemble of nanoparticles within a host medium) can be crucial when dealing with electronic, medical or chemical applications. Here we present a dispersive model of the dielectric function of a metallic medium which depends on <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. Since <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, in turn, depends on the intensity of the electromagnetic source and on the optical response of the medium itself, the model expresses non-<span class="hlt">linearity</span> features. The model, which does not require any fitting parameter, can be utilized whenever the impact of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> on the optical response of a system needs to be clarified and/ or when non-<span class="hlt">linearities</span> might play a major role.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Alabastri, Alessandro; De Angelis, Francesco; Proietti Zaccaria, Remo</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">175</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMED41A0712X"> <span id="translatedtitle">Ostracod body size <span class="hlt">trends</span> do not follow either Bergmann's rule or Cope's rule during periods of constant <span class="hlt">temperature</span> increase</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Over time, organisms have adapted to changing environments by evolving to be larger or smaller. Scientists have described body-size <span class="hlt">trends</span> using two generalized theories. Bergmann's rule states that body size is inversely related to <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, and Cope's rule establishes an increase over time. Cope's rule has been hypothesized as a temporal manifestation of Bergmann's rule, as the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of the Earth has consistently decreased over time and mean body size has increased. However, during times of constant <span class="hlt">temperature</span> increase, Bergmann's rule and Cope's rule predict opposite effects on body size. Our goal was to clarify this relationship using both accessible proxies of historic <span class="hlt">temperature</span> - atmospheric CO2 levels and paleo-latitude. We measured ostracod lengths throughout the Paleozoic and Mesozoic eras (using the Catalogue of Ostracoda) and utilized ostracod latitudinal information from the Paleobiology Database. By closely studying body-size <span class="hlt">trends</span> during four time periods of constant CO2 increase across spectrums of time and latitude, we were able to compare the effects of Cope's and Bergmann's rule. The correlation, p-values, and slopes of each of our graphs showed that there is no clear relationship between body size and each of these rules in times of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> increase, both latitudinally and temporally. Therefore, both Cope's and Bergmann's rule act on marine ostracods and no rule is dominant, though our results more strongly disprove the latitudinal variation in ostracod size.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Xu, Y.; Seshadri, P.; Amin, V.; Heim, N. A.; Payne, J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">176</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21250947"> <span id="translatedtitle">Kaon condensation in the <span class="hlt">linear</span> sigma model at finite density and <span class="hlt">temperature</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Basing on the Cornwall-Jackiw-Tomboulis effective action approach we formulate a theoretical formalism for studying kaon condensation in the <span class="hlt">linear</span> sigma model at finite density and <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. We derive the renormalized effective potential in the Hartree-Fock approximation, which preserves the Goldstone theorem. This quantity is then used to consider physical properties of kaon matter.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Tran Huu Phat [Vietnam Atomic Energy Commission, 59 Ly Thuong Kiet, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Dong Do University, 8 Nguyen Cong Hoan, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Nguyen Van Long [Gialai Teacher College, 126 Le Thanh Ton, Pleiku, Gialai (Viet Nam); Nguyen Tuan Anh [Institute for Nuclear Science and Technique, 5T-160 Hoang Quoc Viet, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Le Viet Hoa [Hanoi National University of Education, 136 Xuan Thuy, Cau Giay, Hanoi (Viet Nam)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-11-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">177</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.A51E0064S"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Temperature</span> <span class="hlt">Trends</span> in the Upper Troposphere to Lower Stratosphere from Radio Occultation Climate Records 2002 to 2012</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Atmospheric climate monitoring and change detection requires observations of high quality. Conventional observations are available from weather satellites and balloons which were originally not intended to serve climate monitoring needs. The construction of climate records from these data necessitates demanding homogenization and calibration processes. During the last years intensive efforts have been put into reconciling differences in atmospheric <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">trends</span> from radiosondes, microwave sounding instruments, and climate model data. Though basic agreement confirmed a tropospheric warming and stratospheric cooling, the uncertainties in the <span class="hlt">trends</span> and their vertical structure remain large in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS). A relatively new atmospheric record is available from radio occultation (RO) observations based on signals of the Global Positioning System (GPS), providing a global and continuous data set of key climate variables for the UTLS since fall 2001. The measurements are based on precise atomic clocks and feature accuracy, long-term stability, and consistency across RO missions. Due to this consistency RO measurements from different satellites can be combined without intercalibration. Profiles of bending angle, refractivity, pressure, geopotential height, and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> are retrieved at a high vertical resolution of about 0.5 km to 1.5 km in the UTLS. Best data quality is achieved from about 5 km to 30 km altitude. Due to these characteristics RO qualifies as climate benchmark data type to investigate atmospheric climate change. In this study we use the recently reprocessed RO data record of the Wegener Center (University of Graz, Austria) over the period 2002 to 2012, including data from the CHAMP, GRACE, Formosat-3/COSMIC, and MetOp satellites. We first briefly recall the demonstrated and remarkable utility of RO for UTLS climate monitoring and then focus on <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">trends</span> in the tropical UTLS. Vertically resolved <span class="hlt">temperature</span> anomalies and <span class="hlt">trends</span> will be presented and compared to those of recent radiosonde records and global climate models. In addition, layer average <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> of the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU) and the Stratospheric Sounding Unit (SSU) will be compared for the lower- to mid-stratosphere channels. Overall we aim at providing deeper insight into recent anomalies and <span class="hlt">trends</span> in the tropical UTLS based on the RO reference climate record.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Steiner, A. K.; Scherllin-Pirscher, B.; Ladstaedter, F.; Schwaerz, M.; Rieckh, T. M.; Kirchengast, G.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">178</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.C31A0605S"> <span id="translatedtitle">Snowmelt timing (onset and melt-refreeze) <span class="hlt">trends</span> in the Yukon River basin determined from passive microwave brightness <span class="hlt">temperatures</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">High latitude drainage basins are experiencing increases in <span class="hlt">temperature</span> higher than the global average with snowmelt dominated basins most sensitive to effects in winter due to snowpack's integration of these changes over the season. This may influence the timing of snowmelt onset and the occurrence of any preceding (early) melt events, resulting in changes in spring runoff and associated flooding, often the most significant hydrologic events of the year. It is therefore critical to be able to understand and model these processes, especially for ungauged basins with little meteorological data. For such basins, passive microwave remote sensing can be utilized; an approach tested in the Yukon River Basin draining more than 850,000 km2 of Alaska and the Yukon Territory. Brightness <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (Tb) data from the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer for EOS (AMSR-E) 36.5 V-GHz frequency and the Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I) 37 V-GHz frequency together form a time series from 1988 to 2010, enabling us to detect <span class="hlt">trends</span> in snowmelt onset timing and the end of melt-refreeze period. Tb encompasses both physical <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and emissivity with wet snow easily detected by an abrupt increase in emissivity. Tb and diurnal amplitude variation (DAV) thresholds determine dates of melt onset and melt-freeze end (end of high DAV), defined as where thresholds are met for more than three of five consecutive days. Melt that is detected before melt onset and is not sustained for more than three out of five days is classified as an early melt event. Preliminary results of <span class="hlt">trends</span> in snowmelt onset and occurrence of early melt events suggest sub-basin differences occur with varying landcover, permafrost, and elevation. Of the thirteen sub-basins that comprise the Yukon River basin, five have significant <span class="hlt">trends</span> toward later melt onset dates, while the northernmost (the Chandalar and Porcupine) have earlier melt onset. The majority of basins with later onset show increasing <span class="hlt">trends</span> of early melt events, while those with earlier onset have decreasing <span class="hlt">trends</span>, suggesting winter melt dynamics may affect melt onset later in the year. Significant variability, however, requires further analysis to more definitively determine <span class="hlt">trends</span> and relationships between the melt parameters.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Semmens, K. A.; Ramage, J. M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">179</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.arl.noaa.gov/documents/JournalPDFs/santerdouglass.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Consistency of modelled and observed <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">trends</span> in the tropical troposphere</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">A recent report of the U.S. Climate Change Science Program (CCSP) identified a 'potentially serious inconsistency' between modelled and observed <span class="hlt">trends</span> in tropical lapse rates (Karl et al., 2006). Early versions of satellite and radiosonde datasets suggested that the tropical surface had warmed more than the troposphere, while climate models consistently showed tropospheric amplification of surface warming in response to</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">B. D. Santer; P. W. Thorne; L. Haimberger; K. E. Taylor; T. M. L. Wigley; J. R. Lanzante; S. Solomon; M. Free; P. J. Gleckler; P. D. Jones; S. A. Klein; C. Mears; D. Nychka; G. A. Schmidt; S. C. Sherwood; F. J. Wentz</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">180</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AGUFM.C41A0499M"> <span id="translatedtitle">Multi-decadal surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">trends</span> near the Ice Divide of East Antarctica using borehole firn <span class="hlt">temperature</span> measurements and inversion method</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The objective of this investigation is to detect multi-decadal surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">trends</span> near the Ice Divide of East Antarctica. The interior of East Antarctic Ice Sheet (EAIS) remains as one of the least explored areas on earth. In recent years there have been several studies attempting to reconstruct the surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> history of Antarctica for the past 50 years using several approaches. However the lack of in situ data has hindered the science community in reaching a conclusive answer about Antarctic climate change, and in particular for the EAIS. In order to gain a better assessment of Antarctic climate change, additional data sources are needed to reduce the current uncertainty. Surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> inversion from firn <span class="hlt">temperature</span> measurements will provide a source of climate reconstruction independent of firn chemistry, sparse weather data, satellite data or ice cores. During the Norwegian-U.S. IPY Scientific Traverse of East Antarctica, in austral summer of 2007-08, thermal-profiling units were installed at three locations (76.06 S, 22.46 E, Traverse site NUS07-2; 78.65 S, 35.64 E, NUS07-5, 126 km from Plateau Station; 82.07 S, 54.9 E, NUS07-7, 2 km from the Pole of Inaccessibility). Each unit consists of 16 PRTs (Platinum Resistance Thermometers) distributed between 0.2 and 90 m in depth. Wired PRTs were lowered into the borehole after an ice core was drilled and before the hole was back-filled with granulated snow to prevent air circulation and provide thermal conduction between PRTs and firn. Near-hourly data are being transmitted through ARGOS satellite telemetry system. The overall uncertainty in firn <span class="hlt">temperature</span> measurement is between 0.02 and 0.03 C. Mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> gradients between -0.5 and -0.75 C were found between 16 and 90 m at three sites, with standard deviations less then 0.03 C. These gradients are larger than or about the same as previously published studies that modeled <span class="hlt">temperature</span> profile under a steady-state climatic condition. Our results suggest a cooling to no significant <span class="hlt">trend</span> near the Ice Divide of East Antarctica for the past several decades. Detailed analysis with the application of inversion method is ongoing to determine how the observed signals in the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> profiles translate in to magnitudes and temporal scales of the surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">trends</span>. A positive <span class="hlt">temperature</span> gradient, suggesting recent warming, was identified for the top of the Greenland ice sheet (Summit station) and will be discussed in comparison.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Muto, A.; Scambos, T. A.; Steffen, K.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' 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href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">181</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010SPIE.7660E..2KV"> <span id="translatedtitle">Split Stirling <span class="hlt">linear</span> cryogenic cooler for a new generation of high <span class="hlt">temperature</span> infrared imagers</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Split <span class="hlt">linear</span> cryocoolers find use in a variety of infrared equipment installed in airborne, heliborne, marine and vehicular platforms along with hand held and ground fixed applications. An upcoming generation of portable, high-definition night vision imagers will rely on the high-<span class="hlt">temperature</span> infrared detectors, operating at elevated <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, ranging from 95K to 200K, while being able to show the performance indices comparable with these of their traditional 77K competitors. Recent technological advances in industrial development of such high-<span class="hlt">temperature</span> detectors initialized attempts for developing compact split Stirling <span class="hlt">linear</span> cryogenic coolers. Their known advantages, as compared to the rotary integral coolers, are superior flexibility in the system packaging, constant and relatively high driving frequency, lower wideband vibration export, unsurpassed reliability and aural stealth. Unfortunately, such off-the-shelf available <span class="hlt">linear</span> cryogenic coolers still cannot compete with rotary integral rivals in terms of size, weight and power consumption. Ricor developed the smallest in the range, 1W@95K, <span class="hlt">linear</span> split Stirling cryogenic cooler for demanding infrared applications, where power consumption, compactness, vibration, aural noise and ownership costs are of concern.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Veprik, A.; Zechtzer, S.; Pundak, N.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">182</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JASTP..93...57P"> <span id="translatedtitle">Testing <span class="hlt">linear</span> gravity wave theory with simultaneous wind and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> data from the mesosphere</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Linear</span> gravity wave (GW) theory is tested on the basis of simultaneous measurements of horizontal winds from a medium frequency (MF) radar at Juliusruh (54.6N, 13.4E) and <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> from combined Potassium (K) and Rayleigh-Mie-Raman (RMR) lidars at Khlungsborn (54.1N, 11.8E). The applicability of <span class="hlt">linear</span> GW theory to mesospheric observations is far from obvious given the fact that typically a whole spectrum of waves is observed which may interact non-<span class="hlt">linearly</span>. Before analyzing our experimental dataset for its fit to expectations from <span class="hlt">linear</span> GW theory, the chosen methodology is tested with model data from the Khlungsborn Mechanistic general Circulation Model (KMCM). This model is a mechanistic general circulation model with high spatial resolution such that waves with horizontal wavelengths in excess of 350km are explicitly resolved yielding a semi-realistic wave motion field. This may be considered as a suitable test-bed for defining and optimizing wave analysis approaches. This effort reveals that Stokes parameters analysis of filtered time series of GW-induced wind and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> fluctuations in comparison to wave amplitudes directly retrieved from the filtered time series allows us to demonstrate the validity of polarization relations based on <span class="hlt">linear</span> wave theory. Indeed, applying the same methodology to the observations yields similarly conclusive results thus giving evidence for the applicability of <span class="hlt">linear</span> wave theory to mesospheric observations after appropriate filtering. These investigations are complemented by a comparison of kinetic and potential energy per unit mass for model and measured data. This reveals that the ratio of kinetic and potential energy also roughly follows expectations from <span class="hlt">linear</span> wave theory.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Placke, Manja; Hoffmann, Peter; Gerding, Michael; Becker, Erich; Rapp, Markus</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">183</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/52559620"> <span id="translatedtitle">Identifying Western Montana Climate <span class="hlt">Trends</span> using 50 years of <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> and Precipitation records for applications in ecosystem process models such as Biome-BGC</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">It's increasingly clear that Global Climate change will affect regions of the earth in different ways. This study examines meteorological station records from the National Climatic Data Center for selected Western Montana Stations in order to identify yearly and seasonal <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, precipitation, snow pack and hydrologic <span class="hlt">trends</span> over the last 50 years. Once identified, these <span class="hlt">trends</span> are used to make</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">S. L. Holbrook; F. Heinsch; S. W. Running</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">184</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/44485133"> <span id="translatedtitle">A New Perspective on Recent Global Warming: Asymmetric <span class="hlt">Trends</span> of Daily Maximum and Minimum <span class="hlt">Temperature</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Monthly mean maximum and minimum <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> for over 50% (10%) of the Northern (Southern) Hemisphere landmass, accounting for 37% of the global landmass, indicate that the rise of the minimum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> has occurred at a rate three times that of the maximum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> during the period 1951-90 (0.84C versus 0.28C). The decrease of the diurnal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> range is approximately equal</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Philip D. Jones; Richard W. Knight; George Kukla; Neil Plummer; Vyacheslav Razuvayev; Kevin P. Gallo; Janette Lindseay; Robert J. Charlson; Thomas C. Peterson</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1993-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">185</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/55437310"> <span id="translatedtitle">Global <span class="hlt">trends</span> in lake surface <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> observed using multi-sensor thermal infrared imagery</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Recent research has shown that the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of lakes and other inland water bodies does not only act as a good indicator of climate variability but under certain conditions can even increase more rapidly than the regional air <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. Further investigation of this phenomenon in particular and of the interaction between lake <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and climate variability in general requires extensive</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Philipp Schneider; Simon J. Hook; Robert G. Radocinski; Gary K. Corlett; Glynn C. Hulley; S. Geoffrey Schladow; Todd E. Steissberg</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">186</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012ThApC.108..505X"> <span id="translatedtitle">Uncertainty estimation of the global <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">trends</span> for multiple radiosondes, reanalyses, and CMIP3/IPCC climate model simulations</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Based on three groups of datasets that include radiosondes, reanalyses, and climate model simulations (e.g., Coupled Model Intercomparison Project, CMIP3) from 1979 to 2008, the interannual variability, global <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">trends</span>, and their uncertainty using ensemble spread among intra-group and inter-group datasets have been discussed. The results show that the interannual <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variability increased from the troposphere to stratosphere, and the maximum occurs around 50 hPa. The CMIP3 climate models have the largest discrepancy in the stratosphere. The intra-group correlations at 500 hPa generally show high similarity within each data group while the inter-group correlations between reanalyses and the CMIP3 climate model simulations indicate lesser similarity. In contrast, the inter-group correlation at 50 hPa is improved except with the Japanese 25-year Reanalysis Project (JRA-25) dataset, and the Twentieth Century Reanalysis (20CR) reanalysis shows a weak cross correlation. The global <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">trends</span> are highly dependent on the individual data sources. Compared to the radiosondes, the reanalyses show a large ensemble spread of <span class="hlt">trends</span> in the stratosphere, and the CMIP3 climate model simulations have a large ensemble spread in the height of the crossover point where tropospheric warming changes into stratospheric cooling. The largest ensemble spread among the reanalyses in the stratosphere is mainly from the large discrepancy in the JRA-25 reanalysis after 1998 and a relatively weak anomaly in the 20CR before 1986. The largest ensemble spread among the CMIP3 climate models in the troposphere is related to the influence of both volcanic eruptions and El Nio/La Nia-Southern Oscillation events. The strong anomalies corresponding to the volcanic eruptions of El Chichon in 1982 and Mt Pinatubo in 1991 are clearly identified in the stratosphere. These volcanic eruptions reduced the warming in the troposphere and strengthened the cooling in the stratosphere during the most recent 30 years.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Xu, Jianjun; Powell, Alfred M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">187</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://dspace.mit.edu/handle/1721.1/77908"> <span id="translatedtitle">The signature of ozone depletion on tropical <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">trends</span>, as revealed by their seasonal cycle in model integrations with single forcings</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">[1] The effect of ozone depletion on <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">trends</span> in the tropical lower stratosphere is explored with an atmospheric general circulation model, and directly contrasted to the effect of increased greenhouse gases and ...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Polvani, Lorenzo M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">188</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://arxiv.org/pdf/0706.0059v2"> <span id="translatedtitle">High-Tc superconductivity originated from strong spin-charge correlation: indication from <span class="hlt">linear</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> dependence of resistivity</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Both the highest- and the <span class="hlt">linear</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> dependence of the resistivity in wide <span class="hlt">temperature</span> range appear at the optimally doped regions of Cu-based superconductors1,2,3,4,5, and the highest- of Fe-based superconductors6,7 are also associated with the <span class="hlt">linear</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> dependence of the resistivity in normal states near superconducting states. This means that the high <span class="hlt">temperature</span> superconductivity and the <span class="hlt">linear</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> dependence of the resistivity should be dominated by the same mechanism. This letter on theoretic calculation clearly shows that strong spin-charge correlation dominated resistivity behaves the <span class="hlt">linear</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> dependence, thus high-<span class="hlt">temperature</span> superconductivity should be induced by strong spin-charge correlation.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Tian De Cao</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">189</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/50653700"> <span id="translatedtitle">High <span class="hlt">linear</span> voltage references for on-chip CMOS smart <span class="hlt">temperature</span> sensor from ?60C to 140C</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">A low-cost and high <span class="hlt">linear</span> voltage reference circuitry is designed and implemented in TSMC 0.18 mum CMOS technology. Previous research has proposed the use of MOS transistors operated in the weak inversion region to replace the bipolar devices with conventional PTAT (proportional to absolute <span class="hlt">temperature</span>) circuits. However, such solutions often cause <span class="hlt">linearity</span> problem in high <span class="hlt">temperature</span> region because of the</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Joseph Tso-sheng Tsai; Herming Chiueh</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">190</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21088469"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Temperature</span> dependence of the coefficient of <span class="hlt">linear</span> thermal expansion of single-crystal SmS</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The coefficient of <span class="hlt">linear</span> thermal expansion of single-crystal SmS has been measured in the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> range 300-850 K by dilatometry and X-ray diffraction. It is shown that the difference in the results obtained by these two methods is due to the heating-induced formation of SmS phases with small lattice parameters (5.62-5.8 A) close to that for the metallic SmS phase.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kaminskii, V. V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Ioffe Physicotechnical Institute (Russian Federation)], E-mail: Vladimir.Kaminski@mail.ioffe.ru; Luguev, S. M.; Omarov, Z. M. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Physics, Dagestan Scientific Center (Russian Federation); Sharenkova, N. V.; Golubkov, A. V.; Vasil'ev, L. N.; Solov'ev, S. M. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Ioffe Physicotechnical Institute (Russian Federation)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">191</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/je5lg4c6xxu9e9jr.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Can local <span class="hlt">linear</span> stochastic theory explain sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and salinity variability?</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">.?Sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (SST) and salinity (SSS) time series from four ocean weather stations and data from an integration\\u000a of the GFDL coupled ocean-atmosphere model are analyzed to test the applicability of local <span class="hlt">linear</span> stochastic theory to the\\u000a mixed-layer ocean. According to this theory, mixed-layer variability away from coasts and fronts can be explained as a red\\u000a noise response to</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">A. Hall; S. Manabe</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1997-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">192</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/40377411"> <span id="translatedtitle">Ontogenetic patterns in thermal adaptation of fish vs. long-term <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">trends</span> in large rivers</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Rheophilic fish species characteristic of large river systems are finely tuned during early ontogenetic development to the seasonal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> regime of their main nursery habitats in the inshore zones of rivers. River regulation and the construction of hydropower dams have disrupted the balance between requirements and the field conditions. Frequently, <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> fall below the optimal range in regulated rivers due</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">F. Schiemer; H. Keckeis; H. Nemeschkal; E. Schludermann; G. Winkler; I. Zweimller</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">193</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..12.3512Y"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Linear</span> Long-term <span class="hlt">Trend</span> of Aerosol Optical Thickness from Satellite Retrievals using BAER over Several Regions</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Aerosol has been investigated by many scientists due to its potential effects on climate system. However, Aerosol Optical Thickness (AOT) retrieval over land is difficult because of high variability of surface reflectance. BAER (Bremen AErosol Retrieval) among well-developed algorithms has retrieved AOT successfully over land with different satellite data in previous studies. In this study, the long-term and seasonal <span class="hlt">trends</span> of AOT over several regions has been studied by using BAER with SeaWiFS (Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor) L1b data from late 1997 to May 2008. The EU CityZen project requested investigations in specific regions of interest, as these are BeNeLux, Po Valley, Eastern Europe, Eastern Mediterranean in Europe, and Pearl River Delta in South China because they are densely populated and mostly influenced by terrestrial aerosol sources (e.g. mineral dust, industrial pollutant, and biomass burning). AERONET level 2.0 (cloud-screened and quality-assured) data in 443 and 555 nm were used for the validation process. Furthermore, long-term <span class="hlt">trend</span> of retrieved AOT was verified at AERONET sites (Forth Crete, Ispra, and Venise) located within the regions of interest. In general, negative tendencies in AOT were observed in most of European regions influenced by industrial pollutants, and the magnitude is up to -0.0039 per year. However, the AOT <span class="hlt">trend</span> in the Pearl River Delta shows positive tendency because it is a fast developing region. The magnitude is up to +0.0065 per year. For more reliable analysis of long-term <span class="hlt">trend</span> of AOT, further studies are necessary with other satellites, ground-based measurements, and numerical models.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Yoon, Jongmin; von Hoyningen-Huene, Wolfgang; Vountas, Marco; Burrows, John P.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">194</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3280852"> <span id="translatedtitle">Piezoresistive Sensitivity, <span class="hlt">Linearity</span> and Resistance Time Drift of Polysilicon Nanofilms with Different Deposition <span class="hlt">Temperatures</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Our previous research work indicated that highly boron doped polysilicon nanofilms (?100 nm in thickness) have higher gauge factor (the maximum is ?34 for 80 nm-thick films) and better <span class="hlt">temperature</span> stability than common polysilicon films (? 200nm in thickness) at the same doping levels. Therefore, in order to further analyze the influence of deposition <span class="hlt">temperature</span> on the film structure and piezoresistance performance, the piezoresistive sensitivity, piezoresistive <span class="hlt">linearity</span> (PRL) and resistance time drift (RTD) of 80 nm-thick highly boron doped polysilicon nanofilms (PSNFs) with different deposition <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> were studied here. The tunneling piezoresistive model was established to explain the relationship between the measured gauge factors (GFs) and deposition <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. It was seen that the piezoresistance coefficient (PRC) of composite grain boundaries is higher than that of grains and the magnitude of GF is dependent on the resistivity of grain boundary (GB) barriers and the weight of the resistivity of composite GBs in the film resistivity. In the investigations on PRL and RTD, the interstitial-vacancy (IV) model was established to model GBs as the accumulation of IV pairs. And the recrystallization of metastable IV pairs caused by material deformation or current excitation is considered as the prime reason for piezoresistive nonlinearity (PRNL) and RTD. Finally, the optimal deposition <span class="hlt">temperature</span> for the improvement of film performance and reliability is about 620 C and the high <span class="hlt">temperature</span> annealing is not very effective in improving the piezoresistive performance of PSNFs deposited at lower <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. PMID:22399960</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Shi, Changzhi; Liu, Xiaowei; Chuai, Rongyan</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">195</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70034387"> <span id="translatedtitle">Oxygen-isotope <span class="hlt">trends</span> and seawater <span class="hlt">temperature</span> changes across the Late Cambrian Steptoean positive carbon-isotope excursion (SPICE event)</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The globally recognized Late Cambrian Steptoean positive C-isotope excursion (SPICE) is characterized by a 3???-5??? positive ??13C shift spanning <4 m.y. Existing hypotheses suggest that the SPICE represents a widespread ocean anoxic event leading to enhanced burial/preservation of organic matter (Corg) and pyrite. We analyzed ??18O values of apatitic inarticulate brachiopods from three Upper Cambrian successions across Laurentia to evaluate paleotemperatures during the SPICE. ??18O values range from ~12.5??? to 16.5???. Estimated seawater <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> associated with the SPICE are unreasonably warm, suggesting that the brachiopod ??18O values were altered during early diagenesis. Despite this, all three localities show similar <span class="hlt">trends</span> with respect to the SPICE ??13C curve, suggesting that the brachiopod apatite preserves a record of relative ??18O and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> changes. The <span class="hlt">trends</span> include relatively high ??18O values at the onset of the SPICE, decreasing and lowest values during the main event, and an increase in values at the end of the event. The higher ??18O values during the global extinction at the onset of the SPICE suggests seawater cooling and supports earlier hypotheses of upwelling of cool waters onto the shallow shelf. Decreasing and low ??18O values coincident with the rising limb of the SPICE support the hypothesis that seawater warming and associated reduced thermohaline circulation rates contributed to decreased dissolved O2 concentrations, which enhanced the preservation/burial of Corg causing the positive ??13C shift. ?? 2011 Geological Society of America.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Elrick, M.; Rieboldt, S.; Saltzman, M.; McKay, R.M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">196</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://fishbull.noaa.gov/70-3/colton.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">TEMPERATURE</span> <span class="hlt">TRENDS</span> AND THE DISTRIBUTION OF GROUNDFISH IN CONTINENTAL SHELF WATERS, NOVA SCOTIA TO LONG ISLAND</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">and a contraction of the northern range of butterfish. These shifts in distribution were not extensive and the poleward boundary of butterfish by summer <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> too low for reproduction. There was no obvious</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">197</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.5075S"> <span id="translatedtitle">Regional 20th Century <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> <span class="hlt">Trends</span> from Radiosondes and Reanalyses in the Arctic (60N-90N)</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We compare seasonal 20th century atmospheric <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">trends</span> in the Arctic (60N-90N) from radiosonde observations (CHUAN, HadAT, IUK, RAOBCORE/RICH, RATPAC) and reanalyses (ERA-40, NCEP/NCAR (NNR), Twentieth Century reanalysis (20CR), CFSR, ERA-Interim, MERRA). Large differences are found between the magnitudes, vertical profiles of the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">trends</span> (even for time periods > 3 decades), and chronological sequences of bidecadal, regional warming and cooling periods in the reanalyses. Long term zonal mean vertical <span class="hlt">trend</span> profiles from CHUAN and from the reanalyses reaching back to the time before the satellite era show an amplification of the tropospheric warming towards the surface in all seasons except in JJA for the periods 1901-99, 1948-99 and 1957-99. In 20CR, a very strong 20th century cooling <span class="hlt">trend</span> compared to the other datasets is found between 150 and 200 hPa. The agreement of the vertical structure and temporal behaviour of regional, bidecadal <span class="hlt">trends</span> in the long reanalyses for 11 regions in the Arctic with CHUAN is best on average for ERA-40, followed by a less good agreement with <span class="hlt">trends</span> from NNR (especially vertical structure) and 20CR (vertical structure and temporal behaviour). ERA-40 performs best for the NE Atlantic, Karelia, the SE Canadian Arctic, Alaska, and Central Siberia, and less favourably in the NW Canadian Arctic, E Siberia, W Siberia, and Novaya Zemlya. NNR agreement with CHUAN is significantly worse than in ERA-40 for the NE Atlantic, SE Canadian Arctic, SW Central Siberia, and E Central Siberia. 20CR performance is generally worse than that of ERA-40 and NNR, particularly for Karelia, the SE Canadian Arctic, Novaya Zemlya, W Siberia, and Central Siberia. For the more recent but shorter reanalyses, the internal agreement is generally very high, and results are close to CHUAN, ERA-40 and NNR. A comparison of CHUAN with the other radiosonde datasets is only possible for Alaska, E Central Siberia, NE Atlantic and NE Central Siberia (only HadAT and IUK), E Siberia and Novaya Zemlya (only HadAT), and Karelia, SW Central Siberia and W Siberia (all except RATPAC). For the period of overlap (1951-99) the agreement is reasonable with respect to the general picture. However, some disagreement on the <span class="hlt">trend</span> sign can be seen a) for Alaska during DJF 1961-80 with HadAT and IUK, b) for E Central Siberia during MAM 1971-90 and 1980-99 with HadAT and during DJF 1980-99, MAM 1971-99 and SON 1961-80 with IUK, c) for Karelia during MAM/JJA 1961-80 with RAOBCORE/RICH (JJA also with HadAT and IUK), d) for NE Central Siberia during DJF 1961-80 with HadAT, e) for Novaya Zemlya during DJF1961-80 with HadAT, f) for SW Central Siberia during SON 1980-99 with RAOBCORE/RICH, g) for W Siberia during DJF/MAM 1961-80 with RAOBCORE/RICH, HadAT and IUK.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Stickler, Alexander; Brnnimann, Stefan</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">198</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://arxiv.org/pdf/1409.1091v2"> <span id="translatedtitle">Non-Markovian Quantum State Diffusion for <span class="hlt">Temperature</span>-Dependent <span class="hlt">Linear</span> Spectra of Light Harvesting Aggregates</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Non-Markovian Quantum State Diffusion (NMQSD) has turned out to be an efficient method to calculate excitonic properties of aggregates composed of organic chromophores, taking into account the coupling of electronic transitions to vibrational modes of the chromophores. NMQSD is an open quantum system approach that incorporates environmental degrees of freedom (the vibrations in our case) in a stochastic way. We show in this paper that for <span class="hlt">linear</span> optical spectra (absorption, circular dichroism) no stochastics is needed, even for finite <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. Thus, the spectra can be obtained by propagating a single trajectory. To this end we map a finite <span class="hlt">temperature</span> environment to the zero <span class="hlt">temperature</span> case using the so-called thermofield method. The resulting equations can then be solved efficiently by standard integrators.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Gerhard Ritschel; Daniel Suess; Sebastian Mbius; Walter T. Strunz; Alexander Eisfeld</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-12-18</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">199</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/936494"> <span id="translatedtitle">Comment on "Methodology and results of calculating Central California surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">trends</span>: evidence of human-induced climate change?" by Christy et al. (2006)</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Understanding the causes of observed regional <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">trends</span> is essential to projecting the human influences on climate, and the societal impacts of these influences. In their recent study, Christy et al. (2006, hereinafter CRNG06) hypothesized that the presence of irrigated soils is responsible for rapid warming of summer nights occurring in California's Central Valley over the last century (1910-2003), an assumption that rules out any significant effect due to increased greenhouse gases, urbanization, or other factors in this region. We question this interpretation, which is based on an apparent contrast in summer nighttime <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">trends</span> between the San Joaquin Valley ({approx} +0.3 {+-} 0.1 C/decade) and the adjacent western slopes of the Sierra Nevada (-0.25 {+-} 0.15 C/decade), as well as the amplitude, sign and uncertainty of the Sierra nighttime <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">trend</span> itself. We, however, do not dispute the finding of other Sierra and Valley <span class="hlt">trends</span>. Regarding the veracity of the apparent Sierra nighttime <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">trend</span>, CRNG06 generated the Valley and Sierra time-series using a meticulous procedure that eliminates discontinuities and isolates homogeneous segments in <span class="hlt">temperature</span> records from 41 weather stations. This procedure yields an apparent cooling of about -0.25 {+-} 0.15 C/decade in the Sierra region. However, because removal of one of the 137 Sierra segments, from the most elevated site (Huntington Lake, 2140m), causes an increase in nighttime <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">trend</span> as large as the <span class="hlt">trend</span> itself (of +0.25 C/decade, CH06), and leads to a zero <span class="hlt">trend</span>, the apparent cooling of summer nights in the Sierra regions seems, in fact, largely uncertain.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bonfils, C; Duffy, P; Lobell, D</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-03-28</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">200</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009SPIE.7298E..16V"> <span id="translatedtitle">Split Stirling <span class="hlt">linear</span> cryogenic cooler for high-<span class="hlt">temperature</span> infrared sensors</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Infrared imagers play a vital role in the modern tactics of carrying out surveillance, reconnaissance, targeting and navigation operations. The cooled systems are known to be superior to their uncooled competitors in terms of working ranges, resolution and ability to distinguish/track fast moving objects in dynamic infrared scenes. These advantages are primarily due to maintaining the infrared focal plane arrays at cryogenic <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> using mechanical closed cycle Stirling cryogenic coolers. Recent technological advances in industrial application of high-<span class="hlt">temperature</span> (up to 200K) infrared detectors has spurred the development of <span class="hlt">linearly</span> driven microminiature split Stirling cryogenic coolers having inherently longer life spans, lower vibration export and better aural stealth as compared to their rotary driven rivals. Moreover, recent progress in designing highly efficient "moving magnet" resonant <span class="hlt">linear</span> actuators and dedicated smart electronics have enabled further improvements to the cooler size, weight, power consumption, cooldown time and ownership costs. The authors report on the development and project status of a novel microminiature split Stirling <span class="hlt">linear</span> cryogenic cooler having a shortened to 19mm cold finger and a high driving frequency (90Hz). The cooler has been specifically designed for cooling 130K infrared sensors of future portable infrared imagers, where compactness, low steady-state power consumption and fast cool-down time are of primary concern.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Veprik, A.; Zehter, S.; Vilenchik, H.; Pundak, N.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" 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showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">201</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AdSpR..52..192S"> <span id="translatedtitle">Mapping seasonal <span class="hlt">trends</span> of electron <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in the topside ionosphere based on DEMETER data</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The diurnal, seasonal and latitudinal variations of the electron <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in the Earth's topside ionosphere during relatively low solar activity period of 2005 - 2008 are investigated. In order to examine seasonal variations and morphology of the topside ionospheric plasma <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, CNES micro-satellite DEMETER ISL data are used. Presented study is oriented on the dataset gathered in 2005 and 2008. Within conducted analysis, global maps of electron <span class="hlt">temperature</span> for months of equinoxes and solstices have been developed. Furthermore, simultaneous studies on two-dimensional time series based on DEMETER measurements and predictions obtained with the IRI-2012 model supply examination of the topside ionosphere during recent deep solar minimum. Comparison with the IRI-2012 model reveals discrepancies between data and prediction, that are especially prominent during the periods of very low solar activity.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Slominska, Ewa; Rothkaehl, Hanna</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">202</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://mynasadata.larc.nasa.gov/?page_id=474?&passid=13"> <span id="translatedtitle">MY NASA DATA: Sea Surface <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> <span class="hlt">Trends</span> of the Gulf Stream</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this three-part lesson, students explore the Live Access Server (LAS) and produce plots of sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. They then prepare a time series of data for particular location(s) on the Gulf Stream and use Excel to produce and analyze graphs of sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. One of the most studied and important ocean currents of the world lies along the eastern coast of the United States and is called the Gulf Stream. It derives its name from its source region of warm water in the Gulf of Mexico. For the past two decades, scientists have been collecting sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (SST) data from satellites, buoys and ships in the Gulf Stream and Atlantic Basin. The lesson provides detailed procedure, related links, sample graphs, follow-up questions, extensions, and teacher notes.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">203</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011OcScD...8.1215R"> <span id="translatedtitle">Sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> anomalies, seasonal cycle and <span class="hlt">trend</span> regimes in the eastern Pacific coast</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We used the extended reconstruction of sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (ERSST) to analyze the variation of surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and the seasonal cycle along the coast of the eastern Pacific (60 N-60 S, 61 pixels alongshore) from 1950 to 2010 (732 months). First we analyzed the monthly anomalies and looked for a relationship of such anomalies with total solar radiation (TSI) and then, the regime shift detector (RSD) was applied to detect possible <span class="hlt">temperature</span> regimes in the series. Posterior to this, we calculated a yearly <span class="hlt">temperature</span> range per pixel (amplitude of seasonal cycle) and through the subtraction of a latitudinal theoretical curve of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> based on solar irradiance, the residuals of the seasonal cycle were obtained. The results showed an almost complete spatial synchrony and dominance of negative anomalies from 1950 to mid-late 1970's, with a switch to near-zero and positive anomalies in the late 1990's when a shift to negative values is detected. Such a shift lasted until the early 2000's when positive anomalies appear again but there is a change to negative anomalies in the late 2000's. These results were supported by the RSD. The TSI variability shows a clear relationship with that in sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> anomalies and with the regime changes. This would be due to a difference in the amount of energy received from the sun. Comparing two consecutive periods, 1952-1975 with 1977-1999, the second received 0.39 % more energy (approximately 3 108 J m-2) from the sun. Seasonal cycles show larger range at northern latitudes (>40 N), northern tropical-template transition zone (20-26 N) and in the tropical-equatorial band (0-30 S). The smaller ranges occur at 0-16 N and 50-60 S. The residuals (seasonal minus the theoretical curve) indicate a clear modulation due to advection by ocean currents.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ramos-Rodrguez, A.; Lluch-Cota, D. B.; Lluch-Cota, S. E.; Trasvia-Castro, A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">204</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012OcSci...8...81R"> <span id="translatedtitle">Sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> anomalies, seasonal cycle and <span class="hlt">trend</span> regimes in the Eastern Pacific coast</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We used the extended reconstruction of sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (ERSST) to analyze the variation of surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and the seasonal cycle along the coast of the eastern Pacific (60 N-60 S, 61 pixels alongshore) from 1950 to 2010 (732 months). First, we analyzed the monthly anomalies and looked for a relationship of such anomalies with total solar irradiance (TSI) and then the Regime Shift Detector (RSD) was applied to detect possible <span class="hlt">temperature</span> regimes in the series. Afterwards, we calculated a yearly <span class="hlt">temperature</span> range per pixel (amplitude of seasonal cycle) and through the subtraction of a latitudinal theoretical curve of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> based on solar irradiance, the residuals of the seasonal cycle were obtained. The results showed an almost complete spatial synchrony and dominance of negative anomalies from 1950 to mid-late 1970's, with a switch to near-zero and positive anomalies that lasted up to late 1990's when a new shift to negative values was detected. Such a shift lasted until the early 2000's when positive anomalies appeared again but there was a change to negative anomalies in the late 2000's. These results were supported by the RSD. The TSI variability shows a clear relationship with that of sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> anomalies and with the regime changes. This is probably due to a difference in the amount of energy received from the sun. Comparing the "cool regime" versus the "warm regime", the second one received 0.39% more energy (approximately 3 108 J m-2) from the sun. Seasonal cycles show larger ranges at northern latitudes (>40 N), northern tropical-temperate transition zone (20-26 N) and in the tropical-equatorial band (0-30 S). The smallest ranges occur at 0-16 N and 50-60 S. The residuals (seasonal minus the theoretical curve) indicated a clear modulation due to advection by ocean currents.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ramos-Rodrguez, A.; Lluch-Cota, D. B.; Lluch-Cota, S. E.; Trasvia-Castro, A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">205</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20010037599&hterms=sea+ice+concentration&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3D%25E2%2580%259Csea%2Bice%2Bconcentration%25E2%2580%259D"> <span id="translatedtitle">Correlation and <span class="hlt">Trend</span> Studies of the Sea Ice Cover and Surface <span class="hlt">Temperatures</span> in the Arctic</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Co-registered and continuous satellite data of sea ice concentrations and surface ice <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> from 1981 to 1999 are analyzed to evaluate relationships between these two critical climate parameters and what they reveal in tandem about the changing Arctic environment. During the 18-year period, the actual Arctic ice area is shown to be declining at a rate of 3.1 +/- 0.4 % /decade while the surface ice <span class="hlt">temperature</span> has been increasing at 0.4 +/- 0.2 K /decade. Yearly anomaly maps also show that the ice concentration anomalies are predominantly positive in the 1980s and negative in the 1990s while surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> anomalies were mainly negative in the 1980s and positive in the 1990s. The yearly ice concentration and surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> anomalies are shown to be highly correlated indicating a strong link especially in the seasonal region and around the periphery of the perennial ice cover. The surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> data are also especially useful in providing the real spatial scope of each warming (or cooling) phenomenon that usually extends beyond the boundaries of the sea ice cover. Studies of the temporal variability of the summer ice minimum also reveal that the perennial ice cover has been declining at the rate of 6.6% /decade while the summer surface ice <span class="hlt">temperature</span> has been increasing at the rate of 1.3 K /decade. Moreover, high year-to-year fluctuations in the minimum ice cover in the 1990s may have caused reductions in average thickness of the Arctic sea ice cover.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Comiso, Josefino C.; Koblinsky, Chester J. (Technical Monitor)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2001-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">206</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/qxkwyf7gqck3b31y.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Latitude and Altitude Dependence of the Interannual Variability and <span class="hlt">Trends</span> of Atmospheric <span class="hlt">Temperatures</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">--The 4-season (12-month) running means of <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> at five atmospheric levels (surface, 850-300 mb, 300-100 mb, 100-50 mb, 100-30 mb) and seven climatic zones (60N-90N, 30N-60N, 10N-30N, 10N-10S, 10S-30S, 30S-60S, 60S-90S) showed QBO (Quasi-biennial Oscillation), QTO (Quasi-triennial Oscillation) and larger periodicities. For stratosphere and tropopause, the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variations near the equator and North Pole somewhat resembled the 50mb low latitude</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">R. P. Kane; R. A. Buriti</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1997-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">207</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/51902605"> <span id="translatedtitle">Latitude and Altitude Dependence of the Interannual Variability and <span class="hlt">Trends</span> of Atmospheric <span class="hlt">Temperatures</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The 4-season (12-month) running means of <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> at five atmospheric levels (surface, 850-300 mb, 300-100 mb, 100-50 mb, 100-30 mb) and seven climatic zones (60N-90N, 30N-60N, 10N-30N, 10N-10S, 10S-30S, 30S-60S, 60S-90S) showed QBO (Quasi-biennial Oscillation), QTO (Quasi-triennial Oscillation) and larger periodicities. For stratosphere and tropopause, the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variations near the equator and North Pole somewhat resembled the 50mb low latitude</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">R. P. Kane; R. A. Buriti</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1997-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">208</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AtmRe.138...73P"> <span id="translatedtitle">Spatial and temporal <span class="hlt">trends</span> of mean and extreme rainfall and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> for the 33 urban centers of the arid and semi-arid state of Rajasthan, India</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Trend</span> analysis of the mean (monsoon season, non-monsoon season and annual) and extreme annual daily rainfall and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> at the spatial and temporal scales was carried out for all the 33 urban centers of the arid and semi-arid state of Rajasthan, India. Statistical <span class="hlt">trend</span> analysis techniques, namely the Mann-Kendall test and Sen's slope estimator, were used to examine <span class="hlt">trends</span> (1971-2005) at the 10% level of significance. Both positive and negative <span class="hlt">trends</span> were observed in mean and extreme events of rainfall and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in the urban centers of Rajasthan State. The magnitude of the significant <span class="hlt">trend</span> of monsoon rainfall varied from (-) 6.00 mm/hydrologic year at Nagaur to (-) 8.56 mm/hydrologic year at Tonk. However, the magnitude of the significant negative <span class="hlt">trends</span> of non-monsoon rainfall varied from (-) 0.66 mm/hydrologic year at Dungarpur to (-) 1.27 mm/hydrologic year at Chittorgarh. The magnitude of positive <span class="hlt">trends</span> of non-monsoon rainfall varied from 0.93 mm/hydrologic year at Churu to 1.70 mm/hydrologic year at Hanumangarh. The magnitude of the significant negative <span class="hlt">trends</span> of annual rainfall varied from (-) 6.47 mm/year at Nagaur to (-) 10.0 mm/year at Tonk. The minimum, average and maximum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> showed significant increasing warming <span class="hlt">trends</span> on an annual and seasonal scale in most of the urban centers in Rajasthan State. The magnitude of statistically significant annual extreme daily rainfall varied from 2.00 mm at Jhalawar to (-) 1.64 mm at Tonk, while the magnitude of statistically significant extreme annual daily minimum and maximum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> varied from 0.03 C at Ganganagar to 0.05 C at Jhalawar, respectively. The spatial variations of the <span class="hlt">trends</span> in mean (monsoon season, non-monsoon season and annual) and extreme annual daily rainfall and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> were also determined using the inverse-distance-weighted (IDW) interpolation technique. IDW results are helpful to identify <span class="hlt">trends</span> and variability in mean and extreme rainfall and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in space and time for the study locations where the data is not available and the quality of data is not good. These spatial maps of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and rainfall can help local stakeholders and water managers to understand the risks and vulnerabilities related to climate change in terms of mean and extreme events in the region.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Pingale, Santosh M.; Khare, Deepak; Jat, Mahesh K.; Adamowski, Jan</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">209</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3427576"> <span id="translatedtitle">Variability in solar radiation and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> explains observed patterns and <span class="hlt">trends</span> in tree growth rates across four tropical forests</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The response of tropical forests to global climate variability and change remains poorly understood. Results from long-term studies of permanent forest plots have reported different, and in some cases opposing <span class="hlt">trends</span> in tropical forest dynamics. In this study, we examined changes in tree growth rates at four long-term permanent tropical forest research plots in relation to variation in solar radiation, <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and precipitation. Temporal variation in the stand-level growth rates measured at five-year intervals was found to be positively correlated with variation in incoming solar radiation and negatively related to temporal variation in night-time <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. Taken alone, neither solar radiation variability nor the effects of night-time <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> can account for the observed temporal variation in tree growth rates across sites, but when considered together, these two climate variables account for most of the observed temporal variability in tree growth rates. Further analysis indicates that the stand-level response is primarily driven by the responses of smaller-sized trees (less than 20 cm in diameter). The combined <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and radiation responses identified in this study provide a potential explanation for the conflicting patterns in tree growth rates found in previous studies. PMID:22833269</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Dong, Shirley Xiaobi; Davies, Stuart J.; Ashton, Peter S.; Bunyavejchewin, Sarayudh; Supardi, M. N. Nur; Kassim, Abd Rahman; Tan, Sylvester; Moorcroft, Paul R.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">210</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010ACP....10.4661C"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Trends</span> in long-term gaseous mercury observations in the Arctic and effects of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and other atmospheric conditions</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) measurements at Alert, Canada, from 1995 to 2007 were analyzed for statistical time <span class="hlt">trends</span> and for correlations with meteorological and climate data. A significant decreasing <span class="hlt">trend</span> in annual GEM concentration is reported at Alert, with an estimated slope of -0.0086 ng m-3 yr-1 (-0.6% yr-1) over this 13-year period. It is shown that there has been a shift in the month of minimum mean GEM concentration from May to April due to a change in the timing of springtime atmospheric mercury depletion events (AMDEs). These AMDEs are found to decrease with increasing local <span class="hlt">temperature</span> within each month, both at Alert and at Amderma, Russia. These results support the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> dependence suggested by previous experimental results and theoretical kinetic calculations on both bromine generation and mercury oxidation and highlight the potential for changes in Arctic mercury chemistry with climate. A correlation between total monthly AMDEs at Alert and the Polar/Eurasian Teleconnection Index was observed only in March, perhaps due to higher GEM inputs in early spring in those years with a weak polar vortex. A correlation of AMDEs at Alert with wind direction supports the origin of mercury depletion events over the Arctic Ocean, in agreement with a previous trajectory study of ozone depletion events. Interannual variability in total monthly depletion event frequency at Alert does not appear to correlate significantly with total or first-year northern hemispheric sea ice area or with other major teleconnection patterns. Nor do AMDEs at either Alert or Amderma correlate with local wind speed, as might be expected if depletion events are sustained by stable, low-turbulence atmospheric conditions. The data presented here - both the change in timing of depletion events and their relationship with <span class="hlt">temperature</span> - can be used as additional constraints to improve the ability of models to predict the cycling and deposition of mercury in the Arctic.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Cole, A. S.; Steffen, A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">211</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=history+AND+science&pg=2&id=EJ998908"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Temperature</span> in Science Textbooks: Changes and <span class="hlt">Trends</span> in Cross-National Perspective (1950-2000)</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This study explores the way the concept of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> was presented in lower-secondary science textbooks in France, Poland and England at the end of the 1950s and in the 2000s. I draw on history of science, history of education and book history to analyze different treatments of an apparently-similar scientific concept with regard to national</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Radtka, Catherine</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">212</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013ECSS..128...64R"> <span id="translatedtitle">Analysis of interdecadal <span class="hlt">trends</span> in chlorophyll and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in the Central Basin of Long Island Sound</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Few coastal systems have time series data that allow researchers to examine the impact of two important stressors on estuarine ecosystems: climate change and eutrophication. The Central Basin of Long Island Sound (LIS), between New York and Connecticut, is one such system. LIS has seen annual average surface <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> increase at a rate of 0.03 C/yr since 1976, with increases most pronounced during summer and early fall. Over the past 15 years, annual stratification (difference between mean annual surface and bottom <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>) has also increased at the same rate. Despite expansion of waste-water treatment and declining point-source nutrient input, LIS remains eutrophic. An increase toward historic mean annual chlorophyll concentration has occurred since a minimum in the early 1990s, driven in part by higher fall chlorophyll values. There is also an apparent shift in the seasonality of phytoplankton blooms, with more frequent fall chlorophyll peaks and reduced early spring peaks relative to the 1950s. Non-metric Multidimensional Scaling (NMDS) analysis of phytoplankton communities from fall and summer 2002-8 indicated that cyanobacteria and flagellates are associated with higher amounts of chlorophyll at higher <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> during these two seasons. These results suggest that as surface <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> continue to increase, smaller cells and flagellates may maintain chlorophyll values at higher levels despite decreased or static surface nutrient concentrations in this system.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Rice, Edward; Stewart, Gillian</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">213</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20090006627&hterms=Goldberg&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3DGoldberg"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Temperature</span> <span class="hlt">Trends</span> in the Polar Mesosphere between 2002-2007 using TIMED/SABER Data</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The TIMED Satellite was launched on December 7, 2001 to study the dynamics and energy of the mesosphere and lower thermosphere. The TIMED/SABER instrument is a limb scanning infrared radiometer designed to measure a large number of minor constituents as well as the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of the region. In this study, we have concentrated on the polar mesosphere, to investigate the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> characteristics as a function of spatial and temporal considerations. We used the recently revised SABER dataset (1.07) that contains improved <span class="hlt">temperature</span> retrievals in the Earth polar summer regions. Weekly averages are used to make comparisons between the winter and summer, as well as to study the variability in different quadrants of each hemisphere. For each year studied, the duration of polar summer based on <span class="hlt">temperature</span> measurements compares favorably with the PMSE (Polar Mesospheric Summer Echoes) season measured by radar at the ALOMAR Observatory in Norway (69 N). The PMSE period should also define the summer period suitable for the occurrence of polar mesospheric clouds. The unusual short and relatively warm polar summer in the northern hemisphere</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Goldberg, Richard A.; Kutepov, Alexander A.; Pesnell, William Dean; Latteck, Ralph; Russell, James M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">214</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006GeoRL..33.9101H"> <span id="translatedtitle">Solar wind proton <span class="hlt">temperature</span> anisotropy: <span class="hlt">Linear</span> theory and WIND/SWE observations</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We present a comparison between WIND/SWE observations (Kasper et al., 2006) of ?$\\parallel$p and T$\\perp$p/T$\\parallel$p (where ?$\\parallel$p is the proton parallel beta and T$\\perp$p and T$\\parallel$p are the perpendicular and parallel proton <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, respectively; here parallel and perpendicular indicate directions with respect to the ambient magnetic field) and predictions of the Vlasov <span class="hlt">linear</span> theory. In the slow solar wind, the observed proton <span class="hlt">temperature</span> anisotropy seems to be constrained by oblique instabilities, by the mirror one and the oblique fire hose, contrary to the results of the <span class="hlt">linear</span> theory which predicts a dominance of the proton cyclotron instability and the parallel fire hose. The fast solar wind core protons exhibit an anticorrelation between ?$\\parallel$c and T$\\perp$c/T$\\parallel$c (where ?$\\parallel$c is the core proton parallel beta and T$\\perp$c and T$\\parallel$c are the perpendicular and parallel core proton <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, respectively) similar to that observed in the HELIOS data (Marsch et al., 2004).</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hellinger, Petr; Trvn?ek, Pavel; Kasper, Justin C.; Lazarus, Alan J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">215</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22086017"> <span id="translatedtitle">Non-local gyrokinetic model of <span class="hlt">linear</span> ion-<span class="hlt">temperature</span>-gradient modes</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The non-local properties of anomalous transport in fusion plasmas are still an elusive topic. In this work, a theory of non-local <span class="hlt">linear</span> ion-<span class="hlt">temperature</span>-gradient (ITG) drift modes while retaining non-adiabatic electrons and finite <span class="hlt">temperature</span> gradients is presented, extending the previous work [S. Moradi et al., Phys. Plasmas 18, 062106 (2011)]. A dispersion relation is derived to quantify the effects on the eigenvalues of the unstable ion <span class="hlt">temperature</span> gradient modes and non-adiabatic electrons on the order of the fractional velocity operator in the Fokker-Planck equation. By solving this relation for a given eigenvalue, it is shown that as the <span class="hlt">linear</span> eigenvalues of the modes increase, the order of the fractional velocity derivative deviates from two and the resulting equilibrium probability density distribution of the plasma, i.e., the solution of the Fokker-Planck equation, deviates from a Maxwellian and becomes Levy distributed. The relative effect of the real frequency of the ITG mode on the deviation of the plasma from Maxwellian is larger than from the growth rate. As was shown previously the resulting Levy distribution of the plasma may in turn significantly alter the transport as well.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Moradi, S.; Anderson, J. [Department of Applied Physics, Nuclear Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology and Euratom-VR Association, Goeteborg (Sweden)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-08-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">216</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20070011610&hterms=proton&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Dproton"> <span id="translatedtitle">Solar Wind Proton <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Anisotropy: <span class="hlt">Linear</span> Theory and WIND/SWE Observations</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We present a comparison between WIND/SWE observations (Kasper et al., 2006) of beta parallel to p and T perpendicular to p/T parallel to p (where beta parallel to p is the proton parallel beta and T perpendicular to p and T parallel to p are the perpendicular and parallel proton are the perpendicular and parallel proton <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, respectively; here parallel and perpendicular indicate directions with respect to the ambient magnetic field) and predictions of the Vlasov <span class="hlt">linear</span> theory. In the slow solar wind, the observed proton <span class="hlt">temperature</span> anisotropy seems to be constrained by oblique instabilities, by the mirror one and the oblique fire hose, contrary to the results of the <span class="hlt">linear</span> theory which predicts a dominance of the proton cyclotron instability and the parallel fire hose. The fast solar wind core protons exhibit an anticorrelation between beta parallel to c and T perpendicular to c/T parallel to c (where beta parallel to c is the core proton parallel beta and T perpendicular to c and T parallel to c are the perpendicular and parallel core proton <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, respectively) similar to that observed in the HELIOS data (Marsch et al., 2004).</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hellinger, P.; Travnicek, P.; Kasper, J. C.; Lazarus, A. J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">217</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010ems..confE.176B"> <span id="translatedtitle">Evaluation of <span class="hlt">trends</span> in some <span class="hlt">temperature</span> series at some Italian stations and their modelling by means of spectral methods: first results in the Latium coastal area</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The investigation of the presence of signals indicating possible climatic changes in progress during the second half of the last century in the coastal area of the central Tyrrhenian sea has been carried out within the context of a research programme promoted by the Italian Science Academy (alias "the Academy of the XL") and financed by the Presidential Bureau. Our goal has been a better understanding of the behaviour of the minimum and maximum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variations in the period 1951-1999 and the modelling of their stochastic residuals through spectral analysis and the optimized construction of suitable autoregressive one-parameter processes. The meteorological data source for this research was the Italian "Agrometeorological National DataBase" (BDAN) of the Agrometeorological Informatics National System (SIAN). The spectral and stochastic analysis of meteorological data usually require full data sets without gaps, but, in BDAN, numerous data sets taken at stations located in the investigated area were incomplete. Thus, after the selection of an adequate number of stations, both representative of the region under study and characterized by a low number of data gaps, the first step was to fill all the gaps in the daily series using specific statistical techniques. After this preliminary treatment, we were left with seven <span class="hlt">temperature</span> series that showed enough good characteristics in order to carry out an efficient modelling. Spectral analysis of minimum and maximum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> series permitted to identify an auto-regressive one-parameter model well representing the stochastic residual of each series. With the aid of the complete model, consisting of a deterministic component (a <span class="hlt">linear</span> <span class="hlt">trend</span> plus two seasonal oscillations) and a stochastic residual, one can satisfactorily reconstruct the data in the past (climatic historical analysis) and to try a prediction of future values (forecasting). Thus the proposed model appears to represent a valid method to evaluate the whole variability of each climatic series in a multi-decadal time scale. As for the deterministic component, the Fourier analysis of minimum and maximum <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> series showed for each station the existence, beside the secular <span class="hlt">linear</span> <span class="hlt">trend</span>, of a first oscillation (annual), and a secondary oscillation (half-yearly), each characterized by an amplitude and a phase. On the other hand, the stochastic residual can always be regarded as the superposition of an AR(1) process and a residual white noise. The lower half-yearly seasonal component, although small, can produce an amplitude attenuation or enhancement, and a phase advance or delay, among the climatic expected values and the standard meteorological sequences. The results of the stochastic analysis showed the presence during the period 1951-1999 of a discrete variability in the minimum and maximum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> series along the Tyrrhenian coastal area, more intense for minimum <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. This behaviour can have direct and indirect consequences on natural vegetation and on the planning of agricultural activity, in particular for what concerns the evaluation of the quantity of the "available energy" for plant development and the assessment of "production sustainability" for the agricultural crops in terms of quantity, cost and quality of the agro products.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Beltrano, M. C.; Testa, O.; Malvestuto, V.; Esposito, S.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">218</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011JGRC..11611034K"> <span id="translatedtitle">On the mechanisms of late 20th century sea-surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">trends</span> over the Antarctic Circumpolar Current</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC), with its associated three-dimensional circulation, plays an important role in global climate. This study concentrates on surface signatures of recent climate change in the ACC region and on mechanisms that control this change. Examination of climate model simulations shows that they match the observed late 20th century sea-surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (SST) <span class="hlt">trends</span> averaged over this region quite well, despite underestimating the observed surface-wind increases. Such wind increases, however, are expected to lead to significant cooling of the region, contradicting the observed SST <span class="hlt">trends</span>. Motivated by recent theories of the ACC response to variable wind and radiative forcing, the authors used two idealized models to assess contributions of various dynamical processes to the SST evolution in the region. In particular, a high-resolution channel model of the ACC responds to increasing winds by net surface ACC warming due to enhanced mesoscale turbulence and associated heat transports in the mixed layer. These fluxes, modeled, in a highly idealized fashion, via increased lateral surface mixing in a coarse-resolution hybrid climate model, substantially offset zonally non-uniform surface cooling due to air-sea flux and Ekman-transport anomalies. These results suggest that the combination of these opposing effects must be accounted for when estimating climate response to any external forcing in the ACC region.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kravtsov, Sergey; Kamenkovich, Igor; Hogg, Andrew M.; Peters, John M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">219</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009OcMod..27...82B"> <span id="translatedtitle">Predicting offshore <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> in Monterey Bay based on coastal observations using <span class="hlt">linear</span> forecast models</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The <span class="hlt">linear</span> systems approach is used to forecast offshore near-surface and subsurface <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> in Monterey Bay and further offshore based on coastal sea surface <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> (SSTs) at Pacific Grove. SST from Pacific Grove provided the input to the system and the forecast parameters or outputs were <span class="hlt">temperature</span> at 1 m and 100 m at the M1 buoy located 20 km from Pacific Grove near the center of Monterey Bay, and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> at 1 m at the M2 buoy located 55 km from Pacific Grove. To forecast <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> at the M1 and M2 buoys, Box-Jenkins, State-Space, ARX, and ARMAX models were employed. Model formulation, implementation, forecasting procedures, and methods of evaluation are presented. Seven and 30-day forecasts were routinely made for the daily observations although other forecast horizons were employed. For all models and variables, RMS differences between the forecasts and the observations increased rapidly between 1 and 15 days. Beyond about 30 days, RMS differences tended to remain almost constant with increasing forecast horizon. Overall, model forecasts were best for <span class="hlt">temperature</span> at 100 m at the M1 buoy, due to the fact that <span class="hlt">temperature</span> is well conserved at depth. Differences in performance between the models were small but the ARMAX model often produced forecasts that were slightly better than the rest, a result that we attribute to a more complete specification of the noise. Although the Box-Jenkins and State-Space models have the potential to produce better forecasts, because more terms must be specified to implement them, the opportunity to produce less-than-optimal results is also greater. Finally, because of seasonal changes in the circulation of Monterey Bay, it is possible that causality was violated, upon occasion, placing certain constraints on the results. Models based on the <span class="hlt">linear</span> systems approach, where they can be implemented, could serve as a useful adjunct to hydrodynamic ocean circulation models by providing additional information for model initialization, evaluation, and data assimilation. Using the same approach, operational forecasts of the coastal circulation could be made by including forecast winds and the predicted tides as inputs, and CODAR-observed surface currents as the output. In a less glamorous but still useful role, they could be used to fill significant gaps in offshore records where data continuity and quality are important.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Breaker, Laurence C.; Brewster, Jodi K.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">220</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19900029173&hterms=dynamic+response+functions&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3Ddynamic%2Bresponse%2Bfunctions"> <span id="translatedtitle">Vortex creep and the internal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of neutron stars - <span class="hlt">Linear</span> and nonlinear response to a glitch</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The dynamics of pinned superfluid in neutron stars is determined by the thermal 'creep' of vortices. Vortex creep can respond to changes in the rotation rate of the neutron star crust and provide the observed types of dynamical relaxation following pulsar glitches. It also gives rise to energy dissipation, which determines the thermal evolution of pulsars once the initial heat content has been radiated away. The different possible regimes of vortex creep are explored, and it is shown that the nature of the dynamical response of the pinned superfluid evolves with a pulsar's age. Younger pulsars display a <span class="hlt">linear</span> regime, where the response is <span class="hlt">linear</span> in the initial perturbation and is a simple exponential relaxation as a function of time. A nonliner response, with a characteristic nonlinear dependence on the initial perturbation, is responsible for energy dissipation and becomes the predominant mode of response as the pulsar ages. The transition from the <span class="hlt">linear</span> to the nonlinear regime depends sensitively on the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of the neutron star interior. A preliminary review of existing postglitch observations is given within this general evolutionary framework.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Alpar, M. A.; Cheng, K. S.; Pines, D.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1989-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' 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class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#">5</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#">9</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#">10</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">221</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1989ApJ...346..823A"> <span id="translatedtitle">Vortex creep and the internal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of neutron stars - <span class="hlt">Linear</span> and nonlinear response to a glitch</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The dynamics of pinned superfluid in neutron stars is determined by the thermal 'creep' of vortices. Vortex creep can respond to changes in the rotation rate of the neutron star crust and provide the observed types of dynamical relaxation following pulsar glitches. It also gives rise to energy dissipation, which determines the thermal evolution of pulsars once the initial heat content has been radiated away. The different possible regimes of vortex creep are explored, and it is shown that the nature of the dynamical response of the pinned superfluid evolves with a pulsar's age. Younger pulsars display a <span class="hlt">linear</span> regime, where the response is <span class="hlt">linear</span> in the initial perturbation and is a simple exponential relaxation as a function of time. A nonliner response, with a characteristic nonlinear dependence on the initial perturbation, is responsible for energy dissipation and becomes the predominant mode of response as the pulsar ages. The transition from the <span class="hlt">linear</span> to the nonlinear regime depends sensitively on the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of the neutron star interior. A preliminary review of existing postglitch observations is given within this general evolutionary framework.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Alpar, M. A.; Cheng, K. S.; Pines, D.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1989-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">222</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011PhDT.......282B"> <span id="translatedtitle">Experimental Realization of Efficient, Room <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Single-Photon Sources with Definite Circular and <span class="hlt">Linear</span> Polarizations</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this thesis I present experimental demonstrations of room-<span class="hlt">temperature</span>, single-photon sources with definite <span class="hlt">linear</span> and circular polarizations. Definite photon polarization increases the efficiency of quantum communication systems. In contrast with cryogenic-<span class="hlt">temperature</span> single-photon sources based on epitaxial quantum dots requiring expensive MBE and nanofabrication, my method utilizes a mature liquid crystal technology, which I made consistent with single-emitter fluorescence microscopy. The structures I have prepared are planar-aligned cholesteric liquid crystals forming 1-D photonic bandgaps for circularly-polarized light, which were used to achieve definite circularly-polarized fluorescence of single emitters doped in this environment. I also used planar-aligned nematic liquid crystals to align single molecules with <span class="hlt">linear</span> dipole moments and achieved definite <span class="hlt">linearly</span>-polarized fluorescence. I used single nanocrystal quantum dots, single nanodiamond color-centers, rare-earth-doped nanocrystals, and single terrylene and DiIC18(3) dye molecules as emitters. For nanocrystal quantum dots I observed circular polarization dissymmetry factors as large as ge = --1.6. In addition, I observed circularly-polarized resonances in the fluorescence of emitters within a cholesteric microcavity, with cavity quality factors of up to Q 250. I also showed that the fluorescence of DiIC18(3) dye molecules in planar-aligned nematic cells exhibits definite <span class="hlt">linear</span> polarization, with a degree of polarization of rho = --0.58 +/- 0.03. Distributed Bragg reflectors form another type of microcavity that can be used to realize a single-photon source. I characterized the fluorescence from nanocrystal quantum dots doped in the defect layers of such microcavites, both organic and inorganic. Finally, to demonstrate the single-photon properties of single-emitter-doped cholesteric and nematic liquid crystal structures and distributed Bragg reflector microcavities, I present observations of photon antibunching from emitters doped in each of these structures. These experimental observations include photon antibunching from: nanocrystal quantum dots and nanodiamond color-centers doped in a cholesteric microcavity; terrylene and DiIC 18(3) dye molecules doped in nematic structures, and nanocrystal quantum dots doped in the distributed Bragg reflector microcavity. A value of the zero-time second-order coherence as low as g(2)(0) = 0.001 +/- 0.03 was measured. These results represent an important step forward in the realization of room <span class="hlt">temperature</span> single-photon sources with definite polarization for secure quantum communication.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Boutsidis, Christos</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">223</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.cdc.noaa.gov/people/amy.solomon/pubs/SolomonNewman2010GRL.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Decadal predictability of tropical IndoPacific Ocean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">trends</span> due to anthropogenic forcing in a coupled climate model</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">system to steadily increasing green- house gases (GhGs), a response that on multidecadalto centennial <span class="hlt">trend</span> and has a structure that is distinct from ENSO, including cooling in the South Pacific due equatorial warming <span class="hlt">trend</span> is flanked both north and south by subsurface cooling <span class="hlt">trends</span> at 100­150 m depth (i</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Solomon, Amy</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">224</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014NatCC...4..993D"> <span id="translatedtitle">Modelled glacier response to centennial <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and precipitation <span class="hlt">trends</span> on the Antarctic Peninsula</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The northern Antarctic Peninsula is currently undergoing rapid atmospheric warming. Increased glacier-surface melt during the twentieth century has contributed to ice-shelf collapse and the widespread acceleration, thinning and recession of glaciers. Therefore, glaciers peripheral to the Antarctic Ice Sheet currently make a large contribution to eustatic sea-level rise, but future melting may be offset by increased precipitation. Here we assess glacier-climate relationships both during the past and into the future, using ice-core and geological data and glacier and climate numerical model simulations. Focusing on Glacier IJR45 on James Ross Island, northeast Antarctic Peninsula, our modelling experiments show that this representative glacier is most sensitive to <span class="hlt">temperature</span> change, not precipitation change. We determine that its most recent expansion occurred during the late Holocene `Little Ice Age' and not during the warmer mid-Holocene, as previously proposed. Simulations using a range of future Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change climate scenarios indicate that future increases in precipitation are unlikely to offset atmospheric-warming-induced melt of peripheral Antarctic Peninsula glaciers.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Davies, Bethan J.; Golledge, Nicholas R.; Glasser, Neil F.; Carrivick, Jonathan L.; Ligtenberg, Stefan R. M.; Barrand, Nicholas E.; van den Broeke, Michiel R.; Hambrey, Michael J.; Smellie, John L.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">225</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1992ThApC..45..235G"> <span id="translatedtitle">The work intensity function in the detection of greenhouse induced global <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">trends</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A work intensity function is defined as the product of the frequencies exhibited by a column in a histogram and the magnitude of the midpoint of the class interval of the column. An intensity distribution is defined as the cumulative sum of the function along the abscissa. These functions are examined first for a normal distribution, and then for the expected deviations shown by a sample assumed to be drawn from a normal distribution. The theoretical maximum of the intensity is found at one standard deviation for the normal distribution and at ?2 s.d. (standard deviation) for a sample drawn from a normal distribution. The cumulative sum of the intensity is more biased towards outlying values of larger magnitude for the sample than for the normal distribution. 10% of the cumulative sum of the intensities is generated at s.d. greater than 3 for the sample compared to only 1% for the normal distribution itself. These statistics are compared with similar ones computed for the Jones-Parker (1991) series of mean global surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> anomaly interannual differences. The agreement between theory and the data series is good. The data series appears to possess those properties which would be expected of it if the series was a sample drawn from a normal distribution. It is concluded that the work intensity and its cumulative sum are useful tools in diagnosing the behaviour of a population of anomaly values. These statistics do not clarify the problem of identifying a greenhouse gas induced global warming but they do suggest that its identification continues to be as difficult as ever, due to the effect of occasional outlying values.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Gordon, A. H.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1992-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">226</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFMPP41A1500L"> <span id="translatedtitle">Sea surface <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> of the subtropical North Pacific since the late Miocene: Cooling <span class="hlt">trends</span> and mid-Pliocene warmth</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In order to better characterize the paleoceanography of the warm Pliocene and the late Miocene pre-conditions to the Pliocene in the North Pacific, we used alkenone paleothermometry to determine sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (SST) changes at four midlatitude sites; ODP Site 1208, ODP Site 1021, ODP Site 1010, and DSDP Site 173. All four Sites verify a long-term <span class="hlt">trend</span> of cooling from warmer-than-modern <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> since ~13.8Ma. Prior to 7 Ma, Late Miocene <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> were 3.5C warmer than the modern <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> at Site 1208s paleolocation and >5C warmer than the modern <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> at the 1021 and 1010 paleolocations. These warm SSTs of the Late Miocene are coincident with estimates of pCO2 that are not significantly higher than pre-industrial values, implying that an alternate mechanism was responsible for maintaining warm SSTs or that pCO2 estimates are too low. By ~7-5.8Ma, notable cooling occurred in the North Pacific transitional zone, the northern California Current, and the southern California Current: each cooled ~3C. This latest-Miocene cooling appears to coincide with an increase of ice volume as recorded by ?18O records (Zachos et al., 2001) and with development of cool diatom assemblages in the California Current region and E-W <span class="hlt">temperature</span> gradients between California and Japan (Barron, 2003 [see Lyle et al, Reviews of Geophysics for reference info]). The North Pacific transition zone and northern California Current sites then warmed to Mid Pliocene SSTs that were ~1-3 C warmer than the modern SSTs at the Sites paleolocations; these SSTs are in stark contrast to the dramatically warmer conditions (by ~8-9C) observed at southern California Current ODP Sites 1014 (Dekens et al., 2007) and 1012 (Brierley et al., 2008). The relatively strong SST gradient along the California margin during the warm Pliocene compared to today suggests a possible reduction in the strength of the California Current during the warm Pliocene. These results indicate that southern California margin records are very sensitive to margin upwelling and advection dynamics, and are not representative of basin scale subtropical conditions during the warm Pliocene which was only a few degrees warmer than present. Comparison of ODP Site 1208 to ODP Site 806 confirms a moderately reduced tropical-subtropical meridional SST gradient during the warm Pliocene, supporting the idea that the warm Pliocene had increased meridional heat transport relative to today. Overall, our work highlights the heterogeneity of changes in North Pacific conditions through the Pliocene and begins to shed light on the pre-conditions to this important epoch of global warmth.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lariviere, J.; Ravelo, C.; Talmage, P. B.; Lyle, M. W.; Olivarez-Lyle, A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">227</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFMGC12B..01F"> <span id="translatedtitle">Variations and <span class="hlt">Trends</span> in Global and Arctic Surface <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> and Forecasts of Global <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> a Year Ahead, 2000-2010. (Invited)</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We comment in some detail on the difficulties of correctly capturing recent Arctic warming accurately in global surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> data sets. We also discuss likely biases in modern sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (SST) data worldwide and the effect these may have on assessed global <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> The latter likely lead to a small underestimation of global warming <span class="hlt">trends</span> in the last decade or so, and their effects may be comparable to uncertainties in or underestimations of Arctic <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. In this context, we present a multiple regression model of the main factors affecting global annual mean surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (land and ocean combined) using the HadCRUT3, NCDC and GISS data sets for 1891-2009. The significant factors are net greenhouse gas forcing offset by anthropogenic aerosols, ENSO effects lagged by 3-5 months as measured by Nino 3.4 SSTs, solar and volcanic forcings and a small contribution from the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation. The regression equation verifies well when cross validated. This also allows the contributions of individual factors to be identified with more accuracy. We call this the simulation model. When restricted to 1891-1998, the simulation model reproduces the observed interannual variations of global <span class="hlt">temperature</span> over 1999-2010 well. It therefore well reproduces the recent slowing of global warming whose magnitude, however, depend a little on assessments of recent Arctic <span class="hlt">temperature</span> change which differ between HadCRUT3 and GISS especially. Slowing of the warming over 2001-2009 is likely partly to the 11 year solar cycle and recently published work elsewhere on a reduction of lower stratospheric water vapour. Nevertheless, we show that decadal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> change from 1999-2008, as measured by HadCRUT3, is still consistent with future projections of global warming to 2100 under strong enhanced greenhouse forcing. The method we use includes a set of perturbed HadCM3 coupled climate model simulations. The statistical model has been adapted to forecast global surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> for the year ahead using data available in the previous November or December. A variation on this uses forecasts of Nino 3.4 SST from the Met Offices Glosea3 or Glosea4 coupled seasonal forecast models. Using cross validation, the forecast models have been tested for their true forecast skill. Since 2008, initialised dynamical predictions from the DePreSys coupled decadal forecast model have been included and we briefly discuss these predictions. We assess the skill of the 11 real-time global surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> forecasts one year ahead issued in Press Releases over 2000-2010. Although the 2010 value is preliminary, we compare observations to date with our forecast of a record warm year. The two statistical models have evolved since this the first real time forecast in 2000, and were calibrated against earlier versions of Met Office global surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> data sets, so we verify against the contemporary data. Although there is a small warm bias when assessed against HadCRUT3 which may partly relate to underestimation of recent Arctic <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, the correlation coefficient between the 11 observed and forecast <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> exceeds 0.70.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Folland, C. K.; Kennedy, J.; Colman, A.; Knight, J.; Stott, P.; Smith, D.; Parker, D. E.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">228</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AnGeo..27.4505P"> <span id="translatedtitle">Melting of major Glaciers in the western Himalayas: evidence of climatic changes from long term MSU derived tropospheric <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">trend</span> (1979-2008)</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Global warming or the increase of the surface and atmospheric <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> of the Earth, is increasingly discernible in the polar, sub-polar and major land glacial areas. The Himalayan and Tibetan Plateau Glaciers, which are the largest glaciers outside of the Polar Regions, are showing a large-scale decrease of snow cover and an extensive glacial retreat. These glaciers such as Siachen and Gangotri are a major water resource for Asia as they feed major rivers such as the Indus, Ganga and Brahmaputra. Due to scarcity of ground measuring stations, the long-term observations of atmospheric <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> acquired from the Microwave Sounding Unit (MSU) since 1979-2008 is highly useful. The lower and middle tropospheric <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">trend</span> based on 30 years of MSU data shows warming of the Northern Hemisphere's mid-latitude regions. The mean month-to-month warming (up to 0.0480.026K/year or 1.44K over 30 years) of the mid troposphere (near surface over the high altitude Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau) is prominent and statistically significant at a 95% confidence interval. Though the mean annual warming <span class="hlt">trend</span> over the Himalayas (0.0160.005K/year), and Tibetan Plateau (0.0080.006K/year) is positive, the month to month warming <span class="hlt">trend</span> is higher (by 2-3 times, positive and significant) only over a period of six months (December to May). The factors responsible for the reversal of this <span class="hlt">trend</span> from June to November are discussed here. The inequality in the magnitude of the warming <span class="hlt">trends</span> of the troposphere between the western and eastern Himalayas and the IG (Indo-Gangetic) plains is attributed to the differences in increased aerosol loading (due to dust storms) over these regions. The monthly mean lower-tropospheric MSU-derived <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">trend</span> over the IG plains (dust sink region; up to 0.0320.027K/year) and dust source regions (Sahara desert, Middle East, Arabian region, Afghanistan-Iran-Pakistan and Thar Desert regions; up to 0.0680.033K/year) also shows a similar pattern of month-to-month oscillation and six months of enhanced and a statistically significant warming <span class="hlt">trend</span>. The enhanced warming <span class="hlt">trend</span> during the winter and pre-monsoon months (December-May) may accelerate glacial melt. The unequal distribution of the warming <span class="hlt">trend</span> over the year is discussed in this study and is partially attributed to a number of controlling factors such as sunlight duration, CO2 <span class="hlt">trends</span> over the region (2003-2008), water vapor and aerosol distribution.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Prasad, A. K.; Yang, K.-H. S.; El-Askary, H. M.; Kafatos, M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">229</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/49714818"> <span id="translatedtitle">Non-<span class="hlt">linear</span> axisymmetric response of functionally graded shallow spherical shells under uniform external pressure including <span class="hlt">temperature</span> effects</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper presents an analytical approach to investigate the non-<span class="hlt">linear</span> axisymmetric response of functionally graded shallow spherical shells subjected to uniform external pressure incorporating the effects of <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. Material properties are assumed to be <span class="hlt">temperature</span>-independent, and graded in the thickness direction according to a simple power law distribution in terms of the volume fractions of constituents. Equilibrium and compatibility equations</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Dao Huy Bich; Hoang Van Tung</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">230</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/55309954"> <span id="translatedtitle">Investigation of the low-<span class="hlt">temperature</span> performance of asphalt mixtures via fatigue and <span class="hlt">linear</span> contraction and creep test</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Three types of asphalt mixtures, including asphalt concrete (AC), stone mastic asphalt (SMA) and porous asphalt (PA) with a 13mm gradation, are chosen to study the fatigue behavior, <span class="hlt">linear</span> contraction and creep performance of them. The analysis of the experimental results is summarized as follows. The asphalt mixture exhibits longer fatigue life at low <span class="hlt">temperature</span> than that at high <span class="hlt">temperature</span>.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Conghui Liu; Shaopeng Wu; Bo Li; Jingang Wang</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">231</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21250039"> <span id="translatedtitle">Vector and axial-vector mesons at nonzero <span class="hlt">temperature</span> within a gauged <span class="hlt">linear</span> sigma model</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We consider vector and axial-vector mesons in the framework of a gauged <span class="hlt">linear</span> sigma model with chiral U(N{sub f}){sub R}xU(N{sub f}){sub L} symmetry. For N{sub f}=2, we investigate the behavior of the chiral condensate and the meson masses as a function of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> by solving a system of coupled Dyson-Schwinger equations derived via the 2PI formalism in double-bubble approximation. We find that the inclusion of vector and axial-vector mesons tends to sharpen the chiral transition. Within our approximation scheme, the mass of the {rho} meson increases by about 100 MeV towards the chiral transition.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Strueber, Stefan; Rischke, Dirk H. [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Johann Wolfgang Goethe-Universitaet, Max-von-Laue-Str. 1, D-60438 Frankfurt/Main (Germany); Institut fuer Theoretische Physik and Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies, Johann Wolfgang Goethe-Universitaet, Max-von-Laue-Str. 1, D-60438 Frankfurt/Main (Germany)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-04-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">232</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1079976"> <span id="translatedtitle">Application of <span class="hlt">Linear</span> Propagation of Errors to Fuel Rod <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> and Stored Energy Calculations</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Linear</span> propagatlon of errors evaluates modeling uncertainty by approximating a function of interest by first-order Taylor's series expansions and then approximating the variance of the function by the variance of the <span class="hlt">linear</span> approximation. This report discusses uncertainty analysis for different nuclear fuel rod designs, the process of model validation, and the effect of cracked pellet fuel models upon temperabre uncertainty. Using a postulated power history, the uncertainty for the predicted thermal response of boiling water reactor (BWR) and pressurized water reactor (PWR} fuel rods was evaluated. Beginning-of-life (BOL) relative uncertainty for BWR and PWR fuel rods is approximately the same. while different end-of-fife {EOL} thermal response results in different EOL uncertainty. Determining the validity of modeling relative to reality is discussed in qualitative terms. Validity is dependent upon verifying that the code correctly implements the model and that satisfactory agreement is found between the model and measurements. Fuel modeling codes are now using cracked pellet fuel models, which result in decreased fuel surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. Estimated stored energy is lowered; but its relative uncertainty is increased. In general, however, the absolute upper uncertainty bound for stored energy is lower for a cracked pellet model than for a solid pellet model.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Cunningham, M. E.; Olsen, A. R.; Lanning, D. D.; Willford, R. E.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1980-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">233</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1997ClDy...13..167H"> <span id="translatedtitle">Can local <span class="hlt">linear</span> stochastic theory explain sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and salinity variability?</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (SST) and salinity (SSS) time series from four ocean weather stations and data from an integration of the GFDL coupled ocean-atmosphere model are analyzed to test the applicability of local <span class="hlt">linear</span> stochastic theory to the mixed-layer ocean. According to this theory, mixed-layer variability away from coasts and fronts can be explained as a `red noise' response to the `white noise' forcing by atmospheric disturbances. At one weather station, Papa (northeast Pacific), this stochastic theory can be applied to both salinity and <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, explaining the relative redness of the SSS spectrum. Similar results hold for a model grid point adjacent to Papa, where the relationships between atmospheric energy and water fluxes and actual changes in SST and SSS are what is expected from local <span class="hlt">linear</span> stochastic theory. At the other weather stations, this theory cannot adequately explain mixed-layer variability. Two oceanic processes must be taken into account: at Panulirus (near Bermuda), mososcale eddies enhance the observed variability at high frequencies. At Mike and India (North Atlantic), variations in SST and SSS advection, indicated by the coherence and equal persistence of SST and SSS anomalies, contribute to much of the low frequency variability in the model and observations. To achieve a global perspective, TOPEX altimeter data and model results are used to identify regions of the ocean where these mechanisms of variability are important. Where mesoscale eddies are as energetic as at Panulirus, indicated by the TOPEX global distribution of sea level variability, one would expect enhanced variability on short time scales. In regions exhibiting signatures of variability similar to Mike and India, variations in SST and SSS advection should dominate at low frequencies. According to the model, this mode of variability is found in the circumpolar ocean and the northern North Atlantic, where it is associated with the irregular oscillations of the model's thermohaline circulation.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hall, A.; Manabe, S.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">234</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/26339808"> <span id="translatedtitle">An inverse analysis to estimate <span class="hlt">linearly</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> dependent thermal conductivity components and heat capacity of an orthotropic medium</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">An inverse analysis is used to estimate <span class="hlt">linearly</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> dependent thermal conductivity components kx(T), ky(T) and specific heat capacity C(T) per unit volume for an orthotropic solid. Simulated measured transient <span class="hlt">temperature</span> data are generated by adding random errors to the exact <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> computed from the solution of the two-dimensional, direct transient heat conduction problem. An iterative procedure, based on minimizing</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Y. Jarny</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1995-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">235</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/53532131"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Trends</span> in mean and extreme rainfall in South Florida and their correlations with sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> anomalies</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Historical time series of daily rainfall in South Florida over the last half century were used to extract <span class="hlt">trends</span> in mean and extreme rainfall, specifically, the <span class="hlt">trends</span> in moving means, moving standard deviations and moving return levels. The Generalized Pareto Distribution developed within extreme value theory was used to compute the return levels within each moving window. The influence of</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">E. Lai; K. Steinhaeuser; A. R. Ganguly</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">236</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012SPIE.8353E..1LH"> <span id="translatedtitle">New high detectivity <span class="hlt">linear</span> array for analytical measurement in the room <span class="hlt">temperature</span> range</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A newly designed highly detective intra-slit thermoelectric room-<span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">linear</span> array is presented. The thermoelectric sensor array ZS-64-2 with 64 individually readable channels was designed and developed for IR spectroscopy. It is suitable for analytical measurement technology, for example, in determining the age of technical oils in real time. For this, the selected absorption bands of the oil are analyzed and evaluated. This allows conclusions be drawn about the condition of lubricants and coolants, so that they can be replaced when it is needed. This method helps to save valuable resources and it helps to avoid costly damages. In order to achieve the high detectivity of D* = 1.8 x 109 Jones the sensor was designed and optimized to be operated under vacuum conditions. For minimizing the thermal cross talk between the individual pixels, they are separated from each other by a 50 micron slit in the self-supporting silicon nitride membrane, which has a thickness of nearly 1 micron.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Haenschke, Frank; Kessler, Ernst; Dillner, Ulrich; Ihring, Andreas; Schinkel, Uwe; Meyer, Hans-Georg</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">237</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11691989"> <span id="translatedtitle">The spin <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of NH3 in Comet C/1999S4 (<span class="hlt">LINEAR</span>).</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A high-dispersion spectrum of Comet C/1999S4 (<span class="hlt">LINEAR</span>) was obtained in the optical region with the high-dispersion spectrograph on the Subaru telescope when the comet was 0.863 astronomical units from the Sun before its disintegration. We obtained high signal-to-noise ratio emission lines of the cometary NH2 bands from which an ortho-to-para ratio (OPR) of 3.33 +/- 0.07 was derived on the basis of a fluorescence excitation model. Assuming that cometary NH2 mainly originates from ammonia through photodissociation, the derived OPR of NH2 molecules should reflect that of ammonia, which provides information on the environment of molecular formation or condensation and of the thermal history of cometary ices. Assuming that the OPR of ammonia in comets was unchanged in the nucleus, the derived spin <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of ammonia (28 +/- 2 kelvin) suggests that a formation region of the cometary ammonia ice was between the orbit of Saturn and that of Uranus in the solar nebula. PMID:11691989</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kawakita, H; Watanabe, J; Ando, H; Aoki, W; Fuse, T; Honda, S; Izumiura, H; Kajino, T; Kambe, E; Kawanomoto, S; Noguchi, K; Okita, K; Sadakane, K; Sato, B; Takada-Hidai, M; Takeda, Y; Usuda, T; Watanabe, E; Yoshida, M</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2001-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">238</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20020042185&hterms=global+temperature&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dglobal%2Btemperature"> <span id="translatedtitle">An Analysis of Simulated and Observed Global Mean Near-Surface Air <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Anomalies from 1979 to 1999: <span class="hlt">Trends</span> and Attribution of Causes</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The 1979 - 1999 response of the climate system to variations in solar spectral irradiance is estimated by comparing the global averaged surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> anomalies simulated by a 2D (two dimensional) energy balance climate model to observed <span class="hlt">temperature</span> anomalies. We perform a multiple regression of southern oscillation index and the individual model responses to solar irradiance variations, stratospheric and tropospheric aerosol loading, stratospheric ozone <span class="hlt">trends</span>, and greenhouse gases onto each of five near-surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> anomaly data sets. We estimate the observed difference in global mean near surface air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> attributable to the solar irradiance difference between solar maximum and solar minimum to be between 0.06 and 0.11 K, and that 1.1 - 3.8% of the total variance in monthly mean near-surface air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> data is attributable to nations in solar spectral irradiance. For the five <span class="hlt">temperature</span> data sets used in our analysis, the <span class="hlt">trends</span> in raw monthly mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> anomaly data have a large range, spanning a factor of 3 from 0.06 to 0.17 K/decade. However. our analysis suggests that <span class="hlt">trends</span> in monthly <span class="hlt">temperature</span> anomalies attributable to the combination of greenhouse gas, stratospheric ozone, and tropospheric sulfate aerosol variations are much more consistent among data sets, ranging from 0.16 to 0.24 K/decade. Our model results suggest that roughly half of the warming from greenhouse gases is cancelled by the cooling from changes in stratospheric ozone. Tropospheric sulfate aerosol loading in the present day atmospheric contributes significantly to the net radiative forcing of the present day climate system. However, because the change in magnitude and latitudinal distribution of tropospheric sulfate aerosol has been small over the past 20 years, the change in the direct radiative forcing attributable to changes in aerosol loading over this time is also small.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">MacKay, R. M.; Ko, M. K. W.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2001-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">239</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/19549537"> <span id="translatedtitle">Combined coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy and <span class="hlt">linear</span> Raman spectroscopy for simultaneous <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and multiple species measurements</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The simultaneous application of pure rotational coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS) and vibrational <span class="hlt">linear</span> Raman spectroscopy (LRS) for the measurement of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and species concentrations in combustion systems is demonstrated. In addition to the standard rotational CARS experimental setup, only one detection system (spectrometer and intensified CCD camera) for the collection of the LRS signals was applied. The emission of</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Markus C. Weikl; Frank Beyrau; Johannes Kiefer; Thomas Seeger; Alfred Leipertz</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">240</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014GeoRL..41.9065R"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Trends</span> in hemispheric warm and cold anomalies</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">a spatial percentile approach, we explore the magnitude of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> anomalies across the Northern and Southern Hemispheres. <span class="hlt">Linear</span> <span class="hlt">trends</span> in spatial percentile series are estimated for 1881-2013, the most recent 30 year period (1984-2013), and 1998-2013. All spatial percentiles in both hemispheres show increases from 1881 to 2013, but warming occurred unevenly via modification of cold anomalies, producing a reduction in spatial dispersion. In the most recent 30 year period, <span class="hlt">trends</span> also were consistently positive, with warm anomalies having much larger warming rates than those of cold anomalies in both hemispheres. This recent <span class="hlt">trend</span> has largely reversed the decrease in spatial dispersion that occurred during the twentieth century. While the period associated with the recent slowdown of global warming, 1998-2013, is too brief to estimate <span class="hlt">trends</span> reliably, cooling was evident in NH warm and cold anomalies during January and February while other months in the NH continued to warm.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Robeson, Scott M.; Willmott, Cort J.; Jones, Phil D.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img 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href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">241</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JChPh.141o4110R"> <span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">temperature</span> dependence of vibronic lineshapes: <span class="hlt">Linear</span> electron-phonon coupling</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We calculate the effect of a <span class="hlt">linear</span> electron-phonon coupling on vibronic transitions of dye molecules of arbitrary complexity. With the assumption of known vibronic frequencies (for instance from quantum-chemical calculations), we give expressions for the absorption or emission lineshapes in a second-order cumulant expansion. We show that the results coincide with those obtained from generalized Redfield theory if one uses the time-local version of the theory and applies the secular approximation. Furthermore, the theory allows to go beyond the Huang-Rhys approximation and can be used to incorporate Dushinsky effects in the treatment of the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> dependence of optical spectra. We consider both, a pure electron-phonon coupling independent of the molecular vibrations and a coupling bilinear in the molecular vibrational modes and the phonon coordinates. We discuss the behavior of the vibronic density of states for various models for the spectral density representing the coupling of the vibronic system to the harmonic bath. We recover some of the results that have been derived earlier for the spin-boson model and we show that the behavior of the spectral density at low frequencies determines the dominant features of the spectra. In case of the bilinear coupling between the molecular vibrations and the phonons we give analytical expressions for different spectral densities. The spectra are reminiscent of those obtained from the well known Brownian oscillator model and one finds a zero-phonon line and phonon-side bands located at vibrational frequencies of the dye. The intensity of the phonon-side bands diminishes with increasing vibrational frequencies and with decreasing coupling strength (Huang-Rhys factor). It vanishes completely in the Markovian limit where only a Lorentzian zero-phonon line is observed.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Roos, Claudia; Khn, Andreas; Gauss, Jrgen; Diezemann, Gregor</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">242</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AnGeo..32..301K"> <span id="translatedtitle">Long-term <span class="hlt">trends</span> observed in the middle atmosphere <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> using ground based LIDARs and satellite borne measurements</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Long-term data available from Lidar systems located at three different locations namely So Jos dos Campos, Brazil (23.2 S, 45.8 W), Gadanki (13.5 N, 79.2 E) and Reunion (20.8 S, 55.5 E) have been used to investigate the long-term variations like Annual, Semi-annual, Quasi-biennial, El Nino Southern Oscillation and solar cycle. These oscillations are also extracted from simultaneous satellite borne measurements of HALogen Occultation Experiment (HALOE) instrument onboard UARS and SABER onboard TIMED over these stations making largest time series covering the entire middle atmosphere. A good agreement is found between the LIDAR and satellite-derived amplitudes and phases between 30 and 65 km altitude, which suggests that satellite measurements can be used to investigate the long-term <span class="hlt">trends</span> globally. Latter measurements are extended to 80 km in order to further investigate these oscillations. Large difference in the amplitudes between the eastern pacific and western pacific is noticed in these oscillations. Changing from cooling <span class="hlt">trends</span> in the stratosphere to warming <span class="hlt">trends</span> in the mesosphere occurs more or less at altitude around 70 km altitude and this result agrees well with that observed by satellite measurements reported in the literature. The peak in the cooling <span class="hlt">trend</span> does not occur at a fixed altitude in the stratosphere however maximum warming <span class="hlt">trend</span> is observed around 75 km at all the stations. The observed long-term <span class="hlt">trends</span> including various oscillations are compared with that reported with various techniques.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kishore, P.; Venkat Ratnam, M.; Velicogna, I.; Sivakumar, V.; Bencherif, H.; Clemesha, B. R.; Simonich, D. M.; Batista, P. P.; Beig, G.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">243</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19920006214&hterms=Mesospheric+Aerosol+Sampling+Spectrometer&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3DMesospheric%2BAerosol%2BSampling%2BSpectrometer"> <span id="translatedtitle">Global <span class="hlt">trends</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Measuring <span class="hlt">trends</span> in ozone, and most other geophysical variables, requires that a small systematic change with time be determined from signals that have large periodic and aperiodic variations. Their time scales range from the day-to-day changes due to atmospheric motions through seasonal and annual variations to 11 year cycles resulting from changes in the sun UV output. Because of the magnitude of all of these variations is not well known and highly variable, it is necessary to measure over more than one period of the variations to remove their effects. This means that at least 2 or more times the 11 year sunspot cycle. Thus, the first requirement is for a long term data record. The second related requirement is that the record be consistent. A third requirement is for reasonable global sampling, to ensure that the effects are representative of the entire Earth. The various observational methods relevant to <span class="hlt">trend</span> detection are reviewed to characterize their quality and time and space coverage. Available data are then examined for long term <span class="hlt">trends</span> or recent changes in ozone total content and vertical distribution, as well as related parameters such as stratospheric <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, source gases and aerosols.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Megie, G.; Chanin, M.-L.; Ehhalt, D.; Fraser, P.; Frederick, J. F.; Gille, J. C.; Mccormick, M. P.; Schoebert, M.; Bishop, L.; Bojkov, R. D.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1990-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">244</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://rcada.ncu.edu.tw/ref/reference022.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">On the time-varying <span class="hlt">trend</span> in global-mean surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> Zhaohua Wu Norden E. Huang John M. Wallace</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">of a response to the buildup of well-mixed greenhouse gases. In contrast, the multidecadal variability tends warming <span class="hlt">trend</span> Á Multidecadal variability Á Ensemble empirical mode decomposition Á IPCC AR4 1 Introduction for investigations of human-induced global warming. Of particular interest is the estimation and attribution</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">245</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://dspace.mit.edu/handle/1721.1/36121"> <span id="translatedtitle">Depletion, quantum jumps, and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> measurements of ??Sr? ions in a <span class="hlt">linear</span> Paul Trap</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This thesis describes the design and construction of two laser systems to probe the 674nm transition of ??Sr? ions in a <span class="hlt">linear</span> Paul trap. The first laser system made use of a molecular transition in Iodine to stabilize the ...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Richerme, Philip J</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">246</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22270942"> <span id="translatedtitle">A <span class="hlt">TREND</span> BETWEEN COLD DEBRIS DISK <span class="hlt">TEMPERATURE</span> AND STELLAR TYPE: IMPLICATIONS FOR THE FORMATION AND EVOLUTION OF WIDE-ORBIT PLANETS</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Cold debris disks trace the limits of planet formation or migration in the outer regions of planetary systems, and thus have the potential to answer many of the outstanding questions in wide-orbit planet formation and evolution. We characterized the infrared excess spectral energy distributions of 174 cold debris disks around 546 main-sequence stars observed by both the Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph and the Multiband Imaging Photometer for Spitzer. We found a <span class="hlt">trend</span> between the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of the inner edges of cold debris disks and the stellar type of the stars they orbit. This argues against the importance of strictly <span class="hlt">temperature</span>-dependent processes (e.g., non-water ice lines) in setting the dimensions of cold debris disks. Also, we found no evidence that delayed stirring causes the <span class="hlt">trend</span>. The <span class="hlt">trend</span> may result from outward planet migration that traces the extent of the primordial protoplanetary disk, or it may result from planet formation that halts at an orbital radius limited by the efficiency of core accretion.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ballering, Nicholas P.; Rieke, George H.; Su, Kate Y. L. [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Montiel, Edward, E-mail: ballerin@email.arizona.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803, USA. (United States)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-09-20</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">247</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..12.1690F"> <span id="translatedtitle">On the statistical significance of climate <span class="hlt">trends</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">One of the major problems in climate science is the prediction of future climate change due to anthropogenic green-house gas emissions. The earth's climate is not changing in a uniform way because it is a complex nonlinear system of many interacting components. The overall warming <span class="hlt">trend</span> can be interrupted by cooling periods due to natural variability. Thus, in order to statistically distinguish between internal climate variability and genuine <span class="hlt">trends</span> one has to assume a certain null model of the climate variability. Traditionally a short-range, and not a long-range, dependent null model is chosen. Here I show evidence for the first time that <span class="hlt">temperature</span> data at 8 stations across Antarctica are long-range dependent and that the choice of a long-range, rather than a short-range, dependent null model negates the statistical significance of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">trends</span> at 2 out of 3 stations. These results show the short comings of traditional <span class="hlt">trend</span> analysis and imply that more attention should be given to the correlation structure of climate data, in particular if they are long-range dependent. In this study I use the Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD) to decompose the univariate <span class="hlt">temperature</span> time series into a finite number of Intrinsic Mode Functions (IMF) and an instantaneous mean. While there is no unambiguous definition of a <span class="hlt">trend</span>, in this study we interpret the instantaneous mean as a <span class="hlt">trend</span> which is possibly nonlinear. The EMD method has been shown to be a powerful method for extracting <span class="hlt">trends</span> from noisy and nonlinear time series. I will show that this way of identifying <span class="hlt">trends</span> is superior to the traditional <span class="hlt">linear</span> least-square fits.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Franzke, Christian</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">248</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20000038169&hterms=comparison+temperature+sensor&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dcomparison%2Btemperature%2Bsensor"> <span id="translatedtitle">Detection and Monitoring of Stratigraphic Markers and <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> <span class="hlt">Trends</span> at the Greenland Ice Sheet Project 2 Using Passive-Microwave Remote-Sensing Data</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Satellite passive-microwave sensors provide a sensitive means of studying ice-sheet surface processes that assists ice-core interpretation and can extend local observations across regional scales. Analysis of special sensor microwave/imager (SSM/I) brightness <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (TB) data supports ice-core research in two specific ways. First, the summer hoar complex layers used to date the Holocene portion of the Greenland Ice Sheet Project 2 ice core can be defined temporally and spatially by SSM/I 37-GHz vertically (V) and horizontally (H) polarized B ratio (V/H) <span class="hlt">trends</span>. Second, comparison of automatic weather station <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> to SSM/I 37-GHz V TB data shows that they are an effective proxy <span class="hlt">temperature</span> record in this region. Also, the TB data can be correlated with proxy <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">trends</span> from stable-isotope-ratio (delta O-18 and delta-D) profiles from snow pits and this allows the assignment of dates to specific snow depths.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Shuman, C. A.; Alley, R. B.; Fahnestock, M. A.; Fawcett, P. J.; Bondschadler, R. A.; White, J. W. C.; Grootes, P. M.; Anandakrishnan, S.; Stearns, C. R.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1997-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">249</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014Nanot..25k5502Z"> <span id="translatedtitle">Pt/ZnO nanoarray nanogenerator as self-powered active gas sensor with <span class="hlt">linear</span> ethanol sensing at room <span class="hlt">temperature</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A self-powered gas sensor that can actively detect ethanol at room <span class="hlt">temperature</span> has been realized from a Pt/ZnO nanoarray nanogenerator. Pt nanoparticles are uniformly distributed on the whole surface of ZnO nanowires. The piezoelectric output of Pt/ZnO nanoarrays can act not only as a power source, but also as a response signal to ethanol at room <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. Upon exposure to dry air and 1500 ppm ethanol at room <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, the piezoelectric output of the device under the same compressive strain is 0.672 and 0.419 V, respectively. Moreover, a <span class="hlt">linear</span> dependence of the sensitivity on the ethanol concentration is observed. Such a <span class="hlt">linear</span> ethanol sensing at room <span class="hlt">temperature</span> can be attributed to the atmosphere-dependent variety of the screen effect on the piezoelectric output of ZnO nanowires, the catalytic properties of Pt nanoparticles, and the Schottky barriers at Pt/ZnO interfaces. The present results can stimulate research in the direction of designing new material systems for self-powered room-<span class="hlt">temperature</span> gas sensing.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Zhao, Yayu; Lai, Xuan; Deng, Ping; Nie, Yuxin; Zhang, Yan; Xing, Lili; Xue, Xinyu</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">250</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24561677"> <span id="translatedtitle">Pt/ZnO nanoarray nanogenerator as self-powered active gas sensor with <span class="hlt">linear</span> ethanol sensing at room <span class="hlt">temperature</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A self-powered gas sensor that can actively detect ethanol at room <span class="hlt">temperature</span> has been realized from a Pt/ZnO nanoarray nanogenerator. Pt nanoparticles are uniformly distributed on the whole surface of ZnO nanowires. The piezoelectric output of Pt/ZnO nanoarrays can act not only as a power source, but also as a response signal to ethanol at room <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. Upon exposure to dry air and 1500ppm ethanol at room <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, the piezoelectric output of the device under the same compressive strain is 0.672 and 0.419V, respectively. Moreover, a <span class="hlt">linear</span> dependence of the sensitivity on the ethanol concentration is observed. Such a <span class="hlt">linear</span> ethanol sensing at room <span class="hlt">temperature</span> can be attributed to the atmosphere-dependent variety of the screen effect on the piezoelectric output of ZnO nanowires, the catalytic properties of Pt nanoparticles, and the Schottky barriers at Pt/ZnO interfaces. The present results can stimulate research in the direction of designing new material systems for self-powered room-<span class="hlt">temperature</span> gas sensing. PMID:24561677</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Zhao, Yayu; Lai, Xuan; Deng, Ping; Nie, Yuxin; Zhang, Yan; Xing, Lili; Xue, Xinyu</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-03-21</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">251</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013ThApC.111..235S"> <span id="translatedtitle">Observed variability and <span class="hlt">trends</span> in extreme <span class="hlt">temperature</span> indices and rice-wheat productivity over two districts of Bihar, Indiaa case study</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The purpose of this paper is to analyze the <span class="hlt">trends</span> and variability in extreme <span class="hlt">temperature</span> indices and its impact on rice-wheat productivity over two districts of Bihar, India, which is part of the middle Indo-Gangetic Basin. Mann-Kendall non-parametric test was employed for detection of <span class="hlt">trend</span> and Sen slope was determined to quantify the magnitude of such <span class="hlt">trends</span>. We have analyzed 10 extreme <span class="hlt">temperature</span> indices for monthly and seasonally. The influence of extreme <span class="hlt">temperature</span> indices on rice-wheat productivity was determined using correlation analysis. As far as Patna is concerned, if the number of cool days during September ?10, the rice productivity will increase due to the availability of sufficient duration to fill up the grain. However, higher warm days during all the months except June will affect the productivity. A significant negative correlation was noticed between maximum value of minimum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> during September and rice productivity. Highly significant positive correlation was noticed between number of cool days during September with rice productivity while it was highly significant negative correlation in the case of number of warm days during the same month. As far as Samastipur is concerned, a negative correlation was noticed between wheat productivity and maximum value of maximum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (TXx) during February, but not statistically significant. The higher <span class="hlt">temperature</span> may affect the kernel weight and thereby yield. It is seen that a critical value of TXx ?29.2 C will be harmful to wheat crop during February. A significant positive correlation of number of cool nights with wheat productivity also supports the above relationship. The critical values of extreme <span class="hlt">temperature</span> indices during rice and wheat growing months provide an indicator to assess the vulnerability of rice-wheat productivity to <span class="hlt">temperature</span> for Patna and Samastipur districts and there is a need to prepare an adaptive strategy and also develop thermo-insensitive rice-wheat high yielding varieties suitable for this region to sustain rice-wheat productivity under projected climate change situation.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Subash, N.; Singh, S. S.; Priya, Neha</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">252</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012ThApC.110..281A"> <span id="translatedtitle">Testing for <span class="hlt">linear</span> Granger causality from natural/anthropogenic forcings to global <span class="hlt">temperature</span> anomalies</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this paper, we analyze the Granger causality from natural or anthropogenic forcings to global <span class="hlt">temperature</span> anomalies. The lag-augmented Wald test is performed, and its robustness is also evaluated considering bootstrap method. The results show there is no-evidence of Granger causality from natural forcings to global <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. On the contrary, a detectable Granger causality is found from anthropogenic forcings to global <span class="hlt">temperature</span> confirming that greenhouse gases have an important role on recent global warming.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Attanasio, Alessandro</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">253</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012PhDT.......127M"> <span id="translatedtitle">Instability-Driven Limits on Ion <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Anisotropy in the Solar Wind: Observations and <span class="hlt">Linear</span> Vlasov Theory</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Kinetic microinstabilities in the solar wind arise when its non-thermal properties become too extreme. This thesis project focused specifically on the four instabilities associated with ion <span class="hlt">temperature</span> anisotropy: the cyclotron, mirror, and parallel and oblique firehose instabilities. Numerous studies have provided evidence that proton <span class="hlt">temperature</span> anisotropy in the solar wind is limited by the actions of these instabilities. For this project, a fully revised analysis of data from the Wind spacecraft's Faraday cups and calculations from <span class="hlt">linear</span> Vlasov theory were used to extend these findings in two respects. First, theoretical thresholds were derived for the alpha-particle <span class="hlt">temperature</span> anisotropy instabilities, which were then found to be consistent with a statistical analysis of Wind alpha-particle data. This suggests that alpha-particles, which constitute only about 5% of ions in the solar wind, are nevertheless able to drive <span class="hlt">temperature</span> anisotropy instabilities. Second, a statistical analysis of Wind proton data found that proton <span class="hlt">temperature</span> was significantly enhanced in plasma unstable due to proton <span class="hlt">temperature</span> anisotropy. This implies that extreme proton <span class="hlt">temperature</span> anisotropies in solar wind at 1 AU arise from ongoing anisotropic heating (versus cooling from, e.g., CGL double adiabatic expansion). Together, these results provide further insight into the complex evolution of the solar wind's non-fluid properties.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Maruca, Bennett Andrew</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">254</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013IJMPB..2750017A"> <span id="translatedtitle">First Principles Derivation of Nls Equation for Bec with Cubic and Quintic Nonlinearities at Nonzero <span class="hlt">Temperature</span>: Dispersion of <span class="hlt">Linear</span> Waves</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We present a derivation of the quantum hydrodynamic (QHD) equations for neutral bosons. We consider the short-range interaction between particles. This interaction consist of a binary interaction U( ri, rj) and a three-particle interaction (TPI) U( ri, rj, rk) and the last one does not include binary interaction between particles. From QHD equations for Bose-Einstein condensate we derive a nonlinear Schrdinger equation. This equation was derived for zero <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and contains the nonlinearities of the third and the fifth degree. Explicit form of the constant of the TPI is obtained. First of all, developed method we used for studying of dispersion of the <span class="hlt">linear</span> waves. Dispersion characteristics of the <span class="hlt">linear</span> waves are compared for different particular cases. We make comparison of the two-particle interaction in the third order by the interaction radius (TOIR) and TPI at the zero <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. We consider influence of the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> on the dispersion of the elementary excitations. For this aim we derive a system of the QHD equations at nonzero <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. Obtained system of equation is an analog of the well-known two-fluid hydrodynamics. Moreover, it is generalization of the two-fluid hydrodynamics equations due to TPI. Explicit expressions of the velocities for the first and the second sound via the concentration of superfluid and noncondensate components is calculated.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Andreev, P. A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">255</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009JHyd..378..325S"> <span id="translatedtitle">Forecasting stream water <span class="hlt">temperature</span> using regression analysis, artificial neural network, and chaotic non-<span class="hlt">linear</span> dynamic models</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">SummaryStream water <span class="hlt">temperature</span> is considered both a dominant factor in determining the longitudinal distribution pattern of aquatic biota and as a general metabolic indicator for the water body, since so many biological processes are <span class="hlt">temperature</span> dependent. Moreover, the plunging depth of stream water, its associated pollutant load, and its potential impact on lake/reservoir ecology is dependent on water <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. Lack of detailed datasets and knowledge on physical processes of the stream system limits the use of a phenomenological model to estimate stream <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. Rather, empirical models have been used as viable alternatives. In this study, an empirical model (artificial neural networks (ANN)), a statistical model (multiple regression analysis (MRA)), and the chaotic non-<span class="hlt">linear</span> dynamic algorithms (CNDA) were examined to predict the stream water <span class="hlt">temperature</span> from the available solar radiation and air <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. Observed time series data were non-<span class="hlt">linear</span> and non-Gaussian, thus the method of time delay was applied to form the new dataset that closely represent the inherent system dynamics. Phase-space reconstruction plots show that time lag equal to 0 and greater than 10 result in highly dependent (a well-defined attractor) and highly independent (no attractor at all) reconstructions, respectively, and, therefore, may not be appropriate to use. Delayed vector was found to be strongly correlated with the original vector when time lag is small (i.e. less than 3-day) and vice versa. Power spectrum analysis and autocorrelation function suggested that the time series data was chaotic and mutual information function indicates that optimum time lag was approximately 3-day. The chaotic non-<span class="hlt">linear</span> dynamic algorithm and four-layer back propagation neural network (4BPNN) optimized by micro-genetic algorithms (?GA) showed that the prediction performance was optimum when data are presented to the model with 1-day and 3-day time lag, respectively. The prediction performance efficiency of MRA is higher for time lag greater than 3-day, however, the incremental performance efficiency rate significantly decreased after 3-day time lag. The prediction performance efficiency of ?GA-4BPNN was found to be the highest among all algorithms considered in this study. Air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> was found to be the most important variable in stream <span class="hlt">temperature</span> forecasting; however, the prediction performance efficiency was somewhat higher if short wave radiation was included.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sahoo, G. B.; Schladow, S. G.; Reuter, J. E.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">256</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.A11H0161P"> <span id="translatedtitle">On the <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Dependence and Decadal <span class="hlt">Trends</span> of Ozone in the San Joaquin Valley: Constraints from Measurements at the CalNex-Bakersfield Supersite</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Emissions and concentrations of organic molecules and nitrogen oxides (NOx) associated with passenger vehicles have been dramatically reduced over the last decade. In a recent analysis, Pusede and Cohen (2012) show that in California's San Joaquin Valley ozone has decreased in response to reductions in the organic reactivity (VOCR) at moderate <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> throughout the Valley, but that at the hottest <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> the effects of VOCR changes are modest or not at all apparent, particularly in the southern San Joaquin. To identify and quantify this uncontrolled, high-<span class="hlt">temperature</span> VOCR source, we combine PAMS network measurements from six sites in the southern and central San Joaquin and the extensive suite of radical, trace gas, and reactivity observations collected in the summer of 2010 in Bakersfield during the CalNex field intensive. We find alcohols and aldehydes increase dramatically with <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, becoming the largest contribution to VOCR of the observed organics. We also find evidence for a high-<span class="hlt">temperature</span> VOCR source that is not accounted for by the available measurements of alcohols, aldehydes, and other organic molecules. Observations of total alkyl nitrates imply a very low nitrate yield per unit VOCR and provide an additional constraint on possible sources of this missing reactivity. We use these results to interpret inter-annual and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> dependent <span class="hlt">trends</span> in the frequency of ozone exceedances in the San Joaquin and to predict the response to additional VOCR and/or NOx emission controls in the region.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Pusede, S. E.; Gentner, D. R.; Wooldridge, P. J.; Browne, E. C.; Guha, A.; Goldstein, A. H.; Thomas, J.; Brune, W. H.; DiGangi, J. P.; Henry, S. B.; Keutsch, F. N.; Beaver, M. R.; St Clair, J. M.; Wennberg, P. O.; Cohen, R. C.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">257</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008PhDT.......146G"> <span id="translatedtitle">Pacific sea surface <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> in the twentieth century: Variability, <span class="hlt">trend</span>, and connections to long-term hydroclimate variations over the Great Plains</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Pacific sea surface <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> (SSTs) exhibit variability on interannual to centennial time scales. This dissertation addresses the challenge to separate SST natural variability from the nonstationary (largely anthropogenic) warming <span class="hlt">trend</span>; and, based on the clarified variability/<span class="hlt">trend</span> patterns, evaluate SST forcing of long-term hydroclimate variations over the Great Plains. First, a consistent analysis of natural variability and secular <span class="hlt">trend</span> in the twentieth century Pacific SSTs is presented. By focusing on spatial and temporal recurrence, but without imposition of periodicity constraints, this single analysis discriminates between biennial, ENSO and decadal variabilities, leading to refined evolutionary descriptions; and between these natural variability modes and secular <span class="hlt">trend</span>. Specifically, canonical ENSO variability is encapsulated in two modes that depict the growth and decay phases. Another interannual mode, energetic in recent decades, is shown linked to the west-to-east SST development seen in post--climate shift ENSOs: the non-canonical ESNO mode. Pacific decadal variability (PDV) is characterized by two modes: the Pan-Pacific mode has a horse-shoe structure with the closed end skirting the North American coast, and a quiescent eastern equatorial Pacific. The second decadal mode---the North Pacific mode---captures the 1976/77 climate shift and is closer to Mantua's Pacific Decadal Oscillation. Implicit accommodation of natural variability leads to a nonstationary SST <span class="hlt">trend</span>, including midcentury cooling. These Pacific---and residual Atlantic---SST modes are then investigated for their connections to long-term hydroclimate variations over the Great Plains. During the Dust Bowl, dry anomalies in summer are found primarily linked to cool SSTs in the central tropical Pacific associated with non-canonical ENSO, as well as warm SSTs in the eastern tropical Atlantic associated with Atlantic Nino; in spring, however, dry anomalies are overwhelmed by connections to extratropical basins, when the cool phase of the SST <span class="hlt">trend</span> coincided with a warm phase of the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO). Dry (wet) anomalies during the 1950s (1980s) are shown linked to the warm (cool) phase of the North Pacific decadal mode, as well as a warm (cool) AMO. The analysis suggests comparable importance of the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans in drought forcing, and highlights the role of the extratropical basins.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Guan, Bin</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">258</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20060041821&hterms=compensation+depth&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Dcompensation%2Bdepth"> <span id="translatedtitle">High Precision Piezoelectric <span class="hlt">Linear</span> Motors for Operations at Cryogenic <span class="hlt">Temperatures</span> and Vacuum</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Jet Propulsion Laboratory evaluated the use of an electromechanical device for optically positioning a mirror system during the pre-project phase of the Pluto-Fast-Flyby (PFF) mission. The device under consideration was a piezoelectric driven <span class="hlt">linear</span> motor functionally dependent upon a time varying electric field which induces displacements ranging from submicrons to millimeters with positioning accuracy within nanometers. Using a control package, the mirror system provides image motion compensation and mosaicking capabilities. While this device offers unique advantages, there were concerns pertaining to its operational capabilities for the PFF mission. The issues include irradiation effects and thermal concerns. A literature study indicated that irradiation effects will not significantly impact the <span class="hlt">linear</span> motor's operational characteristics. On the other hand, thermal concerns necessitated an in depth study.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wong, D.; Carman, G.; Stam, M.; Bar-Cohen, Y.; Sen, A.; Henry, P.; Bearman, G.; Moacanin, J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1995-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">259</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://public.lanl.gov/jt/Papers/McCabe-IJRS.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">ForPeerReview Forward Modeling of <span class="hlt">Linear</span> Mixing in Thermal IR <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Retrieval</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">: International Journal of Remote Sensing Manuscript ID: draft Manuscript Type: Special Issue Paper Date Submitted-Administrator@Dundee.ac.uk International Journal of Remote Sensing #12;ForPeerReview Only Forward Modeling of <span class="hlt">Linear</span> Mixing in Thermal IR-Administrator@Dundee.ac.uk International Journal of Remote Sensing 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Theiler, James</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">260</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19940011309&hterms=stockage&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dstockage"> <span id="translatedtitle">NASA <span class="hlt">trend</span> analysis procedures</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This publication is primarily intended for use by NASA personnel engaged in managing or implementing <span class="hlt">trend</span> analysis programs. '<span class="hlt">Trend</span> analysis' refers to the observation of current activity in the context of the past in order to infer the expected level of future activity. NASA <span class="hlt">trend</span> analysis was divided into 5 categories: problem, performance, supportability, programmatic, and reliability. Problem <span class="hlt">trend</span> analysis uncovers multiple occurrences of historical hardware or software problems or failures in order to focus future corrective action. Performance <span class="hlt">trend</span> analysis observes changing levels of real-time or historical flight vehicle performance parameters such as <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, pressures, and flow rates as compared to specification or 'safe' limits. Supportability <span class="hlt">trend</span> analysis assesses the adequacy of the spaceflight logistics system; example indicators are repair-turn-around time and parts stockage levels. Programmatic <span class="hlt">trend</span> analysis uses quantitative indicators to evaluate the 'health' of NASA programs of all types. Finally, reliability <span class="hlt">trend</span> analysis attempts to evaluate the growth of system reliability based on a decreasing rate of occurrence of hardware problems over time. Procedures for conducting all five types of <span class="hlt">trend</span> analysis are provided in this publication, prepared through the joint efforts of the NASA <span class="hlt">Trend</span> Analysis Working Group.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1993-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" 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showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">261</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://arxiv.org/pdf/0808.0543v1"> <span id="translatedtitle">The effect of two-<span class="hlt">temperature</span> post-shock accretion flow on the <span class="hlt">linear</span> polarization pulse in magnetic cataclysmic variables</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> of electrons and ions in the post-shock accretion region of a magnetic cataclysmic variable (mCV) will be equal at sufficiently high mass flow rates or for sufficiently weak magnetic fields. At lower mass flow rates or in stronger magnetic fields, efficient cyclotron cooling will cool the electrons faster than the electrons can cool the ions and a two-<span class="hlt">temperature</span> flow will result. Here we investigate the differences in polarized radiation expected from mCV post-shock accretion columns modeled with one- and two-<span class="hlt">temperature</span> hydrodynamics. In an mCV model with one accretion region, a magnetic field >~30 MG and a specific mass flow rate of ~0.5 g/cm/cm/s, along with a relatively generic geometric orientation of the system, we find that in the ultraviolet either a single <span class="hlt">linear</span> polarization pulse per binary orbit or two pulses per binary orbit can be expected, depending on the accretion column hydrodynamic structure (one- or two-<span class="hlt">temperature</span>) modeled. Under conditions where the physical flow is two-<span class="hlt">temperature</span>, one pulse per orbit is predicted from a single accretion region where a one-<span class="hlt">temperature</span> model predicts two pulses. The intensity light curves show similar pulse behavior but there is very little difference between the circular polarization predictions of one- and two-<span class="hlt">temperature</span> models. Such discrepancies indicate that it is important to model some aspect of two-<span class="hlt">temperature</span> flow in indirect imaging procedures, like Stokes imaging, especially at the edges of extended accretion regions, were the specific mass flow is low, and especially for ultraviolet data.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Gordon E. Sarty; Curtis J. Saxton; Kinwah Wu</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-08-05</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">262</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19720007095&hterms=theory+presence&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3Dtheory%2Bpresence"> <span id="translatedtitle">Quasi-<span class="hlt">linear</span> theory of electron density and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> fluctuations with application to MHD generators and MPD arc thrusters</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Fluctuations in electron density and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> coupled through Ohm's law are studied for an ionizable medium. The nonlinear effects are considered in the limit of a third order quasi-<span class="hlt">linear</span> treatment. Equations are derived for the amplitude of the fluctuation. Conditions under which a steady state can exist in the presence of the fluctuation are examined and effective transport properties are determined. A comparison is made to previously considered second order theory. The effect of third order terms indicates the possibility of fluctuations existing in regions predicted stable by previous analysis.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Smith, M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1972-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">263</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19720033147&hterms=theory+presence&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3Dtheory%2Bpresence"> <span id="translatedtitle">Quasi-<span class="hlt">linear</span> theory of electron density and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> fluctuations with application to MHD generators and MPD arc thrusters.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Fluctuations in electron density and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> coupled through Ohm's law are studied for an ionizable medium. The nonlinear effects are considered in the limit of a third order quasi-<span class="hlt">linear</span> treatment. Equations are derived for the amplitude of the fluctuation. Conditions under which a steady state can exist in the presence of the fluctuation are examined and effective transport properties are determined. A comparison is made to previously considered second order theory. The effect of third order terms indicates the possibility of fluctuations existing in regions predicted stable by previous analysis.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Smith, J. M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1972-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">264</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/52253456"> <span id="translatedtitle">Axial <span class="hlt">temperature</span> differential analysis of <span class="hlt">linear</span> focused collectors for solar power</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Solar energy collection over a moderate <span class="hlt">temperature</span> range was studied, with Therminol 66 used as the collector fluid. Convective and radiative transport between the reciever and envelope, and from the envelope to the environment are modeled. Results are presented for (1) varying values of specular solar input for Albuquerque, New Mexico, on a statistical June 21, (2) fluid flow rate,</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">D. O. Lee; W. P. Schimmel Jr.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1974-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">265</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://cdsweb.cern.ch/record/1550677"> <span id="translatedtitle">Long-memory effects in <span class="hlt">linear</span>-response models of Earth's <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and implications for future global warming</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A <span class="hlt">linearized</span> energy-balance model for global <span class="hlt">temperature</span> is formulated, featuring a scale-free long-range memory (LRM) response and stochastic forcing representing the influence on the ocean heat reservoir from atmospheric weather systems. The model is parametrized by an effective response strength, the stochastic forcing strength, and the memory exponent. The instrumental global surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> record and the deterministic component of the forcing are used to estimate these parameters by means of the maximum-likelihood method. The residual obtained by subtracting the deterministic solution from the observed record is analyzed as a noise process and shown to be consistent with a long-memory time-series model and inconsistent with a short-memory model. By decomposing the forcing record in contributions from solar, volcanic, and anthropogenic activity one can estimate the contribution of each to 20'th century global warming. The LRM model is applied with a reconstruction of the forcing for the last millenni...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Rypdal, Martin</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">266</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22898943"> <span id="translatedtitle">X-Treme beamline at SLS: X-ray magnetic circular and <span class="hlt">linear</span> dichroism at high field and low <span class="hlt">temperature</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">X-Treme is a soft X-ray beamline recently built in the Swiss Light Source at the Paul Scherrer Institut in collaboration with cole Polytechnique Fdrale de Lausanne. The beamline is dedicated to polarization-dependent X-ray absorption spectroscopy at high magnetic fields and low <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. The source is an elliptically polarizing undulator. The end-station has a superconducting 7?T-2?T vector magnet, with sample <span class="hlt">temperature</span> down to 2?K and is equipped with an in situ sample preparation system for surface science. The beamline commissioning measurements, which show a resolving power of 8000 and a maximum flux at the sample of 4.7 10(12)?photons?s(-1), are presented. Scientific examples showing X-ray magnetic circular and X-ray magnetic <span class="hlt">linear</span> dichroism measurements are also presented. PMID:22898943</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Piamonteze, Cinthia; Flechsig, Uwe; Rusponi, Stefano; Dreiser, Jan; Heidler, Jakoba; Schmidt, Marcus; Wetter, Reto; Calvi, Marco; Schmidt, Thomas; Pruchova, Helena; Krempasky, Juraj; Quitmann, Christoph; Brune, Harald; Nolting, Frithjof</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">267</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..1210713D"> <span id="translatedtitle">Cold-season <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in the Swiss Alps from AD 1100-1500; <span class="hlt">trends</span>, intra-annual variability and forcing factors</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">To fully understand past climatic changes and their forcing factors, detailed reconstructions of past summer and winter <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> are required. Winter <span class="hlt">temperature</span> reconstructions are scarce, however, because most biological proxies are biased towards the growing season. This study presents a detailed reconstruction of winter <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> based on Chrysophyte stomatocysts, silicious scales formed by so-called 'golden algae'. Previous studies (Kamenik and Schmidt, 2005; Pla and Catalan, 2005) have demonstrated the sensitivity of these algae to cold-season <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. Chrysophyte stomatocyst analysis was carried out on varved sediments from Lake Silvaplana (1791 m a.s.l.) at annual to near-annual resolution for two periods; AD 1100-1500 and AD 1870-2004. For both periods the reference date 'date of spring mixing' (Smix) was reconstructed using a transfer function developed for the Austrian Alps (Kamenik and Schmidt, 2005). In the Austrian Alps, Smix was primarily driven by air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in the cold season. The strength of stomatocysts as a proxy for winter <span class="hlt">temperature</span> was tested by directly comparing reconstructed Smix with measured <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> from nearby meteostation Sils Maria for the period AD 1870 - 2004. Correlation was highest (R = -0.6; p < 0.001) with mean October-April <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. The good agreement between reconstructed Smix and mean winter <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> was interrupted only from AD 1925 - AD 1951, which was related to exceptionally high winter precipitation (thick snowpack) extending the ice-covered period. Strong lake eutrophication after AD 1950 only weakly affected the reconstruction of winter <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. The winter <span class="hlt">temperature</span> reconstruction (AD 1100-1500) shows strong interdecadal variability, superimposed on a cooling <span class="hlt">trend</span> from around AD 1400 onwards. A direct comparison to summer <span class="hlt">temperature</span> reconstructions based on biogenic silica and chironomid analysis from the same cores (Trachsel et al., in review; Larocque-Tobler et al., accepted manuscript) indicated strong fluctuations in intra-annual variability. A comparison to forcing factors shows that throughout the studied period, large tropical volcanic eruptions (Crowley, 2000) coincided with relatively warm winters in the study area. This is consistent with results from GCM experiments and observations of the limited number of eruptions during the much shorter instrumental period (Fischer et al., 2007). References: T. Crowley. Science 289, 270-277 (2000) E. Fischer et al. Geophys. Res. Lett. 34, L05707 (2007) C. Kamenik and R. Schmidt. Boreas 34, 477-489 (2005) I. Larocque-Tobler et al. Quat. Sci. Rev., accepted. S. Pla and J. Catalan. Clim. Dyn. 24, 263-278 (2005) M. Trachsel et al. Manuscript in review</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">de Jong, Rixt; Kamenik, Christian; Grosjean, Martin</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">268</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013LaPhL..10j5202R"> <span id="translatedtitle">Thermal radiation fields in time-dependent <span class="hlt">linear</span> media at finite <span class="hlt">temperature</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The properties of thermal radiation fields in <span class="hlt">linear</span> media which have time-dependent parameters are investigated on the basis of the invariant operator method. For quantum mechanical description of the electromagnetic waves whose amplitude and/or frequency vary with time, we introduce a quadratic invariant operator that is constructed according to its exact definition. The density operator of the system, being considered signal plus noise, is obtained via maximization of the entropy. The expectation values of the energy operator, the Hamiltonian, and the invariant operator are obtained in the thermal state and their thermal behaviours are illustrated in detail. It is shown that the fluctuations of the electric and the magnetic fields do not depend on signal plus noise and dissipate with time due to the conductivity in media. Our theory of wave propagation in time-varying media is applied to describe the biophoton signal in order to promote the understanding of our developments.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ryeol Choi, Jeong</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">269</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/55833052"> <span id="translatedtitle">Long <span class="hlt">linear</span> HgCdTe arrays with superior <span class="hlt">temperature</span> cycling reliability</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">To meet the demands for high <span class="hlt">temperature</span>-cycling reliability of HgCdTe detectors, bonded to a Silicon 'Read-Out-Integrated- Circuit,' AIM has developed a Multi-Chip-Module approach for the infrared Focal-Plane-Array. Bonding of detector array and Si-chips on a sapphire substrate minimizes thermal stress and strain in the FPA, leading to cycle-to-failure of >= 1000. For maximum cycle estimation under varying strain, a correlation</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Johann Ziegler; Marcus Finck; Rolf Krueger; Thomas Simon; C. J. Wendler</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2000-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">270</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://arxiv.org/pdf/1412.0978v1"> <span id="translatedtitle">Convergence to equilibrium of a <span class="hlt">linearized</span> quantum Boltzmann equation for bosons at very low <span class="hlt">temperature</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We consider an approximation of the linearised equation of the homogeneous Boltzmann equation that describes the distribution of quasiparticles in a dilute gas of bosons at low <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. The corresponding collision frequency is neither bounded from below nor from above. We prove the existence and uniqueness of solutions satisfying the conservation of energy. We show that these solutions converge to the corresponding stationary state, at an algebraic rate as time tends to infinity.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Miguel Escobedo; Minh-Binh Tran</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-12-02</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">271</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1059216"> <span id="translatedtitle">Design of High <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Ultrasonic <span class="hlt">Linear</span> Arrays for Under-Sodium Viewing</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper summarizes the design process for high <span class="hlt">temperature</span> ultrasonic phased array transducers for imaging in liquid sodium at <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> up to 260C. The project is funded by the USDOE Generation IV Reactor Program and includes collaboration with the Japanese Atomic Energy Agency. The transducer system is being designed to be able to provide images inside a sodium cooled fast reactor, to support operation and maintenance activities including potentially location of looseor damaged parts during service outages. The prototype transducer array is being designed for 8 to 16, 3MHz rectangular lead niobate (K-81) or bismuth titanate (K-15) piezoelectric elements spaced at ?/2 (wavelength in sodium). A nickel or nickel alloy faceplate serves as the sodium wetting surface. Scan angle of the focused ultrasonic beam is 30 degrees. Imaging spatial resolution is ? 1mm. The array is designed to be operated using a commercial phased array control system and it is planned that array testing will be performed in room <span class="hlt">temperature</span> water, hot oil (260C), and molten sodium (260C).</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Griffin, Jeffrey W.; Bond, Leonard J.; Jones, Anthony M.; Peters, Timothy J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-11-07</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">272</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.dsf.unica.it/~fotonica/pubs/bqs01.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">DOSSIER SOURCES LASER ET SPECTROSCOPIES FEMTOSECONDES : TENDANCES ACTUELLES <span class="hlt">TRENDS</span> IN FEMTOSECOND LASERS AND SPECTROSCOPY Femtosecond dynamics and non-<span class="hlt">linearities</span> of exciton-photon coupling in semiconductor microstructures</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">We have studied the femtosecond dynamics of excitonic resonances in quantum well microcavities under strong excitation. Very strong non-<span class="hlt">linearities</span> are observed, which bear clear resemblance to the non-<span class="hlt">linearities</span> of an atomic two-level system. The fact that the excitonic system undergoes Rabi flopping and AC Stark splitting is clearly evidenced in a number of cases. Excitation induced dephasing shows an effect</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Benoit DEVEAUD; Francesco QUOCHI; Michele SABA; Cristiano CIUTI; Jean-Louis STAEHLI</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">273</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2607150"> <span id="translatedtitle">High-<span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Ethanol Fermentation and Transformation with <span class="hlt">Linear</span> DNA in the Thermotolerant Yeast Kluyveromyces marxianus DMKU3-1042?</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We demonstrate herein the ability of Kluyveromyces marxianus to be an efficient ethanol producer and host for expressing heterologous proteins as an alternative to Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Growth and ethanol production by strains of K. marxianus and S. cerevisiae were compared under the same conditions. K. marxianus DMKU3-1042 was found to be the most suitable strain for high-<span class="hlt">temperature</span> growth and ethanol production at 45C. This strain, but not S. cerevisiae, utilized cellobiose, xylose, xylitol, arabinose, glycerol, and lactose. To develop a K. marxianus DMKU3-1042 derivative strain suitable for genetic engineering, a uracil auxotroph was isolated and transformed with a <span class="hlt">linear</span> DNA of the S. cerevisiae ScURA3 gene. Surprisingly, Ura+ transformants were easily obtained. By Southern blot hybridization, the <span class="hlt">linear</span> ScURA3 DNA was found to have inserted randomly into the K. marxianus genome. Sequencing of one Lys? transformant confirmed the disruption of the KmLYS1 gene by the ScURA3 insertion. A PCR-amplified <span class="hlt">linear</span> DNA lacking K. marxianus sequences but containing an Aspergillus ?-amylase gene under the control of the ScTDH3 promoter together with an ScURA3 marker was subsequently used to transform K. marxianus DMKU3-1042 in order to obtain transformants expressing Aspergillus ?-amylase. Our results demonstrate that K. marxianus DMKU3-1042 can be an alternative cost-effective bioethanol producer and a host for transformation with <span class="hlt">linear</span> DNA by use of S. cerevisiae-based molecular genetic tools. PMID:18931291</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Nonklang, Sanom; Abdel-Banat, Babiker M. A.; Cha-aim, Kamonchai; Moonjai, Nareerat; Hoshida, Hisashi; Limtong, Savitree; Yamada, Mamoru; Akada, Rinji</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">274</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.knmi.nl/publications/fulltexts/erikmin_rcm_extremes_erl_published.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Evaluation of <span class="hlt">trends</span> in high <span class="hlt">temperature</span> extremes in north-western Europe in regional climate This article has been downloaded from IOPscience. Please scroll down to see the full text article.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">.max). <span class="hlt">Linear</span> <span class="hlt">trends</span> in Tann.max from historical runs of 14 RCMs driven by atmospheric reanalysis data J van Oldenborgh1 and A Sterl1 1 Global Climate Division, Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute (KNMI), De Bilt, The Netherlands 2 Meteorology and Air Quality Group, Wageningen University & Research</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Haak, Hein</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">275</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24705814"> <span id="translatedtitle">Mann-Kendall <span class="hlt">trend</span> of pollutants, <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and humidity over an urban station of India with forecast verification using different ARIMA models.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The purpose of the present research is to identify the <span class="hlt">trends</span> in the concentrations of few atmospheric pollutants and meteorological parameters over an urban station Kolkata (22 32' N; 88 20' E), India, during the period from 2002 to 2011 and subsequently develop models for precise forecast of the concentration of the pollutants and the meteorological parameters over the station Kolkata. The pollutants considered in this study are sulphur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), particulates of size 10-?m diameters (PM10), carbon monoxide (CO) and tropospheric ozone (O3). The meteorological parameters considered are the surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and relative humidity. The Mann-Kendall, non-parametric statistical analysis is implemented to observe the <span class="hlt">trends</span> in the data series of the selected parameters. A time series approach with autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) modelling is used to provide daily forecast of the parameters with precision. ARIMA models of different categories; ARIMA (1, 1, 1), ARIMA (0, 2, 2) and ARIMA (2, 1, 2) are considered and the skill of each model is estimated and compared in forecasting the concentration of the atmospheric pollutants and meteorological parameters. The results of the study reveal that the ARIMA (0, 2, 2) is the best statistical model for forecasting the daily concentration of pollutants as well as the meteorological parameters over Kolkata. The result is validated with the observation of 2012. PMID:24705814</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Chaudhuri, Sutapa; Dutta, Debashree</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">276</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED218283.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Trend</span> Analysis Using Microcomputers.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A <span class="hlt">trend</span> analysis statistical package and additional programs for the Apple microcomputer are presented. They illustrate strategies of data analysis suitable to the graphics and processing capabilities of the microcomputer. The programs analyze data sets using examples of: (1) analysis of variance with multiple <span class="hlt">linear</span> regression; (2) exponential</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Berger, Carl F.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">277</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22046934"> <span id="translatedtitle">Theory of coupled whistler-electron <span class="hlt">temperature</span> gradient mode in high beta plasma: Application to <span class="hlt">linear</span> plasma device</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper presents a theory of coupled whistler (W) and electron <span class="hlt">temperature</span> gradient (ETG) mode using two-fluid model in high beta plasma. Non-adiabatic ion response, parallel magnetic field perturbation ({delta}B{sub z}), perpendicular magnetic flutter ({delta}B{sub perpendicular}), and electron collisions are included in the treatment of theory. A <span class="hlt">linear</span> dispersion relation for whistler-electron <span class="hlt">temperature</span> gradient (W-ETG) mode is derived. The numerical results obtained from this relation are compared with the experimental results observed in large volume plasma device (LVPD) [Awasthi et al., Phys. Plasma 17, 42109 (2010)]. The theory predicts that the instability grows only where the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> gradient is finite and the density gradient flat. For the parameters of the experiment, theoretically estimated frequency and wave number of W-ETG mode match with the values corresponding to the peak in the power spectrum observed in LVPD. By using simple mixing length argument, estimated level of fluctuations of W-ETG mode is in the range of fluctuation level observed in LVPD.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Singh, S. K.; Awasthi, L. M.; Singh, R.; Kaw, P. K.; Jha, R.; Mattoo, S. K. [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar 382 428 (India)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-10-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">278</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22228018"> <span id="translatedtitle">Comparison of kinetic and extended magnetohydrodynamics computational models for the <span class="hlt">linear</span> ion <span class="hlt">temperature</span> gradient instability in slab geometry</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We perform <span class="hlt">linear</span> stability studies of the ion <span class="hlt">temperature</span> gradient (ITG) instability in unsheared slab geometry using kinetic and extended magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) models, in the regime k{sub ?}/k{sub ?}?1. The ITG is a parallel (to B) sound wave that may be destabilized by finite ion Larmor radius (FLR) effects in the presence of a gradient in the equilibrium ion <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. The ITG is stable in both ideal and resistive MHD; for a given <span class="hlt">temperature</span> scale length L{sub Ti0}, instability requires that either k{sub ?}?{sub i} or ?{sub i}/L{sub Ti0} be sufficiently large. Kinetic models capture FLR effects to all orders in either parameter. In the extended MHD model, these effects are captured only to lowest order by means of the Braginskii ion gyro-viscous stress tensor and the ion diamagnetic heat flux. We present the <span class="hlt">linear</span> electrostatic dispersion relations for the ITG for both kinetic Vlasov and extended MHD (two-fluid) models in the local approximation. In the low frequency fluid regime, these reduce to the same cubic equation for the complex eigenvalue ?=?{sub r}+i?. An explicit solution is derived for the growth rate and real frequency in this regime. These are found to depend on a single non-dimensional parameter. We also compute the eigenvalues and the eigenfunctions with the extended MHD code NIMROD, and a hybrid kinetic ?f code that assumes six-dimensional Vlasov ions and isothermal fluid electrons, as functions of k{sub ?}?{sub i} and ?{sub i}/L{sub Ti0} using a spatially dependent equilibrium. These solutions are compared with each other, and with the predictions of the local kinetic and fluid dispersion relations. Kinetic and fluid calculations agree well at and near the marginal stability point, but diverge as k{sub ?}?{sub i} or ?{sub i}/L{sub Ti0} increases. There is good qualitative agreement between the models for the shape of the unstable global eigenfunction for L{sub Ti0}/?{sub i}=30 and 20. The results quantify how far fluid calculations can be extended accurately into the kinetic regime. We conclude that for the <span class="hlt">linear</span> ITG problem in slab geometry with unsheared magnetic field when k{sub ?}/k{sub ?}?1, the extended MHD model may be a reliable physical model for this problem when ?{sub i}/L{sub Ti0}<10{sup ?2} and k{sub ?}?{sub i}<0.2.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Schnack, D. D. [Department of Engineering Physics, Center for Plasma Theory and Computation, University of WisconsinMadison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States) [Department of Engineering Physics, Center for Plasma Theory and Computation, University of WisconsinMadison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States); Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States); Cheng, J.; Parker, S. E. [Department of Physics, University of Colorado-Boulder, Boulder, Colorado 80303 (United States)] [Department of Physics, University of Colorado-Boulder, Boulder, Colorado 80303 (United States); Barnes, D. C. [TriAlpha Energy, Inc., P. O. Box 7010, Rancho Santa Margarita, California 92688 (United States)] [TriAlpha Energy, Inc., P. O. Box 7010, Rancho Santa Margarita, California 92688 (United States)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-06-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">279</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013E%26ES...16a2112H"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Trend</span> and future of diesel engine: Development of high efficiency and low emission low <span class="hlt">temperature</span> combustion diesel engine</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Stringent emission policy has put automotive research & development on developing high efficiency and low pollutant power train. Conventional direct injection diesel engine with diffused flame has reached its limitation and has driven R&D to explore other field of combustion. Low <span class="hlt">temperature</span> combustion (LTC) and homogeneous charge combustion ignition has been proven to be effective methods in decreasing combustion pollutant emission. Nitrogen Oxide (NOx) and Particulate Matter (PM) formation from combustion can be greatly suppressed. A review on each of method is covered to identify the condition and processes that result in these reductions. The critical parameters that allow such combustion to take place will be highlighted and serves as emphasis to the direction of developing future diesel engine system. This paper is written to explore potential of present numerical and experimental methods in optimizing diesel engine design through adoption of the new combustion technology.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ho, R. J.; Yusoff, M. Z.; Palanisamy, K.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">280</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004AGUSM.V43A..05G"> <span id="translatedtitle">Experimental Study of Sr Partitioning into Calcite at Various <span class="hlt">Linear</span> Growth Rates and <span class="hlt">Temperatures</span>: Preliminary Results.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The surface of a crystal in equilibrium with surrounding fluid can have a composition that differs from the bulk crystal. If growth rate of the crystal exceeds a minimum value at which partitioning-equilibrium can be maintained, then the crystal surface composition may be "captured" by the newly-formed lattice. The degree of this entrapment increases with increasing crystal growth rate. Non-equlibrium partitioning of Sr into calcite probably occurs by this entrapment mechanism. Sr and calcite are geochemically significant in understanding the thermal history of the ocean because the substitution of Sr for Ca in calcite is <span class="hlt">temperature</span> dependent. To improve our understanding of the partitioning of Sr into calcite, we conducted two different types of experiment: 1) calcite growth from Sr-bearing solution with analysis of the crystal cross-section by electron microprobe (bulk crystal-liquid runs); and 2) treatment of calcite cleavage surfaces with Sr-bearing solutions and examination of the top few nm surface layer by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (surface-liquid runs). In the series of bulk-liquid experiments crystals were grown by three different procedures: 1) precipitation on glass slide (pre-coated with calcite), where a steady flow of CaCl2 - SrCl2 and Na2CO3 solutions were mixed just before passage through a tube and allowed to drip onto a slide ("cave"-type experiments, ionic strength I=0.01); 2) growth from a CaCl2 - NH4Cl - SrCl2 solution by diffusion of CO2 from an ammonium carbonate source ("drift" experiments, I=0.52); 3) coarsening of small calcite crystals in the CaCO3-SrCO3-NaCl-H2O system at 800-950 C and 0.5-1 kb in a cold seal apparatus. The growth rate of individual crystals was determined by periodic monitoring of crystal size with time or roughly by comparison of final size with duration of the experiment. Surface-liquid experiments were performed by treatment of cleavage surfaces of natural calcite fragments in a Sr(ClO4)2 solution for 1 minute. After treatment the remaining solution was blown out by a stream of nitrogen to preclude the precipitation of Sr phase. We observed that the precipitated calcite crystals can be very different in size even if the runs have the same input rate of calcite components. The cave-type and cold-seal runs yielded 15-40 ? m calcites, but in the drift experiments crystal size varied between 60 ? m and 1 mm. Electron microprobe analysis across the large crystals show that the concentration of Sr is higher in the center and decreases toward the edge. This is probably due to the cube-root dependence of radial growth on the volume change of the growing crystals. Like previous workers who measured bulk uptake of Sr as a function of precipitation rate, we observed that increased growth rate (V, nm/s) enhances Sr uptake into the crystal, raising Kdbulk/liquid=(Sr/Ca)bulk/(Sr/Ca)liquid. Kdbulk/liquid = 0.03 to 0.06 when log(V)=-1.1 to -0.6 at 25 C in the cave-type runs (I=0.01). At higher ionic strength (I=0.52) and T=55 C, Kdbulk/liquid=0.11 to 0.15 when log(V)=-0.6 to 0.4 in the drift experiments. XPS analysis of surface-liquid experiments yielded higher Kdsurface/liquid=(Sr/Ca)surface/(Sr/Ca)liquid values compared with Kdbulk/liquid. This combined evidence supports the idea that Sr is enriched at the calcite surface relative to the bulk crystal during crystal growth.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Gabitov, R. I.; Watson, B. E.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' 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onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">281</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012APS..MARB32008J"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Temperature</span> evolution of the <span class="hlt">linear</span> birefringence in striated single crystals of KTa1-xNbxO3 (KTN)</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We report the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> evolution of a special <span class="hlt">linear</span> birefringence in 3 crystals of KTa1-xNbxO3 (KTN), with x=0.155, 0.27 and 0.36 respectively, upon approaching the cubic-tetragonal phase transition. This birefringence, which is in violation of crystalline symmetry conditions, is caused by growth striations in the crystal that give rise to local strain and result in an average uniaxial behavior due to the photoelastic effect. Simultaneously, the set of parallel striations acts as a volume phase grating which can produce diffracted beams. Upon approaching the phase transition, the measured birefringence displays a rapid <span class="hlt">temperature</span> dependence which is due to the formation of polar nano-domains (PND). These are incipient tetragonal uniaxial domains preferentially oriented with their c-axis perpendicular to the plane of the striations. As the birefringence increases, the diffraction efficiency unexpectedly decreases, indicating that the phase grating amplitude is occluded by the PND formation. The striation pattern is well defined in the 15.5% crystal, more diffuse in the 36% crystal, and there are no obvious striations in the 27% crystal. Experimental results are presented and a simple phenomenological model for the birefringence behavior is proposed and discussed.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jackson, Daniel; Pattnaik, Radha; Agranat, Aharon; Toulouse, Jean</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">282</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17523828"> <span id="translatedtitle">Adsorption of <span class="hlt">linear</span> alkanes on Cu(111): <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and chain-length dependence of the softened vibrational mode.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The vibrational spectra of <span class="hlt">linear</span> alkanes, with lengths ranging from n-propane to n-octane, were examined on a copper surface by reflection-absorption infrared spectroscopy. The appearance and frequency of the "soft mode," a feature routinely seen in studies of saturated hydrocarbons adsorbed on metals, were examined and compared between the different adsorbates. The frequency of the mode was found to be dependent on both the number of methylene units of each alkane as well as specific aspects of the order of the monolayer phase. Studies of monolayer coverages at different <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> provide insights into the nature of the two-dimensional (2D) melting transitions of these adlayer structures, ones that can be inferred from observed shifts in the soft vibrational modes appearing in the C-H stretching region of the infrared spectrum. These studies support recently reported hypotheses as to the origins of such soft modes: the metal-hydrogen interactions that mediate them and the dynamics that underlay their pronounced <span class="hlt">temperature</span> dependencies. The present data strongly support a model for the 2D to one-dimensional order-order phase transition arising via a continuous rather than discrete first-order process. PMID:17523828</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Fosser, Kari A; Kang, Joo H; Nuzzo, Ralph G; Wll, Christof</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-05-21</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">283</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007JChPh.126s4707F"> <span id="translatedtitle">Adsorption of <span class="hlt">linear</span> alkanes on Cu(111): <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> and chain-length dependence of the softened vibrational mode</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The vibrational spectra of <span class="hlt">linear</span> alkanes, with lengths ranging from n-propane to n-octane, were examined on a copper surface by reflection-absorption infrared spectroscopy. The appearance and frequency of the "soft mode," a feature routinely seen in studies of saturated hydrocarbons adsorbed on metals, were examined and compared between the different adsorbates. The frequency of the mode was found to be dependent on both the number of methylene units of each alkane as well as specific aspects of the order of the monolayer phase. Studies of monolayer coverages at different <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> provide insights into the nature of the two-dimensional (2D) melting transitions of these adlayer structures, ones that can be inferred from observed shifts in the soft vibrational modes appearing in the C-H stretching region of the infrared spectrum. These studies support recently reported hypotheses as to the origins of such soft modes: the metal-hydrogen interactions that mediate them and the dynamics that underlay their pronounced <span class="hlt">temperature</span> dependencies. The present data strongly support a model for the 2D to one-dimensional order-order phase transition arising via a continuous rather than discrete first-order process.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Fosser, Kari A.; Kang, Joo H.; Nuzzo, Ralph G.; Wll, Christof</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">284</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AMTD....711957B"> <span id="translatedtitle">Techniques for analyses of <span class="hlt">trends</span> in GRUAN data</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Global Climate Observing System (GCOS) Reference Upper Air Network (GRUAN) provides reference quality RS92 radiosonde measurements of <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, pressure and humidity. A key attribute of reference quality measurements, and hence GRUAN data, is that each datum has a well characterised and traceable estimate of the measurement uncertainty. The long-term homogeneity of the measurement records, and their well characterised uncertainties, make these data suitable for reliably detecting changes in global and regional climate on decadal time scales. Considerable effort is invested in GRUAN operations to (i) describe and analyse all sources of measurement uncertainty to the extent possible, (ii) quantify and synthesize the contribution of each source of uncertainty to the total measurement uncertainty, and (iii) verify that the evaluated net uncertainty is within the required target uncertainty. However, if the climate science community is not sufficiently well informed on how to capitalize on this added value, the significant investment in estimating meaningful measurement uncertainties is largely wasted. This paper presents and discusses the techniques that will need to be employed to reliably quantify long-term <span class="hlt">trends</span> in GRUAN data records. A pedagogical approach is taken whereby numerical recipes for key parts of the <span class="hlt">trend</span> analysis process are explored. The paper discusses the construction of <span class="hlt">linear</span> least squares regression models for <span class="hlt">trend</span> analysis, boot-strapping approaches to determine uncertainties in <span class="hlt">trends</span>, dealing with the combined effects of autocorrelation in the data and measurement uncertainties in calculating the uncertainty on <span class="hlt">trends</span>, best practice for determining seasonality in <span class="hlt">trends</span>, how to deal with co-<span class="hlt">linear</span> basis functions, and interpreting derived <span class="hlt">trends</span>. Synthetic data sets are used to demonstrate these concepts which are then applied to a first analysis of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">trends</span> in RS92 radiosonde upper air soundings at the GRUAN site at Lindenberg, Germany (52.21 N, 14.12 E).</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bodeker, G. E.; Kremser, S.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">285</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1989P%26SS...37..707M"> <span id="translatedtitle">Non-<span class="hlt">linear</span> three dimensional spectral model of the venusian thermosphere with super-rotation - II. <span class="hlt">Temperature</span>, composition and winds</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We discuss the results from a three dimensional non-<span class="hlt">linear</span> spectral model of the Venusian thermosphere with CO 2, O and He. As described in an accompanying paper (Stevens-Rayburn et al., 1989, Planet. Space Sci. 37, 701), an expansion in terms of vector spherical and Fourier harmonics is used to represent the latitude and Local Time dependencies, treated as perturbations of a globally uniform atmosphere taken from the empirical model of Hedin et al. (1983, J. geophys. Res. 88, 73). A rigid shell super-rotation rate, uniform in altitude, is adopted. Standard heating rates with an efficiency of about 20% are taken from the work of Fox (1988, Planet. Space Sci. 36, 37). Based on the results from earlier analyses of Pioneer Venus neutral composition data (Niemann et al., 1980, J. geophys. Res. 85, 7817; von Zahn et al., 1980, J. geophys. Res. 85, 7829), height dependent eddy diffusion coefficients around 3 10 7cm 2s -1 are adopted, assuming a Prandtl number of 1. Following Bougher et al. (1986, Icarus68, 284), wave drag in the form of Rayleigh friction is introduced to slow the horizontal winds and to increase the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> contrast between day and night. With minimal adjusting of the parameterizations for eddy diffusion and Rayleigh friction, the model is successful in reproducing the major observed thermospheric features: the broad daytime maxima in CO 2 and O, with significantly larger values at dusk than at dawn, and the "saw tooth" like density maximum in He around 05:00 LT. To provide a better understanding of the dynamic conditions influencing the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and composition, numerical experiments were carried out. (1) The diurnal variations in He are most sensitive to thermospheric super-rotation, and calculations were performed with different rotation periods from 4 to 8 days. The longer the period is, the larger is the day-night increase in the He density and the shorter is the time delay in the density buildup after midnight. We can fit the data best with a super-rotation period of 6 days. Super-rotation also accounts for the dawn-dusk asymmetries in the major species. (2) Given a globally uniform atmosphere as input, larger heating rates yield larger <span class="hlt">temperature</span> contrast between day and night. The <span class="hlt">temperature</span> contrast can also be increased by lowering the rate of energy advection from day to night. Thus, an alternative model was constructed, with lower heating rates (artificially reduced by a factor of 2 from the standard values) and enhanced Rayleigh friction to slow the winds, reproducing the observed variations in the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and in the major species CO 2 and O. However, in this case, the winds were too small and produced He variations much smaller than observed. (3) With lower heating rate and enhanced Rayleigh friction, a reduced eddy diffusion coefficient for He increased the day-night variations of this species, but produced also a large decrease in its density from the pole to the equator, which is not observed. From these parametric studies we conclude that lower u.v. heating rates with an efficiency significantly less than 20% cannot reproduce simultaneously the observed diurnal variations in the <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, in the heavier species and in helium. With this heating efficiency, the Venusian thermosphere is strongly non-<span class="hlt">linear</span>; our model would not converge if it were much larger.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Mengel, J. G.; Stevens-Rayburn, D. R.; Mayr, H. G.; Harris, I.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1989-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">286</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JHyd..489...56N"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Trend</span> and variability in observed hydrometeorological extremes in the Lake Victoria basin</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">SummaryIn the Lake Victoria basin hydrology, <span class="hlt">trend</span> analysis has mainly been limited to the mean of the hydrological variable without explicit consideration of extremes, which are very crucial in understanding the behaviour of disastrous hydrometeorological events. Since the effects of climate change are unleashed, more through the occurrence of extremes, analysis of both monotonic and cyclic <span class="hlt">trends</span> in hydrological extremes is very crucial. The presence of a significant <span class="hlt">linear</span> <span class="hlt">trend</span>, in a long-term hydrometeorological record of extremes, may provide evidence of a shift from the natural <span class="hlt">trend</span> to that which is enhanced by, for example, anthropogenic forcing. In addition, cyclic <span class="hlt">trends</span> analysis of hydrological extremes provides information on the cyclic behaviour of the extreme anomalies that have occurred over and above the natural climate variability and may link them to past consequences and their drivers. Analysis of long term records of extremes for rainfall, <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and streamflows for selected stations in the Lake Victoria basin, were carried out based on a <span class="hlt">linear</span> <span class="hlt">trend</span> test, to detect significant monotonic <span class="hlt">trends</span>, and quantile perturbation analysis, to detect significant temporal extreme anomalies. In addition, correlations between change in rainfall extremes and that for the other extremes, as well as sunspot maxima, were investigated. The findings indicated that extremes in the Lake Victoria basin are, generally, experiencing positive <span class="hlt">linear</span> <span class="hlt">trends</span>. Albeit positive <span class="hlt">trend</span> was generally demonstrated, the presence of significant <span class="hlt">linear</span> <span class="hlt">trend</span> was manifested in the extremes of the data obtained from the stations located in the northern and eastern parts of the Lake Victoria basin. This may suggest that the monotony in the positive <span class="hlt">trend</span> is a result of an ever increasing and consistent external enhancement of the natural climate agitation. The latter has implications for flood risks if the <span class="hlt">trend</span> persists in the near future. The cyclic analysis of the behaviour of extremes indicated that the 1940s and the 1970s experienced significantly low extremes. Furthermore, the higher significant anomalies for the 1990s, compared to that for the 1960s, may suggest a more intense enhancement of the change in the natural variability in the recent climate. Correlation between change in the extremes for rainfall and that of the minimum daily <span class="hlt">temperature</span> was demonstrated to be stronger (c.f. maximum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and sunspot maxima) implying that if such correlation persists in the future then change in the extremes of daily minimum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> can be used as an indicator for the change in rainfall extremes. The investigation of the correlations between climate indices/solar activity and hydrometeorological extremes suggests that oceanic and solar influences are part of the explanation of the variability observed in rainfall and <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> extremes in the Lake Victoria basin.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Nyeko-Ogiramoi, P.; Willems, P.; Ngirane-Katashaya, G.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">287</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7001767"> <span id="translatedtitle">Environmental <span class="hlt">trends</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Council on Environmental Quality is required, by the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969, to report on the status and condition of the environment; current and foreseeable <span class="hlt">trends</span> in the quality, management, and utilization of the environment; and the effects of environmental <span class="hlt">trends</span>. The Council reports to Congress in an annual report and maintains an archive of national environmental statistics, which it updates and publishes periodically in the annual report as statistical tables and in environmental <span class="hlt">trends</span> report as charts, graphs, and maps. Environmental <span class="hlt">Trends</span> updates the Council's 1981 report by that name. This sourcebook contains 367 graphics, most of which are computer generated and indicate current conditions and <span class="hlt">trends</span> in the environment of the United States. The statistical series for Environmental <span class="hlt">Trends</span> was compiled from data available through government agencies, private studies, or thee literature of each discipline. The data were reviewed and verified by experts at various federal agencies. National data are used wherever possible, with breakdowns shown when especially meaningful. The text is drawn from the published sources cited. 367 figs.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Johnston, D.; Curtis, C.; Jens, J.C.; Kane, L. (eds.)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1989-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">288</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1612534T"> <span id="translatedtitle">Continuous deflation and plate spreading at the Askja volcanic system, Iceland: Constrains on deformation processes from finite element models using <span class="hlt">temperature</span>-dependent non-<span class="hlt">linear</span> rheology</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Iceland is located on the mid Atlantic ridge, where the spreading rate is nearly 2 cm/yr. The high rate of magmatism in Iceland is caused by the interaction between the Iceland hotspot and the divergent mid-Atlantic plate boundary. Iceland hosts about 35 volcanoes or volcanic systems that are active. Most of these are aliened along the plate boundary. The best studied magma chamber of central volcanoes (e.g., Askja, Krafla, Grimsvtn, Katla) have verified (suggested) a shallow magma chamber (< 5 km), which has been model successfully with a Mogi source, using elastic and/or elastic-viscoelastic half-space. Maxwell and Newtonian viscosity is mainly considered for viscoelastic half-space. Therefore, rheology may be oversimplified. Our attempt is to study deformation of the Askja volcano together with plate spreading in Iceland using <span class="hlt">temperature</span>-dependent non-<span class="hlt">linear</span> rheology. It offers continuous variation of rheology, laterally and vertically from rift axis and surface. To implement it, we consider thermo-mechanic coupling models where rheology follows dislocation flow in dry condition based on a <span class="hlt">temperature</span> distribution. Continuous deflation of the Askja volcanic system is associated with solidification of magma in the magma chamber and post eruption relaxation. A long time series of levelling data show its subsidence <span class="hlt">trend</span> to exponentially. In our preliminary models, a magma chamber at 2.8 km depth with 0.5 km radius is introduced at the ridge axis as a Mogi source. Simultaneously far field of rift axis stretching by 18.4 mm/yr (measured during 2007 to 20013) is applied to reproduce plate spreading. Predicted surface deformation caused of combined effect of tectonic-volcanic activities is evaluated with GPS during 2003-2009 and RADARSAT InSAR data during 2000 to 2010. During 2003-2009, data from the GPS site OLAF (close to the centre of subsidence) shows average rate of subsidence 191 mm/yr relative to the ITRF2005 reference frame. The MASK (Mid ASKJA) site is another GPS station at the top of predicted centre of magma chamber correlates well with OLAF site at 500 m distance from MASK. Average subsidence rates derived from GPS measurements show comparable rate derived from InSAR data. Velocities derived from InSAR show that the yearly maximum subsidence rates in the Askja caldera decrease <span class="hlt">linearly</span>. The optimized pressure decrease in the magma chamber from the model follows an exponential decay, with P (MPa) = 2.0177 EXP(-0.0176x), where x is the numbers of years (1,2,3 .. 10). However total ramp pressure drop during this period (10 years) is 4 MPa and additional 4.68 MPa pressure drop may be caused of rheological relaxation.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Tariqul Islam, Md.; Sturkell, Erik; Sigmundsson, Freysteinn; Drouin, Vincent Jean Paul B.; feigsson, Benedikt G.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">289</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22282950"> <span id="translatedtitle">Motion induced second order <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and y-type anisotropies after the subtraction of <span class="hlt">linear</span> dipole in the CMB maps</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">y-type spectral distortions of the cosmic microwave background allow us to detect clusters and groups of galaxies, filaments of hot gas and the non-uniformities in the warm hot intergalactic medium. Several CMB experiments (on small areas of sky) and theoretical groups (for full sky) have recently published y-type distortion maps. We propose to search for two artificial hot spots in such y-type maps resulting from the incomplete subtraction of the effect of the motion induced dipole on the cosmic microwave background sky. This dipole introduces, at second order, additional <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and y-distortion anisotropy on the sky of amplitude few ?K which could potentially be measured by Planck HFI and Pixie experiments and can be used as a source of cross channel calibration by CMB experiments. This y-type distortion is present in every pixel and is not the result of averaging the whole sky. This distortion, calculated exactly from the known <span class="hlt">linear</span> dipole, can be subtracted from the final y-type maps, if desired.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sunyaev, Rashid A.; Khatri, Rishi, E-mail: sunyaev@mpa-garching.mpg.de, E-mail: khatri@mpa-garching.mpg.de [Max Planck Institut fr Astrophysik, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 1, 85741 Garching (Germany)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">290</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014CPL...614..176L"> <span id="translatedtitle">Reactivity <span class="hlt">trends</span> of Fe phthalocyanines confined on graphite electrodes in terms of donor-acceptor intermolecular hardness: <span class="hlt">Linear</span> versus volcano correlations</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this work, we have studied the interaction between the hydrazine N2H4 molecule with several FeN4 macrocyclic complexes (FePc's). In order to modulate the electron density located on the metal center using iron-phthalocyanine (FePc) as the reference, we used substituted iron-phthalocyanines with different types of substituents electron-donating groups such as iron-tetraamino-phthalocyanine (4?(NH2)FePc) and iron-octamethoxyphthalocyanine (8?(OCH3)FePc), and with electron-withdrawing groups such as iron-tetranitrophthalocyanine(4?(NO2)FePc) and iron-hexadecachlorophthalocyanine (16(Cl)FePc), respectively. We have found that the energy of interaction between hydrazine and the Fe center in the macrocycle increases as the electron-withdrawing power of the substituents increases. When rate constants instead of currents are compared in a semilog plot versus ??D-A, a <span class="hlt">linear</span> correlation is found where log k increases as the intermolecular hardness of the systems decreases.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Linares-Flores, C.; Espinoza-Vergara, J.; Zagal, J. H.; Arratia-Perez, R.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">291</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..12..325N"> <span id="translatedtitle">Results from IODP Leg 306: Long-term cooling <span class="hlt">trend</span> in North Atlantic sea-surface <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> during the last 5 Ma</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In the early Pliocene global surface <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> were several degrees warmer than today and ice sheets in the Northern Hemisphere had a limited extent [e.g., Haywood et al., 2005; Zachos et al., 2001]. This changed during the intensification of Northern Hemisphere glaciation (INHG) between 3.4 and 2.5 Ma (with a major step around 2.7 Ma), when global climate cooled and ice sheets in the Northern Hemisphere became more extensive [e.g., Zachos et al., 2001]. Here we present results from the first orbitally resolved (~ 4 ka resolution) record of Uk'37 based sea-surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (SST) in the North Atlantic spanning the last 5 Ma. We used samples from the recently drilled IODP Site U1313, which is located in the North Atlantic at 41 oN and is a re-drill of DSDP Site 607. Our results show that the long-term cooling of SST in the North Atlantic began in the Early Pliocene around 4.1 Ma, which is earlier than previously thought. During the Pleistocene SST continued to cool and at the beginning of the mid-Pleistocene transition (MIS 40) glacial SST show a sudden drop to <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> comparable to the LGM. At the same time the C37:4 alkenone, an indicator for arctic water masses [e.g., McClymont et al., 2008], became more abundant. We relate this to the influence of Arctic waters reaching far into the North Atlantic as the Arctic Front moved south during the peak glacial conditions of the Middle to Late Pleistocene. References: Haywood, A. M., P. Dekens, A. C. Ravelo, and M. Williams (2005), Warmer tropics during the mid-Pliocene? Evidence from alkenone paleothermometry and a fully coupled ocean-atmosphere GCM, Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst., 6(3), doi:10.1029/2004GC000799. McClymont, E. L., A. Rosell-Mel, G. H. Haug, and J. M. Lloyd (2008), Expansion of subarctic water masses in the North Atlantic and Pacific oceans and implications for mid-Pleistocene ice sheet growth, Paleoceanography, 23. Zachos, J., M. Pagani, L. Sloan, E. Thomas, and K. Billups (2001), <span class="hlt">Trends</span>, Rhythms, and Aberrations in Global Climate 65 Ma to Present, Science, 292(5517), 686-693.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Naafs, David; Hefter, Jens; Stein, Ruediger; Haug, Gerald</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">292</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/40901845"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Linear</span>-transform and non-<span class="hlt">linear</span> modelling of bovine milk catalase inactivation in a high-<span class="hlt">temperature</span> short-time pasteurizer</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Milk for cheese manufacture is commonly heated at <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> in the range 6365 C for about 15 s to reduce bacterial numbers. These heat treatments have been referred to as thermization. There is no good method for determining whether a milk has undergone a heat treatment equivalent to thermization, although it has been suggested that inactivation of milk catalase is</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Y. Hirvi; M. W. Griffiths; R. C. McKellar; H. W. Modler</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1996-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">293</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JaJAP..52fGG04M"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Temperature</span>-Controlled Symmetry of <span class="hlt">Linear</span> Polarization of Photoluminescence from InGaAs-Buried InAs/GaAs Quantum Dots</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We have succeeded in adjusting the symmetry of the <span class="hlt">linear</span> polarization of exciton emission from self-assembled InAs/GaAs quantum dots by controlling the combination of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and composition of the InGaAs burying layer. The anisotropic shape of the Stranski-Krastanow-type quantum dot is a drawback to the generation of a polarization-entangled photon pair. We found that the polarization symmetry of the intensity and wavelength of photon emission depends on the sample <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and the composition of the burying layer. The ground-state emission peaks in two <span class="hlt">linear</span> polarization directions were tuned to overlap by lowering the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and using a high indium composition of the burying layer. Our results will aid in the development of an entangled-photon generator using the emission of exciton molecule in self-assembled quantum dots.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Mukai, Kohki; Kikushima, Kousuke; Tanaka, Tomoya; Nakashima, Seisuke</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">294</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.stls.frb.org/publications/mt/"> <span id="translatedtitle">Monetary <span class="hlt">Trends</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Each month, Monetary <span class="hlt">Trends</span> , from FRB St. Louis, follows interest rates, bank credit, measures of expected inflation, and reserve markets and short-term credit flows. The journal examines interest rates and policy-based inflation indicators in its December 1999 issue.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">295</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED245885.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Environmental <span class="hlt">Trends</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This document consists of data which highlight <span class="hlt">trends</span> in all sectors relevant to environmental policy. These data are presented in the form of charts and maps contained in 13 sections under the following headings: people and the land; critical areas (wetlands, wild areas, parks, historic places, and risk zones); human settlements; transportation;</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Council on Environmental Quality, Washington, DC.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">296</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014PSST...23f4011B"> <span id="translatedtitle">Increasing the upper-limit intensity in relativistic and ponderomotive self-focusing by using plasma with a <span class="hlt">linear</span> electron <span class="hlt">temperature</span> ramp</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper presents an investigation of the characteristics of the propagation of a Gaussian laser beam through an underdense plasma in the presence of a <span class="hlt">linear</span> electron <span class="hlt">temperature</span> ramp. Relativistic and ponderomotive nonlinearities are involved. It is shown that the ponderomotive nonlinearity induces a saturation mechanism in the self-focusing phenomenon and leads to the existence of a laser intensity threshold above which the beam starts to diverge. It is also found that on using the plasma electron <span class="hlt">temperature</span> ramp-up, the upper-limit value shifts to higher values. Furthermore, results show that the slope of the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> ramp and its sign are important in the determination of the focusing and defocusing of a laser beam for the cases in which the initial electron <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> are chosen below or above the turning point <span class="hlt">temperature</span>.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bokaei, B.; Niknam, A. R.; Jafari Milani, M. R.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">297</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.energy.ca.gov/reports/1999-07-23_HEAT_RPT.PDF"> <span id="translatedtitle">High <span class="hlt">Temperatures</span> & Electricity Demand</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">High <span class="hlt">Temperatures</span> & Electricity Demand An Assessment of Supply Adequacy in California <span class="hlt">Trends</span>.......................................................................................................1 HIGH <span class="hlt">TEMPERATURES</span> AND ELECTRICITY DEMAND.....................................................................................................................7 SECTION I: HIGH <span class="hlt">TEMPERATURES</span> AND ELECTRICITY DEMAND ..........................9 BACKGROUND</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">298</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMGC23A0900S"> <span id="translatedtitle">Monthly time series <span class="hlt">trend</span> analysis of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and precipitation in North Carolina Authors: Mohammad Sayemuzzaman1; Manoj K Jha2 1Presenting author: PhD candidate, Energy and Environmental System department, 2Assistant Professor, Department of Civil, Architectural and Environmental Engineering, North Carolina A&T State University</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Abstract This study analyzed monthly means of daily maximum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (Tmax), minimum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (Tmin) and precipitation of 249 meteorological stations evenly distributed in North Carolina for the period of 1950-2009. The Mann-Kendall (MK) <span class="hlt">trend</span> test was applied to examine the monthly <span class="hlt">trends</span> over the period. Theil-Sen approach (TSA) was used to detect the magnitude of the <span class="hlt">trend</span>. Finally, the abrupt shift in <span class="hlt">trends</span> was also predicted using the Sequential Mann-Kendall (SQMK) test. Moreover, Pre-whitening was considered prior to the application of the MK test and the TSA method as the data sets were serially correlated. The number of stations (in %) with most significant <span class="hlt">trend</span> (confidence level ? 95%) in highest impacted months are for (1) Tmax with negative <span class="hlt">trend</span>: May (62%), September (25%) and October (18%); (2) Tmax with positive <span class="hlt">trend</span>: March (15%); (3) Tmin with positive <span class="hlt">trend</span>: June (45%), August (39%), December (25%) and July (21%); (4) Tmin with negative <span class="hlt">trend</span>: May (18%); (5) precipitation with negative <span class="hlt">trend</span>: February (17%) and March (4%); and (6) precipitation with positive <span class="hlt">trend</span>: November (4%) and June (2%). It is found that month of May (March and December) are being exhibiting significant decreasing (increasing) <span class="hlt">trends</span> in both Tmax and Tmin analysis. Magnitude of the highest warming <span class="hlt">trend</span> in minimum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and the highest cooling <span class="hlt">trend</span> in maximum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> is +0.073C/month in June and -0.12C/month in September, respectively. The SQMK test results indicated that the significant increasing <span class="hlt">trends</span> in Tmin and decreasing <span class="hlt">trend</span> in Tmax had begun in general around after 1970 and after 1960, respectively, in most of the stations. Similarly, magnitude of the highest increasing (decreasing) precipitation <span class="hlt">trend</span> was found about 4 mm/month (-4.50 mm/month) in November (February). Higher percentages of precipitation stations show possible year of <span class="hlt">trend</span> shift during decade 1960~1970 in the SQMK test. It is expected that utilizing the findings of this study will bring about more insights for understanding of regional <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and precipitation behavior over the last several decades in North Carolina.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sayemuzzaman, M.; Jha, M. K.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">299</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004JaJAP..43.2188C"> <span id="translatedtitle">Low-Frequency Noise in Partially Depleted SOI MOSFETs Operating from <span class="hlt">Linear</span> Region to Saturation Region at Various <span class="hlt">Temperatures</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The low-frequency noise characteristics of partially depleted metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) in silicon-on-insulator technology at various <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> were investigated. For floating-body devices, a Lorentzian-like noise overshoot is observed due to the floating-body effect. The noise overshoot is dependent on <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and bias, and can be reduced using a source-to-body-connected structure. At high <span class="hlt">temperature</span> or high drain bias, the 1/f noise will be observed, and it is <span class="hlt">temperature</span>-independent due to the trap-induced mobility fluctuation in the channel.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Chen, Kun-Ming; Hu, Hsin-Hui; Huang, Guo-Wei; Yeh, Wen-Kuan; Chang, Chun-Yen</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">300</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3881792"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Linear</span> dimensional change, compressive strength and detail reproduction in type IV dental stone dried at room <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and in a microwave oven</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The type IV dental stone is widely used for the fabrication of dyes and master casts for fixed and removable partial prostheses. It is typically normal to wait at least 24 hours for the casts to dry prior to beginning the laboratory procedures. The waiting time has been shown to be greatly reduced by using microwave drying. Objective This study evaluated the influence of drying techniques at room <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and microwave oven on the <span class="hlt">linear</span> dimensional change, compressive strength and detail reproduction in type IV dental stones. Material and Methods Three type IV dental stone brands were selected; Elite Rock, Shera Premium and Durone IV. Two different drying protocols were tested in 4 groups (n=10); G1 - room <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (254C) dried for 2 hours; G2 - room <span class="hlt">temperature</span> dried for 24 hours; G3 - room <span class="hlt">temperature</span> dried for 7 days and G4 - microwave oven dried at 800 W for 5 minutes and after 2 hours at room <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. After drying, the samples were assayed for dimensional charges. The sample surface was submitted to the ImageTool 3.0 software for compressive strength in a universal testing machine with a cell load of 50 KN at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/minutes and the detail reproduction was analyzed with a stereomicroscope at 25x magnification. The statistical analysis of the <span class="hlt">linear</span> dimensional change and compressive strength data were conducted by the ANOVA test followed by the Tukey test (p<0.05). Detailed reproduction values were reported in percentages. Results For the compressive strength test, Elite Rock and Durone IV did not present significant differences between G2 and G4, while Shera Premium did not present differences between G3 and G4. The best reproduction levels were observed for G3. Conclusions Dental stone microwave oven drying showed a <span class="hlt">linear</span> dimensional change similar to after room <span class="hlt">temperature</span> drying for 24 hours and 7 days. The compressive strength of the stone dried in the microwave oven was similar to those dried at room <span class="hlt">temperature</span> for 24 hours, with the exception of Shera Premium, which had similar results for microwave and room <span class="hlt">temperature</span> drying for 7 days. For the microwave drying method the detail reproduction levels for samples dried at room <span class="hlt">temperature</span> for 24 hours and 7 days were similar, except for the Durone IV. PMID:23138748</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">da SILVA, Marcos Aurlio Bomfim; VITTI, Rafael Pino; CONSANI, Simonides; SINHORETI, Mrio Alexandre Coelho; MESQUITA, Marcelo Ferraz; CONSANI, Rafael Leonardo Xediek</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" 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onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#">9</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#">10</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">301</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6375309"> <span id="translatedtitle">Fertilizer <span class="hlt">trends</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This fourteenth edition of Fertilizer <span class="hlt">Trends</span> presents historical fertilizer market data to aid industry, government, and financial market analysis and planners in their study of fertilizer and agricultural market cycles, market planning, and investment decisions. A 27-year summary of the US fertilizer market is presented in graphic and tabular form. Production, use, and trade data are included for each plant nutrient and sulfur. Canadian statistics have been included because of the important role of the Canadian fertilizer industry in the US fertilizer market. World production and consumption of nitrogen, phosphate, and potash are included because of the strong influence of world markets on the domestic market. Planted acreage and plant nutrient application rates for the major crops have been included to illustrate their effect on fertilizer use. Retail prices of the leading US fertilizer materials also are given.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Donaldson, R.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1992-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">302</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/10164138"> <span id="translatedtitle">Fertilizer <span class="hlt">trends</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This fourteenth edition of Fertilizer <span class="hlt">Trends</span> presents historical fertilizer market data to aid industry, government, and financial market analysis and planners in their study of fertilizer and agricultural market cycles, market planning, and investment decisions. A 27-year summary of the US fertilizer market is presented in graphic and tabular form. Production, use, and trade data are included for each plant nutrient and sulfur. Canadian statistics have been included because of the important role of the Canadian fertilizer industry in the US fertilizer market. World production and consumption of nitrogen, phosphate, and potash are included because of the strong influence of world markets on the domestic market. Planted acreage and plant nutrient application rates for the major crops have been included to illustrate their effect on fertilizer use. Retail prices of the leading US fertilizer materials also are given.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Donaldson, R.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1992-12-31</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">303</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://arxiv.org/pdf/0901.3727v1"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Temperature</span> for the (2+1)-dimensional Black Hole with Non <span class="hlt">Linear</span> Electrodynamics from the Generalized Uncertainty Principle</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this paper, we study the thermodynamical properties of the (2+1) dimensional black hole with a non-<span class="hlt">linear</span> electrodynamics and with a negative cosmological constant, using the Generalized Uncertainty Principle (GUP). This approach shows that there is a minimum mass or remnant for the black hole, corresponding to the minimum radius of the event horizon that has a size of the order of the Planck scale. We also show that the heat capacity for this black hole is always positive.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Alexis Larranaga; Hector J. Hortua</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-23</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">304</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3029720"> <span id="translatedtitle">Spring <span class="hlt">temperature</span> change and its implication in the change of vegetation growth in North America from 1982 to 2006</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Understanding how vegetation growth responds to climate change is a critical requirement for projecting future ecosystem dynamics. Parts of North America (NA) have experienced a spring cooling <span class="hlt">trend</span> over the last three decades, but little is known about the response of vegetation growth to this change. Using observed climate data and satellite-derived Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) data from 1982 to 2006, we investigated changes in spring (AprilMay) <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">trends</span> and their impact on vegetation growth in NA. A piecewise <span class="hlt">linear</span> regression approach shows that the <span class="hlt">trend</span> in spring <span class="hlt">temperature</span> is not continuous through the 25-year period. In the northwestern region of NA, spring <span class="hlt">temperature</span> increased until the late 1980s or early 1990s, and stalled or decreased afterwards. In response, a spring vegetation greening <span class="hlt">trend</span>, which was evident in this region during the 1980s, stalled or reversed recently. Conversely, an opposite phenomenon occurred in the northeastern region of NA due to different spring <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">trends</span>. Additionally, the <span class="hlt">trends</span> of summer vegetation growth vary between the periods before and after the turning point (TP) of spring <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">trends</span>. This change cannot be fully explained by summer drought stress change alone and is partly explained by changes in the <span class="hlt">trends</span> of spring <span class="hlt">temperature</span> as well as those of summer <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. As reported in previous studies, summer vegetation browning <span class="hlt">trends</span> have occurred in the northwestern region of NA since the early 1990s, which is consistent with the spring and summer cooling <span class="hlt">trends</span> in this region during this period. PMID:21220297</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wang, Xuhui; Piao, Shilong; Ciais, Philippe; Li, Junsheng; Friedlingstein, Pierre; Koven, Charlie; Chen, Anping</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">305</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.stat.cmu.edu/tr/tr655/tr655.ps"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Trends</span> in the Surface Meridional <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Alix I. Gitelman a , James S. Risbey b , Robert E. Kass a , and Richard D. Rosen c</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">of a planet --- perhaps as important as the global average <span class="hlt">temperature</span> on a list of features that might in earth's global average <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (Jones et al., 1986a; Jones et al., 1986b; Hansen and Lebedeff, 1987). In addition, one set of climate model simulations suggests a global average surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> difference</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">306</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=https://scout.wisc.edu/Reports/NSDL/PhysSci/2002/ps-020614#TopicInDepth"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Temperature</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This topic in depth begins with the About <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> (1) Web site, written by Beverly T. Lynds of Unidata, which is a program that works to enable university researchers and educators to acquire and use atmospheric and related data. The one-page site explains what <span class="hlt">temperature</span> is, the development of thermometers, heat and thermodynamics, and other related topics. The second site is maintained by the University of Execter's Centre for Innovation in Mathematics Teaching. Actually an online tool called Conversion Calculator for Units of <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> (2), the site allows users to type in any value, choose a significant figure, press "convert it," and get that value in Kelvin, Celsius, Fahrenheit, r'aumur, and rankine units. The next site is a lesson plan from AskEric.com entitled <span class="hlt">Temperature</span>: Is it Hot or Cold? (3). Written for 2nd graders, the lesson demonstrates to how to read thermometers, determine their rise or fall, record <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, and take <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> of various items. The fourth site, Surface <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Analysis (4), is presented by NASA's Goddard Institute for Space Studies. Here, visitors can view graphs, maps, animations, and station data of global surface <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. For example, the animation covers 12-month means from 1971 to 1999. The History Behind the Thermometer (5) Web site, from About.com, explores what a thermometer is, how it works, and how it came into being. The sixth site, entitled Science Shack (6) and offered by the BBC, answers the question, Why do we have two different <span class="hlt">temperature</span> scales, Celsius and Fahrenheit? The site explains how to create your own thermometer like Galileo's, tells how it works, and why we use other types today. The next site is provided by National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and presents US State <span class="hlt">temperature</span> extremes and drought information (7). Visitors can see all-time <span class="hlt">temperature</span> maximums and minimums by state, monthly <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> by state, and more. The last site is an all-inclusive <span class="hlt">temperature</span> site called <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> World (8). Everything from news, science, organizations, general interest, games, and more -- all related to <span class="hlt">temperature</span> -- can be found here.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Brieske, Joel A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">307</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.B53A0435P"> <span id="translatedtitle">Non-<span class="hlt">linear</span> response of springtime vegetation green-up to <span class="hlt">temperature</span> over northern temperate and boreal forests</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">An annual cycle of vegetation is responsive to climate and environmental changes. Changes in the cycle dominantly affect terrestrial ecosystem as well as surrounding atmosphere. However, our understanding of the cycle is mostly confined to the mechanisms and attributions of specific events in the growth cycle (e.g., spring emergence and fall senescence). Here we focused on large-scale variations in the rate of vegetation green-up (Rgreen) that indicates a rate of transition between the wintertime dormancy and the summertime maturity. Using satellite-retrieved normalized difference vegetation index and station-merged <span class="hlt">temperature</span> observations, it was examined that responses of the Rgreen to accompanied variations in 15-day mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, hereafter the growth <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, over northern temperate and boreal forests for the period 1982-2008. Averaged over the analysis period, the Rgreen increases with latitude, indicating that high-latitude vegetation more quickly growth from their dormancy to mature phase compared to mid-latitude vegetation. On inter-annual timescale, the Rgreen and the growth <span class="hlt">temperature</span> show a significant positive relation over the study region (r = 0.59 in Eurasia, p < 0.05). It means that an increase of the growth <span class="hlt">temperature</span> accelerates the Rgreen over most of temperate and boreal forest in Northern Hemisphere. With the prevailing positive relationship, the responses of Rgreen show an asymmetric pattern that a strong acceleration in the condition of positive growth <span class="hlt">temperature</span> anomalies but a weak deceleration with the opposite condition. In the situation of climate change, these results imply that a possibility of drastic alteration in temperate and boreal forest growth that closely associated with carbon allocation, hydrological budget, and other vegetation interactions.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Park, H.; Jeong, S.; Ho, C.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">308</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.H41O..07M"> <span id="translatedtitle">On the multiscale nature of soil moisture-<span class="hlt">temperature</span> couplings: the role of seasonality, causation and non-<span class="hlt">linear</span> feedbacks in land-atmosphere interactions (Invited)</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Land-Atmosphere (L-A) interactions, their strength and directionality, are one of the main sources of uncertainty in current climate modeling, with strong implications on the accurate assessment of future climate variability and climate change impacts. Beside from the scarcity of direct observations, major uncertainties derive from the inherent complexity and nonlinearity of these interactions, and from their multi-scale character. Statistical analysis of L-A couplings is traditionally based on <span class="hlt">linear</span> correlation methods and metrics. However, these approaches are not designed to detect causal connections or non-<span class="hlt">linear</span> couplings and they poorly perform in presence of non-stationarities. Additionally these methods assess L-A couplings essentially in the time domain, despite the fact that L-A dynamical drivers can act simultaneously over a wide range of different space and time scales. This talk explores the multi-scale nature of L-A interactions, through the example of soil moisture-<span class="hlt">temperature</span> couplings and soil-moisture memory effects. In several regions of the world, soil moisture can have a dampening effect on <span class="hlt">temperature</span> due to evaporative cooling. By using spectral decomposition techniques and both newly developed satellite based products and re-analysis, we analyze the contribution of different time scales to the build-up of global soil moisture-<span class="hlt">temperature</span> coupling hot spots, addressing at the same time the role of seasonality, causation and non-<span class="hlt">linear</span> feedbacks in land-atmosphere interactions. Finally we focus on the role of fine (sub-monthly) time scales and their interplay with the seasonal scales.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Molini, A.; Casagrande, E.; Mueller, B.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">309</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://serc.carleton.edu/quantskills/teaching_methods/teachingwdata/examples/GlbTmps.html"> <span id="translatedtitle">Global <span class="hlt">Temperatures</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this activity, students create graphs of real <span class="hlt">temperature</span> data to analyze climate <span class="hlt">trends</span> by analyzing the global <span class="hlt">temperature</span> record from 1867 to the present. Long-term <span class="hlt">trends</span> and shorter-term fluctuations are both evaluated. The data is examined for evidence of the impact of natural and anthropogenic climate forcing mechanisms on the global surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variability. Students are prompted to determine the difficulties scientists face in using this data to make climate predictions.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Mackay, Robert; Faculty, Serc S.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">310</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19920006239&hterms=deep+eutectic+solvent+disulfide&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Ddeep%2Beutectic%2Bsolvent%2Bdisulfide"> <span id="translatedtitle">Report of the International Ozone <span class="hlt">Trends</span> Panel 1988, volume 2</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Chapters on the following topics are presented: <span class="hlt">trends</span> in stratospheric <span class="hlt">temperature</span>; theory and observations- model simulations of the period 1955-1985; <span class="hlt">trends</span> in source gases; <span class="hlt">trends</span> in stratospheric minor constituents; <span class="hlt">trends</span> in aerosol abundances and distribution; and observations and theories related to antarctic ozone.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1989-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">311</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JOpt...16k4021W"> <span id="translatedtitle">Observation of Lorentzian lineshapes in the room <span class="hlt">temperature</span> optical spectra of strongly coupled Jaggregate/metal hybrid nanostructures by <span class="hlt">linear</span> two-dimensional optical spectroscopy</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We analyze the <span class="hlt">linear</span> optical reflectivity spectra of a prototypical, strongly coupled metal/molecular hybrid nanostructure by means of a new experimental approach, <span class="hlt">linear</span> two-dimensional optical spectroscopy. White-light, broadband spectral interferometry is used to measure amplitude and spectral phase of the sample reflectivity or transmission with high precision and to reconstruct the time structure of the electric field emitted by the sample upon impulsive excitation. A numerical analysis of this time-domain signal provides a two-dimensional representation of the coherent optical response of the sample as a function of excitation and detection frequency. The approach is used to study a nanostructure formed by depositing a thin J-aggregated dye layer on a gold grating. In this structure, strong coupling between excitons and surface plasmon polaritons results in the formation of hybrid polariton modes. In the strong coupling regime, Lorentzian lineshape profiles of different polariton modes are observed at room <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. This is taken as an indication that the investigated strongly coupled polariton excitations are predominantly homogeneously broadened at room <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. This new approach presents a versatile, simple and highly precise addition to nonlinear optical spectroscopic techniques for the analysis of line broadening phenomena.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wang, Wei; Vasa, Parinda; Sommer, Ephraim; De Sio, Antonietta; Gross, Petra; Vogelgesang, Ralf; Lienau, Christoph</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">312</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23214719"> <span id="translatedtitle">PEG-stabilized core-shell nanoparticles: impact of <span class="hlt">linear</span> versus dendritic polymer shell architecture on colloidal properties and the reversibility of <span class="hlt">temperature</span>-induced aggregation.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) have been widely used experimentally and also clinically tested in diverse areas of biology and medicine. Applications include magnetic resonance imaging, cell sorting, drug delivery, and hyperthermia. Physicochemical surface properties are particularly relevant in the context of achieving high colloidal nanoparticle (NP) stability and preventing agglomeration (particularly challenging in biological fluids), increasing blood circulation time, and possibly targeting specific cells or tissues through the presentation of bioligands. Traditionally, NP surfaces are sterically stabilized with hydrophilic polymeric matrices, such as dextran or <span class="hlt">linear</span> poly(ethylene glycol) brushes. While dendrimers have found applications as drug carriers, dispersants with dendritic ("dendrons") or hyperbranched structures have been comparatively neglected despite their unique properties, such as a precisely defined molecular structure and the ability to present biofunctionalities at high density at the NP periphery. This work covers the synthesis of SPIONs and their stabilization based on poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) and oligo(ethylene glycol) (OEG) chemistry and compares the physicochemical properties of NPs stabilized with <span class="hlt">linear</span> and dendritic macromolecules of comparable molecular weight. The results highlight the impact of the polymeric interface architecture on solubility, colloidal stability, hydrodynamic radius, and thermoresponsive behavior. Dendron-stabilized NPs were found to provide excellent colloidal stability, despite a smaller hydrodynamic radius and lower degree of soft shell hydration compared to <span class="hlt">linear</span> PEG analogues. Moreover, for the same grafting density and molecular weight of the stabilizers, OEG dendron-stabilized NPs show a reversible <span class="hlt">temperature</span>-induced aggregation behavior, in contrast to the essentially irreversible aggregation and sedimentation observed for the <span class="hlt">linear</span> PEG analogues. This new class of dendritically stabilized NPs is believed to have a potential for future biomedical and other applications, in which stability, resistance to (or reversible) aggregation, ultrasmall size (for crossing biological barriers or inclusion in responsive artificial membranes), and/or high corona density of (bio)active ligands are key. PMID:23214719</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Gillich, Torben; Acikgz, Canet; Isa, Lucio; Schlter, A Dieter; Spencer, Nicholas D; Textor, Marcus</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-22</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">313</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19820008207&hterms=analyzed+exponential+linear+forms+Arrhenius+equation&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Danalyzed%2Bexponential%2Blinear%2Bforms%2BArrhenius%2Bequation"> <span id="translatedtitle">Research and development program for non-<span class="hlt">linear</span> structural modeling with advanced time-<span class="hlt">temperature</span> dependent constitutive relationships</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Results of a 20-month research and development program for nonlinear structural modeling with advanced time-<span class="hlt">temperature</span> constitutive relationships are reported. The program included: (1) the evaluation of a number of viscoplastic constitutive models in the published literature; (2) incorporation of three of the most appropriate constitutive models into the MARC nonlinear finite element program; (3) calibration of the three constitutive models against experimental data using Hastelloy-X material; and (4) application of the most appropriate constitutive model to a three dimensional finite element analysis of a cylindrical combustor liner louver test specimen to establish the capability of the viscoplastic model to predict component structural response.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Walker, K. P.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1981-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">314</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AGUFM.C21B1155S"> <span id="translatedtitle">The Effect of <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> and Increased Rainfall on Carbon Dioxide Exchange in a High Arctic Ecosystem: Improving Models and Testing <span class="hlt">Linearity</span> of Response</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Ecosystem carbon dioxide exchange determines the terrestrial flux of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere through the two component processes of photosynthesis and respiration. <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> and water availability are dominant factors that regulate carbon dioxide exchange and ecosystem productivity across the globe. Yet, in many ecosystems, the complex interaction of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and water availability and their individual and combined effects on photosynthesis and respiration make it difficult to predict how climate change will affect carbon dioxide exchange. For example, climate warming can increase carbon dioxide uptake in wetter Arctic ecosystems, but leads to the loss of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere in drier Arctic ecosystems. Characterizing how <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and water availability affect ecosystem carbon exchange in the Arctic is essential to determine whether the rate of climate warming could accelerate due to carbon dioxide losses from Arctic ecosystems. We conducted a multi-level warming experiment that included control plots and two- levels of warming in a widespread High Arctic ecosystem. Infrared lamps were used to warm the tundra during the growing season and rainfall was increased by 50 percent in control plots and the higher level warming treatment. Carbon dioxide exchange was measured using chamber techniques over several 24-hour periods during the growing season for three years and was resolved into the component fluxes. Climate and biophysical variables that affect carbon dioxide exchange rates were measured in coordination with these flux measurements. We chose to analyze the data from this experiment by fitting the data to light and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> response functions for gross ecosystem photosynthesis and ecosystem respiration, respectively. Based on our sample size of 30 experimental plots (5 treatments x 6 replicates), we selected relatively simple models of carbon dioxide exchange to minimize overfitting, but considered <span class="hlt">linear</span> and nonlinear models, and static and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> dependent values for key parameters, such as the apparent quantum yield of the ecosystem. We fit the models to the data and estimated values and confidence intervals for the parameters by maximizing the likelihood. We will discuss the results of this experiment highlighting the unexpected effects of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> on the parameterization of the carbon exchange models, the <span class="hlt">linearity</span> of the response, and the merits of our approach to data analysis. Our analysis integrated remotely sensed estimates of the leaf area index with the ecosystem process models of carbon dioxide exchange. In the High Arctic, improving this integration and the assimilation of experimental data into these models is essential to predict the system's response to environmental change over the spatially heterogeneous landscape.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Steltzer, H.; Welker, J.; Sullivan, P.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">315</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1037793"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Linear</span> variable differential transformer (LVDT)-based elongation measurements in Advanced Test Reactor high <span class="hlt">temperature</span> irradiation testing</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">New materials are being considered for fuel, cladding and structures in next generation and existing nuclear reactors. These materials can undergo significant dimensional and physical changes during high <span class="hlt">temperature</span> irradiations. Currently, such changes are determined by repeatedly irradiating a specimen for a specified period of time in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) and then removing it from the reactor for evaluation. The labor and time to remove, examine and return irradiated samples for each measurement make this approach very expensive. In addition, such techniques provide limited data and may disturb the phenomena of interest. To resolve these issues, an instrumented creep testing capability is being developed for specimens irradiated under pressurized water reactor coolant conditions in the ATR at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). This paper reports the status of INL efforts to develop this testing capability. In addition to providing an overview of in-pile creep test capabilities available at other test reactors, this paper focuses on efforts to design and evaluate a prototype test rig in an autoclave at INLs High <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Test Laboratory.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">D. L. Knudson; J. L. Rempe</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">316</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1037791"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Linear</span> variable differential transformer (LVDT)-based elongation measurements in Advanced Test Reactor high <span class="hlt">temperature</span> irradiation testing</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">New materials are being considered for fuel, cladding, and structures in next generation and existing nuclear reactors. These materials can undergo significant dimensional and physical changes during high <span class="hlt">temperature</span> irradiations. Currently, such changes are determined by repeatedly irradiating a specimen for a specified period of time in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) and then removing it from the reactor for evaluation. The labor and time to remove, examine, and return irradiated samples for each measurement makes this approach very expensive. In addition, such techniques provide limited data and may disturb the phenomena of interest. To resolve these issues, an instrumented creep testing capability is being developed for specimens irradiated in pressurized water reactor (PWR) coolant conditions in the ATR at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). This paper reports the status of INL efforts to develop this testing capability. In addition to providing an overview of in-pile creep test capabilities available at other test reactors, this paper focuses on efforts to design and evaluate a prototype test rig in an autoclave at INL's High <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Test Laboratory (HTTL).</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">D. L. Knudson; J. L. Rempe</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">317</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://illuminations.nctm.org/LessonDetail.aspx?id=L298"> <span id="translatedtitle">Exploring <span class="hlt">linear</span> data</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This lesson connects statistics and <span class="hlt">linear</span> functions. Students construct scatterplots, examine <span class="hlt">trends</span>, and consider a line of best fit as they graph real-world data. They also investigate the concept of slope as they model <span class="hlt">linear</span> data in a variety of settings that range from car repair costs to sports to medicine. Handouts for four activities, spread out over three class periods, are provided.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">National Council of Teachers of Mathematics</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-02-25</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">318</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19730006367&hterms=Strydom&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3DStrydom%252C%2BA"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Temperature</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The problems in human comfort in heat stress are emphasized, with less emphasis placed upon cold exposure problems. Physiological parameters related to human thermal interactions are discussed, as well as data concerning thermal protective clothing. The energy balance equation, heat transfer equation, thermal comfort, heat stress, and cold stress are also considered. A two node model of human <span class="hlt">temperature</span> regulation in FORTRAN is appended.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Berenson, P. J.; Robertson, W. G.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1973-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">319</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/2536174"> <span id="translatedtitle">Annular Modes in the Extratropical Circulation. Part II: <span class="hlt">Trends</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The authors exploit the remarkable similarity between recent climate <span class="hlt">trends</span> and the structure of the ''annular modes'' in the month-to-month variability (as described in a companion paper) to partition the <span class="hlt">trends</span> into components <span class="hlt">linearly</span> congruent with and <span class="hlt">linearly</span> independent of the annular modes. The index of the Northern Hemisphere (NH) annular mode, referred to as the Arctic Oscillation (AO), has</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">David W. J. Thompson; John M. Wallace; Gabriele C. Hegerl</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2000-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">320</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4050477"> <span id="translatedtitle">Characterizing the effect of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> fluctuation on the incidence of malaria: an epidemiological study in south-west China using the varying coefficient distributed lag non-<span class="hlt">linear</span> model</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background Malaria transmission is strongly determined by the environmental <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and the environment is rarely constant. Therefore, mosquitoes and parasites are not only exposed to the mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, but also to daily <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variation. Recently, both theoretical and laboratory work has shown, in addition to mean <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, daily fluctuations in <span class="hlt">temperature</span> can affect essential mosquito and parasite traits that determine malaria transmission intensity. However, so far there is no epidemiological evidence at the population level to this problem. Methods Thirty counties in southwest China were selected, and corresponding weekly malaria cases and weekly meteorological variables were collected from 2004 to 2009. Particularly, maximum, mean and minimum <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> were collected. The daily <span class="hlt">temperature</span> fluctuation was measured by the diurnal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> range (DTR), the difference between the maximum and minimum <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. The distributed lag non-<span class="hlt">linear</span> model (MDLNM) was used to study the correlation between weekly malaria incidences and weekly mean <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, and the correlation pattern was allowed to vary over different levels of daily <span class="hlt">temperature</span> fluctuations. Results The overall non-<span class="hlt">linear</span> patterns for mean <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> are distinct across different levels of DTR. When under cooler <span class="hlt">temperature</span> conditions, the larger mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> effect on malaria incidences is found in the groups of higher DTR, suggesting that large daily <span class="hlt">temperature</span> fluctuations act to speed up the malaria incidence in cooler environmental conditions. In contrast, high daily fluctuations under warmer conditions will lead to slow down the mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> effect. Furthermore, in the group of highest DTR, 24-25C or 21-23C are detected as the optimal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> for the malaria transmission. Conclusion The environment is rarely constant, and the result highlights the need to consider <span class="hlt">temperature</span> fluctuations as well as mean <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, when trying to understand or predict malaria transmission. This work may be the first epidemiological study confirming that the effect of the mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> depends on <span class="hlt">temperature</span> fluctuations, resulting in relevant evidence at the population level. PMID:24886630</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' 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src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">321</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25640725"> <span id="translatedtitle">The application of two-step <span class="hlt">linear</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> program to thermal analysis for monitoring the lipid induction of Nostoc sp. KNUA003 in large scale cultivation.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Recently, microalgae was considered as a renewable energy for fuel production because its production is nonseasonal and may take place on nonarable land. Despite all of these advantages, microalgal oil production is significantly affected by environmental factors. Furthermore, the large variability remains an important problem in measurement of algae productivity and compositional analysis, especially, the total lipid content. Thus, there is considerable interest in accurate determination of total lipid content during the biotechnological process. For these reason, various high-throughput technologies were suggested for accurate measurement of total lipids contained in the microorganisms, especially oleaginous microalgae. In addition, more advanced technologies were employed to quantify the total lipids of the microalgae without a pretreatment. However, these methods are difficult to measure total lipid content in wet form microalgae obtained from large-scale production. In present study, the thermal analysis performed with two-step <span class="hlt">linear</span> temeperature program was applied to measure heat evolved in <span class="hlt">temperature</span> range from 310 to 351C of Nostoc sp. KNUA003 obtained from large-scale cultivation. And then, we examined the relationship between the heat evolved in 310-351C (HE) and total lipid content of the wet Nostoc cell cultivated in raceway. As a result, the <span class="hlt">linear</span> relationship was determined between HE value and total lipid content of Nostoc sp. KNUA003. Particularly, there was a <span class="hlt">linear</span> relationship of 98% between the HE value and the total lipid content of the tested microorganism. Based on this relationship, the total lipid content converted from the heat evolved of wet Nostoc sp. KNUA003 could be used for monitoring its lipid induction in large-scale cultivation. PMID:25640725</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kang, Bongmun; Yoon, Ho-Sung</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2015-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">322</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013PhPl...20c2101S"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Linear</span> mode conversion of Langmuir/z-mode waves to radiation: Scalings of conversion efficiencies and propagation angles with <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and magnetic field orientation</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Linear</span> mode conversion (LMC) is the <span class="hlt">linear</span> transfer of energy from one wave mode to another in an inhomogeneous plasma. It is relevant to laboratory plasmas and multiple solar system radio emissions, such as continuum radiation from planetary magnetospheres and type II and III radio bursts from the solar corona and solar wind. This paper simulates LMC of waves defined by warm, magnetized fluid theory, specifically the conversion of Langmuir/z-mode waves to electromagnetic (EM) radiation. The primary focus is the calculation of the energy and power conversion efficiencies for LMC as functions of the angle of incidence ? of the Langmuir/z-mode wave, <span class="hlt">temperature</span> ? =Te/mec2, adiabatic index ?, and orientation angle ? between the ambient density gradient ?N0 and ambient magnetic field B0 in a warm, unmagnetized plasma. The ratio of these efficiencies is found to agree well as a function of ?, ?, and ? with an analytical relation that depends on the group speeds of the Langmuir/z and EM wave modes. The results demonstrate that the energy conversion efficiency ? is strongly dependent on ??, ? and ?, with ? ?(??)1/2 and ??(??)1/2. The power conversion efficiency ?p, on the other hand, is independent of ?? but does vary significantly with ? and ?. The efficiencies are shown to be maximum for approximately perpendicular density gradients (? ?90) and minimal for parallel orientation (? =0) and both the energy and power conversion efficiencies peak at the same ?.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Schleyer, F.; Cairns, Iver H.; Kim, E.-H.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">323</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/961801"> <span id="translatedtitle">The Integrated Status and Effectiveness Monitoring Program : Variation (Status and <span class="hlt">Trend</span>) of Stream Water <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> within th Entiat River Subbasin : January 2008 - October 2008.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Integrated Status and Effectiveness Monitoring Program (ISEMP - BPA project No.2003-017-00) has been created as a cost effective means of developing protocols and new technologies, novel indicators, sample designs, analytical, data management and communication tools and skills, and restoration experiments that support the development of a region-wide Research, Monitoring and Evaluation (RME) program to assess the status of anadromous salmonid populations, their tributary habitat and restoration and management actions. The most straightforward approach to developing a regional-scale monitoring and evaluation program would be to increase standardization among status and <span class="hlt">trend</span> monitoring programs. However, the diversity of species and their habitat, as well as the overwhelming uncertainty surrounding indicators, metrics, and data interpretation methods, requires the testing of multiple approaches. Thus, the approach ISEMP has adopted is to develop a broad template that may differ in the details among subbasins, but one that will ultimately lead to the formation of a unified RME process for the management of anadromous salmonid populations and habitat across the Columbia River Basin. ISEMP has been initiated in three pilot subbasins, the Wenatchee/Entiat, John Day, and Salmon. To balance replicating experimental approaches with the goal of developing monitoring and evaluation tools that apply as broadly as possible across the Pacific Northwest, these subbasins were chosen as representative of a wide range of potential challenges and conditions, e.g., differing fish species composition and life histories, ecoregions, institutional settings, and existing data. ISEMP has constructed a framework that builds on current status and <span class="hlt">trend</span> monitoring infrastructures in these pilot subbasins, but challenges current programs by testing alternative monitoring approaches. In addition, the ISEMP is: (1) Collecting information over a hierarchy of spatial scales, allowing for a greater flexibility of data aggregation for multi-scale recovery planning assessments, and (2) Designing methods that: (a) Identify factors limiting fish production in watersheds; (b) Determine restoration actions to address these problems; (c) Implement actions as a large-scale experiment (e.g. Before After Control Impact, or BACI design), and (d) Implement intensive monitoring and research to evaluate the action's success. The intent of the ISEMP project is to design monitoring programs that can efficiently collect information to address multiple management objectives over a broad range of scales. This includes: Evaluating the status of anadromous salmonids and their habitat; Identifying opportunities to restore habitat function and fish performance, and Evaluating the benefits of the actions to the fish populations across the Columbia River Basin. The multi-scale nature of this goal requires the standardization of protocols and sampling designs that are statistically valid and powerful, properties that are currently inconsistent across the multiple monitoring programs in the region. Other aspects of the program will aid in the ability to extrapolate information beyond the study area, such as research to elucidate causal mechanisms, and a classification of watersheds throughout the Columbia River Basin. Obviously, the scale of the problem is immense and the ISEMP does not claim to be the only program working towards this goal. As such, ISEMP relies heavily on the basin's current monitoring infrastructure to test and develop monitoring strategies, while acting as a coordinating body and providing support for key elements such as data management and technical analyses. The ISEMP also ensures that monitoring programs can address large-scale management objectives (resulting largely from the ESA) through these local efforts. While the ISEMP maintains a regional focus it also returns the necessary information to aid in management at the smaller spatial scales (individual projects) where manipulations (e.g., habitat restoration actions) actually occur. The work captur</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Dawson, Pierre</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-29</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">324</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/48940066"> <span id="translatedtitle">Associations of diurnal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> range change with the leading climate variability modes during the Northern Hemisphere wintertime and their implication on the detection of regional climate <span class="hlt">trends</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">This study examines associations of diurnal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> range (DTR) changes in observations at the global, hemispheric, subcontinental, and grid box scales with five leading climate variability modes, including the Arctic Oscillation (AO), hemispheric PacificNorth America (PNA)like mode, Pacific Decadal Oscillation, El Nio Southern Oscillation (ENSO), and Antarctic Oscillation (AAO) during the Northern Hemisphere winter season (JanMar). Winter DTR variability in</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Qigang Wu</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">325</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1992JNuM..190...87S"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Trends</span> in the short-term release of fission products and actinides to aqueous solution from used CANDU fuels at elevated <span class="hlt">temperature</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A large number of short-term leaching experiments has been performed to determine fission product and actinide release from used CANDU (CANada Deuterium Uranium) fuels and to establish which factors affect release. Results are reported after30 10 d leaching at 100-150C under oxidizing (air) or reducing (Ar-3% H 2 or Ar) conditions, in various synthetic groundwaters. Cesium-137 release (0.007-6%) was positively correlated with increases in fuel power, leachant <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and ionic strength. Strontium-90 release (0.0003-0.3%) generally increased with ionic strength, higher <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and redox conditions. Actinide and Tc concentrations were compared to ranges calculated with a thermodynamic equilibrium model, that accounts for the uncertain geochemical parameters of a nuclear waste vault by calculating concentration ranges based on 40000 hypothetical cases. Experimental U concentrations (10 -8.5 to 10 -3 mol/kg) were higher than the model range, probably because of higher redox potentials in the experiments. Measured Pu concentrations (10 -12.5 to 10 -7 mol/kg) were at the low end of the calculated range. Americium and Cm concentrations (10 -12.5 to 10 -7 and 10 -15 to 10 -9 mol/kg, respectively) were highest under oxidizing conditions and higher <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. Technetium-99 concentrations (10 -5.5 to 10 -10.5 mol/kg) covered a much narrower range than calculated by the model.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Stroes-Gascoyne, S.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1992-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">326</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24754561"> <span id="translatedtitle">Effect of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> on the low-<span class="hlt">linear</span> energy transfer radiolysis of the ceric-cerous sulfate dosimeter: a Monte Carlo simulation study.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The stochastic modeling of the (60)Co ?/fast-electron radiolysis of the ceric-cerous chemical dosimeter has been performed as a function of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> from 25-350C. The system used is a dilute solution of ceric sulfate and cerous sulfate in aqueous 0.4 M sulfuric acid. In this system, H() (or HO2() in the presence of dissolved oxygen) and H2O2 produced by the radiolytic decomposition of water both reduce Ce(4+) ions to Ce(3+) ions, while ()OH radicals oxidize the Ce(3+) present in the solution back to Ce(4+). The net Ce(3+) yield is given by G(Ce(3+)) = g(H()) + 2 g(H2O2) - g(()OH), where the primary (or "escape") yields of H(), H2O2 and ()OH are represented by lower case g's. At room <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, G(Ce(3+)) has been established to be 2.44 0.8 molecules/100 eV. In this work, we investigated the effect of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> on the yield of Ce(3+) and on the underlying chemical reaction kinetics using Monte Carlo track chemistry simulations. The simulations showed that G(Ce(3+)) is time dependent, a result of the differences in the lifetimes of the reactions that make up the radiolysis mechanism. Calculated G(Ce(3+)) values were found to decrease almost <span class="hlt">linearly</span> with increasing <span class="hlt">temperature</span> up to about 250C, and are in excellent agreement with available experimental data. In particular, our calculations confirmed previous estimated values by Katsumura et al. (Radiat Phys Chem 1988; 32:259-63) showing that G(Ce(3+)) at ?250C is about one third of its value at room <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. Above ?250C, our model predicted that G(Ce(3+)) would drop markedly with <span class="hlt">temperature</span> until, instead of Ce(4+) reduction, Ce(3+) oxidation is observed. This drop is shown to occur as a result of the reaction of hydrogen atoms with water in the homogeneous chemical stage. PMID:24754561</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kohan, Leila Mirsaleh; Meesungnoen, Jintana; Sanguanmith, Sunuchakan; Meesat, Ridthee; Jay-Gerin, Jean-Paul</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">327</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1615842B"> <span id="translatedtitle">Geochemistry driven <span class="hlt">trends</span> in microbial diversity and function across a <span class="hlt">temperature</span> transect of a shallow water hydrothermal system off Milos (Greece)</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The shallow water hydrothermal vents off Milos Island, Greece, discharge hot, slightly acidic, reduced fluids into colder, slightly alkaline, oxygenated seawater. Gradients in <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, pH, and geochemistry are established as the two fluids mix, leading to the formation of various microbial microniches. In contrast to deep-sea hydrothermal systems, the availability of sun light allows for a combination of photo- and chemotrophic carbon fixation. Despite the comparably easy accessibility of shallow water hydrothermal systems, little is known about their microbial diversity and functioning. We present data from a shallow hydrothermal system off Milos Island, one of the most hydrothermally active regions in the Mediterranean Sea. The physico-chemical changes from ambient seafloor to hydrothermal area were investigated and documented by in situ microsensor profiling of <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, pH, total reduced sulfur and dissolved oxygen alongside porewater geochemistry. The spatial microbial diversity was determined using a combination of gene- and lipid-based approaches, whereas microbial functioning was assessed by stable isotope probing experiments targeting lipid biomarkers. In situ microprofiles indicated an extreme environment with steep gradients, offering a variety of microniches for metabolically diverse microbial communities. We sampled a transect along a hydrothermal patch, following an increase in sediment surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> from background to 90C, including five sampling points up to 20 cm sediment depth. Investigation of the bacterial diversity using ARISA revealed differences in the community structure along the geochemical gradients, with the least similarity between the ambient and highly hydrothermally impacted sites. Furthermore, using multivariate statistical analyses it was shown that variations in the community structure could be attributed to differences in the sediment geochemistry and especially the sulfide content, and only indirectly to shifts in <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. Results from intact polar lipid analyses were consistent with the ARISA data and clearly differentiated those samples located close to the vent from those found in less affected areas. Changes from phospho- and betaine lipids within the top layer of the unaffected area to glyco- and ornithine lipids in the hydrothermally influenced sediment layers reflected a change from photoautotrophic algae to a bacteria-dominated community as predominant lipid sources. A clear dominance of archaeal lipids indicated archaea as key players in the deeper, hotter layers of the hydrothermal sediment. We performed stable isotope probing experiments with 13C-bicarbonate in the dark to investigate if chemolithotrophy, as opposed to phototrophy, plays any significant role for carbon fixation in shallow vent systems. Different amendments revealed that not only chemolithotrophy represents an important pathway for carbon fixation in these ecosystems, but that diverse ways of dark CO2 fixation exist, with hydrogen being the most effective electron donor under high <span class="hlt">temperature</span> conditions.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bhring, Solveig I.; Amend, Jan P.; Gmez Sez, Gonzalo V.; Husler, Stefan; Hinrichs, Kai-Uwe; Pichler, Thomas; Pop Ristova, Petra; Price, Roy E.; Santi, Ioulia; Sollich, Miriam</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">328</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pbslearningmedia.org/resource/ttv10.sci.ess.watcyc.globalwarming/"> <span id="translatedtitle">The Warming <span class="hlt">Trend</span> and the Greenhouse Effect</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This video segment produced by ThinkTV explains the greenhouse effect and its connection to the recent rise in Earth's average <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. Scientists explore the role of human activity in the increase of greenhouse gases and the warming <span class="hlt">trend</span>.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-11-12</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">329</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012SSCom.152.2078N"> <span id="translatedtitle">Chemical <span class="hlt">trend</span> of superconducting transition <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in hole-doped delafossite of CuAlO2, AgAlO2 and AuAlO2</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We have performed the first-principles calculations about the superconducting transition <span class="hlt">temperature</span> Tc of hole-doped delafossite CuAlO2, AgAlO2 and AuAlO2. Calculated Tc are about 50 K (CuAlO2), 40 K (AgAlO2) and 3 K(AuAlO2) at maximum in the optimum hole-doping concentration. The low Tc of AuAlO2 is attributed to the weak electron-phonon interaction caused by the low covalency and heavy atomic mass.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Nakanishi, Akitaka; Katayama-Yoshida, Hiroshi</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">330</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040171164&hterms=Northern+Hemispheric+Winter+16+November&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3DNorthern%2BHemispheric%2BWinter%2B%252816%2BNovember%2529"> <span id="translatedtitle">Version 8 SBUV Ozone Profile <span class="hlt">Trends</span> Compared with <span class="hlt">Trends</span> from a Zonally Averaged Chemical Model</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Linear</span> regression <span class="hlt">trends</span> for the years 1979-2003 were computed using the new Version 8 merged Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet (SBUV) data set of ozone profiles. These <span class="hlt">trends</span> were compared to <span class="hlt">trends</span> computed using ozone profiles from the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) zonally averaged coupled model. Observed and modeled annual <span class="hlt">trends</span> between 50 N and 50 S were a maximum in the higher latitudes of the upper stratosphere, with southern hemisphere (SH) <span class="hlt">trends</span> greater than northern hemisphere (NH) <span class="hlt">trends</span>. The observed upper stratospheric maximum annual <span class="hlt">trend</span> is -5.5 +/- 0.9 % per decade (1 sigma) at 47.5 S and -3.8 +/- 0.5 % per decade at 47.5 N, to be compared with the modeled <span class="hlt">trends</span> of -4.5 +/- 0.3 % per decade in the SH and -4.0 +/- 0.2% per decade in the NH. Both observed and modeled <span class="hlt">trends</span> are most negative in winter and least negative in summer, although the modeled seasonal difference is less than observed. Model <span class="hlt">trends</span> are shown to be greatest in winter due to a repartitioning of chlorine species and the increasing abundance of chlorine with time. The model results show that <span class="hlt">trend</span> differences can occur depending on whether ozone profiles are in mixing ratio or number density coordinates, and on whether they are recorded on pressure or altitude levels.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Rosenfield, Joan E.; Frith, Stacey; Stolarski, Richard</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">331</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.energy.ca.gov/reports/95fuelsreport/chapter1.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">5 World Oil <span class="hlt">Trends</span> WORLD OIL <span class="hlt">TRENDS</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">5 World Oil <span class="hlt">Trends</span> Chapter 1 WORLD OIL <span class="hlt">TRENDS</span> INTRODUCTION In considering the outlook for California's petroleum supplies, it is important to give attention to expecta- tions of what the world oil market may look like over the next 20 years since the world market influences California's petroleum</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">332</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013ClDy...40....1V"> <span id="translatedtitle">SST and circulation <span class="hlt">trend</span> biases cause an underestimation of European precipitation <span class="hlt">trends</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Clear precipitation <span class="hlt">trends</span> have been observed in Europe over the past century. In winter, precipitation has increased in north-western Europe. In summer, there has been an increase along many coasts in the same area. Over the second half of the past century precipitation also decreased in southern Europe in winter. An investigation of precipitation <span class="hlt">trends</span> in two multi-model ensembles including both global and regional climate models shows that these models fail to reproduce the observed <span class="hlt">trends</span>. In many regions the model spread does not cover the <span class="hlt">trend</span> in the observations. In contrast, regional climate model (RCM) experiments with observed boundary conditions reproduce the observed precipitation <span class="hlt">trends</span> much better. The observed <span class="hlt">trends</span> are largely compatible with the range of uncertainties spanned by the ensemble, indicating that the boundary conditions of RCMs are responsible for large parts of the <span class="hlt">trend</span> biases. We find that the main factor in setting the <span class="hlt">trend</span> in winter is atmospheric circulation, for summer sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (SST) is important in setting precipitation <span class="hlt">trends</span> along the North Sea and Atlantic coasts. The causes of the large <span class="hlt">trends</span> in atmospheric circulation and summer SST are not known. For SST there may be a connection with the well-known ocean circulation biases in low-resolution ocean models. A quantitative understanding of the causes of these <span class="hlt">trends</span> is needed so that climate model based projections of future climate can be corrected for these precipitation <span class="hlt">trend</span> biases.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">van Haren, Ronald; van Oldenborgh, Geert Jan; Lenderink, Geert; Collins, Matthew; Hazeleger, Wilco</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">333</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22107652"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Linear</span> mode conversion of Langmuir/z-mode waves to radiation: Scalings of conversion efficiencies and propagation angles with <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and magnetic field orientation</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Linear</span> mode conversion (LMC) is the <span class="hlt">linear</span> transfer of energy from one wave mode to another in an inhomogeneous plasma. It is relevant to laboratory plasmas and multiple solar system radio emissions, such as continuum radiation from planetary magnetospheres and type II and III radio bursts from the solar corona and solar wind. This paper simulates LMC of waves defined by warm, magnetized fluid theory, specifically the conversion of Langmuir/z-mode waves to electromagnetic (EM) radiation. The primary focus is the calculation of the energy and power conversion efficiencies for LMC as functions of the angle of incidence {theta} of the Langmuir/z-mode wave, <span class="hlt">temperature</span> {beta}=T{sub e}/m{sub e}c{sup 2}, adiabatic index {gamma}, and orientation angle {phi} between the ambient density gradient {nabla}N{sub 0} and ambient magnetic field B{sub 0} in a warm, unmagnetized plasma. The ratio of these efficiencies is found to agree well as a function of {theta}, {gamma}, and {beta} with an analytical relation that depends on the group speeds of the Langmuir/z and EM wave modes. The results demonstrate that the energy conversion efficiency {epsilon} is strongly dependent on {gamma}{beta}, {phi} and {theta}, with {epsilon}{proportional_to}({gamma}{beta}){sup 1/2} and {theta}{proportional_to}({gamma}{beta}){sup 1/2}. The power conversion efficiency {epsilon}{sub p}, on the other hand, is independent of {gamma}{beta} but does vary significantly with {theta} and {phi}. The efficiencies are shown to be maximum for approximately perpendicular density gradients ({phi} Almost-Equal-To 90 Degree-Sign ) and minimal for parallel orientation ({phi}=0 Degree-Sign ) and both the energy and power conversion efficiencies peak at the same {theta}.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Schleyer, F.; Cairns, Iver H. [School of Physics, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Kim, E.-H. [Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-03-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">334</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AtmEn..45.6010M"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Trends</span> in the characteristics of allergenic pollen circulation in central Europe based on the example of Szeged, Hungary</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The aim of the study is to analyse <span class="hlt">trends</span> of the pollination season with its start and end dates, as well as <span class="hlt">trends</span> of the annual total pollen count and annual peak pollen concentration for the Szeged agglomeration in Southern Hungary. The data set covers an 11-year period (1999-2009) and includes one of the largest spectra, with 19 taxa, as well as seven meteorological variables (minimum-, maximum- and mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, total radiation, relative humidity, rainfall and wind speed). For highly skewed data, such as the annual total number of pollen counts or annual peak pollen concentrations, the Mann-Kendall test has a substantially greater predictive power than the t-test. After performing Mann-Kendall tests, the annual cycles of daily slopes of pollen concentration <span class="hlt">trends</span> and annual cycles of daily slopes of climate variable <span class="hlt">trends</span> are calculated. This kind of <span class="hlt">trend</span> analysis is a novel approach as it provides information on annual cycles of <span class="hlt">trends</span>. In order to represent the strength of their relationships an association measure (AM) and a multiple association measure (MAM) are introduced. Based on climate sensitivity, the individual taxa are sorted into three categories. The results obtained for the pollen quantity and phenological characteristics are compared with two novel climate change related categories, namely risk and expansion potential due to the climate change for each taxon. The total annual pollen count and annual peak pollen concentrations indicate a small number of changes when using ordinary <span class="hlt">linear</span> <span class="hlt">trends</span>, while the total annual pollen count calculated via daily <span class="hlt">linear</span> <span class="hlt">trends</span> show significant <span class="hlt">trends</span> (70% of them positive) for almost all taxa. However, except for Poaceae and Urtica, there is no significant change in the duration of the pollination season. The association measure performs well compared to the climate change related forces. Furthermore, remarkable changes in pollen season characteristics are also in accordance with the risk and expansion potential due to climate change.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Makra, Lszl; Matyasovszky, Istvn; Dek, ron Jzsef</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">335</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=interior+AND+design+AND+trends&id=EJ643192"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Trends</span> in Education.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Several architects, planners, administrators, and contractors answer questions about <span class="hlt">trends</span> related to school construction, interior design, business, security, and technology. <span class="hlt">Trends</span> concern funding issues, specialized designs, planning for safety, technological integration, and equity in services. (EV)</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">School Planning & Management, 2002</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">336</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://cancercontrol.cancer.gov/brp/tcrb/trend/docs/trends_brochure_7_9_07.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">TReNDS</span> Brochure</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.cancer.gov">Cancer.gov</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">TReND</span> Tobacco Research Network on Disparities To eliminate tobacco-related health disparities through transdisciplinar? research that advances the science, translates that scientific knowledge into practice, and informs public polic?. <span class="hlt">TReND</span> mission Despite</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">337</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22107676"> <span id="translatedtitle">Propagation of ion-acoustic solitons in an electron beam-superthermal plasma system with finite ion-<span class="hlt">temperature</span>: <span class="hlt">Linear</span> and fully nonlinear investigation</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The propagation of ion-acoustic (IA) solitons is studied in a plasma system, comprised of warm ions and superthermal (Kappa distributed) electrons in the presence of an electron-beam by using a hydrodynamic model. In the <span class="hlt">linear</span> analysis, it is seen that increasing the superthermality lowers the phase speed of the IA waves. On the other hand, in a fully nonlinear investigation, the Mach number range and characteristics of IA solitons are analyzed, parametrically and numerically. It is found that the accessible region for the existence of IA solitons reduces with increasing the superthermality. However, IA solitons with both negative and positive polarities can coexist in the system. Additionally, solitary waves with both subsonic and supersonic speeds are predicted in the plasma, depending on the value of ion-<span class="hlt">temperature</span> and the superthermality of electrons in the system. It is examined that there are upper critical values for beam parameters (i.e., density and velocity) after which, IA solitary waves could not propagate in the plasma. Furthermore, a typical interaction between IA waves and the electron-beam in the plasma is confirmed.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Saberian, E. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Sciences, Azarbaijan Shahid Madani University, 53714-161 Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Physics, Faculty of Basic Sciences, University of Neyshabur, Neyshabur (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Esfandyari-Kalejahi, A.; Rastkar-Ebrahimzadeh, A.; Afsari-Ghazi, M. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Sciences, Azarbaijan Shahid Madani University, 53714-161 Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-03-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">338</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://repository.tamu.edu/handle/1969.1/ETD-TAMU-1990-THESIS-B626"> <span id="translatedtitle">A soil moisture budget analysis of Texas using basic climatic data while assuming a possible warming <span class="hlt">trend</span> across the state</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">of record and compare it with a predicted soil moisture regime based on a possible warming <span class="hlt">trend</span>. A statistical analysis was performed to investigate for possible relationships between mean monthly precipitation (MMP) and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (MMT) for each... division during all months of the year, Regression statistics revealed that a statistically significant <span class="hlt">linear</span> relationship existed between MMP and MMT in just over half the cases (63 out of 120). The relationship worked best in relatively dry regions...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bjornson, Brian Matthew</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-06-07</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">339</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/55174060"> <span id="translatedtitle">Composition, <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, and crystal orientation dependence of the <span class="hlt">linear</span> electro-optic properties of Pb(Zn1\\/3Nb2\\/3)O3-PbTiO3 single crystals</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The <span class="hlt">linear</span> electro-optic (EO) coefficients of Pb(Zn1\\/3Nb2\\/3)O3-PbTiO3 single crystals over a broad composition range were investigated at <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> from -20 to 80 C. The orientation effect on the EO coefficients was also examined. For crystals poled in the direction, a large r33 was observed near the morphotropic phase boundary (MPB). More importantly, r33 was found to be independent of <span class="hlt">temperature</span></p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Y. Barad; Yu Lu; Z.-Y. Cheng; S.-E. Park; Q. M. Zhang</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2000-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">340</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/15037151"> <span id="translatedtitle">Interannual Variability of <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> at a Depth of 125 Meters in the North Atlantic Ocean</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Analyses of historical ocean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> data at a depth of 125 meters in the North Atlantic Ocean indicate that from 1950 to 1990 the subtropical and subarctic gyres exhibited <span class="hlt">linear</span> <span class="hlt">trends</span> that were opposite in phase. In addition, multivariate analyses of yearly mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> anomaly fields between 20^circN and 70^circN in the North Atlantic show a characteristic space-time <span class="hlt">temperature</span> oscillation</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sydney Levitus; John I. Antonov; Timothy P. Boyer</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1994-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' 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onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">341</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://hal.inria.fr/docs/00/21/79/12/PDF/ajp-jphyscol197839C6435.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">JOURNAL DE PHYSIQUE Colloque C6, supplment au n" 8, Tome 39, aot 1978, page C6-982 PHONON SCATTERING AND THE <span class="hlt">LINEAR</span> SPECIFIC HEAT TERM IN EPOXY-RESINS AT LOW <span class="hlt">TEMPERATURES</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">. Abstract.- The specific heat and the thermal conductivity of an epoxy--resin has been measured from 0 on the thermal conductivity and speci- fic heat of an epoxy-resin in the range 0.1 to 80 K in which SCATTERING AND THE <span class="hlt">LINEAR</span> SPECIFIC HEAT TERM IN EPOXY-RESINS AT LOW <span class="hlt">TEMPERATURES</span> S. Kelham and H.M. Rosenberg</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Boyer, Edmond</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">342</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.stanford.edu/~boyd/papers/pdf/port_opt_bound.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Foundations and <span class="hlt">Trends</span> R in Optimization</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Foundations and <span class="hlt">Trends</span> R in Optimization Vol. 1, No. 1 (2014) 1­72 c 2014 S. Boyd, M. Mueller, B. O-Period Investment Stephen Boyd Stanford University boyd@stanford.edu Mark T. Mueller Cambridge, MA mark.t.mueller general case, with nonquadratic cost terms and transaction costs. We show how to use <span class="hlt">linear</span> matrix</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">343</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4277306"> <span id="translatedtitle">A Hierarchical Bayesian Model to Quantify Uncertainty of Stream Water <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Forecasts</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Providing generic and cost effective modelling approaches to reconstruct and forecast freshwater <span class="hlt">temperature</span> using predictors as air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and water discharge is a prerequisite to understanding ecological processes underlying the impact of water <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and of global warming on continental aquatic ecosystems. Using air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> as a simple <span class="hlt">linear</span> predictor of water <span class="hlt">temperature</span> can lead to significant bias in forecasts as it does not disentangle seasonality and long term <span class="hlt">trends</span> in the signal. Here, we develop an alternative approach based on hierarchical Bayesian statistical time series modelling of water <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and water discharge using seasonal sinusoidal periodic signals and time varying means and amplitudes. Fitting and forecasting performances of this approach are compared with that of simple <span class="hlt">linear</span> regression between water and air <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> using i) an emotive simulated example, ii) application to three French coastal streams with contrasting bio-geographical conditions and sizes. The time series modelling approach better fit data and does not exhibit forecasting bias in long term <span class="hlt">trends</span> contrary to the <span class="hlt">linear</span> regression. This new model also allows for more accurate forecasts of water <span class="hlt">temperature</span> than <span class="hlt">linear</span> regression together with a fair assessment of the uncertainty around forecasting. Warming of water <span class="hlt">temperature</span> forecast by our hierarchical Bayesian model was slower and more uncertain than that expected with the classical regression approach. These new forecasts are in a form that is readily usable in further ecological analyses and will allow weighting of outcomes from different scenarios to manage climate change impacts on freshwater wildlife. PMID:25541732</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bal, Guillaume; Rivot, Etienne; Baglinire, Jean-Luc; White, Jonathan; Prvost, Etienne</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">344</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013ERL.....8a4055V"> <span id="translatedtitle">Reliability of regional climate model <span class="hlt">trends</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A necessary condition for a good probabilistic forecast is that the forecast system is shown to be reliable: forecast probabilities should equal observed probabilities verified over a large number of cases. As climate change <span class="hlt">trends</span> are now emerging from the natural variability, we can apply this concept to climate predictions and compute the reliability of simulated local and regional <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and precipitation <span class="hlt">trends</span> (1950-2011) in a recent multi-model ensemble of climate model simulations prepared for the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) fifth assessment report (AR5). With only a single verification time, the verification is over the spatial dimension. The local <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">trends</span> appear to be reliable. However, when the global mean climate response is factored out, the ensemble is overconfident: the observed <span class="hlt">trend</span> is outside the range of modelled <span class="hlt">trends</span> in many more regions than would be expected by the model estimate of natural variability and model spread. Precipitation <span class="hlt">trends</span> are overconfident for all <span class="hlt">trend</span> definitions. This implies that for near-term local climate forecasts the CMIP5 ensemble cannot simply be used as a reliable probabilistic forecast.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">van Oldenborgh, G. J.; Doblas Reyes, F. J.; Drijfhout, S. S.; Hawkins, E.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">345</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.2272V"> <span id="translatedtitle">Reliability of regional climate model <span class="hlt">trends</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A necessary condition for a good probabilistic forecast is that the forecast system is shown to be reliable: forecast probabilities should equal observed probabilities verified over a large number of cases. As climate change <span class="hlt">trends</span> are now emerging from the natural variability, we can apply this concept to climate predictions and compute the reliability of simulated local and regional <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and precipitation <span class="hlt">trends</span> (1950-2011) in a recent multi-model ensemble of climate model simulations prepared for the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) fifth assessment report (AR5). With only a single verification time, the verification is over the spatial dimension. The local <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">trends</span> appear reliable. However, when the global mean climate response is factored out, the ensemble is overconfident: the observed <span class="hlt">trend</span> is outside the range of modelled <span class="hlt">trends</span> in many more regions than would be expected by natural variability and model spread. Precipitation <span class="hlt">trends</span> are overconfident for all <span class="hlt">trend</span> definitions. This implies that for near-term local climate forecasts the CMIP5 ensemble cannot simply be used as a reliable probabilistic forecast.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">van Oldenborgh, Geert Jan; Doblas-Reyes, Francisco; Drijfhout, Sybren; Hawkins, Ed</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">346</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008JVSJ...51..485Y"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Linear</span> Motion Guide with Molybdenum Disulfide Composite Solid Lubricant</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The technical <span class="hlt">trend</span> of solid lubricant rolling bearing and <span class="hlt">linear</span> motion guide was reviewed. Especially, a newly developed oil-free solid lubricant <span class="hlt">linear</span> motion guide by authors was also reported in details in this present. The rolling ball of the guide was coated by sputtering molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) and some special transition metal simultaneously, while the spacer ball made of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) was also applied to the guide. By this way, a composite solid lubricant with excellent wear resistance properties was provided and there has been no any organic solvent and binder added, resulting in lower particle generation and low lever of out gas. It is expected that the oil-free solid lubricant <span class="hlt">linear</span> motion guide could be applied to high <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, high vacuum, radiation and space utilizations.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Yang, Hong; Takahashi, Tohru</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">347</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.epa.gov/airtrends/reports.html"> <span id="translatedtitle">EPA - Air <span class="hlt">Trends</span> Reports</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This site provides annual reports on air pollution <span class="hlt">trends</span> in the United States issued by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. These reports are directed to both the technical air pollution audience and other interested parties. Air quality topics include visibility <span class="hlt">trends</span>, Ozone monitoring, toxins, and <span class="hlt">trends</span> in specific regions. The reports are complete with all accompanying tables and figures. Each chapter can be downloaded separately.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-06-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">348</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014PhDT.......268S"> <span id="translatedtitle">Spatio-temporal <span class="hlt">Trends</span> of Climate Variability in North Carolina</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Climatic <span class="hlt">trends</span> in spatial and temporal variability of maximum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (Tmax), minimum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (Tmin), mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (Tmean) and precipitation were evaluated for 249 ground-based stations in North Carolina for 1950-2009. The Mann-Kendall (MK), the Theil-Sen Approach (TSA) and the Sequential Mann-Kendall (SQMK) tests were applied to quantify the significance of <span class="hlt">trend</span>, magnitude of <span class="hlt">trend</span> and the <span class="hlt">trend</span> shift, respectively. The lag-1 serial correlation and double mass curve techniques were used to address the data independency and homogeneity. The pre-whitening technique was used to eliminate the effect of auto correlation of the data series. The difference between minimum and maximum <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, and so the diurnal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> range (DTR), at some stations was found to be decreasing on both an annual and a seasonal basis, with an overall increasing <span class="hlt">trend</span> in the mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. For precipitation, a statewide increasing <span class="hlt">trend</span> in fall (highest in November) and decreasing <span class="hlt">trend</span> in winter (highest in February) were detected. No pronounced increasing/decreasing <span class="hlt">trends</span> were detected in annual, spring, and summer precipitation time series. <span class="hlt">Trend</span> analysis on a spatial scale (for three physiographic regions: mountain, piedmont and coastal) revealed mixed results. Coastal zone exhibited increasing mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (warming) <span class="hlt">trend</span> as compared to other locations whereas mountain zone showed decreasing <span class="hlt">trend</span> (cooling). Three main moisture components (precipitation, total cloud cover, and soil moisture) and the two major atmospheric circulation modes (North Atlantic Oscillation and Southern Oscillation) were used for correlative analysis purposes with the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (specifically with DTR) and precipitation <span class="hlt">trends</span>. It appears that the moisture components are associated with DTR more than the circulation modes in North Carolina.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sayemuzzaman, Mohammad</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">349</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://users.rsise.anu.edu.au/~hdjin/publications/2006/CIEF-165.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Stock <span class="hlt">Trend</span> Analysis and Trading Strategy Hongxing He1</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">a data mining approach to analysis and prediction of the <span class="hlt">trend</span> of stock prices. The approach consists-means clustering algorithm is used to partition stock price time series data. After data partition, <span class="hlt">linear</span> are reported. Keywords: Data Mining, Clustering, k-means, Time Series, Stock Trading 1 Introduction <span class="hlt">Trend</span></p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jin, Huidong "Warren"</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">350</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014BGD....1115549L"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Trends</span> and drivers in global surface ocean pH over the past three decades</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We report global long-term <span class="hlt">trends</span> in surface ocean pH using a new pH data set computed by combining fCO2 observations from the Surface Ocean CO2 Atlas (SOCAT) version 2 with surface alkalinity estimates based on <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and salinity. <span class="hlt">Trends</span> were determined over the periods 1981-2011 and 1991-2011 for a set of 17 biomes using a weighted <span class="hlt">linear</span> least squares method. We observe significant decreases in surface ocean pH in ~70% of all biomes and a global mean rate of decrease of -0.0018 0.0004 yr-1 for 1991-2011. We are not able to calculate a global <span class="hlt">trend</span> for 1981-2011 because too few biomes have enough data for this. In two-thirds of the biomes, the rate of change is commensurate with the <span class="hlt">trends</span> expected based on the assumption that the surface ocean pH change is only driven by the surface ocean carbon chemistry remaining in a transient equilibrium with the increase in atmospheric CO2. In the remaining biomes deviations from such equilibrium may reflect changes in the <span class="hlt">trend</span> of surface ocean fCO2, most notably in the equatorial Pacific Ocean, or changes in the oceanic buffer (Revelle) factor. We conclude that well-planned and long-term sustained observational networks are key to reliably document the ongoing and future changes in ocean carbon chemistry due to anthropogenic forcing.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lauvset, S. K.; Gruber, N.; Landschtzer, P.; Olsen, A.; Tjiputra, J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">351</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1611600J"> <span id="translatedtitle">Springtime surface wind speed <span class="hlt">trend</span> in France</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Observations of surface wind speed over the last decades show a negative <span class="hlt">trend</span> over the continents in the Northern Hemisphere, leading to concerns in the wind energy community. In China, a large negative <span class="hlt">trend</span> has been observed and several studies attribute it to human-induced modifications in <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and aerosols affecting the monsoon circulation patterns. Regarding other regions, the link between negative wind <span class="hlt">trend</span> and large-scale atmospheric circulation is more speculative. Indeed the most frequently suggested cause is changes in surface roughness due to an increase of vegetation cover and urbanization. Though some correlations were found between vegetation index and wind <span class="hlt">trends</span>, this hypothesis cannot explain the whole <span class="hlt">trend</span>, and it is not clear how local changes could lead to a global and regular <span class="hlt">trend</span> over decades. In Europe, studies analyzing annual averaged wind speed show a small <span class="hlt">trend</span> with respect to other parts of the globe. Over the last three decades, the <span class="hlt">trend</span> found in the observations is lower than -0.1 m/s/decade in average, but with a large spatial variability, and the <span class="hlt">trend</span> in the reanalysis is even lower. This <span class="hlt">trend</span> is small compared to the high inter-annual variability, making it difficult to quantify and attribute. The present study brings new elements by studying seasonal variations of wind speed, mainly over France. Both observations and reanalysis show a strong negative springtime wind speed <span class="hlt">trend</span> (about -0.25 m/s/decade in observations and -0.15 m/s/decade in reanalysis, over March-April). The wind variability is analyzed and divided according to different time scales and the long-scale <span class="hlt">trend</span> explains at least a third of the observed spring-time decrease. This <span class="hlt">trend</span> is linked to changes in the seasons lengths : longer summer conditions and shorter winter conditions. Spring is the transition from winter pressure conditions, when wind speed is higher in average, towards summer conditions, when the wind is lower in average. There is evidence that, since 1960, this transition has been happening sooner, shortening the winter, decreasing the average wind. Finally, another result is reached regarding the local effects on wind speed. The comparison between observations and reanalysis enables to extract the <span class="hlt">trends</span> due to the modifications in the surroundings of the observation stations. Those local-scale <span class="hlt">trends</span> are negative in average and show no seasonal but a large spatial variability.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jourdier, Bndicte; Drobinski, Philippe; Hachfi Soussi, Amine; Vrac, Mathieu; Vautard, Robert; Yiou, Pascal</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">352</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED506208.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">General Achievement <span class="hlt">Trends</span>: Vermont</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This general achievement <span class="hlt">trends</span> profile includes information that the Center on Education Policy (CEP) and the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) obtained from states from fall 2008 through April 2009. Included herein are: (1) Bullet points summarizing key findings about achievement <span class="hlt">trends</span> in that state at three performance</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Center on Education Policy, 2009</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">353</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.uv.es/vista/vistavalencia/papers/laparra_GRC_08.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Masking-like Non-<span class="hlt">Linearities</span> from Non-<span class="hlt">Linear</span> PCA Valero Laparra and Jesus Malo</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Masking-like Non-<span class="hlt">Linearities</span> from Non-<span class="hlt">Linear</span> PCA Valero Laparra and Jes´us Malo 1 Dept. d' `Optica-scale numerical experiments. Specifically, even though general masking <span class="hlt">trends</span> were reproduced using non-<span class="hlt">linear</span> ICA [2], the technique failed to re- produce some relevant details of cross-masking as for instance</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Malo, Jesus</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">354</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21366925"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Linear</span> Accelerators</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In <span class="hlt">linear</span> accelerators the particles are accelerated by either electrostatic fields or oscillating Radio Frequency (RF) fields. Accordingly the <span class="hlt">linear</span> accelerators are divided in three large groups: electrostatic, induction and RF accelerators. Overview of the different types of accelerators is given. Stability of longitudinal and transverse motion in the RF <span class="hlt">linear</span> accelerators is briefly discussed. The methods of beam focusing in linacs are described.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sidorin, Anatoly [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Joliot-Curie 6, Dubna (Russian Federation)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-05</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">355</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20619880"> <span id="translatedtitle">Spatial mapping of ozone and SO2 <span class="hlt">trends</span> in Europe.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This article investigates the spatial mapping of temporal <span class="hlt">trends</span> in air quality for all of Europe. Such spatially distributed maps provide information for policy making and for understanding the spatial character of air quality <span class="hlt">trends</span>. Previous <span class="hlt">trend</span> studies have concentrated on individual, or groups of, monitoring sites looking at the <span class="hlt">trends</span> of these. In this study use is made of statistical interpolation methods that combine observed and modelled data in an optimised way. Log-normal residual kriging with multiple <span class="hlt">linear</span> regression is used to produce annual maps of air quality indicators for ozone (AOT40; Accumulated Dose of Ozone Over a Threshold of 40 ppb) and SO(2) (annual mean) for the period 1996-2005. <span class="hlt">Trends</span> in these maps are then calculated and their significance and uncertainty are assessed. The methodology is effectively used for mapping SO(2) <span class="hlt">trends</span> to a significant level in most of Europe. However, <span class="hlt">trends</span> in AOT40 are less clearly defined since the uncertainty is generally of the same order as, or greater than, the calculated <span class="hlt">trends</span>. A general north to south gradient in AOT40 <span class="hlt">trends</span> can be seen, with downward <span class="hlt">trends</span> in the UK and Scandinavia but upward <span class="hlt">trends</span> in the Mediterranean region. PMID:20619880</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Denby, Bruce; Sundvor, Ingrid; Cassiani, Massimo; de Smet, Peter; de Leeuw, Frank; Horlek, Jan</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-09-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">356</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/eimsapi.dispdetail?deid=132541"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">TREND</span> DATA 1971 - 1995</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Trend</span> Data provides information up to 25 years of Veteran Data. Included are social and economic information about veterans, demographical and geographical veteran information, statistical information by veteran program areas and veteran survey information as well as references t...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">357</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.cdc.gov/cancer/ovarian/statistics/trends.htm"> <span id="translatedtitle">Ovarian Cancer <span class="hlt">Trends</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePLUS</a></p> <p class="result-summary">... Lung Prostate Skin Cancer Home Ovarian Cancer <span class="hlt">Trends</span> Language: English Espaol (Spanish) Share Compartir Note: The word ?? ... Cancer Breast Cervical Colorectal (Colon) Lung Prostate Skin Language: English Espaol (Spanish) File Formats Help: How do I ...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">358</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://kuscholarworks.ku.edu/handle/1808/3938"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Trends</span> in LIS Education</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Trends</span> in LIS Education Michle V. Cloonan Dean & Professor Simmons College GSLIS Museum Studies At Pratt: Through the dual-degree [library science & history of art and design], students become art historians and librarians and are able to carry...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Cloonan, Michè le V.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-07-14</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">359</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pbslearningmedia.org/resource/ess05.sci.ess.earthsys.globalqz/"> <span id="translatedtitle">Global <span class="hlt">Trends</span> Quiz</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">All of Earth's living things depend on healthy, life-sustaining ecosystems for their survival. But continued human population growth, combined with the planet's limited supply of natural resources, might generate disastrous consequences for our shared environment. This interactive quiz tests users' knowledge of demographics, population <span class="hlt">trends</span>, consumption, and sources of environmental damage. Annotated answers identify <span class="hlt">trends</span> in both prosperous and less-prosperous nations. A background essay and discussion questions are included.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">360</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19820002751&hterms=yb+detection+limit&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Dyb%2Bdetection%2Blimit"> <span id="translatedtitle">Ozone <span class="hlt">Trend</span> Detectability</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The detection of anthropogenic disturbances in the Earth's ozone layer was studied. Two topics were addressed: (1) the level at which a <span class="hlt">trend</span> in total ozoning is detected by existing data sources; and (2) empirical evidence in the prediction of the depletion in total ozone. Error sources are identified. The predictability of climatological series, whether empirical models can be trusted, and how errors in the Dobson total ozone data impact <span class="hlt">trend</span> detectability, are discussed.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Campbell, J. W. (editor)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1981-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' 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onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">361</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://centaur.reading.ac.uk/31783/1/Vyushin2007.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Impact of long-range correlations on <span class="hlt">trend</span> detection in total ozone</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Impact of long-range correlations on <span class="hlt">trend</span> detection in total ozone 1234567 89A64BC7DEF72B4 F9BC4B725CE9393BE647 #12;Impact of long-range correlations on <span class="hlt">trend</span> detection in total ozone Dmitry I; accepted 28 March 2007; published 24 July 2007. [1] Total ozone <span class="hlt">trends</span> are typically studied using <span class="hlt">linear</span></p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wirosoetisno, Djoko</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">362</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www-pord.ucsd.edu/~sgille/how_to/talk_ucr.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Change in the Southern Sarah Gille</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Change in the Southern Ocean Sarah Gille Scripps Institution of Oceanography Mean difference within 220 km radius: 0.09 ± 0.02C #12;<span class="hlt">Temperature</span> <span class="hlt">Trends</span> (700 to 1100 m depth) Gille, Science, 2002 #12;<span class="hlt">Temperature</span> <span class="hlt">Trends</span> (700 to 1100 m depth) Gille, Science, 2002 #12;<span class="hlt">Trends</span></p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Gille, Sarah T.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">363</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.A43E0323E"> <span id="translatedtitle">Drift-corrected <span class="hlt">Trends</span> and Periodic Variations in MIPAS Ozone Measurements</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">MIPAS was a limb emission mid-infrared spectrometer that was measuring <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and atmospheric constituent profiles from June 2002 to April 2012. Drifts, <span class="hlt">trends</span> and periodic variations were calculated from monthly zonally averaged ozone profiles. The ozone profiles, among those of many other species, were derived from level-1b data of the Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS) by means of the scientific level-2 processor run by Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institute for Meteorlogy and Climate Research (IMK). All <span class="hlt">trend</span> and drift analyses were performed using a parametric <span class="hlt">trend</span> model which includes a <span class="hlt">linear</span> term, the annual and semi-annual oscillation as well as several subharmonics and the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO). Drifts at 2-sigma significance level were mainly negative for ozone relative to Aura/MLS and Odin OSIRIS and negative or near zero for most of the comparisons to Lidar measurements. Lidar stations used here include those at Hohenpeissenberg (47.8N, 11.0E), Lauder (45.0S, 169.7E), Mauna Loa (19.5N, 155.6W), Observatoire Haute Provence (43.9N, 5.7E) and Table Mountain (34.4N, 117.7W). Drifts against ACE-FTS were found to be mostly nonsignificant. Determining these drifts is an important step on the way of providing a solid basis for the results of the <span class="hlt">trend</span> analysis. From the drift analyses we derive that the ozone <span class="hlt">trends</span> might be slighly more positive/less negative in reality than those calculated from the MIPAS data, by conceding the possibility of MIPAS having a very small (approx. within -0.3 ppmv/dec) negative drift for ozone. These findings lead to predominantly near zero or slightly positive ozone <span class="hlt">trends</span> for the time period covered by MIPAS Envisat measurements which is in good agreement with recent literature. Results for the amplitudes of the QBO, AO, and SAO and their latitude/altitude dependence are also in very good agreement with recent literature. Altitude-latitude cross-section of the <span class="hlt">linear</span> variation (<span class="hlt">trend</span>) of the MIPAS time series corrected by the drifts estimated in comparison with Aura MLS. Hatched areas indicate <span class="hlt">trends</span> with less than 2 sigma significance level.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Eckert, E.; von Clarmann, T.; Stiller, G. P.; Lossow, S.; Kiefer, M.; Degenstein, D. A.; Froidevaux, L.; Steinbrecht, W.; Walker, K. A.; Bernath, P. F.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">364</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25384179"> <span id="translatedtitle">The first near-<span class="hlt">linear</span> bis(amide) f-block complex: a blueprint for a high <span class="hlt">temperature</span> single molecule magnet.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We report the first near-<span class="hlt">linear</span> bis(amide) 4f-block compound and show that this novel structure, if implemented with dysprosium(iii), would have unprecedented single molecule magnet (SMM) properties with an energy barrier, Ueff, for reorientation of magnetization of 1800 cm(-1). PMID:25384179</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Chilton, Nicholas F; Goodwin, Conrad A P; Mills, David P; Winpenny, Richard E P</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2015-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">365</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010IEITF..91...22T"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Linearization</span> Method and <span class="hlt">Linear</span> Complexity</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We focus on the relationship between the <span class="hlt">linearization</span> method and <span class="hlt">linear</span> complexity and show that the <span class="hlt">linearization</span> method is another effective technique for calculating <span class="hlt">linear</span> complexity. We analyze its effectiveness by comparing with the logic circuit method. We compare the relevant conditions and necessary computational cost with those of the Berlekamp-Massey algorithm and the Games-Chan algorithm. The significant property of a <span class="hlt">linearization</span> method is that it needs no output sequence from a pseudo-random number generator (PRNG) because it calculates <span class="hlt">linear</span> complexity using the algebraic expression of its algorithm. When a PRNG has n [bit] stages (registers or internal states), the necessary computational cost is smaller than O(2n). On the other hand, the Berlekamp-Massey algorithm needs O(N2) where N(?2n) denotes period. Since existing methods calculate using the output sequence, an initial value of PRNG influences a resultant value of <span class="hlt">linear</span> complexity. Therefore, a <span class="hlt">linear</span> complexity is generally given as an estimate value. On the other hand, a <span class="hlt">linearization</span> method calculates from an algorithm of PRNG, it can determine the lower bound of <span class="hlt">linear</span> complexity.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Tanaka, Hidema</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">366</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/x616855746264k38.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Non-<span class="hlt">linear</span> mixed models for repeated data assessment of time and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> effects on conidia production in the fungus Valdensinia heterodoxa</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Valdensinia heterodoxaPeyr. has potential for application as abiological control agent of salal (Gaultheria shallon Pursh) in regeneratingforests in the Pacific Northwest region ofNorth America. Conidia production of twoisolates of Valdensinia heterodoxa wasexamined at four <span class="hlt">temperature</span> levels during a12-day period. Conidia production was stronglyinfluenced by both <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (with an optimumbetween 16 and 19 C) and time (peakedat day 9). Replicate (five)</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Steen Magnussenn; Susanne Vogelgsang; Simon F. Shamoun</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">367</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/52756083"> <span id="translatedtitle">Experience of developing forecasts of <span class="hlt">trends</span> in development of cryonics</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Cryonics has developed at the junction of solid-state physics, low-<span class="hlt">temperature</span> physics and cryogenic technology. Among the variety of applications of superconductivity in the field of electronics, electrical engineering and machine building, the more promising are the four main <span class="hlt">trends</span>: cryogenic memories, superconducting magnets, superconducting electric transmission lines, sensors and precision measuring devices. This paper discusses these <span class="hlt">trends</span>.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">N. Stepanov</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1974-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">368</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title40-vol33/pdf/CFR-2014-title40-vol33-sec1066-135.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">40 CFR 1066.135 - <span class="hlt">Linearity</span> verification.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p class="result-summary">...verification for chiller <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. We recommend that...simulated reference <span class="hlt">temperature</span> signal below the alarm...CVS flow meter inlet <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. (d) Perform <span class="hlt">linearity</span>...use either osmotic-membrane dryers or...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">369</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19920006242&hterms=gases+emitted+during+human+decomposition&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3D%2528%2528%2528%2528gases%2Bemitted%2529%2Bduring%2529%2Bhuman%2529%2Bdecomposition%2529"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Trends</span> in source gases</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Source gases are defined as those gases that, by their breakdown, introduce into the stratosphere halogen, hydrogen, and nitrogen compounds that are important in stratospheric ozone destruction. Given here is an update of the existing concentration time series for chlorocarbons, nitrous oxide, and methane. Also reviewed is information on halogen containing species and the use of these data for establishing <span class="hlt">trends</span>. Also reviewed is evidence on <span class="hlt">trends</span> in trace gases that influence tropospheric chemistry and thus the tropospheric lifetimes of source gases, such as carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, or nitrogen oxides. Much of the information is given in tabular form.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ehhalt, D. H.; Fraser, P. J.; Albritton, D.; Cicerone, R. J.; Khalil, M. A. K.; Legrand, M.; Makide, Y.; Rowland, F. S.; Steele, L. P.; Zander, R.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1989-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">370</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5928478"> <span id="translatedtitle">Ouachita <span class="hlt">trend</span> signals potential</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper discusses the potential for major oil finds in the Ouachita <span class="hlt">trend</span> of Arkansas and Louisiana. The Ouachita <span class="hlt">trend</span> is part of the Appalachian valley and ridge physiographic province which extends beneath the coastal plain sediments and rocks of a later geologic age. The results of new seismic surveys conducted in this area show that a relatively undisturbed continental margin exists in this area which was not significantly deformed by the Ouachita orogeny. Thrust faults have pushed metamorphic rocks over this continental margin, obscuring its character and preventing any significant drilling activity in the area. However, with this new seismic data, untapped sedimentary basins may actually exist under this metamorphic zone.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Shirley, K.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1991-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">371</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3853563"> <span id="translatedtitle">Forest insects and climate change: long-term <span class="hlt">trends</span> in herbivore damage</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Long-term data sets, covering several decades, could help to reveal the effects of observed climate change on herbivore damage to plants. However, sufficiently long time series in ecology are scarce. The research presented here analyzes a long-term data set collected by the Hungarian Forest Research Institute over the period 19612009. The number of hectares with visible defoliation was estimated and documented for several forest insect pest species. This resulted in a unique time series that provides us with the opportunity to compare insect damage <span class="hlt">trends</span> with <span class="hlt">trends</span> in weather patterns. Data were analyzed for six lepidopteran species: Thaumetopoea processionea, Tortrix viridana, Rhyacionia buoliana, Malacosoma neustria, Euproctis chrysorrhoea, and Lymantria dispar. All these species exhibit outbreak dynamics in Hungary. Five of these species prefer deciduous tree species as their host plants, whereas R. buoliana is a specialist on Pinus spp. The data were analyzed using general <span class="hlt">linear</span> models and generalized least squares regression in relation to mean monthly <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and precipitation. <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> increased considerably, especially over the last 25 years (+1.6C), whereas precipitation exhibited no <span class="hlt">trend</span> over the period. No change in weather variability over time was observed. There was increased damage caused by two species on deciduous trees. The area of damage attributed to R. buoliana decreased over the study period. There was no evidence of increased variability in damage. We conclude that species exhibiting a <span class="hlt">trend</span> toward outbreak-level damage over a greater geographical area may be positively affected by changes in weather conditions coinciding with important life stages. Strong associations between the geographical extent of severe damage and monthly <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and precipitation are difficult to confirm, studying the life-history traits of species could help to increase understanding of responses to climate change. PMID:24324869</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Klapwijk, Maartje J; Cska, Gyrgy; Hirka, Anik; Bjrkman, Christer</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">372</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ThApC.tmp..111M"> <span id="translatedtitle">Crop-climate relationships of cereals in Greece and the impacts of recent climate <span class="hlt">trends</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Notwithstanding technological developments, agricultural production is still affected by uncontrollable factors, such weather and climate. Within this context, the present study aims at exploring the relative influence of growing season climate on the yields of major cereals (hard and soft wheat, maize, and barley) on a regional scale in Greece. To this end, crop-climate relationships and the impacts of climate <span class="hlt">trends</span> over the period 1978-2005 were explored using <span class="hlt">linear</span> regression and change point analysis (CPA). Climate data used include maximum (Tx) and minimum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (Tn), diurnal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> range (Tr), precipitation (Prec), and solar radiation (Rad). <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> effects were the most substantial. Yields reduced by 1.8-7.1 %/C with increasing Tx and by 1.4-6.1 %/C with decreasing Tr. The warming <span class="hlt">trends</span> of Tn caused bilateral yield effects (from -3.7 to 8.4 %/C). The fewer significantly increasing Rad and decreasing Prec anomalies were associated with larger yield decreases (within the range of 2.2 % MJ/m2/day (for maize) to 4.9 % MJ/m2/day (for hard wheat)) and smaller yield increases (from 0.04 to 1.4 %/mm per decade), respectively. Wheat and barleythe most vulnerable cerealswere most affected by the <span class="hlt">trends</span> of extreme <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and least by Tr. On the contrary, solar radiation has proven to be the least affecting climate variable on all cereals. Despite the similarity in the direction of crop responses with both analyses, yield changes were much more substantial in the case of CPA analysis. In conclusion, regional climate change has affected Greek cereal productivity, in a few, but important for cereal production, regions. The results of this study are expected to be valuable in anticipating the effects of weather/climate on other warm regions worldwide, where the upper <span class="hlt">temperature</span> limit for some cereals and further changes in climate may push them past suitability for their cultivation.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Mavromatis, Theodoros</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">373</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=biomedical+AND+engineering&pg=6&id=EJ266259"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Trends</span> in Biomedical Education.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">An analysis of <span class="hlt">trends</span> in biomedical education within chemical education is presented. Data used for the analysis included: type/level of course, subjects taught, and textbook preferences. Results among others of the 1980 survey indicate that 28 out of 79 schools responding offer at least one course in biomedical engineering. (JN)</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Peppas, Nicholas A.; Mallinson, Richard G.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1982-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">374</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=birth+AND+cohorts&pg=5&id=EJ775166"> <span id="translatedtitle">Historical <span class="hlt">Trends</span> in Childlessness</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Changes in the rates of childlessness over time are explored using European, Australian, American, and Japanese data from censuses, national registers, and large-scale surveys. The <span class="hlt">trends</span> are remarkably similar across the countries for which data are available: a peak in childlessness rates for the 1880-1910 birth cohorts, a more or less</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Rowland, Donald T.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">375</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=interior+AND+design+AND+trends&id=EJ609803"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Trends</span> in Interior Environments.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Examines how an understanding of interior design <span class="hlt">trends</span> can help planners address their present and future furniture needs. Examines how new types of construction and their associated concerns are requiring new approaches from the facility designers and manufacturers of product solutions. (GR)</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hovey, Robyn</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2000-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">376</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=language&pg=6&id=ED515624"> <span id="translatedtitle">Language <span class="hlt">Trends</span> 2010 Secondary</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Language <span class="hlt">Trends</span> survey is run jointly each year by CILT, the National Centre for Languages, the Association for Language Learning (ALL) and the Independent Schools Modern Languages Association (ISMLA). In this period of rapid change and policy development, it is vital to have an up to date picture of current issues for languages. Therefore,</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">CILT, the National Centre for Languages, 2010</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">377</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1984Sci...225..587H"> <span id="translatedtitle">Technological <span class="hlt">Trends</span> in Automobiles</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Current technological <span class="hlt">trends</span> in the automotive industry reflect many diverse disciplines. Electronics and microprocessors, new engine transmission concepts, composite and ceramic materials, and computer-aided design and manufacture will combine to make possible the creation of advanced automobiles offering outstanding quality, fuel economy, and performance. A projected ``average'' vehicle of the 1990's is described to illustrate the application of these new concepts.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Horton, Emmett J.; Compton, W. Dale</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1984-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">378</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.optimization-online.org/DB_FILE/2007/09/1791.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">?1 <span class="hlt">Trend</span> Filtering</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We choose the initial slope v1 from a uniform distribution on [?b, b]. ..... {1,...,n}, assumed to consist of a relatively slowly varying spatial <span class="hlt">trend</span> component xi,j and a more ..... Understanding why crime fell in the 1990s: Four factors that explain the.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-09-28</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">379</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5472669"> <span id="translatedtitle">Electric power <span class="hlt">trends</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This book provides information about the forces shaping the electric power industry. It provides data on <span class="hlt">trends</span> in the electric power industry, such as: electric utility ownership; sources of energy; industrial electricity demand; manufacturing energy for heat and power; fossil fuels consumed in electric power generation; electric power transmission; nuclear power plant generators; and residential energy consumption.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Not Available</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1989-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">380</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=roller+AND+coaster&pg=2&id=EJ766356"> <span id="translatedtitle">Five <span class="hlt">Trends</span> for Schools</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The authors look at important demographic <span class="hlt">trends</span> that will have an effect on schools, including roller-coaster enrollments and increasing diversity. For example, compared with 10 years ago, the average child entering a U.S. school today is less likely to live in a family with two married parents but is more likely to have a living grandparent,</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lapkoff, Shelley; Li, Rose Maria</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" 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showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">381</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ucsur.pitt.edu/files/frp/ACEconomicTrends2005.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Allegheny County Economic <span class="hlt">Trends</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">. In 2005, economic activity in Allegheny County is estimated to produce over $77 billion in value added product. This value added production, called Gross Regional Product, accounts for over 72% of whatAllegheny County Economic <span class="hlt">Trends</span> Prepared by: University Center for Social and Urban Research</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sibille, Etienne</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">382</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=data+AND+mining&pg=7&id=EJ786187"> <span id="translatedtitle">Ten Top Tech <span class="hlt">Trends</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this article, the author discusses the major technical issues, products, and practices of the day. The top ten tech <span class="hlt">trends</span> are listed and discussed. These include: (1) data mining; (2) cyberbullying; (3) 21st century skills; (4) digital content; (5) learning at leisure; (6) personal responders; (7) mobile tools; (8) bandwidth; (9) open-source</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">McLester, Susan</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">383</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://cdsweb.cern.ch/record/1746495"> <span id="translatedtitle">Global <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and sunspot numbers. Are they related? Yes, but non <span class="hlt">linearly</span>. A reply to Gil-Alana et al. (2014)</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Gil-Alana et al. (Physica A: 396, 42-50, 2014) compared the sunspot number record and the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> record and found that they differ: the sunspot number record is characterized by a dominant 11-year cycle while the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> record appears to be characterized by a singularity or pole in the spectral density function at the zero frequency. Consequently, they claimed that the two records are characterized by substantially different statistical fractional models and rejected the hypothesis that sun influences significantly global <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. I show that: (1) the "singularity" or "pole" in the spectral density function of the global surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> at the "zero" frequency does not exist - it is a typical misinterpretation that discrete power spectra of non-stationary signals can suggest; (2) appropriate continuous periodograms clarify the issue and also show a signature of the 11-year solar cycle (amplitude <0.1 K), which since 1850 has an average period of about 10.4 year, and of many other natural...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Scafetta, Nicola</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">384</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012JGRD..117.8101M"> <span id="translatedtitle">Quantifying uncertainties in global and regional <span class="hlt">temperature</span> change using an ensemble of observational estimates: The HadCRUT4 data set</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Recent developments in observational near-surface air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and sea-surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> analyses are combined to produce HadCRUT4, a new data set of global and regional <span class="hlt">temperature</span> evolution from 1850 to the present. This includes the addition of newly digitized measurement data, both over land and sea, new sea-surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> bias adjustments and a more comprehensive error model for describing uncertainties in sea-surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> measurements. An ensemble approach has been adopted to better describe complex temporal and spatial interdependencies of measurement and bias uncertainties and to allow these correlated uncertainties to be taken into account in studies that are based upon HadCRUT4. Climate diagnostics computed from the gridded data set broadly agree with those of other global near-surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> analyses. Fitted <span class="hlt">linear</span> <span class="hlt">trends</span> in <span class="hlt">temperature</span> anomalies are approximately 0.07C/decade from 1901 to 2010 and 0.17C/decade from 1979 to 2010 globally. Northern/southern hemispheric <span class="hlt">trends</span> are 0.08/0.07C/decade over 1901 to 2010 and 0.24/0.10C/decade over 1979 to 2010. <span class="hlt">Linear</span> <span class="hlt">trends</span> in other prominent near-surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> analyses agree well with the range of <span class="hlt">trends</span> computed from the HadCRUT4 ensemble members.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Morice, Colin P.; Kennedy, John J.; Rayner, Nick A.; Jones, Phil D.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">385</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.agu.org/journals/jd/jd0411/2004JD004536/2004JD004536.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Can climate <span class="hlt">trends</span> be calculated from reanalysis data?</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Several global quantities are computed from the ERA40 reanalysis for the period 19582001 and explored for <span class="hlt">trends</span>. These are discussed in the context of changes to the global observing system. <span class="hlt">Temperature</span>, integrated water vapor (IWV), and kinetic energy are considered. The ERA40 global mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in the lower troposphere has a <span class="hlt">trend</span> of +0.11 K per decade over the period</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lennart Bengtsson; Stefan Hagemann; Kevin I. Hodges</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">386</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6659054"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Trends</span> in electric power technologies</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Research and development (R and D) on power plants is now aimed at increasing plant efficiency and reliability to avoid the high capital costs of new plant construction. The <span class="hlt">trend</span> toward larger generating plants makes efficiency and reliability even more important. Studies include ways to improve operator judgment and minimize error by feeding continuous in-plant information into models of plant subsystems, efforts to improve fuel conversion efficiency by studying higher-<span class="hlt">temperature</span> thermodynamics, ways to replace existing generators with superconducting generators, and to meet environmental needs with atmospheric fluidized-bed combustion. As fuel costs rise, the US will shift more toward coal and nuclear plants, with research aimed at optimizing performance. (DCK)</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Starr, C.; Lihach, N.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1982-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">387</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70135619"> <span id="translatedtitle">Rising air and stream-water <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> in Chesapeake Bay region, USA</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Monthly mean air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (AT) at 85 sites and instantaneous stream-water <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (WT) at 129 sites for 19602010 are examined for the mid-Atlantic region, USA. <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> anomalies for two periods, 19611985 and 19852010, relative to the climate normal period of 19712000, indicate that the latter period was statistically significantly warmer than the former for both mean AT and WT. Statistically significant temporal <span class="hlt">trends</span> across the region of 0.023C per year for AT and 0.028C per year for WT are detected using simple <span class="hlt">linear</span> regression. Sensitivity analyses show that the irregularly sampled WT data are appropriate for <span class="hlt">trend</span> analyses, resulting in conservative estimates of <span class="hlt">trend</span> magnitude. Relations between 190 landscape factors and significant <span class="hlt">trends</span> in AT-WT relations are examined using principal components analysis. Measures of major dams and deciduous forest are correlated with WT increasing slower than AT, whereas agriculture in the absence of major dams is correlated with WT increasing faster than AT. Increasing WT <span class="hlt">trends</span> are detected despite increasing <span class="hlt">trends</span> in streamflow in the northern part of the study area. Continued warming of contributing streams to Chesapeake Bay likely will result in shifts in distributions of aquatic biota and contribute to worsened eutrophic conditions in the bay and its estuaries.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Rice, Karen C.; Jastram, John D.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2015-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">388</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JGRA..119.4882E"> <span id="translatedtitle">Investigation of the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> gradient instability as the source of midlatitude quiet time decameter-scale ionospheric irregularities: 2. <span class="hlt">Linear</span> analysis</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Previous joint measurements by the Millstone Hill incoherent scatter radar and the Super Dual Auroral Radar Network (SuperDARN) HF radar located at Wallops Island, Virginia, have identified the presence of opposed meridional electron density and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> gradients in the region of decameter-scale electron density irregularities that have been proposed to be responsible for low-velocity Sub-Auroral Ionospheric Scatter observed by SuperDARN radars. The <span class="hlt">temperature</span> gradient instability (TGI) and the gradient drift instability (GDI) have been extended into the kinetic regime appropriate for SuperDARN radar frequencies and investigated as the causes of these irregularities. A time series for the growth rate of both TGI and GDI has been developed for midlatitude ionospheric irregularities observed by SuperDARN Greenwald et al. (2006). The time series is computed for both perpendicular and meridional density and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> gradients. This growth rate comparison shows that the TGI is the most likely generation mechanism for the irregularities observed during the experiment and the GDI is expected to play a relatively minor role in irregularity generation.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Eltrass, A.; Mahmoudian, A.; Scales, W. A.; de Larquier, S.; Ruohoniemi, J. M.; Baker, J. B. H.; Greenwald, R. A.; Erickson, P. J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">389</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/h36079v568318t0t.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">The effect of pressure, <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and composition on the distribution of Fe and Mg between olivine, orthopyroxene and liquid; an appraisal of the reversal in the normal fractionation <span class="hlt">trend</span> in the Bushveld Complex</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The coefficient for iron and magnesium exchange between olivine and liquid is modelled as a function of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in the simple system MgO-FeO-SiO2, and is found to be <span class="hlt">temperature</span> insensitive in the range 1,2001,400 C, but <span class="hlt">temperature</span> sensitive at higher <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. In natural systems silica and the alkalis have a strong effect on the exchange coefficient. This effect is approximated</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Christopher J. Hatton</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1984-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">390</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/53022183"> <span id="translatedtitle">The effect of pressure, <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and composition on the distribution of Fe and Mg between olivine, orthopyroxene and liquid; an appraisal of the reversal in the normal fractionation <span class="hlt">trend</span> in the Bushveld Complex</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The coefficient for iron and magnesium exchange between olivine and liquid is modelled as a function of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in the simple system MgO-FeO-SiO2, and is found to be <span class="hlt">temperature</span> insensitive in the range 1,200 1,400 C, but <span class="hlt">temperature</span> sensitive at higher <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. In natural systems silica and the alkalis have a strong effect on the exchange coefficient. This effect is</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Christopher J. Hatton</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1984-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">391</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24120407"> <span id="translatedtitle">Contrasting temporal <span class="hlt">trend</span> discovery for large healthcare databases.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">With the increased acceptance of electronic health records, we can observe the increasing interest in the application of data mining approaches within this field. This study introduces a novel approach for exploring and comparing temporal <span class="hlt">trends</span> within different in-patient subgroups, which is based on associated rule mining using Apriori algorithm and <span class="hlt">linear</span> model-based recursive partitioning. The Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS), Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP), Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality was used to evaluate the proposed approach. This study presents a novel approach where visual analytics on big data is used for <span class="hlt">trend</span> discovery in form of a regression tree with scatter plots in the leaves of the tree. The <span class="hlt">trend</span> lines are used for directly comparing <span class="hlt">linear</span> <span class="hlt">trends</span> within a specified time frame. Our results demonstrate the existence of opposite <span class="hlt">trends</span> in relation to age and sex based subgroups that would be impossible to discover using traditional <span class="hlt">trend</span>-tracking techniques. Such an approach can be employed regarding decision support applications for policy makers when organizing campaigns or by hospital management for observing <span class="hlt">trends</span> that cannot be directly discovered using traditional analytical techniques. PMID:24120407</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hrovat, Goran; Stiglic, Gregor; Kokol, Peter; Ojsterek, Milan</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">392</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6834004"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Trends</span> in motor gasolines: 1942-1981</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Trends</span> in motor gasolines for the years of 1942 through 1981 have been evaluated based upon data contained in surveys that have been prepared and published by the Bartlesville Energy Technology Center (BETC). These surveys have been published twice annually since 1935 describing the properties of motor gasolines from throughout the country. The surveys have been conducted in cooperation with the American Petroleum Institute (API) since 1948. Various companies from throughout the country obtain samples from retail outlets, analyze the samples by the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) procedures, and report data to the Bartlesville center for compilation, tabulation, calculation, analysis and publication. A typical motor gasoline report covers 2400 samples from service stations throughout the country representing some 48 companies that manufacture and supply gasoline. The reports include <span class="hlt">trend</span> charts, octane plots, and tables of test results from about a dozen different tests. From these data in 77 semiannual surveys, a summary report has thus been assembled that shows <span class="hlt">trends</span> in motor gasolines throughout the entire era of winter 1942 to 1943 to the present. <span class="hlt">Trends</span> of physical properties including octane numbers, antiknock ratings, distillation <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, Reid vapor pressure, sulfur and lead content are tabulated, plotted and discussed in the current report. Also included are <span class="hlt">trend</span> effects of technological advances and the interactions of engine design, societal and political events and prices upon motor gasoline evolution during the 40 year period.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Shelton, E M; Whisman, M L; Woodward, P W</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1982-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">393</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20020088709&hterms=Cunnold&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3DCunnold"> <span id="translatedtitle">Upper-Stratospheric Ozone <span class="hlt">Trends</span> 1979-1998</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http:/