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Sample records for lineatissima sauria teiidae

  1. Methodological congruence in phylogenomic analyses with morphological support for teiid lizards (Sauria: Teiidae).

    PubMed

    Tucker, Derek B; Colli, Guarino R; Giugliano, Lilian G; Hedges, S Blair; Hendry, Catriona R; Lemmon, Emily Moriarty; Lemmon, Alan R; Sites, Jack W; Pyron, R Alexander

    2016-10-01

    A well-known issue in phylogenetics is discordance among gene trees, species trees, morphology, and other data types. Gene-tree discordance is often caused by incomplete lineage sorting, lateral gene transfer, and gene duplication. Multispecies-coalescent methods can account for incomplete lineage sorting and are believed by many to be more accurate than concatenation. However, simulation studies and empirical data have demonstrated that concatenation and species tree methods often recover similar topologies. We use three popular methods of phylogenetic reconstruction (one concatenation, two species tree) to evaluate relationships within Teiidae. These lizards are distributed across the United States to Argentina and the West Indies, and their classification has been controversial due to incomplete sampling and the discordance among various character types (chromosomes, DNA, musculature, osteology, etc.) used to reconstruct phylogenetic relationships. Recent morphological and molecular analyses of the group resurrected three genera and created five new genera to resolve non-monophyly in three historically ill-defined genera: Ameiva, Cnemidophorus, and Tupinambis. Here, we assess the phylogenetic relationships of the Teiidae using "next-generation" anchored-phylogenomics sequencing. Our final alignment includes 316 loci (488,656bp DNA) for 244 individuals (56 species of teiids, representing all currently recognized genera) and all three methods (ExaML, MP-EST, and ASTRAL-II) recovered essentially identical topologies. Our results are basically in agreement with recent results from morphology and smaller molecular datasets, showing support for monophyly of the eight new genera. Interestingly, even with hundreds of loci, the relationships among some genera in Tupinambinae remain ambiguous (i.e. low nodal support for the position of Salvator and Dracaena). PMID:27395779

  2. The complete mitochondrial genome of Leiolepis reevesii (Sauria, Agamidae).

    PubMed

    Tong, Qing-Lin; Du, Yu; Lin, Long-Hui; Ji, Xiang

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we report the complete mitochondrial genome of Leiolepis reevesii (Sauria, Agamidae), which is a circular molecule of 16,908 bp in size and consists of 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNAs, 22 transfer RNAs and a control region. The A+T content of overall base composition of H-strand is 59.8% (T: 25.1%, C: 27.5%, A: 34.7%, G: 12.7%). Some short microsatellite-like repeat regions (polyA and polyT) are scattered in the control region. All the results provide powerful data to further study of the molecular systematics, species identification and conservation genetics. PMID:24708106

  3. Cryptic, Sympatric Diversity in Tegu Lizards of the Tupinambis teguixin Group (Squamata, Sauria, Teiidae) and the Description of Three New Species

    PubMed Central

    Jowers, Michael J.; Lehtinen, Richard M.; Charles, Stevland P.; Colli, Guarino R.; Peres, Ayrton K.; Hendry, Catriona R.; Pyron, R. Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Tegus of the genera Tupinambis and Salvator are the largest Neotropical lizards and the most exploited clade of Neotropical reptiles. For three decades more than 34 million tegu skins were in trade, about 1.02 million per year. The genus Tupinambis is distributed in South America east of the Andes, and currently contains four recognized species, three of which are found only in Brazil. However, the type species of the genus, T. teguixin, is known from Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, French Guyana, Guyana, Peru, Suriname, Trinidad and Tobago, and Venezuela (including the Isla de Margarita). Here we present molecular and morphological evidence that this species is genetically divergent across its range and identify four distinct clades some of which are sympatric. The occurrence of cryptic sympatric species undoubtedly exacerbated the nomenclatural problems of the past. We discuss the species supported by molecular and morphological evidence and increase the number of species in the genus Tupinambis to seven. The four members of the T. teguixin group continue to be confused with Salvator merianae, despite having a distinctly different morphology and reproductive mode. All members of the genus Tupinambis are CITES Appendix II. Yet, they continue to be heavily exploited, under studied, and confused in the minds of the public, conservationists, and scientists. PMID:27487019

  4. Cryptic, Sympatric Diversity in Tegu Lizards of the Tupinambis teguixin Group (Squamata, Sauria, Teiidae) and the Description of Three New Species.

    PubMed

    Murphy, John C; Jowers, Michael J; Lehtinen, Richard M; Charles, Stevland P; Colli, Guarino R; Peres, Ayrton K; Hendry, Catriona R; Pyron, R Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Tegus of the genera Tupinambis and Salvator are the largest Neotropical lizards and the most exploited clade of Neotropical reptiles. For three decades more than 34 million tegu skins were in trade, about 1.02 million per year. The genus Tupinambis is distributed in South America east of the Andes, and currently contains four recognized species, three of which are found only in Brazil. However, the type species of the genus, T. teguixin, is known from Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, French Guyana, Guyana, Peru, Suriname, Trinidad and Tobago, and Venezuela (including the Isla de Margarita). Here we present molecular and morphological evidence that this species is genetically divergent across its range and identify four distinct clades some of which are sympatric. The occurrence of cryptic sympatric species undoubtedly exacerbated the nomenclatural problems of the past. We discuss the species supported by molecular and morphological evidence and increase the number of species in the genus Tupinambis to seven. The four members of the T. teguixin group continue to be confused with Salvator merianae, despite having a distinctly different morphology and reproductive mode. All members of the genus Tupinambis are CITES Appendix II. Yet, they continue to be heavily exploited, under studied, and confused in the minds of the public, conservationists, and scientists. PMID:27487019

  5. Cytogenetic analyses of five amazon lizard species of the subfamilies Teiinae and Tupinambinae and review of karyotyped diversity the family Teiidae

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho, Natália Dayane Moura; Arias, Federico José; da Silva, Francijara Araújo; Schneider, Carlos Henrique; Gross, Maria Claudia

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Lizards of the family Teiidae (infraorder Scincomorpha) were formerly known as Macroteiidae. There are 13 species of such lizards in the Amazon, in the genera Ameiva (Meyer, 1795), Cnemidophorus (Wagler, 1830), Crocodilurus (Spix, 1825), Dracaena (Daudin, 1801), Kentropyx (Spix, 1825) and Tupinambis (Daudin, 1802). Cytogenetic studies of this group are restricted to karyotype macrostructure. Here we give a compilation of cytogenetic data of the family Teiidae, including classic and molecular cytogenetic analysis of Ameiva ameiva (Linnaeus, 1758), Cnemidophorus sp.1, Kentropyx calcarata (Spix, 1825), Kentropyx pelviceps (Cope, 1868) and Tupinambis teguixin (Linnaeus, 1758) collected in the state of Amazonas, Brazil. Ameiva ameiva, Kentropyx calcarata and Kentropyx pelviceps have 2n=50 chromosomes classified by a gradual series of acrocentric chromosomes. Cnemidophorus sp.1 has 2n=48 chromosomes with 2 biarmed chromosomes, 24 uniarmed chromosomes and 22 microchromosomes. Tupinambis teguixin has 2n=36 chromosomes, including 12 macrochromosomes and 24 microchromosomes. Constitutive heterochromatin was distributed in the centromeric and terminal regions in most chromosomes. The nucleolus organizer region was simple, varying in its position among the species, as evidenced both by AgNO3 impregnation and by hybridization with 18S rDNA probes. The data reveal a karyotype variation with respect to the diploid number, fundamental number and karyotype formula, which reinforces the importance of increasing chromosomal analyses in the Teiidae. PMID:26753079

  6. A new genus and species of pterygosomatid mite (Acari: Pterygosomatidae) parasitizing Callopistes maculatus (Squamata: Teiidae) from Chile.

    PubMed

    Fuente, María Carolina Silva-de La; Paredes-León, Ricardo; Casanueva, María Eugenia; Escobar-Huerta, Gustavo; Salas, Lucila Moreno

    2015-01-01

    A new genus and species Callopistiella atacamensis gen. nov. and sp. nov. (Acariformes: Pterygosomatidae) are described from Callopistes maculatus (Squamata: Teiidae) in Chile. In this species, both sexes are characterized by the hypostome without a velum, the chelicerae proximally globose and very thin distally, ending in a movable digit curved outward, the fixed cheliceral digit reduced to a membranous and sparsely serrate structure, presence of seta 2c, tarsus I with seta ft nude and 2 times longer than solenidion ω2; larvae have solenidion ω1 on tarsus I and tibia I without solenidion φ and moderate hypertrichy present around the genital area. Some biological aspects of this new species are discussed. PMID:26249482

  7. New species of Oswaldofilaria (Nematoda; Filarioidea; Onchocercidae) and other helminths in Acanthosaura cardamomensis (Sauria; Agamidae) from Indochina Peninsula.

    PubMed

    Bursey, Charles R; Goldberg, Stephen R; Grismer, Lee L

    2014-03-01

    Oswaldofilaria acanthosauri sp. nov. from the body cavity of the Cardamom Mountain horned agamid, Acanthosaura cardamomensis (Sauria: Agamidae), collected in Pursat Province, Cambodia is described. Of the 14 species assigned to Oswaldofilaria, O. acanthosauri sp. nov. is most similar to those species with spicular ratio of less than 2, namely, O. brevicaudata and O. chlamydosauri. Oswaldofilaria acanthosauri sp. nov. is easily separated from these 2 species in that O. brevicaudata is a South American species and in O. chlamydosauri the distal ends of the spicules are pointed not blunt. Mature individuals of 2 additional species of Nematoda, Meteterakis singaporensis and Orneoascaris sandoshami, as well as larvae assignable to Ascariidae were found. Acanthosaura cardamomensis represents a new host record for Meteterakis singaporensis, Orneoascaris sandoshami and Ascariidae (larvae). PMID:26204027

  8. Two new species of the genus Pterygosoma (Acariformes: Pterygosomatidae) parasitizing agamid lizards (Sauria: Agamidae) from the Indian subcontinent.

    PubMed

    Fajfer, Monika

    2016-06-01

    Two new species of scale-mites parasitizing lizards of the family Agamidae (Sauria) are described: Pterygosoma blandfordi n. sp. from Psammophilus blanfordanus (Stoliczka) (Agamidae: Draconinae) from South India and Pterygosoma balochistani n. sp. from Laudakia nupta nupta (De Filippi) (Agamidae: Agaminae) from Pakistan. Pterygosoma blandfordi n. sp. (female) differs from P. foliosetis Jack, 1961 by the shape of the idiosoma which is much wider than long (vs. rounded idiosoma in P. foliosetis), the presence of 110-139 pairs of the dorsal anterolateral setae (vs. presence of about 35 pairs of these setae), 20-26 pairs of the peripheral setae (vs. 10-19 pairs), 3 pairs of the genital setae (vs. 1 pair), 6 pairs of the pseudoanal setae (vs. 4 pairs), the absence of leg setae vGII and presence of setae vGIV (vs. presence of setae vGII and absence of setae vGIV). P. balochistani n. sp. (female) differs from P. persicum Hirst, 1917 by the chelicerae 325-350 long (vs. 190-230 long in P. persicum), the fixed cheliceral digit bearing small tines (vs. spinous fixed cheliceral digit), presence of subcapitular setae n (vs. absence of setae n), serrate peripheral setae (vs. smooth peripheral setae), presence of leg setae vGII-III (vs. absence of setae vGII-III), 4 pairs of the genital setae (vs. 3 pairs) and 7 pairs of the pseudoanal serrate setae (vs. 9-11 pairs of filiform setae ps). PMID:27078658

  9. Strong support for Rensch's rule in an American clade of lizards (Teiidae and Gymnophtalmidae) and a paradox of the largest tejus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frýdlová, Petra; Frynta, Daniel

    2015-06-01

    Rensch's rule predicts an allometric relationship between male and female body size stating that the sexual size dimorphism (SSD) increases with body size in male-larger taxa and decreases in female-larger taxa in groups of related species. It means that the relationship between the male and female body size is hyperallometric, i.e., the allometric exponent of this relationship exceeds the unity. We explored the relationship between the male and female body size in a New World clade of lizards consisting of sister families Teiidae and Gymnophthalmidae, which exhibit a great variation in both their adult body sizes and SSD. All our estimates of the reduced major axis regression slopes ranged from 1.067 to 1.229 and clearly followed a pattern consistent with the Rensch's rule. Despite a clear general trend, giant species from the subfamily Tupinambinae show paradoxically only poor SSD. The cases of extreme male-larger SSD were found in species of moderate body size belonging to the genera Ameiva and Cnemidophorus. The abovementioned deviations from the hyperallometric relationship between the male and female body size are surprising and require further examination.

  10. The Origin and Early Evolution of Sauria: Reassessing the Permian Saurian Fossil Record and the Timing of the Crocodile-Lizard Divergence

    PubMed Central

    Ezcurra, Martín D.; Scheyer, Torsten M.; Butler, Richard J.

    2014-01-01

    Sauria is the crown-group of Diapsida and is subdivided into Lepidosauromorpha and Archosauromorpha, comprising a high percentage of the diversity of living and fossil tetrapods. The split between lepidosauromorphs and archosauromorphs (the crocodile-lizard, or bird-lizard, divergence) is considered one of the key calibration points for molecular analyses of tetrapod phylogeny. Saurians have a very rich Mesozoic and Cenozoic fossil record, but their late Paleozoic (Permian) record is problematic. Several Permian specimens have been referred to Sauria, but the phylogenetic affinity of some of these records remains questionable. We reexamine and review all of these specimens here, providing new data on early saurian evolution including osteohistology, and present a new morphological phylogenetic dataset. We support previous studies that find that no valid Permian record for Lepidosauromorpha, and we also reject some of the previous referrals of Permian specimens to Archosauromorpha. The most informative Permian archosauromorph is Protorosaurus speneri from the middle Late Permian of Western Europe. A historically problematic specimen from the Late Permian of Tanzania is redescribed and reidentified as a new genus and species of basal archosauromorph: Aenigmastropheus parringtoni. The supposed protorosaur Eorasaurus olsoni from the Late Permian of Russia is recovered among Archosauriformes and may be the oldest known member of the group but the phylogenetic support for this position is low. The assignment of Archosaurus rossicus from the latest Permian of Russia to the archosauromorph clade Proterosuchidae is supported. Our revision suggests a minimum fossil calibration date for the crocodile-lizard split of 254.7 Ma. The occurrences of basal archosauromorphs in the northern (30°N) and southern (55°S) parts of Pangea imply a wider paleobiogeographic distribution for the group during the Late Permian than previously appreciated. Early archosauromorph growth

  11. The origin and early evolution of Sauria: reassessing the permian Saurian fossil record and the timing of the crocodile-lizard divergence.

    PubMed

    Ezcurra, Martín D; Scheyer, Torsten M; Butler, Richard J

    2014-01-01

    Sauria is the crown-group of Diapsida and is subdivided into Lepidosauromorpha and Archosauromorpha, comprising a high percentage of the diversity of living and fossil tetrapods. The split between lepidosauromorphs and archosauromorphs (the crocodile-lizard, or bird-lizard, divergence) is considered one of the key calibration points for molecular analyses of tetrapod phylogeny. Saurians have a very rich Mesozoic and Cenozoic fossil record, but their late Paleozoic (Permian) record is problematic. Several Permian specimens have been referred to Sauria, but the phylogenetic affinity of some of these records remains questionable. We reexamine and review all of these specimens here, providing new data on early saurian evolution including osteohistology, and present a new morphological phylogenetic dataset. We support previous studies that find that no valid Permian record for Lepidosauromorpha, and we also reject some of the previous referrals of Permian specimens to Archosauromorpha. The most informative Permian archosauromorph is Protorosaurus speneri from the middle Late Permian of Western Europe. A historically problematic specimen from the Late Permian of Tanzania is redescribed and reidentified as a new genus and species of basal archosauromorph: Aenigmastropheus parringtoni. The supposed protorosaur Eorasaurus olsoni from the Late Permian of Russia is recovered among Archosauriformes and may be the oldest known member of the group but the phylogenetic support for this position is low. The assignment of Archosaurus rossicus from the latest Permian of Russia to the archosauromorph clade Proterosuchidae is supported. Our revision suggests a minimum fossil calibration date for the crocodile-lizard split of 254.7 Ma. The occurrences of basal archosauromorphs in the northern (30°N) and southern (55°S) parts of Pangea imply a wider paleobiogeographic distribution for the group during the Late Permian than previously appreciated. Early archosauromorph growth

  12. New species of Bakeria (Nematoda; Strongylida; Molineidae), new species of Falcaustra (Nematoda; Ascaridida; Kathlaniidae) and other helminths in Cnemaspis mcguirei (Sauria; Gekkonidae) from Peninsular Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Bursey, Charles R; Goldberg, Stephen R; Grismer, L Lee

    2014-10-01

    Two new nematode species, Bakeria schadi sp. nov. and Falcaustra malaysiaia sp. nov. from the gastrointestinal tract of McGuire's rock gecko, Cnemaspis mcguirei (Sauria: Gekkonidae) collected in Peninsular Malaysia are described. The two species now assigned to Bakeria are separated on the bases of male bursa type and location of the excretory pore: type II in B. schadi sp. nov. and type I in B. bakeri; location of excretory pore, anterior to nerve ring in B. schadi sp. nov. and posterior to nerve ring in B. bakeri. Falcaustra malaysiaia sp. nov. is most similar to F. chabaudi, F. concinnae, F. condorcanquii, F. barbi, F. dubia, and F. tchadi in that these 7 species possess 1 pseudosucker, 1 median papilla plus 10 pairs caudal papillae, and spicules with lengths between 1 and 2 mm. F. barbi and F. tchadi lack adcloacal papillae; the remaining 5 species possess 1 pair of adcloacal papillae. Falcaustra chabaudi is known from Nearctic salamanders; F. concinnae from Nearctic turtles; F. condorcanquii from Neotropical frogs, F. dubia from Oriental frogs, and F. malaysiaia sp. nov. from Oriental geckos. Two additional species of Nematoda were found, Cosmocerca ornata and Meteterakis singaporensis. Cnemaspis mcguirei represents a new host record for Cosmocerca ornata and Meteterakis singaporensis. PMID:25236275

  13. Acanthocephala Larvae parasitizing Ameiva ameiva ameiva (Linnaeus, 1758) (Squamata: Teiidae).

    PubMed

    Macedo, Lilian Cristina; Melo, Francisco Tiago de Vasconcelos; Ávila-Pires, Teresa Cristina Sauer; Giese, Elane Guerreiro; dos Santos, Jeannie Nascimento

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge concerning the taxonomy and biology of species of Acanthocephala, helminth parasites of the helminth species of the phylum Acanthocephala, parasites of lizards in Brazilian Amazonia, is still insufficient, but reports of Acanthocephala in reptiles are becoming increasingly common in the literature. Cystacanth-stage Acanthocephalan larvae have been found in the visceral peritoneum during necropsy of Ameiva ameiva ameivalizards from the "Osvaldo Rodrigues da Cunha" Herpetology Collection of the Emílio Goeldi Museum, Belém, Pará, Brazil. The aim of this study was to present the morphological study of the Acanthocephala larvae found in A. ameiva ameiva lizard. PMID:27027551

  14. On the distribution of the genus Teius Merrem, 1820 (Reptilia: Squamata: Teiidae).

    PubMed

    Cacciali, Pier; Morando, Mariana; Köhler, Gunther; Avila, Luciano

    2016-01-01

    The lizard genus Teius is composed by three species: Teius teyou, T. oculatus, and T. suquiensis and is distributed in South America, east of Andes. Teius teyou and T. oculatus have wide parapatric distributions with contact zones. Teius suquiensis is present in a small range along a sympatric area of the former species. In this work we analyze the distribution of the three species of Teius across its whole geographic range, examining its relationships with climatic parameters. We based our analysis on specimens in collections and literature records. Our analysis shows that the genus Teius is distributed from central Bolivia southwards to north of Río Negro Province in northern Patagonia, Argentina. Teius teyou reaches the northernmost range limit of the genus whereas T. oculatus occupies the southernmost limit. Teius oculatus is related to open and moist environments whereas T. teyou is more adapted to xeric and forested areas. Teius suquiensis is present in xerophytic areas of Dry Chaco and Espinal. Climatic factors in the distribution of the distribution of the two widespread species show marked differences and seasonality. PMID:27395730

  15. Brumation of introduced Black and White Tegus, Tupinambis merianae (Squamata: Teiidae), in southern Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McEachern, Michelle; Yackel Adams, Amy A.; Klug, Page E.; Fitzgerald, Lee A; Reed, Robert N.

    2015-01-01

    An established population of Tupinambis merianae (Black and White Tegu) in southeastern Florida threatens the Everglades ecosystem. Understanding the behavioral ecology of Black and White Tegus could aid in management and control plans. Black and White Tegus are seasonally active and brumate during the winter in their native range, but brumation behavior is largely unstudied in either the native or the invasive range. We describe the first observations of Black and White Tegu brumation in southeastern Florida after monitoring 5 free-ranging, adult male Black and White Tegus through an inactive season using radiotelemetry and automated cameras. Duration of brumation averaged 137 days, beginning in September and ending by February. One of the 5 Black and White Tegus emerged to bask regularly during brumation, which to our knowledge represents the first documented instance of a free-ranging Black and White Tegu basking during brumation. These preliminary findings provide a basis for future research o f brumation behavior.

  16. The Organization of Repetitive DNA in the Genomes of Amazonian Lizard Species in the Family Teiidae.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Natalia D M; Pinheiro, Vanessa S S; Carmo, Edson J; Goll, Leonardo G; Schneider, Carlos H; Gross, Maria C

    2015-01-01

    Repetitive DNA is the largest fraction of the eukaryote genome and comprises tandem and dispersed sequences. It presents variations in relation to its composition, number of copies, distribution, dynamics, and genome organization, and participates in the evolutionary diversification of different vertebrate species. Repetitive sequences are usually located in the heterochromatin of centromeric and telomeric regions of chromosomes, contributing to chromosomal structures. Therefore, the aim of this study was to physically map repetitive DNA sequences (5S rDNA, telomeric sequences, tropomyosin gene 1, and retroelements Rex1 and SINE) of mitotic chromosomes of Amazonian species of teiids (Ameiva ameiva, Cnemidophorus sp. 1, Kentropyx calcarata, Kentropyx pelviceps, and Tupinambis teguixin) to understand their genome organization and karyotype evolution. The mapping of repetitive sequences revealed a distinct pattern in Cnemidophorus sp. 1, whereas the other species showed all sequences interspersed in the heterochromatic region. Physical mapping of the tropomyosin 1 gene was performed for the first time in lizards and showed that in addition to being functional, this gene has a structural function similar to the mapped repetitive elements as it is located preferentially in centromeric regions and termini of chromosomes. PMID:26867142

  17. [Morphologic variation of the parthenogenetic lizard Aspidoscelis rodecki (Squamata: Teiidae): evolutionary and conservation implications].

    PubMed

    Elizalde-Rocha, Sandra P; Méndez-de la Cruz, Fausto R; Méndez-Sánchez, J Fernando; Granados-González, Gisela; Hernândez-Gallegos, Oswaldo

    2008-12-01

    Post-formational divergence has been used for the recognition of new parthenogenetic species. Currently, the parthenogenetic lizard Aspidoscelis rodecki McCoy and Maslin 1962 is recognized as a single taxon that was derived from a single, parthenogenetically capable, hybrid. This lizard had been derived via hybridization between individuals of two gonochoristic species, Aspidoscelis ungusticeps Cope 1878 and Aspidoscelis deppii Wiegmann 1834. The distribution of A. rodecki includes Isla Contoy and Isla Mujeres and the adjacent mainland of Quintana Roo, México. Previous studies have found post-formational divergence in genetic, chromatic and life-history characteristics among a continental population (Puerto Juárez) and an insular population (Isla Contoy). A meristic analysis was carried out to evaluate the morphological divergence among both populations of A. rodecki. We used 38 individuals from Puerto Juárez and 23 individuals from Isla Contoy. Nine meristic characters with discrimination value among species of the genus Aspidoscelis were used in both univariate (t-Student) and multivariate analyses (principal components and canonical variate analysis). According to both analyses, Puerto Juárez is meristically distinguishable from Isla Contoy. Both populations differ in five meristic characters and were a high correct classification in the canonical variate analysis: 97% of Puerto Juárez and 100% of Isla Contoy. A small sample from Isla Mujeres and a single specimen from Punta Sam (mainland) may represent different morphological groups. Due to the patterns of phenotypic variation, A. rodecki is considered as a single variable parthenogenetic species with high priority to conservation. The populations of A. rodecki have been extremely affected by the tourism developers. If the habitat of the parthenogenetic lizard (beach grasses) is allowed to stay, the expansion by the developers will not affect the survivorship of these populations. Nevertheless, the first sign of development is the total destruction of natural grasses that occurs on the beach, leaving only sand. There is a last chance to save the parthenogenetic lizard A. rodecki, but any effort will be useless without the support from the environmental authority of Mexico and cooperation from the developers. We suggest that Puerto Juárez and Isla Contoy receive separate management because they have unique portions of phenotypic variation of A. rodecki. The two lizard populations can be considered separate "Evolutionary Significant Units" (ESU). PMID:19419088

  18. A new Andean lizard of the genus Potamites (Sauria, Gymnophthalmidae) from Manu National Park, southeastern Peru.

    PubMed

    Chávez, Germán; Catenazzi, Alessandro

    2014-01-01

    We describe a new lizard of the genus Potamites from elevations of 1000-2100 m in the montane forests of the Cordillera de Paucartambo and the upper Kosñipata valley, Region of Cusco, Peru. The new species differs from other species of Potamites by having scattered keeled scales on dorsum, an undivided frontonasal and absence of femoral pores in females. PMID:24871404

  19. Neotype designation for Calotes versicolor Daudin, 1802 (Sauria: Agamidae) with notes on its systematics.

    PubMed

    Gowande, Gaurang; Mishra, Anurag; Mirza, Zeeshan A

    2016-01-01

    Calotes versicolor Daudin, 1802 is one of the most widespread agamid lizard species which was described without a locality. The type specimen of the species has long been considered lost; however most workers considered Pondicherry as the type locality for the species. Studies by Zug et al. 2006 confirmed that C. versicolor is a complex of multiple species which necessitates fixing type locality and specimen for the species in order to resolve the systematics of the species complex. An adult male from Pondicherry was collected and is here designated as the neotype. A re-description of the species is provided along with notes on systematics of the species. PMID:27395587

  20. A new species of Sphenomorphus Fitzinger, 1843 (Squamata: Sauria: Scincidae) from Vietnam .

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Truong Quang; Nguyen, Khoi Vu; Van Devender, Robert Wayne; Bonkowski, Michael; Ziegler, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    A new forest skink species of the genus Sphenomorphus is described from Kon Tum Plateau, southern Central Vietnam. Sphenomorphus sheai sp. nov. is similar to the other montane skink species from the Indochina region, Lygosoma veunsaiensis, Scincella apraefrontalis, Sphenomorphus tetradactylus, and Sphenomorphus tridigitus, in having a small size and the absence of external ear openings. However, the new species is differentiated from aforementioned species and other members of Sphenomorphus from China and mainland Southeast Asia by a unique suite of morphological characters. The discovery of S. sheai brings the total species number of Sphenomorphus known from Vietnam to twelve. PMID:25277895

  1. Three new species of Coccidia (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from Skinks, Lipinia spp. (Sauria: Scincidae), from Oceania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McAllister, Chris T.; Duszynski, Donald W.; Austin, Christopher C.; Fisher, Robert N.

    2013-01-01

    Between September 1991 and March 1993, 25 moth skinks (Lipinia noctua) were collected from various localities on the Cook Islands, Fiji, Papua New Guinea (PNG), and Vanuatu and examined for coccidians. In addition, a single Roux's lipinia skink (Lipinia rouxi) was collected from PNG and examined for coccidia. Sixteen (64%) L. noctua were found to harbor 2 new eimerians, and L. rouxi harbored another new Eimeria sp. Oocysts of Eimeria lipinia n. sp. from 9 (36%) L. noctua from the Cook Islands, Fiji, and PNG were subspherical with a bilayered wall and measured (L × W) 18.6 × 16.9 μm, with a L/W ratio of 1.1. Both micropyle and oocyst residuum were absent, but a polar granule was present. Oocysts of Eimeria melanesia n. sp. from 6 (24%) L. noctua from Fiji and Vanuatu and a single L. rouxi from PNG were subspherical to ellipsoidal with a bilayered wall and measured 19.8 × 17.5 μm, and L/W was 1.1. Both micropyle and oocyst residuum were absent, but a single or fragmented polar granule was present. Oocysts of Eimeria lessoni n. sp. from 1 (4%) L. noctua from PNG were cylindroidal with a bilayered wall and measured 28.1 × 15.7 μm, and L/W was 1.8. Both micropyle and oocyst residuum were absent, but a single polar granule was present. These represent the third report of Eimeria spp. reported from any host on PNG and the only coccidians, to our knowledge, ever described from L. noctua and L. rouxi and from the Cook Islands and Vanuatu.

  2. The mitochondrial genome of the gold-dust day gecko, Phelsuma laticauda (Sauria, Gekkota, Gekkonidae).

    PubMed

    Yan, Jie; Tian, Chao; Bauer, Aaron M; Zhou, Kaiya

    2016-01-01

    We sequenced the nearly complete mitochondrial genome of the gold-dust day gecko, Phelsuma laticauda, which is native to northern Madagascar. The mitogenome is 15,416 bp in size, consisting of 37 genes coding for 13 proteins, 22 tRNAs, and 2 rRNAs. Due to the unsuccessful sequencing of the control region, the length is relatively shorter than that of other gekkonids. The gene organization conforms to the vertebrate consesus gene arrangement. PMID:24438276

  3. A new species of Cnemaspis (Sauria: Gekkonidae) from Northern Karnataka, India.

    PubMed

    Srinivasulu, Chelmala; Kumar, Gandla Chethan; Srinivasulu, Bhargavi

    2015-01-01

    A new species of rupicolous gecko of the genus Cnemaspis is described from Hampi, Karnataka, southern India. Cnemaspis adii sp. nov. is diagnosable from all the Indian congeners in possessing the following suite of characters: medium-sized Cnemaspis, SVL less than 35 mm (31.7-34.9). Dorsal scales on the trunk homogeneous, small, granular and feebly keeled. Spine-like tubercles absent on the flanks. Mental subtraingular, two pairs of postmentals, primary pair separated by a single chin shield. Ventral scales on the trunk smooth, imbricate; 22-26 scales across the belly. Supralabial I narrowly in contact with nasal. Dorsal aspect of forelimbs and hindlimbs are weakly unicarinate. Lamellae under the digit IV of pes 20-22. Males with two precloacal pores, two femoral pores on each side of the thigh. The existence of the species in a World Heritage Site with continuous anthropogenic interference ascertains the robustness of the species and need for additional herpetofaunal explorations to reveal the total diversity of species of the genus Cnemaspis in peninsular India. PMID:25947720

  4. A description of Isospora amphiboluri (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from the inland bearded dragon, Pogona vitticeps (Sauria: Agamidae).

    PubMed

    McAllister, C T; Upton, S J; Jacobson, E R; Kopit, W

    1995-04-01

    Fecal samples from 50 captive inland bearded dragons, Pogona vitticeps (Ahl, 1926), bred in California, were examined for coccidian parasites. Sixteen (32%) of the lizards were found to be passing oocysts of Isospora amphiboluri Cannon, 1967, previously described from bearded dragons Pogona barbata (Cuvier, 1829) from Australia. Sporulated oocytes were spherical to subspherical, 25.3 x 25.1 (23-26 x 23-26) microns, with a shape index (length/width) of 1.0 (1.0-1.1). A micropyle, oocyst residuum, and polar granule were absent. Sporocyts were ovoidal, 17.0 x 11.4 (16-18 x 11-12) microns, with a shape index of 1.5 (1.4-1.7). A sporocyst residuum, Stieda, and substieda bodies were present, but parastieda bodies were absent. Sporozoites were elongated, 13.9 x 3.5 (12-15 x 3-4) microns in situ, containing spherical anterior and posterior refractile bodies. The occurrence of I. amphiboluri in P. vitticeps is a new host and geographic record for the parasite. Photomicrographs of the oocysts and endogenous life cycle stages of I. amphiboluri are presented for the first time. PMID:7707208

  5. An investigation into the Swan Island Honduras collecting event of Tiaporus fuliginosus Cope (Reptilia: Teiidae) and its systematic status

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCranie, James R.; Gotte, Steve W.

    2015-01-01

    Confusion exists in the literature concerning the collecting event of the teiid lizard Tiaporus fuliginosus. We investigated the literature and documents stored at the Smithsonian Institution Archives involving the collector of those specimens in an effort to resolve that confusion. We conclude that the type series was collected on the Swan Islands of Honduras by Charles H. Townsend during 1887. We also provide a redescription of that nominal form and show that it is a valid species that should be called Ameiva fuliginosa. We also examined the type series of A. panchlora from Old Providence, Colombia and confirm that its 1950 placement as a junior synonym of A. fuliginosa is correct.

  6. Differential repetitive DNA composition in the centromeric region of chromosomes of Amazonian lizard species in the family Teiidae

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho, Natalia D. M.; Carmo, Edson; Neves, Rogerio O.; Schneider, Carlos Henrique; Gross, Maria Claudia

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Differences in heterochromatin distribution patterns and its composition were observed in Amazonian teiid species. Studies have shown repetitive DNA harbors heterochromatic blocks which are located in centromeric and telomeric regions in Ameiva ameiva (Linnaeus, 1758), Kentropyx calcarata (Spix, 1825), Kentropyx pelviceps (Cope, 1868), and Tupinambis teguixin (Linnaeus, 1758). In Cnemidophorus sp.1, repetitive DNA has multiple signals along all chromosomes. The aim of this study was to characterize moderately and highly repetitive DNA sequences by Cot1-DNA from Ameiva ameiva and Cnemidophorus sp.1 genomes through cloning and DNA sequencing, as well as mapping them chromosomally to better understand its organization and genome dynamics. The results of sequencing of DNA libraries obtained by Cot1-DNA showed that different microsatellites, transposons, retrotransposons, and some gene families also comprise the fraction of repetitive DNA in the teiid species. FISH using Cot1-DNA probes isolated from both Ameiva ameiva and Cnemidophorus sp.1 showed these sequences mainly located in heterochromatic centromeric, and telomeric regions in Ameiva ameiva, Kentropyx calcarata, Kentropyx pelviceps, and Tupinambis teguixin chromosomes, indicating they play structural and functional roles in the genome of these species. In Cnemidophorus sp.1, Cot1-DNA probe isolated from Ameiva ameiva had multiple interstitial signals on chromosomes, whereas mapping of Cot1-DNA isolated from the Ameiva ameiva and Cnemidophorus sp.1 highlighted centromeric regions of some chromosomes. Thus, the data obtained showed that many repetitive DNA classes are part of the genome of Ameiva ameiva, Cnemidophorus sp.1, Kentroyx calcarata, Kentropyx pelviceps, and Tupinambis teguixin, and these sequences are shared among the analyzed teiid species, but they were not always allocated at the same chromosome position. PMID:27551343

  7. An endemic new species of Ameiva (Squamata: Teiidae) from an isolated dry   forest in southern Peru.

    PubMed

    Landauro, Caroll Z; García-Bravo, Antonio; Venegas, Pablo J

    2015-01-01

    We describe a new species of Ameiva from an interandean dry forest in central-southern Peru. Ameiva reticulata sp. nov. represents the fifth species in the genus known to occur in Peru. The new species is similar to the species of the A. ameiva complex such as A. ameiva, A. atrigularis, A. pantherina, and A. praesignis, and is distinguished from these by  a smaller size, a lower  count of dorsal scales along the middorsal line and scales across the midbody, and by the gular coloration. PMID:25947699

  8. Differential repetitive DNA composition in the centromeric region of chromosomes of Amazonian lizard species in the family Teiidae.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Natalia D M; Carmo, Edson; Neves, Rogerio O; Schneider, Carlos Henrique; Gross, Maria Claudia

    2016-01-01

    Differences in heterochromatin distribution patterns and its composition were observed in Amazonian teiid species. Studies have shown repetitive DNA harbors heterochromatic blocks which are located in centromeric and telomeric regions in Ameiva ameiva (Linnaeus, 1758), Kentropyx calcarata (Spix, 1825), Kentropyx pelviceps (Cope, 1868), and Tupinambis teguixin (Linnaeus, 1758). In Cnemidophorus sp.1, repetitive DNA has multiple signals along all chromosomes. The aim of this study was to characterize moderately and highly repetitive DNA sequences by C ot1-DNA from Ameiva ameiva and Cnemidophorus sp.1 genomes through cloning and DNA sequencing, as well as mapping them chromosomally to better understand its organization and genome dynamics. The results of sequencing of DNA libraries obtained by C ot1-DNA showed that different microsatellites, transposons, retrotransposons, and some gene families also comprise the fraction of repetitive DNA in the teiid species. FISH using C ot1-DNA probes isolated from both Ameiva ameiva and Cnemidophorus sp.1 showed these sequences mainly located in heterochromatic centromeric, and telomeric regions in Ameiva ameiva, Kentropyx calcarata, Kentropyx pelviceps, and Tupinambis teguixin chromosomes, indicating they play structural and functional roles in the genome of these species. In Cnemidophorus sp.1, C ot1-DNA probe isolated from Ameiva ameiva had multiple interstitial signals on chromosomes, whereas mapping of C ot1-DNA isolated from the Ameiva ameiva and Cnemidophorus sp.1 highlighted centromeric regions of some chromosomes. Thus, the data obtained showed that many repetitive DNA classes are part of the genome of Ameiva ameiva, Cnemidophorus sp.1, Kentroyx calcarata, Kentropyx pelviceps, and Tupinambis teguixin, and these sequences are shared among the analyzed teiid species, but they were not always allocated at the same chromosome position. PMID:27551343

  9. Systematics of the Podarcis hispanicus complex (Sauria, Lacertidae) III: valid nomina of the western and central Iberian forms.

    PubMed

    Geniez, Philippe; Sá-Sousa, Paulo; Guillaume, Claude P; Cluchier, Alexandre; Crochet, Pierre-André

    2014-01-01

    Recent genetic works have suggested that the Iberian wall lizard Podarcis hispanicus (Steindachner, 1870) sensu lato is a species complex. Several forms have already been elevated to species rank and linked to available nomina, but at least three still have to be formally named, including the western Iberian forms currently designated as Podarcis hispanicus "type 1A", "type 1B" and "type 2". The aim of the present work is to assign a valid nomen to these taxa. Using multivariate analyses, we first checked that the morphological differences reported in Portugal between type 1 and type 2 are maintained over their distribution range. We then investigated phenotypic differentiation between type 1A and type 1B, which were found to be so similar that identification based on phenotype is currently not advisable. We propose to treat type 1 and type 2 as distinct species because of their level of genetic and phenotypic divergence, large area of distribution and ample evidence for reduced or absent introgression in contact zones. We maintain type 1A and 1B as subspecies for the time being, pending further analyses of their contact zone. The valid nomen for "Podarcis hispanica type 1 (sensu lato)" is Lacerta muralis guadarramae Boscá, 1916 which becomes Podarcis guadarramae (Boscá, 1916). Lineage type 1A is here described as a new taxon: P. guadarramae lusitanicus ssp. nov., inhabiting northern Portugal and northwestern Spain. The type 1B lineage corresponds to the nominotypical subspecies that inhabits Spain, mostly the Central Iberian Mountains. We were unable to locate an available nomen for "Podarcis hispanica type 2", which is here described as Podarcis virescens sp. nov. This species is widely distributed in the plains and plateaus of central and parts of south-western Spain as well as central and southern Portugal. PMID:24870311

  10. Two new species of Isospora (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from skinks Emoia spp. (Sauria: Scincidae), from Fiji and Papua New Guinea

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McAllister, Chris T.; Duszynski, Donald W.; Fisher, Robert N.

    2013-01-01

    Between September and October 1991 and again during September 1992, skinks (Emoia spp.) were collected from various localities on Fiji and Papua New Guinea (PNG) and examined for coccidians. One of 4 (25%) De Vis' emo skinks (Emoia pallidiceps) from PNG harbored an undescribed species of Isospora in its feces. Oocysts of Isospora grinbikpelapalai n. sp. were ellipsoidal to subspheroidal, 18.1 × 14.9 (17–20 × 14–16) μm, with a bilayered wall and a length/width index (L/W) of 1.2. Both micropyle and oocyst residuum were absent, but a prominent polar granule was present. Sporocysts were ovoidal, 10.7 × 7.6 (10–11 × 7–8) μm, with a L/W index of 1.4. Stieda and sub-Stieda bodies were present, but para-Stieda bodies were absent. The sporocyst residuum consisted of large scattered globules dispersed between sporozoites. Sporozoites were elongate with spheroidal anterior and posterior refractile bodies. Isospora grinbikpelapalai was also found in 1 of 2 (50%) Pope's emo skinks (Emoia popei) from PNG. One of 13 (8%) white-bellied copper-striped skinks (Emoia cyanura), from Fiji, was passing another undescribed species of Isospora in its feces. Oocysts of Isospora casei n. sp. were elongate, 31.8 × 21.3 (28–35 × 18–24) μm, with a bilayered wall and a L/W index of 1.5. Micropyle, oocyst residuum, and polar granule were all absent. Sporocysts were ovoidal, 15.3 × 10.6 (14–16 × 10–12) μm, with a L/W index of 1.4. Stieda and sub-Stieda bodies were present, but para-Stieda bodies were absent. The sporocyst residuum consisted of scattered globules among sporozoites or as a cluster surrounding sporozoites. Sporozoites were elongate with spheroidal anterior and posterior refractile bodies. Isospora casei was also found in 1 of 2 (50%) Fiji slender treeskinks (Emoia concolor) from Fiji. This represents the first report of coccidia from Emoia spp. and, to our knowledge, the initial documentation of reptilian coccidia from herpetofauna from Papua New Guinea.

  11. Two new species of Eimeria (Apicomplexa, Eimeriidae) from tree skinks, Prasinohaema spp. (Sauria: Scincidae), from Papua New Guinea

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McAllister, Chris T.; Duszynski, Donald W.; Fisher, Robert N.; Austin, Christopher C.

    2014-01-01

    Between September 1991 and June 1992, feces from 4 species of tree skinks, Prasinohaema spp. from Papua New Guinea, were collected and examined for coccidia. Two species, P. flavipes and P. prehensicauda were found to harbor eimerians which are described as new. Oocysts of Eimeria krausi sp. nov. from P. flavipes were ellipsoidal to subspheroidal with a smooth bilayered wall and measured (L × W) 19.2 × 16.9 μm, with a length/width (L/W) ratio of 1.1. Micropyle and oocyst residuum were absent but a fragmented polar granule was present. Sporocysts were ellipsoidal, 9.7 × 6.7 μm, L/W of 1.5. Stieda, subStieda and paraStieda bodies were absent. The sporocyst residuum was composed of many small granules in a compact mass between sporozoites. The sporozoites were sausage-shaped, 11.7 × 2.7 μm, in situ, with an ellipsoidal posterior refractile body and a spheroidal anterior refractile body. Oocysts of Eimeria greeri sp. nov. from P. prehensicauda were ellipsoidal with a smooth bilayered wall, (L × W) 23.0 × 18.3 μm, with a L/W of 1.3. Micropyle and oocyst residuum were absent but a fragmented polar granule was present. Sporocysts were ellipsoidal, 9.7 × 8.4 μm, with a L/W of 1.2. Stieda, subStieda and paraStieda bodies were absent. The sporocyst residuum was composed of many large granules in a compact mass between sporozoites. The sporozoites were sausage-shaped, with an ellipsoidal posterior refractile body and a spheroidal anterior refractile body. We document here the first report of coccidia from skinks of the genus Prasinohaema.

  12. Four new species of coccidia (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from Owen Stanley Skinks, Papuascincus stanleyanus (Sauria: Scincidae), from Papua New Guinea

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McAllister, Chris T.; Duszynski, Donald W.; Fisher, Robert N.; Austin, Christopher C.

    2014-01-01

    Between September and November 1991, 12 Owen Stanley skinks, Papuascincus stanleyanus (Booulenger) were collected from various localities on Papua New Guinea and examined for coccidians. Six (50%) were found to harbour four eimerians that we describe here as new. Oocysts of Eimeria burseyi sp. n. were elongate to ellipsoidal with a bilayered wall and measured (length x width, L x W) 36.0 x 24.0 microm, with a L/W ratio of 1.5. Both micropyle and oocyst residuum were absent, but a polar granule was present. Oocysts of Eimeria goldbergi sp. n. were ellipsoidal, with a bilayered wall, and measured 21.4 x 16.1 microm; L/W ratio was 1.3. Both micropyle and oocyst residuum were absent, but a single or fragmented polar granule was present. Oocysts of Eimeria boulengeri sp. n. were spheroidal to slightly subspheroidal, with a thin, single-layered wall that readily collapses, and measured 16.0 microm, L/W ratio was 1.0. Both micropyle and oocyst residuum were absent, but usually one (sometimes two) polar granule(s) were present. Oocysts of Eimeria niuginiensis sp. n. were oblong to tapered with a bilayered wall, and measured 20.0 x 13.1 microm; L/W ratio was 1.5. A micropyle, oocyst residuum and polar granule were absent. To our knowledge, these represent the only coccidians ever described from P. stanleyanus.

  13. A new species of Eimeria Schneider, 1875 (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from Carlia spp. (Sauria: Scincidae) from Papua New Guinea

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McAllister, Chris T.; Duszynski, Donald W.; Fisher, Robert N.; Austin, Christopher C.

    2013-01-01

    A new species of Eimeria Schneider, 1875 from rainbow skinks, Carlia ailanpalai Zug and Carlia eothen Zug is described from specimens collected in Papua New Guinea (PNG). Oöcysts of Eimeria zugi n. sp. from one of one (100%) C. eothen are ellipsoidal to cylindroidal, with a smooth, colourless, bi-layered wall, measure 25.1 × 15.5 μm and have a length/width ratio of 1.6. The micropyle and the oöcyst residuum are absent, but a polar granule is present. The sporocysts are ovoidal to ellipsoidal and 10.3 × 7.1 μm in size and do not contain Stieda, sub-Stieda or para-Stieda bodies; and the sporocyst residuum is composed of a compact mass of large globules. The sporozoites are elongate, 12.8 × 2.9 μm in size, and contain anterior and posterior refractile bodies with a nucleus between them. This is the ninth species of coccidium described from skinks from PNG, and the new species described herein is apparently endemic to the skink genus Carlia (Gray).

  14. Dermatitis in the Fringe-Toed Lizard, Acanthodactylus nilsoni Rastegar-Pouyani, 1998 (Sauria: Lacertidae) Associated with Fusarium proliferatum.

    PubMed

    Chehri, Khosrow; Rastegar-Pouyani, Nasrullah; Sayyadi, Farkhondeh

    2015-11-01

    From July to October 2013, nine out of 40 Acanthodactylus nilsoni collected from Western Iran, showed clinical signs of dermatitis in the dorsal and ventral surface of neck and fingers. Therefore, the aim of this survey was to identify the fungal flora colonizing the skin of A. nilsoni using morphological and molecular studies. Nine isolates of Fusarium were obtained from infected lizard samples and identified as Fusarium proliferatum through study of morphological characters. In the present study, selected F. proliferatum isolates (USMGFSC 230-112, USMGFSC 186-113, and USMGFSC 33-114) were examined and phylogenetically analysed on the basis of partial sequences of the tef1 and tub2 genes. Sequence analysis supported the morphological data, and all isolates were placed within F. proliferatum species. This is the first report on morphological and molecular identification of F. proliferatum isolated from lizards' dermatitis in Iran. PMID:26292787

  15. Treerunners, cryptic lizards of the Plica plica group (Squamata, Sauria, Tropiduridae) of northern South America

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, John C.; Jowers, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The arboreal, Neotropical lizard Plica plica (Linnaeus, 1758) has been long considered a widespread species with a distribution east of the Andes. A preliminary examination of 101 specimens from about 28 locations mostly north of the Amazon suggests that Plica plica is a cryptic species complex with taxa that can be distinguished on the basis of the number of scale rows at mid-body; the arrangement, shape and ornamentation of scales on the snout; the number of lamellae on the fourth toe; the number of subocular plates; as well as other commonly used external morphological traits. The allopatric species discussed here are concordant with northern South American geography. Plica plica (Linnaeus, 1758) is associated with the Guiana Shield (Suriname, Guyana and Venezuela). A second species, P. caribeana sp. n. is associated with the Caribbean Coastal Range of Venezuela including Trinidad and Tobago. A third, distinctive species, P. rayi sp. n. is associated with the middle Orinoco at the eastern edge of the Guiana Shield. Two other species, P. kathleenae sp. n. and P. medemi sp. n., each based upon a single specimen, one from the Sierra Acarai Mountains of Guyana, and the other from southern Meta, Colombia are described. In addition to morphological analyses, we sequenced 12S and 16S rDNA gene fragments from one Plica plica from Trinidad to assess its relationship and taxonomy to other mainland Plica cf. plica. The results suggest Plica caribeana sp. n. likely diverged prior to the separation of Trinidad from northern Venezuela. Isolation in the Caribbean Coastal Range during its rapid uplift in the late Miocene, combined with a marine incursion into northern Venezuela may have contributed to their genetic divergence from other populations. PMID:24363569

  16. Treerunners, cryptic lizards of the Plica plica group (Squamata, Sauria, Tropiduridae) of northern South America.

    PubMed

    Murphy, John C; Jowers, Michael J

    2013-01-01

    The arboreal, Neotropical lizard Plica plica (Linnaeus, 1758) has been long considered a widespread species with a distribution east of the Andes. A preliminary examination of 101 specimens from about 28 locations mostly north of the Amazon suggests that Plica plica is a cryptic species complex with taxa that can be distinguished on the basis of the number of scale rows at mid-body; the arrangement, shape and ornamentation of scales on the snout; the number of lamellae on the fourth toe; the number of subocular plates; as well as other commonly used external morphological traits. The allopatric species discussed here are concordant with northern South American geography. Plica plica (Linnaeus, 1758) is associated with the Guiana Shield (Suriname, Guyana and Venezuela). A second species, P. caribeana sp. n. is associated with the Caribbean Coastal Range of Venezuela including Trinidad and Tobago. A third, distinctive species, P. rayi sp. n. is associated with the middle Orinoco at the eastern edge of the Guiana Shield. Two other species, P. kathleenae sp. n. and P. medemi sp. n., each based upon a single specimen, one from the Sierra Acarai Mountains of Guyana, and the other from southern Meta, Colombia are described. In addition to morphological analyses, we sequenced 12S and 16S rDNA gene fragments from one Plica plica from Trinidad to assess its relationship and taxonomy to other mainland Plica cf. plica. The results suggest Plica caribeana sp. n. likely diverged prior to the separation of Trinidad from northern Venezuela. Isolation in the Caribbean Coastal Range during its rapid uplift in the late Miocene, combined with a marine incursion into northern Venezuela may have contributed to their genetic divergence from other populations. PMID:24363569

  17. Description of the hemipenial morphology of Tupinambis quadrilineatus Manzani and Abe, 1997 (Squamata, Teiidae) and new records from Piauí, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Marcélia Basto; de Lima-Filho, Geraldo Rodrigues; Cronemberger, Áurea Aguiar; Carvalho, Leonardo Sousa; Manzani, Paulo Roberto; Vieira, Jânia Brito

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Few data are available on the morphology of the hemipenis of teiid lizards, especially those of the recently-defined genus Tupinambis, a widely-distributed group of large-bodied lizards. This study provides an illustrated description of the hemipenis of Tupinambis quadrilineatus, which is similar to that of other representatives of the Tupinambinae subfamily. New records of the species from the state of Piauí, in northeastern Brazil, are also presented. PMID:24363597

  18. Light microscopical structure and ultrastructure of a Besnoitia sp. in the naturally infected lizard Ameiva ameiva (Teiidae) from north Brazil, and in experimentally infected mice.

    PubMed

    Paperna, I; Son, R L

    2001-09-01

    A Besnoitia species of the teiid lizard Ameiva ameiva (L.), from north Brazil was established in laboratory mice and hamster by the intraperitoneal inoculation of bradyzoites in the tissue cysts. In the lizards all the cyst wall layers were closely apposed. In the mice the layers of the wall were distinguishable, and ultrastructurally the inner cytoplasmic layer contained either a tight network of endoplasmic reticulum or packed mitochondria or both. These components were less frequent or sparse in the inner cytoplasmic layer of cysts in the lizard. The only animals available for experiments in attempts to indicate the definitive host of the parasite were 3 kittens of the domestic cat and a juvenile specimen of the snake Boa constrictor raised in captivity. No evidence of infection could be detected in these animals after feeding them with the tissues of mice harbouring cysts with very large number of bradyzoites. PMID:11578088

  19. The life-cycle and ultrastructure of Sarcocystis ameivamastigodryasi n. sp., in the lizard Ameiva ameiva (Teiidae) and the snake Mastigodryas bifossatus (Colubridae).

    PubMed

    Lainson, R; Paperna, I

    2000-12-01

    Sarcocysts in muscles of the teiid lizard Ameiva ameiva from north Brazil were fed to the colubrid snake Mastigodryas bifossatus, the faeces of which had been shown to be devoid of coccidial oocysts or sporocysts. When necropsied 16 days later the snake was shown to have developed a massive intestinal infection of Sarcocystis. Mature sporocysts from another, naturally infected M. bifossatus were fed to juvenile specimens of A. ameiva in which no sarcocysts could be detected in tail muscle biopsies. When examined 30 and 47 days later they had very large numbers of sarcocysts in their tail and tongue muscles. The parasite is given the name of Sarcocystis ameivamastigodryasi n. sp. An ultrastructural study has been made of the sarcocyst and of the parasite's sporulation in the lamina propria of the snake: the latter provides details of the wall formation process in developing sporocysts. Attempts to infect a specimen of the boid Boa constrictor constrictor by feeding it with infected Ameiva failed, suggesting that sporocysts previously recorded in genera of the family Boidae may be those of a different species of Sarcocystis. PMID:11147034

  20. New host and distributional records for Cryptosporidium sp. (Apicomplexa: Cryptosporidiidae) from lizards (Sauria: Gekkonidae, Scincidae) from the Cook Islands and Vanuatu, South Pacific

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McAllister, Chris T.; Duszynski, Donald W.; Fisher, Robert N.

    2013-01-01

    Between 1991 and 1993, 295 lizards, comprising 21 species in 2 families (Gekkonidae, Scincidae) from the Cook Islands, Fiji, Palau, Takapoto, and Vanuatu in the South Pacific, were examined for Cryptosporidium oocysts. Only 6 lizards (2%) were found to be passing Cryptosporidium oocysts in their feces, including 2 of 30 (7%) Oceania geckos, Gehyra oceanica, from Rarotonga, Cook Islands, and 4 of 26 (15%) Pacific blue-tailed skinks, Emoia caeruleocauda, from Efate Island, Vanuatu. This represents the largest survey for Cryptosporidium in Pacific island lizards, and we document 2 new host and 2 new locality records for this parasite genus.

  1. Two new species of Eimeria Schneider, 1875 (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from emerald tree skinks, Lamprolepis smaragdina (Lesson) (Sauria: Scincidae) from Papua New Guinea and the Philippines.

    PubMed

    McAllister, Chris T; Seville, R Scott; Duszynski, Donald W; Bush, Sarah E; Fisher, Robert N; Austin, Christopher C

    2013-10-01

    Two new species of Eimeria Schneider, 1875, from emerald tree skinks, Lamprolepis smaragdina (Lesson) are described from specimens collected in Papua New Guinea (PNG) and the Philippines. Oöcysts of Eimeria nuiailan n. sp. from the only L. smaragdina from PNG are ovoidal, with a smooth, colourless, bi-layered wall, measure 23.7 × 19.1 μm, and have a length/width (L/W) ratio of 1.3; both micropyle and oöcyst residuum are absent, but a fragmented polar granule is present. Sporocysts are ovoidal to ellipsoidal, 11.9 × 7.0 μm, L/W 1.7, and the wall is composed of two valves joined by a longitudinal suture; neither Stieda nor sub-Stieda bodies are present; a sporocyst residuum is present as a compact mass of granules. Sporozoites are elongate, 14.6 × 2.6 μm, and contain anterior and posterior refractile bodies with a nucleus between them. Oöcysts of Eimeria auffenbergi n. sp. from L. smaragdina collected in the Philippines are ovoidal, with a smooth, colourless, bi-layered wall, measure 19.9 × 15.8 μm, L/W 1.3; both micropyle and oöcyst residuum are absent, but one to four polar granules are present. Sporocysts are ovoidal to ellipsoidal, 10.3 × 5.8 μm, L/W 1.8, and the wall is composed of two valves joined by a longitudinal suture; neither Stieda nor sub-Stieda bodies are present; a sporocyst residuum is composed of dispersed granules. PMID:24048748

  2. A new species of Eimeria Schneider, 1875 (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from the Solomon ground skink, Sphenomorphus solomonis (Boulenger) (Sauria: Scincidae) from Papua New Guinea

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McAllister, Chris T.; Duszynski, Donald W.; Fisher, Robert N.; Austin, Christopher C.

    2014-01-01

    Between September 1990 and November 1991, 19 Sphenomorphus spp. skinks, including nine S. jobiense, three S. simus, and seven Solomon ground skinks, S. solomonis (Boulenger), were collected from Madang and Morobe Provinces, Papua New Guinea (PNG), and examined for coccidia. A single S. solomonis was found to be infected with a new species of Eimeria Schneider, 1875. Oöcysts of Eimeria perkinsae n. sp. are ellipsoidal with a smooth, colourless, bi-layered wall, measure 18.6 × 14.7 μm, and have a length/width (L/W) ratio of 1.3; both micropyle and oöcyst residuum are absent, but a fragmented polar granule is present. Sporocysts are ovoidal, 8.9 × 6.4 μm, L/W 1.4; neither Stieda, sub-Stieda or para-Stieda bodies are present; a sporocyst residuum consisted of a loose cluster of granules dispersed between sporozoites. Sporozoites are comma-shaped with spheroidal anterior and posterior refractile bodies. This represents the first report of coccidia from this skink genus.

  3. Anatomy of the Enigmatic Reptile Elachistosuchus huenei Janensch, 1949 (Reptilia: Diapsida) from the Upper Triassic of Germany and Its Relevance for the Origin of Sauria

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The holotype and only known specimen of the enigmatic small reptile Elachistosuchus huenei Janensch, 1949 from the Upper Triassic (Norian) Arnstadt Formation of Saxony-Anhalt (Germany) is redescribed using μCT scans of the material. This re-examination revealed new information on the morphology of this taxon, including previously unknown parts of the skeleton such as the palate, braincase, and shoulder girdle. Elachistosuchus is diagnosed especially by the presence of the posterolateral process of the frontal, the extension of the maxillary tooth row to the posterior margin of the orbit, the free posterior process of the jugal, and the notched anterior margin of the interclavicle. Phylogenetic analyses using two recently published character-taxon matrices recovered conflicting results for the phylogenetic position of Elachistosuchus–either as an archosauromorph, as a lepidosauromorph or as a more basal, non-saurian diapsid. These different placements highlight the need of a thorough revision of critical taxa and new character sets used for inferring neodiapsid relationships. PMID:26352985

  4. A reinvestigation of phylogeny and divergence times of the Ablepharus kitaibelii species complex (Sauria, Scincidae) based on mtDNA and nuDNA genes.

    PubMed

    Skourtanioti, Eirini; Kapli, Paschalia; Ilgaz, Çetin; Kumlutaş, Yusuf; Avcı, Aziz; Ahmadzadeh, Faraham; Crnobrnja-Isailović, Jelka; Gherghel, Iulian; Lymberakis, Petros; Poulakakis, Nikos

    2016-10-01

    Morphological and DNA data support that the East Mediterranean snake-eyed skink Ablepharus kitaibelii represents a species complex that includes four species A. kitaibelii, A. budaki, A. chernovi, and A. rueppellii, highlighting the need of its taxonomic reevaluation. Here, we used Bayesian and Maximum Likelihood methods to estimate the phylogenetic relationships of all members of the complex based on two mitochondrial (cyt b, 16S rRNA) and two nuclear markers (MC1R, and NKTR) and using Chalcides, Eumeces, and Eutropis as outgroups. The biogeographic history of the complex was also investigated through the application of several phylogeographic (BEAST) and biogeographic (BBM) analyses. Paleogeographic and paleoclimatic data were used to support the inferred phylogeographic patterns. The A. kitaibelli species complex exhibits high genetic diversity, revealing cases of hidden diversity and cases of non-monophyletic species such as A. kitaibelii and A. budaki. Our results indicate that A. pannonicus branches off first and a group that comprises specimens of A. kitaibelli and A. budaki from Kastelorizo Island group (southeast Greece) and southwest Turkey, respectively is differentiated from the rest A. kitaibelli and A. budaki populations and may represent a new species. The estimated divergence times place the origin of the complex in the Middle Miocene (∼16Mya) and the divergence of most currently recognized species in the Late Miocene. The inferred ancestral distribution suggests that the complex originated in Anatolia, supposing that several vicariance and dispersal events that are related with the formation of the Mid-Aegean Trench, the Anatolian Diagonal and the orogenesis of the mountain chains in southern and eastern Anatolia have led to current distribution pattern of A. kitaibelii species complex in the Balkans and Middle East. PMID:27404043

  5. The mitochondrial phylogeography and intraspecific taxonomy of the Steppe Racerunner, Eremias arguta (Pallas) (Lacertidae: Sauria, Reptilia), reflects biogeographic patterns in Middle Asia.

    PubMed

    Poyarkov, Nikolay A; Orlova, Valentina F; Chirikova, Marina A

    2014-01-01

    Steppe racerunner, Eremias (Eremias) arguta, is one of the most widespread species of the Asian racerunners (genus Eremias). Several subspecies were traditionally recognized however, morphological variability is so high that delimitation of these subspecies was always problematic. Here we present a phylogenetic hypothesis for this species based on cytochrome b sequences (55 samples from 35 populations, 900 bp partial sequences), infer it biogeography and the revise its subspecific structure. Six major phylogenetic lineages were revealed. The southernmost populations (E. a. uzbekistanica) from Uzbekistan form a clade together with the Issyk-Kul Lake subspecies (E. a. darevskii) based on both molecular and morphological evidence. Within more northern populations, there is a split between populations from Northern Caucasus, Europe and Western Kazakhstan (E. a. deserti) and Central and Eastern Kazakhstan populations (E. a. arguta). Transcaucasian (E. a. transcaucasica) steppe racerunners are grouped with Middle Asian populations. Finally, the easternmost samples, assigned to "E. a. potanini" are nested within the E. a. arguta clade. Populations from the Ili River Valley form a separate lineage sister to the clade joining all other E. arguta lineages and might represent a yet undescribed taxon. Species distribution in relation to historical biogeography of Middle Asia is discussed.  PMID:25543565

  6. Two new species of Eimeria Schneider, 1875 (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from emerald tree skinks, Lamprolepis smaragdina (Lesson) (Sauria: Scincidae) from Papua New Guinea and the Philippines

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McAllister, Chris T.; Seville, R. Scott; Duszynski, Donald W.; Bush, Sarah E.; Fisher, Robert N.; Austin, Christopher C.

    2013-01-01

    Two new species of Eimeria Schneider, 1875, from emerald tree skinks, Lamprolepis smaragdina (Lesson) are described from specimens collected in Papua New Guinea (PNG) and the Philippines. Oöcysts of Eimeria nuiailan n. sp. from the only L. smaragdina from PNG are ovoidal, with a smooth, colourless, bi-layered wall, measure 23.7 × 19.1 μm, and have a length/width (L/W) ratio of 1.3; both micropyle and oöcyst residuum are absent, but a fragmented polar granule is present. Sporocysts are ovoidal to ellipsoidal, 11.9 × 7.0 μm, L/W 1.7, and the wall is composed of two valves joined by a longitudinal suture; neither Stieda nor sub-Stieda bodies are present; a sporocyst residuum is present as a compact mass of granules. Sporozoites are elongate, 14.6 × 2.6 μm, and contain anterior and posterior refractile bodies with a nucleus between them. Oöcysts of Eimeria auffenbergi n. sp. from L. smaragdina collected in the Philippines are ovoidal, with a smooth, colourless, bi-layered wall, measure 19.9 × 15.8 μm, L/W 1.3; both micropyle and oöcyst residuum are absent, but one to four polar granules are present. Sporocysts are ovoidal to ellipsoidal, 10.3 × 5.8 μm, L/W 1.8, and the wall is composed of two valves joined by a longitudinal suture; neither Stieda nor sub-Stieda bodies are present; a sporocyst residuum is composed of dispersed granules.

  7. Helminth parasites of the Mediterranean gecko, Hemidactylus turcicus (Sauria: Gekkonidae), from Texas, United States with a summary of helminths of this host.

    PubMed

    McAllister, Chris T; Bursey, Charles R

    2016-09-01

    One hundred-thirty six Mediterranean geckos, Hemidactylus turcicus, were collected between December 1986 and March 2016 in Hardin (n = 7), Harris (n = 57), and Tom Green (n = 72) counties, Texas, USA., and examined for helminth parasites. Fifty-two H. turcicus (38%) were infected with at least one helminth species. Found were a trematode, Mesocoelium meggitti, three cestodes, Mesocestoides sp. (tetrathyridia), Oochoristica ameivae and Oochoristica scelopori, and four nematodes, Cosmocercoides variabilis, Oswaldocruzia pipiens, Parapharyngodon cubensis, and larvae of Physaloptera sp. Oochoristica ameivae, O. scelopori, P. cubensis, Physaloptera sp., and Os. pipiens represent new host records for H. turcicus and M. meggitti is reported from Texas for the first time. A summary of the helminth parasites of both native and non-native H. turcicus is presented. PMID:27447223

  8. A review of the genus Trachylepis (Sauria: Scincidae) from the Gulf of Guinea, with descriptions of two new species in the Trachylepis maculilabris (Gray, 1845) species complex.

    PubMed

    Ceríaco, Luis M P; Marques, Mariana P; Bauer, Aaron M

    2016-01-01

    The scincid genus Trachylepis is represented in the oceanic islands of the Gulf of Guinea by four species, Trachylepis maculilabris, T. affinis, T. adamastor and T. ozorii. Here we describe two new species, Trachylepis thomensis sp. nov., endemic to São Tomé Island and Rolas Islet, and Trachylepis principensis sp. nov., endemic to Príncipe Island. Phylogenetic analysis using the mitochondrial gene 16S shows that both new species are genetically divergent and reciprocally monophyletic, and confirms evidence for the uniqueness of these lineages presented in previous studies. Morphological data (scalation and morphometry) identify consistent phenotypic differences between these two island species. We were also able to confirm that the T. affinis population of Príncipe Island is conspecific with the African mainland population and most probably the result of recent introductions. These findings raise the number of known Trachylepis species in the Gulf of Guinea islands group to five, four of which are endemic, although the phylogenetic and phylogeographic relationships of T. adamastor and T. ozorii remain unknown and require further investigation. PMID:27394866

  9. The correct authorship and date of lizard names Teiinae, Tupinambinae,
    and Gymnophthalmidae.

    PubMed

    Costa, Henrique C; Garcia, Paulo C A; Zaher, Hussam

    2016-01-01

    Teiidae and Gymnophthalmidae are lizard families endemic to the Neotropical region (Vitt & Caldwell 2014), with about 150 and 245 valid living species, respectively (Uetz & Hošek 2015). Extinct teiid taxa are known from the Cretaceous to the Holocene (Albino 2005; Estes 1983b; Sullivan & Estes 1997). The authorship of Teiidae is undoubtedly attributed to Gray (1827) (ICZN 1985), but there is some confusion in literature regarding its subfamilies Teiinae and Tupinambinae. The same is true for Gymnophthalmidae. We investigated those issues through a literature review, found the source of mistakes and suggest what we consider be the correct authorship and dates for those family-group names. PMID:27395673

  10. Contributions to the herpetofauna of the Albertine Rift: Two new species of chameleon (Sauria: Chamaeleonidae) from an isolated montane forest, south eastern Democratic Republic of Congo.

    PubMed

    Tilbury, Colin R; Tolley, Krystal A

    2015-01-01

    Two new species of chameleons from the genera Rhampholeon and Kinyongia are described from an isolated montane forest remnant situated toward the southern end of the Albertine Rift bordering Lake Tanganyika. The closest known localities of species from these genera are 200km and 400km to the north respectively, separated by large intervening tracts of lowland savannah and Brachystegia (Miombo) woodland - habitats not normally inhabited by species of these genera. Rhampholeon hattinghi sp. nov. and Kinyongia mulyai sp. nov. bear superficial resemblances to previously described species (Rh. boulengeri Steindachner and K. adolfifriderici  (Sternfeld)). Rhampholeon hattinghi sp. nov. has a relatively smooth supra-orbital ridge, deep axillary but absent inguinal mite pockets, prominent white spots on the base of the tail and a uniquely derived hemipenal morphology with billowing parasulcal evaginations. Like K. adolfifriderici, Kinyongia mulyai sp. nov. is devoid of a rostral appendage but differs in having a longer and narrower head, a higher upper labial scale count and by the absence of a dorsal crest in the male. To place these new chameleons within the context of their respective genera, Bayesian and maximum likelihood phylogenetic analyses were carried out utilising two mitochondrial (ND2 and 16S) and one nuclear marker (RAG1).  Both chameleons were found to have morphological features that distinguish them from other congeners. Based on phylogenetic analysis they are clearly separate evolutionary lineages and are described as new species.  PMID:25661215

  11. Rates of pulmonary infection by pentastomids in lizards species from a restinga habitat in northeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Almeida, W O; Santana, G G; Vieira, W L S; Wanderley, I C; Ribeiro, S C

    2009-02-01

    Pulmonary parasitism by pentastomids was examined in two lizard species inhabiting an area of restinga vegetation (coastal sand dunes) situated in the municipality of Mataraca (6 degrees 29' S and 34 degrees 56' W), on the extreme northern coast of Paraíba State, Brazil. A total of 123 lizards were collected, being 75 specimens of Micrablepharus maximiliani (Gymnophtalmidae) and 48 specimens of Cnemidophorus ocellifer (Teiidae). Only a single species of Pentastomida (Raillietiella mottae) was found parasitizing three females M. maximiliani, with a prevalence of 4% and an average infection intensity of 2.3 +/- 1.3 (range 1-5). The infection rate by pentastomids encountered in the present study was similar to that seen with other species of restinga lizards. Raillietiella mottae is a generalist parasite species that is probably transmitted by common and widely distributed insects making up part of the diet of many insectivorous lizard species from northeastern Brazil. PMID:19347165

  12. An overview of the South American fossil squamates.

    PubMed

    Albino, Adriana María; Brizuela, Santiago

    2014-03-01

    The evolution of squamates in South America is the result of the complex geological and paleoclimatic history of this part of the world. The incomplete and episodic fossil record allows us to know only a small part of this evolution. Most Mesozoic squamate remains come from the Patagonian region, but remarkable specimens have also been recovered from Brazil. Both major squamate clades (Iguania and Scleroglossa) are present in the South American Mesozoic. Remains of Mesozoic snakes are common and diverse in Cretaceous deposits, including some of the most primitive terrestrial forms. Paleogene and Neogene squamate remains have been recognized from Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and Venezuela. Paleogene lizard record appears to be scarce in comparison to that of the Mesozoic, whereas snakes show an important Paleogene diversity. At least two extant boid snakes appeared during this epoch (Boa and Corallus). The South American Miocene included some extant genera of Iguania, Teiidae, and Boidae but extinct genera were also present. "Colubrids" appeared at the early Miocene, whereas the first viperid is known from the late Miocene. Most of the Paleogene and early Neogene squamate families and genera have been recognized outside their current range of distribution following favorable climatic conditions for ectothermic vertebrates. During the latest Miocene and Pliocene few extant squamate taxa are found to occur outside their present distribution. The earliest amphisbaenian of South America is known from the Pliocene. Most Pleistocene and Holocene squamate remains are assigned to living genera, and some extant species were recognized. PMID:24482358

  13. Molecular phylogenetic and dating analyses using mitochondrial DNA sequences of eyelid geckos (Squamata: Eublepharidae).

    PubMed

    Jonniaux, Pierre; Kumazawa, Yoshinori

    2008-01-15

    Mitochondrial DNA sequences of approximately 2.3 kbp including the complete NADH dehydrogenase subunit 2 gene and its flanking genes, as well as parts of 12S and 16S rRNA genes were determined from major species of the eyelid gecko family Eublepharidae sensu [Kluge, A.G. 1987. Cladistic relationships in the Gekkonoidea (Squamata, Sauria). Misc. Publ. Mus. Zool. Univ. Michigan 173, 1-54.]. In contrast to previous morphological studies, phylogenetic analyses based on these sequences supported that Eublepharidae and Gekkonidae form a sister group with Pygopodidae, raising the possibility of homoplasious character change in some key features of geckos, such as reduction of movable eyelids and innovation of climbing toe pads. The phylogenetic analyses also provided a well-resolved tree for relationships between the eublepharid species. The Bayesian estimation of divergence times without assuming the molecular clock suggested the Jurassic divergence of Eublepharidae from Gekkonidae and radiations of most eublepharid genera around the Cretaceous. These dating results appeared to be robust against some conditional changes for time estimation, such as gene regions used, taxon representation, and data partitioning. Taken together with geological evidence, these results support the vicariant divergence of Eublepharidae and Gekkonidae by the breakup of Pangea into Laurasia and Gondwanaland, and recent dispersal of two African eublepharid genera from Eurasia to Africa after these landmasses were connected in the Early Miocene. PMID:18029117

  14. Evolution of the Vertebrate Resistin Gene Family

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Qingda; Tan, Huanran; Irwin, David M.

    2015-01-01

    Resistin (encoded by Retn) was previously identified in rodents as a hormone associated with diabetes; however human resistin is instead linked to inflammation. Resistin is a member of a small gene family that includes the resistin-like peptides (encoded by Retnl genes) in mammals. Genomic searches of available genome sequences of diverse vertebrates and phylogenetic analyses were conducted to determine the size and origin of the resistin-like gene family. Genes encoding peptides similar to resistin were found in Mammalia, Sauria, Amphibia, and Actinistia (coelacanth, a lobe-finned fish), but not in Aves or fish from Actinopterygii, Chondrichthyes, or Agnatha. Retnl originated by duplication and transposition from Retn on the early mammalian lineage after divergence of the platypus, but before the placental and marsupial mammal divergence. The resistin-like gene family illustrates an instance where the locus of origin of duplicated genes can be identified, with Retn continuing to reside at this location. Mammalian species typically have a single copy Retn gene, but are much more variable in their numbers of Retnl genes, ranging from 0 to 9. Since Retn is located at the locus of origin, thus likely retained the ancestral expression pattern, largely maintained its copy number, and did not display accelerated evolution, we suggest that it is more likely to have maintained an ancestral function, while Retnl, which transposed to a new location, displays accelerated evolution, and shows greater variability in gene number, including gene loss, likely evolved new, but potentially lineage-specific, functions. PMID:26076481

  15. Evolution of the Vertebrate Resistin Gene Family.

    PubMed

    Hu, Qingda; Tan, Huanran; Irwin, David M

    2015-01-01

    Resistin (encoded by Retn) was previously identified in rodents as a hormone associated with diabetes; however human resistin is instead linked to inflammation. Resistin is a member of a small gene family that includes the resistin-like peptides (encoded by Retnl genes) in mammals. Genomic searches of available genome sequences of diverse vertebrates and phylogenetic analyses were conducted to determine the size and origin of the resistin-like gene family. Genes encoding peptides similar to resistin were found in Mammalia, Sauria, Amphibia, and Actinistia (coelacanth, a lobe-finned fish), but not in Aves or fish from Actinopterygii, Chondrichthyes, or Agnatha. Retnl originated by duplication and transposition from Retn on the early mammalian lineage after divergence of the platypus, but before the placental and marsupial mammal divergence. The resistin-like gene family illustrates an instance where the locus of origin of duplicated genes can be identified, with Retn continuing to reside at this location. Mammalian species typically have a single copy Retn gene, but are much more variable in their numbers of Retnl genes, ranging from 0 to 9. Since Retn is located at the locus of origin, thus likely retained the ancestral expression pattern, largely maintained its copy number, and did not display accelerated evolution, we suggest that it is more likely to have maintained an ancestral function, while Retnl, which transposed to a new location, displays accelerated evolution, and shows greater variability in gene number, including gene loss, likely evolved new, but potentially lineage-specific, functions. PMID:26076481

  16. The phylogenetic relationships of basal archosauromorphs, with an emphasis on the systematics of proterosuchian archosauriforms.

    PubMed

    Ezcurra, Martín D

    2016-01-01

    The early evolution of archosauromorphs during the Permo-Triassic constitutes an excellent empirical case study to shed light on evolutionary radiations in deep time and the timing and processes of recovery of terrestrial faunas after a mass extinction. However, macroevolutionary studies of early archosauromorphs are currently limited by poor knowledge of their phylogenetic relationships. In particular, one of the main early archosauromorph groups that need an exhaustive phylogenetic study is "Proterosuchia," which as historically conceived includes members of both Proterosuchidae and Erythrosuchidae. A new data matrix composed of 96 separate taxa (several of them not included in a quantitative phylogenetic analysis before) and 600 osteological characters was assembled and analysed to generate a comprehensive higher-level phylogenetic hypothesis of basal archosauromorphs and shed light on the species-level interrelationships of taxa historically identified as proterosuchian archosauriforms. The results of the analysis using maximum parsimony include a polyphyletic "Prolacertiformes" and "Protorosauria," in which the Permian Aenigmastropheus and Protorosaurus are the most basal archosauromorphs. The enigmatic choristoderans are either found as the sister-taxa of all other lepidosauromorphs or archosauromorphs, but consistently placed within Sauria. Prolacertids, rhynchosaurs, allokotosaurians and tanystropheids are the major successive sister clades of Archosauriformes. The Early Triassic Tasmaniosaurus is recovered as the sister-taxon of Archosauriformes. Proterosuchidae is unambiguosly restricted to five species that occur immediately after and before the Permo-Triassic boundary, thus implying that they are a short-lived "disaster" clade. Erythrosuchidae is composed of eight nominal species that occur during the Early and Middle Triassic. "Proterosuchia" is polyphyletic, in which erythrosuchids are more closely related to Euparkeria and more crownward

  17. Morphological and molecular genetic diversity of Strongyluris calotis (Nematoda: Ascaridida: Heterakidae) in South East and East Asian lizards.

    PubMed

    Tran, Binh Thi; Ong, An Vinh; Luc, Pham Van; Sato, Hiroshi

    2016-07-01

    Strongyluris calotis is a heterakid nematode in the large intestine of agamid lizards (Reptilia: Sauria: Agamidae) from the Oriental Region. The standard light microscopic definition of the species counts the "caudal papillae" as 10 pairs on male worms. However, previous work from our group using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) on the heterakid from agamid lizards in Japan, Taiwan, and Singapore revealed that this counting contained a pair of phasmids and that two pairs of postcloacal papillae were completely fused to form a pair of united papillae, thus resulting in "10 pairs." In the present study, we examined S. calotis specimens from the Emma Gray's forest lizard, Calotes emma (Agamidae), living in the plain forest at low altitude, and the Vietnam false bloodsucker, Pseudocalotes brevipes (Agamidae), living in the mountainous forest at high altitude in the northern part of Vietnam. Using SEM, the arrangement of caudal papillae in male worms from an Emma Gray's forest lizard was found to be comparable to classical S. calotis specimens from agamid lizards collected in Japan, Taiwan, and Singapore. However, male worms from Vietnam false bloodsuckers did not have a pair of united papillae but had 10 pairs of independent caudal papillae with a pair of phasmids. Molecular genetic analyses of the ribosomal RNA gene (rDNA) of worms of the classical S. calotis morphotype from Japan and Singapore and two S. calotis morphotypes from Vietnam demonstrated absolutely identical nucleotide sequences of partial 18S rDNA (at least 1764 base pairs (bp)) and 5.8S rDNA (158 bp). However, intraspecific differences were detected in other regions of the rDNA, related to the geographical distribution of hosts regardless of morphotype: 97.8-98.5 % identity (443-446 bp/453 bp) in the internal transcribed spacer (ITS)-1 region, 96.6-98.0 % identity (425-431 bp/440 bp) in the ITS-2 region, and 99.6-99.7 % identity (1149-1151 bp/1154 bp) in the 28S rDNA. Thus, in the future, taxonomic

  18. The phylogenetic relationships of basal archosauromorphs, with an emphasis on the systematics of proterosuchian archosauriforms

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The early evolution of archosauromorphs during the Permo-Triassic constitutes an excellent empirical case study to shed light on evolutionary radiations in deep time and the timing and processes of recovery of terrestrial faunas after a mass extinction. However, macroevolutionary studies of early archosauromorphs are currently limited by poor knowledge of their phylogenetic relationships. In particular, one of the main early archosauromorph groups that need an exhaustive phylogenetic study is “Proterosuchia,” which as historically conceived includes members of both Proterosuchidae and Erythrosuchidae. A new data matrix composed of 96 separate taxa (several of them not included in a quantitative phylogenetic analysis before) and 600 osteological characters was assembled and analysed to generate a comprehensive higher-level phylogenetic hypothesis of basal archosauromorphs and shed light on the species-level interrelationships of taxa historically identified as proterosuchian archosauriforms. The results of the analysis using maximum parsimony include a polyphyletic “Prolacertiformes” and “Protorosauria,” in which the Permian Aenigmastropheus and Protorosaurus are the most basal archosauromorphs. The enigmatic choristoderans are either found as the sister-taxa of all other lepidosauromorphs or archosauromorphs, but consistently placed within Sauria. Prolacertids, rhynchosaurs, allokotosaurians and tanystropheids are the major successive sister clades of Archosauriformes. The Early Triassic Tasmaniosaurus is recovered as the sister-taxon of Archosauriformes. Proterosuchidae is unambiguosly restricted to five species that occur immediately after and before the Permo-Triassic boundary, thus implying that they are a short-lived “disaster” clade. Erythrosuchidae is composed of eight nominal species that occur during the Early and Middle Triassic. “Proterosuchia” is polyphyletic, in which erythrosuchids are more closely related to Euparkeria and more

  19. Integration of morphological data sets for phylogenetic analysis of Amniota: the importance of integumentary characters and increased taxonomic sampling.

    PubMed

    Hill, Robert V

    2005-08-01

    data set compiled from published sources and data original to this study supports monophyly of Amniota, Synapsida, Reptilia, Parareptilia, Eureptilia, Eosuchia, Diapsida, Neodiapsida, Sauria, Lepidosauria, and Archosauriformes, as well as several more highly nested divisions within the latter two clades. Turtles are here resolved as the sister taxon to a monophyletic Lepidosauria (squamates + Sphenodon), a novel phylogenetic position that nevertheless is consistent with recent molecular and morphological studies that have hypothesized diapsid affinities for this clade. PMID:16085573

  20. Phylogeography of Balkan wall lizard (Podarcis taurica) and its relatives inferred from mitochondrial DNA sequences.

    PubMed

    Poulakakis, N; Lymberakis, P; Valakos, E; Pafilis, P; Zouros, E; Mylonas, M

    2005-07-01

    Wall lizards of the genus Podarcis (Sauria, Lacertidae) comprise 17 currently recognized species in southern Europe, where they are the predominant reptile group. The taxonomy of Podarcis is complex and unstable. Based on DNA sequence data the species of Podarcis falls into four main groups that have substantial geographical conherence (western island group, southwestern group, Italian group and Balkan group). The Balkan species are divided in two subgroups: the subgroup of Podarcis taurica (P. taurica, P. milensis, P. gaigeae and perhaps P. melisellensis), and the subgroup of Podarcis erhardii (P. erhardii and P. peloponnesiaca). We addressed the question of phylogenetic relations among the species of the P. taurica subgroup encountered in Greece, as they can be inferred from partial mtDNA (cyt b and 16S) sequences. Our data support the monophyly of P. taurica subgroup and suggest that P. gaigeae, P. milensis and P. melisellensis form a clade, which thereinafter connects to P. taurica. Within the previous clade, P. gaigeae is more closely related to P. milensis than to P. melisellensis. However, the specimens of P. taurica were subdivided in two different groups. The first one includes the specimens from northeastern Greece, and the other group includes the specimens from the rest of continental Greece and Ionian islands. Because the molecular clock of the cyt b and 16 rRNA genes was not rejected in our model test, it is possible to estimate times of speciation events. Based on the splitting of the island of Crete from Peloponnisos [c. 5 million years ago (Ma)], the evolutionary rate for the cyt b is 1.55% per million years (Myr) and for the 16S rRNA is 0.46% per Myr. These results suggest that the evolutionary history of P. taurica in Greece is more complex than a single evolutionary invasion. The data analysed, stress the need for a reconsideration of the evolutionary history of Greek Podarcis species and help overcome difficulties that classical taxonomy has