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Sample records for linearized analysis sur

  1. Generalized Linear Covariance Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carpenter, James R.; Markley, F. Landis

    2014-01-01

    This talk presents a comprehensive approach to filter modeling for generalized covariance analysis of both batch least-squares and sequential estimators. We review and extend in two directions the results of prior work that allowed for partitioning of the state space into solve-for'' and consider'' parameters, accounted for differences between the formal values and the true values of the measurement noise, process noise, and textita priori solve-for and consider covariances, and explicitly partitioned the errors into subspaces containing only the influence of the measurement noise, process noise, and solve-for and consider covariances. In this work, we explicitly add sensitivity analysis to this prior work, and relax an implicit assumption that the batch estimator's epoch time occurs prior to the definitive span. We also apply the method to an integrated orbit and attitude problem, in which gyro and accelerometer errors, though not estimated, influence the orbit determination performance. We illustrate our results using two graphical presentations, which we call the variance sandpile'' and the sensitivity mosaic,'' and we compare the linear covariance results to confidence intervals associated with ensemble statistics from a Monte Carlo analysis.

  2. Generalized Linear Covariance Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carpenter, J. Russell; Markley, F. Landis

    2008-01-01

    We review and extend in two directions the results of prior work on generalized covariance analysis methods. This prior work allowed for partitioning of the state space into "solve-for" and "consider" parameters, allowed for differences between the formal values and the true values of the measurement noise, process noise, and a priori solve-for and consider covariances, and explicitly partitioned the errors into subspaces containing only the influence of the measurement noise, process noise, and a priori solve-for and consider covariances. In this work, we explicitly add sensitivity analysis to this prior work, and relax an implicit assumption that the batch estimator s anchor time occurs prior to the definitive span. We also apply the method to an integrated orbit and attitude problem, in which gyro and accelerometer errors, though not estimated, influence the orbit determination performance. We illustrate our results using two graphical presentations, which we call the "variance sandpile" and the "sensitivity mosaic," and we compare the linear covariance results to confidence intervals associated with ensemble statistics from a Monte Carlo analysis.

  3. Linear Algebraic Method for Non-Linear Map Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Yu,L.; Nash, B.

    2009-05-04

    We present a newly developed method to analyze some non-linear dynamics problems such as the Henon map using a matrix analysis method from linear algebra. Choosing the Henon map as an example, we analyze the spectral structure, the tune-amplitude dependence, the variation of tune and amplitude during the particle motion, etc., using the method of Jordan decomposition which is widely used in conventional linear algebra.

  4. Linearized ray-trace analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Redding, David C.; Breckenridge, William G.

    1990-01-01

    A new, coordinate-free version of the exact ray-trace equations for optical systems consisting of conic reflecting, refracting and reference surfaces is presented. These equations are differentiated to obtain closed-form optical sensitivity dyadics. For computation, the sensitivities are evaluated in a single global coordinate frame and combined in linearized ray-trace matrix difference equations that propagate the rays and the sensitivities from element to element. One purpose of this analysis is to create optical models that can be directly integrated with models of the instrument structure and control systems for dynamic simulation.

  5. Cluster Analysis by Linear Contrasts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shafto, Michael

    The purpose of this paper is to suggest a technique of cluster analysis which is similar in aim to the Interactive Intercolumnar Correlation Analysis (IICA), though different in detail. Two methods are proposed for extracting a single bipolar factor (a "contrast compenent") directly from the initial similarities matrix. The advantages of this…

  6. Linear covariance analysis for gimbaled pointing systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christensen, Randall S.

    Linear covariance analysis has been utilized in a wide variety of applications. Historically, the theory has made significant contributions to navigation system design and analysis. More recently, the theory has been extended to capture the combined effect of navigation errors and closed-loop control on the performance of the system. These advancements have made possible rapid analysis and comprehensive trade studies of complicated systems ranging from autonomous rendezvous to vehicle ascent trajectory analysis. Comprehensive trade studies are also needed in the area of gimbaled pointing systems where the information needs are different from previous applications. It is therefore the objective of this research to extend the capabilities of linear covariance theory to analyze the closed-loop navigation and control of a gimbaled pointing system. The extensions developed in this research include modifying the linear covariance equations to accommodate a wider variety of controllers. This enables the analysis of controllers common to gimbaled pointing systems, with internal states and associated dynamics as well as actuator command filtering and auxiliary controller measurements. The second extension is the extraction of power spectral density estimates from information available in linear covariance analysis. This information is especially important to gimbaled pointing systems where not just the variance but also the spectrum of the pointing error impacts the performance. The extended theory is applied to a model of a gimbaled pointing system which includes both flexible and rigid body elements as well as input disturbances, sensor errors, and actuator errors. The results of the analysis are validated by direct comparison to a Monte Carlo-based analysis approach. Once the developed linear covariance theory is validated, analysis techniques that are often prohibitory with Monte Carlo analysis are used to gain further insight into the system. These include the creation

  7. Reachability analysis of rational eigenvalue linear systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Ming; Chen, Liangyu; Zeng, Zhenbing; Li, Zhi-bin

    2010-12-01

    One of the key problems in the safety analysis of control systems is the exact computation of reachable state spaces for continuous-time systems. Issues related to the controllability and observability of these systems are well-studied in systems theory. However, there are not many results on reachability, even for general linear systems. In this study, we present a large class of linear systems with decidable reachable state spaces. This is approached by reducing the reachability analysis to real root isolation of exponential polynomials. Furthermore, we have implemented this method in a Maple package based on symbolic computation and applied to several examples successfully.

  8. Thermal analysis of a linear infrared lamp

    SciTech Connect

    Nakos, J.T.

    1982-01-01

    A theoretical and experimental analysis of an infrared lamp is presented based on radiant heat transfer theory. The analysis is performed on a specific type of linear lamp which has a coiled tungsten filament surrounded by a fused quartz envelope. The purpose of the study was to model the lamp thermally, not electrically, to arrive at a better understanding of the operation of the lamp.

  9. Numerical analysis method for linear induction machines.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elliott, D. G.

    1972-01-01

    A numerical analysis method has been developed for linear induction machines such as liquid metal MHD pumps and generators and linear motors. Arbitrary phase currents or voltages can be specified and the moving conductor can have arbitrary velocity and conductivity variations from point to point. The moving conductor is divided into a mesh and coefficients are calculated for the voltage induced at each mesh point by unit current at every other mesh point. Combining the coefficients with the mesh resistances yields a set of simultaneous equations which are solved for the unknown currents.

  10. Linear digital imaging system fidelity analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, Stephen K.

    1989-01-01

    The combined effects of imaging gathering, sampling and reconstruction are analyzed in terms of image fidelity. The analysis is based upon a standard end-to-end linear system model which is sufficiently general so that the results apply to most line-scan and sensor-array imaging systems. Shift-variant sampling effects are accounted for with an expected value analysis based upon the use of a fixed deterministic input scene which is randomly shifted (mathematically) relative to the sampling grid. This random sample-scene phase approach has been used successfully by the author and associates in several previous related papers.

  11. Visual Analysis and Dissemination of Scientific Literature Collections with SurVis.

    PubMed

    Beck, Fabian; Koch, Sebastian; Weiskopf, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Bibliographic data such as collections of scientific articles and citation networks have been studied extensively in information visualization and visual analytics research. Powerful systems have been built to support various types of bibliographic analysis, but they require some training and cannot be used to disseminate the insights gained. In contrast, we focused on developing a more accessible visual analytics system, called SurVis, that is ready to disseminate a carefully surveyed literature collection. The authors of a survey may use our Web-based system to structure and analyze their literature database. Later, readers of the survey can obtain an overview, quickly retrieve specific publications, and reproduce or extend the original bibliographic analysis. Our system employs a set of selectors that enable users to filter and browse the literature collection as well as to control interactive visualizations. The versatile selector concept includes selectors for textual search, filtering by keywords and meta-information, selection and clustering of similar publications, and following citation links. Agreement to the selector is represented by word-sized sparkline visualizations seamlessly integrated into the user interface. Based on an analysis of the analytical reasoning process, we derived requirements for the system. We developed the system in a formative way involving other researchers writing literature surveys. A questionnaire study with 14 visual analytics experts confirms that SurVis meets the initially formulated requirements. PMID:26529698

  12. Linear Covariance Analysis and Epoch State Estimators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markley, F. Landis; Carpenter, J. Russell

    2012-01-01

    This paper extends in two directions the results of prior work on generalized linear covariance analysis of both batch least-squares and sequential estimators. The first is an improved treatment of process noise in the batch, or epoch state, estimator with an epoch time that may be later than some or all of the measurements in the batch. The second is to account for process noise in specifying the gains in the epoch state estimator. We establish the conditions under which the latter estimator is equivalent to the Kalman filter.

  13. Linear Covariance Analysis and Epoch State Estimators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markley, F. Landis; Carpenter, J. Russell

    2014-01-01

    This paper extends in two directions the results of prior work on generalized linear covariance analysis of both batch least-squares and sequential estimators. The first is an improved treatment of process noise in the batch, or epoch state, estimator with an epoch time that may be later than some or all of the measurements in the batch. The second is to account for process noise in specifying the gains in the epoch state estimator. We establish the conditions under which the latter estimator is equivalent to the Kalman filter.

  14. Runtime Analysis of Linear Temporal Logic Specifications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giannakopoulou, Dimitra; Havelund, Klaus

    2001-01-01

    This report presents an approach to checking a running program against its Linear Temporal Logic (LTL) specifications. LTL is a widely used logic for expressing properties of programs viewed as sets of executions. Our approach consists of translating LTL formulae to finite-state automata, which are used as observers of the program behavior. The translation algorithm we propose modifies standard LTL to B chi automata conversion techniques to generate automata that check finite program traces. The algorithm has been implemented in a tool, which has been integrated with the generic JPaX framework for runtime analysis of Java programs.

  15. A Navigational Analysis of Linear and Non-Linear Hypermedia Interfaces.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Richard H.; Balestra, Joel; Davis, Miles

    The purpose of this experiment was to assess the effectiveness of a comprehensive model for the analysis of hypermap navigation patterns through a comparison of navigation patterns associated with a traditional linear interface versus a non-linear "hypermap" interface. Twenty-six general psychology university students studied material on bipolar…

  16. Double Linear Damage Rule for Fatigue Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halford, G.; Manson, S.

    1985-01-01

    Double Linear Damage Rule (DLDR) method for use by structural designers to determine fatigue-crack-initiation life when structure subjected to unsteady, variable-amplitude cyclic loadings. Method calculates in advance of service how many loading cycles imposed on structural component before macroscopic crack initiates. Approach eventually used in design of high performance systems and incorporated into design handbooks and codes.

  17. Advanced analysis technique for the evaluation of linear alternators and linear motors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holliday, Jeffrey C.

    1995-12-01

    A method for the mathematical analysis of linear alternator and linear motor devices and designs is described, and an example of its use is included. The technique seeks to surpass other methods of analysis by including more rigorous treatment of phenomena normally omitted or coarsely approximated such as eddy braking, non-linear material properties, and power losses generated within structures surrounding the device. The technique is broadly applicable to linear alternators and linear motors involving iron yoke structures and moving permanent magnets. The technique involves the application of Amperian current equivalents to the modeling of the moving permanent magnet components within a finite element formulation. The resulting steady state and transient mode field solutions can simultaneously account for the moving and static field sources within and around the device.

  18. Advanced analysis technique for the evaluation of linear alternators and linear motors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holliday, Jeffrey C.

    1995-01-01

    A method for the mathematical analysis of linear alternator and linear motor devices and designs is described, and an example of its use is included. The technique seeks to surpass other methods of analysis by including more rigorous treatment of phenomena normally omitted or coarsely approximated such as eddy braking, non-linear material properties, and power losses generated within structures surrounding the device. The technique is broadly applicable to linear alternators and linear motors involving iron yoke structures and moving permanent magnets. The technique involves the application of Amperian current equivalents to the modeling of the moving permanent magnet components within a finite element formulation. The resulting steady state and transient mode field solutions can simultaneously account for the moving and static field sources within and around the device.

  19. Employment of CB models for non-linear dynamic analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klein, M. R. M.; Deloo, P.; Fournier-Sicre, A.

    1990-01-01

    The non-linear dynamic analysis of large structures is always very time, effort and CPU consuming. Whenever possible the reduction of the size of the mathematical model involved is of main importance to speed up the computational procedures. Such reduction can be performed for the part of the structure which perform linearly. Most of the time, the classical Guyan reduction process is used. For non-linear dynamic process where the non-linearity is present at interfaces between different structures, Craig-Bampton models can provide a very rich information, and allow easy selection of the relevant modes with respect to the phenomenon driving the non-linearity. The paper presents the employment of Craig-Bampton models combined with Newmark direct integration for solving non-linear friction problems appearing at the interface between the Hubble Space Telescope and its solar arrays during in-orbit maneuvers. Theory, implementation in the FEM code ASKA, and practical results are shown.

  20. Bounded Linear Stability Margin Analysis of Nonlinear Hybrid Adaptive Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Nhan T.; Boskovic, Jovan D.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a bounded linear stability analysis for a hybrid adaptive control that blends both direct and indirect adaptive control. Stability and convergence of nonlinear adaptive control are analyzed using an approximate linear equivalent system. A stability margin analysis shows that a large adaptive gain can lead to a reduced phase margin. This method can enable metrics-driven adaptive control whereby the adaptive gain is adjusted to meet stability margin requirements.

  1. A linearized Euler analysis of unsteady transonic flows in turbomachinery

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, K.C.; Clark, W.S.; Lorence, C.B. . Dept. of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science)

    1994-07-01

    A computational method for efficiently predicting unsteady transonic flows in two- and three-dimensional cascades is presented. The unsteady flow is modeled using a linearized Euler analysis whereby the unsteady flow field is decomposed into a nonlinear mean flow plus a linear harmonically varying unsteady flow. The equations that govern the perturbation flow, the linearized Euler equations, are linear variable coefficient equations. For transonic flows containing shocks, shock capturing is used to model the shock impulse (the unsteady load due to the harmonic motion of the shock). A conservative Lax-Wendroff scheme is used to obtain a set of linearized finite volume equations that describe the harmonic small disturbance behavior of the flow. Conditions under which such a discretization will correctly predict the shock impulse are investigated. Computational results are presented that demonstrate the accuracy and efficiency of the present method as well as the essential role of unsteady shock impulse loads on the flutter stability of fans.

  2. Virtual Estimator for Piecewise Linear Systems Based on Observability Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Morales-Morales, Cornelio; Adam-Medina, Manuel; Cervantes, Ilse; Vela-Valdés and, Luis G.; García Beltrán, Carlos Daniel

    2013-01-01

    This article proposes a virtual sensor for piecewise linear systems based on observability analysis that is in function of a commutation law related with the system's outpu. This virtual sensor is also known as a state estimator. Besides, it presents a detector of active mode when the commutation sequences of each linear subsystem are arbitrary and unknown. For the previous, this article proposes a set of virtual estimators that discern the commutation paths of the system and allow estimating their output. In this work a methodology in order to test the observability for piecewise linear systems with discrete time is proposed. An academic example is presented to show the obtained results. PMID:23447007

  3. A failsafe analysis using NASTRAN's piecewise linear analysis and a nine node linear crack element

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkinson, R. F.; Kelley, J. W.

    1975-01-01

    A two-dimensional crack element was implemented into NASTRAN as a user dummy element and used to study failsafe characteristics of the C5A fuselage. The element is formulated from Reitsner's functional requiring that it satisfy compatability with the linear boundary displacement elements in NASTRAN. Its accuracy is demonstrated by analyzing for the stress intensity factors of two simple crack configurations for which there are classic solutions.

  4. Mathematical modelling and linear stability analysis of laser fusion cutting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hermanns, Torsten; Schulz, Wolfgang; Vossen, Georg; Thombansen, Ulrich

    2016-06-01

    A model for laser fusion cutting is presented and investigated by linear stability analysis in order to study the tendency for dynamic behavior and subsequent ripple formation. The result is a so called stability function that describes the correlation of the setting values of the process and the process' amount of dynamic behavior.

  5. Linear regression analysis of survival data with missing censoring indicators.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qihua; Dinse, Gregg E

    2011-04-01

    Linear regression analysis has been studied extensively in a random censorship setting, but typically all of the censoring indicators are assumed to be observed. In this paper, we develop synthetic data methods for estimating regression parameters in a linear model when some censoring indicators are missing. We define estimators based on regression calibration, imputation, and inverse probability weighting techniques, and we prove all three estimators are asymptotically normal. The finite-sample performance of each estimator is evaluated via simulation. We illustrate our methods by assessing the effects of sex and age on the time to non-ambulatory progression for patients in a brain cancer clinical trial. PMID:20559722

  6. Real-time linear predictive analysis of speech using multimicroprocessors

    SciTech Connect

    Seethardman, S.; Radhakrishnan, T.; Suen, C.Y.

    1982-01-01

    Many applications of linear predictive coding (often known as LPC) of speech signals require a system capable of performing the complete LPC analysis in real time. This paper describes a pipeline network consisting of several general purpose microprocessors, primarily suitable for complete LPC analysis of a 10-pole model with a sampling frequency of 10 khz and a frame rate of 100 hz in real time. The proposed system is different from the previous systems, which either employed special purpose hardware or produced an analysis at a lower frame rate. 27 references.

  7. Functional linear models for association analysis of quantitative traits.

    PubMed

    Fan, Ruzong; Wang, Yifan; Mills, James L; Wilson, Alexander F; Bailey-Wilson, Joan E; Xiong, Momiao

    2013-11-01

    Functional linear models are developed in this paper for testing associations between quantitative traits and genetic variants, which can be rare variants or common variants or the combination of the two. By treating multiple genetic variants of an individual in a human population as a realization of a stochastic process, the genome of an individual in a chromosome region is a continuum of sequence data rather than discrete observations. The genome of an individual is viewed as a stochastic function that contains both linkage and linkage disequilibrium (LD) information of the genetic markers. By using techniques of functional data analysis, both fixed and mixed effect functional linear models are built to test the association between quantitative traits and genetic variants adjusting for covariates. After extensive simulation analysis, it is shown that the F-distributed tests of the proposed fixed effect functional linear models have higher power than that of sequence kernel association test (SKAT) and its optimal unified test (SKAT-O) for three scenarios in most cases: (1) the causal variants are all rare, (2) the causal variants are both rare and common, and (3) the causal variants are common. The superior performance of the fixed effect functional linear models is most likely due to its optimal utilization of both genetic linkage and LD information of multiple genetic variants in a genome and similarity among different individuals, while SKAT and SKAT-O only model the similarities and pairwise LD but do not model linkage and higher order LD information sufficiently. In addition, the proposed fixed effect models generate accurate type I error rates in simulation studies. We also show that the functional kernel score tests of the proposed mixed effect functional linear models are preferable in candidate gene analysis and small sample problems. The methods are applied to analyze three biochemical traits in data from the Trinity Students Study. PMID:24130119

  8. Linear Analysis of Drift Ballooning Modes in Tokamak Edge Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tangri, Varun; Kritz, Arnold; Rafiq, Tariq; Pankin, Alexei

    2012-10-01

    The H-mode pedestal structure depends on the linear stability of drift ballooning modes (DBMs) in many H-mode pedestal models. Integrated modeling that uses these pedestal models requires fast evaluation of linear stability of DBMs. Linear analysis of DBMs is also needed in the computations of effective diffusivities associated with anomalous transport that is driven by the DBMs in tokamak edge plasmas. In this study several numerical techniques of linear analysis of the DBMs are investigated. Differentiation matrix based spectral methods are used to compute the physical eigenvalues of the DBMs. The model for DBMs used here consists of six differential equations [T. Rafiq et al. Phys. Plasmas, 17, 082511, (2010)]. It is important to differentiate among non-physical (numerical) modes and physical modes. The determination of the number of eigenvalues is solved by a computation of the `nearest' and `ordinal' distances. The Finite Difference, Hermite and Sinc based differentiation matrices are used. It is shown that spectral collocation methods are more accurate than finite difference methods. The technique that has been developed for calculating eigenvalues is quite general and is relevant in the computation of other modes that utilize the ballooning mode formalism.

  9. Linear stability analysis of swirling turbulent flows with turbulence models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Vikrant; Juniper, Matthew

    2013-11-01

    In this paper, we consider the growth of large scale coherent structures in turbulent flows by performing linear stability analysis around a mean flow. Turbulent flows are characterized by fine-scale stochastic perturbations. The momentum transfer caused by these perturbations affects the development of larger structures. Therefore, in a linear stability analysis, it is important to include the perturbations' influence. One way to do this is to include a turbulence model in the stability analysis. This is done in the literature by using eddy viscosity models (EVMs), which are first order turbulence models. We extend this approach by using second order turbulence models, in this case explicit algebraic Reynolds stress models (EARSMs). EARSMs are more versatile than EVMs, in that they can be applied to a wider range of flows, and could also be more accurate. We verify our EARSM-based analysis by applying it to a channel flow and then comparing the results with those from an EVM-based analysis. We then apply the EARSM-based stability analysis to swirling pipe flows and Taylor-Couette flows, which demonstrates the main benefit of EARSM-based analysis. This project is supported by EPSRC and Rolls-Royce through a Dorothy Hodgkin Research Fellowship.

  10. Linear and non-linear deflection analysis of thick rectangular plates. 2: Numerical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bencharif, N.; Ng, S. F.

    1994-03-01

    Variational methods are widely used for the solution of complex differential equations in mechanics for which exact solutions are not possible. The finite difference method, although well known as an efficient numerical method, was applied in the past only for the analysis of linear and non-linear thin plates. In this paper the suitability of the method for the analysis of non-linear deflection of thick plates is studied for the first time. While there are major differences between small deflection and large deflection plate theories, the former can be treated as a particular case of the latter, when the centre deflection of the plate is less than or equal to 0.2-0.25 of the thickness of the plate. The finite difference method as applied here is a modified finite difference approach to the ordinary finite difference method generally used for the solution of thin plate problems. In this analysis thin plates are treated as a particular case of the corresponding thick plate when the boundary conditions of the plates are taken into account. The method is first applied to investigate the deflection behaviour of clamped and simply supported square isotropic thick plates. After the validity of the method is established, it is then extended to the solution of rectangular thick plates of various aspect ratios and thicknesses. Generally, beginning with the use of a limited number of mesh sizes for a given plate aspect ratio and boundary conditions, a general solution of the problem including the investigation of accuracy and convergence was extended to rectangular thick plates by providing more detailed functions satisfying the rectangular mesh sizes generated automatically by the program. Whenever possible results obtained by the present method are compared with existing solutions in the technical literature obtained by much more laborious methods and close agreements are found. The significant number of results presented here are not currently available in the technical

  11. [Relations between biomedical variables: mathematical analysis or linear algebra?].

    PubMed

    Hucher, M; Berlie, J; Brunet, M

    1977-01-01

    The authors, after a short reminder of one pattern's structure, stress on the possible double approach of relations uniting the variables of this pattern: use of fonctions, what is within the mathematical analysis sphere, use of linear algebra profiting by matricial calculation's development and automatiosation. They precise the respective interests on these methods, their bounds and the imperatives for utilization, according to the kind of variables, of data, and the objective for work, understanding phenomenons or helping towards decision. PMID:922174

  12. Credibility analysis of risk classes by generalized linear model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erdemir, Ovgucan Karadag; Sucu, Meral

    2016-06-01

    In this paper generalized linear model (GLM) and credibility theory which are frequently used in nonlife insurance pricing are combined for reliability analysis. Using full credibility standard, GLM is associated with limited fluctuation credibility approach. Comparison criteria such as asymptotic variance and credibility probability are used to analyze the credibility of risk classes. An application is performed by using one-year claim frequency data of a Turkish insurance company and results of credible risk classes are interpreted.

  13. The stratospheric response to external factors based on MERRA data using linear multivariate linear regression analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozubek, M.; Rozanov, E.; Krizan, P.

    2014-09-01

    The stratosphere is influenced by many external forcings (natural or anthropogenic). There are many studies which are focused on this problem and that is why we can compare our results with them. This study is focused on the variability and trends of temperature and circulation characteristics (zonal and meridional wind component) in connection with different phenomena variation in the stratosphere and lower mesosphere. We consider the interactions between the troposphere-stratosphere-lower mesosphere system and external and internal phenomena, e.g. solar cycle, QBO, NAO or ENSO using multiple linear techniques. The analysis was applied to the period 1979-2012 based on the current reanalysis data, mainly the MERRA reanalysis dataset (Modern Era Retrospective-analysis for Research and Applications) for pressure levels: 1000-0.1 hPa. We do not find a strong temperature signal for solar flux over the tropics about 30 hPa (ERA-40 results) but the strong positive signal has been observed near stratopause almost in the whole analyzed area. This could indicate that solar forcing is not represented well in the higher pressure levels in MERRA. The analysis of ENSO and ENSO Modoki shows that we should take into account more than one ENSO index for similar analysis. Previous studies show that the volcanic activity is important parameter. The signal of volcanic activity in MERRA is very weak and insignificant.

  14. Testing the assumptions of linear prediction analysis in normal vowels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Little, M. A.

    This paper develops an improved surrogate data test to show experimental evidence, for all the simple vowels of US English, for both male and female speakers, that Gaussian linear prediction analysis, a ubiquitous technique in current speech technologies, cannot be used to extract all the dynamical structure of real speech time series. The test provides robust evidence undermining the validity of these linear techniques, supporting the assumptions of either dynamical nonlinearity and/or non-Gaussianity common to more recent, complex, efforts at dynamical modelling speech time series. However, an additional finding is that the classical assumptions cannot be ruled out entirely, and plausible evidence is given to explain the success of the linear Gaussian theory as a weak approximation to the true, nonlinear/non-Gaussian dynamics. This supports the use of appropriate hybrid linear/nonlinear/non-Gaussian modelling. With a calibrated calculation of statistic and particular choice of experimental protocol, some of the known systematic problems of the method of surrogate data testing are circumvented to obtain results to support the conclusions to a high level of significance.

  15. A linearized Euler analysis of unsteady flows in turbomachinery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Kenneth C.; Crawley, Edward F.

    1987-01-01

    A method for calculating unsteady flows in cascades is presented. The model, which is based on the linearized unsteady Euler equations, accounts for blade loading shock motion, wake motion, and blade geometry. The mean flow through the cascade is determined by solving the full nonlinear Euler equations. Assuming the unsteadiness in the flow is small, then the Euler equations are linearized about the mean flow to obtain a set of linear variable coefficient equations which describe the small amplitude, harmonic motion of the flow. These equations are discretized on a computational grid via a finite volume operator and solved directly subject to an appropriate set of linearized boundary conditions. The steady flow, which is calculated prior to the unsteady flow, is found via a Newton iteration procedure. An important feature of the analysis is the use of shock fitting to model steady and unsteady shocks. Use of the Euler equations with the unsteady Rankine-Hugoniot shock jump conditions correctly models the generation of steady and unsteady entropy and vorticity at shocks. In particular, the low frequency shock displacement is correctly predicted. Results of this method are presented for a variety of test cases. Predicted unsteady transonic flows in channels are compared to full nonlinear Euler solutions obtained using time-accurate, time-marching methods. The agreement between the two methods is excellent for small to moderate levels of flow unsteadiness. The method is also used to predict unsteady flows in cascades due to blade motion (flutter problem) and incoming disturbances (gust response problem).

  16. Density functional steric analysis of linear and branched alkanes.

    PubMed

    Ess, Daniel H; Liu, Shubin; De Proft, Frank

    2010-12-16

    Branched alkane hydrocarbons are thermodynamically more stable than straight-chain linear alkanes. This thermodynamic stability is also manifest in alkane bond separation energies. To understand the physical differences between branched and linear alkanes, we have utilized a novel density functional theory (DFT) definition of steric energy based on the Weizäcker kinetic energy. Using the M06-2X functional, the total DFT energy was partitioned into a steric energy term (E(s)[ρ]), an electrostatic energy term (E(e)[ρ]), and a fermionic quantum energy term (E(q)[ρ]). This analysis revealed that branched alkanes have less (destabilizing) DFT steric energy than linear alkanes. The lower steric energy of branched alkanes is mitigated by an equal and opposite quantum energy term that contains the Pauli component of the kinetic energy and exchange-correlation energy. Because the steric and quantum energy terms cancel, this leaves the electrostatic energy term that favors alkane branching. Electrostatic effects, combined with correlation energy, explains why branched alkanes are more stable than linear alkanes. PMID:21086970

  17. A linearized Euler analysis of unsteady flows in turbomachinery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, Kenneth C.; Crawley, Edward F.

    1987-06-01

    A method for calculating unsteady flows in cascades is presented. The model, which is based on the linearized unsteady Euler equations, accounts for blade loading shock motion, wake motion, and blade geometry. The mean flow through the cascade is determined by solving the full nonlinear Euler equations. Assuming the unsteadiness in the flow is small, then the Euler equations are linearized about the mean flow to obtain a set of linear variable coefficient equations which describe the small amplitude, harmonic motion of the flow. These equations are discretized on a computational grid via a finite volume operator and solved directly subject to an appropriate set of linearized boundary conditions. The steady flow, which is calculated prior to the unsteady flow, is found via a Newton iteration procedure. An important feature of the analysis is the use of shock fitting to model steady and unsteady shocks. Use of the Euler equations with the unsteady Rankine-Hugoniot shock jump conditions correctly models the generation of steady and unsteady entropy and vorticity at shocks. In particular, the low frequency shock displacement is correctly predicted. Results of this method are presented for a variety of test cases. Predicted unsteady transonic flows in channels are compared to full nonlinear Euler solutions obtained using time-accurate, time-marching methods. The agreement between the two methods is excellent for small to moderate levels of flow unsteadiness. The method is also used to predict unsteady flows in cascades due to blade motion (flutter problem) and incoming disturbances (gust response problem).

  18. Density Functional Steric Analysis of Linear and Branched Alkanes

    SciTech Connect

    Ess, Daniel H.; Liu, Shubin; De Proft, Frank

    2010-11-18

    Branched alkane hydrocarbons are thermodynamically more stable than straight-chain linear alkanes. This thermodynamic stability is also manifest in alkane bond separation energies. To understand the physical differences between branched and linear alkanes, we have utilized a novel density functional theory (DFT) definition of steric energy based on the Weizäcker kinetic energy. Using the M06-2X functional, the total DFT energy was partitioned into a steric energy term (Ee[[ρ]), an electrostatic energy term (Ee[ρ]), and a fermionic quantum energy term (Eq[[ρ]). This analysis revealed that branched alkanes have less (destabilizing) DFT steric energy than linear alkanes. The lower steric energy of branched alkanes is mitigated by an equal and opposite quantum energy term that contains the Pauli component of the kinetic energy and exchange-correlation energy. Because the steric and quantum energy terms cancel, this leaves the electrostatic energy term that favors alkane branching. Electrostatic effects, combined with correlation energy, explains why branched alkanes are more stable than linear alkanes.

  19. Feasible logic Bell-state analysis with linear optics.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Lan; Sheng, Yu-Bo

    2016-01-01

    We describe a feasible logic Bell-state analysis protocol by employing the logic entanglement to be the robust concatenated Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (C-GHZ) state. This protocol only uses polarization beam splitters and half-wave plates, which are available in current experimental technology. We can conveniently identify two of the logic Bell states. This protocol can be easily generalized to the arbitrary C-GHZ state analysis. We can also distinguish two N-logic-qubit C-GHZ states. As the previous theory and experiment both showed that the C-GHZ state has the robustness feature, this logic Bell-state analysis and C-GHZ state analysis may be essential for linear-optical quantum computation protocols whose building blocks are logic-qubit entangled state. PMID:26877208

  20. Feasible logic Bell-state analysis with linear optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Lan; Sheng, Yu-Bo

    2016-02-01

    We describe a feasible logic Bell-state analysis protocol by employing the logic entanglement to be the robust concatenated Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (C-GHZ) state. This protocol only uses polarization beam splitters and half-wave plates, which are available in current experimental technology. We can conveniently identify two of the logic Bell states. This protocol can be easily generalized to the arbitrary C-GHZ state analysis. We can also distinguish two N-logic-qubit C-GHZ states. As the previous theory and experiment both showed that the C-GHZ state has the robustness feature, this logic Bell-state analysis and C-GHZ state analysis may be essential for linear-optical quantum computation protocols whose building blocks are logic-qubit entangled state.

  1. Aerodynamic preliminary analysis system. Part 1: Theory. [linearized potential theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bonner, E.; Clever, W.; Dunn, K.

    1978-01-01

    A comprehensive aerodynamic analysis program based on linearized potential theory is described. The solution treats thickness and attitude problems at subsonic and supersonic speeds. Three dimensional configurations with or without jet flaps having multiple non-planar surfaces of arbitrary planform and open or closed slender bodies of non-circular contour may be analyzed. Longitudinal and lateral-directional static and rotary derivative solutions may be generated. The analysis was implemented on a time sharing system in conjunction with an input tablet digitizer and an interactive graphics input/output display and editing terminal to maximize its responsiveness to the preliminary analysis problem. Nominal case computation time of 45 CPU seconds on the CDC 175 for a 200 panel simulation indicates the program provides an efficient analysis for systematically performing various aerodynamic configuration tradeoff and evaluation studies.

  2. Feasible logic Bell-state analysis with linear optics

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Lan; Sheng, Yu-Bo

    2016-01-01

    We describe a feasible logic Bell-state analysis protocol by employing the logic entanglement to be the robust concatenated Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (C-GHZ) state. This protocol only uses polarization beam splitters and half-wave plates, which are available in current experimental technology. We can conveniently identify two of the logic Bell states. This protocol can be easily generalized to the arbitrary C-GHZ state analysis. We can also distinguish two N-logic-qubit C-GHZ states. As the previous theory and experiment both showed that the C-GHZ state has the robustness feature, this logic Bell-state analysis and C-GHZ state analysis may be essential for linear-optical quantum computation protocols whose building blocks are logic-qubit entangled state. PMID:26877208

  3. Linear discriminant analysis with misallocation in training samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chhikara, R. (Principal Investigator); Mckeon, J.

    1982-01-01

    Linear discriminant analysis for a two-class case is studied in the presence of misallocation in training samples. A general appraoch to modeling of mislocation is formulated, and the mean vectors and covariance matrices of the mixture distributions are derived. The asymptotic distribution of the discriminant boundary is obtained and the asymptotic first two moments of the two types of error rate given. Certain numerical results for the error rates are presented by considering the random and two non-random misallocation models. It is shown that when the allocation procedure for training samples is objectively formulated, the effect of misallocation on the error rates of the Bayes linear discriminant rule can almost be eliminated. If, however, this is not possible, the use of Fisher rule may be preferred over the Bayes rule.

  4. Meshless analysis of shear deformable shells: the linear model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, Jorge C.; Tiago, Carlos M.; Pimenta, Paulo M.

    2013-10-01

    This work develops a kinematically linear shell model departing from a consistent nonlinear theory. The initial geometry is mapped from a flat reference configuration by a stress-free finite deformation, after which, the actual shell motion takes place. The model maintains the features of a complete stress-resultant theory with Reissner-Mindlin kinematics based on an inextensible director. A hybrid displacement variational formulation is presented, where the domain displacements and kinematic boundary reactions are independently approximated. The resort to a flat reference configuration allows the discretization using 2-D Multiple Fixed Least-Squares (MFLS) on the domain. The consistent definition of stress resultants and consequent plane stress assumption led to a neat formulation for the analysis of shells. The consistent linear approximation, combined with MFLS, made possible efficient computations with a desired continuity degree, leading to smooth results for the displacement, strain and stress fields, as shown by several numerical examples.

  5. Near infrared reflectance analysis by Gauss-Jordan linear algebra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Honigs, D. E.; Freelin, J. M.; Hieftje, G. M.

    1983-02-01

    Near-infrared reflectance analysis (NIRA) is an analytical technique that uses the near-infrared diffuse reflectance of a sample at several discrete wavelengths to predict the concentration of one or more of the chemical species in that sample. However, because near-infrared bands from solid samples are both abundant and broad, the reflectance at a given wavelength usually contains contributions from several sample components, requiring extensive calculations on overlapped bands. In the present study, these calculations have been performed using an approach similar to that employed in multi-component spectrophotometry, but with Gauss-Jordan linear algebra serving as the computational vehicle. Using this approach, correlations for percent protein in wheat flour and percent benzene in hydrocarbons have been obtained and are evaluated. The advantages of a linear-algebra approach over the common one employing stepwise regression are explored.

  6. Using Linear Algebra to Introduce Computer Algebra, Numerical Analysis, Data Structures and Algorithms (and To Teach Linear Algebra, Too).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez-Vega, Laureano

    1999-01-01

    Using a Computer Algebra System (CAS) to help with the teaching of an elementary course in linear algebra can be one way to introduce computer algebra, numerical analysis, data structures, and algorithms. Highlights the advantages and disadvantages of this approach to the teaching of linear algebra. (Author/MM)

  7. Analysis of the transverse electromagnetic mode linearly tapered slot antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Janaswamy, R.; Schaubert, D. H.; Pozar, D. M.

    1986-01-01

    A theoretical analysis of the radiation characteristics of the transverse electromagnetic mode linearly tapered slot antenna is presented. The theory presented is valid for antennas with air dielectric and forms the basis for analysis of the more popular dielectric-supported antennas. The method of analysis involves two steps. In the first step, the aperture distribution in the flared slot is determined. In the second step, the equivalent magnetic current in the slot is treated as radiating in the presence of a conducting half-plane, and the far-field components are obtained. Design curves for the variation of the 3-dB and 10-dB beamwidths as a function of the antenna length, with the flare angle as a parameter, are presented.

  8. Analysis of the Tem Mode Linearly Tapered Slot Antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Janaswamy, R.; Schaubert, D. H.; Pozar, D. M.

    1985-01-01

    The theoretical analysis of the radiation characteristics of the TEM mode Linearly Tapered Slot Antenna (LTSA) is presented. The theory presented is valid for antennas with air dielectric and forms the basis for analysis of the more popular dielectric-supported antennas. The method of analysis involves two steps. In the first step, the aperture distribution in the flared slot is determined. In the second step, the equivalent magnetic current in the slot is treated as radiating in the presence of a conducting half-plane and the far-field components are obtained. Detailed comparison with experiment is made and excellent agreement is obtained. Design curves for the variation of the 3 dB and 10 dB beamwidths as a function of the antenna length, with the flare angle as a parameter, are presented.

  9. Statistical properties and time-frequency analysis of temperature, salinity and turbidity measured by the MAREL Carnot station in the coastal waters of Boulogne-sur-Mer (France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kbaier Ben Ismail, Dhouha; Lazure, Pascal; Puillat, Ingrid

    2016-10-01

    In marine sciences, many fields display high variability over a large range of spatial and temporal scales, from seconds to thousands of years. The longer recorded time series, with an increasing sampling frequency, in this field are often nonlinear, nonstationary, multiscale and noisy. Their analysis faces new challenges and thus requires the implementation of adequate and specific methods. The objective of this paper is to highlight time series analysis methods already applied in econometrics, signal processing, health, etc. to the environmental marine domain, assess advantages and inconvenients and compare classical techniques with more recent ones. Temperature, turbidity and salinity are important quantities for ecosystem studies. The authors here consider the fluctuations of sea level, salinity, turbidity and temperature recorded from the MAREL Carnot system of Boulogne-sur-Mer (France), which is a moored buoy equipped with physico-chemical measuring devices, working in continuous and autonomous conditions. In order to perform adequate statistical and spectral analyses, it is necessary to know the nature of the considered time series. For this purpose, the stationarity of the series and the occurrence of unit-root are addressed with the Augmented-Dickey Fuller tests. As an example, the harmonic analysis is not relevant for temperature, turbidity and salinity due to the nonstationary condition, except for the nearly stationary sea level datasets. In order to consider the dominant frequencies associated to the dynamics, the large number of data provided by the sensors should enable the estimation of Fourier spectral analysis. Different power spectra show a complex variability and reveal an influence of environmental factors such as tides. However, the previous classical spectral analysis, namely the Blackman-Tukey method, requires not only linear and stationary data but also evenly-spaced data. Interpolating the time series introduces numerous artifacts to the

  10. Linear stability analysis for hydrothermal alteration of kimberlitic rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afanasyev, Andrey; Belyaeva, Ekaterina

    2016-04-01

    The influx of groundwater into hot kimberlite deposits results in the reaction of water with olivine-rich rocks. The products of the reaction are serpentine and release of latent heat. The rise of temperature due to the heat release increases the rate of the reaction. Under certain conditions, this self-speeding up of the reaction can result in instabilities associated with a significantly higher final serpentinisation in slightly warmer regions of the kimberlite deposit. We conduct linear stability analysis of serpentinisation in an isolated volume of porous kimberlitic rocks saturated with water and an inert gas. There is a counteracting interplay between the heat release tending to destabilise the uniform distribution of parameters and the heat conduction tending to stabilise it by smoothing out temperature perturbations. We determine the critical spatial scale separating the parameters where one phenomenon dominates over another. The perturbations of longer-than-critical length grow, whereas the perturbations of shorter-than-critical length fade. The analytical results of the linear stability analysis are supported by direct numerical simulations using a full nonlinear model. Keywords: Hydrothermal systems, volcaniclastic deposits, phase transitions, instability analysis, numerical solutions

  11. Modal analysis to accommodate slap in linear structures.

    SciTech Connect

    Segalman, Daniel Joseph; Roy, Anthony M.; Starr, Michael James

    2004-10-01

    The generalized momentum balance (GMB) methods, explored chiefly by Shabana and his co-workers, treat slap or collision in linear structures as sequences of impulses, thereby maintaining the linearity of the structures throughout. Further, such linear analysis is facilitated by modal representation of the structures. These methods are discussed here and extended. Simulations on a simple two-rod problem demonstrate how this modal impulse approximation affects the system both directly after each impulse as well as over the entire collision. Furthermore, these simulations illustrate how the GMB results differ from the exact solution and how mitigation of these artifacts is achieved. Another modal method discussed in this paper is the idea of imposing piecewise constant forces over short, yet finite, time intervals during contact. The derivation of this method is substantially different than that of the GMB method, yet the numerical results show similar behavior, adding credence to both models. Finally, a novel method combining these two approaches is introduced. The new method produces physically reasonable results that are numerically very close to the exact solution of the collision of two rods. This approach avoids most of the non physical, numerical artifacts of interpenetration or chatter present in the first two methods.

  12. Coupling analysis of linear vibration energy harvesting systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xu; Liang, Xingyu; Shu, Gequn; Watkins, Simon

    2016-03-01

    This paper has disclosed the relationship of vibration energy harvester performance with dimensionless force factor. Numerical ranges of the dimensionless force factor have been defined for cases of weak, moderate and strong coupling. The relationships of coupling loss factor, dimensionless force factor, critical coupling strength, coupling quotient, electro-mechanical coupling factor, damping loss factor and modal densities have been established in linear vibration energy harvester systems. The new contribution of this paper is to determine a frequency range where the vibration energy harvesting systems are in a weak coupling and the statistical energy analysis is applicable.

  13. Analysis of integral controls in linear quadratic regulator design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slater, G. L.

    1979-01-01

    The application of linear optimal control to the design of systems with integral control action on specified outputs is considered. Using integral terms in a quadratic performance index, an asymptotic analysis is used to determine the effect of variable quadratic weights on the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of the closed loop system. It is shown that for small integral terms the placement of integrator poles and gain calculation can be effectively decoupled from placement of the primary system eigenvalues. This technique is applied to the design of integral controls for a STOL aircraft outer loop guidance system.

  14. Dynamic analysis of space-related linear and non-linear structures

    SciTech Connect

    Bosela, P.A.; Shaker, F.J.; Fertis, D.G.

    1990-01-01

    In order to be cost effective, space structures must be extremely light weight, and subsequently, very flexible structures. The power system for Space Station Freedom is such a structure. Each array consists of a deployable truss mast and a split blanket of photovoltaic solar collectors. The solar arrays are deployed in orbit, and the blanket is stretched into position as the mast is extended. Geometric stiffness due to the preload make this an interesting non-linear problem. The space station will be subjected to various dynamic loads, during shuttle docking, solar tracking, attitude adjustment, etc. Accurate prediction of the natural frequencies and mode shapes of the space station components, including the solar arrays, is critical for determining the structural adequacy of the components, and for designing a dynamic controls system. The process used in developing and verifying the finite element dynamic model of the photo-voltaic arrays is documented. Various problems were identified, such as grounding effects due to geometric stiffness, large displacement effects, and pseudo-stiffness (grounding) due to lack of required rigid body modes. Analysis techniques, such as development of rigorous solutions using continuum mechanics, finite element solution sequence altering, equivalent systems using a curvature basis, Craig-Bampton superelement approach, and modal ordering schemes were utilized. The grounding problems associated with the geometric stiffness are emphasized.

  15. Dynamic analysis of space-related linear and non-linear structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bosela, Paul A.; Shaker, Francis J.; Fertis, Demeter G.

    1990-01-01

    In order to be cost effective, space structures must be extremely light weight, and subsequently, very flexible structures. The power system for Space Station Freedom is such a structure. Each array consists of a deployable truss mast and a split blanket of photo-voltaic solar collectors. The solar arrays are deployed in orbit, and the blanket is stretched into position as the mast is extended. Geometric stiffness due to the preload make this an interesting non-linear problem. The space station will be subjected to various dynamic loads, during shuttle docking, solar tracking, attitude adjustment, etc. Accurate prediction of the natural frequencies and mode shapes of the space station components, including the solar arrays, is critical for determining the structural adequacy of the components, and for designing a dynamic control system. The process used in developing and verifying the finite element dynamic model of the photo-voltaic arrays is documented. Various problems were identified, such as grounding effects due to geometric stiffness, large displacement effects, and pseudo-stiffness (grounding) due to lack of required rigid body modes. Analysis techniques, such as development of rigorous solutions using continuum mechanics, finite element solution sequence altering, equivalent systems using a curvature basis, Craig-Bampton superelement approach, and modal ordering schemes were utilized. The grounding problems associated with the geometric stiffness are emphasized.

  16. Linear stability analysis for hydrothermal alteration of kimberlitic rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afanasyev, Andrey; Belyaeva, Ekaterina

    2016-06-01

    The influx of groundwater into hot kimberlite deposits results in the reaction of water with olivine-rich rocks. The products of the reaction are serpentine and release of latent heat. The rise of temperature due to the heat release increases the rate of the reaction. Under certain conditions, this self-speeding up of the reaction can result in instabilities associated with a significantly higher final serpentinization in slightly warmer regions of the kimberlite deposit. We conduct linear stability analysis of serpentinization in an isolated volume of porous kimberlitic rocks saturated with water and an inert gas. There is a counteracting interplay between the heat release tending to destabilize the uniform distribution of parameters and the heat conduction tending to stabilize it by smoothing out temperature perturbations. We determine the critical spatial scale separating the parameters where one phenomenon dominates over another. The perturbations of longer-than-critical length grow, whereas the perturbations of shorter-than-critical length fade. The analytical results of the linear stability analysis are supported by direct numerical simulations using a full nonlinear model.

  17. Linear Stability Analysis of an Acoustically Vaporized Droplet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siddiqui, Junaid; Qamar, Adnan; Samtaney, Ravi

    2015-11-01

    Acoustic droplet vaporization (ADV) is a phase transition phenomena of a superheat liquid (Dodecafluoropentane, C5F12) droplet to a gaseous bubble, instigated by a high-intensity acoustic pulse. This approach was first studied in imaging applications, and applicable in several therapeutic areas such as gas embolotherapy, thrombus dissolution, and drug delivery. High-speed imaging and theoretical modeling of ADV has elucidated several physical aspects, ranging from bubble nucleation to its subsequent growth. Surface instabilities are known to exist and considered responsible for evolving bubble shapes (non-spherical growth, bubble splitting and bubble droplet encapsulation). We present a linear stability analysis of the dynamically evolving interfaces of an acoustically vaporized micro-droplet (liquid A) in an infinite pool of a second liquid (liquid B). We propose a thermal ADV model for the base state. The linear analysis utilizes spherical harmonics (Ynm, of degree m and order n) and under various physical assumptions results in a time-dependent ODE of the perturbed interface amplitudes (one at the vapor/liquid A interface and the other at the liquid A/liquid B interface). The perturbation amplitudes are found to grow exponentially and do not depend on m. Supported by KAUST Baseline Research Funds.

  18. DYNAMIC NON LINEAR IMPACT ANALYSIS OF FUEL CASK CONTAINMENT VESSELS

    SciTech Connect

    Leduc, D

    2008-06-10

    Large fuel casks present challenges when evaluating their performance in the accident sequence specified in 10CFR 71. Testing is often limited because of cost, difficulty in preparing test units and the limited availability of facilities which can carry out such tests. In the past, many casks were evaluated without testing using simplified analytical methods. This paper details the use of dynamic non-linear analysis of large fuel casks using advanced computational techniques. Results from the dynamic analysis of two casks, the T-3 Spent Fuel Cask and the Hanford Un-irradiated Fuel Package are examined in detail. These analyses are used to fully evaluate containment vessel stresses and strains resulting from complex loads experienced by cask components during impacts. Importantly, these advanced analytical analyses are capable of examining stresses in key regions of the cask including the cask closure. This paper compares these advanced analytical results with the results of simplified cask analyses like those detailed in NUREG 3966.

  19. A study of equation solvers for linear and non-linear finite element analysis on parallel processing computers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, Brian C.; Kamat, Manohar P.

    1992-01-01

    Concurrent computing environments provide the means to achieve very high performance for finite element analysis of systems, provided the algorithms take advantage of multiple processors. The authors have examined several algorithms for both linear and nonlinear finite element analysis. The performance of these algorithms on an Alliant FX/80 parallel supercomputer has been studied. For single load case linear analysis, the optimal solution algorithm is strongly problem dependent. For multiple load cases or nonlinear analysis through a modified Newton-Raphson method, decomposition algorithms are shown to have a decided advantage over element-by-element preconditioned conjugate gradient algorithms.

  20. Interactive Analysis of Hyperspectral Data under Linearity Constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, A.; Treguier, E.; Schmidt, F.; Moussaoui, S.; Pelloquin, C.

    2010-12-01

    Large data sets delivered by imaging spectrometers are interesting in many ways in the Planetary Sciences. Due to the size of the data and lack of ground truth, which often prohibit conventional exploratory data analysis methods, interactive but unsupervised analysis methods could be a way of discovering relevant information about the sources that make up the data. In this work, we investigate some of the opportunities and limitations of such analyses based on non-negative matrix approximation in planetary settings. Since typically there often is no ground truth to compare to, the degrees of freedom inherent in the aforementioned approximation techniques often has to be constrained by users to discover physically valid sources and patterns. One way of going about this is to present users with different valid solutions have them choose the one or ones that fit their knowledge of the environment best. Recent developments have made it possible to exploit linear mixing constraints and present results to users in real or near-real time; thus, the approach has become practicable. The general setting of the problem is as follows: By considering P pixels of an hyperspectral image acquired at L frequency bands, the observed spectra are gathered in a PxL data matrix X. Each row of this matrix contains a measured spectrum at a pixel with spatial index p=1..P. According to the linear mixing model, the p-th spectrum, 1<=p<=P, can be expressed as a linear combination of r, 1<=r<=R, pure spectra of the surface components. Thus, X=AxS+E, E being an error matrix, should be minimised, where X, A, and S have only non-negative entries. The rows of matrix S now contain the pure surface spectra of the R components, and each entry of A corresponds to the abundance of the r-th component in pixel with spatial index p. For a qualitative and quantitative description of the observed scene composition, the estimation problem consists of finding matrices S and A which allow to explain the data

  1. Detection of linear impermeable barriers by transient pressure analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez-Romero, N.; Cinco-Ley, H.

    1983-05-01

    This work presents a new simple method to detect a linear impermeable barrier by analysis of transient pressure data. This technique is based on the desuperposition method (negative superposition) discussed by some authors and considers the calculation the pressure change caused by the presence of the barrier. The pressure change is analyzed to estimate the distance between the well and the barrier by using the type curve matching technique. Type curves are provided for both drawdown and build tests. The advantage of the technique presented in this work is that pressure data can be analyzed even if the second semilog straight line, whose slope is twice the slope of the first semilog straight line, is not reached. Examples of application are discussed for illustration.

  2. Analysis of Power Model for Linear Plasma Device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Weiwei; Deng, Baiquan; Zuo, Haoyi; Zheng, Xianjun; Cao, Xiaogang; Xue, Xiaoyan; Ou, Wei; Cao, Zhi; Gou, Fujun

    2016-08-01

    A single cathode linear plasma device has been designed and constructed to investigate the interactions between plasma and materials at the Sichuan University. In order to further investigate the Ohmic power of the device, the output heat load on the specimen and electric potential difference (between cathode and anode) have been tested under different discharge currents. This special power distribution in the radial direction of the plasma discharge channel has also been discussed and described by some improved integral equations in this paper; it can be further simplified as P ∝ α‑2 in one-parameter. Besides, we have measured the power loss of the channel under different discharge currents by the calorimetric method, calculated the effective power of the device and evaluated the performances of the plasma device through the power efficiency analysis. supported by International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) Program (No. 2013GB114003) and National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 11275135 and 11475122)

  3. Linear analysis of incompressible Rayleigh-Taylor instability in solids.

    PubMed

    Piriz, A R; Cela, J J López; Tahir, N A

    2009-10-01

    The study of the linear stage of the incompressible Rayleigh-Taylor instability in elastic-plastic solids is performed by considering thick plates under a constant acceleration that is also uniform except for a small sinusoidal ripple in the horizontal plane. The analysis is carried out by using an analytical model based on the Newton second law and it is complemented with extensive two-dimensional numerical simulations. The conditions for marginal stability that determine the instability threshold are derived. Besides, the boundary for the transition from the elastic to the plastic regime is obtained and it is demonstrated that such a transition is not a sufficient condition for instability. The model yields complete analytical solutions for the perturbation amplitude evolution and reveals the main physical process that governs the instability. The theory is in general agreement with the numerical simulations and provides useful quantitative results. Implications for high-energy-density-physics experiments are also discussed. PMID:19905434

  4. Adjusting for matching and covariates in linear discriminant analysis

    PubMed Central

    Asafu-Adjei, Josephine K.; Sampson, Allan R.; Sweet, Robert A.; Lewis, David A.

    2013-01-01

    In studies that compare several diagnostic or treatment groups, subjects may not only be measured on a certain set of feature variables, but also be matched on a number of demographic characteristics and measured on additional covariates. Linear discriminant analysis (LDA) is sometimes used to identify which feature variables best discriminate among groups, while accounting for the dependencies among the feature variables. We present a new approach to LDA for multivariate normal data that accounts for the subject matching used in a particular study design, as well as covariates not used in the matching. Applications are given for post-mortem tissue data with the aim of comparing neurobiological characteristics of subjects with schizophrenia with those of normal controls, and for a post-mortem tissue primate study comparing brain biomarker measurements across three treatment groups. We also investigate the performance of our approach using a simulation study. PMID:23640791

  5. Spectrum Analysis of the Linearized Relativistic Landau Equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Lan; Yu, Hongjun

    2016-05-01

    In this work we prove the complete spectrum structure of the linearized relativistic Landau equation in L^2 by using the semigroup theory and the linear operator perturbation theory. Our results include the physical interesting Coulombic interaction.

  6. Linear harmonic analysis of free-piston Stirling engines

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, N.C.J.; Griffin, F.P.

    1986-06-01

    The equations that govern the behavior of free-piston Stirling engines are nonlinear differential equations. Traditional solution methods have been time-stepping integrations that can be plagued by numerical instabilities and can use large amounts of computer time. Closed-form analytical solutions are possible if the working gas behaves isothermally or if the nonlinear terms in the governing equations are replaced with accurate approximations. An almost closed-form solution method, called the linear harmonic analysis (LHA), has been developed for free-piston Stirling engine applications by representing all of the periodic variables with harmonic functions. The solution method accounts for the important thermodynamic losses that are coupled together in free-piston engines, yet it is efficient enough for optimization studies. The LHA method was compared with a standard numerical integration method to verify its mathematical accuracy. The LHA and numerical predictions for a sample free-piston Stirling engine configuration differed by <5% for all important parameters. Sensitivity studies using the LHA method have also shown that the thermodynamic loss assumptions used in an analysis can have a significant impact on the predicted dynamic behavior of a free-piston Stirling engine.

  7. Moment method analysis of linearly tapered slot antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koeksal, Adnan

    1993-01-01

    A method of moments (MOM) model for the analysis of the Linearly Tapered Slot Antenna (LTSA) is developed and implemented. The model employs an unequal size rectangular sectioning for conducting parts of the antenna. Piecewise sinusoidal basis functions are used for the expansion of conductor current. The effect of the dielectric is incorporated in the model by using equivalent volume polarization current density and solving the equivalent problem in free-space. The feed section of the antenna including the microstripline is handled rigorously in the MOM model by including slotline short circuit and microstripline currents among the unknowns. Comparison with measurements is made to demonstrate the validity of the model for both the air case and the dielectric case. Validity of the model is also verified by extending the model to handle the analysis of the skew-plate antenna and comparing the results to those of a skew-segmentation modeling results of the same structure and to available data in the literature. Variation of the radiation pattern for the air LTSA with length, height, and taper angle is investigated, and the results are tabulated. Numerical results for the effect of the dielectric thickness and permittivity are presented.

  8. Stratospheric ozone time series analysis using dynamical linear models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laine, Marko; Kyrölä, Erkki

    2013-04-01

    We describe a hierarchical statistical state space model for ozone profile time series. The time series are from satellite measurements by the SAGE II and GOMOS instruments spanning years 1984-2012. The original data sets are combined and gridded monthly using 10 degree latitude bands, and covering 20-60 km with 1 km vertical spacing. Model components include level, trend, seasonal effect with solar activity, and quasi biennial oscillations as proxy variables. A typical feature of an atmospheric time series is that they are not stationary but exhibit both slowly varying and abrupt changes in the distributional properties. These are caused by external forcing such as changes in the solar activity or volcanic eruptions. Further, the data sampling is often nonuniform, there are data gaps, and the uncertainty of the observations can vary. When observations are combined from various sources there will be instrument and retrieval method related biases. The differences in sampling lead also to uncertainties. Standard classical ARIMA type of statistical time series methods are mostly useless for atmospheric data. A more general approach makes use of dynamical linear models and Kalman filter type of sequential algorithms. These state space models assume a linear relationship between the unknown state of the system and the observations and for the process evolution of the hidden states. They are still flexible enough to model both smooth trends and sudden changes. The above mentioned methodological challenges are discussed, together with analysis of change points in trends related to recovery of stratospheric ozone. This work is part of the ESA SPIN and ozone CCI projects.

  9. State-variable analysis of non-linear circuits with a desk computer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, E.

    1981-01-01

    State variable analysis was used to analyze the transient performance of non-linear circuits on a desk top computer. The non-linearities considered were not restricted to any circuit element. All that is required for analysis is the relationship defining each non-linearity be known in terms of points on a curve.

  10. Prediction of sumoylation sites in proteins using linear discriminant analysis.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yan; Ding, Ya-Xin; Deng, Nai-Yang; Liu, Li-Ming

    2016-01-15

    Sumoylation is a multifunctional post-translation modification (PTM) in proteins by the small ubiquitin-related modifiers (SUMOs), which have relations to ubiquitin in molecular structure. Sumoylation has been found to be involved in some cellular processes. It is very significant to identify the exact sumoylation sites in proteins for not only basic researches but also drug developments. Comparing with time exhausting experiment methods, it is highly desired to develop computational methods for prediction of sumoylation sites as a complement to experiment in the post-genomic age. In this work, three feature constructions (AAIndex, position-specific amino acid propensity and modification of composition of k-space amino acid pairs) and five different combinations of them were used to construct features. At last, 178 features were selected as the optimal features according to the Mathew's correlation coefficient values in 10-fold cross validation based on linear discriminant analysis. In 10-fold cross-validation on the benchmark dataset, the accuracy and Mathew's correlation coefficient were 86.92% and 0.6845. Comparing with those existing predictors, SUMO_LDA showed its better performance. PMID:26432000

  11. Linear stability analysis of inclined two-layer stratified flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Negretti, M. Eletta; Socolofsky, Scott A.; Jirka, Gerhard H.

    2008-09-01

    Two-layer stratified flows are commonly observed in geophysical and environmental contexts. At the interface between the two layers, both velocity shear and buoyancy interplay, resulting in various modes of instability. Results from a temporal linear stability analysis of a two-layer stratified exchange flow under the action of a mean advection are presented, investigating the effect of a mild bottom slope on the stability of the interface. The spatial acceleration is directly included in the governing stability equations. The results demonstrate that increasing the bottom slope has a similar effect on the stability of the flow as does increasing the ratio R of the thickness of the velocity mixing layer δν to that of the density layer δρ as it causes the flow to be more unstable to the Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities. The transition from Kelvin-Helmholtz modes to stable flow occurs at lower Richardson numbers and wavenumbers compared to the horizontal two-layer flow. Kelvin-Helmholtz modes are decreasingly amplified for 1

  12. An analysis of Seasat SAR for detecting geologic linears

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yan, S.-Y.; Philipson, W. R.; Teng, W. L.

    1982-01-01

    The value of Seasat synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imagery for detecting geologic linears was assessed in a study of an 89,000 sq km section of New York's Adirondack Mountains. A photographic print of optically processed, 1:500,000 scale SAR imagery (one look direction) was analyzed visually, and the detected linears were compared to those recorded on a 1:250,000 scale geologic map. Eighty percent of the 4,170 km of mapped, geologic linears were detected with the SAR imagery. Moreover, nearly 6,900 km of unmapped linears were also detected. Of these, an estimated 90 percent could be observed on high altitude aerial photographs. The relationship between SAR image detection of linears and the different types of indicators (e.g., straight valleys or shorelines) is reported.

  13. Non-linear dynamic analysis of anisotropic cylindrical shells

    SciTech Connect

    Lakis, A.A.; Selmane, A.; Toledano, A.

    1996-12-01

    A theory to predict the influence of geometric non-linearities on the natural frequencies of an empty anisotropic cylindrical shell is presented in this paper. It is a hybrid of finite element and classical thin shell theories. Sanders-Koiter non-linear and strain-displacement relations are used. Displacement functions are evaluated using linearized equations of motion. Modal coefficients are then obtained for these displacement functions. Expressions for the mass, linear and non-linear stiffness matrices are derived through the finite element method. The uncoupled equations are solved with the help of elliptic functions. The period and frequency variations are first determined as a function of shell amplitudes and then compared with the results in the literature.

  14. Energy and environmental analysis of a linear concentrating photovoltaic system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerzmann, Tony

    The world is facing an imminent energy supply crisis. In order to sustain and increase our energy supply in an environmentally-conscious manner, it is necessary to advance renewable technologies. Despite this urgency, however, it is paramount to consider the larger environmental effects associated with using renewable energy resources. This research is meant to better understand linear concentrating photovoltaics (LCPVs) from an engineering and environmental standpoint. In order to analyze the LCPV system, a simulation and life cycle assessment (LCA) were developed. The LCPV system serves two major purposes: it produces electricity, and waste heat is collected for heating use. There are three parts to the LCPV simulation. The first part simulates the multijunction cell output so as to calculate the temperature-dependent electricity generation. The second part simulates the cell cooling and waste heat recovery system using a model consisting of heat transfer and fluid flow equations. The waste heat recovery in the LCPV system was linked to a hot water storage system, which was also modeled. Coupling the waste heat recovery simulation and the hot water storage system gives an overall integrated system that is useful for system design, optimization, and acts as a stepping stone for future multijunction cell Photovoltaic/Thermal (PV/T) systems. Finally, all of the LCPV system components were coded in Engineering Equation Solver (EES) and were used in an energy analysis under actual weather and solar conditions for the Phoenix, AZ, region. The life cycle assessment for the LCPV system allowed for an environmental analysis of the system where areas of the highest environmental impact were pinpointed. While conducting the LCA research, each component of the system was analyzed from a resource extraction, production, and use standpoint. The collective production processes of each LCPV system component were gathered into a single inventory of materials and energy flows

  15. Linearization of the full activated sludge model No 1 for interaction analysis.

    PubMed

    Benhalla, Abdelhay; Houssou, Mohamed; Charif, Moussa

    2010-08-01

    This paper deals with the linearization of the full activated sludge model No 1 (ASM1) in the scope of interaction analysis. For consistency, the linearization procedure is developed and validated within the BSM1 simulation benchmark framework. It is based on reaction rate approximation by linear combinations of states. The linear rate models are identified and incorporated in the mass balance equations, yielding a linear locally equivalent to the ASM1 model. Linear models for anoxic and aerated compartments are proposed. It is observed that the presented models track very closely the nonlinear ASM1 responses to various influent data. The key feature of this linearization strategy is that the gotten linear version of the ASM1 model is linear time invariant (LTI) and that it conserves the states biological interpretation and the original ASM1 dimension. It allows, therefore, application of interaction analysis methods and makes it possible to determine motivated control configurations for the ASM1 model. PMID:20131068

  16. Analysis of non-linearity in differential wavefront sensing technique.

    PubMed

    Duan, Hui-Zong; Liang, Yu-Rong; Yeh, Hsien-Chi

    2016-03-01

    An analytical model of a differential wavefront sensing (DWS) technique based on Gaussian Beam propagation has been derived. Compared with the result of the interference signals detected by quadrant photodiode, which is calculated by using the numerical method, the analytical model has been verified. Both the analytical model and numerical simulation show milli-radians level non-linearity effect of DWS detection. In addition, the beam clipping has strong influence on the non-linearity of DWS. The larger the beam clipping is, the smaller the non-linearity is. However, the beam walking effect hardly has influence on DWS. Thus, it can be ignored in laser interferometer. PMID:26974079

  17. LCFIPlus: A framework for jet analysis in linear collider studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suehara, Taikan; Tanabe, Tomohiko

    2016-02-01

    We report on the progress in flavor identification tools developed for a future e+e- linear collider such as the International Linear Collider (ILC) and Compact Linear Collider (CLIC). Building on the work carried out by the LCFIVertex collaboration, we employ new strategies in vertex finding and jet finding, and introduce new discriminating variables for jet flavor identification. We present the performance of the new algorithms in the conditions simulated using a detector concept designed for the ILC. The algorithms have been successfully used in ILC physics simulation studies, such as those presented in the ILC Technical Design Report.

  18. Analysis of ERTS-1 linear features in New York State

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Isachsen, Y. W. (Principal Investigator); Fakundiny, R. H.; Forster, S. W.

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. All ERTS-1 linears confirmed to date have topographic expression although they may appear as featureless tonal linears on the imagery. A bias is unavoidably introduced against any linears which may parallel raster lines, lithological trends, or the azimuth of solar illumination. Ground study of ERTS-1 topographic lineaments in the Adirondacks indicates: outcrops along linears are even more rare than expected, fault breccias are found along some NNE lineaments, chloritization and slickensiding without brecciation characterize one EW lineament whereas closely-spaced jointing plus a zone of plastic shear define another. Field work in the Catskills suggests that the prominent new NNE lineaments may be surface manifestations of normal faulting in the basement, and that it may become possible to map major joint sets over extensive plateau regions directly on the imagery. Fall and winter images each display some unique linears, and long linears on the fall image commonly appear as aligned segments on the winter scene. A computer-processed color composite image permitted the extraction or additional information on the shaded side of mountains.

  19. CFORM- LINEAR CONTROL SYSTEM DESIGN AND ANALYSIS: CLOSED FORM SOLUTION AND TRANSIENT RESPONSE OF THE LINEAR DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jamison, J. W.

    1994-01-01

    CFORM was developed by the Kennedy Space Center Robotics Lab to assist in linear control system design and analysis using closed form and transient response mechanisms. The program computes the closed form solution and transient response of a linear (constant coefficient) differential equation. CFORM allows a choice of three input functions: the Unit Step (a unit change in displacement); the Ramp function (step velocity); and the Parabolic function (step acceleration). It is only accurate in cases where the differential equation has distinct roots, and does not handle the case for roots at the origin (s=0). Initial conditions must be zero. Differential equations may be input to CFORM in two forms - polynomial and product of factors. In some linear control analyses, it may be more appropriate to use a related program, Linear Control System Design and Analysis (KSC-11376), which uses root locus and frequency response methods. CFORM was written in VAX FORTRAN for a VAX 11/780 under VAX VMS 4.7. It has a central memory requirement of 30K. CFORM was developed in 1987.

  20. Linearized analysis of Richtmyer-Meshkov flow for elastic materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plohr, Jeeyeon N.; Plohr, Bradley J.

    2005-08-01

    We present a study of Richtmyer Meshkov flow for elastic materials. This flow, in which a material interface is struck by a shock wave, was originally investigated for gases, where growth of perturbations of the interface is observed. Here we consider two elastic materials in frictionless contact. The governing system of equations comprises conservation laws supplemented by constitutive equations. To analyse it, we linearize the equations around a one-dimensional background solution under the assumption that the perturbation is small. The background problem defines a Riemann problem that is solved numerically; its solution contains transmitted and reflected shock waves in the longitudinal modes. The linearized Rankine Hugoniot condition provides the interface conditions at the longitudinal and shear waves; the frictionless material interface conditions are also linearized. The resulting equations, a linear system of partial differential equations, is solved numerically using a finite-difference method supplemented by front tracking. In verifying the numerical code, we reproduce growth of the interface in the gas case. For the elastic case, in contrast, we find that the material interface remains bounded: the non-zero shear stiffness stabilizes the flow. In particular, the linear theory remains valid at late time. Moreover, we identify the principal mechanism for the stability of Richtmyer Meshkov flow for elastic materials: the vorticity deposited on the material interface during shock passage is propagated away by the shear waves, whereas for gas dynamics it stays on the interface.

  1. Non-linear dynamic analysis of geared systems, part 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Rajendra; Houser, Donald R.; Kahraman, Ahmet

    1990-01-01

    A good understanding of the steady state dynamic behavior of a geared system is required in order to design reliable and quiet transmissions. This study focuses on a system containing a spur gear pair with backlash and periodically time-varying mesh stiffness, and rolling element bearings with clearance type non-linearities. A dynamic finite element model of the linear time-invariant (LTI) system is developed. Effects of several system parameters, such as torsional and transverse flexibilities of the shafts and prime mover/load inertias, on free and force vibration characteristics are investigated. Several reduced order LTI models are developed and validated by comparing their eigen solution with the finite element model results. Several key system parameters such as mean load and damping ratio are identified and their effects on the non-linear frequency response are evaluated quantitatively. Other fundamental issues such as the dynamic coupling between non-linear modes, dynamic interactions between component non-linearities and time-varying mesh stiffness, and the existence of subharmonic and chaotic solutions including routes to chaos have also been examined in depth.

  2. An implementation analysis of the linear discontinuous finite element method

    SciTech Connect

    Becker, T. L.

    2013-07-01

    This paper provides an implementation analysis of the linear discontinuous finite element method (LD-FEM) that spans the space of (l, x, y, z). A practical implementation of LD includes 1) selecting a computationally efficient algorithm to solve the 4 x 4 matrix system Ax = b that describes the angular flux in a mesh element, and 2) choosing how to store the data used to construct the matrix A and the vector b to either reduce memory consumption or increase computational speed. To analyze the first of these, three algorithms were selected to solve the 4 x 4 matrix equation: Cramer's rule, a streamlined implementation of Gaussian elimination, and LAPACK's Gaussian elimination subroutine dgesv. The results indicate that Cramer's rule and the streamlined Gaussian elimination algorithm perform nearly equivalently and outperform LAPACK's implementation of Gaussian elimination by a factor of 2. To analyze the second implementation detail, three formulations of the discretized LD-FEM equations were provided for implementation in a transport solver: 1) a low-memory formulation, which relies heavily on 'on-the-fly' calculations and less on the storage of pre-computed data, 2) a high-memory formulation, which pre-computes much of the data used to construct A and b, and 3) a reduced-memory formulation, which lies between the low - and high-memory formulations. These three formulations were assessed in the Jaguar transport solver based on relative memory footprint and computational speed for increasing mesh size and quadrature order. The results indicated that the memory savings of the low-memory formulation were not sufficient to warrant its implementation. The high-memory formulation resulted in a significant speed advantage over the reduced-memory option (10-50%), but also resulted in a proportional increase in memory consumption (5-45%) for increasing quadrature order and mesh count; therefore, the practitioner should weigh the system memory constraints against any

  3. Linear Analysis and Verification Suite for Edge Turbulence

    SciTech Connect

    Myra, J R; Umansky, M

    2008-04-24

    The edge and scrape-off-layer region of a tokamak plasma is subject to well known resistive and ideal instabilities that are driven by various curvature- and sheath-related mechanisms. While the boundary plasma is typically strongly turbulent in experiments, it is useful to have computational tools that can analyze the linear eigenmode structure, predict quantitative trends in growth rates and elucidate and the underlying drive mechanisms. Furthermore, measurement of the linear growth rate of unstable modes emerging from a known, established equilibrium configuration provides one of the few quantitative ways of rigorously benchmarking large-scale plasma turbulence codes with each other and with a universal standard. In this report, a suite of codes that can describe linearized, nonlocal (e.g. separatrix-spanning) modes in axisymmetric (realistic divertor), toroidal geometry is discussed. Examples of several benchmark comparisons are given, and future development plans for a new eigenvalue edge code are presented.

  4. Parallel-vector computation for linear structural analysis and non-linear unconstrained optimization problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, D. T.; Al-Nasra, M.; Zhang, Y.; Baddourah, M. A.; Agarwal, T. K.; Storaasli, O. O.; Carmona, E. A.

    1991-01-01

    Several parallel-vector computational improvements to the unconstrained optimization procedure are described which speed up the structural analysis-synthesis process. A fast parallel-vector Choleski-based equation solver, pvsolve, is incorporated into the well-known SAP-4 general-purpose finite-element code. The new code, denoted PV-SAP, is tested for static structural analysis. Initial results on a four processor CRAY 2 show that using pvsolve reduces the equation solution time by a factor of 14-16 over the original SAP-4 code. In addition, parallel-vector procedures for the Golden Block Search technique and the BFGS method are developed and tested for nonlinear unconstrained optimization. A parallel version of an iterative solver and the pvsolve direct solver are incorporated into the BFGS method. Preliminary results on nonlinear unconstrained optimization test problems, using pvsolve in the analysis, show excellent parallel-vector performance indicating that these parallel-vector algorithms can be used in a new generation of finite-element based structural design/analysis-synthesis codes.

  5. Powerful tool for design analysis of linear control systems

    SciTech Connect

    Maddux, Jr, A S

    1982-05-10

    The methods for designing linear controls for electronic or mechanical systems have been understood and put to practice. What has not been readily available to engineers, however, is a practical, quick and inexpensive method for analyzing these linear control (feedback) systems once they have been designed into the electronic or mechanical hardware. Now, the PET, manufactured by Commodore Business Machines (CBM), operating with several peripherals via the IEEE 488 Bus, brings to the engineer for about $4000 a complete set of office tools for analyzing these system designs.

  6. Linearized analysis for compressible laminar boundary layers by ECVL technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soong, Chyi-Yeou

    1987-04-01

    The effective convective velocity linearization (ECVL) technique of Soong (1984) is applied to simplify the equations for steady two-dimensional compressible laminar boundary-layer flow of a perfect gas with constant Prandtl number and specific heat. The derivation of the linearized momentum equation is explained, and numerical results for zero-pressure-gradient and pressure-gradient flows are presented graphically and compared with experimental measurements and analytical results obtained with other approaches. The accuracy and simplicity of the ECVL method are demonstrated, and its practical applicability is indicated.

  7. Simulated Analysis of Linear Reversible Enzyme Inhibition with SCILAB

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antuch, Manuel; Ramos, Yaquelin; Álvarez, Rubén

    2014-01-01

    SCILAB is a lesser-known program (than MATLAB) for numeric simulations and has the advantage of being free software. A challenging software-based activity to analyze the most common linear reversible inhibition types with SCILAB is described. Students establish typical values for the concentration of enzyme, substrate, and inhibitor to simulate…

  8. Linear matrix inequalities for analysis and control of linear vector second-order systems

    SciTech Connect

    Adegas, Fabiano D.; Stoustrup, Jakob

    2014-10-06

    Many dynamical systems are modeled as vector second-order differential equations. This paper presents analysis and synthesis conditions in terms of LMI with explicit dependence in the coefficient matrices of vector second-order systems. These conditions benefit from the separation between the Lyapunov matrix and the system matrices by introducing matrix multipliers, which potentially reduce conservativeness in hard control problems. Multipliers facilitate the usage of parameter-dependent Lyapunov functions as certificates of stability of uncertain and time-varying vector second-order systems. The conditions introduced in this work have the potential to increase the practice of analyzing and controlling systems directly in vector second-order form.

  9. On the Use of Equivalent Linearization for High-Cycle Fatigue Analysis of Geometrically Nonlinear Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rizzi, Stephen A.

    2003-01-01

    The use of stress predictions from equivalent linearization analyses in the computation of high-cycle fatigue life is examined. Stresses so obtained differ in behavior from the fully nonlinear analysis in both spectral shape and amplitude. Consequently, fatigue life predictions made using this data will be affected. Comparisons of fatigue life predictions based upon the stress response obtained from equivalent linear and numerical simulation analyses are made to determine the range over which the equivalent linear analysis is applicable.

  10. Linearized stability analysis of gravastars in noncommutative geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lobo, Francisco S. N.; Garattini, Remo

    2013-12-01

    In this work, we find exact gravastar solutions in the context of noncommutative geometry, and explore their physical properties and characteristics. The energy density of these geometries is a smeared and particle-like gravitational source, where the mass is diffused throughout a region of linear dimension due to the intrinsic uncertainty encoded in the coordinate commutator. These solutions are then matched to an exterior Schwarzschild spacetime. We further explore the dynamical stability of the transition layer of these gravastars, for the specific case of β = M 2/ α < 1.9, where M is the black hole mass, to linearized spherically symmetric radial perturbations about static equilibrium solutions. It is found that large stability regions exist and, in particular, located sufficiently close to where the event horizon is expected to form.

  11. Dielectric loss analysis using linear resonators with different impedances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarabi, Bahman; Khalil, M. S.; Khasawneh, M. A.; Stoutimore, M. J. A.; Gladchenko, Sergiy; Wellstood, F. C.; Lobb, C. J.; Osborn, K. D.

    2012-02-01

    It is known that amorphous dielectrics are a major source of decoherence in superconducting qubits due to energy absorption by two-level systems coupled to the electric fields. Linear resonators have been applied extensively to study loss in different dielectrics used in qubit circuits due to their versatility and relative simplicity in design, fabrication and measurement. We have designed linear resonators with multi-turn inductors and parallel-plate capacitors with resonance frequencies of 4.8-6.4 GHz. We achieve substantially different L/C values and capacitor volumes by varying the number of inductance turns and the area of the capacitors. We will present results of continuous wave measurements with SiNx capacitors and show how loss tangent and phase noise are related to impedance and capacitor volume.

  12. HIGH RESOLUTION FOURIER ANALYSIS WITH AUTO-REGRESSIVE LINEAR PREDICTION

    SciTech Connect

    Barton, J.; Shirley, D.A.

    1984-04-01

    Auto-regressive linear prediction is adapted to double the resolution of Angle-Resolved Photoemission Extended Fine Structure (ARPEFS) Fourier transforms. Even with the optimal taper (weighting function), the commonly used taper-and-transform Fourier method has limited resolution: it assumes the signal is zero beyond the limits of the measurement. By seeking the Fourier spectrum of an infinite extent oscillation consistent with the measurements but otherwise having maximum entropy, the errors caused by finite data range can be reduced. Our procedure developed to implement this concept adapts auto-regressive linear prediction to extrapolate the signal in an effective and controllable manner. Difficulties encountered when processing actual ARPEFS data are discussed. A key feature of this approach is the ability to convert improved measurements (signal-to-noise or point density) into improved Fourier resolution.

  13. Analysis of photo linear elements, Laramie Mountains, Wyoming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blackstone, D. L., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Photo linear features in the Precambrian rocks of the Laramie Mountains are delineated, and the azimuths plotted on rose diagrams. Three strike directions are dominant, two of which are in the northeast quadrant. Laramide folds in the Laramie basin to the west of the mountains appear to have the same trend, and apparently have been controlled by response of the basement along fractures such as have been measured from the imagery.

  14. Liapunov functions for non-linear difference equation stability analysis.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, K. E.; Kinnen, E.

    1972-01-01

    Liapunov functions to determine the stability of non-linear autonomous difference equations can be developed through the use of auxiliary exact difference equations. For this purpose definitions are introduced for the gradient of an implicit function of a discrete variable, a principal sum, a definite sum and an exact difference equation, and a theorem for exactness of a difference form is proved. Examples illustrate the procedure.

  15. Linear and Nonlinear Analysis of Brain Dynamics in Children with Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sajedi, Firoozeh; Ahmadlou, Mehran; Vameghi, Roshanak; Gharib, Masoud; Hemmati, Sahel

    2013-01-01

    This study was carried out to determine linear and nonlinear changes of brain dynamics and their relationships with the motor dysfunctions in CP children. For this purpose power of EEG frequency bands (as a linear analysis) and EEG fractality (as a nonlinear analysis) were computed in eyes-closed resting state and statistically compared between 26…

  16. A linear mixture analysis-based compression for hyperspectral image analysis

    SciTech Connect

    C. I. Chang; I. W. Ginsberg

    2000-06-30

    In this paper, the authors present a fully constrained least squares linear spectral mixture analysis-based compression technique for hyperspectral image analysis, particularly, target detection and classification. Unlike most compression techniques that directly deal with image gray levels, the proposed compression approach generates the abundance fractional images of potential targets present in an image scene and then encodes these fractional images so as to achieve data compression. Since the vital information used for image analysis is generally preserved and retained in the abundance fractional images, the loss of information may have very little impact on image analysis. In some occasions, it even improves analysis performance. Airborne visible infrared imaging spectrometer (AVIRIS) data experiments demonstrate that it can effectively detect and classify targets while achieving very high compression ratios.

  17. Tangent linear analysis of the Mosaic land surface model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Runhua; Cohn, Stephen E.; da Silva, Arlindo; Joiner, Joanna; Houser, Paul R.

    2003-01-01

    In this study, a tangent linear eigenanalysis is applied to the Mosaic land surface model (LSM) [, 1992] to examine the impacts of the model internal dynamics and physics on the land surface state variability. The tangent linear model (TLM) of the Mosaic LSM is derived numerically for two sets of basic states and two tile types of land condition, grass and bare soil. An additional TLM, for the soil moisture subsystem of this LSM, is derived analytically for the same cases to obtain explicit expressions for the eigenvalues. An eigenvalue of the TLM determines a characteristic timescale, and the corresponding eigenvector, or mode, describes a particular coupling among the perturbed states. The results show that (1) errors in initial conditions tend to decay with e-folding times given by the characteristic timescales; (2) the LSM exhibits a wide range of internal variability, modes mainly representing surface temperature and surface moisture perturbations exhibit short timescales, whereas modes mainly representing deep soil temperature perturbations and moisture transfer throughout the entire soil column exhibit much longer timescales; (3) the modes of soil moisture tend to be weakly coupled with other perturbed variables, and the mode representing the deep soil temperature perturbation has a consistent e-folding time across the experiments; (4) the key parameters include soil moisture, soil layer depth, and soil hydraulic parameters. The results agree qualitatively with previous findings. However, tangent linear eigenanalysis provides a new approach to the quantitative substantiation of those findings. Also, it reveals the evolution and the coupling of the perturbed land states that are useful for the development of land surface data assimilation schemes. One must be careful when generalizing the quantitative results since they are obtained with respect to two specific basic states and two simple land conditions. Also, the methodology employed here does not apply

  18. Analysis of integrity and microstructure of linear friction welded Waspaloy

    SciTech Connect

    Chamanfar, A.; Jahazi, M.; Gholipour, J.; Wanjara, P.; Yue, S.

    2015-06-15

    Nickel-base superalloy, Waspaloy, was linear friction welded (LFWed) under different axial shortening conditions of 2.0, 3.4, and 4.6 mm. The tensile properties and microhardness of the weldments were investigated in the as-LFWed condition and compared with those in the post-weld heat treated (PWHTed) condition. Mechanical properties were related to microstructures following examination by optical microscopy, high resolution scanning electron microscopy, and electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD). Analyses of the EBSD results in terms of the misorientation angle distribution, which represents the stored energy, were performed. In the as-LFWed condition, the yield strength (YS) and ultimate tensile strength (UTS) increased with axial shortening due to greater expulsion of the softened interfacial material toward the periphery as flash. In contrast, with increasing axial shortening the total elongation initially remained constant and then decreased. This was also related to the expulsion of the softened interfacial material into the bifurcated flash. Extensive dissolution of the strengthening phase (γ′) in the weld area during linear friction welding (LFW) contributed to the lower YS and UTS in the as-welded condition compared to the PWHTed condition where the γ′ particles were recovered. After performing post-weld heat treatment (PWHT), the total elongation improved due to the relaxation of stored energy and grain growth in the thermomechanically affected zone (TMAZ). - Highlights: • Tensile property and microstructure in Waspaloy linear friction welds were studied. • Yield strength and ultimate tensile strength increased with axial shortening. • Elongation initially remained constant and then decreased with axial shortening. • Post-weld heat treat recovered dissolved γ′ particles and increased weld strength. • Stored energy relaxation during post-weld heat treatment improved weld elongation.

  19. Unitary discrete linear canonical transform: analysis and application.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Liang; Healy, John J; Sheridan, John T

    2013-03-01

    The numerical approximation of the linear canonical transforms (LCTs) is important in modeling coherent wave field propagation through first-order optical systems and in many digital signal processing applications. The continuous LCTs are unitary, but discretization can destroy this property. We present a sufficient condition on the sampling rates chosen in the discretization to ensure unitarity. We discuss the various subsets of the unitary matrices examined in this paper that have been proposed elsewhere. We offer a proof of the existence of all of the unitary matrices we discuss. We examine the consequences of these results, particularly in relation to the use of discrete transforms in iterative phase retrieval applications. PMID:23458814

  20. Analysis and application of minimum variance discrete linear system identification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kotob, S.; Kaufman, H.

    1977-01-01

    An on-line minimum variance (MV) parameter identifier is developed which embodies both accuracy and computational efficiency. The formulation results in a linear estimation problem with both additive and multiplicative noise (AMN). The resulting filter which utilizes both the covariance of the parameter vector itself and the covariance of the error in identification is proven to be mean-square convergent and mean-square consistent. The MV parameter identification scheme is then used to construct a stable state and parameter estimation algorithm.

  1. Structure/load dependent vectors for linear structural dynamic analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Qin, Jiangning; Nguyen, Duc T.

    1992-01-01

    The dynamic solution vectors yielded by the present structure/load dependent-vectors method for large-scale linear structural dynamic analyses involving complex loadings can be used as starting vectors, so that both structure and load characteristics are encompassed by the basis vectors. The method is shown to entail fewer vectors than current alternatives for a given level of accuracy, especially in the cases of structures that have external concentrated masses. Numerical results are presented which illustrate the advantages of this dependent-vectors method relative to other reduction methods.

  2. Discriminative analysis of non-linear brain connectivity in schizophrenia: an fMRI Study

    PubMed Central

    Su, Longfei; Wang, Lubin; Shen, Hui; Feng, Guiyu; Hu, Dewen

    2013-01-01

    Background: Dysfunctional integration of distributed brain networks is believed to be the cause of schizophrenia, and resting-state functional connectivity analyses of schizophrenia have attracted considerable attention in recent years. Unfortunately, existing functional connectivity analyses of schizophrenia have been mostly limited to linear associations. Objective: The objective of the present study is to evaluate the discriminative power of non-linear functional connectivity and identify its changes in schizophrenia. Method: A novel measure utilizing the extended maximal information coefficient was introduced to construct non-linear functional connectivity. In conjunction with multivariate pattern analysis, the new functional connectivity successfully discriminated schizophrenic patients from healthy controls with relative higher accuracy rate than the linear measure. Result: We found that the strength of the identified non-linear functional connections involved in the classification increased in patients with schizophrenia, which was opposed to its linear counterpart. Further functional network analysis revealed that the changes of the non-linear and linear connectivity have similar but not completely the same spatial distribution in human brain. Conclusion: The classification results suggest that the non-linear functional connectivity provided useful discriminative power in diagnosis of schizophrenia, and the inverse but similar spatial distributed changes between the non-linear and linear measure may indicate the underlying compensatory mechanism and the complex neuronal synchronization underlying the symptom of schizophrenia. PMID:24155713

  3. Dispersion analysis and linear error analysis capabilities of the space vehicle dynamics simulation program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snow, L. S.; Kuhn, A. E.

    1975-01-01

    Previous error analyses conducted by the Guidance and Dynamics Branch of NASA have used the Guidance Analysis Program (GAP) as the trajectory simulation tool. Plans are made to conduct all future error analyses using the Space Vehicle Dynamics Simulation (SVDS) program. A study was conducted to compare the inertial measurement unit (IMU) error simulations of the two programs. Results of the GAP/SVDS comparison are presented and problem areas encountered while attempting to simulate IMU errors, vehicle performance uncertainties and environmental uncertainties using SVDS are defined. An evaluation of the SVDS linear error analysis capability is also included.

  4. Linear analysis of ion cyclotron interaction in a multicomponent plasma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gendrin, R.; Ashour-Abdalla, M.; Omura, Y.; Quest, K.

    1984-01-01

    The mechanism by which hot anisotropic protons generate electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves in a plasma containing cold H(+) and He(+) ions is quantitatively studied. Linear growth rates (both temporal and spatial) are computed for different plasma parameters: concentration, temperature,and anisotropy of cold He(+) ions and of hot protons. It is shown that: (1) for parameters typical of the geostationary altitude the maximum growth rates are not drastically changed when a small proportion (about 1 to 20 percent) of cold He(+) ions is present; (2) because of the important cyclotron absorption by thermal He(+) ions in the vicinity of the He(+) gyrofrequency, waves which could resonate with the bulk of the He(+) distribution cannot be generated. Therefore quasi-linear effects, in a homogeneous medium at least, cannot be responsible for the heating of He(+) ions which is often observed in conjunction with ion cyclotron waves. The variation of growth rate versus wave number is also studied for its importance in selecting suitable parameters in numerical simulation experiments.

  5. A quasi-linear control theory analysis of timesharing skills

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Agarwal, G. C.; Gottlieb, G. L.

    1977-01-01

    The compliance of the human ankle joint is measured by applying 0 to 50 Hz band-limited gaussian random torques to the foot of a seated human subject. These torques rotate the foot in a plantar-dorsal direction about a horizontal axis at a medial moleolus of the ankle. The applied torques and the resulting angular rotation of the foot are measured, digitized and recorded for off-line processing. Using such a best-fit, second-order model, the effective moment of inertia of the ankle joint, the angular viscosity and the stiffness are calculated. The ankle joint stiffness is shown to be a linear function of the level of tonic muscle contraction, increasing at a rate of 20 to 40 Nm/rad/Kg.m. of active torque. In terms of the muscle physiology, the more muscle fibers that are active, the greater the muscle stiffness. Joint viscosity also increases with activation. Joint stiffness is also a linear function of the joint angle, increasing at a rate of about 0.7 to 1.1 Nm/rad/deg from plantar flexion to dorsiflexion rotation.

  6. Design and Analysis of Tubular Permanent Magnet Linear Wave Generator

    PubMed Central

    Si, Jikai; Feng, Haichao; Su, Peng; Zhang, Lufeng

    2014-01-01

    Due to the lack of mature design program for the tubular permanent magnet linear wave generator (TPMLWG) and poor sinusoidal characteristics of the air gap flux density for the traditional surface-mounted TPMLWG, a design method and a new secondary structure of TPMLWG are proposed. An equivalent mathematical model of TPMLWG is established to adopt the transformation relationship between the linear velocity of permanent magnet rotary generator and the operating speed of TPMLWG, to determine the structure parameters of the TPMLWG. The new secondary structure of the TPMLWG contains surface-mounted permanent magnets and the interior permanent magnets, which form a series-parallel hybrid magnetic circuit, and their reasonable structure parameters are designed to get the optimum pole-arc coefficient. The electromagnetic field and temperature field of TPMLWG are analyzed using finite element method. It can be included that the sinusoidal characteristics of air gap flux density of the new secondary structure TPMLWG are improved, the cogging force as well as mechanical vibration is reduced in the process of operation, and the stable temperature rise of generator meets the design requirements when adopting the new secondary structure of the TPMLWG. PMID:25050388

  7. A MODFLOW package to linearize stream depletion analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ou, Gengxin; Li, Ruopu; Pun, Mahesh; Osborn, Colby; Bradley, Jesse; Schneider, Jim; Chen, Xun-Hong

    2016-01-01

    The conventional numerical method is computationally intensive and prone to numerical noises for stream depletion analyses using MODFLOW. In this study, a new MODFLOW package has been developed to improve the computational efficiency and reduce the noises for each simulation. Using the assumption of unchanged flow coefficients between the baseline and scenario runs, the nonlinear groundwater flow system is linearized for solving the flow equations. The new package has been successfully applied to a regional groundwater model in Nebraska. The results show that the numerical noises, commonly identified in conventional approach, have been significantly reduced and a twenty-fold speedup has been achieved for a regional groundwater model in Nebraska. The results suggest this package can be adapted to be a component of optimization tools for water management scenario analyses especially when a large number of scenario model runs are involved.

  8. A triangular thin shell finite element: Linear analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, G. R.; Gallagher, R. H.

    1975-01-01

    The formulation of the linear stiffness matrix for a doubly-curved triangular thin shell element, using a modified potential energy principle, is described. The strain energy component of the potential energy is expressed in terms of displacements and displacement gradients by use of consistent Koiter strain-displacement equations. The element inplane and normal displacement fields are approximated by complete cubic polynomials. The interelement displacement admissibility conditions are met in the global representation by imposition of constraint conditions on the interelement boundaries; the constraints represent the modification of the potential energy. Errors due to the nonzero strains under rigid body motion are shown to be of small importance for practical grid refinements through performance of extensive comparison analyses.

  9. Computational aspects of sensitivity calculations in linear transient structural analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greene, W. H.; Haftka, R. T.

    1991-01-01

    The calculation of sensitivities of displacements, velocities, accelerations, and stresses in linear, structural, and transient response problems is studied. Several existing sensitivity calculation methods and two new methods are compared for three example problems. Approximation vectors such as vibration mode shapes are used to reduce the dimensionality of the finite model. To be computationally practical in large-order problems, the overall finite difference methods must use the approximation vectors from the original design in the analyses of the perturbed models. This was found to result in poor convergence of stress sensitivities in several cases. Two semianalytical techniques are developed to overcome this poor convergence. Both new methods result in very good convergence of the stress sensitivities; the computational cost is much less than would result if the vibration modes were recalculated and then used in an overall finite difference method.

  10. Linear Stability Regime Analysis of the Compressible Reacting Mixing Layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Day, M. J.; Reynolds, William C.; Mansour, N. N.; Rai, Man Mohan (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    Previous investigations have shown that a compressible reacting mixing layer can develop two peaks in the mean density weighted vorticity profile. Linear stability analyses show that at these peaks two distinct 'outer' instability modes appear in addition to the more common central mode, which exists unaccompanied in incompressible nonreacting flows. The present study parametrically analyzes the effects of compressibility, heat release, stoichiometry, and density ratio on the amplification rate and obliquity of each stability mode. The mean profiles used in the spatial stability calculation are generated by self-similar solutions of the compressible boundary layer equations combined with the assumption of infinitely fast chemistry. It is shown that the influence of stoichiometry and density ratio on the peaks of the density weighted vorticity profile determines which modes will dominate. Of particular interest are the conditions where two modes are equally amplified, causing the mixing layer to develop into a 'colayer' structure.

  11. Linear MHD Stability Analysis of the SSPX Spheromak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jayakumar, R.; Cohen, B. I.; Hooper, E. B.; Lodestro, L. L.; McLean, H. S.; Pearlstein, L. D.; Wood, R.; Turnbull, A. D.; Sovinec, C.

    2007-11-01

    Good correlation between the toroidal mode numbers of measured magnetic fluctuations in high temperature SSPX plasmas and presence of low-order rational surfaces in the reconstructed q profiles, suggests that the quality of magnetic surfaces in SSPX is sufficiently good for applying standard linear MHD stability analyses. Previously we have reported on benchmarking the code NIMROD against GATO, with good agreement in growth rates for ideal-MHD internal kinks and an external kinks with no current on open field lines (for equilibria imported from the code Corsica). Recent stability analyses also show that presence of low order rational surfaces causes internal modes to become unstable. We will report on the progress in applying these tools for assessing beta limits in SSPX, using NIMROD analyses including current on open field lines and for comparison with experiments.

  12. Gold pickings and PIXE analysis. More about the Bronze age gold found in the cave of Han-sur-Lesse (Namur, Belgium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warmenbol, Eugène

    2004-11-01

    Gold remains a rare material during the whole Bronze Age. It is a metal that circulates amongst the elites exclusively. The exchange of gold artefacts over very long distances is fundamental in the build-up of socio-political relations. Fifty artefacts found during subaquatic excavations in the river Lesse in the cave of Han-sur-Lesse have been submitted to quantitative elemental analysis using PIXE, a method never used before on archaeological material found in Belgium. The results show that there are clearly three groups of artefacts. The first one (discs, "baskets", pearls) proves of local manufacture, as also suggested by the discovery of two ingots. The second one (gilded rings) could have been locally made too, but is a lot less homogeneous. The third one (filigreed and granulated beads or pin's heads) must be imported and most probably originates in the Mediterranean.

  13. Sensitivity Analysis of Parameters in Linear-Quadratic Radiobiologic Modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Fowler, Jack F.

    2009-04-01

    Purpose: Radiobiologic modeling is increasingly used to estimate the effects of altered treatment plans, especially for dose escalation. The present article shows how much the linear-quadratic (LQ) (calculated biologically equivalent dose [BED] varies when individual parameters of the LQ formula are varied by {+-}20% and by 1%. Methods: Equivalent total doses (EQD2 = normalized total doses (NTD) in 2-Gy fractions for tumor control, acute mucosal reactions, and late complications were calculated using the linear- quadratic formula with overall time: BED = nd (1 + d/ [{alpha}/{beta}]) - log{sub e}2 (T - Tk) / {alpha}Tp, where BED is BED = total dose x relative effectiveness (RE = nd (1 + d/ [{alpha}/{beta}]). Each of the five biologic parameters in turn was altered by {+-}10%, and the altered EQD2s tabulated; the difference was finally divided by 20. EQD2 or NTD is obtained by dividing BED by the RE for 2-Gy fractions, using the appropriate {alpha}/{beta} ratio. Results: Variations in tumor and acute mucosal EQD ranged from 0.1% to 0.45% per 1% change in each parameter for conventional schedules, the largest variation being caused by overall time. Variations in 'late' EQD were 0.4% to 0.6% per 1% change in the only biologic parameter, the {alpha}/{beta} ratio. For stereotactic body radiotherapy schedules, variations were larger, up to 0.6 to 0.9 for tumor and 1.6% to 1.9% for late, per 1% change in parameter. Conclusions: Robustness occurs similar to that of equivalent uniform dose (EUD), for the same reasons. Total dose, dose per fraction, and dose-rate cause their major effects, as well known.

  14. Three-dimensional linear system analysis for breast tomosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Bo; Zhao, Wei

    2008-12-01

    The optimization of digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) geometry and reconstruction is crucial for the clinical translation of this exciting new imaging technique. In the present work, the authors developed a three-dimensional (3D) cascaded linear system model for DBT to investigate the effects of detector performance, imaging geometry, and image reconstruction algorithm on the reconstructed image quality. The characteristics of a prototype DBT system equipped with an amorphous selenium flat-panel detector and filtered backprojection reconstruction were used as an example in the implementation of the linear system model. The propagation of signal and noise in the frequency domain was divided into six cascaded stages incorporating the detector performance, imaging geometry, and reconstruction filters. The reconstructed tomosynthesis imaging quality was characterized by spatial frequency dependent presampling modulation transfer function (MTF), noise power spectrum (NPS), and detective quantum efficiency (DQE) in 3D. The results showed that both MTF and NPS were affected by the angular range of the tomosynthesis scan and the reconstruction filters. For image planes parallel to the detector (in-plane), MTF at low frequencies was improved with increase in angular range. The shape of the NPS was affected by the reconstruction filters. Noise aliasing in 3D could be introduced by insufficient voxel sampling, especially in the z (slice-thickness) direction where the sampling distance (slice thickness) could be more than ten times that for in-plane images. Aliasing increases the noise at high frequencies, which causes degradation in DQE. Application of a reconstruction filter that limits the frequency components beyond the Nyquist frequency in the z direction, referred to as the slice thickness filter, eliminates noise aliasing and improves 3D DQE. The focal spot blur, which arises from continuous tube travel during tomosynthesis acquisition, could degrade DQE significantly

  15. Microstructural Analysis of Linear Friction-Welded 718 Plus Superalloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vishwakarma, K. R.; Ojo, O. A.; Wanjara, P.; Chaturvedi, M. C.

    2014-12-01

    The microstructure of Allvac 718 Plus (718 Plus; ATI, Pittsburgh, PA, USA) superalloy was examined after linear friction welding (LFW) and after standard postweld heat treatment (PWHT). The liquid phase reaction of second-phase precipitates, which are known to constitutionally liquate during conventional fusion welding, was observed in the thermomechanically affected zone (TMAZ) of the welded material. These phases included MC-type carbides, Ti-rich carbonitrides, and δ phase precipitates. This observation is contrary to the general assumption that LFW is a completely solid-state joining process. However, unlike conventional fusion welding processes that cause heat-affected zone liquation cracking in 718 Plus and many other superalloys, the LFW process did not cause cracking in 718 Plus superalloy despite the liquation of precipitates. This absence of cracking during joining is attributed to the applied compressive stress during the forging stage of the LFW process. Also, no cracking was observed after PWHT, although PWHT resulted in a microstructure that had a nonhomogeneous distribution of precipitates in the weld and the TMAZ.

  16. Hamiltonian analysis for linearly acceleration-dependent Lagrangians

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruz, Miguel; Gómez-Cortés, Rosario; Molgado, Alberto; Rojas, Efraín

    2016-06-01

    We study the constrained Ostrogradski-Hamilton framework for the equations of motion provided by mechanical systems described by second-order derivative actions with a linear dependence in the accelerations. We stress out the peculiar features provided by the surface terms arising for this type of theories and we discuss some important properties for this kind of actions in order to pave the way for the construction of a well defined quantum counterpart by means of canonical methods. In particular, we analyse in detail the constraint structure for these theories and its relation to the inherent conserved quantities where the associated energies together with a Noether charge may be identified. The constraint structure is fully analyzed without the introduction of auxiliary variables, as proposed in recent works involving higher order Lagrangians. Finally, we also provide some examples where our approach is explicitly applied and emphasize the way in which our original arrangement results in propitious for the Hamiltonian formulation of covariant field theories.

  17. Computational Tools for Probing Interactions in Multiple Linear Regression, Multilevel Modeling, and Latent Curve Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Preacher, Kristopher J.; Curran, Patrick J.; Bauer, Daniel J.

    2006-01-01

    Simple slopes, regions of significance, and confidence bands are commonly used to evaluate interactions in multiple linear regression (MLR) models, and the use of these techniques has recently been extended to multilevel or hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) and latent curve analysis (LCA). However, conducting these tests and plotting the…

  18. Application of Local Linear Embedding to Nonlinear Exploratory Latent Structure Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Haonan; Iyer, Hari

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the use of a recent dimension reduction technique called Locally Linear Embedding, introduced by Roweis and Saul, for performing an exploratory latent structure analysis. The coordinate variables from the locally linear embedding describing the manifold on which the data reside serve as the latent variable scores. We…

  19. Simplified seawater alkalinity analysis: Use of linear array spectrometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Wensheng; Byrne, Robert H.

    1998-08-01

    Modified spectrophotometric procedures are presented for the determination of seawater total alkalinity using rapid scan linear array spectrometers. Continuous monitoring of solution pH allows titrations to be terminated at relatively high pH, whereby excess acid terms are very small. Excess acid concentrations are quantified using the sulfonephthalein indicators, bromocresol green and bromocresol purple. The outlined spectrophotometric procedures require no thermal equilibration of samples. Using bromocresol green, solution pH T ([H +] T in moles per kg of solution) is given as: pHT=4.2699+0.002578(35- S)+ log((R(25)-0.00131)/(2.3148-0.1299 R(25))) - log(1-0.001005S) and R(25)= R( t){1+0.00909(25- t)}, where 29⩽S⩽37, 13° C⩽t⩽32° C, and R( t) is the absorbance ratio ( A616/ A444) at temperature t and salinity S. Using bromocresol purple, the solution pH T is given as pH T=5.8182+0.00129(35- S)+log(( R(25)-0.00381)/(2.8729-0.05104 R(25))) and R(25)= R( t){1+0.01869(25- t)}, where 29⩽S⩽37, 13° C⩽t⩽32° C, and R( t)= A589/ A432. Alkalinity measurements using bromocresol purple had a precision on the order of 0.3 μmol kg -1 and were within 0.3-0.9 μmol kg -1 of the alkalinities of certified seawater reference materials.

  20. The Effect of Data Scaling on Dual Prices and Sensitivity Analysis in Linear Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adlakha, V. G.; Vemuganti, R. R.

    2007-01-01

    In many practical situations scaling the data is necessary to solve linear programs. This note explores the relationships in translating the sensitivity analysis between the original and the scaled problems.

  1. Analysis of linear elasticity and non-linearity due to plasticity and material damage in woven and biaxial braided composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goyal, Deepak

    Textile composites have a wide variety of applications in the aerospace, sports, automobile, marine and medical industries. Due to the availability of a variety of textile architectures and numerous parameters associated with each, optimal design through extensive experimental testing is not practical. Predictive tools are needed to perform virtual experiments of various options. The focus of this research is to develop a better understanding of linear elastic response, plasticity and material damage induced nonlinear behavior and mechanics of load flow in textile composites. Textile composites exhibit multiple scales of complexity. The various textile behaviors are analyzed using a two-scale finite element modeling. A framework to allow use of a wide variety of damage initiation and growth models is proposed. Plasticity induced non-linear behavior of 2x2 braided composites is investigated using a modeling approach based on Hill's yield function for orthotropic materials. The mechanics of load flow in textile composites is demonstrated using special non-standard postprocessing techniques that not only highlight the important details, but also transform the extensive amount of output data into comprehensible modes of behavior. The investigations show that the damage models differ from each other in terms of amount of degradation as well as the properties to be degraded under a particular failure mode. When compared with experimental data, predictions of some models match well for glass/epoxy composite whereas other's match well for carbon/epoxy composites. However, all the models predicted very similar response when damage factors were made similar, which shows that the magnitude of damage factors are very important. Full 3D as well as equivalent tape laminate predictions lie within the range of the experimental data for a wide variety of braided composites with different material systems, which validated the plasticity analysis. Conclusions about the effect of

  2. Computer analysis of general linear networks using digraphs.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcclenahan, J. O.; Chan, S.-P.

    1972-01-01

    Investigation of the application of digraphs in analyzing general electronic networks, and development of a computer program based on a particular digraph method developed by Chen. The Chen digraph method is a topological method for solution of networks and serves as a shortcut when hand calculations are required. The advantage offered by this method of analysis is that the results are in symbolic form. It is limited, however, by the size of network that may be handled. Usually hand calculations become too tedious for networks larger than about five nodes, depending on how many elements the network contains. Direct determinant expansion for a five-node network is a very tedious process also.

  3. Consistent linearization method for finite-element analysis of viscoelastic materials

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, P.D.; Pelessone, D.

    1983-05-01

    A method of formulating material models for viscoelastic analysis using the finite-element method is presented. The method, named consistent linearization, includes the influence of creep in the material stiffness in a theoretically ideal manner. This method has been applied to the linear viscoelastic analysis of graphite subject to irradiation. Previously, using the initial strain method, short time steps had been required to avoid a numerical instability associated with the rapid transient creep. Using the consistent linearization method a factor of 15 reduction in computer time was achieved for the same accuracy.

  4. Linear error analysis of slope-area discharge determinations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kirby, W.H.

    1987-01-01

    The slope-area method can be used to calculate peak flood discharges when current-meter measurements are not possible. This calculation depends on several quantities, such as water-surface fall, that are subject to large measurement errors. Other critical quantities, such as Manning's n, are not even amenable to direct measurement but can only be estimated. Finally, scour and fill may cause gross discrepancies between the observed condition of the channel and the hydraulic conditions during the flood peak. The effects of these potential errors on the accuracy of the computed discharge have been estimated by statistical error analysis using a Taylor-series approximation of the discharge formula and the well-known formula for the variance of a sum of correlated random variates. The resultant error variance of the computed discharge is a weighted sum of covariances of the various observational errors. The weights depend on the hydraulic and geometric configuration of the channel. The mathematical analysis confirms the rule of thumb that relative errors in computed discharge increase rapidly when velocity heads exceed the water-surface fall, when the flow field is expanding and when lateral velocity variation (alpha) is large. It also confirms the extreme importance of accurately assessing the presence of scour or fill. ?? 1987.

  5. Linear stability analysis of three-dimensional compressible boundary layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malik, Mujeeb R.; Orszag, Steven A.

    1987-01-01

    A compressible stability analysis computer code is developed. The code uses a matrix finite-difference method for local eigenvale solution when a good guess for the eigenvalue is available and is significantly more computationally efficient than the commonly used inital-value approach. The local eigenvalue search procedure also results in eigenfunctions and, at little extra work, group velocities. A globally convergent eigenvalue procedure is also developed that may be used when no guess for the eigenvalue is available. The global problem is formulated in such a way that no unstable spurious modes appear so that the method is suitable for use in a black-box stability code. Sample stability calculations are presented for the boundary layer profiles of an LFC swept wing.

  6. An analysis method for control reconfigurability of linear systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Dayi; Duan, Wenjie; Liu, Chengrui

    2016-01-01

    The reconfigurability of control systems is further researched based on the function-objective model (FOM). The establishment of the FOM has been published in the authors' former paper, solving the problem whether the system is reconfigurable without losing the desired control objective. Based on the FOM, the importance factor, the risk factor and the k th reconfigurability factor are proposed to evaluate the fault risks of all components and the system reconfigurability with k faults. These factors show which components should be improved and which faults cannot be tolerated. The analysis results are very useful for enhancing the fault-tolerance performances of the control systems by improving system designs. A satellite model is utilized to illustrate the proposed method.

  7. The Stability of Radiatively Cooling Jets I. Linear Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hardee, Philip E.; Stone, James M.

    1997-01-01

    The results of a spatial stability analysis of a two-dimensional slab jet, in which optically thin radiative cooling is dynamically important, are presented. We study both magnetized and unmagnetized jets at external Mach numbers of 5 and 20. We model the cooling rate by using two different cooling curves: one appropriate to interstellar gas, and the other to photoionized gas of reduced metallicity. Thus, our results will be applicable to both protostellar (Herbig-Haro) jets and optical jets from active galactic nuclei. We present analytical solutions to the dispersion relations in useful limits and solve the dispersion relations numerically over a broad range of perturbation frequencies. We find that the growth rates and wavelengths of the unstable Kelvin-Helmholtz (K-H) modes are significantly different from the adiabatic limit, and that the form of the cooling function strongly affects the results. In particular, if the cooling curve is a steep function of temperature in the neighborhood of the equilibrium state, then the growth of K-H modes is reduced relative to the adiabatic jet. On the other hand, if the cooling curve is a shallow function of temperature, then the growth of K-H modes can be enhanced relative to the adiabatic jet by the increase in cooling relative to heating in overdense regions. Inclusion of a dynamically important magnetic field does not strongly modify the important differences between an adiabatic jet and a cooling jet, provided the jet is highly supermagnetosonic and not magnetic pressure-dominated. In the latter case, the unstable modes behave more like the transmagnetosonic magnetic pressure-dominated adiabatic limit. We also plot fluid displacement surfaces associated with the various waves in a cooling jet in order to predict the structures that might arise in the nonlinear regime. This analysis predicts that low-frequency surface waves and the lowest order body modes will be the most effective at producing observable features in

  8. Biomedical image analysis using Markov random fields & efficient linear programing.

    PubMed

    Komodakis, Nikos; Besbes, Ahmed; Glocker, Ben; Paragios, Nikos

    2009-01-01

    Computer-aided diagnosis through biomedical image analysis is increasingly considered in health sciences. This is due to the progress made on the acquisition side, as well as on the processing one. In vivo visualization of human tissues where one can determine both anatomical and functional information is now possible. The use of these images with efficient intelligent mathematical and processing tools allows the interpretation of the tissues state and facilitates the task of the physicians. Segmentation and registration are the two most fundamental tools in bioimaging. The first aims to provide automatic tools for organ delineation from images, while the second focuses on establishing correspondences between observations inter and intra subject and modalities. In this paper, we present some recent results towards a common formulation addressing these problems, called the Markov Random Fields. Such an approach is modular with respect to the application context, can be easily extended to deal with various modalities, provides guarantees on the optimality properties of the obtained solution and is computationally efficient. PMID:19963682

  9. GraTeLPy: graph-theoretic linear stability analysis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background A biochemical mechanism with mass action kinetics can be represented as a directed bipartite graph (bipartite digraph), and modeled by a system of differential equations. If the differential equations (DE) model can give rise to some instability such as multistability or Turing instability, then the bipartite digraph contains a structure referred to as a critical fragment. In some cases the existence of a critical fragment indicates that the DE model can display oscillations for some parameter values. We have implemented a graph-theoretic method that identifies the critical fragments of the bipartite digraph of a biochemical mechanism. Results GraTeLPy lists all critical fragments of the bipartite digraph of a given biochemical mechanism, thus enabling a preliminary analysis on the potential of a biochemical mechanism for some instability based on its topological structure. The correctness of the implementation is supported by multiple examples. The code is implemented in Python, relies on open software, and is available under the GNU General Public License. Conclusions GraTeLPy can be used by researchers to test large biochemical mechanisms with mass action kinetics for their capacity for multistability, oscillations and Turing instability. PMID:24572152

  10. Modal cost analysis for linear matrix-second-order systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skelton, R. E.; Hughes, P. C.

    1980-01-01

    Reduced models and reduced controllers for systems governed by matrix-second-order differential equations are obtained by retaining those modes which make the largest contributions to quadratic control objectives. Such contributions, expressed in terms of modal data, used as mode truncation criteria, allow the statement of the specific control objectives to influence the early model reduction from very high order models which are available, for example, from finite element methods. The relative importance of damping, frequency, and eigenvector in the mode truncation decisions are made explicit for each of these control objectives: attitude control, vibration suppression and figure control. The paper also shows that using modal cost analysis (MCA) on the closed loop modes of the optimally controlled system allows the construction of reduced control policies which feedback only those closed loop modal coordinates which are most critical to the quadratic control performance criterion. In this way, the modes which should be controlled (and hence the modes which must be observable by choice of measurements), are deduced from truncations of the optimal controller.

  11. Bounded Linear Stability Analysis - A Time Delay Margin Estimation Approach for Adaptive Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Nhan T.; Ishihara, Abraham K.; Krishnakumar, Kalmanje Srinlvas; Bakhtiari-Nejad, Maryam

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a method for estimating time delay margin for model-reference adaptive control of systems with almost linear structured uncertainty. The bounded linear stability analysis method seeks to represent the conventional model-reference adaptive law by a locally bounded linear approximation within a small time window using the comparison lemma. The locally bounded linear approximation of the combined adaptive system is cast in a form of an input-time-delay differential equation over a small time window. The time delay margin of this system represents a local stability measure and is computed analytically by a matrix measure method, which provides a simple analytical technique for estimating an upper bound of time delay margin. Based on simulation results for a scalar model-reference adaptive control system, both the bounded linear stability method and the matrix measure method are seen to provide a reasonably accurate and yet not too conservative time delay margin estimation.

  12. STICAP: A linear circuit analysis program with stiff systems capability. Volume 1: Theory manual. [network analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooke, C. H.

    1975-01-01

    STICAP (Stiff Circuit Analysis Program) is a FORTRAN 4 computer program written for the CDC-6400-6600 computer series and SCOPE 3.0 operating system. It provides the circuit analyst a tool for automatically computing the transient responses and frequency responses of large linear time invariant networks, both stiff and nonstiff (algorithms and numerical integration techniques are described). The circuit description and user's program input language is engineer-oriented, making simple the task of using the program. Engineering theories underlying STICAP are examined. A user's manual is included which explains user interaction with the program and gives results of typical circuit design applications. Also, the program structure from a systems programmer's viewpoint is depicted and flow charts and other software documentation are given.

  13. Linear analysis of a coaxial-waveguide gyrotron traveling-wave tube

    SciTech Connect

    Hung, C.L.

    2006-03-15

    Linear theory provides an efficient analysis model for the preliminary design of a gyrotron traveling-wave tube (gyro-TWT). This study presents a linear theory, which is applicable to amplifications or self-excited oscillations induced by absolute instabilities in a coaxial waveguide of finite length. The effects of wall losses are incorporated in the theoretical formalism. The validity of the linear theory is verified by comparison with calculation results obtained using an existing self-consistent nonlinear theory. The linear theory is applied to analyze a TE{sub 01} mode coaxial gyro-TWT at the fundamental cyclotron harmonic. Numerical analysis of coupling between the beam cyclotron mode and the waveguide mode provides physical insight into the wave-growing mechanisms of various oscillations. The critical parameters for the onset of threatening oscillation modes are analyzed to determine the stable operating conditions. Finally, the dependencies of small-signal amplifications on system parameters are studied in great detail.

  14. Numerical analysis of linear buckling of wind turbine blade with different trailing bonding models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, J. D.; Xu, Y.

    2013-12-01

    The work focus on the linear buckling analysis of wind turbine blade with different trailing bonding models. Based on finite element model, it has been demonstrated that there are some differences for buckling load factor between different models. Several different models are valid for buckling analysis.

  15. Using Linear versus Quadratic Rules in Predictive and Descriptive Discriminant Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGee, Jennifer

    Both predictive discriminant analysis (PDA) and descriptive discriminant analysis (DDA) require a decision to pool group covariance matrices, or alternatively, to retain separate group covariance matrices when the group covariance matrices are too dissimilar to pool. Pooling the group covariance matrices involves the so-called "linear" rule,…

  16. Augmenting Visual Analysis in Single-Case Research with Hierarchical Linear Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Dawn H.; Gagne, Phill; Fredrick, Laura D.; Alberto, Paul A.; Waugh, Rebecca E.; Haardorfer, Regine

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to demonstrate how hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) can be used to enhance visual analysis of single-case research (SCR) designs. First, the authors demonstrated the use of growth modeling via HLM to augment visual analysis of a sophisticated single-case study. Data were used from a delayed multiple baseline…

  17. Meta-Analysis in Higher Education: An Illustrative Example Using Hierarchical Linear Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denson, Nida; Seltzer, Michael H.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide higher education researchers with an illustrative example of meta-analysis utilizing hierarchical linear modeling (HLM). This article demonstrates the step-by-step process of meta-analysis using a recently-published study examining the effects of curricular and co-curricular diversity activities on racial…

  18. Application of variational and Galerkin equations to linear and nonlinear finite element analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yu, Y.-Y.

    1974-01-01

    The paper discusses the application of the variational equation to nonlinear finite element analysis. The problem of beam vibration with large deflection is considered. The variational equation is shown to be flexible in both the solution of a general problem and in the finite element formulation. Difficulties are shown to arise when Galerkin's equations are used in the consideration of the finite element formulation of two-dimensional linear elasticity and of the linear classical beam.

  19. Polynomial elimination theory and non-linear stability analysis for the Euler equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kennon, S. R.; Dulikravich, G. S.; Jespersen, D. C.

    1986-01-01

    Numerical methods are presented that exploit the polynomial properties of discretizations of the Euler equations. It is noted that most finite difference or finite volume discretizations of the steady-state Euler equations produce a polynomial system of equations to be solved. These equations are solved using classical polynomial elimination theory, with some innovative modifications. This paper also presents some preliminary results of a new non-linear stability analysis technique. This technique is applicable to determining the stability of polynomial iterative schemes. Results are presented for applying the elimination technique to a one-dimensional test case. For this test case, the exact solution is computed in three iterations. The non-linear stability analysis is applied to determine the optimal time step for solving Burgers' equation using the MacCormack scheme. The estimated optimal time step is very close to the time step that arises from a linear stability analysis.

  20. Linear stability analysis and the speed of gravitational waves in dynamical Chern-Simons modified gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Garfinkle, David; Pretorius, Frans; Yunes, Nicolas

    2010-08-15

    We perform a linear stability analysis of dynamical Chern-Simons modified gravity in the geometric optics approximation and find that it is linearly stable on the backgrounds considered. Our analysis also reveals that gravitational waves in the modified theory travel at the speed of light in Minkowski spacetime. However, on a Schwarzschild background the characteristic speed of propagation along a given direction splits into two modes, one subluminal and one superluminal. The width of the splitting depends on the azimuthal components of the propagation vector, is linearly proportional to the mass of the black hole, and decreases with the third inverse power of the distance from the black hole. Radial propagation is unaffected, implying that as probed by gravitational waves the location of the event horizon of the spacetime is unaltered. The analysis further reveals that when a high frequency, pure gravitational wave is scattered from a black hole, a scalar wave of comparable amplitude is excited, and vice versa.

  1. ASTROP2-LE: A Mistuned Aeroelastic Analysis System Based on a Two Dimensional Linearized Euler Solver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reddy, T. S. R.; Srivastava, R.; Mehmed, Oral

    2002-01-01

    An aeroelastic analysis system for flutter and forced response analysis of turbomachines based on a two-dimensional linearized unsteady Euler solver has been developed. The ASTROP2 code, an aeroelastic stability analysis program for turbomachinery, was used as a basis for this development. The ASTROP2 code uses strip theory to couple a two dimensional aerodynamic model with a three dimensional structural model. The code was modified to include forced response capability. The formulation was also modified to include aeroelastic analysis with mistuning. A linearized unsteady Euler solver, LINFLX2D is added to model the unsteady aerodynamics in ASTROP2. By calculating the unsteady aerodynamic loads using LINFLX2D, it is possible to include the effects of transonic flow on flutter and forced response in the analysis. The stability is inferred from an eigenvalue analysis. The revised code, ASTROP2-LE for ASTROP2 code using Linearized Euler aerodynamics, is validated by comparing the predictions with those obtained using linear unsteady aerodynamic solutions.

  2. Analysis of an inventory model for both linearly decreasing demand and holding cost

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malik, A. K.; Singh, Parth Raj; Tomar, Ajay; Kumar, Satish; Yadav, S. K.

    2016-03-01

    This study proposes the analysis of an inventory model for linearly decreasing demand and holding cost for non-instantaneous deteriorating items. The inventory model focuses on commodities having linearly decreasing demand without shortages. The holding cost doesn't remain uniform with time due to any form of variation in the time value of money. Here we consider that the holding cost decreases with respect to time. The optimal time interval for the total profit and the optimal order quantity are determined. The developed inventory model is pointed up through a numerical example. It also includes the sensitivity analysis.

  3. Consistent linearization of the element-independent corotational formulation for the structural analysis of general shells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rankin, C. C.

    1988-01-01

    A consistent linearization is provided for the element-dependent corotational formulation, providing the proper first and second variation of the strain energy. As a result, the warping problem that has plagued flat elements has been overcome, with beneficial effects carried over to linear solutions. True Newton quadratic convergence has been restored to the Structural Analysis of General Shells (STAGS) code for conservative loading using the full corotational implementation. Some implications for general finite element analysis are discussed, including what effect the automatic frame invariance provided by this work might have on the development of new, improved elements.

  4. Stability analysis, non-linear pulsations and mass loss of models for 55 Cygni (HD 198478)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yadav, Abhay Pratap; Glatzel, Wolfgang

    2016-04-01

    55 Cygni is a variable supergiant. Recent observational studies revealed that this star pulsates in pressure, gravity and strange modes. The pulsations seem to be associated with episodes of mass loss. In this paper we present a theoretical study of stellar models with parameters close to that of 55 Cygni. A linear non-adiabatic stability analysis with respect to radial perturbations is performed and the evolution of instabilities into the non-linear regime is followed by numerical simulation. Our study indicates that the mass of 55 Cygni lies below 28 M⊙. As the final consequence of the instabilities the non-linear simulations revealed finite amplitude pulsations with periods consistent with the observations. The non-linear results also indicate a connection between pulsations and mass loss and allow for an estimate of the mean mass-loss rate. It is consistent with the observed values.

  5. Tuning of power system controllers using symbolic eigensensitivity analysis and linear programming

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, L.; Ahmed-Zaid, S.

    1995-02-01

    In this paper, a systematic method for the tuning of multiple power system controllers using symbolic eigensensitivity analysis and linear programming is presented. The concept of eigenvalue sensitivity is used here to formulate the linear first-order variation of the real part of the dominant system eigenvalue as a symbolic function of controller parameters. This eigenvalue variation is minimized iteratively subject to linear equality and inequality constraints. All controller parameters are tuned correctly when the objective function meets the desired performance criteria. In this method, no special assumptions are made on the type of power devices and linear feedback controllers present in the system. The proposed method is illustrated with three examples of a single-machine system with a power system stabilizer and a controller for a thyristor-controlled series capacitor. The tested configurations are supplemented with nonlinear time-domain simulations validating the small-signal stability results.

  6. Convective overstability in accretion disks: Three-dimensional linear analysis and nonlinear saturation

    SciTech Connect

    Lyra, Wladimir

    2014-07-01

    Recently, Klahr and Hubbard claimed that a hydrodynamical linear overstability exists in protoplanetary disks, powered by buoyancy in the presence of thermal relaxation. We analyze this claim, confirming it through rigorous compressible linear analysis. We model the system numerically, reproducing the linear growth rate for all cases studied. We also study the saturated properties of the overstability in the shearing box, finding that the saturated state produces finite amplitude fluctuations strong enough to trigger the subcritical baroclinic instability (SBI). Saturation leads to a fast burst of enstrophy in the box, and a large-scale vortex develops in the course of the next ≈100 orbits. The amount of angular momentum transport achieved is of the order of α ≈ 10{sup –3}, as in compressible SBI models. For the first time, a self-sustained three-dimensional vortex is produced from linear amplitude perturbation of a quiescent base state.

  7. Development of a linearized unsteady Euler analysis for turbomachinery blade rows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verdon, Joseph M.; Montgomery, Matthew D.; Kousen, Kenneth A.

    1995-01-01

    A linearized unsteady aerodynamic analysis for axial-flow turbomachinery blading is described in this report. The linearization is based on the Euler equations of fluid motion and is motivated by the need for an efficient aerodynamic analysis that can be used in predicting the aeroelastic and aeroacoustic responses of blade rows. The field equations and surface conditions required for inviscid, nonlinear and linearized, unsteady aerodynamic analyses of three-dimensional flow through a single, blade row operating within a cylindrical duct, are derived. An existing numerical algorithm for determining time-accurate solutions of the nonlinear unsteady flow problem is described, and a numerical model, based upon this nonlinear flow solver, is formulated for the first-harmonic linear unsteady problem. The linearized aerodynamic and numerical models have been implemented into a first-harmonic unsteady flow code, called LINFLUX. At present this code applies only to two-dimensional flows, but an extension to three-dimensions is planned as future work. The three-dimensional aerodynamic and numerical formulations are described in this report. Numerical results for two-dimensional unsteady cascade flows, excited by prescribed blade motions and prescribed aerodynamic disturbances at inlet and exit, are also provided to illustrate the present capabilities of the LINFLUX analysis.

  8. A Three-Dimensional Linearized Unsteady Euler Analysis for Turbomachinery Blade Rows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montgomery, Matthew D.; Verdon, Joseph M.

    1997-01-01

    A three-dimensional, linearized, Euler analysis is being developed to provide an efficient unsteady aerodynamic analysis that can be used to predict the aeroelastic and aeroacoustic responses of axial-flow turbo-machinery blading.The field equations and boundary conditions needed to describe nonlinear and linearized inviscid unsteady flows through a blade row operating within a cylindrical annular duct are presented. A numerical model for linearized inviscid unsteady flows, which couples a near-field, implicit, wave-split, finite volume analysis to a far-field eigenanalysis, is also described. The linearized aerodynamic and numerical models have been implemented into a three-dimensional linearized unsteady flow code, called LINFLUX. This code has been applied to selected, benchmark, unsteady, subsonic flows to establish its accuracy and to demonstrate its current capabilities. The unsteady flows considered, have been chosen to allow convenient comparisons between the LINFLUX results and those of well-known, two-dimensional, unsteady flow codes. Detailed numerical results for a helical fan and a three-dimensional version of the 10th Standard Cascade indicate that important progress has been made towards the development of a reliable and useful, three-dimensional, prediction capability that can be used in aeroelastic and aeroacoustic design studies.

  9. Development of a Linearized Unsteady Euler Analysis with Application to Wake/Blade-Row Interactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verdon, Joseph M.; Montgomery, Matthew D.; Chuang, H. Andrew

    1999-01-01

    A three-dimensional, linearized, Euler analysis is being developed to provide a comprehensive and efficient unsteady aerodynamic analysis for predicting the aeroacoustic and aeroelastic responses of axial-flow turbomachinery blading. The mathematical models needed to describe nonlinear and linearized, inviscid, unsteady flows through a blade row operating within a cylindrical annular duct are presented in this report. A numerical model for linearized inviscid unsteady flows, which couples a near-field, implicit, wave-split, finite volume analysis to far-field eigen analyses, is also described. The linearized aerodynamic and numerical models have been implemented into the three-dimensional unsteady flow code, LINFLUX. This code is applied herein to predict unsteady subsonic flows driven by wake or vortical excitations. The intent is to validate the LINFLUX analysis via numerical results for simple benchmark unsteady flows and to demonstrate this analysis via application to a realistic wake/blade-row interaction. Detailed numerical results for a three-dimensional version of the 10th Standard Cascade and a fan exit guide vane indicate that LINFLUX is becoming a reliable and useful unsteady aerodynamic prediction capability that can be applied, in the future, to assess the three-dimensional flow physics important to blade-row, aeroacoustic and aeroelastic responses.

  10. Coupling loss factor of linear vibration energy harvesting systems in a framework of statistical energy analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xu

    2016-02-01

    This paper establishes coupling loss factor of linear vibration energy harvesting systems in a framework of statistical energy analysis under parameter variations and random excitations. The new contributions of this paper are to define the numerical ranges of the dimensionless force factor for the weak, moderate and strong coupling and to study the connections of dimensionless force factor, coupling loss factor, coupling quotient, critical coupling strength, electro-mechanical coupling factor, damping loss factor and modal densities in linear vibration energy harvesting systems. The motivation of this paper is to enable statistical energy analysis of linear vibration energy harvesting systems for reliable performance predictions and design optimisation under parameter variations of materials and manufacturing processes and random ambient environmental excitations.

  11. Identification of linear and nonlinear propagation regimes in an optical fiber link using chaos analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahamim, Rony; Mahlab, Uri; Dahan, David

    2009-10-01

    We propose and demonstrate a novel approach to identify linear and nonlinear propagation regimes of an optical signal in an optical fiber link by using chaos analysis. We show that the chaotic characteristics of a propagating optical signal are affected by both the chromatic dispersion and the nonlinear effects in the optical fiber. Linear or nonlinear behavior is detected by determining the maximum Lyapunov exponent of the signal and the use of the recurrence plot technique. An experimental demonstration is performed using 10-Gbps signal propagation in a 100-km fiber link with different launched optical powers. Chaos analysis shows a clear identification of the linear and nonlinear optical propagation regimes by using a classification scheme based on a multilayer neural network. Numerical simulations confirm the experimental results.

  12. A Signal Transmission Technique for Stability Analysis of Multivariable Non-Linear Control Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, Mark; Zimpfer, Doug; Adams, Neil; Lindsey, K. L. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Among the difficulties associated with multivariable, non-linear control systems is the problem of assessing closed-loop stability. Of particular interest is the class of non-linear systems controlled with on/off actuators, such as spacecraft thrusters or electrical relays. With such systems, standard describing function techniques are typically too conservative, and time-domain simulation analysis is prohibitively extensive, This paper presents an open-loop analysis technique for this class of non-linear systems. The technique is centered around an innovative use of multivariable signal transmission theory to quantify the plant response to worst case control commands. The technique has been applied to assess stability of thruster controlled flexible space structures. Examples are provided for Space Shuttle attitude control with attached flexible payloads.

  13. Non-linear canonical correlation for joint analysis of MEG signals from two subjects

    PubMed Central

    Campi, Cristina; Parkkonen, Lauri; Hari, Riitta; Hyvärinen, Aapo

    2013-01-01

    Traditional stimulus-based analysis methods of magnetoencephalography (MEG) data are often dissatisfactory when applied to naturalistic experiments where two or more subjects are measured either simultaneously or sequentially. To uncover the commonalities in the brain activity of the two subjects, we propose a method that searches for linear transformations that output maximally correlated signals between the two brains. Our method is based on canonical correlation analysis (CCA), which provides linear transformations, one for each subject, such that the temporal correlation between the transformed MEG signals is maximized. Here, we present a non-linear version of CCA which measures the correlation of energies and allows for a variable delay between the time series to accommodate, e.g., leader–follower changes. We test the method with simulations and with MEG data from subjects who received the same naturalistic stimulus sequence. The method may help analyse future experiments where the two subjects are measured simultaneously while engaged in social interaction. PMID:23785311

  14. [The linearity analysis of ultrahigh temperature FTIR spectral emissivity measurement system].

    PubMed

    Wang, Zong-wei; Dai, Jing-min; He, Xiao-wa; Yang, Chun-ling

    2012-02-01

    To study thermal radiation properties of special materials at high temperature in aerospace fields, the ultrahigh temperature spectral emissivity measurement system with Fourier spectrometer has been established. The linearity of system is the guarantee of emissivity measurement precision. Through measuring spectral radiation signals of a blackbody source at different temperatures, the function relations between spectral signal values and blackbody spectral radiation luminance of every spectrum points were calculated with the method of multi-temperature and multi-spectrum linear fitting. The spectral radiation signals of blackbody were measured between 1 000 degrees C and 2 000 degrees C in the spectral region from 3 to 20 microm. The linear relations between spectral signal and theory line at wavelength of 4 microm were calculated and introduced. The spectral response is well good between 4 and 18 microm, the spectral linearity are less than 1% except CO2 strong absorption spectrum regions. The results show that when the errors of measured spectrum radiation and linear fitting theory lines are certain, the higher the temperature, the smaller the spectral errors on emissivity. The linearity analysis of spectrum response is good at eliminating errors caused by individual temperature' disturbance to the spectra. PMID:22512159

  15. Analysis and improvement for a linearized seafloor elastic parameter inversion method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yangting; Liu, Xuewei; Ning, Hongxiao

    2016-05-01

    AVO inversion is an effective seismic exploration method to predict elastic parameters. In this paper, we review and analyze the linearized AVO inversion method previously published for seafloor elastic parameters, and present a modification strategy. Before the linearized inversion is performed, a proper near-angle range in which the relationship between the reflection coefficient and sine-squared incidence angle is linear needs to be provided. However, the near-angle range is determined by the elastic parameters which are to be estimated by inversion. Therefore, only an approximated value of the near-angle range can be provided for the linearized inversion. Model tests show that a too large near-angle range may cause inversion fault, and a too small near-angle range may cause unreliable estimation. Further analysis shows that the estimation stability can be further improved even though the linearized inversion is performed under an exact near-angle range. To mitigate the strong dependence on the near-angle range, we use the seafloor elastic parameters estimated from the linearized method as the initial model for an unconstrained optimization method. Compared with the previously published method, the modified method is more robust to noisy data and shows less dependence on the near-angle range.

  16. Analysis of bipolar linear circuit response mechanisms for high and low dose rate total dose irradiations

    SciTech Connect

    Barnaby, H.; Tausch, H.J.; Turfler, R.; Cole, P.; Baker, P.; Pease, R.L.

    1996-12-01

    A methodology is presented for the identification of circuit total dose response mechanisms in bipolar linear microcircuits irradiated at high and low dose rates. This methodology includes manual circuit analysis, circuit simulations with SPICE using extracted device parameters, and selective irradiations of portions of the circuit using a scanning electron microscope.

  17. Micosoft Excel Sensitivity Analysis for Linear and Stochastic Program Feed Formulation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sensitivity analysis is a part of mathematical programming solutions and is used in making nutritional and economic decisions for a given feed formulation problem. The terms, shadow price and reduced cost, are familiar linear program (LP) terms to feed formulators. Because of the nonlinear nature of...

  18. Nonmodal linear stability analysis of miscible viscous fingering in porous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hota, Tapan Kumar; Pramanik, Satyajit; Mishra, Manoranjan

    2015-11-01

    The nonmodal linear stability of miscible viscous fingering in a two-dimensional homogeneous porous medium has been investigated. The linearized perturbed equations for Darcy's law coupled with a convection-diffusion equation is discretized using a finite difference method. The resultant initial value problem is solved by a fourth-order Runge-Kutta method, followed by a singular value decomposition of the propagator matrix. Particular attention is given to the transient behavior rather than the long-time behavior of eigenmodes predicted by the traditional modal analysis. The transient behaviors of the response to external excitations and the response to initial conditions are studied by examining the ɛ -pseudospectra structures and the largest energy growth function, respectively. With the help of nonmodal stability analysis we demonstrate that at early times the displacement flow is dominated by diffusion and the perturbations decay. At later times, when convection dominates diffusion, perturbations grow. Furthermore, we show that the dominant perturbation that experiences the maximum amplification within the linear regime lead to the transient growth. These two important features were previously unattainable in the existing linear stability methods for miscible viscous fingering. To explore the relevance of the optimal perturbation obtained from nonmodal analysis, we performed direct numerical simulations using a highly accurate pseudospectral method. Furthermore, a comparison of the present stability analysis with existing modal and initial value approach is also presented. It is shown that the nonmodal stability results are in better agreement than the other existing stability analyses, with those obtained from direct numerical simulations.

  19. Principal Component Analysis: Resources for an Essential Application of Linear Algebra

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pankavich, Stephen; Swanson, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    Principal Component Analysis (PCA) is a highly useful topic within an introductory Linear Algebra course, especially since it can be used to incorporate a number of applied projects. This method represents an essential application and extension of the Spectral Theorem and is commonly used within a variety of fields, including statistics,…

  20. A Hierarchical Linear Model with Factor Analysis Structure at Level 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miyazaki, Yasuo; Frank, Kenneth A.

    2006-01-01

    In this article the authors develop a model that employs a factor analysis structure at Level 2 of a two-level hierarchical linear model (HLM). The model (HLM2F) imposes a structure on a deficient rank Level 2 covariance matrix [tau], and facilitates estimation of a relatively large [tau] matrix. Maximum likelihood estimators are derived via the…

  1. Linear stability analysis of thermocapillary convection in a liquid bridge with encapsulation in inverse iterative algorithm

    SciTech Connect

    Li, M.; Sun, Z.; Zeng, D.

    1996-12-31

    Linear stability theory was applied in the present paper to analyze the stability of the basic state solution of thermocapillary convection in a liquid bridge with liquid encapsulation. Discretizing the linearized disturbance equations by using finite-difference approximation, stability analysis is evolved to a complex generalized eigenvalue problem with a complicated band structure of matrix. The influence of dimensionless parameters on the stability of the system is revealed through solving the complex generalized eigenvalue problem by inverse iteration. The results provide a theoretical and numerical foundation for crystal growth by float-zone method and for other engineering applications.

  2. A hybrid-stress finite element approach for stress and vibration analysis in linear anisotropic elasticity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oden, J. Tinsley; Fly, Gerald W.; Mahadevan, L.

    1987-01-01

    A hybrid stress finite element method is developed for accurate stress and vibration analysis of problems in linear anisotropic elasticity. A modified form of the Hellinger-Reissner principle is formulated for dynamic analysis and an algorithm for the determination of the anisotropic elastic and compliance constants from experimental data is developed. These schemes were implemented in a finite element program for static and dynamic analysis of linear anisotropic two dimensional elasticity problems. Specific numerical examples are considered to verify the accuracy of the hybrid stress approach and compare it with that of the standard displacement method, especially for highly anisotropic materials. It is that the hybrid stress approach gives much better results than the displacement method. Preliminary work on extensions of this method to three dimensional elasticity is discussed, and the stress shape functions necessary for this extension are included.

  3. Identification and quantitative analysis of chemical compounds based on multiscale linear fitting of terahertz spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiao, Lingbo; Wang, Yingxin; Zhao, Ziran; Chen, Zhiqiang

    2014-07-01

    Terahertz (THz) time-domain spectroscopy is considered as an attractive tool for the analysis of chemical composition. The traditional methods for identification and quantitative analysis of chemical compounds by THz spectroscopy are all based on full-spectrum data. However, intrinsic features of the THz spectrum only lie in absorption peaks due to existence of disturbances, such as unexpected components, scattering effects, and barrier materials. We propose a strategy that utilizes Lorentzian parameters of THz absorption peaks, extracted by a multiscale linear fitting method, for both identification of pure chemicals and quantitative analysis of mixtures. The multiscale linear fitting method can automatically remove background content and accurately determine Lorentzian parameters of the absorption peaks. The high recognition rate for 16 pure chemical compounds and the accurate predicted concentrations for theophylline-lactose mixtures demonstrate the practicability of our approach.

  4. Preliminary results on the use of linear discriminant analysis in the ARM continuous speech recognition system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peeling, S. M.; Ponting, K. M.

    1991-12-01

    Linear discriminant analysis is used to generate speech data transformations. This transformed data is then used within the Airborne Reconnaissance Mission (ARM) continuous speech recognition system. The aim of the ARM project is accurate recognition of continuously spoken airborne reconnaissance reports using a speech recognition system based on phoneme level hidden Markov models. A fuller description of a linear discriminant analysis, which is applied to speaker dependent data in the ARM system, is given. Preliminary results are presented from experiments using transformed data alone and also in conjunction with one, or both, of the word transition penalties and variable frame rate analysis. Speaker dependent results are reported which are significantly better then the best obtained previously.

  5. A Three-Dimensional Linearized Unsteady Euler Analysis for Turbomachinery Blade Rows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montgomery, Matthew D.; Verdon, Joseph M.

    1996-01-01

    A three-dimensional, linearized, Euler analysis is being developed to provide an efficient unsteady aerodynamic analysis that can be used to predict the aeroelastic and aeroacoustic response characteristics of axial-flow turbomachinery blading. The field equations and boundary conditions needed to describe nonlinear and linearized inviscid unsteady flows through a blade row operating within a cylindrical annular duct are presented. In addition, a numerical model for linearized inviscid unsteady flow, which is based upon an existing nonlinear, implicit, wave-split, finite volume analysis, is described. These aerodynamic and numerical models have been implemented into an unsteady flow code, called LINFLUX. A preliminary version of the LINFLUX code is applied herein to selected, benchmark three-dimensional, subsonic, unsteady flows, to illustrate its current capabilities and to uncover existing problems and deficiencies. The numerical results indicate that good progress has been made toward developing a reliable and useful three-dimensional prediction capability. However, some problems, associated with the implementation of an unsteady displacement field and numerical errors near solid boundaries, still exist. Also, accurate far-field conditions must be incorporated into the FINFLUX analysis, so that this analysis can be applied to unsteady flows driven be external aerodynamic excitations.

  6. A spectral analysis of the domain decomposed Monte Carlo method for linear systems

    SciTech Connect

    Slattery, S. R.; Wilson, P. P. H.; Evans, T. M.

    2013-07-01

    The domain decomposed behavior of the adjoint Neumann-Ulam Monte Carlo method for solving linear systems is analyzed using the spectral properties of the linear operator. Relationships for the average length of the adjoint random walks, a measure of convergence speed and serial performance, are made with respect to the eigenvalues of the linear operator. In addition, relationships for the effective optical thickness of a domain in the decomposition are presented based on the spectral analysis and diffusion theory. Using the effective optical thickness, the Wigner rational approximation and the mean chord approximation are applied to estimate the leakage fraction of stochastic histories from a domain in the decomposition as a measure of parallel performance and potential communication costs. The one-speed, two-dimensional neutron diffusion equation is used as a model problem to test the models for symmetric operators. In general, the derived approximations show good agreement with measured computational results. (authors)

  7. Radiative-neutron-capture gamma-ray analysis by a linear combination technique

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tanner, A.B.; Bhargava, R.C.; Senftle, F.E.; Brinkerhoff, J.M.

    1972-01-01

    The linear combination technique, when applied to a gamma-ray spectrum, gives a single number indicative of the extent to which the spectral lines of a sought element are present in a complex spectrum. Spectra are taken of the sought element and of various other substances whose spectra interfere with that of the sought element. A weighting function is then computed for application to spectra of unknown materials. The technique was used to determine calcium by radiative-neutron-capture gamma-ray analysis in the presence of interfering elements, notably titanium, and the results were compared with those for two popular methods of peak area integration. Although linearity of response was similar for the methods, the linear combination technique was much better at rejecting interferences. For analyses involving mixtures of unknown composition the technique consequently offers improved sensitivity. ?? 1972.

  8. Analysis of linear and mildly nonlinear relationships using pooled subject data.

    PubMed

    Poon, C S

    1988-02-01

    The detection of mild nonlinearities and/or state-dependent variability in otherwise linear physiological relationships is generally difficult in the presence of significant measurement errors. Conventional approaches using pooled subject data to increase the degree of freedom for statistical inference are enervated by the resultant introduction of intersubject variability. This paper proposes a new, simple method of pooling multiple subject data for linearity analysis. With the use of a special standardization procedure for the individual response curves, this method allows sensitive detection of occult nonlinearities as well as any state-dependent variability in the underlying relationship. Application of this analytic approach to reported hypercapnic exercise-response data in eight healthy subjects showed that 1) the hypercapnic ventilation-CO2 output relationship is nonlinear with a downward concavity; and 2) the ventilation-tidal volume relationship, which is linear at low tidal volume values, is similar in hypercapnic exercise as in resting hypercapnia or eucapnic exercise. PMID:3372442

  9. Heart period variability and respiratory changes associated with physical and mental load: non-linear analysis.

    PubMed

    Sammer, G

    1998-05-01

    In the investigation of heart rate and heart rate variability, the discrimination between mental workload, physical activity and respiration is known to be methodologically difficult. At most, heart rate variability measures are more likely to be coarse-grained measures with variability confounded by heart rate. Moreover, the spectral analysis of heart rate variability shows broad-band frequency characteristics, pointing towards non-stationarity or non-linearity. From this it is suggested to focus on non-linear dynamic analyses that are variance-insensitive. The experimental section of the paper focuses on the estimation of two non-linear measures for both heartbeat dynamics and respiration, the correlation dimension indicating complexity and the Lyapunov exponents indicating predictability. The results indicate that the complexity of heart dynamics is related to the type of task and that the predictability of heart dynamics is related to the amount of load. PMID:9613233

  10. Analysis and synthesis of phase shifting algorithms based on linear systems theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Servin, M.; Estrada, J. C.

    2012-08-01

    We review and update a recently published formalism for the theory of linear Phase Shifting Algorithms (PSAs) based on linear filtering (systems) theory, mainly using the Frequency Transfer Function (FTF). The FTF has been for decades the standard tool in Electrical Engineering to analyze and synthesize their linear systems. Given the well defined FTF approach (matured over the last century), it clarifies, in our view, many not fully understood properties of PSAs. We present easy formulae for the spectra of the PSAs (the FTF magnitude), their Signal to Noise (S/N) power-ratio gain, their detuning robustness, and their harmonic rejection in terms of the FTF. This paper has more practical appeal than previous publications by the same authors, hoping to enrich the understanding of this PSA's theory as applied to the analysis and synthesis of temporal interferometry algorithms in Optical Metrology.

  11. On the application of a linearized unsteady potential-flow analysis to fan-tip cascades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Usab, W. J., Jr.; Verdon, J. M.

    1986-01-01

    A linearized potential flow analysis, which accounts for the effects of nonuniform steady flow phenomena on the unsteady response to prescribed blade motions, has been applied to five two-dimensional cascade configurations. These include a flat-plate cascade and three cascades which are representative of the tip sections of current fan designs. Here the blades are closely spaced, highly staggered, and operate at low mean incidence. The fifth configuration is a NASA Lewis cascade of symmetric biconvex airfoils for which experimental measurements are available. Numerical solutions are presented that clearly illustrate the effects and importance of blade geometry and mean blade loading on the linearized unsteady response at high subsonic inlet Mach number and high blade-vibrational frequency. In addition, a good qualitative agreement is shown between the analytical predictions and experimental measurements for the cascade of symmetric biconvex airfoils. Finally, recommendations on the research needed to extend the range of application of linearized unsteady aerodynamic analyses are provided.

  12. Spherically symmetric analysis on open FLRW solution in non-linear massive gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Chiang, Chien-I; Izumi, Keisuke; Chen, Pisin E-mail: izumi@phys.ntu.edu.tw

    2012-12-01

    We study non-linear massive gravity in the spherically symmetric context. Our main motivation is to investigate the effect of helicity-0 mode which remains elusive after analysis of cosmological perturbation around an open Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) universe. The non-linear form of the effective energy-momentum tensor stemming from the mass term is derived for the spherically symmetric case. Only in the special case where the area of the two sphere is not deviated away from the FLRW universe, the effective energy momentum tensor becomes completely the same as that of cosmological constant. This opens a window for discriminating the non-linear massive gravity from general relativity (GR). Indeed, by further solving these spherically symmetric gravitational equations of motion in vacuum to the linear order, we obtain a solution which has an arbitrary time-dependent parameter. In GR, this parameter is a constant and corresponds to the mass of a star. Our result means that Birkhoff's theorem no longer holds in the non-linear massive gravity and suggests that energy can probably be emitted superluminously (with infinite speed) on the self-accelerating background by the helicity-0 mode, which could be a potential plague of this theory.

  13. Dynamic Analysis of Flexible Slider-Crank Mechanisms with Non-Linear Finite Element Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    CHEN, J.-S.; HUANG, C.-L.

    2001-09-01

    Previous research in finite element formulation of flexible mechanisms usually neglected high order terms in the strain-energy function. In particular, the quartic term of the displacement gradient is always neglected due to the common belief that it is not important in the dynamic analysis. In this paper, we show that this physical intuition is not always valid. By retaining all the high order terms in the strain-energy function the equations of motion naturally become non-linear, which can then be solved by the Newmark method. In the low-speed range it is found that the dynamic responses predicted by non-linear and linear approaches indeed make no significant difference. However, when the rotation speed increases up to about one-fifth of the fundamental bending natural frequency of the connecting rod, simplified approaches begin to incur noticeable error. Specifically, for a connecting rod with a slenderness ratio of 0·01 the conventional simplified approaches overestimate the vibration amplitude almost 10-fold when the rotation speed is comparable to the fundamental natural frequency of the connecting rod. Therefore, non-linear finite element formulation taking into account the complete non-linear strain is needed in analyzing high-speed flexible mechnisms with slender links.

  14. Multisensor multipulse Linear Predictive Coding (LPC) analysis in noise for medium rate speech transmission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preuss, R. D.

    1985-12-01

    The theory of multipulse linear predictive coding (LPC) analysis is extended to include the possible presence of acoustic noise, as for a telephone near a busy road. Models are developed assuming two signals are provided: the primary signal is the output of a microphone which samples the combined acoustic fields of the noise and the speech, while the secondary signal is the output of a microphone which samples the acoustic field of the noise alone. Analysis techniques to extract the multipulse LPC parameters from these two signals are developed; these techniques are developed as approximations to maximum likelihood analysis for the given model.

  15. Improvement of the narrowband linear predictive coder. Part 1: Analysis improvements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, G. S.; Everett, S. S.

    1982-12-01

    The narrowband linear predictive coder (LPC) is widely used in both civilian and military applications. Yet, in spite of the many improvements over the years, it is still not universally acceptable to general users. This report presents improvements to five aspects of the LPC analysis which have drawn little attention in the past. These improvements are frequency spreading of sibilant sound spectra, adaptive placement of the analysis window at onsets, modified LPC analysis for sustained vowels, enhancement of LPC spectra in noise, and an automatic gain control. These improvements may be incorporated in the existing narrowband LPC without interfering with the speech sampling rate, the frame rate, or the parameter coding.

  16. Non-linear analysis of PESA-Lo electrostatic analyzer data and solar wind temperature anisotropies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Djordjevic, B. Z.; Maruca, B.; Bale, S. D.; Wilson, L. B., III; Larson, D. E.

    2015-12-01

    In this study, non-linear fitting techniques are applied to ion measurements from the Wind spacecraft's PESA-Lo electrostatic analyzer. Previous studies have relied primarily on moments-analyses, which, although satisfactory for simple distributions and density calculations, often return unreasonable values for higher order moments (e.g., temperature) and fail to account for non-thermal effects (e.g., temperature anisotropy and beams) and multiple ion-species. A Levenberg-Marquadt non-linear algorithm is applied to the PESA-Lo data in order to calculate the characteristic parameters of the proton, alpha-particle, and beam distributions. This analysis is augmented with calibration data from the WIND Faraday cups and magnetic-field data from WIND/MFI. Preliminary results from this non-linear analysis indicate that it indeed provides higher-quality ion parameters than the existing moments-analysis. When this analysis is complete, the set of bulk-parameter values will be suitable for studies of microinstabilities in the solar wind and of possible correlation between magnetic field fluctuations and non-thermal properties of the ion distributions. Applications of thermodynamic principles, such as the Boltzmann H-theorem, will allow for further characterization of the non-thermal properties of the solar wind.

  17. Use of Path Analysis and Path Diagrams as a Means of Understanding Regression, Factor Analysis, and Other Linear Structural Relations (LISREL) Models.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Gary W.

    The usefulness of path analysis as a means of better understanding various linear models is demonstrated. First, two linear models are presented in matrix form using linear structural relations (LISREL) notation. The two models, regression and factor analysis, are shown to be identical although the research question and data matrix to which these…

  18. Failure mode analysis of a post-tension anchored dam using linear finite element analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corn, Aimee

    There are currently over 84,000 dams in the United States, and the average age of those dams is 52 years. Concrete gravity dams are the second most common dam type, with more than 3,000 in the United States. Current engineering technology and technical understanding of hydrologic and seismic events has resulted in significant increases to the required design loads for most dams; therefore, many older dams do not have adequate safety for extreme loading events. Concrete gravity dams designed and constructed in the early 20th century did not consider uplift pressures beneath the dam, which reduces the effective weight of the structure. One method that has been used to enhance the stability of older concrete gravity dams includes the post-tension anchor (PTA) system. Post-tensioning infers modifying cured concrete and using self-equilibrating elements to increase the weight of the section, which provides added stability. There is a lack of historical evidence regarding the potential failure mechanisms for PTA concrete gravity dams. Of particular interest, is how these systems behave during large seismic events. The objective of this thesis is to develop a method by which the potential failure modes during a seismic event for a PTA dam can be evaluated using the linear elastic finite element method of analysis. The most likely potential failure modes (PFM) for PTA designs are due to tensile failure and shear failure. A numerical model of a hypothetical project was developed to simulate PTAs in the dam. The model was subjected to acceleration time-history motions that simulated the seismic loads. The results were used to evaluate the likelihood of tendon failure due to both tension and shear. The results from the analysis indicated that the PTA load increased during the seismic event; however, the peak load in the tendons was less than the gross ultimate tensile strength (GUTS) and would not be expected to result in tensile failure at the assumed project. The analysis

  19. Linear analysis of the heave dynamics of a bag and finger air cushion vehicle skirt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, T.; Sullivan, P. A.

    1986-09-01

    A linear analysis of the heave dynamics of an air-cushion vehicle bag and finger skirt is presented. A simplified geometry is considered; this is a two-dimensional section of the skirt without interior compartmentation. The bag is modeled as a membrane having distributed mass and viscoelasticity, and the fingers are modeled as rigid bodies having both mass and moment of inertia. A finite-element technique is used to discretize the equations of motion of the bag, but otherwise standard linear analysis techniques are used to obtain predictions of frequency response and stability characteristics. The stability results confirm the experimental observation that the dominant factor controlling the onset of skirt bounce is the bag-to-cushion pressure ratio.

  20. [Analysis Methods of Short-term Non-linear Heart Rate Variability and Their Application in Clinical Medicine].

    PubMed

    Chi, Xianglin; Zhou, Jianhua; Shi, Ping; Liu, Chengyu

    2016-02-01

    The linear analysis for heart rate variability (HRV), including time domain method, frequency domain method and time-frequency analysis, has reached a lot of consensus. The non-linear analysis has also been widely applied in biomedical and clinical researches. However, for non-linear HRV analysis, especially for short-term non-linear HRV analysis, controversy still exists, and a unified standard and conclusion has not been formed. This paper reviews and discusses three short-term non-linear HRV analysis methods (fractal dimension, entropy and complexity) and their principles, progresses and problems in clinical application in detail, in order to provide a reference for accurate application in clinical medicine. PMID:27382764

  1. Linear and nonlinear dynamic analysis by boundary element method. Ph.D. Thesis, 1986 Final Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahmad, Shahid

    1991-01-01

    An advanced implementation of the direct boundary element method (BEM) applicable to free-vibration, periodic (steady-state) vibration and linear and nonlinear transient dynamic problems involving two and three-dimensional isotropic solids of arbitrary shape is presented. Interior, exterior, and half-space problems can all be solved by the present formulation. For the free-vibration analysis, a new real variable BEM formulation is presented which solves the free-vibration problem in the form of algebraic equations (formed from the static kernels) and needs only surface discretization. In the area of time-domain transient analysis, the BEM is well suited because it gives an implicit formulation. Although the integral formulations are elegant, because of the complexity of the formulation it has never been implemented in exact form. In the present work, linear and nonlinear time domain transient analysis for three-dimensional solids has been implemented in a general and complete manner. The formulation and implementation of the nonlinear, transient, dynamic analysis presented here is the first ever in the field of boundary element analysis. Almost all the existing formulation of BEM in dynamics use the constant variation of the variables in space and time which is very unrealistic for engineering problems and, in some cases, it leads to unacceptably inaccurate results. In the present work, linear and quadratic isoparametric boundary elements are used for discretization of geometry and functional variations in space. In addition, higher order variations in time are used. These methods of analysis are applicable to piecewise-homogeneous materials, such that not only problems of the layered media and the soil-structure interaction can be analyzed but also a large problem can be solved by the usual sub-structuring technique. The analyses have been incorporated in a versatile, general-purpose computer program. Some numerical problems are solved and, through comparisons

  2. Non-linear dynamic analysis of ancient masonry structures by 3D rigid block models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orduña, Agustin; Ayala, A. Gustavo

    2015-12-01

    This work presents a formulation for non-linear dynamic analysis of unreinforced masonry structures using rigid block models. This procedure is akin to the distinct element family of methods, nevertheless, we assume that small displacements occur and, therefore, the formulation does not involve the search for new contacts between blocks. This proposal is also related to the rigid element method, although, in this case we use full three-dimensional models and a more robust interface formulation.

  3. Linearized stability analysis and design of a flyback dc-dc boost regulator.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wester, G. W.

    1973-01-01

    Analytic expressions for the small-signal power-stage describing functions of a switched dc-dc boost regulator are derived from an approximate continuous circuit model which is developed by a time-averaging technique. Closed-loop stability is attained through the design of frequency compensation of the loop gain. Open- and closed-loop regulator output impedances are derived from the linearized models for the given configuration. The analysis and design are compared with and confirmed by breadboard measurements.

  4. Nonmodal linear stability analysis of miscible viscous fingering in porous media.

    PubMed

    Hota, Tapan Kumar; Pramanik, Satyajit; Mishra, Manoranjan

    2015-11-01

    The nonmodal linear stability of miscible viscous fingering in a two-dimensional homogeneous porous medium has been investigated. The linearized perturbed equations for Darcy's law coupled with a convection-diffusion equation is discretized using a finite difference method. The resultant initial value problem is solved by a fourth-order Runge-Kutta method, followed by a singular value decomposition of the propagator matrix. Particular attention is given to the transient behavior rather than the long-time behavior of eigenmodes predicted by the traditional modal analysis. The transient behaviors of the response to external excitations and the response to initial conditions are studied by examining the ε-pseudospectra structures and the largest energy growth function, respectively. With the help of nonmodal stability analysis we demonstrate that at early times the displacement flow is dominated by diffusion and the perturbations decay. At later times, when convection dominates diffusion, perturbations grow. Furthermore, we show that the dominant perturbation that experiences the maximum amplification within the linear regime lead to the transient growth. These two important features were previously unattainable in the existing linear stability methods for miscible viscous fingering. To explore the relevance of the optimal perturbation obtained from nonmodal analysis, we performed direct numerical simulations using a highly accurate pseudospectral method. Furthermore, a comparison of the present stability analysis with existing modal and initial value approach is also presented. It is shown that the nonmodal stability results are in better agreement than the other existing stability analyses, with those obtained from direct numerical simulations. PMID:26651779

  5. LETTER TO THE EDITOR: Analysis of `gauge modes' in linearized relativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matzner, Richard A.; Huq, Mijan; Botero, Alonso; Choi, Dae Il; Kask, Ullar; Lara, Juan; Liebling, Steven; Neilsen, David; Premadi, Premana; Shoemaker, Deirdre

    1997-01-01

    By writing the complete set of 3 + 1 (ADM) equations for linearized waves, we are able to demonstrate the properties of the initial data and of the evolution of a wave problem set by Alcubierre and Schutz. We show that the gauge modes and constraint error modes arise in a straightforward way in the analysis, and are of a form which will be controlled in any well specified convergent computational discretization of the differential equations.

  6. Automatic Assessment and Reduction of Noise using Edge Pattern Analysis in Non-Linear Image Enhancement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jobson, Daniel J.; Rahman, Zia-Ur; Woodell, Glenn A.; Hines, Glenn D.

    2004-01-01

    Noise is the primary visibility limit in the process of non-linear image enhancement, and is no longer a statistically stable additive noise in the post-enhancement image. Therefore novel approaches are needed to both assess and reduce spatially variable noise at this stage in overall image processing. Here we will examine the use of edge pattern analysis both for automatic assessment of spatially variable noise and as a foundation for new noise reduction methods.

  7. Analysis of linear reaction systems with three linearly independent steps on the basis of the absorbance tetrahedron and the formal integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polster, J.

    2001-01-01

    Linear reaction systems consist by definition of first-order reaction steps. Linearly independent reactions are independent of reaction order. Each reaction mechanism consists of a distinct number ( s) of linearly independent reaction steps. Thus, the mechanism A→B→C→D can be described by three linearly independent reactions as it is also true for the multiple equilibria A ⇋ B, C ⇋ D, E ⇋ F. A general method is developed for the spectroscopic-kinetic analysis of linear reactions ( s=3) on the basis of three-dimensional absorbance ( A) diagrams (A λ 1vs. A λ 2vs. A λ 3) . A distorted 'absorbance tetrahedron' can be constructed from the curve running in the absorbance space (called Mauser space). The tetrahedron is generated by tangents and osculating planes belonging to the initial point and endpoint of curve (measured). Planes being parallel to the tetrahedral surfaces and running through the points of curve, can be constructed and brought to intersection with the corresponding sides of tetrahedron. The quantities z i are introduced with the help of distance relationships on the sides of tetrahedron. The differentiation of z i with respect to time ( z i˙) leads to equations which are linearly dependent on z i. The solution of these differential equations provides the eigenvalues ( r i) searched. The results obtained are in accordance with Theorem 2 of kinetics (two strictly linear reaction systems having the same number of linearly independent reaction steps cannot be distinguished from each other by purely spectroscopic means). The procedure of evaluation is demonstrated by the investigation of the spontaneous hydrolyses of 4-methylumbelliferyl p-trimethylammonium cinnamate chloride, o-nitrophenylacetate and cinnamoylimidazole in borax buffer (0.1 M; pH=8.7; 10% acetonitrile; temperature 25.0°C).

  8. Linear analysis of transient growth in stably-stratified, turbulent channel flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Alamo, Juan Carlos; Yanez, Carlos; Garcia-Villalba, Manuel

    2011-11-01

    We studied stably-stratified, fully-developed, turbulent channel flow using linear stability analysis. The analysis considered the mean velocity and density profiles extracted from DNS calculations as base flow, and included a linear model to represent the energy dissipation and scalar diffusion felt at the large scales as a consequence of the small scales. The flow was found to be asymptotically stable in all cases but transient growth of initial perturbations was observed. The perturbations showing maximal transient growth corresponded well with spanwise waves in the center of the channel and with streaks in the near wall region, which were both observed in the DNS. In particular, their sizes and convection velocities were reasonably well predicted by the linear model. Component-wise analysis revealed that, while the streaks were formed by the vertical stirring of mean shear, the transient amplification of the spanwise waves was reminiscent of the Orr mechanism. Supporte by the German Research Foundation, Project GA 1360/2-1.

  9. The non-linear analysis of multi-support rotor-bearing systems

    SciTech Connect

    Kicinski, J.; Drozdowski, R.

    1995-12-31

    This paper contains selected parts of the simulation research of large rotor machines (200 MW power turbine-sets). These investigations were based on a non-linear theoretical model and the NLDW computer program, and were carried out in the Institute of Fluid-Flow Machinery of PAS. A trial has been performed of the optimization of system-dynamic properties, through the suitable selection of thermally deformed bearing-bush centers line -- the so called ``hot`` line -- (due to a rotor`s geodesic line), as well as the selection of the external fixing stiffness of bearing supports. Examples are also included of the orbits of selected system nodes for two differently powered turbine-sets. On this basis, an analysis of the stability of those turbines was achieved. A significant objective of this paper is also to point out some possibilities of applying the simulation research, based on a non-linear description of the system, to the diagnostics of rotor-machinery. Non-linear analysis facilitates the possibility of easily generating vibration spectra, as well as creating simulation waterfall graphs. These properties of nonlinear analysis create convenient conditions for gaining specific diagnostic information.

  10. Finite Element Analysis and Optimization of Flexure Bearing for Linear Motor Compressor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khot, Maruti; Gawali, Bajirao

    Nowadays linear motor compressors are commonly used in miniature cryocoolers instead of rotary compressors because rotary compressors apply large radial forces to the piston, which provide no useful work, cause large amount of wear and usually require lubrication. Recent trends favour flexure supported configurations for long life. The present work aims at designing and geometrical optimization of flexure bearings using finite element analysis and the development of design charts for selection purposes. The work also covers the manufacturing of flexures using different materials and the validation of the experimental finite element analysis results.

  11. Design and dynamic analysis of permanent magnet linear synchronous machine for servoapplication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, Seok-Myeong; You, Dae-Joon; Jang, Won-Bum; Han, Sang-Chul

    2006-04-01

    In servosystem demanding precision dynamic characteristics, application of the permanent magnet linear synchronous machines (PMLSMs) has an advantage of analysis convenience by simple geometry and thrust ripple reduction from the sinusoidal back electromotive force and excited stator. Therefore, this paper presents the design of surface-mounted PMLSM with a slotless iron-cored stator according to coil turns to satisfy the rate thrust. Also, from the dynamic analysis for servoapplication of manufactured motor with heavy mass, we offer an accurate range of the dc link voltage and acceleration in rate speed. This is applied to speed reference profile considering the system characteristics in total length of moving position.

  12. An improved multiple linear regression and data analysis computer program package

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sidik, S. M.

    1972-01-01

    NEWRAP, an improved version of a previous multiple linear regression program called RAPIER, CREDUC, and CRSPLT, allows for a complete regression analysis including cross plots of the independent and dependent variables, correlation coefficients, regression coefficients, analysis of variance tables, t-statistics and their probability levels, rejection of independent variables, plots of residuals against the independent and dependent variables, and a canonical reduction of quadratic response functions useful in optimum seeking experimentation. A major improvement over RAPIER is that all regression calculations are done in double precision arithmetic.

  13. Classical linear-control analysis applied to business-cycle dynamics and stability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wingrove, R. C.

    1983-01-01

    Linear control analysis is applied as an aid in understanding the fluctuations of business cycles in the past, and to examine monetary policies that might improve stabilization. The analysis shows how different policies change the frequency and damping of the economic system dynamics, and how they modify the amplitude of the fluctuations that are caused by random disturbances. Examples are used to show how policy feedbacks and policy lags can be incorporated, and how different monetary strategies for stabilization can be analytically compared. Representative numerical results are used to illustrate the main points.

  14. Non-linear Creep Analysis of Ceramic Specimen Using Finite Element Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saini, Jaswinder Singh; Khera, Saurabh

    2016-07-01

    In the present work the stress analysis of a ceramic tensile specimen is obtained. The effects of specimen geometry along with the pin loading are considered in the stress distribution calculations. Thereafter, the optimization based on a set of constraints is performed on the specimen with pinhole location, pinhole diameter, head width, neck radius and gauge length as its design variables. The work is then extended for the non-linear analysis for creep. A mathematical model is developed which is implemented using C++ code.

  15. Non-linear Creep Analysis of Ceramic Specimen Using Finite Element Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saini, Jaswinder Singh; Khera, Saurabh

    2016-03-01

    In the present work the stress analysis of a ceramic tensile specimen is obtained. The effects of specimen geometry along with the pin loading are considered in the stress distribution calculations. Thereafter, the optimization based on a set of constraints is performed on the specimen with pinhole location, pinhole diameter, head width, neck radius and gauge length as its design variables. The work is then extended for the non-linear analysis for creep. A mathematical model is developed which is implemented using C++ code.

  16. Flexible analysis of digital PCR experiments using generalized linear mixed models.

    PubMed

    Vynck, Matthijs; Vandesompele, Jo; Nijs, Nele; Menten, Björn; De Ganck, Ariane; Thas, Olivier

    2016-09-01

    The use of digital PCR for quantification of nucleic acids is rapidly growing. A major drawback remains the lack of flexible data analysis tools. Published analysis approaches are either tailored to specific problem settings or fail to take into account sources of variability. We propose the generalized linear mixed models framework as a flexible tool for analyzing a wide range of experiments. We also introduce a method for estimating reference gene stability to improve accuracy and precision of copy number and relative expression estimates. We demonstrate the usefulness of the methodology on a complex experimental setup. PMID:27551671

  17. A FORTRAN program for the analysis of linear continuous and sample-data systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, J. W.

    1976-01-01

    A FORTRAN digital computer program which performs the general analysis of linearized control systems is described. State variable techniques are used to analyze continuous, discrete, and sampled data systems. Analysis options include the calculation of system eigenvalues, transfer functions, root loci, root contours, frequency responses, power spectra, and transient responses for open- and closed-loop systems. A flexible data input format allows the user to define systems in a variety of representations. Data may be entered by inputing explicit data matrices or matrices constructed in user written subroutines, by specifying transfer function block diagrams, or by using a combination of these methods.

  18. Pleiotropy analysis of quantitative traits at gene level by multivariate functional linear models.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yifan; Liu, Aiyi; Mills, James L; Boehnke, Michael; Wilson, Alexander F; Bailey-Wilson, Joan E; Xiong, Momiao; Wu, Colin O; Fan, Ruzong

    2015-05-01

    In genetics, pleiotropy describes the genetic effect of a single gene on multiple phenotypic traits. A common approach is to analyze the phenotypic traits separately using univariate analyses and combine the test results through multiple comparisons. This approach may lead to low power. Multivariate functional linear models are developed to connect genetic variant data to multiple quantitative traits adjusting for covariates for a unified analysis. Three types of approximate F-distribution tests based on Pillai-Bartlett trace, Hotelling-Lawley trace, and Wilks's Lambda are introduced to test for association between multiple quantitative traits and multiple genetic variants in one genetic region. The approximate F-distribution tests provide much more significant results than those of F-tests of univariate analysis and optimal sequence kernel association test (SKAT-O). Extensive simulations were performed to evaluate the false positive rates and power performance of the proposed models and tests. We show that the approximate F-distribution tests control the type I error rates very well. Overall, simultaneous analysis of multiple traits can increase power performance compared to an individual test of each trait. The proposed methods were applied to analyze (1) four lipid traits in eight European cohorts, and (2) three biochemical traits in the Trinity Students Study. The approximate F-distribution tests provide much more significant results than those of F-tests of univariate analysis and SKAT-O for the three biochemical traits. The approximate F-distribution tests of the proposed functional linear models are more sensitive than those of the traditional multivariate linear models that in turn are more sensitive than SKAT-O in the univariate case. The analysis of the four lipid traits and the three biochemical traits detects more association than SKAT-O in the univariate case. PMID:25809955

  19. Dynamic Linear Model Analysis of Optical Imaging Data Acquired from the Human Neocortex

    PubMed Central

    Lavine, Michael; Haglund, Michael M.; Hochman, Daryl W.

    2011-01-01

    The amount of light absorbed and scattered by neocortical tissue is altered by neuronal activity. Imaging of intrinsic optical signals (ImIOS), a technique for mapping these activity-evoked optical changes with an imaging detector, has the potential to be useful for both clinical and experimental investigations of the human neocortex. However, its usefulness for human studies is currently limited because intraoperatively acquired ImIOS data is noisy. To improve the reliability and usefulness of ImIOS for human studies, it is desirable to find appropriate methods for the removal of noise artifacts and its statistical analysis. Here we develop a Bayesian, dynamic linear modeling approach that appears to address these problems. A dynamic linear model (DLM) was constructed that included cyclic components to model the heartbeat and respiration artifacts, and a local linear component to model the activity-evoked response. The robustness of the model was tested on a set of ImIOS data acquired from the exposed cortices of six human subjects illuminated with either 535 nm or 660 nm light. The DLM adequately reduced noise artifacts in these data while reliably preserving their activity-evoked optical responses. To demonstrate how these methods might be used for intraoperative neurosurgical mapping, optical data acquired from a single human subject during direct electrical stimulation of the cortex were quantitatively analyzed. This example showed that the DLM can be used to provide quantitative information about human ImIOS data that is not available through qualitative analysis alone. PMID:21640137

  20. Application of non-linear system model updating using feature extraction and parameter effects analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Schultze, J.; Hemez, F.

    2000-11-01

    This research presents a new method to improve analytical model fidelity for non-linear systems. The approach investigates several mechanisms to assist the analyst in updating an analytical model based on experimental data and statistical analysis of parameter effects. The first is a new approach at data reduction called feature extraction. This is an expansion of the classic update metrics to include specific phenomena or character of the response that is critical to model application. This is an extension of the familiar linear updating paradigm of utilizing the eigen-parameters or FRF's to include such devices as peak acceleration, time of arrival or standard deviation of model error. The next expansion of the updating process is the inclusion of statistical based parameter analysis to quantify the effects of uncertain or significant effect parameters in the construction of a meta-model. This provides indicators of the statistical variation associated with parameters as well as confidence intervals on the coefficients of the resulting meta-model. Also included in this method is the investigation of linear parameter effect screening using a partial factorial variable array for simulation. This is intended to aid the analyst in eliminating from the investigation the parameters that do not have a significant variation effect on the feature metric. Finally an investigation of the model to replicate the measured response variation is examined.

  1. Worst-case analysis and linear parameter-varying gain-scheduled control of aerospace systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Jong-Yeob

    In this thesis, two main subjects are discussed. The first is a worst-case performance analysis, the second is a linear parameter varying (LPV) synthesis using a blending approach. On the first subject, a linear fractional transformation (LFT) model of the linearized X-38 Crew Return Vehicle (CRV) has been developed to facilitate the analysis of its flight control system. The LFT model represents uncertainty in nine aerodynamic stability derivatives at a given flight condition. The X-38 LFT model, combined with a controller at specific flight conditions, is used to determine the aerodynamic coefficients within a predefined set that result in the worst-case performance and worst-case gain/phase margins of the closed-loop system. LPV and mu controllers are synthesized for the X-38 CRV lateral-directional axes over the candidate flight envelope and compared with the baseline gain-scheduled classical control design. Worst-case analysis of the LPV and mu controllers are compared with the baseline gain-scheduled classical control design. Analysis and time simulations show that the LPV controller achieves significant performance and robustness improvements when compared to a linear mu controller and the baseline gain-scheduled controller. On the second subject, a quasi-LPV model of the F-16 longitudinal axes was developed using three methods: Jacobian linearization, state transformation and function substitution. Time simulations of quasi-LPV models show that the quasi-LPV models developed using state transformation and function substitution accurately represent the nonlinear dynamics of the F-16 longitudinal axes. In designing an LPV controller for the F-16 longitudinal axes, the function substitution quasi-LPV models are used since these quasi-LPV models can represent the nonlinear dynamics at non-trim points. Two LPV controllers are synthesized for the F-16 longitudinal axes for two separated flight envelopes: low and high altitude regions. Blending these controllers

  2. Refining and end use study of coal liquids II - linear programming analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Lowe, C.; Tam, S.

    1995-12-31

    A DOE-funded study is underway to determine the optimum refinery processing schemes for producing transportation fuels that will meet CAAA regulations from direct and indirect coal liquids. The study consists of three major parts: pilot plant testing of critical upgrading processes, linear programming analysis of different processing schemes, and engine emission testing of final products. Currently, fractions of a direct coal liquid produced form bituminous coal are being tested in sequence of pilot plant upgrading processes. This work is discussed in a separate paper. The linear programming model, which is the subject of this paper, has been completed for the petroleum refinery and is being modified to handle coal liquids based on the pilot plant test results. Preliminary coal liquid evaluation studies indicate that, if a refinery expansion scenario is adopted, then the marginal value of the coal liquid (over the base petroleum crude) is $3-4/bbl.

  3. A 3-D Magnetic Analysis of a Linear Alternator For a Stirling Power System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geng, Steven M.; Schwarze, Gene E.; Niedra, Janis M.

    2000-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center and the Department of Energy (DOE) are developing advanced radioisotope Stirling convertors, under contract with Stirling Technology Company (STC), for space applications. Of critical importance to the successful development of the Stirling convertor for space power applications is the development of a lightweight and highly efficient linear alternator. This paper presents a 3-D finite element method (FEM) approach for evaluating Stirling convertor linear alternators. Preliminary correlations with open-circuit voltage measurements provide an encouraging level of confidence in the model. Spatial plots of magnetic field strength (H) are presented in the region of the exciting permanent magnets. These plots identify regions of high H, where at elevated temperature and under electrical load, the potential to alter the magnetic moment of the magnets exists. This implies the need for further testing and analysis.

  4. Linear bubble plume model for hypolimnetic oxygenation: Full-scale validation and sensitivity analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singleton, V. L.; Gantzer, P.; Little, J. C.

    2007-02-01

    An existing linear bubble plume model was improved, and data collected from a full-scale diffuser installed in Spring Hollow Reservoir, Virginia, were used to validate the model. The depth of maximum plume rise was simulated well for two of the three diffuser tests. Temperature predictions deviated from measured profiles near the maximum plume rise height, but predicted dissolved oxygen profiles compared very well with observations. A sensitivity analysis was performed. The gas flow rate had the greatest effect on predicted plume rise height and induced water flow rate, both of which were directly proportional to gas flow rate. Oxygen transfer within the hypolimnion was independent of all parameters except initial bubble radius and was inversely proportional for radii greater than approximately 1 mm. The results of this work suggest that plume dynamics and oxygen transfer can successfully be predicted for linear bubble plumes using the discrete-bubble approach.

  5. Non-Linear Analysis of Mode II Fracture in the end Notched Flexure Beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rizov, V.

    2016-03-01

    Analysis is carried-out of fracture in the End Notched Flex- ure (ENF) beam configuration, taking into account the material nonlin- earity. For this purpose, the J-integral approach is applied. A non-linear model, based on the Classical beam theory is used. The mechanical be- haviour of the ENF configuration is described by the Ramberg-Osgood stress-strain curve. It is assumed that the material possesses the same properties in tension and compression. The influence is evaluated of the material constants in the Ramberg-Osgood stress-strain equation on the fracture behaviour. The effect of the crack length on the J-integral value is investigated, too. The analytical approach, developed in the present paper, is very useful for parametric analyses, since the simple formulae obtained capture the essentials of the non-linear fracture in the ENF con- figuration.

  6. Analysis of a Linear System for Variable-Thrust Control in the Terminal Phase of Rendezvous

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hord, Richard A.; Durling, Barbara J.

    1961-01-01

    A linear system for applying thrust to a ferry vehicle in the 3 terminal phase of rendezvous with a satellite is analyzed. This system requires that the ferry thrust vector per unit mass be variable and equal to a suitable linear combination of the measured position and velocity vectors of the ferry relative to the satellite. The variations of the ferry position, speed, acceleration, and mass ratio are examined for several combinations of the initial conditions and two basic control parameters analogous to the undamped natural frequency and the fraction of critical damping. Upon making a desirable selection of one control parameter and requiring minimum fuel expenditure for given terminal-phase initial conditions, a simplified analysis in one dimension practically fixes the choice of the remaining control parameter. The system can be implemented by an automatic controller or by a pilot.

  7. Optical analysis and thermal management of 2-cell strings linear concentrating photovoltaic system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reddy, K. S.; Kamnapure, Nikhilesh R.

    2015-09-01

    This paper presents the optical and thermal analyses for a linear concentrating photovoltaic/thermal collector under different operating conditions. Linear concentrating photovoltaic system (CPV) consists of a highly reflective mirror, a receiver and semi-dual axis tracking mechanism. The CPV receiver embodies two strings of triple-junction cells (100 cells in each string) adhered to a mild steel circular tube mounted at the focal length of trough. This system provides 560 W of electricity and 1580 W of heat which needs to be dissipated by active cooling. The Al2O3/Water nanofluid is used as heat transfer fluid (HTF) flowing through circular receiver for CPV cells cooling. Optical analysis of linear CPV system with 3.35 m2 aperture and geometric concentration ratio (CR) of 35 is carried out using Advanced System Analysis Program (ASAP) an optical simulation tool. Non-uniform intensity distribution model of solar disk is used to model the sun in ASAP. The impact of random errors including slope error (σslope), tracking error (σtrack) and apparent change in sun's width (σsun) on optical performance of collector is shown. The result from the optical simulations shows the optical efficiency (ηo) of 88.32% for 2-cell string CPV concentrator. Thermal analysis of CPV receiver is carried out with conjugate heat transfer modeling in ANSYS FLUENT-14. Numerical simulations of Al2O3/Water nanofluid turbulent forced convection are performed for various parameters such as nanoparticle volume fraction (φ), Reynolds number (Re). The addition of the nanoparticle in water enhances the heat transfer in the ranges of 3.28% - 35.6% for φ = 1% - 6%. Numerical results are compared with literature data which shows the reasonable agreement.

  8. Inverse Correlation between Heart Rate Variability and Heart Rate Demonstrated by Linear and Nonlinear Analysis.

    PubMed

    Kazmi, Syed Zaki Hassan; Zhang, Henggui; Aziz, Wajid; Monfredi, Oliver; Abbas, Syed Ali; Shah, Saeed Arif; Kazmi, Syeda Sobia Hassan; Butt, Wasi Haider

    2016-01-01

    The dynamical fluctuations in the rhythms of biological systems provide valuable information about the underlying functioning of these systems. During the past few decades analysis of cardiac function based on the heart rate variability (HRV; variation in R wave to R wave intervals) has attracted great attention, resulting in more than 17000-publications (PubMed list). However, it is still controversial about the underling mechanisms of HRV. In this study, we performed both linear (time domain and frequency domain) and nonlinear analysis of HRV data acquired from humans and animals to identify the relationship between HRV and heart rate (HR). The HRV data consists of the following groups: (a) human normal sinus rhythm (n = 72); (b) human congestive heart failure (n = 44); (c) rabbit sinoatrial node cells (SANC; n = 67); (d) conscious rat (n = 11). In both human and animal data at variant pathological conditions, both linear and nonlinear analysis techniques showed an inverse correlation between HRV and HR, supporting the concept that HRV is dependent on HR, and therefore, HRV cannot be used in an ordinary manner to analyse autonomic nerve activity of a heart. PMID:27336907

  9. Linear Covariance Analysis For Proximity Operations Around Asteroid 2008 EV5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, Cinnamon A.; Bhatt, Sagar; Woffinden, David; Strube, Matthew; D'Souza, Chris

    2015-01-01

    The NASA initiative to collect an asteroid, the Asteroid Robotic Redirect Mission (ARRM), is currently investigating the option of retrieving a boulder from an asteroid, demonstrating planetary defense with an enhanced gravity tractor technique, and returning it to a lunar orbit. Techniques for accomplishing this are being investigated by the Satellite Servicing Capabilities Office (SSCO) at NASA GSFC in collaboration with JPL, NASA JSC, LaRC, and Draper Laboratory, Inc. Two critical phases of the mission are the descent to the boulder and the Enhanced Gravity Tractor demonstration. A linear covariance analysis is done for these phases to assess the feasibility of these concepts with the proposed design of the sensor and actuator suite of the Asteroid Redirect Vehicle (ARV). The sensor suite for this analysis includes a wide field of view camera, LiDAR, and an IMU. The proposed asteroid of interest is currently the C-type asteroid 2008 EV5, a carbonaceous chondrite that is of high interest to the scientific community. This paper presents an overview of the linear covariance analysis techniques and simulation tool, provides sensor and actuator models, and addresses the feasibility of descending to the surface of the asteroid within allocated requirements as well as the possibility of maintaining a halo orbit to demonstrate the Enhanced Gravity Tractor technique.

  10. Inverse Correlation between Heart Rate Variability and Heart Rate Demonstrated by Linear and Nonlinear Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Henggui; Aziz, Wajid; Monfredi, Oliver; Abbas, Syed Ali; Shah, Saeed Arif; Kazmi, Syeda Sobia Hassan; Butt, Wasi Haider

    2016-01-01

    The dynamical fluctuations in the rhythms of biological systems provide valuable information about the underlying functioning of these systems. During the past few decades analysis of cardiac function based on the heart rate variability (HRV; variation in R wave to R wave intervals) has attracted great attention, resulting in more than 17000-publications (PubMed list). However, it is still controversial about the underling mechanisms of HRV. In this study, we performed both linear (time domain and frequency domain) and nonlinear analysis of HRV data acquired from humans and animals to identify the relationship between HRV and heart rate (HR). The HRV data consists of the following groups: (a) human normal sinus rhythm (n = 72); (b) human congestive heart failure (n = 44); (c) rabbit sinoatrial node cells (SANC; n = 67); (d) conscious rat (n = 11). In both human and animal data at variant pathological conditions, both linear and nonlinear analysis techniques showed an inverse correlation between HRV and HR, supporting the concept that HRV is dependent on HR, and therefore, HRV cannot be used in an ordinary manner to analyse autonomic nerve activity of a heart. PMID:27336907

  11. Linear and nonlinear analysis of dust acoustic waves in dissipative space dusty plasmas with trapped ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Hanbaly, A. M.; El-Shewy, E. K.; Sallah, M.; Darweesh, H. F.

    2015-05-01

    The propagation of linear and nonlinear dust acoustic waves in a homogeneous unmagnetized, collisionless and dissipative dusty plasma consisted of extremely massive, micron-sized, negative dust grains has been investigated. The Boltzmann distribution is suggested for electrons whereas vortex-like distribution for ions. In the linear analysis, the dispersion relation is obtained, and the dependence of damping rate of the waves on the carrier wave number , the dust kinematic viscosity coefficient and the ratio of the ions to the electrons temperatures is discussed. In the nonlinear analysis, the modified Korteweg-de Vries-Burgers (mKdV-Burgers) equation is derived via the reductive perturbation method. Bifurcation analysis is discussed for non-dissipative system in the absence of Burgers term. In the case of dissipative system, the tangent hyperbolic method is used to solve mKdV-Burgers equation, and yield the shock wave solution. The obtained results may be helpful in better understanding of waves propagation in the astrophysical plasmas as well as in inertial confinement fusion laboratory plasmas.

  12. Non-linear dynamic analysis of a flexible rotor supported on porous oil journal bearings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laha, S. K.; Kakoty, S. K.

    2011-03-01

    In the present paper, the non-linear dynamic analysis of a flexible rotor with a rigid disk under unbalance excitation mounted on porous oil journal bearings at the two ends is carried out. The system equation of motion is obtained by finite element formulation of Timoshenko beam and the disk. The non-linear oil-film forces are calculated from the solution of the modified Reynolds equation simultaneously with Darcy's equation. The system equation of motion is then solved by the Wilson- θ method. Bifurcation diagrams, Poincaré maps, time response, journal trajectories, FFT-spectrum, etc. are obtained to study the non-linear dynamics of the rotor-bearing system. The effect of various non-dimensional rotor-bearing parameters on the bifurcation characteristics of the system is studied. It is shown that the system undergoes Hopf bifurcation as the speed increases. Further, slenderness ratio, material properties of the rotor, ratio of disk mass to shaft mass and permeability of the porous bush are shown to have profound effect on the bifurcation characteristics of the rotor-bearing system.

  13. Analysis of spectroscopic measurements of leaf water content at terahertz frequencies using linear transforms.

    PubMed

    Hadjiloucas, Sillas; Galvão, Roberto K H; Bowen, John W

    2002-12-01

    We provide a unified framework for a range of linear transforms that can be used for the analysis of terahertz spectroscopic data, with particular emphasis on their application to the measurement of leaf water content. The use of linear transforms for filtering, regression, and classification is discussed. For illustration, a classification problem involving leaves at three stages of drought and a prediction problem involving simulated spectra are presented. Issues resulting from scaling the data set are discussed. Using Lagrange multipliers, we arrive at the transform that yields the maximum separation between the spectra and show that this optimal transform is equivalent to computing the Euclidean distance between the samples. The optimal linear transform is compared with the average for all the spectra as well as with the Karhunen-Loève transform to discriminate a wet leaf from a dry leaf. We show that taking several principal components into account is equivalent to defining new axes in which data are to be analyzed. The procedure shows that the coefficients of the Karhunen-Loève transform are well suited to the process of classification of spectra. This is in line with expectations, as these coefficients are built from the statistical properties of the data set analyzed. PMID:12469746

  14. Non-linear analysis and calculation of the performance of a shelving protection system by FEM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García Nieto, P. J.; del Coz Díaz, J. J.; Vilán Vilán, J. A.; Suárez Sierra, J. L.

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this paper consists on the study, analysis and calculation of the efficiency of a shelving protection system by means of the finite element method (FEM). These shelving protection systems are intended to prevent the eventual damage due to the impacts of transport elements in motion, such as: forklifts, dumpers, hand pallet trucks, and so on. The impact loads may threaten the structural integrity of the shelving system. The present structural problem is highly non-linear, due to the simultaneous presence of the following nonlinearities: material non-linearity (plasticity in this case), geometrical non-linearity (large displacements) and contact-type boundary conditions (between the rigid body and the protection system). A total of forty eight different FEM models are built varying the thickness of the steel plate (4, 5 and 6 mm), the impact height (0.1, 0.2, 0.3 and 0.4 meters) and the impact direction (head-on collision and side impact). Once the models are solved, the stress distribution, the overall displacements and the absorbed impact energy were calculated. In order to determine the best shelving protection's candidate, some constraints must be taken into account: the maximum allowable stress (235 MPa), the maximum displacement (0.05 m) and the absorbed impact energy (400 J according to the European Standard Rule PREN-15512). Finally, the most important results are shown and conclusions of this study are exposed.

  15. A 3-D Magnetic Analysis of a Stirling Convertor Linear Alternator Under Load

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geng, Steven M.; Schwarze, Gene E.; Niedra, Janis M.; Regan, Timothy F.

    2001-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC), the Department of Energy (DOE), and the Stirling Technology Company (STC) are developing Stirling convertors for Stirling Radioisotope Power Systems (SRPS) to provide electrical power for future NASA deep space missions. STC is developing the 55-We Technology Demonstration Convertor (TDC) under contract to DOE. Of critical importance to the successful development of the Stirling convertor for space power applications is the development of a lightweight and highly efficient linear alternator. This paper presents a 3-dimensional finite element method (FEM) approach for evaluating Stirling convertor linear alternators. The model extends a magnetostatic analysis previously reported at the 35th Intersociety Energy Conversion Engineering Conference (IECEC) to include the effects of the load current. STC's 55-We linear alternator design was selected to validate the model. Spatial plots of magnetic field strength (H) are presented in the region of the exciting permanent magnets. The margin for permanent magnet demagnetization is calculated at the expected magnet operating temperature for the near earth environment and for various average magnet temperatures. These thermal conditions were selected to represent a worst-case condition for the planned deep space missions. This paper presents plots that identify regions of high H where the potential to alter the magnetic moment of the magnets exists.

  16. Comparison of various texture classification methods using multiresolution analysis and linear regression modelling.

    PubMed

    Dhanya, S; Kumari Roshni, V S

    2016-01-01

    Textures play an important role in image classification. This paper proposes a high performance texture classification method using a combination of multiresolution analysis tool and linear regression modelling by channel elimination. The correlation between different frequency regions has been validated as a sort of effective texture characteristic. This method is motivated by the observation that there exists a distinctive correlation between the image samples belonging to the same kind of texture, at different frequency regions obtained by a wavelet transform. Experimentally, it is observed that this correlation differs across textures. The linear regression modelling is employed to analyze this correlation and extract texture features that characterize the samples. Our method considers not only the frequency regions but also the correlation between these regions. This paper primarily focuses on applying the Dual Tree Complex Wavelet Packet Transform and the Linear Regression model for classification of the obtained texture features. Additionally the paper also presents a comparative assessment of the classification results obtained from the above method with two more types of wavelet transform methods namely the Discrete Wavelet Transform and the Discrete Wavelet Packet Transform. PMID:26835234

  17. Development of a linearized unsteady aerodynamic analysis for cascade gust response predictions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verdon, Joseph M.; Hall, Kenneth C.

    1990-01-01

    A method for predicting the unsteady aerodynamic response of a cascade of airfoils to entropic, vortical, and acoustic gust excitations is being developed. Here, the unsteady flow is regarded as a small perturbation of a nonuniform isentropic and irrotational steady background flow. A splitting technique is used to decompose the linearized unsteady velocity into rotational and irrotational parts leading to equations for the complex amplitudes of the linearized unsteady entropy, rotational velocity, and velocity potential that are coupled only sequentially. The entropic and rotational velocity fluctuations are described by transport equations for which closed-form solutions in terms of the mean-flow drift and stream functions can be determined. The potential fluctuation is described by an inhomogeneous convected wave equation in which the source term depends on the rotational velocity field, and is determined using finite-difference procedures. The analytical and numerical techniques used to determine the linearized unsteady flow are outlined. Results are presented to indicate the status of the solution procedure and to demonstrate the impact of blade geometry and mean blade loading on the aerodynamic response of cascades to vortical gust excitations. The analysis described herein leads to very efficient predictions of cascade unsteady aerodynamic response phenomena making it useful for turbomachinery aeroelastic and aeroacoustic design applications.

  18. A spectral analysis of the domain decomposed Monte Carlo method for linear systems

    SciTech Connect

    Slattery, Stuart R.; Evans, Thomas M.; Wilson, Paul P. H.

    2015-09-08

    The domain decomposed behavior of the adjoint Neumann-Ulam Monte Carlo method for solving linear systems is analyzed using the spectral properties of the linear oper- ator. Relationships for the average length of the adjoint random walks, a measure of convergence speed and serial performance, are made with respect to the eigenvalues of the linear operator. In addition, relationships for the effective optical thickness of a domain in the decomposition are presented based on the spectral analysis and diffusion theory. Using the effective optical thickness, the Wigner rational approxi- mation and the mean chord approximation are applied to estimate the leakage frac- tion of random walks from a domain in the decomposition as a measure of parallel performance and potential communication costs. The one-speed, two-dimensional neutron diffusion equation is used as a model problem in numerical experiments to test the models for symmetric operators with spectral qualities similar to light water reactor problems. We find, in general, the derived approximations show good agreement with random walk lengths and leakage fractions computed by the numerical experiments.

  19. A spectral analysis of the domain decomposed Monte Carlo method for linear systems

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Slattery, Stuart R.; Evans, Thomas M.; Wilson, Paul P. H.

    2015-09-08

    The domain decomposed behavior of the adjoint Neumann-Ulam Monte Carlo method for solving linear systems is analyzed using the spectral properties of the linear oper- ator. Relationships for the average length of the adjoint random walks, a measure of convergence speed and serial performance, are made with respect to the eigenvalues of the linear operator. In addition, relationships for the effective optical thickness of a domain in the decomposition are presented based on the spectral analysis and diffusion theory. Using the effective optical thickness, the Wigner rational approxi- mation and the mean chord approximation are applied to estimate the leakagemore » frac- tion of random walks from a domain in the decomposition as a measure of parallel performance and potential communication costs. The one-speed, two-dimensional neutron diffusion equation is used as a model problem in numerical experiments to test the models for symmetric operators with spectral qualities similar to light water reactor problems. We find, in general, the derived approximations show good agreement with random walk lengths and leakage fractions computed by the numerical experiments.« less

  20. Linear Analysis of the m=0 Instability for a Visco-resistive Hall MHD Plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Oliver, B.V.; Genoni, T.C.; Mehlhorn, T.A.

    2006-01-05

    We present a comprehensive analysis of the linear dispersion relation for the axisymmetric (m=0) compressible interchange instability of Bennett equilibria in a visco-resistive, Hall MHD plasma. The full anisotropic stress tensor with Braginskii viscous coefficients is considered. The eigenvalues are obtained numerically. For small axial mode number, Hall currents enhance the growth rates, whereas in the limit of high mode number the growth rates are suppressed, eventually resulting in wave cutoff, even in the ideal limit. For the visco-resistive plasma the unstable spectra are weakly dependent on the off-diagonal elements of the stress tensor.

  1. A hybrid approach for the modal analysis of continuous systems with discrete piecewise-linear constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brake, M. R.

    2011-06-01

    The analysis of continuous systems with piecewise-linear constraints in their domains have previously been limited to either numerical approaches, or analytical methods that are constrained in the parameter space, boundary conditions, or order of the system. The present analysis develops a robust method for studying continuous systems with arbitrary boundary conditions and discrete piecewise-linear constraints. A superposition method is used to generate homogeneous boundary conditions, and modal analysis is used to find the displacement of the system in each state of the piecewise-linear constraint. In order to develop a mapping across each slope discontinuity in the piecewise-linear force-deflection profile, a variational calculus approach is taken that minimizes the L 2 energy norm between the previous and current states. An approach for calculating the finite-time Lyapunov exponents is presented in order to determine chaotic regimes. To illustrate this method, two examples are presented: a pinned-pinned beam with a deadband constraint, and a leaf spring coupled with a connector pin immersed in a viscous fluid. The pinned-pinned beam example illustrates the method for a non-operator based analysis. Results are used to show that the present method does not necessitate the need of a large number of basis functions to adequately map the displacement and velocity of the system across states. In the second example, the leaf spring is modeled as a clamped-free beam. The interaction between the beam and the connector pin is modeled with a preload and a penalty stiffness. Several experiments are conducted in order to validate aspects of the leaf spring model. From the results of the convergence and parameter studies, a high correlation between the finite-time Lyapunov exponents and the contact time per period of the excitation is observed. The parameter studies also indicate that when the system's parameters are changed in order to reduce the magnitude of the impact

  2. Some non-linear interactions in polytropic gas cosmology: phase space analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khurshudyan, Martiros

    2015-11-01

    There are various cosmological models with polytropic equation of state associated to dark energy. Polytropic EoS has important applications in astrophysics, therefore a study of it on cosmological framework continues to be interesting. From the other hand, there are various forms of interactions phenomenologically involved into the darkness of the universe able to solve important cosmological problems. This is a motivation for us to perform a phase space analysis of various cosmological scenarios where non-linear interacting polytropic gas models are involved. Dark matter is taken to be a pressureless fluid.

  3. Statistical mechanical analysis of the linear vector channel in digital communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeda, Koujin; Hatabu, Atsushi; Kabashima, Yoshiyuki

    2007-11-01

    A statistical mechanical framework to analyze linear vector channel models in digital wireless communication is proposed for a large system. The framework is a generalization of that proposed for code-division multiple-access systems in Takeda et al (2006 Europhys. Lett. 76 1193) and enables the analysis of the system in which the elements of the channel transfer matrix are statistically correlated with each other. The significance of the proposed scheme is demonstrated by assessing the performance of an existing model of multi-input multi-output communication systems.

  4. On the thermal stability of a radiating plasma subject to nonlocal thermal conduction. I - Linear analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chun, E.; Rosner, R.

    1993-01-01

    We study the linear stability of an optically thin uniform radiating plasma subject to nonlocal heat transport. We derive the dispersion relation appropriate to this problem, and the marginal wavenumbers for instability. Our analysis indicates that nonlocal heat transport acts to reduce the stabilizing influence of thermal conduction, and that there are critical values for the electron mean free path such that the plasma is always unstable. Our results may be applied to a number of astrophysical plasmas, one such example being the halos of clusters of galaxies.

  5. Finite element analysis of direct thrust-controlled linear induction motor

    SciTech Connect

    Kwon, B.I.; Woo, K.I.; Kim, S. . Dept. of Electrical Engineering)

    1999-05-01

    This paper describes the finite element analysis of a direct thrust-controlled linear induction motor (LIM). The time-stepping finite element method and the moving mesh technique are used to calculate the dynamic characteristics of LIM during the direct thrust control. Because LIM has the end effect, thrust correction coefficient is introduced to predict an actual thrust in control. The simulation results, the thrust and the stator flux linkage are shown below and the stator current is compared with an experimental one.

  6. On Optimal Backward Perturbation Analysis for the Linear System with Skew Circulant Coefficient Matrix

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Zhaolin; Shen, Nuo; Zhou, Jianwei

    2013-01-01

    We first give the style spectral decomposition of a special skew circulant matrix C and then get the style decomposition of arbitrary skew circulant matrix by making use of the Kronecker products between the elements of first row in skew circulant and the special skew circulant C. Besides that, we obtain the singular value of skew circulant matrix as well. Finally, we deal with the optimal backward perturbation analysis for the linear system with skew circulant coefficient matrix on the base of its style spectral decomposition. PMID:24369488

  7. Modeling and analysis of aircraft non-linear components for harmonics analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Karimi, K.J.; Voss, J.

    1995-12-31

    Modern commercial aircraft Electric Power Systems (EPS) include many nonlinear components which produce harmonics. The addition of all the current harmonics could result in a power system with unacceptable levels of voltage distortion. It is important to be able to predict the levels of voltage distortion at early program stages to correct any potential problems and avoid costly redesigns. In this paper the nature and sources of harmonic producing equipment are described. These sources of harmonics and their effect on aircraft power system operation are described. Models for various aircraft non-linear components are developed in this paper. These component models are used in a model of the Boeing 777 EPS which is used to calculate voltage harmonics for various airplane configurations and flight conditions. A description of this model and the models used for various components are given. Tests performed to validate these models are described. Comparison of experimental results with analytical model predictions are given.

  8. The linear statistical d.c. model of GaAs MESFET using factor analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobrzanski, Lech

    1995-02-01

    The linear statistical model of the GaAs MESFET's current generator is obtained by means of factor analysis. Three different MESFET deterministic models are taken into account in the analysis: the Statz model (ST), the Materka-type model (MT) and a new proprietary model of MESFET with implanted channel (PLD). It is shown that statistical models obtained using factor analysis provide excellent generation of the multidimensional random variable representing the drain current of MESFET. The method of implementation of the statistical model into the SPICE program is presented. It is proved that for a strongly limited number of Monte Carlo analysis runs in that program, the statistical models considered in each case (ST, MT and PLD) enable good reconstruction of the empirical factor structure. The empirical correlation matrix of model parameters is not reconstructed exactly by statistical modelling, but values of correlation matrix elements obtained from simulated data are within the confidence intervals for the small sample. This paper proves that a formal approach to statistical modelling using factor analysis is the right path to follow, in spite of the fact, that CAD systems (PSpice[MicroSim Corp.], Microwave Harmonica[Compact Software]) are not designed properly for generation of the multidimensional random variable. It is obvious that further progress in implementation of statistical methods in CAD software is required. Furthermore, a new approach to the MESFET's d.c. model is presented. The separate functions, describing the linear as well as the saturated region of MESFET output characteristics, are combined in the single equation. This way of modelling is particularly suitable for transistors with an implanted channel.

  9. Ammonia quantitative analysis model based on miniaturized Al ionization gas sensor and non-linear bistable dynamic model.

    PubMed

    Ma, Rongfei

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, ammonia quantitative analysis based on miniaturized Al ionization gas sensor and non-linear bistable dynamic model was proposed. Al plate anodic gas-ionization sensor was used to obtain the current-voltage (I-V) data. Measurement data was processed by non-linear bistable dynamics model. Results showed that the proposed method quantitatively determined ammonia concentrations. PMID:25975362

  10. PLATSIM: An efficient linear simulation and analysis package for large-order flexible systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maghami, Periman; Kenny, Sean P.; Giesy, Daniel P.

    1995-01-01

    PLATSIM is a software package designed to provide efficient time and frequency domain analysis of large-order generic space platforms implemented with any linear time-invariant control system. Time domain analysis provides simulations of the overall spacecraft response levels due to either onboard or external disturbances. The time domain results can then be processed by the jitter analysis module to assess the spacecraft's pointing performance in a computationally efficient manner. The resulting jitter analysis algorithms have produced an increase in speed of several orders of magnitude over the brute force approach of sweeping minima and maxima. Frequency domain analysis produces frequency response functions for uncontrolled and controlled platform configurations. The latter represents an enabling technology for large-order flexible systems. PLATSIM uses a sparse matrix formulation for the spacecraft dynamics model which makes both the time and frequency domain operations quite efficient, particularly when a large number of modes are required to capture the true dynamics of the spacecraft. The package is written in MATLAB script language. A graphical user interface (GUI) is included in the PLATSIM software package. This GUI uses MATLAB's Handle graphics to provide a convenient way for setting simulation and analysis parameters.

  11. Triple quadrupole linear ion trap mass spectrometer for the analysis of small molecules and macromolecules.

    PubMed

    Hopfgartner, Gérard; Varesio, Emmanuel; Tschäppät, Viviane; Grivet, Chantal; Bourgogne, Emmanuel; Leuthold, Luc Alexis

    2004-08-01

    Recently, linear ion traps (LITs) have been combined with quadrupole (Q), time-of-flight (TOF) and Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FT-ICR) mass spectrometry (MS). LITs can be used either as ion accumulation devices or as commercially available, stand-alone mass spectrometers with MSn capabilities. The combination of triple quadrupole MS with LIT technology in the form of an instrument of configuration QqLIT, using axial ejection, is particularly interesting, because this instrument retains the classical triple quadrupole scan functions such as selected reaction monitoring (SRM), product ion (PI), neutral loss (NL) and precursor ion (PC) while also providing access to sensitive ion trap experiments. For small molecules, quantitative and qualitative analysis can be performed using the same instrument. In addition, for peptide analysis, the enhanced multiply charged (EMC) scan allows an increase in selectivity, while the time-delayed fragmentation (TDF) scan provides additional structural information. Various methods of operating the hybrid instrument are described for the case of the commercial Q TRAP (AB/MDS Sciex) and applications to drug metabolism analysis, quantitative confirmatory analysis, peptides analysis and automated nanoelectrospray (ESI-chip-MS) analysis are discussed. PMID:15329837

  12. Analysis of non linear partially standing waves from 3D velocity measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drevard, D.; Rey, V.; Svendsen, Ib; Fraunie, P.

    2003-04-01

    Surface gravity waves in the ocean exhibit an energy spectrum distributed in both frequency and direction of propagation. Wave data collection is of great importance in coastal zones for engineering and scientific studies. In particular, partially standing waves measurements near coastal structures and steep or barred beaches may be a requirement, for instance for morphodynamic studies. The aim of the present study is the analysis of partially standing surface waves icluding non-linear effects. According to 1st order Stokes theory, synchronous measurements of horizontal and vertical velocity components allow calculation of rate of standing waves (Drevard et al, 2003). In the present study, it is demonstrated that for deep water conditions, partially standing 2nd order Stokes waves induced velocity field is still represented by the 1st order solution for the velocity potential contrary to the surface elevation which exhibits harmonic components. For intermediate water depth, harmonic components appear not only in the surface elevation but also in the velocity fields, but their weight remains much smaller, because of the vertical decreasing wave induced motion. For irregular waves, the influence of the spectrum width on the non-linear effects in the analysis is discussed. Keywords: Wave measurements ; reflection ; non-linear effects Acknowledgements: This work was initiated during the stay of Prof. Ib Svendsen, as invited Professor, at LSEET in autumn 2002. This study is carried out in the framework of the Scientific French National Programmes PNEC ART7 and PATOM. Their financial supports are acknowledged References: Drevard, D., Meuret, A., Rey, V. Piazzola, J. And Dolle, A.. (2002). "Partially reflected waves measurements using Acoustic Doppler Velocimeter (ADV)", Submitted to ISOPE 03, Honolulu, Hawaii, May 2003.

  13. Cold gas in cluster cores: global stability analysis and non-linear simulations of thermal instability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choudhury, Prakriti Pal; Sharma, Prateek

    2016-04-01

    We perform global linear stability analysis and idealized numerical simulations in global thermal balance to understand the condensation of cold gas from hot/virial atmospheres (coronae), in particular the intracluster medium (ICM). We pay particular attention to geometry (e.g. spherical versus plane-parallel) and the nature of the gravitational potential. Global linear analysis gives a similar value for the fastest growing thermal instability modes in spherical and Cartesian geometries. Simulations and observations suggest that cooling in haloes critically depends on the ratio of the cooling time to the free-fall time (tcool/tff). Extended cold gas condenses out of the ICM only if this ratio is smaller than a threshold value close to 10. Previous works highlighted the difference between the nature of cold gas condensation in spherical and plane-parallel atmospheres; namely, cold gas condensation appeared easier in spherical atmospheres. This apparent difference due to geometry arises because the previous plane-parallel simulations focused on in situ condensation of multiphase gas but spherical simulations studied condensation anywhere in the box. Unlike previous claims, our non-linear simulations show that there are only minor differences in cold gas condensation, either in situ or anywhere, for different geometries. The amount of cold gas depends on the shape of tcool/tff; gas has more time to condense if gravitational acceleration decreases towards the centre. In our idealized plane-parallel simulations with heating balancing cooling in each layer, there can be significant mass/energy/momentum transfer across layers that can trigger condensation and drive tcool/tff far beyond the critical value close to 10.

  14. Analysis, design, and testing of a low cost, direct force command linear proof mass actuator for structural control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slater, G. L.; Shelley, Stuart; Jacobson, Mark

    1993-01-01

    In this paper, the design, analysis, and test of a low cost, linear proof mass actuator for vibration control is presented. The actuator is based on a linear induction coil from a large computer disk drive. Such disk drives are readily available and provide the linear actuator, current feedback amplifier, and power supply for a highly effective, yet inexpensive, experimental laboratory actuator. The device is implemented as a force command input system, and the performance is virtually the same as other, more sophisticated, linear proof mass systems.

  15. Non-linear analysis and the design of Pumpkin Balloons: stress, stability and viscoelasticity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rand, J. L.; Wakefield, D. S.

    Tensys have a long-established background in the shape generation and load analysis of architectural stressed membrane structures Founded upon their inTENS finite element analysis suite these activities have broadened to encompass lighter than air structures such as aerostats hybrid air-vehicles and stratospheric balloons Winzen Engineering couple many years of practical balloon design and fabrication experience with both academic and practical knowledge of the characterisation of the non-linear viscoelastic response of the polymeric films typically used for high-altitude scientific balloons Both companies have provided consulting services to the NASA Ultra Long Duration Balloon ULDB Program Early implementations of pumpkin balloons have shown problems of geometric instability characterised by improper deployment and these difficulties have been reproduced numerically using inTENS The solution lies in both the shapes of the membrane lobes and also the need to generate a biaxial stress field in order to mobilise in-plane shear stiffness Balloons undergo significant temperature and pressure variations in flight The different thermal characteristics between tendons and film can lead to significant meridional stress Fabrication tolerances can lead to significant local hoop stress concentrations particularly adjacent to the base and apex end fittings The non-linear viscoelastic response of the envelope film acts positively to help dissipate stress concentrations However creep over time may produce lobe geometry variations that may

  16. Factor Analysis of Linear Type Traits and Their Relation with Longevity in Brazilian Holstein Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Kern, Elisandra Lurdes; Cobuci, Jaime Araújo; Costa, Cláudio Napolis; Pimentel, Concepta Margaret McManus

    2014-01-01

    In this study we aimed to evaluate the reduction in dimensionality of 20 linear type traits and more final score in 14,943 Holstein cows in Brazil using factor analysis, and indicate their relationship with longevity and 305 d first lactation milk production. Low partial correlations (−0.19 to 0.38), the medium to high Kaiser sampling mean (0.79) and the significance of the Bartlett sphericity test (p<0.001), indicated correlations between type traits and the suitability of these data for a factor analysis, after the elimination of seven traits. Two factors had autovalues greater than one. The first included width and height of posterior udder, udder texture, udder cleft, loin strength, bone quality and final score. The second included stature, top line, chest width, body depth, fore udder attachment, angularity and final score. The linear regression of the factors on several measures of longevity and 305 d milk production showed that selection considering only the first factor should lead to improvements in longevity and 305 milk production. PMID:25050015

  17. A linear stability analysis for nonlinear, grey, thermal radiative transfer problems

    SciTech Connect

    Wollaber, Allan B.; Larsen, Edward W.

    2011-02-20

    We present a new linear stability analysis of three time discretizations and Monte Carlo interpretations of the nonlinear, grey thermal radiative transfer (TRT) equations: the widely used 'Implicit Monte Carlo' (IMC) equations, the Carter Forest (CF) equations, and the Ahrens-Larsen or 'Semi-Analog Monte Carlo' (SMC) equations. Using a spatial Fourier analysis of the 1-D Implicit Monte Carlo (IMC) equations that are linearized about an equilibrium solution, we show that the IMC equations are unconditionally stable (undamped perturbations do not exist) if {alpha}, the IMC time-discretization parameter, satisfies 0.5 < {alpha} {<=} 1. This is consistent with conventional wisdom. However, we also show that for sufficiently large time steps, unphysical damped oscillations can exist that correspond to the lowest-frequency Fourier modes. After numerically confirming this result, we develop a method to assess the stability of any time discretization of the 0-D, nonlinear, grey, thermal radiative transfer problem. Subsequent analyses of the CF and SMC methods then demonstrate that the CF method is unconditionally stable and monotonic, but the SMC method is conditionally stable and permits unphysical oscillatory solutions that can prevent it from reaching equilibrium. This stability theory provides new conditions on the time step to guarantee monotonicity of the IMC solution, although they are likely too conservative to be used in practice. Theoretical predictions are tested and confirmed with numerical experiments.

  18. Convective flows generated by evaporation: experiments, linear stability analysis and numerical simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunstan, Jocelyn; Lee, Kyoung Jin; Park, Simon; Goldstein, Raymond E.

    A novel form of convection was observed in a suspension of non-motile Photobacterium phosphoreum bacteria. The pattern resembles classical bioconvection, however this strain has limited if any motility, which excludes this possible explanation. After performing a series of control experiments we found that the convection was actually driven by the evaporation of the salty bacterial medium, and the same kind of plumes were observed using polystyrene beads suspended in water with salt added. A mathematical model was formulated for the process and studied using a linear stability analysis and finite element method simulations, reproducing most of the observed experimental features. From the linear stability analysis, a threshold in salt concentration to observe convective motion was obtained, as well as the wavelength of the pattern at the onset of the instability. This was complemented by finite element simulations, which produced plume dynamics remarkably similar to the experimental observations. Evaporation-driven convection on the millimeter scale has not been studied extensively, and its effect may have been underestimated in other experiments.

  19. The Analysis and Construction of Perfectly Matched Layers for the Linearized Euler Equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hesthaven, J. S.

    1997-01-01

    We present a detailed analysis of a recently proposed perfectly matched layer (PML) method for the absorption of acoustic waves. The split set of equations is shown to be only weakly well-posed, and ill-posed under small low order perturbations. This analysis provides the explanation for the stability problems associated with the split field formulation and illustrates why applying a filter has a stabilizing effect. Utilizing recent results obtained within the context of electromagnetics, we develop strongly well-posed absorbing layers for the linearized Euler equations. The schemes are shown to be perfectly absorbing independent of frequency and angle of incidence of the wave in the case of a non-convecting mean flow. In the general case of a convecting mean flow, a number of techniques is combined to obtain a absorbing layers exhibiting PML-like behavior. The efficacy of the proposed absorbing layers is illustrated though computation of benchmark problems in aero-acoustics.

  20. MTG2: an efficient algorithm for multivariate linear mixed model analysis based on genomic information

    PubMed Central

    Lee, S. H.; van der Werf, J. H. J.

    2016-01-01

    Summary: We have developed an algorithm for genetic analysis of complex traits using genome-wide SNPs in a linear mixed model framework. Compared to current standard REML software based on the mixed model equation, our method is substantially faster. The advantage is largest when there is only a single genetic covariance structure. The method is particularly useful for multivariate analysis, including multi-trait models and random regression models for studying reaction norms. We applied our proposed method to publicly available mice and human data and discuss the advantages and limitations. Availability and implementation: MTG2 is available in https://sites.google.com/site/honglee0707/mtg2. Contact: hong.lee@une.edu.au Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:26755623

  1. Linear Closed-form Solution and Finite-element Analysis of an Active Tensegrity Unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kmeť, Stanislav; Platko, Peter

    2012-11-01

    Results of the linear closed form solution of an active or adaptive tensegrity unit, as well as its numerical analysis using finite element method are presented in the paper. The shape of the unit is an octahedral cell with a square base and it is formed by thirteen members (four bottom and four top cables, four edge struts and one central strut). The central strut is designed as an actuator that allows for an adjustment of the shape of the unit which leads to changes of tensile forces in the cables. Due to the diagonal symmetry of the 3D tensegrity unit the closed-form analysis is based on the 2D solution of the equivalent planar biconvex cable system with one central strut under a vertical point load.

  2. Estimation of Linear Viscoelasticity of Polymer Melts in Molecular Dynamics Simulations Based on Relaxation Mode Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwaoka, Nobuyuki; Hagita, Katsumi; Takano, Hiroshi

    2014-03-01

    On the basis of relaxation mode analysis (RMA), we present an efficient method to estimate the linear viscoelasticity of polymer melts in a molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. Slow relaxation phenomena appeared in polymer melts cause a problem that a calculation of the stress relaxation function in MD simulations, especially in the terminal time region, requires large computational efforts. Relaxation mode analysis is a method that systematically extracts slow relaxation modes and rates of the polymer chain from the time correlation of its conformations. We show the computational cost may be drastically reduced by combining a direct calculation of the stress relaxation function based on the Green-Kubo formula with the relaxation rates spectra estimated by RMA. N. I. acknowledges the Graduate School Doctoral Student Aid Program from Keio University.

  3. Analysis of a tubular linear motor with soft magnetic composites for reciprocating compressors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsieh, Min-Fu; Hu, Kai-Hsiang

    2008-04-01

    This paper presents the analysis of a single-phase tubular linear motor formed with soft magnetic composites for direct driving reciprocating compressors. This direct-drive design can solve the potential cylinder wearing problem caused by the crank side force in conventional reciprocating compressors. The overall size may also be reduced without transmission mechanism. To produce sufficient thrust for the cooling cycles, the designed motor features a structure of three-dimensional flux distributions that allows an increase of slot-fill factor to enhance the thrust density. Moreover, the motor makes use of the inherent cogging force which contributes to the overall thrust. Finite element analysis is employed to verify the performance. The results show that the motor is capable of producing high thrust with a compact size compared to other types of motors.

  4. Linear classifier and textural analysis of optical scattering images for tumor classification during breast cancer extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eguizabal, Alma; Laughney, Ashley M.; Garcia Allende, Pilar Beatriz; Krishnaswamy, Venkataramanan; Wells, Wendy A.; Paulsen, Keith D.; Pogue, Brian W.; López-Higuera, José M.; Conde, Olga M.

    2013-02-01

    Texture analysis of light scattering in tissue is proposed to obtain diagnostic information from breast cancer specimens. Light scattering measurements are minimally invasive, and allow the estimation of tissue morphology to guide the surgeon in resection surgeries. The usability of scatter signatures acquired with a micro-sampling reflectance spectral imaging system was improved utilizing an empirical approximation to the Mie theory to estimate the scattering power on a per-pixel basis. Co-occurrence analysis is then applied to the scattering power images to extract the textural features. A statistical analysis of the features demonstrated the suitability of the autocorrelation for the classification of notmalignant (normal epithelia and stroma, benign epithelia and stroma, inflammation), malignant (DCIS, IDC, ILC) and adipose tissue, since it reveals morphological information of tissue. Non-malignant tissue shows higher autocorrelation values while adipose tissue presents a very low autocorrelation on its scatter texture, being malignant the middle ground. Consequently, a fast linear classifier based on the consideration of just one straightforward feature is enough for providing relevant diagnostic information. A leave-one-out validation of the linear classifier on 29 samples with 48 regions of interest showed classification accuracies of 98.74% on adipose tissue, 82.67% on non-malignant tissue and 72.37% on malignant tissue, in comparison with the biopsy H and E gold standard. This demonstrates that autocorrelation analysis of scatter signatures is a very computationally efficient and automated approach to provide pathological information in real-time to guide surgeon during tissue resection.

  5. Design and analysis of an unconventional permanent magnet linear machine for energy harvesting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Peng

    This Ph.D. dissertation proposes an unconventional high power density linear electromagnetic kinetic energy harvester, and a high-performance two-stage interface power electronics to maintain maximum power abstraction from the energy source and charge the Li-ion battery load with constant current. The proposed machine architecture is composed of a double-sided flat type silicon steel stator with winding slots, a permanent magnet mover, coil windings, a linear motion guide and an adjustable spring bearing. The unconventional design of the machine is that NdFeB magnet bars in the mover are placed with magnetic fields in horizontal direction instead of vertical direction and the same magnetic poles are facing each other. The derived magnetic equivalent circuit model proves the average air-gap flux density of the novel topology is as high as 0.73 T with 17.7% improvement over that of the conventional topology at the given geometric dimensions of the proof-of-concept machine. Subsequently, the improved output voltage and power are achieved. The dynamic model of the linear generator is also developed, and the analytical equations of output maximum power are derived for the case of driving vibration with amplitude that is equal, smaller and larger than the relative displacement between the mover and the stator of the machine respectively. Furthermore, the finite element analysis (FEA) model has been simulated to prove the derived analytical results and the improved power generation capability. Also, an optimization framework is explored to extend to the multi-Degree-of-Freedom (n-DOF) vibration based linear energy harvesting devices. Moreover, a boost-buck cascaded switch mode converter with current controller is designed to extract the maximum power from the harvester and charge the Li-ion battery with trickle current. Meanwhile, a maximum power point tracking (MPPT) algorithm is proposed and optimized for low frequency driving vibrations. Finally, a proof

  6. Discriminative analysis of non-linear brain connectivity for leukoaraiosis with resting-state fMRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Youzhi; Xu, Lele; Yao, Li; Wu, Xia

    2015-03-01

    Leukoaraiosis (LA) describes diffuse white matter abnormalities on CT or MR brain scans, often seen in the normal elderly and in association with vascular risk factors such as hypertension, or in the context of cognitive impairment. The mechanism of cognitive dysfunction is still unclear. The recent clinical studies have revealed that the severity of LA was not corresponding to the cognitive level, and functional connectivity analysis is an appropriate method to detect the relation between LA and cognitive decline. However, existing functional connectivity analyses of LA have been mostly limited to linear associations. In this investigation, a novel measure utilizing the extended maximal information coefficient (eMIC) was applied to construct non-linear functional connectivity in 44 LA subjects (9 dementia, 25 mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and 10 cognitively normal (CN)). The strength of non-linear functional connections for the first 1% of discriminative power increased in MCI compared with CN and dementia, which was opposed to its linear counterpart. Further functional network analysis revealed that the changes of the non-linear and linear connectivity have similar but not completely the same spatial distribution in human brain. In the multivariate pattern analysis with multiple classifiers, the non-linear functional connectivity mostly identified dementia, MCI and CN from LA with a relatively higher accuracy rate than the linear measure. Our findings revealed the non-linear functional connectivity provided useful discriminative power in classification of LA, and the spatial distributed changes between the non-linear and linear measure may indicate the underlying mechanism of cognitive dysfunction in LA.

  7. ANALYSIS OF QUIET-SUN INTERNETWORK MAGNETIC FIELDS BASED ON LINEAR POLARIZATION SIGNALS

    SciTech Connect

    Orozco Suarez, D.; Bellot Rubio, L. R.

    2012-05-20

    We present results from the analysis of Fe I 630 nm measurements of the quiet Sun taken with the spectropolarimeter of the Hinode satellite. Two data sets with noise levels of 1.2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -3} and 3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -4} are employed. We determine the distribution of field strengths and inclinations by inverting the two observations with a Milne-Eddington model atmosphere. The inversions show a predominance of weak, highly inclined fields. By means of several tests we conclude that these properties cannot be attributed to photon noise effects. To obtain the most accurate results, we focus on the 27.4% of the pixels in the second data set that have linear polarization amplitudes larger than 4.5 times the noise level. The vector magnetic field derived for these pixels is very precise because both circular and linear polarization signals are used simultaneously. The inferred field strength, inclination, and filling factor distributions agree with previous results, supporting the idea that internetwork (IN) fields are weak and very inclined, at least in about one quarter of the area occupied by the IN. These properties differ from those of network fields. The average magnetic flux density and the mean field strength derived from the 27.4% of the field of view with clear linear polarization signals are 16.3 Mx cm{sup -2} and 220 G, respectively. The ratio between the average horizontal and vertical components of the field is approximately 3.1. The IN fields do not follow an isotropic distribution of orientations.

  8. Linear Spectral Analysis of Plume Emissions Using an Optical Matrix Processor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gary, C. K.

    1992-01-01

    Plume spectrometry provides a means to monitor the health of a burning rocket engine, and optical matrix processors provide a means to analyze the plume spectra in real time. By observing the spectrum of the exhaust plume of a rocket engine, researchers have detected anomalous behavior of the engine and have even determined the failure of some equipment before it would normally have been noticed. The spectrum of the plume is analyzed by isolating information in the spectrum about the various materials present to estimate what materials are being burned in the engine. Scientists at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) have implemented a high resolution spectrometer to discriminate the spectral peaks of the many species present in the plume. Researchers at the Stennis Space Center Demonstration Testbed Facility (DTF) have implemented a high resolution spectrometer observing a 1200-lb. thrust engine. At this facility, known concentrations of contaminants can be introduced into the burn, allowing for the confirmation of diagnostic algorithms. While the high resolution of the measured spectra has allowed greatly increased insight into the functioning of the engine, the large data flows generated limit the ability to perform real-time processing. The use of an optical matrix processor and the linear analysis technique described below may allow for the detailed real-time analysis of the engine's health. A small optical matrix processor can perform the required mathematical analysis both quicker and with less energy than a large electronic computer dedicated to the same spectral analysis routine.

  9. Indoor calibration of Sky Quality Meters: Linearity, spectral responsivity and uncertainty analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pravettoni, M.; Strepparava, D.; Cereghetti, N.; Klett, S.; Andretta, M.; Steiger, M.

    2016-09-01

    The indoor calibration of brightness sensors requires extremely low values of irradiance in the most accurate and reproducible way. In this work the testing equipment of an ISO 17025 accredited laboratory for electrical testing, qualification and type approval of solar photovoltaic modules was modified in order to test the linearity of the instruments from few mW/cm2 down to fractions of nW/cm2, corresponding to levels of simulated brightness from 6 to 19 mag/arcsec2. Sixteen Sky Quality Meter (SQM) produced by Unihedron, a Canadian manufacturer, were tested, also assessing the impact of the ageing of their protective glasses on the calibration coefficients and the drift of the instruments. The instruments are in operation on measurement points and observatories at different sites and altitudes in Southern Switzerland, within the framework of OASI, the Environmental Observatory of Southern Switzerland. The authors present the results of the calibration campaign: linearity; brightness calibration, with and without protective glasses; transmittance measurement of the glasses; and spectral responsivity of the devices. A detailed uncertainty analysis is also provided, according to the ISO 17025 standard.

  10. Spatial Analysis Based Health and Safety Risk Assessment for Linear Construction Projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atay, H.; Toz, G.

    2012-07-01

    This paper describes an on-going study that aims to develop a web-based spatial decision support system model for proactive health and safety management in linear construction projects. Currently, health and safety management is usually performed reactively instead of proactive management since hazard identification and risk assessment is mostly performed on paper based documents that are not effectively used at site. This leads to accidents and fatalities at construction sites. The proposed system automatically identifies the spatial risks according to the topographic and layout map of the site, project specification and health and safety regulations by means of spatial analysis. It enables the workers and management personnel to access the possible hazards and thematic risk map of any portion of the construction site for linear projects. Finally, the described approach provides the proposed mitigation measures for the identified hazards. The developed system is expected to raise awareness in H&S among workers and engineers, and increase participation of workers to health and safety management.

  11. Sub-wavelength plasmonic readout for direct linear analysis of optically tagged DNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varsanik, Jonathan; Teynor, William; LeBlanc, John; Clark, Heather; Krogmeier, Jeffrey; Yang, Tian; Crozier, Kenneth; Bernstein, Jonathan

    2010-02-01

    This work describes the development and fabrication of a novel nanofluidic flow-through sensing chip that utilizes a plasmonic resonator to excite fluorescent tags with sub-wavelength resolution. We cover the design of the microfluidic chip and simulation of the plasmonic resonator using Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) software. The fabrication methods are presented, with testing procedures and preliminary results. This research is aimed at improving the resolution limits of the Direct Linear Analysis (DLA) technique developed by US Genomics [1]. In DLA, intercalating dyes which tag a specific 8 base-pair sequence are inserted in a DNA sample. This sample is pumped though a nano-fluidic channel, where it is stretched into a linear geometry and interrogated with light which excites the fluorescent tags. The resulting sequence of optical pulses produces a characteristic "fingerprint" of the sample which uniquely identifies any sample of DNA. Plasmonic confinement of light to a 100 nm wide metallic nano-stripe enables resolution of a higher tag density compared to free space optics. Prototype devices have been fabricated and are being tested with fluorophore solutions and tagged DNA. Preliminary results show evanescent coupling to the plasmonic resonator is occurring with 0.1 micron resolution, however light scattering limits the S/N of the detector. Two methods to reduce scattered light are presented: index matching and curved waveguides.

  12. LC-Grid: a linear global contact search algorithm for finite element analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hu; Lei, Zhou; Zang, Mengyan

    2014-11-01

    The contact searching is computationally intensive and its memory requirement is highly demanding; therefore, it is significant to develop an efficient contact search algorithm with less memory required. In this paper, we propose an efficient global contact search algorithm with linear complexity in terms of computational cost and memory requirement for the finite element analysis of contact problems. This algorithm is named LC-Grid (Lei devised the algorithm and Chen implemented it). The contact space is decomposed; thereafter, all contact nodes and segments are firstly mapped onto layers, then onto rows and lastly onto cells. In each mapping level, the linked-list technique is used for the efficient storing and retrieval of contact nodes and segments. The contact detection is performed in each non-empty cell along non-empty rows in each non-empty layer, and moves to the next non-empty layer once a layer is completed. The use of migration strategy makes the algorithm insensitive to mesh size. The properties of this algorithm are investigated and numerically verified to be linearly proportional to the number of contact segments. Besides, the ideal ranges of two significant scale factors of cell size and buffer zone which strongly affect computational efficiency are determined via an illustrative example.

  13. Physical mechanisms of phonation onset: a linear stability analysis of an aeroelastic continuum model of phonation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhaoyan; Neubauer, Juergen; Berry, David A

    2007-10-01

    In an investigation of phonation onset, a linear stability analysis was performed on a two-dimensional, aeroelastic, continuum model of phonation. The model consisted of a vocal fold-shaped constriction situated in a rigid pipe coupled to a potential flow which separated at the superior edge of the vocal fold. The vocal fold constriction was modeled as a plane-strain linear elastic layer. The dominant eigenvalues and eigenmodes of the fluid-structure-interaction system were investigated as a function of glottal airflow. To investigate specific aerodynamic mechanisms of phonation onset, individual components of the glottal airflow (e.g., flow-induced stiffness, inertia, and damping) were systematically added to the driving force. The investigations suggested that flow-induced stiffness was the primary mechanism of phonation onset, involving the synchronization of two structural eigenmodes. Only under conditions of negligible structural damping and a restricted set of vocal fold geometries did flow-induced damping become the primary mechanism of phonation onset. However, for moderate to high structural damping and a more generalized set of vocal fold geometries, flow-induced stiffness remained the primary mechanism of phonation onset. PMID:17902864

  14. Linear analysis of a backward wave oscillator with triangular corrugated slow wave structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saber, Md. Ghulam; Sagor, Rakibul Hasan; Amin, Md. Ruhul

    2016-05-01

    In this work, a backward wave oscillator (BWO) with triangularly corrugated periodic metallic slow wave structure (TrCSWS) driven by an infinitely thin annular electron beam is studied using linear theory. The electron beam is assumed to be guided by a strong magnetic field. The triangular axial profile of the SWS is approximated by a Fourier series in order to apply the linear Rayleigh-Fourier (R-F) theory that has long been used in the theoretical analysis of BWOs with sinusoidally corrugated SWS (SCSWS). The dispersion equation for various beam parameters has been solved and the temporal growth rate (TGR) of the electromagnetic wave for the fundamental TM_{01} mode is calculated numerically. The TGR values for different beam parameters have been compared with those of the BWO with SCSWS, semi-circularly corrugated SWS (SCCSWS) and trapezoidally corrugated SWS (TCSWS). In order to compare the TGR values, the amplitude of corrugation of the TrCSWS is varied so that its dispersion curve of TM_{01} mode almost coincides with that of the SCSWS and TCSWS. The study reveals that the performance (in terms of TGR) of the proposed BWO with TrCSWS is comparable to that of other BWOs with SCSWS and TCSWS for the same set of beam parameters and it provides significantly better performance than SCCSWS. So, the proposed TrCSWS that can easily be constructed may replace SCSWS, SCCSWS or TCSWS as their viable alternative.

  15. Error Analysis for RADAR Neighbor Matching Localization in Linear Logarithmic Strength Varying Wi-Fi Environment

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Zengshan; Xu, Kunjie; Yu, Xiang

    2014-01-01

    This paper studies the statistical errors for the fingerprint-based RADAR neighbor matching localization with the linearly calibrated reference points (RPs) in logarithmic received signal strength (RSS) varying Wi-Fi environment. To the best of our knowledge, little comprehensive analysis work has appeared on the error performance of neighbor matching localization with respect to the deployment of RPs. However, in order to achieve the efficient and reliable location-based services (LBSs) as well as the ubiquitous context-awareness in Wi-Fi environment, much attention has to be paid to the highly accurate and cost-efficient localization systems. To this end, the statistical errors by the widely used neighbor matching localization are significantly discussed in this paper to examine the inherent mathematical relations between the localization errors and the locations of RPs by using a basic linear logarithmic strength varying model. Furthermore, based on the mathematical demonstrations and some testing results, the closed-form solutions to the statistical errors by RADAR neighbor matching localization can be an effective tool to explore alternative deployment of fingerprint-based neighbor matching localization systems in the future. PMID:24683349

  16. Three-dimensional linear stability analysis of incompressible viscous flows using the finite element method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Yan; Kawahara, Mutsuto

    1999-09-01

    The linear stability of incompressible flows is investigated on the basis of the finite element method. The two-dimensional base flows computed numerically over a range of Reynolds numbers are perturbed with three-dimensional disturbances. The three-dimensionality in the flow associated with the secondary instability is identified precisely. First, by using linear stability theory and normal mode analysis, the partial differential equations governing the evolution of perturbation are derived from the linearized Navier-Stokes equation with slight compressibility. In terms of the mixed finite element discretization, in which six-node quadratic Lagrange triangular elements with quadratic interpolation for velocities (P2) and three-node linear Lagrange triangular elements for pressure (P1) are employed, a non-singular generalized eigenproblem is formulated from these equations, whose solution gives the dispersion relation between complex growth rate and wave number. Then, the stabilities of two cases, i.e. the lid-driven cavity flow and flow past a circular cylinder, are examined. These studies determine accurately stability curves to identify the critical Reynolds number and the critical wavelength of the neutral mode by means of the Krylov subspace method and discuss the mechanism of instability. For the cavity flow, the estimated critical results are Rec=920.277+/-0.010 for the Reynolds number and kc=7.40+/-0.02 for the wave number. These results are in good agreement with the observation of Aidun et al. and are more accurate than those by the finite difference method. This instability in the cavity is associated with absolute instability [Huerre and Monkewitz, Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech., 22, 473-537 (1990)]. The Taylor-Göertler-like vortices in the cavity are verified by means of the reconstruction of three-dimensional flows. As for the flow past a circular cylinder, the primary instability result shows that the flow has only two-dimensional characteristics at the

  17. Linear Ablation Following Pulmonary Vein Isolation in Patients with Atrial Fibrillation: A Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhiwei; Letsas, Konstantinos P; Zhang, Nixiao; Efremidis, Michael; Xu, Gang; Li, Guangping; Liu, Tong

    2016-06-01

    Previous studies have given conflicting data regarding the long-term adjunctive efficacy of linear lesions (LLs) on top of pulmonary vein isolation (PVI) as an ablation strategy in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). The aim of this meta-analysis was to provide a detailed analysis of the available randomized controlled trials (RCTs) regarding the efficacy of LL following PVI in AF patients. Current databases were searched until October 2015. The primary outcome end point of the meta-analysis was recurrence of any symptomatic or documented episode of AF or atrial tachycardia after a single ablation procedure with or without the use of antiarrhythmic drugs. Ten RCTs with a total of 1,446 patients were included in the meta-analysis. The pooled analysis of five trials concerning persistent AF (PeAF) patients (400 in PVI plus LL group and 182 in PVI alone group) suggested that the addition of LL following PVI does not lead to a significant reduction in recurrent atrial tachyarrhythmias compared with PVI alone (relative ratio [RR] = 0.73, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.44-1.21, P = 0.22). Similarly, there was no incremental benefit of additional LL in long-term outcomes in paroxysmal AF (PAF) patients (RR = 0.85, 95% CI: 0.68-1.05, P = 0.13). Pooling the results of all eligible trials suggested that PVI plus LL compared with PVI alone significantly increased radiofrequency time (P = 0.0002), fluoroscopy time (P < 0.00001), and procedure time (P < 0.0001). This meta-analysis suggests that LL following PVI does not provide additional benefit to sinus rhythm maintenance in patients with PeAF and PAF. PMID:26970360

  18. Equivalent Linearization Analysis of Geometrically Nonlinear Random Vibrations Using Commercial Finite Element Codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rizzi, Stephen A.; Muravyov, Alexander A.

    2002-01-01

    Two new equivalent linearization implementations for geometrically nonlinear random vibrations are presented. Both implementations are based upon a novel approach for evaluating the nonlinear stiffness within commercial finite element codes and are suitable for use with any finite element code having geometrically nonlinear static analysis capabilities. The formulation includes a traditional force-error minimization approach and a relatively new version of a potential energy-error minimization approach, which has been generalized for multiple degree-of-freedom systems. Results for a simply supported plate under random acoustic excitation are presented and comparisons of the displacement root-mean-square values and power spectral densities are made with results from a nonlinear time domain numerical simulation.

  19. Quasi-linear vacancy dynamics modeling and circuit analysis of the bipolar memristor.

    PubMed

    Abraham, Isaac

    2014-01-01

    The quasi-linear transport equation is investigated for modeling the bipolar memory resistor. The solution accommodates vacancy and circuit level perspectives on memristance. For the first time in literature the component resistors that constitute the contemporary dual variable resistor circuit model are quantified using vacancy parameters and derived from a governing partial differential equation. The model describes known memristor dynamics even as it generates new insight about vacancy migration, bottlenecks to switching speed and elucidates subtle relationships between switching resistance range and device parameters. The model is shown to comply with Chua's generalized equations for the memristor. Independent experimental results are used throughout, to validate the insights obtained from the model. The paper concludes by implementing a memristor-capacitor filter and compares its performance to a reference resistor-capacitor filter to demonstrate that the model is usable for practical circuit analysis. PMID:25390634

  20. Linear and nonlinear finite-element analysis of laminated composite structures at high temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Wilt, T.E.

    1992-01-01

    A simple robust finite element which can effectively model the multilayer composite material is developed. This will include thermal gradient capabilities necessary for a complete thermomechanical analysis. In order to integrate the numerically stiff rate-dependent viscoplastic equations, efficient, stable numerical algorithms are developed. In addition, consistent viscoplastic/plastic tangent matrices are also formulated. The finite element is formulated based upon a generalized mixed variational principle with independently assumed displacements and layer-number independent strains. A unique scheme utilizing nodal temperatures is used to model a linear thermal gradient through the thickness of the composite. The numerical-integration algorithms are formulated in the context of a fully implicit backward Euler scheme. The consistent tangent matrices arise directly from the formulation. The multi-layer composite finite element demonstrates good performance in terms of static displacement and stress predictions, and dynamic response.

  1. Linear and Nonlinear Analysis of Magnetic Bearing Bandwidth Due to Eddy Current Limitations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kenny, Andrew; Palazzolo, Alan

    2000-01-01

    Finite element analysis was used to study the bandwidth of alloy hyperco50a and silicon iron laminated rotors and stators in magnetic bearings. A three dimensional model was made of a heteropolar bearing in which all the flux circulated in the plane of the rotor and stator laminate. A three dimensional model of a plate similar to the region of a pole near the gap was also studied with a very fine mesh. Nonlinear time transient solutions for the net flux carried by the plate were compared to steady state time harmonic solutions. Both linear and quasi-nonlinear steady state time harmonic solutions were calculated and compared. The finite element solutions for power loss and flux bandwidth were compared to those determined from classical analytical solutions to Maxwell's equations.

  2. Decoupled control analysis of a large flexible space antenna with linear quadratic regulator comparisons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, J. W.; Hamer, H. A.; Johnson, K. G.

    1984-01-01

    A decoupled-control analysis was performed for a large flexible space antenna. Control involved commanding changes in the rigid-body modes or nulling disturbances in the flexible modes. The study provides parametric-type data which could be useful in the final design of a large space antenna control system. Results are presented to illustrate the effect on control requirements of (1) the number of modes controlled; (2) the number, type, and location of control actuators; and (3) variations in the closed-loop dynamics of the control system. Comparisons are given between the decoupled-control results and those obtained by using a linear quadratic regulator approach. Time history responses are presented to illustrate the effects of the control procedures.

  3. Development of a linear unsteady aerodynamic analysis for finite-deflection subsonic cascades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verdon, J. M.; Caspar, J. R.

    1981-01-01

    A linear unsteady potential flow analysis, which accounts for the effects of blade geometry and steady turning, is being developed to predict the aerodynamic response to blade vibrations in the fan, compressor or turbine stages of modern jet engines. In previous work numerical solutions were restricted to cascades of sharp-edged blades aligned with the mean flow. Under the present effort the solution procedure has been extended to treat blades with rounded or blunt edges. As part of this effort an analytical model-problem study has been conducted to clarify the behavior of first-order perturbation solutions in the vicinity of airfoil edges. Further, a numerical approximation using concepts from singular perturbation theory has been developed to resolve the unsteady boundary value problem for cascades of blunt leading-edged blades. Numerical results for NACA 0012 cascades, including detailed results in the vicinity of a blade leading edge, are presented and evaluated.

  4. Application of linear-scale differential analysis in phase correlation method of image stitching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bezzubik, Vitalii V.; Belashenkov, Nickolai R.; Losev, Sergei V.

    2016-03-01

    A robust method of creation of panoramic images which does not consume much processing resources is proposed and investigated. The phase correlation (PC) method is taken as a basic one because of simplicity of its algorithm and low computing time due to application of FFT technique. Standard PC procedure is modified by preprocessing of source frames of panoramic images in spatial domain. Preprocessing comprises Linear-Scale Differential Analysis (LSDA) with sequent content-dependent thresholding of intensity gradients. Method is proved for artificially blurred and noise corrupted images. It is shown that new robust algorithm allows to increase the productivity of creation of panoramic images keeping the probability of successive stitching close to maximum even for low-quality source frames.

  5. Linear stability analysis for travelling waves of second order in time PDE's

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanislavova, Milena; Stefanov, Atanas

    2012-09-01

    We study travelling waves φc of second order in time PDE's u_{tt}+{ L} u+N(u)=0 . The linear stability analysis for these models is reduced to the question of the stability of quadratic pencils in the form \\lambda^2Id+2c\\lambda \\partial_x+{ H}_c , where { H}_c=c^2 \\partial_{xx}+{ L}+N'(\\varphi_c) . If { H}_c is a self-adjoint operator, with a simple negative eigenvalue and a simple eigenvalue at zero, then we completely characterize the linear stability of φc. More precisely, we introduce an explicitly computable index \\omega^*({ H}_c)\\in (0, \\infty] , so that the wave φc is stable if and only if |c|\\geq \\omega^*({ H}_c) . The results are applicable both in the periodic case and in the whole line case. The method of proof involves a delicate analysis of a function { G} , associated with { H} , whose positive zeros are exactly the positive (unstable) eigenvalues of the pencil \\lambda^2Id+2c\\lambda \\partial_x+{ H} . We would like to emphasize that the function { G} is not the Evans function for the problem, but rather a new object that we define herein, which fits the situation rather well. As an application, we consider three classical models—the ‘good’ Boussinesq equation, the Klein-Gordon-Zakharov (KGZ) system and the fourth order beam equation. In the whole line case, for the Boussinesq case and the KGZ system (and as a direct application of the main results), we compute explicitly the set of speeds which give rise to linearly stable travelling waves (and for all powers of p in the case of Boussinesq). This result is new for the KGZ system, while it generalizes the results of Alexander et al (2012, personal communication) and Alexander and Sachs (1995 Nonlinear World 2 471-507), which apply to the case p = 2. For the beam equation, we provide an implicit formula (depending only on the function \\|\\varphi_c'\\|_{L^2}) , which works for all p and for both the periodic and the whole line cases. Our results complement (and exactly match

  6. Quasi-Linear Vacancy Dynamics Modeling and Circuit Analysis of the Bipolar Memristor

    PubMed Central

    Abraham, Isaac

    2014-01-01

    The quasi-linear transport equation is investigated for modeling the bipolar memory resistor. The solution accommodates vacancy and circuit level perspectives on memristance. For the first time in literature the component resistors that constitute the contemporary dual variable resistor circuit model are quantified using vacancy parameters and derived from a governing partial differential equation. The model describes known memristor dynamics even as it generates new insight about vacancy migration, bottlenecks to switching speed and elucidates subtle relationships between switching resistance range and device parameters. The model is shown to comply with Chua's generalized equations for the memristor. Independent experimental results are used throughout, to validate the insights obtained from the model. The paper concludes by implementing a memristor-capacitor filter and compares its performance to a reference resistor-capacitor filter to demonstrate that the model is usable for practical circuit analysis. PMID:25390634

  7. High-Speed Linear Raman Spectroscopy for Instability Analysis of a Bluff Body Flame

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kojima, Jun; Fischer, David

    2013-01-01

    We report a high-speed laser diagnostics technique based on point-wise linear Raman spectroscopy for measuring the frequency content of a CH4-air premixed flame stabilized behind a circular bluff body. The technique, which primarily employs a Nd:YLF pulsed laser and a fast image-intensified CCD camera, successfully measures the time evolution of scalar parameters (N2, O2, CH4, and H2O) in the vortex-induced flame instability at a data rate of 1 kHz. Oscillation of the V-shaped flame front is quantified through frequency analysis of the combustion species data and their correlations. This technique promises to be a useful diagnostics tool for combustion instability studies.

  8. Monoclinic and orthorhombic polymorphs of paracetamol—solid state linear dichroic infrared spectral analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanova, Bojidarka B.

    2005-03-01

    Solid-state linear dichroic infrared (IR-LD) spectral analysis of both monoclinic (form I) and orthorhombic (form II) polymorphs of paracetamol was carried out using an orientation technique as a nematic liquid crystal suspension. The so-called reducing-difference procedure for polarized spectra interpretation was applied and the obtained supramolecular stereo structural data of both modifications were compared with known crystallographic ones. A detailed vibration assignment of characteristic frequencies of forms I and II was also applied. A quantitative FT-IR spectral approach for monoclinic form determination in mixtures by the intensity ratio of 1610 cm -1 peak (characteristic for both forms) to 1666 cm -1 one (attributed to orthorhombic modification) was presented, as well.

  9. Inertial instability of oceanic submesoscale vortices: linear analysis, marginal stability criterion and laboratory experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazar, A.; Stegner, A.; Heifetz, E.

    2012-04-01

    The stability of axisymmetric oceanic-like vortices to inertial perturbations is investigated by means of linear stability analysis, taking into account the thickness and the stratification of the thermocline, as well as the vertical eddy viscosity. The model considers different types of circular barotropic vortices in a linearly stratified shallow layer confined with rigid lids. In this case the aspect ratio (thermocline height to vortex radius ratio) should be added to the parameters that control the stability for columnar vortices, which are the stratification, and the Ekman and Rossby numbers. We show that for strong stratification the Burger number (the radius of the vortex in relation to the Rossby radius of deformation) replaces the aspect ratio and the stratification parameter, and then only three parameters are needed. Numerical analysis reveals that if the intensity of the vortex is characterized by the vortex Rossby number, then for monotonic and non-isolated vortices, the instability is not sensitive to the vorticity profile. This allows extending our analytical solutions for the Rankine vortex to a wide variety of oceanic cases, including results such as the analytic dispersion relation, and the marginal stability criterion. This criterion suits oceanic conditions better than the generalized Rayleigh criterion, which is only valid for non-dissipative and non-stratified eddies. Comparison with literature oceanographic data shows that our criterion allows for cases that seem to contradict the common oceanographic hypothesis for inertial instability: 1. Intense submesoscale anticyclones may be stable even with a core region of negative absolute vorticity; and on the other hand, 2. mesoscale vortices can be unstable. We corroborate our findings with large-scale laboratory experiments, performed at the LEGI-Coriolis platform.

  10. The Natural Neighbour Radial Point Interpolation Meshless Method Applied to the Non-Linear Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dinis, L. M. J. S.; Jorge, R. M. Natal; Belinha, J.

    2011-05-01

    In this work the Natural Neighbour Radial Point Interpolation Method (NNRPIM), is extended to large deformation analysis of elastic and elasto-plastic structures. The NNPRIM uses the Natural Neighbour concept in order to enforce the nodal connectivity and to create a node-depending background mesh, used in the numerical integration of the NNRPIM interpolation functions. Unlike the FEM, where geometrical restrictions on elements are imposed for the convergence of the method, in the NNRPIM there are no such restrictions, which permits a random node distribution for the discretized problem. The NNRPIM interpolation functions, used in the Galerkin weak form, are constructed using the Radial Point Interpolators, with some differences that modify the method performance. In the construction of the NNRPIM interpolation functions no polynomial base is required and the used Radial Basis Function (RBF) is the Multiquadric RBF. The NNRPIM interpolation functions posses the delta Kronecker property, which simplify the imposition of the natural and essential boundary conditions. One of the scopes of this work is to present the validation the NNRPIM in the large-deformation elasto-plastic analysis, thus the used non-linear solution algorithm is the Newton-Rapson initial stiffness method and the efficient "forward-Euler" procedure is used in order to return the stress state to the yield surface. Several non-linear examples, exhibiting elastic and elasto-plastic material properties, are studied to demonstrate the effectiveness of the method. The numerical results indicated that NNRPIM handles large material distortion effectively and provides an accurate solution under large deformation.

  11. Predicting groundwater redox status on a regional scale using linear discriminant analysis.

    PubMed

    Close, M E; Abraham, P; Humphries, B; Lilburne, L; Cuthill, T; Wilson, S

    2016-08-01

    Reducing conditions are necessary for denitrification, thus the groundwater redox status can be used to identify subsurface zones where potentially significant nitrate reduction can occur. Groundwater chemistry in two contrasting regions of New Zealand was classified with respect to redox status and related to mappable factors, such as geology, topography and soil characteristics using discriminant analysis. Redox assignment was carried out for water sampled from 568 and 2223 wells in the Waikato and Canterbury regions, respectively. For the Waikato region 64% of wells sampled indicated oxic conditions in the water; 18% indicated reduced conditions and 18% had attributes indicating both reducing and oxic conditions termed "mixed". In Canterbury 84% of wells indicated oxic conditions; 10% were mixed; and only 5% indicated reduced conditions. The analysis was performed over three different well depths, <25m, 25 to 100 and >100m. For both regions, the percentage of oxidised groundwater decreased with increasing well depth. Linear discriminant analysis was used to develop models to differentiate between the three redox states. Models were derived for each depth and region using 67% of the data, and then subsequently validated on the remaining 33%. The average agreement between predicted and measured redox status was 63% and 70% for the Waikato and Canterbury regions, respectively. The models were incorporated into GIS and the prediction of redox status was extended over the whole region, excluding mountainous land. This knowledge improves spatial prediction of reduced groundwater zones, and therefore, when combined with groundwater flow paths, improves estimates of denitrification. PMID:27182792

  12. A comb-sampling method for enhanced mass analysis in linear electrostatic ion traps

    SciTech Connect

    Greenwood, J. B.; Kelly, O.; Calvert, C. R.; Duffy, M. J.; King, R. B.; Belshaw, L.; Graham, L.; Alexander, J. D.; Williams, I. D.; Bryan, W. A.; Turcu, I. C. E.; Cacho, C. M.; Springate, E.

    2011-04-15

    In this paper an algorithm for extracting spectral information from signals containing a series of narrow periodic impulses is presented. Such signals can typically be acquired by pickup detectors from the image-charge of ion bunches oscillating in a linear electrostatic ion trap, where frequency analysis provides a scheme for high-resolution mass spectrometry. To provide an improved technique for such frequency analysis, we introduce the CHIMERA algorithm (Comb-sampling for High-resolution IMpulse-train frequency ExtRAaction). This algorithm utilizes a comb function to generate frequency coefficients, rather than using sinusoids via a Fourier transform, since the comb provides a superior match to the data. This new technique is developed theoretically, applied to synthetic data, and then used to perform high resolution mass spectrometry on real data from an ion trap. If the ions are generated at a localized point in time and space, and the data is simultaneously acquired with multiple pickup rings, the method is shown to be a significant improvement on Fourier analysis. The mass spectra generated typically have an order of magnitude higher resolution compared with that obtained from fundamental Fourier frequencies, and are absent of large contributions from harmonic frequency components.

  13. Linear Stability Analysis of Magnetohydrodynamic Richtmyer-Meshkov Instability in Cyindrical Geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakhsh, Abeer; Samtaney, Ravi

    2015-11-01

    Numerical simulations and analysis in Cartesian slab geometry for nonlinear ideal magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) indicate that the Richtmyer-Meshkov instability (RMI) is suppressed in the presence of a magnetic field. An analytical solution of incompressible 2-D MHD RMI of an impulsively accelerated interface was investigated by Wheatley et al. (Phys. Rev. Lett. 2005; J. Fluid Mech. 2005) who found that, for a finite magnetic field, although the initial growth rate of the interface is unaffected by the presence of magnetic field, the late-time amplitude of the interface asymptotes to a constant value. In the framework of incompressible MHD, we examine analytically the behavior of an impulsively accelerated interface separating conducting fluids of different densities in cylindrical geometry. We investigate the stability properties of such a system and study the influence of the magnetic field on the growth rate of the interface. In converging cylindrical geometry, the RMI is followed by a Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) phase. Our analysis does not account for the RT phase of the instability but is valid for the duration of the RMI phase. We compare results of the incompressible analysis with linear compressible MHD simulations. Supported by the KAUST Office of Competitive Research Funds under Award No. URF/1/2162-01.

  14. A NASTRAN DMAP alter for linear buckling analysis under dynamic loading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aiello, Robert A.; Grady, Joseph E.

    1989-01-01

    A modification to the NASTRAN solution sequence for transient analysis with direct time integration (COSMIC NASTRAN rigid format 9) was developed and incorporated into a DMAP alter. This DMAP alter calculates the buckling stability of a dynamically loaded structure, and is used to predict the onset of structural buckling under stress-wave loading conditions. The modified solution sequence incorporates the linear buckling analysis capability (rigid format 5) of NASTRAN into the existing Transient solution rigid format in such a way as to provide a time dependent eigensolution which is used to assess the buckling stability of the structure as it responds to the impulsive load. As a demonstration of the validity of this modified solution procedure, the dynamic buckling of a prismatic bar subjected to an impulsive longitudinal compression is analyzed and compared to the known theoretical solution. In addition, a dynamic buckling analysis is performed for the analytically less tractable problem of the localized dynamic buckling of an initially flawed composite laminate under transverse impact loading. The addition of this DMAP alter to the transient solution sequence in NASTRAN facilitates the computational prediction of both the time at which the onset of dynamic buckling occurs in an impulsively loaded structure, and the dynamic buckling mode shapes of that structure.

  15. A NASTRAN DMAP alter for linear buckling analysis under dynamic loading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aiello, Robert A.; Grady, Joseph E.

    1988-01-01

    A unique modification to the NASTRAN solution sequence for transient analysis with direct time integration (COSMIC NASTRAN rigid format 9) was developed and incorporated into a DMAP alter. This DMAP alter calculates the buckling stability of a dynamically loaded structure, and is used to predict the onset of structural buckling under stress wave loading conditions. The modified solution sequence incorporates the linear buckling analysis capability (rigid format 5) of NASTRAN into the existing Transient solution rigid format in such a way as to provide a time dependent eigensolution which is used to assess the buckling stability of the structure as it responds to the impulsive load. As a demonstration of the validity of this modified solution procedure, the dynamic buckling of a prismatic bar subjected to an impulsive longitudinal compression is analyzed and compared to the known theoretical solution. In addition, a dynamic buckling analysis is performed for the analytically less tractable problem of the localized dynamic buckling of an initially flawed composite laminate under transverse impact loading. The addition of this DMAP alter to the transient solution sequence in NASTRAN facilitates the prediction of both time and mode of buckling.

  16. Stability and performance analysis of a jump linear control system subject to digital upsets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Rui; Sun, Hui; Ma, Zhen-Yang

    2015-04-01

    This paper focuses on the methodology analysis for the stability and the corresponding tracking performance of a closed-loop digital jump linear control system with a stochastic switching signal. The method is applied to a flight control system. A distributed recoverable platform is implemented on the flight control system and subject to independent digital upsets. The upset processes are used to stimulate electromagnetic environments. Specifically, the paper presents the scenarios that the upset process is directly injected into the distributed flight control system, which is modeled by independent Markov upset processes and independent and identically distributed (IID) processes. A theoretical performance analysis and simulation modelling are both presented in detail for a more complete independent digital upset injection. The specific examples are proposed to verify the methodology of tracking performance analysis. The general analyses for different configurations are also proposed. Comparisons among different configurations are conducted to demonstrate the availability and the characteristics of the design. Project supported by the Young Scientists Fund of the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61403395), the Natural Science Foundation of Tianjin, China (Grant No. 13JCYBJC39000), the Scientific Research Foundation for the Returned Overseas Chinese Scholars, State Education Ministry, China, the Tianjin Key Laboratory of Civil Aircraft Airworthiness and Maintenance in Civil Aviation of China (Grant No. 104003020106), and the Fund for Scholars of Civil Aviation University of China (Grant No. 2012QD21x).

  17. Study on Brain Dynamics by Non Linear Analysis of Music Induced EEG Signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Archi; Sanyal, Shankha; Patranabis, Anirban; Banerjee, Kaushik; Guhathakurta, Tarit; Sengupta, Ranjan; Ghosh, Dipak; Ghose, Partha

    2016-02-01

    Music has been proven to be a valuable tool for the understanding of human cognition, human emotion, and their underlying brain mechanisms. The objective of this study is to analyze the effect of Hindustani music on brain activity during normal relaxing conditions using electroencephalography (EEG). Ten male healthy subjects without special musical education participated in the study. EEG signals were acquired at the frontal (F3/F4) lobes of the brain while listening to music at three experimental conditions (rest, with music and without music). Frequency analysis was done for the alpha, theta and gamma brain rhythms. The finding shows that arousal based activities were enhanced while listening to Hindustani music of contrasting emotions (romantic/sorrow) for all the subjects in case of alpha frequency bands while no significant changes were observed in gamma and theta frequency ranges. It has been observed that when the music stimulus is removed, arousal activities as evident from alpha brain rhythms remain for some time, showing residual arousal. This is analogous to the conventional 'Hysteresis' loop where the system retains some 'memory' of the former state. This is corroborated in the non linear analysis (Detrended Fluctuation Analysis) of the alpha rhythms as manifested in values of fractal dimension. After an input of music conveying contrast emotions, withdrawal of music shows more retention as evidenced by the values of fractal dimension.

  18. Linearized Unsteady Aerodynamic Analysis of the Acoustic Response to Wake/Blade-Row Interaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verdon, Joseph M.; Huff, Dennis L. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The three-dimensional, linearized Euler analysis, LINFLUX, is being developed to provide a comprehensive and efficient unsteady aerodynamic scheme for predicting the aeroacoustic and aeroelastic responses of axial-flow turbomachinery blading. LINFLUX couples a near-field, implicit, wave-split, finite-volume solution to far-field acoustic eigensolutions, to predict the aerodynamic responses of a blade row to prescribed structural and aerodynamic excitations. It is applied herein to predict the acoustic responses of a fan exit guide vane (FEGV) to rotor wake excitations. The intent is to demonstrate and assess the LINFLUX analysis via application to realistic wake/blade-row interactions. Numerical results are given for the unsteady pressure responses of the FEGV, including the modal pressure responses at inlet and exit. In addition, predictions for the modal and total acoustic power levels at the FEGV exit are compared with measurements. The present results indicate that the LINFLUX analysis should be useful in the aeroacoustic design process, and for understanding the three-dimensional flow physics relevant to blade-row noise generation and propagation.

  19. Linear Covariance Analysis For Proximity Operations Around Asteroid 2008 EV5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, Cinnamon A.; Bhatt, Sagar; Woffinden, David; Strube, Matthew; D'Souza, Christopher; DeWeese, Keith

    2015-01-01

    The NASA initiative to collect an asteroid the Asteroid Robotic Redirect Mission (ARRM) is currently investigating the option of retrieving a boulder off an asteroid, demonstrating planetary defense with an enhanced gravity tractor technique and returning it to a lunar orbit. Techniques for accomplishing this are being investigated by the Satellite Servicing Capabilities Office (SSOO) and NASA GSFC in colloboration with JPL, NASA, JSC, LaRC, and Draper Laboratories Inc. Two critical phases of the mission are the descent to the boulder and the Enhanced Gravity Tractor-enhanced gravity tractor demonstration. A linear covariance analysis was done for these phases to assess the feasibility of these concepts with the proposed design of the sensor and actuaor suite of the Asteroid Redirect Vehicle (ARV). The sensor suite for this analysis will include a wide field of view camera, Lidar, and a MMU. The proposed asteroid of interest is currently the C-type asteroid 2008 EV5, a carbonaceous chondrite that is of high interest to the scientific community. This paper will present an overview of the analysis discuss sensor and actuator models and address the feasibility of descending to the boulder within the requirements as the feasibility of maintaining the halo orbit in order to demonstrate the Enhanced Gravity Tractor-enhanced gravity tractory technique.

  20. Detection optimization using linear systems analysis of a coded aperture laser sensor system

    SciTech Connect

    Gentry, S.M.

    1994-09-01

    Minimum detectable irradiance levels for a diffraction grating based laser sensor were calculated to be governed by clutter noise resulting from reflected earth albedo. Features on the earth surface caused pseudo-imaging effects on the sensor`s detector arras that resulted in the limiting noise in the detection domain. It was theorized that a custom aperture transmission function existed that would optimize the detection of laser sources against this clutter background. Amplitude and phase aperture functions were investigated. Compared to the diffraction grating technique, a classical Young`s double-slit aperture technique was investigated as a possible optimized solution but was not shown to produce a system that had better clutter-noise limited minimum detectable irradiance. Even though the double-slit concept was not found to have a detection advantage over the slit-grating concept, one interesting concept grew out of the double-slit design that deserved mention in this report, namely the Barker-coded double-slit. This diffractive aperture design possessed properties that significantly improved the wavelength accuracy of the double-slit design. While a concept was not found to beat the slit-grating concept, the methodology used for the analysis and optimization is an example of the application of optoelectronic system-level linear analysis. The techniques outlined here can be used as a template for analysis of a wide range of optoelectronic systems where the entire system, both optical and electronic, contribute to the detection of complex spatial and temporal signals.

  1. Predicting groundwater redox status on a regional scale using linear discriminant analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Close, M. E.; Abraham, P.; Humphries, B.; Lilburne, L.; Cuthill, T.; Wilson, S.

    2016-08-01

    Reducing conditions are necessary for denitrification, thus the groundwater redox status can be used to identify subsurface zones where potentially significant nitrate reduction can occur. Groundwater chemistry in two contrasting regions of New Zealand was classified with respect to redox status and related to mappable factors, such as geology, topography and soil characteristics using discriminant analysis. Redox assignment was carried out for water sampled from 568 and 2223 wells in the Waikato and Canterbury regions, respectively. For the Waikato region 64% of wells sampled indicated oxic conditions in the water; 18% indicated reduced conditions and 18% had attributes indicating both reducing and oxic conditions termed "mixed". In Canterbury 84% of wells indicated oxic conditions; 10% were mixed; and only 5% indicated reduced conditions. The analysis was performed over three different well depths, < 25 m, 25 to 100 and > 100 m. For both regions, the percentage of oxidised groundwater decreased with increasing well depth. Linear discriminant analysis was used to develop models to differentiate between the three redox states. Models were derived for each depth and region using 67% of the data, and then subsequently validated on the remaining 33%. The average agreement between predicted and measured redox status was 63% and 70% for the Waikato and Canterbury regions, respectively. The models were incorporated into GIS and the prediction of redox status was extended over the whole region, excluding mountainous land. This knowledge improves spatial prediction of reduced groundwater zones, and therefore, when combined with groundwater flow paths, improves estimates of denitrification.

  2. Linear complexity integral-equation based methods for large-scale electromagnetic analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chai, Wenwen

    In general, to solve problems with N parameters, the optimal computational complexity is linear complexity O( N). However, for most computational electromagnetic methods, the complexity is higher than O(N). In this work, we introduced and further developed the H - and H2 -matrix based mathematical framework to break the computational barrier of existing integral-equation (IE)-based methods for large-scale electromagnetic analysis. Our significant contributions include the first-time dense matrix inversion and LU factorization of O(N) complexity for large-scale 3-D circuit extraction and a fast direct integral equation solver that outperforms existing direct solvers for large-scale electrodynamic analysis having millions of unknowns and ˜100 wavelengths. The major contributions of this work are: (1) Direct Matrix Solution of Linear Complexity for 3-D Integrated Circuit (IC) and Package Extraction • O(N) complexity dense matrix inversion and LU factorization algorithms and their applications to capacitance extraction and impedance extraction of large-scale 3-D circuits • O(N) direct matrix solution of highly irregular matrices consisting of both dense and sparse matrix blocks arising from full-wave analysis of general 3-D circuits with lossy conductors in multiple dielectrics. (2) Fast H - and H2 -Based IE Solvers for Large-Scale Electrodynamic Analysis • theoretical proof on the error bounded low-rank representation of electrodynamic integral operators • fast H2 -based iterative solver with O(N) computational cost and controlled accuracy from small to tens of wavelengths • fast H -based direct solver with computational cost minimized based on accuracy • Findings on how to reduce the complexity of H - and H2 -based methods for electrodynamic analysis, which are also applicable to many other fast IE solvers. (3) Fast Algorithms for Accelerating H - and H2 -Based Iterative and Direct Solvers • Optimal H -based representation and its applications from

  3. A non linear analysis of human gait time series based on multifractal analysis and cross correlations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muñoz-Diosdado, A.

    2005-01-01

    We analyzed databases with gait time series of adults and persons with Parkinson, Huntington and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) diseases. We obtained the staircase graphs of accumulated events that can be bounded by a straight line whose slope can be used to distinguish between gait time series from healthy and ill persons. The global Hurst exponent of these series do not show tendencies, we intend that this is because some gait time series have monofractal behavior and others have multifractal behavior so they cannot be characterized with a single Hurst exponent. We calculated the multifractal spectra, obtained the spectra width and found that the spectra of the healthy young persons are almost monofractal. The spectra of ill persons are wider than the spectra of healthy persons. In opposition to the interbeat time series where the pathology implies loss of multifractality, in the gait time series the multifractal behavior emerges with the pathology. Data were collected from healthy and ill subjects as they walked in a roughly circular path and they have sensors in both feet, so we have one time series for the left foot and other for the right foot. First, we analyzed these time series separately, and then we compared both results, with direct comparison and with a cross correlation analysis. We tried to find differences in both time series that can be used as indicators of equilibrium problems.

  4. Benthic trophic network in the Bay of Banyuls-sur-Mer (northwest Mediterranean, France): An assessment based on stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlier, Antoine; Riera, Pascal; Amouroux, Jean-Michel; Bodiou, Jean-Yves; Grémare, Antoine

    2007-03-01

    The benthic trophic network in the Bay of Banyuls-sur-Mer was studied through the carbon and nitrogen isotopic characterization of a large set of soft-bottom macrobenthic invertebrates, fishes and potential food sources. Continental inputs as well as seagrass meadows did not contribute significantly to this benthic trophic network as indicated by: (1) the difference between their δ 13C signatures (respectively -28.4‰ and -9.5‰) and those of sampled animals (between -21.0‰ and -14.6‰); and (2) their low inputs to the bay. Benthic primary consumers fed mostly on surface sediment organic matter (SSOM), which tightly interacts with suspended particulate organic matter (SPOM) and sedimenting organic matter (STOM) due to sediment resuspension. Our results also suggest the occurrence of a transfer between marine SPOM and some invertebrates (e.g. Veretillum cynomorium) and fishes (e.g. Boops boops and Spicara melanurus) through zooplankton. Moreover, the different types of primary consumers (i.e., suspension-feeders, interface-feeders, surface deposit-feeders and subsurface deposit-feeders) preferentially used distinct fractions of the heterogeneous SPOM-STOM-SSOM pool. These differences were mostly related with feeding depth and resulted in distinct isotopic signatures. Differences in the stable isotopic ratios of suspension and interface-feeders could also partly reflect the use of microphytobenthos by the later. Assuming a 15N-enrichment factor of 3.4‰ between the lower and upper ranges of two successive trophic levels, we estimated that the benthic food web of the Bay of Banyuls-sur-Mer was composed of 4 trophic levels. The comparison with our δ 13C values suggests that the whole trophic food chain is affected by continental inputs at the immediate vicinity of the Rhône River mouth even though these effects are maximal for deposit-feeding and carnivorous polychaetes.

  5. Avoiding drift related to linear analysis update with Lagrangian coordinate models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yiguo; Counillon, Francois; Bertino, Laurent

    2015-04-01

    When applying data assimilation to Lagrangian coordinate models, it is profitable to correct its grid (position, volume). In isopycnal ocean coordinate model, such information is provided by the layer thickness that can be massless but must remains positive (truncated Gaussian distribution). A linear gaussian analysis does not ensure positivity for such variable. Existing methods have been proposed to handle this issue - e.g. post processing, anamorphosis or resampling - but none ensures conservation of the mean, which is imperative in climate application. Here, a framework is introduced to test a new method, which proceed as following. First, layers for which analysis yields negative values are iteratively grouped with neighboring layers, resulting in a probability density function with a larger mean and smaller standard deviation that prevent appearance of negative values. Second, analysis increments of the grouped layer are uniformly distributed, which prevent massless layers to become filled and vice-versa. The new method is proved fully conservative with e.g. OI or 3DVAR but a small drift remains with ensemble-based methods (e.g. EnKF, DEnKF, …) during the update of the ensemble anomaly. However, the resulting drift with the latter is small (an order of magnitude smaller than with post-processing) and the increase of the computational cost moderate. The new method is demonstrated with a realistic application in the Norwegian Climate Prediction Model (NorCPM) that provides climate prediction by assimilating sea surface temperature with the Ensemble Kalman Filter in a fully coupled Earth System model (NorESM) with an isopycnal ocean model (MICOM). Over 25-year analysis period, the new method does not impair the predictive skill of the system but corrects the artificial steric drift introduced by data assimilation, and provide estimate in good agreement with IPCC AR5.

  6. Linear analysis of the vertical shear instability: outstanding issues and improved solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umurhan, O. M.; Nelson, R. P.; Gressel, O.

    2016-02-01

    Context. The vertical shear instability is one of several known mechanisms that are potentially active in the so-called dead zones of protoplanetary accretion disks. A recent analysis of the instability mechanism indicates that a subset of unstable modes shows unbounded growth - both as resolution is increased and when the nominal lid of the atmosphere is extended. This trend suggests that, possibly, the model system is ill-posed. Aims: This research note both examines the energy content of these modes and questions the legitimacy of assuming separable solutions for a problem whose linear operator is fundamentally inseparable. Methods: The reduced equations governing the instability are revisited and the generated solutions are examined using both the previously assumed separable forms and an improved non-separable solution form that is introduced in this paper. Results: Reconsidering the solutions of the reduced equations by using the separable form shows that, while the low-order body modes have converged eigenvalues and eigenfunctions (for both variations in the model atmosphere's vertical boundaries and radial numerical resolution). It is also confirmed that the corresponding high-order body modes and the surface modes indeed show unbounded growth rates. The energy contained in both the higher order body modes and surface modes diminishes precipitously due to the disk's Gaussian density profile. Most of the energy of the instability is contained in the low-order modes. An inseparable solution form is introduced to filter out the inconsequential surface modes, leaving only body modes (both low- and high-order ones). The analysis predicts a fastest growing mode with a specific radial length scale. The growth rates associated with the fundamental corrugation and breathing modes match the growth and length scales observed in previous nonlinear studies of the instability. Conclusions: Linear stability analysis of the vertical shear instability should be done

  7. Analysis of structural seismic behaviour: from non stationary to non linear effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlo Ponzo, Felice; Ditommaso, Rocco; Monaco, Lisa

    2014-05-01

    to either non-linearity (i.e. Damage) or non-stationary phenomenon (the particular combination of input and response). This fact may lead to erroneous conclusions attributing the frequency variations to the structural damage instead that to non-stationary phenomena. This article deals with the theoretical foundation of the analysis of non-stationary behaviour of structures, and then provides experimental evidence in order to distinguish non-linearity from simple non-stationary phenomena. Further work must be performed in order to fully validate this kind of approach and to completely define these threshold for various structural forms and building typologies. REFERENCES Ponzo F. C., Ditommaso R., Auletta G., Mossucca A. (2010). A Fast Method for Structural Health Monitoring of Italian Strategic Reinforced Concrete Buildings. Bulletin of Earthquake Engineering. Volume 8, Number 6, pp. 1421-1434. DOI: 10.1007/s10518-010-9194-6.

  8. Linear Discriminant Analysis - Based Estimation of the False Discovery Rate for Phosphopeptide Identifications

    SciTech Connect

    Du, Xiuxia; Yang, Feng; Manes, Nathan P.; Stenoien, David L.; Monroe, Matthew E.; Adkins, Joshua N.; States, David J.; Purvine, Samuel O.; Camp, David G.; Smith, Richard D.

    2008-07-03

    This paper describes a method to estimate the False Discovery Rate (FDR) of phosphopeptide identifications. The method starts with a re-assignment of the phosphorylation site/sites to those phosphopeptides for which there exists an ambiguity in the original assignment of the phosphorylation site/sites. It then performs an online data training using Expectation Maximization to estimate the joint distribution underlying the observed search results of multiple parameters from search engines. A Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) is subsequently carried out to optimally combine the search results into a discriminant score that possesses the most discriminating power. Based on the discriminant score, the p-value and q-value (explain a little bit more) for each identified phosphopeptide are calculated and the FDR for the set of phosphopeptides which are claimed correct identifications can then be rigorously estimated based on its definition. The approach can be easily extended to estimate the FDR of unmodified peptides. The proposed approach has been applied to datasets from a study of the effect of high-dose radiation on human skin fibroblast cells. The data analysis procedure has been coded into a software package which is freely available.

  9. Theoretical analysis of on-chip linear quantum optical information processing networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hach, Edwin E.; Preble, Stefan F.; Steidle, Jeffrey A.

    2015-05-01

    We present a quantum optical analysis of waveguides directionally coupled to ring resonators, an architecture realizable using silicon nanophotonics. The innate scalability of the silicon platform allows for the possibility of "on-chip" quantum computation and information processing. In this paper, we briefly review a comprehensive method for analyzing the quantum mechanical output of such a network for an arbitrary input state of the quantized, traveling electromagnetic field in the continuous wave (cw) limit. Specifically, we briefly review a recent theoretical result identifying a particular device topology that yields, via Passive Quantum Optical Feedback (PQOF), dramatic and unexpected enhancements of the Hong-Ou-Mandel Effect, an effect central to the operation of many quantum information processing systems. Next, we extend the analysis to our proposal for a scalable, on-chip realization of the Nonlinear Sign (NS) shifter essential for implementation of the Knill-Laflamme-Milburn (KLM) protocol for Linear Optical Quantum Computing (LOQC). Finally, we discuss generalizations to arbitrary networks of directionally coupled ring resonators along with possible applications is the areas of quantum metrology and sensitive photon detection.

  10. Inertial instability of oceanic submesoscale vortices: linear analysis, marginal stability criterion and laboratory experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazar, Ayah; Stegner, Alexandre; Heifetz, Eyal

    2012-11-01

    Inertial instability is a possible mechanism for vertical mixing in the submesoscale ocean. The stability of axisymmetric oceanic-like vortices to inertial perturbations is investigated by linear stability analysis, taking into account the thickness and the stratification of the thermocline, as well as the vertical eddy viscosity. Numerical analysis reveals that the instability is insensitive to the vorticity profile if the intensity of the vortex is characterized by the vortex Rossby number (instead of the local normalized vorticity). This allows extending our analytical solutions for the Rankine vortex to a wide variety of oceanic cases, including results such as the analytic dispersion relation, and the marginal stability criterion. This suits oceanic conditions better than the widely used generalized Rayleigh criterion. Comparison with oceanographic data shows that our criterion permits cases that contradict the common oceanographic hypothesis for inertial instability. For instance, intense submesoscale anticyclones may be stable even with a core region of negative absolute vorticity. We corroborate our findings with large-scale laboratory experiments and find a signature of the instability on the mean-flow, which could be used in future oceanographic measurements.

  11. Determinants of linear judgment: a meta-analysis of lens model studies.

    PubMed

    Karelaia, Natalia; Hogarth, Robin M

    2008-05-01

    The mathematical representation of E. Brunswik's (1952) lens model has been used extensively to study human judgment and provides a unique opportunity to conduct a meta-analysis of studies that covers roughly 5 decades. Specifically, the authors analyzed statistics of the "lens model equation" (L. R. Tucker, 1964) associated with 249 different task environments obtained from 86 articles. On average, fairly high levels of judgmental achievement were found, and people were seen to be capable of achieving similar levels of cognitive performance in noisy and predictable environments. Further, the effects of task characteristics that influence judgment (numbers and types of cues, inter-cue redundancy, function forms and cue weights in the ecology, laboratory versus field studies, and experience with the task) were identified and estimated. A detailed analysis of learning studies revealed that the most effective form of feedback was information about the task. The authors also analyzed empirically under what conditions the application of bootstrapping--or replacing judges by their linear models--is advantageous. Finally, the authors note shortcomings of the kinds of studies conducted to date, limitations in the lens model methodology, and possibilities for future research. PMID:18444703

  12. Algorithms for constrained linear unmixing with application to the hyperspectral analysis of fluorophore mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keenan, Michael R.; Timlin, Jerilyn A.; Van Benthem, Mark H.; Haaland, David M.

    2002-11-01

    In this paper, we describe the use of linear unmixing algorithms to spatially and spectrally separate fluorescence emission signals from fluorophores having highly overlapping emission spectra. Hyperspectral image data for mixtures of Nile Blue and HIDC Iodide in a methanol/polymer matrix were obtained using the Information-efficient Spectral Imaging sensor (ISIS) operated in its Hadamard Transform mode. The data were analyzed with a combination of Principal Components Analysis (PCA), orthogonal rotation, and equality and non-negativity constrained least squares methods. The analysis provided estimates of the pure-component fluorescence emission spectra and the spatial distributions of the fluorophores. In addition, spatially varying interferences from the background and laser excitation were identified and separated. A major finding resulting from this work is that the pure-component spectral estimates are very insensitive to the initial estimates supplied to the alternating least squares procedures. In fact, random number starting points reliably gave solutions that were effectively equivalent to those obtained when measured pure-component spectra were used as the initial estimates. While our proximate application is evaluating the possibility of multivariate quantitation of DNA microarrays, the results of this study should be generally applicable to hyperspectral imagery typical of remote sensing spectrometers.

  13. Digital Deconvolution Filter Derived from Linear Discriminant Analysis and Application for Multiphoton Fluorescence Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    A digital filter derived from linear discriminant analysis (LDA) is developed for recovering impulse responses in photon counting from a high speed photodetector (rise time of ∼1 ns) and applied to remove ringing distortions from impedance mismatch in multiphoton fluorescence microscopy. Training of the digital filter was achieved by defining temporally coincident and noncoincident transients and identifying the projection within filter-space that best separated the two classes. Once trained, data analysis by digital filtering can be performed quickly. Assessment of the reliability of the approach was performed through comparisons of simulated voltage transients, in which the ground truth results were known a priori. The LDA filter was also found to recover deconvolved impulses for single photon counting from highly distorted ringing waveforms from an impedance mismatched photomultiplier tube. The LDA filter was successful in removing these ringing distortions from two-photon excited fluorescence micrographs and through data simulations was found to extend the dynamic range of photon counting by approximately 3 orders of magnitude through minimization of detector paralysis. PMID:24559143

  14. Identification of primary tumors of brain metastases by infrared spectroscopic imaging and linear discriminant analysis.

    PubMed

    Krafft, Christoph; Shapoval, Larysa; Sobottka, Stephan B; Schackert, Gabriele; Salzer, Reiner

    2006-06-01

    This study applies infrared (IR) spectroscopy to distinguish normal brain tissue from brain metastases and to determine the primary tumor of four frequent brain metastases such as lung cancer, colorectal cancer, breast cancer, and renal cell carcinoma. Standard methods sometimes fail to identify the origin of brain metastases. As metastatic cells contain the molecular information of the primary tissue cells and IR spectroscopy probes the molecular fingerprint of cells, IR spectroscopy based methods constitute a new approach to determine the primary tumor of a brain metastasis. IR spectroscopic images were recorded by a FTIR spectrometer equipped with a macro sample chamber and coupled to a focal plane array detector. Unsupervised cluster analysis of IR images revealed variances within each sample and between samples of the same tissue type. Cluster averaged IR spectra of tissue classes with known diagnoses were selected to develop a metric with eight variables. These data trained a supervised classification model based on linear discriminant analysis that was used to identify the origin of 20 cryosections including one brain metastasis with an unknown primary tumor. PMID:16700626

  15. Two-dimensional linear discriminant analysis for classification of three-way chemical data.

    PubMed

    Silva, Adenilton C da; Soares, Sófacles F C; Insausti, Matías; Galvão, Roberto K H; Band, Beatriz S F; Araújo, Mário César U de

    2016-09-28

    The two-dimensional linear discriminant analysis (2D-LDA) algorithm was originally proposed in the context of face image processing for the extraction of features with maximal discriminant power. However, despite its promising performance in image processing tasks, the 2D-LDA algorithm has not yet been used in applications involving chemical data. The present paper bridges this gap by investigating the use of 2D-LDA in classification problems involving three-way spectral data. The investigation was concerned with simulated data, as well as real-life data sets involving the classification of dry-cured Parma ham according to ageing by surface autofluorescence spectrometry and the classification of edible vegetable oils according to feedstock using total synchronous fluorescence spectrometry. The results were compared with those obtained by using the spectral data with no feature extraction, U-PLS-DA (Partial Least Squares Discriminant Analysis applied to the unfolded data), and LDA employing TUCKER-3 or PARAFAC scores. In the simulated data set, all methods yielded a correct classification rate of 100%. However, in the Parma ham and vegetable oil data sets, better classification rates were obtained by using 2D-LDA (86% and 100%), compared with no feature extraction (76% and 77%), U-PLS-DA (81% and 92%), PARAFAC-LDA (76% and 86%) and TUCKER3-LDA (86% and 93%). PMID:27619086

  16. Sensitivity Analysis of Linear Elastic Cracked Structures Using Generalized Finite Element Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pal, Mahendra Kumar; Rajagopal, Amirtham

    2014-09-01

    In this work, a sensitivity analysis of linear elastic cracked structures using two-scale Generalized Finite Element Method (GFEM) is presented. The method is based on computation of material derivatives, mutual potential energies, and direct differentiation. In a computational setting, the discrete form of the mutual potential energy release rate is simple and easy to calculate, as it only requires the multiplication of the displacement vectors and stiffness sensitivity matrices. By judiciously choosing the velocity field, the method only requires displacement response in a sub-domain close to the crack tip, thus making the method computationally efficient. The method thus requires an exact computation of displacement response in a sub-domain close to the crack tip. To this end, in this study we have used a two-scale GFEM for sensitivity analysis. GFEM is based on the enrichment of the classical finite element approximation. These enrichment functions incorporate the discontinuity response in the domain. Three numerical examples which comprise mode-I and mixed mode deformations are presented to evaluate the accuracy of the fracture parameters calculated by the proposed method.

  17. Classification of Hand Preshaping in Persons with Stroke using Linear Discriminant Analysis*

    PubMed Central

    Puthenveettil, Saumya; Fluet, Gerard; Qiu, Qinyin

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study describes the analysis of hand preshaping using Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) to predict hand formation during reaching and grasping tasks of the hemiparetic hand, following a series of upper extremity motor intervention treatments. The purpose of this study is to use classification of hand posture as an additional tool for evaluating the effectiveness of therapies for upper extremity rehabilitation such as virtual reality (VR) therapy and conventional physical therapy. Classification error for discriminating between two objects during hand preshaping is obtained for the hemiparetic and unimpaired hands pre and post training. Methods Eight subjects post stroke participated in a two-week training session consisting of upper extremity motor training. Four subjects trained with interactive VR computer games and four subjects trained with clinical physical therapy procedures of similar intensity. Subjects’ finger joint angles were measured during a kinematic reach to grasp test using CyberGlove® and arm joint angles were measured using the trackSTAR™ system prior to training and after training. Results The unimpaired hand of subjects preshape into the target object with greater accuracy than the hemiparetic hand as indicated by lower classification errors. Hemiparetic hand improved in preshaping accuracy and time to reach minimum error. Conclusion Classification of hand preshaping may provide insight into improvements in motor performance elicited by robotically facilitated virtually simulated training sessions or conventional physical therapy. PMID:23366943

  18. The influence of image reconstruction algorithms on linear thorax EIT image analysis of ventilation.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zhanqi; Frerichs, Inéz; Pulletz, Sven; Müller-Lisse, Ullrich; Möller, Knut

    2014-06-01

    Analysis methods of electrical impedance tomography (EIT) images based on different reconstruction algorithms were examined. EIT measurements were performed on eight mechanically ventilated patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome. A maneuver with step increase of airway pressure was performed. EIT raw data were reconstructed offline with (1) filtered back-projection (BP); (2) the Dräger algorithm based on linearized Newton-Raphson (DR); (3) the GREIT (Graz consensus reconstruction algorithm for EIT) reconstruction algorithm with a circular forward model (GR(C)) and (4) GREIT with individual thorax geometry (GR(T)). Individual thorax contours were automatically determined from the routine computed tomography images. Five indices were calculated on the resulting EIT images respectively: (a) the ratio between tidal and deep inflation impedance changes; (b) tidal impedance changes in the right and left lungs; (c) center of gravity; (d) the global inhomogeneity index and (e) ventilation delay at mid-dorsal regions. No significant differences were found in all examined indices among the four reconstruction algorithms (p > 0.2, Kruskal-Wallis test). The examined algorithms used for EIT image reconstruction do not influence the selected indices derived from the EIT image analysis. Indices that validated for images with one reconstruction algorithm are also valid for other reconstruction algorithms. PMID:24845059

  19. Interval analysis approach to rank determination in linear least squares problems

    SciTech Connect

    Manteuffel, T.A.

    1980-06-01

    The linear least-squares problem Ax approx. = b has a unique solution only if the matrix A has full column rank. Numerical rank determination is difficult, especially in the presence of uncertainties in the elements of A. This paper proposes an interval analysis approach. A set of matrices A/sup I/ is defined that contains all possible perturbations of A due to uncertainties; A/sup I/ is said to be rank deficient if any member of A/sup I/ is rank deficient. A modification to the Q-R decomposition method of solution of the least-squares problem allows a determination of the rank of A/sup I/ and a partial interval analysis of the solution vector x. This procedure requires the computation of R/sup -1/. Another modification is proposed which determines the rank of A/sup I/ without computing R/sup -1/. The additional computational effort is O(N/sup 2/), where N is the column dimension of A. 4 figures.

  20. Non-linearity analysis of depth and angular indexes for optimal stereo SLAM.

    PubMed

    Bergasa, Luis M; Alcantarilla, Pablo F; Schleicher, David

    2010-01-01

    In this article, we present a real-time 6DoF egomotion estimation system for indoor environments using a wide-angle stereo camera as the only sensor. The stereo camera is carried in hand by a person walking at normal walking speeds 3-5 km/h. We present the basis for a vision-based system that would assist the navigation of the visually impaired by either providing information about their current position and orientation or guiding them to their destination through different sensing modalities. Our sensor combines two different types of feature parametrization: inverse depth and 3D in order to provide orientation and depth information at the same time. Natural landmarks are extracted from the image and are stored as 3D or inverse depth points, depending on a depth threshold. This depth threshold is used for switching between both parametrizations and it is computed by means of a non-linearity analysis of the stereo sensor. Main steps of our system approach are presented as well as an analysis about the optimal way to calculate the depth threshold. At the moment each landmark is initialized, the normal of the patch surface is computed using the information of the stereo pair. In order to improve long-term tracking, a patch warping is done considering the normal vector information. Some experimental results under indoor environments and conclusions are presented. PMID:22319348

  1. Radiation and Thermal Analysis of Superconducting Quadrupoles in the Interaction Region of Linear Collider

    SciTech Connect

    Drozhdin, A.I.; Kashikhin, V.V.; Kashikhin, V.S.; Lopes, M.L.; Mokhov, N.V.; Zlobin, A.V.; Seryi, Andrei; /SLAC

    2011-10-14

    Radiation heat deposition in the superconducting magnets of the Interaction Region (IR) of a linear collider can be a serious issue that limits the magnet operating margins and shortens the material lifetime. Radiation and thermal analyses of the IR quadrupoles in the incoming and extraction beam lines of the ILC are performed in order to determine the magnet limits. This paper presents an analysis of the radial, azimuthal and longitudinal distributions of heat deposition in the incoming and disrupted beam doublets. Operation margins of the magnets based on NbTi superconductor are calculated and compared. The radiation and thermal analysis of the ILC IR quadrupoles based on Rutherford type cables was performed. It was found that the peak radiation heat deposition takes place in the second extraction quadrupole QFEX2. The maximum power density in the coil is {approx}17mW/g. This is rather high, comparing to the proton machines (LHC). However, the fast radial decay of the heat deposition together with the high thermal conductivity of the Rutherford type cable limits the coil temperatures to a moderate level. It was determined that both 2-layer and 4-layer QFEX2 magnet designs have thermal margins of a factor of {approx}4 at the nominal gradient of 31.3 T/m. Because of the large margins, these magnets can easily accommodate possible changes in the IR optics and heat deposition levels.

  2. Digital deconvolution filter derived from linear discriminant analysis and application for multiphoton fluorescence microscopy.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Shane Z; Schmitt, Paul D; Muir, Ryan D; DeWalt, Emma L; Simpson, Garth J

    2014-04-01

    A digital filter derived from linear discriminant analysis (LDA) is developed for recovering impulse responses in photon counting from a high speed photodetector (rise time of ~1 ns) and applied to remove ringing distortions from impedance mismatch in multiphoton fluorescence microscopy. Training of the digital filter was achieved by defining temporally coincident and noncoincident transients and identifying the projection within filter-space that best separated the two classes. Once trained, data analysis by digital filtering can be performed quickly. Assessment of the reliability of the approach was performed through comparisons of simulated voltage transients, in which the ground truth results were known a priori. The LDA filter was also found to recover deconvolved impulses for single photon counting from highly distorted ringing waveforms from an impedance mismatched photomultiplier tube. The LDA filter was successful in removing these ringing distortions from two-photon excited fluorescence micrographs and through data simulations was found to extend the dynamic range of photon counting by approximately 3 orders of magnitude through minimization of detector paralysis. PMID:24559143

  3. Spectral reconstruction by scatter analysis for a linear accelerator photon beam.

    PubMed

    Jalbout, Wassim T; Spyrou, Nicholas M

    2006-05-01

    Pre-existing methods for photon beam spectral reconstruction are briefly reviewed. An alternative reconstruction method by scatter analysis for linear accelerators is introduced. The method consists in irradiating a small plastic phantom at standard 100 cm SSD and inferring primary beam energy spectral information based on the measurement with a standard Farmer chamber of scatter around the phantom at several specific scatter angles: a scatter curve is measured which is indicative of the primary spectrum at hand. A Monte Carlo code is used to simulate the scatter measurement set-up and predict the relative magnitude of scatter measurements for mono-energetic primary beams. Based on mono-energetic primary scatter data, measured scatter curves are analysed and the spectrum unfolded as the sum of mono-energetic individual energy bins using the Schiff bremsstrahlung model. The method is applied to an Elekta/SL18 6 MV photon beam. The reconstructed spectrum matches the Monte Carlo calculated spectrum for the same beam within 6.2% (average error when spectra are compared bin by bin). Depth dose values calculated for the reconstructed spectrum agree with physically measured depth dose data to within 1%. Scatter analysis is preliminarily shown to have potential as a practical spectral reconstruction method requiring few measurements under standard 100 cm SSD and feasible in any radiotherapy department using a phantom and a Farmer chamber. PMID:16625037

  4. Linkage Position and Residue Identification of Disaccharides by Tandem Mass Spectrometry and Linear Discriminant Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Hui Zhang; Steve M. Brokman; Ning Fang; Nicola L. Pohl; Edward S. Yeung

    2008-03-20

    The discrimination of isomeric disaccharides with different linkage types and different monosaccharide residues--glucose (Glc), galactose (Gal), and mannose (Man) at the non-reducing end - was investigated with tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA). Conventional matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI)-MS has strong interference peaks from matrix ions in the low mass region (<500 Da). This greatly limits the application of MALDI-MS for the analysis of small molecules such as saccharides. We solved this problem by using LDI with acidic fullerene matrix, which gives a very clean background in the low-mass region. Disaccharides with different linkage types give different tandem mass spectral profiles from various cross-ring fragmentation pathways. Disaccharides with the same linkage type but with three different kinds of monosaccharide residues bear the same fragmentation profiles. However, the relative ratios of the fragment ion intensities were found to be distinctly different among the three disaccharide isomers. By employing statistical tools such as LDA to classify the tandem mass spectra, disaccharide isomers with either different linkages or different monosaccharide residues were successfully classified.

  5. Linkage Position and Residue Identification of Disaccharides by Tandem mass Spectrometry and linear Discriminant Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Hui Zhang; Steve M. Brokman; Ning Fang; Nicola L. Pohl; Edward S. Yeung

    2008-03-20

    The discrimination of isomeric disaccharides with different linkage types and different monosaccharide residues--glucose (Glc), galactose (Gal), and mannose (Man) at the non-reducing end--was investigated with tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA). Conventional matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI)-MS has strong interference peaks from matrix ions in the low mass region (<500 Da). This greatly limits the application of MALDI-MS for the analysis of small molecules such as saccharides. We solved this problem by using LDI with acidic fullerene matrix, which gives a very clean background in the low-mass region. Disaccharides with different linkage types give different tandem mass spectral profiles from various cross-ring fragmentation pathways. Disaccharides with the same linkage type but with three different kinds of monosaccharide residues bear the same fragmentation profiles. However, the relative ratios of the fragment ion intensities were found to be distinctly different among the three disaccharide isomers. By employing statistical tools such as LDA to classify the tandem mass spectra, disaccharide isomers with either different linkages or different monosaccharide residues were successfully classified.

  6. Linear analysis of the Richtmyer-Meshkov instability in shock-flame interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massa, L.; Jha, P.

    2012-05-01

    Shock-flame interactions enhance supersonic mixing and detonation formation. Therefore, their analysis is important to explosion safety, internal combustion engine performance, and supersonic combustor design. The fundamental process at the basis of the interaction is the Richtmyer-Meshkov instability supported by the density difference between burnt and fresh mixtures. In the present study we analyze the effect of reactivity on the Richtmyer-Meshkov instability with particular emphasis on combustion lengths that typify the scaling between perturbation growth and induction. The results of the present linear analysis study show that reactivity changes the perturbation growth rate by developing a pressure gradient at the flame surface. The baroclinic torque based on the density gradient across the flame acts to slow down the instability growth of high wave-number perturbations. A gasdynamic flame representation leads to the definition of a Peclet number representing the scaling between perturbation and thermal diffusion lengths within the flame. Peclet number effects on perturbation growth are observed to be marginal. The gasdynamic model also considers a finite flame Mach number that supports a separation between flame and contact discontinuity. Such a separation destabilizes the interface growth by augmenting the tangential shear.

  7. A new ion mobility-linear ion trap instrument for complex mixture analysis.

    PubMed

    Donohoe, Gregory C; Maleki, Hossein; Arndt, James R; Khakinejad, Mahdiar; Yi, Jinghai; McBride, Carroll; Nurkiewicz, Timothy R; Valentine, Stephen J

    2014-08-19

    A new instrument that couples a low-pressure drift tube with a linear ion trap mass spectrometer is demonstrated for complex mixture analysis. The combination of the low-pressure separation with the ion trapping capabilities provides several benefits for complex mixture analysis. These include high sensitivity, unique ion fragmentation capabilities, and high reproducibility. Even though the gas-phase separation and the mass measurement steps are each conducted in an ion filtering mode, detection limits for mobility-selected peptide ions are in the tens of attomole range. In addition to ion separation, the low-pressure drift tube can be used as an ion fragmentation cell yielding mobility-resolved fragment ions that can be subsequently analyzed by multistage tandem mass spectrometry (MS(n)) methods in the ion trap. Because of the ion trap configuration, these methods can be comprised of any number (limited by ion signal) of collision-induced dissociation (CID) and electron transfer dissociation (ETD) processes. The high reproducibility of the gas-phase separation allows for comparison of two-dimensional ion mobility spectrometry (IMS)-MS data sets in a pixel-by-pixel fashion without the need for data set alignment. These advantages are presented in model analyses representing mixtures encountered in proteomics and metabolomics experiments. PMID:25068446

  8. Multiphysics analysis of liquid metal annular linear induction pumps: A project overview

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Maidana, Carlos Omar; Nieminen, Juha E.

    2016-03-14

    Liquid metal-cooled fission reactors are both moderated and cooled by a liquid metal solution. These reactors are typically very compact and they can be used in regular electric power production, for naval and space propulsion systems or in fission surface power systems for planetary exploration. The coupling between the electromagnetics and thermo-fluid mechanical phenomena observed in liquid metal thermo-magnetic systems for nuclear and space applications gives rise to complex engineering magnetohydrodynamics and numerical problems. It is known that electromagnetic pumps have a number of advantages over rotating mechanisms: absence of moving parts, low noise and vibration level, simplicity of flowmore » rate regulation, easy maintenance and so on. However, while developing annular linear induction pumps, we are faced with a significant problem of magnetohydrodynamic instability arising in the device. The complex flow behavior in this type of devices includes a time-varying Lorentz force and pressure pulsation due to the time-varying electromagnetic fields and the induced convective currents that originates from the liquid metal flow, leading to instability problems along the device geometry. The determinations of the geometry and electrical configuration of liquid metal thermo-magnetic devices give rise to a complex inverse magnetohydrodynamic field problem were techniques for global optimization should be used, magnetohydrodynamics instabilities understood –or quantified- and multiphysics models developed and analyzed. Lastly, we present a project overview as well as a few computational models developed to study liquid metal annular linear induction pumps using first principles and the a few results of our multi-physics analysis.« less

  9. Linear morphological stability analysis of the solid-liquid interface in rapidsolidification of a binary system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galenko, P. K.; Danilov, D. A.

    2004-05-01

    The interface stability against small perturbations of the planar solid-liquid interface is considered analytically in linear approximation. Following the analytical procedure of Trivedi and Kurz [

    R. Trivedi and W. Kurz, Acta Metall. 34, 1663 (1986)
    ], which is advancing the original treatment of morphological stability by Mullins and Sekerka [
    W. W. Mullins and R. F. Sekerka, J. Appl. Phys. 35, 444 (1964)
    ] to the case of rapid solidification, we extend the model by introducing the local nonequilibrium in the solute diffusion field around the interface. A solution to the heat- and mass-transport problem around the perturbed interface is given in the presence of the local nonequilibrium solute diffusion. Using the developing local nonequilibrium model of solidification, the self-consistent analysis of linear morphological stability is presented with the attribution to the marginal (neutral) and absolute morphological stability of a rapidly moving interface. Special consideration of the interface stability for the cases of solidification in negative and positive thermal gradients is given. A quantitative comparison of the model predictions for the absolute morphological stability is presented with regard to experimental results of Hoglund and Aziz [ D. E. Hoglund and M. J. Aziz, in Kinetics of Phase Transformations, edited by M.O. Thompson, M. J. Aziz, and G. B. Stephenson, MRS Symposia Proceedings No. 205 (Materials Research Society, Pittsburgh, 1991), p. 325 ] on critical solute concentration for the interface breakdown during rapid solidification of Si-Sn alloys.

  10. Review and analysis of dense linear system solver package for distributed memory machines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Narang, H. N.

    1993-01-01

    A dense linear system solver package recently developed at the University of Texas at Austin for distributed memory machine (e.g. Intel Paragon) has been reviewed and analyzed. The package contains about 45 software routines, some written in FORTRAN, and some in C-language, and forms the basis for parallel/distributed solutions of systems of linear equations encountered in many problems of scientific and engineering nature. The package, being studied by the Computer Applications Branch of the Analysis and Computation Division, may provide a significant computational resource for NASA scientists and engineers in parallel/distributed computing. Since the package is new and not well tested or documented, many of its underlying concepts and implementations were unclear; our task was to review, analyze, and critique the package as a step in the process that will enable scientists and engineers to apply it to the solution of their problems. All routines in the package were reviewed and analyzed. Underlying theory or concepts which exist in the form of published papers or technical reports, or memos, were either obtained from the author, or from the scientific literature; and general algorithms, explanations, examples, and critiques have been provided to explain the workings of these programs. Wherever the things were still unclear, communications were made with the developer (author), either by telephone or by electronic mail, to understand the workings of the routines. Whenever possible, tests were made to verify the concepts and logic employed in their implementations. A detailed report is being separately documented to explain the workings of these routines.

  11. Insights into Volcanic Tremor: A Linear Stability Analysis of Waves Propagating Along Fluid-Filled Cracks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lipovsky, B.; Dunham, E. M.

    2012-12-01

    Crack waves are guided waves along fluid-filled cracks that propagate with phase velocity less than the sound wave speed. Chouet (JGR, 1986) and Ferrazzini and Aki (JGR, 1977) have shown that such waves could explain volcanic tremor in terms of the resonant modes of a finite length magma-filled crack. Based on an idealized lumped-parameter model, Julian (JGR, 1994) further proposed that the steady flow of a viscous magma in a volcanic conduit is unstable to perturbations, leading to self-excited oscillations of the conduit walls and radiation of seismic waves. Our objective is to evaluate the possibility of self-excited oscillations within a rigorous, continuum framework. Our specific focus has been on basaltic fissure eruptions. In a typical basaltic fissure system, the magnitudes of the wave restoring forces, fluid compressibility and wall elasticity, are highly depth dependent. Because of the elevated fluid compressibility from gas exsolution at shallow depths, fluid pressure perturbations in this regime propagate as acoustic waves with effectively rigid conduit walls. Below the exsolution depth, the conduit walls are more compliant relative to the magma compressibility and perturbations propagate as dispersive crack waves. Viscous magma flow through such a fissure will evolve to a fully developed state characterized by a parabolic velocity profile in several to tens of seconds. This time scale is greater than harmonic tremor periods, typically 0.1 to 1 second. A rigorous treatment of the wave response to pressure perturbations therefore requires a general analysis of conduit flow that is not in a fully developed state. We present a linearized analysis of the coupled fluid and elastic response to general flow perturbations. We assume that deformation of the wall is linear elastic. As our focus is on wavelengths greatly exceeding the crack width, fluid flow is described by a quasi-one dimensional, or width-averaged, model. We account for conservation of magma

  12. Hemispheric asymmetry non-linear analysis of EEG during emotional responses from idiopathic Parkinson's disease patients.

    PubMed

    Yuvaraj, R; Murugappan, M

    2016-06-01

    Recent studies show right hemisphere has a unique contribution to emotion processing. The present study investigated EEG using non-linear measures during emotional processing in PD patients with respect to motor symptom asymmetry (i.e., most affected body side). We recorded 14-channel wireless EEGs from 20 PD patients and 10 healthy age-matched controls (HC) by eliciting emotions such as happiness, sadness, fear, anger, surprise and disgust. PD patients were divided into two groups, based on most affected body side and unilateral motor symptom severity: left side-affected (LPD, n = 10) or right side-affected PD patients (RPD, n = 10). Nonlinear analysis of these emotional EEGs were performed by using approximate entropy, correlation dimension, detrended fluctuation analysis, fractal dimension, higher order spectra, hurst exponent (HE), largest Lyapunov exponent and sample entropy. The extracted features were ranked using analysis of variance based on F value. The ranked features were then fed into classifiers namely fuzzy K-nearest neighbor and support vector machine to obtain optimal performance using minimum number of features. From the experimental results, we found that (a) classification performance across all frequency bands performed well in recognizing emotional states of LPD, RPD, and HC; (b) the emotion-specific features were mainly related to higher frequency bands; and (c) predominantly LPD patients (inferred right-hemisphere pathology) were more impaired in emotion processing compared to RPD, as showed by a poorer classification performance. The results suggest that asymmetric neuronal degeneration in PD patients may contribute to the impairment of emotional communication. PMID:27275378

  13. Multiple functional linear model for association analysis of RNA-seq with imaging

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Junhai; Lin, Nan; Guo, Shicheng; Chen, Jinyun; Xiong, Momiao

    2015-01-01

    Emerging integrative analysis of genomic and anatomical imaging data which has not been well developed, provides invaluable information for the holistic discovery of the genomic structure of disease and has the potential to open a new avenue for discovering novel disease susceptibility genes which cannot be identified if they are analyzed separately. A key issue to the success of imaging and genomic data analysis is how to reduce their dimensions. Most previous methods for imaging information extraction and RNA-seq data reduction do not explore imaging spatial information and often ignore gene expression variation at the genomic positional level. To overcome these limitations, we extend functional principle component analysis from one dimension to two dimensions (2DFPCA) for representing imaging data and develop a multiple functional linear model (MFLM) in which functional principal scores of images are taken as multiple quantitative traits and RNA-seq profile across a gene is taken as a function predictor for assessing the association of gene expression with images. The developed method has been applied to image and RNA-seq data of ovarian cancer and kidney renal clear cell carcinoma (KIRC) studies. We identified 24 and 84 genes whose expressions were associated with imaging variations in ovarian cancer and KIRC studies, respectively. Our results showed that many significantly associated genes with images were not differentially expressed, but revealed their morphological and metabolic functions. The results also demonstrated that the peaks of the estimated regression coefficient function in the MFLM often allowed the discovery of splicing sites and multiple isoforms of gene expressions. PMID:26753102

  14. Identifying Plant Part Composition of Forest Logging Residue Using Infrared Spectral Data and Linear Discriminant Analysis.

    PubMed

    Acquah, Gifty E; Via, Brian K; Billor, Nedret; Fasina, Oladiran O; Eckhardt, Lori G

    2016-01-01

    As new markets, technologies and economies evolve in the low carbon bioeconomy, forest logging residue, a largely untapped renewable resource will play a vital role. The feedstock can however be variable depending on plant species and plant part component. This heterogeneity can influence the physical, chemical and thermochemical properties of the material, and thus the final yield and quality of products. Although it is challenging to control compositional variability of a batch of feedstock, it is feasible to monitor this heterogeneity and make the necessary changes in process parameters. Such a system will be a first step towards optimization, quality assurance and cost-effectiveness of processes in the emerging biofuel/chemical industry. The objective of this study was therefore to qualitatively classify forest logging residue made up of different plant parts using both near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIRS) together with linear discriminant analysis (LDA). Forest logging residue harvested from several Pinus taeda (loblolly pine) plantations in Alabama, USA, were classified into three plant part components: clean wood, wood and bark and slash (i.e., limbs and foliage). Five-fold cross-validated linear discriminant functions had classification accuracies of over 96% for both NIRS and FTIRS based models. An extra factor/principal component (PC) was however needed to achieve this in FTIRS modeling. Analysis of factor loadings of both NIR and FTIR spectra showed that, the statistically different amount of cellulose in the three plant part components of logging residue contributed to their initial separation. This study demonstrated that NIR or FTIR spectroscopy coupled with PCA and LDA has the potential to be used as a high throughput tool in classifying the plant part makeup of a batch of forest logging residue feedstock. Thus, NIR/FTIR could be employed as a tool to rapidly probe/monitor the variability of forest

  15. Three-Dimensional Magnetic Analysis Technique Developed for Evaluating Stirling Convertor Linear Alternators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geng, Steven M.

    2003-01-01

    The Department of Energy, the Stirling Technology Company (STC), and the NASA Glenn Research Center are developing Stirling convertors for Stirling radioisotope generators to provide electrical power for future NASA deep space missions. STC is developing the 55-We technology demonstration convertor (TDC) under contract to the Department of Energy. The Department of Energy recently named Lockheed Martin as the system integration contractor for the Stirling radioisotope generator development project. Lockheed Martin will develop the Stirling radioisotope generator engineering unit and has contract options to develop the qualification unit and the first flight unit. Glenn s role includes an in-house project to provide convertor, component, and materials testing and evaluation in support of the overall power system development. As a part of this work, Glenn has established an in-house Stirling research laboratory for testing, analyzing, and evaluating Stirling machines. STC has built four 55-We convertors for NASA, and these are being tested at Glenn. A cross-sectional view of the 55-We TDC is shown in the figure. Of critical importance to the successful development of the Stirling convertor for space power applications is the development of a lightweight and highly efficient linear alternator. In support, Glenn has been developing finite element analysis and finite element method tools for performing various linear alternator thermal and electromagnetic analyses and evaluating design configurations. A three-dimensional magnetostatic finite element model of STC's 55-We TDC linear alternator was developed to evaluate the demagnetization fields affecting the alternator magnets. Since the actual linear alternator hardware is symmetric to the quarter section about the axis of motion, only a quarter section of the alternator was modeled. The components modeled included the mover laminations, the neodymium-iron-boron magnets, the stator laminations, and the copper coils. The

  16. Linear control of a boiler-turbine unit: analysis and design.

    PubMed

    Tan, Wen; Fang, Fang; Tian, Liang; Fu, Caifen; Liu, Jizhen

    2008-04-01

    Linear control of a boiler-turbine unit is discussed in this paper. Based on the nonlinear model of the unit, this paper analyzes the nonlinearity of the unit, and selects the appropriate operating points so that the linear controller can achieve wide-range performance. Simulation and experimental results at the No. 4 Unit at the Dalate Power Plant show that the linear controller can achieve the desired performance under a specific range of load variations. PMID:18280475

  17. Towards Stability Analysis of Jump Linear Systems with State-Dependent and Stochastic Switching

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tejada, Arturo; Gonzalez, Oscar R.; Gray, W. Steven

    2004-01-01

    This paper analyzes the stability of hierarchical jump linear systems where the supervisor is driven by a Markovian stochastic process and by the values of the supervised jump linear system s states. The stability framework for this class of systems is developed over infinite and finite time horizons. The framework is then used to derive sufficient stability conditions for a specific class of hybrid jump linear systems with performance supervision. New sufficient stochastic stability conditions for discrete-time jump linear systems are also presented.

  18. A linear programming manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tuey, R. C.

    1972-01-01

    Computer solutions of linear programming problems are outlined. Information covers vector spaces, convex sets, and matrix algebra elements for solving simultaneous linear equations. Dual problems, reduced cost analysis, ranges, and error analysis are illustrated.

  19. Structure of thermotoga maritima stationary phase survival protein SurE : a novel acid phosphatase.

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, R.-G; Skarina, T.; Katz, J. E.; Khachatryan, A; Vyas, S.; Arrowsmith, C. H.; Clarke, S.; Edwards, A.; Joachimiak, A.; Savchenko, A.; Biosciences Division; Univ. of Toronto; Univ. of California; Clinical Genomics Centre /Proteomics, Univ. Health Network

    2001-11-01

    Background: The rpoS, nlpD, pcm, and surE genes are among many whose expression is induced during the stationary phase of bacterial growth. rpoS codes for the stationary-phase RNA polymerase {sigma} subunit, and nlpD codes for a lipoprotein. The pcm gene product repairs damaged proteins by converting the atypical isoaspartyl residues back to L-aspartyls. The physiological and biochemical functions of surE are unknown, but its importance in stress is supported by the duplication of the surE gene in E. coli subjected to high-temperature growth. The pcm and surE genes are highly conserved in bacteria, archaea, and plants. Results: The structure of SurE from Thermotoga maritima was determined at 2.0 Angstroms. The SurE monomer is composed of two domains; a conserved N-terminal domain, a Rossman fold, and a C-terminal oligomerization domain, a new fold. Monomers form a dimer that assembles into a tetramer. Biochemical analysis suggests that SurE is an acid phosphatase, with an optimum pH of 5.5-6.2. The active site was identified in the N-terminal domain through analysis of conserved residues. Structure-based site-directed point mutations abolished phosphatase activity. T. maritima SurE intra- and intersubunit salt bridges were identified that may explain the SurE thermostability. Conclusions: The structure of SurE provided information about the protein's fold, oligomeric state, and active site. The protein possessed magnesium-dependent acid phosphatase activity, but the physiologically relevant substrate(s) remains to be identified. The importance of three of the assigned active site residues in catalysis was confirmed by site-directed mutagenesis.

  20. Multivariate, non-linear trend analysis of heterogeneous water quality monitoring data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lischeid, Gunnar; Kalettka, Thomas; Steidl, Jörg; Merz, Christoph; Lehr, Christian

    2014-05-01

    in the graph is proportional to the dissimilarity of the two respective water samples with respect to all 13 solutes. In our study, the non-linear 2D projection of the SOM-SM reflected 75% of the variance of the 13D data set. For further analyses the same graph was used again and again, where different colouring revealed different information. Thus the user rapidly became acquainted with the large, high dimensional data set. At a first glance outliers easily could be identified as well as clusters of samples with similar solute concentration. Different groups of samples were analysed for the degree of overlap. Multivariate trend analysis was performed that did not only account for increasing or decreasing concentration of single solutes but for systemic shifts of characteristic solute concentration patterns as well. Partly converging trends were found, that is, sampling sites becoming more similar to each other. In addition, long-term decreasing variance was found at some sites. For checking for significant differences between different time periods confidence intervals were included in the graph. We conclude that the SOM-SM proved to be a powerful and extremely helpful tool for analysis of this large, heterogeneous water quality data set.

  1. Short prokaryotic DNA fragment binning using a hierarchical classifier based on linear discriminant analysis and principal component analysis.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Hao; Wu, Hongwei

    2010-12-01

    Metagenomics is an emerging field in which the power of genomic analysis is applied to an entire microbial community, bypassing the need to isolate and culture individual microbial species. Assembling of metagenomic DNA fragments is very much like the overlap-layout-consensus procedure for assembling isolated genomes, but is augmented by an additional binning step to differentiate scaffolds, contigs and unassembled reads into various taxonomic groups. In this paper, we employed n-mer oligonucleotide frequencies as the features and developed a hierarchical classifier (PCAHIER) for binning short (≤ 1,000 bps) metagenomic fragments. The principal component analysis was used to reduce the high dimensionality of the feature space. The hierarchical classifier consists of four layers of local classifiers that are implemented based on the linear discriminant analysis. These local classifiers are responsible for binning prokaryotic DNA fragments into superkingdoms, of the same superkingdom into phyla, of the same phylum into genera, and of the same genus into species, respectively. We evaluated the performance of the PCAHIER by using our own simulated data sets as well as the widely used simHC synthetic metagenome data set from the IMG/M system. The effectiveness of the PCAHIER was demonstrated through comparisons against a non-hierarchical classifier, and two existing binning algorithms (TETRA and Phylopythia). PMID:21121023

  2. Applications of multivariate modeling to neuroimaging group analysis: A comprehensive alternative to univariate general linear model

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Gang; Adleman, Nancy E.; Saad, Ziad S.; Leibenluft, Ellen; Cox, RobertW.

    2014-01-01

    All neuroimaging packages can handle group analysis with t-tests or general linear modeling (GLM). However, they are quite hamstrung when there are multiple within-subject factors or when quantitative covariates are involved in the presence of a within-subject factor. In addition, sphericity is typically assumed for the variance–covariance structure when there are more than two levels in a within-subject factor. To overcome such limitations in the traditional AN(C)OVA and GLM, we adopt a multivariate modeling (MVM) approach to analyzing neuroimaging data at the group level with the following advantages: a) there is no limit on the number of factors as long as sample sizes are deemed appropriate; b) quantitative covariates can be analyzed together with within- subject factors; c) when a within-subject factor is involved, three testing methodologies are provided: traditional univariate testing (UVT)with sphericity assumption (UVT-UC) and with correction when the assumption is violated (UVT-SC), and within-subject multivariate testing (MVT-WS); d) to correct for sphericity violation at the voxel level, we propose a hybrid testing (HT) approach that achieves equal or higher power via combining traditional sphericity correction methods (Greenhouse–Geisser and Huynh–Feldt) with MVT-WS. PMID:24954281

  3. Quantifying the predictive consequences of model error with linear subspace analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    White, Jeremy T.; Doherty, John E.; Hughes, Joseph D.

    2014-01-01

    All computer models are simplified and imperfect simulators of complex natural systems. The discrepancy arising from simplification induces bias in model predictions, which may be amplified by the process of model calibration. This paper presents a new method to identify and quantify the predictive consequences of calibrating a simplified computer model. The method is based on linear theory, and it scales efficiently to the large numbers of parameters and observations characteristic of groundwater and petroleum reservoir models. The method is applied to a range of predictions made with a synthetic integrated surface-water/groundwater model with thousands of parameters. Several different observation processing strategies and parameterization/regularization approaches are examined in detail, including use of the Karhunen-Loève parameter transformation. Predictive bias arising from model error is shown to be prediction specific and often invisible to the modeler. The amount of calibration-induced bias is influenced by several factors, including how expert knowledge is applied in the design of parameterization schemes, the number of parameters adjusted during calibration, how observations and model-generated counterparts are processed, and the level of fit with observations achieved through calibration. Failure to properly implement any of these factors in a prediction-specific manner may increase the potential for predictive bias in ways that are not visible to the calibration and uncertainty analysis process.

  4. Prediction of Depression in Cancer Patients With Different Classification Criteria, Linear Discriminant Analysis versus Logistic Regression

    PubMed Central

    Shayan, Zahra; Mezerji, Naser Mohammad Gholi; Shayan, Leila; Naseri, Parisa

    2016-01-01

    Background: Logistic regression (LR) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA) are two popular statistical models for prediction of group membership. Although they are very similar, the LDA makes more assumptions about the data. When categorical and continuous variables used simultaneously, the optimal choice between the two models is questionable. In most studies, classification error (CE) is used to discriminate between subjects in several groups, but this index is not suitable to predict the accuracy of the outcome. The present study compared LR and LDA models using classification indices. Methods: This cross-sectional study selected 243 cancer patients. Sample sets of different sizes (n = 50, 100, 150, 200, 220) were randomly selected and the CE, B, and Q classification indices were calculated by the LR and LDA models. Results: CE revealed the a lack of superiority for one model over the other, but the results showed that LR performed better than LDA for the B and Q indices in all situations. No significant effect for sample size on CE was noted for selection of an optimal model. Assessment of the accuracy of prediction of real data indicated that the B and Q indices are appropriate for selection of an optimal model. Conclusion: The results of this study showed that LR performs better in some cases and LDA in others when based on CE. The CE index is not appropriate for classification, although the B and Q indices performed better and offered more efficient criteria for comparison and discrimination between groups.

  5. Bayesian linear regression with skew-symmetric error distributions with applications to survival analysis.

    PubMed

    Rubio, Francisco J; Genton, Marc G

    2016-06-30

    We study Bayesian linear regression models with skew-symmetric scale mixtures of normal error distributions. These kinds of models can be used to capture departures from the usual assumption of normality of the errors in terms of heavy tails and asymmetry. We propose a general noninformative prior structure for these regression models and show that the corresponding posterior distribution is proper under mild conditions. We extend these propriety results to cases where the response variables are censored. The latter scenario is of interest in the context of accelerated failure time models, which are relevant in survival analysis. We present a simulation study that demonstrates good frequentist properties of the posterior credible intervals associated with the proposed priors. This study also sheds some light on the trade-off between increased model flexibility and the risk of over-fitting. We illustrate the performance of the proposed models with real data. Although we focus on models with univariate response variables, we also present some extensions to the multivariate case in the Supporting Information. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26856806

  6. Bearing Performance Degradation Assessment Using Linear Discriminant Analysis and Coupled HMM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, T.; Chen, J.; Zhou, X. N.; Xiao, W. B.

    2012-05-01

    Bearing is one of the most important units in rotary machinery, its performance may vary significantly under different working stages. Thus it is critical to choose the most effective features for bearing performance degradation prediction. Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) is a useful method in finding few feature's dimensions that best discriminate a set of features extracted from original vibration signals. Another challenge in bearing performance degradation is how to build a model to recognize the different conditions with the data coming from different monitoring channels. In this paper, coupled hidden Markov models (CHMM) is presented to model interacting processes which can overcome the defections of the HMM. Because the input data in CHMM are collected by several sensors, and the interacting information can be fused by coupled modalities, it is more effective than HMM which used only one state chain. The model can be used in estimating the bearing performance degradation states according to several observation data. When becoming degradation pattern recognition, the new observation features should be input into the pre-trained CHMM and calculate the performance index (PI) of the outputs, the changing of PI could be used to describe the different degradation level of the bearings. The results show that PI will decline with the increase of the bearing degradation. Assessment results of the whole life time experimental bearing signals validate the feasibility and effectiveness of this method.

  7. Numerical analysis of double chirp effect in tapered and linearly chirped fiber Bragg gratings.

    PubMed

    Markowski, Konrad; Jedrzejewski, Kazimierz; Osuch, Tomasz

    2016-06-10

    In this paper, a theoretical analysis of recently developed tapered chirped fiber Bragg gratings (TCFBG) written in co-directional and counter-directional configurations is presented. In particular, the effects of the synthesis of chirps resulting from both a fused taper profile and a linearly chirped fringe pattern of the induced refractive index changes within the fiber core are extensively examined. For this purpose, a numerical model based on the transfer matrix method (TMM) and the coupled mode theory (CMT) was developed for such a grating. The impact of TCFBG parameters, such as grating length and steepness of the taper transition, as well as the effect of the fringe pattern chirp rate on the spectral properties of the resulting gratings, are presented. Results show that, by using the appropriate design process, TCFBGs with reduced or enhanced resulting chirp, and thus with widely tailored spectral responses, can be easily achieved. In turn, it reveals a great potential application of such structures. The presented numerical approach provides an excellent tool for TCFBG design. PMID:27409005

  8. Path-following analysis of the dynamical response of a piecewise-linear capsule system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Páez Chávez, Joseph; Liu, Yang; Pavlovskaia, Ekaterina; Wiercigroch, Marian

    2016-08-01

    The dynamical response of a piecewise-linear capsule system is studied by means of path-following techniques in this paper. As the capsule model belongs to the class of piecewise-smooth dynamical systems involving impact and friction, a special care is taken in order to divide the trajectory of the system into a smooth vector field in each disjoint subregion. Specifically we study a two-sided drifting system focusing on directional control and energy consumption. We aim to address two practical problems which are maximizing the rate of progression and directional control of the system by following a typical period-1 trajectory. The one-parameter analysis shows that two types of bifurcations, grazing bifurcation and boundary-intersection crossing bifurcation are found, and the maximal rate of progression is achieved when the capsule performs the oscillations without sticking phases. In our two-parameter study, the control parameters for which the rate of progression is maximal are identified using fixed value of power consumption, and the curves which divide the motion of the capsule between forward and backward progression are obtained.

  9. Thermal modelling and analysis of an oil-free linear compressor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, M. J.; Diniz, M. C.; Deschamps, C. J.

    2015-08-01

    Gas superheating in the suction system may significantly reduce the volumetric and isentropic efficiencies of small reciprocating compressors adopted for household refrigeration. This paper reports a thermal modelling approach developed to predict superheating in an oil- free linear compressor. A simulation code based on the finite volume method was adopted to solve heat conduction in the solid components and gas flow inside the compressor shell. In order to reduce the computational cost, the compression cycle inside the cylinder was modelled with a transient lumped formulation, but in a coupled manner with the remainder of the solution domain. Comparisons between numerical and experimental results of temperature showed discrepancies in some solid components and in the gas path along the discharge system. However, the model was able to predict suction gas superheating in good agreement with measurements. A sensitivity analysis of the temperature distribution with respect to two design parameters was also carried out. The model is particularly useful for compressor design since no experimental calibration is required.

  10. Influence of a drag force on linear transport in low-density gases. Stability analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez-Fuentes, José Carlos; Garzó, Vicente

    2014-09-01

    The transport coefficients of a dilute classical gas in the presence of a drag force proportional to the velocity of the particle are determined from the Boltzmann equation. The viscous drag force could model the friction of solid particles with a surrounding fluid (interstitial gas phase). First, when the drag force is the only external action on the state of the system, the Boltzmann equation admits a Maxwellian solution f0(v,t) with a time-dependent temperature. Then, the Boltzmann equation is solved by means of the Chapman-Enskog expansion around the local version of the distribution f0 to obtain the relevant transport coefficients of the system: the shear viscosity η, the thermal conductivity κ, and a new transport coefficient μ (which is also present in granular gases) relating the heat flux with the density gradient. The results indicate that while η is not affected by the drag force, the impact of this force on the transport coefficients κ and μ may be significant. Finally, a stability analysis of the linear hydrodynamic equations with respect to the time-dependent equilibrium state is performed, showing that the onset of instability is associated with the transversal shear mode that could be unstable for wave numbers smaller than a certain critical wave number.

  11. Design and analysis of linear fault-tolerant permanent-magnet vernier machines.

    PubMed

    Xu, Liang; Ji, Jinghua; Liu, Guohai; Du, Yi; Liu, Hu

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes a new linear fault-tolerant permanent-magnet (PM) vernier (LFTPMV) machine, which can offer high thrust by using the magnetic gear effect. Both PMs and windings of the proposed machine are on short mover, while the long stator is only manufactured from iron. Hence, the proposed machine is very suitable for long stroke system applications. The key of this machine is that the magnetizer splits the two movers with modular and complementary structures. Hence, the proposed machine offers improved symmetrical and sinusoidal back electromotive force waveform and reduced detent force. Furthermore, owing to the complementary structure, the proposed machine possesses favorable fault-tolerant capability, namely, independent phases. In particular, differing from the existing fault-tolerant machines, the proposed machine offers fault tolerance without sacrificing thrust density. This is because neither fault-tolerant teeth nor the flux-barriers are adopted. The electromagnetic characteristics of the proposed machine are analyzed using the time-stepping finite-element method, which verifies the effectiveness of the theoretical analysis. PMID:24982959

  12. Motor variability in sports: a non-linear analysis of race walking.

    PubMed

    Preatoni, Ezio; Ferrario, Manuela; Donà, Giulia; Hamill, Joseph; Rodano, Renato

    2010-10-01

    This aim of this study was to analyse the nature of movement variability and to assess whether entropy measures may represent a valuable synthetic index of neuromuscular organization. The regularity of kinematic/kinetic time series during race walking, the changes in the structure of intra-individual variability over the test session, and the influence of athletic skill in (inter)national rank athletes were investigated. Motion analysis techniques were used. Sample entropy (SampEn) was adopted to examine fluctuations in lower limb angles and ground reaction forces. The regularity of both original and surrogate time series was assessed and compared, by estimating SampEn, to verify the presence of non-linear features in movement variability. SampEn was statistically lower in the original data than in surrogates. In contrast, the regularity of time series did not change significantly throughout the subsequent intra-individual repetitions. Hip and ankle joint angles and vertical ground reaction force manifested increased entropy for skilled athletes. Results suggest that race walking variability was not only the product of random noise but also contained information about the inherent propriety of the neuro-musculo-skeletal system. Furthermore, they provide some indications about neuromuscular control of the lower limb joints during race walking gait, and about the differences between more and less skilled individuals. PMID:20853204

  13. Uncertainty analysis and robust trajectory linearization control of a flexible air-breathing hypersonic vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pu, Zhiqiang; Tan, Xiangmin; Fan, Guoliang; Yi, Jianqiang

    2014-08-01

    Flexible air-breathing hypersonic vehicles feature significant uncertainties which pose huge challenges to robust controller designs. In this paper, four major categories of uncertainties are analyzed, that is, uncertainties associated with flexible effects, aerodynamic parameter variations, external environmental disturbances, and control-oriented modeling errors. A uniform nonlinear uncertainty model is explored for the first three uncertainties which lumps all uncertainties together and consequently is beneficial for controller synthesis. The fourth uncertainty is additionally considered in stability analysis. Based on these analyses, the starting point of the control design is to decompose the vehicle dynamics into five functional subsystems. Then a robust trajectory linearization control (TLC) scheme consisting of five robust subsystem controllers is proposed. In each subsystem controller, TLC is combined with the extended state observer (ESO) technique for uncertainty compensation. The stability of the overall closed-loop system with the four aforementioned uncertainties and additional singular perturbations is analyzed. Particularly, the stability of nonlinear ESO is also discussed from a Liénard system perspective. At last, simulations demonstrate the great control performance and the uncertainty rejection ability of the robust scheme.

  14. Influence analysis of structural parameters and operating parameters on electromagnetic properties of HTS linear induction motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, J.; Sheng, L.; Li, D.; Zhao, J.; Li, Sh.; Qin, W.; Fan, Y.; Zheng, Q. L.; Zhang, W.

    A novel High Temperature Superconductor Linear Induction Motor (HTS LIM) is researched in this paper. Since the critical current and the electromagnetic force of the motor are determined mainly by the primary slot leakage flux, the main magnetic flux and eddy current respectively, in order to research the influence of structural parameters and operating parameters on electromagnetic properties of HTS LIM, the motor was analyzed by 2D transient Finite Element Method (FEM). The properties of the motor, such as the maximum slot leakage flux density, motor thrust, motor vertical force and critical current are analyzed with different structural parameters and operating parameters. In addition, an experimental investigation was carried out on prototype HTS motor. Electrical parameters were deduced from these tests and also compared with the analysis results from FEM. AC losses of one HTS coil in the motor were measured and AC losses of all HTS coils in HTS LIM were estimated. The results in this paper could provide reference for the design and research on the HTS LIM.

  15. Thrust and normal force characteristics analysis of linear synchronous motor for direct drive conveyer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Yu-wu; Kim, Do-sun; Cho, Yun-hyun

    2007-12-01

    The problem in improving the high positioning precision of permanent magnet linear synchronous motor (PMLSM) for direct drive conveyer is the large detent force, which contains two components: one is the cogging force caused by the interaction between the permanent magnet (PM) and the iron core, the other is the end effect caused by the finite mover length. In this paper a force compensator in the field oriented control (FOC) algorithm is employed to reduce this detent force, so the thrust and the normal force characteristics analysis of PMLSM are of the most importance. First the characteristics of the thrust and the normal force are simulated by finite element method (FEM), and the relation of the thrust and the normal force to the q-axis current is analyzed. Then the components of detent force are defined by Fourier series using the curve fitting method, and compensated by injecting the instantaneous currents using the FOC method. Finally the dynamic characteristics of this PMLSM for direct drive conveyer are investigated, and the numerical results are reported to validate the effectiveness of this proposed method.

  16. Analysis of Linear Aerospike Plume Induced X-33 Base Heating Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Ten-See

    1998-01-01

    Computational analysis is conducted to study the effect of an linear aerospike engine plume on the X-33 base-heating environment during ascent flight. To properly account for the freestream-body interaction and to allow for potential plume-induced flow-separation, the thermo-flowfield of the entire vehicle at several trajectory points is computed. A sequential grid-refinement technique is used in conjunction with solution-adaptive, patched, and embedded grid methods to limit the model to a manageable size. The computational methodology is based on a three-dimensional, finite-difference, viscous flow, chemically reacting, pressure-based computational fluid dynamics formulation, and a three-dimensional, finite-volume, spectral-line based weighted-sum-of-gray-gases absorption, computational radiation heat transfer formulation. The computed forebody and afterbody surface pressure coefficients and base pressure characteristic curves are compared with those of a cold-flow test. The predicted convective and radiative base-heat fluxes, the effect of base-bleed, and the potential of plume-induced flow separation are presented.

  17. Multiple binary classifications via linear discriminant analysis for improved controllability of a powered prosthesis.

    PubMed

    Hargrove, Levi J; Scheme, Erik J; Englehart, Kevin B; Hudgins, Bernard S

    2010-02-01

    This paper describes a novel pattern recognition based myoelectric control system that uses parallel binary classification and class specific thresholds. The system was designed with an intuitive configuration interface, similar to existing conventional myoelectric control systems. The system was assessed quantitatively with a classification error metric and functionally with a clothespin test implemented in a virtual environment. For each case, the proposed system was compared to a state-of-the-art pattern recognition system based on linear discriminant analysis and a conventional myoelectric control scheme with mode switching. These assessments showed that the proposed control system had a higher classification error ( p < 0.001) but yielded a more controllable myoelectric control system ( p < 0.001) as measured through a clothespin usability test implemented in a virtual environment. Furthermore, the system was computationally simple and applicable for real-time embedded implementation. This work provides the basis for a clinically viable pattern recognition based myoelectric control system which is robust, easily configured, and highly usable. PMID:20071277

  18. Moment method analysis of linearly tapered slot antennas: Low loss components for switched beam radiometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koeksal, Adnan; Trew, Robert J.; Kauffman, J. Frank

    1992-01-01

    A Moment Method Model for the radiation pattern characterization of single Linearly Tapered Slot Antennas (LTSA) in air or on a dielectric substrate is developed. This characterization consists of: (1) finding the radiated far-fields of the antenna; (2) determining the E-Plane and H-Plane beamwidths and sidelobe levels; and (3) determining the D-Plane beamwidth and cross polarization levels, as antenna parameters length, height, taper angle, substrate thickness, and the relative substrate permittivity vary. The LTSA geometry does not lend itself to analytical solution with the given parameter ranges. Therefore, a computer modeling scheme and a code are necessary to analyze the problem. This necessity imposes some further objectives or requirements on the solution method (modeling) and tool (computer code). These may be listed as follows: (1) a good approximation to the real antenna geometry; and (2) feasible computer storage and time requirements. According to these requirements, the work is concentrated on the development of efficient modeling schemes for these type of problems and on reducing the central processing unit (CPU) time required from the computer code. A Method of Moments (MoM) code is developed for the analysis of LTSA's within the parameter ranges given.

  19. Computational Aspects of Sensitivity Calculations in Linear Transient Structural Analysis. Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greene, William H.

    1989-01-01

    A study has been performed focusing on the calculation of sensitivities of displacements, velocities, accelerations, and stresses in linear, structural, transient response problems. One significant goal was to develop and evaluate sensitivity calculation techniques suitable for large-order finite element analyses. Accordingly, approximation vectors such as vibration mode shapes are used to reduce the dimensionality of the finite element model. Much of the research focused on the accuracy of both response quantities and sensitivities as a function of number of vectors used. Two types of sensitivity calculation techniques were developed and evaluated. The first type of technique is an overall finite difference method where the analysis is repeated for perturbed designs. The second type of technique is termed semianalytical because it involves direct, analytical differentiation of the equations of motion with finite difference approximation of the coefficient matrices. To be computationally practical in large-order problems, the overall finite difference methods must use the approximation vectors from the original design in the analyses of the perturbed models.

  20. Linear and nonlinear dynamic analysis of redundant load path bearingless rotor systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murthy, V. R.; Shultz, Louis A.

    1994-01-01

    The goal of this research is to develop the transfer matrix method to treat nonlinear autonomous boundary value problems with multiple branches. The application is the complete nonlinear aeroelastic analysis of multiple-branched rotor blades. Once the development is complete, it can be incorporated into the existing transfer matrix analyses. There are several difficulties to be overcome in reaching this objective. The conventional transfer matrix method is limited in that it is applicable only to linear branch chain-like structures, but consideration of multiple branch modeling is important for bearingless rotors. Also, hingeless and bearingless rotor blade dynamic characteristics (particularly their aeroelasticity problems) are inherently nonlinear. The nonlinear equations of motion and the multiple-branched boundary value problem are treated together using a direct transfer matrix method. First, the formulation is applied to a nonlinear single-branch blade to validate the nonlinear portion of the formulation. The nonlinear system of equations is iteratively solved using a form of Newton-Raphson iteration scheme developed for differential equations of continuous systems. The formulation is then applied to determine the nonlinear steady state trim and aeroelastic stability of a rotor blade in hover with two branches at the root. A comprehensive computer program is developed and is used to obtain numerical results for the (1) free vibration, (2) nonlinearly deformed steady state, (3) free vibration about the nonlinearly deformed steady state, and (4) aeroelastic stability tasks. The numerical results obtained by the present method agree with results from other methods.

  1. Analysis of acoustic networks including cavities by means of a linear finite volume method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torregrosa, A. J.; Broatch, A.; Gil, A.; Moreno, D.

    2012-09-01

    A procedure allowing for the analysis of complex acoustic networks, including three-dimensional cavities described in terms of zero-dimensional equivalent elements, is presented and validated. The procedure is based on the linearization of the finite volume method often used in gas-dynamics, which is translated into an acoustic network comprising multi-ports accounting for mass exchanges between the finite volumes, and equivalent 2-ports describing momentum exchange across the volume surfaces. The application of the concept to a one-dimensional case shows that it actually converges to the exact analytical solution when a sufficiently large number of volumes are considered. This has allowed the formulation of an objective criterion for the choice of a mesh providing results with a prefixed error up to a certain Helmholtz number, which has been generalized to three-dimensional cases. The procedure is then applied to simple but relevant three-dimensional geometries in the absence of a mean flow, showing good agreement with experimental and other computational results.

  2. Comparison of Experimental Data and Computations Fluid Dynamics Analysis for a Three Dimensional Linear Plug Nozzle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruf, J. H.; Hagemann, G.; Immich, H.

    2003-01-01

    A three dimensional linear plug nozzle of area ratio 12.79 was designed by EADS Space Transportation (former Astrium Space Infrastructure). The nozzle was tested within the German National Technology Program 'LION' in a cold air wind tunnel by TU Dresden. The experimental hardware and test conditions are described. Experimental data was obtained for the nozzle without plug side wall fences at a nozzle pressure ratio of 116 and then with plug side wall fences at NPR 110. Schlieren images were recorded and axial profiles of plug wall static pressures were measured at several spanwise locations and on the plug base. Detailed CFD analysis was performed for these nozzle configurations at NPR 116 by NASA MSFC. The CFD exhibits good agreement with the experimental data. A detailed comparison of the CFD results and the experimental plug wall pressure data are given. Comparisons are made for both the without and with plug side wall fence configurations. Numerical results for density gradient are compared to experimental Schlieren images. Experimental nozzle thrust efficiencies are calculated based on the CFD results. The CFD results are used to illustrate the plug nozzle fluid dynamics. The effect of the plug side wall is emphasized.

  3. Comparison of linear discriminant analysis and logistic regression for data classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liong, Choong-Yeun; Foo, Sin-Fan

    2013-04-01

    Linear discriminant analysis (LDA) and logistic regression (LR) are often used for the purpose of classifying populations or groups using a set of predictor variables. Assumptions of multivariate normality and equal variance-covariance matrices across groups are required before proceeding with LDA, but such assumptions are not required for LR and hence LR is considered to be much more robust than LDA. In this paper, several real datasets which are different in terms of normality, number of independent variables and sample size are used to study the performance of both methods. The methods are compared based on the percentage of correct classification and B index. The results show that overall, LR performs better regardless of the distribution of the data is normal or nonnormal. However, LR needs longer computing time than LDA with the increase in sample size. The performance of LDA was also tested by using various prior probabilities. The results show that the average percentage of correct classification and the B index are higher when the prior probability is set based on the group size rather than using equal probabilities for all groups.

  4. Efficient analysis of Q-level nested hierarchical general linear models given ignorable missing data.

    PubMed

    Shin, Yongyun; Raudenbush, Stephen W

    2013-01-01

    This article extends single-level missing data methods to efficient estimation of a Q-level nested hierarchical general linear model given ignorable missing data with a general missing pattern at any of the Q levels. The key idea is to reexpress a desired hierarchical model as the joint distribution of all variables including the outcome that are subject to missingness, conditional on all of the covariates that are completely observed and to estimate the joint model under normal theory. The unconstrained joint model, however, identifies extraneous parameters that are not of interest in subsequent analysis of the hierarchical model and that rapidly multiply as the number of levels, the number of variables subject to missingness, and the number of random coefficients grow. Therefore, the joint model may be extremely high dimensional and difficult to estimate well unless constraints are imposed to avoid the proliferation of extraneous covariance components at each level. Furthermore, the over-identified hierarchical model may produce considerably biased inferences. The challenge is to represent the constraints within the framework of the Q-level model in a way that is uniform without regard to Q; in a way that facilitates efficient computation for any number of Q levels; and also in a way that produces unbiased and efficient analysis of the hierarchical model. Our approach yields Q-step recursive estimation and imputation procedures whose qth-step computation involves only level-q data given higher-level computation components. We illustrate the approach with a study of the growth in body mass index analyzing a national sample of elementary school children. PMID:24077621

  5. Differential protein expression analysis using stable isotope labeling and PQD linear ion trap MS technology.

    PubMed

    Armenta, Jenny M; Hoeschele, Ina; Lazar, Iulia M

    2009-07-01

    An isotope tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ)-based reversed-phase liquid chromatography (RPLC)-tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) method was developed for differential protein expression profiling in complex cellular extracts. The estrogen positive MCF-7 cell line, cultured in the presence of 17beta-estradiol (E2) and tamoxifen (Tam), was used as a model system. MS analysis was performed with a linear trap quadrupole (LTQ) instrument operated by using pulsed Q dissociation (PQD) detection. Optimization experiments were conducted to maximize the iTRAQ labeling efficiency and the number of quantified proteins. MS data filtering criteria were chosen to result in a false positive identification rate of <4%. The reproducibility of protein identifications was approximately 60%-67% between duplicate, and approximately 50% among triplicate LC-MS/MS runs, respectively. The run-to-run reproducibility, in terms of relative standard deviations (RSD) of global mean iTRAQ ratios, was better than 10%. The quantitation accuracy improved with the number of peptides used for protein identification. From a total of 530 identified proteins (P < 0.001) in the E2/Tam treated MCF-7 cells, a list of 255 proteins (quantified by at least two peptides) was generated for differential expression analysis. A method was developed for the selection, normalization, and statistical evaluation of such datasets. An approximate approximately 2-fold change in protein expression levels was necessary for a protein to be selected as a biomarker candidate. According to this data processing strategy, approximately 16 proteins involved in biological processes such as apoptosis, RNA processing/metabolism, DNA replication/transcription/repair, cell proliferation and metastasis, were found to be up- or down-regulated. PMID:19345114

  6. Calculation and analysis of the magnetic field of a linearly tapered undulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, He-Ting; Guo, Fan; Li, Jia-Yu; Jia, Qi-Ka

    2015-08-01

    There is an empirical formula describing the relationship between the peak magnetic field and the undulator structure parameters for a uniform-parameter hybrid undulator. In this paper, we investigate the relationship for a linearly tapered undulator through numerical calculation by using the code RADIA, and check it with the empirical formula. The results imply that this empirical formula is also effective for linearly tapered undulators at a big enough scope for the requirements of normal FEL experiments. Therefore, for a linearly tapered undulator, we can use the empirical formula to design the variation of the undulator gap. For the tapering rate demanded by normal FEL experiments, the gap of a linearly tapered undulator increases almost linearly, and the tapering rate will keep constant while adjusting the undulator gap with the same variation for each undulator period. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (11205156) and Major State Basic Research Development Program (2011CB808301)

  7. Meta-analysis of Complex Diseases at Gene Level with Generalized Functional Linear Models.

    PubMed

    Fan, Ruzong; Wang, Yifan; Chiu, Chi-Yang; Chen, Wei; Ren, Haobo; Li, Yun; Boehnke, Michael; Amos, Christopher I; Moore, Jason H; Xiong, Momiao

    2016-02-01

    We developed generalized functional linear models (GFLMs) to perform a meta-analysis of multiple case-control studies to evaluate the relationship of genetic data to dichotomous traits adjusting for covariates. Unlike the previously developed meta-analysis for sequence kernel association tests (MetaSKATs), which are based on mixed-effect models to make the contributions of major gene loci random, GFLMs are fixed models; i.e., genetic effects of multiple genetic variants are fixed. Based on GFLMs, we developed chi-squared-distributed Rao's efficient score test and likelihood-ratio test (LRT) statistics to test for an association between a complex dichotomous trait and multiple genetic variants. We then performed extensive simulations to evaluate the empirical type I error rates and power performance of the proposed tests. The Rao's efficient score test statistics of GFLMs are very conservative and have higher power than MetaSKATs when some causal variants are rare and some are common. When the causal variants are all rare [i.e., minor allele frequencies (MAF) < 0.03], the Rao's efficient score test statistics have similar or slightly lower power than MetaSKATs. The LRT statistics generate accurate type I error rates for homogeneous genetic-effect models and may inflate type I error rates for heterogeneous genetic-effect models owing to the large numbers of degrees of freedom and have similar or slightly higher power than the Rao's efficient score test statistics. GFLMs were applied to analyze genetic data of 22 gene regions of type 2 diabetes data from a meta-analysis of eight European studies and detected significant association for 18 genes (P < 3.10 × 10(-6)), tentative association for 2 genes (HHEX and HMGA2; P ≈ 10(-5)), and no association for 2 genes, while MetaSKATs detected none. In addition, the traditional additive-effect model detects association at gene HHEX. GFLMs and related tests can analyze rare or common variants or a combination of the two and

  8. Linear analysis of an axially grooved rectangular gyrotron for harmonic operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferendeci, A. M.; Han, C. C.

    1985-01-01

    In an axially grooved rectangular waveguide the linearized Vlasov equation is solved to find the perturbed distribution function resulting from the electromagnetic forces on the electrons. The resulting beam current and the propagating electromagnetic waves of the cold tube are used in the inhomogeneous Maxwell's equation to derive the general dispersion equation. This equation is then transformed into the electron beam frame and the resulting linear growth rate of amplification is calculated. By maximizing the linear growth rate, the operational parameters of the gyrotron are then optimized.

  9. A Comprehensive Meta-Analysis of Triple P-Positive Parenting Program Using Hierarchical Linear Modeling: Effectiveness and Moderating Variables

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nowak, Christoph; Heinrichs, Nina

    2008-01-01

    A meta-analysis encompassing all studies evaluating the impact of the Triple P-Positive Parenting Program on parent and child outcome measures was conducted in an effort to identify variables that moderate the program's effectiveness. Hierarchical linear models (HLM) with three levels of data were employed to analyze effect sizes. The results (N =…

  10. Estimating leaf photosynthetic pigments information by stepwise multiple linear regression analysis and a leaf optical model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Pudong; Shi, Runhe; Wang, Hong; Bai, Kaixu; Gao, Wei

    2014-10-01

    Leaf pigments are key elements for plant photosynthesis and growth. Traditional manual sampling of these pigments is labor-intensive and costly, which also has the difficulty in capturing their temporal and spatial characteristics. The aim of this work is to estimate photosynthetic pigments at large scale by remote sensing. For this purpose, inverse model were proposed with the aid of stepwise multiple linear regression (SMLR) analysis. Furthermore, a leaf radiative transfer model (i.e. PROSPECT model) was employed to simulate the leaf reflectance where wavelength varies from 400 to 780 nm at 1 nm interval, and then these values were treated as the data from remote sensing observations. Meanwhile, simulated chlorophyll concentration (Cab), carotenoid concentration (Car) and their ratio (Cab/Car) were taken as target to build the regression model respectively. In this study, a total of 4000 samples were simulated via PROSPECT with different Cab, Car and leaf mesophyll structures as 70% of these samples were applied for training while the last 30% for model validation. Reflectance (r) and its mathematic transformations (1/r and log (1/r)) were all employed to build regression model respectively. Results showed fair agreements between pigments and simulated reflectance with all adjusted coefficients of determination (R2) larger than 0.8 as 6 wavebands were selected to build the SMLR model. The largest value of R2 for Cab, Car and Cab/Car are 0.8845, 0.876 and 0.8765, respectively. Meanwhile, mathematic transformations of reflectance showed little influence on regression accuracy. We concluded that it was feasible to estimate the chlorophyll and carotenoids and their ratio based on statistical model with leaf reflectance data.

  11. Adsorption of Organic Compounds to Diesel Soot: Frontal Analysis and Polyparameter Linear Free-Energy Relationship.

    PubMed

    Lu, Zhijiang; MacFarlane, John K; Gschwend, Philip M

    2016-01-01

    Black carbons (BCs) dominate the sorption of many hydrophobic organic compounds (HOCs) in soils and sediments, thereby reducing the HOCs' mobilities and bioavailabilities. However, we do not have data for diverse HOCs' sorption to BC because it is time-consuming and labor-intensive to obtain isotherms on soot and other BCs. In this study, we developed a frontal analysis chromatographic method to investigate the adsorption of 21 organic compounds with diverse functional groups to NIST diesel soot. This method was precise and time-efficient, typically taking only a few hours to obtain an isotherm. Based on 102 soot-carbon normalized sorption coefficients (KsootC) acquired at different sorbate concentrations, a sorbate-activity-dependent polyparameter linear free-energy relationship was established: logKsootC = (3.74 ± 0.11)V + ((-0.35 ± 0.02)log ai)E + (-0.62 ± 0.10)A + (-3.35 ± 0.11)B + (-1.45 ± 0.09); (N = 102, R(2) = 0.96, SE = 0.18), where V, E, A, and B are the sorbate's McGowan's characteristic volume, excess molar refraction, and hydrogen acidity and basicity, respectively; and ai is the sorbate's aqueous activity reflecting the system's approach to saturation. The difference in dispersive interactions with the soot versus with the water was the dominant factor encouraging adsorption, and H-bonding interactions discouraged this process. Using this relationship, soot-water and sediment-water or soil-water adsorption coefficients of HOCs of interest (PAHs and PCBs) were estimated and compared with the results reported in the literature. PMID:26587648

  12. Preliminary Safety Analysis Report (PSAR), The NSLS 200 MeV Linear Electron Accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Blumberg, L.N.; Ackerman, A.I.; Dickinson, T.; Heese, R.N.; Larson, R.A.; Neuls, C.W.; Pjerov, S.; Sheehan, J.F.

    1993-06-15

    The radiological, fire and electrical hazards posed by a 200 MeV electron Linear Accelerator, which the NSLS Department will install and commission within a newly assembled structure, are addressed in this Preliminary Safety Analysis Report. Although it is clear that this accelerator is intended to be the injector for a future experimental facility, we address only the Linac in the present PSAR since neither the final design nor the operating characteristics of the experimental facility are known at the present time. The fire detection and control system to be installed in the building is judged to be completely adequate in terms of the marginal hazard presented - no combustible materials other than the usual cabling associated with such a facility have been identified. Likewise, electrical hazards associated with power supplies for the beam transport magnets and accelerator components such as the accelerator klystrons and electron gun are classified as marginal in terms of potential personnel injury, cost of equipment lost, program downtime and public impact perceptions as defined in the BNL Environmental Safety and Health Manual and the probability of occurrence is deemed to be remote. No unusual features have been identified for the power supplies or electrical distribution system, and normal and customary electrical safety standards as practiced throughout the NSLS complex and the Laboratory are specified in this report. The radiation safety hazards are similarly judged to be marginal in terms of probability of occurrence and potential injury consequences since, for the low intensity operation proposed - a factor of 25 less than the maximum Linac capability specified by the vendor - the average beam power is only 0.4 watts. The shielding specifications given in this report will give adequate protection to both the general public and nonradiation workers in areas adjacent to the building as well as radiation workers within the controlled access building.

  13. Linear Elastic and Cohesive Fracture Analysis to Model Hydraulic Fracture in Brittle and Ductile Rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Yao

    2012-05-01

    Hydraulic fracturing technology is being widely used within the oil and gas industry for both waste injection and unconventional gas production wells. It is essential to predict the behavior of hydraulic fractures accurately based on understanding the fundamental mechanism(s). The prevailing approach for hydraulic fracture modeling continues to rely on computational methods based on Linear Elastic Fracture Mechanics (LEFM). Generally, these methods give reasonable predictions for hard rock hydraulic fracture processes, but still have inherent limitations, especially when fluid injection is performed in soft rock/sand or other non-conventional formations. These methods typically give very conservative predictions on fracture geometry and inaccurate estimation of required fracture pressure. One of the reasons the LEFM-based methods fail to give accurate predictions for these materials is that the fracture process zone ahead of the crack tip and softening effect should not be neglected in ductile rock fracture analysis. A 3D pore pressure cohesive zone model has been developed and applied to predict hydraulic fracturing under fluid injection. The cohesive zone method is a numerical tool developed to model crack initiation and growth in quasi-brittle materials considering the material softening effect. The pore pressure cohesive zone model has been applied to investigate the hydraulic fracture with different rock properties. The hydraulic fracture predictions of a three-layer water injection case have been compared using the pore pressure cohesive zone model with revised parameters, LEFM-based pseudo 3D model, a Perkins-Kern-Nordgren (PKN) model, and an analytical solution. Based on the size of the fracture process zone and its effect on crack extension in ductile rock, the fundamental mechanical difference of LEFM and cohesive fracture mechanics-based methods is discussed. An effective fracture toughness method has been proposed to consider the fracture process zone

  14. Non-Linear Analysis of the Modular Coil Windings for the National Compact Stellarator Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Freudenberg, K.D.; Williamson, D.E.; Fan, H.M.; Myatt, L

    2005-05-15

    A non linear FEA study has been performed on the modular coils of the National Compact Stellarator Experiment (NCSX). The modular coils provide the primary magnetic field within NCSX and consist of flexible cable conductor wound on a cast and machined winding form and vacuum impregnated with epoxy. Eighteen coils and associated winding forms are connected at assembly into a toroidal shell structure. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the structural response of the windings and shell structure during cooldown and normal operation. Two separate software packages were used for the study, and two independent analyses were undertaken. The first analysis performed with Pro/Mechanica, examined both the response of the modular coils to magnetic pressure and thermal effects during a 2 Tesla pulse. Modeled items included a portion of the shell structure the winding packs, and a set of 48 'pseudo clamps'. The so called 'pseudo clamps' are represented simply by blocks of material that are restrained in their respective normal directions and have properties which mimic the stiffness of the spring washers of the actual preload clamps. The winding pack is free to slide on the shell structure and is restrained only by the clamps. A second model, including the complete shell structure of all three coils, was studied with the FEA program ANSYS. Contact regions defined in both Pro/Mechanica and Ansys allow the winding to slide and detach form the shell structure. The two analyses are compared for parameters such as winding/structure gap, overall displacement, equivalent stress and principle strain values.

  15. Application of Failure Mode and Effects Analysis to Intraoperative Radiation Therapy Using Mobile Electron Linear Accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Ciocca, Mario; Cantone, Marie-Claire; Veronese, Ivan; Cattani, Federica; Pedroli, Guido; Molinelli, Silvia; Vitolo, Viviana; Orecchia, Roberto

    2012-02-01

    Purpose: Failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA) represents a prospective approach for risk assessment. A multidisciplinary working group of the Italian Association for Medical Physics applied FMEA to electron beam intraoperative radiation therapy (IORT) delivered using mobile linear accelerators, aiming at preventing accidental exposures to the patient. Methods and Materials: FMEA was applied to the IORT process, for the stages of the treatment delivery and verification, and consisted of three steps: 1) identification of the involved subprocesses; 2) identification and ranking of the potential failure modes, together with their causes and effects, using the risk probability number (RPN) scoring system, based on the product of three parameters (severity, frequency of occurrence and detectability, each ranging from 1 to 10); 3) identification of additional safety measures to be proposed for process quality and safety improvement. RPN upper threshold for little concern of risk was set at 125. Results: Twenty-four subprocesses were identified. Ten potential failure modes were found and scored, in terms of RPN, in the range of 42-216. The most critical failure modes consisted of internal shield misalignment, wrong Monitor Unit calculation and incorrect data entry at treatment console. Potential causes of failure included shield displacement, human errors, such as underestimation of CTV extension, mainly because of lack of adequate training and time pressures, failure in the communication between operators, and machine malfunctioning. The main effects of failure were represented by CTV underdose, wrong dose distribution and/or delivery, unintended normal tissue irradiation. As additional safety measures, the utilization of a dedicated staff for IORT, double-checking of MU calculation and data entry and finally implementation of in vivo dosimetry were suggested. Conclusions: FMEA appeared as a useful tool for prospective evaluation of patient safety in radiotherapy. The

  16. Linear-fitting-based similarity coefficient map for tissue dissimilarity analysis in -w magnetic resonance imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Shao-De; Wu, Shi-Bin; Wang, Hao-Yu; Wei, Xin-Hua; Chen, Xin; Pan, Wan-Long; Hu, Jiani; Xie, Yao-Qin

    2015-12-01

    Similarity coefficient mapping (SCM) aims to improve the morphological evaluation of weighted magnetic resonance imaging However, how to interpret the generated SCM map is still pending. Moreover, is it probable to extract tissue dissimilarity messages based on the theory behind SCM? The primary purpose of this paper is to address these two questions. First, the theory of SCM was interpreted from the perspective of linear fitting. Then, a term was embedded for tissue dissimilarity information. Finally, our method was validated with sixteen human brain image series from multi-echo . Generated maps were investigated from signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and perceived visual quality, and then interpreted from intra- and inter-tissue intensity. Experimental results show that both perceptibility of anatomical structures and tissue contrast are improved. More importantly, tissue similarity or dissimilarity can be quantified and cross-validated from pixel intensity analysis. This method benefits image enhancement, tissue classification, malformation detection and morphological evaluation. Project supported in part by the National High Technology Research and Development Program of China (Grant Nos. 2015AA043203 and 2012AA02A604), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 81171402, 61471349, and 81501463), the Innovative Research Team Program of Guangdong Province, China (Grant No. 2011S013), the Science and Technological Program for Higher Education, Science and Research, and Health Care Institutions of Guangdong Province, China (Grant No. 2011108101001), the Natural Science Foundation of Guangdong Province, China (Grant No. 2014A030310360), the Fundamental Research Program of Shenzhen City, China (Grant No. JCYJ20140417113430639), and Beijing Center for Mathematics and Information Interdisciplinary Sciences, China.

  17. Seismic evaluation of a large nuclear pump bearing using non-linear dynamic analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Huber, K.A.; Hugins, M.S.

    1983-01-01

    Hydrostatic bearings of a large vertical pump using sodium as the lubricant were critically examined to determine their ability to withstand seismic loads. Initial linear dynamics analyses predicted journal displacements to exceed bearing clearance by a ratio of 3:1. Equivalent time-history excitations were then developed from the response spectra to determine the number, magnitude, and duration of the bearing impact loads. Predicted loads were further reduced by 50% by modeling non-linear bearing characteristics normally present but not generally included in conventional linear analyses. Results are presented of the comprehensive design evaluation performed, based on these non-linear predictions, that assess stress, wear, and fatigue to demonstrate hydrostatic bearing integrity.

  18. Derivation of the state matrix for dynamic analysis of linear homogeneous media.

    PubMed

    Parra Martinez, Juan Pablo; Dazel, Olivier; Göransson, Peter; Cuenca, Jacques

    2016-08-01

    A method to obtain the state matrix of an arbitrary linear homogeneous medium excited by a plane wave is proposed. The approach is based on projections on the eigenspace of the governing equations matrix. It is an alternative to manually obtaining a linearly independent set of equations by combining the governing equations. The resulting matrix has been validated against previously published derivations for an anisotropic poroelastic medium. PMID:27586783

  19. Quantifying the metabolic capabilities of engineered Zymomonas mobilis using linear programming analysis

    PubMed Central

    Tsantili, Ivi C; Karim, M Nazmul; Klapa, Maria I

    2007-01-01

    Background The need for discovery of alternative, renewable, environmentally friendly energy sources and the development of cost-efficient, "clean" methods for their conversion into higher fuels becomes imperative. Ethanol, whose significance as fuel has dramatically increased in the last decade, can be produced from hexoses and pentoses through microbial fermentation. Importantly, plant biomass, if appropriately and effectively decomposed, is a potential inexpensive and highly renewable source of the hexose and pentose mixture. Recently, the engineered (to also catabolize pentoses) anaerobic bacterium Zymomonas mobilis has been widely discussed among the most promising microorganisms for the microbial production of ethanol fuel. However, Z. mobilis genome having been fully sequenced in 2005, there is still a small number of published studies of its in vivo physiology and limited use of the metabolic engineering experimental and computational toolboxes to understand its metabolic pathway interconnectivity and regulation towards the optimization of its hexose and pentose fermentation into ethanol. Results In this paper, we reconstructed the metabolic network of the engineered Z. mobilis to a level that it could be modelled using the metabolic engineering methodologies. We then used linear programming (LP) analysis and identified the Z. mobilis metabolic boundaries with respect to various biological objectives, these boundaries being determined only by Z. mobilis network's stoichiometric connectivity. This study revealed the essential for bacterial growth reactions and elucidated the association between the metabolic pathways, especially regarding main product and byproduct formation. More specifically, the study indicated that ethanol and biomass production depend directly on anaerobic respiration stoichiometry and activity. Thus, enhanced understanding and improved means for analyzing anaerobic respiration and redox potential in vivo are needed to yield further

  20. Comparative Finite Element Method Analysis of Spiroid Worm Gear Drives Having Arched Profile and Having Linear Profile in Axial Section

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodzás, Sándor; Dudás, Illés

    2014-12-01

    With the knowledge of the advantageous characteristics of the cylindrical worm gear drives having arched profile in axial section and the conical worm gear drives having linear profile in axial section, a new geometric type conical worm gear drive has been designed and then manufactured, that is the conical worm gear drive having arched profile in axial section. Beside similar charging and marginal conditions in case of the same geometric spiroid worm gear drives having arched profile and having linear profile in axial section we have done comparative finite element method analysis for awarding of the strains, deformations and stresses of this gear drives.

  1. Non-linear behaviour of XTE J1550-564 during its 1998-1999 outburst, revealed by recurrence analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suková, Petra; Janiuk, Agnieszka

    2016-06-01

    We study the X-ray emission of the microquasar XTE J1550-564 and analyze the properties of its light curves using the recurrence analysis method. The indicators for non-linear dynamics of the accretion flow are found in the very high state and soft state of this source. The significance of deterministic variability depends on the energy band. We discuss the non-linear dynamics of the accretion flow in the context of the disc-corona geometry and propagating oscillations in the accretion flow.

  2. Characteristic Analysis and Trial Manufacture of Permanent-Magnetic Type Linear Generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahara, Kenji; Ohsaki, Shingo; Itoh, Yuzo; Ohyama, Kazuhiro; Kawaguchi, Hideki

    This paper describes design and trial manufacture of the linear generator, which can convert any mechanical vibration of an automobile to electric energy. A mover, which includes permanent magnets, is linearly driven through a stator, by vibrations. Nd Fe-B magnets in the mover are placed as same magnetic poles face mutually, in order to make the change of magnetic flux in the coils of the stator. The coils are placed in the stator with same intervals of magnets. The coils are wound for the reverse to the next coil and they are connected series all. A magnetic material case covers the stator makes the magnetic flax is extended through the case and decrease canceling the flux in the coils of the stator. Numerical simulations calculated distribution of the magnetic field, electromotive force and driven power of the mover in order to determine the size of the linear generator. The linear generator and an experimental apparatus were produced on the basis of the simulation, and its performance was tested by experiments. The produced linear generator was confirmed to be useful as an onboard auxiliary power supply.

  3. A comparative numerical analysis of linear and nonlinear aerodynamic sound generation by vortex disturbances in homentropic constant shear flows

    SciTech Connect

    Hau, Jan-Niklas Oberlack, Martin; Chagelishvili, George; Khujadze, George; Tevzadze, Alexander

    2015-12-15

    plane, which results in highly directional linear sound radiation, whereas the nonlinearly generated waves are almost omni-directional. As part of this analysis, we compare the effectiveness of the linear and nonlinear mechanisms of wave generation within the range of validity of the rapid distortion theory and show the dominance of the linear aerodynamic sound generation. Finally, topological differences between the linear source term of the acoustic analogy equation and of the anisotropic non-normality induced linear mechanism of wave generation are found.

  4. A comparative numerical analysis of linear and nonlinear aerodynamic sound generation by vortex disturbances in homentropic constant shear flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hau, Jan-Niklas; Chagelishvili, George; Khujadze, George; Oberlack, Martin; Tevzadze, Alexander

    2015-12-01

    results in highly directional linear sound radiation, whereas the nonlinearly generated waves are almost omni-directional. As part of this analysis, we compare the effectiveness of the linear and nonlinear mechanisms of wave generation within the range of validity of the rapid distortion theory and show the dominance of the linear aerodynamic sound generation. Finally, topological differences between the linear source term of the acoustic analogy equation and of the anisotropic non-normality induced linear mechanism of wave generation are found.

  5. Linear stability analysis of Korteweg stresses effect on miscible viscous fingering in porous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pramanik, Satyajit; Mishra, Manoranjan

    2013-07-01

    Viscous fingering (VF) is an interfacial hydrodynamic instability phenomenon observed when a fluid of lower viscosity displaces a higher viscous one in a porous media. In miscible viscous fingering, the concentration gradient of the undergoing fluids is an important factor, as the viscosity of the fluids are driven by concentration. Diffusion takes place when two miscible fluids are brought in contact with each other. However, if the diffusion rate is slow enough, the concentration gradient of the two fluids remains very large during some time. Such steep concentration gradient, which mimics a surface tension type force, called the effective interfacial tension, appears in various cases such as aqua-organic, polymer-monomer miscible systems, etc. Such interfacial tension effects on miscible VF is modeled using a stress term called Korteweg stress in the Darcy's equation by coupling with the convection-diffusion equation of the concentration. The effect of the Korteweg stresses at the onset of the instability has been analyzed through a linear stability analysis using a self-similar Quasi-steady-state-approximation (SS-QSSA) in which a self-similar diffusive base state profile is considered. The quasi-steady-state analyses available in literature are compared with the present SS-QSSA method and found that the latter captures appropriately the unconditional stability criterion at an earlier diffusive time as well as in long wave approximation. The effects of various governing parameters such as log-mobility ratio, Korteweg parameters, disturbances' wave number, etc., on the onset of the instability are discussed for, (i) the two semi-infinite miscible fluid zones and (ii) VF of the miscible slice cases. The stabilizing property of the Korteweg stresses effect is observed for both of the above mentioned cases. Critical miscible slice lengths are computed to have the onset of the instability for different governing parameters with or without Korteweg stresses. These

  6. Applications of multivariate modeling to neuroimaging group analysis: a comprehensive alternative to univariate general linear model.

    PubMed

    Chen, Gang; Adleman, Nancy E; Saad, Ziad S; Leibenluft, Ellen; Cox, Robert W

    2014-10-01

    All neuroimaging packages can handle group analysis with t-tests or general linear modeling (GLM). However, they are quite hamstrung when there are multiple within-subject factors or when quantitative covariates are involved in the presence of a within-subject factor. In addition, sphericity is typically assumed for the variance-covariance structure when there are more than two levels in a within-subject factor. To overcome such limitations in the traditional AN(C)OVA and GLM, we adopt a multivariate modeling (MVM) approach to analyzing neuroimaging data at the group level with the following advantages: a) there is no limit on the number of factors as long as sample sizes are deemed appropriate; b) quantitative covariates can be analyzed together with within-subject factors; c) when a within-subject factor is involved, three testing methodologies are provided: traditional univariate testing (UVT) with sphericity assumption (UVT-UC) and with correction when the assumption is violated (UVT-SC), and within-subject multivariate testing (MVT-WS); d) to correct for sphericity violation at the voxel level, we propose a hybrid testing (HT) approach that achieves equal or higher power via combining traditional sphericity correction methods (Greenhouse-Geisser and Huynh-Feldt) with MVT-WS. To validate the MVM methodology, we performed simulations to assess the controllability for false positives and power achievement. A real FMRI dataset was analyzed to demonstrate the capability of the MVM approach. The methodology has been implemented into an open source program 3dMVM in AFNI, and all the statistical tests can be performed through symbolic coding with variable names instead of the tedious process of dummy coding. Our data indicates that the severity of sphericity violation varies substantially across brain regions. The differences among various modeling methodologies were addressed through direct comparisons between the MVM approach and some of the GLM implementations in

  7. Two dimensional and linear scintillation detectors for fast neutron imaging — comparative analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikerov, V. I.; Koshelev, A. P.; Ozerov, O. V.; Sviridov, A. S.; Yurkov, D. I.

    2014-05-01

    The paper was aimed to compare performance capabilities of two types of scintillation detectors commonly used for fast neutron imaging: two dimensional and linear ones. Best-case values of quantum efficiency, spatial resolution and capacity were estimated for detectors with plastic converter-screen in case of 14 MeV neutrons. For that there were examined nuclear reactions produced in converter-screen by fast neutrons, spatial distributions of energy release of emerged charged particles and amplitude distributions of scintillations generated by these particles. The paper shows that the efficiency of the linear detector is essentially higher and this detector provides potentially better spatial resolution in comparison with the two dimensional detector. But, the two dimensional detector surpasses the linear one in capacity. The presented results can be used for designing radiographic fast neutron detectors with organic scintillators.

  8. Use of non-linear EEG analysis to study abnormal brain dynamics in deaf human subjects.

    PubMed

    Micheloyannis, S; Stam, C J; Fountoulakis, E; Bourkas, M; Arvanitis, S; Papanikolaou, E

    1998-06-19

    We compared the cortical dynamics of deaf subjects to those of control subjects at rest with eyes closed and during reading with the help of a non-linear prediction statistic. This method is suitable for short-term noisy time series such as electroencephalographic signals. Furthermore, we used surrogate data to test for non-linear dynamics underlying the electroencephalographic time series recorded. Our results indicate that significant non-linearity accompanies cortical activation during reading. This is more diffuse in deaf subjects and could be due to the widespread reorganization of their cerebral cortex. Predictability was lower in deaf subjects at rest, which indicates their increased 'readiness' in the resting condition. Finally, our results indicate that normal and deaf subjects differ significantly in terms of cortical dynamics. PMID:9682843

  9. Linear and nonlinear analysis of a gyrotron traveling wave amplifier with misaligned electron beam

    SciTech Connect

    Jiao Chongqing; Luo Jirun

    2006-11-15

    This paper presents linear and self-consistent nonlinear theories to describe the beam-wave interaction in a gyrotron traveling wave amplifier (gyro-TWA) with a misaligned electron beam. A linear theory based on the linearized Vlasov equations is developed by using Laplace transforms. By setting appropriate initial values of the electron guiding center, the nonlinear theory without misalignment can be used to study the misalignment effect. The two theories are in good agreement in the small-signal region for the gyro-TWA. The effects of beam misalignment on the TE{sub 01} mode gyro-TWA operating at the fundamental are discussed and the corresponding physical mechanism is analyzed.

  10. Influence of shear in the non-linear analysis of RC members

    SciTech Connect

    Diotallevi, Pier Paolo; Landi, Luca; Cardinetti, Filippo

    2008-07-08

    The purpose of this study is to develop an analytical model characterized by a beam-column finite element which is able to reproduce the non-linear flexural-shear behavior of RC structures. The paper shows a brief description of the finite element formulation, the theory used for modeling the constitutive relationship and the scheme of the algorithm, transformed in a computer program, which was developed for implementing the theoretical model. Finally it illustrates a comparison with available experimental results for the calibration and validation of the model and a study on the influence of the non-linear shear response.

  11. Reconciling the eigenmode analysis with the Maxwell Bloch equations approach to superradiance in the linear regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedberg, Richard; Manassah, Jamal T.

    2008-07-01

    The superradiance from a slab of inverted two-level atoms is theoretically analyzed in the linear regime from both the perspective of the expansion in eigenfunctions of the integral equation with the Lienard-Wiechert potential as kernel, and that of linearizing the Maxwell-Bloch equations. We show the equivalence of both approaches. We show that the so-called Reduced Maxwell-Bloch equations do not yield even approximately the correct solution when applied in the obvious way, but that they can be made to give the correct solution by adding a fictitious input field.

  12. Soft-decision decoding techniques for linear block codes and their error performance analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Shu

    1996-01-01

    The first paper presents a new minimum-weight trellis-based soft-decision iterative decoding algorithm for binary linear block codes. The second paper derives an upper bound on the probability of block error for multilevel concatenated codes (MLCC). The bound evaluates difference in performance for different decompositions of some codes. The third paper investigates the bit error probability code for maximum likelihood decoding of binary linear codes. The fourth and final paper included in this report is concerns itself with the construction of multilevel concatenated block modulation codes using a multilevel concatenation scheme for the frequency non-selective Rayleigh fading channel.

  13. The ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP) channel-encoded dSUR gene is required for Drosophila heart function and is regulated by tinman

    PubMed Central

    Akasaka, Takeshi; Klinedinst, Susan; Ocorr, Karen; Bustamante, Erika L.; Kim, Seung K.; Bodmer, Rolf

    2006-01-01

    The homeobox transcription factor Tinman plays an important role in the initiation of heart development. Later functions of Tinman, including the target genes involved in cardiac physiology, are less well studied. We focused on the dSUR gene, which encodes an ATP-binding cassette transmembrane protein that is expressed in the heart. Mammalian SUR genes are associated with KATP (ATP-sensitive potassium) channels, which are involved in metabolic homeostasis. We provide experimental evidence that Tinman directly regulates dSUR expression in the developing heart. We identified a cis-regulatory element in the first intron of dSUR, which contains Tinman consensus binding sites and is sufficient for faithful dSUR expression in the fly’s myocardium. Site-directed mutagenesis of this element shows that these Tinman sites are critical to dSUR expression, and further genetic manipulations suggest that the GATA transcription factor Pannier is synergistically involved in cardiac-restricted dSUR expression in vivo. Physiological analysis of dSUR knock-down flies supports the idea that dSUR plays a protective role against hypoxic stress and pacing-induced heart failure. Because dSUR expression dramatically decreases with age, it is likely to be a factor involved in the cardiac aging phenotype of Drosophila. dSUR provides a model for addressing how embryonic regulators of myocardial cell commitment can contribute to the establishment and maintenance of cardiac performance. PMID:16882722

  14. Localization of sulfonylurea receptor subunits, SUR2A and SUR2B, in rat heart.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Ming; He, Hui-Jing; Suzuki, Ryoji; Liu, Ke-Xiang; Tanaka, Osamu; Sekiguchi, Masaki; Itoh, Hideaki; Kawahara, Katsumasa; Abe, Hiroshi

    2007-08-01

    To understand the possible functions and subcellular localizations of sulfonylurea receptors (SURs) in cardiac muscle, polyclonal anti-SUR2A and anti-SUR2B antisera were raised. Immunoblots revealed both SUR2A and SUR2B expression in mitochondrial fractions of rat heart and other cellular fractions such as microsomes and cell membranes. Immunostaining detected ubiquitous expression of both SUR2A and SUR2B in rat heart in the atria, ventricles, interatrial and interventricular septa, and smooth muscles and endothelia of the coronary arteries. Electron microscopy revealed SUR2A immunoreactivity in the cell membrane, endoplasmic reticulum (ER), and mitochondria. SUR2B immunoreactivity was mainly localized in the mitochondria as well as in the ER and cell membrane. Thus, SUR2A and SUR2B are not only the regulatory subunits of sarcolemmal K(ATP) channels but may also function as regulatory subunits in mitochondrial K(ATP) channels and play important roles in cardioprotection. PMID:17438353

  15. Identification of wheat varieties with a parallel-plate capacitance sensor using fisher linear discriminant analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fisher’s linear discriminant (FLD) models for wheat variety classification were developed and validated. The inputs to the FLD models were the capacitance (C), impedance (Z), and phase angle ('), measured at two frequencies. Classification of wheat varieties was obtained as output of the FLD mod...

  16. Effects on Predictive Ability of the Linear versus Location Models in Discriminant Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steele, Maryann E.

    The Mahalanobis distance model was compared with the linear discriminant function model and found to provide very similar results, even when a number of the variables were binary. A group of college freshmen were categorized into two groups: 116 "leavers," students who did not return for the second year, and 269 "returners." Data from the…

  17. A non-axisymmetric linearized supersonic wave drag analysis: Mathematical theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnhart, Paul J.

    1996-01-01

    A Mathematical theory is developed to perform the calculations necessary to determine the wave drag for slender bodies of non-circular cross section. The derivations presented in this report are based on extensions to supersonic linearized small perturbation theory. A numerical scheme is presented utilizing Fourier decomposition to compute the pressure coefficient on and about a slender body of arbitrary cross section.

  18. Analysis of aromaticity in planar metal systems using the linear response kernel.

    PubMed

    Fias, Stijn; Boisdenghien, Zino; Stuyver, Thijs; Audiffred, Martha; Merino, Gabriel; Geerlings, Paul; de Proft, Frank

    2013-04-25

    The linear response kernel is used to gain insight into the aromatic behavior of the less classical metal aromatic E4(2-) and CE4(2-) (E = Al, Ga) clusters. The effect of the systematic replacement of the aluminum atoms in Al4(2-) and CAl4(2-) by germanium atoms is studied using, Al3Ge-, Al2Ge2, AlGe3+, Ge4(2+), CAl3Ge-, CAl2Ge2, CAlGe3+, and CGe4(2+). The results are compared with the values of the delocalization index (δ(1,3)) and nucleus independent chemical shifts (NICS(zz)). Unintegrated plots of the linear response, computed for the first time on molecules, are used to analyze the delocalization in these clusters. All aromaticity indices studied, the linear response, δ(1,3), and NICS(zz), predict that the systems with a central carbon are less aromatic than the systems without a central carbon atom. Also, the linear response is more pronounced in the σ-electron density than in the π-density, pointing out that the systems are mainly σ-aromatic. PMID:23534921

  19. Finite element procedures for coupled linear analysis of heat transfer, fluid and solid mechanics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sutjahjo, Edhi; Chamis, Christos C.

    1993-01-01

    Coupled finite element formulations for fluid mechanics, heat transfer, and solid mechanics are derived from the conservation laws for energy, mass, and momentum. To model the physics of interactions among the participating disciplines, the linearized equations are coupled by combining domain and boundary coupling procedures. Iterative numerical solution strategy is presented to solve the equations, with the partitioning of temporal discretization implemented.

  20. Student Connections of Linear Algebra Concepts: An Analysis of Concept Maps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lapp, Douglas A.; Nyman, Melvin A.; Berry, John S.

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the connections of linear algebra concepts in a first course at the undergraduate level. The theoretical underpinnings of this study are grounded in the constructivist perspective (including social constructivism), Vernaud's theory of conceptual fields and Pirie and Kieren's model for the growth of mathematical understanding.…

  1. Analysis of the linear stability of compressible boundary layers using the PSE. [parabolic stability equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bertolotti, F. P.; Herbert, TH.

    1991-01-01

    The application of linearized parabolic stability equations (PSE) to compressible flow is considered. The effect of mean-flow nonparallelism is found to be weak on 2D waves and strong on 3D waves. Results for a single choice of free-stream parameters that corresponds to the atmospheric conditions at 15,000 m above sea level are presented.

  2. An automated land-use mapping comparison of the Bayesian maximum likelihood and linear discriminant analysis algorithms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tom, C. H.; Miller, L. D.

    1984-01-01

    The Bayesian maximum likelihood parametric classifier has been tested against the data-based formulation designated 'linear discrimination analysis', using the 'GLIKE' decision and "CLASSIFY' classification algorithms in the Landsat Mapping System. Identical supervised training sets, USGS land use/land cover classes, and various combinations of Landsat image and ancilliary geodata variables, were used to compare the algorithms' thematic mapping accuracy on a single-date summer subscene, with a cellularized USGS land use map of the same time frame furnishing the ground truth reference. CLASSIFY, which accepts a priori class probabilities, is found to be more accurate than GLIKE, which assumes equal class occurrences, for all three mapping variable sets and both levels of detail. These results may be generalized to direct accuracy, time, cost, and flexibility advantages of linear discriminant analysis over Bayesian methods.

  3. Linearized blade row compression component model. Stability and frequency response analysis of a J85-3 compressor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tesch, W. A.; Moszee, R. H.; Steenken, W. G.

    1976-01-01

    NASA developed stability and frequency response analysis techniques were applied to a dynamic blade row compression component stability model to provide a more economic approach to surge line and frequency response determination than that provided by time-dependent methods. This blade row model was linearized and the Jacobian matrix was formed. The clean-inlet-flow stability characteristics of the compressors of two J85-13 engines were predicted by applying the alternate Routh-Hurwitz stability criterion to the Jacobian matrix. The predicted surge line agreed with the clean-inlet-flow surge line predicted by the time-dependent method to a high degree except for one engine at 94% corrected speed. No satisfactory explanation of this discrepancy was found. The frequency response of the linearized system was determined by evaluating its Laplace transfer function. The results of the linearized-frequency-response analysis agree with the time-dependent results when the time-dependent inlet total-pressure and exit-flow function amplitude boundary conditions are less than 1 percent and 3 percent, respectively. The stability analysis technique was extended to a two-sector parallel compressor model with and without interstage crossflow and predictions were carried out for total-pressure distortion extents of 180 deg, 90 deg, 60 deg, and 30 deg.

  4. An Analysis of 24-Hour Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring Data using Orthonormal Polynomials in the Linear Mixed Model

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, Lloyd J.; Simpson, Sean L.

    2014-01-01

    Background The use of 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) in clinical practice and observational epidemiological studies has grown considerably in the past 25 years. ABPM is a very effective technique for assessing biological, environmental, and drug effects on blood pressure. Objectives In order to enhance the effectiveness of ABPM for clinical and observational research studies via analytical and graphical results, developing alternative data analysis approaches using modern statistical techniques are important. Methods The linear mixed model for the analysis of longitudinal data is particularly well-suited for the estimation of, inference about, and interpretation of both population (mean) and subject-specific trajectories for ABPM data. We propose using a linear mixed model with orthonormal polynomials across time in both the fixed and random effects to analyze ABPM data. Results We demonstrate the proposed analysis technique using data from the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) study, a multicenter, randomized, parallel arm feeding study that tested the effects of dietary patterns on blood pressure. Conclusions The linear mixed model is relatively easy to implement (given the complexity of the technique) using available software, allows for straight-forward testing of multiple hypotheses, and the results can be presented to research clinicians using both graphical and tabular displays. Using orthonormal polynomials provides the ability to model the nonlinear trajectories of each subject with the same complexity as the mean model (fixed effects). PMID:24667908

  5. Weighted linear least squares problem: an interval analysis approach to rank determination

    SciTech Connect

    Manteuffel, T. A.

    1980-08-01

    This is an extension of the work in SAND--80-0655 to the weighted linear least squares problem. Given the weighted linear least squares problem WAx approx. = Wb, where W is a diagonal weighting matrix, and bounds on the uncertainty in the elements of A, we define an interval matrix A/sup I/ that contains all perturbations of A due to these uncertainties and say that the problem is rank deficient if any member of A/sup I/ is rank deficient. It is shown that, if WA = QR is the QR decomposition of WA, then Q and R/sup -1/ can be used to bound the rank of A/sup I/. A modification of the Modified Gram--Schmidt QR decomposition yields an algorithm that implements these results. The extra arithmetic is 0(MN). Numerical results show the algorithm to be effective on problems in which the weights vary greatly in magnitude.

  6. Covariance analysis and phase ambiguity resolution for a linear interferometer antenna array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, James Andrew

    This thesis explores the application of mathematical techniques for estimating the angle of arrival (AOA) using a receiving platform having a linear interferometer antenna array. It addresses the estimation accuracy of interferometer phase measurements of a signal with superposed Gaussian noise from multiple antenna baselines, and provides a method for resolving the modulo two-pi problem inherent to many phase measurement systems. The study extends prior theoretical work (Hanna, C., 1983) by laying a mathematical foundation to complement his geometrical approach, provides a robust method of performance prediction for such a system. Key elements include estimation accuracy of a signal parameter with additive noise; the design of the linear antenna array element spacings and the relationship to Diophantine equations; and the application of the Cramer-Rao lower bound on variance of parameter estimation. It is hoped that the work presented here will serve as a practical guide for research scientists and engineers.

  7. A linear analysis of the effect of Faradaic currents on traveling-wave electroosmosis.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Antonio; González, Antonio; García-Sánchez, Pablo; Castellanos, Antonio

    2007-05-15

    Net fluid flow of electrolytic solutions induced by a traveling-wave potential applied to an array of co-planar interdigitated microelectrodes has been reported. At low applied voltages the flow is driven in the direction of the traveling-wave potential, as expected by linear and weakly nonlinear theoretical studies. The flow is driven at the surfaces of the electrodes by electrical forces acting in the diffuse electrical double layer. The pumping mechanism has been analyzed theoretically under the assumption of perfectly polarizable electrodes. Here we extend these studies to include the effect of Faradaic currents on the electroosmotic slip velocity generated at the electrode/electrolyte interface. We integrate the electrokinetic equations under the thin-double-layer and low-potential approximations. Finally, we analyze the pumping of electrolyte induced by a traveling-wave signal applied to a microelectrode array using this linear model. PMID:17346725

  8. Kinematics Analysis of the Parallel Mechanism with Vertically Fixed Linear Actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masuda, Takanori; Fujiwara, Motoyoshi; Arai, Tatsuo

    A 6 degrees of freedom parallel mechanism actuated by vertically fixed linear actuators was developed for heavy material handling and machining. The mechanism allows easy trajectory generation, since the vertical arrangement of the linear actuators simplifies the caluculation of its inverse kinematics. This paper presents inverse kinematics and Jacobian matirix solutions. Way to avoid component interference, which is divided into three types, is proposed. The combination of design parameters is decided by comparing the characteristics of area of movement, resolution and velocity. The working space is then shown. The singularity is analyzed by evaluating determinants of the Jacobian matrix. Lengthening the connecting rods and limiting the range of the end effector rotational angles are effective in avoiding the singular configurations as well as interference. Finally, the developed prototype mechanism is introduced, and its application to tool positioning and machining is described.

  9. Use of linear graphs in the analysis of spin diffusion in NOE spectra of macromolecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majumdar, A.

    Semianalytical expressions have been obtained for the time development of the transient NOE in multispin networks in the ω0τc ≫ 1 limit, which is relevant to macromolecular systems. It is observed that the spin-diffusion function in an n-spin system can be partitioned into two contributions, one which is dependent on the identity of the two spins between which the NOE is being observed and one which is common to all the spins in the network. A method employing linear graphs is demonstrated for determining appropriate coefficients involved in the contributing functions, which are tedious to obtain algebraically. Relevance to errors in the estimation of internuclear distances using the linear approximation is discussed.

  10. Exponential stability analysis of linear systems with multiple successive delay components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Chun-Pi; Fong, I.-Kong

    2013-06-01

    A general class of linear systems with multiple successive delay components is considered in this article. The delays are assumed to vary in intervals, and delay-dependent exponential stability conditions are derived in terms of linear matrix inequalities. To reduce conservativeness, a new Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional is designed to contain more complete state information, so that a derivation procedure with time-varying delays treated as uncertain parameters can be adopted. Usage of slack variables and inequalities are refrained as much as possible when bounds on the Lyapunov derivative are sought. The stability criteria are tested by two popular numerical examples, with less conservative results obtained in all the checked cases. Besides, a practical application of the derived conditions is illustrated.

  11. Studies in astronomical time series analysis. IV - Modeling chaotic and random processes with linear filters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scargle, Jeffrey D.

    1990-01-01

    While chaos arises only in nonlinear systems, standard linear time series models are nevertheless useful for analyzing data from chaotic processes. This paper introduces such a model, the chaotic moving average. This time-domain model is based on the theorem that any chaotic process can be represented as the convolution of a linear filter with an uncorrelated process called the chaotic innovation. A technique, minimum phase-volume deconvolution, is introduced to estimate the filter and innovation. The algorithm measures the quality of a model using the volume covered by the phase-portrait of the innovation process. Experiments on synthetic data demonstrate that the algorithm accurately recovers the parameters of simple chaotic processes. Though tailored for chaos, the algorithm can detect both chaos and randomness, distinguish them from each other, and separate them if both are present. It can also recover nonminimum-delay pulse shapes in non-Gaussian processes, both random and chaotic.

  12. Semiparametric Analysis of Heterogeneous Data Using Varying-Scale Generalized Linear Models

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Minge; Simpson, Douglas G.; Carroll, Raymond J.

    2009-01-01

    This article describes a class of heteroscedastic generalized linear regression models in which a subset of the regression parameters are rescaled nonparametrically, and develops efficient semiparametric inferences for the parametric components of the models. Such models provide a means to adapt for heterogeneity in the data due to varying exposures, varying levels of aggregation, and so on. The class of models considered includes generalized partially linear models and nonparametrically scaled link function models as special cases. We present an algorithm to estimate the scale function nonparametrically, and obtain asymptotic distribution theory for regression parameter estimates. In particular, we establish that the asymptotic covariance of the semiparametric estimator for the parametric part of the model achieves the semiparametric lower bound. We also describe bootstrap-based goodness-of-scale test. We illustrate the methodology with simulations, published data, and data from collaborative research on ultrasound safety. PMID:19444331

  13. Novel linear analysis for a gyrotron oscillator based on a spectral approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genoud, J.; Tran, T. M.; Alberti, S.; Braunmueller, F.; Hogge, J.-Ph.; Tran, M. Q.; Guss, W. C.; Temkin, R. J.

    2016-04-01

    With the aim of gaining a better physical insight into linear regimes in gyrotrons, a new linear model was developed. This model is based on a spectral approach for solving the self-consistent system of equations describing the wave-particle interaction in the cavity of a gyrotron oscillator. Taking into account the wall-losses self-consistently and including the main system inhomogeneities in the cavity geometry and in the magnetic field, the model is appropriate to consider real system parameters. The main advantage of the spectral approach, compared with a time-dependent approach, is the possibility to describe all of the stable and unstable modes, respectively, with negative and positive growth rates. This permits to reveal the existence of a new set of eigenmodes, in addition to the usual eigenmodes issued from cold-cavity modes. The proposed model can be used for studying other instabilities such as, for instance, backward waves potentially excited in gyrotron beam tunnels.

  14. Model-size reduction for the non-linear dynamic analysis of quasi-symmetric structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noor, Ahmed K.; Peters, Jeanne M.

    1987-01-01

    A numerical technique is developed to reduce the size of models describing the nonlinear dynamic response of quasi-symmetric structures (i.e., structures with unsymmetric geometry). The response vectors of the structure are approximated by a linear combination of the symmetric and antisymmetric vectors at each time step. The mathematical formulation and numerical implementation of the method are described in detail, and results for a shallow laminated anisotropic panel of quadrilateral planform are presented in graphs and normalized contour plots.

  15. VIBRA: An interactive computer program for steady-state vibration response analysis of linear damped structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowman, L. M.

    1984-01-01

    An interactive steady state frequency response computer program with graphics is documented. Single or multiple forces may be applied to the structure using a modal superposition approach to calculate response. The method can be reapplied to linear, proportionally damped structures in which the damping may be viscous or structural. The theoretical approach and program organization are described. Example problems, user instructions, and a sample interactive session are given to demonstate the program's capability in solving a variety of problems.

  16. Regularized moment equations for binary gas mixtures: Derivation and linear analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Vinay Kumar; Struchtrup, Henning; Torrilhon, Manuel

    2016-04-01

    The applicability of the order of magnitude method [H. Struchtrup, "Stable transport equations for rarefied gases at high orders in the Knudsen number," Phys. Fluids 16, 3921-3934 (2004)] is extended to binary gas mixtures in order to derive various sets of equations—having minimum number of moments at a given order of accuracy in the Knudsen number—for binary mixtures of monatomic-inert-ideal gases interacting with the Maxwell interaction potential. For simplicity, the equations are derived in the linear regime up to third order accuracy in the Knudsen number. At zeroth order, the method produces the Euler equations; at first order, it results into the Fick, Navier-Stokes, and Fourier equations; at second order, it yields a set of 17 moment equations; and at third order, it leads to the regularized 17-moment equations. The transport coefficients in the Fick, Navier-Stokes, and Fourier equations obtained through order of magnitude method are compared with those obtained through the classical Chapman-Enskog expansion method. It is established that the different temperatures of different constituents do not play a role up to second order accurate theories in the Knudsen number, whereas they do contribute to third order accurate theory in the Knudsen number. Furthermore, it is found empirically that the zeroth, first, and second order accurate equations are linearly stable for all binary gas mixtures; however, although the third order accurate regularized 17-moment equations are linearly stable for most of the mixtures, they are linearly unstable for mixtures having extreme difference in molecular masses.

  17. Analysis of a teleportation scheme involving cavity field states in a linear superposition of Fock states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carvalho, C. R.; Guerra, E. S.; Jalbert, Ginette

    2008-04-01

    We analyse a teleportation scheme of cavity field states. The experimental sketch discussed makes use of cavity quantum electrodynamics involving the interaction of Rydberg atoms with superconducting (micromaser) cavities as well as with classical microwave (Ramsey) cavities. In our scheme the Ramsey cavities and the atoms play the role of auxiliary systems used to teleport a field state, which is formed by a linear superposition of vacuum |∅> and the one-photon state |1>, from a micromaser cavity to another.

  18. Exact solutions and linear stability analysis for two-dimensional Ablowitz-Ladik equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jin-Liang; Wang, Hong-Xian

    2014-04-01

    The Ablowitz-Ladik equation is a very important model in nonlinear mathematical physics. In this paper, the hyperbolic function solitary wave solutions, the trigonometric function periodic wave solutions, and the rational wave solutions with more arbitrary parameters of two-dimensional Ablowitz-Ladik equation are derived by using the (G'/G)-expansion method, and the effects of the parameters (including the coupling constant and other parameters) on the linear stability of the exact solutions are analysed and numerically simulated.

  19. Linear stability analysis of self-excited vibrations in drilling using an infinite dimensional model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aarsnes, Ulf Jakob F.; Aamo, Ole Morten

    2016-01-01

    This paper deals with predicting the occurrence of self-excited vibrations during drilling. Previous work postulates that these are due to the coupling between the distributed drill string system and the regenerative effect in the bit-rock interaction law. We use a previously developed distributed model and the linearized bit-rock interaction law to derive a graphical condition for stability based on the Nyquist stability criterion.

  20. Linear Analysis Tools for Edge and Scrape-off-Layer Plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Myra, J R; Umansky, M

    2008-05-20

    The edge and scrape-off-layer region of a tokamak plasma is subject to well-known ideal and resistive instabilities that are driven by various curvature- and sheath-related mechanisms. While the boundary plasma is typically strongly turbulent in experiments, it is useful to have computational tools that can analyze the linear eigenmode structure, predict quantitative trends in growth rates and elucidate the underlying drive mechanisms. Furthermore, measurement of the linear growth rate of unstable modes emerging from a known, established equilibrium configuration is one of the few methods that can provide rigorous quantitative benchmarking of plasma turbulence codes. Because the tokamak edge physics community is becoming increasingly reliant on large-scale-simulation, rigorous verification and validation (V&V) of edge codes is critical. In this paper, we describe a suite of codes that can describe linearized, nonlocal (e.g. separatrix-spanning) modes in axisymmetric (realistic divertor), toroidal geometry. Results of benchmark comparisons are given for these codes, with each other and with analytical results. The inclusion of kinetic physics effects in 2DX is also discussed.

  1. Existence of Compressible Current-Vortex Sheets: Variable Coefficients Linear Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trakhinin, Yuri

    2005-09-01

    We study the initial-boundary value problem resulting from the linearization of the equations of ideal compressible magnetohydrodynamics and the Rankine-Hugoniot relations about an unsteady piecewise smooth solution. This solution is supposed to be a classical solution of the system of magnetohydrodynamics on either side of a surface of tangential discontinuity (current-vortex sheet). Under some assumptions on the unperturbed flow, we prove an energy a priori estimate for the linearized problem. Since the tangential discontinuity is characteristic, the functional setting is provided by the anisotropic weighted Sobolev space W21,σ. Despite the fact that the constant coefficients linearized problem does not meet the uniform Kreiss-Lopatinskii condition, the estimate we obtain is without loss of smoothness even for the variable coefficients problem and nonplanar current-vortex sheets. The result of this paper is a necessary step in proving the local-in-time existence of current-vortex sheet solutions of the nonlinear equations of magnetohydrodynamics.

  2. Reservoir computing and extreme learning machines for non-linear time-series data analysis.

    PubMed

    Butcher, J B; Verstraeten, D; Schrauwen, B; Day, C R; Haycock, P W

    2013-02-01

    Random projection architectures such as Echo state networks (ESNs) and Extreme Learning Machines (ELMs) use a network containing a randomly connected hidden layer and train only the output weights, overcoming the problems associated with the complex and computationally demanding training algorithms traditionally used to train neural networks, particularly recurrent neural networks. In this study an ESN is shown to contain an antagonistic trade-off between the amount of non-linear mapping and short-term memory it can exhibit when applied to time-series data which are highly non-linear. To overcome this trade-off a new architecture, Reservoir with Random Static Projections (R(2)SP) is investigated, that is shown to offer a significant improvement in performance. A similar approach using an ELM whose input is presented through a time delay (TD-ELM) is shown to further enhance performance where it significantly outperformed the ESN and R(2)SP as well other architectures when applied to a novel task which allows the short-term memory and non-linearity to be varied. The hard-limiting memory of the TD-ELM appears to be best suited for the data investigated in this study, although ESN-based approaches may offer improved performance when processing data which require a longer fading memory. PMID:23275138

  3. Linear stability analysis and direct numerical simulation of two layer channel flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahu, Kirti; Govindarajan, Rama; Tripathi, Manoj

    2015-11-01

    We study the stability of two-fluid flow through a plane channel at Reynolds numbers of a hundred to a thousand. The two fluids have the same density but different viscosities. The fluids, when miscible, are separated from each other by a mixed layer of small but finite thickness, across which viscosity changes from that of one fluid to that of the other. When immiscible, the interface is sharp. Our study spans a range of Schmidt numbers, viscosity ratios and location and thickness of the mixed layer. Our two-dimensional linear stability results predict well the behaviour displayed by our three-dimensional direct numerical simulations at early times. In both linear and non-linear regimes, the miscible flow is more unstable than the corresponding immiscible one, and the miscible flow breaks spanwise symmetry more readily to go into three-dimensionality. We show that the miscible flow over our range of parameters is always significantly more unstable than the corresponding immiscible case.

  4. Analysis of competing topologies of linear induction machines for high-speed material transport systems

    SciTech Connect

    Jansen, P.L.; Li, L.J.; Lorenz, R.D.

    1995-07-01

    This paper investigates longitudinal and transverse flux linear motor topologies for very high acceleration rate (3--4 g), and high speed (120 km/h), material transport systems which have significant technical and economic potential in flexible manufacturing environments. The general topology under consideration is a double-sided, short-moving-secondary/long-fixed-primary, linear induction motor (LIM). The transport system requirements place severe demands upon the machine topology. In addition to efficient thrust production, the linear machine must be capable of generating large unbalanced normal (i.e., lateral) forces in order to achieve electromagnetic (mechanically passive) steering of vehicles with both straight and curvilinear primaries. Air gap chording and short secondary effects are two additional design complications. Minimization of the primary leakage inductance is necessary not only to minimize inverter ratings but also to maximize the influence of the secondary state on the primary terminal properties for magnetic flux and position/velocity estimation. The orientation of the magnetic flux (i.e., longitudinal versus transverse) has a significant impact upon the above conversion and is thus a major analytical focus of this paper. A hybrid system topology consisting of a longitudinal-flux orientation within straight sections and a transverse-flux orientation within curvilinear sections appears to offer the best of both topologies. The intended contribution of this paper is a detailed comparison of LIM topologies leading to a better design selection for very high performance systems.

  5. Moment-based, self-consistent linear analysis of gyrotron oscillators

    SciTech Connect

    Braunmueller, F. Tran, T. M.; Alberti, S.; Hogge, J.-Ph.; Tran, M. Q.

    2014-04-15

    A new model for simulating gyrotron oscillators in the monomode time-dependent linear self-consistent regime is presented. Starting from a nonlinear time-dependent monomode model, the linearization and the following simplification of the model, based on a moment approach, are described. This simplified model represents a numerically efficient model and allows to have a deeper physical insight, in particular, for regimes dominated by self-consistent effects such as for the gyro-backward wave instability. One specific case of a gyrotron cavity is studied in detail and compared with experimental results, with special attention to self-consistent effects and to the differences with a model using a fixed field profile. Self-consistent linear simulations are, amongst other applications, important for the design of frequency-tunable gyrotrons or high-power gyrotrons with cavities having a relatively low quality factor, but also for studies of parasitic oscillations as they may occur in beam ducts and/or in the launcher section following the interaction cavity.

  6. Moment-based, self-consistent linear analysis of gyrotron oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braunmueller, F.; Tran, T. M.; Alberti, S.; Hogge, J.-Ph.; Tran, M. Q.

    2014-04-01

    A new model for simulating gyrotron oscillators in the monomode time-dependent linear self-consistent regime is presented. Starting from a nonlinear time-dependent monomode model, the linearization and the following simplification of the model, based on a moment approach, are described. This simplified model represents a numerically efficient model and allows to have a deeper physical insight, in particular, for regimes dominated by self-consistent effects such as for the gyro-backward wave instability. One specific case of a gyrotron cavity is studied in detail and compared with experimental results, with special attention to self-consistent effects and to the differences with a model using a fixed field profile. Self-consistent linear simulations are, amongst other applications, important for the design of frequency-tunable gyrotrons or high-power gyrotrons with cavities having a relatively low quality factor, but also for studies of parasitic oscillations as they may occur in beam ducts and/or in the launcher section following the interaction cavity.

  7. Investigating the Equilibrium Melting Temperature of Polyethylene Using the Non-Linear Hoffman-Weeks Analysis: Effect of Molecular Weight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammadi, Hadi; Marand, Herve

    The limiting equilibrium melting temperature for infinite molar mass linear polyethylene, Tmo , has been a point of controversy for about five decades. On one hand, Broadhurst and Flory-Vrij extrapolated melting data for short alkanes to a value of ca. 145oC. On the other hand, Wunderlich proposed a value of 141oC from melting studies of extended-chain PE crystals formed under high pressure. While a difference in Tmo by 4oC might seem superfluous, it has significant implication for the analysis of the temperature and chain length dependences of crystal growth kinetic data. In this work we estimate the equilibrium melting temperatures, Tm for three linear narrow molecular weight distribution polyethylenes using the non-linear Hoffman-Weeks treatment. The resulting Tm values thus obtained are significantly lower than these predicted by the Flory-Vrij treatment and are within experimental uncertainty indistinguishable from those reported by Wunderlich and Hikosaka et al. Our results also suggest that the constant C2 in the expression for the undercooling dependence of the initial lamellar thickness (lg*= C1/ ΔT + C2) increases linearly with chain length.

  8. Streak instability and generation of hairpin-vortices by a slotted jet in channel crossflow: Experiments and linear stability analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Philip, Jimmy; Karp, Michael; Cohen, Jacob

    2016-01-01

    Streaks and hairpin-vortices are experimentally generated in a laminar plane Poiseuille crossflow by injecting a continuous jet through a streamwise slot normal to the crossflow, with air as the working media. Small disturbances form stable streaks, however, higher disturbances cause the formation of streaks which undergo instability leading to the generation of hairpin vortices. Particular emphasis is placed on the flow conditions close to the generation of hairpin-vortices. Measurements are carried out in the cases of natural and phase-locked disturbance employing smoke visualisation, particle image velocimetry, and hot-wire anemometry, which include, the dominant frequency, wavelength, and the disturbance shape (or eigenfunctions) associated with the coherent part of the velocity field. A linear stability analysis for both one- and two-dimensional base-flows is carried out to understand the mechanism of instability and good agreement of wavelength and eigenfunctions are obtained when compared to the experimental data, and a slight under-prediction of the growth-rates by the linear stability analysis consistent with the final nonlinear stages in transitional flows. Furthermore, an energy analysis for both the temporal and spatial stability analysis revels the dominance of the symmetric varicose mode, again, in agreement with the experiments, which is found to be governed by the balance of the wallnormal shear and dissipative effects rather than the spanwise shear. In all cases the anti-symmetric sinuous modes governed by the spanwise shear are found to be damped both in analysis and in our experiments.

  9. Performance of an Axisymmetric Rocket Based Combined Cycle Engine During Rocket Only Operation Using Linear Regression Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Timothy D.; Steffen, Christopher J., Jr.; Yungster, Shaye; Keller, Dennis J.

    1998-01-01

    The all rocket mode of operation is shown to be a critical factor in the overall performance of a rocket based combined cycle (RBCC) vehicle. An axisymmetric RBCC engine was used to determine specific impulse efficiency values based upon both full flow and gas generator configurations. Design of experiments methodology was used to construct a test matrix and multiple linear regression analysis was used to build parametric models. The main parameters investigated in this study were: rocket chamber pressure, rocket exit area ratio, injected secondary flow, mixer-ejector inlet area, mixer-ejector area ratio, and mixer-ejector length-to-inlet diameter ratio. A perfect gas computational fluid dynamics analysis, using both the Spalart-Allmaras and k-omega turbulence models, was performed with the NPARC code to obtain values of vacuum specific impulse. Results from the multiple linear regression analysis showed that for both the full flow and gas generator configurations increasing mixer-ejector area ratio and rocket area ratio increase performance, while increasing mixer-ejector inlet area ratio and mixer-ejector length-to-diameter ratio decrease performance. Increasing injected secondary flow increased performance for the gas generator analysis, but was not statistically significant for the full flow analysis. Chamber pressure was found to be not statistically significant.

  10. Linear versus geometric morphometric approaches for the analysis of head shape dimorphism in lizards.

    PubMed

    Fabre, Anne-Claire; Cornette, Raphäel; Huyghe, Katleen; Andrade, Denis V; Herrel, Anthony

    2014-09-01

    Differences between the sexes may arise because of differences in reproductive strategy, with females investing more in traits related to reproductive output and males investing more in traits related to resource holding capacity and territory defence. Sexual dimorphism is widespread in lizards and in many species males and females also differ in head shape. Males typically have bigger heads than females resulting in intersexual differences in bite force. Whereas most studies documenting differences in head dimensions between sexes use linear dimensions, the use of geometric morphometrics has been advocated as more appropriate to characterize such differences. This method may allow the characterization of local shape differences that may have functional consequences, and provides unbiased indicators of shape. Here, we explore whether the two approaches provide similar results in an analyses of head shape in Tupinambis merianae. The Argentine black and white tegu differs dramatically in body size, head size, and bite force between the sexes. However, whether the intersexual differences in bite force are simply the result of differences in head size or whether more subtle modifications (e.g., in muscle insertion areas) are involved remains currently unknown. Based on the crania and mandibles of 19 lizards with known bite force, we show intersexual differences in the shape of the cranium and mandible using both linear and geometric morphometric approaches. Although both types of analyses showed generally similar results for the mandible, this was not the case for the cranium. Geometric morphometric approaches provided better insights into the underlying functional relationships between the cranium and the jaw musculature, as illustrated by shape differences in muscle insertion areas not detected using linear morphometric data. PMID:24740578

  11. Non-linear analysis of body responses to functional electrical stimulation on hemiplegic subjects.

    PubMed

    Yu, W W; Acharya, U R; Lim, T C; Low, H W

    2009-08-01

    Functional electrical stimulation (FES) is a method of applying low-level electrical currents to restore or improve body functions lost through nervous system impairment. FES is applied to peripheral nerves that control specific muscles or muscle groups. Application of advanced signal computing techniques to the medical field has helped to achieve practical solutions to the health care problems accurately. The physiological signals are essentially non-stationary and may contain indicators of current disease, or even warnings about impending diseases. These indicators may be present at all times or may occur at random on the timescale. However, to study and pinpoint these subtle changes in the voluminous data collected over several hours is tedious. These signals, e.g. walking-related accelerometer signals, are not simply linear and involve non-linear contributions. Hence, non-linear signal-processing methods may be useful to extract the hidden complexities of the signal and to aid physicians in their diagnosis. In this work, a young female subject with major neuromuscular dysfunction of the left lower limb, which resulted in an asymmetric hemiplegic gait, participated in a series of FES-assisted walking experiments. Two three-axis accelerometers were attached to her left and right ankles and their corresponding signals were recorded during FES-assisted walking. The accelerometer signals were studied in three directions using the Hurst exponent H, the fractal dimension (FD), the phase space plot, and recurrence plots (RPs). The results showed that the H and FD values increase with increasing FES, indicating more synchronized variability due to FES for the left leg (paralysed leg). However, the variation in the normal right leg is more chaotic on FES. PMID:19743632

  12. Fourier analysis of the imaging characteristics of a CMOS active pixel detector for mammography by using a linearization method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Jong Chul; Yun, Seungman; Youn, Hanbean; Kam, Soohwa; Cho, Seungryong; Achterkirchen, Thorsten G.; Kim, Ho Kyung

    2014-09-01

    Active pixel design using the complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) process is a compelling solution for use in X-ray imaging detectors because of its excellent electronic noise characteristics. We have investigated the imaging performance of a CMOS active pixel photodiode array coupled to a granular phosphor through a fiber-optic faceplate for mammographic applications. The imaging performance included the modulation-transfer function (MTF), noise-power spectrum (NPS), and detective quantum efficiency (DQE). Because we observed a nonlinear detector response at low exposures, we used the linearization method for the analysis of the DQE. The linearization method uses the images obtained at detector input, which are converted from those obtained at detector output by using the inverse of the detector response. Compared to the conventional method, the linearization method provided almost the same MTF and a slightly lower normalized NPS. However, the difference between the DQE results obtained by using the two methods was significant. We claim that the conventional DQE analysis of a detector having a nonlinear response characteristic can yield wrong results. Under the standard mammographic imaging condition, we obtained a DQE performance that was competitive with the performances of conventional flat-panel mammography detectors. We believe that the CMOS detector investigated in this study can be successfully used for mammography.

  13. Bayesian analysis of non-linear differential equation models with application to a gut microbial ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Lawson, Daniel J; Holtrop, Grietje; Flint, Harry

    2011-07-01

    Process models specified by non-linear dynamic differential equations contain many parameters, which often must be inferred from a limited amount of data. We discuss a hierarchical Bayesian approach combining data from multiple related experiments in a meaningful way, which permits more powerful inference than treating each experiment as independent. The approach is illustrated with a simulation study and example data from experiments replicating the aspects of the human gut microbial ecosystem. A predictive model is obtained that contains prediction uncertainty caused by uncertainty in the parameters, and we extend the model to capture situations of interest that cannot easily be studied experimentally. PMID:21681780

  14. Linear stability analysis for an optimum Glauert rotor modelled by an actuator disc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, D. M.; Blackburn, H. M.; Sheridan, J.

    2014-06-01

    We approximate a wind turbine using the Actuator Disc methodology with loading for an optimum Glauert rotor, and vary blade length and tip speed ratio, to determine base flows for linear stability computations at a Reynolds number of 100. Results from such computations suggest that the least stable mode is axisymmetric and insensitive to changes in tip speed operation, suggesting that the stability properties in the farfield wake for an optimised rotor are independent of the chosen tip speed optimization point. Higher azimuthal modes promote greater variation in velocities and may be relevant to cases at higher Reynolds numbers.

  15. LIPS and linear correlation analysis applied to the classification of Roman pottery Terra Sigillata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López, A. J.; Nicolás, G.; Mateo, M. P.; Ramil, A.; Piñón, V.; Yáñez, A.

    2006-06-01

    Archaeological ceramics Terra Sigillata manufactured in different production centres have been studied by laser-induced plasma spectroscopy (LIPS). The aim of this work was to establish a procedure for the rapid classification of these archaeological ceramics in function of their provenance through combination of LIPS and statistical methodologies. Representative emission spectra of the Hispanic, Gaulish and African groups of pottery were selected as references. The use of linear correlation allowed one to cluster the samples by quantitative comparison of LIP spectra, leading to a reliable assignment of Terra Sigillata pieces to origin centres.

  16. Analysis and control of hourglass instabilities in underintegrated linear and nonlinear elasticity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacquotte, Olivier P.; Oden, J. Tinsley

    1994-01-01

    Methods are described to identify and correct a bad finite element approximation of the governing operator obtained when under-integration is used in numerical code for several model problems: the Poisson problem, the linear elasticity problem, and for problems in the nonlinear theory of elasticity. For each of these problems, the reason for the occurrence of instabilities is given, a way to control or eliminate them is presented, and theorems of existence, uniqueness, and convergence for the given methods are established. Finally, numerical results are included which illustrate the theory.

  17. Analysis of characteristics of plane microwave antennas with a linearly expanding aperture for disk antenna arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zayarnyi, V. P.; Parpula, A. A.; Girich, V. S.

    2014-11-01

    Mathematical models constructed for plane symmetric microwave antennas with a linearly expanding aperture make it possible to calculate the directional patterns depending on the aperture configuration. The directional patterns for analogous antennas operating in the range 5.9-12.5 GHz are measured experimentally; good agreement between the theoretical and experimental results is observed. The regularities in the influence of the aperture configuration of the antennas under investigation on the shape of the principal lobe of their directional patterns are established; these regularities are used for designing disk antenna arrays of circular and sector scan on their basis.

  18. A multiple linear regression analysis of hot corrosion attack on a series of nickel base turbine alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barrett, C. A.

    1985-01-01

    Multiple linear regression analysis was used to determine an equation for estimating hot corrosion attack for a series of Ni base cast turbine alloys. The U transform (i.e., 1/sin (% A/100) to the 1/2) was shown to give the best estimate of the dependent variable, y. A complete second degree equation is described for the centered" weight chemistries for the elements Cr, Al, Ti, Mo, W, Cb, Ta, and Co. In addition linear terms for the minor elements C, B, and Zr were added for a basic 47 term equation. The best reduced equation was determined by the stepwise selection method with essentially 13 terms. The Cr term was found to be the most important accounting for 60 percent of the explained variability hot corrosion attack.

  19. Sensitivity Analysis of Linear Programming and Quadratic Programming Algorithms for Control Allocation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frost, Susan A.; Bodson, Marc; Acosta, Diana M.

    2009-01-01

    The Next Generation (NextGen) transport aircraft configurations being investigated as part of the NASA Aeronautics Subsonic Fixed Wing Project have more control surfaces, or control effectors, than existing transport aircraft configurations. Conventional flight control is achieved through two symmetric elevators, two antisymmetric ailerons, and a rudder. The five effectors, reduced to three command variables, produce moments along the three main axes of the aircraft and enable the pilot to control the attitude and flight path of the aircraft. The NextGen aircraft will have additional redundant control effectors to control the three moments, creating a situation where the aircraft is over-actuated and where a simple relationship does not exist anymore between the required effector deflections and the desired moments. NextGen flight controllers will incorporate control allocation algorithms to determine the optimal effector commands and attain the desired moments, taking into account the effector limits. Approaches to solving the problem using linear programming and quadratic programming algorithms have been proposed and tested. It is of great interest to understand their relative advantages and disadvantages and how design parameters may affect their properties. In this paper, we investigate the sensitivity of the effector commands with respect to the desired moments and show on some examples that the solutions provided using the l2 norm of quadratic programming are less sensitive than those using the l1 norm of linear programming.

  20. Mechanical and biomechanical analysis of a linear piston design for angular-velocity-based orthotic control.

    PubMed

    Lemaire, Edward D; Samadi, Reza; Goudreau, Louis; Kofman, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    A linear piston hydraulic angular-velocity-based control knee joint was designed for people with knee-extensor weakness to engage knee-flexion resistance when knee-flexion angular velocity reaches a preset threshold, such as during a stumble, but to otherwise allow free knee motion. During mechanical testing at the lowest angular-velocity threshold, the device engaged within 2 degrees knee flexion and resisted moment loads of over 150 Nm. The device completed 400,000 loading cycles without mechanical failure or wear that would affect function. Gait patterns of nondisabled participants were similar to normal at walking speeds that produced below-threshold knee angular velocities. Fast walking speeds, employed purposely to attain the angular-velocity threshold and cause knee-flexion resistance, reduced maximum knee flexion by approximately 25 degrees but did not lead to unsafe gait patterns in foot ground clearance during swing. In knee collapse tests, the device successfully engaged knee-flexion resistance and stopped knee flexion with peak knee moments of up to 235.6 Nm. The outcomes from this study support the potential for the linear piston hydraulic knee joint in knee and knee-ankle-foot orthoses for people with lower-limb weakness. PMID:23516082

  1. Linear analysis on the growth of non-spherical perturbations in supersonic accretion flows

    SciTech Connect

    Takahashi, Kazuya; Yamada, Shoichi

    2014-10-20

    We analyzed the growth of non-spherical perturbations in supersonic accretion flows. We have in mind an application to the post-bounce phase of core-collapse supernovae (CCSNe). Such non-spherical perturbations have been suggested by a series of papers by Arnett, who has numerically investigated violent convections in the outer layers of pre-collapse stars. Moreover, Couch and Ott demonstrated in their numerical simulations that such perturbations may lead to a successful supernova even for a progenitor that fails to explode without fluctuations. This study investigated the linear growth of perturbations during the infall onto a stalled shock wave. The linearized equations are solved as an initial and boundary value problem with the use of a Laplace transform. The background is a Bondi accretion flow whose parameters are chosen to mimic the 15 M {sub ☉} progenitor model by Woosley and Heger, which is supposed to be a typical progenitor of CCSNe. We found that the perturbations that are given at a large radius grow as they flow down to the shock radius; the density perturbations can be amplified by a factor of 30, for example. We analytically show that the growth rate is proportional to l, the index of the spherical harmonics. We also found that the perturbations oscillate in time with frequencies that are similar to those of the standing accretion shock instability. This may have an implication for shock revival in CCSNe, which will be investigated in our forthcoming paper in more detail.

  2. Multivariate General Linear Models (MGLM) on Riemannian Manifolds with Applications to Statistical Analysis of Diffusion Weighted Images

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyunwoo J.; Adluru, Nagesh; Collins, Maxwell D.; Chung, Moo K.; Bendlin, Barbara B.; Johnson, Sterling C.; Davidson, Richard J.; Singh, Vikas

    2014-01-01

    Linear regression is a parametric model which is ubiquitous in scientific analysis. The classical setup where the observations and responses, i.e., (xi, yi) pairs, are Euclidean is well studied. The setting where yi is manifold valued is a topic of much interest, motivated by applications in shape analysis, topic modeling, and medical imaging. Recent work gives strategies for max-margin classifiers, principal components analysis, and dictionary learning on certain types of manifolds. For parametric regression specifically, results within the last year provide mechanisms to regress one real-valued parameter, xi ∈ R, against a manifold-valued variable, yi ∈ . We seek to substantially extend the operating range of such methods by deriving schemes for multivariate multiple linear regression —a manifold-valued dependent variable against multiple independent variables, i.e., f : Rn → . Our variational algorithm efficiently solves for multiple geodesic bases on the manifold concurrently via gradient updates. This allows us to answer questions such as: what is the relationship of the measurement at voxel y to disease when conditioned on age and gender. We show applications to statistical analysis of diffusion weighted images, which give rise to regression tasks on the manifold GL(n)/O(n) for diffusion tensor images (DTI) and the Hilbert unit sphere for orientation distribution functions (ODF) from high angular resolution acquisition. The companion open-source code is available on nitrc.org/projects/riem_mglm. PMID:25580070

  3. Dynamic analysis of free-piston Stirling engine/linear alternator-load system - Experimentally validated

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kankam, M. D.; Rauch, Jeffrey S.; Santiago, Walter

    1992-01-01

    This paper discusses the effects of a variations in system parameters on the dynamic behavior of a Free-Piston Stirling Engine/Linear Alternator (FPSE/LA)-load system. The mathematical formulations incorporates both the mechanical and thermodynamic properties of the FPSE, as well as the electrical equations of the connected load. State-space technique in the frequency domain is applied to the resulting system of equations to facilitate the evaluation of parametric impacts on the system dynamic stability. Also included is a discussion on the system transient stability as affected by sudden changes in some key operating conditions. Some representative results are correlated with experimental data to verify the model and analytic formulation accuracies. Guidelines are given for ranges of the system parameters which will ensure an overall stable operation.

  4. Influence analysis of structural parameters on electromagnetic properties of HTS linear induction motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, J.; Zheng, T. Q.; Zhang, W.; Fang, J.; Liu, Y. M.

    2011-11-01

    A new type high temperature superconductor linear induction motor is designed and analyzed as a prototype to ensure applicability aimed at industrial motors. Made of Bi-2223/Ag, primary windings are distributed with the double-layer concentrated structure. The motor is analyzed by 2D electromagnetic Finite Element Method to get magnetic field distribution, thrust force, vertical force and so on. The critical current of motor and the electromagnetic force are mostly decided by the leakage flux density of primary slot and by the main magnetic flux and eddy current respectively. The structural parameters of motor have a great influence on the distribution of magnetic field. Under constant currents, the properties of motor are analyzed with different slot widths, slot heights and winding turns. The properties of motor, such as the maximum slot leakage flux density, motor thrust and motor vertical force, are analyzed with different structural parameters.

  5. A Framework for Linear Stability Analysis of Finite--Area Vortices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Protas, Bartosz; Elcrat, Alan

    2010-11-01

    In this work we are interested in the linear stability of 2D solutions of the Euler equations which are steady in the appropriate frame of reference and feature compact regions with constant vorticity embedded in an otherwise potential flow. We argue that, since the evolution of such systems is governed by equations of the free--boundary type, the shape calculus is a natural framework for differentiation of such governing equations. We derive a general equation characterizing the evolution of area--preserving perturbations of the boundary. While for vortex regions with arbitrary shapes the perturbation equation needs to solved numerically (e.g., using spectral Fourier--Galerkin method), we show that for a circular boundary (i.e., the Rankine vortex) the problem can be solved analytically yielding the classical stability results due to Kelvin. We will also present stability calculation obtained numerically for more general vortex shapes and will discuss generalizations of this approach.

  6. A maximum linear separation criterion for the analysis of neurophysiological data.

    PubMed

    Marroquin, Jose L; Mendoza-Montoya, Omar; Biscay, Rolando J; Ruiz-Correa, Salvador; Harmony, Thalia; Fernandez, Thalia

    2013-04-15

    In this paper we propose an approach for the extraction of features that differentiate two populations or two experimental conditions in a neurophysiological experiment. These features consist of summarizing variables defined as total activity (e.g., total normalized log-power), computed over sets of sites in a discrete domain, such as the time-frequency-topography space. These sets are obtained as those that maximize the linear separation between the two populations, and the corresponding maps provide information that may complement that obtained by standard procedures, such as statistical parametric mapping. It is shown experimentally, using both simulated and real data, that the proposed approach may provide useful information even when the standard procedures fail, due to the conservative nature of the multiple comparison correction that must be applied in the later case. PMID:23416134

  7. Quasi-linear analysis of the extraordinary electron wave destabilized by runaway electrons

    SciTech Connect

    Pokol, G. I.; Kómár, A.; Budai, A.; Stahl, A.; Fülöp, T.

    2014-10-15

    Runaway electrons with strongly anisotropic distributions present in post-disruption tokamak plasmas can destabilize the extraordinary electron (EXEL) wave. The present work investigates the dynamics of the quasi-linear evolution of the EXEL instability for a range of different plasma parameters using a model runaway distribution function valid for highly relativistic runaway electron beams produced primarily by the avalanche process. Simulations show a rapid pitch-angle scattering of the runaway electrons in the high energy tail on the 100–1000 μs time scale. Due to the wave-particle interaction, a modification to the synchrotron radiation spectrum emitted by the runaway electron population is foreseen, exposing a possible experimental detection method for such an interaction.

  8. ANALYSIS OF HIGH FIELD NON-LINEAR LOSSES ON SRF SURFACES DUE TO SPECIFIC TOPOGRAPHIC ROUGHNESS

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Xu,Charles Reece,Michael Kelley

    2012-07-01

    The high-field performance of SRF cavities will eventually be limited by the realization of fundamental material limits, whether it is Hc1 or Hsh, or some derivative thereof, at which the superconductivity is lost. Before reaching this fundamental field limit at the macro level, it must be encountered at localized, perhaps microscopic, sites of field enhancement due to local topography. If such sites are small enough, they may produce thermally stabilized normal-conducting regions which contribute non-linear losses when viewed from the macro resonant field perspective, and thus produce degradation in Q0. We have undertaken a calculation of local surface magnetic field enhancement from specific fine topographic structure by conformal mapping method and numerically. A solution of the resulting normal conducting volume has been derived and the corresponding RF Ohmic loss simulated.

  9. Analysis and Control of Wakefields in X-Band Crab Cavities for Compact Linear Collider

    SciTech Connect

    Ambattu, P.K.; Burt, G.; Khan, V.F.; Jones, R.M.; Dexter, A.; Dolgashev, V.; /SLAC

    2012-04-25

    The Compact Linear Collider requires a crab cavity on each beamline prior to the interaction point to rotate the bunches before collision. The cavities are X-band travelling wave type and are located close to the final doublet of the beam delivery system. This makes the beam very sensitive to transverse momentum imparted by wakefields; hence the wakefields must be tightly controlled. Of special concerns are the orthogonal polarization of the operating mode and the fundamental monopole mode of the crab cavity. The former mode is at the same frequency as the operating mode of a cylindrically symmetric cavity and the latter one is at a lower frequency and hence is difficult to damp using a single means. In this paper major problematic modes of the crab cavity are investigated and damping requirements for them are calculated. Possibility of meeting the required wakefield control using waveguide damping and choke damping is thoroughly investigated. As a comparison, damped-detuning is also investigated.

  10. SIMION analysis of a high performance linear accumulation octopole with enhanced ejection capabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taban, Ioana M.; McDonnell, Liam A.; Römpp, Andreas; Cerjak, Iliya; Heeren, Ron M. A.

    2005-07-01

    Here, we present the results of extensive SIMION 7.0 modelling of a new linear octopole ion trap. The octopole was designed to increase the efficiency of an electrospray ion source coupled to a Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance (FTICR) mass spectrometer. This improvement was achieved by applying a pulsed axial field to the octopole to eject the ion packet with a time and energy distribution that better match the acceptance criteria of the FTICR cell, thus increasing the trapping efficiency and sensitivity. The axial field was produced by applying a pulsed dc potential to the custom-designed ejection electrodes located between the octopole rods. The time and energy profiles of the ejected ion packets for several electrode shapes were calculated and are discussed in terms of their compatibility with efficient trapping of the ion packet in the FTICR cell. Preliminary experimental results show increased signal using the dc ejection electrodes of approximately 100%.

  11. Design and Analysis of a Differential Waveguide Structure to Improve Magnetostrictive Linear Position Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yongjie; Liu, Weiwen; Zhang, Haibo; Yang, Jinfeng; Zhao, Hui

    2011-01-01

    Magnetostrictive linear position sensors (MLPS) are high-precision sensors used in the industrial field for measuring the propagation time of ultrasonic signals in a waveguide. To date, MLPS have attracted widespread attention for their accuracy, reliability, and cost-efficiency in performing non-contact, multiple measurements. However, the sensor, with its traditional structure, is susceptible to electromagnetic interference, which affects accuracy. In the present study, we propose a novel structure of MLPS that relies on two differential waveguides to improve the signal-to-noise ratio, common-mode rejection ratio, and accuracy of MLPS. The proposed sensor model can depict sensor performance and the relationship of sensor parameters. Experimental results with the new sensor indicate that the new structure can improve accuracy to ±0.1 mm higher than ±0.2 mm with a traditional structure. In addition, the proposed sensor shows a considerable improvement in temperature characteristics. PMID:22163911

  12. A parametric study of supersonic laminar flow for swept wings using linear stability analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cummings, Russell M.; Garcia, Joseph A.; Tu, Eugene L.

    1995-01-01

    A parametric study to predict the extent of laminar flow on the upper surface of a generic swept-back wing (NACA 64A010 airfoil section) at supersonic speeds was conducted. The results were obtained by using surface pressure predictions from an Euler/Navier-Stokes computational fluid dynamics code coupled with a boundary layer code, which predicts detailed boundary layer profiles, and finally with a linear stability code to determine the extent of laminar flow. The parameters addressed are Reynolds number, angle of attack, and leading-edge wing sweep. The results of this study show that an increase in angle of attack, for specific Reynolds numbers, can actually delay transition. Therefore, higher lift capability, caused by the increased angle of attack, as well as a reduction in viscous drag due to the delay in transition is possible for certain flight conditions.

  13. Surrogate model reduction for linear dynamic systems based on a frequency domain modal analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, T.

    2015-10-01

    A novel model reduction methodology for linear dynamic systems with parameter variations is presented based on a frequency domain formulation and use of the proper orthogonal decomposition. For an efficient treatment of parameter variations, the system matrices are divided into a nominal and an incremental part. It is shown that the perturbed part is modally equivalent to a new system where the incremental matrices are isolated into the forcing term. To account for the continuous changes in the parameters, the single-composite-input is invoked with a finite number of predetermined incremental matrices. The frequency-domain Karhunen-Loeve procedure is used to calculate a rich set of basis modes accounting for the variations. For demonstration, the new procedure is applied to a finite element model of the Goland wing undergoing oscillations and shown to produce extremely accurate reduced-order surrogate model for a wide range of parameter variations.

  14. A Non-linear Lifting Line Model for Design and Analysis of Trochoidal Propulsors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roesler, Bernard; Epps, Brenden

    2014-11-01

    Flapping wing propulsors may increase the propulsive efficiency of large shipping vessels. A comparison of the design of a notional propulsor for a large shipping vessel with (a) a conventional ducted propeller versus (b) a flapping wing propulsor is presented. Calculations for flapping wing propulsors are performed using an open-source MATLAB software suite developed by the authors, CyROD, implementing an unsteady lifting-line model with free vortex wake roll-up to study the non-linear effects of foil-wake, and foil-foil interactions. Improvements to the traditional lifting line theory are made using further discretization of the wake vortex ring spacing near the trailing edge. Considerations of packaging options for a flapping wing propulsor on a large shipping vessel are presented, and compared with those for a conventional ducted propeller.

  15. A linear MHD instability analysis of solar mass ejections with gravitation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Song, M. T.; Wu, S. T.; Dryer, M.

    1987-01-01

    The linear MHD instability of a cylindrical plasma is used to investigate the origin of solar mass ejections, and the dispersion relation is solved numerically. The initial plasma-flow velocity is found to have a significant effect on the instability criteria and growth rate, and the instability growth-rate is shown to be larger in cases where plasma flow exists, relative to the static case. Results suggest that the plasma column may break into small pieces. Assuming a thin-tube approximation, gravity is found to have little effect on the instability of quasi-horizontal ejection, but to have considerable effect on the vertical ejection. In considering the gravitational force, an exact analytical solution is found for the vertical case, while asymptotic solutions are given for the horizontal and oblique cases.

  16. A quasi-linear analysis of the impurity effect on turbulent momentum transport and residual stress

    SciTech Connect

    Ko, S. H. Jhang, Hogun; Singh, R.

    2015-08-15

    We study the impact of impurities on turbulence driven intrinsic rotation (via residual stress) in the context of the quasi-linear theory. A two-fluid formulation for main and impurity ions is employed to study ion temperature gradient modes in sheared slab geometry modified by the presence of impurities. An effective form of the parallel Reynolds stress is derived in the center of mass frame of a coupled main ion-impurity system. Analyses show that the contents and the radial profile of impurities have a strong influence on the residual stress. In particular, an impurity profile aligned with that of main ions is shown to cause a considerable reduction of the residual stress, which may lead to the reduction of turbulence driven intrinsic rotation.

  17. Dynamical analysis of periodic bursting in piece-wise linear planar neuron model.

    PubMed

    Ji, Ying; Zhang, Xiaofang; Liang, Minjie; Hua, Tingting; Wang, Yawei

    2015-12-01

    A piece-wise linear planar neuron model, namely, two-dimensional McKean model with periodic drive is investigated in this paper. Periodical bursting phenomenon can be observed in the numerical simulations. By assuming the formal solutions associated with different intervals of this non-autonomous system and introducing the generalized Jacobian matrix at the non-smooth boundaries, the bifurcation mechanism for the bursting solution induced by the slowly varying periodic drive is presented. It is shown that, the discontinuous Hopf bifurcation occurring at the non-smooth boundaries, i.e., the bifurcation taking place at the thresholds of the stimulation, leads the alternation between the rest state and spiking state. That is, different oscillation modes of this non-autonomous system convert periodically due to the non-smoothness of the vector field and the slow variation of the periodic drive as well. PMID:26557927

  18. Analysis and control of wakefields in X-band crab cavities for Compact Linear Collider

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ambattu, P. K.; Burt, G.; Khan, V. F.; Jones, R. M.; Dexter, A.; Dolgashev, V.

    2011-11-01

    The Compact Linear Collider requires a crab cavity on each beamline prior to the interaction point to rotate the bunches before collision. The cavities are X-band travelling wave type and are located close to the final doublet of the beam delivery system. This makes the beam very sensitive to transverse momentum imparted by wakefields; hence the wakefields must be tightly controlled. Of special concerns are the orthogonal polarisation of the operating mode and the fundamental monopole mode of the crab cavity. The former mode is at the same frequency as the operating mode of a cylindrically symmetric cavity and the latter one is at a lower frequency and hence is difficult to damp using a single means. In this paper major problematic modes of the crab cavity are investigated and damping requirements for them are calculated. Possibility of meeting the required wakefield control using waveguide damping and choke damping is thoroughly investigated. As a comparison, damped-detuning is also investigated.

  19. Purification, structure-function analysis, and molecular characterization of novel linear peptides from scorpion Opisthacanthus madagascariensis.

    PubMed

    Dai, Li; Corzo, Gerardo; Naoki, Hideo; Andriantsiferana, Marta; Nakajima, Terumi

    2002-05-24

    In the previous report [Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 286 (2001) 820], we described a novel short linear peptide, IsCT, with cytolytic activity isolated from the venom of scorpion Opisthacanthus madagascariensis. From the same scorpion venom, we further purified and characterized three short linear peptides named IsCT2, IsCTf, and IsCT2f that shared high homology with IsCT, while with different C-terminal areas between IsCT/IsCT2 and IsCTf/IsCT2f. Structure-activity relationship was analyzed by performing vivo and vitro assays and circular dichroism spectroscopy. Like IsCT, IsCT2 showed broad activity spectra against microbes (Gram positive and negative bacteria as well as fungi) and relatively weak hemolytic activity against sheep red blood cells. It adopts an amphipathic alpha-helical structure in aqueous TFE and is able to disrupt the artificial membrane. However, the other two peptides IsCTf and IsCT2f showed no activity in antimicrobial or hemolytic assay. Furthermore, IsCTf and IsCT2f cannot form amphipathic alpha-helix while demonstrating random coil structure in aqueous TFE, which might result in their lost cytolytic activity. IsCTf and IsCT2f both exist in the crude venom and are proved to be enzymatic products from IsCT and IsCT2. Whether they have some other biological activity is still unclear. In addition, we got the cDNAs encoding the precursors of IsCT and IsCT2. Besides the signal peptide, they still contain an unusual acidic pro-peptide at the C-terminal that was quite different from other known precursors of scorpion venom peptides. The novel structure and biological activity of these peptides proposed them to be a new class in scorpion venom. PMID:12054688

  20. Analysis of OMEGA/Mars Express hyperspectral images with a linear unmixing model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Mouelic, S.; Combe, J.-Ph.; Sotin, C.; Le Deit, L.; Gendrin, A.; Mustard, J.; Bibring, J.-P.; Langevin, Y.; Gondet, B.; Pinet, P.

    The OMEGA imaging spectrometer onboard Mars Express has completed a near global coverage of Mars in 352 spectral channels from 0.3 to 5.1 µm at a spatial resolution ranging from 300 m to 4 km. This unprecedented data set provides the opportunity to investigate the mineralogy of the surface of Mars by looking at diagnostic spectral features in the visible and near infrared domains [1]. We have focused our data reduction approach on the linear unmixing strategies. Working on a pixel by pixel basis, we find the best linear combination of a suite of laboratory spectra of pure minerals which match the OMEGA data. A spectrally flat and dark artificial component is introduced to account for shading effects. Similarly, we use two pure positive and negative slopes to account at first order for continuum slope variations linked to scattering, grain size and photometric effects. This approach allows us to draw several conclusions on the overall mineralogy of the observed regions. In particular, the Syrtis Major area appears dominated by a mixing between low and high Calcium pyroxenes in various amounts, with localized exposures of iron-rich olivines. At a global scale, the southern hemisphere appears enriched in both low-Ca and high-Ca pyroxenes. Signatures of iron oxides are detected in the bright regions of the northern hemisphere. These results agree with those obtained with different approaches such as MGM or ratio images [1,2]. The advantages and limits of the unmixing approach applied to OMEGA hyperspectral images will be discussed. References: [1] Bibring et al. (2005), Science, vol. 307, 5715, 1576-1581. [2] Mustard et al., Science (2005), vol. 307, 5715, 1594-1597.

  1. Comprehensive analysis of electron beam central axis dose for a radiotherapy linear accelerator.

    PubMed

    Shiu, A S; Tung, S S; Nyerick, C E; Ochran, T G; Otte, V A; Boyer, A L; Hogstrom, K R

    1994-04-01

    This work evaluates the application of AAPM task group 25 (TG25) methodology for determination of central axis depth dose for a radiotherapy linear accelerator, whose dual scattering foil system and applicators were recently modified. The percent depth dose (%DD) and the dose output factor have been measured for square and rectangular fields at 100- and 110-cm source-to-surface distance (SSDs). At 100-cm SSD, results showed that %DD for a specific energy and field size can vary with applicator, the largest variation being for the 20-MeV, 10 x 10-cm field where a spread of +/- 2.5% or +/- 3 mm about the mean %DD is observed. The square-root method determines rectangular field %DD within 1%. Output factors for rectangular fields are calculated from square field values more accurately using a square-root method than the equivalent-square method recommended by TG25. At 110-cm SSD, the %DD calculated from that at 100-cm SSD using an inverse square factor does not agree with measured values for all fields. The maximum difference observed for the 20-MeV, 6 x 6-cm field was 5.5% or 10 mm. Output data at the 110-cm SSD show that the square-root method is suitable for determination of the air-gap correction factors of rectangular fields. In summary, the recommendations of TG25 work reasonably well for central axis electron beam dosimetry for this version of a radiotherapy linear accelerator, except in limited cases where applicator-scattered electrons apparently cause minor but clinically significant discrepancies. PMID:8058023

  2. Problemes d'analyse du discours. Essai de description du discours francais sur la Chine (Problems in Discourse Analysis. An Attempt to Describe French Discourse on China).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marindin, Jean-Marie

    1979-01-01

    The following topics are developed: (1) the problematic aspect of the analysis of French discourse, an introduction to methods, theories and applications; (2) the proposals of M. Pecheux; (3) precisions to render operative definitions derived in the proposals; (4) the Macciocchi manner of speaking; and (5) the Peyrefitte manner of speaking. (AMH)

  3. Linearized method: A new approach for kinetic analysis of central dopamine D{sub 2} receptor specific binding

    SciTech Connect

    Watabe, Hiroshi; Hatazawa, Jun; Ishiwata, Kiichi; Ido, Tatsuo; Itoh, Masatoshi; Iwata, Ren; Nakamura, Takashi; Takahashi, Toshihiro; Hatano, Kentaro

    1995-12-01

    The authors proposed a new method (Linearized method) to analyze neuroleptic ligand-receptor specific binding in a human brain using positron emission tomography (PET). They derived the linear equation to solve four rate constants, k{sub 3}, k{sub 4}, k{sub 5}, k{sub 6} from PET data. This method does not demand radioactivity curve in plasma as an input function to brain, and can do fast calculations in order to determine rate constants. They also tested Nonlinearized method including nonlinear equations which is conventional analysis using plasma radioactivity corrected for ligand metabolites as an input function. The authors applied these methods to evaluate dopamine D{sub 2} receptor specific binding of [{sup 11}C] YM-09151-2. The value of B{sub max}/K{sub d} = k{sub 3}k{sub 4} obtained by Linearized method was 5.72 {+-} 3.1 which was consistent with the value of 5.78 {+-} 3.4 obtained by Nonlinearized method.

  4. Model dissection from earthquake time series: A comparative analysis using modern non-linear forecasting and artificial neural network approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sri Lakshmi, S.; Tiwari, R. K.

    2009-02-01

    This study utilizes two non-linear approaches to characterize model behavior of earthquake dynamics in the crucial tectonic regions of Northeast India (NEI). In particular, we have applied a (i) non-linear forecasting technique to assess the dimensionality of the earthquake-generating mechanism using the monthly frequency earthquake time series (magnitude ⩾4) obtained from NOAA and USGS catalogues for the period 1960-2003 and (ii) artificial neural network (ANN) methods—based on the back-propagation algorithm (BPA) to construct the neural network model of the same data set for comparing the two. We have constructed a multilayered feed forward ANN model with an optimum input set configuration specially designed to take advantage of more completely on the intrinsic relationships among the input and retrieved variables and arrive at the feasible model for earthquake prediction. The comparative analyses show that the results obtained by the two methods are stable and in good agreement and signify that the optimal embedding dimension obtained from the non-linear forecasting analysis compares well with the optimal number of inputs used for the neural networks. The constructed model suggests that the earthquake dynamics in the NEI region can be characterized by a high-dimensional chaotic plane. Evidence of high-dimensional chaos appears to be associated with "stochastic seasonal" bias in these regions and would provide some useful constraints for testing the model and criteria to assess earthquake hazards on a more rigorous and quantitative basis.

  5. Correspondence analysis evaluation of linear nutrient distribution in root tips of the tropical forage Brachiaria brizantha

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pineda-Vargas, C. A.; Prozesky, V. M.; Przybylowicz, W. J.; Mayer, J. E.

    2001-07-01

    The technique of correspondence analysis was applied to a set of data obtained from X-ray elemental analysis by nuclear microscopy. Hydroponic experiments simulating tropical acid soil conditions were carried out to determine possible mechanisms of Al-toxicity stress on specific varieties of the genus Brachiaria. In particular the species Brachiaria brizantha was tested for gradient variation along the central cylinder of selected root tips. Single-point irradiations by nuclear microscopy gave some indication of a possible trace element profile gradient along the root axis. To be able to extrapolate the possible correlation and trace elemental concentrations gradients to a more confident level, this nuclear microscopy data obtained was analysed by correspondence analysis. A clear gradient on the plot of the first two axes of the correspondence analysis was found. The correlation of Ca and Cu as well as that of K and Cl were established.

  6. Linear systems analysis program, L224(QR). Volume 2: Supplemental system design and maintenance document

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heidergott, K. W.

    1979-01-01

    The computer program known as QR is described. Classical control systems analysis and synthesis (root locus, time response, and frequency response) can be performed using this program. Programming details of the QR program are presented.

  7. Wavelength error analysis in a multiple-beam Fizeau laser wavemeter having a linear diode array readout

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, D. M.; Fales, C. L., Jr.; Skolaut, M. W., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    An estimate of the wavelength accuracy of a laser wavemeter is performed for a system consisting of a multiple-beam Fizeau interferometer and a linear photosensor array readout. The analysis consists of determining the fringe position errors which result when various noise sources are included in the fringe forming and detection process. Two methods of estimating the fringe centers are considered: (1) maximum pixel current location, and (2) average pixel location for two detectors with nearly equal output currents. Wavelength error results for these two methods are compared for some typical wavemeter parameters.

  8. An efficient hierarchical generalized linear mixed model for pathway analysis of genome-wide association studies

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lily; Jia, Peilin; Wolfinger, Russell D.; Chen, Xi; Grayson, Britney L.; Aune, Thomas M.; Zhao, Zhongming

    2011-01-01

    Motivation: In genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of complex diseases, genetic variants having real but weak associations often fail to be detected at the stringent genome-wide significance level. Pathway analysis, which tests disease association with combined association signals from a group of variants in the same pathway, has become increasingly popular. However, because of the complexities in genetic data and the large sample sizes in typical GWAS, pathway analysis remains to be challenging. We propose a new statistical model for pathway analysis of GWAS. This model includes a fixed effects component that models mean disease association for a group of genes, and a random effects component that models how each gene's association with disease varies about the gene group mean, thus belongs to the class of mixed effects models. Results: The proposed model is computationally efficient and uses only summary statistics. In addition, it corrects for the presence of overlapping genes and linkage disequilibrium (LD). Via simulated and real GWAS data, we showed our model improved power over currently available pathway analysis methods while preserving type I error rate. Furthermore, using the WTCCC Type 1 Diabetes (T1D) dataset, we demonstrated mixed model analysis identified meaningful biological processes that agreed well with previous reports on T1D. Therefore, the proposed methodology provides an efficient statistical modeling framework for systems analysis of GWAS. Availability: The software code for mixed models analysis is freely available at http://biostat.mc.vanderbilt.edu/LilyWang. Contact: lily.wang@vanderbilt.edu; zhongming.zhao@vanderbilt.edu Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:21266443

  9. A Regularized Linear Dynamical System Framework for Multivariate Time Series Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zitao; Hauskrecht, Milos

    2015-01-01

    Linear Dynamical System (LDS) is an elegant mathematical framework for modeling and learning Multivariate Time Series (MTS). However, in general, it is difficult to set the dimension of an LDS’s hidden state space. A small number of hidden states may not be able to model the complexities of a MTS, while a large number of hidden states can lead to overfitting. In this paper, we study learning methods that impose various regularization penalties on the transition matrix of the LDS model and propose a regularized LDS learning framework (rLDS) which aims to (1) automatically shut down LDSs’ spurious and unnecessary dimensions, and consequently, address the problem of choosing the optimal number of hidden states; (2) prevent the overfitting problem given a small amount of MTS data; and (3) support accurate MTS forecasting. To learn the regularized LDS from data we incorporate a second order cone program and a generalized gradient descent method into the Maximum a Posteriori framework and use Expectation Maximization to obtain a low-rank transition matrix of the LDS model. We propose two priors for modeling the matrix which lead to two instances of our rLDS. We show that our rLDS is able to recover well the intrinsic dimensionality of the time series dynamics and it improves the predictive performance when compared to baselines on both synthetic and real-world MTS datasets. PMID:25905027

  10. Linear stability analysis of a horizontal phase boundary separating two miscible liquids.

    PubMed

    Kheniene, Abdesselem; Vorobev, Anatoliy

    2013-08-01

    The evolution of small disturbances to a horizontal interface separating two miscible liquids is examined. The aim is to investigate how the interfacial mass transfer affects development of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability and propagation and damping of the gravity-capillary waves. The phase-field approach is employed to model the evolution of a miscible multiphase system. Within this approach, the interface is represented as a transitional layer of small but nonzero thickness. The thermodynamics is defined by the Landau free energy function. Initially, the liquid-liquid binary system is assumed to be out of its thermodynamic equilibrium, and hence, the system undergoes a slow transition to its thermodynamic equilibrium. The linear stability of such a slowly diffusing interface with respect to normal hydro- and thermodynamic perturbations is numerically studied. As a result, we show that the eigenvalue spectra for a sharp immiscible interface can be successfully reproduced for long-wave disturbances, with wavelengths exceeding the interface thickness. We also find that thin interfaces are thermodynamically stable, while thicker interfaces, with the thicknesses exceeding an equilibrium value, are thermodynamically unstable. The thermodynamic instability can make the configuration with a heavier liquid lying underneath unstable. We also find that the interfacial mass transfer introduces additional dissipation, reducing the growth rate of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability and increasing the dissipation of the gravity waves. Moreover, mutual action of diffusive and viscous effects completely suppresses development of the modes with shorter wavelengths. PMID:24032846

  11. Separation of harmonic sounds using multipitch analysis and linear models for the overtone series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Virtanen, Tuomas; Klapuri, Anssi

    2002-05-01

    A signal processing method for the separation of concurrent harmonic sounds is described. The method is based on a two-stage approach. First, a multiple fundamental frequency estimator is applied to find initial sound parameters which are reliable, but inaccurate and static. Second, time-varying sinusoidal parameters are estimated in an iterative algorithm. The harmonic structure is retained by keeping the frequency ratio of overtones constant over time. Overlapping harmonic components are resolved using linear models for the overtone series. In practice, the models retain the spectral envelope continuity of natural sounds. Simulation experiments were carried out using generated test signals, which were random mixtures of two to six notes from recorded natural instruments. The system is able to produce meaningful results in all polyphonies, the quality of separated sounds gradually degrading along with the polyphony. Some denoising algorithms were applied to suppress nonstationary noise component, such as drums in real-world music signals. However, the usability of the system for real musical signals is still quite limited.

  12. Analysis of stable periodic orbits in the one dimensional linear piecewise-smooth discontinuous map.

    PubMed

    Rajpathak, Bhooshan; Pillai, Harish K; Bandyopadhyay, Santanu

    2012-09-01

    In this paper, we consider one dimensional linear piecewise-smooth discontinuous maps. It is well known that stable periodic orbits exist for such maps, in some parameter region. It is also known that the corresponding bifurcation phenomena (termed as period adding bifurcation) exhibit a special structure. In the last couple of years, several authors have analyzed this structure using border collision bifurcation curves and given the characterization for various parameter regions. In this paper, we have analyzed a specific parameter range employing a different approach. We show that this approach enables one to pose some interesting questions like: what is the number of distinct periodic orbits of any given cardinality? We prove that there are precisely φ(n) distinct orbits of period n, where φ is the Euler's totient function. We propose an algorithm which calculates the location of fixed points of all these φ(n) distinct orbits and gives the precise range of existence of these orbits with respect to the parameters. Further, we show how the amount of computations required to find these ranges of existence can be optimized. PMID:23020465

  13. Cellular and molecular analysis of mutagenesis induced by charged particles of defined linear energy transfer.

    PubMed

    Zhu, L X; Waldren, C A; Vannias, D; Hei, T K

    1996-03-01

    Mutation induction by charged particles of defined linear energy transfer (LET) and gamma rays was scored using human-hamster hybrid AL cells. The LET values for charged particles accelerated at the Radiological Research Accelerator Facility ranged from 10 keV/microm protons to 150 keV/microm 4He ions. The induced mutant fractions at both the S1 and HGPRT loci were dependent on the dose and LET. In addition, for each dose examined, the mutant yield at the S1 locus was 30-60 fold higher than at the corresponding HGPRT locus. To determine whether the mutation spectrum was comparably dependent on dose and LET, independent S1- and HGPRT- mutants induced by 150 keV/microm 4He ions and gamma rays were isolated, and their DNA was analyzed by both Southern blotting and multiplex PCR methods. While the majority of radiation-induced mutants showed deletions of varying sizes, the relative percentage of large deletions was found to be related to both the dose and LET of the radiation examined. Using a mutation system that can detect multilocus changes, results of the present study show that radiation-induced chromosomal loss can be in the millions of base pairs. PMID:8927691

  14. [Analysis and comparison of various quality protocols for radiotherapy linear accelerators].

    PubMed

    Ceruti, M; D'Ercole, L; Lisciandro, F; Nicelli, L; Rovera, G

    1997-03-01

    The main parameters determining the quality of an electron beam produced by a linear accelerator for medical use were considered in this study, particularly: flatness, symmetry and uniformity. We analyzed and compared several protocols issued by national and international associations (such as the AAPM, IPSM, ICRU, NACP), the software protocol developed for the measurement system we used (Multidata) and the measurement instructions recommended by the accelerator manufacturer (Siemens). The above associations issue quality protocols to ensure system performances suitable for medical use, to increase patient safety and to improve the treatment outcome. Radiation therapy safety and improvement depend on correct dose measurements and dose distribution in the treated volume. Once the dose value per monitor unit ratio (Gy/M.U.) is determined, controls are necessary to be sure that the value does not change in time and that the dose distribution has the same effect in the whole treated volume. Our goal is to point out the differences and the affinities in the definition of the parameters, which change slightly in the different protocols, and to study the origin of the differences found when the experimental results were compared. Another important issue is represented by the frequency of quality controls, which are definitely different from the fast checks which are often performed. In conclusion, some suggestions are provided for the choice of the quality protocol to follow. PMID:9221422

  15. A linearized formulation of triphasic mixture theory for articular cartilage, and its application to indentation analysis.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xin L; Wan, Leo Q; Guo, X Edward; Mow, Van C

    2010-03-01

    The negative charges on proteoglycans significantly affect the mechanical behaviors of articular cartilage. Mixture theories, such as the triphasic theory, can describe quantitatively how this charged nature contributes to the mechano-electrochemical behaviors of such tissue. However, the mathematical complexity of the theory has hindered its application to complicated loading profiles, e.g., indentation or other multi-dimensional configurations. In this study, the governing equations of triphasic mixture theory for soft tissue were linearized and dramatically simplified by using a regular perturbation method and the use of two potential functions. We showed that this new formulation can be used for any axisymmetric problem, such as confined or unconfined compressions, hydraulic perfusion, and indentation. A finite difference numerical program was further developed to calculate the deformational, electrical, and flow behaviors inside the articular cartilage under indentation. The calculated tissue response was highly consistent with the data from indentation experiments (our own and those reported in the literature). It was found that the charged nature of proteoglycans can increase the apparent stiffness of the solid matrix and lessen the viscous effect introduced by fluid flow. The effects of geometric and physical properties of indenter tip, cartilage thickness, and that of the electro-chemical properties of cartilage on the resulting deformation and fluid pressure fields across the tissue were also investigated and presented. These results have implications for studying chondrocyte mechanotransduction in different cartilage zones and for tissue engineering designs or in vivo cartilage repair. PMID:19896670

  16. Statistical mechanical analysis of linear programming relaxation for combinatorial optimization problems.

    PubMed

    Takabe, Satoshi; Hukushima, Koji

    2016-05-01

    Typical behavior of the linear programming (LP) problem is studied as a relaxation of the minimum vertex cover (min-VC), a type of integer programming (IP) problem. A lattice-gas model on the Erdös-Rényi random graphs of α-uniform hyperedges is proposed to express both the LP and IP problems of the min-VC in the common statistical mechanical model with a one-parameter family. Statistical mechanical analyses reveal for α=2 that the LP optimal solution is typically equal to that given by the IP below the critical average degree c=e in the thermodynamic limit. The critical threshold for good accuracy of the relaxation extends the mathematical result c=1 and coincides with the replica symmetry-breaking threshold of the IP. The LP relaxation for the minimum hitting sets with α≥3, minimum vertex covers on α-uniform random graphs, is also studied. Analytic and numerical results strongly suggest that the LP relaxation fails to estimate optimal values above the critical average degree c=e/(α-1) where the replica symmetry is broken. PMID:27301006

  17. Statistical mechanical analysis of linear programming relaxation for combinatorial optimization problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takabe, Satoshi; Hukushima, Koji

    2016-05-01

    Typical behavior of the linear programming (LP) problem is studied as a relaxation of the minimum vertex cover (min-VC), a type of integer programming (IP) problem. A lattice-gas model on the Erdös-Rényi random graphs of α -uniform hyperedges is proposed to express both the LP and IP problems of the min-VC in the common statistical mechanical model with a one-parameter family. Statistical mechanical analyses reveal for α =2 that the LP optimal solution is typically equal to that given by the IP below the critical average degree c =e in the thermodynamic limit. The critical threshold for good accuracy of the relaxation extends the mathematical result c =1 and coincides with the replica symmetry-breaking threshold of the IP. The LP relaxation for the minimum hitting sets with α ≥3 , minimum vertex covers on α -uniform random graphs, is also studied. Analytic and numerical results strongly suggest that the LP relaxation fails to estimate optimal values above the critical average degree c =e /(α -1 ) where the replica symmetry is broken.

  18. Numerical Analysis of the Output-Pulse Shaping Capability of Linear Transformer Drivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Peng; Sun, Fengju; Yin, Jiahui; Qiu, Aici

    2011-04-01

    Output-pulse shaping capability of a linear transformer driver (LTD) module under different conditions is studied, by conducting the whole circuit model simulation by using the PSPICE code. Results indicate that a higher impedance profile of the internal transmission line would lead to a wider adjustment range for the output current rise time and a narrower adjustment range for the current peak. The number of cavities in series has a positive effect on the output-pulse shaping capability of LTD. Such an improvement in the output-pulse shaping capability can primarily be ascribed to the increment in the axial electric length of LTD. For a triggering time interval longer than the time taken by a pulse to propagate through the length of one cavity, the output parameters of LTD could be improved significantly. The present insulating capability of gas switches and other elements in the LTD cavities may only tolerate a slightly longer deviation in the triggering time interval. It is feasible for the LTD module to reduce the output current rise time, though it is not useful to improve the peak power effectively.

  19. Cellular and molecular analysis of mutagenesis induced by charged particles of defined linear energy transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, L. X.; Waldren, C. A.; Vannias, D.; Hei, T. K.; Chatterjee, A. (Principal Investigator)

    1996-01-01

    Mutation induction by charged particles of defined linear energy transfer (LET) and gamma rays was scored using human-hamster hybrid AL cells. The LET values for charged particles accelerated at the Radiological Research Accelerator Facility ranged from 10 keV/microm protons to 150 keV/microm 4He ions. The induced mutant fractions at both the S1 and HGPRT loci were dependent on the dose and LET. In addition, for each dose examined, the mutant yield at the S1 locus was 30-60 fold higher than at the corresponding HGPRT locus. To determine whether the mutation spectrum was comparably dependent on dose and LET, independent S1- and HGPRT- mutants induced by 150 keV/microm 4He ions and gamma rays were isolated, and their DNA was analyzed by both Southern blotting and multiplex PCR methods. While the majority of radiation-induced mutants showed deletions of varying sizes, the relative percentage of large deletions was found to be related to both the dose and LET of the radiation examined. Using a mutation system that can detect multilocus changes, results of the present study show that radiation-induced chromosomal loss can be in the millions of base pairs.

  20. Linear stability analysis of an evaporating binary liquid layer with fully transient reference profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machrafi, Hatim; Rednikov, Alexey; Colinet, Pierre; Dauby, Pierre

    2010-11-01

    This study deals with an evaporating horizontal binary-liquid layer (aqueous solution of ethanol; mass fraction 0.1) in contact with air with an imposed transfer distance. Fully transient solutions for the reference state are first calculated by means of a finite difference method. Then, the linear stability problem is solved using the frozen-time approach. After decomposition into normal modes, we obtain a problem for the eigenvalues, depending on the time as a parameter, which is numerically solved using the Chebyshev decomposition. Solutal and thermal Rayleigh-Benard-Marangoni instabilities are taken into account together with the Soret effect. The critical times needed for instability to occur and corresponding liquid thicknesses, are calculated, showing that a critical liquid thickness can be found under which no instability can occur. The latter point coincides approximately with the diffusive boundary layer reaching the bottom of the liquid layer. For instance, for a gas/liquid thickness layer ratio fixed at 10, the critical liquid thickness appears to be rather small, about 18.5 μm, which is illustrative of the general tendency.

  1. Three dimensional, non-linear, finite element analysis of compactable soil interaction with a hyperelastic wheel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiroux, Robert Charles

    The objective of this research was to produce a three dimensional, non-linear, dynamic simulation of the interaction between a hyperelastic wheel rolling over compactable soil. The finite element models developed to produce the simulation utilized the ABAQUS/Explicit computer code. Within the simulation two separate bodies were modeled, the hyperelastic wheel and a compactable soil-bed. Interaction between the bodies was achieved by allowing them to come in contact but not to penetrate the contact surface. The simulation included dynamic loading of a hyperelastic, rubber tire in contact with compactable soil with an applied constant angular velocity or torque, including a tow load, applied to the wheel hub. The constraints on the wheel model produced a straight and curved path. In addition the simulation included a shear limit between the tire and soil allowing for the introduction of slip. Soil properties were simulated using the Drucker-Prager, Cap Plasticity model available within the ABAQUS/Explicit program. Numerical results obtained from the three dimensional model were compared with related experimental data and showed good correlation for similar conditions. Numerical and experimental data compared well for both stress and wheel rut formation depth under a weight of 5.8 kN and a constant angular velocity applied to the wheel hub. The simulation results provided a demonstration of the benefit of three-dimensional simulation in comparison to previous two-dimensional, plane strain simulations.

  2. Comparative Analysis of Linear and Angular Measurements on Digital Orthopantomogram with Calcaneus Bone Mineral Density

    PubMed Central

    Daniel, Mariappan Jonathan; Srinivasan, Subramaniam Vasudevan; Koliyan, Ramadoss; Kumar, Jimsha Vannathan

    2015-01-01

    Background Bone remodeling is a continuous and complex process which occurs throughout life. Radiomorphometric and radioangular indices on the orthopantomogram are the predictors of bone remodeling associated with mandible. Bone mineral density is the amount of calcified tissue in a certain volume of the bone. Materials and Methods Fifty normal healthy individuals within the age range of 25-55 years were included in the study. Linear measurements including mandibular cortical width (MCW) and panoramic mandibular index (PMI); and angular measurements including mandibular angle (MA) and antegonial angle (AGA) were recorded. Quantitative ultrasound bone mineral density (BMD) scan of the heel bone (calcaneus) of the same patient were also performed. Results In our study, for both males and females, antegonial angle (AGA) had highest correlation with calcaneus bone mineral density. In the age group of less than 35 years, PMI in males, and AGA in females had highest correlation. In the age range of more than 35 years, MA in males and AGA in females had highest correlation. Conclusion There is a correlation between the mandibular bone remodelling changes and calcaneal bone mineral density in case of elder subjects and thus these parameters may be used as an inexpensive alternative screening method to assess the bone mineral density and identify individuals at risk for osteoporosis and fractures and also for dental treatment planning. PMID:26393197

  3. Dynamic modeling and characteristics analysis of a modal-independent linear ultrasonic motor.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiang; Yao, Zhiyuan; Zhou, Shengli; Lv, Qibao; Liu, Zhen

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, an integrated model is developed to analyze the fundamental characteristics of a modal-independent linear ultrasonic motor with double piezoelectric vibrators. The energy method is used to model the dynamics of the two piezoelectric vibrators. The interface forces are coupled into the dynamic equations of the two vibrators and the moving platform, forming a whole machine model of the motor. The behavior of the force transmission of the motor is analyzed via the resulting model to understand the drive mechanism. In particular, the relative contact length is proposed to describe the intermittent contact characteristic between the stator and the mover, and its role in evaluating motor performance is discussed. The relations between the output speed and various inputs to the motor and the start-stop transients of the motor are analyzed by numerical simulations, which are validated by experiments. Furthermore, the dead-zone behavior is predicted and clarified analytically using the proposed model, which is also observed in experiments. These results are useful for designing servo control scheme for the motor. PMID:27518427

  4. Comprehensive Lipidome Analysis by Shotgun Lipidomics on a Hybrid Quadrupole-Orbitrap-Linear Ion Trap Mass Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almeida, Reinaldo; Pauling, Josch Konstantin; Sokol, Elena; Hannibal-Bach, Hans Kristian; Ejsing, Christer S.

    2015-01-01

    Here we report on the application of a novel shotgun lipidomics platform featuring an Orbitrap Fusion mass spectrometer equipped with an automated nanoelectrospray ion source. To assess the performance of the platform for in-depth lipidome analysis, we evaluated various instrument parameters, including its high resolution power unsurpassed by any other contemporary Orbitrap instrumentation, its dynamic quantification range and its efficacy for in-depth structural characterization of molecular lipid species by quadrupole-based higher-energy collisional dissociation (HCD), and ion trap-based resonant-excitation collision-induced dissociation (CID). This evaluation demonstrated that FTMS analysis with a resolution setting of 450,000 allows distinguishing isotopes from different lipid species and features a linear dynamic quantification range of at least four orders of magnitude. Evaluation of fragmentation analysis demonstrated that combined use of HCD and CID yields complementary fragment ions of molecular lipid species. To support global lipidome analysis, we designed a method, termed MSALL, featuring high resolution FTMS analysis for lipid quantification, and FTMS2 analysis using both HCD and CID and ITMS3 analysis utilizing dual CID for in-depth structural characterization of molecular glycerophospholipid species. The performance of the MSALL method was benchmarked in a comparative analysis of mouse cerebellum and hippocampus. This analysis demonstrated extensive lipidome quantification covering 311 lipid species encompassing 20 lipid classes, and identification of 202 distinct molecular glycerophospholipid species when applying a novel high confidence filtering strategy. The work presented here validates the performance of the Orbitrap Fusion mass spectrometer for in-depth lipidome analysis.

  5. Instrumental photon activation analysis using the linear accelerator at the Naval Postgraduate School. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, W.A.

    1982-10-01

    Charcoal, charcoal residue, potting soil, aluminum foil, bismuth germanate, and petroleum samples have been investigated using instrumental photon activation analysis (i.e., no radiochemistry). The major and minor elements routinely observed by this nondestructive method were: C, C1, Ca, Fe, Mg, Si, and K. A compreshensive review of the principles of IPAA was also included in the study. The principles were applied to a theroetical analysis of an oil sample in which the trace element concentrations were known. It was concluded that IPAA is a highly sensitive technique which could be used to fingerprint oils.

  6. Instrumental photon activation analysis using the linear accelerator at the Naval Postgraduate School

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, W. A.

    1982-10-01

    Charcoal, charcoal residue, potting soil, aluminum foil, bismuth germanate, and petroleum samples have been investigated using instrumental photon activation analysis (i.e., no radiochemistry). The major and minor elements routinely observed by this nondestructive method were: C, C1, Ca, Fe, Mg, Si, and K. A comprehensive review of the principles of IPAA was also included in the study. The principles were applied to a theoretical analysis of an oil sample in which the trace element concentrations were known. It was concluded that IPAA is a highly sensitive technique which could be used to fingerprint oils.

  7. A Linear Dose-Response Relationship between Fasting Plasma Glucose and Colorectal Cancer Risk: Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Jianguo; Xiong, Lijuan; Li, Jiaoyuan; Cao, Heng; Jiang, Wen; Liu, Bo; Chen, Xueqin; Liu, Cheng; Liu, Ke; Wang, Guobin; Cai, Kailin

    2015-01-01

    For many years, the question of whether hyperglycaemia, a manifestation of prediabetes, diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome, is a risk factor for colorectal cancer has been intensely studied. In fact, even after the conclusion of several prospective studies, the topic is still controversial. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to investigate the dose-response relationship between blood glucose concentration and the incidence of colorectal cancer. A linear (P = 0.303 for non-linearity) dose-response relationship was observed between fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and colorectal cancer risk without significant heterogeneity. The relative risk (RR) for colorectal cancer per 20 mg/dL increase in FPG was 1.015 (95% CI: 1.012–1.019, P = 0.000). In subgroup analyses, the pooled RRs for colon cancer (CC) and rectal cancer (RC) studies were 1.035 (95% CI 1.008–1.062, P = 0.011) and 1.031 (95% CI: 0.189–5.628, P = 0.972), respectively; in the analysis comparing men and women, the pooled RRs were 1.016 (95% CI: 1.012–1.020, P = 0.000) and 1.011 (95% CI: 0.995–1.027, P = 0.164), respectively. Sensitivity analyses using two methods showed similar results. In conclusion, there is a significant linear dose-response relationship between FPG and the incidence risk of colorectal cancer. For people with diabetes or prediabetes, controlling blood glucose might be useful to prevent colorectal cancer. PMID:26620869

  8. Least-Squares Linear Regression and Schrodinger's Cat: Perspectives on the Analysis of Regression Residuals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hecht, Jeffrey B.

    The analysis of regression residuals and detection of outliers are discussed, with emphasis on determining how deviant an individual data point must be to be considered an outlier and the impact that multiple suspected outlier data points have on the process of outlier determination and treatment. Only bivariate (one dependent and one independent)…

  9. Errors Analysis of Solving Linear Inequalities among the Preparatory Year Students at King Saud University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    El-khateeb, Mahmoud M. A.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study aims to investigate the errors classes occurred by the Preparatory year students at King Saud University, through analysis student responses to the items of the study test, and to identify the varieties of the common errors and ratios of common errors that occurred in solving inequalities. In the collection of the data,…

  10. The Basic Concepts of the General Linear Model (GLM): Canonical Correlation Analysis (CCA) as a GLM.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimbell, Anne-Marie

    This paper illustrates how canonical correlation analysis can be used to implement all the parametric tests that canonical methods subsume as special cases. The point is heuristic: all analyses are correlational, apply weights to measured variables to create synthetic variables, and require the interpretation of both weights and structure…

  11. Analysis techniques for multivariate root loci. [a tool in linear control systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, P. M.; Stein, G.; Laub, A. J.

    1980-01-01

    Analysis and techniques are developed for the multivariable root locus and the multivariable optimal root locus. The generalized eigenvalue problem is used to compute angles and sensitivities for both types of loci, and an algorithm is presented that determines the asymptotic properties of the optimal root locus.

  12. Inverted Spring Pendulum Driven by a Periodic Force: Linear versus Nonlinear Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arinstein, A.; Gitterman, M.

    2008-01-01

    We analyse the stability of the spring inverted pendulum with the vertical oscillations of the suspension point. An important factor in the stability analysis is the interaction between radial and oscillating modes. In addition to the small oscillations near the upper position, the nonlinearity of the problem leads to the appearance of limit-cycle…

  13. Determinants of Linear Judgment: A Meta-Analysis of Lens Model Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karelaia, Natalia; Hogarth, Robin M.

    2008-01-01

    The mathematical representation of E. Brunswik's (1952) lens model has been used extensively to study human judgment and provides a unique opportunity to conduct a meta-analysis of studies that covers roughly 5 decades. Specifically, the authors analyzed statistics of the "lens model equation" (L. R. Tucker, 1964) associated with 249 different…

  14. Classification Based on Hierarchical Linear Models: The Need for Incorporation of Social Contexts in Classification Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaughn, Brandon K.; Wang, Qui

    2009-01-01

    Many areas in educational and psychological research involve the use of classification statistical analysis. For example, school districts might be interested in attaining variables that provide optimal prediction of school dropouts. In psychology, a researcher might be interested in the classification of a subject into a particular psychological…

  15. Linear Accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sidorin, Anatoly

    2010-01-01

    In linear accelerators the particles are accelerated by either electrostatic fields or oscillating Radio Frequency (RF) fields. Accordingly the linear accelerators are divided in three large groups: electrostatic, induction and RF accelerators. Overview of the different types of accelerators is given. Stability of longitudinal and transverse motion in the RF linear accelerators is briefly discussed. The methods of beam focusing in linacs are described.

  16. Linear Accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Sidorin, Anatoly

    2010-01-05

    In linear accelerators the particles are accelerated by either electrostatic fields or oscillating Radio Frequency (RF) fields. Accordingly the linear accelerators are divided in three large groups: electrostatic, induction and RF accelerators. Overview of the different types of accelerators is given. Stability of longitudinal and transverse motion in the RF linear accelerators is briefly discussed. The methods of beam focusing in linacs are described.

  17. A non-linear regression method for CT brain perfusion analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennink, E.; Oosterbroek, J.; Viergever, M. A.; Velthuis, B. K.; de Jong, H. W. A. M.

    2015-03-01

    CT perfusion (CTP) imaging allows for rapid diagnosis of ischemic stroke. Generation of perfusion maps from CTP data usually involves deconvolution algorithms providing estimates for the impulse response function in the tissue. We propose the use of a fast non-linear regression (NLR) method that we postulate has similar performance to the current academic state-of-art method (bSVD), but that has some important advantages, including the estimation of vascular permeability, improved robustness to tracer-delay, and very few tuning parameters, that are all important in stroke assessment. The aim of this study is to evaluate the fast NLR method against bSVD and a commercial clinical state-of-art method. The three methods were tested against a published digital perfusion phantom earlier used to illustrate the superiority of bSVD. In addition, the NLR and clinical methods were also tested against bSVD on 20 clinical scans. Pearson correlation coefficients were calculated for each of the tested methods. All three methods showed high correlation coefficients (>0.9) with the ground truth in the phantom. With respect to the clinical scans, the NLR perfusion maps showed higher correlation with bSVD than the perfusion maps from the clinical method. Furthermore, the perfusion maps showed that the fast NLR estimates are robust to tracer-delay. In conclusion, the proposed fast NLR method provides a simple and flexible way of estimating perfusion parameters from CT perfusion scans, with high correlation coefficients. This suggests that it could be a better alternative to the current clinical and academic state-of-art methods.

  18. AEGIS-K code for linear kinetic analysis of toroidally axisymmetric plasma stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, L. J.; Kotschenreuther, M. T.; Van Dam, J. W.

    2010-05-01

    A linear kinetic stability code for tokamak plasmas: AEGIS-K (Adaptive EiGenfunction Independent Solutions-Kinetic), is described. The AEGIS-K code is based on the newly developed gyrokinetic theory [L.J. Zheng, M.T. Kotschenreuther, J.W. Van Dam, Phys. Plasmas 14 (2007) 072505]. The success in recovering the ideal magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) from this newly developed gyrokinetic theory in the proper limit leads the AEGIS-K code to be featured by being fully kinetic in essence but hybrid in appearance. The radial adaptive shooting scheme based on the method of the independent solution decomposition in the MHD AEGIS code [L.J. Zheng, M.T. Kotschenreuther, J. Comp. Phys. 211 (2006) 748] is extended to the kinetic calculation. A numerical method is developed to solve the gyrokinetic equation of lowest order for the response to the independent solutions of the electromagnetic perturbations, with the quasineutrality condition taken into account. A transform method is implemented to allow the pre-computed Z-function (i.e., the plasma dispersion function) to be used to reduce the integration dimension in the moment calculation and to assure the numerical accuracy in determining the wave-particle resonance effects. Periodic boundary condition along the whole banana orbit is introduced to treat the trapped particles, in contrast to the usual reflection symmetry conditions at the banana tips. Due to the adaptive feature, the AEGIS-K code is able to resolve the coupling between the kinetic resonances and the shear Alfvén continuum damping. Application of the AEGIS-K code to compute the resistive wall modes in ITER is discussed.

  19. Non-linear dynamic analysis of geared systems. Final Report Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Rajendra; Houser, Donald R.; Kahraman, Ahmet

    1990-01-01

    Under driving conditions, a typical geared system may be subjected to large dynamic loads. Also, the vibration level of the geared system is directly related to the noise radiated from the gear box. The steady state dynamic behavior of the system is examined in order to design reliable and quiet transmissions. The scope is limited to a system containing a spur gear pair with backlash and periodically time varying mesh stiffness, and rolling element bearings with clearance type nonlinearities. The internal static transmission error at the gear mesh, which is of importance from high frequency noise and vibration control view point, is considered in the formulation in sinusoidal or periodic form. A dynamic finite element model of the linear time invariant (LTI) system is developed. Effects of several system parameters, such as torsional and transverse flexibilities of the shafts and prime mover/load inertias, on free and forced vibration characteristics are investigated. Several reduced order LTI models are developed and validated by comparing their eigen solutions with the finite element model results. Using the reduced order formulations, a three degree of freedom dynamic model is developed which includes nonlinearities associated with radical clearances in the radial rolling element bearings, backlash between a spur gear pair and periodically varying gear mesh stiffness. As a limiting case, a single degree of freedom model of the spur gear pair with backlash is considered and mathematical conditions for tooth separation and back collision are defined. Both digital simulation technique and analytical models such as method of harmonic balance and the method of multiple scales were used to develop the steady state frequency response characteristics for various nonlinear and/or time varying cases.

  20. Linear Stability Analysis of Convective Flow in a Confined Layer of Volatile Liquid Driven by a Horizontal Temperature Gradient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grigoriev, Roman; Qin, Tongran

    2015-11-01

    Convection in layers of nonvolatile liquids with a free surface driven by a horizontal temperature gradient is a fairly well-studies problem. It is described by several nondimensional parameters: the Prandtl number Pr , the Marangoni number Ma , and the Rayleigh number Ra (or the dynamic Bond number BoD = Ra / Ma). Previous studies mostly focused on characterizing the critical Ma and the nature of the convective pattern (e.g., stationary rolls or traveling waves) as a function of Pr and BoD . To understand convection in volatile liquids one also has to consider the transport of heat and mass in the gas layer above the liquid. In confined geometries, the composition of the gas phase plays a very important role, since air tends to suppress phase change at the interface and thereby the amount of latent heat released or absorbed at the interface as a result of evaporation or condensation. Linear stability analysis of the problem based on a two-sided model shows that, for BoD = O (1) , both the critical Ma and the critical wave length of the pattern increase as the average concentration of air decreases. The predictions of linear stability analysis are found to be in good agreement with previous experimental and numerical studies of both nonvolatile and volatile fluids.

  1. Linear Static Structural and Vibration Analysis on High-Performance Computers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baddourah, Majdi; Storaasli, Olaf O.; Bostic, Susan

    1993-01-01

    Parallel computers offer the opportunity to significantly reduce the computation time necessary to analyze large-scale aerospace structures. This paper presents algorithms developed for and implemented on a massively-parallel computers hereafter referred to as Scalable High Performance Computers (SHPC) for the most computationally intensive tasks involved in structural analysis, namely, generation and assembly of system matrices, solution of systems of equations and calculation of the eigenvalues and eigenvectors. Results on SHPC are presented for large-scale structural problems (i.e. Models of high speed civil transport). The goal of this research is to develop new efficient technique which extend structural analysis to SHPC and make large-scale structural analyses tractable.

  2. Visualization of Global Sensitivity Analysis Results Based on a Combination of Linearly Dependent and Independent Directions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davies, Misty D.; Gundy-Burlet, Karen

    2010-01-01

    A useful technique for the validation and verification of complex flight systems is Monte Carlo Filtering -- a global sensitivity analysis that tries to find the inputs and ranges that are most likely to lead to a subset of the outputs. A thorough exploration of the parameter space for complex integrated systems may require thousands of experiments and hundreds of controlled and measured variables. Tools for analyzing this space often have limitations caused by the numerical problems associated with high dimensionality and caused by the assumption of independence of all of the dimensions. To combat both of these limitations, we propose a technique that uses a combination of the original variables with the derived variables obtained during a principal component analysis.

  3. TRBUCKL - A NASTRAN DMAP ALTER FOR LINEAR BUCKLING ANALYSIS UNDER DYNAMIC LOADING

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aiello, R. A.

    1994-01-01

    Delaminations near the outer surface of a laminate are susceptible to local buckling and buckling-induced delamination propagation when the laminate is subjected to transverse impact loading. This results in a loss of stiffness and strength. TRBUCKL is an unique dynamic delamination buckling and delamination propagation analysis capability that can be incorporated into the structural analysis program, NASTRAN. This capability will aid engineers in the design of structures incorporating composite laminates. The capability consists of: (1) a modification of the direct time integration solution sequence which provides a new analysis algorithm that can be used to predict delamination buckling in a laminate subjected to dynamic loading; and (2) a new method of modeling the composite laminate using plate bending elements and multipoint constraints. The capability now exists to predict the time at which the onset of dynamic delamination buckling occurs, the dynamic buckling mode shape, and the dynamic delamination strain energy release rate. A procedure file for NASTRAN, TRBUCKL predicts both impact induced buckling in composite laminates with initial delaminations and the strain energy release rate due to extension of the delamination. In addition, the file is useful in calculating the dynamic delamination strain energy release rate for a composite laminate under impact loading. This procedure simplifies the simulation of progressive crack extension. TRBUCKL has been incorporated into COSMIC NASTRAN. TRBUCKL is a DMAP Alter for NASTRAN. It is intended for use only with the COSMIC NASTRAN Direct Transient Analysis (RF 9) solution sequence. The program is available as a listing only. TRBUCKL was developed in 1987.

  4. Fuzzy parametric uncertainty analysis of linear dynamical systems: A surrogate modeling approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chowdhury, R.; Adhikari, S.

    2012-10-01

    Uncertainty propagation engineering systems possess significant computational challenges. This paper explores the possibility of using correlated function expansion based metamodelling approach when uncertain system parameters are modeled using Fuzzy variables. In particular, the application of High-Dimensional Model Representation (HDMR) is proposed for fuzzy finite element analysis of dynamical systems. The HDMR expansion is a set of quantitative model assessment and analysis tools for capturing high-dimensional input-output system behavior based on a hierarchy of functions of increasing dimensions. The input variables may be either finite-dimensional (i.e., a vector of parameters chosen from the Euclidean space RM) or may be infinite-dimensional as in the function space CM[0,1]. The computational effort to determine the expansion functions using the alpha cut method scales polynomially with the number of variables rather than exponentially. This logic is based on the fundamental assumption underlying the HDMR representation that only low-order correlations among the input variables are likely to have significant impacts upon the outputs for most high-dimensional complex systems. The proposed method is integrated with a commercial Finite Element software. Modal analysis of a simplified aircraft wing with Fuzzy parameters has been used to illustrate the generality of the proposed approach. In the numerical examples, triangular membership functions have been used and the results have been validated against direct Monte Carlo simulations.

  5. Development of flow network analysis code for block type VHTR core by linear theory method

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, J. H.; Yoon, S. J.; Park, J. W.; Park, G. C.

    2012-07-01

    VHTR (Very High Temperature Reactor) is high-efficiency nuclear reactor which is capable of generating hydrogen with high temperature of coolant. PMR (Prismatic Modular Reactor) type reactor consists of hexagonal prismatic fuel blocks and reflector blocks. The flow paths in the prismatic VHTR core consist of coolant holes, bypass gaps and cross gaps. Complicated flow paths are formed in the core since the coolant holes and bypass gap are connected by the cross gap. Distributed coolant was mixed in the core through the cross gap so that the flow characteristics could not be modeled as a simple parallel pipe system. It requires lot of effort and takes very long time to analyze the core flow with CFD analysis. Hence, it is important to develop the code for VHTR core flow which can predict the core flow distribution fast and accurate. In this study, steady state flow network analysis code is developed using flow network algorithm. Developed flow network analysis code was named as FLASH code and it was validated with the experimental data and CFD simulation results. (authors)

  6. The Success of Linear Bootstrapping Models: Decision Domain-, Expertise-, and Criterion-Specific Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kaufmann, Esther; Wittmann, Werner W.

    2016-01-01

    The success of bootstrapping or replacing a human judge with a model (e.g., an equation) has been demonstrated in Paul Meehl’s (1954) seminal work and bolstered by the results of several meta-analyses. To date, however, analyses considering different types of meta-analyses as well as the potential dependence of bootstrapping success on the decision domain, the level of expertise of the human judge, and the criterion for what constitutes an accurate decision have been missing from the literature. In this study, we addressed these research gaps by conducting a meta-analysis of lens model studies. We compared the results of a traditional (bare-bones) meta-analysis with findings of a meta-analysis of the success of bootstrap models corrected for various methodological artifacts. In line with previous studies, we found that bootstrapping was more successful than human judgment. Furthermore, bootstrapping was more successful in studies with an objective decision criterion than in studies with subjective or test score criteria. We did not find clear evidence that the success of bootstrapping depended on the decision domain (e.g., education or medicine) or on the judge’s level of expertise (novice or expert). Correction of methodological artifacts increased the estimated success of bootstrapping, suggesting that previous analyses without artifact correction (i.e., traditional meta-analyses) may have underestimated the value of bootstrapping models. PMID:27327085

  7. Retrospective analysis of linear accelerator output constancy checks using process control techniques.

    PubMed

    Sanghangthum, Taweap; Suriyapee, Sivalee; Srisatit, Somyot; Pawlicki, Todd

    2013-01-01

    Shewhart control charts have previously been suggested as a process control tool for use in routine linear accelerator (linac) output verifications. However, a comprehensive approach to process control has not been investigated for linac output verifications. The purpose of this work is to investigate a comprehensive process control approach to linac output constancy quality assurance (QA). The RBA-3 dose constancy check was used to verify outputs of photon beams and electron beams delivered by a Varian Clinac 21EX linac. The data were collected during 2009 to 2010. Shewhart-type control charts, exponentially weighted moving average (EWMA) charts, and capability indices were applied to these processes. The Shewhart-type individuals chart (X-chart) was used and the number of data points used to calculate the control limits was varied. The parameters tested for the EWMA charts (smoothing parameter (λ) and the control limit width (L)) were λ = 0.05, L = 2.492; λ = 0.10, L = 2.703; and λ = 0.20, L = 2.860, as well as the number of points used to estimate the initial process mean and variation. Lastly, the number of in-control data points used to determine process capability (C(p)) and acceptability (C(pk)) were investigated, comparing the first in-control run to the longest in-control run of the process data. C(p) and C(pk) values greater than 1.0 were considered acceptable. The 95% confidence intervals were reported. The X-charts detected systematic errors (e.g., device setup errors). In-control run lengths on the X-charts varied from 5 to 30 output measurements (about one to seven months). EWMA charts showed in-control runs ranging from 9 to 33 output measurements (about two to eight months). The C(p) and C(pk) ratios are higher than 1.0 for all energies, except 12 and 20 MeV. However, 10 MV and 6, 9, and 16 MeV were in question when considering the 95% confidence limits. The X-chart should be calculated using 8-12 data points. For EWMA chart, using 4 data points

  8. Comparing Consider-Covariance Analysis with Sigma-Point Consider Filter and Linear-Theory Consider Filter Formulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lisano, Michael E.

    2007-01-01

    Recent literature in applied estimation theory reflects growing interest in the sigma-point (also called unscented ) formulation for optimal sequential state estimation, often describing performance comparisons with extended Kalman filters as applied to specific dynamical problems [c.f. 1, 2, 3]. Favorable attributes of sigma-point filters are described as including a lower expected error for nonlinear even non-differentiable dynamical systems, and a straightforward formulation not requiring derivation or implementation of any partial derivative Jacobian matrices. These attributes are particularly attractive, e.g. in terms of enabling simplified code architecture and streamlined testing, in the formulation of estimators for nonlinear spaceflight mechanics systems, such as filter software onboard deep-space robotic spacecraft. As presented in [4], the Sigma-Point Consider Filter (SPCF) algorithm extends the sigma-point filter algorithm to the problem of consider covariance analysis. Considering parameters in a dynamical system, while estimating its state, provides an upper bound on the estimated state covariance, which is viewed as a conservative approach to designing estimators for problems of general guidance, navigation and control. This is because, whether a parameter in the system model is observable or not, error in the knowledge of the value of a non-estimated parameter will increase the actual uncertainty of the estimated state of the system beyond the level formally indicated by the covariance of an estimator that neglects errors or uncertainty in that parameter. The equations for SPCF covariance evolution are obtained in a fashion similar to the derivation approach taken with standard (i.e. linearized or extended) consider parameterized Kalman filters (c.f. [5]). While in [4] the SPCF and linear-theory consider filter (LTCF) were applied to an illustrative linear dynamics/linear measurement problem, in the present work examines the SPCF as applied to

  9. Linear analysis of time dependent properties of Child-Langmuir flow

    SciTech Connect

    Rokhlenko, A.

    2013-01-15

    We continue our analysis of the time dependent behavior of the electron flow in the Child-Langmuir system, removing an approximation used earlier. We find a modified set of oscillatory decaying modes with frequencies of the same order as the inverse of the electron transient time. This range (typically MHz) allows simple experimental detection and maybe exploitation. We then study the time evolution of the current in response to a slow change of the anode voltage where the same modes of oscillations appear too. The cathode current in this case is systematically advanced or retarded depending on the direction of the voltage change.

  10. Comet C/2011 J2 (LINEAR) nucleus splitting: Dynamical and structural analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manzini, Federico; Oldani, Virginio; Hirabayashi, Masatoshi; Behrend, Raoul; Crippa, Roberto; Ochner, Paolo; Pina, José Pablo Navarro; Haver, Roberto; Baransky, Alexander; Bryssinck, Eric; Dan, Andras; De Queiroz, Josè; Frappa, Eric; Lavayssiere, Maylis

    2016-07-01

    After the discovery of the breakup event of comet C/2011 J2 in August 2014, we followed the primary body and the main fragment B for about 120 days in the context of a wide international collaboration. From the analysis of all published magnitude estimates we calculated the comet's absolute magnitude H=10.4, and its photometric index n=1.7. We also calculated a water production of only 110 kg/s at the perihelion. These values are typical of a low-activity, long-period or new comet. Analysis of the motion of fragment B over the observation period showed that the first breakout event likely occurred between 12 July and 30 July 2014. Nucleus B remained persistently visible throughout the 4-month observation period. The projected separation velocity of nucleus B from the parent body was 4.22 m/s at the time of the breakup and 12.7 m/s at the end of the observation period, suggesting that nucleus B was subjected to a constant deceleration a = 6.87 • 10-7 m / s2 . The spin period of the main nucleus was estimated as 4.56 h±0.05 h by photometric analysis. The structural analysis of the comet showed a cohesive strength of the nucleus greater than ~0.9 kPa; assuming a bulk density of 500 kg/m3, with a rotation period of 4.56 h the cometary nucleus might have failed structurally, especially if the body was elongated. These results suggest that the nucleus of comet C/2011 J2 has an elongated shape, with a ratio of the semi-minor axis to the semi-major axis β < 0.675 ; the semi-major axis of the pristine nucleus could be larger than 8 km. From this study, we propose that rotational disruption, possibly combined with sublimation pressure, was a reasonable explanation for the breakup event in comet C/2011 J2.

  11. Stability and bifurcation analysis of oscillators with piecewise-linear characteristics - A general approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noah, S. T.; Kim, Y. B.

    1991-01-01

    A general approach is developed for determining the periodic solutions and their stability of nonlinear oscillators with piecewise-smooth characteristics. A modified harmonic balance/Fourier transform procedure is devised for the analysis. The procedure avoids certain numerical differentiation employed previously in determining the periodic solutions, therefore enhancing the reliability and efficiency of the method. Stability of the solutions is determined via perturbations of their state variables. The method is applied to a forced oscillator interacting with a stop of finite stiffness. Flip and fold bifurcations are found to occur. This led to the identification of parameter ranges in which chaotic response occurred.

  12. Label-Free Analysis of Cellular Lipid Droplet Formation by Non-Linear Microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schie, Iwan W.

    Cellular lipid droplets (LD) are cellular organelles that can be found in every cell type. Recent research indicates that cellular LD are involved in a large number of cellular metabolic functions, such as lipid metabolism, protection from lipotoxicity, protein storage and degradation, and many more. LD formation is frequently associated with adverse health effects, i.e. alcoholic and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, diabetes type-2, as well as many cardiovascular disorders. Despite their wide presence, LDs are the least studied and most poorly understood cellular organelles. Typically, LDs are investigated using fluorescence-based techniques that require staining with exogenous fluorophores. Other techniques, e.g. biochemical assays, require the destruction of cells that prohibit the analysis of living cells. Therefore, in my thesis research I developed a novel compound fast-scanning nonlinear optical microscope equipped with the ability to also acquire Raman spectra at specific image locations. This system allows us to image label-free cellular LD formation in living cells and analyze the composition of single cellular LDs. Images can be acquired at near video-rate (˜16 frames/s). Furthermore, the system has the ability to acquire very large images of tissue of up to 7.5x15 cm2 total area by stitching together scans with dimensions of 1x1 mm2 in less than 1 minute. The system also enables the user to acquire Raman spectra from points of interest in the multiphoton images and provides chemically-specific data from sample volumes as small as 1 femtoliter. In my thesis I used this setup to determine the effects of VLDL lipolysis products on primary rat hepatocytes. By analyzing the Raman spectra and comparing the peak ratios for saturated and unsaturated fatty acid it was determined that the small cellular LD are highly saturated, while large cellular LDs contain mostly unsaturated lipids. Furthermore, I established a method to determine the specific contribution

  13. Wavelet analysis for non-stationary, non-linear time series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulte, J. A.

    2015-12-01

    Methods for detecting and quantifying nonlinearities in nonstationary time series are introduced and developed. In particular, higher-order wavelet analysis was applied to an ideal time series and the Quasi-biennial Oscillation (QBO) time series. Multiple-testing problems inherent in wavelet analysis were addressed by controlling the false discovery rate. A new local autobicoherence spectrum facilitated the detection of local nonlinearities and the quantification of cycle geometry. The local autobicoherence spectrum of the QBO time series showed that the QBO time series contained a mode with a period of 28 months that was phase-coupled to a harmonic with a period of 14 months. An additional nonlinearly interacting triad was found among modes with periods of 10, 16, 26 months. Local biphase spectra determined that the nonlinear interactions were not quadratic and that the effect of the nonlinearities was to produce non-smoothly varying oscillations. The oscillations were found to be skewed so that negative QBO regimes were preferred, and also asymmetric in the sense that phase transitions between the easterly and westerly phases occurred more rapidly than those from westerly to easterly regimes.

  14. Quantitative analysis of damage in PBX 9501 subjected to a linear thermal gradient

    SciTech Connect

    Asay, B. W.; Henson, B. F.; Peterson, P. D.; Mang, J. T.; Smilowitz, L. B.; Dickson, P. M.

    2002-01-01

    We have conducted a series of experiments in which a cylinder of PBX 9501 is placed in a specially designed fixture with each end fixed at a different temperature. This arrangement sets up a thermal gradient in the explosive that is carefully controlled and maintained for a specified amount of time. This configuration has a number of advantages over thermally damaging separate pieces at a series of different temperatures, the principal one being that damage in this experiment is a continuous function of position. This makes analysis and distinction of regions easier and more straightforward. For the experiments reported in this paper, the explosive samples have been subjected to a series of different analysis techniques. We have used polarized light microscopy, physical adsorption, Raman spectroscopy, and small angle neutron and x-ray scattering in an attempt to characterize the particle morphology, porosity distribution, crack and void formation, and chemical state as a function of thermal treatment. While not all of the efforts were informative, the data clearly show trends and form a basis for understanding the effects of thermal damage on explosive behavior.

  15. Meta-Analysis for Linear and Nonlinear Dose-Response Relations: Examples, an Evaluation of Approximations, and Software

    PubMed Central

    Orsini, Nicola; Li, Ruifeng; Wolk, Alicja; Khudyakov, Polyna; Spiegelman, Donna

    2012-01-01

    Two methods for point and interval estimation of relative risk for log-linear exposure-response relations in meta-analyses of published ordinal categorical exposure-response data have been proposed. The authors compared the results of a meta-analysis of published data using each of the 2 methods with the results that would be obtained if the primary data were available and investigated the circumstances under which the approximations required for valid use of each meta-analytic method break down. They then extended the methods to handle nonlinear exposure-response relations. In the present article, methods are illustrated using studies of the relation between alcohol consumption and colorectal and lung cancer risks from the ongoing Pooling Project of Prospective Studies of Diet and Cancer. In these examples, the differences between the results of a meta-analysis of summarized published data and the pooled analysis of the individual original data were small. However, incorrectly assuming no correlation between relative risk estimates for exposure categories from the same study gave biased confidence intervals for the trend and biased P values for the tests for nonlinearity and between-study heterogeneity when there was strong confounding by other model covariates. The authors illustrate the use of 2 publicly available user-friendly programs (Stata and SAS) to implement meta-analysis for dose-response data. PMID:22135359

  16. Meta-analysis for linear and nonlinear dose-response relations: examples, an evaluation of approximations, and software.

    PubMed

    Orsini, Nicola; Li, Ruifeng; Wolk, Alicja; Khudyakov, Polyna; Spiegelman, Donna

    2012-01-01

    Two methods for point and interval estimation of relative risk for log-linear exposure-response relations in meta-analyses of published ordinal categorical exposure-response data have been proposed. The authors compared the results of a meta-analysis of published data using each of the 2 methods with the results that would be obtained if the primary data were available and investigated the circumstances under which the approximations required for valid use of each meta-analytic method break down. They then extended the methods to handle nonlinear exposure-response relations. In the present article, methods are illustrated using studies of the relation between alcohol consumption and colorectal and lung cancer risks from the ongoing Pooling Project of Prospective Studies of Diet and Cancer. In these examples, the differences between the results of a meta-analysis of summarized published data and the pooled analysis of the individual original data were small. However, incorrectly assuming no correlation between relative risk estimates for exposure categories from the same study gave biased confidence intervals for the trend and biased P values for the tests for nonlinearity and between-study heterogeneity when there was strong confounding by other model covariates. The authors illustrate the use of 2 publicly available user-friendly programs (Stata and SAS) to implement meta-analysis for dose-response data. PMID:22135359

  17. Discrimination of inflammatory bowel disease using Raman spectroscopy and linear discriminant analysis methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Hao; Cao, Ming; DuPont, Andrew W.; Scott, Larry D.; Guha, Sushovan; Singhal, Shashideep; Younes, Mamoun; Pence, Isaac; Herline, Alan; Schwartz, David; Xu, Hua; Mahadevan-Jansen, Anita; Bi, Xiaohong

    2016-03-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is an idiopathic disease that is typically characterized by chronic inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract. Recently much effort has been devoted to the development of novel diagnostic tools that can assist physicians for fast, accurate, and automated diagnosis of the disease. Previous research based on Raman spectroscopy has shown promising results in differentiating IBD patients from normal screening cases. In the current study, we examined IBD patients in vivo through a colonoscope-coupled Raman system. Optical diagnosis for IBD discrimination was conducted based on full-range spectra using multivariate statistical methods. Further, we incorporated several feature selection methods in machine learning into the classification model. The diagnostic performance for disease differentiation was significantly improved after feature selection. Our results showed that improved IBD diagnosis can be achieved using Raman spectroscopy in combination with multivariate analysis and feature selection.

  18. The error analysis and online measurement of linear slide motion error in machine tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, H.; Hong, M. S.; Li, Z. J.; Wei, Y. L.; Xiong, S. B.

    2002-06-01

    A new accurate two-probe time domain method is put forward to measure the straight-going component motion error in machine tools. The characteristics of non-periodic and non-closing in the straightness profile error are liable to bring about higher-order harmonic component distortion in the measurement results. However, this distortion can be avoided by the new accurate two-probe time domain method through the symmetry continuation algorithm, uniformity and least squares method. The harmonic suppression is analysed in detail through modern control theory. Both the straight-going component motion error in machine tools and the profile error in a workpiece that is manufactured on this machine can be measured at the same time. All of this information is available to diagnose the origin of faults in machine tools. The analysis result is proved to be correct through experiment.

  19. Non-linear numerical analysis of the Iosipescu specimen for composite materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ho, Henjen; Morton, John; Farley, Gary L.

    1994-01-01

    A nonlinear elastic finite element analysis is presented of the Iosipescu shear specimen tested in the modified Wyoming fixture for unidirectional graphite/epoxy composites. It is shown that the nonlinear effects due to specimen-to-fixture contact interactions and specimen geometry on the overall shear response are negligible. It is proposed that the tangential shear modulus should be used to characterize the shear resistance of composite materials with highly nonlinear shear response. The correction factors, which are needed to compensate for the nonuniformity of the shear stress or strain distribution in the specimen test section for shear modulus measurement, have to be defined carefully. Strain contours in the nonlinear response ranges are presented and the initiation of failure in the notch regions is investigated.

  20. Real-time Detection of Precursors to Epileptic Seizures: Non-Linear Analysis of System Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Nesaei, Sahar; Sharafat, Ahmad R.

    2014-01-01

    We propose a novel approach for detecting precursors to epileptic seizures in intracranial electroencephalograms (iEEG), which is based on the analysis of system dynamics. In the proposed scheme, the largest Lyapunov exponent of the discrete wavelet packet transform (DWPT) of the segmented EEG signals is considered as the discriminating features. Such features are processed by a support vector machine (SVM) classifier to identify whether the corresponding segment of the EEG signal contains a precursor to an epileptic seizure. When consecutive EEG segments contain such precursors, a decision is made that a precursor is in fact detected. The proposed scheme is applied to the Freiburg dataset, and the results show that seizure precursors are detected in a time frame that unlike other existing schemes is very much convenient to patients, with sensitivity of 100% and negligible false positive detection rates. PMID:24761374