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Sample records for lingual tonsil size

  1. A Pediatric Grading Scale for Lingual Tonsil Hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Norman R; Prager, Jeremy D; Ruiz, Amanda G; Kezirian, Eric J

    2016-01-01

    Lingual tonsil hypertrophy (LTH) is a common finding for children with residual obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) following an adenotonsillectomy. Secondary to the significant morbidity associated with OSA, identification and treatment of residual OSA are paramount. A dedicated LTH grading scale for children does not exist. The current adult LTH scale is impractical for children. Imaging is not routine for children, since it frequently requires sedation. We present a pediatric LTH grading scale with substantial interrater reliability to facilitate standardization of endoscopy findings and promote outcomes-based research for OSA surgery in children. PMID:26307581

  2. Tonsillitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... for Sports Pregnant? Your Baby's Growth Cerebral Palsy: Caring for Your Child All About Food Allergies Tonsillitis KidsHealth > For Parents > Tonsillitis Print A A A Text Size en español Amigdalitis Tonsillitis is swelling and irritation ...

  3. Neurotrophins and their receptors in human lingual tonsil: an immunohistochemical analysis.

    PubMed

    Artico, Marco; Bronzetti, Elena; Felici, Laura M; Alicino, Valentina; Ionta, Brunella; Bronzetti, Benedetto; Magliulo, Giuseppe; Grande, Claudia; Zamai, Loris; Pasquantonio, Guido; De Vincentiis, Marco

    2008-11-01

    Lymphoid organs are supplied by many nerve endings associated with different kinds of cells and macrophages. The role of this innervation on the release of locally active molecules is still unclear. Lingual tonsils belong to Waldeyer's Ring, in close association with palatine tonsils and nasopharyngeal (adenoids) tonsils, thus constituting part of NALT (nasal-associated lymphoid tissue) together with the tubal tonsils and lateral pharyngeal bands. In this study, we focused our attention on the expression of some neurotrophins (NTs) and their high- and low-affinity receptors in human lingual tonsils. Light immunohistochemistry showed that human tonsillar samples were generally positive for all the NTs investigated (NGF, BDNF, NT-3, NT-4) and their receptors (TrKA, TrKB, TrKC and p75) with some different expression levels. NGF and TrKC were strongly expressed in macrophages, but weakly in lymphocytes. However, BDNF and TrKB was highly expressed in lymphocytes and weaker in macrophages. The low-affinity receptor for NGF, p75, was mainly moderately expressed in the analysed samples. These results suggest the presence of a pattern of neurotrophin innervation in the human lingual tonsil which may play a role in sustaining inflammatory conditions and in modulating a close interaction between the nervous system and the different immune cellular subtypes. PMID:18949422

  4. Tonsillitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... of the throat. One such infection is called pharyngitis. Tonsillitis is very common in children. Symptoms Common ... Difficulty swallowing Ear pain Fever and chills Headache Sore throat, which lasts longer than 48 hours and may ...

  5. Tonsillitis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The definition of severe recurrent throat infections is arbitrary, but recent criteria have defined severe tonsillitis as: five or more episodes of true tonsillitis a year; symptoms for at least 1 year; and episodes that are disabling and prevent normal functioning. Diagnosis of acute tonsillitis is clinical, and it can be difficult to distinguish viral from bacterial infections. Rapid antigen testing has a very low sensitivity in the diagnosis of bacterial tonsillitis, but more accurate tests take longer to deliver results. Bacteria are cultured from few people with tonsillitis. Other causes include infectious mononucleosis from Epstein-Barr virus infection, cytomegalovirus, toxoplasmosis, HIV, hepatitis A, and rubella. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical question: What are the effects of tonsillectomy in children and adults with acute recurrent or chronic throat infections? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to April 2014 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 15 studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review, we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: cold-steel tonsillectomy and diathermy tonsillectomy. PMID:25051184

  6. Evaluation of coblation lingual tonsil removal technique for obstructive sleep apnea in Asians: preliminary results of surgical morbidity and prognosticators.

    PubMed

    Wee, Jee Hye; Tan, Kenglu; Lee, Woo-Hyun; Rhee, Chae-Seo; Kim, Jeong-Whun

    2015-09-01

    Retroglossal obstruction is one of the etiologies causing obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and can be addressed by removing some tissues of the tongue base. However, because of its deep-seated location, its surgical removal is still challenging. Although coblation technique has been introduced, its efficacy and morbidity need further evaluation, particularly in Asians. This study aimed to assess its safety and effectiveness and to identify outcome prognosticators. Forty-seven OSA patients who underwent coblation lingual tonsil removal were included. Retroglossal obstruction was confirmed by drug-induced sleep videofluoroscopy. Attended full-night polysomnography was performed twice; before and 6 months after surgery in 27 patients. The tongue base was fully exposed with three deep-seated traction sutures, visualized with a 30° or 70° endoscope, and ablated using a coblator. Surgical success was defined with postoperative apnea hypopnea index (AHI) <20 and reduction >50 %. Postoperative morbidities were evaluated. Demographic and polysomnographic parameters between success and failure groups were compared. None of the patients had immediate postoperative hemorrhage. Postoperatively, one patient had delayed hemorrhage and one patient severe respiratory difficulty. Taste loss, tongue dysmotility, dental injury or severe oropharyngeal stricture were absent. A mean AHI decreased from 37.7 ± 18.6 to 18.7 ± 14.8/h (P < 0.001). The success rate was 55.6 %. Their mean minimal oxygen saturation was significantly lower (P = 0.004) in the failure group. Coblation lingual tonsil removal technique showed minimal morbidity and favorable outcome in Koreans. The surgical outcome might be associated with the severity of single respiratory events. PMID:25323152

  7. Effects of Tonsil size on Pulmonary Function test Results after Tonsillectomy in Children

    PubMed Central

    Samareh Fekri, Mitra; Arabi Mianroodi, Aliasghar; Shakeri, Hossein; Khanjani, Narges

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Adenotonsillar hypertrophy is a typical cause of surgery in children. Evaluation and identification of patients as potential candidates tonsillectomy is a primary concern for otolaryngologists. This study focuses on the results of pulmonary function tests (PFTs) after tonsillectomy in children. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study examined 50 patients suffering from tonsillar hypertrophy in 2013. Full details and results of otolaryngology examinations were recorded. Moreover, patients were examined with respect to forced inspiratory flow at 50% of vital capacity (FIF50%), forced expiratory flow at 50% of vital capacity (FEF50%), forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1)/peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR), and FEV1/forced expired volume in 0.5 seconds (FEV0.5) before and after surgery using spirometry. All data were analyzed using SPSS Software (version 19), and central descriptive measures, and data were compared by performing T-test and Chi-square tests. Results: According to tonsil size, patients were distributed as follows: 18 patients (36%) with +1 tonsil size, 18 patients (36%) with +2 tonsil size, and seven patients (14%) with +3 tonsil size, and seven patients (14%) with +4 tonsil size. Thirty-three (66%) and 17 patients (34%) were female and male, respectively, with a mean of age of 9.7±2.97 years (range, 7–18 years). Seventy-eight percent of patients were aged 10 years or less. Moreover, 25 patients (50%), 17 patients (34%), and eight patients (16%), respectively, reported obstructive symptoms, recurrent tonsillitis, and both symptoms. In patients with +3 and +4 tonsil size, spirometric parameters indicated relief of symptoms of obstruction. Only in patients with +4 tonsil size were the changes statistically significant. Conclusion: Tonsillectomy can relieve obstructive symptoms in patients with tonsils larger than +3 to a great extent. Additionally, spirometry can identify patients with +3 and +4 tonsils who do not have

  8. The Tonsils Revisited: Review of the Anatomical Localization and Histological Characteristics of the Tonsils of Domestic and Laboratory Animals

    PubMed Central

    Casteleyn, Christophe; Breugelmans, Sofie; Simoens, Paul; Van den Broeck, Wim

    2011-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of the anatomical localization and histological characteristics of the tonsils that are present in ten conventional domestic animal species, including the sheep, goat, ox, pig, horse, dog, cat, rabbit, rat, and pigeon. Anatomical macrographs and histological images of the tonsils are shown. Six tonsils can be present in domestic animals, that is, the lingual, palatine, paraepiglottic, pharyngeal, and tubal tonsils and the tonsil of the soft palate. Only in the sheep and goat, all six tonsils are present. Proper tonsils are absent in the rat, and pigeon. In the rabbit, only the palatine tonsils can be noticed, whereas the pig does not present palatine tonsils. The paraepiglottic tonsils lack in the ox, horse, and dog. In addition, the dog and cat are devoid of the tubal tonsil and the tonsil of the soft palate. PMID:21869895

  9. Lingual thyroid

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, L. K. Surej; Kurien, Nikhil Mathew; Jacob, M. M.; Menon, P. Varun; Khalam, Sherin A.

    2015-01-01

    Lingual thyroid is an abnormal mass of ectopic thyroid tissue seen in base of tongue caused due to embryological aberrancy in development of thyroid gland. Most of the ectopic tissue is seen in the tongue. Their identification and proper management is essential since they may be the only functioning thyroid tissue occurring in the body. We report a case of lingual thyroid in a 40 year old female patient who was hypothyroid with posterior swelling of tongue. Tc-99 scintigraphy confirmed the clinical diagnosis and surgical excision of entire tissue was done by midline mandibular split osteotomy and patient was placed under lifelong thyroxine replacement. Follow up showed excellent results with minimum patient discomfort. PMID:26389046

  10. Tonsils and Adenoids

    MedlinePlus

    ... infections of the nose and throat, and significant enlargement that causes nasal obstruction and/or breathing, swallowing, ... disturbed. Other signs of adenoid and or tonsil enlargement are: •Breathing through the mouth instead of the ...

  11. Terminology of the tonsils.

    PubMed

    Casteleyn, C; Simoens, P; Van den Broeck, W

    2011-06-01

    Many terms used for referring to tonsillar structures are applied in immunological research. However, in many cases, the use of these terms is not in compliance with official veterinary anatomical nomenclature. This is partly attributable to ambiguous descriptions present in conventional anatomical textbooks. This study gives an overview of pertaining controversial terms and promotes the official anatomical terminology applicable to the tonsils, to enhance the unequivocal transfer of knowledge generated during immunological research. PMID:21352272

  12. Habits of Household Lingualism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adamek, Philip M.

    2004-01-01

    This essay contrasts two approaches to household bilingual education with respect to the notion of identity. The notion of lingualism is presented. Lingualism emphasizes the continuum between monolinguals and bilinguals through a nonquantifying understanding of language (including speech, writing, gestures, and language potential). Kouritzin's…

  13. Having Your Tonsils Taken Out

    MedlinePlus

    ... you. Talking Tonsillectomies Tonsils are removed in the operating room , so you'll have to take a ... Word! Operation Word! Anesthesia What Happens in the Operating Room? Going to the Hospital How Do Pain ...

  14. [Lingual mandibular osteonecrosis].

    PubMed

    de Visscher, J G A M; Dietvorst, D P; van der Meij, E H

    2013-04-01

    A 47-year-old man was referred to an oral and maxillofacial surgeon by his dentist because ofa painful ulcer with exposed bone at the lingual side of teeth 47 and 48. The lesion was diagnosed as lingual mandibular osteonecrosis. Characteristics of lingual mandibular osteonecrosis are exposed bone in the molar area and sequestration. The disorder can appear spontaneously or following damage to the mucous membrane. Treatment options are surgical smoothening of exposed bone, surgical removal of necrotic bone and awaiting spontaneous sequestration. PMID:23654048

  15. Self ligating lingual appliance.

    PubMed

    Juneja, Pankaj; Chopra, S S; Jayan, B K

    2015-12-01

    Adult demand for orthodontics has grown considerably over the past 10 years propelling increased demand for Esthetic Orthodontics. Lingual appliances are a viable option toward providing Esthetic Orthodontics. The lingual surface of the teeth has a unique morphology that makes it difficult to place brackets in ideal positions. Indirect bonding has become the established methods of overcoming these discrepancies, along with the latest designs of self ligating brackets which offer more efficient mechanics and shorter treatment time. PMID:26843757

  16. Quantification of cells expressing markers of proliferation and apoptosis in chronic tonsilitis.

    PubMed

    Avramović, V; Petrović, V; Jović, M; Vlahović, P

    2015-10-01

    During chronic tonsillitis, the relationship between proliferation and apoptosis of lymphocytes in tonsillar follicles can be disturbed, which gives rise to attenuation of tonsil immunocompetence and diminishing its contribution in systemic immunity. In this study, we have quantified the cells expressing the markers of proliferation and apoptosis in the follicles of the palatine tonsil. Six tonsils from patients aged 10-29 years with hypertrophic tonsillitis and five tonsils from patients aged 18-22 years with recurrent tonsillitis were studied. The sections of paraffin blocks of tonsillar tissue were stained by the immunohistochemical LSAB/HRP method with the utilisation of antibodies for: Ki-67 antigen-cell marker of proliferation; Bcl-2 and survivin anti-apoptotic factors and Fas/CD95, caspase-3 and Bax pro-apoptotic factors. The size of lymphoid follicles, i.e. mean follicle area and number of lymphoid follicle immunopositive cells per mm2 of a slice area, i.e. numerical areal density were determined by the quantitative image analysis. The localisation of Ki-67, Bcl-2, survivin, Fas/CD95, caspase-3 and Bax- immunopositive cells inside the palatine tonsil was similar in both types of tonsillitis. The number of Ki-67 immunopositive cells was significantly (p < 0.01) larger in the tonsils with hypertrophic tonsillitis (14681.4 ± 1460.5) in comparison to those with recurrent tonsillitis (12491.4 ± 2321.6), although the number of survivin and caspase-3 immunopositive cells was significantly (p < 0.05) larger in recurrent tonsillitis (survivin, 406.9 ± 98.4; caspase-3, 350.4 ± 119.4) when compared to those with hypertrophic tonsillitis (survivin, 117.4 ± 14.5; caspase-3, 210 ± 24). Our results show that the rate of the proliferation and apoptosis of follicular lymphocytes is different in various types of tonsillitis. This suggests that the immunological potential of the palatine tonsil varies in patients with hypertrophic and recurrent tonsillitis, which in

  17. Early events in the pathogenesis of foot-and-mouth disease in pigs; identification of oropharyngeal tonsils as sites of primary and sustained viral replication

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A time-course study was performed to elucidate the early events of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) infection in pigs subsequent to simulated natural inoculation. The earliest detectable event was primary infection in the lingual and paraepiglotic tonsils at 6 hours post inoculation (hpi) charact...

  18. Psychogenic Lingual Paresthesia

    PubMed Central

    Bhatia, Navneet Kaur; Bhatia, Navleen Kaur

    2015-01-01

    Oral paresthesias are common in clinical practice but they often go unnoticed and untreated. Psychogenic oral paresthesia is an unpleasant sensation of tingling or pricking or a feeling of swelling or burning, with spontaneous onset.It can result due to local, systemic, psychogenic or idiopathic causes. Among psychogenic causes; anxiety disorder and depression are common. We describe a 32-year-old patient presented with lingual paresthesia and features suggestive of depression. He responded to an antidepressant, fluoxetine 40 mg /day. PMID:26155542

  19. Psychogenic Lingual Paresthesia.

    PubMed

    Bhatia, M S; Bhatia, Navneet Kaur; Bhatia, Navleen Kaur

    2015-05-01

    Oral paresthesias are common in clinical practice but they often go unnoticed and untreated. Psychogenic oral paresthesia is an unpleasant sensation of tingling or pricking or a feeling of swelling or burning, with spontaneous onset.It can result due to local, systemic, psychogenic or idiopathic causes. Among psychogenic causes; anxiety disorder and depression are common. We describe a 32-year-old patient presented with lingual paresthesia and features suggestive of depression. He responded to an antidepressant, fluoxetine 40 mg /day. PMID:26155542

  20. Tonsils

    MedlinePlus

    ... Central Nervous System Peripheral Nervous System Review Quiz Endocrine System Characteristics of Hormones Endocrine Glands & Their Hormones Pituitary & ... Thyroid & Parathyroid Glands Adrenal Gland Pancreas Gonads Other Endocrine Glands ... Cardiovascular System Heart Structure of the Heart Physiology of the ...

  1. Tonsillitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... with a larger adenoid. Others may have temporary enlargement of their adenoid due to colds or other ... especially common among young children. Constant swelling or enlargement can cause other health problems such as ear ...

  2. Evaluating Cross-Lingual Equating.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rapp, Joel; Allalouf, Avi

    This study examined the cross-lingual equating process adopted by a large scale testing system in which target language (TL) forms are equated to the source language (SL) forms using a set of translated items. The focus was on evaluating the degree of error inherent in the routine cross-lingual equating of the Verbal Reasoning subtest of the…

  3. Tonsil removal - what to ask your doctor

    MedlinePlus

    What to ask your doctor about tonsil removal; Tonsillectomy - what to ask your doctor ... Questions to ask about having tonsillectomy: Why does my child need a tonsillectomy? Are there other treatments that can be tried? ...

  4. Pharmacokinetics of tildipirosin in pig tonsils.

    PubMed

    Torres, F; Santamaria, R; Jimenez, M; Menjón, R; Ibanez, A; Collell, M; Azlor, O; Fraile, L

    2016-04-01

    The penetration of antimicrobials in pig tonsils is hardly known. The objective of the study was to quantify the tildipirosin (TD) penetration in tonsils. Animals were randomly divided into six groups (control, T1, T2 (1), T2(5), T2(10), and T2(15)) of eight animals. T1 and T2 groups received a dose of 2 and 4 mg of TD/kg bw in one shot (Zuprevo® MSD Animal Health), respectively, and the control group received 2 mL of saline solution. The animals were sacrificed by intravenous administration of pentobarbital sodium 24 h after finishing the treatment for the control, T1, and T2(1) groups, whereas animals of T2(5), T2(10), and T2(15) groups were sacrificed at 5, 10, and 15 days, post-treatment, respectively. Tonsils and blood samples were taken at necropsy to obtain plasma, and the tildipirosin concentration was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry detection. The concentration in plasma was always significantly lower than in tonsil. Average TD tonsil concentrations increased significantly in a dose-dependent manner, and the tonsil TD vs. plasma TD concentration ratio was approximately 75 for the doses of 2 and 4 mg of TD/kg bw at 24 h post-treatment. Moreover, the maximum concentration of tildipirosin in tonsil was observed at 1 day postadministration, and this concentration decreased gradually from this day until 15 days postadministration for the dose of 4 mg of TD/kg bw. Finally, the ratio AUCtonsil/AUCplasma was 97.9, and the T1/2 (h) was clearly higher in tonsil than in plasma. PMID:26935349

  5. Correlation between nasopharyngoscopy and cephalometry in the diagnosis of hyperplasia of the pharyngeal tonsils

    PubMed Central

    Ritzel, Rodrigo Agne; Berwig, Luana Cristina; da Silva, Ana Maria Toniolo; Corrêa, Eliane Castilhos Rodrigues; Serpa, Eliane Oliveira

    2012-01-01

    Summary Introduction: Hyperplasia of the pharyngeal tonsil is one of the main causes of mouth breathing, and accurate diagnosis of this alteration is important for proper therapeutic planning. Therefore, studies have been conducted in order to provide information regarding the procedures that can be used for the diagnosis of pharyngeal obstruction. Objective: To verify the correlation between nasopharyngoscopy and cephalometric examinations in the diagnosis of pharyngeal tonsil hyperplasia. Method: This was a cross-sectional, clinical, experimental, and quantitative study. Fifty-five children took part in this study, 30 girls and 25 boys, aged between 7 and 11 years. The children underwent nasofibropharyngoscopic and cephalometric evaluation to determine the grade of nasopharyngeal obstruction. The Spearman's rank correlation coefficient at the 5% significance level was used to verify the correlation between these exams. Results: In the nasopharyngoscopy evaluation, most children showed grade 2 and 3 hyperplasia of the pharyngeal tonsil, which was followed by grade 1. In the cephalometry assessment, most children showed grade 1 hyperplasia of the pharyngeal tonsil, which was followed by grade 2. A statistically significant regular positive correlation was observed between the exams. Conclusion: It was concluded that the evaluation of the pharyngeal tonsil hyperplasia could be carried out by fiber optic nasopharyngoscopy and cephalometry, as these examinations were regularly correlated. However, it was found that cephalometry tended to underestimate the size of the pharyngeal tonsil relative to nasopharyngoscopy. PMID:25991937

  6. Coblation endoscopic lingual lightening (CELL) for obstructive sleep apnea.

    PubMed

    Li, Hsueh-Yu; Lee, Li-Ang; Kezirian, Eric J

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the feasibility, safety and efficacy of Coblation endoscopic lingual lightening (CELL) surgery for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). This study was a retrospective case series in a tertiary referral sleep center. Twenty-five adults with moderate to severe OSA and determined to have retropalatal and tongue base obstruction based on Friedman tongue position III and fiberoptic endoscopy underwent CELL in combination with modified uvulopalatopharyngoplasty, known as relocation pharyngoplasty. CELL involves transoral resection of tongue base muscle tissue and lingual tonsil using Coblation under endoscopic guidance. The mean operation time for CELL was 42.6 ± 13.7 min. Total blood loss for CELL plus relocation pharyngoplasty was <50 ml in all patients. Mean postoperative pain score (sum of total pain scores/sum of total hospitalization day, visual analog scale, 0-10) was 2.6 ± 0.6. Postoperative bleeding and taste disturbance extending beyond 3 months occurred in one patient (4 %) individually. No patients reported tongue weakness or speech dysfunction. Epworth sleepiness scale improved from 9.6 ± 4.9 to 7.5 ± 4.3 (p = 0.023). Apnea-hypopnea index decreased from 45.7 ± 21.7 to 12.8 ± 8.2 events/hour (p < 0.001) 6 months after surgery. The overall response rate was 80 %. CELL is feasible, safe and effective in treating tongue base obstruction in OSA patients who underwent simultaneous relocation pharyngoplasty. PMID:25577994

  7. Palatine tonsil cyst in a dog.

    PubMed

    Degner, D A; Bauer, M S; Ehrhart, E J

    1994-04-01

    A 7-year-old spayed female Doberman Pinscher had a fluctuant red mass that filled the entire crypt of the left palatine tonsil. The mass was surgically excised and was found to be a tonsillar cyst on histologic examination. Because the cyst was lined with pseudostratified epithelium, embryonic origin was the most probable etiopathogenesis. PMID:8045803

  8. Effect of antibiotic use on bacterial flora of tonsil core in patients with recurrent tonsillitis.

    PubMed

    Yildizoglu, Uzeyir; Polat, Bahtiyar; Gumral, Ramazan; Kilic, Abdullah; Tosun, Fuat; Gerek, Mustafa

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of commonly used antibiotics on bacterial flora of the tonsil core. Patients who underwent tonsillectomy for recurrent chronic tonsillitis were included in the study. Three groups were formed: group 1 was treated for 10 days preoperatively with amoxicillin/clavulanic acid; group 2 was treated for 10 days preoperatively with clarithromycin; and group 3 included patients who underwent tonsillectomy without preoperative antibiotic use. The removed palatine tonsils were sent to our microbiology department in sterile tubes for bacteriological analysis. Seventy-three patients (group 1 = 19, group 2 = 20, group 3 = 34 patients) aged 3-18 years (mean 7 years) were included in the study. At least one bacterium was isolated from all tonsils, except for two cases in group 1; the difference in single bacterial growth among groups was not significant (p = 0.06). On the other hand, the numbers of patients with pathogenic bacterial growth was significantly lower in group 2 (n = 2) compared with group 1 (n = 10) and group 3 (n = 27) (p < 0.001). The bacterium isolated most frequently from the tonsils was Streptococcus viridans. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was the only pathogenic bacterium that grew in all three groups. Clarithromycin was more effective than amoxicillin/clavulanic acid in eradicating pathogenic bacteria in the tonsil core. Pseudomonas aeruginosa might be responsible for resistant or recurrent tonsil infections. To prevent endocarditis, antibiotic prophylaxis toward S. viridians, which is the most prevalent bacterium in the tonsil core, should be kept in mind for patients with heart valve damage. PMID:25510984

  9. Lingual thyroid. Diagnosis and treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Kansal, P.; Sakati, N.; Rifai, A.; Woodhouse, N.

    1987-11-01

    We describe four patients who presented with a lingual thyroid condition (three females and one male, aged between 7 and 22 years). Only the male patient was symptomatic with mild dysphagia and hemoptysis. The diagnosis was suspected in three patients, and was confirmed by iodine 123 or 131 scanning in all patients and by a computed tomographic scan in the one patient studied. The patient with dysphagia received a 10-mCl therapeutic dose of iodine 131 before thyroxine replacement was started. The diagnosis and management of lingual thyroid is discussed. All patients need lifelong thyroxine suppression. Unenhanced computed tomographic scans have a diagnostic appearance due to the iodine content of the ectopic thyroid tissue.

  10. Spontaneous lingual abscess in an immunocompromised patient.

    PubMed

    Kettaneh, Nick; Williamson, Kelly

    2014-05-01

    Acute lingual abscess is a rare yet life-threatening clinical entity. Lingual abscess must be appropriately diagnosed and treated in the emergency department to avoid acute airway compromise. A 68-year-old woman on immunomodulatory medication for rheumatoid arthritis presented to the emergency department with left facial pain and swelling. An anterior lingual abscess was diagnosed on computed tomographic scan. The most common cause of lingual abscess is direct trauma, although immunocompromised state is a predisposing risk factor. Intravenous antibiotics are the primary treatment modality, with consideration given to adjunctive surgical drainage. We present this case to increase awareness surrounding this diagnosis among emergency physicians. Spontaneous lingual abscess should be considered in immunocompromised patients who present to the emergency department with tongue pain and edema even in the absence of lingual trauma. PMID:24332904

  11. Acute tonsillitis and its complications: an overview.

    PubMed

    Bartlett, A; Bola, S; Williams, R

    2015-01-01

    Acute tonsillitis may be defined as inflammation of the tonsils, predominantly due to infection. It is part of the spectrum of pharyngitis, which ranges from localised tonsillar infection to generalised infection of the pharynx and commonly affects young healthy adults. Simple sore throats secondary to viral or bacterial pharyngitis are very common and generally do not require hospital admission or antimicrobial treatment. Supportive management in the form of analgesia and adequate hydration is often sufficient. However, there is potential for life-threatening complications to develop, highlighting the need for basic knowledge in the management of these conditions. This article aims to provide an overview of acute tonsillitis and its complications, including peritonsillar and parapharyngeal abscess formation. Specific attention will be given to the pathogenesis, diagnosis, investigation and management of each condition, in particular advising on emergency pre-shore treatment and indications for referral to an Ear, Nose and Throat Department. We will also summarise important guidelines and evidence from the literature to support these management decisions. PMID:26292396

  12. [Tonsillitis and sore throat in childhood].

    PubMed

    Stelter, K

    2014-03-01

    Surgery of the tonsils is still one of the most frequent procedures during childhood. Due to a series of fatal outcome after hemorrhage in children in Austria in 2006, the standards and indications for tonsillectomy slowly change in Germany since that. However, there exist no national guidelines and the frequency of tonsil surgery varies in the country. In some districts eight times more children were tonsillectomized than in others. A tonsillectomy in children under 6 years should only be done if the child suffers from recurrent acute bacterially tonsillitis. In all other cases (i. e. hyperplasia of the tonsils) the low risk partial tonsillectomy should be the first line therapy. Postoperative pain and the risk of hemorrhage are much lower in partial tonsillectomy (= tonsillotomy). No matter whether the tonsillotomy is done by laser, radiofrequency, shaver, coblation, bipolar scissor or Colorado needle, as long as the crypts are kept open and some tonsil tissue is left behind. Total extracapsular tonsillectomy is still indicated in severely affected children with recurrent infections of the tonsils, allergy to antibiotics, PFAPA syndrome (periodic fever, aphthous stomatitis, pharyngitis, and cervical adenitis) and peritonsillar abscess. With regard to the frequency and seriousness of the recurrent tonsillitis the indication for tonsillectomy in children is justified if 7 or more well-documented, clinically important, adequately treated episodes of throat infection occur in the preceding year, or 5 or more such episodes occur in each of the 2 preceding years (according to the paradise criteria). Diagnosis of acute tonsillitis is clinical, but sometimes it is hard to distinguish viral from bacterial infections. Rapid antigen testing has a very low sensitivity in the diagnosis of bacterial tonsillitis and swabs are highly sensitive but take a long time. In all microbiological tests the treating physician has to keep in mind, that most of the bacterials, viruses and

  13. Tonsillitis and sore throat in children.

    PubMed

    Stelter, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    Surgery of the tonsils is still one of the most frequent procedures during childhood. Due to a series of fatal outcomes after hemorrhage in children in Austria in 2006, the standards and indications for tonsillectomy have slowly changed in Germany. However, no national guidelines exist and the frequency of tonsil surgery varies across the country. In some districts eight times more children were tonsillectomized than in others. A tonsillectomy in children under six years should only be done if the child suffers from recurrent acute bacterially tonsillitis. In all other cases (i.e. hyperplasia of the tonsils) the low risk partial tonsillectomy should be the first line therapy. Postoperative pain and the risk of hemorrhage are much lower in partial tonsillectomy (=tonsillotomy). No matter whether the tonsillotomy is done by laser, radiofrequency, shaver, coblation, bipolar scissor or Colorado needle, as long as the crypts are kept open and some tonsil tissue is left behind. Total extracapsular tonsillectomy is still indicated in severely affected children with recurrent infections of the tonsils, allergy to antibiotics, PFAPA syndrome (periodic fever, aphthous stomatitis, pharyngitis, and cervical adenitis) and peritonsillar abscess. With regard to the frequency and seriousness of the recurrent tonsillitis the indication for tonsillectomy in children is justified if 7 or more well-documented, clinically important, adequately treated episodes of throat infection occur in the preceding year, or 5 or more of such episodes occur in each of the 2 preceding years (according to the paradise criteria). Diagnosis of acute tonsillitis is clinical, but sometimes it is hard to distinguish viral from bacterial infections. Rapid antigen testing has a very low sensitivity in the diagnosis of bacterial tonsillitis and swabs are highly sensitive but take a long time. In all microbiological tests the treating physician has to keep in mind, that most of the bacterials, viruses and

  14. Tonsillitis and sore throat in children

    PubMed Central

    Stelter, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    Surgery of the tonsils is still one of the most frequent procedures during childhood. Due to a series of fatal outcomes after hemorrhage in children in Austria in 2006, the standards and indications for tonsillectomy have slowly changed in Germany. However, no national guidelines exist and the frequency of tonsil surgery varies across the country. In some districts eight times more children were tonsillectomized than in others. A tonsillectomy in children under six years should only be done if the child suffers from recurrent acute bacterially tonsillitis. In all other cases (i.e. hyperplasia of the tonsils) the low risk partial tonsillectomy should be the first line therapy. Postoperative pain and the risk of hemorrhage are much lower in partial tonsillectomy (=tonsillotomy). No matter whether the tonsillotomy is done by laser, radiofrequency, shaver, coblation, bipolar scissor or Colorado needle, as long as the crypts are kept open and some tonsil tissue is left behind. Total extracapsular tonsillectomy is still indicated in severely affected children with recurrent infections of the tonsils, allergy to antibiotics, PFAPA syndrome (periodic fever, aphthous stomatitis, pharyngitis, and cervical adenitis) and peritonsillar abscess. With regard to the frequency and seriousness of the recurrent tonsillitis the indication for tonsillectomy in children is justified if 7 or more well-documented, clinically important, adequately treated episodes of throat infection occur in the preceding year, or 5 or more of such episodes occur in each of the 2 preceding years (according to the paradise criteria). Diagnosis of acute tonsillitis is clinical, but sometimes it is hard to distinguish viral from bacterial infections. Rapid antigen testing has a very low sensitivity in the diagnosis of bacterial tonsillitis and swabs are highly sensitive but take a long time. In all microbiological tests the treating physician has to keep in mind, that most of the bacterials, viruses and

  15. Early events in the pathogenesis of foot-and-mouth disease in pigs; identification of oropharyngeal tonsils as sites of primary and sustained viral replication.

    PubMed

    Stenfeldt, Carolina; Pacheco, Juan M; Rodriguez, Luis L; Arzt, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    A time-course study was performed to elucidate the early events of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) infection in pigs subsequent to simulated natural, intra-oropharyngeal, inoculation. The earliest detectable event was primary infection in the lingual and paraepiglottic tonsils at 6 hours post inoculation (hpi) characterized by regional localization of viral RNA, viral antigen, and infectious virus. At this time FMDV antigen was localized in cytokeratin-positive epithelial cells and CD172a-expressing leukocytes of the crypt epithelium of the paraepiglottic tonsils. De novo replication of FMDV was first detected in oropharyngeal swab samples at 12 hpi and viremia occurred at 18-24 hpi, approximately 24 hours prior to the appearance of vesicular lesions. From 12 through 78 hpi, microscopic detection of FMDV was consistently localized to cytokeratin-positive cells within morphologically characteristic segments of oropharyngeal tonsil crypt epithelium. During this period, leukocyte populations expressing CD172a, SLA-DQ class II and/or CD8 were found in close proximity to infected epithelial cells, but with little or no co-localization with viral proteins. Similarly, M-cells expressing cytokeratin-18 did not co-localize with FMDV proteins. Intra-epithelial micro-vesicles composed of acantholytic epithelial cells expressing large amounts of structural and non-structural FMDV proteins were present within crypts of the tonsil of the soft palate during peak clinical infection. These findings inculpate the paraepiglottic tonsils as the primary site of FMDV infection in pigs exposed via the gastrointestinal tract. Furthermore, the continuing replication of FMDV in the oropharyngeal tonsils during viremia and peak clinical infection with no concurrent amplification of virus occurring in the lower respiratory tract indicates that these sites are the major source of shedding of FMDV from pigs. PMID:25184288

  16. Clinical practice guideline: tonsillitis II. Surgical management.

    PubMed

    Windfuhr, Jochen P; Toepfner, Nicole; Steffen, Gregor; Waldfahrer, Frank; Berner, Reinhard

    2016-04-01

    In 2013, a total of 84,332 patients had undergone extracapsular tonsillectomies (TE) and 11,493 a tonsillotomy (TT) procedure in Germany. While the latter is increasingly performed, the number of the former is continually decreasing. However, a constant number of approximately 12,000 surgical procedures in terms of abscess-tonsillectomies or incision and drainage are annually performed in Germany to treat patients with a peritonsillar abscess. The purpose of this part of the clinical guideline is to provide clinicians in any setting with a clinically focused multi-disciplinary guidance through the surgical treatment options to reduce inappropriate variation in clinical care, improve clinical outcome and reduce harm. Surgical treatment options encompass intracapsular as well as extracapsular tonsil surgery and are related to three distinct entities: recurrent episodes of (1) acute tonsillitis, (2) peritonsillar abscess and (3) infectious mononucleosis. Conservative management of these entities is subject of part I of this guideline. (1) The quality of evidence for TE to resolve recurrent episodes of tonsillitis is moderate for children and low for adults. Conclusions concerning the efficacy of TE on the number of sore throat episodes per year are limited to 12 postoperative months in children and 5-6 months in adults. The impact of TE on the number of sore throat episodes per year in children is modest. Due to the heterogeneity of data, no firm conclusions on the effectiveness of TE in adults can be drawn. There is still an urgent need for further research to reliably estimate the value of TE compared to non-surgical therapy of tonsillitis/tonsillo-pharyngitis. The impact of TE on quality of life is considered as being positive, but further research is mandatory to establish appropriate inventories and standardized evaluation procedures, especially in children. In contrast to TE, TT or comparable procedures are characterized by a substantially lower postoperative

  17. Detection of Neisseria gonorrhoeae Isolates from Tonsils and Posterior Oropharynx

    PubMed Central

    Whiley, D. M.; Lee, D. M.; Snow, A. F.; Fairley, C. K.; Peel, J.; Bradshaw, C. S.; Hocking, J. S.; Lahra, M. M.; Chen, M. Y.

    2015-01-01

    We examined the factors influencing gonorrhea detection at the pharynx. One hundred men infected with Neisseria gonorrhoeae were swabbed from the tonsils and posterior oropharynx. N. gonorrhoeae was reisolated from the tonsils and posterior oropharynx in 62% and 52%, respectively (P = 0.041). Culture positivity was greater with higher gonococcal DNA loads at the tonsils (P = 0.001) and oropharynx (P < 0.001). N. gonorrhoeae can be cultured from the tonsils and posterior oropharynx with greater isolation rates where gonococcal loads are higher. PMID:26292303

  18. Morphology of the lingual surface of South American fur seal (Arctocephalus australis) and sea lion (Otaria flavescens).

    PubMed

    Erdoğan, Serkan; Villar Arias, Silvia; Pérez, William

    2015-02-01

    In this study, we aimed to describe the morphological characteristics of the lingual papillae in two species of Otariidae family by stereomicroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. We used tongues of two South American Otariidae species. The tongues were elongated and terminated in bifid apex and there was no median sulcus on the dorsal lingual surface. The most numerous type of lingual papilla was filiform in the South American fur seal (SASL) and entire dorsal lingual surface was covered by these filiform papillae but the dorsal surface of the tongue of the South American sea lion was covered by numerous polygonal projections, which were different in size. Fungiform papillae were detected in only SASL and they randomly distributed on the lingual apex and body, and some fungiform papillae were collected into twosome or threesome groups on the posterior part of the lingual body. Circumvallate papilla was found in the center of the lingual radix of South American sea lion. Thread-like conical papillae were common for both species and they located on the lingual radix. We determined that lingual surface morphology was completely different in each species, although they were members of the same family, Otariidae. PMID:25431362

  19. Lingual Guttering Technique for Removal of Impacted Mandibular Third Molars

    PubMed Central

    Kale, Tejraj P; Pandit, Vikram S; Patil, Shankargouda; Pawar, Vivek; Shetty, Nisha

    2014-01-01

    Background: To assess the clinical feasibility of lingual bone guttering technique for surgical extraction of mandibular third molars. Materials and Methods: 20 patients with thick lingual cortical plate were included in the study. Surgical extraction of mandibular third molars by lingual bone guttering technique was performed in all the subjects. These subjects were evaluated for integrity of lingual cortical plate and sensation of lingual nerve postoperatively. Results: All extractions done by lingual bone guttering technique were clinically feasible to perform and no complications were seen. Conclusion: Lingual bone guttering technique can be used safely in extraction of mandibular third molars with thick lingual cortical plate. PMID:25214725

  20. [Tonsil calculi in the orthopantomography image].

    PubMed

    Crameri, Manuel; Bassetti, Renzo; Werder, Peter; Kuttenberger, Johannes

    2016-01-01

    Tonsilloliths are calcifications within the tonsillar crypts. Affected are especially the palatine tonsils. The prevalence is ranging between 16 and 46.1%. Tonsilloliths can be the reason for chronic halitosis, irritating cough, dysphagia, otalgia, foreign body sensation or foul taste in the mouth. They are often asymptomatic. Tonsilloliths can be discovered incidentally in orthopantomography (OPT) as singular or multiple radioopacities in the area of the ramus mandibulae. The aim of this case report is to present two cases with asymptomatic tonsilloliths detected based on an OPT and confirmed in a computed tomography (CT) or by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). PMID:26797801

  1. Fibroepithelial Polyp of the Tonsil: Report of a Rare Case

    PubMed Central

    Ashish, Gaurav

    2015-01-01

    Pedunculated polyps of the palatine tonsil are rare benign tumours of tonsil. Most of the cases have been reported in adults with varying presenting symptoms. We report a 12-year-old male child who presented with 6 months history of difficulty in swallowing. There was no history of breathing difficulty, change in voice or history of trauma. Clinical examination revealed a 2x1 cm small pedunculated polyp arising from the superior pole of right tonsil which was excised under general anaesthesia. Left tonsil was normal. A diagnosis of fibroepithelial polyp of right palatine tonsil was made based on histopathological findings. An unusual presentation of a rare condition in a paediatric patient has been discussed along with the clinical and histopathological features of this lesion. PMID:26816905

  2. Morphofunctional structure of the lingual papillae in three species of South American Camelids: Alpaca, guanaco, and llama.

    PubMed

    Erdoğan, Serkan; Villar Arias, Silvia; Pérez, William

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the anatomical and functional characteristics of the lingual papilla among the Camelidae. For this purpose, tongues of alpaca, guanaco, and llama were used. Numerous long and thin filiform papillae were located in the median groove and none were detected on the rest of the dorsal surface of the lingual apex in alpaca. Secondary papillae originated from the base of some filiform papillae on the ventral surface of alpaca tongue. The bases of some filiform papillae of the lateral surface of the lingual apex were inserted into conspicuous grooves in guanaco and tips of filiform papillae on the dorsal surface of the lingual body were ended by bifurcated apex. On the dorsal surface of the lingual apex of llama, there were no filiform papillae but there were numerous filiform papillae on both the lateral margins of the ventral surface of the lingual apex. Fungiform papillae were distributed randomly on dorsal lingual surface and ventral margins of the tongues of all camelid species. Lenticular papillae were located on the lingual torus and varied in size and topographical distribution for each species. Circumvallate papillae had irregular surfaces in llama and alpaca, and smooth surface in guanaco. In conclusion, llama and alpaca tongues were more similar to each other, and tongues of all camelid species displayed more similarities to those of Bactrian and dromedary camels in comparison with other herbivores and ruminants. PMID:26572928

  3. Follicular dendritic cell sarcoma of the tonsil

    PubMed Central

    Kara, Tuba; Serinsoz, Ebru; Arpaci, Rabia Bozdogan; Vayisoglu, Yusuf

    2013-01-01

    Follicular dendritic cell sarcoma (FDCS) is an uncommon tumour within the spectrum of histiocytic and dendritic cell neoplasms that can occur at nodal and extra-nodal sites. Besides being rare, these tumours are difficult to diagnose. A 72-year-old man with a painless mass in the right tonsil was admitted to the Mersin University Hospital. Tonsillectomy was performed. Microscopically, the tumour consisted of spindle-shaped cells with large oval to polygonal nuclei. Lymphocytes were scattered among the tumour cells. Immunohistochemically, the cells were positive for CD23 and vimentin. The tumour was diagnosed as FDCS with histological and immunohistochemical findings. Recognition of extranodal FDCS requires knowledge of this entity and to consider it during the diagnosis. Confirmatory immunohistochemical staining is essential for diagnosis. Correct characterisation of this neoplasm is important because of its potential for recurrence and metastasis. PMID:23365157

  4. Digital necrosis with squamous cell carcinoma of the tonsil

    PubMed Central

    Warrier, Vinod; Ahmad, Ali; Alshatti, Yaqoub; Jafar, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Background Digital necrosis is a rare phenomenon of paraneoplastic syndrome associated with squamous cell carcinoma of the tonsil. Since 1965, more than 70 cases have been reported worldwide in the literature. Case report A 54-year-old male smoker presented with Raynaud’s phenomenon, proceeding to frank gangrene of the fingers. Working up the case finally pointed toward carcinoma of the tonsil as the underlying cause – a rare paraneoplastic manifestation. Conclusion No definite etiology has been found to be the cause of Raynaud’s phenomenon in this case of the squamous cell carcinoma of the tonsil. A brief discussion of the literature is also presented. PMID:27390535

  5. Chondroid Choriostoma of Palatine Tonsil – A Rare Entity

    PubMed Central

    Bharti, Jyotsna Naresh; Ghosh, Nivedita; Arora, Prerna; Goyal, Vasudha

    2013-01-01

    A choristoma or heterotopias is an aggregate of microscopically normal cells or tissues which occurs in aberrant locations. A choristoma is a tumour like mass, whereas heterotopias refers to a displaced tissue which is necessarily not a swelling or a neoplasm. We are reporting a case of a 24 year old female who presented with recurrent tonsillitis and halitosis. On examination, the tonsils were found to be enlarged. Because of the persistent symptoms, a tonsillectomy was performed. The histopathological examination showed features of chronic tonsillitis, along with presence of mature islands of hyaline cartilage which were surrounded by lymphoid follicles and focal areas of calcification and osseous metaplasia. PMID:24086881

  6. Chondroid choriostoma of palatine tonsil - a rare entity.

    PubMed

    Bharti, Jyotsna Naresh; Ghosh, Nivedita; Arora, Prerna; Goyal, Vasudha

    2013-08-01

    A choristoma or heterotopias is an aggregate of microscopically normal cells or tissues which occurs in aberrant locations. A choristoma is a tumour like mass, whereas heterotopias refers to a displaced tissue which is necessarily not a swelling or a neoplasm. We are reporting a case of a 24 year old female who presented with recurrent tonsillitis and halitosis. On examination, the tonsils were found to be enlarged. Because of the persistent symptoms, a tonsillectomy was performed. The histopathological examination showed features of chronic tonsillitis, along with presence of mature islands of hyaline cartilage which were surrounded by lymphoid follicles and focal areas of calcification and osseous metaplasia. PMID:24086881

  7. [Rectal tonsil or lymphoid follicular hyperplasia of the rectum].

    PubMed

    Trillo Fandiño, L; Arias González, M; Iglesias Castañón, A; Fernández Eire, M P

    2014-01-01

    The rectal tonsil is a reactive proliferation of lymphoid tissue located in the rectum. The morphology of the lymphoid proliferation of the colon is usually polypoid or, less commonly, nodular. Only in exceptional cases does lymphoid proliferation of the colon present as a mass in the rectum (rectal tonsil), although this is the most common presentation in middle-aged patients. It is important to be familiar with the rectal tonsil because in cases of exuberant growth it can be difficult to distinguish it from other types of masses. We present the case of rectal tonsil in a four-year-old girl. We describe the magnetic resonance imaging findings and review the literature. PMID:22112591

  8. Neutrophil chemokines in epithelial inflammatory processes of human tonsils

    PubMed Central

    Sachse, F; Ahlers, F; Stoll, W; Rudack, C

    2005-01-01

    CXC chemokines are thought to play an important role at sites of inflammation. Because ELR+ CXC chemokines are expressed in different types of tonsillitis we investigated the role of the surface/crypt epithelium of human tonsils in producing ELR+ CXC chemokines: interleukin (IL)-8 (CXCL8), ENA-78 (CXCL5), GRO-α (CXCL1) and GCP-2 (CXCL6). Tonsillar tissue was obtained from patients undergoing tonsillectomy and chemokine expression was investigated by means of immunohistochemistry. A549 cells were used as a model to study kinetics of chemokine expression in epithelial cells. Cells were stimulated with tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and supernatants derived from aerobic/anaerobic Staphylococcus aureus strains. Chemokine expression was measured by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). We observed epithelial expression of IL-8, GRO-α and GCP-2 in different types of tonsillitis, whereas ENA-78 was rarely expressed. In A549 cells abundant expression of ENA-78 was detected. IL-8 and GCP-2 are expressed in an acute type of tonsillitis whereas GRO-α was frequently detectable both in chronically and acutely inflamed tonsils. ENA-78 does not seem to play a pivotal role in tonsillitis in vivo. PMID:15807854

  9. Extra-Esophageal Pepsin from Stomach Refluxate Promoted Tonsil Hypertrophy

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jin Hyun; Jeong, Han-Sin; Kim, Kyung Mi; Lee, Ye Jin; Jung, Myeong Hee; Park, Jung Je; Kim, Jin Pyeong; Woo, Seung Hoon

    2016-01-01

    Background Gastroesophageal reflux is associated with numerous pathologic conditions of the upper aerodigestive tract. Gastric pepsin within reflux contributes to immunologic reactions in the tonsil. In this study, we aimed to find the relationships between pepsin and tonsillar hypertrophy. Methods and finding We explored the notion whether tonsillar hypertrophy was due to pepsin-mediated gastric reflux in tonsil hypertrophy. Fifty-four children with tonsil hypertrophy and 30 adults with tonsillitis were recruited before surgical treatment. Blood and tonsil tissues from each patient were harvested for analysis of changes in lymphocyte and macrophage numbers coupled with histological and biochemical analysis. Pepsin was expressed at different levels in tonsil tissues from each tonsillar hypertrophy. Pepsin-positive cells were found in the crypt epithelium, surrounding the lymphoid follicle with developing fibrosis, and also surrounding the lymphoid follicle that faced the crypt. And also, pepsin staining was well correlated with damaged tonsillar squamous epithelium and TGF-β1 and iNOS expression in the tonsil section. In addition, pepsin and TGF-β1-positive cells were co-localized with CD68-positive cells in the crypt and surrounding germinal centers. In comparison of macrophage responsiveness to pepsin, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMNCs) were noticeably larger in the presence of activated pepsin in the child group. Furthermore, CD11c and CD163-positive cells were significantly increased by activated pepsin. However, this was not seen for the culture of PBMNCs from the adult group. Conclusions The lymphocytes and monocytes are in a highly proliferative state in the tonsillar hypertrophy and associated with increased expression of pro-inflammatory factors as a result of exposure to stomach reflux pepsin. PMID:27058240

  10. Lingual hyperpigmentation associated with minocycline therapy.

    PubMed

    Meyerson, M A; Cohen, P R; Hymes, S R

    1995-02-01

    Minocycline can cause hyperpigmentation of the conjunctiva, oral mucosa, and skin. Pigmentation of the oral mucosa may also be associated with a variety of endogenous or exogenous factors. Lingual pigmentation may be seen in Addison's disease, amalgam tatoo, malignant melanoma, Peutz-Jegher's syndrome, and other diseases. Two women who had isolated pigmentation of the tongue while taking minocycline are described; no other drug-induced pigmentation of their oral mucosa or skin occurred. Minocycline-induced pigmentation should be added to the differential diagnosis of isolated lingual hyperpigmentation. PMID:7614181

  11. The 2D lingual appliance system.

    PubMed

    Cacciafesta, Vittorio

    2013-09-01

    The two-dimensional (2D) lingual bracket system represents a valuable treatment option for adult patients seeking a completely invisible orthodontic appliance. The ease of direct or simplified indirect bonding of 2D lingual brackets in combination with low friction mechanics makes it possible to achieve a good functional and aesthetic occlusion, even in the presence of a severe malocclusion. The use of a self-ligating bracket significantly reduces chair-side time for the orthodontist, and the low-profile bracket design greatly improves patient comfort. PMID:24005953

  12. Human papillomavirus infection is rare in nonmalignant tonsil tissue in the UK: implications for tonsil cancer precursor lesions.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Elizabeth; Newcombe, Robert G; Green, Adele C; Kelly, Carole; Noel Gill, O; Hall, Gillian; Fiander, Alison N; Pirotte, Evelyne; Hibbitts, Sam J; Homer, Jarrod; Powell, Ned G

    2014-11-15

    The incidence of human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated tonsil cancer is increasing but the prevalence of HPV, and of premalignant precursors, in tonsil tissue is unknown. We aimed to assess prevalence of HPV infection in nonmalignant tonsillar crypt epithelia and to histopathologically characterise positive samples. Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tonsil tissue specimens were obtained from an age- and sex-stratified random sample of patients aged 0-69 years whose paired tonsils were archived following elective tonsillectomy at hospitals throughout England and Southern Scotland from 2004 to 2008. Homogenised fresh-frozen tonsil tissue was also obtained from archive for two random subsets of males aged 25-34 and over 44. HPV status was assessed in all samples for 20 mucosal HPV types by GP5+/6+ polymerase chain reaction (PCR) enzyme immunoassay and by HPV16 type-specific PCR targeting the E6 gene. In the homogenised material, HPV status was also assessed for 44 HPV types by SPF10-PCR enzyme immunoassay. Of 4,095 randomly sampled FFPE specimens, amplifiable DNA was extracted from 3,377 (82.5%) and from 511 of 524 (97.5%) homogenised tonsils. HPV DNA was identified in 0 of 3,377 (0%, 95% CI 0-0.089%) fixed samples and 0 of 511 (0%, 95% CI 0-0.58%) homogenised samples. This suggests HPV infection may be rare in tonsil reticulated crypt epithelia. Furthermore, we found no evidence of HPV-associated premalignant neoplasia. These data suggest that if HPV-associated premalignant lesions do occur, they are likely to be rare and may have a high risk of progression to carcinoma. PMID:24723209

  13. Effects of Directional Exercise on Lingual Strength

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Heather M.; O'Brien, Katy; Calleja, Aimee; Corrie, Sarah Newcomb

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the application of known muscle training principles to tongue strengthening exercises and to answer the following research questions: (a) Did lingual strength increase following 9 weeks of training? (b) Did training conducted using an exercise moving the tongue in one direction result in strength changes for tongue movements in…

  14. Piezosurgery for the Lingual Split Technique in Lingual Positioned Impacted Mandibular Third Molar Removal

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Jing; Yang, Chi; Zheng, Jiawei; Qian, Wentao

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect and safety of lingual split technique using piezosurgery for the extraction of lingual positioned impacted mandibular 3rd molars with the goal of proposing a more minimally invasive choice for this common surgery. Eighty-nine consecutive patients with 110 lingual positioned impacted mandibular 3rd molars requiring extraction were performed the lingual split technique using piezosurgery. One sagittal osteotomy line and 2 transverse osteotomy line were designed for lingual and occlusal bone removal. The success rate, operative time, postoperative outcome, and major complications (including nerve injury, mandible fracture, severe hematoma or edema, and severe pyogenic infection) were documented and analyzed. All impacted mandibular 3rd molars were successfully removed (110/110). The average time of operation was 14.6 minutes (ranged from 7 to 28 minutes). One hundred and seven extraction sites (97.3%) were primary healing. Pain, mouth opening, swelling, and PoSSe scores on postoperative 7-day were 0.34 ± 0.63, 3.88 ± 0.66(cm), 2.4 ± 0.2(cm), and 23.7 ± 5.9, respectively. There were 6 cases (5.5%) had lingual nerve disturbance and 3 cases (2.7%) developed inferior alveolar nerve impairment, and achieved full recovery within 2 months by neurotrophic drug treatment. Our study suggested piezosurgery for lingual split technique provided an effective way for the extraction of lingual positioned and deeply impacted mandibular 3rd molar. PMID:27015214

  15. Tonsil ultrasound: technical approach and spectrum of pediatric peritonsillar infections.

    PubMed

    Bandarkar, Anjum N; Adeyiga, Adebunmi O; Fordham, M Taylor; Preciado, Diego; Reilly, Brian K

    2016-06-01

    Peritonsillar infections are one of the most common deep neck space infections, particularly in adolescents. Inaccurate diagnosis can lead to delay in management and potentially life-threatening complications. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) scan of the neck traditionally has been used to diagnose suspected peritonsillar abscess. With growing concern over radiation exposure, there has been increasing utilization of ultrasound (US) using intraoral and transcutaneous approaches. We chose the transcutaneous US technique due to its ease of performance in children. The purpose of this article is twofold: a) to describe our technique of performing transcutaneous US of the tonsil showing sonographic appearance of normal tonsil, highlighting pertinent anatomy and unique considerations for this modality in children, and b) to illustrate the sonographic findings in the spectrum of pediatric peritonsillar infections, which includes uncomplicated tonsillitis, peritonsillar cellulitis, small intratonsillar abscess and frank peritonsillar abscess. Parapharyngeal abscess can sometimes be detected. PMID:26637999

  16. [The role of microflora in etiology of chronic tonsillitis].

    PubMed

    Kriukov, A I; Tovmasian, A S; Drabkina, I V; Sukhina, M A; Zhukhovitskiĭ, V G

    2010-01-01

    Analysis of the results of a bacteriological study involving 218 patients with various forms of chronic tonsillitis (CT) has demonstrated that they were significantly different in terms of the seeding rate of beta-hemolytic group A Streptococci (BHAS). Specifically, these microorganisms were detected in patients with paratonsillar abscess 2.5 times as frequently as in those with uncomplicated forms of chronic tonsilitis. In other words, the former group is at risk of developing such concomitant diseases as post-streptococcal rheumocarditis, glomerulonephritis, and polyarthritis. It was shown that BHAS are capable of forming a biological film at the surface of abiogenic carriers in vitro which may be a principal cause of chronic and recurring tonsillitis. PMID:20559241

  17. Tonsillitis with acute myeloid leukemia: a case series for caution.

    PubMed

    Thakur, Jagdeep S; Mohindroo, N K; Sharma, D R; Mohindroo, Shobha; Thakur, Anamika

    2013-01-01

    Worldwide, tonsillitis is very common. The most common etiology is cross-infection with bacteria and viruses. These cases are managed with antibiotics and anti-inflammatory drugs without any further investigation because the diagnosis is based on simple clinical examination. Usually, leukemia presents with bleeding, weight loss, lymphadenopathy, fever, and frequent infection. Tonsillitis is a rare first presentation of leukemia. We present 3 cases in which the diagnosis of leukemia was made on routine examination, and in 1 case diagnosis was suspected during tonsillectomy. PMID:23599112

  18. Assessing the anatomical variations of lingual foramen and its bony canals with CBCT taken from 102 patients in Isfahan

    PubMed Central

    Sheikhi, Mahnaz; Mosavat, Farzaneh; Ahmadi, Ahura

    2012-01-01

    Background: Some studies have been performed on assessing the anatomical variations of lingual foramen and its bony canals, in many different countries but no study has been performed in Iran yet. The purpose of this study is to assess the anatomical variations of lingual foramen and its bony canals with cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) imaging in Isfahan. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study in which CBCT images taken from 102 patients referred to the Radiology Department of Head and Neck in Esfahan (Iran) University between 2010 and 2011. The presence of the lingual foramen and its bony canals, the locations, sizes, and length were assessed. The distances between the terminal end of lingual canal at the buccal and lingual side from the inferior border of the mandible and alveolar crest were measured. We also evaluated the effect of patient age and gender on the dimensional measurements of the anatomical landmark mentioned above t test, analysis of variance (ANOVA), and pearson's correlation were used for statistical analysis and P value lower than 0.05 was considered significant. Result: All of the CBCT images taken showed the presence of lingual foramen. Of all the participants, 52% of them had two foramens in their images. The mean diameters of the upper and lower lingual foramen were 1.12 and 0.9 mm, respectively. Conclusion: These anatomical landmarks in Isfahan population vary from previous studies. All of the images had at least one lingual foramen which demonstrates high prevalence of this anatomy among Isfehanian population. Therefore, it is recommended to use CBCT imaging for preoperative evaluation prior to installing dental implants. PMID:23814561

  19. Examination of the reticular epithelium of the bovine pharyngeal tonsil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The nasopharyngeal tonsil (adenoid), located at the posterior of the nasopharynx is ideally positioned to sample antigens entering through the nasal cavity or oral cavity. Entering antigens will first contact tonsilar epithelium. To better understand the cellular composition of this important epithe...

  20. Palatine tonsillar metastasis of a small pulmonary adenocarcinoma showing an invasive micropapillary carcinoma pattern and Pagetoid spread at the tonsil: a case suggesting retrograde lymphatic metastasis from bulky lymph node metastases of the neck

    PubMed Central

    Tajima, Shogo; Koda, Kenji

    2015-01-01

    Metastasis rarely occurs in the palatine tonsils. Among primary pulmonary carcinoma subtypes, small cell carcinoma more frequently metastasizes to this site. Herein, we present an exceedingly rare case of a small pulmonary adenocarcinoma that metastasized to the cervical lymph nodes and the right palatine tonsil in a 62-year-old man. In spite of the small size of the primary site, such extensive metastasis may have occurred because of the invasive micropapillary carcinoma pattern seen in the metastatic sites. The manner of metastasis to the palatine tonsil was considered retrograde lymphatic metastasis originating from carcinoma cells in the cervical lymph nodes. Furthermore, Pagetoid spread was observed at the palatine tonsil. Although there have been only a few cases showing retrograde lymphatic metastasis and Pagetoid spread at the metastatic site, we should be careful when speculating about the primary site based on such metastatic sites, especially when dealing with a biopsy sample exhibiting Pagetoid spread. PMID:26722582

  1. [Anatomical rationale for lingual nerve injury prevention during mandibular block].

    PubMed

    Semkin, V A; Dydikin, S S; Kuzin, A V; Sogacheva, V V

    2015-01-01

    The topographic and anatomical study of lingual nerve structural features was done. It was revealed that during mandibular anesthesia possible lingual nerve injury can occur if puncture needle is lower than 1 cm. of molars occlusal surface level. The position of the lingual nerve varies withmandible movements. At the maximum open mouth lingual nerve is not mobile and is pressed against the inner surface of the mandibular ramus by the medial pterygoid muscle and the temporal muscle tendon. When closing the mouth to 1.25±0.2 cmfrom the physiological maximum, lingual nerve is displaced posteriorly from the internal oblique line of the mandible and gets mobile. On the basis of topographic and anatomic features of the lingual nervestructure the authors recommend the re-do of inferior alveolar nerve block, a semi-closed mouth position or the use the "high block techniques" (Torus anesthesia, Gow-Gates, Vazirani-Akinozi). PMID:26271698

  2. Lingual Osseous Choristoma Case report and review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Benamer, Mohamed H.; Elmangoush, Arej M.

    2007-01-01

    Lingual osseous choristoma is an extremely rare condition, of which only 61 cases have been reported. Monserrat in 1913 was the first to report this bony lesion on the dorsum of the tongue and it was labelled as lingual osteoma, the term that normally describes neoplastic pathology. Krolls et al changed this term later to osseous choristoma, which means normal tissue in an abnormal location. The aetiology and pathogenesis of lingual osseous choristoma remain debatable. We report a case of lingual osseous choristoma and review the literature. PMID:21503232

  3. Unilateral Radiotherapy for the Treatment of Tonsil Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Chronowski, Gregory M.; Garden, Adam S.; Morrison, William H.; Frank, Steven J.; Schwartz, David L.; Shah, Shalin J.; Beadle, Beth M.; Gunn, G. Brandon; Kupferman, Michael E.; Ang, Kian K.; Rosenthal, David I.

    2012-05-01

    Purpose: To assess, through a retrospective review, clinical outcomes of patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the tonsil treated at the M. D. Anderson Cancer Center with unilateral radiotherapy techniques that irradiate the involved tonsil region and ipsilateral neck only. Methods and Materials: Of 901 patients with newly diagnosed squamous cell carcinoma of the tonsil treated with radiotherapy at our institution, we identified 102 that were treated using unilateral radiotherapy techniques. All patients had their primary site of disease restricted to the tonsillar fossa or anterior pillar, with <1 cm involvement of the soft palate. Patients had TX (n = 17 patients), T1 (n = 52), or T2 (n = 33) disease, with Nx (n = 3), N0 (n = 33), N1 (n = 23), N2a (n = 21), or N2b (n = 22) neck disease. Results: Sixty-one patients (60%) underwent diagnostic tonsillectomy before radiotherapy. Twenty-seven patients (26%) underwent excision of a cervical lymph node or neck dissection before radiotherapy. Median follow-up for surviving patients was 38 months. Locoregional control at the primary site and ipsilateral neck was 100%. Two patients experienced contralateral nodal recurrence (2%). The 5-year overall survival and disease-free survival rates were 95% and 96%, respectively. The 5-year freedom from contralateral nodal recurrence rate was 96%. Nine patients required feeding tubes during therapy. Of the 2 patients with contralateral recurrence, 1 experienced an isolated neck recurrence and was salvaged with contralateral neck dissection only and remains alive and free of disease. The other patient presented with a contralateral base of tongue tumor and involved cervical lymph node, which may have represented a second primary tumor, and died of disease. Conclusions: Unilateral radiotherapy for patients with TX-T2, N0-N2b primary tonsil carcinoma results in high rates of disease control, with low rates of contralateral nodal failure and a low incidence of acute toxicity

  4. Lingual tactile acuity and food texture preferences among children and their mothers

    PubMed Central

    Lukasewycz, Laura D.; Mennella, Julie A.

    2012-01-01

    Despite anecdotal reports of children being more sensitive to texture than adults, and of texture being one of the main drivers of food aversions, there is a paucity of scientific knowledge on the influence of texture perception on food choice in children. The primary goals of this study were to assess the use of a modified letter-identification task to study lingual tactile acuity, one aspect of oral sensitivity, in children and to examine age-related differences in sensitivity. The secondary goal was to explore whether lingual tactile acuity and age relate to various measures of food choice and preference. To this end, children 7–10 years old (31 girls, 21 boys) and their mothers were tested using identical procedures. To assess lingual tactile acuity, children and mothers were asked to use the tips of their tongues to identify raised alphabetical letters of varying size (2.5–8.0 mm) on Teflon strips. To relate lingual tactile acuity to food texture preferences, a forced-choice questionnaire assessed preferences for foods similar in flavor but different in texture (e.g., smooth versus crunchy peanut butter). Children were able to complete the lingual acuity task as well as their mothers and took less time to assess each letter stimulus (p < 0.001); however, there were no age-related differences in lingual acuity (p = 0.14). Age, but not lingual acuity, related to food texture preferences: mothers preferred harder foods (p < 0.001) and those containing more particles (p < 0.04) than did children, although children‘s preferences became more adult-like with increasing age. The availability of a rapid, child-friendly method for assessing oral sensitivity opens up new possibilities of examining differences in oral tactile perceptions across the life span. That food preferences changed with age and were not related to oral sensitivity underscores the fact that factors such as experience, culture and family food practices have a significant impact on children

  5. Morphology of the lingual papillae in the Patagonian cavy.

    PubMed

    Emura, Shoichi; Okumura, Toshihiko; Chen, Huayue

    2011-11-01

    We examined the dorsal lingual surfaces of an adult Patagonian cavy (Dolichotis patagonum) by scanning electron microscopy. The tongue of the Patagonian cavy is about 8 cm long and the lingual body had lingual prominence on the posterior third. There were no fungiform papillae in the lingual dorsal surface. The fungiform papillae were observed in both lateral sides of the lingual apex. The filiform papilla of the lingual body consisted of a large conical papilla. The connective tissue core of the filiform papilla showed many slender processes. The fungiform papillae were round in shape. The connective tissue core of the fungiform papilla was flower-bud shaped. Two vallate papillae were located on between lingual body and root, and insert in two grooves. The connective tissue core of the vallate papilla was covered with numerous small spines. Many foliate papillae were observed on the posterolateral regions of the tongue. After removing epithelium from the foliate papillae many vertical depressions became apparent. These findings suggest that in the structure of the lingual papillae of the Patagonian cavy there is similar to that of the capybara. PMID:22519071

  6. Thyroglossal Duct Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma and Synchronous Lingual Thyroid Atypia

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Timothy; Kim, Yohanan; Simental, Alfred; Inman, Jared C.

    2016-01-01

    Thyroglossal duct and lingual thyroid ectopic lesions are exceedingly rare synchronous findings. Papillary thyroid carcinoma of these ectopic thyroid sites is well understood but still a rare finding. This case points to some management nuances in regard to ectopic thyroid screening with imaging and also shows the effectiveness of minimally invasive transoral robotic surgery for lingual thyroid. PMID:27119036

  7. Spatial and Temporal Lingual Coarticulation and Motor Control in Preadolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zharkova, Natalia; Hewlett, Nigel; Hardcastle, William J.; Lickley, Robin J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, the authors compared coarticulation and lingual kinematics in preadolescents and adults in order to establish whether preadolescents had a greater degree of random variability in tongue posture and whether their patterns of lingual coarticulation differed from those of adults. Method: High-speed ultrasound tongue contour…

  8. Lingual Epithelial Stem Cells and Organoid Culture of Them

    PubMed Central

    Hisha, Hiroko; Tanaka, Toshihiro; Ueno, Hiroo

    2016-01-01

    As tongue cancer is one of the major malignant cancers in the world, understanding the mechanism of maintenance of lingual epithelial tissue, which is known to be the origin of tongue cancer, is unquestionably important. However, the actual stem cells that are responsible for the long-term maintenance of the lingual epithelium have not been identified. Moreover, a simple and convenient culture method for lingual epithelial stem cells has not yet been established. Recently, we have shown that Bmi1-positive cells, residing at the second or third layer of the epithelial cell layer at the base of the interpapillary pit (IPP), were slow-cycling and could supply keratinized epithelial cells for over one year, indicating that Bmi1-positive cells are long-term lingual epithelial stem cells. In addition, we have developed a novel lingual epithelium organoid culture system using a three-dimensional matrix and growth factors. Here, we discuss current progress in the identification of lingual stem cells and future applications of the lingual culture system for studying the regulatory mechanisms of the lingual epithelium and for regenerative medicine. PMID:26828484

  9. Effects of Lingual Effort on Swallow Pressures Following Radiation Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lenius, Kerry; Stierwalt, Julie; LaPointe, Leonard L.; Bourgeois, Michelle; Carnaby, Giselle; Crary, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This article investigated the effects of increased oral lingual pressure on pharyngeal pressures during swallowing in patients who have undergone radiotherapy for head and neck cancer. It was hypothesized that increased oral lingual pressure would result in increased pharyngeal pressures. Method: A within-subject experimental design was…

  10. Clinical practice guideline: tonsillitis I. Diagnostics and nonsurgical management.

    PubMed

    Windfuhr, Jochen P; Toepfner, Nicole; Steffen, Gregor; Waldfahrer, Frank; Berner, Reinhard

    2016-04-01

    More than 120,000 patients are treated annually in Germany to resolve repeated episodes of acute tonsillitis. Therapy is aiming at symptom regression, avoidance of complications, reduction in the number of disease-related absences in school or at work, increased cost-effectiveness and improved quality of life. The purpose of this part of the guideline is to provide clinicians in any setting with a clinically focused multi-disciplinary guidance through different conservative treatment options in order to reduce inappropriate variation in clinical care, improve clinical outcome and reduce harm. Surgical management in terms of intracapsular as well as extracapsular tonsillectomy (i.e. tonsillotomy) is the subject of part II of this guideline. To estimate the probability of tonsillitis caused by β-hemolytic streptococci, a diagnostic scoring system according to Centor or McIsaac is suggested. If therapy is considered, a positive score of ≥3 should lead to pharyngeal swab or rapid test or culture in order to identify β-hemolytic streptococci. Routinely performed blood tests for acute tonsillitis are not indicated. After acute streptococcal tonsillitis, there is no need to repeat a pharyngeal swab or any other routine blood tests, urine examinations or cardiological diagnostics such as ECG. The determination of the antistreptolysin O-titer (ASLO titer) and other antistreptococcal antibody titers do not have any value in relation to acute tonsillitis with or without pharyngitis and should not be performed. First-line therapy of β-hemolytic streptococci consists of oral penicillin. Instead of phenoxymethylpenicillin-potassium (penicillin V potassium), also phenoxymethlpenicillin-benzathine with a clearly longer half-life can be used. Oral intake for 7 days of one of both the drugs is recommended. Alternative treatment with oral cephalosporins (e.g. cefadroxil, cefalexin) is indicated only in cases of penicillin failure, frequent recurrences, and whenever a more

  11. Arch development with trans-force lingual appliances.

    PubMed

    Clark, William J

    2005-01-01

    Trans-Force lingual appliances are designed to correct arch form in patients with contracted dental arches. Interceptive treatment with this new series of pre-activated lingual appliances offers new possibilities for arch development, in combination with fixed appliances. Palatal and lingual appliances insert in horizontal lingual sheaths in molar bands. No activation is required after the appliance is fitted, and this principle is extended to a series of appliances for sagittal and transverse arch development. Both sagittal and transverse appliances have additional components to achieve 3-way expansion where this is indicated. The invisible lingual appliances may be used in correction of all classes of malocclusion at any stage of development, from mixed dentition through permanent dentition, and this approach has wide indications in adult treatment. PMID:15794037

  12. Determining shapes and dimensions of dental arches for the use of straight-wire arches in lingual technique

    PubMed Central

    Kairalla, Silvana Allegrini; Scuzzo, Giuseppe; Triviño, Tarcila; Velasco, Leandro; Lombardo, Luca; Paranhos, Luiz Renato

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: This study aims to determine the shape and dimension of dental arches from a lingual perspective, and determine shape and size of a straight archwire used for lingual Orthodontics. METHODS: The study sample comprised 70 Caucasian Brazilian individuals with normal occlusion and at least four of Andrew's six keys. Maxillary and mandibular dental casts were digitized (3D) and the images were analyzed by Delcam Power SHAPET 2010 software. Landmarks on the lingual surface of teeth were selected and 14 measurements were calculated to determine the shape and size of dental arches. RESULTS: Shapiro-Wilk test determined small arch shape by means of 25th percentile (P25%) - an average percentile for the medium arch; and a large one determined by means of 75th percentile (P75%). T-test revealed differences between males and females in the size of 12 dental arches. CONCLUSION: The straight-wire arch shape used in the lingual straight wire technique is a parabolic-shaped arch, slightly flattened on its anterior portion. Due to similarity among dental arch sizes shown by males and females, a more simplified diagram chart was designed. PMID:25715725

  13. Morphology and morphometry of lingual papillae in adult and newborn Egyptian fruit bats (Rousettus aegyptiacus).

    PubMed

    Trzcielińska-Lorych, J; Jackowiak, H; Skieresz-Szewczyk, K; Godynicki, S

    2009-10-01

    The paper presents a comparison of the microscopic structure and morphometric traits of gustatory and mechanical lingual papillae in newborn and adult frugivorous Egyptian fruit bats (Rousettus aegyptiacus). All of the four types of lingual papillae found in adult animals were observed on the tongue surface in the newborn Egyptian fruit bats. After the birth, the gustatory papillae (fungiform and vallate papillae) were especially well-developed, as their structural characteristics, such as morphology of the epithelium and presence of the taste buds, indicate that they have reached almost complete functional traits. Mechanical papillae, particularly filiform papillae, in newborns are still fetal in character. Keratinization processes in the epithelium of these papillae are not advanced and specific structures, such as elongated processes, are missing. The morphometric analysis of the size of papillae and thickness of the mucosal epithelium showed that a complete development of keratinized structures in Egyptian fruit bats occurs at later stages of postnatal development. PMID:19681832

  14. Class II malocclusion with complex problems treated with a novel combination of lingual orthodontic appliances and lingual arches.

    PubMed

    Yanagita, Takeshi; Nakamura, Masahiro; Kawanabe, Noriaki; Yamashiro, Takashi

    2014-07-01

    This case report describes a novel method of combining lingual appliances and lingual arches to control horizontal problems. The patient, who was 25 years of age at her first visit to our hospital with a chief complaint of crooked anterior teeth, was diagnosed with skeletal Class II and Angle Class II malocclusion with anterior deep bite, lateral open bite, premolar crossbite, and severe crowding in both arches. She was treated with premolar extractions and temporary anchorage devices. Conventionally, it is ideal to use labial brackets simultaneously with appliances, such as a lingual arch, a quad-helix, or a rapid expansion appliance, in patients with complex problems requiring horizontal, anteroposterior, and vertical control; however, this patient strongly requested orthodontic treatment with lingual appliances. A limitation of lingual appliances is that they cannot be used with other conventional appliances. In this report, we present the successful orthodontic treatment of a complex problem using modified lingual appliances that enabled combined use of a conventional lingual arch. PMID:24975004

  15. Is the difference in the volume of the pharyngeal space, as measured by acoustic pharyngometry, before and after tonsillectomy proportional to the volume of the excised tonsils?

    PubMed Central

    Di Francesco, Renata C.; Kreibich, Mariana Schmidt

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Adenotonsillectomy is recognized as an effective therapy for snoring and sleep disorders in children. It is important to understand whether adenotonsillectomy significantly increases the volume of the pharyngeal space. The goal of this study was to evaluate the change in oropharyngeal volume after adenotonsillectomy and the correlation of this change with the objective volume of the tonsils and body mass index. METHODS: We included 27 subjects (14 males) with snoring caused by tonsil and adenoid hypertrophy. The mean age of the subjects was 7.92 (±2.52) years. Children with craniofacial malformations or neuromuscular diseases or syndromes were excluded. The parents/caregivers answered an adapted questionnaire regarding sleep-disordered breathing. All patients were subjected to weight and height measurements and body mass index was calculated. The subjects underwent pharyngometry before and after adenotonsillectomy and the volume of both excised tonsils together was measured in cm3 in the operating room. RESULTS: Pharyngometric analysis showed that the mean pharyngeal volume was 28.63 (±5.57) cm3 before surgery and 31.23 (±6.76) cm3 after surgery; the volume of the oropharynx was significantly increased post-surgery (p=0.015, Wilcoxon test). No correlation was found between the objective tonsil volume and the post-surgical volume increase (p=0.6885). There was a fair correlation between the oropharyngeal volume and body mass index (p=0.0224). CONCLUSION: Adenotonsillectomy increases the volume of the pharyngeal space, but this increase does not correlate with the objective tonsil size. Furthermore, greater BMI was associated with a smaller increase in the pharyngeal volume. Oropharyngeal structures and craniofacial morphology may also play a role in the increase in oropharyngeal volume. PMID:27276399

  16. Morphology of the lingual papillae in the giraffe.

    PubMed

    Emura, Shoichi; Okumura, Toshihiko; Chen, Huayue

    2013-01-01

    We examined the dorsal lingual surfaces of an adult giraffe (giraffa camelopardalis) by scanning electron microscopy. The filiform papillae on the lingual apex consisted of slender and thick conical papillae. The connective tissue core of the filiform papilla was flower-bud-like in shape. The filiform papillae on the lingual body consisted of large conical papillae and the fungiform papillae were round in shape. The connective tissue core of the fungiform papilla was rose-like in shape. The filiform papillae on the lingual prominence consisted of more large conical papillae than that of the lingual body. The connective tissue core of the filiform papilla was trianglar in shape. The large lenticular papillae were limited on the lingual prominence. The connective tissue core of the lenticular papilla consisted of small spines. The vallate papillae were located on both sides of the posterolateral aspects. The vallate papillae were flattened-oval in shape and the papillae were surrounded by a semicircular trench. The top of the connective tissue core of the vallate papilla had a rough surface with no spines. PMID:23614981

  17. Piezosurgery for the Lingual Split Technique in Lingual Positioned Impacted Mandibular Third Molar Removal: A Retrospective Study.

    PubMed

    Ge, Jing; Yang, Chi; Zheng, Jiawei; Qian, Wentao

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect and safety of lingual split technique using piezosurgery for the extraction of lingual positioned impacted mandibular 3rd molars with the goal of proposing a more minimally invasive choice for this common surgery.Eighty-nine consecutive patients with 110 lingual positioned impacted mandibular 3rd molars requiring extraction were performed the lingual split technique using piezosurgery. One sagittal osteotomy line and 2 transverse osteotomy line were designed for lingual and occlusal bone removal. The success rate, operative time, postoperative outcome, and major complications (including nerve injury, mandible fracture, severe hematoma or edema, and severe pyogenic infection) were documented and analyzed.All impacted mandibular 3rd molars were successfully removed (110/110). The average time of operation was 14.6 minutes (ranged from 7 to 28 minutes). One hundred and seven extraction sites (97.3%) were primary healing. Pain, mouth opening, swelling, and PoSSe scores on postoperative 7-day were 0.34 ± 0.63, 3.88 ± 0.66(cm), 2.4 ± 0.2(cm), and 23.7 ± 5.9, respectively. There were 6 cases (5.5%) had lingual nerve disturbance and 3 cases (2.7%) developed inferior alveolar nerve impairment, and achieved full recovery within 2 months by neurotrophic drug treatment.Our study suggested piezosurgery for lingual split technique provided an effective way for the extraction of lingual positioned and deeply impacted mandibular 3rd molar. PMID:27015214

  18. Studies of Tonsils in Basic and Clinical Perspectives: From the Past to the Future.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Keiji; Ichimiya, Shingo; Kamekura, Ryuta; Nagaya, Tomonori; Jitsukawa, Sumito; Matsumiya, Hiroshi; Takano, Kenichi; Himi, Tetsuo

    2016-01-01

    The tonsils are located at the entrance of the pharynx as a cardinal constituent of Waldeyer's ring, taking part not only in local immune responses, but also in systemic immunity. Functional deficits of tonsils primarily underlie the pathogenesis of various characteristic disorders, including tonsillar focal infections such as palmoplantar pustulosis and IgA nephropathy, in addition to the highly prevalent sleep disorder called obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. Although the mechanisms underlying these disorders remain unknown, the tonsils have long been postulated as a unique and enigmatic immune organ. Lymphoid cells and tissues from surgically resected tonsils are often employed to analyze the human immune response from a retrospective view. This approach has provided much new fundamental evidence for understanding innate and acquired immune responses, thereby facilitating further studies in the fields of mucosal immunity and specific humoral immunity originating in the germinal center. Future studies of the tonsils in basic and clinical research are expected to reveal the mechanisms of tonsil-related disorders as well as the nature of human immunity. In this review, which is primarily based on our original research over the past 3 decades, we summarize our findings and discuss the future prospects of studies focusing on the tonsils. PMID:27116026

  19. Assessment of Lingual Frenulum Lengths in Skeletal Malocclusion

    PubMed Central

    Meenakshi, Swarna; Jagannathan, Nithya

    2014-01-01

    Background: The orofacial musculature plays a pivotal role in maintaining a balance in positioning of the teeth and any imbalance which occurs in this , results in malocclusion. Lingual frenum is a soft tissue structure which tethers the ventral surface of the tongue to the floor of the mouth. Objective: This study was performed to analyze the lingual frenal lengths in skeletal class I, class II and Class III malocclusion and to correlate relationship between both. Materials and Methods: This study comprised of 30 subjects, with 10 in each group and an impression was made with the maximum mouth opening position and the tip of tongue touching the incisive papilla. The length of the lingual frenum was then measured from the casts. The maximum mouth opening position was also determined by measuring the interincisal distance with the maximum mouth opening position. Statistical analysis was done to analyze the relationship between both. Results: The lingual frenum was found to be longest in class III malocclusion, with a statistical significant value of p<0.01. The class II and class I malocclusion did not show much difference. The maximum mouth opening position was also increased in class III malocclusion, followed by class II and class I malocclusion, in a descending order. Conclusion: The lingual frenum exerts erratic forces and a long lingual frenum pushes the mandibular anteriors forwards, resulting in malocclusion. Hence, a relationship between the lingual frenum and malocclusion is essential, so that the erratic forces can be eliminated and excellent results can be achieved, following the correction of malocclusion. PMID:24783137

  20. Expression of microRNAs in HPV negative tonsil cancers and their regulation of PDCD4.

    PubMed

    Khoury, Samantha; Ahadi, Alireza; Zhang, Xiaoying; Tran, Nham

    2016-06-01

    Global rates of tonsil cancer have been increasing since the turn of the millennia, however we still have a limited understanding of the genes and pathways which control this disease. This array dataset which is linked to our publication (Zhang et al., 2015) describes the profiling of human miRNAs in tonsil and normal adjacent tissues. With this dataset, we identified a list of microRNA (miRNA) which were highly over represented in tonsil cancers and showed that several miRNAs were able to regulate the tumour suppressor PDCD4 in a temporal manner. The dataset has been deposited into Gene Expression Omnibus (GSE75630). PMID:27222808

  1. Electrophysiological responses to non-electrolytes in lingual nerve of rat and in lingual epithelia of dog.

    PubMed

    Simon, S A; Sostman, A L

    1991-01-01

    Epithelial and neural mechanisms underlying the trigeminal chemoreception of non-electrolytes were investigated in whole-nerve recordings from lingual nerve and in Ussing-chamber studies of isolated lingual epithelia. The non-electrolytes included menthol, amyl acetate, phenethyl alcohol, toluene, methanol, ethanol, propanol, butanol, hexanol and octanol. They produced different lingual nerve responses: methanol and ethanol only increased ongoing activity; longer-chain alcohols initially increased but then suppressed activity below baseline; phenethyl alcohol and toluene only suppressed activity. Their threshold concentrations for lingual nerve responses, with the exception of menthol, were proportional to the octanol:water partition coefficients of the stimuli. The threshold concentration for menthol was significantly lower than predicted by this coefficient. Calculation of the free energy of transfer from the threshold concentrations for the n-alcohols suggests that they undergo partition into a hydrophobic environment such as is found in lipid bilayers. Lanthanum chloride, which inhibited lingual nerve responses to hydrophilic compounds, presumably by blocking their diffusion across tight junctions, did not inhibit responses to these non-electrolytes. At high concentrations, hexanol acted as an anaesthetic in that the lingual nerve no longer responded to thermal and chemical stimuli whereas ethanol, which only increased lingual nerve activity, did not inhibit those responses. Epithelial transport, as indicated by the short-circuit current (Isc) measured across tongues bathed in symmetrical solutions of Krebs-Henseleit buffer, was reversibly inhibited by ethanol, hexanol, octanol, phenyl ethanol and menthol. The stimulus concentration necessary to inhibit 50% of the Isc decreased with increasing octanol:water partition coefficient.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1722391

  2. Molecular Mapping to Species Level of the Tonsillar Crypt Microbiota Associated with Health and Recurrent Tonsillitis

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Anders; Fagö-Olsen, Helena; Sørensen, Christian Hjort; Kilian, Mogens

    2013-01-01

    The human palatine tonsils, which belong to the central antigen handling sites of the mucosal immune system, are frequently affected by acute and recurrent infections. This study compared the microbiota of the tonsillar crypts in children and adults affected by recurrent tonsillitis with that of healthy adults and children with tonsillar hyperplasia. An in-depth 16S rRNA gene based pyrosequencing approach combined with a novel strategy that included phylogenetic analysis and detection of species-specific sequence signatures enabled identification of the major part of the microbiota to species level. A complex microbiota consisting of between 42 and 110 taxa was demonstrated in both children and adults. This included a core microbiome of 12 abundant genera found in all samples regardless of age and health status. Yet, Haemophilus influenzae, Neisseria species, and Streptococcus pneumoniae were almost exclusively detected in children. In contrast, Streptococcus pseudopneumoniae was present in all samples. Obligate anaerobes like Porphyromonas, Prevotella, and Fusobacterium were abundantly present in children, but the species diversity of Porphyromonas and Prevotella was larger in adults and included species that are considered putative pathogens in periodontal diseases, i.e. Porphyromonas gingivalis, Porphyromonas endodontalis, and Tannerella forsythia. Unifrac analysis showed that recurrent tonsillitis is associated with a shift in the microbiota of the tonsillar crypts. Fusobacterium necrophorum, Streptococcus intermedius and Prevotella melaninogenica/histicola were associated with recurrent tonsillitis in adults, whereas species traditionally associated with acute tonsillitis like pyogenic streptococci and Staphylococcus aureus were scarce. The findings suggest that recurrent tonsillitis is a polymicrobial infection in which interactions within consortia of taxa play an etiologic role. The study contributes to the human microbiome data, to the understanding of the

  3. Complete genome sequence of Spirosoma linguale type strain (1T)

    SciTech Connect

    Lail, Kathleen; Sikorski, Johannes; Saunders, Elizabeth H; Lapidus, Alla L.; Glavina Del Rio, Tijana; Copeland, A; Tice, Hope; Cheng, Jan-Fang; Lucas, Susan; Nolan, Matt; Bruce, David; Goodwin, Lynne A.; Pitluck, Sam; Ivanova, N; Mavromatis, K; Ovchinnikova, Galina; Pati, Amrita; Chen, Amy; Palaniappan, Krishna; Land, Miriam L; Hauser, Loren John; Chang, Yun-Juan; Jeffries, Cynthia; Chain, Patrick S. G.; Detter, J. Chris; Schutze, Andrea; Rohde, Manfred; Tindall, Brian; Goker, Markus; Bristow, James; Eisen, Jonathan; Markowitz, Victor; Hugenholtz, Philip; Kyrpides, Nikos C; Klenk, Hans-Peter; Chen, Feng

    2010-01-01

    Spirosoma linguale Migula 1894 is the type species of the genus. S. linguale is a free-living and non-pathogenic organism, known for its peculiar ringlike and horseshoe-shaped cell morphology. Here we describe the features of this organism, together with the complete ge-nome sequence and annotation. This is only the third completed genome sequence of a member of the family Cytophagaceae. The 8,491,258 bp long genome with its eight plas-mids, 7,069 protein-coding and 60 RNA genes is part of the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacte-ria and Archaea project.

  4. Morphology of the filiform lingual papillae in porcupine (Hystrix cristata).

    PubMed

    Karan, M; Yilmaz, S; Aydin, A

    2011-04-01

    The light and scanning electron microscopic structure of the filiform lingual papillae was studied in five adult porcupine (three males and two females). The tongue was characterised by a round tip, a rostral median sulcus and a deep lingual fossa which was situated just rostral to a prominent inter-molar eminence corresponding to a torus linguae. The filiform papillae were curved, enclosed a large connective tissue core and were separated by wide inter-papillary zones covered by a thick epithelium. Most filiform papillae had a cylindrical shape, but the rostral and central parts of the tongue contained a number of flat, comb-shaped papillae with rounded tips. PMID:21105901

  5. Lingual Propulsive Pressures across Consistencies Generated by the Anteromedian and Posteromedian Tongue by Healthy Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gingrich, Laura L.; Stierwalt, Julie A. G.; Hageman, Carlin F.; LaPointe, Leonard L.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: In the present study, the authors investigated lingual propulsive pressures generated in the normal swallow by the anterior and posterior lingual segments for various consistencies and maximum isometric tasks. Method: Lingual pressures for saliva, thin, and honey-thick liquid boluses were measured via the Iowa Oral Performance Instrument…

  6. Three case reports demonstrating treatment of relatively complex orthodontic cases using a completely customised lingual appliance.

    PubMed

    Buckley, John

    2016-01-01

    It is a commonly held misconception among Irish dentists that only minor malocclusions can be treated with lingual appliances. This article demonstrates the use of contemporary completely customised lingual orthodontic appliances to treat a diverse range of malocclusions, to a satisfactory level, and thereby may disabuse clinicians of the belief that only minor malocclusions can be treated with lingual appliances. PMID:27197371

  7. A lingual mucogingival problem associated with ankyloglossia: a case report.

    PubMed

    Ewart, N P

    1990-01-01

    This report reviews the relationship between lingual frena, gingival recession, and tongue-tie, and describes a man with tongue-tie, localised gingival recession, and a speech impediment. The patient was treated surgically, with a satisfactory result 11 years later. PMID:2333177

  8. Torque control during lingual anterior retraction without posterior appliances

    PubMed Central

    Mo, Sung-Seo; Sung, Sang-Jin; Chung, Kyu-Rhim; Chun, Yun-Sic; Kook, Yoon-Ah; Nelson, Gerald

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the factors that affect torque control during anterior retraction when utilizing the C-retractor with a palatal miniplate as an exclusive source of anchorage without posterior appliances. Methods The C-retractor was modeled using a 3-dimensional beam element (0.9-mm-diameter stainless-steel wire) attached to mesh bonding pads. Various vertical heights and 2 attachment positions for the lingual anterior retraction hooks (LARHs) were evaluated. A force of 200 g was applied from each side hook of the miniplate to the splinted segment of 6 or 8 anterior teeth. Results During anterior retraction, an increase in the LARH vertical height increased the amount of lingual root torque and intrusion of the incisors. In particular, with increasing vertical height, the tooth displacement pattern changed from controlled tipping to bodily displacement and then to lingual root displacement. The effects were enhanced when the LARH was located between the central and lateral incisors, as compared to when the LARH was located between the lateral incisors and canines. Conclusions Three-dimensional lingual anterior retraction of the 6 or 8 anterior teeth can be accomplished using the palatal miniplate as the only anchorage source. Using LARHs at different heights or positions affects the quality of torque and intrusion. PMID:23502971

  9. A System for Supporting Cross-Lingual Information Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Capstick, Joanne; Diagne, Abdel Kader; Erbach, Gregor; Uszkoreit, Hans; Leisenberg, Anne; Leisenberg, Manfred

    2000-01-01

    Describes the MULINEX system that supports cross-lingual searching of the World Wide Web. Users can formulate queries, filter the search results and read documents by using their native language. Discusses dictionary-based query translation, multilingual document categorization, and automatic translation that supports French, German, and English.…

  10. Techniques for Field Application of Lingual Ultrasound Imaging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gick, Bryan; Bird, Sonya; Wilson, Ian

    2005-01-01

    Techniques are discussed for using ultrasound for lingual imaging in field-related applications. The greatest challenges we have faced distinguishing the field setting from the laboratory setting are the lack of controlled head/transducer movement, and the related issue of tissue compression. Two experiments are reported. First, a pilot study…

  11. Lingual Kinematics during Rapid Syllable Repetition in Parkinson's Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Min Ney; Murdoch, Bruce E.; Whelan, Brooke-Mai

    2012-01-01

    Background: Rapid syllable repetition tasks are commonly used in the assessment of motor speech disorders. However, little is known about the articulatory kinematics during rapid syllable repetition in individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD). Aims: To investigate and compare lingual kinematics during rapid syllable repetition in dysarthric…

  12. Swallowing Disorders in Parkinson's Disease: Impact of Lingual Pumping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Argolo, Natalie; Sampaio, Marília; Pinho, Patrícia; Melo, Ailton; Nóbrega, Ana Caline

    2015-01-01

    Background: Lingual pumping (LP) is a repetitive, involuntary, anteroposterior movement of the tongue on the soft palate that is executed prior to transferring the food bolus to the pharynx, but we also observed LP when multiple swallows were taken. LP may be associated with rigidity and bradykinesia in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). This…

  13. Separate and distinctive roles for Wnt5a in tongue, lingual tissue and taste papilla development

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hong-Xiang; Grosse, Ann S.; Iwatsuki, Ken; Mishina, Yuji; Gumucio, Deborah L.; Mistretta, Charlotte M.

    2012-01-01

    Although canonical Wnt signaling is known to regulate taste papilla induction and numbers, roles for noncanonical Wnt pathways in tongue and taste papilla development have not been explored. With mutant mice and whole tongue organ cultures we demonstrate that Wnt5a protein and message are within anterior tongue mesenchyme across embryo stages from the initiation of tongue formation, through papilla placode appearance and taste papilla development. The Wnt5a mutant tongue is severely shortened, with an ankyloglossia, and lingual mesenchyme is disorganized. However, fungiform papilla morphology, number and innervation are preserved, as is expression of the papilla marker, Shh. These data demonstrate that the genetic regulation for tongue size and shape can be separated from that directing lingual papilla development. Preserved number of papillae in a shortened tongue results in an increased density of fungiform papillae in the mutant tongues. In tongue organ cultures, exogenous Wnt5a profoundly suppresses papilla formation and simultaneously decreases canonical Wnt signaling as measured by the TOPGAL reporter. These findings suggest that Wnt5a antagonizes canonical Wnt signaling to dictate papilla number and spacing. In all, distinctive roles for Wnt5a in tongue size, fungiform papilla patterning and development are shown and a necessary balance between non-canonical and canonical Wnt paths in regulating tongue growth and fungiform papillae is proposed in a model, through the Ror2 receptor. PMID:22024319

  14. A Case of Lingual Thyroid Presenting with Severe Hematemesis in Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Sudke, Amol; Dey, Amit Kumar; Dhamanskar, Suchin; Kulkarni, Varsha

    2016-01-01

    Lingual thyroid is a rare anomaly with symptoms such as upper airway obstruction, dysphagia, or hypothyroidism. However, bleeding is a very rare manifestation. This report describes a case of lingual thyroid in women with 28 weeks of amenorrhea and hematemesis, and its course of diagnosis and treatment. The pathogenesis of lingual thyroid is unknown. Although ectopic lingual thyroid is usually not managed surgically, excision of ectopic lingual thyroid can be lifesaving when it is causing bleeding or airway obstruction. However, during pregnancy, surgery is the preferred mode of treatment. PMID:27134565

  15. Distribution of the lingual foramina in mandibular cortical bone in Koreans

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Dae Hyun; Kim, Moon Yong

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The interforminal region, between the mandibular foramen, is known as a relatively safe area that is free of anatomic structures, such as inferior alveolar nerve, submandibular fossa, and lingual side of the mandible is occasionally neglected for its low clinical importance. Even in the case of a severely constricted alveolus, perforation of the lingual cortical bone had been intended. However, anterior extension of the inferior alveolar canal, important anatomic structure, such as concavity of lingual bone, lingual foramina, and lingual canal, has recently been reported through various studies, and untypical bleeding by perforation of the lingual plate on implantation has also been reported. Therefore, in this study, we performed radiographic and statistical analysis on distribution and appearance frequencies of the lingual foramina that causes perforation of the mandibular lingual cortical bone to prevent complications, such as untypical bleeding, during surgical procedure. Materials and Methods We measured the horizontal length from a midline of the mandible to the lingual foramina, as well as the horizontal length from the alveolar crest to the lingual foramina and from the lingual foramina to the mandibular border by multi-detector computed tomography of 187 patients, who visited Dankook University Dental Hospital for various reasons from January 1, 2008 to August 31, 2012. Results From a total of 187 human mandibles, 110 (58.8%) mandibles had lingual foramina; 39 (20.9%) had bilateral lingual foramen; 34 (18.2%) had the only left lingual foramen; and 37 (19.8%) had the only right lingual foramen. Conclusion When there is consistent bleeding during a surgical procedure, clinicians must consider damages on the branches of the sublingual artery, which penetrate the lingual foramina. Also, when there is a lingual foramina larger than 1 mm in diameter on a pre-implantation computed tomography, clinicians must beware of vessel damage. In order to prevent

  16. A Case of Lingual Thyroid Presenting with Severe Hematemesis in Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Sudke, Amol; Dey, Amit Kumar; Dhamanskar, Suchin; Kulkarni, Varsha

    2016-01-01

    Lingual thyroid is a rare anomaly with symptoms such as upper airway obstruction, dysphagia, or hypothyroidism. However, bleeding is a very rare manifestation. This report describes a case of lingual thyroid in women with 28 weeks of amenorrhea and hematemesis, and its course of diagnosis and treatment. The pathogenesis of lingual thyroid is unknown. Although ectopic lingual thyroid is usually not managed surgically, excision of ectopic lingual thyroid can be lifesaving when it is causing bleeding or airway obstruction. However, during pregnancy, surgery is the preferred mode of treatment. PMID:27134565

  17. slan/M-DC8+ cells constitute a distinct subset of dendritic cells in human tonsils

    PubMed Central

    Micheletti, Alessandra; Finotti, Giulia; Calzetti, Federica; Lonardi, Silvia; Zoratti, Elisa; Bugatti, Mattia; Stefini, Stefania; Vermi, William; Cassatella, Marco A.

    2016-01-01

    Human blood dendritic cells (DCs) include three main distinct subsets, namely the CD1c+ and CD141+ myeloid DCs (mDCs) and the CD303+ plasmacytoid DCs (pDCs). More recently, a population of slan/M-DC8+ cells, also known as “slanDCs”, has been described in blood and detected even in inflamed secondary lymphoid organs and non-lymphoid tissues. Nevertheless, hallmarks of slan/M-DC8+ cells in tissues are poorly defined. Herein, we report a detailed characterization of the phenotype and function of slan/M-DC8+ cells present in human tonsils. We found that tonsil slan/M-DC8+ cells represent a unique DC cell population, distinct from their circulating counterpart and also from all other tonsil DC and monocyte/macrophage subsets. Phenotypically, slan/M-DC8+ cells in tonsils display a CD11c+HLA-DR+CD14+CD11bdim/negCD16dim/negCX3CR1dim/neg marker repertoire, while functionally they exhibit an efficient antigen presentation capacity and a constitutive secretion of TNFα. Notably, such DC phenotype and functions are substantially reproduced by culturing blood slan/M-DC8+ cells in tonsil-derived conditioned medium (TDCM), further supporting the hypothesis of a full DC-like differentiation program occurring within the tonsil microenvironment. Taken together, our data suggest that blood slan/M-DC8+ cells are immediate precursors of a previously unrecognizedcompetent DC subset in tonsils, and pave the way for further characterization of slan/M-DC8+ cells in other tissues. PMID:26695549

  18. Herpes simplex induced necrotizing tonsillitis in an immunocompromised patient with ulcerative colitis.

    PubMed

    Jansen, Laura; Vos, Xander G; Löwenberg, Mark

    2016-02-16

    We here present the case of a 22-year-old female of Suriname ethnicity with ulcerative colitis who received treatment with mercaptopurine and infliximab. She presented herself with a severe necrotizing tonsillitis due to herpes simplex virus type-1 (HSV-1). Combination therapy consisting of immunomodulators and anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF) agents is increasingly being used. Anti-TNF therapy is associated with an increased risk of developing serious infections, and especially patients receiving combination treatment with thiopurines are at an increased risk. We here show that HSV infections can cause a severe tonsillitis in immunocompromised patients. Early recognition is essential when there is no improvement with initial antibiotic therapy within the first 24 to 72 h. HSV infections should be in the differential diagnosis of immunocompromised patients presenting with a necrotizing tonsillitis and can be confirmed by polymerase chain reaction. Early treatment with antiviral agents should be considered especially if antibiotic treatment fails in such patients. PMID:26881193

  19. Herpes simplex induced necrotizing tonsillitis in an immunocompromised patient with ulcerative colitis

    PubMed Central

    Jansen, Laura; Vos, Xander G; Löwenberg, Mark

    2016-01-01

    We here present the case of a 22-year-old female of Suriname ethnicity with ulcerative colitis who received treatment with mercaptopurine and infliximab. She presented herself with a severe necrotizing tonsillitis due to herpes simplex virus type-1 (HSV-1). Combination therapy consisting of immunomodulators and anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF) agents is increasingly being used. Anti-TNF therapy is associated with an increased risk of developing serious infections, and especially patients receiving combination treatment with thiopurines are at an increased risk. We here show that HSV infections can cause a severe tonsillitis in immunocompromised patients. Early recognition is essential when there is no improvement with initial antibiotic therapy within the first 24 to 72 h. HSV infections should be in the differential diagnosis of immunocompromised patients presenting with a necrotizing tonsillitis and can be confirmed by polymerase chain reaction. Early treatment with antiviral agents should be considered especially if antibiotic treatment fails in such patients. PMID:26881193

  20. [Microflora of the mucous membrane of human tonsils in the normal state and in pathology].

    PubMed

    Khusnutdinova, L M

    2006-01-01

    A total of 50 healthy persons and 50 chronic tonsillitis patients were examined with the use of the bacteriological method. The microflora of tonsillar mucous membrane was represented by 8 genera of facultative anaerobic microorganisms. In the biocenosis of the tonsillar mucosa of the healthy subjects the occurrence of Streptococcus was 1.5-fold greater than in that of the patients; microorganisms of the genus Staphylococcus prevailed on the tonsillar mucosa of chronic tonsillitis patients 1.3-fold prevailed more often and Klebsiella and Neisseria prevailed 4-fold more often. Among the microorganisms isolated from the patients, cultures simultaneously having two or more pathogenicity markers occurred twice as often as among the representatives of the microbiocenosis obtained from the healthy subjects. The microflora of the tonsillar mucosa of the chronic tonsillitis patients was characterized by resistance to penicillins, macrolides and aminoglygosides, but was simultaneously sensitive to lincosamides and glycopeptides. PMID:16532644

  1. Extravasation Mucocele Arising from a Lingual Thyroglossal Duct Remnant

    PubMed Central

    Nakahira, Mitsuhiko; Nakatani, Hiroaki

    2015-01-01

    Although a thyroglossal duct cyst is a congenital anomaly, it can also appear in adults. Despite the presence of embryological remnants, it is still unclear why the cyst should suddenly develop later in life. We report a case of a 46-year-old male with an extravasation mucocele arising from a long-standing lingual thyroglossal duct remnant. MRI demonstrated a lingual cystic lesion near the hyoid bone associated with a suprahyoid tract-like structure masquerading as a thyroglossal duct cyst. However, histopathological examination demonstrated a mucocele secondary to a rupture of a thyroglossal duct remnant with numerous intramural heterotopic salivary glands. We propose a new mechanism of an acquired cystic formation of this congenital disease that excessive production of mucus from heterotopic salivary glands and a physical trauma such as swallowing may lead to extravasation of mucus from the thyroglossal duct. PMID:25861502

  2. Extravasation mucocele arising from a lingual thyroglossal duct remnant.

    PubMed

    Nakahira, Mitsuhiko; Nakatani, Hiroaki

    2015-01-01

    Although a thyroglossal duct cyst is a congenital anomaly, it can also appear in adults. Despite the presence of embryological remnants, it is still unclear why the cyst should suddenly develop later in life. We report a case of a 46-year-old male with an extravasation mucocele arising from a long-standing lingual thyroglossal duct remnant. MRI demonstrated a lingual cystic lesion near the hyoid bone associated with a suprahyoid tract-like structure masquerading as a thyroglossal duct cyst. However, histopathological examination demonstrated a mucocele secondary to a rupture of a thyroglossal duct remnant with numerous intramural heterotopic salivary glands. We propose a new mechanism of an acquired cystic formation of this congenital disease that excessive production of mucus from heterotopic salivary glands and a physical trauma such as swallowing may lead to extravasation of mucus from the thyroglossal duct. PMID:25861502

  3. Histopathologic Evaluations of the Lingual Artery in Healthy Tongue of Adult Cadaver

    PubMed Central

    Mun, Mi Jin; Lee, Chang-Hoon; Lee, Byung-Joo; Lee, Jin-Choon; Jang, Jeon Yeob; Jung, Sung Hoon; Wang, Soo-Geun

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To clarify the anatomical distribution of the lingual artery in normal adult subjects through histopathologic evaluations. Methods. Eighteen healthy cadaveric tongues were used to produce 8 paraffin-embedded tissue sections each. Length from midline raphe, depth from dorsum of tongue and the whole transverse length tongue were measured. The lateral distance, depth, and proportion of lateral distance of deep lingual artery were determined from tip to base of tongue gradually. Lateral distance is length from median raphe to the center of deep lingual artery lumen. Depth is vertical distance from dorsal surface of tongue to the center of deep lingual artery. Proportion of lateral distance is obtained by dividing lateral distance with transverse length from median raphe to lateral border of tongue. The degree of symmetry between right and left sides and the difference between selected spots were evaluated. Results. Right and left sides of the lingual artery were symmetric. The lingual artery was lateralized as it run posterior. The lingual artery runs gradually deeper from the surface as it goes near the base of tongue. Both length and depth of the lingual artery gradually increased between 0%–75% of the mobile tongue, but 75%–100% zone of the lingual artery showed no significant difference. There was no anastomosis between right and left side of the lingual arteries. The lingual artery was located within 50% of the transverse length of tongue from median raphe. Conclusion. The present study reveals 3-dimensional information on the anatomical distributions of the lingual artery in normal adult subjects. These findings gives us beneficial information about the handling of the lingual artery during oral and base of tongue-related surgery. PMID:27334510

  4. Ipsilateral radiotherapy for squamous cell carcinoma of the tonsil.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, William R; Herman, Michael P; Deraniyagala, Rohan L; Amdur, Robert J; Werning, John W; Dziegielewski, Peter T; Morris, Christopher G; Mendenhall, William M

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study is to update our institution's experience with ipsilateral radiation therapy (RT) for squamous cell carcinoma of the tonsillar area. Outcome study of 76 patients treated between 1984 and 2012 with ipsilateral RT for squamous cell carcinoma of the tonsil. Patients had either cT1 (n = 41, 54 %) or cT2 (n = 35, 46 %) primaries and cN0 (n = 27, 36 %), cN1 (n = 15, 20 %), cN2a (n = 8, 11 %), or cN2b (n = 26, 34 %) nodal disease. Of these, 32 (42 %) patients underwent a planned neck dissection and 21 (28 %) patients received concomitant chemotherapy. Median follow-up for all patients was 7.1 years (range 0.1-27.2) and 7.8 years (range 2.1-27.2 years) for living patients. The 2- and 5-year control and survival rates were as follows: local control, 98.6 and 96.9 %; local-regional control 95.8 and 92.6 %; cause-specific survival 95.9 and 93.1 %; and overall survival, 92.1 and 83.8 %. One patient failed in the contralateral, non-radiated neck 3 years after primary treatment. Univariate analysis revealed that overall survival was significantly influenced by whether the patient had a primary tumor in the anterior tonsillar pillar versus the tonsillar fossa with the latter performing better. The incidence of severe late complications was 16 %. Ipsilateral RT for patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the anterior tonsillar pillar or tonsillar fossa with no base of tongue or soft palate extension is an efficacious treatment that provides excellent control rates with a relatively low incidence of late complications. PMID:26223350

  5. The structure and source of lingual proprioceptors in the monkey.

    PubMed Central

    Fitzgerald, M J; Sachithanandan, S R

    1979-01-01

    The proprioceptive innervation of the tounge has been investigated in the Cynamolgus monkey by silver impregnation methods following unilateral section of lingual, hypoglossal, and cervical nerves. Muscle spindles were constantly present in the intrinsic and extrinsic muscles. They varied greatly in number, averaged half the length of lumbrical spindles, and showed an unusual arrangement of chain fibre nuclei. Other, inconstant proprioceptors included tendon endings, Ruffini endings, Pacinian corpuscles, paciniform and lamellated endings. Topologically, the endings other than spindles were extra-muscular, so that the overall pattern of proprioceptive innervation resembled that of skeletal muscle in general. Lingual nerve section was without apparent effect on the proprioceptors. Section of the hypoglossal nerve at its point of entry into the tongue caused severe depletiion of ipsilateral proprioceptors and of fusimotor nerves. In the anterior tongue there was evidence of transmedian overlap by efferent and afferent axons contained in the hypoglossal nerve. Hypoglossal section at the skull base caused degeneration of fusimotor nerves but not of proprioceptors. Section of (a), the connexion of C2-C3 ventral rami with the hypoglossal, together with section of (b), the ramus descendens hypoglossi, coused depletion of lingual proprioceptors; again there was evidence of transmedian overlap. Procedures (a) or (b) alone had a lesser effect. It was concluded that lingual proprioceptive afferent fibres occupy the distal hypoglossal nerve, leaving it in the ramus descendens and in the C2-C3 connexion to enter the spinal cord via nerves C2 and C3. Images Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 17 Figs. 18,20 Fig. 19 Fig. 21 Figs. 22-26 Fig. 27 Fig. 28 Fig. 29 Fig. 30 Fig. 31 Fig. 32 Fig. 33 Fig. 34 Fig. 35 Fig. 36 Fig. 37 Fig. 38 Fig. 39 PMID:157344

  6. Tuberculosis of Waldeyer’s Ring with an Atypical Presentation as Chronic Adeno-Tonsilitis

    PubMed Central

    Shenoy, Vijendra S; M, Nirupama; Prasad, Vishnu; Majeed, Nazeem A

    2015-01-01

    Primary tuberculosis of the oropharynx and nasopharynx is a rare clinical entity.It usually arises secondary to pulmonary tuberculosis. We report a rare case of a 20-year-female, who presented with fever and throat pain. Examination revealed hypertrophied adenoids and tonsils, which was ultimately proved as tuberculosis.Enlargement of the palatine tonsils could be due to a multitude of causes, and a thorough evaluation is necessary to arrive at the right diagnosis.Increased awareness of nasopharyngeal and oropharyngeal tuberculosis is important in tropical countries, as the disease may be overlooked resulting in inappropriate management. PMID:25859475

  7. Tuberculosis of Waldeyer's Ring with an Atypical Presentation as Chronic Adeno-Tonsilitis.

    PubMed

    Kamath, Panduranga M; Shenoy, Vijendra S; M, Nirupama; Prasad, Vishnu; Majeed, Nazeem A

    2015-02-01

    Primary tuberculosis of the oropharynx and nasopharynx is a rare clinical entity.It usually arises secondary to pulmonary tuberculosis. We report a rare case of a 20-year-female, who presented with fever and throat pain. Examination revealed hypertrophied adenoids and tonsils, which was ultimately proved as tuberculosis.Enlargement of the palatine tonsils could be due to a multitude of causes, and a thorough evaluation is necessary to arrive at the right diagnosis.Increased awareness of nasopharyngeal and oropharyngeal tuberculosis is important in tropical countries, as the disease may be overlooked resulting in inappropriate management. PMID:25859475

  8. Interventions in the Alteration on Lingual Frenum: Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Miranda, Priscilla Poliseni; Cardoso, Carolina Louise; Gomes, Erissandra

    2015-01-01

    Introduction  Altered lingual frenum modifies the normal tongue mobility, which may influence the stomatognathic functions, resulting in anatomical, physiological and social damage to the subject. It is necessary that health professionals are aware of the process of evaluation, diagnostics and treatment used today, guiding their intervention. Objective  To perform a systematic review of what are the treatment methods used in cases of lingual frenum alteration. Data Synthesis  The literature searches were conducted in MEDLINE, LILACS, SciELO, Cochrane and IBECS, delimited by language (Portuguese, English, Spanish), date of publication (January 2000 to January 2014) and studies performed in humans. The selection order used to verify the eligibility of the studies were related to: full text availability; review the abstract; text analysis; final selection. Of the total 443 publications, 26 remained for analysis. The surgical approach was used in all studies, regardless of the study population (infants, children and adults), with a range of tools and techniques employed; speech therapy was recommended in the post surgical in 4 studies. Only 4 studies, all with infants, showed scientific evidence. Conclusion  Surgical intervention is effective for the remission of the limitations caused by the alteration on lingual frenum, but there is a deficit of studies with higher methodological quality. The benefits of speech therapy in the post surgical period are described from improvement in the language of mobility aspects and speech articulation. PMID:27413412

  9. Evidence of a true pharyngeal tonsil in birds: a novel lymphoid organ in Dromaius novaehollandiae and Struthio camelus (Palaeognathae)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Tonsils are secondary lymphoid organs located in the naso- and oropharynx of most mammalian species. Most tonsils are characterised by crypts surrounded by dense lymphoid tissue. However, tonsils without crypts have also been recognised. Gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT), although not well-organised and lacking tonsillar crypts, is abundant in the avian oropharynx and has been referred to as the “pharyngeal tonsil”. In this context the pharyngeal folds present in the oropharynx of ratites have erroneously been named the pharyngeal tonsils. This study distinguishes between the different types and arrangements of lymphoid tissue in the pharyngeal region of D. novaehollandiae and S. camelus and demonstrates that both species possess a true pharyngeal tonsil which fits the classical definition of tonsils in mammals. Results The pharyngeal tonsil (Tonsilla pharyngea) of D. novaehollandiae was located on the dorsal free surface of the pharyngeal folds and covered by a small caudo-lateral extension of the folds whereas in S. camelus the tonsil was similarly located on the dorsal surface of the pharyngeal folds but was positioned retropharyngeally and encapsulated by loose connective tissue. The pharyngeal tonsil in both species was composed of lymph nodules, inter-nodular lymphoid tissue, mucus glands, crypts and intervening connective tissue septa. In S. camelus a shallow tonsillar sinus was present. Aggregated lymph nodules and inter-nodular lymphoid tissue was associated with the mucus glands on the ventral surface of the pharyngeal folds in both species and represented the Lymphonoduli pharyngeales. Similar lymphoid tissue, but more densely packed and situated directly below the epithelium, was present on the dorsal, free surface of the pharyngeal folds and represented a small, non-follicular tonsil. Conclusions The follicular pharyngeal tonsils in D. novaehollandiae and S. camelus are distinct from the pharyngeal folds in these species and

  10. [Topographic features of lingual nerve and its relationship with other anatomical structures in maxillolingual groove].

    PubMed

    Dyidyikin, S S; Syomkin, V A; Kuzin, A V; Sogacheva, V V

    2016-01-01

    By surgical interventions in maxillolingual groove area one should consider anatomical variations and topography of vessels, glands ducts and lingual nerve to prevent their injury. At the Department of Operative Surgery and Topographic Anatomy of the First Moscow State Medical University named after I.M. Sechenov we carried out anatomical study on cadavers (men and women, n=30).The study revealed topographical features of the lingual nerve and its relationship to other anatomical structures in the maxillolingual groove. It was found out that at the level of the second molar (96%) lingual nerve "crosses" duct of submandibular salivary gland, at the level of the third molar lingual nerve is located under the duct and lateral to it, closer to the inner surface of the body of the mandible. At the level of the first molar lingual nerve is located above and medial to Wharton duct and passes along sublingual-lingual muscles (m.hyoglossus). PMID:26925560

  11. Histology, Immunohistochemistry and Ultrastructure of the Bovine Palatine Tonsil with Special Emphasis on Reticular Epithelium

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The paired palatine tonsils are located at the junction of the nasopharynx and oropharynx; ideally positioned to sample antigens entering through either the nasal cavity or oral cavity. Entering antigens will first contact tonsilar epithelium. To better understand the cellular and functional composi...

  12. Active replication of HIV-1 at the lymphoepithelial surface of the tonsil.

    PubMed Central

    Frankel, S. S.; Tenner-Racz, K.; Racz, P.; Wenig, B. M.; Hansen, C. H.; Heffner, D.; Nelson, A. M.; Pope, M.; Steinman, R. M.

    1997-01-01

    Cells that are infected with HIV-1 were visualized at the mucosal surface of the nasopharyngeal and palatine tonsils in 14 specimens from patients with CD4+ T-cell counts of 200 to 900/microliter and 2- to 10-year histories of HIV-1 infection. Most of the cells with intracellular HIV-1 protein were small but multinucleated. The majority of these syncytia could be double labeled for HIV-1 RNA and a dendritic cell marker S100. In the palatine tonsil, the infected cells were not found in the stratified squamous epithelium that is adjacent to the pharynx. Instead, the S100+ infected syncytia were localized to the surface of tonsil invaginations or crypts. This mucosa, termed lymphoepithelium, contains antigen-transporting M cells that lie above regions where S100+ dendritic cells are juxtaposed with CD4+ lymphocytes. Likewise, infected cells were found in lymphoepithelium and not respiratory epithelium of nasopharyngeal tonsils or adenoids. We propose that lymphoepithelia, the histological term that describes the specialized regions where antigens access mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue, are sites where HIV-1 replication can be enhanced in syncytia derived from dendritic cells. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:9212735

  13. Volume estimation of tonsil phantoms using an oral camera with 3D imaging.

    PubMed

    Das, Anshuman J; Valdez, Tulio A; Vargas, Jose Arbouin; Saksupapchon, Punyapat; Rachapudi, Pushyami; Ge, Zhifei; Estrada, Julio C; Raskar, Ramesh

    2016-04-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) visualization of oral cavity and oropharyngeal anatomy may play an important role in the evaluation for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Although computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MRI) imaging are capable of providing 3D anatomical descriptions, this type of technology is not readily available in a clinic setting. Current imaging of the oropharynx is performed using a light source and tongue depressors. For better assessment of the inferior pole of the tonsils and tongue base flexible laryngoscopes are required which only provide a two dimensional (2D) rendering. As a result, clinical diagnosis is generally subjective in tonsillar hypertrophy where current physical examination has limitations. In this report, we designed a hand held portable oral camera with 3D imaging capability to reconstruct the anatomy of the oropharynx in tonsillar hypertrophy where the tonsils get enlarged and can lead to increased airway resistance. We were able to precisely reconstruct the 3D shape of the tonsils and from that estimate airway obstruction percentage and volume of the tonsils in 3D printed realistic models. Our results correlate well with Brodsky's classification of tonsillar hypertrophy as well as intraoperative volume estimations. PMID:27446667

  14. Characterization of host responses induced by Toll-like receptor ligands in chicken cecal tonsil cells.

    PubMed

    Taha-Abdelaziz, Khaled; Alkie, Tamiru Negash; Hodgins, Douglas C; Shojadoost, Bahram; Sharif, Shayan

    2016-06-01

    The innate responses of cecal tonsils against invading microorganisms are mediated by conserved pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) such as the Toll-like receptors (TLRs). TLRs expressed by mammalian and avian immune system cells have the capability to recognize pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). Although, the role of TLR ligands in innate and adaptive responses in chickens has been characterized in spleen and bursa of Fabricius, considerably less is known about responses in cecal tonsils. The aim of the current study was to assess responses of mononuclear cells from cecal tonsils to treatment with the TLR2, TLR4 and TLR21 ligands, Pam3CSK4, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and CpG oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN), respectively. All three ligands induced significant up-regulation of interferon (IFN)-γ, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6 and CxCLi2/IL-8, whereas no significant changes were observed in expression of IL-13 or the antimicrobial peptides, avian β-defensin (AvBD) 1, AvBD2 and cathelicidin 3 (CATHL-3). In general, CpG ODN elicited the highest cytokine responses by cecal tonsil mononuclear cells, inducing significantly higher expression compared to LPS and Pam3CSK4, for IFNγ, IL-1β, IL-6 and CxCLi2 at various time points. These findings suggest the potential use of TLR21 ligands as mucosal vaccine adjuvants, especially in the context of pathogens of the intestinal tract. PMID:27185259

  15. Human tonsil intraepithelial B cells: a marginal zone-related subpopulation.

    PubMed Central

    Morente, M.; Piris, M. A.; Orradre, J. L.; Rivas, C.; Villuendas, R.

    1992-01-01

    AIMS: To determine if intraepithelial B cells in reactive human palatine tonsils were similar to the marginal zone cells of the spleen and Peyer's patches. METHODS: Reactive human palatine tonsils were studied using conventional methods of light microscopy, electron microscopy, and a panel of monoclonal antibodies for leucocyte common antigens. RESULTS: Clinically important numbers of marginal zone-related B cells around the mantle zone were absent in lymphoid follicles, but in the cryptal epithelium there were abundant lymphoid cells with centrocyte-like nuclei and clear cytoplasm, intermingled with macrophages and plasma cells. The immunophenotype of these intraepithelial B cells was distinctive and similar to that found in the splenic marginal zone cells (IgM+, IgD-, CD23-, CD10-, CD35+, CD21+, bc12+, KB61+). CONCLUSIONS: Intraepithelial B cells in human tonsil could represent the counterpart of the marginal zone described in Peyer's patches. Their presence within the epithelium could reflect the destination for the malignant B cells in the lymphoepithelial lesion of mucosa associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphomas. Human palatine tonsil lymphoid tissue has morphological, immunophenotypic, and pathological features similar to those of MALT. Images PMID:1401174

  16. Volume estimation of tonsil phantoms using an oral camera with 3D imaging

    PubMed Central

    Das, Anshuman J.; Valdez, Tulio A.; Vargas, Jose Arbouin; Saksupapchon, Punyapat; Rachapudi, Pushyami; Ge, Zhifei; Estrada, Julio C.; Raskar, Ramesh

    2016-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) visualization of oral cavity and oropharyngeal anatomy may play an important role in the evaluation for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Although computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MRI) imaging are capable of providing 3D anatomical descriptions, this type of technology is not readily available in a clinic setting. Current imaging of the oropharynx is performed using a light source and tongue depressors. For better assessment of the inferior pole of the tonsils and tongue base flexible laryngoscopes are required which only provide a two dimensional (2D) rendering. As a result, clinical diagnosis is generally subjective in tonsillar hypertrophy where current physical examination has limitations. In this report, we designed a hand held portable oral camera with 3D imaging capability to reconstruct the anatomy of the oropharynx in tonsillar hypertrophy where the tonsils get enlarged and can lead to increased airway resistance. We were able to precisely reconstruct the 3D shape of the tonsils and from that estimate airway obstruction percentage and volume of the tonsils in 3D printed realistic models. Our results correlate well with Brodsky’s classification of tonsillar hypertrophy as well as intraoperative volume estimations. PMID:27446667

  17. High Cytokine Levels in Tonsillitis Secretions Regardless of Presence of Beta-Hemolytic Streptococci.

    PubMed

    Skovbjerg, Susann; Roos, Kristian; Olofsson, Sigvard; Lindh, Magnus; Ljung, Annika; Hynsjö, Lars; Holm, Stig E; Adlerberth, Ingegerd; Wold, Agnes E

    2015-09-01

    Acute pharyngotonsillitis denotes tonsillar inflammation caused by bacteria or viruses. Here, we investigated if beta-hemolytic streptococci (β-HS) tonsillitis would differ in inflammatory mediator response from tonsillitis of other causes. Tonsillar secretions were obtained from 36 acute pharyngotonsillitis patients and 16 controls. Bacteria were cultured quantitatively and 18 different viruses were quantified by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Cytokine and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) levels were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Almost half of the patients' tonsillar secretions yielded high counts of β-HS, and most samples contained viruses, irrespective of whether β-HS were present or not. The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) was the most common virus (patients 62% and controls 13%). Compared to controls, patients' secretions had higher levels of interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-8, tumor necrosis factor (TNF), and PGE2, while few samples contained IL-12, IL-10, or interferon-gamma (IFN-γ). The presence of β-HS in tonsillitis secretions could not be distinguished by any of the measured mediators, while the presence of EBV DNA tended to be associated with enhanced levels of IL-1β and IL-8. The results suggest a common inflammatory response in acute pharyngotonsillitis, regardless of causative agent. The suggested correlation between intense inflammation and the presence of EBV DNA in tonsillitis secretions may be due to reactivation of the virus and/or the EBV-containing B cells. PMID:26060912

  18. Clinical outcome in 20 cases of lingual hemangiosarcoma in dogs: 1996-2011.

    PubMed

    Burton, J H; Powers, B E; Biller, B J

    2014-09-01

    With the exception of solar-induced dermal hemangiosarcoma (HSA), the biologic behaviour of canine HSA is characterised by rapid tumour growth, a high metastatic rate and short survival times. Outcome of dogs with HSA of the tongue has not been previously reported. The purpose of this study was to assess outcome and prognostic factors in dogs with lingual HSA. Clinical data was collected retrospectively and histopathology was reviewed for 20 dogs. Median progression free survival was 524 days and the median overall survival time was 553 days. All dogs had low or intermediate grade tumours; most tumours were small and located on the ventral surface of the tongue. Prognostic factors significantly associated with increased survival included small tumour size and absence of clinical signs of an oral mass at the time of diagnosis. Dogs with HSA confined to the tongue may have a better prognosis compared with HSA in other organs. PMID:22905712

  19. Relationship of the lingual frenum to the mandibular central incisors

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Swati; Garg, Sanchit; Tandan, Amrit; Dwivedi, Ravi; Gupta, Narendra Kumar; Agarwal, Garima

    2015-01-01

    Clinical implication The purpose of this study is to record the vertical distance between anterior attachment of lingual frenum and incisal edge of mandibular central incisors in dentulous subjects and then determine the mean vertical distance and to suggest guidelines for positioning of mandibular central incisors in complete dentures. Method In this study, 150 dentulous subjects (75 males and 75 females) were chosen based on predecided inclusion criteria. A mandibular cast was obtained from irreversible hydrocolloid impression in modified stock trays for each subject. All subjects were instructed to elevate the tongue while the impressions were made. The vertical distance between the anterior attachment of the lingual frenum and incisal edges of mandibular central incisors was measured on the casts and then the values were statistically analyzed. Result The distance between anterior attachment of lingual frenum (AALF) mesioincisal edge of mandibular central incisor (CI) in male, female and total (male + female) subjects was measured. In males it ranged from 7.3 to 8.9 mm with mean (±SD) 8.29 ± 0.36 mm while in females it ranged from 7.1 to 9.0 mm with mean (±SD) 8.21 ± 0.38 mm. Conclusion It is believed that the application of this anatomic relation can provide a reliable point for arranging and checking the position of the mandibular central incisors for complete dentures in patients with class I ridge relationship. PMID:25853047

  20. Iodine 131 ablation of an obstructive lingual thyroid

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Zeal; Johnson, Lester

    2009-01-01

    A 48-year-old woman undergoing surgery could not be intubated because of an oropharyngeal mass. CT and MRI revealed a 3 cm possible lingual thyroid mass, confirmed by Iodine-123 SPECT/CT. The patient underwent successful Iodine-131 ablation and has done well on thyroid hormone-replacement therapy. This case also demonstrates how modern cross-sectional imaging like SPECT/CT can appropriately be used in the patient diagnosis and management, and is of additional interest for including pre- and post-therapy MRI documenting efficacy morphologically. PMID:22470639

  1. Treatment of a unilateral complete lingual crossbite in an adult with skeletal anchorage assisted orthodontics.

    PubMed

    Krishnaswamy, Nathamuni Rengarajan; Varghese, Biju Tom; Ahmed, Kasim Shakeel; Bharadwaj, Rekha; Devi, V R Shobbana

    2016-09-01

    An asymmetry caused by a complete lingual crossbite can compromise aesthetics and impair occlusal function. The following case report describes the correction of a complete lingual crossbite using orthodontic mini implants and mini-plates to achieve absolute anchorage. A comprehensive correction of the crossbite and re-establishment of the buccal occlusion was achieved. PMID:26777996

  2. The Mutual Symbiosis between Inclusive Bi-Lingual Education and Multicultural Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irby, Beverly J.; Tong, Fuhui; Lara-Alecio, Rafael

    2011-01-01

    In this article the authors postulate a mutual symbiosis between multicultural and inclusive bi-lingual education. Combining bi-lingual and multicultural education to create a symbiotic relationship can stimulate reform in schools and can promote inclusive educational systems, thereby keeping native languages and cultures alive for minority…

  3. The Multi-Lingual Supplement to the Astronomy Thesaurus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shobbrook, R. M.

    The compilers and translators of the recently released IAU "Astronomy Thesaurus" (affectionately known as TREX), are pleased to announce the availability of the new multi-lingual supplement (ML-TREX) in French, German, Italian and Spanish. The primary terms as well as the non-preferred terms have been translated in the supplement and it is designed enhance the main thesaurus as an online reference tool. Some review copies have been sent out on a limited distribution basis. Although much of current scientific research is reported in English there is a need by librarians to have a reference resource of terminology in a variety of languages. Librarians are aware of the amount of literature in their libraries in all languages both current and historical which must be dealt with and few of us have the multi-lingual skills to cope with it. The supplement is designed to be used as an online reference resource and therefore has been made available via the World Wide Web and an anonymous ftp account at the Anglo-Australian Observatory. The files can be down- loaded directly into any preferred word processor or into a computer system as a "knowledge base" together with the main thesaurus. For more information: LIB@aaoepp.aao.gov.au or http://www.aao.gov.au or the thesaurus directory via anonymous ftp access.

  4. Urgent decisions and a tight spot: embolic infarction of a herniated cerebellar tonsil.

    PubMed

    Mc Donagh, Ruth; Bradley, David; Harbison, Joseph Augustine

    2016-01-01

    A previously well 30-year-old woman presented at 17:30 with a sudden onset of dizziness, ataxia and headache. She was initially investigated with a CT scan of the brain and lumbar puncture, which yielded no diagnosis. Subsequent MR scan revealed multiple posterior circulation infarcts, along with a previously undiagnosed Arnold-Chiari 2 malformation with an associated syrinx of her cervical and thoracic spine. The infarct involved one of the herniated cerebellar tonsils. Oedema of an infarct in the herniated tonsils caused compression of the medulla at the foramen magnum, with associated neurological symptoms including Lhermitte's phenomenon and headache on valsalva manoeuvre. Owing to these symptoms a surgical decompression was performed. The most likely aetiology of her stroke was determined to be a paradoxical embolus via patent foramen ovale. PMID:27489065

  5. [The character of variations in the relationships of lymphocyte subpopulations in the patients presenting with chronic decompensated tonsillitis].

    PubMed

    Iashan, A I; Gerasimiuk, M I

    2015-01-01

    The palatine tonsils are known to be involved in the formation of cellular and humoral immunity. Apoptosis is believed to be one of the main biological mechanism regulating the quantitative composition of subpopulations of the immunocompetent cells. Therefore, the prevalence of apoptotic and anti-apoptotic processes determines the direction of the immune response. Bearing this in mind, we have undertaken a study with a view to elucidating the relationships between lymphocyte subpopulations in the blood and homogenates of the palatal tonsils in the patients with chronic decompensated tonsillitis and establishing their interdependence with the levels of apoptosis and necrosis. The quantification of apoptosis and necrosis as well as the ratio of these processes in neutrophils and lymphocytes belonging to different subpopulations of palatal tonsil homogenates and peripheral blood was performed by cytofluorometry with the use of the "BecmenCulter Epi XL" apparatus (USA). It has been found that decompensated chronic tonsillitis is associated with the depression of cellular immunity apparent as the 2 or 3-fold reduction of lymphocyte CD3, CD4m and CD8 subsets (as compared with the respective normal levels). The number of CD16 and CD19 lymphocytes remains unaltered witch suggests that humoral immunity is un-affectred. It is concluded that the apoptosis-necrosis index and the relationship between different subpopulations of lymphocytes in the peripheral blood may be the additional indicator to be used for diagnostics of decompensated forms of chronic tonsillitis. PMID:26145740

  6. Neuroimmune connections in ovine pharyngeal tonsil: potential site for prion neuroinvasion.

    PubMed

    Toppets, Vinciane; Piret, Joelle; Kirschvink, Nathalie; Lantier, Frederic; Lantier, Isabelle; Berthon, Patricia; Daube, Georges; Massart, Laurent; Grobet, Luc; Antoine, Nadine

    2012-04-01

    Recent studies have established the involvement of nasal-associated lymphoid tissues, mainly the pharyngeal tonsil, in prion pathogenesis. However, the mechanisms of the associated neuroinvasion are still debated. To determine potential sites for prion neuroinvasion inside the ovine pharyngeal tonsil, the topography of heavy (200 kDa) and light (70 kDa) neurofilaments and of glial fibrillar acidic protein has been semi-quantitatively analysed inside the various compartments of the tonsil. The results show that the most innervated areas are the interfollicular area and the connective tissue located beneath the respiratory epithelium. The existence of rare synapses between follicular dendritic cells and nerve fibres inside the germinal centre indicates that this mechanism of neuroinvasion is possible but, since germinal centres of lymphoid follicles are poorly innervated, other routes of neuroinvasion are likely. The host PRNP genotype does not influence the pattern of innervation in these various tonsil compartments, unlike ageing during which an increase of nerve endings occurs in a zone of high trafficking cells beneath the respiratory epithelium. A minimal age-related increase of innervation inside the lymphoid follicles has also been observed. An increase in nerve fibre density around the lymphoid follicles, in an area rich in mobile cells such as macrophages and dendritic cells capable of capturing and conveying pathogen prion protein (PrPd), might ensure more efficient infectivity, not in the early phase but in the advanced phase of lymphoinvasion after the amplification of PrPd; alternatively, this area might even act as a direct site of entry during neuroinvasion. PMID:22427064

  7. Reduced impact of nodal metastases as a prognostic factor for tonsil cancer in the HPV era.

    PubMed

    Vila, Peter M; Stucken, Chaz L; Morris, Luc G T; Posner, Marshall R; Genden, Eric M; Boffetta, Paolo; Sikora, Andrew G

    2014-09-01

    Metastatic lymph nodes (LN) are an adverse prognostic factor in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). In this study, we tested the hypothesis that nodal metastases have reduced impact on survival in tonsil cancer in the HPV-predominant era. Incidence and mortality data of tonsil and oral cavity SCC between 1988 and 2007 were obtained from the SEER database. Based on published literature, we considered cases of tonsil cancer from 1988 to 1997 as the pre-HPV cohort (N = 752), and 1998-2007 as the HPV-predominant cohort (N = 2,755). Comparing the two cohorts, Kaplan-Meier 5-year overall survival (OS) for tonsil SCC improved from 54.0 to 74.3 % (p < 0.0001), and cancer-specific survival (CSS) improved from 66.0 to 82.9 % (p < 0.0001). Stratifying by LN involvement showed improved OS in the HPV-predominant cohort with one (63.6 vs. 79.7 %, p < 0.0001), two to three (54.2 vs. 75.9 %, p < 0.0001), four to eight (40.3 vs. 68.9 %, p < 0.0001), and greater than eight positive nodes (25.5 vs. 41.9 %, p < 0.0001). While metastatic LNs still negatively affect prognosis, their impact on OPC survival has diminished in the HPV-predominant era. This finding provides a rationale for additional studies of the prognostic significance of LN metastases in OPC cohorts of defined HPV status, and supports the concept that HPV-related OPC is a disease distinct from "classical" OPC, with unique prognostic features. PMID:24190760

  8. Reduced Impact of Nodal Metastases as a Prognostic Factor for Tonsil Cancer in the HPV Era

    PubMed Central

    Vila, Peter M.; Stucken, Chaz L.; Morris, Luc G.T.; Posner, Marshall R.; Genden, Eric M.; Boffetta, Paolo; Sikora, Andrew G.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Metastatic lymph nodes (LN) are an adverse prognostic factor in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). In this study, we tested the hypothesis that nodal metastases have reduced impact on survival in tonsil cancer in the HPV-predominant era. Methods Incidence and mortality data of tonsil and oral cavity SCC between 1988 and 2007 was obtained from the SEER database. Based on published literature, we considered cases of tonsil cancer from 1988–1997 the pre-HPV cohort (N=752), and 1998–2007 as the HPV-predominant cohort (N=2,755). Results Comparing the two cohorts, Kaplan-Meier five-year overall survival (OS) for tonsil SCC improved from 54.0% to 74.3% (p<0.0001), and cancer-specific survival (CSS) improved from 66.0 to 82.9% (p<0.0001). Stratifying by LN involvement showed improved OS in the HPV-predominant cohort with one (63.6 vs. 79.7%, p<0.0001), two to three (54.2 vs. 75.9%, P<0.0001), four to eight (40.3 vs. 68.9%, p<0.0001), and greater than eight positive nodes (25.5 vs. 41.9%, p<0.0001). Conclusion While metastatic LNs still negatively affect prognosis, their impact on OPC survival has diminished in the HPV-predominant era. This finding provides a rationale for additional studies of the prognostic significance of LN metastases in OPC cohorts of defined HPV status, and supports the concept that HPV-related OPC is a disease distinct from “classical” OPC, with unique prognostic features. PMID:24190760

  9. Epstein-Barr virus-associated smooth muscle tumor of the tonsil.

    PubMed

    Suwansirikul, Songkiet; Sukpan, Kornkanok; Sittitrai, Pichit; Suwiwat, Supaporn; Khunamornpong, Surapan

    2012-06-01

    Smooth muscle tumors of the tonsil are rare. Recently, the occurrence of Epstein-Barr virus-associated smooth muscle tumor (EBV-SMT) has been increasingly recognized in immunocompromised patients, mainly post-transplantation and AIDS patients. The clinicopathologic features of EBV-SMT are different from conventional smooth muscle tumors. To the best of our knowledge, EBV-SMT involving the tonsil in an AIDS patient has not been reported. A 27-year-old man presented with a 2.2cm right tonsillar mass six months after AIDS diagnosis. The tumor was composed of a cellular proliferation of oval to spindle-shaped cells with mitotic count up to 10 in 10 high-power fields. The diagnosis of EBV-SMT was confirmed by in situ hybridization for EBV-encoded RNA (EBER) transcripts. Synchronous lesions were also detected in the liver and peritoneum by an abdominal computed tomographic scan. EBV-SMT should be included in the differential diagnoses of a mesenchymal tumor in immunocompromised patients, and in the differential diagnoses of a smooth muscle tumor occurring in uncommon sites including the tonsil. PMID:21885224

  10. Primary small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the tonsil: a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hai-Yang; Zou, Jian; Zhou, Guang-Yao; Yan, Jia-Qi; Liu, Shi-Xi

    2014-01-01

    Small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (NEC) that originates in the tonsil is extremely rare and carries a poor prognosis. Only a few cases of this tumor have been reported so far and the standard treatment protocol remains uncertain. Here we describe a 74-year-old woman presented with throat pain for about 2 months. Computed tomography (CT) scan revealed a 3.4×1.8 cm tumor with moderate enhancement in the left tonsil and a 1.3×1.0 cm neck mass in left level II. A biopsy of the tonsillar mass was performed and histologic examination revealed small round to oval tumor cells were arranged in cords or nests, containing hyperchromatic nuclei and scant cytoplasm. Mitotic figures were readily identified. Immunohistochemical staining showed that tumor cells were strongly positive for CD56, focally positive for PCK and negative for LCA. A diagnosis of primary small cell NEC of the left tonsil was obtained. The patient was treated by six cycles of cisplatin combined with etoposide and the masses showed initial complete response. But recurrence in the left neck was found 9 months after initial diagnosis and the patient refused any further treatment. With a review of the literature, the nomenclature, clinicopathological characteristics and treatment modalities of this rare tumor are discussed. PMID:24966986

  11. The Metabolically Active Bacterial Microbiome of Tonsils and Mandibular Lymph Nodes of Slaughter Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Mann, Evelyne; Pinior, Beate; Wetzels, Stefanie U.; Metzler-Zebeli, Barbara U.; Wagner, Martin; Schmitz-Esser, Stephan

    2015-01-01

    The exploration of microbiomes in lymphatic organs is relevant for basic and applied research into explaining microbial translocation processes and understanding cross-contamination during slaughter. This study aimed to investigate whether metabolically active bacteria (MAB) could be detected within tonsils and mandibular lymph nodes (MLNs) of pigs. The hypervariable V1-V2 region of the bacterial 16S rRNA genes was amplified from cDNA from tonsils and MLNs of eight clinically healthy slaughter pigs. Pyrosequencing yielded 82,857 quality-controlled sequences, clustering into 576 operational taxonomic units (OTUs), which were assigned to 230 genera and 16 phyla. The actual number of detected OTUs per sample varied highly (23–171 OTUs). Prevotella zoogleoformans and Serratia proteamaculans (best type strain hits) were most abundant (10.6 and 41.8%, respectively) in tonsils and MLNs, respectively. To explore bacterial correlation patterns between samples of each tissue, pairwise Spearman correlations (rs) were calculated. In total, 194 strong positive and negative correlations |rs| ≥ 0.6 were found. We conclude that (i) lymphatic organs harbor a high diversity of MAB, (ii) the occurrence of viable bacteria in lymph nodes is not restricted to pathological processes and (iii) lymphatic tissues may serve as a contamination source in pig slaughterhouses. This study confirms the necessity of the EFSA regulation with regard to a meat inspection based on visual examinations to foster a minimization of microbial contamination. PMID:26696976

  12. Role of Palatine Tonsils as a Prion Entry Site in Classical and Atypical Experimental Sheep Scrapie

    PubMed Central

    Cancedda, Maria G.; Di Guardo, Giovanni; Chiocchetti, Roberto; Demontis, Francesca; Marruchella, Giuseppe; Sorteni, Caterina; Maestrale, Caterina; Lai, Alfio

    2014-01-01

    Atypical and classical scrapie-infected sheep brain tissue was monolaterally injected into the tonsils of lambs to investigate their role as a prion entry point. We first detected classical PrPSc within the inoculated tonsil and in the ipsilateral retropharyngeal lymph node at 3 months postinoculation (p.i.). At 7 months p.i., PrPSc colonized other lymphoid tissues bilaterally, including ileal Peyer's patches. The earliest PrPSc deposition within the brain was ipsilaterally observed at 9 months p.i. in the substantia reticularis of the medulla oblongata. At 12 months p.i., PrPSc deposition was present bilaterally in the nucleus parasympathicus nervi vagi, as well as in the intermediolateral cell column of the thoracolumbar spinal cord. No PrPSc was detected in the lambs inoculated with atypical scrapie. These findings suggest that neuroinvasion may naturally occur from the tonsil after a widespread prion replication within the lymphoid tissues during classical scrapie only, thus mimicking the pathogenesis after oral ingestion. PMID:24198416

  13. Immunomodulatory effects of laser therapy in the treatment of chronic tonsillitis.

    PubMed

    Petrek, M; Hubácek, J; Ordeltová, M

    1991-01-01

    The aim of the presented pilot study was to examine possible stimulatory effect of He-Ne laser on the immune system. Eight patients suffering from chronic tonsilitis were within 9 days subjected to three consecutive doses of laser irradiation of tonsils and several immune parameters were determined prior to the treatment, shortly after its cessation and after 4 weeks of follow-up period. Shortly after the cessation of the treatment significant increase of secretory immunoglobulin A in saliva was observed which was followed by increase of IgA serum level after 4 weeks of follow-up. The significant increase of the relative proportion of CD4+ helper T-lymphocytes observed at the end of the follow-up period led to normalization of the CD4/CD8 ratio. As the changes described correlated with clinical improvement in 7 out of 8 patients it could be assumed that beneficial effect of lasertherapy in the treatment of chronic tonsilitis is mediated by modulatory influence on the immune system, especially on protective immunity and immunoregulation. PMID:1837653

  14. Video-assisted thoracoscopic segmentectomy of lingual segment of the left upper pulmonary lobe for chronic focal bronchiectasis

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Xue; Li, Xiangnan; Ding, Zheng; Zhu, Dengyan; Zhang, Chunyang; Zhao, Jia

    2016-01-01

    A 46-year-old male patient was admitted into the hospital due to repeated hemoptysis for more than seven months. Bronchiectasis of the left upper lobe was considered based on the symptoms, signs, and imaging findings. Thoracoscopic resection of lingual segment of the left upper pulmonary lobe was finally performed in the order of the lingual segmental vein, the lingual segmental bronchus, the lingual segmental artery, and the pulmonary tissues of the lingual segment. Total surgery time was 60 min and blood loss was 40 mL. The chest tube was removed on the 4th postoperative day. The patient was discharged home on the 8th postoperative day. PMID:27076962

  15. The feasibility of pediatric TORS for lingual thyroglossal duct cyst.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Daniel J; Byrd, James K; Harris, George F

    2016-09-01

    A six-year-old boy who presented with symptoms of obstructive sleep apnea was found to have a midline tongue mass suspicious for lingual thyroglossal duct cyst (TGDC). Surgery was scheduled after workup confirmed the presence of functional, orthotopic thyroid tissue. The surgical robot was used to excise the mass endoscopically without removing any hyoid. He was extubated at the conclusion of the case. The child tolerated a soft diet and was discharged after an uneventful overnight stay in the ICU. Pathology confirmed TGDC. There have been no reported issues in eleven months of follow-up. Our report adds to the scarce literature on performing such a surgery in a child and demonstrates that with the correct circumstances, prompt extubation, discharge, and prolonged remission are possible. PMID:27497396

  16. Transoral robotic resection of a lingual thyroglossal duct cyst.

    PubMed

    Kimple, Adam J; Eliades, Steven J; Richmon, Jeremy D

    2012-12-01

    Thyroglossal duct cysts (TGDCs) are epithelial rests of the thyroid gland left during embryologic descent from the tongue base. Thyroglossal duct cysts confined to the tongue base alone are even more unusual. We present a case of a 45-year-old woman who presented with complaints of sore throat, globus, and throat clearing for 10 years. On examination she was found to have a 2 × 1.5-cm cystic-appearing mass, left of midline in the vallecula. The patient had a transoral robotic resection of this vallecular cyst, which was subsequently found to be a lingual TGDC. We believe this is the first reported case of a TGDC that was successfully excised using a transoral robotic approach. PMID:25302082

  17. Transoral robotic resection of a lingual thyroglossal duct cyst

    PubMed Central

    Kimple, Adam J.; Eliades, Steven J.; Richmon, Jeremy D.

    2014-01-01

    Thyroglossal duct cysts (TGDCs) are epithelial rests of the thyroid gland left during embryologic descent from the tongue base. Thyroglossal duct cysts confined to the tongue base alone are even more unusual. We present a case of a 45-year-old woman who presented with complaints of sore throat, globus, and throat clearing for 10 years. On examination she was found to have a 2 × 1.5-cm cystic-appearing mass, left of midline in the vallecula. The patient had a transoral robotic resection of this vallecular cyst, which was subsequently found to be a lingual TGDC. We believe this is the first reported case of a TGDC that was successfully excised using a transoral robotic approach. PMID:25302082

  18. A large lingual thyroid extending to the epiglottis.

    PubMed

    Eryilmaz, Aylin; Basal, Yesim

    2015-01-01

    A 22-year-old man presented to our department with a mass on the base of his tongue. He had a cavernous voice causing a moderate speech disorder, and he had some difficulty in swallowing. He had severe problems with sleep, associated with apnoea. In a fibreoptic laryngoscopic examination, a large 4×5 cm vascular mass was detected extending from the base of the patient's tongue to his epiglottis. It covered the epiglottis. Thyroid scintigraphy showed only thyroid tissue on the base of the tongue. Surgery was initiated transorally under the guidance of a rigid endoscope, but as the mass continued extended to the epiglottis, a transhyoid approach was taken. At a 3-month follow-up, the patient was symptom free. Electrocautery-assisted resection under the guidance of a rigid endoscope can reliably be used in surgery of a lingual thyroid. However, a transhyoid approach provides a better view and also helps in achieving haemostasis. PMID:26563340

  19. Regimes of oscillation and reed vibrations in lingual organ pipes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cox, Eric; Rossing, Thomas D.

    2002-05-01

    We compare the sound generation in six lingual organ pipes including two trompette pipes, two oboes pipes, a krummhorn, and a rankett, the latter two of which were described in a previous paper [Cox and Rossing, paper 2aMU8, 142nd ASA meeting]. With the resonator attached, each pipe sounds in distinct regimes of oscillation, separated by discontinuities. The nominal frequencies of the pipes are generally slightly lower than the resonance frequency of the resonator but slightly higher than the natural frequency of the reed. The air mass loading of both the resonator and shallot lowers the reed frequency. Changing the blowing pressure has little effect on the sounding frequency but a modest effect on sound level.

  20. Anatomical Relationship of Lingual Nerve to the Region of Mandibular Third Molar

    PubMed Central

    de Carvalho Leite Leal Nunes, Carla Maria; de Almeida Lopes, Maria Cândida

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives This study evaluated the relationship of the lingual nerve with the adjacent anatomical structures of the mandibular third molar region, influencing the dentist to be aware of the variability of these relationships. Material and Methods Samples of 24 human corpse half-heads were selected and divided according with the presence or absence of the mandibular third molars. The lingual nerve (LN) was explored, showing its run from the oblique line until its crossing with the submandibular gland duct. The measurements along the LN and the adjacent anatomical structures were taken at the retromolar, molar and sublingual region with the use of a digital caliper. Results The distance from the LN and the third molar socket, which represents the horizontal distance of the lingual plate to the nerve, on average, was 4.4 mm (SD 2.4 mm). The distance from the LN and the lingual alveolar rim, which represents the vertical relationship between the nerve and the lingual alveolar rim of the third molar socket, on average, was 16.8 mm (SD 5.7 mm). The LN has a varied topography that leaves it very vulnerable during any procedure executed in this region. Conclusions Unless adequate protection of the lingual nerve is acquired by following an adequate surgical technique, the lingual nerve will always be vulnerable to damage during surgical intervention or manipulation in this region. PMID:24478912

  1. Airway obstruction after lingual frenulectomy in two infants with Pierre-Robin Sequence.

    PubMed

    Genther, Dane J; Skinner, Margaret L; Bailey, Patti J; Capone, Randolph B; Byrne, Patrick J

    2015-09-01

    Pierre-Robin Sequence (PRS) is defined as the triad of micrognathia, glossoptosis, and cleft palate and affects approximately 1/8500 births. Airway obstruction is common in infants with PRS and results from glossoptosis leading to pharyngeal obstruction. Any procedure that increases the severity of glossoptosis, such as lingual frenulectomy, may increase the risk of obstruction or aggravate existing obstruction. This report discusses two cases of significant airway decompensation after lingual frenulectomy requiring surgical intervention in infants with PRS. We suggest that lingual frenulectomy be contraindicated in infants with PRS or suspected PRS due to the possible increased risk of airway obstruction. PMID:26187546

  2. Spontaneous lingual and sublingual haematoma: a rare complication of warfarin use.

    PubMed

    Buyuklu, Mutlu; Bakirci, Eftal Murat; Topal, Ergun; Ceyhun, Gokhan

    2014-01-01

    Warfarin is commonly used for prevention of embolic events. Bleeding is the main side effect of warfarin. Lingual and sublingual haematoma are rare. In the literature, nine cases have so far been reported. We report the case of a 70-year-old Caucasian woman who developed spontaneous lingual and sublingual haematomas while on warfarin therapy. Spontaneous lingual and sublingual haematoma are rare, but can be potentially life-threatening complications as they cause airway obstruction. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of earliest haematoma after warfarin use. PMID:25008335

  3. Spontaneous lingual and sublingual haematoma: a rare complication of warfarin use

    PubMed Central

    Buyuklu, Mutlu; Bakirci, Eftal Murat; Topal, Ergun; Ceyhun, Gokhan

    2014-01-01

    Warfarin is commonly used for prevention of embolic events. Bleeding is the main side effect of warfarin. Lingual and sublingual haematoma are rare. In the literature, nine cases have so far been reported. We report the case of a 70-year-old Caucasian woman who developed spontaneous lingual and sublingual haematomas while on warfarin therapy. Spontaneous lingual and sublingual haematoma are rare, but can be potentially life-threatening complications as they cause airway obstruction. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of earliest haematoma after warfarin use. PMID:25008335

  4. Comparative Evaluation of Microleakage of Lingual Retainer Wires Bonded with Three Different Lingual Retainer Composites: An In Vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Vaz, Anna; Patil, Pravinkumar G.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate microleakage when two types of retainer wires were bonded with two light cured and a self cured lingual retainer composites. Materials and Methods: Total 120 freshly extracted human mandibular incisor teeth were collected and separated into six subgroups of 20 teeth each. Two different wires, a 0.036 inch hard round stainless steel (HRSS) wire sandblasted at the ends and 0.0175 inch multistranded wire bonded onto the lingual surfaces of the incisors with three different types of composite resins of 3M company; Concise Orthodontic (self-cure), Transbond XT (light-cure) and Transbond LR (light-cure). Specimens were further sealed with a nail varnish, stained with 0.5% basic fuchsine for 24 hours, sectioned and examined under a stereomicroscope, and scored for microleakage for the enamel-composite and wire-composite interfaces. Statistical analysis was performed by Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U-tests. Results: For HRSS wire, at the enamel-composite interface, the microleakage was least with Transbond LR followed by Concise Orthodontic and greatest for Transbond XT (p<0.05). At the wire composite interface too, the microleakage was in order of Transbond LR

  5. Morphology of the lingual papillae in the brush-tailed rat kangaroo.

    PubMed

    Emura, Shoichi; Okumura, Toshihiko; Chen, Huayue

    2014-01-01

    We examined the dorsal lingual surface of an adult brush-tailed rat kangaroo (Bettongia penicillata) by scanning electron microscopy. The filiform and fungiform papillae on the lingual apex and body consisted of a main papilla and secondary papillae. The connective tissue core of the filiform papillae on the lingual apex was cylindrical in shape with a crushed top. The connective tissue core of the filiform papillae on the lingual body had one large and several small processes. The fungiform papillae were round in shape. The connective tissue core of the fungiform papillae had several depressions on its top. The surface of the vallate papillae was rough and the papillae were surrounded by a groove and a pad. Several long conical papillae derived from the posterolateral margin of the tongue where foliate papillae have been shown to be distributed in many other animal species. The long conical papillae were very similar to those of the koala and opossum. PMID:24815106

  6. A Posterior Lingual Sulcoplasty in Implant Therapy: A Case History Report.

    PubMed

    Perri de Carvalho, Paulo Sergio; Janjacomo, Luiz Antonio; Ponzoni, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    This case history report describes the deepening of a patient's posterior mandibular lingual sulcus in combination with an acrylic resin guiding device fixed to an osseointegrated dental implant to maintain the patency of the new sulcular depth. PMID:26929959

  7. Lingual nerve injury after third molar removal: Unilateral atrophy of fungiform papillae

    PubMed Central

    de-Pablo-Garcia-Cuenca, Alba; Bescós-Atín, Maria S.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Pain and sensory changes due to lingual nerve injury are one of the most common alterations that follow surgical removal of third molar. They are usually transient but other less common complications, such as the atrophy of fungiform papillae, have an uncertain prognosis. Case Description: We report a case of a 34-year-old woman who presented a unilateral lingual atrophy of fungiform papillae after third molar extraction accompanied by severe dysesthesia that altered her daily life significantly during the following months and how this complication evolved over time. We conducted a literature review on the different factors that can lead to a lingual nerve injury. Clinical Implications: The clinical evolution of temporary and permanent somatosensitve injuries is an important fact to take into consideration during the postoperative management because it will indicate the lesion prognosis. Key words:Lingual nerve, third molar removal, somatosensitive alteration, papillae atrophy, permanent injury, temporary injury. PMID:24790723

  8. Morphology of the lingual papillae of the black-backed jackal (Canis mesomelas).

    PubMed

    Emura, Shoichi; Sugiyama, Kazue

    2014-01-01

    We examined the dorsal lingual surface of an adult black-backed jackal (Canis mesomelas) by using scanning electron microscopy. The filiform papilla on the lingual apex exhibited a crown-like shape with several pointed processes. The connective tissue core of the filiform papilla was U-shaped. The filiform papillae on the lingual body had several pointed processes. The connective tissue core of the filiform papillae consisted of one large and several small conical papillae. The fungiform papillae on the lingual apex and body had a smooth surface. The connective tissue core of the fungiform papillae was not hollow and did not have processes. The vallate papillae were surrounded by a groove and pad with many processes on the surface. The connective tissue core of the vallate papillae had many ditches. Thus, the tongue of the black-backed jackal more closely resembles that of the bush dog than those of the raccoon dog or fox. PMID:25274405

  9. The 7alpha-hydroxysteroids produced in human tonsils enhance the immune response to tetanus toxoid and Bordetella pertussis antigens.

    PubMed

    Lafaye, P; Chmielewski, V; Nato, F; Mazié, J C; Morfin, R

    1999-10-18

    Human tonsils were assessed for their ability to 7alpha-hydroxylate pregnenolone (PREG), dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and 3-epiandrosterone (EPIA). Both 7alpha-hydroxy-DHEA and 7alpha-hydroxy-EPIA were produced by homogenates of either whole tonsils or of lymphocyte-depleted tonsil fractions. In contrast, isolated lymphocytes were found to be unable to carry out 7alpha-hydroxylation. When co-cultures of tonsil-derived T and B lymphocytes were set up under stimulatory conditions, IgGs were released in the supernatants and could be quantitated, and immunomodulating properties of different steroids were monitored. When PREG was added to a mixture of tonsil-derived B and T lymphocytes, a decrease of non-specific and specific IgG was observed. An increase in specific anti-tetanus toxoid and anti-Bordetella pertussis antigen IgGs was obtained with either 1 microM 7alpha-hydroxy-DHEA or 1 microM 7alpha-hydroxy-EPIA. In contrast, DHEA and EPIA were unable to trigger such an effect. When cultures of isolated tonsillar B cells were used, none of the steroids tested showed significant effects on specific IgG productions. These data led to the conclusion that human tonsillar cells transform DHEA and EPIA, but not PREG, into 7alpha-hydroxylated metabolites. These metabolites could act on target tonsillar T lymphocytes which in turn act upon B lymphocytes for increasing specific IgG production. PMID:10572944

  10. Fetal Rhabdomyoma of the Right Tonsil with Polyp-Like Appearance.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ching-Ping; Chang, Yi-Hao; Chang, Ya-Ting

    2015-01-01

    Skeletal muscle neoplasms, in contrast to other groups of tumors, are almost malignant. The benign variant, rhabdomyoma, is distinctly rare. Rhabdomyomas can be classified generally into two types: cardiac and extracardiac. Extracardiac rhabdomyoma can be further divided into three subtypes: adult, fetal, and genital type. Adult rhabdomyoma is the most common subtype of rhabdomyoma even though it remains relatively rare. Fetal rhabdomyomas are less common than the adult type. In this paper we report a rare case of a fetal rhabdomyoma with polyp-like appearance originating from right tonsil. Punch biopsy and then right tonsillectomy were performed for complete excision. There was no obvious recurrence. PMID:26246927

  11. Reliability of the Hazelbaker Assessment Tool for Lingual Frenulum Function

    PubMed Central

    Amir, Lisa H; James, Jennifer P; Donath, Susan M

    2006-01-01

    Background About 3% of infants are born with a tongue-tie which may lead to breastfeeding problems such as ineffective latch, painful attachment or poor weight gain. The Hazelbaker Assessment Tool for Lingual Frenulum Function (HATLFF) has been developed to give a quantitative assessment of the tongue-tie and recommendation about frenotomy (release of the frenulum). The aim of this study was to assess the inter-rater reliability of the HATLFF. Methods Fifty-eight infants referred to the Breastfeeding Education and Support Services (BESS) at The Royal Women's Hospital for assessment of tongue-tie and 25 control infants were assessed by two clinicians independently. Results The Appearance items received kappas between about 0.4 to 0.6, which represents "moderate" reliability. The first three Function items (lateralization, lift and extension of tongue) had kappa values over 0.65 which indicates "substantial" agreement. The four Function items relating to infant sucking (spread, cupping, peristalsis and snapback) received low kappa values with insignificant p values. There was 96% agreement between the two assessors on the recommendation for frenotomy (kappa 0.92, excellent agreement). The study found that the Function Score can be more simply assessed using only the first three function items (ie not scoring the sucking items), with a cut-off of ≤4 for recommendation of frenotomy. Conclusion We found that the HATLFF has a high reliability in a study of infants with tongue-tie and control infants PMID:16722609

  12. Lingual mandibular bony defects: CT in the buccolingual plane

    SciTech Connect

    Slasky, B.S.; Bar-Ziv, J.

    1996-05-01

    Our goal was to record the appearance of lingular mandibular bony defects (LMBD) on CT imaging of the mandible in the buccolingual plane. During the CT evaluation of patients planning to undergo dental implant surgery, five cases of LMBD were found. Axial 1.2 x 1.00 mm overlapping CT sections of the mandible and the maxilla were obtained. Then with use of specific software (DentaCT; Elscint), panoramic and cross-sectional (buccolingual) images of the mandible and maxilla were reformatted. Five cases of posterior LMBD were identified; one patient had both a posterior as well as the much rarer anterior LMBD. All cases were incidental findings and all were asymptomatic. CT features of LMBD were displayed it axial, panoramic, and buccolingual planes. The characteristic opening of the bony defect in the lingual aspect of the mandible was clearly displayed on the axial as well as the buccolingual images; however, this key feature was not manifest on the panoramic images; however, this key feature was not manifest on the panoramic images of the mandible. CT features of LMBD in the buccolingual plane are added to the known radiologic description of this entity. 8 refs., 6 figs.

  13. Use of CO2 laser in lingual and labial frenectomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiorotti, Renata C.; Bellini, Bruno S.; Cassitas, Nilceu P.; Baldin, Diva H. Z.; Nicola, Ester M. D.

    2000-03-01

    Ankiloglossia or frenum lingual alteration leads to important tongue dysfunction, which, besides discomfort and pain during function, is generally responsible for the difficulty to express specific phonemes. In other cases, a heavy muscular abnormal attachment of labial frenum can promote clinical changes. In such case, an eventual orthodontic therapy is indicated and aesthetic alteration is observed. In both cases, surgical removal is indicated. The surgery, for prevention purposes, must be done as soon as possible, but considering that the majority of patients are young (5 - 14 years old), difficulties during surgery are expected to occur. Correction of speech or orthodontic dysfunction in advanced ages is much more complex and difficult than in childhood. In the present work we demonstrate that the use of CO2 lasers in these cases are advantageous and simple. The laser energy causes the tissue of the frenum to open in the classic shape with no bleeding and no need for suture, reducing the risk of cross- contamination and of postoperative infection. Scarring and other complications are also minimized. A CO2 laser (continuous, 8 W, 10.6 micrometers) was used assisted with local anesthesia. The major advantage of laser is the possibility of its application in early ages, preventing further problems.

  14. Reed vibration in lingual organ pipes without the resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miklós, András; Angster, Judit; Pitsch, Stephan; Rossing, Thomas D.

    2003-02-01

    Vibrations of plucked and blown reeds of lingual organ pipes without the resonators have been investigated. Three rather surprising phenomena are observed: the frequency of the reed plucked by hand is shifted upwards for large-amplitude plucking, the blown frequency is significantly higher than the plucked one, and peaks halfway between the harmonics of the fundamental frequency appear in the spectrum of the reed velocity. The dependence of the plucked frequency on the length of the reed reveals that the vibrating length at small vibrations is 3 mm shorter than the apparent free length. The frequency shift for large-amplitude plucking is explained by the periodic change of the vibrating length during the oscillation. Reed vibrations of the blown pipe can be described by a physical model based on the assumption of air flow between the reed and the shallot. Aerodynamic effects may generate and sustain the oscillation of the reed without acoustic feedback. The appearance of subharmonics is explained by taking into account the periodic modulation of the stress in the reed material by the sound field. Therefore, a parametric instability appears in the differential equation of vibration, leading to the appearance of subharmonics.

  15. Effect of tulathromycin on the carrier status of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 2 in the tonsils of pigs.

    PubMed

    Angen, Ø; Andreasen, M; Nielsen, E O; Stockmarr, A; Baekbo, P

    2008-10-11

    The effect of a single or double dose of tulathromycin was evaluated in pigs carrying Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 2 in their tonsils. Twenty-nine pigs from a reinfected specific pathogen-free-herd were selected from animals testing positive in an A pleuropneumoniae serotype 2-specific pcr test on tonsil scrapings and they were divided into three groups. The pigs in group 1 were treated subcutaneously with 2.5 mg/kg tulathromycin on day 0, the pigs in group 2 were treated with 2.5 mg/kg tulathromycin on days 0 and 4, and the pigs in group 3 were left untreated as controls. The pigs were tested by pcr on tonsil scrapings on days 0, 4, 11 and 33, and on day 33 all the animals were euthanased. There were no significant differences between the numbers of PCR-positive animals in the three groups on any of the sampling dates. PMID:18849576

  16. Mucocele of the anterior lingual salivary glands (glands of Blandin and Nuhn): report of 5 cases.

    PubMed

    Sugerman, P B; Savage, N W; Young, W G

    2000-10-01

    The anterior lingual salivary glands (glands of Blandin and Nuhn) are mixed mucous and serous glands that are embedded within the musculature of the anterior tongue ventrum. Five cases of mucocele of the glands of Blandin and Nuhn are presented. These mucoceles on the anterior tongue ventrum were exophytic and resembled pyogenic granulomata, polyps, or squamous papillomata. In 2 cases, the onset of the mucocele was associated with trauma to the anterior tongue. All cases were mucus extravasation phenomena. A history of trauma and recovery of mucus with fine needle aspiration are helpful in the clinical diagnosis of mucocele of the glands of Blandin and Nuhn, as are the following characteristics of the mucocele: rapid onset, increase and reduction in size, bluish color, and fluid-filled consistency. During surgery, the glands that are deep in the tongue musculature are commonly left behind, resulting in persistence of the lesion. Careful clinical evaluation of these lesions and preoperative awareness of the surgical anatomy of the glands of Blandin and Nuhn may minimize the need for repeated surgical procedures. PMID:11027386

  17. Expression of CysLTR1 and 2 in Maturating Lymphocytes of Hyperplasic Tonsils Compared to Peripheral Cells in Children.

    PubMed

    Paulucci, Bruno Peres; Pereira, Juliana; Picciarelli, Patricia; Levy, Debora; di Francesco, Renata Cantisani

    2016-06-01

    Cysteinyl-leukotriene receptors 1 and 2 (CysLTR1 and 2) are related to allergic inflammatory responses. Recent studies demonstrated their role in lymphocyte division and maturation in the bone marrow. Few data are available about CysLTRs function in lymphocyte maturation in tonsils. The objectives of this study are to compare CysLTRs expression in peripheral blood lymphocytes with expression in maturating lymphocytes of hyperplasic tonsil and to check the influence of respiratory allergies in this process. Leukocytes of peripheral blood (PL) and hyperplasic tonsils of children were immunostained for CysLTR1, CysLTR2, CD3 (T cells), and CD19 (B cells) and read in flow cytometer. Lymphocyte of tonsils were divided in differentiating small cells (SC) and mitotic large cells (LC); percentage of B and T cells expressing CysLTRs was determined, and comparison was done using ANOVA and Tukey's tests. Data were analyzed as a whole and categorizing patients according the presence of allergies. Sixty children were enrolled in this study. There was a large expression of CysLTR1 and 2 in CD3+ LC, and such expression decreased progressively in SC and PL. In B cells, the highest expression of CysLTR1 and 2 was found in PL while SC showed the lowest and LC showed the intermediate expression. This pattern kept unchanged in groups of allergic and non-allergic individuals. CysLTRs seem to be involved in lymphocyte maturation that occurs in tonsils, without influence of allergies. New studies aiming the clinic treatment of tonsil hyperplasia must be targeted to the development of drugs capable of blocking both CysLTR1 and 2. PMID:27115897

  18. Decreased expression of follicular dendritic cell-secreted protein correlates with increased immunoglobulin A production in the tonsils of individuals with immunoglobulin A nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Meng, Hong-Xue; Li, Hui-Ning; Geng, Jia-Shi; Ohe, Rintaro; Yu, Xiao-Yu; E, Xiao-Qiang; Ye, Fei; Yang, Su-Ran; Kato, Tomoya; Zhang, Lei; Ishida, Akihiro; Ohta, Nobuo; Jin, Xiao-Ming; Kakehata, Seiji; Geng, Jing-Shu; Yamakawa, Mitsunori

    2015-09-01

    Immunoglobulin A nephropathy (IgAN) is characterized by a qualitative abnormality of IgA in the circulation and IgA deposition in the renal mesangium. Recent research has indicated that pathogenic IgA may originate from affected tonsils. Follicular dendritic cell-secreted protein (FDC-SP), a small novel secretory protein that may regulate the induction of B-cell responses, has been suggested to control IgA production. Given this background, this study investigated the expression of FDC-SP and its correlation with IgA production in the tonsils of IgAN patients. Immunohistochemistry and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction were used to compare the expression of FDC-SP in the tonsils of IgAN patients with tonsillitis and of non-IgAN patients with chronic tonsillitis. The location of FDC-SP in tonsillar tissue was confirmed by double immunofluorescence. We found that FDC-SP expression significantly decreased and was correlated negatively with enhanced IgA production in the tonsils of IgAN patients. FDC-SP secreted by follicular dendritic cells may act on germinal center B cells and participate in the modulation of IgA generation in the tonsils. Our study demonstrated that FDC-SP may be involved in IgA production in the tonsils of IgAN patients, making this protein an attractive candidate immunomodulator, and highlighting a promising strategy for therapeutic intervention in IgAN. PMID:25953661

  19. VALIDATION OF MONOCLONAL ANTIBODY F99/97.6.1 FOR IMMUNOHISTOCHEMICAL STAINING OF BRAIN AND TONSIL IN MULE DEER (ODOCOILEUS HEMIONUS) WITH CHRONIC WASTING DISEASE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new monoclonal antibody, F99/97.6.1, that has been used to demonstrate PrPSc in brain and tonsil of sheep with scrapie was evaluated in tonsil and brain of mule deer and brain of Rocky Mountain elk. Mab F99/97.6.1 was evaluated in 100 mule deer and 100 Rocky Mountain elk that had spongiform encep...

  20. Three-dimensional evaluation of lingual split line after bilateral sagittal split osteotomy in asymmetric prognathism

    PubMed Central

    Song, Jae Min

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate the pattern of lingual split line when performing a bilateral sagittal split osteotomy (BSSO) for asymmetric prognathism. This was accomplished with the use of cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) and three-dimensional (3D) software program. Materials and Methods The study group was comprised of 40 patients (20 males and 20 females) with asymmetric prognathism, who underwent BSSO (80 splits; n=80) from January 2012 through June 2013. We observed the pattern of lingual split line using CBCT data and image analysis program. The deviated side was compared to the contralateral side in each patient. To analyze the contributing factors to the split pattern, we observed the position of the lateral cortical bone cut end and measured the thickness of the ramus that surrounds the mandibular lingula. Results The lingual split patterns were classified into. The true "Hunsuck" line was 60.00% (n=48), and the bad split was 7.50% (n=6). Ramal thickness surrounding the lingual was 5.55±1.07 mm (deviated) and 5.66±1.34 mm (contralateral) (P=0.409). The position of the lateral cortical bone cut end was classified into three types: A, lingual; B, inferior; C, buccal. Type A comprised 66.25% (n=53), Type B comprised 22.50% (n=18), and Type C comprised 11.25% (n=9). Conclusion In asymmetric prognathism patients, there were no differences in the ramal thickness between the deviated side and the contralateral side. Furthermore, no differences were found in the lingual split pattern. The lingual split pattern correlated with the position of the lateral cortical bone cut end. In addition, the 3D-CT reformation was a useful tool for evaluating the surgical results of BSSO of the mandible. PMID:24627837

  1. Enlarged Tonsils

    Cancer.gov

    A cohort of about 3,000 individuals who were irradiated during childhood for benign head and neck conditions at Michael Reese Hospital was assembled and monitored for the risk of thyroid and other cancers.

  2. Morphology of the Lingual and Buccal Papillae in Alpaca (Vicugna pacos) - Light and Scanning Electron Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Goździewska-Harłajczuk, K; Klećkowska-Nawrot, J; Janeczek, M; Zawadzki, M

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was the description of the lingual and buccal papillae in adult alpaca (Vicugna pacos) by light and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The tongue consisted of apex, body and root. Four types of lingual papillae (filiform, fungiform, conical and circumvallate) in addition to two types of buccal papillae were observed. The filiform papillae, some with secondary papillae, were distributed on both the corpus and apex of the tongue, with stratified epithelium, and layer of keratin coat were recognized. The short (small) cone papillae had pointed top, while bunoform papillae were wide with smooth apex. The much less numerous circumvallate papillae with pseudopapillae on the each rim of the caudal lingual body were present with weak layer of keratin and intra-epithelial taste buds. The small fungiform papillae were found on the dorsal lingual surface, while the large fungiform papillae were situated on the ventral surface of the tongue, especially, in rostral part and were round in shape with numerous gustatory pores and very thin keratin coat. Pseudopapillae were present on the buccal conical 'bunoform' papillae surface, while 'elongate' buccal papillae surface was rather softly folded with thin coat of keratin. Microridges were observed in the less keratinized parts of each type of papillae. The orientation of either lingual or buccal papillae into the throat side facilitates the emptying of oral cavity from nutrient and swallowing of food. In conclusion, the anatomical features of the alpaca tongue are an adaptation to the feeding habits. PMID:25223623

  3. Prevalence of disease related prion protein in anonymous tonsil specimens in Britain: cross sectional opportunistic survey

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Carole M; Andrews, Nick; Vogliqi, Kelly; Mallinson, Gary; Kaisar, Maria; Hilton, David A; Ironside, James W; Edwards, Philip; McCardle, Linda M; Ritchie, Diane L; Dabaghian, Reza; Ambrose, Helen E; Gill, O Noel

    2009-01-01

    Objective To establish with improved accuracy the prevalence of disease related prion protein (PrPCJD) in the population of Britain and thereby guide a proportionate public health response to limit the threat of healthcare associated transmission of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD). Design Cross sectional opportunistic survey. Study samples Anonymised tonsil pairs removed at elective tonsillectomy throughout England and Scotland. Setting National anonymous tissue archive for England and Scotland. Main outcome measure Presence of PrPCJD determined by using two enzyme immunoassays based on different analytical principles, with further investigation by immunohistochemistry or immunoblotting of any samples reactive in either assay. Results Testing of 63 007 samples was completed by the end of September 2008. Of these, 12 753 were from the birth cohort in which most vCJD cases have arisen (1961-85) and 19 908 were from the 1986-95 cohort that would have been also exposed to bovine spongiform encephalopathy through infected meat or meat products. None of the samples tested was unequivocally reactive in both enzyme immunoassays. Only two samples were reactive in one or other enzyme immunoassay and equivocal in the other, and nine samples were equivocally reactive in both enzyme immunoassays. Two hundred and seventy six samples were initially reactive in one or other enzyme immunoassay; the repeat reactivity rate was 15% or less, depending on the enzyme immunoassay and cut-off definition. None of the samples (including all the 276 initially reactive in enzyme immunoassay) that were investigated by immunohistochemistry or immunoblotting was positive for the presence of PrPCJD. Conclusions The observed prevalence of PrPCJD in tonsils from the 1961-95 combined birth cohort was 0/32 661 with a 95% confidence interval of 0 to 113 per million. In the 1961-85 cohort, the prevalence of zero with a 95% confidence interval of 0 to 289 per million was lower than, but

  4. Microleakage in facial and lingual Class 5 composite restorations: a comparison.

    PubMed

    Barnes, D M; McDonald, N J; Thompson, V P; Blank, L W; Shires, P J

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this in vitro study was to determine if there is a difference in microleakage between facial and lingual enamel and cementum using two different evaluation techniques. Class 5 preparations were made in 50 teeth on the facial and lingual tooth surfaces and restored using dentin bonding and composite resin. The teeth were thermocycled, silver nitrate stained, and longitudinally sectioned into mesial and distal halves through each restoration. The mesial half was scored using a rank order system. A Kruskal-Wallis one-way ANOVA was performed. The distal half was scored by measurement, and a two-sample t-test was performed. There were no statistically significant differences (P > or = 0.05) in microleakage between facial and lingual tooth enamel or cementum surfaces using either measurement technique. PMID:9028232

  5. Fine structure of bat deep posterior lingual glands (von Ebner's)

    PubMed

    Azzali, G; Gatti, R; Bucci, G; Orlandini, G

    1989-10-01

    We studied the morphology and ultrastructure of the bat (Pipistrellus k.k. and Rhinolophus f.e.) deep posterior lingual glands (Ebner's glands) during hibernation, summer and after stimulation with pilocarpine. Ebner's glands are formed by serous tubulo-alveolar adenomeres and by an excretory system organized in intercalated ducts, long excretory ducts and a main excretory duct. The latter opens in the vallum which surrounds the circumvallate papillae and in the groove of the foliate papillae. The secretory cells, which lack basal folds, show abundant and dense granules (PAS+, Alcian blue -), microvilli (scarce during hibernation), a Golgi apparatus (well developed during summer and after stimulation with pilocarpine), a large nucleus and RER cisternae stacked at the basal pole. Centrioles, lipid droplets, heterogeneous bodies (in content and density, probably lipofuscin bodies), lysosomal multivesicular bodies and large, dense granules with a microcrystalline structure were also encountered. The lateral membranes of adjacent cells are joined by desmosomes; their interdigitations are neither numerous nor prominent during summer. Microfilaments, often gathered in small bundles, lie in the lateral, peripheral cytoplasm without any relation with desmosomes. In summer and particularly after stimulation with pilocarpine, the apical pole of the secretory cells is characterized by many long microvilli, pedunculated hyaloplasmic protrusions and secretory granules. During hibernation the lumen is filled with secretory material. Myoepithelial cells are arranged among secretory cells or between them and the basal lamina. The short intercalated ducts show similarities with the analogous ducts of the parotid gland. Striated ducts are absent. Excretory ducts are endowed with: a) an inner layer of cuboidal cells characterized by poorly developed cytoplasmic organelles, rare dense granules and a few small microvilli; b) an outer layer of basal cells lying on the basal lamina

  6. Sexual variation in bucco-lingual dimensions in Turkish dentition.

    PubMed

    Işcan, Mehmet Yaşar; Kedici, P Sema

    2003-11-26

    Sexual differences in the human skeleton have been well studied in many populations. Odontometric analysis of the human sexual variation has been less investigated and mostly derived from the dentition of extinct populations. Turkey is situated in a unique location where populations from different regions mixed with each other and created a rich gene pool. One might anticipate that modern Turkish population is composed of genes from the Balkans, Caucasus, Middle East, Iran and further as well as from ancient Romans, Byzantines, Arabs and Asiatic Turks. It is clear that contemporary Turks are a mixture of these extant and extinct people and ideal to consider it a representative study population. The purpose of this study is to analyze dental dimensions and sexual variation in living Turks and develop forensic techniques to identify human remains from the teeth when any other technique is not available or not reliable. The study is composed of Ankara University dental students (50 male and 50 female casts, average age of 21 years). Bucco-lingual breadths from 14 teeth (I1 through M2 of the maxilla and mandible) are taken from the left side and analyzed using the discriminant function statistics. An intraobserver error test did not indicate any statistically significant difference between any two measurements. Results of the study revealed that males exceeded females significantly (P<0.001) in dimensions. Coefficient of variation was most obvious in I1s and I2s of both jaws in both sexes. Stepwise discriminant function statistics suggested that upper C, and lower C and M2 are the most contributory teeth to the function. Additional formulae were calculated for situation in which only one or a fragmented jaw is available for identification. Overall accuracy of sex diagnosis ranged from 73 to 77%. In conclusion this research supports earlier studies that sexual dimorphism is population specific. While dental difference between the sexes in several human populations has

  7. Differences between buccal and lingual bone quality and quantity of peri-implant regions.

    PubMed

    Kim, Do-Gyoon; Elias, Kathy L; Jeong, Yong-Hoon; Kwon, Hyun-Jung; Clements, Matthew; Brantley, William A; Lee, Damian J; Han, Jung-Suk

    2016-07-01

    The objective of the current study was to examine whether peri-implant bone tissue properties are different between the buccal and lingual regions treated by growth factors. Four dental implant groups were used: titanium (Ti) implants, alumina-blasted zirconia implants (ATZ-N), alumina-blasted zirconia implants with demineralized bone matrix (DBM) (ATZ-D), and alumina-blasted zirconia implants with rhBMP-2 (ATZ-B). These implants were placed in mandibles of six male dogs. Nanoindentation elastic modulus (E) and plastic hardness (H) were measured for the buccal and lingual bone tissues adjacent and away from the implants at 3 and 6 weeks post-implantation. A total of 2281 indentations were conducted for 48 placed implants. The peri-implant buccal region had less bone quantity resulting from lower height and narrower width of bone tissue than the lingual region. Buccal bone tissues had significant greater mean values of E and H than lingual bone tissues at each distance and healing period (p<0.007). Nearly all implant treatment groups displayed lower mean values of the E at the lingual bone tissues than at the buccal bone tissues (p<0.046) although the difference was not significant for the Ti implant group (p=0.758). The DBM and rhBMP-2 treatments stimulated more peri-implant bone remodeling at the lingual region, producing more immature new bone tissues with lower E than at the buccal region. This finding suggests that the growth factor treatments to the zirconia implant system may help balance the quantity and quality differences between the peri-implant bone tissues. PMID:26773652

  8. Lingual Muscle Activity Across Sleep–Wake States in Rats with Surgically Altered Upper Airway

    PubMed Central

    Rukhadze, Irma; Kalter, Julie; Stettner, Georg M.; Kubin, Leszek

    2014-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) patients have increased upper airway muscle activity, including such lingual muscles as the genioglossus (GG), geniohyoid (GH), and hyoglossus (HG). This adaptation partially protects their upper airway against obstructions. Rodents are used to study the central neural control of sleep and breathing but they do not naturally exhibit OSA. We investigated whether, in chronically instrumented, behaving rats, disconnecting the GH and HG muscles from the hyoid (H) apparatus would result in a compensatory increase of other upper airway muscle activity (electromyogram, EMG) and/or other signs of upper airway instability. We first determined that, in intact rats, lingual (GG and intrinsic) muscles maintained stable activity levels when quantified based on 2 h-long recordings conducted on days 6 through 22 after instrumentation. We then studied five rats in which the tendons connecting the GH and HG muscles to the H apparatus were experimentally severed. When quantified across all recording days, lingual EMG during slow-wave sleep (SWS) was modestly but significantly increased in rats with surgically altered upper airway [8.6 ± 0.7% (SE) vs. 6.1 ± 0.7% of the mean during wakefulness; p = 0.012]. Respiratory modulation of lingual EMG occurred mainly during SWS and was similarly infrequent in both groups, and the incidence of sighs and central apneas also was similar. Thus, a weakened action of selected lingual muscles did not produce sleep-disordered breathing but resulted in a relatively elevated activity in other lingual muscles during SWS. These results encourage more extensive surgical manipulations with the aim to obtain a rodent model with collapsible upper airway. PMID:24803913

  9. Comparison of speech performance in labial and lingual orthodontic patients: A prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Rai, Ambesh Kumar; Rozario, Joe E.; Ganeshkar, Sanjay V.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The intensity and duration of speech difficulty inherently associated with lingual therapy is a significant issue of concern in orthodontics. This study was designed to evaluate and to compare the duration of changes in speech between labial and lingual orthodontics. Materials and Methods: A prospective longitudinal clinical study was designed to assess speech of 24 patients undergoing labial or lingual orthodontic treatment. An objective spectrographic evaluation of/s/sound was done using software PRAAT version 5.0.47, a semiobjective auditive evaluation of articulation was done by four speech pathologists and a subjective assessment of speech was done by four laypersons. The tests were performed before (T1), within 24 h (T2), after 1 week (T3) and after 1 month (T4) of the start of therapy. The Mann-Whitney U-test for independent samples was used to assess the significance difference between the labial and lingual appliances. A speech alteration with P < 0.05 was considered to be significant. Results: The objective method showed a significant difference to be present between the two groups for the/s/sound in the middle position (P < 0.001) at T3. The semiobjective assessment showed worst speech performance in the lingual group to be present at T3 for vowels and blends (P < 0.01) and at T3 and T4 for alveolar and palatal consonants (P < 0.01). The subjective assessment also showed a significant difference between the two groups at T3 (P < 0.01) and T4 (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Both appliance systems caused a comparable speech difficulty immediately after bonding (T2). Although the speech recovered within a week in the labial group (T3), the lingual group continued to experience discomfort even after a month (T4). PMID:25540661

  10. Impact of lingual plates on the interocclusal free way space: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Barbezat, C; Srinivasan, M; Schimmel, M; Hori, K; Tamine, K; Ono, T; Müller, F

    2012-10-01

    Palatal augmentation prostheses are commonly used in the treatment for dysphagia. By lowering the palatal contours, the tongue contact is increased and thus the bolus propulsion facilitated. However, the unfavourable weight of such appliances may be avoided when using lingual plates. Hence, the aim of this study is to investigate the effect of two different types of lingual plates on the vertical dimension in rest position. Eleven healthy dentate subjects with an average age of 35.5 years (26-60 years) volunteered in this pilot study. The vertical overbites were measured on plaster models. Two different designs of the experimental lingual plates were tested in this pilot study (P-type & D-type). The inter-occlusal freeway space was measured using the electromagnetic K7 jaw-tracking system (Myotronics, U.S.A.), while the subjects were seated in an upright position. They were asked to close from rest position into maximum intercuspation for about 2 s. Recordings were performed without the plates and subsequently with each of the two plate designs in situ. All recordings were performed three times and the second closing movement of each recording was used for the analysis. After averaging the repetitions without experimental lingual plates, with P-type and D-type plates, the differences were analysed using a Kruskall-Wallis test. The results showed no significantly increased freeway space while using both types of lingual plates. Hence, it can be concluded that any altered tongue pressure during swallowing with lingual plates is not related to an increase in vertical dimension. PMID:22789075

  11. Neurogenic stunned myocardium as a manifestation of encephalitis involving cerebellar tonsils.

    PubMed

    Lin, Wen-Sou; Sung, Yueh-Feng

    2012-11-01

    Neurogenic stunned myocardium is defined as a myocardial injury or dysfunction after neurological insults. It is most commonly reported in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage, and the presenting symptoms may mimic an acute myocardial infarction or myocarditis. In severe cases, cardiogenic shock and acute pulmonary edema may occur and lead to a devastating event. Therefore, it requires prompt recognition and proper intervention. We herein report the case of a 25-year-old woman who presented to our hospital with the symptoms of acute pulmonary edema, shock, and consciousness disturbance. The diagnosis of encephalitis of cerebellar tonsils complicated with acute hydrocephalus and neurogenic stunned myocardium was made. Detailed neurologic examinations, neuroimaging studies, and characteristic echocardiographic changes expedite the correct diagnosis and treatment. PMID:22205010

  12. Are thymus-derived lymphocytes (T cells) defective in the nasopharyngeal and palatine tonsils of children?

    PubMed

    Bernstein, J M; Rich, G A; Odziemiec, C; Ballow, M

    1993-10-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the response of adenoidal T cells and B cells in the production of immunoglobulins. There appears to be a consistent inability of adenoidal T cells to turn on B cells to mature into immunoglobulin-secreting plasma cells. This phenomenon did not appear to be due to suppressor activity of adenoidal T cells because T cells from other sources appeared to effectively result in adenoidal B cell maturation, even in the presence of adenoidal T cells. Both tonsils and adenoids appear to have defective IL-2 production, in response to both mitogens and specific antigens. It is hypothesized that a cytokine(s) may be released in adenoids that downregulate IL-2 production and result in immune suppression in the adenoids of children with recurrent otitis media and chronic sinusitis. PMID:8233506

  13. Radiotherapy alone or combined with chemotherapy as definitive treatment for squamous cell carcinoma of the tonsil.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, William R; Herman, Michael P; Deraniyagala, Rohan L; Amdur, Robert J; Werning, John W; Dziegielewski, Peter; Kirwan, Jessica; Morris, Christopher G; Mendenhall, William M

    2016-08-01

    This study is aimed at updating our institution's experience with definitive radiotherapy (RT) for squamous cell carcinoma of the tonsil. We reviewed 531 patients treated between 1983 and 2012 with definitive RT for squamous cell carcinoma of the tonsil. Of these, 179 patients were treated with either induction (n = 19) or concomitant (n = 160) chemotherapy. Planned neck dissection was performed on 217 patients: unilaterally in 199 and bilaterally in 18 patients. Median follow-up was 5.2 years for all patients (range 0.1-31.6 years) and 8.2 years for living patients (range 1.9-31.6 years). The 5-year local control rates by T stage were as follows: T1, 94 %; T2, 87 %; T3 79 %; T4, 70 %; and overall, 83 %. Multivariate analysis revealed that local control was significantly influenced by T stage and neck dissection. The 5-year cause-specific survival rates by overall stage were as follows: I, 94 %; II, 88 %; III, 87 %; IVA, 75 %; IVB, 52 %; and overall, 78 %. Multivariate analysis revealed that cause-specific survival was significantly influenced by T stage, N stage, overall stage, fractionation, neck dissection, sex, and ethnicity. Of 77 patients treated with ipsilateral fields only, contralateral neck failure occurred in 1 %. The rate of severe complications was 12 %. Definitive RT for patients with tonsillar squamous cell carcinoma provides control rates equivalent to other modalities with a comparatively low incidence of late complications. Patients with anterior tonsillar pillar or tonsillar fossa primaries that are well lateralized with no base of tongue or soft palate extension may be treated with ipsilateral fields. PMID:27059836

  14. Assessment of lingual function when ankyloglossia (tongue-tie) is suspected.

    PubMed

    Williams, W N; Waldron, C M

    1985-03-01

    Dental specialists are frequently confronted with the task of attempting to determine whether a cause and effect relationship exists between a short or restricting lingual frenum (ankyloglossia or tongue-tie) and a specific oral motor dysfunction. Because there is no standardized definition of what constitutes a condition of tongue-tie, the dental practitioner is often unsure as to the appropriate course of action with a patient with suspected ankyloglossia. This paper describes clinical measures that permit quantifying several anatomic and functional aspects of the tongue. Such baseline analysis provides a more definitive appraisal of lingual function as well as a more objective basis for making pre- and posttreatment comparisons. PMID:3858347

  15. Coincidence of congenital infiltrative facial lipoma and lingual myxoma in a newborn Holstein calf.

    PubMed

    Hobbenaghi, R; Dalir-Naghadeh, B; Nazarizadeh, A

    2015-01-01

    A one-day-old male Holstein calf was presented with a palpable subcutaneous mass, extending from the parotid to the orbital region, involving the entire right side of the face and a large flabby mass without any evidence of inflammation or edema on the tongue. Macroscopically, the cut surface of the lingual mass appeared slightly lobulated, pink, with a mucoid appearance and gelatinous consistency. Histopathological examination confirmed the infiltrative subcutaneous lipoma and lingual myxoma evidenced by low cellularity and abundant basophilic, mucinous stroma. In this report, clinical and detailed histhopathological findings of congenital infiltrative myxoma and its coincidence with infiltrative facial lipoma is reported in a newborn calf. PMID:27175195

  16. Scanning Electron Microscopic Structure of the Lingual Papillae of the Common Opossum (Didelphis marsupialis)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okada, Shigenori; Schraufnagel, Dean E.

    2005-08-01

    The mammalian tongue has evolved for specialized functions in different species. The structure of its papillae tells about the animal's diet, habit, and taxonomy. The opossum has four kinds of lingual papillae (filiform, conical, fungiform, vallate). Scanning electron microscopy of the external features, connective tissue cores, and corrosion casts of the microvasculature show the filiform papillae have a spearhead-like main process and spiny accessory processes around the apical part of the main process. The shape and number of both processes depend on their position on the tongue. On the apex, the main processes have shovel-like capillary networks and the accessory processes have small conical networks. On the lingual radix, the processes have small capillary loops. In the patch region, conical papillae have capillaries arranged as a full sail curving posteriorly. The fungiform papillae are scattered among the filiform papillae and have capillary baskets beneath each taste bud. Giant fungiform papillae on the tongue tip are three to four times larger than the ones on the lingual body. Capillaries of giant papillae form a fan-shaped network. The opossum has three vallate papillae arranged in a triangle. Their tops have secondary capillary loops but not their lateral surfaces. Mucosal folds on the posterolateral border have irregular, fingerlike projections with cylindrical capillary networks. These findings and the structure of the rest of the masticatory apparatus suggest the lingual papillae of opossum have kept their ancestral carnivorous features but also developed the herbivore characteristics of other marsupials.

  17. Do flexible acrylic resin lingual flanges improve retention of mandibular complete dentures?

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed Elmorsy, Ayman Elmorsy; Ahmed Ibraheem, Eman Mostafa; Ela, Alaa Aboul; Fahmy, Ahmed; Nassani, Mohammad Zakaria

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to compare the retention of conventional mandibular complete dentures with that of mandibular complete dentures having lingual flanges constructed with flexible acrylic resin “Versacryl.” Materials and Methods: The study sample comprised 10 completely edentulous patients. Each patient received one maxillary complete denture and two mandibular complete dentures. One mandibular denture was made of conventional heat-cured acrylic resin and the other had its lingual flanges made of flexible acrylic resin Versacryl. Digital force-meter was used to measure retention of mandibular dentures at delivery and at 2 weeks and 45 days following denture insertion. Results: The statistical analysis showed that at baseline and follow-up appointments, retention of mandibular complete dentures with flexible lingual flanges was significantly greater than retention of conventional mandibular dentures (P < 0.05). In both types of mandibular dentures, retention of dentures increased significantly over the follow-up period (P < 0.05). Conclusions: The use of flexible acrylic resin lingual flanges in the construction of mandibular complete dentures improved denture retention. PMID:26539387

  18. Antero-posterior lingual sliding retraction system for orthodontic correction of hyperdivergent Class II protrusion

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background This report introduces a lingual bonded retraction system (Kinematics of Lingual Bar on Non-Paralleling Technique, KILBON) for efficient sliding mechanics combined with vertical control of the anterior and posterior teeth, which is suitable for Class II hyperdivergent patients. Methods Design and biomechanics of the KILBON System were described. Two adults with hyperdivergent class II malocclusion were treated with the KILBON system and temporary skeletal anchorage devices (TSADs) on the palate. The first patient was treated with conventional KILBON system on the upper arch and detailed with lingual appliances. The second patient showed the modified design of the KILBON when applied to a low palatal vault. Results A large amount of intrusion and retraction of the anterior teeth and simultaneous intrusion of the posterior segment were achieved in short treatment time. Concomitant counterclockwise rotation of the mandible improved the esthetic profile. Periodontal support without dehiscence or bone loss was confirmed on anterior region in spite of large amount of retraction. Conclusions This report presented a lingual retraction system that provides simple and effective vertical and sagittal control of both anterior and posterior teeth. The biomechanics are dependable for correcting a dentoalveolar protrusion in a patient with Class II hyperdivergent skeletal pattern. PMID:24897979

  19. Differential Tendencies To Guess as a Function of Gender and Lingual-Cultural Reference Group.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gafni, Naomi; Estela, Melamed

    The objective of this study was to investigate differential tendencies to avoid guessing as a function of three variables: (1) lingual-cultural-group; (2) gender; and (3) examination year. The Psychometric Entrance Test (PET) for universities in Israel was used, which is administered in Hebrew, Arabic, English, French, Spanish, and Russian. The…

  20. Quantitative Lingual, Pharyngeal and Laryngeal Ultrasonography in Swallowing Research: A Technical Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chi-Fishman, Gloria

    2005-01-01

    Because of its distinct advantage in radiation-free soft tissue imaging, ultrasonography has been widely used to study lingual, pharyngeal, hyoid, laryngeal, and even esophageal action during swallowing in individuals of all ages. Qualitative ultrasonographic observations have made considerable contributions to our understanding of deglutition.…

  1. Scanning electron microscopic structure of the lingual papillae of the common opossum (Didelphis marsupialis).

    PubMed

    Okada, Shigenori; Schraufnagel, Dean E

    2005-08-01

    The mammalian tongue has evolved for specialized functions in different species. The structure of its papillae tells about the animal's diet, habit, and taxonomy. The opossum has four kinds of lingual papillae (filiform, conical, fungiform, vallate). Scanning electron microscopy of the external features, connective tissue cores, and corrosion casts of the microvasculature show the filiform papillae have a spearhead-like main process and spiny accessory processes around the apical part of the main process. The shape and number of both processes depend on their position on the tongue. On the apex, the main processes have shovel-like capillary networks and the accessory processes have small conical networks. On the lingual radix, the processes have small capillary loops. In the patch region, conical papillae have capillaries arranged as a full sail curving posteriorly. The fungiform papillae are scattered among the filiform papillae and have capillary baskets beneath each taste bud. Giant fungiform papillae on the tongue tip are three to four times larger than the ones on the lingual body. Capillaries of giant papillae form a fan-shaped network. The opossum has three vallate papillae arranged in a triangle. Their tops have secondary capillary loops but not their lateral surfaces. Mucosal folds on the posterolateral border have irregular, fingerlike projections with cylindrical capillary networks. These findings and the structure of the rest of the masticatory apparatus suggest the lingual papillae of opossum have kept their ancestral carnivorous features but also developed the herbivore characteristics of other marsupials. PMID:16079016

  2. Frenectomy with anterior lingual sulcoplasty for an implant-supported overdenture: A clinical report.

    PubMed

    Perri de Carvalho, Paulo Sergio; Janjacomo, Luiz Antonio; Ponzoni, Daniela

    2016-04-01

    This clinical report describes the deepening of a patient's anterior mandibular lingual sulcus in combination with frenectomy and the use of an acrylic resin guiding device fixed to an osseointegrated dental implant to maintain the patency of the new sulcular depth. PMID:26723097

  3. Cerebellopontine angle mass mimicking lingual nerve injury after dental implant placement: a case report.

    PubMed

    Momota, Y; Kani, K; Takano, H; Azuma, M

    2015-09-01

    This is a rare case report of a cerebellopontine angle (CPA) mass mimicking lingual nerve injury after a dental implant placement. Lingual nerve injury is a common complication following dental implant placement. CPA masses are likely to cause symptomatic trigeminal neuralgia, and thus can mimic and be easily confused with oral diseases. We experienced a case of CPA mass mimicking lingual nerve injury after dental implant placement. The patient was a 57-year-old Japanese female who complained of glossalgia. She underwent dental implant placement in the mandible before visiting our clinic. Panoramic x-ray radiography revealed no abnormalities; the salivary flow rate by gum test was 7.0 ml/10 min. She was diagnosed with lingual nerve injury and secondary burning mouth syndrome. Vitamin B12 and oral moisturizer did not provide relief; furthermore, numbness in the lower lip emerged. A Semmes Weinstein test demonstrated elevation of her sensitivity threshold. Finally, magnetic resonance imaging revealed a 20-mm diameter mass in the CPA. The patient is now being followed under conservative management. Our experience underscores the importance of including CPA mass in the differential diagnosis of dental diseases. PMID:25280059

  4. Bi-Lingual Newspaper as an Expression of a Fake Multicultural Educational Policy in Israel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baratz, Lea; Reingold, Roni; Abuhatzira, Hannah

    2011-01-01

    The current paper analyzes a unique educational text that may be used to follow the educational policy of the State of Israel towards the community of Jewish immigrants from Ethiopia. The text which was analyzed was a bi-lingual newspaper called "Nugget News" which is published under the sponsorship of the Israeli Ministry of Education,…

  5. Lingual Kinematic Strategies Used to Increase Speech Rate: Comparison between Younger and Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goozee, Justine V.; Stephenson, Dayna K.; Murdoch, Bruce E.; Darnell, Ross E.; Lapointe, Leonard L.

    2005-01-01

    The primary objective of this study was to assess the lingual kinematic strategies used by younger and older adults to increase rate of speech. It was hypothesised that the strategies used by the older adults would differ from the young adults either as a direct result of, or in response to a need to compensate for, age-related changes in the…

  6. Initial experience with lingual mucosal graft urethroplasty for anterior urethral strictures

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, Anand; Dutta, A.; Jain, D.K.

    2012-01-01

    Background To present the feasibility of lingual mucosal graft urethroplasty in anterior urethral strictures and appraisal of donor site morbidity. Methods From November 2007 to December 2010, 14 patients underwent dorsal onlay lingual mucosal graft urethroplasty for anterior urethral strictures. Lingual mucosal graft was harvested from the lateral and undersurface of the tongue. Check micturating cystourethrograms were done 2 weeks after catheter removal and uroflowmetry after 3 months. Success was defined as normal uroflowmetry rates at 3 months in the absence of any postoperative instrumentation. Tongue was assessed for any residual pain, taste disturbances or restricted movement at 3 months. Results Four patients had submucosal fibrosis of the oral cavity and their buccal mucosa was unfit for grafting. Mean (range) stricture length was 5 (3–16) cm and the operation time 170 (140–210) min. Graft width averaged 1.6 cm. Average length of harvested graft was 6.5 cm. Mean duration of follow-up was 12.8 months. Two patients developed stricture at the proximal anastomotic site. There were no donor site complications. Conclusions Lingual mucosal graft harvesting is simple, gives graft lengths comparable to buccal mucosa and is associated with negligible donor site morbidity. PMID:24532928

  7. Posttraumatic lingual artery pseudoaneurysm treated with ultrasound-guided percutaneous thrombin injection.

    PubMed

    Masella, Pamela C; Hanson, Megan M; Hall, Brian T; Verghese, John J; Kellicut, Dwight C

    2014-07-01

    Pseudoaneurysms of the lingual artery are extremely rare and are commonly iatrogenic in nature or less frequently a result of blunt or penetrating trauma. Traditionally, these vascular abnormalities have been repaired with open or endovascular techniques. Although ultrasound-guided percutaneous thrombin injection has become a standard treatment for superficial pseudoaneurysms, there are no reports of this being used in the treatment of lingual artery pseudoaneurysms. We report the case of a 26-year-old man who suffered a penetrating head and neck injury after an improvised explosive device blast in Iraq who presented with persistent oropharyngeal swelling. Color-flow Doppler ultrasonography revealed the classic yin/yang sign of a pseudoaneurysm, and a computed tomography scan was obtained that revealed a right lingual artery pseudoaneurysm. With the lack of endovascular capabilities and the excessive risk of open surgery, thrombin was injected directly into the pseudoaneurysm under ultrasound guidance. A computed tomography scan and Doppler ultrasonography revealed complete resolution of the aneurysm. This article presents the first reported case in the English literature of a lingual artery aneurysm after penetrating trauma managed successfully with ultrasound-guided percutaneous thrombin injection. PMID:24365080

  8. The effect of surgical technique on lingual nerve damage during lower 3rd molar removal by dental students.

    PubMed

    Robinson, P P; Loescher, A R; Smith, K G

    1999-05-01

    We have previously shown that avoidance of lingual flap retraction with a Howarth periosteal elevator during lower 3rd molar removal, reduces the incidence of lingual nerve damage. In that study, the surgery was undertaken by qualified staff and we have now assessed the effect of revising the method taught to our junior undergraduate dental students. We evaluated the outcome of surgery undertaken by 2 consecutive years of students, each group being taught 1 of the 2 methods. A total of 200 patients requiring lower 3rd molar removal under local anaesthesia were included in the study. In year 1, the surgery included elevation of a lingual flap and insertion of a Howarth elevator adjacent to the lingual plate; in year 2 this part of the procedure was avoided by using a purely buccal approach. There were no significant differences between the levels of tooth eruption and types of impaction of the teeth removed in each year. Lingual sensory disturbance occurred in 3 patients in the 'flap' group (3.3%) and in 1 patient (0.9%) in the 'no flap' group. As this incidence is not significantly different in the 2 groups (P < 0.4), we conclude that avoidance of lingual retraction by students undertaking lower 3rd molar removal does not appear to place the lingual nerve at greater risk. In view of the results of our previous study, we therefore advocate this method for use in undergraduate dental education. PMID:10530161

  9. Polypeptide thermogels as a three dimensional culture scaffold for hepatogenic differentiation of human tonsil-derived mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seung-Jin; Park, Min Hee; Moon, Hyo Jung; Park, Jin Hye; Ko, Du Young; Jeong, Byeongmoon

    2014-10-01

    Tonsil-derived mesenchymal stem cells (TMSCs) were investigated for hepatogenic differentiation in the 3D matrixes of poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(l-alanine) (PEG-L-PA) thermogel. The diblock polymer formed β-sheet based fibrous nanoassemblies in water, and the aqueous polymer solution undergoes sol-to-gel transition as the temperature increases in a concentration range of 5.0-8.0 wt %. The cell-encapsulated 3D matrix was prepared by increasing the temperature of the cell-suspended PEG-L-PA aqueous solution (6.0 wt %) to 37 °C. The gel modulus at 37 °C was about 1000 Pa, which was similar to that of decellularized liver tissue. Cell proliferation, changes in cell morphology, hepatogenic biomarker expressions, and hepatocyte-specific biofunctions were compared for the following 3D culture systems: TMSC-encapsulated thermogels in the absence of hepatogenic growth factors (protocol M), TMSC-encapsulated thermogels where hepatogenic growth factors were supplied from the medium (protocol MGF), and TMSC-encapsulated thermogels where hepatogenic growth factors were coencapsulated with TMSCs during the sol-to-gel transition (protocol GGF). The spherical morphology and size of the encapsulated cells were maintained in the M system during the 3D culture period of 28 days, whereas the cells changed their morphology and significant aggregation of cells was observed in the MGF and GGF systems. The hepatocyte-specific biomarker expressions and metabolic functions were negligible for the M system. However, hepatogenic genes of albumin, cytokeratin 18 (CK-18), and hepatocyte nuclear factor 4α (HNF 4α) were significantly expressed in both MGF and GGF systems. In addition, production of albumin and α-fetoprotein was also significantly observed in both MGF and GGF systems. The uptake of cardiogreen and low-density lipoprotein, typical metabolic functions of hepatocytes, was apparent for MGF and GGF. The above data indicate that the 3D culture system of PEG-L-PA thermogels

  10. Microsphere-Incorporated Hybrid Thermogel for Neuronal Differentiation of Tonsil Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Patel, Madhumita; Moon, Hyo Jung; Jung, Bo Kyung; Jeong, Byeongmoon

    2015-07-15

    Neuronal differentiation of tonsil-derived mesenchymal stem cells (TMSCs) is investigated in a 3D hybrid system. The hybrid system is prepared by increasing the temperature of poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(l-alanine) aqueous solution to 37 °C through the heat-induced sol-to-gel transition, in which TMSCs and growth factor releasing microspheres are suspended. The in situ formed gel exhibits a modulus of 800 Pa at 37 °C, similar to that of brain tissue, and it is robust enough to hold the microspheres and cells during the 3D culture of TMSCs. The neuronal growth factors are released over 12-18 d, and the TMSCs in a spherical shape initially undergo multipolar elongation during the 3D culture. Significantly higher expressions of the neuronal biomarkers such as nuclear receptor related protein (Nurr-1), neuron specific enolase, microtubule associated protein-2, neurofilament-M, and glial fibrillary acidic protein are observed in both mRNA level and protein level in the hybrid systems than in the control experiments. This study proves the significance of a controlled drug delivery concept in tissue engineering or regenerative medicine, and a 3D hybrid system with controlled release of growth factors from microspheres in a thermogel can be a very promising tool. PMID:26033880

  11. Squamous cell carcinoma of the tonsil managed by conventional surgery and postoperative radiation

    PubMed Central

    Rahmati, Rahmatullah; Dogan, Snjezana; Pyke, Owen; Palmer, Frank; Awad, Mahmoud; Lee, Nancy; Kraus, Dennis H.; Shah, Jatin P.; Patel, Snehal G.; Ganly, Ian

    2016-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to report the long-term outcome of patients with squamous cell cancer (SCC) of the tonsil managed by surgery followed by postoperative radiotherapy (PORT). Methods Eighty-eight patients treated between 1985 and 2005 were analyzed. Overall survival (OS), disease-specific survival (DSS), and recurrence-free survival (RFS) were determined by the Kaplan–Meier method. Factors predictive of outcome were determined by univariate and multivariate analysis. Results Forty-eight percent of patients had T3 to T4 disease and 75% had a positive neck. Five-year OS, DSS, and RFS were 66%, 82%, and 80%, respectively. The status of the neck was not predictive of outcome (DSS 80% for N0 vs 82% for N+; p = .97). Lymphovascular invasion was an independent predictor of OS, DSS, and RFS on multivariate analysis. Conclusion Lymphovascular invasion but not pathological stage of the neck is an independent predictor of outcome in patients with tonsillar SCC. PMID:24616252

  12. Paediatric obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS) is associated with tonsil colonisation by Streptococcus pyogenes

    PubMed Central

    Viciani, Elisa; Montagnani, Francesca; Tavarini, Simona; Tordini, Giacinta; Maccari, Silvia; Morandi, Matteo; Faenzi, Elisa; Biagini, Cesare; Romano, Antonio; Salerni, Lorenzo; Finco, Oretta; Lazzi, Stefano; Ruggiero, Paolo; De Luca, Andrea; Barocchi, Michèle A.; Manetti, Andrea G. O.

    2016-01-01

    The involvement of pathogenic bacteria in obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS) has yet to be elucidated. We investigated the possible role of group A streptococcus (GAS) in OSAS pathogenesis. In 40 tonsillectomized patients affected by OSAS and 80 healthy controls, significant (p < 0.0001) association of GAS with paediatric OSAS was found. Supernatant from streptolysin O (SLO)-producing GAS induced production of cysteinyl leukotrienes (CysLTs) in tonsil mononuclear cells (TMCs). CysLTs-treated TMCs showed significant (p < 0.05) proliferation of CD4+ T, CD19+ and CD19+CD27+CD38+ B lymphocytes. We discovered a SLO-dependent activation of CysLTs production through a pathway involving TOLL-like receptor 4 (TLR4), TIR-domain-containing adapter-inducing interferon-β (TRIF), Myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 (MyD88), and p38 MAP Kinase. In conclusion, we hypothesise that GAS may contribute to paediatric tonsillar hyperplasia through CysLTs production induced by SLO, and this might explain its association with OSAS. PMID:26860261

  13. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels in children with recurrent tonsillitis living in Milan.

    PubMed

    Torretta, S; Marchisio, P; Iofrida, E; Capaccio, P; Pignataro, L

    2015-01-01

    Involvement of 25-hydroxyvitamin D in the etiopathogenesis of tonsillar disease in children is still debated; this study assesses possible differences in serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels between 309 Caucasian children (58.1% males; mean age 55.7 ± 31.0 months) living in Milan with a history of recurrent tonsillitis (RT) and healthy controls. Mean serum 25(OH)D levels were significantly reduced in the children with a history of RT (22.0 ± 8.7 ng/mL vs 24.6 ± 7.8 ng/mL; p=0.03), and the proportion of children with insufficient or deficient serum 25(OH)D levels was higher in the RT group (81.5% and 6.5% respectively) than in the control group (75.1% and 3.5%) (not significant). The multivariable model created to test the independent association between serum 25(OH)D levels and a history of RT after adjusting for age and season showed that the association was not significant. Our study failed to find any significant reduction in serum 25(OH)D levels after adjustment for age and season in a case series of children with RT in comparison with healthy controls, which suggests that vitamin D does not play a relevant role in the etiology of pediatric tonsillar infections. PMID:26753657

  14. Immunohistochemical analysis of type III collagen expression in the lingual mucosa of rats during organogenesis of the tongue.

    PubMed

    Iwasaki, Shin-Ichi; Asami, Tomoichiro; Wanichanon, Chaitip; Yoshizawa, Hideki; Aoyagi, Hidekazu

    2008-07-01

    We examined the distribution of immunofluorescence due to immunostaining of type III collagen, differential interference contrast (DIC) images and images obtained in the transmission mode after toluidine blue staining by laser-scanning microscopy of semi-ultrathin sections of epoxy resin-embedded samples, during morphogenesis of the filiform papillae, keratinization of the lingual epithelium, and myogenesis of the rat tongue. Immunoreactivity specific for type III collagen was distributed widely in the mesenchymal connective tissue in fetuses on day 15 after conception (E15), at which time the lingual epithelium was composed of one or two layers of cuboidal cells and the lingual muscle was barely recognizable. Immunoreactivity specific for type III collagen was clearly detected on the lamina propria in fetuses on E17 and E19, and it was relatively distinct just beneath the lingual epithelium. Immunoreactivity specific for type III collagen was sparsely distributed on the connective tissue around the developing lingual muscle. In fetuses on E19, the epithelium became clearly stratified and squamous. At postnatal stages from newborn (P0) to postnatal day 14 (P14), keratinization of the lingual epithelium advanced gradually with the development of filiform papillae. On P0, myogenesis of the tongue was almost completed. The intensity of the fluorescence immunoreactivity specific for type III collagen at postnatal stages was almost same as that on E19. The immunoreactivity around the fully mature muscle was relatively distinct between P0 and P14. Thus, type III collagen appeared in conjunction with the morphogenesis of filiform papillae and the keratinization of the lingual epithelium as well as in the connective tissue that surrounded the lingual muscle during myogenesis of the rat tongue. PMID:18661199

  15. Mucocele of the glands of Blandin-Nuhn after lingual frenectomy.

    PubMed

    Santos, Thiago de Santana; Filho, Paulo Ricardo Saquete Martins; Piva, Marta Rabello; Khalil Karam, Frederick

    2012-11-01

    Mucoceles are the most common lesions of the minor salivary glands and typically appear as a fluctuant, bluish, nontender, submucosal swelling with a normal overlying mucosa. Mucoceles of the glands of Blandin-Nuhn (in the anterior portion of the ventral surface of the tongue) have been considered to be uncommon. This article reports an unusual case of a large extravasation mucocele involving the ventral surface of the tongue, which appeared after a lingual frenectomy. PMID:23172517

  16. Readings on American Society. The Audio-Lingual Literary Series II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Imamura, Shigeo; Ney, James W.

    This text contains 11 lessons based on an adaptation of the 1964 essay "Automation: Road to Lifetime Jobs" by A.H. Raskin and 14 lessons based on an adaptation of John Fischer's 1948 essay "Unwritten Rules of American Politics." The format of the book and the lessons is the same as that of the other volumes of "The Audio-Lingual Literary Series."…

  17. Minimally Invasive Approach to the Lingual and Hypoglossal Nerves in the Adult Rat.

    PubMed

    Doyle, Edward John; Phillips, Grady W; Gratton, Michael Anne; Long, John P; Varvares, Mark A

    2016-06-01

    Surgical manipulation of the sensory and motor nerves of the rat tongue is often employed in studies evaluating the oral cavity functions of mastication and deglutition. A noninvasive, atraumatic approach that will then facilitate sufficient manipulation of these structures is required. In this study, we detail an approach that consistently allows identification of the hypoglossal (motor) and lingual (sensory) nerves of the rat. Six Wistar rats (250-500 g) were anesthetized and dissected either as fresh tissue (N = 3) or following transcardial perfusion with 4% paraformaldehyde (N = 3). Both fixed and non-fixed specimens of the rat head and neck were incised in the right submandibular region. The first animal in each group was used to gain a basic understanding of the regional muscular anatomy with reference to the hypoglossal and lingual nerves. Subsequent animals were used for the development of an efficient and minimally invasive approach to these nerves. The resultant approach begins as an incision through skin and platysma, followed by medial reflection of the digastric muscle. This allows visualization of the hypoglossal nerve in the region of the bifurcation of the common trunk into medial and lateral subdivisions. Next, the lingual nerve dissection is approached by reflection rostrally of the transversus mandibularis muscle and a caudal reflection of the mylohyoid muscle. This dissection reveals the geniohyoid muscle which when separated bluntly using forceps, exposes the lingual nerve. The anatomical approach described and illustrated herein will aid investigators in consistent identification of these two nerves as fundamental methods of their projects. PMID:26633569

  18. Carbon Dioxide Laser Microsurgical Median Glossotomy for Resection of Lingual Dermoid Cysts

    PubMed Central

    Corvers, Kristien; Hens, Greet; Meulemans, Jeroen; Delaere, Pierre; Hermans, Robert; Vander Poorten, Vincent

    2016-01-01

    Dermoid cysts are epithelial-lined cavities with skin adnexae in the capsule. Only 7% is present in the head and neck. Between 2004 and 2013, four patients with a lingual dermoid cyst underwent a microsurgical carbon dioxide laser resection via a median sagittal glossotomy approach. This approach is an elegant technique combining superior visualization, hemostasis, and little postoperative edema with good wound healing, allowing for perfect function preservation of the tongue. PMID:27504448

  19. Variations in the buccal-lingual alveolar bone thickness of impacted mandibular third molar: our classification and treatment perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Jing; Zheng, Jia-Wei; Yang, Chi; Qian, Wen-Tao

    2016-01-01

    Selecting either buccal or lingual approach for the mandibular third molar surgical extraction has been an intense debate for years. The aim of this observational retrospective study was to classify the molar based on the proximity to the external cortical bone, and analyze the position of inferior alveolar canal (IAC) of each type. Cone-beam CT (CBCT) data of 110 deeply impacted mandibular third molars from 91 consecutive patients were analyzed. A new classification based on the mean deduction value (MD) of buccal-lingual alveolar bone thickness was proposed: MD≥1 mm was classified as buccal position, 1 mm>MD>−1 mm was classified as central position, MD≤−1 mm was classified as lingual position. The study samples were distributed as: buccal position (1.8%) in 2 subjects, central position (10.9%) in 12 and lingual position (87.3%) in 96. Ninety-six molars (87.3%) contacted the IAC. The buccal and inferior IAC course were the most common types in impacted third molar, especially in lingually positioned ones. Our study suggested that amongst deeply impacted mandibular third molars, lingual position occupies the largest proportion, followed by the central, and then the buccal type. PMID:26759181

  20. Variations in the buccal-lingual alveolar bone thickness of impacted mandibular third molar: our classification and treatment perspectives.

    PubMed

    Ge, Jing; Zheng, Jia-Wei; Yang, Chi; Qian, Wen-Tao

    2016-01-01

    Selecting either buccal or lingual approach for the mandibular third molar surgical extraction has been an intense debate for years. The aim of this observational retrospective study was to classify the molar based on the proximity to the external cortical bone, and analyze the position of inferior alveolar canal (IAC) of each type. Cone-beam CT (CBCT) data of 110 deeply impacted mandibular third molars from 91 consecutive patients were analyzed. A new classification based on the mean deduction value (MD) of buccal-lingual alveolar bone thickness was proposed: MD≥1 mm was classified as buccal position, 1 mm>MD>-1 mm was classified as central position, MD≤-1 mm was classified as lingual position. The study samples were distributed as: buccal position (1.8%) in 2 subjects, central position (10.9%) in 12 and lingual position (87.3%) in 96. Ninety-six molars (87.3%) contacted the IAC. The buccal and inferior IAC course were the most common types in impacted third molar, especially in lingually positioned ones. Our study suggested that amongst deeply impacted mandibular third molars, lingual position occupies the largest proportion, followed by the central, and then the buccal type. PMID:26759181

  1. Debonding forces of three different customized bases of a lingual bracket system

    PubMed Central

    Sung, Jang-Won; Kwon, Tae-Yub

    2013-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to investigate whether extension of the custom base is necessary for enhancement of bond strength, by comparing the debonding forces and residual adhesives of 3 different lingual bracket systems. Methods A total of 42 extracted upper premolars were randomly divided into 3 groups of 14 each for bonding with brackets having (1) a conventional limited resin custom base; (2) an extended gold alloy custom base: Incognito™; and (3) an extended resin custom base: KommonBase™. The bonding area was measured by scanning the bracket bases with a 3-dimensional digital scanner. The debonding force was measured with an Instron universal testing machine, which applied an occlusogingival shear force. Results The mean debonding forces were 60.83 N (standard deviation [SD] 10.12), 69.29 N (SD 9.59), and 104.35 N (SD17.84) for the limited resin custom base, extended gold alloy custom base, and extended resin custom base, respectively. The debonding force observed with the extended resin custom base was significantly different from that observed with the other bases. In addition, the adhesive remnant index was significantly higher with the extended gold alloy custom base. Conclusions All 3 custom-base lingual brackets can withstand occlusal and orthodontic forces. We conclude that effective bonding of lingual brackets can be obtained without extension of the custom base. PMID:24228238

  2. Tonsil-derived mesenchymal stem cells alleviate concanavalin A-induced acute liver injury.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Kyung-Ha; Kim, So-Yeon; Kim, Ye-Ryung; Woo, So-Youn; Sung, Sun Hee; Kim, Han Su; Jung, Sung-Chul; Jo, Inho; Park, Joo-Won

    2014-08-01

    Acute liver failure, the fatal deterioration of liver function, is the most common indication for emergency liver transplantation, and drug-induced liver injury and viral hepatitis are frequent in young adults. Stem cell therapy has come into the limelight as a potential therapeutic approach for various diseases, including liver failure and cirrhosis. In this study, we investigated therapeutic effects of tonsil-derived mesenchymal stem cells (T-MSCs) in concanavalin A (ConA)- and acetaminophen-induced acute liver injury. ConA-induced hepatitis resembles viral and immune-mediated hepatic injury, and acetaminophen overdose is the most frequent cause of acute liver failure in the United States and Europe. Intravenous administration of T-MSCs significantly reduced ConA-induced hepatic toxicity, but not acetaminophen-induced liver injury, affirming the immunoregulatory capacity of T-MSCs. T-MSCs were successfully recruited to damaged liver and suppressed inflammatory cytokine secretion. T-MSCs expressed high levels of galectin-1 and -3, and galectin-1 knockdown which partially diminished interleukin-2 and tumor necrosis factor α secretion from cultured T-cells. Galectin-1 knockdown in T-MSCs also reversed the protective effect of T-MSCs on ConA-induced hepatitis. These results suggest that galectin-1 plays an important role in immunoregulation of T-MSCs, which contributes to their protective effect in immune-mediated hepatitis. Further, suppression of T-cell activation by frozen and thawed T-MSCs implies great potential of T-MSC banking for clinical utilization in immune-mediated disease. PMID:24954408

  3. Selenium, Zinc, Copper, and Total Antioxidant Status in the Serum of Patients with Chronic Tonsillitis.

    PubMed

    Michalska-Mosiej, Małgorzata; Socha, Katarzyna; Soroczyńska, Jolanta; Karpińska, Elżbieta; Łazarczyk, Bogdan; Borawska, Maria Halina

    2016-09-01

    Antioxidants can play a significant role in chronic inflammatory process. The aim of this study was to evaluate the content of selenium (Se), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), and total antioxidant status (TAS) of patients with chronic tonsillitis (CT). The study group consisted of 84 patients with CT from 18 to 62 years old and the control group of 67 healthy people aged 19-65 years. Se, Zn, and Cu concentration in serum samples were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry. Serum TAS was measured spectrophotometrically, using the test by Randox Laboratories-Us Ltd. The mean content of Se and Zn in the serum of patients with CT (61.122 ± 12.73 μg/L, 0.887 ± 0.26 mg/L, respectively) was lower compared to the control group (77.969 ± 12.73 μg/L, 0.993 ± 0.32 mg/L, respectively). The mean serum concentration of Cu in patients with CT (1.219 ± 0.35 mg/L) was higher compared to its serum concentration in healthy people (1.033 ± 0.37 mg/L). Serum TAS of patients with CT (1.171 ± 0.33 mmol/L) was lower in comparison with healthy volunteers (1.333 ± 0.42 mmol/L). The serum concentration of Se, Zn, and TAS in patients with CT was lower, whereas the concentration of Cu was higher compared to healthy volunteers. Smoking has an influence on reducing the concentration of Se and TAS of patients with CT. PMID:26847690

  4. Modulation of prey capture kinematics and the role of lingual sensory feedback in the lizard Pogona vitticeps.

    PubMed

    Schaerlaeken, Vicky; Meyers, Jay J; Herrel, Anthony

    2007-01-01

    Most organisms feed on a variety of prey that may differ dramatically in their physical and behavioural characteristics (e.g. mobility, mass, texture, etc.). Thus the ability to modulate prey capture behaviour in accordance with the characteristics of the food appears crucial. In animals that use rapid tongue movements to capture prey (frogs and chameleons), the coordination of jaws and tongue is based on visual cues gathered prior to the prey capture event. However, most iguanian lizards have much slower tongue-based prey capture systems suggesting that sensory feedback from the tongue may play an important role in coordinating jaw and tongue movements. We investigated the modulation of prey capture kinematics in the agamid lizard Pogona vitticeps when feeding on a range of food items differing in their physical characteristics. As the lizard is a dietary generalist, we expected it to be able to modulate its prey capture kinematics as a function of the (mechanical) demands imposed by the prey. Additionally, we investigated the role of lingual sensory feedback by transecting the trigeminal sensory afferents. Our findings demonstrated that P. vitticeps modulates its prey capture kinematics according to specific prey properties (e.g. size). In addition, transection of the trigeminal sensory nerves had a strong effect on prey capture kinematics. However, significant prey type effects and prey type by transection effects suggest that other sources of sensory information are also used to modulate the prey capture kinematics in P. vitticeps. PMID:17368008

  5. Detection, seroprevalence and antimicrobial resistance of Yersinia enterocolitica and Yersinia pseudotuberculosis in pig tonsils in Northern Italy.

    PubMed

    Bonardi, S; Bruini, I; D'Incau, M; Van Damme, I; Carniel, E; Brémont, S; Cavallini, P; Tagliabue, S; Brindani, F

    2016-10-17

    Yersiniosis is the third most common reported zoonoses in Europe, with Y. enterocolitica and Y. pseudotuberculosis responsible for 98.66% and 0.94% of the confirmed human cases in 2013. From June 2013 to October 2014, 201 pigs at slaughter belonging to 67 batches were tested for Y. enterocolitica and Y. pseudotuberculosis in tonsils. Diaphragm muscle samples were tested for antibodies against Yersinia by a commercially available ELISA test. Y. enterocolitica 4/O:3 was detected in 55/201 pig tonsils (27.4%; 95% CI 23.1-37.1). The positive pigs came from 38/67 batches (56.7%) and were reared in 36/61 farms (59.0%). There was no statistical difference between farrow-to-finish and finishing farms. The mean count of Y. enterocolitica was 3.56±0.85log10CFU/g with a minimum of 2.0log10CFU/g and a maximum of 4.78log10CFU/g. Y. pseudotuberculosis was isolated from 4/201 pig tonsils (2.0%; 95% CI 0.0-4.5). Three isolates belonged to serotype O:3 and one to serotype O:1. The positive pigs belonged to 4/67 batches (6.0%) and came from finishing farms only. Y. pseudotuberculosis could be enumerated in one sample only (4.27log10CFU/g). The ELISA test demonstrated that 56.1% of the meat juice samples were positive for Yersinia antibodies. Serological positivity was found in 67.9% (36/53) of the Y. enterocolitica- and 75.0% (3/4) of the Y. pseudotuberculosis positive pigs. A significant association was found between serological results and the presence of Y. enterocolitica in tonsils (OR=1.97, p=0.044). All the Y. enterocolitica 4/O:3 isolates were susceptible to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, gentamicin, ceftazidime, ertapenem and meropenem, 94.5% to cefotaxime, 89.1% to kanamycin and 78.2% to tetracycline. The highest resistance rates were observed for ampicillin (100%), sulphonamides (98.2%) and streptomycin (78.2%). Y. pseudotuberculosis strains were sensitive to all the antimicrobials tested, i.e. amoxicillin, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, azithromycin, cephalothin, cefoxitin

  6. Evaluating the therapeutic efficacy, tolerability, and safety of an aqueous extract of Costus speciosus rhizome in acute pharyngitis and acute tonsillitis

    PubMed Central

    Bakhsh, Zainab A.; Al-Khatib, Talal A.; Al-Muhayawi, Saad M.; ElAssouli, Sufian M.; Elfiky, Iman A.; Mourad, Samiha A.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the efficacy, tolerability, and safety of an aqueous extract of Costus speciosus (C. speciosus) rhizome in pediatric and adult patients suffering from acute pharyngitis and tonsillitis as an alternative to antibiotics use. Methods: This pilot cohort trial was conducted at King Abdulaziz University in Saudi Arabia between May and December 2014, among 15 patients with acute pharyngitis and tonsillitis who were administered nasal drops of aqueous extract of C. speciosus rhizome at a dose of 15-30 drops every 8 hours for 3 days. The primary outcome measure was the clinical improvement and remission rate within the first 5 days. Results: The administration of C. speciosus resulted in an improvement in acute symptoms in 60% of the patients treated within the first 24 hours, and remission rate of 93% by day 5, without any recorded adverse effects. Conclusion: This study revealed a significant efficacy of the aqueous extract of C. speciosus rhizome in acute pharyngitis and tonsillitis. PMID:26219454

  7. A rare presentation of langerhans cell histiocytosis tonsil infiltration: review of the literature: atypical presentation of langerhans cell histiocytosis.

    PubMed

    Atalay, Figen; Koç, Eltaf Ayça Özbal; Yıldız, Semsi

    2014-09-01

    Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is a rare disease that can infiltrate various organs. LCH presents with solitary organ involvement or as a multi-system disease. We present a patient who has tonsillary infiltration with LCH. A 74 year-old Caucasian male was admitted for swelling of the neck and difficulty swallowing for 3 months. Physical examination showed submandibular lymph node enlargement of approximately 3 cm and tonsil enlargement. A tonsillectomy and excisional biopsy of the lymph node were done. Histiocyte-like cell infiltration was seen in the tonsil biopsy. CD3, CD20, CD15, CD30, CD5, CD138, Lambda, Kappa, Bcl-2, ALK, CD23, CD10, Bcl-6, keratin, EMA, HMB-45, and Cyl D1 were negative. CD68, S-100, CD1a, and fascin were positive, and the Ki-67 proliferation index was 20 % in immunocytochemical staining. The most commonly infiltrated bones are the skull, femur, lower jaw, pelvis, and vertebrae in LCH. Oral or perioral lesions are present in 30 % of cases. Oral lesions most often involve bone loss, unexpected tooth loss, and gum inflammation. We administered oral prednisolone to our patient due to the presence of lytic lesion of the bone, mild anemia and a higher sedimentation rate, which was from a separate, explained cause. Isolated tonsillar involvement in adult LCH was reported in only 2 cases in the literature. There is no standard recommendation for treatment. Our patient responded well to steroid therapy. PMID:25332640

  8. Evidence regarding lingual fixed orthodontic appliances' therapeutic and adverse effects is insufficient.

    PubMed

    Afrashtehfar, Kelvin I

    2016-06-01

    Data sourcesMedline, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Virtual Health Library and Web of Science were systematically searched up to July 2015 without limitations. Scopus, Google Scholar, ClinicalTrials.gov, the ISRCTN registry as well as reference lists of the trials included and relevant reviews were manually searched.Study selectionRandomised (RCTs) and prospective non-randomised clinical trials (non-RCTs) on human patients that compared therapeutic and adverse effects of lingual and labial appliances were considered. One reviewer initially screened titles and subsequently two reviewers independently screened the selected abstracts and full texts.Data extraction and synthesisThe data were extracted independently by the reviewers. Missing or unclear information, ongoing trials and raw data from split-mouth trials were requested from the authors of the trials. The quality of the included trials and potential bias across studies were assessed using Cochrane's risk of bias tool and the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) approach. For parallel trials, mean difference (MD) and the relative risk (RR) were used for continuous (objective speech performance, subjective speech performance, intercanine width, intermolar width and sagittal anchorage loss) and binary outcomes (eating difficulty), respectively. The standardised mean difference (SMD) was chosen to pool, after conversion, the outcome (oral discomfort) that assessed both binary and continuous. Random-effects meta-analyses were conducted, followed by subgroup and sensitivity analyses.ResultsThirteen papers pertaining to 11 clinical trials (three parallel RCTs, one split-mouth RCT and seven parallel prospective non-RCTs) were included with a total of 407 (34% male/66% female) patients. All trials had at least one bias domain at high risk of bias. Compared with labial appliances

  9. A modified over-tie for the ligation of Incognito™ lingual fixed appliances.

    PubMed

    Huntley, Peter N

    2013-09-01

    The Incognito lingual appliance has a ribbon-wise slot with vertically inserted wires. Control of tip can be problematic with this appliance and the conventional method to overcome this is to achieve full wire engagement via the use of power-ties. Although effective, these can be very difficult to place and also create very high friction. A method of ligation is described which consists of a modified elastic double over-tie. This is easily placed and very effective at controlling tip in Incognito brackets using a variety of arch wires. This method creates less friction than the power-tie. PMID:24009324

  10. SEM study on the dorsal lingual surface of the flying squirrel, Petaurista leucogenys.

    PubMed

    Emura, S; Tamada, A; Hayakawa, D; Chen, H; Jamali, M; Taguchi, H; Shoumura, S

    1999-09-01

    The dorsal lingual surface of the flying squirrel was examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Filiform (FI), fungiform (FU), foliate (FO) and vallate papillae (VA) were observed. The FI were distributed over the entire dorsal surface of the tongue. In the region of the VA, the FI appeared as giant cones. The FU were present as rounded bodies scattered over the dorsal surface of the tongue. They were relatively scarce and appear to be concentrated around the edges of the tongue. The FO were observed on the posterolateral regions of the tongue. The flying squirrel showed the triangular arrangement of the three VA, with the apex of the triangle directed posteriorly. PMID:10560016

  11. Lingual nerve injury subsequent to wisdom teeth removal--a 5-year retrospective audit from a high street dental practice.

    PubMed

    Malden, N J; Maidment, Y G

    2002-08-24

    Lingual nerve damage subsequent to lower wisdom tooth removal affects a small number of patients, sometimes producing permanent sensory loss or impairment. A number of surgical techniques have been described which are associated with low incidences of this distressing post-operative complication. When a technique is adopted by an individual clinician then a personal audit may be prudent to establish how effective it is in relation to established nerve injury rates. This audit looks at a technique involving the minimal interference of lingual soft tissues during lower wisdom tooth removal in a high street practice situation for patients having mild to moderate impacted wisdom teeth removed under local anaesthetic. It was concluded that the technique employed was associated with a low incidence of lingual nerve trauma, comparable with that reported elsewhere. PMID:12222906

  12. [The tonsils and adenoids as a site of infection and the cause of obstruction].

    PubMed

    Battistini, A; Siepe, F; Marvasi, R

    1998-01-01

    The failure to eradicate group A beta-hemolytic streptococci from the pharynx is partly due to a low compliance, but above all, an alteration of the oropharyngeal microbiological flora: reduction of alpha-haemolytic streptococci which inhibit group A beta-hemolytic streptococci and increase of microorganisms such as Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis. These latter act indirectly destroying the beta-lactamic ring of penicillins. However, this obstacle is overcome by the use of antibiotics which do not contain beta-lactamic rings such as macrolides or associating amoxicillin with clavulanic acid or with new cephalosporins which are more resistant to beta lactamases. To restrict the diffusion of resistance to antibiotics, it is essential to limit their use diagnosing streptococcal tonsillopharyngitis more precisely, thanks to an improved use of micro-biological diagnostic tests and by a more extended use of tonsillectomy in recurrent tonsillitis (more than 6-7 in 1-2 years). Adenoiditis is closely related to the post nasal drip syndrome, to recurrent otitis media and to otitis media with effusion. All these situations could, therefore, represent an indication, although not well defined, for adenoidectomy. Nasopharyngeal obstruction due to adeno-tonsillar hypertrophy becomes critical during sleep when the hypotony of the upper airway muscles becomes additional to the anatomical obstruction. At this point the inspiratory effort required and the consequent decrease of intra airway pressure increase the pharyngeal obstruction suctioning the pharyngeal walls toward the median line. The resulting clinical picture is defined as sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) due to adenotonsillar hypertrophy (idiopathic), to be distinguished from SDB due to cranio-facial abnormalities or neuromuscular diseases. SDB includes both the more serious sleep apnea syndrome and the less severe upper airway respiratory resistance syndrome. A combination of

  13. [The rationale for the conservative treatment of chronic tonsillitis in the patients of the older age groups by the «soft» therapy methods].

    PubMed

    Lavrenova, G V; Nesterova, K I; Yaremenko, K V; Nesterova, A A

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to develop an efficient system for the treatment of chronic tonsillitis in the patients of advanced and middle age based on the application of polyvalent bacteriophages in the combination with the physical factors and herbal medicines. The study involved 65 patients (39 women and 276 men) at the age from 65 to 73 years presenting with chronic tonsillitis. The treatment included washing the tonsillar lacunae with herbal infusion consisting of a tetterwort (Choledoniummajus) extract. This procedure was followed by phonophoresiswith the use of the combined polyvalent bacteriophage preparation in the non-liquid formulation during 7-10 days. The effectiveness of such treatment was evaluated based on the results of clinical examination and the analysis of the subjective feelings reported by the patients. In addition, the rosette-forming function of lymphocytes was estimated and palatine tonsil microbiotas in different patients were compared. The effectiveness of therapy was estimated at 89.2%. The positive outcome of the proposed treatment was documented in 78.6% of the cases within 6 months after the onset of therapy. It is concluded that the treatment of chronic tonsillitis with bacteriophagal preparations and herbal infusions in combination with thetraditionallow-frequency ultrasound treatment is highly efficacious (favourable outcome in 78.6% of the patients of middle and advanced age) without the use of antibiotic medications. PMID:27500573

  14. Exploratory studies on the therapeutic effects of Kumarabharana Rasa in the management of chronic tonsillitis among children at a tertiary care hospital of Karnataka

    PubMed Central

    Arun Raj, G.R.; Shailaja, U.; Debnath, Parikshit; Banerjee, Subhadip; Rao, Prasanna N.

    2015-01-01

    The effect of an Ayurvedic poly-herbo-mineral formulation Kumarabharana Rasa (KR) in the management of chronic tonsillitis (Tundikeri) in children has been assessed in this study. This clinical study was a double-arm study with a pre- and post-test design at the outpatient level in a tertiary Ayurveda hospital attached to a teaching institute located in district headquarters in Southern India. Patients (n = 40) with chronic tonsillitis satisfying diagnostic criteria and aged between 5 and 10 years were selected from the outpatient Department of Kaumarbhritya, SDM College of Ayurveda and Hospital, Hassan. Among them, 20 patients were treated with Kumarabharana rasa (tablet form) at a dose of 500 mg once daily for 30 days (Group A). The other 20 patients were treated with Godhuma Vati (placebo) at a dose of 500 mg once daily for 30 days (Group B). In both groups, Madhu was the Anupana advised. After completion of 30 days of treatment, the patients were assessed on the following day and another investigation took place 15 days later. Statistically significant effects (p < 0.05) in the reduction of all signs and symptoms of chronic tonsillitis after KR treatment were observed. These results indicate that Kumarabharana Rasa has an ameliorative effect in reducing the signs and symptoms of chronic tonsillitis. PMID:26870676

  15. Evidence of Bacterial Biofilms among Infected and Hypertrophied Tonsils in Correlation with the Microbiology, Histopathology, and Clinical Symptoms of Tonsillar Diseases.

    PubMed

    Alasil, Saad Musbah; Omar, Rahmat; Ismail, Salmah; Yusof, Mohd Yasim; Dhabaan, Ghulam N; Abdulla, Mahmood Ameen

    2013-01-01

    Diseases of the tonsils are becoming more resistant to antibiotics due to the persistence of bacteria through the formation of biofilms. Therefore, understanding the microbiology and pathophysiology of such diseases represent an important step in the management of biofilm-related infections. We have isolated the microorganisms, evaluated their antimicrobial susceptibility, and detected the presence of bacterial biofilms in tonsillar specimens in correlation with the clinical manifestations of tonsillar diseases. Therefore, a total of 140 palatine tonsils were collected from 70 patients undergoing tonsillectomy at University Malaya Medical Centre. The most recovered isolate was Staphylococcus aureus (39.65%) followed by Haemophilus influenzae (18.53%). There was high susceptibility against all selected antibiotics except for cotrimoxazole. Bacterial biofilms were detected in 60% of patients and a significant percentage of patients demonstrated infection manifestation rather than obstruction. In addition, an association between clinical symptoms like snore, apnea, nasal obstruction, and tonsillar hypertrophy was found to be related to the microbiology of tonsils particularly to the presence of biofilms. In conclusion, evidence of biofilms in tonsils in correlation with the demonstrated clinical symptoms explains the recalcitrant nature of tonsillar diseases and highlights the importance of biofilm's early detection and prevention towards better therapeutic management of biofilm-related infections. PMID:24454384

  16. Changes in Peyer’s Patch and Cecal Tonsil B Lymphocytes in Laying Hens Following Challenge with Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two trials were conducted to determine B cell changes in Peyer’s patches (PP) and cecal tonsils (CT) of specific-pathogen-free Single Comb White Leghorn hens challenged with Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (SE). Prior to challenge and then weekly post challenge, 4 or 3hens in Trials 1 and 2...

  17. Lingual orthodontics for children and adolescents: improvement of the indirect bonding protocol

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Demineralization of the dental enamel is a finding associated with fixed orthodontic treatment. When an indirect bonding procedure is used in children and adolescents the area beneath the bracket base may be affected. Aim To evaluate if the addition of an extra layer of a hydrophilic resin, to a conventional indirect bonding protocol, can reduce the incidence of demineralization beneath the bracket base. Methods 40 patients under 18 years of age were treated with completely customized lingual appliances. Two different bonding protocols were used either with or without the application of an additional layer of hydrophilic resin. Demineralization beneath the bracket base, after de-bonding, was evaluated by standardized intra-oral photographs. Results The addition of an extra layer of a hydrophilic resin helps to reduce the number of demineralized areas beneath the bracket bases significantly (three times less). The severity of the few remaining defects were minor and without any clinical consequence. Conclusion When bonding a completely customized lingual appliance in children and adolescents, an extra layer of a hydrophilic resin should be added to the teeth. PMID:24025345

  18. Torque control in lingual orthodontics with lever arm mechanics: a case report.

    PubMed

    Aravind, M; Shivaprakash, G; Ramesh, G C

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this report is to illustrate treatment mechanics for torque control in lingual mechanotherapy using a lever arm and transpalatal arch (TPA) tab system during en masse retraction of anterior teeth. An 18-year-old female with bimaxillary dentoalveolar proclination with crowding was treated with a lever arm-TPA tab system. The retraction tabs bent into the TPA placed across the maxillary second molars were used as anchorage. The retraction force on the maxillary anterior teeth was applied using lever arm hooks soldered between the lateral incisors and canines on a lingual mushroom archwire. By applying a retraction force to the lever arm hooks, the maxillary anterior teeth experienced greater palatal root movement as compared to the conventional retraction forces applied at the crown level. The tabs, placed high in the TPA, produced a distal tipping moment on the maxillary second molars, reinforcing their anchorage. The retraction force applied to the long lever arm hooks from the TPA tabs at the level of center of resistance (CRes) of anterior and posterior teeth is advantageous mainly in two aspects. First, it reinforces the anchorage, and second, it favors the palatal root movement of anterior teeth, thus obtaining better control over the torque during en masse retraction. PMID:23646329

  19. Implementation of a multi-lingual database system - multi-backend database system interface. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Holste, S.T.

    1986-06-01

    The limitations of the traditional Database Management System(DBMS) have become increasingly clear in recent years. Some of these limitations are interface inflexibility for user accesses, mono-lingual restriction in data languages, performance degradations over time, and excessive costs in upgrading. Two complementary approaches to the DBMS design and implementation--the multilingual database system(MLDS) and the multi-backend database system(MBDS)--effectively deal with the limitations of the traditional DBMS approach. MLDS offers a multi-lingual capability to the DBMS environment, thus freeing the user from the limitations and inflexibility of the single-data-model-and-language approach. MBDS, by contrast, is designed to deal with the issues of performance degradation and upgrading costs by providing a parallel-processing capability, and utilizing replicated software and identical hardware for expansion. System upgrades with BDS have been shown to provide an essentially proportional performance gain-to-upgrade-cost ratio. This thesis presents the implementation of an interface between MLDS and MBDS. Specifically, the author presents the procedures which create the template and Descriptor files in MLDS that are required by MBDS. Additionally the integration process tying these two systems together are described.

  20. Anatomical relationship between the sublingual fossa and the lateral lingual foramen.

    PubMed

    Uchida, Y; Goto, M; Danjo, A; Yamashita, Y; Shibata, K; Kuraoka, A

    2015-09-01

    This study investigated the locational relationship between the sublingual fossa (SF) and the lateral lingual foramen (LLF) in order to gain useful knowledge so that perforation of the lingual cortical bone and damage to the adjacent blood vessels can be avoided when placing an endosseous implant (implant) in the mandibular interforaminal region. The deepest point of the SF (SFP) and the LLF were identified in 38 Japanese cadaver mandibles (20 edentulous and 18 dentate) by computed tomography (CT) and physical measurement. Their locations were measured. In the edentulous cases, the SFP was located approximately 15 mm vertically from the alveolar crest in the direction of the mandibular lower margin in the canine and premolar regions, and the LLF was located within a 5mm radius from the SFP. Thus, significant attention to the locational relationship between the SFP and the LLF, as seen on preoperative CT, is required when placing an implant ≥3.75 mm in diameter and ≥15 mm in length in this region. PMID:25934091

  1. Adaptation of the communicative brain to post-lingual deafness. Evidence from functional imaging.

    PubMed

    Lazard, Diane S; Innes-Brown, Hamish; Barone, Pascal

    2014-01-01

    Not having access to one sense profoundly modifies our interactions with the environment, in turn producing changes in brain organization. Deafness and its rehabilitation by cochlear implantation offer a unique model of brain adaptation during sensory deprivation and recovery. Functional imaging allows the study of brain plasticity as a function of the times of deafness and implantation. Even long after the end of the sensitive period for auditory brain physiological maturation, some plasticity may be observed. In this way the mature brain that becomes deaf after language acquisition can adapt to its modified sensory inputs. Oral communication difficulties induced by post-lingual deafness shape cortical reorganization of brain networks already specialized for processing oral language. Left hemisphere language specialization tends to be more preserved than functions of the right hemisphere. We hypothesize that the right hemisphere offers cognitive resources re-purposed to palliate difficulties in left hemisphere speech processing due to sensory and auditory memory degradation. If cochlear implantation is considered, this reorganization during deafness may influence speech understanding outcomes positively or negatively. Understanding brain plasticity during post-lingual deafness should thus inform the development of cognitive rehabilitation, which promotes positive reorganization of the brain networks that process oral language before surgery. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Human Auditory Neuroimaging. PMID:23973562

  2. Testing of iatrogenic lingual nerve injury using a novel psychophysical method and oral reflexes.

    PubMed

    van der Glas, H W; van der Rijt, E E M; van der Bilt, A; Koole, R; Vriens, J P M

    2007-06-01

    In a case of long-term sensory loss in the tongue following third molar extraction, a novel, efficient and effective psychophysical test was used. This initial test, which includes the presentation of pairs of a real and fake stimulus, and a forced-choice response, was applied to determine whether relatively thick or thin afferent fibres of the lingual nerve were affected. The results suggested that thick fibres on the right tongue side were mainly affected. Sensory loss was confirmed and its extent assessed by a standard test determining thresholds of light touch. Furthermore, sensory function was determined by an objective test based on inhibitory reflexes in masseteric electromyographic activity following electrical stimulation of oral tissue. Reflex features that are important for within-patient diagnosis are a difference between the injured and control sides in latency of the first reflex, and also in depth-contrast in signal amplitude between both sides at the post-stimulus time of the trough of an inhibition on the uninjured side. In agreement with the findings from the psychophysical tests, the finding of the absence of an early component of both inhibitions suggested sensory loss related to dysfunction of fast-conducting, relatively thick afferent fibres of the lingual nerve. Apart from being used for medicolegal reasons, the objective reflex test may have conclusive prognostic value or may influence surgical therapeutic decisions. PMID:17303387

  3. Lingual Lipase and Its Role in the Digestion of Dietary Lipid

    PubMed Central

    Hamosh, Margit; Scow, Robert O.

    1973-01-01

    The serous glands of rat tongue were found to contain a potent lipolytic enzyme which hydrolyzed triglyceride to mostly diglyceride and free fatty acids (FFA) at pH 4.5-5.4. Homogenates of lingual serous glands from adult rats hydrolyzed 40-70 mmol of triglyceride/g per h. The soft palate, anterior oral pharyngeal wall, and lateral oral pharyngeal glands also contained the activity, but at a much lower level. The lipolytic activity was also found in saliva collected through an esophageal cannula and in stomach contents of rats fed a fat-rich meal. The stomach contained very little activity, however, when saliva was excluded. Lipolytic activity was not found in the stomach wall or in the parotid, submandibular, and sublingual glands. The findings suggest that the lingual serous glands secrete a lipase which catalyzes in the stomach the conversion of triglyceride to partial glycerides and FFA. It is proposed that this reaction is the first step in the digestion of dietary lipid. Images PMID:4682389

  4. Neural network pattern recognition of lingual-palatal pressure for automated detection of swallow.

    PubMed

    Hadley, Aaron J; Krival, Kate R; Ridgel, Angela L; Hahn, Elizabeth C; Tyler, Dustin J

    2015-04-01

    We describe a novel device and method for real-time measurement of lingual-palatal pressure and automatic identification of the oral transfer phase of deglutition. Clinical measurement of the oral transport phase of swallowing is a complicated process requiring either placement of obstructive sensors or sitting within a fluoroscope or articulograph for recording. Existing detection algorithms distinguish oral events with EMG, sound, and pressure signals from the head and neck, but are imprecise and frequently result in false detection. We placed seven pressure sensors on a molded mouthpiece fitting over the upper teeth and hard palate and recorded pressure during a variety of swallow and non-swallow activities. Pressure measures and swallow times from 12 healthy and 7 Parkinson's subjects provided training data for a time-delay artificial neural network to categorize the recordings as swallow or non-swallow events. User-specific neural networks properly categorized 96 % of swallow and non-swallow events, while a generalized population-trained network was able to properly categorize 93 % of swallow and non-swallow events across all recordings. Lingual-palatal pressure signals are sufficient to selectively and specifically recognize the initiation of swallowing in healthy and dysphagic patients. PMID:25618539

  5. [Morpho-functional characteristics of the lingual epithelium after administration of hydra peptide morphogen].

    PubMed

    Kulaeva, V V; Bykov, V L

    2007-01-01

    Using histological, morphometric and quantitative histoenzymological methods, the changes of lingual epithelium were studied in 40 outbred albino mice after 5 intraperitoneal injections of 100 micrograms of hydra peptide morphogen (HPM) per 1 kg of body weight. Administration of HPM was found to increase the total thickness of epithelial layer on the dorsal tongue surface in the interpapillary regions, while in the area of filiform papillae these changes were not significant. On the ventral tongue surface HPM induced a marked increase of total thickness of the epithelial layer as compared to that in control animals. Mitotic activity was increased in the epithelium covering the ventral surface and in the interpapillary regions on the dorsal tongue surface. Histoenzymologic study which involved the demonstration of NADH-diaphorase, succinate- and lactate-dehydrogenase (LDH) activities, followed by a cytophotometric evaluation of enzyme activity, has shown a stimulatory effect of HPM on the activity of all the enzymes studied, which was most pronounced in respect to LDH and was maximally expressed on the dorsal tongue surface. These findings collectively suggest that HPM exerts a stimulatory effect on proliferation activity and metabolism of lingual epithelium, which is differentially expressed in its variuoe topographical zones. PMID:17722572

  6. Morphological study of the lingual papillae of the giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) by scanning electron microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Pastor, J F; Barbosa, M; De Paz, F J

    2008-01-01

    Due to the scarcity of giant pandas, there are few descriptions of their morphology and even fewer of their microscopic anatomy and the ultrastructure of their organs. In this study of the complete tongue of an adult male giant panda, we describe the morphology of its lingual surface, the different types of papillae, their characteristics and topographic distribution. It was seen that there are four main types of lingual papillae: filiform, conical, fungiform and vallate. There was no sign of foliate papillae, tuberculum intermolare or sublingua. Papilla distribution was not limited to the dorsum of the tongue, but was also seen on the anterior and ventral surfaces of the tongue. In the anterior third of the midline there is a smooth area with no papillae at all. Morphology of the microgrooves and pores is similar to that observed in other mammals. The papillae share characteristics encountered in Carnivora and herbivorous species of mammals. A narrow bamboo-based diet and specialized manner of eating have together resulted in modification of the tongue of a carnivoran, giving it some characteristics typical of an herbivore. PMID:18254792

  7. Immune Defense in Upper Airways: A Single-Cell Study of Pathogen-Specific Plasmablasts and Their Migratory Potentials in Acute Sinusitis and Tonsillitis

    PubMed Central

    Palkola, Nina V.; Blomgren, Karin; Pakkanen, Sari H.; Puohiniemi, Ritvaleena; Kantele, Jussi M.; Kantele, Anu

    2016-01-01

    Background Despite the high frequency of upper respiratory tract (URT) infections and use of the nasal mucosa as route for vaccination, the local immune mechanism and dissemination of effector lymphocytes from the URT have been insufficiently characterized. To devise a single-cell approach for studying the mucosal immune response in the URT, we explored URT-originating B effector lymphocytes in the circulation of patients with one of two common respiratory infections, acute sinusitis or tonsillitis. Methods Patients with acute sinusitis (n = 13) or tonsillitis (n = 11) were investigated by ELISPOT for circulating pathogen-specific antibody-secreting cells (ASCs) of IgA, IgG and IgM isotypes approximately one week after the onset of symptoms. These cells’ potential to home into tissues was explored by assessing their expression of tissue-specific homing receptors α4β7, L-selectin, and cutaneous lymphocyte antigen (CLA). Results Pathogen-specific ASCs were detected in the circulation of all patients, with a geometric mean of 115 (95% CI 46–282) /106 PBMC in sinusitis, and 48 (27–88) in tonsillitis. These responses were mainly dominated by IgG. In sinusitis α4β7 integrin was expressed by 24% of the ASCs, L-selectin by 82%, and CLA by 21%. The proportions for tonsillitis were 15%, 80%, and 23%, respectively. Healthy individuals had no ASCs. Conclusions URT infections–acute sinusitis and tonsillitis–both elicited a response of circulating pathogen-specific plasmablasts. The magnitude of the response was greater in sinusitis than tonsillitis, but the homing receptor profiles were similar. Human nasopharynx-associated lymphoid structures were found to disseminate immune effector cells with a distinct homing profile. PMID:27128095

  8. CD1c-Related DCs that Express CD207/Langerin, but Are Distinguishable from Langerhans Cells, Are Consistently Present in Human Tonsils

    PubMed Central

    De Monte, Anne; Olivieri, Charles-Vivien; Vitale, Sébastien; Bailleux, Sonanda; Castillo, Laurent; Giordanengo, Valérie; Maryanski, Janet L.; Segura, Elodie; Doglio, Alain

    2016-01-01

    Several subsets of dendritic cells (DCs) are present in the oropharyngeal tonsillar tissues and are thought to behave as major actors in development and regulation of immunity by acting as a first line of recognition for airborne and alimentary antigens. We previously discovered in human adult tonsils infected with Epstein–Barr virus (EBV), a subset of DCs that expressed langerin/CD207, a lectin usually recognized as a hallmark of epidermal Langerhans cells (LCs). In the present study, we analyzed the content of several child and adult tonsils in order to characterize in more detail the phenotype of these tonsillar CD207-expressing DCs (tCD207 DCs) and to compare it with that of other human DC subsets. We showed that all the human tonsils studied (n = 12) contained significant proportions of tCD207 DCs among tonsillar cells expressing HLA-DR. Moreover, the presence of tCD207 DCs in tonsils from young children free of EBV infection indicated that these cells could be established early in the tonsil independently of EBV infection. We also showed that tCD207 DCs, that were found mainly located within the tonsillar lymphoid stroma, were distinguishable from LCs by the level of expression of CD1a and EpCAM, and also from human inflammatory DCs by the lack of CD1a, CD206, and CD14 expression. Detailed analysis of cell surface DC markers showed that tCD207 DCs were unrelated to CD141+ DCs or macrophages, but defined a subtype of tonsillar DCs closely related to myeloid resident CD1c DCs. Since it was established that blood CD1c myeloid DCs exhibit plasticity and are capable of expressing CD207 notably in the presence of inflammatory cytokines, it is tempting to speculate that CD207+ CD1c+ DCs may play a specific immune role. PMID:27252701

  9. [Estimation of clinical-pathogenetic efficiency of reamberin and cycloferon application in patients with the severe form of acute tonsillitis].

    PubMed

    Frolov, V M; Tereshkin, V A; Sotskaia, Ia A; Peresadin, N A; Kruglova, O V

    2013-03-01

    Efficiency of reamberin and cycloferon application combination at the patients with the heavy form of acute tonsillitis was investigated. It is set that cycloferon and reamberin application in the complex of treatment of the patients with this pathology is instrumental in normalization of the general state and feel of patients, liquidation of both commontoxic syndrome and local inflammatory displays in pharynx, and also normalization of the studied biochemical and immunological indexes. Application of cycloferon and reamberin provides the decline of "average molecules" and malon dialdehyde level to norm, that testifies about liquidation endogenous "metabolic" intoxication syndrome, and also instrumental in normalization of phagocytes activity of monocytes indexes, that describe normalize operating of the indicated preparation on the macrophage phagocytes system. PMID:24605622

  10. Characterization of cytokine production in infectious mononucleosis studied at a single-cell level in tonsil and peripheral blood.

    PubMed Central

    Andersson, J; Andersson, U

    1993-01-01

    Cytokine profile and production was studied at a single-cell level in cells obtained from 14 patients with acute infectious mononucleosis (IM), with less than 7 days of symptomatic disease, by use of cytokine-specific MoAbs and indirect immunofluorescence technique. In producer cells, all the studied cytokines, except IL-1, accumulated in the Golgi system, which resulted in a characteristic morphology of the staining. Less than one in a thousand mononuclear cells obtained directly from IM blood and stained within 2 h of sampling produced IL-2, interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-10, GM-CSF, tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) or TNF-beta, spontaneously. However, these cells were induced to cytokine synthesis by T cell receptor ligation in vitro using immobilized anti-CD3 MoAbs for 2-3 h restimulation under conditions which did not activate normal cells. By this approach 168 +/- 120 cells/10,000 peripheral blood mononuclear cells produced IFN-gamma as compared with 10 +/- 8 cells/10,000 non-stimulated cultured cells obtained from IM patients (P < 0.001) and 1/10,000 cells obtained from healthy controls, respectively. No induced production of IL-2, IL-3, IL-4, IL-5, IL-10, GM-CSF or TNF-beta was detected in IM cells obtained from peripheral blood by this restimulation. In contrast, a spontaneous cytokine production was evident in tonsil material obtained from four IM patients tonsilectomized because of respiratory obstruction. From this site 160 +/- 40 cells/10,000 cells produced IL-2, 40 +/- 30 cells IL-6, 30 +/- 30 cells TNF-beta and 35 +/- 25 cells IFN-gamma, respectively. No such spontaneous IL-2, IL-6, TNF-beta or IFN-gamma production was evident in control cells obtained from patients tonsilectomized because of chronic tonsil hyperplasia. Images Fig. 1 PMID:8467566

  11. Black tongue secondary to bismuth subsalicylate: case report and review of exogenous causes of macular lingual pigmentation.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Philip R

    2009-12-01

    Macular pigmentation of the tongue can be acquired following exposure to exogenous agents. Black lingual hyperpigmentation was observed during the full body skin examination of a man with a history of recurrent metastatic malignant melanoma. His tongue spontaneously returned to its normal pink color later that day. Bismuth subsalicylate (Pepto-Bismol) was suspected as the pigment-inducing agent; subsequently, re-challange with the antacid confirmed it to be the cause of his acquired, albeit transient, black tongue. The ingestion of medications, including other antacids, analgesics, antidepressants, antihypertensives and several antimicrobials has been associated with the development of acquired macular lingual pigmentation. In addition, hyperpigmentation of the tongue has been observed following the deposition of amalgam and the injection of local anesthesia or doxorubicin or interferon alpha and ribavirin. Also, inhalation of heroin and methaqualone vapors or tobacco has resulted in lingual hyperpigmentation. All of the patients with acquired macular lingual hyperpigmentation had tongues with a smooth surface without enlargement of the filiform papillae. Many of the individuals with hyperpigmented tongue had either black or dark skin color. The onset of tongue pigmentation varied from less than one day to several years after initial exposure to the associated exogenous agent. The color of the tongue usually returned to normal after the pigment-inducing agent was discontinued. PMID:20027942

  12. Establishment of a Novel Lingual Organoid Culture System: Generation of Organoids Having Mature Keratinized Epithelium from Adult Epithelial Stem Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hisha, Hiroko; Tanaka, Toshihiro; Kanno, Shohei; Tokuyama, Yoko; Komai, Yoshihiro; Ohe, Shuichi; Yanai, Hirotsugu; Omachi, Taichi; Ueno, Hiroo

    2013-11-01

    Despite the strong need for the establishment of a lingual epithelial cell culture system, a simple and convenient culture method has not yet been established. Here, we report the establishment of a novel lingual epithelium organoid culture system using a three-dimensional matrix and growth factors. Histological analyses showed that the generated organoids had both a stratified squamous epithelial cell layer and a stratum corneum. Very recently, we showed via a multicolor lineage tracing method that Bmi1-positive stem cells exist at the base of the epithelial basal layer in the interpapillary pit. Using our new culture system, we found that organoids could be generated by single Bmi1-positive stem cells and that in the established organoids, multiple Bmi1-positive stem cells were generated at the outermost layer. Moreover, we observed that organoids harvested at an early point in culture could be engrafted and maturate in the tongue of recipient mice and that the organoids generated from carcinogen-treated mice had an abnormal morphology. Thus, this culture system presents valuable settings for studying not only the regulatory mechanisms of lingual epithelium but also lingual regeneration and carcinogenesis.

  13. Analysis of Speech Disorders in Acute Pseudobulbar Palsy: a Longitudinal Study of a Patient with Lingual Paralysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leroy-Malherbe, V.; Chevrie-Muller, C.; Rigoard, M. T.; Arabia, C.

    1998-01-01

    This case report describes the case of a 52-year-old man with bilateral central lingual paralysis following a myocardial infarction. Analysis of speech recordings 15 days and 18 months after the attack were acoustically analyzed. The case demonstrates the usefulness of acoustic analysis to detect slight acoustic differences. (DB)

  14. Changes in force associated with the amount of aligner activation and lingual bodily movement of the maxillary central incisor

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaowei; Ren, Chaochao; Wang, Zheyao; Zhao, Pai; Wang, Hongmei

    2016-01-01

    Objective The purposes of this study were to measure the orthodontic forces generated by thermoplastic aligners and investigate the possible influences of different activations for lingual bodily movements on orthodontic forces, and their attenuation. Methods Thermoplastic material of 1.0-mm in thickness was used to manufacture aligners for 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, 0.5, and 0.6 mm activations for lingual bodily movements of the maxillary central incisor. The orthodontic force in the lingual direction delivered by the thermoplastic aligners was measured using a micro-stress sensor system for the invisible orthodontic technique, and was monitored for 2 weeks. Results Orthodontic force increased with the amount of activation of the aligner in the initial measurements. The attenuation speed in the 0.6 mm group was faster than that of the other groups (p < 0.05). All aligners demonstrated rapid relaxation in the first 8 hours, which then decreased slowly and plateaued on day 4 or 5. Conclusions The amount of activation had a substantial influence on the orthodontic force imparted by the aligners. The results suggest that the activation of lingual bodily movement of the maxillary central incisor should not exceed 0.5 mm. The initial 4 or 5 days is important with respect to orthodontic treatment incorporating an aligner. PMID:27019820

  15. The Role of Music in Speech Intelligibility of Learners with Post Lingual Hearing Impairment in Selected Units in Lusaka District

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katongo, Emily Mwamba; Ndhlovu, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    This study sought to establish the role of music in speech intelligibility of learners with Post Lingual Hearing Impairment (PLHI) and strategies teachers used to enhance speech intelligibility in learners with PLHI in selected special units for the deaf in Lusaka district. The study used a descriptive research design. Qualitative and quantitative…

  16. Intercultural Interactions of Mono-Cultural, Mono-Lingual Local Students in Small Group Learning Activities: A Bourdieusian Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colvin, Cassandra; Fozdar, Farida; Volet, Simone

    2015-01-01

    This research examines the understandings and experiences of mono-cultural, mono-lingual local students in relation to intercultural interactions within small group learning activities at university. Bourdieu's concepts of field, habitus and capital are employed to illuminate a number of barriers to intercultural interaction. Using qualitative…

  17. Displacement pattern of the anterior segment using antero-posterior lingual retractor combined with a palatal plate

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Kyung-Won; Kwon, Soon-Yong; Kim, Kyung A; Park, Ki-Ho; Kim, Seong-Hun; Nelson, Gerald

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate and compare the effects of two appliances on the en masse retraction of the anterior teeth anchored by temporary skeletal anchorage devices (TSADs). Methods The sample comprised 46 nongrowing hyperdivergent adult patients who planned to undergo upper first premolar extraction using lingual retractors. They were divided into three groups, based on the lingual appliance used: the C-lingual retractor (CLR) group (group 1, n = 16) and two antero-posterior lingual retractor (APLR) groups (n = 30, groups 2 and 3). The APLR group was divided by the posterior tube angulation; posterior tube parallel to the occlusal plane (group 2, n = 15) and distally tipped tube (group 3, n = 15). A retrospective clinical investigation of the skeletal, dental, and soft tissue relationships was performed using lateral cephalometric radiographs obtained pretreatment and post en masse retraction of the anterior teeth. Results All groups achieved significant incisor and canine retraction. The upper posterior teeth did not drift significantly during the retraction period. The APLR group had less angulation change in the anterior dentition, compared to the CLR group. By changing the tube angulation in the APLR, the intrusive force significantly increased in the distally tipped tube of group 3 patients and remarkably reduced the occlusal plane angle. Conclusions Compared to the CLR, the APLR provides better anterior torque control and canine tipping while achieving bodily translation. Furthermore, changing the tube angulation will affect the amount of incisor intrusion, even in patients with similar palatal vault depth, without the need for additional TSADs. PMID:26629475

  18. A Cross-Lingual Similarity Measure for Detecting Biomedical Term Translations

    PubMed Central

    Bollegala, Danushka; Kontonatsios, Georgios; Ananiadou, Sophia

    2015-01-01

    Bilingual dictionaries for technical terms such as biomedical terms are an important resource for machine translation systems as well as for humans who would like to understand a concept described in a foreign language. Often a biomedical term is first proposed in English and later it is manually translated to other languages. Despite the fact that there are large monolingual lexicons of biomedical terms, only a fraction of those term lexicons are translated to other languages. Manually compiling large-scale bilingual dictionaries for technical domains is a challenging task because it is difficult to find a sufficiently large number of bilingual experts. We propose a cross-lingual similarity measure for detecting most similar translation candidates for a biomedical term specified in one language (source) from another language (target). Specifically, a biomedical term in a language is represented using two types of features: (a) intrinsic features that consist of character n-grams extracted from the term under consideration, and (b) extrinsic features that consist of unigrams and bigrams extracted from the contextual windows surrounding the term under consideration. We propose a cross-lingual similarity measure using each of those feature types. First, to reduce the dimensionality of the feature space in each language, we propose prototype vector projection (PVP)—a non-negative lower-dimensional vector projection method. Second, we propose a method to learn a mapping between the feature spaces in the source and target language using partial least squares regression (PLSR). The proposed method requires only a small number of training instances to learn a cross-lingual similarity measure. The proposed PVP method outperforms popular dimensionality reduction methods such as the singular value decomposition (SVD) and non-negative matrix factorization (NMF) in a nearest neighbor prediction task. Moreover, our experimental results covering several language pairs such as

  19. Attenuation of pressor response following intubation: Efficacy of nitro-glycerine lingual spray

    PubMed Central

    Kumari, Indira; Naithani, Udita; Dadheech, Vinod Kumar; Pradeep, D. S.; Meena, Khemraj; Verma, Devendra

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims: The role of nitro-glycerine (NTG) lingual spray for attenuation of the hemodynamic response associated with intubation is not much investigated. We conducted this study to evaluate the efficacy of NTG lingual pump or pen spray in attenuation of intubation induced hemodynamic responses and to elucidate the optimum dose. Material and Methods: In a prospective randomized controlled trial, 90 adult patients of ASA I, II, 18-60 year posted for elective general surgery under general anesthesia with intubation were randomly allocated to three groups as Group C (control) - receiving no NTG spray, Group N1 – receiving 1 NTG spray and Group N2 – receiving 2 NTG spray one minute before intubation. Systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate were recorded at baseline, just before intubation (i.e., 60 s just after induction and NTG spray), immediately after intubation, at 1, 2, 5 and 10 min after intubation. Results: Incidence of hypertension was significantly higher in Group C (60%, n = 18) as compared to Group N1 and N2 (10%, n = 3 each), P < 0.01. Mean value of SBP, DBP and MAP showed a significant rise as compared to baseline, following intubation in control group (15.31% in SBP, 12.12% in DBP, 17.77% in MAP) that persisted till 5 min, while no significant rise was observed in Group N1 and N2. There was a trend toward fall in blood pressure in Group N2 (4.95% fall in SBP, 4.72% fall in MAP) 1-min following spray, which was clinically insignificant. Mean value of SBP, DBP and MAP was significantly higher in Group C than in Group N1, which was in turn greater than Group N2 (Group C > N1> N2), P < 0.05. However, incidence of tachycardia was comparable in three groups (70% in group C, 63.33% in Group N1 and 67.77% in Group N2, P > 0.05). Conclusions: We concluded that the NTG lingual spray in dose of 0.4 mg (1 spray) or 0.8 mg (2 sprays) was effective in attenuation of intubation induced

  20. A cross-lingual similarity measure for detecting biomedical term translations.

    PubMed

    Bollegala, Danushka; Kontonatsios, Georgios; Ananiadou, Sophia

    2015-01-01

    Bilingual dictionaries for technical terms such as biomedical terms are an important resource for machine translation systems as well as for humans who would like to understand a concept described in a foreign language. Often a biomedical term is first proposed in English and later it is manually translated to other languages. Despite the fact that there are large monolingual lexicons of biomedical terms, only a fraction of those term lexicons are translated to other languages. Manually compiling large-scale bilingual dictionaries for technical domains is a challenging task because it is difficult to find a sufficiently large number of bilingual experts. We propose a cross-lingual similarity measure for detecting most similar translation candidates for a biomedical term specified in one language (source) from another language (target). Specifically, a biomedical term in a language is represented using two types of features: (a) intrinsic features that consist of character n-grams extracted from the term under consideration, and (b) extrinsic features that consist of unigrams and bigrams extracted from the contextual windows surrounding the term under consideration. We propose a cross-lingual similarity measure using each of those feature types. First, to reduce the dimensionality of the feature space in each language, we propose prototype vector projection (PVP)--a non-negative lower-dimensional vector projection method. Second, we propose a method to learn a mapping between the feature spaces in the source and target language using partial least squares regression (PLSR). The proposed method requires only a small number of training instances to learn a cross-lingual similarity measure. The proposed PVP method outperforms popular dimensionality reduction methods such as the singular value decomposition (SVD) and non-negative matrix factorization (NMF) in a nearest neighbor prediction task. Moreover, our experimental results covering several language pairs such as

  1. Localization of type III collagen in the lingual mucosa of rats during the morphogenesis of circumvallate papillae.

    PubMed

    Iwasaki, Shin-ichi; Yoshizawa, Hideki; Aoyagi, Hidekazu

    2012-01-01

    In an effort to identify a possible role for type III collagen in the morphogenesis of circumvallate papillae on the surface of the rat tongue, we examined its appearance by fluorescent immunostaining, in conjunction with differential interference contrast images and images obtained, after staining with toluidine blue, in the transmission mode by laser-scanning microscopy. We analyzed semi-ultrathin sections of epoxy resin-embedded samples of the lingual mucosa of embryonic and juvenile rats, 13 days after conception (E13) to day 21 after birth (P21). Immunoreactivity specific for type III collagen was recognized first in the mesenchymal connective tissue just beneath the circumvallate papilla placode in fetuses on E13. At this stage, most of the lingual epithelium with the exception of the circumvallate papilla placode was pseudostratified epithelium composed of one or two layers of cuboidal cells. However, the epithelium of the circumvallate papilla placode was composed of several layers of cuboidal cells. Immunoreactivity specific for type III collagen was detected mainly on the lamina propria just beneath the lingual epithelium of the rudiment of the circumvallate papilla and the developing circumvallate papilla in fetuses on E15 and E17, and slight immunostaining was detected on the lamina propria around the rudiment. In fetuses on E19, immunoreactivity specific for type III collagen was widely and densely distributed on the connective tissue around the developing circumvallate papillae and, also, on the connective tissue that surrounded the lingual muscle. However, the immunoreactivity specific for type III collagen was sparsely distributed on the lamina propria of each central papillar structure. After birth, from P0 to P14, morphogenesis of the circumvallate papillae advanced gradually with the increase in the total volume of the tongue. At these postnatal stages, the intensity of the fluorescence due to immunoreactivity specific for type III collagen was

  2. Japanese/English Blog Distillation and Cross-Lingual Blog Analysis with Multilingual Wikipedia Entries as Fundamental Knowledge Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakasaki, Hiroyuki; Kawaba, Mariko; Yokomoto, Daisuke; Utsuro, Takehito; Fukuhara, Tomohiro

    The overall goal of this paper is to cross-lingually analyze multilingual blogs collected with a topic keyword. The framework of collecting multilingual blogs with a topic keyword is designed as the blog feed retrieval procedure. In this paper, we take an approach of collecting blog feeds rather than blog posts, mainly because we regard the former as a larger information unit in the blogosphere and prefer it as the information source for cross-lingual blog analysis. In the blog feed retrieval procedure, we also regard Wikipedia as a large scale ontological knowledge base for conceptually indexing the blogosphere. The underlying motivation of employing Wikipedia is in linking a knowledge base of well known facts and relatively neutral opinions with rather raw, user generated media like blogs, which include less well known facts and much more radical opinions. In our framework, first, in order to collect candidates of blog feeds for a given query, we use existing Web search engine APIs, which return a ranked list of blog posts, given a topic keyword. Next, we re-rank the list of blog feeds according to the number of hits of the topic keyword as well as closely related terms extracted from the Wikipedia entry in each blog feed. We compare the proposed blog feed retrieval method to existing Web search engine APIs and achieve significant improvement. We then apply the proposed blog distillation framework to the task of cross-lingually analyzing multilingual blogs collected with a topic keyword. Here, we cross-lingually and cross-culturally compare less well known facts and opinions that are closely related to a given topic. Results of cross-lingual blog analysis support the effectiveness of the proposed framework.

  3. Sclerotherapy for the mucoceles of the anterior lingual salivary glands with pingyangmycin.

    PubMed

    Cai, Y; Wang, R; Yang, S-F; Zhao, Y-F; Zhao, J-H

    2014-07-01

    Recurrence is very common if the mucoceles of the anterior lingual salivary glands (ALSGs) are treated by surgery due to its anatomic characteristics. Therefore, more effective and less invasive treatment methods are urgently required to be applied instead of surgery. In this study, 40 patients with the mucocele of the ALSGs received the intralesional injections of pingyangmycin, and the median number of injections per patient was 2.075 (range, 1-3). All cases completely recovered with no recurrence after follow-up of more than 16 months. The complications included the local swelling, pain, and ulceration following injection, and all these symptoms resolved 7-10 days after the injection. Taken together, sclerotherapy with pingyangmycin is an effective and safe treatment method for the mucocele of the ALSGs and may be the primary treatment modality. PMID:23848975

  4. Anaesthesia of the inferior alveolar and lingual nerves following subcondylar fractures of the mandible.

    PubMed

    Politis, Constantinus; Sun, Yi; De Peuter, Bruno; Vandersteen, Marjan

    2013-10-01

    A retrospective chart review of 387 patients with condylar and subcondylar fractures revealed 2 cases of inferior alveolar nerve (IAN) and lingual nerve (LN) anaesthesia following the subcondylar fracture. Only 5 cases have been reported previously. The mechanism of action remains unknown but a review of the literature and an analysis of 120 dry human skulls supported the hypothesis that compression of the mandibular nerve at a high level, close to the foramen ovale, could cause anaesthesia. This complication is rare, because it requires compression at a particular angle. The antero-median angulation of the condyle must be close to the foramen ovale, and the fracture must be a unilaterally displaced fracture. The presence of an enlarged lateral pterygoid plate appeared to enhance the risk of compression. The IAN and LN anaesthesia could be resolved after open reduction of the fracture and IAN and LN anaesthesia constitute a strict indication for an early open fracture reduction. PMID:23453271

  5. Case presentation and images of a lingual osseous choristoma in a pediatric patient.

    PubMed

    Stanford, James K; Spencer, James C; Reed, J Mark

    2015-01-01

    Since its original description in 1913, fewer than 100 lingual osseous choristomas have been reported in the literature; thus, prevalence is unknown. We describe a case of an 11 year old male who was seen in consultation after an incidental left posterior tongue mass was discovered on exam. The patient's presentation of an asymptomatic, hard, pedunculate posterior tongue lesion is typical; however, if one is to believe the proposed congenital remnant theory in regards to the etiology of this benign tumor, it is curious that no mention was made of a lesion of the tongue on prior evaluations by his pediatrician or on the otolaryngologic examinations performed 3 and 6 years prior to the most recent presentation. Included with the case description are interesting radiographs, intra-operative photos, gross specimen photo and microscopic images. PMID:26545466

  6. Morphology of the lingual papillae in the Egyptian rousette bat (Rousettus aegyptiacus).

    PubMed

    Emura, Shoichi; Okumura, Toshihiko; Chen, Huayue

    2012-01-01

    The dorsal lingual surface of the Egyptian rousette bat was examined by scanning electron microscopy. Filiform, fungiform and vallate papillae were observed. The filiform papillae were distributed over the entire dorsal surface of the tongue. The filiform papillae notably differed in morphology by their location on the tongue and could be classified into 5 types: 1) scalelike, 2) small crown-like, 3) giant trifid, 4) large crown-like, 5) conical papillae. The fungiform papillae were present rounded bodies on the anterior 2/3 of the tongue. The Egyptian rousette bat showed the a triangular arrangement of the three vallate papillae, with the apex of the triangle directed posteriorly. These findings indicate that the tongue of the Egyptian rousette bat is similar to that of the large flying fox. PMID:23429050

  7. Effects of a mechanical interdental cleaning device on oral hygiene in patients with lingual brackets.

    PubMed

    Hohoff, Ariane; Stamm, Thomas; Kühne, Nicola; Wiechmann, Dirk; Haufe, Stephan; Lippold, Carsten; Ehmer, Ulrike

    2003-10-01

    This study was aimed at determining the influence of a battery-operated interdental cleaning device (icd) (WaterPik Flosser) on the oral hygiene of 32 female right-handed patients (mean age 25.9 years) with lingual brackets in the upper (n = 29) and or in the lower arch (n = 25). Approximal plaque index (API) and bleeding on probing (BOP) were recorded at the lingual surfaces by a single blinded examiner before application (t0), on average 38.6 days after (t1), and again on average 46.0 days after (t2) the application of the icd. The patients used the icd once a day in the second and fourth quadrants only (icdq). In all quadrants (icdq and non-icd quadrants [n-icdq]), oral hygiene was performed with a manual toothbrush. Of the patients enrolled in the study, 96.9% found the icd subjectively very helpful to moderately helpful for cleaning their teeth and 65.6% had the subjective impression that their teeth were cleaner with the appliance. Despite those positive subjective assessments, an objective comparison of the icdqs with the n-icdqs revealed no statistically significant differences in the mean changes in API and BOP from t0 to t1, from t0 to t2, or from t1 to t2. Because there were spectacular improvements in API in all quadrants, the improvements could be interpreted as an outcome of the instruction and motivation given to the patients, the increasing awareness of oral hygiene, and the greater skill in using the toothbrush in the course of time. PMID:14580027

  8. In vitro assessment of competency for different lingual brackets in sliding mechanics

    PubMed Central

    Lalithapriya, S; Kumaran, N Kurunji; Rajasigamani, K

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To determine the static frictional resistance of different lingual brackets at different second order angulations when coupled with stainless steel (SS) archwire in dry and wet conditions. Materials and Methods: Using a modified jig, frictional resistance was evaluated under different conditions for a total of 270 upper premolar lingual brackets (0.018″ × 0.025″ - conventional - 7th generation and STb, self-ligating – evolution) with no in-built tip or torque together with 0.016″ × 0.022″ straight length SS archwires. For conventional brackets, the archwire was secured with 0.008″ preformed SS short ligature ties. Statistical Analysis: One way analysis of variance with Tukey HSD as post-hoc test was applied for degree wise and bracket wise comparison within dry condition and wet condition. For pair wise comparison Student's t-test was used. Results: Under both conditions the static frictional resistance is significantly higher for self-ligating brackets at 0°, while at 5° and 10° it is higher for 7th generation brackets. Statistically, significant difference does not exist at 0° between conventional brackets and the same was found at 5° and 10° between STb and self-ligating brackets. With an increase in second order angulations, all the evaluated samples exhibited an increased frictional value. Wet condition samples obtained a higher value than their corresponding dry condition. Conclusion: The self-ligating bracket evaluated in this in vitro study is not beneficial in reducing friction during en-mass retraction due to its interactive clip type. PMID:25657988

  9. [Palatogram including lingual and occlusal surface of teeth analyzed by image processor].

    PubMed

    Taniguchi, H

    1989-06-01

    (palatogram). The subjects were 30 dentulous adults (21 men, 9 women). The artificial palates made of black vinyl seat covering the palate and occlusal surfaces of maxillary teeth were coated with white alginate powder and inserted into the mouths of the subjects. After pronunciation of the test sound, the tongue contact areas on artificial palate were demonstrated by wetting of powder and changing in color from white to black. Thus photographs of the palatograms were Measurements have been made on the tongue contact area of the palate and maxillary teeth during pronunciation of /sa, fi, çi, ka, ki, ta, na, ra, ja/ (palatogram). The subjects were 30 dentulous adults (21 men, 9 women). The artificial palates made of black vinyl seat covering the palate and occlusal surfaces of maxillary teeth wer coated with white alginate powder and inserted into the mouths of the subjects. After pronunciation of the test sound, the tongue contact areas on artificial palate were demonstrated by wetting of powder and changing in color from white to black. Thus photographs of the palatograms were taken. An image processor system was employed for averaging each subject's 5 samples of same sound. The averaged outline of each subject's palatograms were converted to the standardized dental arch form and added and stored into frame memory. The 60-90% of subject's common parts were extracted from the added palatograms of same sound and illustrated in different gray levels. The results indicate that the tongue-to-teeth contact area of each sound differ from the others, however, it's range is confined within cervical half of lingual surface of incisors and lingual cusps of molars. PMID:2489723

  10. Periodontal Disease Bacteria Specific to Tonsil in IgA Nephropathy Patients Predicts the Remission by the Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Date, Yasuhiro; Iwatani, Hirotsugu; Yamamoto, Ryohei; Horii, Arata; Inohara, Hidenori; Imai, Enyu; Nakanishi, Takeshi; Ohno, Hiroshi; Rakugi, Hiromi; Isaka, Yoshitaka

    2014-01-01

    Background Immunoglobulin (Ig)A nephropathy (IgAN) is the most common form of primary glomerulonephritis in the world. Some bacteria were reported to be the candidate of the antigen or the pathogenesis of IgAN, but systematic analysis of bacterial flora in tonsil with IgAN has not been reported. Moreover, these bacteria specific to IgAN might be candidate for the indicator which can predict the remission of IgAN treated by the combination of tonsillectomy and steroid pulse. Methods and Findings We made a comprehensive analysis of tonsil flora in 68 IgAN patients and 28 control patients using Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis methods. We also analyzed the relationship between several bacteria specific to the IgAN and the prognosis of the IgAN. Treponema sp. were identified in 24% IgAN patients, while in 7% control patients (P = 0.062). Haemophilus segnis were detected in 53% IgAN patients, while in 25% control patients (P = 0.012). Campylobacter rectus were identified in 49% IgAN patients, while in 14% control patients (P = 0.002). Multiple Cox proportional-hazards model revealed that Treponema sp. or Campylobactor rectus are significant for the remission of proteinuria (Hazard ratio 2.35, p = 0.019). There was significant difference in remission rates between IgAN patients with Treponema sp. and those without the bacterium (p = 0.046), and in remission rates between IgAN patients with Campylobacter rectus and those without the bacterium (p = 0.037) by Kaplan-Meier analysis. Those bacteria are well known to be related with the periodontal disease. Periodontal bacteria has known to cause immune reaction and many diseases, and also might cause IgA nephropathy. Conclusion This insight into IgAN might be useful for diagnosis of the IgAN patients and the decision of treatment of IgAN. PMID:24489644