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Sample records for linearized gravity waves

  1. Gravity Waves

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-19

    article title:  Gravity Waves Ripple over Marine Stratocumulus Clouds ... Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR), a fingerprint-like gravity wave feature occurs over a deck of marine stratocumulus clouds. Similar ... that occur when a pebble is thrown into a still pond, such "gravity waves" sometimes appear when the relatively stable and stratified air ...

  2. Linear stability analysis and the speed of gravitational waves in dynamical Chern-Simons modified gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Garfinkle, David; Pretorius, Frans; Yunes, Nicolas

    2010-08-15

    We perform a linear stability analysis of dynamical Chern-Simons modified gravity in the geometric optics approximation and find that it is linearly stable on the backgrounds considered. Our analysis also reveals that gravitational waves in the modified theory travel at the speed of light in Minkowski spacetime. However, on a Schwarzschild background the characteristic speed of propagation along a given direction splits into two modes, one subluminal and one superluminal. The width of the splitting depends on the azimuthal components of the propagation vector, is linearly proportional to the mass of the black hole, and decreases with the third inverse power of the distance from the black hole. Radial propagation is unaffected, implying that as probed by gravitational waves the location of the event horizon of the spacetime is unaltered. The analysis further reveals that when a high frequency, pure gravitational wave is scattered from a black hole, a scalar wave of comparable amplitude is excited, and vice versa.

  3. Gravity waves and linear inflation from axion monodromy

    SciTech Connect

    McAllister, Liam; Silverstein, Eva; Westphal, Alexander

    2010-08-15

    Wrapped branes in string compactifications introduce a monodromy that extends the field range of individual closed-string axions to beyond the Planck scale. Furthermore, approximate shift symmetries of the system naturally control corrections to the axion potential. This suggests a general mechanism for chaotic inflation driven by monodromy-extended closed-string axions. We systematically analyze this possibility and show that the mechanism is compatible with moduli stabilization and can be realized in many types of compactifications, including warped Calabi-Yau manifolds and more general Ricci-curved spaces. In this broad class of models, the potential is linear in the canonical inflaton field, predicting a tensor to scalar ratio r{approx_equal}0.07 accessible to upcoming cosmic microwave background observations.

  4. Gravity Waves and Linear Inflation From Axion Monodromy

    SciTech Connect

    McAllister, Liam; Silverstein, Eva; Westphal, Alexander; /SLAC /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.

    2010-08-26

    Wrapped branes in string compactifications introduce a monodromy that extends the field range of individual closed-string axions to beyond the Planck scale. Furthermore, approximate shift symmetries of the system naturally control corrections to the axion potential. This suggests a general mechanism for chaotic inflation driven by monodromy-extended closed-string axions. We systematically analyze this possibility and show that the mechanism is compatible with moduli stabilization and can be realized in many types of compactifications, including warped Calabi-Yau manifolds and more general Ricci-curved spaces. In this broad class of models, the potential is linear in the canonical inflaton field, predicting a tensor to scalar ratio r {approx} 0.07 accessible to upcoming cosmic microwave background (CMB) observations.

  5. 2D instabilities of surface gravity waves on a linear shear current

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Francius, Marc; Kharif, Christian

    2016-04-01

    instabilities due to resonant four-wave interactions, as well as to study the influence of vorticity and nonlinearity on the characteristics of linear instabilities due to resonant five-wave and six-wave interactions. Depending on the dimensionless depth, superharmonic instabilities due to five-wave interactions can become dominant with increasing positive vorticiy. Acknowledgments: This work was supported by the Direction Générale de l'Armement and funded by the ANR project n°. ANR-13-ASTR-0007. References [1] A. Constantin, Two-dimensionality of gravity water flows of constant non-zero vorticity beneath a surface wave train, Eur. J. Mech. B/Fluids, 2011, 30, 12-16. [2] R. S. Johnson, On the modulation of water waves on shear flows, Proc. Royal Soc. Lond. A., 1976, 347, 537-546. [3] M. Oikawa, K. Chow, D. J. Benney, The propagation of nonlinear wave packets in a shear flow with a free surface, Stud. Appl. Math., 1987, 76, 69-92. [4] A. I Baumstein, Modulation of gravity waves with shear in water, Stud. Appl. Math., 1998, 100, 365-90. [5] R. Thomas, C. Kharif, M. Manna, A nonlinear Schrödinger equation for water waves on finite depth with constant vorticity, Phys. Fluids, 2012, 24, 127102. [6] M. M Rienecker, J. D Fenton, A Fourier approximation method for steady water waves , J. Fluid Mech., 1981, 104, 119-137 [7] M. Francius, C. Kharif, Three-dimensional instabilities of periodic gravity waves in shallow water, J. Fluid Mech., 2006, 561, 417-437

  6. Gravity Waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanzandt, T. E.

    1985-01-01

    Atmospheric parameters fluctuate on all scales. In the mesoscale these fluctuations are occasionally sinusoidal so that they can be interpreted as gravity waves. Usually, however, the fluctuations are noise like, so that their cause is not immediately evident. Results of mesoscale observations in the 20 to 120 m altitude range that are suitable for incorporation into a model atmosphere are very limited. In the stratosphere and lower mesosphere observations are sparse and very little data has been summarized into appropriate form. There is much more data in the upper mesosphere and lower thermosphere, but again very little of it has been summarized. The available mesoscale spectra of horizontal wind u versus vertical wave number m in the 20 to 120 km altitude range are shown together with a spectrum from the lower atmosphere for comparison. Further information about these spectra is given. In spite of the large range of altitudes and latitudes, the spectra from the lower atmosphere (NASA, 1971 and DEWAN, 1984) are remarkably similar in both shape and amplitude. The mean slopes of -2.38 for the NASA spectrum and -2.7 for the Dewan spectra are supported by the mean slope of -2.75 found by ROSENBERG et al. (1974). The mesospheric spectrum is too short to establish a shape. Its amplitude is about an order of magnitude larger than the NASA spectrum in the same wave number range. The NASA and Dewan spectra suggest that the mesoscale spectra in the lower atmosphere are insensitive to meteorological conditions.

  7. Gravity wave transmission diagram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomikawa, Yoshihiro

    2016-07-01

    A possibility of gravity wave propagation from a source region to the airglow layer around the mesopause has been discussed based on the gravity wave blocking diagram taking into account the critical level filtering alone. This paper proposes a new gravity wave transmission diagram in which both the critical level filtering and turning level reflection of gravity waves are considered. It shows a significantly different distribution of gravity wave transmissivity from the blocking diagram.

  8. On the linear approximation of gravity wave saturation in the mesosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chao, W. C.; Schoeberl, M. R.

    1984-01-01

    Lindzen's model of gravity wave breaking is shown to be inconsistent with the process of convective adjustment and associated turbulent outbreak. The K-theory turbulent diffusion model used by Lindzen implies a spatially uniform turbulent field which is not in agreement with the fact that gravity wave saturation and the associated convection produce turbulence only in restricted zones. The Lindzen model may be corrected to some extent by taking the turbulent Prandtl number for a diffusion acting on the wave itself to be very large. The eddy diffusion coefficients computed by Lindzen then become a factor of 2 larger and eddy transports of heat and constituents by wave fields vanish to first order.

  9. Spectral evolution and extreme value analysis of non-linear numerical simulations of narrow band random surface gravity waves.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Socquet-Juglard, H.; Dysthe, K. B.; Trulsen, K.; Liu, J.; Krogstad, H. E.

    2003-04-01

    Numerical simulations of a narrow band gaussian spectrum of random surface gravity waves have been carried out in two and three spatial dimensions [7]. Different types of non-linear Schr&{uml;o}dinger equations, [1] and [4], have been used in these simulations. Simulations have now been carried with a JONSWAP spectrum associated with a spreading function of the type cosine-squared [5]. The evolution of the spectrum, skewness, kurtosis, ... will be presented. In addition, some results about stochastic properties of the surface will be shown. Based on the approach found in [2], [3] and [6], the results are presented in terms of deviations from linear Gaussian theory and the standard second order small slope perturbation theory. begin{thebibliography}{9} bibitem{kk96} Trulsen, K. &Dysthe, K. B. (1996). A modified nonlinear Schr&{uml;o}dinger equation for broader bandwidth gravity waves on deep water. Wave Motion, 24, pp. 281-289. bibitem{BK2000} Krogstad, H.E. and S.F. Barstow (2000). A uniform approach to extreme value analysis of ocean waves, Proc. ISOPE'2000, Seattle, USA, 3, pp. 103-108. bibitem{PRK} Prevosto, M., H. E. Krogstad and A. Robin (2000). Probability distributions for maximum wave and crest heights, Coast. Eng., 40, 329-360. bibitem{ketal} Trulsen, K., Kliakhandler, I., Dysthe, K. B. &Velarde, M. G. (2000) On weakly nonlinear modulation of waves on deep water, Phys. Fluids, 12, pp. L25-L28. bibitem{onorato} Onorato, M., Osborne, A.R. and Serio, M. (2002) Extreme wave events in directional, random oceanic sea states, Phys. Fluids, 14, pp. 2432-2437. bibitem{BK2002} Krogstad, H.E. and S.F. Barstow (2002). Analysis and Applications of Second Order Models for the Maximum Crest height, % Proc. 21nd Int. Conf. Offshore Mechanics and Arctic Engineering, Oslo. Paper no. OMAE2002-28479. bibitem{JFMP} Dysthe, K. B., Trulsen, K., Krogstad, H. E. and Socquet-Juglard, H. (2002, in press) Evolution of a narrow band spectrum of random surface gravity waves, J. Fluid

  10. The interaction between gravity waves and solar tides: Results from 4-D ray tracing coupled to a linear tidal model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribstein, B.; Achatz, U.; Senf, F.

    2015-08-01

    The interaction between solar tides (STs) and gravity waves (GWs) is studied via the coupling of a three-dimensional ray tracer model and a linear tidal model. The ray tracer model describes GW dynamics on a spatially and time-dependent background formed by a monthly mean climatology and STs. It does not suffer from typical simplifications of conventional GW parameterizations where horizontal GW propagation and the effects of horizontal background gradients on GW dynamics are neglected. The ray tracer model uses a variant of Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin (WKB) theory where a spectral description in position wave number space is helping to avoid numerical instabilities otherwise likely to occur in caustic-like situations. The tidal model has been obtained by linearization of the primitive equations about a monthly mean, allowing for stationary planetary waves. The communication between ray tracer model and tidal model is facilitated using latitude- and altitude-dependent coefficients, named Rayleigh friction and Newtonian relaxation, and obtained from regressing GW momentum and buoyancy fluxes against the STs and their tendencies. These coefficients are calculated by the ray tracer model and then implemented into the tidal model. An iterative procedure updates successively the GW fields and the tidal fields until convergence is reached. Notwithstanding the simplicity of the employed GW source, many aspects of observed tidal dynamics are reproduced. It is shown that the conventional "single-column" approximation leads to significantly overestimated GW fluxes and hence underestimated ST amplitudes, pointing at a sensitive issue of GW parameterizations in general.

  11. On the unsteady free surface wave pattern found behind a localized pressure distribution moving at speeds just below the minimum phase speed of linear gravity capillary waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masnadi, N.; Duncan, J. H.

    2012-11-01

    The non-linear response of a water free surface to a localized pressure distribution moving at constant speed just below the minimum phase speed (Cmin ~ 23 cm/s) of gravity-capillary waves is studied experimentally in a long tank. The pressure distribution is generated by blowing air onto the water surface via a vertically oriented 2-mm-ID tube that is mounted on an instrument carriage that is in turn set to move along the tank at constant speeds between 20 and 23 cm/s. A cinematic light refraction method is used to obtain quantitative measurements of the surface deformation pattern behind the air jet. At towing speeds just below Cmin, an unsteady V-shaped wave pattern appears behind the pressure source. From observations of the wave pattern evolution, it is found that localized depressions are generated near the pressure source and propagate in pairs along the two arms of the V-shaped pattern. These are eventually shed from the tips of the pattern and rapidly decay. Measurements of the evolution of the speed of these localized depression patterns are compared to existing measurements of the speeds of steady three-dimensional solitary gravity-capillary waves (lumps) that appear behind the pressure source at even lower towing speeds. Supported by the National Science Foundation Division of Ocean Sciences.

  12. Gravity wave initiated convection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hung, R. J.

    1990-01-01

    The vertical velocity of convection initiated by gravity waves was investigated. In one particular case, the convective motion-initiated and supported by the gravity wave-induced activity (excluding contributions made by other mechanisms) reached its maximum value about one hour before the production of the funnel clouds. In another case, both rawinsonde and geosynchronous satellite imagery were used to study the life cycles of severe convective storms. Cloud modelling with input sounding data and rapid-scan imagery from GOES were used to investigate storm cloud formation, development and dissipation in terms of growth and collapse of cloud tops, as well as, the life cycles of the penetration of overshooting turrets above the tropopause. The results based on these two approaches are presented and discussed.

  13. Nature of Gravity Wave[1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng-Johansson, J. X.; Johansson, P.-I.; Lundin, R.

    2005-04-01

    %________Symbole Definition:_____φγφ λλE XR %________ABSTRAT:________As direct Newton-Maxwell solutions for particle formation, we obtain: (1) An oscillatory charge |qi|=e of any sign and the electromagnetic waves generated by it (of an angular frequency i and traveling at the velocity of light c), called as a whole a basic particle, has a mass mi= i/c^2, 2 π being Planck constant. (2) Two such particles, i,j=1,2, separated R apart in a dielectric vacuum will, in their mutual radiation depolarization-electric-field (Epol.i(j;T)=-Ei(j;T)) and magnetic-field (Bi(j;T) =Ei(j;T)/c), act on each other a mutual RDM Lorentz force Fg=Gm1m2/R^2, where G=μ0^2e^4c^4/4 πρl^2, is the susceptibility, μ0 permeability and ρl linear mass density of the medium. Fg is always attractive and identifiable as Newton's gravity, and accordingly G the universal gravitational constant. (3) The RDM radiation fields, Epol.i,Bi, accordingly make up the gravity wave, which is transverse and has a wave velocity equal to c. (4) This gravity can penetrate any material objects on the way, whilst a radiation force (always repulsive) will not, yielding as net result a gravity between two large bodies composed of the aforesaid particles. [1] J. X. Zheng-Johansson and P-I. Johansson, with Foreword by Prof. R. Lundin, ``Unification of Classical, Quantum and Relativistic Mechanics and of the Four Forces" (Nova Science, 2005); physics/0411245; physics/0501037; Bull. Am. Phys. Soc., C1 (2004).

  14. Acoustic-gravity waves, theory and application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadri, Usama; Farrell, William E.; Munk, Walter

    2015-04-01

    Acoustic-gravity waves (AGW) propagate in the ocean under the influence of both the compressibility of sea water and the restoring force of gravity. The gravity dependence vanishes if the wave vector is normal to the ocean surface, but becomes increasingly important as the wave vector acquires a horizontal tilt. They are excited by many sources, including non-linear surface wave interactions, disturbances of the ocean bottom (submarine earthquakes and landslides) and underwater explosions. In this introductory lecture on acoustic-gravity waves, we describe their properties, and their relation to organ pipe modes, to microseisms, and to deep ocean signatures by short surface waves. We discuss the generation of AGW by underwater earthquakes; knowledge of their behaviour with water depth can be applied for the early detection of tsunamis. We also discuss their generation by the non-linear interaction of surface gravity waves, which explains the major role they play in transforming energy from the ocean surface to the crust, as part of the microseisms phenomenon. Finally, they contribute to horizontal water transport at depth, which might affect benthic life.

  15. Surface gravity-wave lensing.

    PubMed

    Elandt, Ryan B; Shakeri, Mostafa; Alam, Mohammad-Reza

    2014-02-01

    Here we show that a nonlinear resonance between oceanic surface waves caused by small seabed features (the so-called Bragg resonance) can be utilized to create the equivalent of lenses and curved mirrors for surface gravity waves. Such gravity wave lenses, which are merely small changes to the seafloor topography and therefore are surface noninvasive, can focus or defocus the energy of incident waves toward or away from any desired focal point. We further show that for a broadband incident wave spectrum (i.e., a wave group composed of a multitude of different-frequency waves), a polychromatic topography (occupying no more than the area required for a monochromatic lens) can achieve a broadband lensing effect. Gravity wave lenses can be utilized to create localized high-energy wave zones (e.g., for wave energy harvesting or creating artificial surf zones) as well as to disperse waves in order to create protected areas (e.g., harbors or areas near important offshore facilities). In reverse, lensing of oceanic waves may be caused by natural seabed features and may explain the frequent appearance of very high amplitude waves in certain bodies of water. PMID:25353576

  16. Gravity waves in a realistic atmosphere.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liemohn, H. B.; Midgley, J. E.

    1966-01-01

    Internal atmospheric gravity waves in isothermal medium, solving hydrodynamic equations, determining wave propagation in realistic atmosphere for range of wave parameters, wind amplitude, reflected energy, etc

  17. Shear waves in inhomogeneous, compressible fluids in a gravity field.

    PubMed

    Godin, Oleg A

    2014-03-01

    While elastic solids support compressional and shear waves, waves in ideal compressible fluids are usually thought of as compressional waves. Here, a class of acoustic-gravity waves is studied in which the dilatation is identically zero, and the pressure and density remain constant in each fluid particle. These shear waves are described by an exact analytic solution of linearized hydrodynamics equations in inhomogeneous, quiescent, inviscid, compressible fluids with piecewise continuous parameters in a uniform gravity field. It is demonstrated that the shear acoustic-gravity waves also can be supported by moving fluids as well as quiescent, viscous fluids with and without thermal conductivity. Excitation of a shear-wave normal mode by a point source and the normal mode distortion in realistic environmental models are considered. The shear acoustic-gravity waves are likely to play a significant role in coupling wave processes in the ocean and atmosphere. PMID:24606251

  18. The wave of the future - Searching for gravity waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldsmith, Donald

    1991-04-01

    Research on gravity waves conducted by such scientists as Gamov, Wheeler, Weber and Zel'dovich is discussed. Particular attention is given to current trends in the theoretical analysis of gravity waves carried out by theorists Kip Thorne and Leonid Grishchuk. The problems discussed include the search for gravity waves; calculation of the types of gravity waves; the possibility of detecting gravity waves from localized sources, e.g., from the collision of two black holes in a distant galaxy or the collapse of a star, through the Laser Interferometer Gravitational Wave Observatory; and detection primordial gravity waves from the big bang.

  19. AdS waves as exact solutions to quadratic gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Guellue, Ibrahim; Sisman, Tahsin Cagri; Tekin, Bayram; Guerses, Metin

    2011-04-15

    We give an exact solution of the quadratic gravity in D dimensions. The solution is a plane-fronted wave metric with a cosmological constant. This metric solves not only the full quadratic gravity field equations but also the linearized ones which include the linearized equations of the recently found critical gravity. A subset of the solutions change the asymptotic structure of the anti-de Sitter space due to their logarithmic behavior.

  20. On the Synchronization of Acoustic Gravity Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lonngren, Karl E.; Bai, Er-Wei

    Using the model proposed by Stenflo, we demonstrate that acoustic gravity waves found in one region of space can be synchronized with acoustic gravity waves found in another region of space using techniques from modern control theory.

  1. Nonstationary Gravity Wave Forcing of the Stratospheric Zonal Mean Wind

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, M. J.; Rosenlof, K. H.

    1996-01-01

    The role of gravity wave forcing in the zonal mean circulation of the stratosphere is discussed. Starting from some very simple assumptions about the momentum flux spectrum of nonstationary (non-zero phase speed) waves at forcing levels in the troposphere, a linear model is used to calculate wave propagation through climatological zonal mean winds at solstice seasons. As the wave amplitudes exceed their stable limits, a saturation criterion is imposed to account for nonlinear wave breakdown effects, and the resulting vertical gradient in the wave momentum flux is then used to estimate the mean flow forcing per unit mass. Evidence from global, assimilated data sets are used to constrain these forcing estimates. The results suggest the gravity-wave-driven force is accelerative (has the same sign as the mean wind) throughout most of the stratosphere above 20 km. The sense of the gravity wave forcing in the stratosphere is thus opposite to that in the mesosphere, where gravity wave drag is widely believed to play a principal role in decelerating the mesospheric jets. The forcing estimates are further compared to existing gravity wave parameterizations for the same climatological zonal mean conditions. Substantial disagreement is evident in the stratosphere, and we discuss the reasons for the disagreement. The results suggest limits on typical gravity wave amplitudes near source levels in the troposphere at solstice seasons. The gravity wave forcing in the stratosphere appears to have a substantial effect on lower stratospheric temperatures during southern hemisphere summer and thus may be relevant to climate.

  2. Conformal Gravity and Gravitational Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fabbri, Luca; Paranjape, M. B.

    We consider monochromatic, plane gravitational waves in a conformally invariant theory of general relativity. We show that the simple, standard ansatz for the metric, usually that which is taken for the linearized theory of these waves, is reducible to the metric of Minkowski spacetime via a sequence of conformal and coordinate transformations. This implies that we have in fact, exact plane wave solutions. However they are simply coordinate/conformal artifacts. As a consequence, they carry no energy.

  3. Resonant triad interactions of acoustc-gravity waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadri, Usama; Akylas, T. R.

    2015-11-01

    Surface-acoustic wave disturbances in water of constant depth over a rigid bottom, due to the combined action of gravity and compressibility, are studied. In the linear theory, apart from free-surface (gravity) waves, there is also a countable infinity of acoustic (compression) modes. As the sound speed in water, typically, far exceeds the maximum gravity wave phase speed, these two types of modes feature vastly different spatial and/or temporal scales, and their linear coupling is weak. It is possible, however, to realize significant energy exchange between gravity and acoustic waves via nonlinear interactions. This scenario is analyzed for resonant wave triads that comprise two counter-propagating gravity waves and a long-crested acoustic mode. Owing to this disparity in length scales, the interaction time scale as well as the form of the amplitude evolution equations differ from those of a standard resonant triad. In the case of a perfectly tuned triad of uniform monochromatic wave trains, nearly all the energy initially in the gravity waves can be transferred to the acoustic wave. This mechanism, however, is less efficient when the interacting waves are modulated wavepackets.

  4. Asymptotic Linear Stability of Solitary Water Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pego, Robert L.; Sun, Shu-Ming

    2016-06-01

    We prove an asymptotic stability result for the water wave equations linearized around small solitary waves. The equations we consider govern irrotational flow of a fluid with constant density bounded below by a rigid horizontal bottom and above by a free surface under the influence of gravity neglecting surface tension. For sufficiently small amplitude waves, with waveform well-approximated by the well-known sech-squared shape of the KdV soliton, solutions of the linearized equations decay at an exponential rate in an energy norm with exponential weight translated with the wave profile. This holds for all solutions with no component in (that is, symplectically orthogonal to) the two-dimensional neutral-mode space arising from infinitesimal translational and wave-speed variation of solitary waves. We also obtain spectral stability in an unweighted energy norm.

  5. Impact of gravity waves on long-range infrasound propagation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Millet, Christophe; Lott, François; De La Camara, Alvaro

    2016-04-01

    In this work we study infrasound propagation in acoustic waveguides that support a finite number of propagating modes. We analyze the effects of gravity waves on these acoustic waveguides. Testing sound propagation in such perturbed fields can potentially be used to improve the gravity wave models. A linear solution modeling the interaction between an incoming acoustic wave and a randomly perturbed atmosphere is developed, using the forward-scattering approximation. The wave mode structure is determined by the effective sound speed profile which is strongly affected by gravity wave breaking. The random perturbations are described by a stochastic field predicted by a multiwave stochastic parameterization of gravity waves, which is operational in the LMDz climate model. The justification for this approach is two fold. On the one hand, the use of a few monochromatic waves mimics the observations of rather narrow-banded gravity wave packets in the lower stratosphere. On the other hand, the stochastic sampling of the gravity wave field and the random choice of wave properties deals with the inherent unpredictability of mesoscale dynamics from large scale conditions provided by the meteorological reanalysis. The transmitted acoustic signals contain a stable front and a small-amplitude incoherent coda. A general expression for the stable front is derived in terms of saddle-point contributions. The saddle-points are obtained from a WKB approximation of the vertical eigenvalue problem. This approach extract the dominant effects in the acoustic - gravity wave interaction. We present results that show how statistics of the transmitted signal are related to a few saddle-points and how the GW field can trigger large deviations in the acoustic signals. While some of the characteristics of the stable front can be directly related to that of a few individual gravity waves, it is shown that the amount of the launched gravity waves included in climate models can be estimated using

  6. Wave propagation in modified gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindroos, Jan Ø.; Llinares, Claudio; Mota, David F.

    2016-02-01

    We investigate the propagation of scalar waves induced by matter sources in the context of scalar-tensor theories of gravity which include screening mechanisms for the scalar degree of freedom. The usual approach when studying these theories in the nonlinear regime of cosmological perturbations is based on the assumption that scalar waves travel at the speed of light. Within general relativity this approximation is valid and leads to no loss of accuracy in the estimation of observables. We find, however, that mass terms and nonlinearities in the equations of motion lead to propagation and dispersion velocities significantly different from the speed of light. As the group velocity is the one associated with the propagation of signals, a reduction of its value has direct impact on the behavior and dynamics of nonlinear structures within modified gravity theories with screening. For instance, the internal dynamics of galaxies and satellites submerged in large dark matter halos could be affected by the fact that the group velocity is smaller than the speed of light. It is therefore important, within such a framework, to take into account the fact that different parts of a galaxy will see changes in the environment at different times. A full nonstatic analysis may be necessary under those conditions.

  7. Linearized gravity with matter time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Masooma; Husain, Viqar; Rahmati, Shohreh; Ziprick, Jonathan

    2016-05-01

    We study general relativity with pressureless dust in the canonical formulation, with the dust field chosen as a matter time gauge. The resulting theory has three physical degrees of freedom in the metric field. The linearized canonical theory reveals two graviton modes and a scalar mode. We find that the graviton modes remain Lorentz covariant despite the time gauge, and that the scalar mode is ultralocal. We also discuss a modification of the theory to include a parameter in the Hamiltonian that is analogous to that in Horava-Lifshitz models. In this case the scalar mode is no longer ultralocal and it acquires a propagation speed that is dependent on the deformation parameter.

  8. Transversally periodic solitary gravity-capillary waves.

    PubMed

    Milewski, Paul A; Wang, Zhan

    2014-01-01

    When both gravity and surface tension effects are present, surface solitary water waves are known to exist in both two- and three-dimensional infinitely deep fluids. We describe here solutions bridging these two cases: travelling waves which are localized in the propagation direction and periodic in the transverse direction. These transversally periodic gravity-capillary solitary waves are found to be of either elevation or depression type, tend to plane waves below a critical transverse period and tend to solitary lumps as the transverse period tends to infinity. The waves are found numerically in a Hamiltonian system for water waves simplified by a cubic truncation of the Dirichlet-to-Neumann operator. This approximation has been proved to be very accurate for both two- and three-dimensional computations of fully localized gravity-capillary solitary waves. The stability properties of these waves are then investigated via the time evolution of perturbed wave profiles. PMID:24399922

  9. Holographic s-wave condensation and Meissner-like effect in Gauss-Bonnet gravity with various non-linear corrections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dey, Shirsendu; Lala, Arindam

    2015-03-01

    In this paper we have studied the onset of holographic s-wave condensate in the (4 + 1) dimensional planar Gauss-Bonnet-AdS black hole background with several non-linear corrections to the gauge field. In the probe limit, performing explicit analytic computations, with and without magnetic field, we found that these higher order corrections indeed affect various quantities characterizing the holographic superconductors. Also, performing a comparative study of the two non-linear electrodynamics it has been shown that the exponential electrodynamics has stronger effects on the formation of the scalar hair. We observe that our results agree well with those obtained numerically (Zhao et al., 2013).

  10. Triad resonance between gravity and vorticity waves in vertical shear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drivas, Theodore D.; Wunsch, Scott

    2016-07-01

    Weakly nonlinear theory is used to explore the effect of vertical shear on surface gravity waves in three dimensions. An idealized piecewise-linear shear profile motivated by wind-driven profiles and ambient currents in the ocean is used. It is shown that shear may mediate weakly nonlinear resonant triad interactions between gravity and vorticity waves. The triad results in energy exchange between gravity waves of comparable wavelengths propagating in different directions. For realistic ocean shears, shear-mediated energy exchange may occur on timescales of minutes for shorter wavelengths, but slows as the wavelength increases. Hence this triad mechanism may contribute to the larger angular spreading (relative to wind direction) for shorter wind-waves observed in the oceans.

  11. Mesosphere Dynamics with Gravity Wave Forcing. 2; Planetary Waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mayr, H. G.; Mengel, J. G.; Chan, K. L.; Porter, H. S.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    We present results from a non-linear, 3D, time dependent numerical spectral model (NSM) which extends from the ground up into the thermosphere and incorporates Hines' Doppler Spread Parameterization for small-scale gravity waves (GW). Our focal point is the mesosphere where wave interactions are playing a dominant role. We discuss planetary waves in the present paper and diurnal and semi-diurnal tides in the companion paper. Without external time dependent energy or momentum sources, planetary waves (PWs) are generated in the model for zonal wavenumbers 1 to 4, which have amplitudes in the mesosphere above 50 km as large as 30 m/s and periods between 2 and 50 days. The waves are generated primarily during solstice conditions, which indicates that the baroclinic instability (associated with the GW driven reversal in the latitudinal temperature gradient) is playing an important role. Results from a numerical experiment show that GWs are also involved directly in generating the PWs. For the zonal wavenumber m = 1, the predominant wave periods in summer are around 4 days and in winter between 6 and 10 days. For m = 2, the periods are in summer and close to 2.5 and 3.5 days respectively For m = 3, 4 the predominant wave periods are in both seasons close to two days. The latter waves have the characteristics of Rossby gravity waves with meridional winds at equatorial latitudes. A common feature of the PWs (m = 1 to 4) generated in summer and winter is that their vertical wavelengths throughout the mesosphere are large which indicates that the waves are not propagating freely but are generated throughout the region. Another common feature is that the PWs propagate preferentially westward in summer and eastward in winter, being launched from the westward and eastward zonal winds that prevail respectively in summer and winter altitudes below 80 km. During spring and fall, for m = 1 and 2 eastward propagating long period PWs are generated that are launched from the smaller

  12. Wavelet analysis of internal gravity waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawkins, J.; Warn-Varnas, A.; Chin-Bing, S.; King, D.; Smolarkiewicsz, P.

    2005-05-01

    A series of model studies of internal gravity waves (igw) have been conducted for several regions of interest. Dispersion relations from the results have been computed using wavelet analysis as described by Meyers (1993). The wavelet transform is repeatedly applied over time and the components are evaluated with respect to their amplitude and peak position (Torrence and Compo, 1998). In this sense we have been able to compute dispersion relations from model results and from measured data. Qualitative agreement has been obtained in some cases. The results from wavelet analysis must be carefully interpreted because the igw models are fully nonlinear and wavelet analysis is fundamentally a linear technique. Nevertheless, a great deal of information describing igw propagation can be obtained from the wavelet transform. We address the domains over which wavelet analysis techniques can be applied and discuss the limits of their applicability.

  13. Gravitational waves in fourth order gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capozziello, S.; Stabile, A.

    2015-08-01

    In the post-Minkowskian limit approximation, we study gravitational wave solutions for general fourth-order theories of gravity. Specifically, we consider a Lagrangian with a generic function of curvature invariants . It is well known that when dealing with General Relativity such an approach provides massless spin-two waves as propagating degree of freedom of the gravitational field while this theory implies other additional propagating modes in the gravity spectra. We show that, in general, fourth order gravity, besides the standard massless graviton is characterized by two further massive modes with a finite-distance interaction. We find out the most general gravitational wave solutions in terms of Green functions in vacuum and in presence of matter sources. If an electromagnetic source is chosen, only the modes induced by are present, otherwise, for any gravity model, we have the complete analogy with tensor modes of General Relativity. Polarizations and helicity states are classified in the hypothesis of plane wave.

  14. Upper atmospheric planetary-wave and gravity-wave observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Justus, C. G.; Woodrum, A.

    1973-01-01

    Previously collected data on atmospheric pressure, density, temperature and winds between 25 and 200 km from sources including Meteorological Rocket Network data, ROBIN falling sphere data, grenade release and pitot tube data, meteor winds, chemical release winds, satellite data, and others were analyzed by a daily-difference method, and results on the magnitude of atmospheric perturbations interpreted as gravity waves and planetary waves are presented. Traveling planetary-wave contributions in the 25-85 km range were found to have significant height and latitudinal variation. It was found that observed gravity-wave density perturbations and wind are related to one another in the manner predicted by gravity-wave theory. It was determined that, on the average, gravity-wave energy deposition or reflection occurs at all altitudes except the 55-75 km region of the mesosphere.

  15. Waves in Radial Gravity Using Magnetic Fluid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ohlsen, Daniel R.; Hart, John E.; Weidman, Patrick D.

    1996-01-01

    We are beginning laboratory experiments using magnetically active ferrofluids to study surface waves in novel geometries. Terrestrial gravity is eliminated from the dynamics, and the magnetic body force felt by ferrofluid in the presence of a magnetic field gradient is used to create a geopotential field which is a section of or an entire sphere or cylinder. New optical, electromagnetic and ultrasonic diagnostic techniques are under development to initially study capillary-gravity wave propagation and interaction in such geometries.

  16. Satellite Observations of Atmospheric Gravity Waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, D. L.; Waters, J. W.

    1995-01-01

    The Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite produced the first global maps of small-scale gravity wave variances in the middle atmosphere. Observations at 30-88 km altitudes show that the variances of 30-100 km horizontal scales are strongly correlated with surface topography and stratospheric jet streams. The several years of MLS data will provide a climatology of global gravity wave activity needed for modeling atmospheric circulations and mixing processes.

  17. Gravity waves from cosmic bubble collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Salem, Michael P.; Saraswat, Prashant; Shaghoulian, Edgar E-mail: ps88@stanford.edu

    2013-02-01

    Our local Hubble volume might be contained within a bubble that nucleated in a false vacuum with only two large spatial dimensions. We study bubble collisions in this scenario and find that they generate gravity waves, which are made possible in this context by the reduced symmetry of the global geometry. These gravity waves would produce B-mode polarization in the cosmic microwave background, which could in principle dominate over the inflationary background.

  18. Linearized 3D gravity with dust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Husain, Viqar; Rahmati, Shohreh; Ziprick, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Three-dimensional gravity coupled to pressureless dust is a field theory with 1 local degree of freedom. In the canonical framework, the dust-time gauge encodes this field in the metric. We find that its dynamics, up to diffeomorphism flow, is independent of spatial derivatives and is therefore ultralocal. We study this feature further by analyzing the linearized equations of motion about flat and (anti-)de Sitter backgrounds, and show that this field may be viewed as either a traceless or a transverse mode.

  19. On Sharp-Crested Gravity Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lukomsky, Vasyl; Gandzha, Ivan; Tsekhmister, Yaroslav; Chalyi, Alexander

    2004-11-01

    In the framework of the canonical model of hydrodynamics, where fluid is assumed to be ideal and incompressible, waves are potential, two-dimensional, steady, and symmetric, we provide numerical evidence for the likely existence of sharp-crested gravity waves different from the well-known limiting Stokes wave with a 120^rc corner at the crest. To this end, the physical plane methods of ordinary and fractional Fourier approximations and the inverse plane Michell method were used. They all reveal new approximate irregular solutions that seem to represent a family of sharp-crested gravity waves with lesser amplitude (the through-to-crest height) than that of the limiting Stokes wave. Furthermore, Michell's method demonstrates the existence of a new family of sharp-crested subharmonic waves. We also provide a numerical justification for the conjecture of Grant that the 120^rc singularity of the limiting wave is formed from several coalescing 90^rc singularities.

  20. Generation and backreaction of spontaneously emitted inertia-gravity waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugimoto, Norihiko; Plougonven, Riwal

    2016-04-01

    Spontaneous generation of inertia-gravity waves from balanced flows is investigated in idealized simulations of dipoles. Long integrations are performed for dipoles with different Rossby numbers (Ro) to identify the backreaction of the waves. Emission of waves is detected only for large enough Ro (>0.15), and it then leads to a slow decay of the dipole's kinetic energy. A major finding is that this decay is well captured by the simulations, although positions of the waves appear still sensitive to the resolution, and their maximum vertical velocity increases linearly with resolution. The interpretation is that the emission process is well resolved and fairly insensitive to resolution, while the propagation and dissipation at small scales remains sensitive to resolution. The implication is that the simulations yield an estimate of the leakage of energy from balanced motions to gravity waves, providing a useful estimate of a poorly constrained flux in the ocean's energy budget.

  1. A Simple Theory of Capillary-Gravity Wave Turbulence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glazman, Roman E.

    1993-01-01

    Employing a recently proposed 'multi-wave interaction' theory [JFM, 243, 623-625], spectra of capillary-gravity waves are derived. This case is characterized by a rather high degree of nonlinearity and a complicated dispersion law. The resultant absence of scale invariance makes this and some other problems of wave turbulence (e.g., nonlinear Rossby waves) intractable by small-perturbation techniques, even in the weak turbulence limit. The analytical solution obtained in the present work is shown to be in good agreement with experimental data. Its low- and high-frequency limits yield power-laws characterizing spectra of purely gravity and capillary waves, respectively. In the limits of weak and strong linearity, these reduce of the Zakharov-Filonenko and Phillips spectra, respectively.

  2. Power spectra of internal gravity waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dewan, E. M.

    1990-09-01

    The OH layer located in the region of 85 km altitude emits strong infrared radiation. Gravity waves can be modulate the brightness of this layer over a wide range of spatial scales. Such fluctuations constitute, in effect, a form of IR clutter which could potentially degrade surveillance systems in certain situations. For this reason there is interest in the spatial and temporal variations of atmospheric internal gravity waves. A physical, similitude model of internal gravity waves assumes saturation of the waves and control by cascade processes of the temporal and horizontal scales of the waves. This model contains all the power spectral densities (PSD's) (sometimes merely called spectra) to be found in the formalism of Garrett and Munk. The latter is a purely empirical model for internal gravity waves applicable to the atmosphere and ocean. The main new predictions of the present model are that the dissipation rate controls the amplitudes of the frequency and horizontal wave number spectra. The validity of the proposed model is unknown at this time, and will depend upon the future experimental tests. It is shown, however, that based on 'typical' parametric values, results from the model are encouraging.

  3. Role of the basin boundary conditions in gravity wave turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berhanu, Michael; Deike, Luc; Miquel, Benjamin; Gutierrez, Pablo; Jamin, Timothee; Semin, Benoit; Falcon, Eric; Bonnefoy, Felicien

    2015-11-01

    Gravity wave turbulence is studied in a large wave basin where irregular waves are generated unidirectionally. The role of the basin boundary conditions (absorbing or reflecting) are investigated. To that purpose, an absorbing sloping beach opposite to the wavemaker can be replaced by a reflecting vertical wall. The wave field properties depend strongly on these boundary conditions. Unidirectional waves propagate before to be damped by the beach whereas a more multidirectional wave field is observed with the wall. In both cases, the wave spectrum scales as a frequency-power law with an exponent that increases continuously with the forcing amplitude up to a value close to -4. We have also studied freely decaying gravity wave turbulence in the closed basin. No self-similar decay of the spectrum is observed, whereas its Fourier modes decay first as a time power law due to nonlinear mechanisms, and then exponentially due to linear viscous damping. We estimate the linear, nonlinear and dissipative time scales to test the time scale separation. Using the mean energy flux from the initial decay of wave energy, the Kolmogorov-Zakharov constant of the weak turbulence theory is evaluated experimentally for the first time.

  4. Primordial gravity waves and weak lensing.

    PubMed

    Dodelson, Scott; Rozo, Eduardo; Stebbins, Albert

    2003-07-11

    Inflation produces a primordial spectrum of gravity waves in addition to the density perturbations which seed structure formation. We compute the signature of these gravity waves in the large scale shear field. The shear can be divided into a gradient mode (G or E) and a curl mode (C or B). The latter is produced only by gravity waves, so the observations of a nonzero curl mode could be seen as evidence for inflation. We find that the expected signal from inflation is small, peaking on the largest scales at l(l+1)C(l)/2pi<10(-11) at l=2 and falling rapidly thereafter. Even for an all-sky deep survey, this signal would be below noise at all multipoles. PMID:12906468

  5. Nonlinear progressive acoustic-gravity waves: Exact solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godin, Oleg

    2013-04-01

    We consider finite-amplitude mechanical waves in an inhomogeneous, compressible fluid in a uniform gravity field. The fluid is assumed to be inviscid, and wave motion is considered as an adiabatic thermodynamic process. The fluid either occupies an unbounded domain or has free and/or rigid boundaries. Wave motion is described by the momentum, continuity, and state equations in Lagrangian coordinates. We consider generic inhomogeneous fluids; no specific assumptions are made regarding the equation of state or spatial variations of the mass density or the sound speed in the absence of waves. The density and the sound speed are piece-wise continuous functions of position. The discontinuities represent fluid-fluid interfaces, such as the air-sea interface. Following a recent work on linear acoustic-gravity waves [O. A. Godin, Incompressible wave motion of compressible fluids, Phys. Rev. Lett., 108, 194501 (2012)], here we investigate a particular class of non-linear wave motions in fluids, in which pressure remains constant in each moving fluid parcel. Exact, analytic solutions of the non-linear hydrodynamics equations are obtained for two distinct scenarios. In the first scenario, the fluid is either unbounded or has a free surface. In the latter case, the exact analytic solution can be interpreted as a progressive surface wave. In the second scenario, the fluid has a free surface and a sloping, plane rigid boundary. Then the exact analytic solution represents an edge wave propagating horizontally along the rigid boundary. In both scenarios, the flow field associated with the finite-amplitude waves is rotational. When the sound speed tends to infinity, our results reduce to well-known finite-amplitude waves in incompressible fluids. In another limit, when the wave amplitude tends to zero, the exact solutions reduce to known results for linear waves in compressible fluids. The possibility of extending the theory to rotating fluids and fluids with a shearing background

  6. Altimeter Observations of Baroclinic Oceanic Inertia-Gravity Wave Turbulence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glazman, R. E.; Cheng, B.

    1996-01-01

    For a wide range of nonlinear wave processes - from capillary to planetary waves - theory predicts the existence of Kolmogorov-type spectral cascades of energy and other conserved quantities occuring via nonlinear resonant wave-wave interactions. So far, observations of wave turbulence (WT) have been limited to small-scale processes such as surface gravity and capillary-gravity waves.

  7. Investigation of resonances in gravity-capillary wave turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aubourg, Quentin; Mordant, Nicolas

    2016-06-01

    We report experimental results on nonlinear wave coupling in surface wave turbulence on water at scales close to the crossover between surface gravity waves and capillary waves. We study three-wave correlations either in the frequency domain or in the wave-vector domain. We observe that in a weakly nonlinear regime, the dominant nonlinear interactions correspond to waves that are collinear or close to collinear. Although the resonant coupling of pure gravity waves is supposed to involve four waves, at the capillary crossover we observe a nonlocal coupling between a gravity wave and two capillary waves. Furthermore, nonlinear spectral spreading permits three-gravity wave coupling. These observations raise the question of the relevance of these processes in the oceanographic context and in particular the range of frequencies of gravity waves that may be impacted.

  8. Inertio Gravity Waves in the Upper Mesosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mayr, H. G.; Mengel, J. G.; Talaat, E. L.; Porter, H. S.; Chan, K. L.

    2003-01-01

    In the polar region of the upper mesosphere, horizontal wind oscillations have been observed with periods around 10 hours (Hernandez et al., 1992). Such waves are generated in our Numerical Spectral Model (NSM) and appear to be inertio gravity waves (IGW). Like the planetary waves (PW) in the model, the IGWs are generated by instabilities that arise in the mean zonal circulation. In addition to stationary waves for m = 0, eastward and westward propagating waves for m = 1 to 4 appear above 70 km that grow in magnitude up to about 110 km, having periods between 9 and 11 hours. The m = 1 westward propagating IGWs have the largest amplitudes, which can reach at the poles 30 m/s. Like PWs, the IGWs are intermittent but reveal systematic seasonal variations, with the largest amplitudes occurring generally in winter and spring. The IGWs propagate upward with a vertical wavelength of about 20 km.

  9. Surface wave acoustics of granular packing under gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clement, Eric; Bonneau, Lenaic; Andreotti, Bruno

    2009-06-01

    Due to the non-linearity of Hertzian contacts, the speed of sound in granular matter increases with pressure. For a packing under gravity and in the presence of a free surface, bulk acoustic waves cannot propagate due to the inherent refraction toward the surface (the mirage effect). Thus, only modes corresponding to surface waves (Raleigh-Hertz modes) are able to propagate the acoustic signal. First, based on a non-linear elasticity model, we describe the main features associated to these surface waves. We show that under gravity, a granular packing is from the acoustic propagation point of view an index gradient waveguide that selects modes of two distinct families i.e. the sagittal and transverse waves localized in the vicinity of the free surface. A striking feature of these surface waves is the multi-modal propagation: for both transverse and sagittal waves, we show the existence of a infinite but discrete series of propagating modes. In each case, we determine the mode shape and and the corresponding dispersion relation. In the case of a finite size system, a geometric waveguide is superimposed to the index gradient wave guide. In this later case, the dispersion relations are modified by the appearance of a cut-off frequency that scales with depth. The second part is devoted to an experimental study of surface waves propagating in a granular packing confined in a long channel. This set-up allows to tune a monomodal emission by taking advantage of the geometric waveguide features combined with properly designed emitters. For both sagittal and transverses waves, we were able to isolate a single mode (the fundamental one) and to plot the dispersion relation. This measurements agree well with the Hertzian scaling law as predicted by meanfield models. Furthermore, it allows us to determine quantitatively relations on the elastic moduli. However, we observe that our data yield a shear modulus abnormally weak when compared to several meanfield predictions.

  10. Surface wave acoustics of granular packing under gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Clement, Eric; Andreotti, Bruno; Bonneau, Lenaic

    2009-06-18

    Due to the non-linearity of Hertzian contacts, the speed of sound in granular matter increases with pressure. For a packing under gravity and in the presence of a free surface, bulk acoustic waves cannot propagate due to the inherent refraction toward the surface (the mirage effect). Thus, only modes corresponding to surface waves (Raleigh-Hertz modes) are able to propagate the acoustic signal. First, based on a non-linear elasticity model, we describe the main features associated to these surface waves. We show that under gravity, a granular packing is from the acoustic propagation point of view an index gradient waveguide that selects modes of two distinct families i.e. the sagittal and transverse waves localized in the vicinity of the free surface. A striking feature of these surface waves is the multi-modal propagation: for both transverse and sagittal waves, we show the existence of a infinite but discrete series of propagating modes. In each case, we determine the mode shape and and the corresponding dispersion relation. In the case of a finite size system, a geometric waveguide is superimposed to the index gradient wave guide. In this later case, the dispersion relations are modified by the appearance of a cut-off frequency that scales with depth. The second part is devoted to an experimental study of surface waves propagating in a granular packing confined in a long channel. This set-up allows to tune a monomodal emission by taking advantage of the geometric waveguide features combined with properly designed emitters. For both sagittal and transverses waves, we were able to isolate a single mode (the fundamental one) and to plot the dispersion relation. This measurements agree well with the Hertzian scaling law as predicted by meanfield models. Furthermore, it allows us to determine quantitatively relations on the elastic moduli. However, we observe that our data yield a shear modulus abnormally weak when compared to several meanfield predictions.

  11. Gravity waves, chaos, and spinning compact binaries

    PubMed

    Levin

    2000-04-17

    Spinning compact binaries are shown to be chaotic in the post-Newtonian expansion of the two-body system. Chaos by definition is the extreme sensitivity to initial conditions and a consequent inability to predict the outcome of the evolution. As a result, the spinning pair will have unpredictable gravitational waveforms during coalescence. This poses a challenge to future gravity wave observatories which rely on a match between the data and a theoretical template. PMID:11019134

  12. Gravitational waves in ghost free bimetric gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Mohseni, Morteza

    2012-11-01

    We obtain a set of exact gravitational wave solutions for the ghost free bimetric theory of gravity. With a flat reference metric, the theory admits the vacuum Brinkmann plane wave solution for suitable choices of the coefficients of different terms in the interaction potential. An exact gravitational wave solution corresponding to a massive scalar mode is also admitted for arbitrary choice of the coefficients with the reference metric being proportional to the spacetime metric. The proportionality factor and the speed of the wave are calculated in terms of the parameters of the theory. We also show that a F(R) extension of the theory admits similar solutions but in general is plagued with ghost instabilities.

  13. On the interaction between infrasonic waves and internal gravity waves perturbations.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lalande, Jean-Marie; Waxler, Roger; Lonzaga, Joel; Velea, Doru; Assink, Jelle

    2014-05-01

    Infrasonic waves propagate at long range through atmospheric ducts resulting from the stratification of atmospheric properties. These ducts are characterized by their spatio-temporal variability. Hence, infrasonic waves integrate information upon the atmosphere along their propagation paths. In order to study infrasonic wave propagation, we resort to atmospheric specification combining Numerical Weather Prediction and climatological models. However, due to the lack of observations these models fail to describe small scale variability such as perturbations associated to the presence of internal gravity waves. These waves play an important role in the atmospheric dynamic by transferring momentum to the mean flow at critical levels and at wave-breaking altitudes. In this study we intend to describe the interaction of infrasonic waves with internal gravity waves in order to understand the long-tail behavior observed in infrasound broadband signals. We developed a model for the propagation of internal waves used to generate realistic perturbations of the background atmospheric states. By using a linear full-wave model of infrasound propagation, our goal is to ultimately relate infrasound characterics to internal waves properties.

  14. Slow EIT waves as gravity modes

    SciTech Connect

    Vranjes, J.

    2011-06-15

    The EIT waves [named after the extreme-ultraviolet imaging telescope (EIT) onboard the solar and heliospheric observatory (SOHO)] are in the literature usually described as fast magneto-acoustic (FMA) modes. However, observations show that a large percentage of these events propagate with very slow speeds that may be as low as 20 km/s. This is far below the FMA wave speed which cannot be below the sound speed, the latter being typically larger than 10{sup 2} km/s in the corona. In the present study, it is shown that, to account for such low propagation speed, a different wave model should be used, based on the theory of gravity waves, both internal (IG) and surface (SG) ones. The gravity modes are physically completely different from the FMA mode, as they are essentially dispersive and in addition the IG wave is a transverse mode. Both the IG and the SG mode separately can provide proper propagation velocities in the whole low speed range.

  15. Possible Evidence for Troposphere-Thermosphere Coupling by Gravity Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forbes, J. M.

    2015-12-01

    Recently-published model results suggest that tropospherically-generated gravity waves can reach thermosphere altitudes, produce significant variability at these altitudes, and possibly affect the mean structure and dynamics of the thermosphere due to energy and momentum deposition as a result of their dissipation. However, experimental data to verify these model predictions, especially on a global scale, are scarce. In this paper, we employ accelerometer measurements of total mass density from the GOCE satellite near 275 km during 2010-2012 to provide some observational insights into the problem. These data are filtered to isolate variability at horizontal scales in the range of 160-600 km, which we presume are mainly due to gravity waves, and which are quantified in terms of root-mean-squared (RMS) density variability. Applying linear regression analysis, distinct variations in longitude-averaged RMS values are found with respect to F10.7 (interpreted in terms of molecular dissipation of upward-propagating waves), Ap (interpreted in terms of waves sources related to magnetic activity), and seasonal-latitudinal variations (interpreted in terms of lower-atmosphere wave sources). After removal of these dependencies in the longitude-mean RMS values, the resulting residuals are analyzed to reveal latitude-longitude structures that might lead to identification of tropospheric wave sources (e.g., tropical convection, extreme topography). All of these results are analyzed in light of the aforementioned numerical model predictions.

  16. Gravity-jitters and excitation of slosh waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hung, R. J.; Lee, C. C.; Leslie, F. W.; Wu, J. L.

    1990-01-01

    The instability of liquid and gas interface can be induced by the pressure of longitudinal and lateral accelerations, vehicle vibration, and rotational fields of spacecraft in a microgravity environment. Characteristics of slosh waves excited by the restoring force field of gravity jitters have been investigated. Results show that lower frequency gravity jitters excite slosh waves with higher ratio of maximum amplitude to wave length than that of the slosh waves generated by the higher frequency gravity jitters.

  17. Gravity Wave Seeding of Equatorial Plasma Bubbles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Sardul; Johnson, F. S.; Power, R. A.

    1997-01-01

    Some examples from the Atmosphere Explorer E data showing plasma bubble development from wavy ion density structures in the bottomside F layer are described. The wavy structures mostly had east-west wavelengths of 150-800 km, in one example it was about 3000 km. The ionization troughs in the wavy structures later broke up into either a multiple-bubble patch or a single bubble, depending upon whether, in the precursor wavy structure, shorter wavelengths were superimposed on the larger scale wavelengths. In the multiple bubble patches, intrabubble spacings vaned from 55 km to 140 km. In a fully developed equatorial spread F case, east-west wavelengths from 690 km down to about 0.5 km were present simultaneously. The spacings between bubble patches or between bubbles in a patch appear to be determined by the wavelengths present in the precursor wave structure. In some cases, deeper bubbles developed on the western edge of a bubble patch, suggesting an east-west asymmetry. Simultaneous horizontal neutral wind measurements showed wavelike perturbations that were closely associated with perturbations in the plasma horizontal drift velocity. We argue that the wave structures observed here that served as the initial seed ion density perturbations were caused by gravity waves, strengthening the view that gravity waves seed equatorial spread F irregularities.

  18. Does the Madden-Julian Oscillation Modulate Stratospheric Gravity Waves?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moss, Andrew; Wright, Corwin; Mitchell, Nicholas

    2016-04-01

    The circulation of the stratosphere is strongly influenced by the fluxes of gravity waves propagating from tropospheric sources. In the tropics, these gravity waves are primarily generated by convection. The Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) dominates the intra-seasonal variability of this convection. However, the connection between the MJO and the variability of stratospheric gravity waves is largely unknown. Here we examine gravity-wave potential energy at a height of 26 km and the upper tropospheric zonal-wind anomaly of the MJO at the 200 hPa level, sorted by the relative phase of the MJO using the RMM MJO indices. We show that a strong anti-correlation exists between gravity-wave potential energy and the MJO eastward wind anomaly. We propose that this correlation is a result of the filtering of ascending waves by the MJO winds. The study provides evidence that the MJO contributes significantly to the variability of stratospheric gravity waves in the tropics.

  19. Does the Madden-Julian Oscillation modulate stratospheric gravity waves?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moss, Andrew C.; Wright, Corwin J.; Mitchell, Nicholas J.

    2016-04-01

    The circulation of the stratosphere is strongly influenced by the fluxes of gravity waves propagating from tropospheric sources. In the tropics, these gravity waves are primarily generated by convection. The Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) dominates the intraseasonal variability of this convection. However, the influence of the MJO on the variability of stratospheric gravity waves is largely unknown. Here we examine gravity wave potential energy at 26 km and the upper tropospheric zonal wind anomaly of the MJO at 200 hPa, sorted by the relative phase of the MJO using the Real Multivariate MJO indices. We show that a strong anticorrelation exists between gravity wave potential energy and the MJO eastward wind anomaly. We propose that this correlation is a result of the filtering of upward propagating waves by the MJO winds. The study provides the first observational evidence that the MJO contributes significantly to the global variability of stratospheric gravity waves in the tropics.

  20. Incompressible wave motion of inhomogeneous, compressible fluids in a gravity field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godin, O. A.

    2012-04-01

    We consider a particular class of linear and non-linear wave motions in fluids, in which pressure remains constant in each moving fluid parcel. The fluid is assumed to be inviscid, and wave motion is considered as an adiabatic thermodynamic process. An exact, analytic solution of linearized hydrodynamics equations is obtained that describes the wave motion in inhomogeneous, compressible, rotating fluids with piece-wise continuous parameters in a uniform gravity field. The solution is valid under surprisingly general assumptions about the environment and reduces to some classical wave types in appropriate limiting cases. Free waves in bounded and unbounded domains as well as excitation of wave fields by a point source are considered. Edge waves propagating along vertical and inclined rigid boundaries are found in rotating and non-rotating fluids. Allowance for three-dimensional variation of the sound speed and for arbitrary density stratification, including density discontinuities, makes the exact solution an attractive model of acoustic-gravity waves in a coupled ocean-atmosphere system. The new wave type complements classical exact solutions of linearized equations of fluid mechanics known as the Rossby, Lamb, Kelvin, and Poincaré waves, which provide much of the conceptual foundation of geophysical fluid dynamics. In addition to a wide class of exact solutions for linear waves, an exact solution of full non-linear hydrodynamics equations is found that describes a propagating wave in inhomogeneous, compressible fluids with piece-wise continuous parameters in a uniform gravity field. The fluid may have a free surface and a rigid boundary. Depending on the geometry of the problem, the solution has the meaning of either surface or edge wave. The exact solution describes a finite-amplitude wave in an otherwise quiescent fluid. Extensions to finite-amplitude waves in fluids with background currents are considered. Relation of the new exact solution for the non-linear

  1. Acoustic-Gravity Waves from Bolide Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Revelle, Douglas O.

    2008-06-01

    We have developed a new approach to modeling the acoustic-gravity wave (AGW) radiation from bolide sources. This first effort involves entry modeling of bolide sources that have available satellite data through procedures developed in ReVelle (Earth Moon Planets 95, 441-476, 2004a; in: A. Milani, G. Valsecchi, D. Vokrouhlicky (eds) NEO Fireball Diversity: Energetics-based Entry Modeling and Analysis Techniques, Near-earth Objects: Our Celestial Neighbors (IAU S236), 2007b). Results from the entry modeling are directly coupled to AGW production through line source blast wave theory for the initial wave amplitude and period at x=10 (at 10 blast wave radii and perpendicular to the trajectory). The second effort involves the prediction of the formation and or dominance of the propagation of the atmospheric Lamb, edge-wave composite mode in a viscous fluid (Pierce, J. Acoust. Soc. Amer. 35, 1798-1807, 1963) as a function of the source energy, horizontal range and source altitude using the Lamb wave frequency that was deduced directly during the entry modeling and that is used as a surrogate for the source energy. We have also determined that Lamb wave production by bolides at close range decreases dramatically as either the source energy decreases or the source altitude increases. Finally using procedures in Gill ( Atmospheric-Ocean Dynamics, 1982) and in Tolstoy ( Wave Propagation, 1973), we have analyzed two simple dispersion relationships and have calculated the expected dispersion for the Lamb edge-wave mode and for the excited, propagating internal acoustic waves. Finally, we have used the above formalism to fully evaluate these techniques for four large bolides, namely: the Tunguska bolide of June 30, 1908; the Revelstoke bolide of March 31, 1965; the Crete bolide of June 6, 2002 and the Antarctic bolide of September 3, 2004. Due to page limitations, we will only present results in detail for the Revelstoke bolide.

  2. Matter wave explorer of gravity (MWXG)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ertmer, W.; Schubert, C.; Wendrich, T.; Gilowski, M.; Zaiser, M.; Zoest, T. V.; Rasel, E.; Bordé, Ch. J.; Clairon, A.; Landragin; Laurent, P.; Lemonde, P.; Santarelli, G.; Schleich, W.; Cataliotti, F. S.; Inguscio, M.; Poli, N.; Sorrentino, F.; Modugno, C.; Tino, G. M.; Gill, P.; Klein, H.; Margolis, H.; Reynaud, S.; Salomon, C.; Lambrecht, A.; Peik, E.; Jentsch, C.; Johann, U.; Rathke, A.; Bouyer, P.; Cacciapuoti, L.; de Natale, P.; Christophe, B.; Foulon, B.; Touboul, P.; Maleki, L.; Yu, N.; Turyshev, S. G.; Anderson, J. D.; Schmidt-Kaler, F.; Walser, R.; Vigué, J.; Büchner, M.; Angonin, M.-C.; Delva, P.; Tourrenc, P.; Bingham, R.; Kent, B.; Wicht, A.; Wang, L. J.; Bongs, K.; Dittus, Hj.; Lämmerzahl, C.; Theil, S.; Sengstock, K.; Peters, A.; Müller, T.; Arndt, M.; Iess, L.; Bondu, F.; Brillet, A.; Samain, E.; Chiofalo, M. L.; Levi, F.; Calonico, D.

    2009-03-01

    In response to ESA’s Call for proposals of 5 March 2007 of the COSMIC VISION 2015-2025 plan of the ESA science programme, we propose a M-class satellite mission to test of the Equivalence Principle in the quantum domain by investigating the extended free fall of matter waves instead of macroscopic bodies as in the case of GAUGE, MICROSCOPE or STEP. The satellite, called Matter Wave E xplorer of Gravity, will carry an experiment to test gravity, namely the measurement of the equal rate of free fall with various isotopes of distinct atomic species with precision cold atom interferometry in the vicinity of the earth. This will allow for a first quantum test the Equivalence Principle with spin polarised particles and with pure fermionic and bosonic atomic ensembles. Due to the space conditions, the free fall of Rubidium and Potassium isotopes will be compared with a maximum accelerational sensitivity of 5·10 - 16 m/s2 corresponding to an accuracy of the test of the Equivalence Principle of 1 part in 1016. Besides the primary scientific goal, the quantum test of the Equivalence Principle, the mission can be extended to provide additional information about the gravitational field of the earth or for testing theories of fundamental processes of decoherence which are investigated by various theory groups in the context of quantum gravity phenomenology. In this proposal we present in detail the mission objectives and the technical aspects of the proposed mission.

  3. Density response of the mesospheric sodium layer to gravity wave perturbations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shelton, J. D.; Gardner, C. S.; Sechrist, C. F., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    Lidar observations of the mesospheric sodium layer often reveal wavelike features moving through the layer. It is often assumed that these features are a layer density response to gravity waves. Chiu and Ching (1978) described the approximate form of the linear response of atmospheric layers to gravity waves. In this paper, their results are used to predict the response of the sodium layer to gravity waves. These simulations are compared with experimental observations and a good correlation is found between the two. Because of the thickness of the sodium layer and the density gradients found in it, a linear model of the layer response is not always adequate to describe gravity wave-sodium layer interactions. Inclusion of nonlinearities in the layer response is briefly discussed. Experimental data is seen to contain features consistent with the predicted nonlinearities.

  4. Gravity Waves As A Probe Of Jupiter's Atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosak, T.; Ingersoll, A. P.

    2000-10-01

    Vertically propagating waves carry indirect information about the dynamic and static stability of Jupiter's deep atmosphere. We are using mesoscale waves observed as linear wave patterns in jovian clouds with wavelength clustered around 300km (Flasar and Gierasch, J.Atmos.Sci.,43,2683-2707,1986) as a probe of dynamical and thermal conditions in the otherwise unobservable regions. Time sequences of the Galileo images show that the waves move relative to the background zonal flow. Ingersoll and Koerner (Bull. Am. Astron. Soc., 21,943,1989) suggested shear instability as the mechanism that selects the preferred wavelength of the features. The deep vertical shear layer extending from about 0.4 bars to about 5 bars and static stability as measured by the Galileo probe allowed us to test this hypothesis quantitatively. We are numerically analyzing linear stability of gravity waves with non-zero horizontal phase speeds in atmospheric conditions constrained by the probe measurements. We have found that, if the static stability in the shear layer is very low (but positive), a strong and deep vertical shear of the zonal wind as measured by the Galileo probe (Atkinson, D.H., et al., JGR, 103, 22911-22928,1998) can generate propagating gravity wave instabilities. Very small values of static stability that support the development of the instabilities are within the range of values measured by the Galileo probe as interpreted by Seiff et al. (JGR, 103, 22857-22889,1998). The largest growth rates of the unstable modes are of the order of hours, and their horizontal wavelengths are 350+/-100 km. There is a good match between the modeled and the observed wavelengths and timescale of the waves.

  5. Propagation of gravity waves across the tropopause

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bense, Vera; Spichtinger, Peter

    2015-04-01

    The tropopause region is characterised by strong gradients in various atmospheric quantities that exhibit different properties in the troposphere compared to the stratosphere. The temperature lapse rate typically changes from negative to near-zero values resulting in a strong increase in stability. Accordingly, the buoyancy frequency often undergoes a jump at the tropopause. Analysis of radiosounding data also shows the existence of a strong inversion layer (tropopause inversion layer, TIL) characterised by a strong maximum in buoyancy frequency just above the tropopause, see e.g. Birner et al. (2002). Additionally, the magnitude of the vertical wind shear of the horizontal wind maximizes at the tropopause and the region also exhibits characteristical gradients of trace gases. Vertically propagating gravity waves can be excited in the troposphere by several mechanisms, e.g. by flow over topography (e.g. Durran, 1990), by jets and fronts (for a recent review: Plougonven and Zhang, 1990) or by convection (e.g. Clark et al., 1986). When these waves enter the tropopause region, their properties can be changed drastically by the changing stratification and strong wind shear. Within this work, the EULAG (Eulerian/semi-Lagrangian fluid solver, see e.g. Smolarkiewicz and Margolin, 1997) model is used to investigate the impact of the tropopause on vertically propagating gravity waves excited by flows over topography. The choice of topography (sine-shaped mountains, bell-shaped mountain) along with horizontal wind speed and tropospheric value of buoyancy frequency determine the spectrum of waves (horizontal and vertical wavelengths) that is excited in the tropsphere. In order to analyse how these spectra change for several topographies when a tropopause is present, we investigate different idealized cases in a two-dimensional domain. By varying the vertical profiles of buoyancy frequency (step-wise vs. continuos change, including TIL) and wind shear, the tropopause

  6. Waves in Radial Gravity Using Magnetic Fluid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ohlsen, D. R.; Hart, J. E.; Weidman, P. D.

    1999-01-01

    Terrestrial laboratory experiments studying various fluid dynamical processes are constrained, by being in an Earth laboratory, to have a gravitational body force which is uniform and unidirectional. Therefore fluid free-surfaces are horizontal and flat. Such free surfaces must have a vertical solid boundary to keep the fluid from spreading horizontally along a gravitational potential surface. In atmospheric, oceanic, or stellar fluid flows that have a horizontal scale of about one-tenth the body radius or larger, sphericity is important in the dynamics. Further, fluids in spherical geometry can cover an entire domain without any sidewall effects, i.e. have truly periodic boundary conditions. We describe spherical body-force laboratory experiments using ferrofluid. Ferrofluids are dilute suspensions of magnetic dipoles, for example magnetite particles of order 10 nm diameter, suspended in a carrier fluid. Ferrofluids are subject to an additional body force in the presence of an applied magnetic field gradient. We use this body force to conduct laboratory experiments in spherical geometry. The present study is a laboratory technique improvement. The apparatus is cylindrically axisymmetric. A cylindrical ceramic magnet is embedded in a smooth, solid, spherical PVC ball. The geopotential field and its gradient, the body force, were made nearly spherical by careful choice of magnet height-to-diameter ratio and magnet size relative to the PVC ball size. Terrestrial gravity is eliminated from the dynamics by immersing the "planet" and its ferrofluid "ocean" in an immiscible silicone oil/freon mixture of the same density. Thus the earth gravity is removed from the dynamics of the ferrofluid/oil interface and the only dynamically active force there is the radial magnetic gravity. The entire apparatus can rotate, and waves are forced on the ferrofluid surface by exterior magnets. The biggest improvement in technique is in the wave visualization. Fluorescing dye is added to

  7. Humans use internal models to estimate gravity and linear acceleration.

    PubMed

    Merfeld, D M; Zupan, L; Peterka, R J

    1999-04-15

    Because sensory systems often provide ambiguous information, neural processes must exist to resolve these ambiguities. It is likely that similar neural processes are used by different sensory systems. For example, many tasks require neural processing to distinguish linear acceleration from gravity, but Einstein's equivalence principle states that all linear accelerometers must measure both linear acceleration and gravity. Here we investigate whether the brain uses internal models, defined as neural systems that mimic physical principles, to help estimate linear acceleration and gravity. Internal models may be used in motor contro, sensorimotor integration and sensory processing, but direct experimental evidence for such models is limited. To determine how humans process ambiguous gravity and linear acceleration cues, subjects were tilted after being rotated at a constant velocity about an Earth-vertical axis. We show that the eye movements evoked by this post-rotational tilt include a response component that compensates for the estimated linear acceleration even when no actual linear acceleration occurs. These measured responses are consistent with our internal model predictions that the nervous system can develop a non-zero estimate of linear acceleration even when no true linear acceleration is present. PMID:10217143

  8. Gravity waves and gravity wave "breaking" as contributors to aviation turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharman, R.; Lane, T. P.; Trier, S. B.; Fovell, R. G.

    2012-12-01

    Turbulence is a well-known hazard to aviation that is responsible for numerous injuries each year, with occasional fatalities, and results in millions of dollars of operational costs to airlines each year. It has been widely accepted that aviation-scale turbulence that occurs in clear air (CAT) at upper levels (upper troposphere and lower stratosphere) has its origins in Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities induced by enhanced shears and reduced Richardson numbers associated with the jet stream and upper level fronts. However, it is becoming increasingly apparent that gravity waves and gravity wave "breaking" also play a major role in instigating turbulence that affects aviation. Gravity waves and inertia-gravity waves may be produced by a variety of sources, but one major source that impacts aviation seems to be those produced by convection. Several examples of high-resolution numerical simulations that are based on actual encounters with turbulence by commercial aircraft will be presented to demonstrate these situations. Implications for aviation-scale turbulence forecasting will also be discussed.

  9. Internal gravity waves in the solar atmosphere. II - Effects of radiative damping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mihalas, B. W.; Toomre, J.

    1982-01-01

    In the solar photosphere, temperature fluctuations associated with acoustic-gravity waves may be rapidly smoothed by the transfer mechanism of radiation between hotter and cooler regions. The present investigation of the radiative effects on internal gravity waves takes into account the parameterization of the radiative energy, employing the Newtonian cooling approximation. A linear analysis of the propagation of internal gravity waves is carried out in a model of the solar atmosphere which is taken to be homogeneous in the horizontal coordinates. Linear wave properties both with and without radiative cooling are summarized, and the variation with height of energy fluxes and of nonlinearities in the waves is discussed. Attention is given to the significance of the obtained results in terms of energy balance in the chromosphere and in relation to spectral line observations.

  10. Characteristic of gravity waves resolved in ECMWF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preusse, Peter; Eckermann, Stephen; Ern, Manfred; Riese, Martin

    Gravity waves (GWs) influence the circulation of the atmosphere on global scale. Because of insufficient measurements and the difficulty to involve all relevant scales in a single model run, they are one of the chief uncertainties in climate and weather prediction. More information, in particular on global scale, is required. Can we employ global models such as the ECMWF high-resolution GCM to infer quantities of resolved GWs? Does this give us insight for the characteristics and relative importance of real GW sources? And can we use such data safely for, e.g., planning measurement campaigns on GWs? Also trajectory studies of cloud formation (cirrus in the UTLS, PSCs) and related dehydration and denitrification rely heavily on realistic temperature structures due to GWs. We here apply techniques developed for an ESA study proving the scientifc break-through which could be reached by a novel infrared limb imager. The 3D temperature structure of mesoscale GWs is exploited to determine amplitudes and 3D wave vectors of GWs at different levels (25km, 35km and 45km altitude) in the stratosphere. Similar to real observations, GW momentum flux is largest in the winter polar vortex and exhibits a second maximum in the summer subtropics. Based on the 3D wavevectors backward ray-tracing is employed to characterize specific sources. For instance, we find for the northern winter strong GW momentum flux (GWMF) associated with mountain waves from Norway and Greenland as well as waves emitted in the lower troposphere from a storm approaching Norway. Waves from these sources spread up to several thousand km in the stratosphere. Together these three events form a burst in the total hemispheric GWMF of a factor of 3. Strong mountain wave events are also found e.g. at Tierra del Fuego and the Antarctic Peninsula, regions which are in the focus of observational and modeling studies for a decade. Gravity waves in the tropical region are associated with deep convection in the upper

  11. Ionospheric acoustic and gravity waves associated with midlatitude thunderstorms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lay, Erin H.; Shao, Xuan-Min; Kendrick, Alexander K.; Carrano, Charles S.

    2015-07-01

    Acoustic waves with periods of 2-4 min and gravity waves with periods of 6-16 min have been detected at ionospheric heights (250-350 km) using GPS total electron content measurements. The area disturbed by these waves and the wave amplitudes have been associated with underlying thunderstorm activity. A statistical study comparing Next Generation Weather Radar thunderstorm measurements with ionospheric acoustic and gravity waves in the midlatitude U.S. Great Plains region was performed for the time period of May-July 2005. An increase of ionospheric acoustic wave disturbed area and amplitude is primarily associated with large thunderstorms (mesoscale convective systems). Ionospheric gravity wave disturbed area and amplitude scale with thunderstorm activity, with even small storms (i.e., individual storm cells) producing an increase of gravity waves.

  12. Ionospheric acoustic and gravity waves associated with midlatitude thunderstorms

    SciTech Connect

    Lay, Erin H.; Shao, Xuan -Min; Kendrick, Alexander K.; Carrano, Charles S.

    2015-07-30

    Acoustic waves with periods of 2–4 min and gravity waves with periods of 6–16 min have been detected at ionospheric heights (25–350 km) using GPS total electron content measurements. The area disturbed by these waves and the wave amplitudes have been associated with underlying thunderstorm activity. A statistical study comparing Next Generation Weather Radar thunderstorm measurements with ionospheric acoustic and gravity waves in the midlatitude U.S. Great Plains region was performed for the time period of May–July 2005. An increase of ionospheric acoustic wave disturbed area and amplitude is primarily associated with large thunderstorms (mesoscale convective systems). Ionospheric gravity wave disturbed area and amplitude scale with thunderstorm activity, with even small storms (i.e., individual storm cells) producing an increase of gravity waves.

  13. Self-gravity density waves in Saturn's rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griv, E.; Gedalin, M.

    A weakly nonlinear (quasi-linear) theory is used to determine the stability of the self-gravitating, rapidly and nonuniformly rotating, three-dimensional, and collisional particulate disk against small gravity perturbations. A gas-kinetic theory approach is used by exploring the combined system of the Boltzmann and the Poisson equations. The effects of physical collisions between particles are taken into account by using in the Boltzmann kinetic equation a Krook model integral of collisions modified to allow collisions to be inelastic. Equations describing the quasi-linear stage of classical Jeans instability of small gravity perturbations in Saturn's rings (e.g., those produced by spontaneous perturbations) are derived and solved analytically. It is shown that as a direct result of the Jeans instability of gravity disturbances the disk is subdivided into numerous almost regular density waves, with size and spacing of the order of 2πh, where h is the typical thickness of the system. The present research is aimed above all at explaining the origin of various structures in highly flattened, rapidly rotating systems of mutually gravitating particles. In particular, it is suggested that Cassini spacecraft high-resolution images may reveal this kind of hyperfine ˜ 100 m or even less radial structure in the rings A, B, and C of the Saturnian ring system. This work was supported in part by the Israel Science Foundation and the Israeli Ministry of Immigrant Absorption.

  14. Solitary waves in the resonant phenomenon between a surface gravity wave packet and an internal gravity wave

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sepulveda, Nicasio

    1987-01-01

    A two-layer inviscid incompressible fluid system of intermediate depth is considered. A multiple-scales perturbation technique is applied to the basic equations and boundary conditions for a two-layer fluid system to derive a system of weakly nonlinear partial integrodifferential equations governing the resonant interaction between a surface gravity wave packet and an internal gravity wave at an intermediate depth, providing a bridge between the existing shallow and deep fluid theories. The convolution integral term in these equations accounts for the dispersion in the lower-layer fluid. An iterative fast Fourier transform scheme is developed to find solitary wave solutions to this system of equations. The overtaking collision of two pairs of solitary waves, simulated using a spectral method, is found to be inelastic. It is found that the amplitude of the solitary waves changes slightly after the collision. The phase shifts these solitary waves undergo was calculated numerically.

  15. Gravity Waves Ripple over Marine Stratocumulus Clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    In this natural-color image from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR), a fingerprint-like gravity wave feature occurs over a deck of marine stratocumulus clouds. Similar to the ripples that occur when a pebble is thrown into a still pond, such 'gravity waves' sometimes appear when the relatively stable and stratified air masses associated with stratocumulus cloud layers are disturbed by a vertical trigger from the underlying terrain, or by a thunderstorm updraft or some other vertical wind shear. The stratocumulus cellular clouds that underlie the wave feature are associated with sinking air that is strongly cooled at the level of the cloud-tops -- such clouds are common over mid-latitude oceans when the air is unperturbed by cyclonic or frontal activity. This image is centered over the Indian Ocean (at about 38.9o South, 80.6o East), and was acquired on October 29, 2003.

    The Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer observes the daylit Earth continuously and every 9 days views the entire globe between 82o north and 82o south latitude. These data products were generated from a portion of the imagery acquired during Terra orbit 20545. The image covers an area of 245 kilometers x 378 kilometers, and uses data from blocks 121 to 122 within World Reference System-2 path 134.

    MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth Science, Washington, DC. The Terra satellite is managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology.

  16. Propagation of acoustic pulses in random gravity wave fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Millet, Christophe; de La Camara, Alvaro; Lott, François

    2015-11-01

    A linear solution modeling the interaction between an incoming acoustic wave and a randomly perturbed atmosphere is developed, using the normal mode method. The wave mode structure is determined by a sound speed profile that is confining. The environmental uncertainty is described by a stochastic field obtained with a multiwave stochastic parameterization of gravity waves (GW). Using the propagating modes of the unperturbed atmosphere, the wave propagation problem is reduced to solving a system of ordinary differential equations. We focus on the asymptotic behavior of the transmitted waves in the weakly heterogeneous regime. In this regime, the coupling between the acoustic pulse and the randomly perturbed waveguides is weak and the propagation distance must be large enough for the wave to experience significant scattering. A general expression for the pressure far-field is derived in terms of saddle-point contributions. The saddle-points are obtained from a WKB approximation of the vertical eigenvalue problem. We present preliminary results that show how statistics of the transmitted signal are related to some eigenvalues and how an ``optimal'' GW field can trigger large deviations in the acoustic signals. The present model is used to explain the variability of infrasound signals.

  17. Direct heating rates associated with gravity wave saturation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, Erich

    2004-04-01

    Analysis of filtering out subscale motions is applied for internal gravity waves. This leads to a new perspective of the planetary-scale sensible heat budget of the upper mesosphere/lower thermosphere. In line with previous results of Becker and Schmitz, the present paper recapitulates that the dissipation of gravity wave kinetic energy and the local adiabatic conversion of mean enthalpy into gravity wave kinetic energy cannot be neglected, and that the net effect of both cools the upper mesosphere/lower thermosphere. In addition, the importance of the wave entropy flux-an effect which is ignored in customary gravity wave parameterizations for global circulation models-is stressed. We show that, when evaluated on the basis of Lindzen's saturation assumption, the wave entropy flux convergence behaves like a vertical diffusion of the mean stratification, where the wave-induced diffusion coefficient is involved with a Prandtl number of 2. This result imposes an upper bound of 2 for the effective Prandtl number which scales the combined entropy flux owing to turbulence and gravity waves. The direct heating rates generated by gravity wave saturation are assessed quantitatively, using an idealized general circulation model completed by a Lindzen-type gravity wave parameterization.

  18. Satellite observations of the QBO wave driving by Kelvin waves and gravity waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ern, Manfred; Preusse, Peter; Kalisch, Silvio; Riese, Martin

    2014-05-01

    The quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO) of the zonal wind in the tropical stratosphere is an important process in atmospheric dynamics influencing a wide range of altitudes and latitudes. Effects of the QBO are found also in the mesosphere and in the extra-tropics. The QBO even has influence on the surface weather and climate, for example during winter in the northern hemisphere at midlatitudes. Still, climate models have large difficulties in reproducing a realistic QBO. One reason for this deficiency are uncertainties in the wave driving by planetary waves and, in particular, gravity waves that are usually too small-scale to be resolved in global models. Different global equatorial wave modes (e.g., Kelvin waves) have been identified by longitude-time 2D spectral analysis in Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission Radiometry (SABER) satellite temperature data, as well as ECMWF temperatures. We find good agreement between SABER satellite observations and ECMWF wave variances in both QBO-related temporal variations and their magnitude. Slow phase speed waves are strongly modulated by the QBO, higher phase speed waves are almost unaffected by the QBO, and ultra-fast equatorial waves can even reach the MLT region. Momentum fluxes and zonal wind drag due to Kelvin waves are derived, and the relative contribution of Kelvin waves to the QBO wind reversal from westward to eastward wind is estimated to be about 30% of the total wave driving. This is in good agreement with the general assumption that gravity waves (GWs) are probably more important for the QBO driving than global-scale waves. This is further supported by SABER and High Resolution Dynamics Limb Sounder (HIRDLS) satellite observations of gravity wave drag in the equatorial region. These observations are compared with the drag still missing in the ECMWF ERA Interim (ERAI) tropical momentum budget after considering zonal wind tendency, Coriolis force, advection terms and drag of resolved global

  19. New Gravity Wave Treatments for GISS Climate Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geller, Marvin A.; Zhou, Tiehan; Ruedy, Reto; Aleinov, Igor; Nazarenko, Larissa; Tausnev, Nikolai L.; Sun, Shan; Kelley, Maxwell; Cheng, Ye

    2011-01-01

    Previous versions of GISS climate models have either used formulations of Rayleigh drag to represent unresolved gravity wave interactions with the model-resolved flow or have included a rather complicated treatment of unresolved gravity waves that, while being climate interactive, involved the specification of a relatively large number of parameters that were not well constrained by observations and also was computationally very expensive. Here, the authors introduce a relatively simple and computationally efficient specification of unresolved orographic and nonorographic gravity waves and their interaction with the resolved flow. Comparisons of the GISS model winds and temperatures with no gravity wave parameterization; with only orographic gravity wave parameterization; and with both orographic and nonorographic gravity wave parameterizations are shown to illustrate how the zonal mean winds and temperatures converge toward observations. The authors also show that the specifications of orographic and nonorographic gravity waves must be different in the Northern and Southern Hemispheres. Then results are presented where the nonorographic gravity wave sources are specified to represent sources from convection in the intertropical convergence zone and spontaneous emission from jet imbalances. Finally, a strategy to include these effects in a climate-dependent manner is suggested.

  20. New Gravity Wave Treatments for GISS Climate Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geller, Marvin A.; Zhou, Tiehan; Ruedy, Reto; Aleinov, Igor; Nazarenko, Larissa; Tausnev, Nikolai L.; Sun, Shan; Kelley, Maxwell; Cheng, Ye

    2010-01-01

    Previous versions of GISS climate models have either used formulations of Rayleigh drag to represent unresolved gravity wave interactions with the model resolved flow or have included a rather complicated treatment of unresolved gravity waves that, while being climate interactive, involved the specification of a relatively large number of parameters that were not well constrained by observations and also was computationally very expensive. Here, we introduce a relatively simple and computationally efficient specification of unresolved orographic and non-orographic gravity waves and their interaction with the resolved flow. We show comparisons of the GISS model winds and temperatures with no gravity wave parametrization; with only orographic gravity wave parameterization; and with both orographic and non-orographic gravity wave parameterizations to illustrate how the zonal mean winds and temperatures converge toward observations. We also show that the specifications of orographic and nonorographic gravity waves must be different in the Northern and Southern Hemispheres. We then show results where the non-orographic gravity wave sources are specified to represent sources from convection in the Intertropical Convergence Zone and spontaneous emission from jet imbalances. Finally, we suggest a strategy to include these effects in a climate dependent manner.

  1. Gravity wave vertical energy flux at 95 km

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacob, P. G.; Jacka, F.

    1985-01-01

    A three-field photometer (3FP) located at Mt. Torrens near Adelaide, is capable of monitoring different airglow emissions from three spaced fields in the sky. A wheel containing up to six different narrow bandpass interference filters can be rotated, allowing each of the filters to be sequentially placed into each of the three fields. The airglow emission of interest is the 557.7 nm line which has an intensity maximum at 95 km. Each circular field of view is located at the apexes of an equilateral triangle centered on zenith with diameters of 5 km and field separations of 13 km when projected to the 95-km level. The sampling period was 30 seconds and typical data lengths were between 7 and 8 hours. The analysis and results from the interaction of gravity waves on the 557.7 nm emission layer are derived using an atmospheric model similar to that proposed by Hines (1960) where the atmosphere is assumed isothermal and perturbations caused by gravity waves are small and adiabatic, therefore, resulting in linearized equations of motion. In the absence of waves, the atmosphere is also considered stationary. Thirteen nights of quality data from January 1983 to October 1984, covering all seasons, are used in this analysis.

  2. Ionospheric acoustic and gravity waves associated with midlatitude thunderstorms

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Lay, Erin H.; Shao, Xuan -Min; Kendrick, Alexander K.; Carrano, Charles S.

    2015-07-30

    Acoustic waves with periods of 2–4 min and gravity waves with periods of 6–16 min have been detected at ionospheric heights (25–350 km) using GPS total electron content measurements. The area disturbed by these waves and the wave amplitudes have been associated with underlying thunderstorm activity. A statistical study comparing Next Generation Weather Radar thunderstorm measurements with ionospheric acoustic and gravity waves in the midlatitude U.S. Great Plains region was performed for the time period of May–July 2005. An increase of ionospheric acoustic wave disturbed area and amplitude is primarily associated with large thunderstorms (mesoscale convective systems). Ionospheric gravity wavemore » disturbed area and amplitude scale with thunderstorm activity, with even small storms (i.e., individual storm cells) producing an increase of gravity waves.« less

  3. Deterministic forward scatter from surface gravity waves.

    PubMed

    Deane, Grant B; Preisig, James C; Tindle, Chris T; Lavery, Andone; Stokes, M Dale

    2012-12-01

    Deterministic structures in sound reflected by gravity waves, such as focused arrivals and Doppler shifts, have implications for underwater acoustics and sonar, and the performance of underwater acoustic communications systems. A stationary phase analysis of the Helmholtz-Kirchhoff scattering integral yields the trajectory of focused arrivals and their relationship to the curvature of the surface wave field. Deterministic effects along paths up to 70 water depths long are observed in shallow water measurements of surface-scattered sound at the Martha's Vineyard Coastal Observatory. The arrival time and amplitude of surface-scattered pulses are reconciled with model calculations using measurements of surface waves made with an upward-looking sonar mounted mid-way along the propagation path. The root mean square difference between the modeled and observed pulse arrival amplitude and delay, respectively, normalized by the maximum range of amplitudes and delays, is found to be 0.2 or less for the observation periods analyzed. Cross-correlation coefficients for modeled and observed pulse arrival delays varied from 0.83 to 0.16 depending on surface conditions. Cross-correlation coefficients for normalized pulse energy for the same conditions were small and varied from 0.16 to 0.06. In contrast, the modeled and observed pulse arrival delay and amplitude statistics were in good agreement. PMID:23231099

  4. Numerical simulation of an elve modulated by a gravity wave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, R. A.; Yue, Jia; Lyons, Walter A.

    2015-07-01

    Recent video observations have shown that elves—the visible manifestation of the lightning electromagnetic pulse (EMP) interacting with the lower ionosphere—can be modulated by neutral density fluctuations at lower ionosphere altitudes due to gravity waves. The elve emissions thus illuminate the gravity wave structure. Here we use a finite difference time domain (FDTD) model of the lightning EMP to simulate elve emissions in the presence of neutral density fluctuations representative of gravity waves. We show that observable elve striations can be generated by gravity waves with a neutral density perturbation of as low as 5% at elve altitudes near 85 km. Higher perturbations lead to more pronounced striations. The depth of the optical signature perturbation is found to be similar in magnitude to the neutral density perturbation at elve altitudes, although the relationship depends on viewing geometry, gravity wave geometry, and the elve-causative lightning peak current moment.

  5. Stationary waves in the wintertime mesosphere: Evidence for gravity wave filtering by stratospheric planetary waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lieberman, R. S.; Riggin, D. M.; Siskind, D. E.

    2013-04-01

    Quasi-stationary planetary-scale waves in the wintertime mesosphere and lower thermosphere (MLT) are thought to be forced in part by drag imparted by gravity waves that have been modulated by underlying stratospheric waves. Although this mechanism has been demonstrated numerically, there have been very few observational studies that examine wave driving as a source of planetary waves in the MLT. This study uses data from EOS Aura and TIMED between 2005 and 2011 to examine the momentum budget of MLT wintertime planetary waves. Monthly averages for January indicate that the dynamics of zonal wave number 1 are determined from a three-way balance among the Coriolis acceleration, the pressure gradient force, and a momentum residual term that reflects wave drag. The MLT circulations in January 2005, 2006, 2009, and 2011 are qualitatively consistent with a simple model of wave forcing by drag from gravity waves that have been modulated by stratospheric planetary waves. MLT winds during these years are also consistent with analyses from a high-altitude operational prediction model that includes parameterized nonorographic gravity wave drag. The importance of wave drag for the MLT momentum budget suggests that the gradient wind approximation is inadequate for deriving planetary-scale winds from global temperature measurements. Our results underscore the need for direct global wind measurements in the MLT.

  6. The Role of Gravity Waves in Modulating Atmospheric Tides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mayr, H. G.; Mengel, J. G; Chan, K. L.; Porter, H. S.

    1999-01-01

    We discuss results for the diurnal and semidiurnal tides obtained from our 3-D, time dependent numerical spectral model (NMS), extending from the ground up into the thermosphere, which incorporates Hines' Doppler spread parameterization of small scale gravity waves (GW). In the DSP, GW momentum (and energy) are conserved as the waves modulate the background flow and are filtered by the flow.As a consequence, the GW interaction tightly couples the dynamic components of the middle atmosphere with strong non-linear interactions between mean zonal circulation, tides and planetary waves to produce complicated patterns of variability much like those observed. The major conclusions are: (1) Since GW momentum is deposited in the altitude regime of increasing winds, the amplitude of the diurnal tide is amplified and its vertical wavelength is reduced at altitudes between 80 and 120 km. Wave filtering by the mean zonal circulation (with peak velocities during solstice) causes the GW flux to peak during equinox, and this produces a large semi-annual variation in the tide that has been observed on UARS. (2) Without the diurnal tide, the semidiurnal tide would also be modulated in this way. But the diurnal tide filters out the GW preferentially during equinox, so that the semidiurnal tide, at higher altitudes, tends to peak during solstice. (3) Under the influence of GW, the tides are modulated also significantly by planetary waves, with periods between 2 and 30 days, which are generated preferentially during solstice in part due to baroclinic instability.

  7. Experimental Observation of Negative Effective Gravity in Water Waves

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Xinhua; Yang, Jiong; Zi, Jian; Chan, C. T.; Ho, Kai-Ming

    2013-01-01

    The gravity of Earth is responsible for the formation of water waves and usually difficult to change. Although negative effective gravity was recently predicted theoretically in water waves, it has not yet been observed in experiments and remains a mathematical curiosity which is difficult to understand. Here we experimentally demonstrate that close to the resonant frequency of purposely-designed resonating units, negative effective gravity can occur for water waves passing through an array of resonators composing of bottom-mounted split tubes, resulting in the prohibition of water wave propagation. It is found that when negative gravity occurs, the averaged displacement of water surface in a unit cell of the array has a phase difference of π to that along the boundary of the unit cell, consistent with theoretical predictions. Our results provide a mechanism to block water waves and may find applications in wave energy conversion and coastal protection. PMID:23715132

  8. Investigating gravity waves evidences in the Venus upper atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Migliorini, Alessandra; Altieri, Francesca; Shakun, Alexey; Zasova, Ludmila; Piccioni, Giuseppe; Bellucci, Giancarlo; Grassi, Davide

    2014-05-01

    We present a method to investigate gravity waves properties in the upper mesosphere of Venus, through the O2 nightglow observations acquired with the imaging spectrometer VIRTIS on board Venus Express. Gravity waves are important dynamical features that transport energy and momentum. They are related to the buoyancy force, which lifts air particles. Then, the vertical displacement of air particles produces density changes that cause gravity to act as restoring force. Gravity waves can manifest through fluctuations on temperature and density fields, and hence on airglow intensities. We use the O2 nightglow profiles showing double peaked structures to study the influence of gravity waves in shaping the O2 vertical profiles and infer the waves properties. In analogy to the Earth's and Mars cases, we use a well-known theory to model the O2 nightglow emissions affected by gravity waves propagation. Here we propose a statistical discussion of the gravity waves characteristics, namely vertical wavelength and wave amplitude, with respect to local time and latitude. The method is applied to about 30 profiles showing double peaked structures, and acquired with the VIRTIS/Venus Express spectrometer, during the mission period from 2006-07-05 to 2008-08-15.

  9. BF Models in Dual Formulations of Linearized Gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Bizdadea, Constantin; Cioroianu, Eugen M.; Danehkar, Ashbiz; Iordache, Marius; Saliu, Solange O.; Sararu, Silviu C.

    2009-05-22

    The case of couplings in D = 5 between a simple, maximal BF model and the dual formulation of linearized gravity is considered. All the possible interactions are exhausted by means of computing the 'free' local BRST cohomology in ghost number zero.

  10. Freely Decaying Weak Turbulence For Sea Surface Gravity Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onorato, M.; Osborne, A.; Resio, D.; Pushkarev, A.; Zakharov, V.; Serio, M.; Brandini, C.

    We study numerically the generation of power laws in the framework of weak turbu- lence theory for surface gravity waves in deep water. Starting from a random wave field, we let the system evolve numerically according to the nonlinear Euler equations for gravity waves in infinitely deep water. In agreement with the theory of Zakharov and Filonenko, we find the formation of a power spectrum characterized by a power law of the form of |k|-2 . .5

  11. GRAVITY WAVES ON HOT EXTRASOLAR PLANETS. I. PROPAGATION AND INTERACTION WITH THE BACKGROUND

    SciTech Connect

    Watkins, Chris; Cho, J. Y-K. E-mail: J.Cho@qmul.ac.u

    2010-05-01

    We study the effects of gravity waves, or g-modes, on hot extrasolar planets. These planets are expected to possess stably stratified atmospheres, which support gravity waves. In this paper, we review the derivation of the equation that governs the linear dynamics of gravity waves and describe its application to a hot extrasolar planet, using HD 209458 b as a generic example. We find that gravity waves can exhibit a wide range of behaviors, even for a single atmospheric profile. The waves can significantly accelerate or decelerate the background mean flow, depending on the difference between the wave phase and mean flow speeds. In addition, the waves can provide significant heating ({approx}10{sup 2} to {approx}10{sup 3} K per planetary rotation), especially to the region of the atmosphere above about 10 scale heights from the excitation region. Furthermore, by propagating horizontally, gravity waves provide a mechanism for transporting momentum and heat from the dayside of a tidally locked planet to its nightside. We discuss work that needs to be undertaken to incorporate these effects in current atmosphere models of extrasolar planets.

  12. What gravity waves are telling about quantum spacetime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arzano, Michele; Calcagni, Gianluca

    2016-06-01

    We discuss various modified dispersion relations motivated by quantum gravity which might affect the propagation of the recently observed gravitational-wave signal of the event GW150914. We find that the bounds set by the data on the characteristic quantum-gravity mass scale M are too weak to constrain these scenarios and, in general, much weaker than the expected M >104 eV for a correction to the dispersion relation linear in 1 /M . We illustrate this issue by giving lower bounds on M , plus an upper bound coming from constraints on the size of a quantum ergosphere. We also show that a phenomenological dispersion relation ω2=k2(1 +α kn/Mn) is compatible with observations and, at the same time, has a phenomenologically viable mass M >10 TeV only in the quite restrictive range 0 gravity models.

  13. Evaluation of Gravity Wave Effects on Bow Echo Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams-Selin, R.; Johnson, R. H.

    2012-12-01

    A numerical simulation of the 13 March 2003 bow echo over Oklahoma is used to evaluate bow echo development and its relationship with gravity wave generation. The research is also directed at an explanation of recent observations of surface pressure surges ahead of convective lines prior to the bowing process. Multiple fast-moving n = 1 gravity waves are generated in association with fluctuations in the first vertical mode of heating in the convective line, and each wave modifies the pre-system environment. The surface impacts of four such waves are observed in Oklahoma Mesonet data during this case. A slower gravity wave is also produced in the simulation, which is responsible for the pre-bowing pressure surge in the model. This gravity wave is generated by an increase in low-level microphysical cooling associated with strengthened rear-to-front flow and low-level downdrafts shortly before bowing. The low-level upward vertical motion associated with this wave, in conjunction with higher-frequency gravity waves generated by the multicellularity of the convective line, increases the immediate pre-system CAPE by approximately 250 J kg-1. Statistical methods are used to evaluate the significance of each vertical mode within the microphysical heating profile at the time of the pressure surge. The contribution of each microphysical process to the overall profile, particularly that of cooling by melting and evaporation, is also examined in an attempt to connect the processes generating the slower gravity wave with those producing bow echo development.

  14. Classifying linearly shielded modified gravity models in effective field theory.

    PubMed

    Lombriser, Lucas; Taylor, Andy

    2015-01-23

    We study the model space generated by the time-dependent operator coefficients in the effective field theory of the cosmological background evolution and perturbations of modified gravity and dark energy models. We identify three classes of modified gravity models that reduce to Newtonian gravity on the small scales of linear theory. These general classes contain enough freedom to simultaneously admit a matching of the concordance model background expansion history. In particular, there exists a large model space that mimics the concordance model on all linear quasistatic subhorizon scales as well as in the background evolution. Such models also exist when restricting the theory space to operators introduced in Horndeski scalar-tensor gravity. We emphasize that whereas the partially shielded scenarios might be of interest to study in connection with tensions between large and small scale data, with conventional cosmological probes, the ability to distinguish the fully shielded scenarios from the concordance model on near-horizon scales will remain limited by cosmic variance. Novel tests of the large-scale structure remedying this deficiency and accounting for the full covariant nature of the alternative gravitational theories, however, might yield further insights on gravity in this regime. PMID:25658988

  15. Plane wave holonomies in quantum gravity. II. A sine wave solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neville, Donald E.

    2015-08-01

    This paper constructs an approximate sinusoidal wave packet solution to the equations of canonical gravity. The theory uses holonomy-flux variables with support on a lattice (LHF =lattice-holonomy flux ). There is an SU(2) holonomy on each edge of the LHF simplex, and the goal is to study the behavior of these holonomies under the influence of a passing gravitational wave. The equations are solved in a small sine approximation: holonomies are expanded in powers of sines and terms beyond sin2 are dropped; also, fields vary slowly from vertex to vertex. The wave is unidirectional and linearly polarized. The Hilbert space is spanned by a set of coherent states tailored to the symmetry of the plane wave case. Fixing the spatial diffeomorphisms is equivalent to fixing the spatial interval between vertices of the loop quantum gravity lattice. This spacing can be chosen such that the eigenvalues of the triad operators are large, as required in the small sine limit, even though the holonomies are not large. Appendices compute the energy of the wave, estimate the lifetime of the coherent state packet, discuss circular polarization and coarse-graining, and determine the behavior of the spinors used in the U(N) SHO realization of LQG.

  16. Intercomparison of stratospheric gravity wave observations with AIRS and IASI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffmann, L.; Alexander, M. J.; Clerbaux, C.; Grimsdell, A. W.; Meyer, C. I.; Rößler, T.; Tournier, B.

    2014-12-01

    Gravity waves are an important driver for the atmospheric circulation and have substantial impact on weather and climate. Satellite instruments offer excellent opportunities to study gravity waves on a global scale. This study focuses on observations from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) onboard the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Aqua satellite and the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) onboard the European MetOp satellites. The main aim of this study is an intercomparison of stratospheric gravity wave observations of both instruments. In particular, we analyzed AIRS and IASI 4.3 μm brightness temperature measurements, which directly relate to stratospheric temperature. Three case studies showed that AIRS and IASI provide a clear and consistent picture of the temporal development of individual gravity wave events. Statistical comparisons based on a 5-year period of measurements (2008-2012) showed similar spatial and temporal patterns of gravity wave activity. However, the statistical comparisons also revealed systematic differences of variances between AIRS and IASI that we attribute to the different spatial measurement characteristics of both instruments. We also found differences between day- and nighttime data that are partly due to the local time variations of the gravity wave sources. While AIRS has been used successfully in many previous gravity wave studies, IASI data are applied here for the first time for that purpose. Our study shows that gravity wave observations from different hyperspectral infrared sounders such as AIRS and IASI can be directly related to each other, if instrument-specific characteristics such as different noise levels and spatial resolution and sampling are carefully considered. The ability to combine observations from different satellites provides an opportunity to create a long-term record, which is an exciting prospect for future climatological studies of stratospheric gravity wave activity.

  17. Application of linear inverse theory to borehole gravity data

    SciTech Connect

    Burkhard, N.R.

    1991-09-01

    Traditional borehole gravity interpretations are based upon an earth model which assumes horizontal, laterally infinite, uniformly thick, and constant density layers. I apply discrete stabilized linear inverse theory to determine the density distribution directly from borehole gravity observations that have been corrected for drift, tide, and terrain. The stabilization is the result of including a priori data about the free-air gradient and the density structure in the inversion process. The discrete generalized linear inverse approach enables one to solve for a density distribution using all of the borehole gravity data. Moreover, the data need not be free-air corrected. An important feature of the approach is that density estimates are not required to be density averages between adjacent borehole gravity observations as in the traditional method. This approach further permits the explicit incorporation of independent density information from gamma-gamma logging tools or laboratory core measurements. Finally, explicit linear constraints upon the density and/or free-air gradient can also be handled. The non-uniqueness of the density structure determined by the inversion process is represented in a resolution matrix. 12 refs., 11 figs.

  18. Acoustic gravity waves: A computational approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hariharan, S. I.; Dutt, P. K.

    1987-01-01

    This paper discusses numerical solutions of a hyperbolic initial boundary value problem that arises from acoustic wave propagation in the atmosphere. Field equations are derived from the atmospheric fluid flow governed by the Euler equations. The resulting original problem is nonlinear. A first order linearized version of the problem is used for computational purposes. The main difficulty in the problem as with any open boundary problem is in obtaining stable boundary conditions. Approximate boundary conditions are derived and shown to be stable. Numerical results are presented to verify the effectiveness of these boundary conditions.

  19. Nonlocal resonances in weak turbulence of gravity-capillary waves.

    PubMed

    Aubourg, Quentin; Mordant, Nicolas

    2015-04-10

    We report a laboratory investigation of weak turbulence of water surface waves in the gravity-capillary crossover. By using time-space-resolved profilometry and a bicoherence analysis, we observe that the nonlinear processes involve three-wave resonant interactions. By studying the solutions of the resonance conditions, we show that the nonlinear interaction is dominantly one dimensional and involves collinear wave vectors. Furthermore, taking into account the spectral widening due to weak nonlinearity explains why nonlocal interactions are possible between a gravity wave and high-frequency capillary ones. We observe also that nonlinear three-wave coupling is possible among gravity waves, and we raise the question of the relevance of this mechanism for oceanic waves. PMID:25910127

  20. A Simple Theory of Capillary-Gravity Wave Turbulence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glazman, Roman E.

    1995-01-01

    Employing a recently proposed 'multi-wave interaction' theory, inertial spectra of capillary gravity waves are derived. This case is characterized by a rather high degree of nonlinearity and a complicated dispersion law. The absence of scale invariance makes this and some other problems of wave turbulence (e.g., nonlinear inertia gravity waves) intractable by small-perturbation techniques, even in the weak-turbulence limit. The analytical solution obtained in the present work for an arbitrary degree of nonlinearity is shown to be in reasonable agreement with experimental data. The theory explains the dependence of the wave spectrum on wind input and describes the accelerated roll-off of the spectral density function in the narrow sub-range separating scale-invariant regimes of purely gravity and capillary waves, while the appropriate (long- and short-wave) limits yield power laws corresponding to the Zakharov-Filonenko and Phillips spectra.

  1. Gravity waves and instabilities in the lower and middle atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klostermeyer, Juergen

    1989-01-01

    Some basic aspects of mesoscale and small-scale gravity waves and instability mechanisms are discussed. Internal gravity waves with wavelengths between ten and less than one kilometer and periods between several hours and several minutes appear to play a central role in atmospheric wavenumber and frequency spectra. Therefore, the author discusses the propagation of gravity waves in simplified atmospheric models. Their interaction with the wind as well as their mutual interaction and stability mechanisms based on these processes are discussed. Mesosphere stratosphere troposphere radar observations showing the relevant hydrodynamic processes are stressed.

  2. Non-linear regime of the Generalized Minimal Massive Gravity in critical points

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Setare, M. R.; Adami, H.

    2016-03-01

    The Generalized Minimal Massive Gravity (GMMG) theory is realized by adding the CS deformation term, the higher derivative deformation term, and an extra term to pure Einstein gravity with a negative cosmological constant. In the present paper we obtain exact solutions to the GMMG field equations in the non-linear regime of the model. GMMG model about AdS_3 space is conjectured to be dual to a 2-dimensional CFT. We study the theory in critical points corresponding to the central charges c_-=0 or c_+=0, in the non-linear regime. We show that AdS_3 wave solutions are present, and have logarithmic form in critical points. Then we study the AdS_3 non-linear deformation solution. Furthermore we obtain logarithmic deformation of extremal BTZ black hole. After that using Abbott-Deser-Tekin method we calculate the energy and angular momentum of these types of black hole solutions.

  3. PV-induced forcing of gravity waves in a shallow water model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, Marshall

    2008-10-01

    The influence of a geostrophically balanced or potential vorticity (PV) background flow on gravity wave propagation is examined using a rotating shallow water model. The system is analyzed in the context of a perturbative expansion that focuses on the dynamics of the resonances within the nonlinear terms of the system. The nonlinearity is reconstructed as a wave-wave interaction forcing on an otherwise undisturbed linear wavefield. The principal conclusion is that while the PV flow is generally undisturbed by the gravity wavefield, the gravity wavefield is forced by the geostrophic flow over moderate timescales. We numerically test these results for the interaction between a single geostrophic mode and a gravity wave, followed by propagation of a single gravity mode through a turbulent PV background. We find that the gravity mode energy is scattered into other modes of similar wavelength but different directions of propagation. The rate of dispersion is in agreement with resonant triad theory, where the rate depends primarily on the initial gravity wavenumber and background PV strength. These results are expected to have relevance to the propagation of coherent internal tides in the open ocean.

  4. A Parabolic Equation Approach to Modeling Acousto-Gravity Waves for Local Helioseismology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Bene, Kevin; Lingevitch, Joseph; Doschek, George

    2016-08-01

    A wide-angle parabolic-wave-equation algorithm is developed and validated for local-helioseismic wave propagation. The parabolic equation is derived from a factorization of the linearized acousto-gravity wave equation. We apply the parabolic-wave equation to modeling acoustic propagation in a plane-parallel waveguide with physical properties derived from helioseismic data. The wavenumber power spectrum and wave-packet arrival-time structure for receivers in the photosphere with separation up to 30° is computed, and good agreement is demonstrated with measured values and a reference spectral model.

  5. A Parabolic Equation Approach to Modeling Acousto-Gravity Waves for Local Helioseismology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Bene, Kevin; Lingevitch, Joseph; Doschek, George

    2016-07-01

    A wide-angle parabolic-wave-equation algorithm is developed and validated for local-helioseismic wave propagation. The parabolic equation is derived from a factorization of the linearized acousto-gravity wave equation. We apply the parabolic-wave equation to modeling acoustic propagation in a plane-parallel waveguide with physical properties derived from helioseismic data. The wavenumber power spectrum and wave-packet arrival-time structure for receivers in the photosphere with separation up to 30° is computed, and good agreement is demonstrated with measured values and a reference spectral model.

  6. Gravity effects of polyhedral bodies with linearly varying density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Urso, M. G.

    2014-12-01

    We extend a recent approach for computing the gravity effects of polyhedral bodies with uniform density by the case of bodies with linearly varying density and by consistently taking into account the relevant singularities. We show in particular that the potential and the gravity vector can be given an expression in which singularities are ruled out, thus avoiding the introduction of small positive numbers advocated by some authors in order to circumvent undefined operations. We also prove that the entries of the second derivative exhibit a singularity if and only if the observation point is aligned with an edge of a face of the polyhedron. The formulas presented in the paper have been numerically checked with alternative ones derived on the basis of different approaches, already established in the literature, and intensively tested by computing the gravity effects induced by real asteroids with arbitrarily assigned density variations.

  7. Mesospheric gravity waves and ionospheric plasma bubbles observed during the COPEX campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paulino, I.; Takahashi, H.; Medeiros, A. F.; Wrasse, C. M.; Buriti, R. A.; Sobral, J. H. A.; Gobbi, D.

    2011-07-01

    During the Conjugate Point Experiment (COPEX) campaign performed at Boa Vista (2.80∘N;60.70∘W, dip angle21.7∘N) from October to December 2002, 15 medium-scale gravity waves in the OHNIR airglow images were observed. Using a Keogram image analysis, we estimate their parameters. Most of the waves propagate to Northwest, indicating that their main sources are Southeast of Boa Vista. Quasi-simultaneous plasma bubble activities in the OI 630 nm images were observed in seven cases. The distances between the bubble depletions have a linear relationship with the wavelengths of the gravity waves observed in the mesosphere, which suggests a direct contribution of the mesospheric medium-scale gravity waves in seeding the equatorial plasma bubbles.

  8. Massive gravitational waves in Chern-Simons modified gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Myung, Yun Soo; Moon, Taeyoon E-mail: tymoon@inje.ac.kr

    2014-10-01

    We consider the nondynamical Chern-Simons (nCS) modified gravity, which is regarded as a parity-odd theory of massive gravity in four dimensions. We first find polarization modes of gravitational waves for θ=x/μ in nCS modified gravity by using the Newman-Penrose formalism where the null complex tetrad is necessary to specify gravitational waves. We show that in the Newman–Penrose formalism, the number of polarization modes is one in addition to an unspecified Ψ{sub 4}, implying three degrees of freedom for θ=x/μ. This compares with two for a canonical embedding of θ=t/μ. Also, if one introduces the Ricci tensor formalism to describe a massive graviton arising from the nCS modified gravity, one finds one massive mode after making second-order wave equations, which is compared to five found from the parity-even Einstein–Weyl gravity.

  9. Role of Gravity Waves in Determining Cirrus Cloud Properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    OCStarr, David; Singleton, Tamara; Lin, Ruei-Fong

    2008-01-01

    Cirrus clouds are important in the Earth's radiation budget. They typically exhibit variable physical properties within a given cloud system and from system to system. Ambient vertical motion is a key factor in determining the cloud properties in most cases. The obvious exception is convectively generated cirrus (anvils), but even in this case, the subsequent cloud evolution is strongly influenced by the ambient vertical motion field. It is well know that gravity waves are ubiquitous in the atmosphere and occur over a wide range of scales and amplitudes. Moreover, researchers have found that inclusion of statistical account of gravity wave effects can markedly improve the realism of simulations of persisting large-scale cirrus cloud features. Here, we use a 1 -dimensional (z) cirrus cloud model, to systematically examine the effects of gravity waves on cirrus cloud properties. The model includes a detailed representation of cloud microphysical processes (bin microphysics and aerosols) and is run at relatively fine vertical resolution so as to adequately resolve nucleation events, and over an extended time span so as to incorporate the passage of multiple gravity waves. The prescribed gravity waves "propagate" at 15 m s (sup -1), with wavelengths from 5 to 100 km, amplitudes range up to 1 m s (sup -1)'. Despite the fact that the net gravity wave vertical motion forcing is zero, it will be shown that the bulk cloud properties, e.g., vertically-integrated ice water path, can differ quite significantly from simulations without gravity waves and that the effects do depend on the wave characteristics. We conclude that account of gravity wave effects is important if large-scale models are to generate realistic cirrus cloud property climatology (statistics).

  10. Gravity wave detection by GPS radio occultations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Torsten; Arras, Christina; De la Torre, Alejandro; Alexander, Peter; Llamedo, Pablo

    2016-07-01

    Gravity waves (GWs) play an important role for the general atmospheric circulation due to the related transport of energy and momentum between different regions of the atmosphere. The momentum mostly generated in the troposphere is transported to upper atmospheric levels where GWs break or dissipate and transfer their momentum to the background wind (GW drag). The deposit of GW momentum can occur in the complete altitude range from the upper troposphere-stratosphere, the mesosphere, and even in the thermosphere. A global observation of GW parameters (e.g. potential energy and vertical flux of absolute horizontal momentum) is only possible with satellite data. The radio occultation (RO) technique uses GPS signals received aboard low Earth orbiting satellites for atmospheric limb sounding. Atmospheric temperature profiles in the troposphere/stratosphere and ionospheric electron densities are derived with high vertical resolution. The GPS RO technique is sensitive to GWs with small ratios of vertical to horizontal wavelengths. In this presentation we give an overview about the derivation of GW parameters from RO temperature profiles, review some results of GW detection with RO data, and discuss the limitations of the RO technique. The focus of the presented results is (1) global GW activity in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere for different seasons, (2) influence of the topography on GW activity from the troposphere to the ionosphere in the Andean region of South America, and (3) the variation of ionospheric sporadic E layers.

  11. Observations of gravity wave scales, fluxes, and saturation during MAP

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, I. M.

    1989-01-01

    During the MAP/MAC period, considerable improvements in instrumentation and experimental technique have occurred, and many hitherto unavailable parameters relating to gravity waves have become available. Studies of individual wave events and simultaneous observations made with a variety of techniques have provided insight into wave saturation mechanisms. In addition, long data sets of upper middle atmosphere winds were collected at a number of widely spaced sites, allowing climatological investigations of gravity wave amplitudes, wave number spectra, polarization, mean flow acceleration, and other saturation effects to be undertaken. Observations of gravity wave scales, momentum fluxes, saturation and saturation effects obtained during MAP/MAC, made on both a statistical and case study basis are reviewed.

  12. Exploring Gravity Wave Predictability and Dynamics in Deepwave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doyle, J. D.; Fritts, D. C.; Smith, R. B.; Eckermann, S. D.; Taylor, M. J.; Dörnbrack, A.; Uddstrom, M.; Reynolds, C. A.; Reinecke, A.; Jiang, Q.

    2014-12-01

    The DEEP propagating gravity WAVE program (DEEPWAVE) is a comprehensive, airborne and ground-based measurement and modeling program centered on New Zealand and focused on providing a new understanding of gravity wave dynamics and impacts from the troposphere through the mesosphere and lower thermosphere (MLT). This program employed the NSF/NCAR GV (NGV) research aircraft from a base in New Zealand in a 6-week field measurement campaign in June-July 2014. During the field phase, the NGV was equipped with new lidar and airglow instruments, as well as dropwindsondes and a full suite of flight level instruments including the microwave temperature profiler (MTP), providing temperatures and vertical winds spanning altitudes from immediately above the NGV flight altitude (~13 km) to ~100 km. The region near New Zealand was chosen since all the relevant GW sources (e.g., mountains, cyclones, jet streams) occur strongly here, and upper-level winds in austral winter permit gravity waves to propagate to very high altitudes. The COAMPS adjoint modeling system provided forecast sensitivity in real time during the six-week DEEPWAVE field phase. Five missions were conducted using the NGV to observe regions of high forecast sensitivity, as diagnosed using the COAMPS adjoint model. In this presentation, we provide a summary of the sensitivity characteristics and explore the implications for predictability of low-level winds crucial for gravity wave launching, as well as predictability of gravity wave characteristics in the stratosphere. In general, the sensitive regions were characterized by localized strong dynamics, often involving intense baroclinic systems with deep convection. The results of the adjoint modeling system suggest that gravity wave launching and the characteristics of the gravity waves can be linked to these sensitive regions near frontal zones within baroclinic systems. The predictability links between the tropospheric fronts, cyclones, jet regions, and gravity

  13. Nonlinear interaction of atmospheric, surface-gravity, and hydroacoustic waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadri, Usama

    2016-04-01

    We discuss the generation of hydroacoustic waves by the mutual interaction of atmospheric and surface-gravity waves, through nonlinear resonant triad interaction. To this end, we consider a two fluid problem, with a half-space air layer over a compressible water layer of finite depth, and a rigid bottom. The governing equations comprise a quadratic compressible wave equation, and the standard associated boundary conditions. Using a multiple scale approach we derive at the amplitude evolution equations for all three triad members. It is shown that the energy input by the atmospheric wave is transferred to the acoustic mode, with no noticeable effect on the surface gravity mode.

  14. Transport equations for linear surface waves with random underlying flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bal, Guillaume; Chou, Tom

    1999-11-01

    We define the Wigner distribution and use it to develop equations for linear surface capillary-gravity wave propagation in the transport regime. The energy density a(r, k) contained in waves propagating with wavevector k at field point r is given by dota(r,k) + nabla_k[U_⊥(r,z=0) \\cdotk + Ω(k)]\\cdotnabla_ra [13pt] \\: hspace1in - (nabla_r\\cdotU_⊥)a - nabla_r(k\\cdotU_⊥)\\cdotnabla_ka = Σ(δU^2) where U_⊥(r, z=0) is a slowly varying surface current, and Ω(k) = √(k^3+k)tanh kh is the free capillary-gravity dispersion relation. Note that nabla_r\\cdotU_⊥(r,z=0) neq 0, and that the surface currents exchange energy density with the propagating waves. When an additional weak random current √\\varepsilon δU(r/\\varepsilon) varying on the scale of k-1 is included, we find an additional scattering term Σ(δU^2) as a function of correlations in δU. Our results can be applied to the study of surface wave energy transport over a turbulent ocean.

  15. Integrated gravity and gravity gradient 3D inversion using the non-linear conjugate gradient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Pengbo; Huang, Danian; Yuan, Yuan; Geng, Meixia; Liu, Jie

    2016-03-01

    Gravity data, which are critical in mineral, oil, and gas exploration, are obtained from the vertical component of the gravity field, while gravity gradient data are measured from changes in the gravity field in three directions. However, few studies have sought to improve exploration techniques by integrating gravity and gravity gradient data using inversion methods. In this study, we developed a new method to integrate gravity and gravity gradient data in a 3D density inversion using the non-linear conjugate gradient (NLCG) method and the minimum gradient support (MGS) functional to regularize the 3D inverse problem and to obtain a clear and accurate image of the anomalous body. The NLCG algorithm, which is suitable for solving large-scale nonlinear optimization problems and requires no memory storage, was compared to the Broyden-Fletcher-Goldfarb-Shanno (BFGS) quasi-Newton algorithm and the results indicated that the convergence rate of NLCG is slower, but that the storage requirement and computation time is lower. To counteract the decay in kernel function, we introduced a depth weighting function for anomalous bodies at the same depth, with information about anomalous body depth obtained from well log and seismic exploration data. For anomalous bodies at different depths, we introduced a spatial gradient weighting function to incorporate additional information obtained in the inversion. We concluded that the spatial gradient weighting function enhanced the spatial resolution of the recovered model. Furthermore, our results showed that including multiple components for inversion increased the resolution of the recovered model. We validated our model by applying our inversion method to survey data from Vinton salt dome, Louisiana, USA. The results showed good agreement with known geologic information; thus confirming the accuracy of this approach.

  16. Tsunami and acoustic-gravity waves in water of constant depth

    SciTech Connect

    Hendin, Gali; Stiassnie, Michael

    2013-08-15

    A study of wave radiation by a rather general bottom displacement, in a compressible ocean of otherwise constant depth, is carried out within the framework of a three-dimensional linear theory. Simple analytic expressions for the flow field, at large distance from the disturbance, are derived. Realistic numerical examples indicate that the Acoustic-Gravity waves, which significantly precede the Tsunami, are expected to leave a measurable signature on bottom-pressure records that should be considered for early detection of Tsunami.

  17. Tsunami and acoustic-gravity waves in water of constant depth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hendin, Gali; Stiassnie, Michael

    2013-08-01

    A study of wave radiation by a rather general bottom displacement, in a compressible ocean of otherwise constant depth, is carried out within the framework of a three-dimensional linear theory. Simple analytic expressions for the flow field, at large distance from the disturbance, are derived. Realistic numerical examples indicate that the Acoustic-Gravity waves, which significantly precede the Tsunami, are expected to leave a measurable signature on bottom-pressure records that should be considered for early detection of Tsunami.

  18. Intercomparison of stratospheric gravity wave observations with AIRS and IASI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffmann, Lars; Alexander, M. Joan; Clerbaux, Cathy; Grimsdell, Alison W.; Meyer, Catrin I.; Rößler, Thomas; Tournier, Bernard

    2015-04-01

    Gravity waves are an important driver for the atmospheric circulation and have substantial impact on weather and climate. Satellite instruments offer excellent opportunities to study gravity waves on a global scale. This study focuses on observations from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) onboard the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Aqua satellite and the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) onboard the European MetOp satellites. The main aim of this study is an intercomparison of stratospheric gravity wave observations of both instruments. In particular, we analyzed AIRS and IASI 4.3 μm brightness temperature measurements, which directly relate to stratospheric temperature. Three case studies showed that AIRS and IASI provide a clear and consistent picture of the temporal development of individual gravity wave events. Statistical comparisons based on a five-year period of measurements (2008 - 2012) showed similar spatial and temporal patterns of gravity wave activity. However, the statistical comparisons also revealed systematic differences of variances between AIRS and IASI that we attribute to the different spatial measurement characteristics of both instruments. We also found differences between day- and nighttime data that are partly due to the local time variations of the gravity wave sources. While AIRS has been used successfully in many previous gravity wave studies, IASI data are applied here for the first time for that purpose. Our study shows that gravity wave observations from different hyperspectral infrared sounders such as AIRS and IASI can be directly related to each other, if instrument-specific characteristics such as different noise levels and spatial resolution and sampling are carefully considered. The ability to combine observations from different satellites provides an opportunity to create a long-term record, which is an exciting prospect for future climatological studies of stratospheric gravity wave

  19. DUSTYWAVE: Linear waves in gas and dust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laibe, Guillaume; Price, Daniel J.

    2016-02-01

    Written in Fortran, DUSTYWAVE computes the exact solution for linear waves in a two-fluid mixture of gas and dust. The solutions are general with respect to both the dust-to-gas ratio and the amplitude of the drag coefficient.

  20. Mesospheric wave number spectra from Poker Flat MST radar measurements compared with gravity-wave model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, S. A.; Fritts, D. C.; Vanzandt, T. E.

    1986-01-01

    The results of a comparison of mesospheric wind fluctuation spectra computed from radial wind velocity estimates made by the Poker Flat mesosphere-stratosphere-troposphere (MST) radar are compared with a gravity-wave model developed by VanZandt (1982, 1985). The principal conclusion of this comparison is that gravity waves can account for 80% of the mesospheric power spectral density.

  1. Middle Atmosphere Dynamics with Gravity Wave Interactions in the Numerical Spectral Model: Tides and Planetary Waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mayr, Hans G.; Mengel, J. G.; Chan, K. L.; Huang, F. T.

    2010-01-01

    As Lindzen (1981) had shown, small-scale gravity waves (GW) produce the observed reversals of the zonal-mean circulation and temperature variations in the upper mesosphere. The waves also play a major role in modulating and amplifying the diurnal tides (DT) (e.g., Waltersheid, 1981; Fritts and Vincent, 1987; Fritts, 1995a). We summarize here the modeling studies with the mechanistic numerical spectral model (NSM) with Doppler spread parameterization for GW (Hines, 1997a, b), which describes in the middle atmosphere: (a) migrating and non-migrating DT, (b) planetary waves (PW), and (c) global-scale inertio gravity waves. Numerical experiments are discussed that illuminate the influence of GW filtering and nonlinear interactions between DT, PW, and zonal mean variations. Keywords: Theoretical modeling, Middle atmosphere dynamics, Gravity wave interactions, Migrating and non-migrating tides, Planetary waves, Global-scale inertio gravity waves.

  2. A mesoscale gravity-wave event observed during CCOPE. IV - Stability analysis and Doppler-derived wave vertical structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koch, Steven E.; Einaudi, F.; Dorian, Paul B.; Lang, Stephen; Heymsfield, Gerald M.

    1993-01-01

    A summary of the results of a detailed study of the vertical structure of mesoscale gravity waves conducted during the Cooperative Convective Precipitation Experiment (CCOPE) is presented. Pressure perturbation fields derived from the Doppler wind fields are compared with the vertical structure of eigenfunctions resulting from a solution to the Taylor-Goldstein linear wave equation for an atmosphere whose mean state is described by vertical profiles obtained from a representative CCOPE sounding. An analysis of the potential for shear instability is also performed on all of the soundings taken on this day to assess the representativeness of the one chosen for the linear theoretical analysis.

  3. Angular momentum transport via internal gravity waves in evolving stars

    SciTech Connect

    Fuller, Jim; Lecoanet, Daniel; Cantiello, Matteo; Brown, Ben

    2014-11-20

    Recent asteroseismic advances have allowed for direct measurements of the internal rotation rates of many subgiant and red giant stars. Unlike the nearly rigidly rotating Sun, these evolved stars contain radiative cores that spin faster than their overlying convective envelopes, but slower than they would in the absence of internal angular momentum transport. We investigate the role of internal gravity waves in angular momentum transport in evolving low-mass stars. In agreement with previous results, we find that convectively excited gravity waves can prevent the development of strong differential rotation in the radiative cores of Sun-like stars. As stars evolve into subgiants, however, low-frequency gravity waves become strongly attenuated and cannot propagate below the hydrogen-burning shell, allowing the spin of the core to decouple from the convective envelope. This decoupling occurs at the base of the subgiant branch when stars have surface temperatures of T ≈ 5500 K. However, gravity waves can still spin down the upper radiative region, implying that the observed differential rotation is likely confined to the deep core near the hydrogen-burning shell. The torque on the upper radiative region may also prevent the core from accreting high angular momentum material and slow the rate of core spin-up. The observed spin-down of cores on the red giant branch cannot be totally attributed to gravity waves, but the waves may enhance shear within the radiative region and thus increase the efficacy of viscous/magnetic torques.

  4. Observed and Modeled Stratospheric Gravity Waves above Hurricane Humberto

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuester, M.; Alexander, J.; Ray, E.

    2004-05-01

    A three-dimensional model can be a very powerful tool to the study of various properties of hurricanes including areas of deep convection as possible sources of internal gravity waves. Data collected by aircraft, although extremely useful, does not give a full picture of the dynamics of the system because only a few slices through the storm can be sampled within the limitations of the campaign. A validated model can help to fill in the gaps where the sampled data cannot. In this study, a three-dimensional MM5 model is used to study the characteristics of Hurricane Humberto, a category 2 hurricane observed in September 2001 during the the fourth field campaign in the Convection and Moisture Experiment series (CAMEX4). Of particular interest to this study are internal gravity waves induced by the convective activity within the rain bands of the hurricane. Further understanding of the sources for these waves and their effects on the large-scale circulation is an ongoing topic of research. Vertical velocity perturbations and potential temperature contours are used to pinpoint vertically propagating gravity waves in the stratosphere. Possible correlations between areas of deep convection as gravity wave sources within the storm and observed vertically propagating gravity waves are presented. Comparison of model results to data collected during the CAMEX4 on board the high-altitude NASA ER-2 aircraft with the ER-2 Doppler Radar (EDOP) and Microwave Temperature Profiler (MTP) will also be presented.

  5. In Situ Observations of PSCs Generated by Gravity Waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pfister, Leonhard; Bui, Paul; Mahoney, M. J.; Gandrud, Bruce; Hipskind, K. Stephen (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    During SOLVE, the bulk of the in-situ observations of PSCs are of large scale extended structures associated with synoptic scale cooling. The nature of these structures is also determined by layers of high relative NOy that have been stretched into thin layers by advective processes. Some of the in situ observations, however, are clearly correlated with gravity wave signatures. The first goal of this work is to examine these cases and evaluate gravity wave parameters. In particular, we are interested in the intrinsic periods of the waves and their temperature amplitude, which are key ingredients in the nucleation process. Secondly, we will examine some rudimentary properties of the particle size distributions and composition, comparing these with in situ observations of the more extended PSC features. Finally, we will attempt to ascertain the mechanism which generates the gravity waves.

  6. Modulation of subtropical stratospheric gravity waves by equatorial rainfall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, Naftali Y.; Boos, William R.

    2016-01-01

    Internal gravity waves influence a variety of phenomena in Earth's stratosphere and upper troposphere, including aviation weather turbulence and circulations that set high-altitude distributions of ozone and greenhouse gases. Here coupling between the dominant mode of subseasonal variability of the equatorial atmosphere—the Madden-Julian oscillation (MJO)—and subtropical stratospheric gravity waves created by flow over topography is documented for the first time. We use three different meteorological data sets to show that during boreal winter, the MJO modifies the vertical distribution of internal gravity wave drag induced by the Tibetan Plateau and the deposition of momentum into the stratosphere. This interaction, however, has no significant impact on the vertically integrated wave drag. Our findings raise new questions about how future changes in tropical rainfall might affect stratospheric variability and highlight the importance of local processes over Tibet for the circulations that set distributions of climatically important high-altitude trace gases.

  7. Intermittency of gravity-wave momentum flux in the stratosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hertzog, A.; Alexander, M. J.; Plougonven, R.

    2012-04-01

    Atmospheric gravity waves transfer energy and momentum from the troposphere to upper layers of the atmosphere. They significantly contribute to forcing the global-scale Brewer Dobson circulation in the middle atmosphere, and to driving the stratosphere out of radiative equilibrium. As most of the gravity waves are not explicitly resolved in current climate models, their effects on the general circulation must be parameterized. Strong assumptions are generally used in such parameterizations, like for instance constant and homogeneous non-orographic gravity-wave sources. In this study, we challenge this latter hypothesis, and use long-duration balloon- and space-borne observations as well as mesoscale numerical simulations to characterize the intermittency of gravity waves in the lower stratosphere above Antarctica. This is achieved through working on the gravity-wave momentum-flux probability density functions (pdfs) obtained with these three datasets. The pdfs consistently exhibit long tails associated with the occurrence of rare and large amplitude events. We provide a measure of the contribution of these events to the total gravity-wave momentum flux, and show that only a small fraction of the wavepackets are responsible for most of the momentum transport during the winter regime of the stratospheric circulation. On the other hand, the wave intermittency significantly decreases when stratospheric easterlies develop in late spring and summer. With the exception of mountainous areas in winter, the momentum-flux pdfs furthermore tend to behave like lognormal distributions. We find that this behaviour can result from the propagation of a wave spectrum into a varying background wind field that generates the occurrence of frequent critical levels.

  8. Scattering of gravity waves in subcritical flows over an obstacle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robertson, Scott; Michel, Florent; Parentani, Renaud

    2016-06-01

    We numerically study the scattering coefficients of linear water waves on stationary flows above a localized obstacle. We compare the scattering on trans- and subcritical flows, and then focus on the latter which have been used in recent analog gravity experiments. The main difference concerns the magnitude of the mode amplification: whereas transcritical flows display a large amplification (which is generally in good agreement with the Hawking prediction), this effect is heavily suppressed in subcritical flows. This is due to the transmission across the obstacle for frequencies less than some critical value. As a result, subcritical flows display high- and low-frequency behaviors separated by a narrow band around the critical frequency. In the low-frequency regime, transmission of long wavelengths is accompanied by nonadiabatic scattering into short wavelengths, whose spectrum is approximately linear in frequency. By contrast, in the high-frequency regime, no simple description seems to exist. In particular, for obstacles similar to those recently used, we observe that the upstream slope still affects the scattering on the downstream side because of some residual transmission.

  9. Characterizing the propagation of gravity waves in 3D nonlinear simulations of solar-like stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvan, L.; Strugarek, A.; Brun, A. S.; Mathis, S.; Garcia, R. A.

    2015-09-01

    Context. The revolution of helio- and asteroseismology provides access to the detailed properties of stellar interiors by studying the star's oscillation modes. Among them, gravity (g) modes are formed by constructive interferences between progressive internal gravity waves (IGWs), propagating in stellar radiative zones. Our new 3D nonlinear simulations of the interior of a solar-like star allows us to study the excitation, propagation, and dissipation of these waves. Aims: The aim of this article is to clarify our understanding of the behavior of IGWs in a 3D radiative zone and to provide a clear overview of their properties. Methods: We use a method of frequency filtering that reveals the path of individual gravity waves of different frequencies in the radiative zone. Results: We are able to identify the region of propagation of different waves in 2D and 3D, to compare them to the linear raytracing theory and to distinguish between propagative and standing waves (g-modes). We also show that the energy carried by waves is distributed in different planes in the sphere, depending on their azimuthal wave number. Conclusions: We are able to isolate individual IGWs from a complex spectrum and to study their propagation in space and time. In particular, we highlight in this paper the necessity of studying the propagation of waves in 3D spherical geometry, since the distribution of their energy is not equipartitioned in the sphere.

  10. Dissipation of acoustic-gravity waves: an asymptotic approach.

    PubMed

    Godin, Oleg A

    2014-12-01

    Acoustic-gravity waves in the middle and upper atmosphere and long-range propagation of infrasound are strongly affected by air viscosity and thermal conductivity. To characterize the wave dissipation, it is typical to consider idealized environments, which admit plane-wave solutions. Here, an asymptotic approach is developed that relies instead on the assumption that spatial variations of environmental parameters are gradual. It is found that realistic assumptions about the atmosphere lead to rather different predictions for wave damping than do the plane-wave solutions. A modification to the Sutherland-Bass model of infrasound absorption is proposed. PMID:25480091

  11. Impact of rotation on stochastic excitation of gravity and gravito-inertial waves in stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathis, S.; Neiner, C.; Tran Minh, N.

    2014-05-01

    Context. Gravity waves (or their signatures) are detected in stars thanks to helio- and asteroseismology, and they may play an important role in the evolution of stellar angular momentum. Moreover, a previous observational study of the CoRoT target HD 51452 demonstrated the potential strong impact of rotation on the stochastic excitation of gravito-inertial waves in stellar interiors. Aims: Our goal is to explore and unravel the action of rotation on the stochastic excitation of gravity and gravito-inertial waves in stars. Methods: The dynamics of gravito-inertial waves in stellar interiors in both radiation and in convection zones is described with a local non-traditional f-plane model. The coupling of these waves with convective turbulent flows, which leads to their stochastic excitation, is studied in this framework. Results: First, we find that in the super-inertial regime in which the wave frequency is twice as high as the rotation frequency (σ > 2Ω), the evanescence of gravito-inertial waves in convective regions decreases with decreasing wave frequency. Next, in the sub-inertial regime (σ < 2Ω), gravito-inertial waves become purely propagative inertial waves in convection zones. Simultaneously, turbulence in convective regions is modified by rotation. Indeed, the turbulent energy cascade towards small scales is slowed down, and in the case of rapid rotation, strongly anisotropic turbulent flows are obtained that can be understood as complex non-linear triadic interactions of propagative inertial waves. These different behaviours, due to the action of the Coriolis acceleration, strongly modify the wave coupling with turbulent flows. On one hand, turbulence weakly influenced by rotation is coupled with evanescent gravito-inertial waves. On the other hand, rapidly rotating turbulence is intrinsically and strongly coupled with sub-inertial waves. Finally, to study these mechanisms, the traditional approximation cannot be assumed because it does not properly

  12. Linear stability of nonbidiagonal black holes in massive gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babichev, Eugeny; Brito, Richard; Pani, Paolo

    2016-02-01

    We consider generic linear perturbations of a nonbidiagonal class of static black-hole solutions in massive (bi-)gravity. We show that the quasinormal spectrum of these solutions coincides with that of a Schwarzschild black hole in general relativity, thus proving that these solutions are mode stable. This is in contrast to the case of bidiagonal black-hole solutions which are affected by a radial instability. On the other hand, the full set of perturbation equations is generically richer than that of a Schwarzschild black hole in general relativity, and this affects the linear response of the black hole to external perturbations. Finally, we argue that the generalization of these solutions to the spinning case does not suffer from the superradiant instability, despite the fact that the theory describes a massive graviton.

  13. Gravity Waves in Hot Planet Atmospheres with High Speed Flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, J. Y.-K.; Watkins, C. L.

    2013-09-01

    Many global hydrodynamics models have been used to study the large-scale flows of close-in extrasolar planet atmospheres. None of these models, however, resolve gravity waves which can significantly affect the large-scale flow and its associated variability in the atmosphere. Such waves are generated by a variety of mechanisms - including, inter alia, spatially or temporally varying diabatic heating, convective overshoots, hydrodynamic instabilities and adjustment processes. Previously, we have examined mesoscale gravity waves in an inviscid atmosphere with moderately fast background flows [1]. In this work, we study large-scale, as well as mesoscale, waves in atmospheres containing high-speed flows and regions of strong dissipation. The primary focus is on the waves' propagation characteristics and interaction with the mean-flow.

  14. First tsunami gravity wave detection in ionospheric radio occultation data

    SciTech Connect

    Coïsson, Pierdavide; Lognonné, Philippe; Walwer, Damian; Rolland, Lucie M.

    2015-05-09

    After the 11 March 2011 earthquake and tsunami off the coast of Tohoku, the ionospheric signature of the displacements induced in the overlying atmosphere has been observed by ground stations in various regions of the Pacific Ocean. We analyze here the data of radio occultation satellites, detecting the tsunami-driven gravity wave for the first time using a fully space-based ionospheric observation system. One satellite of the Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere and Climate (COSMIC) recorded an occultation in the region above the tsunami 2.5 h after the earthquake. The ionosphere was sounded from top to bottom, thus providing the vertical structure of the gravity wave excited by the tsunami propagation, observed as oscillations of the ionospheric Total Electron Content (TEC). The observed vertical wavelength was about 50 km, with maximum amplitude exceeding 1 total electron content unit when the occultation reached 200 km height. We compared the observations with synthetic data obtained by summation of the tsunami-coupled gravity normal modes of the Earth/Ocean/atmosphere system, which models the associated motion of the ionosphere plasma. These results provide experimental constraints on the attenuation of the gravity wave with altitude due to atmosphere viscosity, improving the understanding of the propagation of tsunami-driven gravity waves in the upper atmosphere. They demonstrate that the amplitude of the tsunami can be estimated to within 20% by the recorded ionospheric data.

  15. First tsunami gravity wave detection in ionospheric radio occultation data

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Coïsson, Pierdavide; Lognonné, Philippe; Walwer, Damian; Rolland, Lucie M.

    2015-05-09

    After the 11 March 2011 earthquake and tsunami off the coast of Tohoku, the ionospheric signature of the displacements induced in the overlying atmosphere has been observed by ground stations in various regions of the Pacific Ocean. We analyze here the data of radio occultation satellites, detecting the tsunami-driven gravity wave for the first time using a fully space-based ionospheric observation system. One satellite of the Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere and Climate (COSMIC) recorded an occultation in the region above the tsunami 2.5 h after the earthquake. The ionosphere was sounded from top to bottom, thus providing themore » vertical structure of the gravity wave excited by the tsunami propagation, observed as oscillations of the ionospheric Total Electron Content (TEC). The observed vertical wavelength was about 50 km, with maximum amplitude exceeding 1 total electron content unit when the occultation reached 200 km height. We compared the observations with synthetic data obtained by summation of the tsunami-coupled gravity normal modes of the Earth/Ocean/atmosphere system, which models the associated motion of the ionosphere plasma. These results provide experimental constraints on the attenuation of the gravity wave with altitude due to atmosphere viscosity, improving the understanding of the propagation of tsunami-driven gravity waves in the upper atmosphere. They demonstrate that the amplitude of the tsunami can be estimated to within 20% by the recorded ionospheric data.« less

  16. Large-scale gravity wave influences on the propagation of short-period gravity waves to higher altitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bossert, K.; Fritts, D. C.; Pautet, P. D.; Taylor, M. J.; Williams, B. P.; Criddle, N.

    2014-12-01

    We investigate the impacts of large-scale gravity waves (periods of multiple hours) on propagation environments for smaller-scale gravity waves (periods less than an hour). Large-scale gravity waves account for wind and temperature perturbations that can modulate the large-scale flow and either enhance or suppress the propagation of short-period waves to higher altitudes, thus also modulating their vertical transport of momentum. Specific cases are discussed using data from the DEEPWAVE mission, which took place from Christchurch, New Zealand in June and July 2014. The measurements used in this investigation utilize sodium and Rayleigh lidars that were aboard the NSF Gulfstream V research aircraft, as well as temperatures from Advanced Mesospheric Temperature Mappers (AMTMs) aboard the aircraft and stationed at the Lauder research station in New Zealand. The AMTM allows for temperatures to be derived from hydroxyl layer emissions. The Rayleigh lidar allows for temperatures to be measured vertically from ~25-50km. The sodium lidar allows for sodium density perturbations to be measured from ~80-100km. The combination of these instruments allows for more complete assessments of large-scale wave activity (hundreds of km) as well as smaller scale wave events (<100 km). The temperature measurements from both the lidars and AMTMs allow for the phase of the gravity waves at given locations and times to be determined. An example of an event is given in the attached keogram figure for June 21-22, 2014 from the Lauder AMTM. This night shows a gravity wave that appears to be propagating from ~10:00-12:30 UT in a distinct phase of a larger scale wave with a period in the range of 4-6 hours. Using case studies such as this, we aim to further understand the influences of such dynamics in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere.

  17. A Cascade Model of Wave Turbulence with Applications to Surface Gravity and Capillary Waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glazman, Roman E.

    1993-01-01

    A heuristic approach to the derivation of power spectra of wave motion is described and applied to capillary waves. The case of gravity waves studied earlier is briefly reviewed. In contract to the previous studies, the nonlinearity of the wave motion is not required to be small, and the mean number of resonantly interacting wave harmonics is not limited to a smallest possible number (which is 4 for gravity waves on a deep fluid and 3 for capillary waves). The main external parameter of the problem is the input flux Q of the wave energy related to the mean wind velocity. Depending on its value, wave spectra take various forms---from that corresponding to the weak-turbulence limit to that corresponding to the saturated (Phillips') wave spectra...

  18. Properties of QBO and SAO Generated by Gravity Waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mayr, H. G.; Mengel, J. G.; Reddy, C. A.; Chan, K. L.; Porter, H. S.

    1999-01-01

    We present an extension for the 2D (zonal mean) version of our Numerical Spectral Mode (NSM) that incorporates Hines' Doppler spread parameterization (DSP) for small scale gravity waves (GW). This model is applied to describe the seasonal variations and the semi-annual and quasi-biennial oscillations (SAO and QBO). Our earlier model reproduced the salient features of the mean zonal circulation in the middle atmosphere, including the QBO extension into the upper mesosphere inferred from UARS measurements. In the present model we incorporate also tropospheric heating to reproduce the upwelling at equatorial latitudes associated with the Brewer-Dobson circulation that affects significantly the dynamics of the stratosphere as Dunkerton had pointed out. Upward vertical winds increase the period of the QBO observed from the ground. To compensate for that, one needs to increase the eddy diffusivity and the GW momentum flux, bringing the latter closer to values recommended in the DSP. The QBO period in the model is 30 months (mo), which is conducive to synchronize this oscillation with the seasonal cycle of solar forcing. Multi-year interannual oscillations are generated through wave filtering by the solar driven annual oscillation in the zonal circulation. Quadratic non-linearities generate interseasonal variations to produce a complicated pattern of variability associated with the QBO. The computed temperature amplitudes for the SAO and QBO are in substantial agreement with observations at equatorial and extratropical latitudes. At high latitudes, however, the observed QBO amplitudes are significantly larger, which may be a signature of propagating planetary waves not included in the present model. The assumption of hydrostatic equilibrium not being imposed, we find that the effects from the vertical Coriolis force associated with the equatorial oscillations are large for the vertical winds and significant for the temperature variations even outside the tropics but are

  19. Energy-momentum tensors in linearized Einstein's theory and massive gravity: The question of uniqueness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bičák, Jiří; Schmidt, Josef

    2016-01-01

    The question of the uniqueness of energy-momentum tensors in the linearized general relativity and in the linear massive gravity is analyzed without using variational techniques. We start from a natural ansatz for the form of the tensor (for example, that it is a linear combination of the terms quadratic in the first derivatives), and require it to be conserved as a consequence of field equations. In the case of the linear gravity in a general gauge we find a four-parametric system of conserved second-rank tensors which contains a unique symmetric tensor. This turns out to be the linearized Landau-Lifshitz pseudotensor employed often in full general relativity. We elucidate the relation of the four-parametric system to the expression proposed recently by Butcher et al. "on physical grounds" in harmonic gauge, and we show that the results coincide in the case of high-frequency waves in vacuum after a suitable averaging. In the massive gravity we show how one can arrive at the expression which coincides with the "generalized linear symmetric Landau-Lifshitz" tensor. However, there exists another uniquely given simpler symmetric tensor which can be obtained by adding the divergence of a suitable superpotential to the canonical energy-momentum tensor following from the Fierz-Pauli action. In contrast to the symmetric tensor derived by the Belinfante procedure which involves the second derivatives of the field variables, this expression contains only the field and its first derivatives. It is simpler than the generalized Landau-Lifshitz tensor but both yield the same total quantities since they differ by the divergence of a superpotential. We also discuss the role of the gauge conditions in the proofs of the uniqueness. In the Appendix, the symbolic tensor manipulation software cadabra is briefly described. It is very effective in obtaining various results which would otherwise require lengthy calculations.

  20. Simultaneous rocket and MST radar observation of an internal gravity wave breaking in the mesosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, S. A.; Fritts, D. C.; Balsley, B. B.; Philbrick, C. R.

    1986-01-01

    In June, 1983, the Structure and Atmospheric Turbulence Environment (STATE) rocket and Poker Flat Mesophere-Stratosphere-Troposphere radar campaign was conducted to measure the interaction between turbulence, electron density and electron density gradient that has produced unusually strong MST radar echoes from the summer mesosphere over Poker Flat, Alaska. Analysis or radar wind measurements and a concurrent wind and temperature profile obtained from a rocket probe carrying a three-axis accelerometer are given. The two data sets provide a fairly complete (and in some cases, redundant) picture of the breaking (or more correctly, the saturation) of a large-amplitude, low-frequency, long-wavelength internal gravity wave. The data show that small-scale turbulence and small-scale wave intensity is greatest at those altitudes where the large-scale wave-induced temperature lapse rate is most negative or most nearly unstable, but the wind shear due to the large-scale wave is a minimum. A brief review of linear gravity-wave theory is presented as an aid to the identification of the gravity-wave signature in the radar and rocket data. Analysis of the time and height cross sections of wind speed and turbulence intensity observed by the Poker Flat MST radar follows. Then, the vertical profile of temperature and winds measured by a rocket probe examined. Finally, the use of the independent data sets provided by the rocket and the radar are discussed and implications for theories of wave saturation are presented.

  1. Digital measurements of LF radio wave absorption in the lower ionosphere and inferred gravity wave activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lastovicka, J.; Boska, J.; Buresova, D.

    1993-10-01

    Low frequency (LF) radio wave absorption in the lower ionosphere has been measured at Pruhonice (approximately 50 deg N) since 1957. A new digital computer-controlled measuring-recording-processing system was introduced in 1988. The A3 method of radio wave absorption measurement, the measuring equipment used for the digital measurements at 270 kHz, is briefly described. The digital nighttime LF A3 measurements allow the use of absorption data for studying and monitoring the gravity wave activity in the upper middle atmosphere in the period range 10 min-3(2) hours. The resulting gravity wave spectra are as expected even though their shapes vary. Individual period bands sometimes exhibit a similar general pattern of variability in gravity wave activity (winter 1990), while in other intervals we observe a shift of gravity wave energy from one period band to another (winter 1991). No strong, pronounced and consistent response to strong geomagnetic storms and midwinter stratospheric warming is found. An apparent seasonal variation with winter minima observed in shorter-period gravity wave activity is an artefact of the changing length of the night. There is no significant seasonal variation of gravity wave activity in the analysed data. The method is very cheap -- the results are a by-product of measurements made for ionospheric purposes.

  2. Gravitational Waves in Effective Quantum Gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calmet, Xavier; Kuntz, Iberê; Mohapatra, Sonali

    2016-08-01

    In this short paper we investigate quantum gravitational effects on Einstein's equations using Effective Field Theory techniques. We consider the leading order quantum gravitational correction to the wave equation. Besides the usual massless mode, we find a pair of modes with complex masses. These massive particles have a width and could thus lead to a damping of gravitational waves if excited in violent astrophysical processes producing gravitational waves such as e.g. black hole mergers. We discuss the consequences for gravitational wave events such as GW 150914 recently observed by the Advanced LIGO collaboration.

  3. Numerical simulation of the resonantly excited capillary-gravity waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanazaki, Hideshi; Hirata, Motonori; Okino, Shinya

    2015-11-01

    Capillary gravity waves excited by an obstacle are investigated by a direct numerical simulation. In the flow without capillary effects, it is well known that large-amplitude upstream advancing solitary waves are generated periodically under the resonant condition, i.e., when the phase velocity of the long surface waves and the mean flow velocity agrees. With capillary effects, solutions of the Euler equations show the generation of very short waves further upstream of the solitary waves and also in the depression region downstream of the obstacle. The overall characteristics of these waves agree with the solutions of the forced fifth-order KdV equation, while the weakly nonlinear theory generally overestimates the wavelength of the short waves.

  4. Localizing the energy and momentum of linear gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Butcher, Luke M.; Lasenby, Anthony; Hobson, Michael

    2010-11-15

    A framework is developed which quantifies the local exchange of energy and momentum between matter and the linearized gravitational field. We derive the unique gravitational energy-momentum tensor consistent with this description, and find that this tensor only exists in the harmonic gauge. Consequently, nearly all the gauge freedom of our framework is naturally and unavoidably removed. The gravitational energy-momentum tensor is then shown to have two exceptional properties: (a) it is gauge-invariant for gravitational plane-waves, (b) for arbitrary transverse-traceless fields, the energy-density is never negative, and the energy-flux is never spacelike. We analyze in detail the local gauge-invariant energy-momentum transferred between the gravitational field and an infinitesimal point-source, and show that these invariants depend only on the transverse-traceless components of the field. As a result, we are led to a natural gauge-fixing program which at last renders the energy-momentum of the linear gravitational field completely unambiguous, and additionally ensures that gravitational energy is never negative nor flows faster than light. Finally, we calculate the energy-momentum content of gravitational plane-waves, the linearized Schwarzschild spacetime (extending to arbitrary static linear spacetimes) and the gravitational radiation outside two compact sources: a vibrating rod, and an equal-mass binary.

  5. Gravity Waves in ER-2 Observations During CRYSTAL-FACE: Propagation Characteristics and Potential Role in Cirrus Cloud Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexander, M. J.; Sherwood, S.; Mahoney, M. J.; Bui, P.

    2003-12-01

    Gravity waves are known to affect cloud formation via the temperature perturbations they cause, and these effects can be significant in conditions that are otherwise marginal for cloud formation. Cirrus clouds near the tropopause can form in the cold phases of gravity waves. The ER-2 aircraft observations during the CRYSTAL-FACE campaign provide a unique set for gravity wave analysis. For the first time, data from both the Microwave Temperature Profiler (MTP) and Meteorological Measurement System (MMS) were obtained together from the ER-2 platform, with flight paths near convection. Analyses of MTP and MMS data can be combined to provide the full set of gravity wave parameters needed to model their origin, propagation, and eventual fate. This wave analysis requires long, constant-level flight paths. First a wavelet analysis in horizontal wavenumber is performed along the flight path direction for measurements of temperature and horizontal wind. From this, the strongest wave modes are identified, and the vertical wavenumber estimated from the MTP data for these modes. Linear wave theory is then employed to compute the propagation directions and intrinsic frequencies for these strongest wave modes. The results of this analysis thus provide the full three-dimensional propagation characteristics for the dominant gravity wave modes in the data. We subsequently use these results to examine their role in cirrus cloud formation at lower altitudes, and compare the results to in situ measurements made from the WB-57F aircraft platform.

  6. Longitudinal Variations of Low-Latitude Gravity Waves and Their Impacts on the Ionosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cullens, C. Y.; England, S.; Immel, T. J.

    2014-12-01

    The lower atmospheric forcing has important roles in the ionospheric variability. However, influences of lower atmospheric gravity waves on the ionospheric variability are still not clear due to the simplified gravity wave parameterizations and the limited knowledge of gravity wave distributions. In this study, we aim to study the longitudinal variations of gravity waves and their impacts of longitudinal variations of low-latitude gravity waves on the ionospheric variability. Our SABER results show that longitudinal variations of gravity waves at the lower boundary of TIME-GCM are the largest in June-August and January-February. We have implemented these low-latitude gravity wave variations from SABER instrument into TIME-GCM model. TIME-GCM simulation results of ionospheric responses to longitudinal variations of gravity waves and physical mechanisms will be discussed.

  7. Educing the emission mechanism of internal gravity waves in the differentially heat rotating annulus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rolland, Joran; Hien, Steffen; Achatz, Ulrich; Borchert, Sebastian; Fruman, Mark

    2016-04-01

    geostrophic balance. For the first stage of this investigation, we separated the flow between a balance and an imbalanced part at first order in Rossby number: the balanced pressure field was computed through an inversion of the potential vorticity equation [3]. The balanced horizontal velocity field and buoyancy were then computed using the geostrophic and hydrostatic balance conditions. We first checked that this decomposition gave on the one hand a large scaled balanced flow, comprising mostly of the baroclinic wave, and on the other hand a small scale flow comprising mostly of the gravity wave signal. We then proceeded with the central stage of the validation: we simulated the tangent linear dynamics of the imbalanced part of the flow [4]. The equations are linearised about the balanced part, and any imbalances forces the modeled imbalanced part. The output of this simulation compares very well with the actual imbalanced part, thus confirming that the observed gravity waves are indeed generated through spontaneous imbalance. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of emission by this mechanism in a flow which is not idealised: a flow which can be obtained as a result of a numerical simulation of primitive equations or actually observed in a laboratory experiment. References [1] R. Plougonven, F. Zhang, Internal gravity waves from atmospheric jets and fronts, Rev. Geophys. 52, 33-76 (2014). [2] S. Borchert, U. Achatz, M.D. Fruman, Spontaneous Gravity wave emission in the differentially heated annulus, J. Fluid Mech. 758, 287-311 (2014). [3] F. Zhang, S.E . Koch, C. A. Davis, M. L. Kaplan, A Survey of unbalanced flow diagnostics and their application, Adv. Atmo. Sci. 17, 165-183 (2000). [4] S. Wang, F. Zhang, Source of gravity waves within a vortex dipole jet revealed by a linear model, J. Atmo. Sci. 67, 1438-1455 (2010).

  8. Spin waves cause non-linear friction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magiera, M. P.; Brendel, L.; Wolf, D. E.; Nowak, U.

    2011-07-01

    Energy dissipation is studied for a hard magnetic tip that scans a soft magnetic substrate. The dynamics of the atomic moments are simulated by solving the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert (LLG) equation numerically. The local energy currents are analysed for the case of a Heisenberg spin chain taken as substrate. This leads to an explanation for the velocity dependence of the friction force: The non-linear contribution for high velocities can be attributed to a spin wave front pushed by the tip along the substrate.

  9. Gravity wave and microphysical effects on bow echo development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selin, Rebecca Denise Adams

    Numerical simulations of the 13 March 2003 bow echo over Oklahoma are used to evaluate bow echo development and its relationship with gravity wave generation and microphysical heating profile variations. The first part of the research is directed at an explanation of recent observations of surface pressure surges ahead of convective lines prior to the bowing process. Multiple fast-moving n = 1 gravity waves are generated in association with fluctuations in the first vertical mode of heating in the convective line. The surface impacts of four such waves are observed in Oklahoma mesonet data during this case. A slower gravity wave is also produced in the simulation, which is responsible for the pre-bowing pressure surge in the model. This gravity wave is generated by an increase in low-level microphysical cooling associated with an increase in rear-to-front flow and low-level downdrafts shortly before bowing. The wave moves ahead of the convective line and is manifested at the surface by a positive pressure surge ahead of the convective line. The low-level upward vertical motion associated with this wave, in conjunction with higher-frequency gravity waves generated by the multicellularity of the convective line, increases the immediate pre-system CAPE by approximately 250 J/kg-1. Two-dimensional heating profiles from this idealized, full-physics bow echo simulation are placed as a constant heat source in another simulation without moisture, to evaluate what type of gravity waves are produced by a heating profile from a given instance in time. A one-dimensional vertical mean heating profile is calculated from each two-dimensional profile, and a statistical method is used to evaluate the significance of each vertical mode. A number of gravity waves are produced in the dry simulation despite their vertical mode lacking statistical significance in the one-dimensional profile, suggesting that horizontal variations in the heating profile are important to consider

  10. Mesospheric Non-Migrating Tides Generated With Planetary Waves: II Influence of Gravity Waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mayr, H. G.; Mengel, J. G.; Talaat, E. L.; Porter, H. S.; Chan, K. L.

    2003-01-01

    We demonstrated that, in our model, non-linear interactions between planetary waves (PW) and migrating tides could generate in the upper mesosphere non-migrating tides with amplitudes comparable to those observed. The Numerical Spectral Model (NSM) we employ incorporates Hines Doppler Spread Parameterization for small-scale gravity waves (GW), which affect in numerous ways the dynamics of the mesosphere. The latitudinal (seasonal) reversals in the temperature and zonal circulation, which are largely caused by GWs (Lindzen, 198l), filter the PWs and contribute to the instabilities that generate the PWs. The PWs in turn are amplified by the momentum deposition of upward propagating GWs, as are the migrating tides. The GWs thus affect significantly the migrating tides and PWs, the building blocks of non-migrating tides. In the present paper, we demonstrate that GW filtering also contributes to the non-linear coupling between PWs and tides. Two computer experiments are presented to make this point. In one, we simply turn off the GW source to show the effect. In the second case, we demonstrate the effect by selectively suppressing the momentum source for the m = 0 non-migrating tides.

  11. A mesoscale gravity wave event observed during CCOPE. I - Multiscale statistical analysis of wave characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koch, Steven E.; Golus, Robert E.

    1988-01-01

    This paper presents a statistical analysis of the characteristics of the wavelike activity that occurred over the north-central United States on July 11-12, 1981, using data from the Cooperative Convective Precipitation Experiment in Montana. In particular, two distinct wave episodes of about 8-h duration within a longer (33 h) period of wave activity were studied in detail. It is demonstrated that the observed phenomena display features consistent with those of mesoscale gravity waves. The principles of statistical methods used to detect and track mesoscale gravity waves are discussed together with their limitations.

  12. Satellite observations of gravity wave activity and dissipation during sudden stratospheric warmings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ern, Manfred; Preusse, Peter; Riese, Martin

    2015-04-01

    Sudden stratospheric warmings (SSWs) are a circulation anomaly that occurs mainly at high northern latitudes in boreal winter. During major SSWs the eastward directed polar jet reverses, and, for a certain period, the stratosphere is governed by anomalous westward winds. It is known that both planetary waves and gravity waves contribute to the formation and evolution of SSWs. However, the small horizontal scales of gravity waves (tens to a few thousand km) challenge both observations and modeling of gravity waves. Therefore, the role of gravity waves during SSWs is still not fully understood. In particular, gravity waves should play an important role during the recovery of the stratopause and of the eastward directed polar jet after major SSWs. This is indicated by several modeling efforts. However, validation by global observations of gravity waves is still an open issue. Gravity wave momentum fluxes and potential gravity wave drag were derived from HIRDLS and SABER satellite observations, and the role of gravity waves during recent SSWs in the boreal winters 2001/2002-2013/2014 is investigated. We find that gravity waves with slow horizontal phase speeds, likely mountain waves, play an important role during SSWs. Both gravity wave momentum fluxes and gravity wave drag are enhanced before the central date of major SSWs. After the central date, gravity wave momentum fluxes and gravity wave drag in the stratosphere are strongly reduced. Still, gravity wave drag contributes to the wind reversals related to the anomalous westward winds. Another finding is that, after major SSWs, the contribution of gravity wave drag at the bottom of re-established eastward directed polar jets is small. At the top of those jets, however, strong gravity wave drag is found, which indicates that gravity waves contribute to the downward propagation of newly formed polar jets and of elevated stratopauses to their "climatological" altitude. This confirms recent modeling work by, for example

  13. Upper-ocean mixing due to surface gravity waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Lichuan; Rutgersson, Anna; Sahlée, Erik

    2015-12-01

    Surface gravity waves play an important role in the lower layer of the atmosphere and the upper layer of the ocean. Surface waves effect upper-ocean mixing mainly through four processes: wave breaking, Stokes drift interaction with the Coriolis force, Langmuir circulation, and stirring by nonbreaking waves. We introduce the impact of these four processes into a 1-D k-ɛ ocean turbulence model. The parameterizations used are based mainly on existing investigations. Comparison of simulation results and measurements demonstrates that considering all the effects of waves, rather than just one effect, significantly improves model performance. The nonbreaking-wave-induced mixing and Langmuir turbulence are the most important terms when considering the impact of waves on upper-ocean mixing. Under high-wave conditions, the turbulent mixing induced by nonbreaking waves can be of the same order of magnitude as the viscosity induced by other terms at the surface. Nonbreaking waves contribute very little to shear production and their impact is negligible in the models. Sensitivity experiments demonstrate that the vertical profile of the Stokes drift calculated from the 2-D wave spectrum improves model performance significantly compared with other methods of introducing wave effects.

  14. Surface Gravity Waves: Resonance in a Fish Tank

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinick, Scott J.; Lynch, John J.

    2010-05-01

    In this work, an inexpensive 10-gallon glass aquarium was used to study wave motion in water. The waves travel at speeds comparable to a person walking (˜1 m/s). The scale of the motion allows for distances to be measured with a meterstick and for times to be measured with a stopwatch. For a wide range of water depths, standing waves were excited by hand using strips of Styrofoam. Several resonant modes were studied starting with the fundamental. Experimental values of wave speed were obtained from measurements of wavelength and period of oscillation. Theoretical values of wave speed were calculated using the surface gravity wave dispersion relation. The agreement between experiment and theory was usually better than 0.5%. The aquarium was a winner in the Apparatus Competition (Low Cost Category) during the AAPT 2006 Summer Meeting at Syracuse University.

  15. Nonlinear reflection of internal gravity wave onto a slope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raja, Keshav; Sommeria, Joel; Staquet, Chantal; Leclair, Matthieu; Grisouard, Nicolas; Gostiaux, Louis

    2016-04-01

    reflected wave. We study the momentum and energy budget of the process in order to understand the mechanism of generation of mean flow, its interaction with the wave and account for the loss of wave energy upon reflection. REFERENCES N. Grisouard, M. Leclair, L. Gostiaux and C. Staquet 2013. Large scale energy transfer from an internal gravity wave reflecting on a simple slope IUTAM Symposium Procedia 8 119-128 M. Leclair, K. Raja and C. Staquet 2016. Nonlinear reflection of a two-dimensional finite-width internal gravity wave onto a slope Journal of Fluid Mechanics. in preparation

  16. Comparison of Gravity Wave Temperature Variances from Ray-Based Spectral Parameterization of Convective Gravity Wave Drag with AIRS Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, Hyun-Joo; Chun, Hye-Yeong; Gong, Jie; Wu, Dong L.

    2012-01-01

    The realism of ray-based spectral parameterization of convective gravity wave drag, which considers the updated moving speed of the convective source and multiple wave propagation directions, is tested against the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) onboard the Aqua satellite. Offline parameterization calculations are performed using the global reanalysis data for January and July 2005, and gravity wave temperature variances (GWTVs) are calculated at z = 2.5 hPa (unfiltered GWTV). AIRS-filtered GWTV, which is directly compared with AIRS, is calculated by applying the AIRS visibility function to the unfiltered GWTV. A comparison between the parameterization calculations and AIRS observations shows that the spatial distribution of the AIRS-filtered GWTV agrees well with that of the AIRS GWTV. However, the magnitude of the AIRS-filtered GWTV is smaller than that of the AIRS GWTV. When an additional cloud top gravity wave momentum flux spectrum with longer horizontal wavelength components that were obtained from the mesoscale simulations is included in the parameterization, both the magnitude and spatial distribution of the AIRS-filtered GWTVs from the parameterization are in good agreement with those of the AIRS GWTVs. The AIRS GWTV can be reproduced reasonably well by the parameterization not only with multiple wave propagation directions but also with two wave propagation directions of 45 degrees (northeast-southwest) and 135 degrees (northwest-southeast), which are optimally chosen for computational efficiency.

  17. Dust gravitational drift wave in complex plasma under gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Salahshoor, M. Niknam, A. R.

    2014-12-15

    The dispersion relation of electrostatic waves in a complex plasma under gravity is presented. It is assumed that the waves propagate parallel to the external fields. The effects of weak electric field, neutral drag force, and ion drag force are also taken into account. The dispersion relation is numerically examined in an appropriate parameter space in which the gravity plays the dominant role in the dynamics of microparticles. The numerical results show that, in the low pressure complex plasma under gravity, a low frequency drift wave can be developed in the long wavelength limit. The stability state of this wave is switched at a certain critical wavenumber in such a way that the damped mode is transformed into a growing one. Furthermore, the influence of the external fields on the dispersion properties is analyzed. It is shown that the wave instability is essentially due to the electrostatic streaming of plasma particles. It is also found that by increasing the electric field strength, the stability switching occurs at smaller wavenumbers.

  18. Detecting overlapping gravity waves using the S-Transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, C. J.; Gille, J. C.

    2013-05-01

    We discuss an adaptation to the widely-used Stockwell Transform based method for the detection of gravity waves to allow the detection of multiple overlapping waves. This adjusted method is applied to data from the High Resolution Dynamics Limb Sounder for the period of May 2006 and is found to change the measured distribution of gravity wave momentum flux on a global scale. An overall 68% increase in measured momentum flux is observed for the 20-30km altitude range, with significant regional variability. The largest absolute increase is over India, the Southern Ocean, and the Antarctic Peninsula, regions previously known to exhibit high levels of momentum flux. A strong relative increase is observed north of the equator, particularly in the tropics; analysis of the wavelength distribution of detected gravity waves shows that the majority of this increase is due to the detection of small vertical- and horizontal-scale waves which were presumably previously masked by higher-amplitude events in the same profile.

  19. Electromagnetic inertio-gravity waves in the Earth's ionosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaladze, T. D.; Tsamalashvili, L. V.; Kahlon, L. Z.

    2011-05-01

    Propagation of electromagnetic inertio-gravity (IG) waves in the partially ionized ionospheric E- and F-layers is considered in the shallow water approximation. Accounting of the field-aligned current is the main novelty of the investigation. Existence of two new eigen-frequencies for fast and slow electromagnetic waves is revealed in the ionospheric E-layer. It is shown that in F-layer slowly damping new type of inertial-fast magnetosonic waves can propagate. Slowly damping low-frequency oscillations connected with the field-aligned conductivity are found. Broad spectrum of oscillations is investigated.

  20. Gravity wave-induced mean flows and turbulence at the tropopause

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McHugh, J. P.; Sharman, R.

    2012-12-01

    Unsteady gravity waves interacting with the tropopause are investigated using linear and nonlinear numerical simulations. The tropopause is modeled as the interface between two layers of constant Brunt-Väisälä frequency. The simulations are 2D with uniform horizontal flow, the background rotation is ignored, and the waves are generated by flow over an idealized isolated obstacle shape at the surface. The nonlinear simulations show a horizontal wave-induced mean flow at the tropopause similar to previous results treating horizontally periodic internal waves. The mean flow created by the impinging gravity waves is increased over the background wind below the tropopause and decreased above the tropopause. This effect is not present in the linear simulations. The nonlinear effect is felt more strongly for cases with higher mountain heights and larger values of the stability in the upper layer. The final steady mountain wave flow appears to permanently retain this mean flow change. The deceleration region above the tropopause results in a patch of slow-moving fluid near the interface which induces local regions of reduced Richardson number and may help explain some observational results of higher turbulence regions near the tropopause over mountainous regions.

  1. Soundproof simulations of stratospheric gravity waves on unstructured meshes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smolarkiewicz, P.; Szmelter, J.

    2012-04-01

    An edge-based unstructured-mesh semi-implicit model is presented that integrates nonhydrostatic soundproof equations, inclusive of anelastic and pseudo-incompressible systems of partial differential equations. The model numerics employ nonoscillatory forward-in-time MPDATA methods [Smolarkiewicz, 2006, Int. J. Numer. Meth. Fl., 50, 1123-1144] using finite-volume spatial discretization and unstructured meshes with arbitrarily shaped cells. Implicit treatment of gravity waves benefits both accuracy and stability of the model. The unstructured-mesh solutions are compared to equivalent structured-grid results for intricate, multiscale internal-wave phenomenon of a non-Boussinesq amplification and breaking of deep stratospheric gravity waves. The departures of the anelastic and pseudo-incompressible results are quantified in reference to a recent asymptotic theory [Achatz et al., 2010, J. Fluid Mech., 663, 120-147].

  2. Gravity waves generated by sounds from big bang phase transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalaydzhyan, Tigran; Shuryak, Edward

    2015-04-01

    Inhomogeneities associated with the cosmological QCD and electroweak phase transitions produce hydrodynamical perturbations, longitudinal sounds and rotations. It has been demonstrated by Hindmarsh et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 041301 (2014)] that the sounds produce gravity waves well after the phase transition is over. We further argue that, under certain conditions, an inverse acoustic cascade may occur and move sound perturbations from the (UV) momentum scale at which the sound is originally produced to much smaller (IR) momenta. The weak turbulence regime of this cascade is studied via the Boltzmann equation, possessing stationary power and time-dependent self-similar solutions. We suggest certain indices for the strong turbulence regime as well, into which the cascade eventually proceeds. Finally, we point out that two on-shell sound waves can produce one on-shell gravity wave, and we evaluate the rate of the process using a standard sound loop diagram.

  3. IDEMIX: a model of internal gravity wave energetics and diapycnal mixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olbers, Dirk; Eden, Carsten

    2015-04-01

    Breaking of internal gravity waves is a major source of diapycnal mixing, driving the large-scale circulation. An energetically consistent model of the diapycnal diffusivity requires a closed model of the wave energetics, including generation, non-linear transfer and dissipation. IDEMIX meets this requirement by heavy truncation of the radiation balance equation: the energetics are formulated for a small number of compartments as integrals over respective parts of the spectral wavenumber space. The current version has compartments for up- and downward propagating waves in the frequency-wavenumber continuum and low-mode near-inertial and tidal waves. Forcing occurs by radiation of wind-driven near-inertial waves from the surface mixed layer and barotropic to baroclinic conversion of tidal energy at submarine topography. The compartments are coupled by wave-wave interactions and bottom scattering. Energy transferred by wave-wave interactions to high wavenumbers is dissipated and partly used for mixing. The model is working in physical space - the global ocean - with wave propagation by mean group velocities. IDEMIX has been studied as stand-alone module (using a Brunt-Väisälä frequency climatology and the Osborn-Cox relation to infer diapycnal diffusivities) and in a coupled mode in a global OGCM. The inferred diapycnal diffusivities have a reasonable size and plausible spatial pattern. We report on new developments in IDEMIX as the incorporation of topographic lee-waves and wave-mean flow interaction.

  4. Excitation of gravity waves by ocean surface wave packets: Upward propagation and reconstruction of the thermospheric gravity wave field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vadas, Sharon L.; Makela, Jonathan J.; Nicolls, Michael J.; Milliff, Ralph F.

    2015-11-01

    In this paper, we derive the atmospheric gravity waves (GWs) and acoustic waves excited by an ocean surface wave packet with frequency ωF and duration χ in an f plane, isothermal, windless, and inviscid atmosphere. This packet is modeled as a localized vertical body force with Gaussian depth σz. The excited GW spectrum has discrete intrinsic frequencies (ωIr) at ωF and ωF±2π/χ ("sum" and "difference") and has a "continuum" of frequencies for ωIr<ωF+2π/χ. The momentum flux spectrum peaks at ωIr˜ωF and decreases rapidly as ωIr decreases. To simulate the effect these GWs have on the thermosphere, we present a new scheme whereby we sprinkle N GW spectra in the ocean wave packet region, ray trace the GWs, and reconstruct the GW field. We model the GWs excited by ocean wave packets with horizontal wavelengths of λH = 190 km, periods of τF = 2π/ωF = 14 - 20 min and χ = 30 - 50 min. The excited GWs begin to arrive at z = 250 km at t ˜ 75 - 80 min. Those with the largest temperature perturbations T' have large ωIr and arrive at t ˜ 90 - 130 min. If |α|=ωF+2π/χ is a solution of the GW dispersion relation and |α| is less than the buoyancy frequency at z = 250 km, the sum and highest-frequency continuum GWs have much larger phase speeds and arrive 50-60 min earlier with larger T' than the GWs with frequency ωF. For a packet with λH = 190 km, τF = 14 min, χ = 30 min, and height h0=1.3 m, the maximum T' at z = 250 km is ˜9, 22, and 40 K for σz = 1, 2, and 4 m, respectively.

  5. The Binary Pulsar: Gravity Waves Exist.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Will, Clifford

    1987-01-01

    Reviews the history of pulsars generally and the 1974 discovery of the binary pulsar by Joe Taylor and Russell Hulse specifically. Details the data collection and analysis used by Taylor and Hulse. Uses this discussion as support for Albert Einstein's theory of gravitational waves. (CW)

  6. Upper atmospheric gravity wave details revealed in nightglow satellite imagery.

    PubMed

    Miller, Steven D; Straka, William C; Yue, Jia; Smith, Steven M; Alexander, M Joan; Hoffmann, Lars; Setvák, Martin; Partain, Philip T

    2015-12-01

    Gravity waves (disturbances to the density structure of the atmosphere whose restoring forces are gravity and buoyancy) comprise the principal form of energy exchange between the lower and upper atmosphere. Wave breaking drives the mean upper atmospheric circulation, determining boundary conditions to stratospheric processes, which in turn influence tropospheric weather and climate patterns on various spatial and temporal scales. Despite their recognized importance, very little is known about upper-level gravity wave characteristics. The knowledge gap is mainly due to lack of global, high-resolution observations from currently available satellite observing systems. Consequently, representations of wave-related processes in global models are crude, highly parameterized, and poorly constrained, limiting the description of various processes influenced by them. Here we highlight, through a series of examples, the unanticipated ability of the Day/Night Band (DNB) on the NOAA/NASA Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership environmental satellite to resolve gravity structures near the mesopause via nightglow emissions at unprecedented subkilometric detail. On moonless nights, the Day/Night Band observations provide all-weather viewing of waves as they modulate the nightglow layer located near the mesopause (∼ 90 km above mean sea level). These waves are launched by a variety of physical mechanisms, ranging from orography to convection, intensifying fronts, and even seismic and volcanic events. Cross-referencing the Day/Night Band imagery with conventional thermal infrared imagery also available helps to discern nightglow structures and in some cases to attribute their sources. The capability stands to advance our basic understanding of a critical yet poorly constrained driver of the atmospheric circulation. PMID:26630004

  7. Upper atmospheric gravity wave details revealed in nightglow satellite imagery

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Steven D.; Straka, William C.; Yue, Jia; Smith, Steven M.; Alexander, M. Joan; Hoffmann, Lars; Setvák, Martin; Partain, Philip T.

    2015-01-01

    Gravity waves (disturbances to the density structure of the atmosphere whose restoring forces are gravity and buoyancy) comprise the principal form of energy exchange between the lower and upper atmosphere. Wave breaking drives the mean upper atmospheric circulation, determining boundary conditions to stratospheric processes, which in turn influence tropospheric weather and climate patterns on various spatial and temporal scales. Despite their recognized importance, very little is known about upper-level gravity wave characteristics. The knowledge gap is mainly due to lack of global, high-resolution observations from currently available satellite observing systems. Consequently, representations of wave-related processes in global models are crude, highly parameterized, and poorly constrained, limiting the description of various processes influenced by them. Here we highlight, through a series of examples, the unanticipated ability of the Day/Night Band (DNB) on the NOAA/NASA Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership environmental satellite to resolve gravity structures near the mesopause via nightglow emissions at unprecedented subkilometric detail. On moonless nights, the Day/Night Band observations provide all-weather viewing of waves as they modulate the nightglow layer located near the mesopause (∼90 km above mean sea level). These waves are launched by a variety of physical mechanisms, ranging from orography to convection, intensifying fronts, and even seismic and volcanic events. Cross-referencing the Day/Night Band imagery with conventional thermal infrared imagery also available helps to discern nightglow structures and in some cases to attribute their sources. The capability stands to advance our basic understanding of a critical yet poorly constrained driver of the atmospheric circulation. PMID:26630004

  8. Linking Atmospheric Gravity Wave Research to the Undergraduate Curriculum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gay, J.; Nielsen, K.

    2015-12-01

    Atmospheric gravity waves are often generated in the lower atmosphere and can, under favorable atmospheric conditions, propagate into the mesosphere and lower thermosphere. As a consequence of this vertical propagation, the waves carry momentum fluxes and energy from the lower atmosphere into the near-space environment, providing a strong coupling across atmospheric layers. While these waves have been observed and studied in details for decades, there are still many questions to be addressed regarding the tropospheric source location and nature of individually observed waves in the mesosphere. In an effort to increase undergraduate student research experiences, we are linking atmospheric gravity wave research and undergraduate curriculum to improve both academic and scholarly experiences by our students. In this particular case, we present a research project addressing the identification of tropospheric source locations of mesospheric waves observed by airglow imagers. The project involves observations, theory, and modeling techniques with a strong emphasis on how each part plays a role in the curriculum. Specifically, a simple ray tracing model is propagating observed waves downwards through the atmosphere until the point of origin is reached. In the process, we apply basic calculus, numerical methods, and simple fluid dynamics related to course taught at the undergraduate level.

  9. Testing gravity with gravitational wave source counts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calabrese, Erminia; Battaglia, Nicholas; Spergel, David N.

    2016-08-01

    We show that the gravitational wave source counts distribution can test how gravitational radiation propagates on cosmological scales. This test does not require obtaining redshifts for the sources. If the signal-to-noise ratio (ρ) from a gravitational wave source is proportional to the strain then it falls as {R}-1, thus we expect the source counts to follow {{d}}{N}/{{d}}ρ \\propto {ρ }-4. However, if gravitational waves decay as they propagate or propagate into other dimensions, then there can be deviations from this generic prediction. We consider the possibility that the strain falls as {R}-γ , where γ =1 recovers the expected predictions in a Euclidean uniformly-filled Universe, and forecast the sensitivity of future observations to deviations from standard General Relativity. We first consider the case of few objects, seven sources, with a signal-to-noise from 8 to 24, and impose a lower limit on γ, finding γ \\gt 0.33 at 95% confidence level. The distribution of our simulated sample is very consistent with the distribution of the trigger events reported by Advanced LIGO. Future measurements will improve these constraints: with 100 events, we estimate that γ can be measured with an uncertainty of 15%. We generalize the formalism to account for a range of chirp masses and the possibility that the signal falls as {exp}(-R/{R}0)/{R}γ .

  10. Detecting gravity waves from binary black holes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wahlquist, Hugo D.

    1989-01-01

    One of the most attractive possible sources of strong gravitational waves would be a binary system comprising massive black holes (BH). The gravitational radiation from a binary is an elliptically polarized, periodic wave which could be observed continuously - or at intervals whenever a detector was available. This continuity of the signal is certainly appealing compared to waiting for individual pulses from infrequent random events. It also has the advantage over pulses that continued observation can increase the signal-to-noise ratio almost indefinitely. Furthermore, this system is dynamically simple; the theory of the generation of the radiation is unambiguous; all characteristics of the signal can be precisely related to the dynamical parameters of the source. The current situation is that while there is no observational evidence as yet for the existence of massive binary BH, their formation is theoretically plausible, and within certain coupled constraints of mass and location, their existence cannot be observationally excluded. Detecting gravitational waves from these objects might be the first observational proof of their existence.

  11. A coupling modulation model of capillary waves from gravity waves: Theoretical analysis and experimental validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Pengzhen; Wang, Xiaoqing; Liu, Li; Chong, Jinsong

    2016-06-01

    According to Bragg theory, capillary waves are the predominant scatterers of high-frequency band (such as Ka-band) microwave radiation from the surface of the ocean. Therefore, understanding the modulation mechanism of capillary waves is an important foundation for interpreting high-frequency microwave remote sensing images of the surface of the sea. In our experiments, we discovered that modulations of capillary waves are significantly larger than the values predicted by the classical theory. Further, analysis shows that the difference in restoring force results in an inflection point while the phase velocity changes from gravity waves region to capillary waves region, and this results in the capillary waves being able to resonate with gravity waves when the phase velocity of the gravity waves is equal to the group velocity of the capillary waves. Consequently, we propose a coupling modulation model in which the current modulates the capillary wave indirectly by modulating the resonant gravity waves, and the modulation of the former is approximated by that of the latter. This model very effectively explains the results discovered in our experiments. Further, based on Bragg scattering theory and this coupling modulation model, we simulate the modulation of normalized radar cross section (NRCS) of typical internal waves and show that the high-frequency bands are superior to the low-frequency bands because of their greater modulation of NRCS and better radiometric resolution. This result provides new support for choice of radar band for observation of wave-current modulation oceanic phenomena such as internal waves, fronts, and shears.

  12. Deep ocean circulation by acoustic-gravity waves: from snowball to greenhouse earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadri, Usama

    2015-04-01

    Acoustic-gravity waves are compression-type waves propagating with amplitudes governed by the restoring force of gravity. They are generated, among others, by wind-wave interactions, surface waves interactions, submarine earthquakes, and movements of ice-blocks. We show that acoustic-gravity waves contribute to deep ocean water transport through different climate timelines: from snowball to greenhouse earth; they cause chaotic flow trajectories of individual water parcels, which can be transported up to a few centimetres per second.

  13. Spectra of Baroclinic Inertia-Gravity Wave Turbulence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glazman, Roman E.

    1996-01-01

    Baroclinic inertia-gravity (IG) waves form a persistent background of thermocline depth and sea surface height oscillations. They also contribute to the kinetic energy of horizontal motions in the subsurface layer. Measured by the ratio of water particle velocity to wave phase speed, the wave nonlinearity may be rather high. Given a continuous supply of energy from external sources, nonlinear wave-wave interactions among IG waves would result in inertial cascades of energy, momentum, and wave action. Based on a recently developed theory of wave turbulence in scale-dependent systems, these cascades are investigated and IG wave spectra are derived for an arbitrary degree of wave nonlinearity. Comparisons with satellite-altimetry-based spectra of surface height variations and with energy spectra of horizontal velocity fluctuations show good agreement. The well-known spectral peak at the inertial frequency is thus explained as a result of the inverse cascade. Finally, we discuss a possibility of inferring the internal Rossby radius of deformation and other dynamical properties of the upper thermocline from the spectra of SSH (sea surface height) variations based on altimeter measurements.

  14. Interpretation of gravity wave signatures in GPS radio occultations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexander, P.; de la Torre, A.; Llamedo, P.

    2008-08-01

    The horizontal averaging of global positioning system radio occultation retrievals produces an amplitude attenuation and phase shift in any plane gravity wave, which may lead to significant discrepancies with respect to the original values. In addition, wavelengths cannot be straightforwardly inferred due to the observational characteristics. If the waves produce small departures from spherical symmetry in the background atmosphere and under the assumption that the refractivity kernel may be represented by a delta function, an analytical expression may be derived in order to find how the retrieved amplitudes become weakened (against the original ones). In particular, we study the range of waves that may be detected and the consequent reduction in variance calculation, which is found to be around 19%. A larger discrepancy was obtained when comparing an occultation variance with the one computed from a numerical simulation of that case. Wave amplitudes can be better resolved when the fronts are nearly horizontal or when the angle between the occultation line of sight and the horizontal component of the wave vector approaches π/2. Short horizontal scale waves have a high probability of becoming attenuated or of not being detected at all. We then find geometrical relations in terms of the relative orientation between waves and sounding, so as to appropriately interpret wavelengths extracted from the acquired data. Only inertio-gravity waves, which exhibit nearly horizontal fronts, will show small differences between detected and original vertical wavelengths. Last, we analyze the retrieval effect on wave phase and find a shift between original and detected wave that generally is nonzero and approaches π/4 for the largest horizontal wavelengths.

  15. Invited review article: Interferometric gravity wave detectors.

    PubMed

    Cella, G; Giazotto, A

    2011-10-01

    A direct detection of gravitational waves is still lacking today. A network of several earthbound interferometric detectors is currently operating with a continuously improving sensitivity. The window of interest for observation has a lower cut off in the frequency domain below some tens of hertz, determined by the effect of seismic motion. For larger frequencies, the sensitivity is limited by thermal effects below few hundreds of hertz and by the quantum nature of light above that value. Each of these sources of noise pose a big technological challenge to experimentalists, and there are big expectations for the next generation of detectors. A reduction of thermal effects by at least one order of magnitude will be obtained with new and carefully designed materials. At that point the quantum nature of light will become an issue, and the use of quantum non-demolition techniques will become mandatory. In this review, we discuss interferometric detection of gravitational waves from an instrumental point of view. We try to address conceptually important issues with an audience of non-experts in mind. A particular emphasis is given to the description of the current limitations and to the perspectives of beating them. PMID:22047273

  16. Transition from geostrophic turbulence to inertia-gravity waves in the atmospheric energy spectrum.

    PubMed

    Callies, Jörn; Ferrari, Raffaele; Bühler, Oliver

    2014-12-01

    Midlatitude fluctuations of the atmospheric winds on scales of thousands of kilometers, the most energetic of such fluctuations, are strongly constrained by the Earth's rotation and the atmosphere's stratification. As a result of these constraints, the flow is quasi-2D and energy is trapped at large scales—nonlinear turbulent interactions transfer energy to larger scales, but not to smaller scales. Aircraft observations of wind and temperature near the tropopause indicate that fluctuations at horizontal scales smaller than about 500 km are more energetic than expected from these quasi-2D dynamics. We present an analysis of the observations that indicates that these smaller-scale motions are due to approximately linear inertia-gravity waves, contrary to recent claims that these scales are strongly turbulent. Specifically, the aircraft velocity and temperature measurements are separated into two components: one due to the quasi-2D dynamics and one due to linear inertia-gravity waves. Quasi-2D dynamics dominate at scales larger than 500 km; inertia-gravity waves dominate at scales smaller than 500 km. PMID:25404349

  17. Transition from geostrophic turbulence to inertia–gravity waves in the atmospheric energy spectrum

    PubMed Central

    Callies, Jörn; Ferrari, Raffaele; Bühler, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    Midlatitude fluctuations of the atmospheric winds on scales of thousands of kilometers, the most energetic of such fluctuations, are strongly constrained by the Earth’s rotation and the atmosphere’s stratification. As a result of these constraints, the flow is quasi-2D and energy is trapped at large scales—nonlinear turbulent interactions transfer energy to larger scales, but not to smaller scales. Aircraft observations of wind and temperature near the tropopause indicate that fluctuations at horizontal scales smaller than about 500 km are more energetic than expected from these quasi-2D dynamics. We present an analysis of the observations that indicates that these smaller-scale motions are due to approximately linear inertia–gravity waves, contrary to recent claims that these scales are strongly turbulent. Specifically, the aircraft velocity and temperature measurements are separated into two components: one due to the quasi-2D dynamics and one due to linear inertia–gravity waves. Quasi-2D dynamics dominate at scales larger than 500 km; inertia–gravity waves dominate at scales smaller than 500 km. PMID:25404349

  18. Solar cycle variation of gravity waves observed in OH airglow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gelinas, L. J.; Hecht, J. H.; Walterscheid, R. L.; Reid, I. M.; Woithe, J.; Vincent, R. A.

    2013-12-01

    Airglow imaging provides a unique means by which to study many wave-related phenomena in the 80 to 100 km altitude regime. Two-dimensional image observations reveal quasi-monochromatic disturbances associated with atmospheric gravity waves (AGWs) as well as small-scale instabilities, often called ripples. Image-averaged temperature and intensity measurements can be used to study the response of the airglow layer to tides and planetary waves, as well as monitor longer-term climatological variations. Here we present results of low and mid-latitude OH airglow observations beginning near solar max of solar cycle 23 and continuing through solar max of cycle 24. Aerospace imagers deployed at Alice Springs (23o42'S, 133o53'E) and Adelaide (34o55'S, 138o36'E) have been operating nearly continuously since ~2001. The imagers employ filters measuring OH Meinel (6, 2) and O2 Atmospheric (0, 1) band emission intensities and temperatures, as well as atmospheric gravity wave parameters. The Aerospace Corporation's Infrared Camera deployed at Maui, HI (20.7N,156.3W), collected more than 700 nights of airglow images from 2002-2005. The camera measures the OH Meinel (4,2) emission at 1.6 um using a 1 second exposure at a 3 second cadence, which allows the study of AGW and ripple features over very short temporal and spatial scales. The camera was relocated to Cerro Pachon, Chile (30.1 S, 70.8 W) and has been operating continuously since 2010. Temperature, intensity and gravity wave climatologies derived from the two Australian airglow imagers span a full solar cycle (solar max to solar max). Emission intensities have been calibrated using background stars, and temperatures have been calibrated with respect to TIMED/SABER temperatures, reducing the influence of instrument degradation on the solar cycle climatology. An automated wave detection algorithm is used to identify quasi monochromatic wave features in the airglow data, including wavelength, wave period and propagation

  19. Interactions between small and medium scale gravity waves in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heale, Christopher; Snively, Jonathan

    2016-07-01

    Gravity waves play a prominent role in the momentum and energy budget of the Earth's upper atmosphere [e.g. Fritts and Alexander ,Rev. Geophys., 41, 1003, 2003]. Small scale waves with large vertical wavelengths are able to propagate into the thermosphere where they will dissipate and deposit their energy and momentum [e.g. Vadas and Fritts, J. Geoph. Res.,110, D15103, 2005; Yiǧit et al., J. Geophys. Res.-Atmospheres, 114, D07101, 14, 2009; Liu et al., Ann. Geophys., 31, 2013; Heale et al., J. Geophys. Res. Space Physics, 119, 2014]. However, small scale waves are also prone to refraction, reflection, filtering, and instabilities by the temperature and wind structure of the atmosphere. One of the primary sources of variability on scales relevant to these small-scale waves is other, larger scale waves. The use of multiple instruments and Airglow keograms has begun to uncover the richness of the spectrum in the atmosphere, but interaction and relatively poorly understood [e.g. Fritts et al., J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 119, 2014; Bossert et al., J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 120, 2015; Lu et al., J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 120, 2015; Yuan et al., J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 121, 2016]. We use a 2D nonlinear, compressible numerical model to investigate the character of interactions between small-scale and medium-scale gravity waves at varied amplitudes as they approach nonlinearity. We investigate the relative importance of linear and nonlinear interaction processes and their effects on the propagation of multiple wave packets, and the possibility of energy exchanges and the threshold of onset for instability or breaking within the waves. Furthermore, we assess the validity of linear interpretations of observational data where coherent large-amplitude waves are detected at multiple, separated scales.

  20. Gravity-wave induced CO2 clouds on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yiǧit, Erdal; Medvedev, Alexander S.; Hartogh, Paul

    2016-07-01

    We present the first general circulation model simulations that quantify and reproduce patches of extremely cold air required for CO2 condensation and cloud formation in the Martian mesosphere. They are created by subgrid-scale gravity waves (GWs) accounted for in the model with the whole atmosphere GW parameterization of Yiǧit et al. (2008)}. Distributions of GW-induced temperature fluctuations and occurrences of supersaturation conditions are in a good agreement with observations of high-altitude CO2 ice clouds. Our study confirms the key role of GWs in facilitating CO2 cloud formation, discusses their tidal modulation, and predicts clouds at altitudes higher than have been observed to date. Reference: Yiǧit, E., A. D. Aylward, and A. S. Medvedev (2008), Parameterization of the effects of vertically propagating gravity waves for thermosphere general circulation models: Sensitivity study, J. Geophys. Res., 113, D19106, doi:10.1029/2008JD010135.

  1. Interseasonal Variations in the Middle Atmosphere Forced by Gravity Waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mayr, H. G.; Mengel, J. G.; Drob, D. P.; Porter, H. S.; Bhartia, P. K. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    In our Numerical Spectral Model (NSM), which incorporates Hines' Doppler Spread Parameterization, gravity waves (GW) propagating in the east/west direction can generate the essential features of the observed equatorial oscillations of the zonal circulation and in particular the QBO (quasi-biennial oscillation) extending from the stratosphere into the upper mesosphere. We report here that the NSM also produces inter-seasonal variations in the zonally symmetric meridional circulation. A distinct meridional oscillation (MO) is generated, which appears to be the counterpart to the QBO. With a vertical grid-point resolution of about 0.5 km, the NSM produces the MO through momentum deposition of GW's propagating in the north/south direction. This process is inherently non-linear, of third (odd) order, which enables the oscillation. Since the meridional winds are relatively small compared to the zonal winds, the vertical wavelength required to maintain the MO is also smaller, i.e., only about 10 km instead of the 30 km for the QBO. The corresponding viscous stress is then larger, and the period of the MO is thus short compared with that of the QBO, i.e., only about 3 to 4 months. Depending on the strength of the GW forcing, the computed amplitudes of the meridional wind oscillation are typically 5 m/s in the upper stratosphere and mesosphere, and the associated temperature amplitudes are between about 2 and 3 K. These amplitudes may be observable with the instruments on the TIMED spacecraft. Extended computer simulations with the NSM in 2D and 3D reveal that the MO at low latitudes is modulated by the QBO and in turn can influence it to produce a hemispherically asymmetric component. The annual circulation from the summer to the winter hemisphere is likely to play an important role.

  2. Interseasonal Variations in the Middle Atmosphere Forced by Gravity Waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mayr, H. G.; Mengel, J. G.; Drob, D. P.; Porter, H. S.; Chan, K. L.; Bhartia, P. K. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    In our Numerical Spectral Model (NSM), which incorporates Hines' Doppler Spread Parameterization, gravity waves (GW) propagating in the east/west direction can generate the essential features of the observed equatorial oscillations in the zonal circulation and in particular the QBO (quasi-biennial oscillation) extending from the stratosphere into the upper mesosphere. We report here that the NSM also produces inter-seasonal variations in the zonally symmetric (m = 0) meridional circulation. A distinct but variable meridional wind oscillation (MWO) is generated, which appears to be the counterpart to the QBO. With a vertical grid-point resolution of about 0.5 km, the NSM produces the MWO through momentum deposition of GWs propagating in the north/south direction. The resulting momentum source represents a third (generally odd) order non-linear function of the meridional winds, and this enables the oscillation, as in the case of the QBO for the zonal winds. Since the meridional winds are relatively small compared to the zonal winds, however, the vertical wavelength that maintains the MWO is much smaller, i.e., only about 10 km instead of 40 km for the QBO. Consistent with the associated increase of the viscous stress, the period of the MWO is then short compared with that of the QBO, i.e., only about two to four months. Depending on the strength of the GW forcing, the computed amplitudes of the MWO are typically 4 m/s in the upper stratosphere and mesosphere, and the associated temperature amplitudes are between about 2 and 3 K. These amplitudes may be observable with the instruments on the TIMED spacecraft. Extended computer simulations with the NSM in 2D (two-dimensional) and 3D (three-dimensional) reveal that the MWO is modulated by and in turn influences the QBO.

  3. Electromagnetic internal gravity waves in the Earth's ionospheric E-layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaladze, T. D.; Tsamalashvili, L. V.; Kaladze, D. T.

    2011-12-01

    In the Earth's ionospheric E-layer existence of the new waves connecting with the electromagnetic nature of internal gravity waves is shown. They represent the mixture of the ordinary internal gravity waves and the new type of dispersive Alfven waves.

  4. Bending AdS waves with new massive gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayón-Beato, Eloy; Giribet, Gaston; Hassaïne, Mokhtar

    2009-05-01

    We study AdS-waves in the three-dimensional new theory of massive gravity recently proposed by Bergshoeff, Hohm, and Townsend. The general configuration of this type is derived and shown to exhibit different branches, with different asymptotic behaviors. In particular, for the special fine tuning m2 = ±1/(2l2), solutions with logarithmic fall-off arise, while in the range m2 > -1/(2l2), spacetimes with Schrödinger isometry group are admitted as solutions. Spacetimes that are asymptotically AdS3, both for the Brown-Henneaux and for the weakened boundary conditions, are also identified. The metric function that characterizes the profile of the AdS-wave behaves as a massive excitation on the spacetime, with an effective mass given by meff2 = m2-1/(2l2). For the critical value m2 = -1/(2l2), the value of the effective mass precisely saturates the Breitenlohner-Freedman bound for the AdS3 space where the wave is propagating on. The analogies with the AdS-wave solutions of topologically massive gravity are also discussed. Besides, we consider the coupling of both massive deformations to Einstein gravity and find the exact configurations for the complete theory, discussing all the different branches exhaustively. One of the effects of introducing the Chern-Simons gravitational term is that of breaking the degeneracy in the effective mass of the generic modes of pure New Massive Gravity, producing a fine structure due to parity violation. Another effect is that the zoo of exact logarithmic specimens becomes considerably enlarged.

  5. Inverting for a deterministic surface gravity wave using the sensitivity-kernel approach.

    PubMed

    Roux, Philippe; Nicolas, Barbara

    2014-04-01

    The dynamic imaging of a deterministic gravity wave propagating at an air-water interface requires continuous sampling of every point at this interface. This sampling can be done acoustically using waves that propagate in the water column but have specular reflection points that fully scan the air-water interface. This study aims to perform this complex task experimentally, with identical ultrasonic source and receiver arrays that face each other in a 1-m-long, 5-cm-deep fluid waveguide, and with frequencies in the MHz range. The waveguide transfer matrix is recorded 100 times per second between the source-receiver arrays, while a gravity wave is generated at the air-water interface. Through the beamforming process, a large set of acoustic multi-reverberated beams are isolated and identified that interact with the air-water interface. The travel-time and amplitude modulations of each eigenbeam are measured when the surface gravity wave travels through the source-receiver plane. Linear inversion of the travel-time and amplitude perturbations is performed from a few thousand eigenbeams using diffraction-based sensitivity kernels. Inversion results using travel-times, amplitudes, or these two observables together, lead to accurate spatial-temporal patterns of the surface deformation. The advantages and limitations of the method are discussed. PMID:25234978

  6. Modeling the Diurnal Tides in the MLT Region with the Doppler Spread Parameterization of Gravity Waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mayr, H. G.; Mengel, J. G.; Chan, K. L.; Trob, D.; Porter, H. C.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Special Session: SA03 The mesosphere/lower thermosphere region: Structure, dynamics, composition, and emission. Ground based and satellite observations in the upper mesosphere and lower thermosphere (MLT) reveal large seasonal variations in the horizontal wind fields of the diurnal and semidiurnal tides. To provide an understanding of the observations, we discuss results obtained with our Numerical Spectral Model (NMS) that incorporates the gravity wave Doppler Spread Parameterization (DSP) of Hines. Our model reproduces many of the salient features observed, and we discuss numerical experiments that delineate the important processes involved. Gravity wave momentum deposition and the seasonal variations in the tidal excitation contribute primarily to produce the large equinoctial amplitude maxima in the diurnal tide. Gravity wave induced variations in eddy viscosity, not accounted for in the model, have been shown by Akmaev to be important too. For the semidiurnal tide, with amplitude maximum observed during winter solstice, these processes also contribute, but filtering by the mean zonal circulation is more important. A deficiency of our model is that it cannot reproduce the observed seasonal variations in the phase of the semidiurnal tide, and numerical experiments are being carried out to diagnose the cause and to alleviate this problem. The dynamical components of the upper mesosphere are tightly coupled through non-linear processes and wave filtering, and this may constrain the model and require it to reproduce in detail the observed phenomenology.

  7. Stochastic excitation of gravity waves in rapidly rotating massive stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathis, S.; Neiner, C.

    2015-01-01

    Stochastic gravity waves have been recently detected and characterised in stars thanks to space asteroseismology and they may play an important role in the evolution of stellar angular momentum. In this context, the observational study of the CoRoT hot Be star HD 51452 suggests a potentially strong impact of rotation on stochastic excitation of gravito-inertial waves in rapidly rotating stars. In this work, we present our results on the action of the Coriolis acceleration on stochastic wave excitation by turbulent convection. We study the change of efficiency of this mechanism as a function of the waves' Rossby number and we demonstrate that the excitation presents two different regimes for super-inertial and sub-inertial frequencies. Consequences for rapidly rotating early-type stars and the transport of angular momentum in their interiors are discussed.

  8. LAICE CubeSat mission for gravity wave studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westerhoff, John; Earle, Gregory; Bishop, Rebecca; Swenson, Gary R.; Vadas, Sharon; Clemmons, James; Davidson, Ryan; Fanelli, Lucy; Fish, Chad; Garg, Vidur; Ghosh, Alex; Jagannatha, Bindu B.; Kroeker, Erik; Marquis, Peter; Martin, Daniel; Noel, Stephen; Orr, Cameron; Robertson, Robert

    2015-10-01

    The Lower Atmosphere/Ionosphere Coupling Experiment (LAICE) CubeSat mission will focus on understanding the interaction of atmospheric gravity waves generated by weather systems in the lower atmosphere with the mesosphere, lower thermosphere, and ionosphere (MLTI). Specifically, LAICE will focus on the energy and momentum delivered by these waves and attempt to connect the wave sources and the wave effects in three widely different altitude ranges, substantially adding to our knowledge of critical coupling processes between disparate atmospheric regions. The LAICE mission consists of a 6U CubeSat with a four-instrument payload. The retarding potential analyzer (RPA) will provide in-situ ion density and temperature measurements. A four-channel photometer will measure density and temperature variations in the mesosphere through observations of O2 (0, 0) Atmospheric band and O2 Herzberg I band airglows. There are two pressure sensors that comprise the Space Pressure Suite (SPS): the Space Neutral Pressure Instrument (SNeuPI) and the LAICE Ionization gauge Neutral Atmosphere Sensor (LINAS). Both will provide neutral density measurements, but SNeuPI is a prototype sensor that will be validated by LINAS. This CubeSat mission, scheduled for launch in early 2016 from the International Space Station, provides a cost-effective approach to measuring low altitude in-situ parameters along with simultaneous imaging that is capable of addressing the fundamental questions of atmospheric gravity wave coupling in the MLTI region.

  9. Characteristics of acoustic gravity waves obtained from Dynasonde data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Negrea, Cǎtǎlin; Zabotin, Nikolay; Bullett, Terrence; Fuller-Rowell, Tim; Fang, Tzu-Wei; Codrescu, Mihail

    2016-04-01

    Traveling ionospheric disturbances (TIDs) are ubiquitous in the thermosphere-ionosphere and are often assumed to be caused by acoustic gravity waves (AGWs). This study performs an analysis of the TID and AGW activity above Wallops Island, VA, during October 2013. The variations in electron density and ionospheric tilts obtained with the Dynasonde technique are used as primary indicators of wave activity. The temporal and spectral characteristics of the data are discussed in detail, using also results of the Whole Atmosphere Model (WAM) and the Global Ionosphere Plasmasphere Model (GIP). The full set of propagation parameters (frequency, and the vertical, zonal and meridional wave vector components) of the TIDs is determined over the 160-220 km height range. A test of the self-consistency of these results within the confines of the theoretical AGW dispersion relation is devised. This is applied to a sample data set of 24 October 2013. A remarkable agreement has been achieved for wave periods between 52 and 21 min, for which we can rigorously claim the TIDs are caused by underlying acoustic gravity waves. The Wallops Island Dynasonde can operate for extended periods at a 2 min cadence, allowing determination of the statistical distributions of propagation parameters. A dominant population of TIDs is identified in the frequency band below 1 mHz, and for it, the distributions of the horizontal wavelengths, vertical wavelengths, and horizontal phase speeds are obtained.

  10. Gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poisson, Eric; Will, Clifford M.

    2014-05-01

    Preface; 1. Foundations of Newtonian gravity; 2. Structure of self-gravitating bodies; 3. Newtonian orbital dynamics; 4. Minkowski spacetime; 5. Curved spacetime; 6. Post-Minkowskian theory: formulation; 7. Post-Minkowskian theory: implementation; 8. Post-Newtonian theory: fundamentals; 9. Post-Newtonian theory: system of isolated bodies; 10. Post-Newtonian celestial mechanics, astrometry and navigation; 11. Gravitational waves; 12. Radiative losses and radiation reaction; 13. Alternative theories of gravity; References; Index.

  11. Long-Term Global Morphology of Gravity Wave Activity Using UARS Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eckermann, Stephen D.; Bacmeister, Julio T.; Wu, Dong L.

    1998-01-01

    This is the first quarter's report on research to extract global gravity-wave data from satellite data and to model those observations synoptically. Preliminary analysis of global maps of extracted middle atmospheric temperature variance from the CRISTA instrument is presented, which appear to contain gravity-wave information. Corresponding simulations of global gravity-wave and mountain-wave activity during this mission period are described using global ray-tracing and mountain-wave models, and interesting similarities among simulated data and CRISTA data are noted. Climatological simulations of mesospheric gravity-wave activity using the HWM-03 wind-temperature climatology are also reported, for comparison with UARS MLS data. Preparatory work on modeling of gravity wave observations from space-based platforms and subsequent interpretation of the MLS gravity-wave product are also described. Preliminary interpretation and relation to the research objectives are provided, and further action for the next quarter's research is recommended.

  12. Impact of mountain gravity waves on infrasound propagation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damiens, Florentin; Lott, François; Millet, Christophe

    2016-04-01

    Linear theory of acoustic propagation is used to analyze how mountain waves can change the characteristics of infrasound signals. The mountain wave model is based on the integration of the linear inviscid Taylor-Goldstein equation forced by a nonlinear surface boundary condition. For the acoustic propagation we solve the wave equation using the normal mode method together with the effective sound speed approximation. For large-amplitude mountain waves we use direct numerical simulations to compute the interactions between the mountain waves and the infrasound component. It is shown that the mountain waves perturb the low level waveguide, which leads to significant acoustic dispersion. The mountain waves also impact the arrival time and spread of the signals substantially and can produce a strong absorption of the wave signal. To interpret our results we follow each acoustic mode separately and show which mode is impacted and how. We also show that the phase shift between the acoustic modes over the horizontal length of the mountain wave field may yield to destructive interferences in the lee side of the mountain, resulting in a new form of infrasound absorption. The statistical relevance of those results is tested using a stochastic version of the mountain wave model and large enough sample sizes.

  13. Spatiotemporal measurement of surfactant distribution on gravity-capillary waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strickland, Stephen; Shearer, Michael; Daniels, Karen

    2015-11-01

    Materials adsorbed to the surface of a fluid - for instance, crude oil, biogenic slicks, or industrial/medical surfactants - will move in response to surface waves. Due to the difficulty of non-invasive measurement of the spatial distribution of a molecular monolayer, little is known about the dynamics that couple the surface waves and the evolving density field. We report measurements of the spatiotemporal dynamics of the density field of an insoluble surfactant driven by gravity-capillary waves in a shallow cylindrical container. Standing Faraday waves and traveling waves generated by the meniscus are superimposed to create a non-trivial surfactant density field. We measure both the height field of the surface using moire-imaging and the density field of the surfactant via the fluorescence of NBD-tagged phosphatidylcholine. Through phase-averaging stroboscopically-acquired images of the density field, we determine that the surfactant accumulates on the leading edge of the traveling meniscus waves and in the troughs of the standing Faraday waves. We fit the spatiotemporal variations in the two fields and report measurements of the wavenumbers as well as a temporal phase shift between the two fields. These measurements suggest that longitudinal waves contribute to the dynamics. Funded by NSF grant DMS-0968258.

  14. Temporal instabilities in volcanic conduit flow due to internal gravity waves and non-equilibrium degassing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karlstrom, L.; Dunham, E. M.

    2013-12-01

    Volcanic conduits are strongly stratified multiphase mixtures of magma, bubbles and crystals exhibiting vertical gradients in density and pressure that drive flow. We examine the behavior of perturbations to this stratification in a model of multiphase flow through a cylindrical conduit using analytic and numerical linear stability analysis. Magma is idealized as a mixture of gas and liquid phases, accounting for compressibility of both phases, viscosity of the mixture, and a finite exsolution time for mass exchange between the phases. Short time variations in conduit flow variables are characterized by three modes of wave motion. Two modes correspond to sound waves that travel up and down the conduit, while the third is an internal gravity wave arising from restoring forces due to differences in density. When perturbed downward, a fluid parcel in the stratified magma is surrounded by more dense fluid and feels an upward restoring force from buoyancy. That restoring force can be reduced by compression of the fluid parcel by the greater pressures at depth that act to increase its density. These three modes of wave motion are characterized by several competing timescales. The timescale for viscous damping τ D sets the decay time of flow perturbations and the damping of sound waves and internal gravity waves propagating through the magma. The timescale of gravity wave oscillation, τ G (inverse of buoyancy frequency N), measures adjustment of perturbations to density and pressure differences in the vertically stratified magma. Finally, a timescale for volatile diffusion τ V measures adjustment of the gas phase mass fraction to its equilibrium solubility value. We examine perturbations to a magmastatic base state and to a base state of steady flow. Initial analytic results with frozen coefficients for a magmastatic and vertically unbounded conduit suggest that when τ V > τ G and τ D > τ G, τ V, the base state is unstable to harmonic perturbations in flow

  15. Detection of Gravity Waves and Infrasound Signals at the USArray

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Groot-Hedlin, Catherine; Hedlin, Michael

    2015-04-01

    The USArray Transportable Array (TA) is a 400-station network that has been deployed in the continental United States since 2004. The network, which at its height spanned 2,000,000 km2, has gradually moved east across the country via station re-deployments. Although originally conceived as a seismic-only network, a suite of atmospheric pressure sensors added to each station starting in early 2010 allows for enhanced observations of pressure variations at the Earth's surface associated with infrasound and other atmospheric phenomena. We present novel techniques that make use of the close spacing of stations within the TA to detect and track the progress of pressure disturbances across the network. The method has been applied to the detection of both atmospheric gravity waves having periods from 40 minutes to 8 hours, and 1-3 Hz infrasound energy generated by meteoroids. The TA is sufficiently dense that gravity waves with wavelengths from tens to hundreds of kilometers are coherent between neighboring stations, but is too large for coherence across the entire network. To examine the characteristics of gravity waves propagating across the network, the TA is divided into a large number of elemental, triangular, sub-arrays consisting of three neighboring stations. Coherent analysis of the data at each triad provides a robust estimate of the signal's direction and speed. The results from all triads are combined to follow the progress of a gravity wave as it propagates across the TA. This method allows for observation of fine-scale variations in the speed, direction and amplitude of long period signals across the TA, as well as the statistics of these waves. The method has been applied to TA data collected over the eastern half of the continental United States over a 5-year timespan beginning on January 1, 2010. The network has detected particularly large and long-lived gravity waves such as from a tornadic storm system in the American south in April, 2011. In addition

  16. Directional asymmetry of the nonlinear wave phenomena in a three-dimensional granular phononic crystal under gravity.

    PubMed

    Merkel, A; Tournat, V; Gusev, V

    2014-08-01

    We report the experimental observation of the gravity-induced asymmetry for the nonlinear transformation of acoustic waves in a noncohesive granular phononic crystal. Because of the gravity, the contact precompression increases with depth inducing space variations of not only the linear and nonlinear elastic moduli but also of the acoustic wave dissipation. We show experimentally and explain theoretically that, in contrast to symmetric propagation of linear waves, the amplitude of the nonlinearly self-demodulated wave depends on whether the propagation of the waves is in the direction of the gravity or in the opposite direction. Among the observed nonlinear processes, we report frequency mixing of the two transverse-rotational modes belonging to the optical band of vibrations and propagating with negative phase velocities, which results in the excitation of a longitudinal wave belonging to the acoustic band of vibrations and propagating with positive phase velocity. We show that the measurements of the gravity-induced asymmetry in the nonlinear acoustic phenomena can be used to compare the in-depth distributions of the contact nonlinearity and of acoustic absorption. PMID:25215842

  17. Directional asymmetry of the nonlinear wave phenomena in a three-dimensional granular phononic crystal under gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merkel, A.; Tournat, V.; Gusev, V.

    2014-08-01

    We report the experimental observation of the gravity-induced asymmetry for the nonlinear transformation of acoustic waves in a noncohesive granular phononic crystal. Because of the gravity, the contact precompression increases with depth inducing space variations of not only the linear and nonlinear elastic moduli but also of the acoustic wave dissipation. We show experimentally and explain theoretically that, in contrast to symmetric propagation of linear waves, the amplitude of the nonlinearly self-demodulated wave depends on whether the propagation of the waves is in the direction of the gravity or in the opposite direction. Among the observed nonlinear processes, we report frequency mixing of the two transverse-rotational modes belonging to the optical band of vibrations and propagating with negative phase velocities, which results in the excitation of a longitudinal wave belonging to the acoustic band of vibrations and propagating with positive phase velocity. We show that the measurements of the gravity-induced asymmetry in the nonlinear acoustic phenomena can be used to compare the in-depth distributions of the contact nonlinearity and of acoustic absorption.

  18. Gravity jitter effected slosh waves and the stability of a rotating bubble under microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hung, R. J.; Lee, C. C.; Leslie, F. W.

    1991-01-01

    The instability of liquid and gas interface can be induced by the pressure of longitudinal and lateral accelerations, vehicle vibration, and rotational fields of spacecraft in a microgravity environment. Characteristics of slosh waves excited by the restoring force field of gravity jitters have been investigated. Results show that lower frequency gravity jitters excite slosh wave with higher ratio of maximum amplitude to wave length than that of the slosh waves generated by the higher frequency gravity jitters.

  19. ANALYTICAL SOLUTION FOR WAVES IN PLANETS WITH ATMOSPHERIC SUPERROTATION. I. ACOUSTIC AND INERTIA-GRAVITY WAVES

    SciTech Connect

    Peralta, J.; López-Valverde, M. A.; Imamura, T.; Read, P. L.; Luz, D.; Piccialli, A.

    2014-07-01

    This paper is the first of a two-part study devoted to developing tools for a systematic classification of the wide variety of atmospheric waves expected on slowly rotating planets with atmospheric superrotation. Starting with the primitive equations for a cyclostrophic regime, we have deduced the analytical solution for the possible waves, simultaneously including the effect of the metric terms for the centrifugal force and the meridional shear of the background wind. In those cases when the conditions for the method of the multiple scales in height are met, these wave solutions are also valid when vertical shear of the background wind is present. A total of six types of waves have been found and their properties were characterized in terms of the corresponding dispersion relations and wave structures. In this first part, only waves that are direct solutions of the generic dispersion relation are studied—acoustic and inertia-gravity waves. Concerning inertia-gravity waves, we found that in the cases of short horizontal wavelengths, null background wind, or propagation in the equatorial region, only pure gravity waves are possible, while for the limit of large horizontal wavelengths and/or null static stability, the waves are inertial. The correspondence between classical atmospheric approximations and wave filtering has been examined too, and we carried out a classification of the mesoscale waves found in the clouds of Venus at different vertical levels of its atmosphere. Finally, the classification of waves in exoplanets is discussed and we provide a list of possible candidates with cyclostrophic regimes.

  20. Stratospheric Gravity Wave Scales And Fluxes During Deepwave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, R. B.

    2015-12-01

    The Gulfstream V research aircraft flights for the Deepwave project in June and July 2014 included 97 legs over the Southern Alps of New Zealand and 150 legs over the Tasman Sea and Southern Ocean, mostly in the low stratosphere at 12.1 km altitude. Improved instrument calibration, redundant sensors, longer flight legs, energy flux estimation and wavelet and filter analysis revealed new gravity wave properties. Over the sea, flight level wave amplitudes mostly fall below our detection threshold. Over terrain, disturbances show characteristic mountain wave attributes of positive vertical energy flux (EFz), negative momentum flux and upwind horizontal energy flux. In some cases, the fluxes change rapidly within an eight hour flight, even though environmental conditions are unchanged, suggesting high sensitivity or auto-oscillation. The extreme EFz=22W/m2.Most intriguing is the variety of disturbance scales found over New Zealand. In many cases, the dominant wavelength of the flux carrying mountain waves is long; between 60 and 150km. In the strong cases however, with EFz>4W/m2, the wave "downshifts" to an intermediate wavelength between 20 to 60 km. Two other disturbance scales are seen. In all cases, the vertical wind variance at flight level is dominated by short "fluxless" waves with wavelengths in the 8 to 15km range. These waves propagate upwind but they carry no vertical momentum or energy fluxes. These fluxless waves may be secondary ducted waves riding on the tropopause inversion. In four cases, mountain waves stagnate the wind and turbulent wave breaking is found with a dominant wavelength of 500m.

  1. Gravity Waves Generated by Convection: A New Idealized Model Tool and Direct Validation with Satellite Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexander, M. Joan; Stephan, Claudia

    2015-04-01

    In climate models, gravity waves remain too poorly resolved to be directly modelled. Instead, simplified parameterizations are used to include gravity wave effects on model winds. A few climate models link some of the parameterized waves to convective sources, providing a mechanism for feedback between changes in convection and gravity wave-driven changes in circulation in the tropics and above high-latitude storms. These convective wave parameterizations are based on limited case studies with cloud-resolving models, but they are poorly constrained by observational validation, and tuning parameters have large uncertainties. Our new work distills results from complex, full-physics cloud-resolving model studies to essential variables for gravity wave generation. We use the Weather Research Forecast (WRF) model to study relationships between precipitation, latent heating/cooling and other cloud properties to the spectrum of gravity wave momentum flux above midlatitude storm systems. Results show the gravity wave spectrum is surprisingly insensitive to the representation of microphysics in WRF. This is good news for use of these models for gravity wave parameterization development since microphysical properties are a key uncertainty. We further use the full-physics cloud-resolving model as a tool to directly link observed precipitation variability to gravity wave generation. We show that waves in an idealized model forced with radar-observed precipitation can quantitatively reproduce instantaneous satellite-observed features of the gravity wave field above storms, which is a powerful validation of our understanding of waves generated by convection. The idealized model directly links observations of surface precipitation to observed waves in the stratosphere, and the simplicity of the model permits deep/large-area domains for studies of wave-mean flow interactions. This unique validated model tool permits quantitative studies of gravity wave driving of regional

  2. Experimental study of three-wave interactions among capillary-gravity surface waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haudin, Florence; Cazaubiel, Annette; Deike, Luc; Jamin, Timothée; Falcon, Eric; Berhanu, Michael

    2016-04-01

    In propagating wave systems, three- or four-wave resonant interactions constitute a classical nonlinear mechanism exchanging energy between the different scales. Here we investigate three-wave interactions for gravity-capillary surface waves in a closed laboratory tank. We generate two crossing wave trains and we study their interaction. Using two optical methods, a local one (laser doppler vibrometry) and a spatiotemporal one (diffusive light photography), a third wave of smaller amplitude is detected, verifying the three-wave resonance conditions in frequency and in wave number. Furthermore, by focusing on the stationary regime and by taking into account viscous dissipation, we directly estimate the growth rate of the resonant mode. The latter is then compared to the predictions of the weakly nonlinear triadic resonance interaction theory. The obtained results confirm qualitatively and extend previous experimental results obtained only for collinear wave trains. Finally, we discuss the relevance of three-wave interaction mechanisms in recent experiments studying gravity-capillary turbulence.

  3. INTERNAL GRAVITY WAVES IN MASSIVE STARS: ANGULAR MOMENTUM TRANSPORT

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, T. M.; Lin, D. N. C.; McElwaine, J. N.; Lau, H. H. B. E-mail: lin@ucolick.org E-mail: hblau@astro.uni-bonn.de

    2013-07-20

    We present numerical simulations of internal gravity waves (IGW) in a star with a convective core and extended radiative envelope. We report on amplitudes, spectra, dissipation, and consequent angular momentum transport by such waves. We find that these waves are generated efficiently and transport angular momentum on short timescales over large distances. We show that, as in Earth's atmosphere, IGW drive equatorial flows which change magnitude and direction on short timescales. These results have profound consequences for the observational inferences of massive stars, as well as their long term angular momentum evolution. We suggest IGW angular momentum transport may explain many observational mysteries, such as: the misalignment of hot Jupiters around hot stars, the Be class of stars, Ni enrichment anomalies in massive stars, and the non-synchronous orbits of interacting binaries.

  4. Convective generation and vertical propagation of fast gravity waves on Mars: One- and two-dimensional modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imamura, Takeshi; Watanabe, Ayuka; Maejima, Yasumitsu

    2016-03-01

    Generation of gravity waves by convection was studied using a nonlinear two-dimensional model. A boundary-layer convection forced by a horizontally-uniform heating and a plume forced by a localized heating representing a local dust storm were tested. The results suggest that vigorous convection occurs due to the low density of the martian atmosphere and that short-period waves having frequencies near the buoyancy frequency can be preferentially generated. The propagation of those gravity waves to thermospheric heights was studied using a linearized one-dimensional model. Because of the fast vertical propagation the waves attain large amplitudes in the lower thermosphere, being consistent with Mars Global Surveyor and Mars Odyssey's accelerometer measurements and MAVEN's neutral and ion measurements. The heating and cooling caused by the waves are expected to be significant in the energy budget of the thermosphere, and the vertical mixing induced by those gravity waves should influence the homopause height. Since the thermospheric densities of light, minor species increase with the lowering of the homopause, a lower homopause may have enhanced the escape of such species to space for early Mars, where slower, weaker gravity waves should dominate.

  5. Analysis of a jet stream induced gravity wave associated with an observed stratospheric ice cloud over Greenland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buss, S.; Hertzog, A.; Hostettler, C.; Bui, T. B.; Lüthi, D.; Wernli, H.

    2004-08-01

    A polar stratospheric ice cloud (PSC type II) was observed by airborne lidar above Greenland on 14 January 2000. It was the unique observation of an ice cloud over Greenland during the SOLVE/THESEO 2000 campaign. Mesoscale simulations with the hydrostatic HRM model are presented which, in contrast to global analyses, are capable to produce a vertically propagating gravity wave that induces the low temperatures at the level of the PSC afforded for the ice formation. The simulated minimum temperature is ~8 K below the driving analyses and ~4.5 K below the frost point, exactly coinciding with the location of the observed ice cloud. Despite the high elevations of the Greenland orography the simulated gravity wave is not a mountain wave. Analyses of the horizontal wind divergence, of the background wind profiles, of backward gravity wave ray-tracing trajectories, of HRM experiments with reduced Greenland topography and of several diagnostics near the tropopause level provide evidence that the wave is emitted from an intense, rapidly evolving, anticyclonically curved jet stream. The precise physical process responsible for the wave emission could not be identified definitely, but geostrophic adjustment and shear instability are likely candidates.

    In order to evaluate the potential frequency of such non-orographic polar stratospheric cloud events, the non-linear balance equation diagnostic is performed for the winter 1999/2000. It indicates that ice-PSCs are only occasionally generated by gravity waves emanating from spontaneous adjustment.

  6. Generation of internal gravity waves by penetrative convection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinçon, C.; Belkacem, K.; Goupil, M. J.

    2016-04-01

    Context. The rich harvest of seismic observations over the past decade provides evidence of angular momentum redistribution in stellar interiors that is not reproduced by current evolution codes. In this context, transport by internal gravity waves can play a role and could explain discrepancies between theory and observations. Aims: The efficiency of the transport of angular momentum by waves depends on their driving mechanism. While excitation by turbulence throughout the convective zone has already been investigated, we know that penetrative convection into the stably stratified radiative zone can also generate internal gravity waves. Therefore, we aim at developing a semianalytical model to estimate the generation of IGW by penetrative plumes below an upper convective envelope. The formalism is developed with the purpose of being implemented in 1D stellar evolution codes. Methods: We derive the wave amplitude considering the pressure exerted by an ensemble of plumes on the interface between the radiative and convective zones as source term in the equation of momentum. We consider the effect of a thermal transition from a convective gradient to a radiative one on the transmission of the wave into the radiative zone. The plume-induced wave energy flux at the top of the radiative zone is computed for a solar model and is compared to the turbulence-induced one. Results: We show that, for the solar case, penetrative convection generates waves more efficiently than turbulence and that plume-induced waves can modify the internal rotation rate on shorter time scales. The result is solid since it holds despite a wide range of values considered for the parameters of the model. We also show that a smooth thermal transition significatively enhances the wave transmission compared to the case of a steep transition. Conclusions: Driving by penetrative convection must be taken into account as much as turbulence-induced waves for the transport of internal angular momentum. We

  7. Principal instabilities of large amplitude inertio-gravity waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yau, K.-H.; Klaassen, G. P.; Sonmor, L. J.

    2004-04-01

    We analyze the three-dimensional stability properties of monochromatic, large-amplitude, nonhydrostatic inertio-gravity waves propagating in a rotating stratified fluid with no mean shear. The ratio of Coriolis parameter f to the Brunt-Väisälä frequency N is fixed at a value f/N=0.01, chosen to be representative of the Earth's atmosphere and upper oceans in extra-tropical latitudes. By using Floquet theory combined with suitable coordinate transformations, our analysis provides an exact representation of the spatial and temporal periodicity of the basic wave state. Growth rates are computed for several discrete phase-elevation angles 80°⩽θ⩽89.7°, spanning the frequency range in which rotational effects become important, and the basic wave state changes from fully overturned to suboverturned. For each basic wave, we identify the growth rate peaks in disturbance wavenumber space—these are the principal modes. At the lowest phase-elevation angle considered, θ=80°, the dominant principal mode is similar to its low-frequency nonrotating counterpart, with disturbance roll axes aligned in, or nearly in, the direction of the largest component of basic wave shear. As θ increases to values where the effects of rotation are more strongly manifested, the dominant rotating mode shifts to oblique orientation. At still higher values of θ, the fastest-growing modes have roll axes oriented orthogonal to the main shear component of the basic wave. At the highest values of θ considered in this study, the waves are no longer vertically overturned, but still feature minimum Richardson numbers below 1/4. We find that such low-frequency waves are subject to wave-scale instabilities: for the largest amplitude considered, the instability shows no preferred orientation, while at a somewhat lower amplitude, the dominant instability prefers an oblique orientation. Dominant oblique instabilities have not been reported in previous approximate stability analyses of inertio-gravity

  8. Dynamics and Predictability of Deep Propagating Atmospheric Gravity Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doyle, J.; Fritts, D. C.; Smith, R.; Eckermann, S. D.

    2012-12-01

    An overview will be provided of the first field campaign that attempts to follow deeply propagating gravity waves (GWs) from their tropospheric sources to their mesospheric breakdown. The DEEP propagating gravity WAVE experiment over New Zealand (DEEPWAVE-NZ) is a comprehensive, airborne and ground-based measurement and modeling program focused on providing a new understanding of GW dynamics and impacts from the troposphere through the mesosphere and lower thermosphere (MLT). This program will employ the new NSF/NCAR GV (NGV) research aircraft from a base in New Zealand in a 6-week field measurement campaign in June-July 2014. The NGV will be equipped with new lidar and airglow instruments for the DEEPWAVE measurement program, providing temperatures and vertical winds spanning altitudes from immediately above the NGV flight altitude (~13 km) to ~100 km. The region near New Zealand is chosen since all the relevant GW sources occur strongly here, and upper-level winds in austral winter permit GWs to propagate to very high altitudes. Given large-amplitude GWs that propagate routinely into the MLT, the New Zealand region offers an ideal natural laboratory for studying these important GW dynamics and effects impacting weather and climate over a much deeper atmospheric layer than previous campaigns have attempted (0-100 km altitude). The logistics of making measurements in the vicinity of New Zealand are potentially easier than from the Andes and Drake Passage region. A suite of GW-focused modeling and predictability tools will be used to guide NGV flight planning to GW events of greatest scientific significance. These models will also drive scientific interpretation of the GW measurements, together providing answers to the key science questions posed by DEEPWAVE about GW dynamics, morphology, predictability and impacts from 0-100 km. Preliminary results will be presented from high-resolution and adjoint models applied over areas featuring deep wave propagation. The high

  9. Turbulent dynamics of breaking internal gravity waves on slopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arthur, Robert; Fringer, Oliver

    2014-11-01

    The turbulent dynamics of breaking internal gravity waves on slopes are investigated using a high-resolution numerical model. A Navier-Stokes code is employed in an idealized, three-dimensional domain where an internal solitary wave of depression impinges upon a sloping bottom. A bottom-following curvilinear grid is used to capture the bathymetry accurately, and the vertical grid spacing Δz+ = O(1) near the bottom in the breaking region to resolve the near-wall flow. In order to understand the transition to turbulence as a result of wave breaking, flow variability is analyzed in the cross-stream dimension. In particular, streamwise vorticity, or secondary streamwise rolls that lead to the turbulent breakdown of the wave, is found to develop in regions of unstable stratification. Dissipation and irreversible mixing of the density field are analyzed as a function of time, and related to breaking dynamics; irreversible mixing is quantified in terms of the change in background potential energy inside the domain. The mixing efficiency is also calculated for various wave and slope conditions. These results have application to the nearshore coastal ocean, where breaking internal waves affect the distributions of ecologically important scalars such as temperature, oxygen, and nutrients.

  10. Linear coupling of acoustic and cyclotron waves in plasma flows

    SciTech Connect

    Rogava, Andria; Gogoberidze, Grigol

    2005-05-15

    It is found that in magnetized electrostatic plasma flows the velocity shear couples ion-acoustic waves with ion-cyclotron waves and leads, under favorable conditions, to their efficient reciprocal transformations. It is shown that in a two-dimensional setup this coupling has a remarkable feature: it is governed by equations that are mathematically equal to the ones describing coupling of sound waves with internal gravity waves [Rogava and Mahajan, Phys. Rev. E 55, 1185 (1997)] in neutral fluids. For flows with low shearing rates a fully analytic, quantitative description of the coupling efficiency, based on a noteworthy quantum-mechanical analogy, is given and transformation coefficients are calculated.

  11. Linear coupling of acoustic and cyclotron waves in plasma flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogava, Andria; Gogoberidze, Grigol

    2005-05-01

    It is found that in magnetized electrostatic plasma flows the velocity shear couples ion-acoustic waves with ion-cyclotron waves and leads, under favorable conditions, to their efficient reciprocal transformations. It is shown that in a two-dimensional setup this coupling has a remarkable feature: it is governed by equations that are mathematically equal to the ones describing coupling of sound waves with internal gravity waves [Rogava and Mahajan, Phys. Rev. E 55, 1185 (1997)] in neutral fluids. For flows with low shearing rates a fully analytic, quantitative description of the coupling efficiency, based on a noteworthy quantum-mechanical analogy, is given and transformation coefficients are calculated.

  12. Wave drag due to generation of capillary-gravity surface waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burghelea, Teodor; Steinberg, Victor

    2002-11-01

    The onset of the wave resistance via the generation of capillary-gravity waves by a small object moving with a velocity V is investigated experimentally. Due to the existence of a minimum phase velocity Vc for surface waves, the problem is similar to the generation of rotons in superfluid helium near their minimum. In both cases, waves or rotons are produced at V>Vc due to Cherenkov radiation. We find that the transition to the wave drag state is continuous: in the vicinity of the bifurcation the wave resistance force is proportional to (V-Vc) for various fluids. This observation contradicts the theory of Raphaël and de Gennes. We also find that the reduced wave drag force for different fluids and different ball size may be scaled in such a way that all the data collapse on a single curve. The capillary-gravity wave pattern and the shape of the wave-generating region are investigated both experimentally and theoretically. Good agreement between the theory and the experimental data is found in this case.

  13. Image measurements of short-period gravity waves at equatorial latitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, M. J.; Pendleton, W. R.; Clark, S.; Takahashi, H.; Gobbi, D.; Goldberg, R. A.

    1997-11-01

    A high-performance, all-sky imaging system has been used to obtain novel data on the morphology and dynamics of short-period (<1 hour) gravity waves at equatorial latitudes. Gravity waves imaged in the upper mesosphere and lower thermosphere were recorded in three nightglow emissions, the near-infrared OH emission, and the visible wavelength OI (557.7 nm) and Na (589.2 nm) emissions spanning the altitude range ˜80-100 km. The measurements were made from Alcantara, Brazil (2.3°S, 44.5°W), during the period August-October 1994 as part of the NASA/Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais "Guara campaign". Over 50 wave events were imaged from which a statistical study of the characteristics of equatorial gravity waves has been performed. The data were found to divide naturally into two groups. The first group corresponded to extensive, freely propagating (or ducted) gravity waves with observed periods ranging from 3.7 to 36.6 min, while the second group consisted of waves of a much smaller scale and transient nature. The later group exhibited a bimodal distribution for the observed periods at 5.18±0.26 min and 4.32±0.15 min, close to the local Brunt-Vaisala period and the acoustic cutoff period, respectively. In comparison, the larger-scale waves exhibited a clear tendency for their horizontal wavelengths to increase almost linearly with observed period. This trend was particularly well defined around the equinox and can be represented by a power-law relationship of the form λh=(3.1±0.5)τob1.06±0.10, where λh is measured in kilometers and τob in minutes. This result is in very good agreement with previous radar and passive optical measurements but differs significantly from the relationship λh ∝ τ1.5ob inferred from recent lidar studies. The larger-scale waves were also found to exhibit strong anisotropy in their propagation headings with the dominant direction of motion toward the-NE-ENE suggesting a preponderance for wave generation over the South

  14. A Statistical Study of Mid-latitude Thunderstorm Characteristics associated with Acoustic and Gravity Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lay, E. H.; Shao, X. M.; Kendrick, A.

    2014-12-01

    Gravity waves with periods greater than 5 minutes and acoustic waves with periods between 3 and 5 minutes have been detected at ionospheric heights (250-350 km) and associated with severe thunderstorms. Modeling results support these findings, indicating that acoustic waves should be able to reach 250-350 km within ~250 km horizontally of the source, and gravity waves should be able to propagate significantly further. However, the mechanism by which the acoustic waves are generated and the ubiquity of occurrence of both types of wave is unknown. We use GPS total electron content measurements to detect gravity and acoustic waves in the ionosphere. We perform a statistical study from 2005 May - July to compare the occurrence rate and horizontal extent of the waves to storm size and convective height from NEXRAD radar measurements. It is found that both gravity waves and acoustic wave horizontal extent is primarily associated with storm size and not convective height.

  15. Gravity waves in the middle atmosphere: Recent progress and needed studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fritts, D. C.

    1986-01-01

    The recent recognition of the important role played by gravity waves in the large-scale circulation and thermal structure of the mesosphere and lower thermosphere has stimulated considerable research on their properties and their middle atmosphere effects. For example, these studies have begun to provide important information on gravity wave scales, propagation, filtering, and the processes responsible for saturation and turbulent diffusion. There remain, however, many areas in which our current understanding of middle atmosphere gravity waves is deficient. The purpose here is to review the progress that has been made to date and to suggest areas in which additional studies are most needed. Gravity wave scales, gravity wave saturation mechanisms, turbulence production and turbulent diffusion, and distribution of gravity wave energies and momentum fluxes with height and time are discussed.

  16. Excitation of Internal Gravity Waves by Turbulent Stellar Convection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lecoanet, D.; Quataert, E.

    2013-05-01

    Internal gravity waves (IGWs) are thought to play an important role in stars - their ability to influence composition, angular momentum, and energy transport in stars has been invoked to explain Li abundances, the Sun's differential rotation profile, and supernova observations. Furthermore, IGWs could also be important diagnostics of stellar structure. Here, we calculate the flux of internal gravity waves (IGWs) generated by turbulent convection in stars. We solve for the IGW eigenfunctions analytically near the radiative-convective interface in a local, Boussinesq, and cartesian domain. We consider both discontinuous and smooth transitions between the radiative and convective regions and derive Green's functions to solve for the IGWs in the radiative region. We find that if the radiative-convective transition is smooth, the IGW flux depends on the exact form of the buoyancy frequency near the interface. IGW excitation is most efficient for very smooth interfaces. However, in the smooth transition case, the most efficiently excited perturbations will break in the radiative zone. The flux of IGWs which do not break is moderately larger than the flux of IGWs for a discontinuous interface. The transition region in the Sun is smooth for the energy-bearing waves; as a result, we predict that the IGW flux is a few to five times larger than previous estimates. Our calculations also suggest that wave excitation within the convection zone can be more important than wave excitation by penetrative convection. We discuss the implications of our results for several astrophysical applications, including IGW driven mass loss and the detectability of convectively excited IGWs in main sequence stars.

  17. Doppler sodar and radar wind-profiler observations of gravity-wave activity associated with a gravity current

    SciTech Connect

    Ralph, F.M.; Venkateswaran, S.V. ); Mazaudier, C. ); Crochet, M. )

    1993-02-01

    Observations from two Doppler sodars and a radar wind profiler have been used in conjunction with data from a rawinsonde station and a mesoscale surface observation network to conduct a case study of a gravity current entering into an environment containing a nocturnal inversion and an elevated neutral layer. On the basis of synoptic and mesoscale analyses, it is concluded that the gravity current might have originated either as a scale-contracted cold front or as a gust front resulting from thunderstorm outflows observed very near the leading edge of a cold front. Despite this ambiguity, the detailed vertical structure of the gravity current itself is well resolved from the data. Moreover, the vertical velocity measurements provided by the sodars and the radar wind profiler at high time resolution have given unique information about the height structure of gravity waves excited by the gravity current. Although only wave periods, and not phase speeds or wavelengths, are directly measured, it is possible to make reasonable inferences about wave excitation mechanisms and about the influence and control of ambient stratification on wave-field characteristics. Both Kelvin-Helmholtz waves generated in the regions of high wind shear found in association with the gravity current and lee-type waves forced by the gravity current acting as an obstacle to opposing prefrontal flow are identified. It is also found that the propagation speed of the gravity current and the relative depths of the prefrontal inversion and the postfrontal cold air were not favorable for the formation of either internal bores or solitary waves at the time of day at which the gravity current was being observed. 42 refs., 18 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Surface gravity waves at equilibrium with a steady wind

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glazman, Roman E.

    1994-01-01

    Observations of wave fields' spatial evolution and of gravity wave spectra S(sub omega) are analyzed on the basis of the data reported by several research groups as well as on a 2-year data set of wind and wave measurements by stationary National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration buoys near the Hawaiian Islands. We seek to clarify the role of the wave energy advection (with the wave group velocity) in the overall energy balance. This advective transfer appears to be no less important than the local (breaking wave induced) dissipation as a factor of wind-wave equilibrium. The advection is found to manifest itself in the shape of wave spectra by reducing the rate at which the spectra density of the wave energy, S(sub omega approximately omega (exp -p), falls off as the frequency increases away from the spectra peak. This and other conclusions are derived by comparing the field observations with theoretical predictions of the weak turbulence theory for a spatially inhomogeneous, statistically stationary, wave field. The observations also indicate that the typical wave age xi = C(sub 0)/U in the open ocean is much greater than the limiting value 1.2 attributed to the 'fully developed sea.' Although the observed spectra can be approximated by a power law with a single 'effective' exponent, this apparent exponent, p, is found to depend on the wave age. At high xi and at frequencies below the generation range, -p tends to -3 rather than the value of -11/3 predicted by the Zakharov-Zaslavskii theory. This deviation is interpreted as pointing to a nonconservative nature of the inverse cascade, the latter including a leakage of energy to low-wavenumber modes. Dependence of the overall effective exponent on xi is shown to be responsible for variation in the coefficients b, B, c, C appearing in empirical fetch laws, such as xi = C bar-x (exp c) and e = B bar-x (exp B), where bar-x and e are the dimensionless fetch and wave energy, respectively.

  19. Long-Term Global Morphology of Gravity Wave Activity Using UARS Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eckermann, Stephen D.; Bacmeister, Julio T.; Wu, Dong L.

    1998-01-01

    Progress in research into the global morphology of gravity wave activity using UARS data is described for the period March-June, 1998. Highlights this quarter include further progress in the analysis and interpretation of CRISTA temperature variances; model-generated climatologies of mesospheric gravity wave activity using the HWM-93 wind and temperature model; and modeling of gravity wave detection from space-based platforms. Preliminary interpretations and recommended avenues for further analysis are also described.

  20. Mesoscale Gravity Wave Variances from AMSU-A Radiances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Dong L.

    2004-01-01

    A variance analysis technique is developed here to extract gravity wave (GW) induced temperature fluctuations from NOAA AMSU-A (Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A) radiance measurements. By carefully removing the instrument/measurement noise, the algorithm can produce reliable GW variances with the minimum detectable value as small as 0.1 K2. Preliminary analyses with AMSU-A data show GW variance maps in the stratosphere have very similar distributions to those found with the UARS MLS (Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite Microwave Limb Sounder). However, the AMSU-A offers better horizontal and temporal resolution for observing regional GW variability, such as activity over sub-Antarctic islands.

  1. Gravity waves and convection in Colorado during July 1983

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Einaudi, F.; Clark, W. L.; Green, J. L.; Vanzandt, T. E.; Fua, D.

    1987-01-01

    The dynamics of gravity-wave/convective-cell interaction is studied using NOAA data collected in NE Colorado during July and August 1983. The pressure fields measured with microbarographs, the tropospheric wind profiles obtained with a UHF wind profiler radar, and precipitation data collected with a 10-cm weather radar for four events (A, B, C, and D) are analyzed. The four disturbances are detected through a substantial depth of the troposphere. It is observed that in event A the wave and convective cells appear to be locked together; in event B, the wave and convective cells commence about the same time, but the wave velocities differ from the cell velocities; and in events C and D, the waves move faster than the maximum wind in the jet and faster than the convective cells. It is suggested that events A and B are generated by wind shear in the jet stream, and the excitation of events C and D depends on mechanisms such as vertical convective motion and acceleration in the jet flow.

  2. Quantum Gravity Explanation of the Wave-Particle Duality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winterberg, Friedwardt

    2016-03-01

    A quantum gravity explanation of the quantum-mechanical wave-particle duality is given by the watt-less emission of gravitational waves from a particle described by the Dirac equation. This explanation is possible through the existence of negative energy, and hence negative mass solutions of Einstein's gravitational field equations. They permit to understand the Dirac equation as the equation for a gravitationally bound positive-negative mass (pole-dipole particle) two-body configuration, with the mass of the Dirac particle equal to the positive mass of the gravitational field binding the positive with the negative mass particle, and with the positive and negative mass particles making a luminal ``Zitterbewegung'' (quivering motion), emitting a watt-less oscillating positive-negative space curvature wave. Is it shown that this thusly produced ``Zitterbewegung'' reproduces the quantum potential of the Madelung-transformed Schrödinger equation. The watt-less gravitational wave emitted by the quivering particles is conjectured to be the de Broglie pilot wave.

  3. Internal Gravity Waves: Generation and Breaking Mechanisms by Laboratory Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    la Forgia, Giovanni; Adduce, Claudia; Falcini, Federico

    2016-04-01

    Internal gravity waves (IGWs), occurring within estuaries and the coastal oceans, are manifest as large amplitude undulations of the pycnocline. IGWs propagating horizontally in a two layer stratified fluid are studied. The breaking of an IGW of depression shoaling upon a uniformly sloping boundary is investigated experimentally. Breaking dynamics beneath the shoaling waves causes both mixing and wave-induced near-bottom vortices suspending and redistributing the bed material. Laboratory experiments are conducted in a Perspex tank through the standard lock-release method, following the technique described in Sutherland et al. (2013). Each experiment is analysed and the instantaneous pycnocline position is measured, in order to obtain both geometric and kinematic features of the IGW: amplitude, wavelength and celerity. IGWs main features depend on the geometrical parameters that define the initial experimental setting: the density difference between the layers, the total depth, the layers depth ratio, the aspect ratio, and the displacement between the pycnoclines. Relations between IGWs geometric and kinematic features and the initial setting parameters are analysed. The approach of the IGWs toward a uniform slope is investigated in the present experiments. Depending on wave and slope characteristics, different breaking and mixing processes are observed. Sediments are sprinkled on the slope to visualize boundary layer separation in order to analyze the suspension e redistribution mechanisms due to the wave breaking.

  4. Gravity Wave Variance in LIMS Temperatures. Part II: Comparison with the Zonal-Mean Momentum Balance.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fetzer, Eric J.; Gille, John C.

    1996-02-01

    Zonal-mean gravity wave variance in the Limb Infrared Monitor of the Stratosphere (LIMS) temperature data is seen to correlate strongly with the residual term in the LIMS zonal-mean momentum budget throughout much of the observed mesosphere. This momentum residual is attributed to gravity wave momentum transport at scales that cannot be directly sampled by the LIMS instrument Correlation is highest in the vicinity of the fall and winter mesospheric jets, where both gravity wave variance and momentum residual reach their largest values. Correlation is also high in the Southern Hemisphere subtropical mesophere, where gravity wave variance and the momentum residual have broad temporal maxima during the easterly acceleration of the stratopause semi-annual oscillation (SAO). This subtropical correlation has important implications for the SAO eastward acceleration, which several studies suggest is forced by gravity wave momentum flux divergence. Correlation between gravity wave variance and inferred gravity wave momentum flux divergence is unexpected because variance is dominated by large scales and long periods (inertio-gravity waves), while both theoretical arguments and ground-based observations indicate that momentum transport is dominated by periods under 1 h. The results of this study suggest a broadband gravity wave field experiencing forcing and loss processes, which are largely independent of frequency.

  5. Three-wave interactions in a gravity-capillary range of wind waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosnik, M.; Dulov, V.; Kudryavtsev, V.

    2009-04-01

    The effects of three-wave interactions on forming of short wind waves spectrum are investigated. Wavenumber spectrum in gravity-capillary and capillary range is found as a result of evolution of initial arbitrary spectrum under the influence of assigned sources of kinetic equation. Three-wave interactions are taken into account using exact collision integral without any additional assumptions simplifying a problem. Model validity is proved by reproducing Zaharov & Filonenko (1967) theoretical spectra describing the "energy equipartition" and "inertial interval" cases. Numerical calculations show that the main role of three-wave interactions consists in energy transfer from short gravity waves to waves of smaller lengths. The prominent feature of most of resulting spectra is a dip on curvature spectrum in the vicinity of phase speed minimum. Wind forcing, viscous dissipation and mechanism of generation of parasitic capillaries are considered in a number of calculations using parameterization for corresponding sources by Kudryavtsev, Makin, Chapron, 1999. The necessity of additional nonlinear dissipation terms in kinetic equation for short gravity and capillary waves is revealed. The results of calculation with this realistic parameterization of kinetic equation sources show that, when accounted, nonlinear dissipation and parasitic capillaries terms play much more significant part in capillary range than wave-wave interactions. The latter are important only in phase speed minimum area where the typical dip remains at the same wavenumber in all numerical experiments. This work was supported by the EU under the projects INTAS 05-1000008-8014, INTAS/ESA 06-1000025-9264 and Contract # SST5 CT 2006 031001 (MONRUK) of FP6.

  6. Modulational development of nonlinear gravity-wave groups

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chereskin, T. K.; Mollo-Christensen, E.

    1985-01-01

    Observations of the development of nonlinear surface gravity-wave groups are presented, and the amplitude and phase modulations are calculated using Hilbert-transform techniques. With increasing propagation distance and wave steepness, the phase modulation develops local phase reversals whose locations correspond to amplitude minima or nodes. The concomitant frequency modulation develops jumps or discontinuities. The observations are compared with recent similar results for wavetrains. The observations are modelled numerically using the cubic nonlinear Schroedinger equation. The motivation is twofold: to examine quantitatively the evolution of phase as well as amplitude modulation, and to test the inviscid predictions for the asymptotic behavior of groups versus long-time observations. Although dissipation rules out the recurrence, there is a long-time coherence of the groups. The phase modulation is found to distinguish between dispersive and soliton behavior.

  7. Weak turbulent Kolmogorov spectrum for surface gravity waves.

    PubMed

    Dyachenko, A I; Korotkevich, A O; Zakharov, V E

    2004-04-01

    We study the long-time evolution of surface gravity waves on deep water excited by a stochastic external force concentrated in moderately small wave numbers. We numerically implemented the primitive Euler equations for the potential flow of an ideal fluid with free surface written in Hamiltonian canonical variables, using the expansion of the Hamiltonian in powers of nonlinearity of terms up to fourth order. We show that because of nonlinear interaction processes a stationary Fourier spectrum of a surface elevation close to <|eta(k)|(2)> approximately k(-7/2) is formed. The observed spectrum can be interpreted as a weak-turbulent Kolmogorov spectrum for a direct cascade of energy. PMID:15089618

  8. Parameterization of the inertial gravity waves and generation of the quasi-biennial oscillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, X.-H.; Liu, H.-L.; Dou, X.-K.

    2012-03-01

    In this work we extend the gravity wave parameterization scheme currently used in the Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model (WACCM), which is based upon Lindzen's linear saturation theory, by including the Coriolis effect to better describe the inertia-gravity waves (IGW). We perform WACCM simulations to study the generation of equatorial oscillations of the zonal mean zonal winds by including a spectrum of IGWs, and the parametric dependence of the wind oscillation on the IGWs and the effect of the new scheme. These simulations demonstrate that the parameterized IGW forcing from the standard and the new scheme are both capable of generating equatorial wind oscillations with a downward phase progression in the stratosphere using the standard spatial resolution settings in the current model. The period of the oscillation is dependent on the strength of the IGW forcing, and the magnitude of the oscillation is dependent on the width of the wave spectrum. The new parameterization affects the wave breaking level and acceleration rates mainly through changing the critical level. The quasi-biennial oscillations (QBO) can be internally generated with the proper selection of the parameters of the scheme. The characteristics of the wind oscillations thus generated are compared with the observed QBO. These experiments demonstrate the need to parameterize IGWs for generating the QBO in General Circulation Models (GCMs).

  9. How gravity influences hydrothermal waves in alcohol sessile droplets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carle, Florian; Brutin, David

    2013-11-01

    This study, performed under several gravity levels, focuses on the formation and behaviour of hydrothermal waves (HTWs) that spontaneously develop on droplets surfaces when surface tension gradient are strong enough as a response to temperature gradients. HTWs have been found to form concentric torus around the apex rotating in the same direction from hot to cold area creating a shear phenomenon between the two torus where instability develops and get dragged in the flow. This leads to a detachment of the thermal plume, well visible on the top infrared visualisation. HTWs develop in a large number in methanol, half as much in ethanol and at this day, no instability have been experimentally observed in propanol. These behaviours are evidenced with the effective Marangoni number; its high value for the methanol indicates an intense turbulent flow. Gravity levels influence the atmospheric convective transport contribution to the droplets evaporation inducing diffusive evaporation under microgravity conditions and diffusive and convective evaporation under Moon, Mars and Earth gravity level; convection being directly linked to buoyancy. Evaporation dynamics is therefore modified and the temperature gradient between the contact line and the apex can be more or less important. The authors acknowledge the financial support of the ``Centre National d'Études Spatiales'' and also for the parabolic flights conducted at Bordeaux Merignac, France.

  10. Gravity waves in the thermosphere during a sudden stratospheric warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yigit, E.; Medvedev, A. S.

    2012-12-01

    For the first time, the propagation and dissipation of internal gravity waves (GWs) of lower atmospheric origin to the thermosphere above the turbopause (~105 km) during a sudden stratospheric warming (SSW) are examined. The study is performed with a general circulation model (GCM) coupling the lower atmosphere with the thermosphere and the implemented spectral nonlinear extended GW parameterization of Yigit et al. (2008). The Yigit et al. (2008) extended GW parameterization calculates the propagation and dissipation of small-scale GWs in the whole atmosphere system by physically taking into account ion drag, molecular viscosity and thermal conduction, eddy viscosity, nonlinear diffusion, and radiative damping in form of Newtonian cooling. Model simulations reveal a strong modulation by SSWs of GW activity, momentum deposition rates, and the circulation feedbacks at heights up to F region altitudes (~270 km). Wave-induced root mean square wind fluctuations increase several times during the warming in the thermosphere above the turbopause. This occurs mainly due to a reduction of filtering eastward traveling GWs by the weaker stratospheric jet. These waves propagate higher under the favorable conditions, grow in amplitude, and produce stronger forcing on the mean flow, compared to pre-warming period, when they are dissipated in the thermosphere. The evolution of stratospheric and mesospheric winds during an SSW life-cycle creates a robust and distinctive response in GW activity and mean fields deeply in the thermosphere. Yigit, E., A.~D. Aylward, and A.~S. Medvedev (2008), Parameterization of the effects of vertically propagating gravity waves for thermosphere general circulation models: Sensitivity study, J. Geophys. Res., 113, D19106, doi:10.1029/2008JD010135.

  11. On the density waves developed in gravity channel flows of granular materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chi-Hwa; Tong, Ziquan

    2001-05-01

    This paper provides insight to the transient development of density waves generated in gravity-driven flows of granular materials. The evolution of three modes of dominant linear instabilities (predicted in a previous work by Wang, Jackson & Sundaresan 1997) is examined by FFT analysis. For the first symmetric density wave (SDW1) mode, the evolution is governed by the linear instability. The second symmetric density wave (SDW2) mode undergoes a few stages of temporal development; as a result, large particle clusters gradually degenerate into a series of smaller clusters in the flow direction. For the anti-symmetric (ASDW) mode, the corresponding particle distribution shows significant development in the direction perpendicular to the flow. The present study indicates that the wall roughness may affect the structure of the density waves, but these density waves need not be triggered by the wall roughness. All the three modes of instabilities reported in this work are of inertial nature and occur only when the particle particle collisions are significantly inelastic.

  12. Generalized analytical model for benthic water flux forced by surface gravity waves

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    King, J.N.; Mehta, A.J.; Dean, R.G.

    2009-01-01

    A generalized analytical model for benthic water flux forced by linear surface gravity waves over a series of layered hydrogeologic units is developed by adapting a previous solution for a hydrogeologic unit with an infinite thickness (Case I) to a unit with a finite thickness (Case II) and to a dual-unit system (Case III). The model compares favorably with laboratory observations. The amplitude of wave-forced benthic water flux is shown to be directly proportional to the amplitude of the wave, the permeability of the hydrogeologic unit, and the wave number and inversely proportional to the kinematic viscosity of water. A dimensionless amplitude parameter is introduced and shown to reach a maximum where the product of water depth and the wave number is 1.2. Submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) is a benthic water discharge flux to a marine water body. The Case I model estimates an 11.5-cm/d SGD forced by a wave with a 1 s period and 5-cm amplitude in water that is 0.5-m deep. As this wave propagates into a region with a 0.3-m-thick hydrogeologic unit, with a no-flow bottom boundary, the Case II model estimates a 9.7-cm/d wave-forced SGD. As this wave propagates into a region with a 0.2-m-thick hydrogeologic unit over an infinitely thick, more permeable unit, the Case III quasi-confined model estimates a 15.7-cm/d wave-forced SGD. The quasi-confined model has benthic constituent flux implications in coral reef, karst, and clastic regions. Waves may undermine tracer and seepage meter estimates of SGD at some locations. Copyright 2009 by the American Geophysical Union.

  13. Grazing Occultation reveals Gravity Wave Breaking in Pluto's High Atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kern, Susan D.; McCarthy, D. W.; Kulesa, C. A.; Hubbard, W. B.; Person, M. J.; Elliot, J. L.; Gulbis, A. A.

    2007-10-01

    Occultation observations of the star P445.3 (2UCAC 25823784; McDonald & Elliot 2000, AJ 120, 1599) by (134340) Pluto on 2007 March 18.453 UT were simultaneously collected in visible and H-band wavelengths from the 6.5-m MMT (Mt. Hopkins) in Arizona. The event was grazing and slow (6.77 km/s), lasting 4 minutes. These conditions facilitated the detection of large-scale, nearly limb-aligned features in Pluto's atmosphere over a pressure range of 0.1-0.7 μbar (0.01-0.07 Pa; radius range of 1500-1350 km). The data are high signal-to-noise and show these features to be fully resolved and achromatic. The scintillation increases with depth in Pluto's atmosphere and indicates a high-frequency cutoff operating on a broad-band spectrum of gravity waves generated deeper in Pluto's atmosphere. The data are in excellent agreement with atmospheric gravity wave theory (Fritts 1984, RGSP 22, 275). Observations reported here were obtained at the MMT Observatory, a joint facility of The University of Arizona and the Smithsonian Institution. The integration and alignment of both cameras was funded by the Astronomy Camp science education program. We also acknowledge support from NASA's Planetary Astronomy Program via grants NNG04GE48G and NNG04GF25G.

  14. Mesospheric Gravity Waves over Indian Regions using Sodium Airglow Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarkhel, Sumanta; Sekar, R.; Chakrabarty, D.; Narayanan, R.

    In order to identify the dominant modes of mesospheric gravity waves, sodium (Na) airglow mea-surements were carried out in campaign modes during November, 2006 -February, 2009 over Mt. Abu (24.6o N, 72.7o E) and Gadanki (13.5o N, 79.2o E) using a narrow-band and narrow field-of-view Na airglow photometer. The airglow observations yield the temporal variation of altitude-integrated Na airglow intensity. Spectral analyses were carried out using Lomb-Scargle technique that can handle unevenly-spaced Na airglow intensity variation. The power spectra indicate that 15-30 min periods, associated with the mesospheric gravity wave activities, are present in the Na airglow intensity variation over both Mt. Abu and Gadanki. In addition to that, the altitude profiles of upper mesospheric temperature during the observational period were obtained from SABER instrument onboard TIMED satellite over both the sites. Inter-estingly, the average mesospheric temperature profiles over both the sites reveal the mesopause height to be at 98 km. However, on a few occasions, it is observed that the mesopause heights lie a scale height below than 98 km and coincide with the typical Na airglow emission height. The dominant periods derived from the Na airglow variation are significantly different on those occasions. These results will be discussed in the light of mesospheric dynamics and its role in Na airglow intensity variation.

  15. Gravity Waves Near 300 km Over the Polar Caps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, F. S.; Hanson, W. B.; Hodges, R. R.; Coley, W. R.; Carignan, G. R.; Spencer, N. W.

    1995-01-01

    Distinctive wave forms in the distributions of vertical velocity and temperature of both neutral particles and ions are frequently observed from Dynamics Explorer 2 at altitudes above 250 km over the polar caps. These are interpreted as being due to internal gravity waves propagating in the neutral atmosphere. The disturbances characterized by vertical velocity perturbations of the order of 100 m/s and horizontal wave lengths along the satellite path of about 500 km. They often extend across the entire polar cap. The associated temperature perturbations indicate that the horizontal phase progression is from the nightside to the dayside. Vertical displacements are inferred to be of the order of 10 km and the periods to be of the order of 10(exp 3) s. The waves must propagate in the neutral atmosphere, but they usually are most clearly recognizable in the observations of ion vertical velocity and ion temperature. By combining the neutral pressure calculated from the observed neutral concentration and temperature with the vertical component of the neutral velocity, an upward energy flux of the order of 0.04 erg/sq cm-s at 250 km has been calculated, which is about equal to the maximum total solar ultraviolet heat input above that altitude. Upward energy fluxes calculated from observations on orbital passes at altitudes from 250 to 560 km indicate relatively little attenuation with altitude.

  16. Gravity capillary waves in fluid layers under normal electric fields.

    PubMed

    Papageorgiou, Demetrios T; Petropoulos, Peter G; Vanden-Broeck, Jean-Marc

    2005-11-01

    We study the formation and dynamics of interfacial waves on a perfect dielectric ideal fluid layer of finite depth, wetting a solid wall, when the region above the fluid is hydrodynamically passive but has constant permittivity, for example, air. The wall is held at a constant electric potential and a second electrode having a different potential is placed parallel to the wall and infinitely far from it. In the unperturbed state the interface is flat and the normal horizontally uniform electric field is piecewise constant in the liquid and air. We derive a system of long wave nonlinear evolution equations valid for interfacial amplitudes as large as the unperturbed layer depth and which retain gravity, surface tension and electric field effects. It is shown that for given physical parameters there exists a critical value of the voltage potential difference between electrodes, below which the system is dispersive and above which a band of unstable waves is possible centered around a finite wavenumber. In the former case nonlinear traveling waves are calculated and their stability is studied, while in the latter case the instability leads to thinning of the layer with the interface touching down in finite time. A similarity solution of the second kind is found to be dominant near the singularity, and the scaling exponents are determined using analysis and computations. PMID:16383611

  17. Stability analysis of a tidally excited internal gravity wave near the centre of a solar-type star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barker, Adrian J.; Ogilvie, Gordon I.

    2011-10-01

    We perform a stability analysis of a tidally excited non-linear internal gravity wave near the centre of a solar-type star in two-dimensional cylindrical geometry. The motivation is to understand the tidal interaction between short-period planets and their slowly rotating solar-type host stars, which involves the launching of internal gravity waves at the top of the radiation zone that propagate towards the centre of the star. Studying the instabilities of these waves near the centre, where non-linearities are most important, is essential, since it may have implications for the survival of short-period planets orbiting solar-type stars. When these waves have sufficient amplitude to overturn the stratification, they break and form a critical layer, which efficiently absorbs subsequent ingoing wave angular momentum, and can result in the planet spiralling into the star. However, in previous simulations the waves have not been observed to undergo instability for smaller amplitudes. Here we perform a stability analysis of a non-linear standing internal gravity wave in the central regions of a solar-type star. This work has two aims: to determine any instabilities that set in for small-amplitude waves, and to further understand the breaking process for large-amplitude waves that overturn the stratification. Our results are compared with the stability of a plane internal gravity wave in a uniform stratification, and with previous work by Kumar & Goodman on a similar problem to our own. Our main result is that the waves undergo parametric instabilities for any amplitude (in the absence of viscosity and thermal conduction). However, because the non-linearity is spatially localized in the innermost wavelengths, the growth rates of these instabilities tend to be sufficiently small that they do not result in astrophysically important tidal dissipation. Indeed, we estimate that the modified tidal quality factors of the star that result are Q'★≳ 107, and possibly much

  18. Multi-wave interaction theory for wind-generated surface gravity waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glazman, Roman E.

    1992-01-01

    Consistently employing the assumption of localness of wave-wave interactions in the wavenumber space, the Kolmogorov treatment of the energy cascade is applied to the case of wind-generated surface gravity waves. The effective number v of resonantly interacting wave harmonics is not limited to four but is found as a solution of a coupled system of equations expressing: (i) the dependence of the spectrum shape on the degree of the wave nonlinearity, and (ii) the continuity of the wave action flux through the spectrum given a continuous positive input from wind. The latter is specified in a Miles-type fashion, and a simple scaling relationship based on the concept of the turnover time is derived in place of the kinetic equation. The mathematical problem is reduced to an ordinary differential equation of first order. The exponent in the 'power law' for the spectral density of the wave potential energy and the effective number of resonantly interacting wave harmonics are found as functions of the wave frequency and of external factors of wind-wave interaction. The solution is close to the Zakharov-Filonenko spectrum at low frequencies and low wind input while approaching the Phillips spectrum at high frequencies and sufficiently high wind.

  19. Stability of capillary-gravity interfacial waves between two bounded fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christodoulides, Paul; Dias, Frédéric

    1995-12-01

    Two-dimensional periodic capillary-gravity waves at the interface between two bounded fluids of different densities are considered. Based on a variational formulation, the relation between wave frequency and wave amplitude is obtained through a weakly nonlinear analysis. All classes of space-periodic waves are studied: traveling and standing waves as well as a degenerate class of mixed waves. As opposed to water waves, mixed interfacial waves exist even for pure gravity waves. The stability of traveling and standing waves with respect to three-dimensional modulations is then studied. By using the method of multiple scales, Davey-Stewartson-type equations are obtained. A detailed stability analysis is performed in three cases: pure gravity waves, capillary-gravity waves when one layer is infinitely deep, and capillary-gravity waves when both layers are infinitely deep. The main results for oblique (i.e., combined longitudinal and transverse) modulations reveal a mostly stabilizing effect of the density ratio for traveling waves and a destabilizing effect for standing waves.

  20. Driving of the SAO by gravity waves as observed from satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ern, M.; Preusse, P.; Riese, M.

    2015-04-01

    It is known that atmospheric dynamics in the tropical stratosphere have an influence on higher altitudes and latitudes as well as on surface weather and climate. In the tropics, the dynamics are governed by an interplay of the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO) and semiannual oscillation (SAO) of the zonal wind. The QBO is dominant in the lower and middle stratosphere, and the SAO in the upper stratosphere/lower mesosphere. For both QBO and SAO the driving by atmospheric waves plays an important role. In particular, the role of gravity waves is still not well understood. In our study we use observations of the High Resolution Dynamics Limb Sounder (HIRDLS) satellite instrument to derive gravity wave momentum fluxes and gravity wave drag in order to investigate the interaction of gravity waves with the SAO. These observations are compared with the ERA-Interim reanalysis. Usually, QBO westward winds are much stronger than QBO eastward winds. Therefore, mainly gravity waves with westward-directed phase speeds are filtered out through critical-level filtering already below the stratopause region. Accordingly, HIRDLS observations show that gravity waves contribute to the SAO momentum budget mainly during eastward wind shear, and not much during westward wind shear. These findings confirm theoretical expectations and are qualitatively in good agreement with ERA-Interim and other modeling studies. In ERA-Interim most of the westward SAO driving is due to planetary waves, likely of extratropical origin. Still, we find in both observations and ERA-Interim that sometimes westward-propagating gravity waves may contribute to the westward driving of the SAO. Four characteristic cases of atmospheric background conditions are identified. The forcings of the SAO in these cases are discussed in detail, supported by gravity wave spectra observed by HIRDLS. In particular, we find that the gravity wave forcing of the SAO cannot be explained by critical-level filtering alone; gravity

  1. Gravity Waves and their Effects on the Mean State and Variability of Mars' Atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Creasey, John E.

    Data from the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) spacecraft has revealed the presence of gravity waves in Mars' lower atmosphere and thermosphere. From perturbations in radio occultation temperature profiles of the lower atmosphere, global distributions of gravity wave potential energy density were calculated. The potential energy density distributions served as the basis to compute gravity wave source momentum flux used in a Mars dynamical model, marking the first time that a numerical study of Mars' gravity waves was observationally constrained. The gravity wave source spectrum is believed to include a stationary component from topographic forcing and a non-stationary component from atmospheric tides with large zonal wavenumbers. The model used was a Mars-specific version of the Hybrid Lindzen-Matsuno gravity wave parameterization that was created and integrated into the time-dependent, two-dimensional QNLM model for Mars. Due to the non-stationary waves in the gravity wave spectrum, the effect on predicted zonal wind and temperature fields was profound, particularly in the upper atmosphere above 100 km altitude where Mars' atmosphere is poorly observed. At solstice, the middle atmosphere zonal jets were closed near 80 km, and upper atmosphere zonal winds were significantly diminished from 120--140 m s-1 to near zero. Meridional circulation increased to over 50 m s-1 at altitudes where gravity wave breaking occurred, and adiabatic heating above the winter pole was enhanced. The model results were particularly sensitive to the prescribed phase speed distribution, and multiple phase speed spectra were evaluated to assess sensitivity. The effects of the non-stationary tidal components in the gravity wave spectrum indicate that Mars' GCMs may be underestimating their contribution to middle and upper atmosphere forcing, but open questions remain with respect to the phase speed distribution of non-stationary components and the relative contribution to momentum flux of

  2. Multi-instrument investigation of troposphere-ionosphere coupling through gravity waves and the role of gravity waves in the formation of equatorial plasma bubbles (EPBs)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sivakandan, Mani; Patra, Amit; Sripathi, Samireddipelle; Thokuluwa, Ramkumar; Paulino, Igo; Taori, Alok; Kandula, Niranjan

    2016-07-01

    Equatorial plasma bubble (EPB) occurs in the equatorial ionosphere in pre-mid night (most of the time) as well as post-midnight (rarely) hours. The generation of EPBs by Rayleigh-Taylor Instability (RTI) due to seeding of gravity wave perturbation (polarization electric field) have well been explained theoretically by several authors but experimental evidence supporting this hypothesis is very limited. Using co-located observations from Gadanki (13.5oN, 79.2o E) using an all sky airglow imager and Gadanki Ionospheric Radar Interferometer (GIRI) and Ionosonde observations from Tirunelveli (8.7o N, 77.8o E), we investigate the role of gravity waves in the generation EPB during geomagnetic quiet conditions. To avoid any changes occurring in the background ionosphere owing to the large scale features (e.g., seasonal variation), we use four consecutive nights (03-06, February, 2014). Out of these four nights on two nights we have noted very strong plasma depletions in the OI 630 nm airglow emission and radar plumes. We analyse data to identify cases where, 1) EPBs occurred with large amplitudes of mesospheric gravity waves, 2) Occurrence of EPBs without large amplitudes of mesospheric gravity waves, and 3) identifiable mesospheric gravity waves without occurrence of EPBs. In order to calculate the mesospheric gravity wave parameter we used mesospheric OH airglow emission imager data, to identify their propagation to the E-region, we used E-region observations made using the MST radar which resembled the gravity wave signatures. Together with these, by using ray tracing techniques, we have identified the source region of the noted gravity wave events also. These results are discussed in detail in the present study.

  3. Joint inversion of surface wave velocity and gravity observations and its application to central Asian basins shear velocity structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maceira, Monica; Ammon, Charles J.

    2009-02-01

    We implement and apply a method to the jointly inverted of surface wave group velocities and gravity anomalies observations. Surface wave dispersion measurements are sensitive to seismic shear wave velocities, and the gravity measurements supply constraints on rock density variations. Our goal is to obtain a self-consistent three-dimensional shear velocity-density model with increased resolution of shallow geologic structures. We apply the method to investigate the structure of the crust and upper mantle beneath two large central Asian sedimentary basins: the Tarim and Junggar. The basins have thick sediment sections that produce substantial regional gravity variations (up to several hundred milligals). We used gravity observations extracted from the global gravity model derived from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite mission. We combine the gravity anomalies with high-resolution surface wave slowness tomographic maps that provide group velocity dispersion values in the period range between 8 and 100 s for a grid of locations across central Asia. To integrate these data, we use a relationship between seismic velocity and density constructed through the combination of two empirical relations. One determined by Nafe and Drake, most appropriate for sedimentary rocks, and a linear Birch's law, more applicable to denser rocks (the basement). An iterative, damped least squares inversion including smoothing is used to jointly model both data sets, using shear velocity variations as the primary model parameters. Results show high upper mantle shear velocities beneath the Tarim basin and suggest differences in lower crust and upper mantle shear velocities between the eastern and western Tarim.

  4. Effect of gravity wave temperature variations on homogeneous ice nucleation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dinh, Tra; Podglajen, Aurélien; Hertzog, Albert; Legras, Bernard; Plougonven, Riwal

    2015-04-01

    Observations of cirrus clouds in the tropical tropopause layer (TTL) have shown various ice number concentrations (INC) (e.g., Jensen et al. 2013), which has lead to a puzzle regarding their formation. In particular, the frequently observed low numbers of ice crystals seemed hard to reconcile with homogeneous nucleation knowing the ubuquity of gravity waves with vertical velocity of the order of 0.1 m/s. Using artificial time series, Spichtinger and Krämer (2013) have illustrated that the variation of vertical velocity during a nucleation event could terminate it and limit the INC. However, their study was limited to constructed temperature time series. Here, we carry out numerical simulations of homogeneous ice nucleation forced by temperature time series data collected by isopycnic balloon flights near the tropical tropopause. The balloons collected data at high frequency (30 s), so gravity wave signals are well resolved in the temperature time series. With the observed temperature time series, the numerical simulations with homogeneous freezing show a full range of ice number concentrations (INC) as previously observed in the tropical upper troposphere. The simulations confirm that the dynamical time scale of temperature variations (as seen from observations) can be shorter than the nucleation time scale. They show the existence of two regimes for homogeneous ice nucleation : one limited by the depletion of water vapor by the nucleated ice crystals (those we name vapor events) and one limited by the reincrease of temperature after its initial decrease (temperature events). Low INC may thus be obtained for temperature events when the gravity wave perturbations produce a non-persistent cooling rate (even with large magnitude) such that the absolute change in temperature remains small during nucleation. This result for temperature events is explained analytically by a dependence of the INC on the absolute drop in temperature (and not on the cooling rate). This

  5. Modeling the QBO and SAO Driven by Gravity Waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mayr, H. G.; Mengel, J. G.; Chan, K. L.; Porter, H. S.

    1999-01-01

    Hines' Doppler spread parameterization (DSP) for small scale gravity waves (GW) is applied in a global scale numerical spectral model (NSM) to describe the semi-annual and quasi-biennial oscillations (SAO and QBO) as well as the long term interannual variations that are driven by wave mean flow interactions. This model has been successful in simulating the salient features observed near the equator at altitudes above 20 km, including the QBO extension into the upper mesosphere inferred from UARS measurements. The model has now been extended to describe also the mean zonal and meridional circulations of the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere that affect the equatorial QBO and its global scale extension. This is accomplished in part through tuning of the GW parameterization, and preliminary results lead to the following conclusions: (1) To reproduce the upwelling at equatorial latitudes associated with the Brewer/Dobson circulation that in part is modulated in the model by the vertical component of the Coriolis force, the eddy diffusivity in the lower stratosphere had to be enhanced and the related GW spectrum modified to bring it in closer agreement with the form recommended for the DSP. (2) To compensate for the required increase in the diffusivity, the observed QBO requires a larger GW source that is closer to the middle of the range recommended for the DSP. (3) Through global scale momentum redistribution, the above developments are conducive to extending the QBO and SAO oscillations to higher latitudes. Multi-year interannual oscillations are generated through wave filtering by the solar driven annual oscillation in the zonal circulation. (4) In a 3D version of the model, wave momentum is absorbed and dissipated by tides and planetary waves. Thus, a somewhat larger GW source is required to generate realistic amplitudes for the QBO and SAO.

  6. Numerical modeling of nonlinear acoustic-gravity wave propagation in the whole atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gavrilov, Nikolai M.; Kshevetskii, Sergey P.

    According to present knowledge, acoustic-gravity waves (AGWs) observed in the upper atmosphere may be generated near the Earth surface due to different sources and propagate upwards. Algorithms for two- and three-dimensional numerical simulation of vertical propagation and breaking of nonlinear AGWs from the Earth's surface to the upper atmosphere were developed recently. The algorithms of the solution of fluid dynamic equations use finite-difference analogues of basic conservation laws. This approach allows us to select physically correct generalized wave solutions of the nonlinear equations. Horizontally moving periodical horizontal sinusoidal structures of vertical velocity on the Earth’s surface serve as AGW sources in the model. Numerical simulation was made in a region of the Earth atmosphere with dimensions up to several thousand kilometers horizontally and 500 km vertically. Vertical profiles of the mean temperature, density, molecular viscosity and thermal conductivity are specified from standard models of the atmosphere. Calculations are made for different amplitudes, horizontal wavelengths and speeds of wave sources at the bottom boundary of the model. It is shown that after “switch on” tropospheric source atmospheric waves very quickly (for several minutes) may propagate to high altitudes (up to 100 km). When AGW amplitudes increase with height, waves may break down in the middle and upper atmosphere. Instability and dissipation of wave energy may lead to formations of wave accelerations of the mean winds and to creations of wave-induced jet flows in the middle and upper atmosphere. Nonlinear interactions may lead to instabilities of the initial wave and to the creation of smaller-scale structures. These smaller inhomogeneities may increase temperature and wind gradients and enhance the wave energy dissipation. Thus, the increase in AGW amplitudes in the upper atmosphere may occur at a much slower pace than the increase in amplitudes of

  7. Position and frequency shifts induced by massive modes of the gravitational wave background in alternative gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Bellucci, Stefano; Capozziello, Salvatore; De Laurentis, Mariafelicia; Faraoni, Valerio

    2009-05-15

    Alternative theories of gravity predict the presence of massive scalar, vector, and tensor gravitational wave modes in addition to the standard massless spin 2 graviton of general relativity. The deflection and frequency shift effects on light from distant sources propagating through a stochastic background of gravitational waves, containing such modes, differ from their counterparts in general relativity. Such effects are considered as a possible signature for alternative gravity in attempts to detect deviations from Einstein's gravity by astrophysical means.

  8. Numerical simulation of gravity wave breaking in the lower thermosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lund, Thomas S.; Fritts, David C.

    2012-11-01

    Numerical simulations are used to study gravity wave (GW) propagation, instability, and breaking in the lower thermosphere. Compressible effects are accounted for via an anelastic formulation of the equations of motion and we employ a realistic description of the background thermodynamic state. An initially low-amplitude, monochromatic GW with horizontal wavelength 60 km and intrinsic frequency N/3.7 is introduced at the lower boundary and allowed to propagate to higher altitudes. The GW steepens as it propagates upward and displays instability and breaking over the altitude range ˜120-160 km. The effects of momentum deposition due to viscous attenuation and wave breaking are studied by comparing simulations which either include or exclude induced changes to the mean wind. These two cases also bound the range of expected behavior for horizontally localized GW packets. When induced changes to the mean wind are excluded, instability and turbulence occur over a broad altitude range spanning several vertical wavelengths. In contrast, the region of instability and turbulence is confined to a much more limited altitude range when induced mean wind effects are included. Wave breaking and turbulence in this case are largely confined within a shear layer formed by GW momentum transport. In time, the shear layer evolves into a critical level which consumes nearly all of the incident GW energy.

  9. Ray Tracing Modeling of Gravity Wave Propagation and Dissipation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vadas, Sharon; Crowley, Geoff

    In this paper, we describe a ray trace model which calculates the wavevector, location and phase of a gravity wave (GW) as it propagates in the lower atmosphere and thermosphere. If used for a discreet transient source (such as a deep convective plume), we describe how this model can calculate the body forcing and the heat/cooling that are created when the GWs within a wave packet dissipate in the thermosphere from kinematic viscosity and thermal diffusivity. Although the body force calculation requires only the divergence of the momentum flux, the heat/cooling calculation requires the reconstructed GW field (e.g., density, velocity perturbations), which in turn requires the GW dissipative polarization relations. We describe these relations. We then describe the results of a recent study involving GWs identified from TIDDBIT HF Doppler sounder data taken at Wallops Island, VI, USA. Using this ray trace model, we determine if the unusual neutral wind profile measured by a rocket experiment at high altitudes (~290-370 km) could have been caused by the propagation and dissipation of several waves observed by TIDDBIT at lower altitudes.

  10. (abstract) Tropospheric Calibration for the Mars Observer Gravity Wave Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walter, Steven J.; Armstrong, John

    1994-01-01

    In spring 1993, microwave radiometer-based tropospheric calibration was provided for the Mars Observer gravitational wave search. The Doppler shifted X-band radio signals propagating between Earth and the Mars Observer satellite were precisely measured to determine path length variations that might signal passage of gravitational waves. Experimental sensitivity was restricted by competing sources of variability in signal transit time. Principally, fluctuations in the solar wind and ionospheric plasma density combined with fluctions in tropospheric refractivity determined the detection limit. Troposphere-induced path delay fluctions are dominated by refractive changes caused by water vapor inhomogeneities blowing through the signal path. Since passive microwave remote sensing techniques are able to determine atmospheric propagation delays, radiometer-based tropospheric calibration was provided at the Deep Space Network Uranus tracking site (DSS-15). Two microwave water vapor radiometers (WVRs), a microwave temperature profiler (MTP), and a ground based meterological station were deployed to determine line-of-sight vapor content and vertical temperature profile concurrently with Mars Observer tracking measurements. This calibration system provided the capability to correct Mars Observer Doppler data for troposphere-induced path variations. We present preliminary analysis of the Doppler and WVR data sets illustrating the utility of WVRs to calibrate Doppler data. This takes an important step toward realizing the ambitious system required to support future Ka-band Cassini satellite gravity wave tropospheric calibration system.

  11. Non-linear interaction of elastic waves in rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuvshinov, B. N.; Smit, T. J. H.; Campman, X. H.

    2013-09-01

    We study theoretically the interaction of elastic waves caused by non-linearities of rock elastic moduli, and assess the possibility to use this phenomenon in hydrocarbon exploration and in the analysis of rock samples. In our calculations we use the five-constant model by Gol'dberg. It is shown that the interaction of plane waves in isotropic solids is completely described by five coupling coefficients, which have the same order of magnitude. By considering scattering of compressional waves generated by controlled sources at the Earth surface from a non-linear layer at the subsurface, we conclude that non-linear signals from deep formations are unlikely to be measured with the current level of technology. Our analysis of field tests where non-linear signals were measured, suggests that these signals are generated either in the shallow subsurface or in the vicinity of sources. Non-linear wave interaction might be observable in lab tests with focused ultrasonic beams. In this case, the non-linear response is generated in the secondary parametric array formed by linear beams scattered from inclusions. Although the strength of this response is controlled by non-linearity of the surrounding medium rather than by non-linearity of inclusions, its measurement can help to obtain better images of rock samples.

  12. Evidence of a saturated gravity-wave spectrum throughout the atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fritts, D. C.; Smith, S. A.

    1986-01-01

    The view adapted here is that the dominant mesoscale motions are due to internal gravity waves and show that previous and new vertical wave number spectra of horizontal winds are consistent with the notion of a saturation limit on wave amplitudes. It is also proposed that, at any height, only those vertical wave numbers m less than m sub asterisk are at saturation amplitudes, where m sub asterisk is the vertical wave number of the dominant energy-containing scale. Wave numbers m less than m sub asterisk are unsaturated, but experience growth with height due to the decrease of atmospheric density. The result is a saturated spectrum of gravity waves with both m sub asterisk decreasing and wave energy increasing with height. This saturation theory is consistent with a variety of atmospheric spectral observations and provides a basis for the notion of a universal spectrum of atmospheric gravity waves.

  13. Wave action and critical surfaces for hydromagnetic-inertial-gravity waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Sawi, M.; Eltayeb, I. A.

    1981-05-01

    The propagation properties of hydromagnetic-inertial-gravity waves riding a basic state which varies slowly in two independent coordinates are examined in the Boussinesq approximation. The amplitudes of the waves are governed by an equation representing conservation of wave action. A study of the dispersion relation shows that the existence of critical surfaces (i.e. the analogue of critical levels in two-dimensions) is governed by nonlinear partial differential equations for the phase function of the waves. Although a solution of these equations is not readily obtainable, the geometric representation of the dispersion relation indicates the existence of critical surfaces for certain types of basic state. These are composed of magnetic field lines and, in contrast to the non-magnetic case, they are associated with energy propagation.

  14. Gravitational-wave observations as a tool for testing relativistic gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eardley, D. M.; Lee, D. L.; Lightman, A. P.; Wagoner, R. V.; Will, C. M.

    1973-01-01

    Approaches regarding the role of gravitational wave observations in the investigation of relativistic theories of gravity are treated as providing greater potential in the prediction of wave propagation speed and the polarization properties of gravitational waves. The invariant classes of waves discussed have the same post-Newtonian limit as general relativity for a reasonable choice of cosmological models.

  15. Analysis of non linear partially standing waves from 3D velocity measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drevard, D.; Rey, V.; Svendsen, Ib; Fraunie, P.

    2003-04-01

    Surface gravity waves in the ocean exhibit an energy spectrum distributed in both frequency and direction of propagation. Wave data collection is of great importance in coastal zones for engineering and scientific studies. In particular, partially standing waves measurements near coastal structures and steep or barred beaches may be a requirement, for instance for morphodynamic studies. The aim of the present study is the analysis of partially standing surface waves icluding non-linear effects. According to 1st order Stokes theory, synchronous measurements of horizontal and vertical velocity components allow calculation of rate of standing waves (Drevard et al, 2003). In the present study, it is demonstrated that for deep water conditions, partially standing 2nd order Stokes waves induced velocity field is still represented by the 1st order solution for the velocity potential contrary to the surface elevation which exhibits harmonic components. For intermediate water depth, harmonic components appear not only in the surface elevation but also in the velocity fields, but their weight remains much smaller, because of the vertical decreasing wave induced motion. For irregular waves, the influence of the spectrum width on the non-linear effects in the analysis is discussed. Keywords: Wave measurements ; reflection ; non-linear effects Acknowledgements: This work was initiated during the stay of Prof. Ib Svendsen, as invited Professor, at LSEET in autumn 2002. This study is carried out in the framework of the Scientific French National Programmes PNEC ART7 and PATOM. Their financial supports are acknowledged References: Drevard, D., Meuret, A., Rey, V. Piazzola, J. And Dolle, A.. (2002). "Partially reflected waves measurements using Acoustic Doppler Velocimeter (ADV)", Submitted to ISOPE 03, Honolulu, Hawaii, May 2003.

  16. Gravity Wave Forcing of the Mesosphere and Lower Thermosphere: Mountain and Convective Waves Ascending Vertically (MaCWAVE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fritts, David C.

    2004-01-01

    The specific objectives of this research effort included the following: 1) Quantification of gravity wave propagation throughout the lower and middle atmosphere in order to define the roles of topographic and convective sources and filtering by mean and low-frequency winds in defining the wave field and wave fluxes at greater altitudes; 2) The influences of wave instability processes in constraining wave amplitudes and fluxes and generating turbulence and transport; 3) Gravity wave forcing of the mean circulation and thermal structure in the presence of variable motion fields and wave-wave interactions, since the mean forcing may be a small residual when wave interactions, anisotropy, and momentum and heat fluxes are large; 4) The statistical forcing and variability imposed on the thermosphere at greater altitudes by the strong wave forcing and interactions occurring in the MLTI.

  17. Relation of the lunar volcano complexes lying on the identical linear gravity anomaly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, K.; Haruyama, J.; Ohtake, M.; Iwata, T.; Ishihara, Y.

    2015-12-01

    There are several large-scale volcanic complexes, e.g., Marius Hills, Aristarchus Plateau, Rumker Hills, and Flamsteed area in western Oceanus Procellarum of the lunar nearside. For better understanding of the lunar thermal history, it is important to study these areas intensively. The magmatisms and volcanic eruption mechanisms of these volcanic complexes have been discussed from geophysical and geochemical perspectives using data sets acquired by lunar explorers. In these data sets, precise gravity field data obtained by Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) gives information on mass anomalies below the lunar surface, and useful to estimate location and mass of the embedded magmas. Using GRAIL data, Andrews-Hanna et al. (2014) prepared gravity gradient map of the Moon. They discussed the origin of the quasi-rectangular pattern of narrow linear gravity gradient anomalies located along the border of Oceanus Procellarum and suggested that the underlying dikes played important roles in magma plumbing system. In the gravity gradient map, we found that there are also several small linear gravity gradient anomaly patterns in the inside of the large quasi-rectangular pattern, and that one of the linear anomalies runs through multiple gravity anomalies in the vicinity of Aristarchus, Marius and Flamstead volcano complexes. Our concern is whether the volcanisms of these complexes are caused by common factors or not. To clarify this, we firstly estimated the mass and depth of the embedded magmas as well as the directions of the linear gravity anomalies. The results were interpreted by comparing with the chronological and KREEP distribution maps on the lunar surface. We suggested providing mechanisms of the magma to these regions and finally discussed whether the volcanisms of these multiple volcano complex regions are related with each other or not.

  18. Convectively Generated Gravity Waves In The Tropical Stratosphere: Case Studies And Importance For The Circulation Of The Middle Atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pfister, Leonhard; Chan, Kwoklong R.; Gary, Bruce; Singh, Hanwant B. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    The advent of high altitude aircraft measurements in the stratosphere over tropical convective systems has made it possible to observe the mesoscale disturbances in the temperature field that these systems excite. Such measurements show that these disturbances have horizontal scales comparable to those of the underlying anvils (about 50-100 km) with peak to peak theta surface variations of about 300-400 meters. Moreover, correlative wind measurements from the tropical phase of the Stratosphere-Troposphere Exchange Project (STEP) clearly show that these disturbances are gravity waves. We present two case studies of anvil-scale gravity waves over convective systems. Using steady and time-dependent linear models of gravity wave propagation in the stratosphere, we show: (1) that the underlying convective systems are indeed the source of the observed phenomena; and (2) that their generating mechanism can be crudely represented as flow over a time-dependent mountain. We will then discuss the effects gravity waves of the observed amplitudes have on the circulation of the middle atmosphere, particularly the quasi-biennial, and semiannual oscillations.

  19. Applications of acoustic-gravity waves numerical modelling to tsunami signals observed by gravimetry satellites in very low orbit.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brissaud, Quentin; Garcia, Raphael; Martin, Roland; Komatitsch, Dimitri; Sladen, Anthony

    2016-04-01

    Acoustic and gravity waves propagating in planetary atmospheres have been studied intensively as markers of specific phenomena (tectonic events, explosions) or as contributors to atmosphere dynamics. To get a better understanding of the physics behind these dynamic processes, both acoustic and gravity waves propagation should be modeled in an attenuating and windy 3D atmosphere from the ground all the way to the upper thermosphere. Thus, in order to provide an efficient numerical tool at the regional or global scale we introduce a high-order finite- difference time domain (FDTD) approach that relies on the linearized compressible Navier-Stokes equations with non constant physical parameters (density, viscosities and speed of sound) and background velocities (wind). We present applications of these simulations to the propagation of gravity waves generated by tsunamis for realistic cases for which atmospheric models are extracted from empirical models including 3D variations of atmospheric parameters, and tsunami forcing at the ocean surface is extracted from finite-fault dislocation simulations. We describe the specific difficulties induced by the size of the simulation, the boundary conditions and the spherical geometry and compare the simulation outputs to data gathered by gravimetric satellites crossing gravity waves generated by tsunamis.

  20. The southern stratospheric gravity wave hot spot: individual waves and their momentum fluxes measured by COSMIC GPS-RO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hindley, N. P.; Wright, C. J.; Smith, N. D.; Mitchell, N. J.

    2015-07-01

    Nearly all general circulation models significantly fail to reproduce the observed behaviour of the southern wintertime polar vortex. It has been suggested that these biases result from an underestimation of gravity wave drag on the atmosphere at latitudes near 60° S, especially around the "hot spot" of intense gravity wave fluxes above the mountainous Southern Andes and Antarctic peninsula. Here, we use Global Positioning System radio occultation (GPS-RO) data from the COSMIC satellite constellation to determine the properties of gravity waves in the hot spot and beyond. We show considerable southward propagation to latitudes near 60° S of waves apparently generated over the southern Andes. We propose that this propagation may account for much of the wave drag missing from the models. Furthermore, there is a long leeward region of increased gravity wave energy that sweeps eastwards from the mountains over the Southern Ocean. Despite its striking nature, the source of this region has historically proved difficult to determine. Our observations suggest that this region includes both waves generated locally and orographic waves advected downwind from the hot spot. We describe and use a new wavelet-based analysis technique for the quantitative identification of individual waves from COSMIC temperature profiles. This analysis reveals different geographical regimes of wave amplitude and short-timescale variability in the wave field over the Southern Ocean. Finally, we use the increased numbers of closely spaced pairs of profiles from the deployment phase of the COSMIC constellation in 2006 to make estimates of gravity wave horizontal wavelengths. We show that, given sufficient observations, GPS-RO can produce physically reasonable estimates of stratospheric gravity wave momentum flux in the hot spot that are consistent with measurements made by other techniques. We discuss our results in the context of previous satellite and modelling studies and explain how they

  1. Gravity Wave Disturbances in the F-Region Ionosphere Above Large Earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruff, Margie

    The direction of propagation, duration and wavelength of gravity waves in the ionosphere above large earthquakes were studied using data from the Super Dual Auroral Radar Network. Ground scatter data were plotted versus range and time to identify gravity waves as alternating focused and de-focused regions of radar power in wave-like patterns. The wave patterns before and after earthquakes were analyzed to determine the directions of propagation and wavelengths. Conditions were considered 48 hours before and after each identified disturbances to exclude waves from geomagnetic activity. Gravity waves were found travelling away from the epicenter before all six earthquakes for which data were available and after four of the six earthquakes. Gravity waves travelled in at least two directions away from the epicenter in all cases, and even stronger patterns were found for two earthquakes. Waves appeared, on average, 4 days before, persisting 2-3 hours, and 1-2 days after earthquakes, persisting 4-6 hours. Most wavelengths were between 200-300 km. We show a possible correlation between magnitude and depth of earthquakes and gravity wave patterns, but study of more earthquakes is required. This study provides a better understanding of the causes of ionospheric gravity wave disturbances and has potential applications for predicting earthquakes.

  2. Ionospheric remote sensing of medium-scale gravity waves and tornadic storms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hung, R. J.; Smith, R. E.

    1981-01-01

    Gravity waves associated with severe storms are investigated on the basis of ionospheric sounding using a ground-based Doppler system. Reverse-group ray tracing computations are used to determine the origin of over 20 gravity waves detected within 800 km of Huntsville, Alabama in association with a group of tornadoes, isolated tornadoes in the presence of a squall line, and isolated tornadoes in the absence of a squall line. Gravity waves associated with tornadoes are found either to be generated by thunderstorms with enhanced convection embedded in a squall line, or in an isolated cloud with enhanced convection. The computed wave sources are observed in all cases to be located near the points where the tornadoes touched down more than an hour after wave excitation. Results show that gravity waves play an important role in troposphere-ionosphere coupling during times of intense convection associated with tornadic storm activity.

  3. Ionospsheric observation of enhanced convection-initiated gravity waves during tornadic storms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hung, R. J.

    1981-01-01

    Atmospheric gravity waves associated with tornadoes, with locally severe storms occuring with tornadoes, and with hurricanes were studied through the coupling between the ionosphere and the troposphere. Reverse group ray tracing computations of gravity waves observed by an ionospheric Doppler sounder array were analyzed. The results of ray tracing computations and comparisons between the computed location of the wave sources and with conventional meteorological data indicate that the computed sources of the waves were near the touchdown of the tornadoes, near the eye of the hurricanes, and directly on the squall line of the severe thunderstorms. The signals excited occurred one hour in advance of the tornadoes and three hours in advance of the hurricanes. Satellite photographs show convective overshooting turrets occurring at the same locations and times the gravity waves were being excited. It is suggested that gravity wave observations, conventional meteorological data, and satellite photographs be combined to develop a remote sensing technique for detecting severe storms.

  4. Theoretical and lidar studies of the density response of the mesospheric sodium layer to gravity wave perturbations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shelton, J. D.; Gardner, C. S.

    1981-01-01

    The density response of atmospheric layers to gravity waves is developed in two forms, an exact solution and a perturbation series solution. The degree of nonlinearity in the layer density response is described by the series solution whereas the exact solution gives insight into the nature of the responses. Density perturbation in an atmospheric layer are shown to be substantially greater than the atmospheric density perturbation associated with the propagation of a gravity wave. Because of the density gradients present in atmospheric layers, interesting effects were observed such as a phase reversal in the linear layer response which occurs near the layer peak. Once the layer response is understood, the sodium layer can be used as a tracer of atmospheric wave motions. A two dimensional digital signal processing technique was developed. Both spatial and temporal filtering are utilized to enhance the resolution by decreasing shot noise by more han 10 dB. Many of the features associated with a layer density response to gravity waves were observed in high resolution density profiles of the mesospheric sodium layer. These include nonlinearities as well as the phase reversal in the linear layer response.

  5. Could linear hysteresis contribute to shear wave losses in tissues?

    PubMed

    Parker, Kevin J

    2015-04-01

    For nearly 100 y in the study of cyclical motion in materials, a particular phenomenon called "linear hysteresis" or "ideal hysteretic damping" has been widely observed. More recently in the field of shear wave elastography, the basic mechanisms underlying shear wave losses in soft tissues are in question. Could linear hysteresis play a role? An underlying theoretical question must be answered: Is there a real and causal physical model that is capable of producing linear hysteresis over a band of shear wave frequencies used in diagnostic imaging schemes? One model that can approximately produce classic linear hysteresis behavior, by examining a generalized Maxwell model with a specific power law relaxation spectrum, is described here. This provides a theoretical plausibility for the phenomenon as a candidate for models of tissue behavior. PMID:25701527

  6. Interaction of highly nonlinear solitary waves with linear elastic media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jinkyu; Silvestro, Claudio; Khatri, Devvrath; de Nardo, Luigi; Daraio, Chiara

    2011-04-01

    We study the interaction of highly nonlinear solitary waves propagating in granular crystals with an adjacent linear elastic medium. We investigate the effects of interface dynamics on the reflection of incident waves and on the formation of primary and secondary reflected waves. Experimental tests are performed to correlate the linear medium geometry, materials, and mass with the formation and propagation of reflected waves. We compare the experimental results with theoretical analysis based on the long-wavelength approximation and with numerical predictions obtained from discrete particle models. Experimental results are found to be in agreement with theoretical analysis and numerical simulations. This preliminary study establishes the foundation for utilizing reflected solitary waves as novel information carriers in nondestructive evaluation of elastic material systems.

  7. Interaction of highly nonlinear solitary waves with linear elastic media.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jinkyu; Silvestro, Claudio; Khatri, Devvrath; De Nardo, Luigi; Daraio, Chiara

    2011-04-01

    We study the interaction of highly nonlinear solitary waves propagating in granular crystals with an adjacent linear elastic medium. We investigate the effects of interface dynamics on the reflection of incident waves and on the formation of primary and secondary reflected waves. Experimental tests are performed to correlate the linear medium geometry, materials, and mass with the formation and propagation of reflected waves. We compare the experimental results with theoretical analysis based on the long-wavelength approximation and with numerical predictions obtained from discrete particle models. Experimental results are found to be in agreement with theoretical analysis and numerical simulations. This preliminary study establishes the foundation for utilizing reflected solitary waves as novel information carriers in nondestructive evaluation of elastic material systems. PMID:21599325

  8. Dispersion Relation of Linear Waves in Quantum Magnetoplasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Jun

    2016-07-01

    The quantum magnetohydrodynamic (QMHD) model is applied in investigating the propagation of linear waves in quantum magnetoplasmas. Using the QMHD model, the dispersion equation for quantum magnetoplasmas and the dispersion relations of linear waves are deduced. Results show that quantum effects affect the propagation of electron plasma waves and extraordinary waves (X waves). When we select the plasma parameters of the laser-based plasma compression (LBPC) schemes for calculation, the quantum correction cannot be neglected. Meanwhile, the corrections produced by the Fermi degeneracy pressure and Bohm potential are compared under different plasma parameter conditions. supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 11447125) and the Research Training Program for Undergraduates of Shanxi University of China (Nos. 2014012167, 2015013182)

  9. Mass Distribution in Plumes: constraints from gravity waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sacks, S. I.; Baines, P. G.

    2012-12-01

    The Soufriere Hills volcano on Montserrat Island in the Caribbean has been active for more than 15 years. A small network, consisting of 4 sites, 5 - 10 km distant from the Soufriere Hills Volcano, was installed early in 2003. Each site has borehole strainmeters as well as micro-barographs and gave clear data from all volcanic events. A number of vulcanian explosions followed the major dome collapse on 13th July, 2003 and have continued until at least January 2008.. The plumes from these fragmentation events gave rise to an ~800 second period atmospheric pressure signal of 20 - 50 pascal amplitude propagating at about 30 m/sec. The onset is rarefaction. The data are consistent with a gravity wave confined to the troposphere. Note that plumes penetrating the stratosphere have a very different air pressure character. Initial modeling indicated that the coda of these waves was sensitive to the mass distribution in the plume. Since only the data beyond about 1000 seconds are found to yield information about mass distribution, we can use a simple impulsive source. The data, and particularly the coda, are best satisfied if most of the effective mass is at mid-plume, with reduced amounts near the surface and high in the troposphere. This suggests that the heavier ash particles fall as the plume rises. Since particle size impacts the event's hazard, this type of observation may have predictive capability.

  10. Gravity Wave Emission by Spontaneous Imbalance of Baroclinic Waves in the Continuously Stratified Rotating Annulus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borchert, Sebastian; Achatz, Ulrich; Rieper, Felix; Fruman, Mark

    2013-04-01

    We use a numerical model of the classic differentially heated rotating annulus experiment to study the spontaneous emission of gravity waves (GWs) from jet stream imbalances, which is a major source of these waves in the atmosphere for which no satisfactory parameterization exists. Atmospheric observations are the main tool for the testing and verification of theoretical concepts but have their limitations. Given their specific potential for yielding reproducible data and for studying process dependence on external system parameters, laboratory experiments are an invaluable complementary tool. Experiments with a rotating annulus exhibiting a jet modulated by large-scale waves due to baroclinic instability have already been used to study GWs: Williams et al (2008) observed spontaneously emitted interfacial GWs in a two-layer flow, and Jacoby et al (2011) detected GWs emitted from boundary-layer instabilities in a differentially heated rotating annulus. Employing a finite-volume code for the numerical simulation of a continuously stratified liquid in a differentially heated rotating annulus, we here investigate the GWs in a wide and shallow annulus with relatively large temperature difference between inner and outer cylinder walls. In this atmosphere-like regime where the Brunt-Vaisala frequency is larger than the inertial frequency, various analyses suggest a distinct gravity wave activity. To identify regions of GW emission we decompose the flow into the geostrophic and ageostrophic part through the inversion of the quasi-geostrophic potential vorticity (e.g. Verkley, 2009). The analysis of the geostrophic sources of the ageostrophic flow indicates that, in addition to boundary layer instabilities, spontaneous imbalance in the jet region acts as an important source mechanism. Jacoby, T. N. L., Read, P. L., Williams, P. D. and Young, R. M. B., 2011: Generation of inertia-gravity waves in the rotating thermal annulus by a localised boundary layer instability. Geophys

  11. Using a new algorithm to track mixed-Rossby gravity waves (MRG) waves in reanalysis data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Au-Yeung, A. Y. M.; Tam, C. Y.

    2015-12-01

    A new algorithm has been developed to track westward travelling mixed-Rossby gravity waves (MRG) waves in the western Pacific based on the theoretical meridional wind structure stated in the shallow water equation (SWE) solutions. Applied to space-time filtered (period=3 to 8 days and wavenumber =-20 to 0), asymmetric meridional wind data at the 850hPa level from the NCEP CFS reanalysis, the algorithm finds locations with Gaussian-shaped meridional wind structure stated in SWE solutions through space and time. Two groups of MRG waves were found: one with higher wavenumber (11) and another one with lower-wavenumber (6). Moreover, the MRG waves show very different dispersive properties and occurrence behavior in the western and eastern equatorial Pacific. While both groups appear in the western Pacific, mainly 6 waves were found in the eastern Pacific. The fact that both 6 and 11 waves appear in the western Pacific agrees with past discussions on the co-existence of MRG waves and tropical-disturbance type (TD-type) waves. Also, the high wavenumber wave activities mainly appear west of the dateline, meaning that some triggering process may have taken place there. Northwestward wave train movement was found west of 140E in the low-level wind composites. On the other hand, negative correlation between meridional wind and temperature (negative) found in the vertical composites indicates downward vertical wave activity flux prior to the occurrences of MRG waves. Finally, in the western Pacific, kinetic energy energetics suggests that energy source of transient eddies is from the confluent background flow and also the zonal wind shear terms in the western Pacific. Overall, our method provides a way to identify the MRG waves instantaneously; in contrast, most of the methods employed in the past (e.g., spectral analysis or lag correlation/regression) are based on aggregates of data and they can only examine wave properties averaged over a certain period of time. Since MRG

  12. Long-term Global Morphology of Gravity Wave Activity Using UARS Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eckermann, Stephen D.; Jackman, C. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    An extensive body of research this quarter is documented. Further methodical analysis of temperature residuals in Cryogenic Limb Array Etalon Spectrometer (CLAES) Version 8 level 3AT data show signatures during December 1992 at middle and high northern latitudes that, when compared to Naval Research Laboratory/Mountain Wave Forecast Model (NRL)/(MWFM) mountain wave hindcasts, reveal evidence of long mountain waves in these data over Eurasia, Greenland, Scandinavia and North America. The explicit detection of gravity waves in limb-scanned Cryogenic Infrared Spectrometers and Telescopes for the Atmosphere (CRISTA) temperatures is modeled at length, to derive visibility functions. These insights are used to convert CRISTA gravity wave temperature residuals into data that more closely resemble gravity wave fluctuations detected in data from other satellite instruments, such as Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS), Limb Infrared Monitor of the Stratosphere (LIMS) and Global Positioning System/Meteorology (GPS)/(MET). Finally, newly issued mesospheric temperatures from inversion of CRISTA 15gin emissions are analyzed using a new method that uses separate Kalman fits to the ascending and descending node data. This allows us to study global gravity wave amplitudes at two local times, 12 hours apart. In the equatorial mesosphere, where a large diurnal tidal temperature signal exists, we see modulations of gravity wave activity that are consistent with gravity wave-tidal interactions produced by tidal temperature variability.

  13. Note on linearized ``new massive gravity'' in arbitrary dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalmazi, D.; Santos, R. C.

    2013-04-01

    By means of a triple master action we deduce here a linearized version of the “new massive gravity” (NMG) in arbitrary dimensions. The theory contains a 4th-order and a 2nd-order term in derivatives. The 4th-order term is invariant under a generalized Weyl symmetry. The action is formulated in terms of a traceless ημνΩμνρ=0 mixed symmetry tensor Ωμνρ=-Ωμρν and corresponds to the massive Fierz-Pauli action with the replacement eμν=∂ρΩμνρ. The linearized 3D and 4D NMG theories are recovered via the invertible maps Ωμνρ=ɛνρβhβμ and Ωμνρ=ɛνργδT[γδ]μ respectively. The properties hμν=hνμ and T[[γδ]μ]=0 follow from the traceless restriction. The equations of motion of the linearized NMG theory can be written as zero “curvature” conditions ∂νTρμ-∂ρTνμ=0 in arbitrary dimensions.

  14. Satellite radio occultation investigations of internal gravity waves in the planetary atmospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirillovich, Ivan; Gubenko, Vladimir; Pavelyev, Alexander

    Internal gravity waves (IGWs) modulate the structure and circulation of the Earth’s atmosphere, producing quasi-periodic variations in the wind velocity, temperature and density. Similar effects are anticipated for the Venus and Mars since IGWs are a characteristic of stably stratified atmosphere. In this context, an original method for the determination of IGW parameters from a vertical temperature profile measurement in a planetary atmosphere has been developed [Gubenko et al., 2008, 2011, 2012]. This method does not require any additional information not contained in the profile and may be used for the analysis of profiles measured by various techniques. The criterion for the IGW identification has been formulated and argued. In the case when this criterion is satisfied, the analyzed temperature fluctuations can be considered as wave-induced. The method is based on the analysis of relative amplitudes of the wave field and on the linear IGW saturation theory in which these amplitudes are restricted by dynamical (shear) instability processes in the atmosphere. When the amplitude of an internal wave reaches the shear instability threshold, energy is assumed to be dissipated in such a way that the IGW amplitude is maintained at the instability threshold level as the wave propagates upwards. We have extended the developed technique [Gubenko et al., 2008] in order to reconstruct the complete set of wave characteristics including such important parameters as the wave kinetic and potential energy per unit mass and IGW fluxes of the energy and horizontal momentum [Gubenko et al., 2011]. We propose also an alternative method to estimate the relative amplitudes and to extract IGW parameters from an analysis of perturbations of the Brunt-Vaislala frequency squared [Gubenko et al., 2011]. An application of the developed method to the radio occultation (RO) temperature data has given the possibility to identify the IGWs in the Earth's, Martian and Venusian atmospheres and

  15. Linearized traveling wave amplifier with hard limiter characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kosmahl, H. G. (Inventor)

    1986-01-01

    A dynamic velocity taper is provided for a traveling wave tube with increased linearity to avoid intermodulation of signals being amplified. In a traveling wave tube, the slow wave structure is a helix including a sever. A dynamic velocity taper is provided by gradually reducing the spacing between the repeating elements of the slow wave structure which are the windings of the helix. The reduction which takes place coincides with the ouput point of helix. The spacing between the repeating elements of the slow wave structure is ideally at an exponential rate because the curve increases the point of maximum efficiency and power, at an exponential rate. A coupled cavity traveling wave tube having cavities is shown. The space between apertured discs is gradually reduced from 0.1% to 5% at an exponential rate. Output power (or efficiency) versus input power for a commercial tube is shown.

  16. Capillary-gravity waves on a liquid film of arbitrary depth: analysis of the wave resistance.

    PubMed

    Wędołowski, Karol; Napiórkowski, Marek

    2013-10-01

    We discuss the wave resistance in the case of an externally perturbed viscous liquid film of arbitrary thickness. Emphasis is placed on the dependence of the wave resistance on the film thickness H, the length scale b characterizing the external perturbation, and its velocity V. In particular, the effectiveness of the mechanisms of capillary-gravity waves and the viscous dissipation localized in the vicinity of the perturbation are compared and discussed as functions of H and V. We show that, in general, the wave resistance is a nonmonotonous function of H with a maximum whose amplitude and position depend on b and V. In the case of small H the wave resistance depends on a parameter S proportional V/H(3). We find three different regimes of this parameter in which the wave resistance behaves like S(r) with the exponent r equal to 1, 1/3, and -1. These results are also obtained independently within the thin liquid film approximation. This allows us to assess the range of validity of the thin liquid film approximation in various cases, in particular its dependence on the perturbation length scale b. PMID:24229283

  17. Gravity waves as a probe of the Hubble expansion rate during an electroweak scale phase transition

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, Daniel J. H.; Zhou Peng

    2010-07-15

    Just as big bang nucleosynthesis allows us to probe the expansion rate when the temperature of the Universe was around 1 MeV, the measurement of gravity waves from electroweak scale first order phase transitions may allow us to probe the expansion rate when the temperature of the Universe was at the electroweak scale. We compute the simple transformation rule for the gravity wave spectrum under the scaling transformation of the Hubble expansion rate. We then apply this directly to the scenario of quintessence kination domination and show how gravity wave spectra would shift relative to Laser Interferometer Space Antenna and Big Bang Observer projected sensitivities.

  18. Comparison of Global Distributions of Zonal-Mean Gravity Wave Variance Inferred from Different Satellite Instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Preusse, Peter; Eckermann, Stephen D.; Offermann, Dirk; Jackman, Charles H. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Gravity wave temperature fluctuations acquired by the CRISTA instrument are compared to previous estimates of zonal-mean gravity wave temperature variance inferred from the LIMS, MLS and GPS/MET satellite instruments during northern winter. Careful attention is paid to the range of vertical wavelengths resolved by each instrument. Good agreement between CRISTA data and previously published results from LIMS, MLS and GPS/MET are found. Key latitudinal features in these variances are consistent with previous findings from ground-based measurements and some simple models. We conclude that all four satellite instruments provide reliable global data on zonal-mean gravity wave temperature fluctuations throughout the middle atmosphere.

  19. Effects of anisotropy on the frequency spectrum of gravity waves observed by MST radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, C. H.

    1986-01-01

    In the investigation of gravity waves using mesosphere-stratosphere-troposphere radar data, model gravity-wave spectra have been used. In these model spectra, one usually assumes azimuthal symmetry. The effect of spectral anisotropy on the observed spectrum is studied here. It is shown that for a general Garrett-Munk-type spectrum, the anisotropy does not affect the frequency spectrum observed by the vertically beamed radar. For the oblique beam, however, the observed frequency spectrum is changed. A general gravity wave spectrum including azimuthal anisotropy is considered.

  20. Comparison of global distributions of zonal-mean gravity wave variance inferred from different satellite instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preusse, Peter; Eckermann, Stephen D.; Offermann, Dirk

    2000-12-01

    Gravity wave temperature fluctuations acquired by the CRISTA instrument are compared to previous estimates of zonal-mean gravity wave temperature variance inferred from the LIMS, MLS and GPS/MET satellite instruments during northern winter. Careful attention is paid to the range of vertical wavelengths resolved by each instrument. Good agreement between CRISTA data and previously published results from LIMS, MLS and GPS/MET are found. Key latitudinal features in these variances are consistent with previous findings from ground-based measurements and some simple models. We conclude that all four satellite instruments provide reliable global data on zonal-mean gravity wave temperature fluctuations throughout the middle atmosphere.

  1. Perturbations of the Richardson number field by gravity waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wurtele, M. G.; Sharman, R. D.

    1985-01-01

    An analytic solution is presented for a stratified fluid of arbitrary constant Richardson number. By computer aided analysis the perturbation fields, including that of the Richardson number can be calculated. The results of the linear analytic model were compared with nonlinear simulations, leading to the following conclusions: (1) the perturbations in the Richardson number field, when small, are produced primarily by the perturbations of the shear; (2) perturbations of in the Richardson number field, even when small, are not symmetric, the increase being significantly larger than the decrease (the linear analytic solution and the nonlinear simulations both confirm this result); (3) as the perturbations grow, this asymmetry increases, but more so in the nonlinear simulations than in the linear analysis; (4) for large perturbations of the shear flow, the static stability, as represented by N2, is the dominating mechanism, becoming zero or negative, and producing convective overturning; and (5) the convectional measure of linearity in lee wave theory, NH/U, is no longer the critical parameter (it is suggested that (H/u sub 0) (du sub 0/dz) takes on this role in a shearing flow).

  2. Simultaneous Observation of Wave Packet of the Atmospheric Gravity Waves by ISS-IMAP and All-sky Imager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yukino, H.; Saito, A.; Sakanoi, T.; Otsuka, Y.

    2014-12-01

    The spatial scale of the atmospheric gravity wave in the mesosphere and the lower thermosphere was analyzed using the simultaneous observational data of ISS-IMAP and an all-sky imager at Hawaii. There are a plenty of previous studies that discuss the relationship between the wave structures of the mesospheric airglow and the tropospheric events. The problem of the ground-based observation of the airglow is that it cannot distinguish spatial variations from temporal variations for the structures whose scale size is larger than its field-of-view. ISS-IMAP started the observation in October, 2012 to survey the atmospheric gravity waves whose horizontal scale size is 50 km and longer. The spatial resolution of the VIsible-light and infrared Spectrum Imager (VISI) of ISS-IMAP/VISI imaging observation is from 10 km to 25 km. Simultaneous observations start from March 14, 2013. The atmospheric gravity waves that detected by VISI in 762 nm were compared with the observations of ground-based all-sky imagers in 557.7 nm. The generation and the propagation of the atmospheric gravity waves were investigated with this simultaneous observation. The relationship between the tropospheric events and the atmospheric gravity waves in the mesosphere is studied with the wide field-of-view observation by VISI/ISS-IMAP, and the continuous observation of the ground-based imagers. VISI frequently observed wave packets whose scale size is 1,000-2,000 km. These wave packets were observed by the ground-based imager as a series of waves whose wave length is 20-40 km, and that continue for 5-6 hours. The generation, the propagation and the distraction of the atmospheric gravity waves will be discussed in this presentation.

  3. An Object Oriented, Finite Element Framework for Linear Wave Equations

    SciTech Connect

    Koning, J M

    2004-08-12

    This dissertation documents an object oriented framework which can be used to solve any linear wave equation. The linear wave equations are expressed in the differential forms language. This differential forms expression allows a strict discrete interpretation of the system. The framework is implemented using the Galerkin Finite Element Method to define the discrete differential forms and operators. Finite element basis functions including standard scalar Nodal and vector Nedelec basis functions are used to implement the discrete differential forms resulting in a mixed finite element system. Discretizations of scalar and vector wave equations in the time and frequency domains will be demonstrated in both differential forms and vector calculi. This framework conserves energy, maintains physical continuity, is valid on unstructured grids, conditionally stable and second order accurate. Examples including linear electrodynamics, acoustics, elasticity and magnetohydrodynamics are demonstrated.

  4. Linear coupling of planetary scale waves in ionospheric zonal shear winds: Generation of fast magnetic waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chanishvili, R.; Chagelishvili, G.; Uchava, E.; Kharshiladze, O.

    2016-04-01

    Our goal is to gain new insight into the physics of wave dynamics in ionospheric zonal shear flows. We study the shear flow non-normality induced linear coupling of planetary scale (slow) modified Rossby waves and westward propagating fast magnetized (Khantadze) waves using an approach different from the existing one to the linear wave dynamics. The performed analysis allows us to separate from each other different physical processes, grasp their interplay, and, by this way, construct the basic physics of the linear coupling of the slow and fast waves in an ionospheric zonal flow with linear shear of mean velocity, U0=(S y ,0 ) . It should be noted from the beginning that we consider incompressible flow and the classified "slow" and "fast" waves are not connected with the similarly labeled magnetosonic waves in compressible heliosphere. We show that: the modified Rossby waves generate fast magnetized waves due to the coupling for a quite wide range of ionospheric and shear flow parameters; the linear transient processes are highly anisotropic in wavenumber plane; the generation of the magnetized waves/oscillations is most efficient/optimal for S ≃0.1 (S is the shear rate normalized to the combination of the angular velocity and latitude, Ω0 cos θ0 ); the streamwise wave number of the optimally generated magnetized wave harmonics decreases (the length scale increases) with increasing the Hall parameter, α. At the end, we discuss nonlinear consequences of the described anisotropic linear dynamics—they should lead to an anisotropy of nonlinear cascade processes (in wavenumber plane). In turn, an interplay of the analyzed quite strong transient growth of the fast magnetic waves with anisotropic nonlinear processes should ensure self-sustenance of (stochastic or regular) magnetic perturbations.

  5. Sodium Lidar-observed Strong Inertia-gravity Wave Activities in the Mesopause Region over Fort Collins, Colorado (41 deg N, 105 deg W)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Tao; She, C. -Y.; Liu, Han-Li; Leblanc, Thierry; McDermid, I. Stuart

    2007-01-01

    In December 2004, the Colorado State University sodium lidar system at Fort Collins, Colorado (41 deg N, 105 deg W), conducted an approximately 80-hour continuous campaign for the simultaneous observations of mesopause region sodium density, temperature, and zonal and meridional winds. This data set reveals the significant inertia-gravity wave activities with a period of approximately 18 hours, which are strong in both wind components since UT day 338 (second day of the campaign), and weak in temperature and sodium density. The considerable variability of wave activities was observed with both wind amplitudes growing up to approximately 40 m/s at 95-100 km in day 339 and then decreasing dramatically in day 340. We also found that the sodium density wave perturbation is correlated in phase with temperature perturbation below 90 km, and approximately 180 deg out of phase above. Applying the linear wave theory, we estimated the wave horizontal propagation direction, horizontal wavelength, and apparent horizontal phase speed to be approximately 25 deg south of west, approximately 1800 +/- 150 km, and approximately 28 +/- 2 m/s, respectively of wave intrinsic period, intrinsic phase speed, and vertical wavelength were also estimated. While the onset of enhanced inertia-gravity wave amplitude in the night of 338 was observed to be in coincidence with short-period gravity wave breaking via convective instability, the decrease of inertia-gravity wave amplitude after noon of day 339 was also observed to coincide with the development of atmospheric dynamical instability layers with downward phase progression clearly correlated with the 18-hour inertia-gravity wave, suggesting likely breaking of this inertia-gravity wave via dynamical (shear) instability.

  6. Gravity Wave Emission by Spontaneous Imbalance of Baroclinic Waves in the Continuously Stratified Rotating Annulus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borchert, S.; Achatz, U.; Rieper, F.; Fruman, M. D.

    2012-04-01

    We use a numerical model of the classic differentially heated rotating annulus experiment to study the spontaneous emission of gravity waves (GWs) from jet stream imbalances, which is a major source of these waves in the atmosphere for which no satisfactory parameterization exists. Atmospheric observations are the main tool for the testing and verification of theoretical concepts but have their limitations. Given their specific potential for yielding reproducible data and for studying process dependence on external system parameters, laboratory experiments are an invaluable complementary tool. Experiments with a rotating annulus exhibiting a jet modulated by large-scale waves due to baroclinic instability have already been used to study GWs: Williams et al (2008) observed spontaneously emitted interfacial GWs in a two-layer flow, and Jacoby et al (2011) detected GWs emitted from boundary-layer instabilities in a differentially heated rotating annulus. Employing a new finite-volume code for the numerical simulation of a continuously stratified liquid in a differentially heated rotating annulus, we here investigate whether such an experiment might be useful for studies of spontaneous imbalance. A major problem was the identification of experimental parameters yielding an atmosphere-like regime where the Brunt-Vaisala frequency is larger than the inertial frequency, so that energy transport by the lowest-frequency waves is predominantly horizontal while high-frequency GWs transport energy vertically. We show that this is indeed the case for a wide and shallow annulus with relatively large temperature difference between the inner and outer cylinder walls. We also show that this set-up yields a conspicuous signal in the horizontal divergence field close to the meandering jet. Various analyses support the notion that this signal is predominantly due to GWs superposed on a geostrophic flow. Jacoby, T. N. L., Read, P. L., Williams, P. D. and Young, R. M. B., 2011

  7. Parameter spaces for linear and nonlinear whistler-mode waves

    SciTech Connect

    Summers, Danny; Tang, Rongxin; Omura, Yoshiharu; Lee, Dong-Hun

    2013-07-15

    We examine the growth of magnetospheric whistler-mode waves which comprises a linear growth phase followed by a nonlinear growth phase. We construct time-profiles for the wave amplitude that smoothly match at the transition between linear and nonlinear wave growth. This matching procedure can only take place over a limited “matching region” in (N{sub h}/N{sub 0},A{sub T})-space, where A{sub T} is the electron thermal anisotropy, N{sub h} is the hot (energetic) electron number density, and N{sub 0} is the cold (background) electron number density. We construct this matching region and determine how the matching wave amplitude varies throughout the region. Further, we specify a boundary in (N{sub h}/N{sub 0},A{sub T})-space that separates a region where only linear chorus wave growth can occur from the region in which fully nonlinear chorus growth is possible. We expect that this boundary should prove of practical use in performing computationally expensive full-scale particle simulations, and in interpreting experimental wave data.

  8. Gravity waves, Tides and Planetary wave characteristics revealed by network of MLT radars over Indian region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venkat Ratnam, Madineni; Karanam, Kishore Kumar; Sunkara, Eswaraiah; Vijaya Bhaskara Rao, S.; Subrahmanyam, K. V.; Ramanjaneyulu, L.

    2016-07-01

    Mesosphere and Lower Thermosphere (MLT) mean winds, gravity waves, tidal and planetary wave characteristics are investigated using two years (2013-2015) of advanced meteor radar installed at Tirupathi (13.63oN, 79.4oE), India. The observations reveal the presence of high frequency gravity waves (30-120 minutes), atmospheric tides (diurnal, semi-diurnal and terr-diurnal) along with long period oscillations in both zonal and meridional winds. Background mean zonal winds show clear semi-annual oscillation in the mesosphere, whereas meridional winds are characterized by annual oscillation as expected. Diurnal tide amplitudes are significantly larger (60-80 m/s) than semi-diurnal (10-20 m/s) and terr-diurnal (5-8 m/s) tides and larger in meridional than zonal winds. The measured meridional components are in good agreement with Global Scale Wave Model (GSWM-09) predictions than zonal up to ~90 km in all the seasons, except fall equinox. Diurnal tidal phase matches well than the amplitudes between observations and model predictions. However, no similarity is being found in the semi-diurnal tides between observations and model. The measurements are further compared with nearby Thumba meteor radar (8.5oN, 77oE) observations. Some differences do exist between the measurements from Tirupati and Thumba meteor radar and model outputs at greater heights and the possible reasons are discussed. SVU meteor radar observations clearly showed the dominance of well-known ultra-fast kelvin waves (3.5 days), 5-8 day, 16 day, 27 day, and 30-40 day oscillations. Due to higher meteor count extending up to 110 km, we could investigate the variability of these PWs and oscillations covering wider range (70-110 km) for the first time. Significant change above 100 km is noticed in all the above mentioned PW activity and oscillations. We also used ERA-Interim reanalysis data sets available at 0.125x0.125 degree grids for investigating the characteristics of these PW right from surface to 1 h

  9. Gravity Wave Variances and Propagation Derived from AIRS Radiances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gong, Jie; Wu, Dong L.; Eckermann, S. D.

    2012-01-01

    As the first gravity wave (GW) climatology study using nadir-viewing infrared sounders, 50 Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) radiance channels are selected to estimate GW variances at pressure levels between 2-100 hPa. The GW variance for each scan in the cross-track direction is derived from radiance perturbations in the scan, independently of adjacent scans along the orbit. Since the scanning swaths are perpendicular to the satellite orbits, which are inclined meridionally at most latitudes, the zonal component of GW propagation can be inferred by differencing the variances derived between the westmost and the eastmost viewing angles. Consistent with previous GW studies using various satellite instruments, monthly mean AIRS variance shows large enhancements over meridionally oriented mountain ranges as well as some islands at winter hemisphere high latitudes. Enhanced wave activities are also found above tropical deep convective regions. GWs prefer to propagate westward above mountain ranges, and eastward above deep convection. AIRS 90 field-of-views (FOVs), ranging from +48 deg. to -48 deg. off nadir, can detect large-amplitude GWs with a phase velocity propagating preferentially at steep angles (e.g., those from orographic and convective sources). The annual cycle dominates the GW variances and the preferred propagation directions for all latitudes. Indication of a weak two-year variation in the tropics is found, which is presumably related to the Quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO). AIRS geometry makes its out-tracks capable of detecting GWs with vertical wavelengths substantially shorter than the thickness of instrument weighting functions. The novel discovery of AIRS capability of observing shallow inertia GWs will expand the potential of satellite GW remote sensing and provide further constraints on the GW drag parameterization schemes in the general circulation models (GCMs).

  10. A global climatology of stratospheric gravity waves from Atmospheric Infrared Sounder observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffmann, Lars; Xue, Xianghui; Alexander, M. Joan

    2014-05-01

    We present the results of a new study that aims on the detection and classification of `hotspots' of stratospheric gravity waves on a global scale. The analysis is based on a nine-year record (2003 to 2011) of radiance measurements by the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) aboard NASA's Aqua satellite. We detect the presence of stratospheric gravity waves based on 4.3 micron brightness temperature variances. Our method is optimized for peak events, i.e., strong gravity wave events for which the local variance considerably exceeds background levels. We estimated the occurrence frequencies of these peak events for different seasons and time of day and used the results to find local maxima of gravity wave activity. In addition, we use AIRS radiances at 8.1 micron to simultaneously detect convective events, including deep convection in the tropics and mesoscale convective systems at mid latitudes. We classified the gravity waves according to their sources, based on seasonal occurrence frequencies for convection and by means of topographic data. Our study reproduces well-known hotspots of gravity waves, e.g., the mountain wave hotspots at the Andes and the Antarctic Peninsula or the convective hotspot during the thunderstorm season over the North American Great Plains. However, the high horizontal resolution of the AIRS observations also helped us to locate several smaller hotspots, which were partly unknown or poorly studied so far. Most of these smaller hotspots are found near orographic features like small mountain ranges, in coastal regions, in desert areas, or near isolated islands. This new study will help to select the most promising regions and seasons for future observational studies of gravity waves. Reference: Hoffmann, L., X. Xue, and M. J. Alexander, A global view of stratospheric gravity wave hotspots located with Atmospheric Infrared Sounder observations, J. Geophys. Res., 118, 416-434, doi:10.1029/2012JD018658, 2013.

  11. A permanent magnet tubular linear generator for wave energy conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Haitao; Liu, Chunyuan; Yuan, Bang; Hu, Minqiang; Huang, Lei; Zhou, Shigui

    2012-04-01

    A novel three-phase permanent magnet tubular linear generator (PMTLG) with Halbach array is proposed for the sea wave energy conversion. Non-linear axi-symmetrical finite element method (FEM) is implemented to calculate the magnetic fields along air-gap for different Halbach arrays of PMTLGs. The PMTLG characteristics are analyzed and the simulation results are validated by the experiment. An assistant tooth is implemented to greatly minimize the end and cogging effects which cause the oscillatory detent force.

  12. Gravity Waves and Mesospheric Clouds in the Summer Middle Atmosphere: A Comparison of Lidar Measurements and Ray Modeling of Gravity Waves Over Sondrestrom, Greenland

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gerrard, Andrew J.; Kane, Timothy J.; Eckermann, Stephen D.; Thayer, Jeffrey P.

    2004-01-01

    We conducted gravity wave ray-tracing experiments within an atmospheric region centered near the ARCLITE lidar system at Sondrestrom, Greenland (67N, 310 deg E), in efforts to understand lidar observations of both upper stratospheric gravity wave activity and mesospheric clouds during August 1996 and the summer of 2001. The ray model was used to trace gravity waves through realistic three-dimensional daily-varying background atmospheres in the region, based on forecasts and analyses in the troposphere and stratosphere and climatologies higher up. Reverse ray tracing based on upper stratospheric lidar observations at Sondrestrom was also used to try to objectively identify wave source regions in the troposphere. A source spectrum specified by reverse ray tracing experiments in early August 1996 (when atmospheric flow patterns produced enhanced transmission of waves into the upper stratosphere) yielded model results throughout the remainder of August 1996 that agreed best with the lidar observations. The model also simulated increased vertical group propagation of waves between 40 km and 80 km due to intensifying mean easterlies, which allowed many of the gravity waves observed at 40 km over Sondrestrom to propagate quasi-vertically from 40-80 km and then interact with any mesospheric clouds at 80 km near Sondrestrom, supporting earlier experimentally-inferred correlations between upper stratospheric gravity wave activity and mesospheric cloud backscatter from Sondrestrom lidar observations. A pilot experiment of real-time runs with the model in 2001 using weather forecast data as a low-level background produced less agreement with lidar observations. We believe this is due to limitations in our specified tropospheric source spectrum, the use of climatological winds and temperatures in the upper stratosphere and mesosphere, and missing lidar data from important time periods.

  13. An Experimental Investigation of the Free Surface Profiles Generated by a Moving Pressure Source: Solitary Capillary-Gravity Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diorio, J. D.; Watkins, N.; Zuech, J.; Duncan, J. H.

    2008-11-01

    There have been several recent numerical investigations that have shown the existence of three-dimensional nonlinear solitary surface wave patterns that propagate with speeds less than the minimum wave phase speed prescribed by linear theory (23 cm/s for clean water). In the present study, wave patterns were generated by translating a small-diameter region of high pressure across a water surface. The high-pressure region was created by forcing air through a small-diameter vertically oriented tube attached to a carriage that propelled it horizontally at speeds near 23 cm/s. The wave pattern was measured with a cinematic LIF technique. It was found that a steady solitary wave pattern can exist at speeds below the linear-theory minimum phase speed, while for speeds above the minimum, a pattern of gravity-capillary waves was produced. The solitary wave pattern, which only appeared when the pressure forcing was large, dissipated rapidly when the forcing was turned off. The streamwise dimension of the solitary wave was much smaller than the transverse dimension.

  14. Radio observations of atmospheric gravity waves with Callisto

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monstein, C.

    2013-12-01

    On December 12th 2013 NOAA reported between 08:04 and 12:08 only radio noise at 245 MHz observed in San Vito. But some European observatories of the e-Callisto network (Germany, UK and Ireland) observed very strange reverse drifting and v-type bursts which was never recognized by the author before. Private communication with P. Zucca from TCD showed that these strange structures are due to focusing effects in the ionosphere. Interestingly it is possible to observe complex ionospheric behavior with cheap and simple radio-telescopes like Callisto. People who are interested in such kind of observations to study ionospheric gravity waves should generate observing programs for frequencies below 100 MHz, ideally with an additional up-converter for frequencies from 15 MHz - 100 MHz. Callisto again proved to be a powerful tool for solar science and radio-monitoring. Below are shown recent observations from Bir castle in Ireland, Essen in Germany and Glasgow in Scotland. For comparison I added an observation from a LOFAR node from Chibolton in UK which was provided by Richard Fallows from Astron NL. And finally a plot from Nançay radio heliograph, provided by Karl-Heinz Gansel, Dingden Amateur Radio- Astronomy Observatory DARO, Germany. Although Callisto instruments are almost identical, the spectra look completely different, depending on their geographical longitude and latitude.

  15. Constraints on gravity wave induced diffusion in the middle atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strobel, Darrell F.

    1988-01-01

    A review of the important constraints on gravity wave induced diffusion of chemical tracers, heat and momentum is given. Ground-based microwave spectroscopy measurements of H2O and CO and rocket-based mass spectrometer measurements of Ar constrain the eddy diffusion coefficient for constituent transport (K sub zz) to be (1-3) x 10 to the 5th sq cm/sec in the upper mesosphere. Atomic oxygen data also limits K sub zz to a comparable value in the mesopause. From the energy balance of the upper mesosphere the eddy diffusion coefficient for heat transport (D sub H) is, at most, 6 x 10 to the 5th sq cm/sec at the mesopause and decreasing substantially with decreasing altitude. The available evidence for mean wind deceleration and the corresponding eddy diffusion coefficient for momentum stresses (D sub M) suggests that it is at least 1 x 10 to the 6th sq cm/sec in the upper mesosphere. Consequently the eddy Prandtl number for macroscopic scale lengths is greater than 3.

  16. Stratospheric gravity wave momentum fluxes from radio occultations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Torsten; Wickert, Jens; De la Torre, Alejandro; Alexander, Peter; Llamedo, Pablo; Ramezani Ziarani, Maryam

    2016-07-01

    Triples of GPS radio occultation (RO) temperature data are used to derive horizontal and vertical gravity wave (GW) parameters in the stratosphere between 20 km and 40 km from which the vertical flux of horizontal momentum is determined. Compared to previous studies using RO data better limiting values for the sampling distance (Δd<250 km) and the time interval (Δt<15 minutes) are used. For several latitude bands the mean momentum fluxes (MF) derived in this study are considerable larger than MF from other satellite missions based on horizontal wavelengths calculated between two adjacent temperature profiles along the satellite track. Error sources for the estimation of MF from RO data and the geometrical setup for the applied method is investigated. Another crucial issue discussed in the presentation is the influence of different background separation methods to the final MF. For GW analysis a measured temperature profile is divided into a fluctuation and a background and it is assumed that the fluctuation is caused by GWs only. For the background separation, i.e. the detrending of large-scale processes from the measured temperature profile, several methods exist. In this study we compare different detrending approaches including a new attempt by detrending RO data with ERA-Interim data from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts. We demonstrate that the horizontal detrending based on RO data and ERA-Interim gives more consistent results compared with a vertical detrending.

  17. On the generation and evolution of internal gravity waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lansing, F. S.; Maxworthy, T.

    1984-01-01

    The tidal generation and evolution of internal gravity waves is investigated experimentally and theoretically using a two-dimensional two-layer model. Time-dependent flow is created by moving a profile of maximum submerged depth 7.7 cm through a total stroke of 29 cm in water above a freon-kerosene mixture in an 8.6-m-long 30-cm-deep 20-cm-wide transparent channel, and the deformation of the fluid interface is recorded photographically. A theoretical model of the interface as a set of discrete vortices is constructed numerically; the rigid structures are represented by a source distribution; governing equations in Lagrangian form are obtained; and two integrodifferential equations relating baroclinic vorticity generation and source-density generation are derived. The experimental and computed results are shown in photographs and graphs, respectively, and found to be in good agreement at small Froude numbers. The reasons for small discrepancies in the position of the maximum interface displacement at large Froude numbers are examined.

  18. Formation of ionospheric sporadic E by atmospheric gravity waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Didebulidze, Goderdzi; Dalakishvili, Giorgi; Matiashvili, Giorgi

    2016-07-01

    The atmospheric gravity waves (AGWs) significantly influence the behavior of the thermosphere ions/electrons. It is shown, that in the lower thermosphere when the background wind present, the AGWs evolving in this wind affect the heavy metallic ions vertical motions and can lead to their convergence into horizontal thin layers and consequently form ionosphere sporadic E (Es). For certain values of the velocity of horizontal back-ground wind, occurring in this region, the declined propagation of the AGWs in the mid-latitude lower thermosphere can cause formation multilayered sporadic E. The distances between such Es layers i.e. distance between locations of maximal ions/electrons densities occur is about one AGWs vertical wavelength. The observed phenomena like of sporadic E multilayered structures and Es layers downward motions are demonstrated by using 3-D numerical simulations describing Es formation by AGWs. The formation of quasi-periodic echoes like structures by AGWs evolving in the horizontal inhomogeneous wind and possibility of its ions/electrons density oscillations by smaller periods (smaller than Bunt-Väisälä period), which also is observed phenomena, is shown. Acknowledgements: This work has been supported by Shota Rustaveli National Science Foundation grant No 31/81.

  19. Ionospheric gravity wave measurements with the USU dynasonde

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berkey, Frank T.; Deng, Jun Yuan

    1992-01-01

    A method for the measurement of ionospheric Gravity Wave (GW) using the USU Dynasonde is outlined. This method consists of a series of individual procedures, which includes functions for data acquisition, adaptive scaling, polarization discrimination, interpolation and extrapolation, digital filtering, windowing, spectrum analysis, GW detection, and graphics display. Concepts of system theory are applied to treat the ionosphere as a system. An adaptive ionogram scaling method was developed for automatically extracting ionogram echo traces from noisy raw sounding data. The method uses the well known Least Mean Square (LMS) algorithm to form a stochastic optimal estimate of the echo trace which is then used to control a moving window. The window tracks the echo trace, simultaneously eliminating the noise and interference. Experimental results show that the proposed method functions as designed. Case studies which extract GW from ionosonde measurements were carried out using the techniques described. Geophysically significant events were detected and the resultant processed results are illustrated graphically. This method was also developed for real time implementation in mind.

  20. Stratospheric gravity wave momentum flux from radio occultations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, T.; Alexander, P.; Torre, A.

    2016-05-01

    Triples of GPS radio occultation (RO) temperature data are used to derive horizontal and vertical gravity wave (GW) parameters in the stratosphere between 20 km and 40 km from which the vertical flux of horizontal momentum is determined. Compared to previous studies using RO data, better limiting values for the sampling distance (Δd≤250 km) and the time interval (Δt≤15 min) are used. For several latitude bands the mean momentum fluxes (MFs) derived in this study are considerably larger than MF from other satellite missions based on horizontal wavelengths calculated between two adjacent temperature profiles along the satellite track. Error sources for the estimation of MF from RO data and the geometrical setup for the applied method are investigated. Another crucial issue discussed in this paper is the influence of different background separation methods to the final MF. For GW analysis a measured temperature profile is divided into a fluctuation and a background and it is assumed that the fluctuation is caused by GWs only. For the background separation, i.e., the detrending of large-scale processes from the measured temperature profile, several methods exist. In this study we compare different detrending approaches and for the first time an attempt is made to detrend RO data with ERA-Interim data from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts. We demonstrate that the horizontal detrending based on RO data and ERA-Interim gives more consistent results compared with a vertical detrending.

  1. Structured elves: Modulation by convectively generated gravity waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yue, Jia; Lyons, Walter A.

    2015-02-01

    We report on a markedly striated elve (Emissions of Light and Very Low Frequency Perturbations due to Electromagnetic Pulse Source) (a "tiger elve") observed using an intensified high-speed Phantom camera system at the Yucca Ridge Field Station near Fort Collins, Colorado, on the night of 12 June 2013. This elve was induced by a 204 kA positive cloud-to-ground lightning flash within a mesoscale convective system in western South Dakota. A halo and a sprite followed the elve. The banded structure in the elve was aligned with convectively generated gravity waves (CGGWs) independently observed by a collocated color near-infrared camera. Assuming the height of the OH layer and elve both to be 85 km, photogrammetry allowed projection of the elve and the CGGWs onto the same geographic map. The tiger elve stripes approximately overlay on the troughs (dark bands) of CGGWs. This is consistent with model predictions that the ionization rate in the D region ionosphere is inversely proportional to the air density, which is modulated by the CGGWs.

  2. Tropical Gravity Wave Momentum Fluxes and Latent Heating Distributions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geller, Marvin A.; Zhou, Tiehan; Love, Peter T.

    2015-01-01

    Recent satellite determinations of global distributions of absolute gravity wave (GW) momentum fluxes in the lower stratosphere show maxima over the summer subtropical continents and little evidence of GW momentum fluxes associated with the intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ). This seems to be at odds with parameterizations forGWmomentum fluxes, where the source is a function of latent heating rates, which are largest in the region of the ITCZ in terms of monthly averages. The authors have examined global distributions of atmospheric latent heating, cloud-top-pressure altitudes, and lower-stratosphere absolute GW momentum fluxes and have found that monthly averages of the lower-stratosphere GW momentum fluxes more closely resemble the monthly mean cloud-top altitudes rather than the monthly mean rates of latent heating. These regions of highest cloud-top altitudes occur when rates of latent heating are largest on the time scale of cloud growth. This, plus previously published studies, suggests that convective sources for stratospheric GW momentum fluxes, being a function of the rate of latent heating, will require either a climate model to correctly model this rate of latent heating or some ad hoc adjustments to account for shortcomings in a climate model's land-sea differences in convective latent heating.

  3. Detection of traveling ionospheric disturbances induced by atmospheric gravity waves using the global positioning system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bassiri, Sassan; Hajj, George A.

    1993-01-01

    Natural and man-made events like earthquakes and nuclear explosions launch atmospheric gravity waves (AGW) into the atmosphere. Since the particle density decreases exponentially with height, the gravity waves increase exponentially in amplitude as they propagate toward the upper atmosphere and ionosphere. As atmospheric gravity waves approach the ionospheric heights, the neutral particles carried by gravity waves collide with electrons and ions, setting these particles in motion. This motion of charged particles manifests itself by wave-like fluctuations and disturbances that are known as traveling ionospheric disturbances (TID). The perturbation in the total electron content due to TID's is derived analytically from first principles. Using the tilted dipole magnetic field approximation and a Chapman layer distribution for the electron density, the variations of the total electron content versus the line-of-sight direction are numerically analyzed. The temporal variation associated with the total electron content measurements due to AGW's can be used as a means of detecting characteristics of the gravity waves. As an example, detection of tsunami generated earthquakes from their associated atmospheric gravity waves using the Global Positioning System is simulated.

  4. Detection of traveling ionospheric disturbances induced by atmospheric gravity waves using the global positioning system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bassiri, Sassan; Hajj, George A.

    Natural and man-made events like earthquakes and nuclear explosions launch atmospheric gravity waves (AGW) into the atmosphere. Since the particle density decreases exponentially with height, the gravity waves increase exponentially in amplitude as they propagate toward the upper atmosphere and ionosphere. As atmospheric gravity waves approach the ionospheric heights, the neutral particles carried by gravity waves collide with electrons and ions, setting these particles in motion. This motion of charged particles manifests itself by wave-like fluctuations and disturbances that are known as traveling ionospheric disturbances (TID). The perturbation in the total electron content due to TID's is derived analytically from first principles. Using the tilted dipole magnetic field approximation and a Chapman layer distribution for the electron density, the variations of the total electron content versus the line-of-sight direction are numerically analyzed. The temporal variation associated with the total electron content measurements due to AGW's can be used as a means of detecting characteristics of the gravity waves. As an example, detection of tsunami generated earthquakes from their associated atmospheric gravity waves using the Global Positioning System is simulated.

  5. Evidence of high frequency gravity wave forcing on the meridional residual circulation at the mesopause region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vargas, Fabio; Swenson, Gary; Liu, Alan

    2015-11-01

    Data of high frequency gravity wave propagation direction from globally distributed stations indicate a meridional preference of mesospheric gravity waves to be globally oriented toward the summer pole. This orientation is opposite to the mean residual circulation (from summer to winter pole) at mesospheric altitudes. We discuss here a number of dynamic mechanisms including filtering that may be responsible for the preferential wave orientation, and the effects of the gravity wave forcing imposed on the meridional flow due to dissipative waves. Using nightglow image data recorded in three distinct latitude stations, we have estimated the meridional wave drag (i.e, deceleration) of about - 4.6 ± 0.2 m/s/day during the summer, and 3.8 ± 0.2 m/s/day during the winter, which is significant because the meridional flow has small magnitude. This is a component of dynamic forcing in the mesopause region, not heretofore recognized.

  6. Gravity waves in the troposphere and stratosphere during the MaCWAVE/MIDAS summer rocket program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schöch, A.; Baumgarten, G.; Fritts, D. C.; Hoffmann, P.; Serafimovich, A.; Wang, L.; Dalin, P.; Müllemann, A.; Schmidlin, F. J.

    2004-10-01

    Combining data taken during the MaCWAVE summer rocket campaign at the Andøya Rocket Range (69.3°N, 16.0°E) with a lidar, radiosondes, falling spheres, and VHF radars at Andøya and at the Esrange, the gravity wave content of the troposphere and stratosphere during the campaign nights was analyzed. The lidar yielded vertical wavelengths and periods of gravity waves in the stratosphere. A Stokes parameter analysis was performed for the radiosonde and falling sphere data to estimate propagation directions of the gravity waves. The wave content in the troposphere was inferred by applying wavelet and cross-spectral methods to the radar data. We found propagation conditions and spectra of the waves to vary with height following the change in the background wind. The waves were excited both at the ground and in the tropopause/lower stratosphere region.

  7. A Simulated Spectrum of Convectively Generated Gravity Waves: Propagation from the Tropopause to the Mesopause and Effects on the Middle Atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, M. Joan

    1996-01-01

    This work evaluates the interaction of a simulated spectrum of convectively generated gravity waves with realistic middle atmosphere mean winds. The wave spectrum is derived from the nonlinear convection model described by Alexander et al. [1995] that simulated a two-dimensional midlatitude squall line. This spectrum becomes input to a linear ray tracing model for evaluation of wave propagation as a function of height through climatological background wind and buoyancy frequency profiles. The energy defined by the spectrum as a function of wavenumber and frequency is distributed spatially and temporally into wave packets for the purpose of estimating wave amplitudes at the lower boundary of the ray tracing model. A wavelet analysis provides an estimate of these wave packet widths in space and time. Without this redistribution of energies into wave packets the Fourier analysis alone inaccurately assumes the energy is evenly distributed throughout the storm model domain. The growth with height of wave amplitudes is derived from wave action flux conservation coupled to a convective instability saturation condition. Mean flow accelerations and wave energy dissipation profiles are derived from this analysis and compared to parameterized estimates of gravity wave forcing, providing a measure of the importance of the storm source to global gravity wave forcing. The results suggest that a single large convective storm system like the simulated squall line could provide a significant fraction of the zonal mean gravity wave forcing at some levels, particularly in the mesosphere. The vertical distributions of mean flow acceleration and energy dissipation do not much resemble the parameterized profiles in form because of the peculiarities of the spectral properties of the waves from the storm source. The ray tracing model developed herein provides a tool for examining the role of convectively generated waves in middle atmosphere physics.

  8. A Simulated Spectrum of Convectively Generated Gravity Waves: Propagation from the Tropopause to the Mesopause and Effects on the Middle Atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, Joan

    1996-01-01

    This work evaluates the interaction of a simulated spectrum of convectively generated gravity waves with realistic middle atmosphere mean winds. The wave spectrum is derived from the nonlinear convection model described by Alexander et al. that simulated a two-dimensional midlatitude squall line. This spectrum becomes input to a linear ray tracing model for evaluation of wave propagation as a function of height through climatological background wind and buoyancy frequency profiles. The energy defined by the spectrum as a function of wavenumber and frequency is distributed spatially and temporally into wave packets for the purpose of estimating wave amplitudes at the lower boundary of the ray tracing model. A wavelet analysis provides an estimate of these wave packet widths in space and time. Without this redistribution of energies into wave packets the Fourier analysis alone inaccurately assumes the energy is evenly distributed throughout the storm model domain. The growth with height of wave amplitudes is derived from wave action flux conservation coupled to a convective instability saturation condition. Mean flow accelerations and wave energy dissipation profiles are derived from this analysis and compared to parameterized estimates of gravity wave forcing, providing a measure of the importance of the storm source to global gravity wave forcing. The results suggest that a single large convective storm system like the simulated squall line could provide a significant fraction of the zonal mean gravity wave forcing at some levels, particularly in the mesosphere. The vertical distributions of mean flow acceleration and energy dissipation do not much resemble the parameterized profiles in form because of the peculiarities of the spectral properties of the waves from the storm source. The ray tracing model developed herein provides a tool for examining the role of convectively generated waves in middle atmosphere physics.

  9. Gravity wave vertical coupling on Earth and Mars: similarities and peculiarities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medvedev, Alexander S.; Kuroda, Takeshi; Yiǧit, Erdal

    2016-07-01

    Gravity waves play a major role in the dynamical coupling between the lower and upper atmosphere both on Earth and Mars. A significant progress with understanding gravity wave phenomena in the Martian atmosphere has been achieved over the last decade. We present some of these findings focusing on comparison with the terrestrial atmosphere. Gravity waves are stronger on Mars, thanks to more violent meteorology and rougher topography. They transport energy and momentum upon propagation to the mesosphere and thermosphere, and affect the circulation there. Gravity waves facilitate a formation of mesospheric CO2 ice clouds, and cause a strong thermospheric response to dust storms in the troposphere. This talk promotes a view of coupling processes not only as an Earth phenomenon, but as a universal mechanism in planetary atmospheres.

  10. Stability and slosh wave for rotating bubble due to gravity-jitters under microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hung, R. J.; Lee, C. C.; Leslie, F. W.

    1990-01-01

    Time-dependent fluid behaviors in microgravity environments are examined with particular attention given to the dynamics of bubble configurations. The initial bubble profiles, computed from the steady-state formulation, are used as the initial input for the time dependent computation. The parameters considered are liquid density and its kinematic viscosity, gas density and its kinematic viscosity, surface tension coefficient, angular velocity, and gravity environment. This computer algorithm can be used to simulate the fluid behavior in a microgravity environment, in particular the excitation of slosh waves due to different frequencies of gravity jitters. Results show that lower-frequency gravity jitters excite slosh waves with a higher ratio of maximum amplitude to wave length than that of the slosh waves generated by the higher frequency gravity jitters.

  11. Comments on `Influence of Wave Propagation on the Doppler Spreading of Atmospheric Gravity Waves'.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hines, Colin O.

    1999-04-01

    A recent paper by Eckermann claims to have produced, via eikonal analysis, conclusions that undermine the Doppler-spread theory (DST) of middle-atmosphere gravity wave saturation and consequently undermine a certain parameterization based upon it. Here it is pointed out that his analysis in fact supports the underlying thesis of the DST, supports its quantitative estimates once a suitable and realistic criterion for the onset of instability is adopted, suffers from inadequacies of analysis even on its own terms, and suffers from a basic failure of the eikonal method in application to the broad wave spectrum of the middle atmosphere, such that it is rendered inadequate as an adverse test of alternative approximate methods like those employed by the DST to date.

  12. Global Propagation of Gravity Waves Generated with the Whole Atmosphere Transfer Function Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayr, H. G.; Talaat, E. R.; Wolven, B. C.

    2012-12-01

    Gravity waves are ubiquitous phenomena in the Earth's atmosphere, accounting for a significant fraction of its observed variability. These waves, with periods ranging from minutes to hours, are thought to be a major means for exchange of momentum and energy between atmospheric regions. The Transfer Function Model (TFM) describes acoustic gravity waves (AGW) that propagate across the globe in a dissipative static background atmosphere extending from the ground to 700 km. The model is limited to waves with periods << 12 hr where the Coriolis force is not important. Formulated in terms of zonal vector spherical harmonics and oscillation frequencies, the linearized equations of energy, mass, and momentum conservation are solved to generate the transfer function (TF) for a chosen height distribution of the excitation source. The model accounts for momentum exchange between atmospheric species (He, O, N2, O2, Ar), which affects significantly the wave amplitudes and phases of thermospheric temperature, densities, and wind fields. Covering a broad range of frequencies and spherical harmonic wave numbers (wavelengths), without limitations, the assembled TF captures the physics that controls the propagation of AGW, and the computational effort is considerable. For a chosen horizontal geometry and impulsive time dependence of the source, however, the global wave response is then obtained in short order. The model is computationally efficient and well suited to serve as an experimental and educational tool for simulating propagating wave patterns on the globe. The model is also semi-analytical and therefore well suited to explore the different wave modes that can be generated under varying dynamical conditions. The TFM has been applied to simulate the AGW, which are generated in the auroral region of the thermosphere by joule heating and momentum coupling due to solar wind induced electric fields [e.g., Mayr et al., Space Science Reviews, 1990]. The auroral source generates

  13. Background gravity wave activity and its variability as determined from Dynasonde data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Negrea, C.; Zabotin, N. A.; Bullett, T. W.; Rietveld, M.

    2014-12-01

    The importance of gravity waves for the dynamics of the thermosphere-ionosphere system is a well-known fact. Numerical models of the thermosphere-ionosphere must account for gravity wave effects by using various parameterization schemes with currently unknown levels of accuracy. There are several existing methods allowing for the detection of individual instances of gravity wave manifestations. However, little information exists regarding the background wave spectrum and its variability in the thermosphere. We employ Travelling Ionospheric Disturbances (TID's) as tracers for gravity wave propagation, using results of Dynasonde data analysis as the starting point in our calculations. Data from the Wallops Island (VA), San Juan (Puerto Rico), Boulder (CO), Tromso and Svalbard (Norway) instruments are used. The interval between the sounding sessions is 2 minutes and the NeXtYZ inversion procedure (a part of the Dynasonde software package) allows us to obtain a vertical resolution for the parameters of ionospheric plasma in real height better than 1 km. The full output of the inversion procedure consists of height profiles of electron density, X (East-West) and Y (North-South) tilts of the constant plasma density contours and Doppler velocities, all of which showing persistent signs of gravity wave induced TID's. We demonstrate using a few examples that the characteristics of the observed TID's are in good agreement with the dispersion relation describing gravity waves. The ionospheric tilt measurements allow for determination of the direction of propagation for every wave mode. For each calendar month of 2013, the tilt spectra is obtained as a function of altitude using a Lomb-Scargle Welch implementation. The analysis is applied to all 6 stations proving unprecedented geographical coverage. The result is a complete picture of the altitude, temporal and location variability of gravity wave activity in the accessible thermospheric altitude interval with included

  14. A Comparison Between Gravity Wave Momentum Fluxes in Observations and Climate Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geller, Marvin A.; Alexadner, M. Joan; Love, Peter T.; Bacmeister, Julio; Ern, Manfred; Hertzog, Albert; Manzini, Elisa; Preusse, Peter; Sato, Kaoru; Scaife, Adam A.; Zhou, Tiehan

    2013-01-01

    For the first time, a formal comparison is made between gravity wave momentum fluxes in models and those derived from observations. Although gravity waves occur over a wide range of spatial and temporal scales, the focus of this paper is on scales that are being parameterized in present climate models, sub-1000-km scales. Only observational methods that permit derivation of gravity wave momentum fluxes over large geographical areas are discussed, and these are from satellite temperature measurements, constant-density long-duration balloons, and high-vertical-resolution radiosonde data. The models discussed include two high-resolution models in which gravity waves are explicitly modeled, Kanto and the Community Atmosphere Model, version 5 (CAM5), and three climate models containing gravity wave parameterizations,MAECHAM5, Hadley Centre Global Environmental Model 3 (HadGEM3), and the Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) model. Measurements generally show similar flux magnitudes as in models, except that the fluxes derived from satellite measurements fall off more rapidly with height. This is likely due to limitations on the observable range of wavelengths, although other factors may contribute. When one accounts for this more rapid fall off, the geographical distribution of the fluxes from observations and models compare reasonably well, except for certain features that depend on the specification of the nonorographic gravity wave source functions in the climate models. For instance, both the observed fluxes and those in the high-resolution models are very small at summer high latitudes, but this is not the case for some of the climate models. This comparison between gravity wave fluxes from climate models, high-resolution models, and fluxes derived from observations indicates that such efforts offer a promising path toward improving specifications of gravity wave sources in climate models.

  15. Spherically symmetric analysis on open FLRW solution in non-linear massive gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Chiang, Chien-I; Izumi, Keisuke; Chen, Pisin E-mail: izumi@phys.ntu.edu.tw

    2012-12-01

    We study non-linear massive gravity in the spherically symmetric context. Our main motivation is to investigate the effect of helicity-0 mode which remains elusive after analysis of cosmological perturbation around an open Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) universe. The non-linear form of the effective energy-momentum tensor stemming from the mass term is derived for the spherically symmetric case. Only in the special case where the area of the two sphere is not deviated away from the FLRW universe, the effective energy momentum tensor becomes completely the same as that of cosmological constant. This opens a window for discriminating the non-linear massive gravity from general relativity (GR). Indeed, by further solving these spherically symmetric gravitational equations of motion in vacuum to the linear order, we obtain a solution which has an arbitrary time-dependent parameter. In GR, this parameter is a constant and corresponds to the mass of a star. Our result means that Birkhoff's theorem no longer holds in the non-linear massive gravity and suggests that energy can probably be emitted superluminously (with infinite speed) on the self-accelerating background by the helicity-0 mode, which could be a potential plague of this theory.

  16. Non-linear Langmuir waves in a warm quantum plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Dubinov, Alexander E. Kitaev, Ilya N.

    2014-10-15

    A non-linear differential equation describing the Langmuir waves in a warm quantum electron-ion plasma has been derived. Its numerical solutions of the equation show that ordinary electronic oscillations, similar to the classical oscillations, occur along with small-scale quantum Langmuir oscillations induced by the Bohm quantum force.

  17. Generation of internal gravity waves by tidal flow over random oceanic topography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Jiajun; Zhang, Likun; Swinney, Harry

    2015-03-01

    Internal waves (IWs) are gravity waves that propagate within density-stratified fluids such as the ocean, atmosphere, and protoplanetary disks. IWs generated by tidal flow over oceanic topography provide much of the energy needed to sustain vertical mixing, which plays a critical role in ocean circulation and global climate. Therefore, it is important to determine the amount of energy that is extracted from tidal flow over topography and radiated into IWs. We conduct 2D numerical simulations to determine the IW power generated by tidal flow over random topographies that have the seafloor spectrum. The power is found to saturate with increasing topographic roughness, and to scale linearly with the characteristic height of the topography. The linear dependence on the topographic height is, surprisingly, nearly independent of the value of the exponent characterizing the topographic spectrum. Our results should lead to improved predictions of the IW power generated by tidal flow over global ocean topography. Research supported by the Office of Naval Research and the Texas Advanced Computing Center. JZ is supported also by the President's Graduate Fellowship from the National University of Singapore.

  18. Characteristics of gravity waves generated in the jet-front system in a baroclinic instability simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Young-Ha; Chun, Hye-Yeong; Park, Sang-Hun; Song, In-Sun; Choi, Hyun-Joo

    2016-04-01

    An idealized baroclinic instability case is simulated using a ˜ 10 km resolution global model to investigate the characteristics of gravity waves generated in the baroclinic life cycle. Three groups of gravity waves appear around the high-latitude surface trough at the mature stage of the baroclinic wave. They have horizontal and vertical wavelengths of 40-400 and 2.9-9.8 km, respectively, in the upper troposphere. The two-dimensional phase-velocity spectrum of the waves is arc shaped with a peak at 17 m s-1 eastward. These waves have difficulty in propagating upward through the tropospheric westerly jet. At the breaking stage of the baroclinic wave, a midlatitude surface low is isolated from the higher-latitude trough, and two groups of quasi-stationary gravity waves appear near the surface low. These waves have horizontal and vertical wavelengths of 60-400 and 4.9-14 km, respectively, and are able to propagate vertically for long distances. The simulated gravity waves seem to be generated by surface fronts, given that the structures and speeds of wave phases are coherent with those of the fronts.

  19. Direct Numerical Simulations of Small-Scale Gravity Wave Instability Dynamics in Variable Stratification and Shear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mixa, T.; Fritts, D. C.; Laughman, B.; Wang, L.; Kantha, L. H.

    2015-12-01

    Multiple observations provide compelling evidence that gravity wave dissipation events often occur in multi-scale environments having highly-structured wind and stability profiles extending from the stable boundary layer into the mesosphere and lower thermosphere. Such events tend to be highly localized and thus yield local energy and momentum deposition and efficient secondary gravity wave generation expected to have strong influences at higher altitudes [e.g., Fritts et al., 2013; Baumgarten and Fritts, 2014]. Lidars, radars, and airglow imagers typically cannot achieve the spatial resolution needed to fully quantify these small-scale instability dynamics. Hence, we employ high-resolution modeling to explore these dynamics in representative environments. Specifically, we describe numerical studies of gravity wave packets impinging on a sheet of high stratification and shear and the resulting instabilities and impacts on the gravity wave amplitude and momentum flux for various flow and gravity wave parameters. References: Baumgarten, Gerd, and David C. Fritts (2014). Quantifying Kelvin-Helmholtz instability dynamics observed in noctilucent clouds: 1. Methods and observations. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 119.15, 9324-9337. Fritts, D. C., Wang, L., & Werne, J. A. (2013). Gravity wave-fine structure interactions. Part I: Influences of fine structure form and orientation on flow evolution and instability. Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, 70(12), 3710-3734.

  20. Seasonal variations in lower stratospheric gravity wave energy above the Falkland Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moffat-Griffin, T.; Jarvis, M. J.; Colwell, S. R.; Kavanagh, A. J.; Manney, G. L.; Daffer, W. H.

    2013-10-01

    gravity wavefield in the lower stratosphere (between 15 km and 22 km altitude) above Mount Pleasant Airport (51°49'S, 58°26'W) on the Falkland Islands is studied using over 2100 high-resolution radiosonde soundings from 2002 to 2010. The seasonal variation in vertical direction of propagation shows a small decrease in numbers of upward propagating waves that is related to critical level filtering; however, there is a very large increase in numbers of downward propagating waves between July and September; this is attributed to the proximity of the edge of the polar vortex. There is a seasonal variation in gravity wave energy density, with a large peak during the austral autumn equinox; this is markedly different to results in the literature both from Rothera, on the Antarctic Peninsula, and stations on the main Antarctic continent. This seasonal pattern has been shown to be linked to variations in the sources of upward propagating gravity waves. The seasonal variation in gravity wave characteristics above Mount Pleasant Airport seen in our results suggests that the gravity wavefield in this region is determined by a combination of different gravity wave sources located above and below the lower stratosphere.

  1. An investigation of the modulation of capillary and short gravity waves in the open ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, D. D.; Shemdin, O. H.

    1980-01-01

    A preliminary investigation of the modulation of capillary and gravity waves by long ocean waves is described. A pressure transducer is used to obtain water surface displacements, and a high-response laser-optical system is used to detect short-wave slopes. Analytical techniques are developed to account for the orbital motion of long waves. The local mean squared wave slope is found to be maximum leeward of the long-wave crests. For the long waves studied here and for short waves from 1 cm to 1 m, the longer a short-wave component is, the more leeward its maximum tends to occur. Also, the shortest waves tend to modulate least. The modulation of short waves is found to be strong enough to be an important component of the synthetic aperture radar image formation mechanism for long ocean waves.

  2. Gravity Wave Driven Instabilities at Large Richardson Numbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walterscheid, R. L.; Hecht, J. H.; Gelinas, L. J.

    2011-12-01

    The formalism that addresses rigorously the instability of waves on a basic state modulated by a primary wave is Floquet theory. However, the commonly used criteria for shear and convective instabilities were developed for steady horizontally uniform background flows. The prototypical shear instability is the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability. The flow is stable if the local Richardson number Ri =N2/{\\vert{∂ /∂ z}\\vert}2 > 1/4 everywhere, where N is the Brunt-Väisälä frequency and u is the horizontal wind. The prototypical convective instability is the Rayleigh-Taylor instability. Ignoring wind effects and dissipation, the flow is unstable if N2 < 0 (i.e., Ri <0) somewhere. These instability structures drift with the wind. In Floquet theory the linear system of equations is transformed so that the basic wave is stationary and the vertical coordinate points along the wavenumber vector of the basic wave. A Floquet system supports instabilities when conventional Richardson number criteria indicate that the system is stable. Indeed, finite amplitude waves are unstable no matter how large the Richardson number might be. An essential instability mechanism in Floquet systems is a resonant interaction between a forced primary oscillation and a free oscillation of the time-averaged system. These are parametric instabilities. They can have a significant influence on shaping the spectrum by transferring energy from one scale to another. Hecht et al. [2005] in a study of small scale instability structures during the Maui MALT campaign noted that there were occurrences of ripple (instability) structure when the conventional criteria indicated stable conditions. We have followed up this work with a detailed survey of the occurrence of ripple structure over Maui during periods that were stable and unstable according to conventional criteria. Values of Ri were calculated from meteor radar and lidar data. We have found frequent occurrence of ripple structure when Ri > 1/4 and

  3. Southern Argentina Agile Meteor Radar: Initial assessment of gravity wave momentum fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fritts, D. C.; Janches, D.; Hocking, W. K.

    2010-10-01

    The Southern Argentina Agile Meteor Radar (SAAMER) was installed on Tierra del Fuego (53.8°S) in May 2008 and has been operational since that time. This paper describes tests of the SAAMER ability to measure gravity wave momentum fluxes and applications of this capability during different seasons. Test results for specified mean, tidal, and gravity wavefields, including tidal amplitudes and gravity wave momentum fluxes varying strongly with altitude and/or time, suggest that the distribution of meteors throughout the diurnal cycle and averaged over a month allows characterization of both monthly mean profiles and diurnal variations of the gravity wave momentum fluxes. Applications of the same methods for real data suggest confidence in the monthly mean profiles and the composite day diurnal variations of gravity wave momentum fluxes at altitudes where meteor counts are sufficient to yield good statistical fits to the data. Monthly mean zonal winds and gravity wave momentum fluxes exhibit anticorrelations consistent with those seen at other midlatitude and high-latitude radars during austral spring and summer, when no strong local gravity wave sources are apparent. When stratospheric variances are significantly enhanced over the Drake Passage “hot spot” during austral winter, however, MLT winds and momentum fluxes over SAAMER exhibit very different correlations that suggest that MLT dynamics are strongly influenced by strong local gravity wave sources within this “hot spot.” SAAMER measurements of mean zonal and meridional winds at these times and their differences from measurements at a conjugate site provide further support for the unusual momentum flux measurements.

  4. Stratospheric and mesospheric concentric gravity waves over tropical cyclone Mahasen: Joint AIRS and VIIRS satellite observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yue, Jia; Miller, Steven D.; Hoffmann, Lars; Straka, William C.

    2014-11-01

    We report on the first simultaneous spaceborne observations of concentric gravity wave patterns in the stratosphere and mesosphere over the Indian Ocean excited by Tropical Cyclone Mahasen. On the nights of 13-14 May 2013, concentric ring patterns in nightglow were observed in close-proximity to Mahasen by the Day/Night Band (DNB) of the Visible/Infrared Imager/Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) on the Suomi NPP satellite. The waves exhibited horizontal wavelengths of 40-60 km. On 13 May 2013, long concentric waves of ~500 km wavelength were also seen west of India, far away (~1500 km) from their estimated center near Mahasen. Concentric gravity waves in the stratosphere were observed nearly simultaneously by the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder on the Aqua satellite. These multi-level observations provide a clearer picture of the complex three-dimensional structure of tropical cyclone-generated gravity waves than a single instrument alone.

  5. Global Gravity Wave Variances from Aura MLS: Characteristics and Interpretation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Dong L.; Eckermann, Stephen D.

    2008-01-01

    The gravity wave (GW)-resolving capabilities of 118-GHz saturated thermal radiances acquired throughout the stratosphere by the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) on the Aura satellite are investigated and initial results presented. Because the saturated (optically thick) radiances resolve GW perturbations from a given altitude at different horizontal locations, variances are evaluated at 12 pressure altitudes between 21 and 51 km using the 40 saturated radiances found at the bottom of each limb scan. Forward modeling simulations show that these variances are controlled mostly by GWs with vertical wavelengths z 5 km and horizontal along-track wavelengths of y 100-200 km. The tilted cigar-shaped three-dimensional weighting functions yield highly selective responses to GWs of high intrinsic frequency that propagate toward the instrument. The latter property is used to infer the net meridional component of GW propagation by differencing the variances acquired from ascending (A) and descending (D) orbits. Because of improved vertical resolution and sensitivity, Aura MLS GW variances are 5?8 times larger than those from the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) MLS. Like UARS MLS variances, monthly-mean Aura MLS variances in January and July 2005 are enhanced when local background wind speeds are large, due largely to GW visibility effects. Zonal asymmetries in variance maps reveal enhanced GW activity at high latitudes due to forcing by flow over major mountain ranges and at tropical and subtropical latitudes due to enhanced deep convective generation as inferred from contemporaneous MLS cloud-ice data. At 21-28-km altitude (heights not measured by the UARS MLS), GW variance in the tropics is systematically enhanced and shows clear variations with the phase of the quasi-biennial oscillation, in general agreement with GW temperature variances derived from radiosonde, rocketsonde, and limb-scan vertical profiles.

  6. Possibility of measuring gravity-wave momentum flux by single beam observation of MST radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, C. H.

    1986-01-01

    Vincent and Reid (1983) proposed a technique to measure gravity-wave momentum fluxes in the atmosphere by mesosphere-stratosphere-troposphere (MST) radars using two or more radar beams. Since the vertical momentum fluxes are assumed to be due to gravity waves, it appears possible to make use of the dispersion and polarization relations for gravity waves in extracting useful information from the radar data. In particular, for an oblique radar beam, information about both the vertical and the horizontal velocities associated with the waves are contained in the measured Doppler data. Therefore, it should be possible to extract both V sub Z and V sub h from a single beam observational configuration. A procedure is proposed to perform such an analysis. The basic assumptions are: the measured velocity fluctuations are due to gravity waves and a separable model gravity-wave spectrum of the Garrett-Munk type that is statistically homogeneous in the horizontal plane. Analytical expressions can be derived that relate the observed velocity fluctuations to the wave momentum flux at each range gate. In practice, the uncertainties related to the model parameters and measurement accuracy will affect the results. A MST radar configuration is considered.

  7. Atmospheric gravity waves observed in OH airglow images from 78°N

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dyrland, M. E.; Holmen, S. E.; Sigernes, F.; Taylor, M. J.; Pautet, P.; Hall, C. M.; Tsutsumi, M.; Lorentzen, D. A.

    2012-12-01

    Atmospheric gravity waves play an essential role in determining the global circulation and thermal balance of the atmosphere. Airglow imagers are important tools for characterizing atmospheric gravity waves in the mesopause region and there are few placed in High Arctic locations. An airglow imager was installed at the Kjell Henriksen Observatory (KHO) located close to Longyearbyen on the Norwegian Arctic archipelago Svalbard (78°N, 16°E) in November 2010. The imager has a wide band filter and also bandpass filters to obtain the intensity of two different rotational lines of the OH(6-2) vibrational band. Two winter seasons of airglow data (2010/2011 and 2011/2012) have been analyzed. From the 395 measurement days, only about 17% had clear sky periods. Analysis of the images with low auroral contamination shows that gravity waves can be detected by the imager, however the number of wave events observed were relatively few. The characteristics of the observed waves have been found by FFT analysis. By using mesospheric wind data from the nearby Nippon/Norway Svalbard Meteor Radar (NSMR), the intrinsic properties of the gravity waves have also been retrieved. The predominant propagation direction of the gravity waves observed is northwestward. Temperatures obtained from combining the observed ratio of the bandpass images and background intensity measured by a co-located spectrometer is also presented.

  8. On the Southern Gravity Wave Hot Spot: An Individual Waves Study with Cosmic GPS-RO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hindley, N.; Wright, C.; Mitchell, N. J.

    2014-12-01

    The mountainous Southern Andes and Antarctic Peninsula (SAAP) region is one of the most intense sources of Gravity Waves (GWs) on Earth. In austral winter, momentum deposition from orographic GWs into the lower stratosphere from this region can exert a strong drag effect on winds in the polar stratospheric jet. The exact nature of this drag effect is difficult to parameterise operationally in GCMs, and as a result such wave parameterisations are generally poorly constrained by observations. Using COSMIC GPS-RO, we observe high Gravity Wave Potential Energy (GWPE) both directly over the SAAP region and downwind in a long leeward wake stretching more than half way around the globe, and comment on possible relationships between the two features. We also observe a vertical column of GWPE directly over the Southern Andes in both zonal and meridional cross-sections, the latter of which suggests a strong southward advection of orographic GWs into the polar stratospheric jet. We investigate the observed difference in monthly GW climatologies when an approach using only COSMIC profiles in which GW signals have been clearly identified is applied in preference to the traditional all-measurement time-averaged approach, and use this to obtain an estimate of GW intermittency in the SAAP region. Finally, we take advantage of the deployment phase of the COSMIC constellation to obtain an estimate of momentum flux in the SAAP region, using the phase difference between pairs of closely spaced profiles to estimate the horizontal wavelengths of resolved GWs. We demonstrate that during the deployment phase, momentum flux estimates derived from COSMIC GPS-RO are comparable to those derived from HIRDLS.

  9. Wavemaker theories for acoustic-gravity waves over a finite depth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Miao; Kadri, Usama

    2016-04-01

    Acoustic-gravity waves (hereafter AGWs) in ocean have received much interest recently, mainly with respect to early detection of tsunamis as they travel at near the speed of sound in water which makes them ideal candidates for early detection of tsunamis. While the generation mechanisms of AGWs have been studied from the perspective of vertical oscillations of seafloor (Yamamoto, 1982; Stiassnie, 2010) and triad wave-wave interaction (Longuet-Higgins 1950; Kadri and Stiassnie 2013; Kadri and Akylas 2016), in the current study we are interested in their generation by wave-structure interaction with possible application to the energy sector. Here, we develop two wavemaker theories to analyze different wave modes generated by impermeable (the classic Havelock's theory) and porous (porous wavemaker theory) plates in weakly compressible fluids. Slight modification has been made to the porous theory so that, unlike the previous theory (Chwang, 1983), the new solution depends on the geometry of the plate. The expressions for three different types of plates (piston, flap, delta-function) are introduced. Analytical solutions are also derived for the potential amplitude of the gravity, evanescent, and acoustic-gravity waves, as well as the surface elevation, velocity distribution, and pressure for AGWs. Both theories reduce to previous results for incompressible flow when the compressibility is negligible. We also show numerical examples for AGW generated in a wave flume as well as in deep ocean. Our current study sets the theoretical background towards remote sensing by AGWs, for optimized deep ocean wave-power harnessing, among others. References Chwang, A.T. 1983 A porous-wavemaker theory. Journal of Fluid Mechanics, 132, 395- 406. Kadri, U., Stiassnie, M. 2013 Generation of an acoustic-gravity wave by two gravity waves, and their subsequent mutual interaction. J. Fluid Mech. 735, R6. Kadri U., Akylas T.R. 2016 On resonant triad interactions of acoustic-gravity waves. J

  10. Characteristics of mesospheric gravity waves near the magnetic equator, Brazil, during the SpreadFEx campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, M. J.; Pautet, P.-D.; Medeiros, A. F.; Buriti, R.; Fechine, J.; Fritts, D. C.; Vadas, S. L.; Takahashi, H.; São Sabbas, F. T.

    2009-02-01

    As part of the SpreadFEx campaign, coordinated optical and radio measurements were made from Brazil to investigate the occurrence and properties of equatorial Spread F, and to characterize the regional mesospheric gravity wave field. All-sky image measurements were made from two sites: Brasilia and Cariri located ~10° S of the magnetic equator and separated by ~1500 km. In particular, the observations from Brasilia provided key data in relatively close proximity to expected convective sources of the gravity waves. High-quality image measurements of the mesospheric OH emission and the thermospheric OI (630 nm) emission were made during two consecutive new moon periods (22 September to 9 November 2005) providing extensive data on the occurrence and properties of F-region depletions and regional measurements of the dominant gravity wave characteristics at each site. A total of 120 wave displays were observed, comprising 94 short-period events and 26 medium-scale gravity waves. The characteristics of the small-scale waves agreed well with previous gravity wave studies from Brazil and other sites. However, significant differences in the wave propagation headings indicate dissimilar source regions for the Brasilia and Cariri datasets. The observed medium-scale gravity wave events constitute an important new dataset to study their mesospheric properties at equatorial latitudes. These data exhibited similar propagation headings to the short-period events, suggesting they originated from the same source regions. Medium-scale waves are generally less susceptible to wind filtering effects and modeling studies utilizing these data have successfully identified localized regions of strong convection, mainly to the west of Brasilia, as their most likely sources (Vadas et al., 2009).

  11. Gravity waves from non-minimal quadratic inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Pallis, Constantinos; Shafi, Qaisar

    2015-03-12

    We discuss non-minimal quadratic inflation in supersymmetric (SUSY) and non-SUSY models which entails a linear coupling of the inflaton to gravity. Imposing a lower bound on the parameter c{sub R}, involved in the coupling between the inflaton and the Ricci scalar curvature, inflation can be attained even for subplanckian values of the inflaton while the corresponding effective theory respects the perturbative unitarity up to the Planck scale. Working in the non-SUSY context we also consider radiative corrections to the inflationary potential due to a possible coupling of the inflaton to bosons or fermions. We find ranges of the parameters, depending mildly on the renormalization scale, with adjustable values of the spectral index n{sub s}, tensor-to-scalar ratio r≃(2−4)⋅10{sup −3}, and an inflaton mass close to 3⋅10{sup 13} GeV. In the SUSY framework we employ two gauge singlet chiral superfields, a logarithmic Kähler potential including all the allowed terms up to fourth order in powers of the various fields, and determine uniquely the superpotential by applying a continuous R and a global U(1) symmetry. When the Kähler manifold exhibits a no-scale-type symmetry, the model predicts n{sub s}≃0.963 and r≃0.004. Beyond no-scale SUGRA, n{sub s} and r depend crucially on the coefficient involved in the fourth order term, which mixes the inflaton with the accompanying non-inflaton field in the Kähler potential, and the prefactor encountered in it. Increasing slightly the latter above (−3), an efficient enhancement of the resulting r can be achieved putting it in the observable range. The inflaton mass in the last case is confined in the range (5−9)⋅10{sup 13} GeV.

  12. Linear and Nonlinear MHD Wave Processes in Plasmas. Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Tataronis, J. A.

    2004-06-01

    This program treats theoretically low frequency linear and nonlinear wave processes in magnetized plasmas. A primary objective has been to evaluate the effectiveness of MHD waves to heat plasma and drive current in toroidal configurations. The research covers the following topics: (1) the existence and properties of the MHD continua in plasma equilibria without spatial symmetry; (2) low frequency nonresonant current drive and nonlinear Alfven wave effects; and (3) nonlinear electron acceleration by rf and random plasma waves. Results have contributed to the fundamental knowledge base of MHD activity in symmetric and asymmetric toroidal plasmas. Among the accomplishments of this research effort, the following are highlighted: Identification of the MHD continuum mode singularities in toroidal geometry. Derivation of a third order ordinary differential equation that governs nonlinear current drive in the singular layers of the Alfvkn continuum modes in axisymmetric toroidal geometry. Bounded solutions of this ODE implies a net average current parallel to the toroidal equilibrium magnetic field. Discovery of a new unstable continuum of the linearized MHD equation in axially periodic circular plasma cylinders with shear and incompressibility. This continuum, which we named “accumulation continuum” and which is related to ballooning modes, arises as discrete unstable eigenfrequency accumulate on the imaginary frequency axis in the limit of large mode numbers. Development of techniques to control nonlinear electron acceleration through the action of multiple coherent and random plasmas waves. Two important elements of this program aye student participation and student training in plasma theory.

  13. Non-linear wave interaction in a plasma column

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larsen, J.-M.; Crawford, F. W.

    1979-01-01

    Non-linear three-wave interaction is analysed for propagation along a cylindrical plasma column surrounded by an infinite dielectric, in the absence of a static magnetic field. An averaged-Lagrangian method is used, and the results are specialized to parametric interaction and mode conversion, assuming an undepleted pump wave. The theory for these two types of interactions is extended to include imperfect synchronism, and the effects of loss. Computations are presented indicating that parametric growth rates of the order of a fraction of a decibel per centimeter should be obtainable for plausible laboratory plasma column parameters.

  14. Trajectories of radio waves in linear layer with isometric inhomogeneities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golynskiy, S. M.; Khlybov, G. N.

    1984-05-01

    The trajectories of radio waves in a statistically nonhomogeneous medium such as a linear ionospheric layer are estimated, taking into account their perturbation by local inhomogeneities. Assuming that the trajectories do remain in the plane of incidence, the deviation of the most probable trajectory from its unperturbed path in accordance with Snell's law is calculated for three models of wave diffusion as a Markov process (D- diffusion). The results are useful for design and operation of radio communication lines, calculation of the maximum usable frequency, and other applications.

  15. A dynamical study of gravity waves and instabilities in the mesopause region at Maui, Hawaii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Feng

    Correlative observations of the mesopause region (80--105 km) made by a cluster of remote sensing instruments were collected at Maui, Hawaii (20.7°N, 156.3°W) during the Maui-MALT campaign. Using this unique dataset, a dynamical study was performed to investigate gravity waves and instabilities in the mesopause region. An investigation of a "wall" wave on 12 August 2004 marks the first time such a bright event was captured by lidar. The observations indicate this event was a large-amplitude gravity wave with period of 4 hr and vertical wavelength of 20 km. The spectacular changes in temperature, airglow intensity and Na density accompanying the passage of the wall were due to the phase reversal of the wall wave. A gravity wave breaking event on 28 October 2003, which is the first time direct observation of gravity wave breakdown into small-scale ripples, was examined. The data suggest that the gravity wave breaking was due to a dynamical instability. The characteristics of the ripples were consistent with their attribution to Kelvin-Helmholtz billows. It is proposed that superposition of the background wind shear and the wave-induced shear caused Ri < 0.25, leading to wave breakdown and the subsequent generation of the ripples. The characteristics of instabilities in the mesopause region were analyzed. Unstable conditions are observed between 85 and 100 km ˜90% of the time. The probabilities of convective and dynamical instabilities are 3% and 10%, respectively. A distinct correlation between atmospheric static stability and wind shear is identified for the first. The distribution of stability is organized as layered structures, which are modulated by the progression of tides/long-period gravity waves. Unstable regions are found within the layers of reduced stability, which often located above thin layers of large N2/strong wind shear associated with the mesospheric inversion layers. It is suggested that gravity wave-tidal interactions might explain the observed

  16. Startup performance of the traveling wave versus standing wave linear accelerator.

    PubMed

    Buchgeister, M; Nüsslin, F

    1998-04-01

    The startup performance of medical linear accelerators is of increasing importance for modern radiotherapy techniques. The traveling wave-type linear accelerator of the SL series of Philips (now Elekta Oncology Systems) has been modified in its flight tube design to meet this goal of a fast rise time of the radiation field. The new slitless flight tube combined with a redesigned gun servo electronic now achieves start up times of the radiation comparable with those of a standing wave linear accelerator (Siemens Mevatron) according to our measurements. PMID:9571616

  17. Observations of gravity waves from satellite and implications for the wave driving of the SAO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ern, Manfred; Preusse, Peter; Riese, Martin

    2015-04-01

    The dynamics at low latitudes in the stratosphere and lower mesosphere is governed by an interplay of the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO) and the semiannual oscillation (SAO) of the zonal wind. It is known that tropical dynamics has significant influence on the atmosphere over a large range of altitudes and latitudes. For example, QBO and SAO effects are seen in the MLT region, and there is a significant influence of the QBO on surface weather and climate in the Northern Hemisphere during winter. Still, global models have large difficulties in simulating a realistic QBO and SAO. One main uncertainty is the wave driving of these oscillations, in particular the driving by gravity waves (GWs). We derive GW temperature variances, GW momentum fluxes and potential GW drag from over three years of High Resolution Dynamics Limb Sounder (HIRDLS) satellite data in the stratopause region. These observations are compared with the SAO driving due to planetary waves, as well as the zonal wind tendencies, both determined from the ECMWF ERA-Interim (ERAI) reanalysis. HIRDLS satellite observations and ERAI support the general assumption that, due to selective filtering of the GW spectrum by the QBO in the stratosphere, GWs mainly contribute to the SAO momentum budget during SAO eastward wind shear. However, during SAO westward wind shear the GW contribution is usually smaller, and the wave driving is dominated by planetary waves, probably of extratropical origin. Still, we find indications in both satellite observations and ERAI that sometimes GW drag is important also during SAO westward wind shear.

  18. On Sub-linear Convergence for Linearly Degenerate Waves in Capturing Schemes

    SciTech Connect

    Banks, J W; Aslam, T; Rider, W J

    2008-03-17

    A common attribute of capturing schemes used to find approximate solutions to the Euler equations is a sub-linear rate of convergence with respect to mesh resolution. Purely nonlinear jumps, such as shock waves produce a first-order convergence rate, but linearly degenerate discontinuous waves, where present, produce sub-linear convergence rates which eventually dominate the global rate of convergence. The classical explanation for this phenomenon investigates the behavior of the exact solution to the numerical method in combination with the finite error terms, often referred to as the modified equation. For a first-order method, the modified equation produces the hyperbolic evolution equation with second-order diffusive terms. In the frame of reference of the traveling wave, the solution of a discontinuous wave consists of a diffusive layer that grows with a rate of t{sup 1/2}, yielding a convergence rate of 1/2. Self-similar heuristics for higher order discretizations produce a growth rate for the layer thickness of {Delta}t{sup 1/(p+1)} which yields an estimate for the convergence rate as p/(p+1) where p is the order of the discretization. In this paper we show that this estimated convergence rate can be derived with greater rigor for both dissipative and dispersive forms of the discrete error. In particular, the form of the analytical solution for linear modified equations can be solved exactly. These estimates and forms for the error are confirmed in a variety of demonstrations ranging from simple linear waves to multidimensional solutions of the Euler equations.

  19. Quantification of the gravity wave forcing of the migrating diurnal tide in a gravity wave-resolving general circulation model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Shingo; Miyahara, Saburo

    2009-04-01

    The interaction of gravity waves (GWs) and the migrating diurnal tide are studied in a GW-resolving general circulation model (GCM) by calculating the tidal components of zonal wind accelerations and equivalent Rayleigh friction due to tidal induced GW dissipation. Two 15-day periods for perpetual equinoctial and solstice simulations are analyzed, which are performed with the Japanese Atmospheric General circulation model for Upper Atmosphere Research (JAGUAR) high-resolution GCM. The model can directly simulate GWs with horizontal wavelengths greater than about 190 km, and, thus reproduce the general features of the mean winds and temperatures from the surface to the mesosphere and lower thermosphere (MLT). The amplitudes of the migrating diurnal tide are successfully simulated during both seasons, and the tidal winds affect the altitudes of GW dissipation in the low-latitude MLT. The tidal component of GW forcing has maximal values of about 15 m s-1 d-1 near the maximal vertical shears of the tidal winds and generally works to shorten the vertical wavelength of the migrating diurnal tide. The phase relationship between the tidal winds and the tidal induced GW forcing is not exactly 90° out of phase, causing amplification/suppression of the tide. The GW forcing amplifies the migrating diurnal tide during the equinox, while during the solstice, it suppresses the tidal winds in the upper mesosphere of both hemispheres. This difference in behavior can be attributed to a seasonal variation of the mean zonal winds, because combination of the mean and tidal winds affects the altitudes of GW dissipation.

  20. Mesospheric airglow and ionospheric responses to upward-propagating acoustic and gravity waves above tropospheric sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snively, J. B.; Zettergren, M. D.

    2013-12-01

    The existence of acoustic waves (periods ~1-5 minutes) and gravity waves (periods >4 minutes) in the ionosphere above active tropospheric convection has been appreciated for more than forty years [e.g., Georges, Rev. Geophys. and Space Phys., 11(3), 1973]. Likewise, gravity waves exhibiting cylindrical symmetry and curvature of phase fronts have been observed via imaging of the mesospheric airglow layers [e.g., Yue et al., JGR, 118(8), 2013], clearly associated with tropospheric convection; gravity wave signatures have also recently been detected above convection in ionospheric total electron content (TEC) measurements [Lay et al., GRL, 40, 2013]. We here investigate the observable features of acoustic waves, and their relationship to upward-propagating gravity waves generated by the same sources, as they arrive in the mesosphere, lower-thermosphere, and ionosphere (MLTI). Numerical simulations using a nonlinear, cylindrically-axisymmetric, compressible atmospheric dynamics model confirm that acoustic waves generated by transient tropospheric sources may produce "concentric ring" signatures in the mesospheric hydroxyl airglow layer that precede the arrival of gravity waves. As amplitudes increase with altitude and decreasing neutral density, the modeled acoustic waves achieve temperature and vertical wind perturbations on the order of ~10s of Kelvin and m/s throughout the E- and F-region. Using a coupled multi-fluid ionospheric model [Zettergren and Semeter, JGR, 117(A6), 2012], extended for low-latitudes using a 2D dipole magnetic field coordinate system, we investigate acoustic wave perturbations to the ionosphere in the meridional direction. Resulting perturbations are predicted to be detectable by ground-based radar and GPS TEC measurements, or via in situ instrumentation. Although transient and short-lived, the acoustic waves' airglow and ionospheric signatures are likely to in some cases be observable, and may provide important insight into the regional

  1. Global Simulation of EMIC waves at Earth: Generation and Application of Linearly Polarized EMIC waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, E. H.; Valeo, E. J.; Johnson, J.; Kim, H.; Lee, D. H.; Phillips, C.

    2014-12-01

    We have developed a two-dimensional, finite element code that solves the electromagnetic full wave equations in global magnetospheric geometry. The code produces the three-dimensional wave structure, including mode conversion effects, for plasma waves launched in a two-dimensional axisymmetric background plasma with general magnetic field topology. Using this code, we have examined how EMIC waves are generated and propagated along the magnetic field line. While left-handed polarized EMIC waves are known to be excited by the cyclotron instability associated with hot and anisotropic ion distributions in the equatorial region of the magnetosphere, the generation mechanism of linear and right-handed polarized EMIC waves, which are often observed near the magnetic equator, remains as one of the unsolved scientific questions. In this presentation, we show the linear polarization of the EMIC waves can be explained by mode conversion at the ion-ion hybrid (IIH) resonance (an analogue of the field-line resonance when the resonance frequency is on the order of the heavy ion cyclotron frequency) when externally driven compressional waves propagate into an increasing/decreasing heavy ion concentration or inhomogeneous magnetic field. Since these mode-converted waves depend sensitively on the heavy ion concentration, it possible to estimate the heavy ion concentration ratio from the wave propagation characteristics. We also evaluated the absorption coefficients at the IIH resonance at Earth's geosynchronous orbit for variable concentrations of He+ and wave frequencies and have found that the resonance only occurs for a limited range of wave frequencies, defined such that the IIH resonance frequency is close to, but not exactly the same as the crossover frequency. Using the wave absorption and observed EMIC waves from the GOES-12 satellite, we demonstrate how this technique can be used to estimate that the He+ concentration is around 4% near L = 6.6.

  2. Forcing of the thermosphere-ionosphere through gravity wave dissipation in the bottom F-Layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Negrea, Catalin; Zabotin, Nikolay; Bullett, Terry; Rietveld, Mike

    2015-04-01

    The importance of gravity waves for thermospheric and ionospheric dynamics has been amply demonstrated by both observational and modelling studies. This is true for both the initial perturbations and the changes to background conditions due to wave attenuation. In detecting and analyzing atmospheric GWs, Travelling Ionospheric Disturbances act as a tracer. We use Dynasonde derived ionospheric measurements to determine the amplitude, phase, frequency, wavelength and direction of propagation for gravity waves at Wallops Island, San Juan and Tromso. The objective of this study is to determine the magnitude and variability of the body forces exerted on the background system by waves as they are attenuated and dump their momenta. For atmospheric dynamics it is very important to know both the spatial and temporal variability of this momentum source. The continuous operation of Dynasonde instruments allows for temporal variations to be monitored within the altitude interval covered by the bottom F-Layer. The method we use is illustrated using a sample dataset from Wallops Island. The forcing due to gravity waves is then inferred for several time intervals in 2013 and 2014. Our approach allows for the impact of each wave mode to be determined, and also the cumulative effect of the gravity wave spectra at any given time and altitude. Characteristics common to each location are determined, such as the predominant direction of propagation and the seasonal variations in the wave spectra and the total body force.

  3. Analysis of Small-Scale Atmospheric Gravity Waves Using UARS MLS Radiance Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Dong L.

    1999-01-01

    Gravity waves play an important role in determining atmospheric circulation and small-scale mixing. Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) 63-GHz radiances can be used to calculate small-scale wave variances at 30-80 km altitudes. The major results from this new data set are summarized in the following: (1) MLS radiance fluctuations are contributed mostly by gravity waves of small (about 100 km) horizontal and large (>10 km) vertical scales. (2) MLS observations show that variance enhancements are strongly correlated with the stratospheric polar vortices, tropospheric deep convection zones, and surface topography. (3) As expected for gravity wave propagation, the normalized wave variances grow exponentially with height in the stratosphere but saturate in the mesosphere. (4) The long-term variations of the wave variance are dominated by an annual cycle in the stratosphere and a semiannual cycle in the mesosphere. (5) Separate analyses of the ascending and descending measurements show that the variances are sensitive to wave propagation directions. The subtropical variances, which are associated with deep convection, are likely caused by the gravity waves that propagate upward and eastward in the westward background wind. Additional information contained in the original.

  4. On the detection and attribution of gravity waves generated by the 20 March 2015 solar eclipse.

    PubMed

    Marlton, G J; Williams, P D; Nicoll, K A

    2016-09-28

    Internal gravity waves are generated as adjustment radiation whenever a sudden change in forcing causes the atmosphere to depart from its large-scale balanced state. Such a forcing anomaly occurs during a solar eclipse, when the Moon's shadow cools part of the Earth's surface. The resulting atmospheric gravity waves are associated with pressure and temperature perturbations, which in principle are detectable both at the surface and aloft. In this study, surface pressure and temperature data from two UK sites at Reading and Lerwick are examined for eclipse-driven gravity wave perturbations during the 20 March 2015 solar eclipse over northwest Europe. Radiosonde wind data from the same two sites are also analysed using a moving parcel analysis method, to determine the periodicities of the waves aloft. On this occasion, the perturbations both at the surface and aloft are found not to be confidently attributable to eclipse-driven gravity waves. We conclude that the complex synoptic weather conditions over the UK at the time of this particular eclipse helped to mask any eclipse-driven gravity waves.This article is part of the themed issue 'Atmospheric effects of solar eclipses stimulated by the 2015 UK eclipse'. PMID:27550763

  5. Anomalous non-stationary gravity waves downwind of the Snowdonia mountains observed by anemometer and MST radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Worthington, R. M.

    2015-06-01

    Mountain waves can cause surface wind variations shown by synthetic aperture radar measurements of sea surface roughness. Since mountain waves are quasi-stationary, it can be difficult to identify the mountain-wave component of a surface anemometer time series. However, orographic gravity waves are non-stationary on rare occasions. This study examines two anomalous case studies found in four years of data, when surface wind downwind of mountains oscillates with a period of 20-60 min. Meso-strato-troposphere radar shows vertical wind oscillations of the same period, the amplitude a maximum in the lower troposphere, apparently trapped waves. Satellite images show ordinary mountain-wave clouds with horizontal wavelengths 9.0 and 5.7 km in the two case studies. Phase speeds are 5.3 and 4.8 m s-1, assuming a fixed wavelength. Surface wind direction reverses a few times through 180° in one instance, consistent with propagating rotors. A multi-beam method is used to find if phase propagation is upwind or downwind for one case study, based on cross-correlation of the high-frequency component of wind time series in off-vertical radar beams. Surprisingly, phase propagation is found to be mostly upwind. Both changing background wind and/or stability, and non-linear wave interactions, can cause mountain waves to drift upwind or downwind, and the exact cause could be resolved by numerical modelling.

  6. The Transfer Function Model (TFM) as a Tool for Simulating Gravity Wave Phenomena in the Mesosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porter, H.; Mayr, H.; Moore, J.; Wilson, S.; Armaly, A.

    2008-12-01

    The Transfer Function Model (TFM) is semi-analytical and linear, and it is designed to describe the acoustic gravity waves (GW) propagating over the globe and from the ground to 600 km under the influence of vertical temperature variations. Wave interactions with the flow are not accounted for. With an expansion in terms of frequency-dependent spherical harmonics, the time consuming vertical integration of the conservation equations is reduced to computing the transfer function (TF). (The applied lower and upper boundary conditions assure that spurious wave reflections will not occur.) The TF describes the dynamical properties of the medium divorced from the complexities of the temporal and horizontal variations of the excitation source. Given the TF, the atmospheric response to a chosen source is then obtained in short order to simulate the GW propagating through the atmosphere over the globe. In the past, this model has been applied to study auroral processes, which produce distinct wave phenomena such as: (1) standing lamb modes that propagate horizontally in the viscous medium of the thermosphere, (2) waves generated in the auroral oval that experience geometric amplification propagating to the pole where constructive interference generates secondary waves that propagate equatorward, (3) ducted modes propagating through the middle atmosphere that leak back into the thermosphere, and (4) GWs reflected from the Earth's surface that reach the thermosphere in a narrow propagation cone. Well-defined spectral features characterize these wave modes in the TF to provide analytical understanding. We propose the TFM as a tool for simulating GW in the mesosphere and in particular the features observed in Polar Mesospheric Clouds (PMC). With present-day computers, it takes less than one hour to compute the TF, so that there is virtually no practical limitation on the source configurations that can be applied and tested in the lower atmosphere. And there is no limitation on

  7. Linear waves in two-layer fluids over periodic bottoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Jie; Maas, Leo

    2015-11-01

    A new, exact Floquet theory is presented for linear waves in two-layer fluids over a periodic bottom of arbitrary shape and amplitude. A method of conformal transformation is adapted. The solutions are given, in essentially analytical form, for the dispersion relation between wave frequency and generalized wavenumber (Floquet exponent), and for the waveforms of free wave modes. The dispersion relation is the analogue of the classical Lamb's equation for a two-layer fluid over a flat bottom. For internal modes the interfacial wave shows rapid modulation at the scale of its own wavelength that is comparable to bottom wavelength, whereas for surface modes it becomes a long wave carrier for modulating short waves of bottom wavelength. The approximation using a rigid-lid is given. Sample calculations are shown, including the frequencies that are Bragg resonant. Supports to JY by US National Science Foundation (Grant CBET-0845957) and a visitor's grant of the Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research (NWO) during the period of this work, are gratefully acknowledged.

  8. Surface wave and linear operating mode of a plasma antenna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogachev, N. N.; Bogdankevich, I. L.; Gusein-zade, N. G.; Rukhadze, A. A.

    2015-10-01

    The relation between the propagation conditions of a surface electromagnetic wave along a finiteradius plasma cylinder and the linear operating mode of a plasma antenna is investigated. The solution to the dispersion relation for a surface wave propagating along a finite-radius plasma cylinder is analyzed for weakly and strongly collisional plasmas. Computer simulations of an asymmetrical plasma dipole antenna are performed using the KARAT code, wherein the dielectric properties of plasma are described in terms of the Drude model. The plasma parameters corresponding to the linear operating mode of a plasma antenna are determined. It is demonstrated that the characteristics of the plasma antenna in this mode are close to those of an analogous metal antenna.

  9. Surface wave and linear operating mode of a plasma antenna

    SciTech Connect

    Bogachev, N. N. Bogdankevich, I. L.; Gusein-zade, N. G.; Rukhadze, A. A.

    2015-10-15

    The relation between the propagation conditions of a surface electromagnetic wave along a finiteradius plasma cylinder and the linear operating mode of a plasma antenna is investigated. The solution to the dispersion relation for a surface wave propagating along a finite-radius plasma cylinder is analyzed for weakly and strongly collisional plasmas. Computer simulations of an asymmetrical plasma dipole antenna are performed using the KARAT code, wherein the dielectric properties of plasma are described in terms of the Drude model. The plasma parameters corresponding to the linear operating mode of a plasma antenna are determined. It is demonstrated that the characteristics of the plasma antenna in this mode are close to those of an analogous metal antenna.

  10. The southern stratospheric gravity-wave hot spot: individual waves and their momentum fluxes measured by COSMIC GPS-RO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hindley, N. P.; Wright, C. J.; Smith, N. D.; Mitchell, N. J.

    2015-02-01

    During austral winter the mountains of the southern Andes and Antarctic Peninsula are a known hot spot of intense gravity wave momentum flux. There also exists a long leeward region of increased gravity wave energy that sweeps eastwards from the mountains out over the Southern Ocean, the source of which has historically proved difficult to determine. In this study we use Global Positioning System (GPS) Radio Occultation (RO) data from the Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere and Climate (COSMIC) satellite constellation to investigate the distribution, variability and sources of waves in the hot spot region and over the Southern Ocean. We present evidence that suggests a southward focusing of waves into the stratospheric jet from sources to the north. We also describe a wavelet analysis technique for the quantitative identification of individual waves from COSMIC temperature profiles. This analysis reveals different geographical regimes of wave amplitude and short-timescale variability in the wave field over the Southern Ocean. Finally, we take advantage of the large numbers of closely spaced pairs of profiles from the deployment phase of the COSMIC constellation in 2006 to make estimates of gravity wave horizontal wavelengths. We show that, given sufficient numbers of these pairs, GPS-RO can then produce physically reasonable estimates of stratospheric gravity wave momentum flux in the hot spot region that are consistent with other studies. The results are discussed in the context of previous satellite and modelling studies to build up a better picture of the nature and origins of waves in the southern winter stratosphere.

  11. Investigating Gravity Wave-Ionosphere Interactions Using The Transfer Function Model And An Ionosphere Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruntz, R. J.; Paxton, L. J.; Miller, E. S.; Bust, G. S.; Mayr, H. G.

    2015-12-01

    The Transfer Function Model (TFM) has been used in numerous studies to simulate gravity waves. In the TFM, the time dependence is formulated in terms of frequencies, and the horizontal wave pattern on the globe is formulated in terms of vector spherical harmonics. For a wide range of frequencies, the equations of mass, energy and momentum conservation are solved to compile a transfer function. The transfer function can then be easily combined with a time-dependent source whose spatial extent is also expressed in spherical harmonics, to produce a global atmospheric response, including gravity waves. This approach has significant benefits in that the solution is grid-independent (without any inherent limits on resolution), and the solutions do not suffer from singularities at the poles. We will show results from our simulations that couple the output of the TFM to an ionospheric model, to predict traveling ionospheric disturbances (TIDs) driven by the simulated gravity waves.

  12. On the determination of gravity wave momentum flux from GPS radio occultation data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faber, A.; Llamedo, P.; Schmidt, T.; de la Torre, A.; Wickert, J.

    2013-11-01

    Global Positioning System (GPS) radio occultation (RO) is a well-established technique for obtaining global gravity wave (GW) information. RO uses GPS signals received by low Earth-orbiting satellites for atmospheric limb sounding. Temperature profiles are derived with high vertical resolution and provide a global coverage under any weather conditions, offering the possibility of global monitoring of the vertical temperature structure and atmospheric wave parameters. The six-satellite constellation COSMIC/FORMOSAT-3 delivers approximately 2000 temperature profiles daily. In this study, we use a method to obtain global distributions of horizontal gravity wave wavelengths, to be applied in the determination of the vertical flux of horizontal momentum transported by gravity waves. Here, a method for the determination of the real horizontal wavelength from three vertical profiles is applied to the COSMIC data. The horizontal and vertical wavelength, the specific potential energy (Ep), and the vertical flux of horizontal momentum (MF) are calculated and their global distribution is discussed.

  13. Fibre inflation: observable gravity waves from IIB string compactifications

    SciTech Connect

    Cicoli, M.; Quevedo, F.; Burgess, C.P. E-mail: cburgess@perimeterinstitute.ca

    2009-03-15

    We introduce a simple string model of inflation, in which the inflaton field can take trans-Planckian values while driving a period of slow-roll inflation. This leads naturally to a realisation of large field inflation, inasmuch as the inflationary epoch is well described by the single-field scalar potential V = V{sub 0}(3-4e{sup -{phi}/(3){sup 1{sup /{sup 2}}}}). Remarkably, for a broad class of vacua all adjustable parameters enter only through the overall coefficient V{sub 0}, and in particular do not enter into the slow-roll parameters. Consequently these are determined purely by the number of e -foldings, N{sub e}, and so are not independent: {epsilon} {approx_equal} 3/2{eta}{sup 2}. This implies similar relations among observables like the primordial scalar-to-tensor amplitude, r, and the scalar spectral tilt, n{sub s}: r {approx_equal} 6(n{sub s}-1){sup 2}. N{sub e} is itself more model-dependent since it depends partly on the post-inflationary reheat history. In a simple reheating scenario a reheating temperature of T{sub rh} {approx_equal} 10{sup 9} GeV gives N{sub e} {approx_equal} 58, corresponding to n{sub s} {approx_equal} 0.970 and r {approx_equal} 0.005, within reach of future observations. The model is an example of a class that arises naturally in the context of type IIB string compactifications with large-volume moduli stabilisation, and takes advantage of the generic existence there of Kaehler moduli whose dominant appearance in the scalar potential arises from string loop corrections to the Kaehler potential. The inflaton field is a combination of Kaehler moduli of a K3-fibered Calabi-Yau manifold. We believe there are likely to be a great number of models in this class-''high-fibre models''-in which the inflaton starts off far enough up the fibre to produce observably large primordial gravity waves.

  14. Linear transformation method to control flexural waves in thin plates.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yongquan; Ma, Zhaoyang; Su, Xianyue

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, the linear transformation method (LTM) to control flexural waves propagating in thin plates is presented. Unlike earlier studies, only a small number of homogeneous materials with no requirement of in-plane forces or pre-stress are needed, which tremendously simplifies the implementation of devices for flexural waves. An invisibility cloak with homogeneous materials is studied to confirm the validity of the present approach, and to show its imperfection due to impedance mismatch at interfaces. Required materials can be further simplified as layered isotropic materials using the effective medium theory. Finally, the LTM can be extended to the case of flexural waves propagating in anisotropic thin plates. The present method opens a promising avenue toward the realization of advanced structured shields and other devices. PMID:27586744

  15. A mesoscale gravity wave event observed during CCOPE. II - Interactions between mesoscale convective systems and the antecedent waves. [Cooperative Convection Precipitation Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koch, Steven E.; Golus, Robert E.; Dorian, Paul B.

    1988-01-01

    The interactions between preexisting gravity waves and convective systems were investigated using data obtained by the Cooperative Convection Precipitation Experiment observational network in Montana on July 11-12, 1981. The results indicate that strong convection substantially affects gravity waves locally by augmenting the wave amplitude, reducing its wavelength, distorting the wave shape, altering the wave phase velocity, and greatly weakening the in-phase covariance between the perturbation wind and pressure fields. These convective effects upon gravity waves are explained in terms of hydrostatic and nonhydrostatic pressure forces and gust front processes associated with thunderstorms.

  16. Observation of gravity waves during the extreme tornado outbreak of 3 April 1974

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hung, R. J.; Phan, T.; Smith, R. E.

    1978-01-01

    A continuous wave-spectrum high-frequency radiowave Doppler sounder array was used to observe upper-atmospheric disturbances during an extreme tornado outbreak. The observations indicated that gravity waves with two harmonic wave periods were detected at the F-region ionospheric height. Using a group ray path computational technique, the observed gravity waves were traced in order to locate potential sources. The signals were apparently excited 1-3 hours before tornado touchdown. Reverse ray tracing indicated that the wave source was located at the aurora zone with a Kp index of 6 at the time of wave excitation. The summation of the 24-hour Kp index for the day was 36. The results agree with existing theories (Testud, 1970; Titheridge, 1971; Kato, 1976) for the excitation of large-scale traveling ionospheric disturbances associated with geomagnetic activity in the aurora zone.

  17. Convectively Generated Meso-Scale Gravity Waves in ER-2 Observations During CRYSTAL-FACE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, L.; Alexander, M. J.

    2004-12-01

    The MMS and MTP data from ER-2 observations during the CRYSTAL-FACE campaign are analyzed to retrieve meso-scale gravity wave information at the aircraft flight level. For a given flight segment, the S-transform is used to locate small-scale (10-25 km) gravity wave events. The Stokes method and the MTP method are then used to determine the horizontal propagation directions, and the vertical scales of the wave events, respectively. Other wave parameters, such as horizontal scales, group velocities, can also be derived. From the estimated propagation directions, group velocities, and the ground-based radar reflectivity observations, some wave events are traced back to convectively active regions, suggesting convection as the source of the waves.

  18. Traveling wave type ultrasonic linear motor using twin bending bars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondo, Shuichi; Yamaura, Hiroshi; Koyama, Daisuke; Nakamura, Kentaro

    2010-01-01

    Ultrasonic linear motors with a small body are highly demanded since efficiency does not decrease very much with downsizing. In this study, we aim at realizing ultrasonic linear motor with the diameter less than 10 mm as an alternative to small air cylinder actuators. We propose a new stator structure using two PZT elements between two parallel bending bars. The PZT elements are bonded at the position of several mm from the bar end. In this structure, both bar ends vibrate resonantly in a bending mode, and high vibration displacement amplitude can be obtained along the bars. The length between the PZT element and the bar end determines the optimum driving frequency. The slider simply consists of three metal plates, which sandwich the bending bars, and the preload can be controlled by springs. The conditions in which the traveling wave can be generated along the bars were investigated. When the bars vibrate in a symmetric mode and traveling waves are generated, the slider moves in the direction to the opposite of traveling wave. Traveling wave could be generated by controlling the driving phase difference between the two PZT elements. It was found that the phase differences depend on the distance between the two PZT elements. We experimentally achieved the stroke of 10 mm and the thrust of 78 mN at 23 kHz.

  19. Statistical characteristics of gravity waves observed by an all-sky airglow imager at Maui, HI and Cerro Pachon, Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Bing; Liu, Alan Z.

    2016-07-01

    Many long-term observations, such as airglow imaging, have shown that gravity waves exist in the mesopause region most of the time. These waves deposit momentum and energy into the background atmosphere when dissipating, and thus exert strong influence to the atmosphere. In this study, we focus on (1) the climatology of gravity waves characteristics, (2) the intermittency of gravity wave momentum flux and (3) the duration/lifespan of gravity wave events. These properties have important implications for gravity wave parameterizations. This study is based on multi-year all sky OH airglow observations obtained at Maui, HI (20.7° N, 156.3° W) and the Andes Lidar Observatory in Chile (30.3° S, 70.7° W). The statistical distribution of intrinsic wave parameters and the momentum flux are analyzed. The probability density functions of gravity wave momentum flux and duration can be described by simple functions and are related to the gravity wave intermittency. The probability distributions of the two sites have some similarity but with noticeable differences, indicating different effects of the background flow and wave source on the gravity wave intermittency in the mesopause region.

  20. Simultaneous Imaging and Lidar Measurements of a Breaking Internal Gravity Wave in the Mesosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, S. M.; Friedman, J.; Raizada, S.; Tepley, C.; Baumgardner, J.; Mendillo, M.

    2004-05-01

    A large wave event was observed in the three upper-mesospheric (80 to 105 km) airglow emissions of O(1S), Na and OH by the Boston University all-sky imager at the Arecibo Observatory during the night of 2/3 May 2003. Simultaneous measurements of the 80 to 105 km height region were made by two co-located potassium and sodium resonance lidars. The K lidar measurements indicated the presence of a large temperature inversion (possibly the largest recorded in the mesopause region to date) of 90 K peak-to-peak between 88 and 96 km during the zenith transit time of the disturbance. Strong vertical motions were observed to occur in the K and Na layers during the passage of the disturbance - the top and bottom sides of both layers increased in height by 3 to 5 km. The instability exhibited several characteristics of a bore - a non-linear disturbance commonly observed in rivers, oceans, and the lower atmosphere, and recently identified in the mesosphere. However, the vertical phase variation suggested that it was a large downwardly-propagating internal gravity wave that was in the process of breaking, causing overturning and turbulence, probably as a result of interaction with a large coincident temperature maximum. The behavior of the disturbance was very similar to that of a so-called ''wall''-type event (Swenson and Espy, 1995) and the event suggests that ''wall''-type events and bores are different manifestations of a single type of disturbance.

  1. Compound gravity receptor polarization vectors evidenced by linear vestibular evoked potentials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, S. M.; Jones, T. A.; Bell, P. L.; Taylor, M. J.

    2001-01-01

    The utricle and saccule are gravity receptor organs of the vestibular system. These receptors rely on a high-density otoconial membrane to detect linear acceleration and the position of the cranium relative to Earth's gravitational vector. The linear vestibular evoked potential (VsEP) has been shown to be an effective non-invasive functional test specifically for otoconial gravity receptors (Jones et al., 1999). Moreover, there is some evidence that the VsEP can be used to independently test utricular and saccular function (Taylor et al., 1997; Jones et al., 1998). Here we characterize compound macular polarization vectors for the utricle and saccule in hatchling chickens. Pulsed linear acceleration stimuli were presented in two axes, the dorsoventral (DV, +/- Z axis) to isolate the saccule, and the interaural (IA, +/- Y axis) to isolate the utricle. Traditional signal averaging was used to resolve responses recorded from the surface of the skull. Latency and amplitude of eighth nerve components of the linear VsEP were measured. Gravity receptor responses exhibited clear preferences for one stimulus direction in each axis. With respect to each utricular macula, lateral translation in the IA axis produced maximum ipsilateral response amplitudes with substantially greater amplitude intensity (AI) slopes than medially directed movement. Downward caudal motions in the DV axis produced substantially larger response amplitudes and AI slopes. The results show that the macula lagena does not contribute to the VsEP compound polarization vectors of the sacculus and utricle. The findings suggest further that preferred compound vectors for the utricle depend on the pars externa (i.e. lateral hair cell field) whereas for the saccule they depend on pars interna (i.e. superior hair cell fields). These data provide evidence that maculae saccule and utricle can be selectively evaluated using the linear VsEP.

  2. Linear and nonlinear effects in detonation wave structure formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borisov, S. P.; Kudryavtsev, A. N.

    2016-06-01

    The role of linear and nonlinear effects in the process of formation of detonation wave structure is investigated using linear stability analysis and direct numerical simulation. A simple model with a one-step irreversible chemical reaction is considered. For linear stability computations, both the local iterative shooting procedure and the global Chebyshev pseudospectral method are employed. Numerical simulations of 1D pulsating instability are performed using a shock fitting approach based on a 5th order upwind-biased compact-difference discretization and a shock acceleration equation deduced from the Rankine-Hugoniot conditions. A shock capturing WENO scheme of the 5th order is used to simulate propagation of detonation wave in a plane channel. It is shown that the linear analysis predicts correctly the mode dominating on early stages of flow evolution and the size of detonation cells which emerge during these stages. Later, however, when a developed self-reproducing cellular structure forms, the cell size is approximately doubled due to nonlinear effects.

  3. A regional study of atmospheric gravity waves using the USArray Transportable Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hedlin, M. A. H.; Stephan, C. C.; de Groot-Hedlin, C. D.; Alexander, M. J.; Hoffmann, L.

    2015-12-01

    The USArray Transportable Array (TA) is a network of approximately 400 seismo-acoustic stations deployed on a 70 km Cartesian grid covering an area of 2,000,000 km2 in the continental United States. The network moves eastward through station redeployments and is now located on the Atlantic coast. This dense network has provided unprecedented opportunities for research in seismology, infrasound and atmospheric science. We have developed a novel technique to investigate gravity wave occurrence and propagation across the network and have applied it to atmospheric pressure data recorded from Jan 1, 2010 through 2014. We divided the stations in this time range into 3,600 non-overlapping triangular arrays (triads). Each triad is most sensitive to propagating gravity waves in the 1-6 hour period range. We report two lines of research with this new dataset. First, we study individual large events in which atmospheric gravity waves are observed to cross the TA. We also study the long-term occurrence statistics of gravity waves and compare them to satellite observations of convective clouds and gravity waves in the stratosphere. We discuss plans for future work when the network is redeployed in Alaska.

  4. Convectively Forced Gravity Waves and their Sensitivity to Heating Profile and Atmospheric Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halliday, Oliver; Parker, Douglas; Griffiths, Stephen; Vosper, Simon; Stirling, Alison

    2016-04-01

    It has been known for some time that convective heating is communicated to its environment by gravity waves. Despite this, the radiation of gravity waves in macro-scale models, which are typically forced at the grid-scale by meso-scale parameterization schemes, is not well understood. We present here theoretical work directed toward improving our fundamental understanding of convectively forced gravity wave effects at the meso-scale, in order to begin to address this problem. Starting with the hydrostatic, non-rotating, 2D, Boussinesq equations in a slab geometry, we find a radiating, analytical solution to prescribed sensible heat forcing for both the vertical velocity and potential temperature response. Both Steady and pulsed heating with adjustable horizontal structure is considered. From these solutions we construct a simple model capable of interrogating the spatial and temporal sensitivity to chosen heating functions of the remote forced response in particular. By varying the assumed buoyancy frequency, the influence of the model stratosphere on the upward radiation of gravity waves, and in turn, on the tropospheric response can be understood. Further, we find that the macro-scale response to convection is highly dependent on the radiation characteristics of gravity waves, which are in turn dependent upon the temporal and spatial structure of the source, and upper boundary condition of the domain.

  5. Gravity waves observation of wind field in stratosphere based on a Rayleigh Doppler lidar.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ruocan; Dou, Xiankang; Sun, Dongsong; Xue, Xianghui; Zheng, Jun; Han, Yuli; Chen, Tingdi; Wang, Guocheng; Zhou, Yingjie

    2016-03-21

    Simultaneous wind and temperature measurements in stratosphere with high time-spatial resolution for gravity waves study are scarce. In this paper we perform wind field gravity waves cases in the stratosphere observed by a mobile Rayleigh Doppler lidar. This lidar system with both wind and temperature measurements were implemented for atmosphere gravity waves research in the altitude region 15-60 km. Observations were carried out for two periods of time: 3 months started from November 4, 2014 in Xinzhou, China (38.425°N,112.729°E) and 2 months started from October 7, 2015 in Jiuquan, China (39.741°N, 98.495°E) . The mesoscale fluctuations of the horizontal wind velocity and the two dimensional spectra analysis of these fluctuations show the presence of dominant oscillatory modes with wavelength of 4-14 km and period of around 10 hours in several cases. The simultaneous temperature observations make it possible to identify gravity wave cases from the relationships between different variables: temperature and horizontal wind. The observed cases demonstrate the Rayleigh Doppler Lidar's capacity to study gravity waves. PMID:27136878

  6. Comparative Analysis of Gravity Wave Activity at Wallops Island and San Juan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Negrea, Catalin; Zabotin, Nikolay; Bullett, Terrence

    2014-05-01

    There are numerous gravity wave detection schemes currently in use, based on various data acquisition schemes and instrumentation types. We developed one such method based on dynasonde data, which include both electron density and electron density gradients. The results described in this work extend a range of 150-250 km in altitude, while being essentially continuous in time. In addition to this, we can fully diagnose the gravity wave field, simultaneously determining spatial and temporal characteristics. This paper describes a comparative analysis of wave activity at two locations: Wallops Island, Virginia, U.S.A. and San Juan, Puerto Rico. At both locations, we show cases of Traveling Ionospheric Disturbances (TID's) clearly caused by gravity wave activity. The dominant frequency is sometimes obvious, but generally we have a superposition of several waves, each with an associated bandwidth. We extract the frequency, amplitude, wavelength and direction of propagation for each mode detected, independent of all other modes present. The wave spectra can drastically change with altitude, time, season, geographical location, etc. The same is true for the other wave characteristics listed above, and this becomes even more complex when we consider waves propagating along the two horizontal axes separately. All these aspects are discussed in our work, separating effects due to these various factors. Finally, we describe how our work will be extended be adding several other stations to provide a global characterization of wave activity in the thermosphere-ionosphere system.

  7. Characteristics of Mesospheric Gravity Waves Observed in the Central Region of Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wrasse, Cristiano Max; Messias Almeida, Lazaro; Abalde Guede, Jose Ricardo; Valentin Bageston, José; Pillat, Valdir G.; Lima, Washington L. C.

    Gravity waves observations were carried out at Palmas (10.16o S, 48.26o W) Brazil, between September 2007 and December 2008, using an all-sky airglow imager to measure the OH emis-sion. The gravity waves were divided in two groups following they morphology as band and ripples type waves. The main characteristics of the band type waves are: horizontal wavelength between 10-35 km; observed period raging from 5 to 25 minutes; observed phase speed between 5-60 m/s. Preferential propagation directions of the bands are northward and southward, show-ing a clear anisotropy. For the ripples the main wave parameters are: horizontal wavelength ranging between 5 and 15 km; observed period mainly distributed between 5 and 15 minutes and horizontal phase velocity from 5 to 30 m/s. The ripples showed the same anisotropy as in the preferential propagation direction as the band type waves. The gravity wave characteristics observed at Palmas were compared with other observations carried out in Brazil, showing simi-lar features. In order to explain the seasonal variation of the wave propagation direction, maps of Outgoing Longwave Radiation (ORL) were used to locate regions with intense deep con-vection (OLR < 220 W.m-2 ) in the lower atmosphere. During summer and autumn the wave sources regions are well correlated with deep convection areas located at west and northwest of Palmas.

  8. Interaction of acoustic-gravity waves with an elastic shelf-break

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Miao; Kadri, Usama

    2016-04-01

    In contrast to surface gravity waves that induce flow field which decays exponentially with depth, acoustic-gravity waves oscillate throughout the water column. Their oscillatory profile exerts stresses to the ground which provides a natural explanation for the earth's microseism (Longuet-Higgins, 1950). This work is an extension of the shelf-break problem by Kadri and Stiassnie (2012) who considered the sea floor and the shelf-break to be rigid, and the elastic problem by Eyov et al. (2013) who illustrated the importance of the sea-floor elasticity. In this study we formulate and solve the two-dimensional problem of an incident acoustic-gravity wave mode propagating over an elastic wall and interacting with a shelf-break in a weakly compressible fluid. As the modes approach the shelf-break, part of the energy is reflected whereas the other part is transmitted. A mathematical model is formulated by matching particular solutions for each subregion of constant depth along vertical boundaries; the resulting matrix equation is then solved numerically. The physical properties of these waves are studied, and compared with those for waves over a rigid bottom. The present work broadens our knowledge of acoustic-gravity-waves propagation in realistic environment and can potentially benefit the early detection of tsunami, generated from landslides or submarine earthquakes. References Eyov E., Klar A., Kadri U. , Stiassnie M. 2013 Progressive waves in a compressible-ocean with an elastic bottom. Wave Motion 50, 929-939. Kadri, U., and M. Stiassnie, 2012 Acoustic-Gravity waves interacting with the shelf break. J. Geophys. Res. 117, C03035. Longuet-Higgins, M.S. 1950 A theory of the origin of microseisms. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. A 243, 1-35.

  9. An effective absorbing boundary condition for linear long-wave and linear dispersive-wave tsunami simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maeda, Takuto; Tsushima, Hiroaki; Furumura, Takashi

    2016-04-01

    We numerically simulated the propagation of tsunami waves with finite difference methods by using perfectly matched layer (PML) boundary conditions to effectively eliminate artificial reflections from model boundaries. The PML method damps the tsunami height and velocity of seawater only in directions perpendicular to the boundary. Although the additional terms required to implement the PML conditions make the use of the PML technique difficult for linear dispersive tsunami waves, we have proposed an empirical extension of the PML method for modeling dispersive tsunami waves. Even for heterogeneous, realistic bathymetries, numerical tests demonstrated that the PML boundary condition dramatically decreased artificial reflections from model boundaries compared to the use of traditional boundary conditions. The use of PML boundary conditions for numerical modeling of tsunamis is especially useful because it facilitates use of the later phases of tsunamis that would otherwise be compromised by artifacts caused by reflections from model boundaries.

  10. The Role of Gravity Waves in the Formation and Organization of Clouds during TWPICE

    SciTech Connect

    Reeder, Michael J.; Lane, Todd P.; Hankinson, Mai Chi Nguyen

    2013-09-27

    All convective clouds emit gravity waves. While it is certain that convectively-generated waves play important parts in determining the climate, their precise roles remain uncertain and their effects are not (generally) represented in climate models. The work described here focuses mostly on observations and modeling of convectively-generated gravity waves, using the intensive observations from the DoE-sponsored Tropical Warm Pool International Cloud Experiment (TWP-ICE), which took place in Darwin, from 17 January to 13 February 2006. Among other things, the research has implications the part played by convectively-generated gravity waves in the formation of cirrus, in the initiation and organization of further convection, and in the subgrid-scale momentum transport and associated large-scale stresses imposed on the troposphere and stratosphere. The analysis shows two groups of inertia-gravity waves are detected: group L in the middle stratosphere during the suppressed monsoon period, and group S in the lower stratosphere during the monsoon break period. Waves belonging to group L propagate to the south-east with a mean intrinsic period of 35 h, and have vertical and horizontal wavelengths of about 5-6 km and 3000-6000 km, respectively. Ray tracing calculations indicate that these waves originate from a deep convective region near Indonesia. Waves belonging to group S propagate to the south-south-east with an intrinsic period, vertical wavelength and horizontal wavelength of about 45 h, 2 km and 2000-4000 km, respectively. These waves are shown to be associated with shallow convection in the oceanic area within about 1000 km of Darwin. The intrinsic periods of high-frequency waves are estimated to be between 20-40 minutes. The high-frequency wave activity in the stratosphere, defined by mass-weighted variance of the vertical motion of the sonde, has a maximum following the afternoon local convection indicating that these waves are generated by local convection

  11. Gravity jitters excited slosh waves in rotating propellant tank under microgravity environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hung, R. J.; Lee, C. C.; Leslie, Fred W.

    1991-01-01

    The dynamical behavior of fluids, in particular the effect of surface tension on partially-filled rotating fluids (cryogenic liquid helium and helium vapor) in a full-scale Gravity Probe-B Spacecraft propellant tank without probe imposed by various frequencies of gravity jitters have been investigated. Results disclose the conditions for the excitation of large amplitude slosh waves which shall be avoided in the design of cryogenic liquid propellant system.

  12. Gravitational-wave observations as a tool for testing relativistic gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eardley, D. M.; Lee, D. L.; Lightman, A. P.

    1973-01-01

    Gravitational radiation in the far field was examined using a formalism that encompassed all metric theories of gravity. There are six possible modes of polarization, which can be completely resolved by feasible experiments. A theoretical framework is set forth for classification of waves and theories, based on the Lorentz transformation properties of the six modes. Also shown in detail is how the six modes may be experimentally identified and to what extent such information limits the correct theory of gravity.

  13. Modeling the Dynamics of the Middle Atmosphere and Lower Thermosphere Under the Influence of Gravity Waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mayr, H. G.; Mengel, J. G.; Chan, K. L.; Porter, H. S.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Our Numerical Spectral Model (NSM), which extends from the ground up into the thermosphere, is non-linear, time-dependent and has been employed for 2D and 3D applications. The standard version of the NSM incorporates Hines' Doppler Spread Parameterization for small scale gravity waves (GW), but planetary waves generated in the troposphere have also been incorporated. The NSM has been applied to describe: (1) the anomalous seasonal variations of the zonal circulation and temperature in the upper mesosphere, (2) the equatorial oscillations (quasi-biennial and semi-annual oscillations (QBO and SAO)) extending from the stratosphere into the upper mesosphere, (3) the diurnal and semi-diurnal tides, and (4) the planetary waves that are excited in the mesosphere. With the emphasis to provide understanding, we present here results from numerical experiments with the NSM that shed light on the GW processes that are of central importance in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere. These are our conclusions: (1) The large semiannual variations in the diurnal tide (DT), with peak amplitudes observed around equinox, are produced primarily by GW interactions that involve, in part, planetary waves. The DT, like planetary waves, tends to be amplified by GW momentum deposition, which reduces also the vertical wavelength, but variations in eddy viscosity associated with GW interactions are also important. (2) The semidiurnal tide (SDT) and its phase in particular, is strongly influenced by the mean zonal circulation. The SDT, individually, is also amplified by GW. But the DT filters out GW such that the GW interaction effectively reduces the amplitude of the SDT, producing a strong nonlinear interaction between the DT and SDT. (3) Without external time dependent energy or momentum sources, planetary waves (PW) are generated in the model for zonal wavenumbers 1 to 4, which have amplitudes in the mesosphere above 50 km as large as 40 m/s and periods between 50 and 2 days. The waves are

  14. Long-Term Global Morphology of Gravity Wave Activity Using UARS Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eckermann, Stephen D.; Jackman, Charles H. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    This report provides a broad outline of the total body of research conducted during the past three years. We report on detailed model studies of the precise way in which infrared limb scanning satellites explicitly detect gravity waves, and use these insights to resolve earlier discrepant zonal mean estimates of gravity wave variances from satellite limb scanners. Detailed analysis of CRISTA temperature fluctuations are outlined, which provide new global information on long-wavelength stratospheric gravity waves generated by mountains, tropical convection and the mid-latitude jet stream- vortex system, as well as interactions higher in the mesosphere with the diurnal tide. The detailed insights gained from analyzing CRISTA data are applied to provide a multi- year analysis of stratospheric mountain waves over the Andes evident in MLS limb-track data. We also demonstrate for the first time that stratospheric temperature data from the CLAES instrument on UARS resolved gravity waves, and we highlight mountain wave information in a subset of these data. Final conclusions and recommendations are set forth, and the present findings are directly related to the original goals of the research contract. A full list of publications that resulted from this research is provided.

  15. A comprehensive observational filter for satellite infrared limb sounding of gravity waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trinh, Q. T.; Kalisch, S.; Preusse, P.; Chun, H.-Y.; Eckermann, S. D.; Ern, M.; Riese, M.

    2014-10-01

    This paper describes a comprehensive observational filter for satellite infrared limb sounding of gravity waves. The filter considers instrument visibility and observation geometry with a high level of accuracy. It contains four main processes: visibility filter, projection of the wavelength on the tangent-point track, aliasing effect, and calculation of the observed vertical wavelength. The observation geometries of the SABER (Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission Radiometry) and HIRDLS (High Resolution Dynamics Limb Sounder) are mimicked. Gravity waves (GWs) simulated by coupling a convective GW source (CGWS) scheme and the gravity wave regional or global ray tracer (GROGRAT) are used as an example for applying the observational filter. Simulated spectra in terms of horizontal and vertical wave numbers (wavelengths) of gravity wave momentum flux (GWMF) are analyzed under the influence of the filter. We find that the most important processes, which have significant influence on the spectrum are: visibility filter (for both SABER and HIRDLS observation geometries), aliasing for SABER and projection on tangent-point track for HIRDLS. The vertical wavelength distribution is mainly affected by the retrieval as part of the "visibility filter" process. In addition, the short-horizontal-scale spectrum may be projected for some cases into a longer horizontal wavelength interval which originally was not populated. The filter largely reduces GWMF values of very short horizontal wavelength waves. The implications for interpreting observed data are discussed.

  16. A comprehensive observational filter for satellite infrared limb sounding of gravity waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trinh, Q. T.; Kalisch, S.; Preusse, P.; Chun, H.-Y.; Eckermann, S. D.; Ern, M.; Riese, M.

    2015-03-01

    This paper describes a comprehensive observational filter for satellite infrared limb sounding of gravity waves. The filter considers instrument visibility and observation geometry with a high level of accuracy. It contains four main processes: visibility filter, projection of the wavelength on the tangent-point track, aliasing effect, and calculation of the observed vertical wavelength. The observation geometries of the SABER (Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission Radiometry) and HIRDLS (High Resolution Dynamics Limb Sounder) are mimicked. Gravity waves (GWs) simulated by coupling a convective GW source (CGWS) scheme and the gravity wave regional or global ray tracer (GROGRAT) are used as an example for applying the observational filter. Simulated spectra in terms of horizontal and vertical wave numbers (wavelengths) of gravity wave momentum flux (GWMF) are analyzed under the influence of the filter. We find that the most important processes, which have significant influence on the spectrum are the visibility filter (for both SABER and HIRDLS observation geometries) and aliasing for SABER and projection on tangent-point track for HIRDLS. The vertical wavelength distribution is mainly affected by the retrieval as part of the "visibility filter" process. In addition, the short-horizontal-scale spectrum may be projected for some cases into a longer horizontal wavelength interval which originally was not populated. The filter largely reduces GWMF values of very short horizontal wavelength waves. The implications for interpreting observed data are discussed.

  17. Analysis of a jet stream induced gravity wave associated with an observed ice cloud over Greenland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buss, S.; Hertzog, A.; Hostettler, C.; Bui, T. P.; Lüthi, T.; Wernli, H.

    2003-11-01

    A polar stratospheric ice cloud (PSC type II) was observed by airborne lidar above Greenland on 14 January 2000. Is was the unique observation of an ice cloud over Greenland during the SOLVE/THESEO 2000 campaign. Mesoscale simulations with the hydrostatic HRM model are presented which, in contrast to global analyses, are capable to produce a vertically propagating gravity wave that induces the low temperatures at the level of the PSC afforded for the ice formation. The simulated minimum temperature is ~8 K below the driving analyses and ~3 K below the frost point, exactly coinciding with the location of the observed ice cloud. Despite the high elevations of the Greenland orography the simulated gravity wave is not a mountain wave. Analyses of the horizontal wind divergence, of the background wind profiles, of backward gravity wave ray-tracing trajectories, of HRM experiments with reduced Greenland topography and of several instability diagnostics near the tropopause level provide consistent evidence that the wave is emitted by the geostrophic adjustment of a jet instability associated with an intense, rapidly evolving, anticyclonically curved jet stream. In order to evaluate the potential frequency of such non-orographic polar stratospheric cloud events, an approximate jet instability diagnostic is performed for the winter 1999/2000. It indicates that ice-PSCs are only occasionally generated by gravity waves emanating from an unstable jet.

  18. Long-Term Global Morphology of Gravity Wave Activity Using UARS Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eckermann, Stephen D.

    2000-01-01

    This report provides a broad outline of the total body of research conducted during the past three years. We report on detailed model studies of the precise way in which infrared limb scanning satellites explicitly detect gravity waves, and use these insights to resolve earlier discrepant zonal mean estimates of gravity wave variances from satellite limb scanners. Detailed analysis of CRISTA temperature fluctuations are outlined, which provide new global information on long-wavelength stratospheric gravity waves generated by mountains, tropical convection and the mid-latitude jet stream-vortex system, as well as interactions higher in the mesosphere with the diurnal tide. The detailed insights gained from analyzing CRISTA data are applied to provide a multiyear analysis of stratospheric mountain waves over the Andes evident in MLS limb-track data. We also demonstrate for the first time that stratospheric temperature data from the CLAES instrument on UARS resolved gravity waves, and we highlight mountain wave information in a subset of these data. Final conclusions and recommendations are set forth, and the present findings are directly related to the original goals of the research contract. A full list of publications that resulted from this research is provided.

  19. Influence of short gravity waves on thermal radio emission of water surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilin, V. A.; Naumov, A. A.; Rayzer, V. Y.; Filonovich, S. R.; Etkin, V. S.

    1985-06-01

    An experimental study is presented of the thermal radio emission caused by short waves, accompanied by a quantitative interpretation of the data obtained. Emphasis is on an analysis of the variation in radio brightness contrast as a function of steepness of the short gravity waves, measured by means of a high-frequency radiometer operating in the lambda = 0.8 cm range. Waves were artificially generated in a small channel, wavelength 8 to 40 cm, height 0.6 to 3 cm. Due to the high sensitivity of the radiometric apparatus used, effects were recorded which were related to the influence of the profile and steepness of the short gravity waves. The possibility of using the geometrical optics approximation for quantitative interpretation of the experimental data is demonstrated. The model is based on essentially non-Gaussian statistics of slopes corresponding to quasimonochromatic waves of finite amplitude.

  20. Turbulence measurements and implications for gravity wave dissipation during the MaCWAVE/MIDAS rocket program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rapp, M.; Strelnikov, B.; Müllemann, A.; Lübken, F.-J.; Fritts, D. C.

    2004-10-01

    Three altitude profiles of turbulent energy dissipation rates measured during the MaCWAVE/MIDAS summer rocket program are presented. All measurements show near continuous turbulent layers from ~72-90 km altitude. Above 82 km altitude measured dissipation rates are comparable to former results. Below 82 km the MaCWAVE/MIDAS measurements provide the first evidence for turbulence in summer at these altitudes ever obtained. This unusual turbulence activity is accompanied by a reduced altitude of the zonal wind maximum, colder temperatures below 85 km, and enhanced gravity wave amplitudes above ~75 km. The larger gravity wave amplitudes can be explained by the different local thermal structure through the wave amplitude dependence on the buoyancy frequency. These larger wave amplitudes lead to wave breaking, turbulence production, and forcing of the zonal wind at lower altitudes. Our measurements hence imply that the altitude of the zonal wind maximum is a sensitive indicator for the altitude distribution of turbulence in the upper mesosphere.

  1. Antarctic MLT Gravity Wave Momentum Flux Observed by the Davis MST Radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Love, P. T.; Murphy, D. J.

    2015-12-01

    The MST radar at Davis Station, Antarctica, 68.6 S 78.0 E, was used to make dual coplanar beam measurements of short period (12-60 minutes) gravity wave momentum flux in the mesopause region during the southern hemisphere summer of 2014-2015. Mean zonal and meridional momentum flux estimates are eastward and southward respectively, throughout the region and season, with a bias towards both larger mean flux and number of eastward and southward propagating waves. Lognormal distributions of the absolute momentum flux attributable to individual wave events are broadly consistent with satellite and other middle atmosphere gravity wave observation and modelling techniques, with greater than 40% of the total flux being contributed by the largest 10% of wave events. Estimates of flux divergence are made during periods where sufficient density of observations exist. Ray tracing methods are employed to identify potential source regions and mechanisms to aid the development of meteorologically interactive parameterization schemes for the region.

  2. Goldstone bosons to gravitons: A new gravity-wave production mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holman, R.; Wang, Yun

    1989-11-01

    We propose a new mechanism for gravity-wave production: the conversion of Goldstone bosons to gravitons in the presence of an external gravitational field. We compute the gravity-wave luminosity for the cases in which the external fields are due to various types of black holes: Schwarzschild, Reissner-Nordström, and Kerr. We also consider the case of the Schwarzschild constant-density star. The Goldstone-boson-induced gravity-wave luminosities are largely independent of the mass of the black hole. For the Goldstone bosons we have considered (the omion, recently proposed by Sikivie) these luminosities are small. However this is not due to effects inherent in the conversion process, rather this smallness comes about due to the incoming Goldstone-boson spectrum.

  3. Estimations of model parameters for gravity wave spectra observed by MST radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scheffler, A. O.; Liu, C. H.; Franke, S. J.

    1989-01-01

    The general theory of MST radar observations of gravity wave spectra is developed. This effort extends the previous results to include anisotropy and Doppler effects for the spectra, as well as the consequences for the multibeam configuration. The relationships between the observed one- or two-dimensional spectra for the line-of-sight velocity in the gravity wave spectra are derived. Expressions for cross spectra, as well as covariances between velocities observed on different beams, are computed. Using these results, studies are carried out to show how model parameters for gravity wave spectra can be estimated from the observed quantities. Model parameters include the variance, power law indices, anisotropy parameters, Doppler parameters, mean scale sizes, etc. Cases with different numbers of beams are investigated.

  4. An ultrasonic linear motor using ridge-mode traveling waves.

    PubMed

    Tominaga, Masahiko; Kaminaga, Ryuta; Friend, James R; Nakamura, Kentaro; Ueha, Sadayuki

    2005-10-01

    A new type of ultrasonic linear motor is presented using traveling waves excited along a ridge atop a substrate. The ridge cross section was designed to permit only the fundamental mode to be excited during operation of the motor, with a Langevin transducer used as the source of vibration in this study. The ridge waveguide was first made of lossy media to avoid reflecting vibration energy back toward the vibration source, forming a traveling wave. A 5-mm-wide, 15-mm-tall rectangular acrylic ridge was used to move a slider placed upon it toward the vibration source, in opposition to the direction of the traveling wave transmitted along the waveguide ridge. Using a low-loss 3 x 6-mm aluminum rectangular ridge combined with a damper clamped onto the far end of the waveguide, similar results were obtained. To obtain bidirectional operation, the damper was replaced with a second Langevin transducer, giving a pair of transducers located perpendicularly to the ends of the ridge and driven with an appropriate phase difference. The moving direction of the slider was reversed by shifting this phase difference by about 180 degrees. With this simple configuration, it may soon be possible to fabricate a linear micromotor system on a silicon substrate or other semiconductor wafer adjacent to other electronic and optoelectronic devices. PMID:16382624

  5. Investigating asymmetries in mesospheric gravity wave propagation at high-latitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, M. J.; Zhao, Y.; Ward, R.; Martin, T.; Pautet, P.; Dyrland, M. E.; Nielsen, K.; Jarvis, M. J.; Moffat-Griffin, T.; Randall, C. E.; Lumpe, J. D.; Bailey, S. M.; Russell, J. M.

    2012-12-01

    A combination of ground based imaging of gravity waves in the mesospheric OH emission (peak altitude ~87 km) and satellite measurements of waves as detected in extensive polar mesospheric clouds, PMC's (mean altitude ~83 km) has been used to investigate summer-winter wave properties in both the Northern and Southern polar regions. Wintertime all-sky image data primarily from two sites (Halley and Rothera) on the Antarctic coast, obtained as part of a collaborative program with British Antarctic Survey, and from the Kjell Henriksen Observatory (KHO) Svalbard in the high Arctic, have been utilized to determine the dominant characteristics of both short and medium scale gravity waves (observed periods up to ~1 hour). These new results, which show distinct asymmetries in their propagation headings, are compared with recent summertime gravity wave measurements using PMC data from the Cloud Imaging and Particle Size (CIPS) experiment on the NASA Aeronomy of Ice in the Mesosphere (AIM) satellite. Our Southern Hemisphere results reveal novel evidence for strong preferences for zonal wave motions particularly for the smaller scale (<100 km horizontal wavelength) suggesting a significant pattern for meridional filtering throughout the Antarctic continent. In contrast, the medium-scale waves exhibited a consistent but quite different motion field. These new results are compared with recent Northern Hemisphere measurements to further investigate polar wave dynamics in the Mesosphere and Lower Thermosphere (MLT) region (~80-100 km).

  6. Gravity wave observations by Doppler wind and temperature lidar measurements in the strato- and mesosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumgarten, Gerd; Fiedler, Jens; Hildebrand, Jens; Lübken, Franz-Josef

    2016-04-01

    The observation of wind and temperature perturbations by gravity waves propagating throughout the strato- and mesosphere is a challenging task. Both the kinetic and potential energy density can be derived and yield information about ensemble mean properties of gravity waves. We measure temperatures and winds with the Doppler Rayleigh/Mie/Raman lidar at the ALOMAR research station in Northern Norway (69N, 16E). Using two independently steerable telescopes and lasers we are able to measure vertical profiles of two wind components and temperatures simultaneously. The observations can be performed even under sunlit conditions, which is essential for measuring atmospheric perturbations over several days and during summer at this location. We report on the first observation of persistent inertia gravity wave signatures in the horizontal wind and temperature. The measurements cover the altitude range from 20 km to about 80 km during night and to about 70 km during daytime. For one case with observations lasting more than 50 hours, we find amplitudes of 5 to 25 m/s and 1 to 8 K in wind and temperature, respectively. The measured kinetic to potential energy density ratio is about 10, indicating that the majority of variability is due to waves with intrinsic frequencies close to the inertial frequency. The entire wave field is mainly characterized by the presence of multiple waves, however quasi-monochromatic waves can be identified at limited times and allow a more detailed analysis of wave properties like propagation direction, amplitudes and the momentum flux.

  7. Solitary Surface Gravity Waves With Local Vortex Structure On Deep Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lukomsky, D. V.; Sedletsky, Y. V.; Lukomsky, V. P.; Gandzha, I. S.

    We investigate flows with local vorticity in ideal heavy fluid with free surface in the framework of weakly non-linear theory in two-dimensional spatial representation. Steady flows with a singular structure of the velocity field in the vicinity of a free surface were found in [1] using a quadratic approximation. In the present work, we demonstrate new solutions by taking into account quadratic and cubic terms in the non-linear integro-differential equation with the kernel of Cauchy type for the limit- ing value W-(z) = lim W(z) of the complex potential W(z) y-0 i W(2)() + W(3)() + . . . - - - - (WR + WP )tt + i(WR - WP )x + d = 0, (1) - x + i0 - where z = x - t + iy, is the wave speed, WR(z) and WP (z) are the regular and singular parts of the complex potential, W(2)(z) and W(3)(z) are the quadratic and cubic terms in the expansion of W(z) at y = 0. Corresponding steady solutions of equation (1) M Nm Cnm W(z, t) = (z - t - zm)n m=1 n=1 represent singular solitary gravity waves with vortex filaments oriented across the mo- tion. Investigation of such localized steady flows is of high interest for modelling the optimal configuration of a body (M = 1) that moves without resistance with velocity and the depth of submergence given. This research has been supported by INTAS Grant 99-1637. [1] Lukomsky V.P., Sedletsky Y.V. 1994 JETP 79 761­771.

  8. Linear and non-linear numerical simulations of poloidal Alfven waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribeiro, A.

    2013-05-01

    Among the many of numerical simulations of MHD turbulence, few studies had been made of Alfven waves interacting with realistic boundaries. Thus, we have developed a novel hybrid spectral/finite element code, which is capable of simulate properly realistic boundaries properties. Our model is based on a Fourier decompositions of all variables in the azimuthal direction and on a finite element projection in the meridian plan. In order to simulate realistic boundary conditions for the magnetic field we solve the induction equation enforcing continuity of the magnetic field H at the interface with the external insulating medium through a Interior Penalty Galerkin method (IPG) [1]. I will present the results of our investigation of Alfven waves propagating in a cylinder filled of liquid metal submitted to an axial magnetic field. Poloidal Alfven waves are excited magnetically by imposing an azimuthal current pulse at the bottom of the cylinder. In the linear axisymmetric model we find a good agreement with previous experiments in liquid metals by Lundquist and by Lenhert and more recently by Alboussiere et al [2]. This axisymmetric study is extended to the non linear regime, where the amplitudes of the perturbations are comparable to the external applied magnetic field,in this conditions a complex response is found due to waves waves interactions. [1] J. L. Guermond, J.L Leorat, F. Luddens, C. Nore, A. Ribeiro. Effects of discontinuous magnetic permeability on magnetodynamic problems, Journal of Computational Physics Volume 230, Issue 16, 10 July 2011, Pages 6299 -- 6319. [2] T. Alboussiere, P. Cardin, F. Debray, H. C. Nataf, F. Plunian, A. Ribeiro, D. Schmitt, Experimental evidence of Alfven wave propagation in a Gallium alloy, Physics of fluids, 2011, vol. 23, nb 9.

  9. Convectively-generated gravity waves and clear-air turbulence (CAT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharman, Robert; Lane, Todd; Trier, Stanley

    2013-04-01

    Upper-level turbulence is a well-known hazard to aviation that is responsible for numerous injuries each year, with occasional fatalities, and results in millions of dollars of operational costs to airlines each year. It has been widely accepted that aviation-scale turbulence that occurs in clear air (CAT) at upper levels (upper troposphere and lower stratosphere) has its origins in Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities induced by enhanced shears and reduced Richardson numbers associated with the jet stream and upper level fronts. However, it is becoming increasingly apparent that gravity waves and gravity wave "breaking" also play a major role in instigating turbulence that affects aviation. Gravity waves and inertia-gravity waves may be produced by a variety of sources, but one major source that impacts aviation seems to be those produced by convection. The relation of convectively-induced gravity waves to turbulence outside the cloud (either above cloud or laterally away from cloud) is examined based on high resolution cloud-resolving simulations, both with and without cloud microphysics in the simulations. Results for both warm-season and cold-season cloud systems indicate that the turbulence in the clear air away from cloud is often caused by gravity wave production processes in or near the cloud which once initiated, are able to propagate away from the storm, and may eventually "break." Without microphysics of course this effect is absent and turbulence is not produced in the simulations. In some cases the convectively-induced turbulence may be many kilometers away from the active convection and can easily be misinterpreted as "clear-air turbulence" (CAT). This is a significant result, and may be cause for a reassessment of the working definition of CAT ("turbulence encountered outside of convective clouds", FAA Advisory Circular AC 00-30B, 1997).

  10. Theoretical and observational aspects of convection generated internal atmospheric gravity waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thokuluwa, Ramkumar

    2012-07-01

    Even though atmospheric gravity waves generated from convection contributes significantly to the middle atmospheric circulation and momentum balances, yet they have to be fully parameterized in general circulation models. The major constraint comes because of inadequacies in the exact measurement of four dimensional (including time) latent heating of the atmosphere occurring through condensation of water vapor. Satellite like TRMM measures the latent heating of the atmosphere but it is sparse in nature (both spatial and time) because of the continual shift in the azimuths of orbital plane of the satellite about the earth. Doppler weather radar is a good alternative in this sense but the poor signal to noise ratio of echoes with distance from the center of the radar and other simpler assumptions employed in deriving the latent heating, through using empirical relationship between the radar echoes and rain drop size distribution, rain rate and other precipitation characteristics, makes the estimation of latent heating of the atmospheric highly ambiguous. In such cases, it is essential to make comparative studies between theoretically estimated and observationally made convection generated gravity waves in the process of parameterizing the gravity waves. Here we report the theoretically estimated spectral characteristics of convection generated gravity waves and their comparison with observations made using Doppler weather radar (DWR) and MST radar (VHF, 53 MHz), which are located in the eastern coast of Southern India adjacent to the Bay of Bengal where tropical cyclones are forming. The determined latent heating of the atmosphere, using the DWR measurements, will be compared to that determined by the TRMM and other satellites. This determined heating will be utilized as inputs for the thermodynamics equations of high frequency gravity waves, the propagating nature of which can be determined using the MST radar at NARL, Gadanki. As this radar can give wind

  11. A Study of Mesoscale Gravity Waves over the North Atlantic with Satellite Observations and a Mesoscale Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Dong L.; Zhang, Fuqing

    2004-01-01

    Satellite microwave data are used to study gravity wave properties and variabilities over the northeastern United States and the North Atlantic in the December-January periods. The gravity waves in this region, found in many winters, can reach the stratopause with growing amplitude. The Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A) observations show that the wave occurrences are correlated well with the intensity and location of the tropospheric baroclinic jet front systems. To further investigate the cause(s) and properties of the North Atlantic gravity waves, we focus on a series of wave events during 19-21 January 2003 and compare AMSU-A observations to simulations from a mesoscale model (MM5). The simulated gravity waves compare qualitatively well with the satellite observations in terms of wave structures, timing, and overall morphology. Excitation mechanisms of these large-amplitude waves in the troposphere are complex and subject to further investigations.

  12. Stratospheric gravity waves at Southern Hemisphere orographic hotspots: 2003-2014 AIRS/Aqua observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffmann, Lars; Grimsdell, Alison W.; Alexander, M. Joan

    2016-07-01

    Stratospheric gravity waves from small-scale orographic sources are currently not well-represented in general circulation models. This may be a reason why many simulations have difficulty reproducing the dynamical behavior of the Southern Hemisphere polar vortex in a realistic manner. Here we discuss a 12-year record (2003-2014) of stratospheric gravity wave activity at Southern Hemisphere orographic hotspots as observed by the Atmospheric InfraRed Sounder (AIRS) aboard the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Aqua satellite. We introduce a simple and effective approach, referred to as the "two-box method", to detect gravity wave activity from infrared nadir sounder measurements and to discriminate between gravity waves from orographic and other sources. From austral mid-fall to mid-spring (April-October) the contributions of orographic sources to the observed gravity wave occurrence frequencies were found to be largest for the Andes (90 %), followed by the Antarctic Peninsula (76 %), Kerguelen Islands (73 %), Tasmania (70 %), New Zealand (67 %), Heard Island (60 %), and other hotspots (24-54 %). Mountain wave activity was found to be closely correlated with peak terrain altitudes, and with zonal winds in the lower troposphere and mid-stratosphere. We propose a simple model to predict the occurrence of mountain wave events in the AIRS observations using zonal wind thresholds at 3 and 750 hPa. The model has significant predictive skill for hotspots where gravity wave activity is primarily due to orographic sources. It typically reproduces seasonal variations of the mountain wave occurrence frequencies at the Antarctic Peninsula and Kerguelen Islands from near zero to over 60 % with mean absolute errors of 4-5 percentage points. The prediction model can be used to disentangle upper level wind effects on observed occurrence frequencies from low-level source and other influences. The data and methods presented here can help to identify interesting

  13. Eruptive Source Parameters from Near-Source Gravity Waves Induced by Large Vulcanian eruptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barfucci, Giulia; Ripepe, Maurizio; De Angelis, Silvio; Lacanna, Giorgio; Marchetti, Emanuele

    2016-04-01

    The sudden ejection of hot material from volcanic vent perturbs the atmosphere generating a broad spectrum of pressure oscillations from acoustic infrasound (<10 Hz) to gravity waves (<0.03 Hz). However observations of gravity waves excited by volcanic eruptions are still rare, mostly limited to large sub-plinian eruptions and frequently at large distance from the source (>100 km). Atmospheric Gravity waves are induced by perturbations of the hydrostatic equilibrium of the atmosphere and propagate within a medium with internal density stratification. They are initiated by mechanisms that cause the atmosphere to be displaced as for the injection of volcanic ash plume during an eruption. We use gravity waves to infer eruptive source parameters, such as mass eruption rate (MER) and duration of the eruption, which may be used as inputs in the volcanic ash transport and dispersion models. We present the analysis of near-field observations (<7 km) of atmospheric gravity waves, with frequencies of 0.97 and 1.15 mHz, recorded by a pressure sensors network during two explosions in July and December 2008 at Soufrière Hills Volcano, Montserrat. We show that gravity waves at Soufrière Hills Volcano originate above the volcanic dome and propagate with an apparent horizontal velocities of 8-10 m/s. Assuming a single mass injection point source model, we constrain the source location at ~3.5 km a.s.l., above the vent, duration of the gas thrust < 140 s and MERs of 2.6 and 5.4 x10E7 kg/s, for the two eruptive events. Source duration and MER derived by modeling Gravity Waves are fully compatible with others independent estimates from field observations. Our work strongly supports the use of gravity waves to model eruption source parameters and can have a strong impact on our ability to monitor volcanic eruption at a large distance and may have future application in assessing the relative magnitude of volcanic explosions.

  14. Surface gravity wave transformation across a platform coral reef in the Red Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lentz, S. J.; Churchill, J. H.; Davis, K. A.; Farrar, J. T.

    2016-01-01

    The transformation of surface gravity waves across a platform reef in the Red Sea is examined using 18 months of observations and a wave transformation model developed for beaches. The platform reef is 200 m across, 700 m long, and the water depth varies from 0.3 to 1.2 m. Assuming changes in wave energy flux are due to wave breaking and bottom drag dissipation, the wave transformation model with optimal parameters characterizing the wave breaking (γm = 0.25) and bottom drag (hydrodynamic roughness zo = 0.08 m) accounts for 75%-90% of the observed wave-height variance at four sites. The observations and model indicate that wave breaking dominates the dissipation in a 20-30 m wide surf zone while bottom drag dominates the dissipation over the rest of the reef. Friction factors (drag coefficients) estimated from the observed wave energy balance range from fw = 0.5 to fw = 5 and increase as wave-orbital displacements decrease. The observed dependence on wave-orbital displacement is roughly consistent with extrapolation of an empirical relationship based on numerous laboratory studies of oscillatory flow. As a consequence of the dependence on wave-orbital displacement, wave friction factors vary temporally due to changes in water depth and incident wave heights, and spatially across the reef as the waves decay.

  15. Freely Decaying Weak Turbulence for Sea Surface Gravity Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onorato, M.; Osborne, A. R.; Serio, M.; Resio, D.; Pushkarev, A.; Zakharov, V. E.; Brandini, C.

    2002-09-01

    We study the long-time evolution of deep-water ocean surface waves in order to better understand the behavior of the nonlinear interaction processes that need to be accurately predicted in numerical models of wind-generated ocean surface waves. Of particular interest are those nonlinear interactions which are predicted by weak turbulence theory to result in a wave energy spectrum of the form of |k|-2.5. We numerically implement the primitive Euler equations for surface waves and demonstrate agreement between weak turbulence theory and the numerical results.

  16. Freely decaying weak turbulence for sea surface gravity waves.

    PubMed

    Onorato, M; Osborne, A R; Serio, M; Resio, D; Pushkarev, A; Zakharov, V E; Brandini, C

    2002-09-30

    We study the long-time evolution of deep-water ocean surface waves in order to better understand the behavior of the nonlinear interaction processes that need to be accurately predicted in numerical models of wind-generated ocean surface waves. Of particular interest are those nonlinear interactions which are predicted by weak turbulence theory to result in a wave energy spectrum of the form of [k](-2.5). We numerically implement the primitive Euler equations for surface waves and demonstrate agreement between weak turbulence theory and the numerical results. PMID:12366050

  17. Observation of strongly non-Gaussian statistics for random sea surface gravity waves in wave flume experiments.

    PubMed

    Onorato, M; Osborne, A R; Serio, M; Cavaleri, L; Brandini, C; Stansberg, C T

    2004-12-01

    We study random surface gravity wave fields and address the formation of large-amplitude waves in a laboratory environment. Experiments are performed in one of the largest wave tank facilities in the world. We present experimental evidence that the tail of the probability density function for wave height strongly depends on the Benjamin-Feir index (BFI)-i.e., the ratio between wave steepness and spectral bandwidth. While for a small BFI the probability density functions obtained experimentally are consistent with the Rayleigh distribution, for a large BFI the Rayleigh distribution clearly underestimates the probability of large events. These results confirm experimentally the fact that large-amplitude waves in random spectra may result from the modulational instability. PMID:15697561

  18. Observation of strongly non-Gaussian statistics for random sea surface gravity waves in wave flume experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onorato, M.; Osborne, A. R.; Serio, M.; Cavaleri, L.; Brandini, C.; Stansberg, C. T.

    2004-12-01

    We study random surface gravity wave fields and address the formation of large-amplitude waves in a laboratory environment. Experiments are performed in one of the largest wave tank facilities in the world. We present experimental evidence that the tail of the probability density function for wave height strongly depends on the Benjamin-Feir index (BFI)—i.e., the ratio between wave steepness and spectral bandwidth. While for a small BFI the probability density functions obtained experimentally are consistent with the Rayleigh distribution, for a large BFI the Rayleigh distribution clearly underestimates the probability of large events. These results confirm experimentally the fact that large-amplitude waves in random spectra may result from the modulational instability.

  19. A Bi-Frequency Linear Slow Wave Device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, David; Zhang, Peng; Lau, Y. Y.; Greening, Geoff; Gilgenbach, Ronald; Hoff, Brad

    2014-10-01

    Bi-frequency sources are of interest to plasma processing, diagnostics, RF heating, and defense electronics. The recirculating planar magnetron has been modified to produce two frequencies using two different slow wave structures in the planar regions. To highlight the coupling in the two frequencies, we consider here a linear TWT driven by a sheet beam inside such a structure. The cold tube dispersion is derived and is compared favorably with HFSS. The hot tube dispersion has also been derived, and is being compared with MAGIC simulations. Various nonlinear effects are explored, such as harmonic generation, parametric amplification, and intermodulation. This work was supported by ONR and AFOSR.

  20. Modeling Wave Driven Non-linear Flow Oscillations: The Terrestrial QBO and a Solar Analog

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mayr, Hans G.; Bhartia, P. K. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The Quasi Biennial Oscillation (QBO) of the zonal circulation observed in the terrestrial atmosphere at low latitudes is driven by wave mean flow interaction as was demonstrated first by Lindzen and Holton (1968), shown in a laboratory experiment by Plumb and McEwan (1978), and modeled by others (e.g., Plumb, Dunkerton). Although influenced by the seasonal cycle of solar forcing, the QBO, in principle, represents a nonlinear flow oscillation that can be maintained by a steady source of upward propagating waves. The wave driven non-linearity is of third or odd order in the flow velocity, which regenerates the fundamental harmonic itself to keep the oscillation going - the fluid dynamical analog of the displacement mechanism in the mechanical clock. Applying Hines' Doppler Spread Parameterization (DSP) for gravity waves (GW), we discuss with a global-scale spectral model numerical experiments that elucidate some properties of the QBO and its possible effects on the climatology of the atmosphere. Depending on the period of the QBO, wave filtering can cause interaction with the seasonal variations to produce pronounced oscillations with beat periods around 10 years. Since the seasonal cycle and its variability influence the period of the QBO, it may also be a potent conduit of solar activity variations to lower altitudes. Analogous to the terrestrial QBO, we propose that a flow oscillation may account for the 22-year periodicity of the solar magnetic cycle, potentially answering Dicke (1978) who asked, "Is there a chronometer hidden deep inside the Sun?" The oscillation would occur below the convection region, where gravity waves can propagate. Employing a simplified, analytic model, Hines' DSP is applied to estimate the flow oscillation. Depending on the adopted horizontal wavelengths of GW's, wave amplitudes less than 10 m/s can be made to produce oscillating zonal flows of about 20 m/s that should be large enough to generate a significant oscillation in the magnetic

  1. Surface gravity waves and their acoustic signatures, 1-30 Hz, on the mid-Pacific sea floor.

    PubMed

    Farrell, W E; Munk, Walter

    2013-10-01

    In 1999, Duennebier et al. deployed a hydrophone and geophone below the conjugate depth in the abyssal Pacific, midway between Hawaii and California. Real time data were transmitted for 3 yr over an abandoned ATT cable. These data have been analyzed in the frequency band 1 to 30 Hz. Between 1 and 6 Hz, the bottom data are interpreted as acoustic radiation from surface gravity waves, an extension to higher frequencies of a non-linear mechanism proposed by Longuet-Higgins in 1950 to explain microseisms. The inferred surface wave spectrum for wave lengths between 6 m and 17 cm is saturated (wind-independent) and roughly consistent with the traditional Phillips κ(-4) wave number spectrum. Shorter ocean waves have a strong wind dependence and a less steep wave number dependence. Similar features are found in the bottom record between 6 and 30 Hz. But this leads to an enigma: The derived surface spectrum inferred from the Longuet-Higgins mechanism with conventional assumptions for the dispersion relation is associated with mean square slopes that greatly exceed those derived from glitter. Regardless of the generation mechanism, the measured bottom intensities between 10 and 30 Hz are well below minimum noise standards reported in the literature. PMID:24116511

  2. Rayleigh lidar observations of gravity wave activity in the upper stratosphere at Urbana, Ill.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardner, C. S.; Miller, M. S.; Liu, C. H.

    1988-01-01

    During 13 nights of Rayleigh lidar measurements at Urbana, Ill. in 1984 to 1986, thirty-six quasi-monochromatic gravity waves were observed in the 35 to 50 km altitude region of the stratosphere. The characteristics of the waves are compared with other lidar and radar measurements of gravity waves and the theoretical models of wave saturation and dissipation phenomena. The measured vertical wavelengths ranged from 2 to 11.5 km and the measured vertical phase velocities ranged from 10 to 85 cm/s. The vertical wavelengths and vertical phase velocities were used to infer observed wave periods which ranged from 100 to 1000 min and horizontal wavelengths which ranged from 70 to 2000 km. Dominant wave activity was found at vertical wavelengths between 2 to 4 km and 7 to 10 km. No significant seasonal variations were evident in the observed parameters. Vertical and horizontal wavelengths showed a clear tendency to increase with wave periods, which is consistent with recent sodium lidar studies of quasi-monochromatic waves near the mesopause. An average amplitude growth length of 20.9 km for the rms wind perturbations was estimated from the data. Kinetic energy density associated with the waves decreased with height, suggesting that waves in this altitude region were subject to dissipation or saturation effects.

  3. Radio scintillations in Venus's atmosphere: application of a theory of gravity wave generation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leroy, S. S.; Ingersoll, A. P.

    1996-04-01

    Radio scintillations in Pioneer Venus radio occultation data are simulated assuming that the index of refraction fluctuations in Venus's atmosphere responsible for the scintillations are directly caused by gravity wave fluctuations. The gravity waves are created by a global convection layer between 50- and 55-km altitude in Venus's atmosphere and propagate vertically. The authors compare the simulated scintillations with data from Pioneer Venus. These gravity waves can explain the spectral shape and amplitude of the radio scintillations. The shape at high frequencies is controlled by wave breaking, which yields a saturated spectrum. The amplitude is subject to parameters such as the intensity of the convection, the angle between the zonal winds and the beam path, and the zonal wind profile at polar latitudes. To match the observed amplitude of the scintillations, the velocity variations of the energy-bearing eddies in the convection must be at least 2 m s-1. This value is consistent with the Venus balloon results of Sagdeev et al. (1986) and is in the middle of the range considered by Leroy and Ingersoll (1994) in their study of convectively generated gravity waves. The latter study, combined with the lower bound on velocity from the present study, then yields lower bounds on the vertical fluxes of momentum and energy in the Venus atmosphere.

  4. Use of Ducting Theory in an Observed Case of Gravity Waves.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monserrat, S.; Thorpe, A. J.

    1996-06-01

    This paper attempts to explain the properties of a gravity wave event observed on Mallorca (Balearic islands) using an array of microbarographs. The waves propagated coherently for a relatively long distance with a speed of about 29 m s1 and were nondispersive. In the absence of a continuous forcing, long-lived atmospheric gravity waves can only exist if some mechanism prevents the vertical leakage of energy through wave propagation, trapping the gravity wave in a duct layer near the surface. Lindzen and Tung showed the necessary conditions for trapping and discussed the properties of neutral modes for constant stability and wind in the duct. The role of shear in the wind profile near the ground is examined here by first finding three distinct neutral mode types using a matrix eigenvalue method. Applying the wave theory given by Booker and Bretherton, those neutral modes in the sheared duct that have critical levels within the stable duct will be mostly absorbed at their critical level. Therefore, they will be negligible in surface pressure measurements. Another mode type has no critical level and propagates energy away from the duct. On the other hand, neutral modes with a critical level above the top of the duct will be reflected and so will constitute the main signal in the surface observations. This appears to explain observations in Mallorca and shows the significant role of wind shear in selecting the phase speed of the ducted waves.

  5. Ten year observations of gravity waves from thunderstorms in western Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanc, E.; Farges, T.; Le Pichon, A.; Heinrich, P.

    2014-06-01

    A new study of gravity waves produced by thunderstorms was performed using continuous recordings at the IS17 (Ivory Coast) infrasound station of the International Monitoring System developed for the verification of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty. A typical case study is presented for a large thunderstorm on 10-11 April 2006 lasting near 14 h. Comparison with cloud temperature measured by the Meteosat 6 satellite shows that wave activity is large when the cloud temperature is low inside convection cells located over the station. Statistics based on 10 year data show that the wave activity is intense throughout the year with peak periods in May and October and less intense activity in January, in good agreement with the local keraunic level. The seasonal variations of the wave azimuth highlight clear trends from northward direction from February to August to southward direction from August to December. Lightning flashes, observed from space, show a similar motion confirming that thunderstorms are the main sources of the gravity wave activity. The gravity wave azimuth follows the seasonal motion of the tropical rain belt partly related to the Intertropical Convergence Zone of the winds. The contribution of other possible sources, such as wind over relief, is weak because surface winds are weak in this region and only oceans are present south of the station. We conclude that the large observed wave activity is mainly produced by convection associated to thunderstorms.

  6. Gravity wave characteristics retrieved from radiosonde observations during DEEPWAVE-NZ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gisinger, Sonja; Dörnbrack, Andreas; Ehard, Benedikt; Kaifler, Bernd; Kaifler, Natalie; Rapp, Markus; Garhammer, Markus; Bramberger, Martina; Portele, Tanja; Siller, Maria

    2015-04-01

    The field phase of DEEPWAVE-NZ (DEEP propagating gravity WAVE experiment over New Zealand) took place in June and July 2014 on the southern island of New Zealand. One goal of DEEPWAVE-NZ was to explore the propagation of gravity waves excited by the flow across the southern island into the middle atmosphere. Airborne measurements with the NSF/NCAR GV and the DLR Falcon research aircraft were complemented with ground-based measurements at various stations on the southern island. At Lauder (45 S 169 E), long-lasting upper stratospheric and mesospheric observations were taken by the DLR Rayleigh lidar and the University of Utah Advanced Mesospheric Temperature Mapper and Airglow Imager. To provide data in the lower atmosphere up to 30 km altitude, radiosonde measurements were conducted in periods of mountain wave activity. The 98 radiosondes launched in Lauder reached a mean height of 31.2 km and a maximum ceiling of 36.6 km. We present a comprehensive wave analysis of the radiosoundings using wavelets. This analysis, inter alia, isolates single wave packages and wave properties like intrinsic frequency, horizontal direction of propagation and vertical propagation direction (upward or downward) by means of Stokes parameters. The results will be presented for different cases of mountain induced gravity waves which occurred during DEEPWAVE-NZ.

  7. Surface Gravity Waves: Resonance in a Fish Tank

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinick, Scott J.; Lynch, John J.

    2010-01-01

    In this work, an inexpensive 10-gallon glass aquarium was used to study wave motion in water. The waves travel at speeds comparable to a person walking ([approximately]1 m/s). The scale of the motion allows for distances to be measured with a meterstick and for times to be measured with a stopwatch. For a wide range of water depths, standing waves…

  8. Convective gravity wave propagation and breaking in the stratosphere: comparison between WRF model simulations and lidar data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costantino, L.; Heinrich, P.; Mzé, N.; Hauchecorne, A.

    2015-09-01

    In this work we perform numerical simulations of convective gravity waves (GWs), using the WRF (Weather Research and Forecasting) model. We first run an idealized, simplified and highly resolved simulation with model top at 80 km. Below 60 km of altitude, a vertical grid spacing smaller than 1 km is supposed to reliably resolve the effects of GW breaking. An eastward linear wind shear interacts with the GW field generated by a single convective thunderstorm. After 70 min of integration time, averaging within a radius of 300 km from the storm centre, results show that wave breaking in the upper stratosphere is largely dominated by saturation effects, driving an average drag force up to -41 m s-1 day-1. In the lower stratosphere, mean wave drag is positive and equal to 4.4 m s-1 day-1. In a second step, realistic WRF simulations are compared with lidar measurements from the NDACC network (Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Changes) of gravity wave potential energy (Ep) over OHP (Haute-Provence Observatory, southern France). Using a vertical grid spacing smaller than 1 km below 50 km of altitude, WRF seems to reliably reproduce the effect of GW dynamics and capture qualitative aspects of wave momentum and energy propagation and transfer to background mean flow. Averaging within a radius of 120 km from the storm centre, the resulting drag force for the study case (2 h storm) is negative in the higher (-1 m s-1 day-1) and positive in the lower stratosphere (0.23 m s-1 day-1). Vertical structures of simulated potential energy profiles are found to be in good agreement with those measured by lidar. Ep is mostly conserved with altitude in August while, in October, Ep decreases in the upper stratosphere to grow again in the lower mesosphere. On the other hand, the magnitude of simulated wave energy is clearly underestimated with respect to lidar data by about 3-4 times.

  9. Gravity Wave Interactions and Effects in the Middle and Upper Atmosphere: Recent Progress and Outstanding Issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fritts, D. C.

    2005-12-01

    Gravity waves are now recognized to have significant influences on the large-scale structure and variability throughout the atmosphere. In the mesosphere and lower thermosphere (MLT), these effects can be dramatic and include 1) vigorous wave breaking, turbulence generation, and local boding forcing, 2) strong forcing of the mean circulation and thermal structure, and 3) significant filtering by and interactions with tidal and planetary waves. Gravity wave influences also extend to significantly higher altitudes, though these are less quantified at this time. Potential influences at these higher altitudes include seeding of plasma instabilities, local body forces and heating, and mapping of MLT influences to higher altitudes, all of which are also anticipated to exhibit significant solar cycle variations.

  10. Similarity rules in gravity jitter-related spacecraft liquid propellant slosh waves excitation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hung, R. J.; Lee, C. C.; Leslie, F. W.

    1992-01-01

    The dynamical behavior of fluids, in particular the effect of surface tension on partially filled rotating fluids in a full-scale prototype Gravity Probe-B Spacecraft propellant tank and various 10 percent subscale containers with identical values of similarity parameters such as Bond number, dynamical capillary number, rotational Reynolds number, and Weber number, as well as imposed gravity jitters have been investigated. It is shown that the Bond number can be used to simulate the wave characteristics of slosh wave excitation, whereas the Weber number can be used to simulate the wave amplitude of slosh-mode excitation. It is shown that a dynamical capillary number can be used to simulate the induced perturbation of the fluid stress distribution exerted on the wall. This distribution is governed by the interaction between surface tension (slosh-wave excitation along the liquid-vapor interface) and viscous (fluid stress exerted on the wall) forces.

  11. Using ion flows parallel and perpendicular to gravity to modify dust acoustic waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, E.; Fisher, R.

    2008-11-01

    Recent studies of dust acoustic waves have shown that the dust kinetic temperature can play an important role in determining the resulting dispersion relation [M. Rosenberg, et al., Phys. Plasmas, 15, 073701 (2008)]. In these studies, it is believed that ion flows play a dominant role in determining both the kinetic temperature of the charged microparticles as well as providing the source of energy for triggering the waves. In this presentation, results will be presented on the effects of ion flow on spatial structure and velocity distribution of dust acoustic waves. Here, the waves will be formed in dusty plasmas consisting of 3 ± 1 micron diameter silica microspheres. Two separate electrodes will be used to modify the ion flow in the plasma -- one parallel to the direction of gravity and one perpendicular to the direction of gravity. Particle image velocimetry (PIV) techniques will be used to observe the particles and to measure their velocity distributions.

  12. Gravity wave and tidal structures between 60 and 140 km inferred from space shuttle reentry data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fritts, David C.; Wang, Ding-Yi; Blanchard, Robert C.

    1993-01-01

    This study presents an analysis of density measurements made using high-resolution accelerometers aboard several space shuttles at altitudes from 60 to 140 km during reentry into the earth's atmosphere. The observed density fluctuations are interpreted in terms of gravity waves and tides and provide evidence of the importance of such motions well into the thermosphere. Height profiles of fractional density variance reveal that wave amplitudes increase at a rate consistent with observations at lower levels up to about 90 km. The rate of amplitude growth decreases at greater heights, however, and appears to cease above about 110 km. Wave amplitudes are nevertheless large at these heights and suggest that gravity waves may play an important role in forcing of the lower thermosphere.

  13. Gravity waves in Titan's lower stratosphere from Huygens probe in situ temperature measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenz, Ralph D.; Young, Leslie A.; Ferri, Francesca

    2014-01-01

    The Huygens probe recorded atmospheric temperatures during its parachute descent through the atmosphere of Titan. A careful analysis of these data reveals for the first time spectacular but hitherto-unreported small-scale variations in stratospheric temperatures that we interpret as gravity waves, consistent with detection of such waves at higher altitudes by other means. The structures have a vertical wavelength of 3-8 km and a peak-peak amplitude of ˜2 K that is roughly constant over altitudes from ˜140 km, where measurements began, to ˜60 km. This altitude, below which no significant temperature waves are seen, coincides with a local maximum in the zonal wind profile, and is close to where the Brunt-Väisälä frequency is highest. It seems possible that the zonal wind field influences the vertical gravity wave propagation.

  14. Trapping and instability of directional gravity waves in localized water currents.

    PubMed

    Eliasson, B; Haas, F

    2014-06-01

    The influence of localized water currents on the nonlinear dynamics and stability of large amplitude, statistically distributed gravity waves is investigated theoretically and numerically by means of an evolution equation for a Wigner function governing the spectrum of waves. It is shown that water waves propagating in the opposite direction of a localized current channel can be trapped in the channel, which can lead to the amplification of the wave intensity. Under certain conditions the wave intensity can be further localized due to a self-focusing (Benjamin-Feir) instability. The localized amplification of the wave intensity may increase the probability of extreme events in the form of freak waves, which have been observed in connection with ocean currents. PMID:25019886

  15. A standing wave-type noncontact linear ultrasonic motor.

    PubMed

    Hu, J; Li, G; Chan, H L; Choy, C L

    2001-05-01

    In this study, a novel standing wave-type noncontact linear ultrasonic motor is proposed and analyzed. This linear ultrasonic motor uses a properly controlled ultrasonic standing wave to levitate and drive a slider. A prototype of the motor was constructed by using a wedge-shaped aluminum stator, which was placed horizontally and driven by a multilayer PZT vibrator. The levitation and motion of the slider were observed. Assuming that the driving force was generated by the turbulent acoustic streaming in the boundary air layer next to the bottom surface of the slider, a theoretical model was developed. The calculated characteristics of this motor were found to agree quite well with the experimental results. Based on the experimental and theoretical results, guidelines for increasing the displacement and speed of the slider were obtained. It was found that increasing the stator vibration displacement, or decreasing the gradient of the stator vibration velocity and the weight per unit area of the slider, led to an increase of the slider displacement. It was also found that increasing the amplitude and gradient of the stator vibration velocity, or decreasing the weight per unit area of the slider and the driving frequency, gave rise to an increase of the slider speed. There exists an optimum roughness of the bottom surface of the slider at which the slider speed has a maximum. PMID:11381693

  16. All-sky imaging of transglobal thermospheric gravity waves generated by the March 2011 Tohoku Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Steven M.; Martinis, Carlos R.; Baumgardner, Jeffrey; Mendillo, Michael

    2015-12-01

    We report on imaging measurements of thermospheric gravity wave signatures in 630 nm and 557.7 nm nightglow that suggest an association with the M = 9 Tohoku (Japan) earthquake on 11 March 2011. The propagating waves were recorded in all-sky images at the El Leoncito Observatory, Argentina (31.8°S, 69.3°W), which is located 17,080 km from the earthquake epicenter, almost at the global antipodal point.

  17. Estimating gravity wave parameters from oblique high-frequency backscatter: Modeling and analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Bristow, W.A.; Greenwald, R.A.

    1995-03-01

    A new technique for estimating electron density perturbation amplitudes of traveling ionospheric disturbances (TIDs), using HF radar data, is presented. TIDs are observed in HF radar data as enhancements of the ground-scattered power which propagate through the radar`s field of view. These TIDs are the ionospheric manifestation of atmospheric acoustic-gravity waves. TID electron density perturbation amplitudes were estimated by simulating the radar returns, using HF ray tracing through a model ionosphere perturbed by a model gravity wave. The simulation determined the return power in the ground-scattered portion of the signal as a function of range, and this was compared to HF radar data from the Goose Bay HF radar at a time when evidence of gravity waves was present in the data. By varying the amplitude of the electron density perturbation in the model it was possible to estimate the perturbation of the actual wave. It was found that the perturbations that are observed by the Goose Bay HF radar are of the order of 20% to 35%. It was also found that the number of observable power enhancements, and the relative amplitudes of these enhancements, depended on the vertical thickness of the gravity wave`s source region. From the simulations and observations it was estimated that the source region for the case presented here was approximately 20 km thick. In addition, the energy in the wave packet was calculated and compared to an estimate of the available energy in the source region. It was found that the wave energy was about 0.2% of the estimated available source region energy. 20 refs., 12 figs.

  18. Observations of height-dependent pressure-perturbation structure of a strong mesoscale gravity wave

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Starr, David O'C.; Korb, C. L.; Schwemmer, Geary K.; Weng, Chi Y.

    1992-01-01

    Airborne observations using a downward-looking, dual-frequency, near-infrared, differential absorption lidar system provide the first measurements of the height-dependent pressure-perturbation field associated with a strong mesoscale gravity wave. A pressure-perturbation amplitude of 3.5 mb was measured within the lowest 1.6 km of the atmosphere over a 52-km flight line. Corresponding vertical displacements of 250-500 m were inferred from lidar-observed displacement of aerosol layers. Accounting for probable wave orientation, a horizontal wavelength of about 40 km was estimated. Satellite observations reveal wave structure of a comparable scale in concurrent cirrus cloud fields over an extended area. Smaller-scale waves were also observed. Local meteorological soundings are analyzed to confirm the existence of a suitable wave duct. Potential wave-generation mechanisms are examined and discussed. The large pressure-perturbation wave is attributed to rapid amplification or possible wave breaking of a gravity wave as it propagated offshore and interacted with a very stable marine boundary layer capped by a strong shear layer.

  19. Deepwave2014; Observing Gravity Waves from the Troposphere to the Mesosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, R. B.; Fritts, D. C.; Doyle, J. D.; Eckermann, S. D.; Taylor, M. J.; Dörnbrack, A.; Uddstrom, M.; Nugent, A. D.; Kruse, C.

    2014-12-01

    The recent Deepwave field project in New Zealand ran from May 25 to July 28, 2014. Its objectives were to observe, understand and predict the deep propagation of gravity waves from the Troposphere into the Stratosphere, Mesosphere and Thermosphere. In addition to surface and satellite-borne sensors, the project used two research aircraft with airborne sensors; the NSF/NCAR Gulfstream V (GV) and the German DLR Falcon. The GV was uniquely instrumented to observe wave launching (dropsondes), waves properties in the low stratosphere (flight level winds, pressure and temperature), waves in the middle stratosphere (MTP and Rayleigh Lidar) and waves near the mesopause (Sodium Lidar and OH IR mapper). In this report, we describe GV flight level wave energy flux statistics from the 97 aircraft legs (49.1 hours) over the terrain of New Zealand and the 157 aircraft legs (84.3 hours) over the Southern Ocean. For example, the vertical energy flux at Z=12km for the terrain flights varied from zero to 27 W/m2 with an average value of about 4W/m2. Wavelet co-spectral analysis of flight level data is used to determine the dominant location and wavelength of the flux-carrying gravity waves. Dominant horizontal wavelengths for the flux-carrying waves over terrain varied from 30 to 200km. Using a high resolution WRF simulation, the various mechanisms for the decrease of energy flux with height are examined including dissipation, dispersion, refraction, reflection and secondary wave generation.

  20. Did Tsunami-Launched Gravity Waves Trigger Ionospheric Turbulence over Arecibo?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, M. C.; Pradipta, R.; Burke, W. J.; Labno, A.; Burton, L. M.; Cohen, J. A.; Dorfman, S. E.; Coster, A. J.; Sulzer, M. P.; Kuo, S. P.

    2008-01-01

    We report on measurements of ionospheric plasma dynamics conducted at the Arecibo Observatory between 20:00 and 24:00 local time (LT) on December 25 and 26, 2004 using the 430 MHz incoherent scatter radar (ISR). For interpretive purposes these measurements are supported by data from two nearby ionosondes and Global Positioning System (GPS) satellites. The ISR detected different ionospheric behaviors during the vertical-transmission periods on the consecutive, magnetically quiet nights. On the night of December 25 the ionosphere descended smoothly and spread F signatures faded. For about two hours on the following evening the bottomside ionosphere rose by ˜50 km, inducing plasma irregularities and intense spread F. Alternating cycles of bottom-side plasma rising and falling persisted through the remainder of the experiments. We postulate that this sinusoidal behavior is a response to gravity waves propagating above Puerto Rico. Nearly simultaneous data from two nearby stations show that GPS signals were modified by variations in total electron content (TEC) indicating the presence of traveling ionospheric disturbances (TIDs). The December 26 experiments were conducted about a day after an MW = 9.2 earthquake launched tsunami waves first across the Indian, then into the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. We suggest that coupling at the tsunami sea-air interface launched gravity waves that propagated for great distances beneath the mesopause. GPS data recorded TEC variation in Asia, Europe, and the Caribbean, suggesting that TIDs were induced on a global scale at the wake of tsunami-launched gravity waves. Energy from imperfectly ducted gravity waves leaked into the ionosphere, partially over Puerto Rico. The wind-velocity field of these gravity waves caused local ionospheric plasma to rise, seeding bottomside irregularities via the generalized Rayleigh-Taylor instability.

  1. High-Resolution Temperature Mapping of Mesospheric Gravity Waves and Breaking Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Michael J.; Pautet, Pierre-Dominique; Zhao, Yucheng; Yuan, Tao; Pendleon, William R.; Fritts, David; Esplin, Roy; McLain, David; Stober, Gunter

    2016-04-01

    This presentation highlights new research capabilities and recent results using a novel infra-red imaging system operating at high-latitudes at the ALOMAR Arctic Observatory, Norway (69°N), and at Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station, Antarctica (90°S). The Advanced Mesospheric Temperature Mapper (AMTM) is a high-performance digital imaging system that measures selected emission lines in the mesospheric OH (3,1) band (at ~1.55 μm) to create high-quality intensity and temperature maps of a broad spectrum of gravity waves at the ~87 km level (with periods ranging from several minutes to many hours). The temperature data are obtained with an unprecedented spatial (~0.5 km) and temporal (typically 30 sec) resolution over a large 120° field of view enabling detailed studies of gravity wave propagation and breaking events in the Mesosphere and Lower Thermosphere (MLT) region, even in the presence of strong aurora and moonlight. New results include high-resolution wintertime studies of continuous (24-hr) gravity wave activity and spectral evolution, and first evidence of gravity wave "self-acceleration" in the MLT region using coordinated lidar and radar measurements. These results are complemented by very high resolution (~4 sec) gravity wave observations using a third AMTM developed for airborne measurements on the National Science Foundation (NSF) Gulfstream V aircraft as part of the DEEPWAVE program. This mission was successfully conducted from New Zealand during the Austral winter, June-July 2014, and obtained spectacular new data on mesospheric mountain waves, including large amplitude breaking events associated with variable orographic forcing over the Southern Alps.

  2. On the physical mechanism of front-back asymmetry of nonlinear gravity-capillary waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dosaev, Alexander; Troitskaya, Yulia; Shrira, Victor

    2016-04-01

    In nature wind waves of all scales are asymmetric both with respect to the horizontal and vertical axes. The front-back (or fore-aft asymmetry), i.e. the asymmetry with respect to the vertical axis, manifests itself in steeper front slopes. Although it can be important for remote sensing of sea surface and wave field interaction with wind, especially for the waves of gravity-capillary range, at present the understanding of physical mechanisms causing the gravity-capillary waves asymmetry and its dependence on parameters is very poor; there has been no study dedicated to this problem. Here we address this gap. The decimetre-range water waves in many respects essentially differ from the waves of other ranges: wind forcing is stronger, steep waves develop a characteristic pattern of capillary ripples on their forward slopes. These 'parasitic capillaries', generated by a narrow pressure distribution associated with an underlying longer wave' crest, remain quasi-stationary with regard to the longer wave. The train of capillaries is localised on the front slope and decays towards the trough. We investigate the nature of the asymmetry of such waves by extensive numerical simulations of the Euler equations employing the method of conformal mapping for two-dimensional potential flow and taking into account wave generation by wind and dissipation due to molecular viscosity. We examine the role of various factors contributing to the wave profile asymmetry: wind pumping, viscous stresses, the Reynolds stresses caused by ripples and found the latter to be by far the most important. It is the lop-sided ripple distribution which leads to noticeable fore-aft asymmetry of the mean wave profile. We also found how the asymmetry depends on wavelength, steepness, wind and viscosity, which enables us to parametrize these dependencies for applications in microwave remote sensing and wave generation.

  3. Fermi and LIGO Hone in on Gravity Wave Source

    NASA Video Gallery

    Fermi's GBM saw a fading X-ray source at nearly the same moment LIGO detected gravitational waves from a black hole merger in 2015. This movie shows how scientists can narrow down the location of t...

  4. Diffraction of acoustic-gravity waves in the presence of a turning point.

    PubMed

    Godin, Oleg A

    2016-07-01

    Acoustic-gravity waves (AGWs) in an inhomogeneous atmosphere often have caustics, where the ray theory predicts unphysical, divergent values of the wave amplitude and needs to be modified. Unlike acoustic waves and gravity waves in incompressible fluids, AGW fields in the vicinity of a caustic have never been systematically studied. Here, asymptotic expansions of acoustic gravity waves are derived in the presence of a turning point in a horizontally stratified, moving fluid such as the atmosphere. Sound speed and the background flow (wind) velocity are assumed to vary gradually with height, and slowness of these variations determines the large parameter of the problem. It is found that uniform asymptotic expansions of the wave field in the presence of a turning point can be expressed in terms of the Airy function and its derivative. The geometrical, or Berry, phase, which arises in the consistent Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin approximation for AGWs, plays an important role in the caustic asymptotics. In the dominant term of the uniform asymptotic solution, the terms with the Airy function and its derivative are weighted by the cosine and sine of the Berry phase, respectively. The physical meaning and corollaries of the asymptotic solutions are discussed. PMID:27475153

  5. Gravity wave forcing in the middle atmosphere due to reduced ozone heating during a solar eclipse

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fritts, David C.; Luo, Zhangai

    1993-01-01

    We present an analysis of the gravity wave structure and the associated forcing of the middle atmosphere induced by the screening of the ozone layer from solar heating during a solar eclipse. Fourier integral techniques and numerical evaluation of the integral solutions were used to assess the wave field structure and to compute the gravity wave forcing of the atmosphere at greater heights. Our solutions reveal dominant periods of a few hours, characteristic horizontal and vertical scales of about 5000 to 10,000 km and 200 km, respectively, and an integrated momentum flux in the direction of eclipse motion of about 5.6 x 10 exp 8 N at each height above the forcing level. These results suggest that responses to solar eclipses may be difficult to detect above background gravity wave and tidal fluctuations until well into the thermosphere. Conversely, the induced body forces may penetrate to considerable heights because of the large wave scales and will have significant effects at levels where the wave field is dissipated.

  6. Gravity-wave spectra in the atmosphere observed by MST radar, part 4.2B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scheffler, A. O.; Liu, C. H.

    1984-01-01

    A universal spectrum of atmospheric buoyancy waves is proposed based on data from radiosonde, Doppler navigation, not-wire anemometer and Jimsphere balloon. The possible existence of such a universal spectrum clearly will have significant impact on several areas in the study of the middle atmosphere dynamics such as the parameterization of sub-grid scale gravity waves in global circulation models; the transport of trace constituents and heat in the middle atmosphere, etc. Therefore, it is important to examine more global wind data with temporal and spatial resolutions suitable for the investigation of the wave spectra. Mesosphere-stratosphere-troposphere (MST) radar observations offer an excellent opportunity for such studies. It is important to realize that radar measures the line-of-sight velocity which, in general, contains the combination of the vertical and horizontal components of the wave-associated particle velocity. Starting from a general oblique radar observation configuration, applying the dispersion relation for the gravity waves, the spectrum for the observed fluctuations in the line-of-sight gravity-wave spectrum is investigated through a filter function. The consequence of the filter function on data analysis is discussed.

  7. Gravity wave forcing in the middle atmosphere due to reduced ozone heating during a solar eclipse

    SciTech Connect

    Fritts, D.C.; Zhangai Luo )

    1993-02-20

    The authors present an analysis of the gravity wave structure and the associated forcing of the middle atmosphere induced by the screening of the ozone layer from solar heating during a solar eclipse. Fourier integral techniques and numerical evaluation of the integral solutions were used to assess the wave field structure and to compute the gravity wave forcing of the atmosphere at greater heights. Their solutions reveal dominant periods of a few hours, characteristic horizontal and vertical scales of [approximately]5,000 to 10,000 km and 200 km, respectively, and an integrated momentum flux in the direction of eclipse motion of [approximately]5.6 [times] 10[sup 8] N at each height above the forcing level. These results suggest that responses to solar eclipses may be difficult to detect above background gravity wave and tidal fluctuations until well into the thermosphere. Conversely, the induced body forces may penetrate to considerable heights because of the large wave scales and will have significant effects at levels where the wave field is dissipated. 38 refs., 11 figs.

  8. A stochastic parameterization of non-orographic gravity waves: Formalism and impact on the equatorial stratosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lott, F.; Guez, L.; Maury, P.

    2012-03-01

    A formalism is proposed to represent a broadband spectrum of Gravity Waves (GWs) via the superposition of a large ensemble of statistically independent monochromatic ones. To produce this large ensemble at a reasonable numerical cost, we use the fact that the life cycles of the waves needed to be parameterized in General Circulation Models (GCMs) have time scales that largely exceed the time step of the model. We can therefore launch few waves with characteristics chosen randomly at each time step, and make them having an effect on a longer time scale by applying an AR1 relation between the gravity waves drag at a given time and that at the next time step. The stochastic GW parameterization is applied to a GCM in the tropics, and its additional drag causes a realistic Quasi-Biennial Oscillation (QBO). The more realistic wind structure also results in a better representation of the large scale equatorial waves, like the Rossby Gravity Waves (RGWs) with periods around 4-5 day.

  9. Wind effects on the modulational instability of surface gravity waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunetti, Maura; Kasparian, Jérôme

    2015-04-01

    The modulational instability is a fundamental mechanism for nonlinear exchanges of energy between carrier and sideband waves. It is one of the processes at the origin of rogue-wave formation in deep-water. Since the wind is the energy source in surface wave propagation, accurate modelling of the wind is critical for understanding rogue-wave phenomenon. We describe how different forcing terms, due to different modelling of the wind action, affect the band of positive gain of the modulational instability. In particular, we consider the wind-forced nonlinear Schrödinger equation obtained in the potential flow framework when the Miles growth rate is of the order of the wave steepness [1]. In this case, the form of the wind-forcing terms gives rise to the enhancement of the modulational instability and to a band of positive gain with infinite width [2]. This regime is characterised by the fact that the ratio between wave momentum and norm is not a constant of motion [2], in contrast to what happens in the standard case where the Miles growth rate is of the order of the steepness squared. References [1] M. Brunetti, N. Marchiando, N. Berti, J. Kasparian, 2014, Phys. Lett. A, 378, 1025-1030 [2] M. Brunetti, J. Kasparian, 2014, Phys. Lett. A, 378, 3626-3630

  10. Tracing Acoustic-Gravity Waves from the Ocean into the Ionosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zabotin, N. A.; Godin, O. A.; Bullett, T. W.; Negrea, C.

    2013-12-01

    Ionospheric manifestations of tsunamis provide dramatic evidence of a connection between wave processes in the ocean and in the atmosphere. But tsunamis are only a transient feature of a more general phenomenon, infragravity waves (IGWs). IGWs are permanently present surface gravity waves in the ocean with periods longer than the longest periods (~30 s) of wind-generated waves. IGWs propagate transoceanic distances and, because of their long wavelengths (from ~1 km to hundreds of km), provide a mechanism for coupling wave processes in the ocean, atmosphere, and the solid Earth. The notion that tsunamis may generate waves in the upper atmosphere has existed for a long time but no quantitative coupling theory for the background waves has been proposed. We provide a strict physical justification for the influence of the background IGWs on the upper atmosphere. Taking into account both fluid compressibility and the gravity in a coupled atmosphere-ocean system, we show that there exist two distinct regimes of IGW penetration into the atmosphere. At higher frequencies, one has evanescent waves in the atmosphere propagating horizontally along the ocean surface. At lower frequencies, IGWs continuously radiate their energy into the upper atmosphere in the form of acoustic gravity waves (AGWs). The transition frequency depends on the ocean depth; it varies slowly near 3 mHz for typical depth values and drops to zero sharply only for extremely large depths. Using semi-empirical model of the IGW power spectrum, we derive an estimate of the flux of the mechanical energy and mechanical momentum from the deep ocean into the atmosphere due to background IGWs and predict specific forcing on the atmosphere in coastal regions. We compare spectra of wave processes in the ionosphere measured using Dynasonde technique over Wallops Island, VA and San Juan, PR and interpret the differences in terms of the oceanic effects. We conclude that AGWs of oceanic origin may have an observable

  11. Mesospheric, Thermospheric, and Ionospheric Responses to Acoustic and Gravity Waves Generated by Transient Forcing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snively, J. B.; Zettergren, M. D.

    2014-12-01

    Strong acoustic waves with periods ~1-4 minutes have been confirmed to perturb the ionosphere following their generation by earthquakes [e.g., Garcia et al., GRL, 40(5), 2013] and volcanic eruption events [e.g., Heki, GRL, 33, L14303, 2006]. Clear acoustic and gravity wave signatures have also been reported in ionospheric data above strong tropospheric convection [Nishioka, GRL, 40(21), 2013], and prior modeling results suggest that convectively-generated acoustic waves with ~3-4 minute periods are readily detectable above their sources in TEC [Zettergren and Snively, GRL, 40(20), 2013]. These observations have provided quantitative insight into the coupling of processes occurring near Earth's surface with the upper atmosphere and ionosphere over short time-scales. Here, we investigate acoustic waves and short-period gravity waves generated by sources near ground level, and the observable responses of the mesosphere, lower-thermosphere, and ionosphere (MLTI) systems. Numerical simulations are performed using a nonlinear, compressible, atmospheric dynamics model, in cylindrically-axisymmetric coordinates, to investigate wave generation, upward propagation, steepening, and dissipation. Acoustic waves may produce observable signatures in the mesospheric hydroxyl airglow layer [e.g., Snively, GRL, 40(17), 2013], and can strongly perturb the lower-thermosphere and E- and F-region ionosphere, prior to the arrival of simultaneously-generated gravity waves. Using a coupled multi-fluid ionospheric model [Zettergren and Semeter, JGR, 117(A6), 2012], extended for mid and low latitudes using a 2D dipole magnetic field coordinate system [Zettergren and Snively, GRL, 40(20), 2013], we investigate its response to realistic acoustic wave perturbations. In particular, we demonstrate that the MLT and ionospheric responses are significantly and nonlinearly determined by the acoustic wave source geometry, spectrum, and amplitude, in addition to the local ambient state of the

  12. A statistical study of variations of internal gravity wave energy characteristics in meteor zone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gavrilov, N. M.; Kalov, E. D.

    1987-01-01

    Internal gravity wave (IGW) parameters obtained by the radiometer method have been considered by many other researchers. The results of the processing of regular radiometeor measurements taken during 1979 to 1980 in Obninsk (55.1 deg N, 36.6 deg E) are presented.

  13. Tropospheric gravity waves observed by three closely-spaced ST radars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, D. A.; Eriddle, A. C. AFGARELLO, R.ly stable thro; Eriddle, A. C. AFGARELLO, R.ly stable thro

    1985-01-01

    During a 6 week period in 1982, 3 ST (Stratosphere-Troposphere) radars measured horizontal and vertical wavelengths of small scale tropospheric gravity waves. These 50 MHz, vertically-directed radars were located in a trianglar network with approximately 5 km spacing on the southern coast of France at the mouth of the Rhone River during the ALPEX (Alpine Experiment) program.

  14. Estimation of the parameters of gravity waves combining ground based and satellite measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paulino, Igo; Vadas, Sharon; Buriti, Ricardo; Wrasse, Cristiano M.; Medeiros, Amauri; Takahashi, Hisao; Essien, Patrick

    2016-07-01

    Four medium-scale gravity waves were studied using images of the NIR OH airglow emission obtained from an all sky imager deployed at São João do Cariri (36.5 ^{o}W; 7.4 ^{o}S) and mesospheric temperature profiles from the TIMED/SABER satellite. The coincident measurements were made on 11 and 14 April 2007, 08 February and 28 August 2008. The horizontal parameters of the gravity waves were estimated using the keogram analysis and the vertical ones were calculated from the coincident temperature profiles collected into the area of 15 ^{o} x 15 ^{o} degrees (longitude X latitude), centered at the observatory. The horizontal wavelength were 190, 138, 171 and 355 km, respectively. The observed periods were 50, 20, 33 and 20 min. The vertical wavelength were 15, 10, 15 and 30 km. Comparisons to the dispersion relation for the gravity waves were done and the results are in agreement to the theory. Thus, the SABER satellite measurements may be used to study the gravity wave activity in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere with good precision.

  15. Analysis and simulations of a troposphere-stratosphere gravity wave model. I

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wurtele, M. G.; Sharman, R. D.; Keller, T. L.

    1987-01-01

    An analytical model is presented that accommodates nonhydrostatic shearing stratified flow over an obstacle, and that can be modified to include a superposed stratosphere with constant wind and higher stability. A simulation code is used in parallel with the analytic calculations to demonstrate a methodology for determining the wavelength and magnitude of gravity wave energy reflected, and that transmitted, by the tropopause.

  16. Design and development of high linearity millimeter wave traveling-wave tube for satellite communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Jun; Huang, Ming-Guang; Li, Xian-Xia; Li, Hai-Qiang; Zhao, Lei; Zhao, Jian-Dong; Li, Yue; Zhao, Shi-Lei

    2015-10-01

    The linearity of the traveling-wave tube is a very important characteristic for a modern communication system. To improve the linearity of the traveling-wave tube at no expense of the saturated output power and overall efficiency, a modified pitch profile combined with a small adjustment of operating parameters is proposed. The optimal design of the helix circuit is evaluated theoretically by a large signal analysis, and the experimental test is also carried out to make a comparison of performance between the novel and original designed traveling-wave tubes. The experiments show that the saturated output powers and efficiencies of these two tubes are close to each other, while the linearity of the traveling-wave tube is obviously improved. The total phase shift and AM/PM conversion at saturation of the novel tube, averaged over the operating band, are only 30.6°/dB and 2.5°/dB, respectively, which are 20.1°/dB and 1.6°/dB lower than those of the original tube, respectively. Moreover, the third-order intermodulation of the novel tube is up to 2.2 dBc lower than that of the original tube. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61401430).

  17. Radiative observables for linearized gravity on asymptotically flat spacetimes and their boundary induced states

    SciTech Connect

    Benini, Marco Dappiaggi, Claudio; Murro, Simone

    2014-08-01

    We discuss the quantization of linearized gravity on globally hyperbolic, asymptotically flat, vacuum spacetimes, and the construction of distinguished states which are both of Hadamard form and invariant under the action of all bulk isometries. The procedure, we follow, consists of looking for a realization of the observables of the theory as a sub-algebra of an auxiliary, non-dynamical algebra constructed on future null infinity ℱ⁺. The applicability of this scheme is tantamount to proving that a solution of the equations of motion for linearized gravity can be extended smoothly to ℱ⁺. This has been claimed to be possible provided that a suitable gauge fixing condition, first written by Geroch and Xanthopoulos [“Asymptotic simplicity is stable,” J. Math. Phys. 19, 714 (1978)], is imposed. We review its definition critically, showing that there exists a previously unnoticed obstruction in its implementation leading us to introducing the concept of radiative observables. These constitute an algebra for which a Hadamard state induced from null infinity and invariant under the action of all spacetime isometries exists and it is explicitly constructed.

  18. Estimating gravity wave parameters from oblique high-frequency backscatter: Modeling and analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bristow, W. A.; Greenwald, R. A.

    1995-01-01

    A new technique for estimating electron density perturbation amplitudes of traveling ionospheric disturbances (TIDs), using HF radar data, is presented. TIDs are observed in HF radar data as enhancements of the ground-scattered power which propagate through the radar's field of view. These TIDs are the ionospheric manifestation of atmospheric acoustic-gravity waves. TID electron density perturbation amplitudes were estimated by simulating the radar returns, using HF ray tracing through a model ionosphere perturbed by a model gravity wave. The simulation determined the return power in the ground-scattered portion of the signal as a function of range, and this was compared to HF radar data from the Goose Bay HF radar at a time when evidence of gravity waves was present in the data. By varying the amplitude of the electron density perturbation in the model it was possible to estimate the perturbation of the actual wave. It was found that the perturbations that are observed by the Goose Bay HF radar are of the order of 20% to 35%. It was also found that the number of observable power enhancements, and the relative amplitudes of these enhancements, depended on the vertical thickness of the gravity wave's source region. From the simulations and observations it was estimated that the source region for the case presented here was approximately 20 km thick. In addition, the energy in the wave packet was calculated and compared to an estimate of the available energy in the source region. It was found that the wave energy was about 0.2% of the estimated available source region energy.

  19. Linear theory of beam-wave interaction in double-slot coupled cavity travelling wave tube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang-ming, He; Wen-qiu, Xie; Ji-run, Luo; Min, Zhu; Wei, Guo

    2016-03-01

    A three-dimensional model of the double-slot coupled cavity slow-wave structure (CCSWS) with a solid round electron beam for the beam-wave interaction is presented. Based on the “cold” dispersion, the “hot” dispersion equation is derived with the Maxwell equations by using the variable separation method and the field-matching method. Through numerical calculations, the effects of the electron beam parameters and the staggered angle between adjacent walls on the linear gain are analyzed. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11205162).

  20. Mesosphere Dynamics with Gravity Wave Forcing. 1; Diurnal and Semi-Diurnal Tides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mayr, H. G.; Mengel, J. G.; Chan, K. L.; Porter, H. S.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    We present results from a nonlinear, 3D, time dependent numerical spectral model (NSM), which extends from the ground up into the thermosphere and incorporates Hines' Doppler Spread Parameterization for small-scale gravity waves (GW). Our focal point is the mesosphere that is dominated by wave interactions. We discuss diurnal and semi-diurnal tides ill the present paper (Part 1) and planetary waves in the companion paper (Part 2). To provide an understanding of the seasonal variations of tides, in particular with regard to gravity wave processes, numerical experiments are performed that lead to the following conclusions: 1. The large semiannual variations in tile diurnal tide (DT), with peak amplitudes observed around equinox, are produced primarily by GW interactions that involve, in part, planetary waves. 2. The DT, like planetary waves, tends to be amplified by GW momentum deposition, which reduces also the vertical wavelength. 3.Variations in eddy viscosity associated with GW interactions tend to peak in late spring and early fall and call also influence the DT. 4. The semidiurnal semidiurnal tide (SDT), and its phase in particular, is strongly influenced by the mean zonal circulation. 5. The SDT, individually, is amplified by GW's. But the DT filters out GW's such that the wave interaction effectively reduces the amplitude of the SDT, effectively producing a strong nonlinear interaction between the DT and SDT. 6.) Planetary waves generated internally by baroclinic instability and GW interaction produce large amplitude modulations of the DT and SDT.

  1. A further study of gravity wave induced drag and diffusion in the mesosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holton, J. R.; Zhu, X.

    1984-01-01

    Lindzen's (1967) parameterization for the drag and eddy diffusion produced by breaking internal gravity waves in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere is applied to a modified version of the beta-plane channel model of Holton (1982) in which an isotropic source spectrum of waves is specified similar to that given in 1982 by Matsuno (1982). The transmission for each wave component is influenced by Newtonian cooling and by eddy diffusion induced by the breaking of other wave components. In general the waves with smallest Doppler-shifted phase speeds break first and produce sufficient eddy diffusion to significantly raise the breaking heights for the higher speed components. Thus, the wave drag and diffusion is spread through a deep layer and the resulting mean wind profiles for both summer and winter solstice conditions are more realistic than those computed previously by Holton.

  2. On the response of a water surface to a surface pressure source moving at trans-critical gravity-capillary wave speeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masnadi, Naeem; Cho, Yeunwoo; Duncan, James H.; Akylas, Triantaphyllos

    2015-11-01

    The non-linear response of a water free surface to a pressure source moving at speeds near the minimum speed of linear gravity-capillary waves (Cmin ~ 23 cm/s) is investigated with experiments and theory. In the experiments, waves are generated by a vertically oriented air-jet that moves at a constant speed over the water surface in a long tank. The 3-D surface shape behind the air-jet is measured using a cinematic refraction-based technique combined with an LIF technique. At towing speeds just below Cmin, an unsteady pattern is formed where localized depressions periodically appear in pairs and move away from the source along the arms of a downstream V-shaped pattern. This behavior is analogous to the periodic shedding of solitary waves upstream of a source moving at the maximum wave speed in shallow water. The gravity-capillary depressions are rapidly damped by viscosity and their speed-amplitude characteristics closely match those from inviscid calculations of gravity-capillary lumps. The shedding frequency of the lumps in the present experiments increases with both increasing towing speed and air-flow rate. Predictions of this behavior using a model equation that incorporates damping and a quadratic nonlinearity are in good agreement with the experiments. The partial support of the National Science Foundation under grant OCE0751853 is gratefully acknowledged.

  3. Modeling of acoustic and gravity waves propagation through the atmosphere with spectral element method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brissaud, Q.; Garcia, R.; Martin, R.; Komatitsch, D.

    2014-12-01

    Low-frequency events such as tsunamis generate acoustic and gravity waves which quickly propagate in the atmosphere. Since the atmospheric density decreases exponentially as the altitude increases and from the conservation of the kinetic energy, those waves see their amplitude raise (to the order of 105 at 200km of altitude), allowing their detection in the upper atmosphere. Various tools have been developed through years to model this propagation, such as normal modes modeling or to a greater extent time-reversal techniques, but none offer a low-frequency multi-dimensional atmospheric wave modelling.A modeling tool is worthy interest since there are many different phenomena, from quakes to atmospheric explosions, able to propagate acoustic and gravity waves. In order to provide a fine modeling of the precise observations of these waves by GOCE satellite data, we developed a new numerical modeling tool.Starting from the SPECFEM program that already propagate waves in solid, porous or fluid media using a spectral element method, this work offers a tool with the ability to model acoustic and gravity waves propagation in a stratified attenuating atmosphere with a bottom forcing or an atmospheric source.Atmospheric attenuation is required in a proper modeling framework since it has a crucial impact on acoustic wave propagation. Indeed, it plays the role of a frequency filter that damps high-frequency signals. The bottom forcing feature has been implemented due to its ability to easily model the coupling with the Earth's or ocean's surface (that vibrates when a surface wave go through it) but also huge atmospheric events.

  4. Near-Inertial Internal Gravity Waves in the Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alford, Matthew H.; MacKinnon, Jennifer A.; Simmons, Harper L.; Nash, Jonathan D.

    2016-01-01

    We review the physics of near-inertial waves (NIWs) in the ocean and the observations, theory, and models that have provided our present knowledge. NIWs appear nearly everywhere in the ocean as a spectral peak at and just above the local inertial period f, and the longest vertical wavelengths can propagate at least hundreds of kilometers toward the equator from their source regions; shorter vertical wavelengths do not travel as far and do not contain as much energy, but lead to turbulent mixing owing to their high shear. NIWs are generated by a variety of mechanisms, including the wind, nonlinear interactions with waves of other frequencies, lee waves over bottom topography, and geostrophic adjustment; the partition among these is not known, although the wind is likely the most important. NIWs likely interact strongly with mesoscale and submesoscale motions, in ways that are just beginning to be understood.

  5. Near-Inertial Internal Gravity Waves in the Ocean.

    PubMed

    Alford, Matthew H; MacKinnon, Jennifer A; Simmons, Harper L; Nash, Jonathan D

    2016-01-01

    We review the physics of near-inertial waves (NIWs) in the ocean and the observations, theory, and models that have provided our present knowledge. NIWs appear nearly everywhere in the ocean as a spectral peak at and just above the local inertial period f, and the longest vertical wavelengths can propagate at least hundreds of kilometers toward the equator from their source regions; shorter vertical wavelengths do not travel as far and do not contain as much energy, but lead to turbulent mixing owing to their high shear. NIWs are generated by a variety of mechanisms, including the wind, nonlinear interactions with waves of other frequencies, lee waves over bottom topography, and geostrophic adjustment; the partition among these is not known, although the wind is likely the most important. NIWs likely interact strongly with mesoscale and submesoscale motions, in ways that are just beginning to be understood. PMID:26331898

  6. A nonreflecting upper boundary condition for anelastic nonhydrostatic Mesoscale gravity-wave models

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Young-Joon; Kar, Sajal K.; Arakawa, Akio )

    1993-04-01

    A sponge layer is formulated to prevent spurious reflection of vertically propagating quasi-stationary gravity waves at the upper boundary of a two-dimensional numerical anelastic nonhydrostatic model. The sponge layer includes damping of both Newtonian-cooling type and Rayleigh-friction type, whose coefficients are determined in such a way that the reflectivity of wave energy at the bottom of the layer is zero. Unlike the formulations in earlier studies, our formulation includes the effects of vertical discretization, vertical mean density variation, and nonhydrostaticity. This sponge formulation is found effective in suppressing false downward reflection of waves for various types of quasi-stationary forcing.

  7. A nonreflecting upper boundary condition for anelastic nonhydrostatic mesoscale gravity-wave models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Young-Joon; Kar, Sajal K.; Arakawa, Akio

    1993-01-01

    A sponge layer is formulated to prevent spurious reflection of vertically propagating quasi-stationary gravity waves at the upper boundary of a two-dimensional numerical anelastic nonhydrostatic model. The sponge layer includes damping of both Newtonian-cooling type and Rayleigh-friction type, whose coefficients are determined in such a way that the reflectivity of wave energy at the bottom of the layer is zero. Unlike the formulations in earlier studies, our formulation includes the effects of vertical discretization, vertical mean density variation, and nonhydrostaticity. This sponge formulation is found effective in suppressing false downward reflection of waves for various types of quasi-stationary forcing.

  8. The Response of an Open Stratospheric Balloon to the Presence of Inertio-Gravity Waves.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexander, P.; Cornejo, J.; de La Torre, A.

    1996-01-01

    Analytic solutions for the vertical response of an open stratospheric balloon to the presence of inertio-gravity waves during its descent are obtained. Monochromatic waves with simultaneous variations in density, velocity, and temperature are considered. Two extreme cases for the thermal conductivity of the balloon are analyzed: perfect and null. In the first case the velocity variations of the wave dominate the balloon's behavior, but in the second one the air density oscillations also become significant. It is concluded that open stratospheric balloons may behave more adiabatic than perfect conducting.

  9. Mesospheric hydroxyl airglow signatures of acoustic and gravity waves generated by transient tropospheric forcing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snively, J. B.

    2013-09-01

    Numerical model results demonstrate that acoustic waves generated by tropospheric sources may produce cylindrical "concentric ring" signatures in the mesospheric hydroxyl airglow layer. They may arrive as precursors to upward propagating gravity waves, generated simultaneously by the same sources, and produce strong temperature perturbations in the thermosphere above. Transient and short-lived, the acoustic wave airglow intensity and temperature signatures are predicted to be detectable by ground-based airglow imaging systems and may provide new insight into the forcing of the upper atmosphere from below.

  10. The response of plasma density to breaking inertial gravity wave in the lower regions of ionosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, Wenbo Mahalov, Alex

    2014-04-15

    We present a three-dimensional numerical study for the E and lower F region ionosphere coupled with the neutral atmosphere dynamics. This model is developed based on a previous ionospheric model that examines the transport patterns of plasma density given a prescribed neutral atmospheric flow. Inclusion of neutral dynamics in the model allows us to examine the charge-neutral interactions over the full evolution cycle of an inertial gravity wave when the background flow spins up from rest, saturates and eventually breaks. Using Lagrangian analyses, we show the mixing patterns of the ionospheric responses and the formation of ionospheric layers. The corresponding plasma density in this flow develops complex wave structures and small-scale patches during the gravity wave breaking event.

  11. A model for gravity-wave spectra observed by Doppler sounding systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanzandt, T. E.

    1986-01-01

    A model for Mesosphere - Stratosphere - Troposphere (MST) radar spectra is developed following the formalism presented by Pinkel (1981). Expressions for the one-dimensional spectra of radial velocity versus frequency and versus radial wave number are presented. Their dependence on the parameters of the gravity-wave spectrum and on the experimental parameters, radar zenith angle and averaging time are described and the conditions for critical tests of the gravity-wave hypothesis are discussed. The model spectra is compared with spectra observed in the Arctic summer mesosphere by the Poker Flat radar. This model applies to any monostatic Doppler sounding system, including MST radar, Doppler lidar and Doppler sonar in the atmosphere, and Doppler sonar in the ocean.

  12. Analysis of converted S-waves and gravity anomaly along the Aegir Ridge: implications for crustal lithology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rai, A. K.; Breivik, A. J.; Mjelde, R.; Hanan, B. B.; Ito, G.; Sayit, K.; Howell, S.; Vogt, P. R.; Pedersen, R.

    2012-12-01

    The Aegir Ridge is an extinct spreading ridge in North-East Atlantic ocean. A thinner than normal crust around the Aegir Ridge appears as a hole in the extensively magmatic surroundings. Its proximity to the Iceland hot-spot makes it particularly important for understanding the changing dynamics of hotspot-ridge interaction. An integrated seismic and dredging experiment was conduced during the summer of 2010 with the primary aim to understand the nature of magmatism along the ridge shortly before cessation of seafloor spreading through variations of sub-seafloor lithological properties. Here, we present results of analysis of converted shear-waves recorded on OBS-sesimic data, and ship-gravity data. The shear-wave study enables us to quantify the variation of Vp/Vs in the sediments, crust and the upper-most mantle. We also inverted the gravity data to determine the sub-seafloor density distribution. The P- to S- converted shear-waves were identified on 20 OBSs along a profile with a total length of 550 km parallel to the ridge-axis. The sedimentary section on top of the crystalline crust is well illuminated in the streamer data. The forward modelling of the OBS data reveals that the Vp/Vs ratio in sediments are as high as 4.8, decreasing rapidly to a value of 3.00, primarily due to compaction of sediments with depth. Identification of sufficient PnS and PSn phases enable us to model the crustal and upper-most mantle Vp/Vs. The upper crystalline crust requires a Vp/Vs value of 1.99 and 1.89 for the southern and the northern profiles respectively, to fit the observations. The lower crust and upper-most part of the mantle have a Vp/Vs of ~1.82 and 1.795 respectively. Slightly lower Vp and moderate increase in Vp/Vs in parts of the crust and upper mantle presumably indicate presence of faulting, fracturing in the crust and moderate degree of serpentinization of the upper mantle. A sub-seafloor density model is derived by non-linear inversion of the gravity anomaly. The

  13. Gravity waves in the thermosphere observed by the AE satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gross, S. H.; Reber, C. A.; Huang, F. T.

    1983-01-01

    Atmospheric Explorer (AE) satellite data were used to investigate the spectra characteristics of wave-like structure observed in the neutral and ionized components of the thermosphere. Power spectral analysis derived by the maximum entropy method indicate the existence of a broad spectrum of scale sizes for the fluctuations ranging from tens to thousands of kilometers.

  14. Study of atmospheric gravity waves and infrasonic sources using the USArray Transportable Array pressure data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hedlin, Michael; de Groot-Hedlin, Catherine; Hoffmann, Lars; Alexander, M. Joan; Stephan, Claudia

    2016-04-01

    The upgrade of the USArray Transportable Array (TA) with microbarometers and infrasound microphones has created an opportunity for a broad range of new studies of atmospheric sources and the large- and small-scale atmospheric structure through which signals from these events propagate. These studies are akin to early studies of seismic events and the Earth's interior structure that were made possible by the first seismic networks. In one early study with the new dataset we use the method of de Groot-Hedlin and Hedlin (2015) to recast the TA as a massive collection of 3-element arrays to detect and locate large infrasonic events. Over 2,000 events have been detected in 2013. The events cluster in highly active regions on land and offshore. Stratospherically ducted signals from some of these events have been recorded more than 2,000 km from the source and clearly show dispersion due to propagation through atmospheric gravity waves. Modeling of these signals has been used to test statistical models of atmospheric gravity waves. The network is also useful for making direct observations of gravity waves. We are currently studying TA and satellite observations of gravity waves from singular events to better understand how the waves near ground level relate to those observed aloft. We are also studying the long-term statistics of these waves from the beginning of 2010 through 2014. Early work using data bandpass filtered from 1-6 hr shows that both the TA and satellite data reveal highly active source regions, such as near the Great Lakes. de Groot-Hedlin and Hedlin, 2015, A method for detecting and locating geophysical events using clusters of arrays, Geophysical Journal International, v203, p960-971, doi: 10.1093/gji/ggv345.

  15. Microscopic Lagrangian description of warm plasmas. I - Linear wave propagation. II - Nonlinear wave interactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, H.; Crawford, F. W.

    1977-01-01

    It is pointed out that the conventional iterative analysis of nonlinear plasma wave phenomena, which involves a direct use of Maxwell's equations and the equations describing the particle dynamics, leads to formidable theoretical and algebraic complexities, especially for warm plasmas. As an effective alternative, the Lagrangian method may be applied. It is shown how this method may be used in the microscopic description of small-signal wave propagation and in the study of nonlinear wave interactions. The linear theory is developed for an infinite, homogeneous, collisionless, warm magnetoplasma. A summary is presented of a perturbation expansion scheme described by Galloway and Kim (1971), and Lagrangians to third order in perturbation are considered. Attention is given to the averaged-Lagrangian density, the action-transfer and coupled-mode equations, and the general solution of the coupled-mode equations.

  16. Case studies of nonorographic gravity waves over the Southern Ocean emphasize the role of moisture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plougonven, Riwal; Hertzog, Albert; Alexander, M. Joan

    2015-02-01

    Two case studies of nonorographic gravity waves are carried out for wave events that occurred over the Southern Ocean in November 2005. Mesoscale simulations were carried out with the Weather and Research Forecast model. The simulated waves were compared to observations from superpressure balloons of the Vorcore campaign and from the High Resolution Dynamic Limb Sounder satellite. Satisfactory agreement is found, giving confidence in the estimations of wave parameters and amplitudes. For the amplitudes, both the model and observations provide a lower bound, for different reasons. Waves are found in the lower stratosphere with horizontal wavelengths of the order of 150-200 km in the horizontal, 5-8 km in the vertical, corresponding to intrinsic frequencies between 5 and 10 f, where f is the Coriolis parameter. Although the tropospheric flow is very different between the two cases, there are features which are common and appear significant for the gravity waves: these include intense localized updrafts associated with convection in the troposphere and a displaced polar vortex inducing strong winds in the stratosphere above the frontal region. Relative to theoretical expectations, the simulations emphasize the role of moisture. Intrinsic frequencies are significantly higher than those expected for waves produced by dry spontaneous generation from jets. To quantify the contribution of moisture, dry simulations were carried out, yielding momentum fluxes over oceanic regions that were 2.5 times weaker. Identification of the generation mechanisms in these complex flows calls for further study, and these should include moisture and a realistic stratospheric jet.

  17. Estimated errors in a global gravity wave climatology from GPS radio occultation temperature profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de la Torre, A.; Llamedo, P.; Alexander, P.; Schmidt, T.; Wickert, J.

    2010-07-01

    In a previous paper by Schmidt et al. (2008), from CHAllenging Minisatellite Payload (CHAMP) Global Positioning System (GPS) radio occultation data, a comparison was made between a Gaussian filter applied to the "complete" temperature profile and to its "separate" tropospheric and stratospheric height intervals, for gravity wave analyses. It was found that the separate filtering method considerably reduces a wave activity artificial enhancement near the tropopause, presumably due to the isolation process of the wave component. We now propose a simple approach to estimate the uncertainty in the calculation of the mean specific wave potential energy content, due exclusively to the filtering process of vertical temperature profiles, independently of the experimental origin of the data. The approach is developed through a statistical simulation, built up from the superposition of synthetic wave perturbations. These are adjusted by a recent gravity wave (GW) climatology and temperature profiles from reanalyses. A systematic overestimation of the mean specific wave potential energy content is detected and its variability with latitude, altitude, season and averaging height interval is highlighted.

  18. Interactions between gravity waves and cold air outflows in a stably stratified uniform flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Yuh-Lang; Wang, Ting-An; Weglarz, Ronald P.

    1993-01-01

    Interactions between gravity waves and cold air outflows in a stably stratified uniform flow forced by various combinations of prescribed heat sinks and sources are studied using a hydrostatic two-dimensional nonlinear numerical model. The formation time for the development of a stagnation point or reversed flow at the surface is not always directly proportional to the Froude number when wave reflections exist from upper levels. A density current is able to form by the wave-otuflow interaction, even though the Froude number is greater than a critical value. This is the result of the wave-outflow interaction shifting the flow response to a different location in the characteristic parameter space. A density current is able to form or be destroyed due to the wave-outflow interaction between a traveling gravity wave and cold air outflow. This is proved by performing experiments with a steady-state heat sink and an additional transient heat source. In a quiescent fluid, a region of cold air, convergence, and upward motion is formed after the collision between two outflows produced by two prescribed heat sinks. After the collision, the individual cold air outflows lose their own identity and merge into a single, stationary, cold air outflow region. Gravity waves tend to suppress this new stationary cold air outflow after the collision. The region of upward motion associated with the collision is confined to a very shallow layer. In a moving airstream, a density current produced by a heat sink may be suppressed or enhanced nonlinearly by an adjacent heat sink due to the wave-outflow interaction.

  19. Interactions between gravity waves and cold air outflows in a stably stratified uniform flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Yuh-Lang; Wang, Ting-An; Weglarz, Ronald P.

    1993-11-01

    Interactions between gravity waves and cold air outflows in a stably stratified uniform flow forced by various combinations of prescribed heat sinks and sources are studied using a hydrostatic two-dimensional nonlinear numerical model. The formation time for the development of a stagnation point or reversed flow at the surface is not always directly proportional to the Froude number when wave reflections exist from upper levels. A density current is able to form by the wave-otuflow interaction, even though the Froude number is greater than a critical value. This is the result of the wave-outflow interaction shifting the flow response to a different location in the characteristic parameter space. A density current is able to form or be destroyed due to the wave-outflow interaction between a traveling gravity wave and cold air outflow. This is proved by performing experiments with a steady-state heat sink and an additional transient heat source. In a quiescent fluid, a region of cold air, convergence, and upward motion is formed after the collision between two outflows produced by two prescribed heat sinks. After the collision, the individual cold air outflows lose their own identity and merge into a single, stationary, cold air outflow region. Gravity waves tend to suppress this new stationary cold air outflow after the collision. The region of upward motion associated with the collision is confined to a very shallow layer. In a moving airstream, a density current produced by a heat sink may be suppressed or enhanced nonlinearly by an adjacent heat sink due to the wave-outflow interaction.

  20. Numerical modeling of acoustic and gravity waves propagation in the atmosphere using a spectral element method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Roland; Brissaud, Quentin; Garcia, Raphael; Komatitsch, Dimitri

    2015-04-01

    During low-frequency events such as tsunamis, acoustic and gravity waves are generated and quickly propagate in the atmosphere. Due to the exponential decrease of the atmospheric density with the altitude, the conservation of the kinetic energy imposes that the amplitude of those waves increases (to the order of 105 at 200km of altitude), which allows their detection in the upper atmosphere. This propagation bas been modelled for years with different tools, such as normal modes modeling or to a greater extent time-reversal techniques, but a low-frequency multi-dimensional atmospheric wave modelling is still crucially needed. A modeling tool is worth of interest since there are many different sources, as earthquakes or atmospheric explosions, able to propagate acoustic and gravity waves. In order to provide a fine modeling of the precise observations of these waves by GOCE satellite data, we developed a new numerical modeling tool. By adding some developments to the SPECFEM package that already models wave propagation in solid, porous or fluid media using a spectral element method, we show here that acoustic and gravity waves propagation can now be modelled in a stratified attenuating atmosphere with a bottom forcing or an atmospheric source. The bottom forcing feature has been implemented to easily model the coupling with the Earth's or ocean's vibrating surfaces but also huge atmospheric events. Atmospheric attenuation is also introduced since it has a crucial impact on acoustic wave propagation. Indeed, it plays the role of a frequency filter that damps high-frequency signals.

  1. Frontal Wave Stability during Moist Deformation Frontogenesis. Part I: Linear Wave Dynamics.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bishop, Craig H.; Thorpe, Alan J.

    1994-03-01

    It has been shown that lower tropospheric potential vorticity zones formed during moist deformation frontogenesis will support growing waves if at some time the frontogenesis ceases. In this paper, the ways in which these waves are affected by the frontogenetic process are identified.Observations show that fronts in the eastern Atlantic commonly feature saturated ascent regions characterized by zero moist potential vorticity. Furthermore, in many cases the horizontal temperature gradient in the lowest one to two kilometers of the atmosphere is rather weak. These features are incorporated in an analytical archetype. The dynamical implications of saturated ascent in conditions of zero moist potential vorticity are represented in the model by assuming that adiabatic temperature changes are precisely balanced by diabatic tendencies. The observed small temperature gradient at low levels is represented in the model by taking it to be zero in the lowest two kilometers. Consequently, the forcing of the low-level moist ageostrophic vortex stretching that strengthens the low-level potential vorticity anomaly is confined to middle and upper levels.A semianalytical initial value solution for the linear development of waves on the evolving low-level potential vorticity anomaly is obtained. The waves approximately satisfy the inviscid primitive equations whenever the divergent part of the perturbation is negligible relative to the rotational part. The range of nonmodal wave developments supported by the front is summarized using RT phase diagrams. This analysis shows that the most dramatic effects of frontogenesis on frontal wave growth are due to (a) the increase in time of the potential vorticity and hence potential instability of the flow and (b) the increase in time of the alongfront wavelength relative to the width of the strip. An optimally growing streamfunction wave is described. Finally, a diagnostic technique suitable for identifying small amplitude frontal waves in

  2. Design and Analysis of Tubular Permanent Magnet Linear Wave Generator

    PubMed Central

    Si, Jikai; Feng, Haichao; Su, Peng; Zhang, Lufeng

    2014-01-01

    Due to the lack of mature design program for the tubular permanent magnet linear wave generator (TPMLWG) and poor sinusoidal characteristics of the air gap flux density for the traditional surface-mounted TPMLWG, a design method and a new secondary structure of TPMLWG are proposed. An equivalent mathematical model of TPMLWG is established to adopt the transformation relationship between the linear velocity of permanent magnet rotary generator and the operating speed of TPMLWG, to determine the structure parameters of the TPMLWG. The new secondary structure of the TPMLWG contains surface-mounted permanent magnets and the interior permanent magnets, which form a series-parallel hybrid magnetic circuit, and their reasonable structure parameters are designed to get the optimum pole-arc coefficient. The electromagnetic field and temperature field of TPMLWG are analyzed using finite element method. It can be included that the sinusoidal characteristics of air gap flux density of the new secondary structure TPMLWG are improved, the cogging force as well as mechanical vibration is reduced in the process of operation, and the stable temperature rise of generator meets the design requirements when adopting the new secondary structure of the TPMLWG. PMID:25050388

  3. Characteristics of atmospheric gravity waves observed using the MU (Middle and Upper atmosphere) radar and GPS (Global Positioning System) radio occultation

    PubMed Central

    TSUDA, Toshitaka

    2014-01-01

    The wind velocity and temperature profiles observed in the middle atmosphere (altitude: 10–100 km) show perturbations resulting from superposition of various atmospheric waves, including atmospheric gravity waves. Atmospheric gravity waves are known to play an important role in determining the general circulation in the middle atmosphere by dynamical stresses caused by gravity wave breaking. In this paper, we summarize the characteristics of atmospheric gravity waves observed using the middle and upper atmosphere (MU) radar in Japan, as well as novel satellite data obtained from global positioning system radio occultation (GPS RO) measurements. In particular, we focus on the behavior of gravity waves in the mesosphere (50–90 km), where considerable gravity wave attenuation occurs. We also report on the global distribution of gravity wave activity in the stratosphere (10–50 km), highlighting various excitation mechanisms such as orographic effects, convection in the tropics, meteorological disturbances, the subtropical jet and the polar night jet. PMID:24492645

  4. Characteristics of atmospheric gravity waves observed using the MU (Middle and Upper atmosphere) radar and GPS (Global Positioning System) radio occultation.

    PubMed

    Tsuda, Toshitaka

    2014-01-01

    The wind velocity and temperature profiles observed in the middle atmosphere (altitude: 10-100 km) show perturbations resulting from superposition of various atmospheric waves, including atmospheric gravity waves. Atmospheric gravity waves are known to play an important role in determining the general circulation in the middle atmosphere by dynamical stresses caused by gravity wave breaking. In this paper, we summarize the characteristics of atmospheric gravity waves observed using the middle and upper atmosphere (MU) radar in Japan, as well as novel satellite data obtained from global positioning system radio occultation (GPS RO) measurements. In particular, we focus on the behavior of gravity waves in the mesosphere (50-90 km), where considerable gravity wave attenuation occurs. We also report on the global distribution of gravity wave activity in the stratosphere (10-50 km), highlighting various excitation mechanisms such as orographic effects, convection in the tropics, meteorological disturbances, the subtropical jet and the polar night jet. PMID:24492645

  5. Gravity Waves in Polar Mesosphere and Lower Thermosphere Revealed in a Whole-atmospheric Global Atmospheric Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, I. S.; Jee, G.; Kim, B. M.

    2015-12-01

    Mesoscale gravity waves are simulated by carrying out the specified chemistry whole atmosphere community climate model (SC-WACCM) at the horizontal resolution of about 25 km to understand the origin of gravity waves in the polar mesosphere and lower thermosphere (MLT) and their propagation properties throughout the whole atmosphere. Modeled gravity waves are also compared with gravity-wave activities estimated from meteor radar observations made in Antarctica by Korea Polar Research Institute. For this comparison, SC-WACCM is initialized at a specific date and time using atmospheric state variables from the ground to the thermosphere obtained from various data sets such as operational analyses and empirical wind and temperature model results. Model initial conditions are corrected for mass and dynamical balance to reduce spurious waves due to initial shocks. At conference, preliminary results of the mesoscale SC-WACCM simulation and its comparison with observations will be presented.

  6. Global and seasonal variations in three-dimensional gravity wave momentum flux from satellite limb-sounding temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexander, M. Joan

    2015-08-01

    Satellite limb-sounding methods provide the best global temperature data available for simultaneous measurement of gravity wave horizontal and vertical structures needed to estimate momentum flux and constrain wave effects on general circulation. Gravity waves vary in the three spatial dimensions and time, so the ideal measurement observes all three dimensions at high resolution nearly simultaneously. High Resolution Dynamics Limb Sounder (HIRDLS) measurements give near-simultaneous profiles in close proximity and at high vertical resolution, but these coincident profiles lie only along the plane of the measurement track. Here we combine HIRDLS and radio occultation data sets to obtain three-dimensional properties of gravity waves on a global scale as well as seasonal variations. The results show dramatic changes from previous estimates using either data set alone. Changes include much larger momentum fluxes and latitudinal variations in propagation direction that support an enhanced role for gravity wave forcing of middle atmosphere circulation.

  7. Observations of planetary mixed Rossby-gravity waves in the upper stratosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Randel, William J.; Boville, Byron A.; Gille, John C.

    1990-01-01

    Observational evidence is presented for planetary scale (zonal wave number 1-2) mixed Rossby-gravity (MRG) waves in the equatorial upper stratosphere (35-50 km). These waves are detected in LIMS measurements as coherently propagating temperature maxima of amplitude 0.1-0.3 K, which are antisymmetric (out of phase) about the equator, centered near 10-15 deg north and south latitude. These features have vertical wavelengths of order 10-15 km, periods near 2-3 days, and zonal phase velocities close to 200 m/s. Both eastward and westward propagating waves are found, and the observed vertical wavelengths and meridional structures are in good agreement with the MRG dispersion relation. Theoretical estimates of the zonal accelerations attributable to these waves suggest they do not contribute substantially to the zonal momentum balance in the middle atmosphere.

  8. Satellite observations of middle atmosphere gravity wave absolute momentum flux and of its vertical gradient during recent stratospheric warmings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ern, Manfred; Trinh, Quang Thai; Kaufmann, Martin; Krisch, Isabell; Preusse, Peter; Ungermann, Jörn; Zhu, Yajun; Gille, John C.; Mlynczak, Martin G.; Russell, James M., III; Schwartz, Michael J.; Riese, Martin

    2016-08-01

    Sudden stratospheric warmings (SSWs) are circulation anomalies in the polar region during winter. They mostly occur in the Northern Hemisphere and affect also surface weather and climate. Both planetary waves and gravity waves contribute to the onset and evolution of SSWs. While the role of planetary waves for SSW evolution has been recognized, the effect of gravity waves is still not fully understood, and has not been comprehensively analyzed based on global observations. In particular, information on the gravity wave driving of the background winds during SSWs is still missing.We investigate the boreal winters from 2001/2002 until 2013/2014. Absolute gravity wave momentum fluxes and gravity wave dissipation (potential drag) are estimated from temperature observations of the satellite instruments HIRDLS and SABER. In agreement with previous work, we find that sometimes gravity wave activity is enhanced before or around the central date of major SSWs, particularly during vortex-split events. Often, SSWs are associated with polar-night jet oscillation (PJO) events. For these events, we find that gravity wave activity is strongly suppressed when the wind has reversed from eastward to westward (usually after the central date of a major SSW). In addition, gravity wave potential drag at the bottom of the newly forming eastward-directed jet is remarkably weak, while considerable potential drag at the top of the jet likely contributes to the downward propagation of both the jet and the new elevated stratopause. During PJO events, we also find some indication for poleward propagation of gravity waves. Another striking finding is that obviously localized gravity wave sources, likely mountain waves and jet-generated gravity waves, play an important role during the evolution of SSWs and potentially contribute to the triggering of SSWs by preconditioning the shape of the polar vortex. The distribution of these hot spots is highly variable and strongly depends on the zonal and

  9. Higher order dispersion in the propagation of a gravity wave packet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yeh, K. C.; Dong, B.

    1989-01-01

    To the first order of approximation, the complex amplitude of a wave packet in an anisotropic and dispersive medium is convected with the group of velocity. However, a gravity wave is a vector wave. Its wave packet must be formed by superposition of various wave numbers with corresponding frequencies, as is the case for scalar waves, and additionally by superposing many eigenmodes which also depend on the wave number. To represent the vector wave packet self-consistently, it is found that a gradient term must be included in the expansion. For a Guassian wave packet, this gradient term is shown to have important implications on the velocity vector as represented by its hodograph. Numerical results show that the hodograph is influenced by the location of the relative position of interest from the center of a Gaussian pulse. Higher order expansion shows that an initial Gaussian wave packet will retain its Gaussian shape as it propagates, but the pulse will spread in all directions with its major axis undergoing a rotation. Numerical results indicate that these higher order dispersive effects may be marginally observable in the atmosphere.

  10. Far fields of internal gravity waves at arbitrary movement speeds of source of disturbances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulatov, V. V.; Vladimirov, Yu. V.

    2015-11-01

    The problem of a far field of internal gravity waves excited by a moving source of disturbances in a stratified medium is considered. The uniform asymptotics describing the amplitude-phase structure of the wave fields for the different conditions of a source movement are constructed. The wave pattern, including the position of a front, under subcritical conditions of source movement is determined by waves with the wave numbers restricted by a certain positive value from below, whereas under supercritical conditions the wave pattern is formed by the waves of all ranges and the front is determined only by long waves. In the first case, the phase portrait represents longitudinal and transverse waves decaying as a power function; in the second case, it is formed only of longitudinal waves decaying exponentially. In the first case, the uniform asymptotics of the far field consists of two terms, one of which is represented by the Airy function and the second is represented by its derivative; in the second case, the asymptotics has only one term that is expressed through the Airy function.

  11. Evaluation of uncertainty in gravity wave potential energy calculations through GPS radio occultation measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luna, D.; Alexander, P.; de la Torre, A.

    2013-09-01

    The application of the Global Positioning System (GPS) radio occultation (RO) method to the atmosphere enables the determination of height profiles of temperature, among other variables. From these measurements, gravity wave activity is usually quantified by calculating the potential energy through the integration of the ratio of perturbation and background temperatures between two given altitudes in each profile. The uncertainty in the estimation of wave activity depends on the systematic biases and random errors of the measured temperature, but also on additional factors like the selected vertical integration layer and the separation method between background and perturbation temperatures. In this study, the contributions of different parameters and variables to the uncertainty in the calculation of gravity wave potential energy in the lower stratosphere are investigated and quantified. In particular, a Monte Carlo method is used to evaluate the uncertainty that results from different GPS RO temperature error distributions. In addition, our analysis shows that RO data above 30 km height becomes dubious for gravity waves potential energy calculations.

  12. A new approach to global gravity wave momentum flux determination from GPS radio occultation data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faber, A.; Llamedo, P.; Schmidt, T.; de la Torre, A.; Wickert, J.

    2013-03-01

    GPS Radio Occultation (RO) is a well-established technique for obtaining global gravity wave (GW) information. RO uses GPS signals received aboard low Earth orbiting satellites for atmospheric limb sounding. Temperature profiles are derived with high vertical resolution and provide a global coverage under any weather conditions offering the possibility for global monitoring of the vertical temperature structure and atmospheric wave parameters. The six satellites constellation COSMIC/FORMOSAT-3 delivers approximately 2000 temperature profiles daily. In this study, we use a method to obtain global distributions of horizontal gravity wave wavelengths, to be applied in the determination of the vertical flux of horizontal momentum transported by gravity waves. The horizontal wavenumber is derived by the ratio of the phase shift and the spatial distance between adjacent temperature fluctuation profiles at a given altitude, following the method by Ern et al. (2004). A new method for the determination of the real horizontal wavelength from triads of vertical profiles is presented and applied to the COSMIC data. The horizontal and vertical wavelength, the specific potential energy (Ep) and the vertical flux of horizontal momentum (MF) are calculated and their global distribution is discussed.

  13. Goose Bay radar observations of earth-reflected atmospheric gravity waves in the high-latitude ionosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Ruohoniemi, J.M.; Greenwald, R.A.; Baker, K.B.; Samson, J.C.

    1990-05-03

    An HF backscatter radar at Goose Bay, Labrador made it possible to observe irregularities in the distribution of ionospheric ionization at E and F region altitudes (100 - 600 km) in the high-latitude (65 - 85 deg Lambda) ionosphere. Recently it has been established that the passage of atmospheric gravity waves perturbs the ionosphere in ways that are readily detected in returns that reflect off the ionospheric layers. The particular strength of the technique lies in the nearly instantaneous measurement of gravity wave effects over large areas ( 1 million sq. km). With this information the propagation of gravity waves can be accurately modelled. Generally gravity waves are observed during daylight hours propagating away from the auroral electrojets. The propagation mode involves penetration of wave energy through the lower atmosphere and subsequent reflection by the earth's surface. The frequencies associated with the waves lie in the 0.4 - 0.6 mHz range and the wavelengths vary from 300 to 500 km. The excitation sources appear to lie in the vicinity of the high-latitude electrojets. In this paper we outline the analysis of gravity wave effects on HF propagation and present an example of a modelled gravity wave event.

  14. Rayleigh lidar observations of gravity wave activity in the stratosphere and lower mesosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, M. S.; Gardner, C. S.; Liu, C. H.

    1987-01-01

    Forty-two monochromatic gravity wave events were observed in the 25 to 55 km altitude region during 16 nights of Rayleigh lidar measurements at Poker Flat, Alaska and Urbana, Illinois. The measured wave parameters were compared to previous radar and lidar measurements of gravity wave activity. Vertical wavelengths, lambda(z), between 2 and 11.5 km with vertical phase velocities, c(z), between 0.1 and 1 m/s were observed. Measured values of lambda(z) and c(z) were used to infer observed wave periods, T(ob), between 50 and 1000 minutes and horizontal wavelengths, lambda(x), from 25 to 2000 km. Dominant wave activity was found at vertical wavelengths between 2 to 4 km and 7 to 10 km. No seasonal variations were evident in the observed wave parameters. Vertical and horizontal wavelengths showed a clear tendency to increase with T(ob), which is consistent with recent sodium lidar studies of monochromatic wave events near the mesopause. Measured power law relationships between the wave parameters were lambda(z) varies as T(ob) sup 0.96, lambda(x) varies as T(ob) sup 1.8, and c(z) varies as T(ob) sup -0.85. The kinetic energy calculated for the monochromatic wave events varied as k(z) sup -2, k(x) sup -1, and f(ob) sup -1.7. The atmospheric scale heights calculated for each observation date range from 6.5 to 7.6 km with a mean value of 7 km. The increase of rms wind perturbations with altitude indicated an amplitude growth length of 20.9 km. The altitude profile of kinetic energy density decreased with height, suggesting that waves in this altitude region were subject to dissipation or saturation effects.

  15. Concentric gravity waves over northern China observed by an airglow imager network and satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jiyao; Li, Qinzeng; Yue, Jia; Hoffmann, Lars; Straka, William C.; Wang, Cuimei; Liu, Mohan; Yuan, Wei; Han, Sai; Miller, Steven D.; Sun, Longchang; Liu, Xiao; Liu, Weijun; Yang, Jing; Ning, Baiqi

    2015-11-01

    The first no-gap OH airglow all-sky imager network was established in northern China in February 2012. The network is composed of six all-sky airglow imagers that make observations of OH airglow gravity waves and cover an area of about 2000 km east and west and about 1400 km south and north. An unusual outbreak of Concentric Gravity Wave (CGW) events were observed by the network nearly every night during the first half of August 2013. These events were coincidentally observed by satellite sensors from Fengyun-2 (FY-2), Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS)/Aqua, and Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS)/Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (NPP). Combination of the ground imager network with satellites provides multilevel observations of the CGWs from the stratosphere to the mesopause region. In this paper, two representative CGW events in August 2013 are studied in detail: first is the CGW on the night of 13 August 2013, likely launched by a single thunderstorm. The temporal and spatial analyses indicate that the CGW horizontal wavelengths follow freely propagating waves based on a GW dispersion relation within 300 km from the storm center. In contrast, the more distant observed gravity wave field exhibits a smaller horizontal wavelength of ~20 km, and our analysis strongly suggest this wave field represents a ducted wave. A second event, exhibiting multiple CGWs, was induced by two very strong thunderstorms on 9 August 2013. Multiscale waves with horizontal wavelengths ranging from less than 10 km to 200 km were observed.

  16. Tidal modulations of mesospheric gravity wave kinetic energy observed with MF radar at Poker Flat Research Range, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinoshita, Takenari; Murayama, Yasuhiro; Kawamura, Seiji

    2015-07-01