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Sample records for linn mimi burbank

  1. Mimi's Moms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilman, Carrie

    2013-01-01

    Before Michelle Hatchell and her partner, Liz, sent their child, Mimi, to school for the first time, the family sat down and created a script. "What can you say," Hatchell prompted, "if someone asks if you have two moms?" They sent Mimi's teacher picture books depicting families with two mothers. And they met with the principal, requesting Mimi be…

  2. Flaky 'Mimi'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This color image taken by the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit's panoramic camera on Sol 40 is centered on an unusually flaky rock called Mimi. Mimi is only one of many features in the area known as 'Stone Council,' but looks very different from any rock that scientists have seen at the Gusev crater site so far. Mimi's flaky appearance leads scientists to a number of hypotheses. Mimi could have been subjected to pressure either through burial or impact, or may have once been a dune that was cemented into flaky layers, a process that sometimes involves the action of water.

  3. Luther Burbank's best berries

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Luther Burbank, the quintessential nurseryman of the early 20th century, remarked that small fruit was the “Cinderella of the pomological family.” He stated that while tree fruits had been improved to the point of an almost uncountable number of cultivars, it was the time and responsibility of his g...

  4. Luther Burbank's contributions to walnuts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Luther Burbank began making controlled crosses between walnut species in the late nineteenth century after hearing about a “supposed natural European hybrid walnut.” He crossed Juglans hindsii (northern California black walnut) × J. regia (Persian walnut) and produced progeny that he named ‘Paradox’...

  5. Luther Burbank's contributions to walnuts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    After hearing about a “supposed natural European hybrid walnut,” Luther Burbank began making controlled crosses between walnut species in the late nineteenth century. He first crossed Juglans hindsii (northern California black walnut)× J. regia (Persian walnut) that produced progeny that he named ‘P...

  6. Science, Mathematics, and the Mimi.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doblmeier, Joyce; Fields, Barbara

    1996-01-01

    Students with difficulty in maintaining grade-level performance at the Model Secondary School for the Deaf (Washington, DC) are learning mathematics and science skills using "The Voyage of the Mimi," a 13-segment video series and associated educational materials that detail a scientific expedition which is studying humpback whales. Team teaching…

  7. The Voyage of the MIMI.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbon, Sam; Hooper, Kristina

    1986-01-01

    The Voyage of MIMI is a major educational project housed at Bank Street College (New York) which is directed toward the development of extensive television, computer software, videodisc, and print materials for use in science and mathematics education in grades 5-7. The first series has been completed, and includes a 13-part dramatic television…

  8. The origin of Russet Burbank (Netted Gem), a sport of Burbank

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Russet Burbank was the most successful North American potato cultivar of the past century. It dominated the fresh market for decades and became the foremost French fry processing variety. Russet Burbank set the standard for taste and texture of baked potatoes and French fries and it made an indelibl...

  9. STS-106 Crew Interviews: Daniel Burbank

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) video production presents an STS-106 pre-launch interview with Mission Specialist Daniel C. Burbank, Lt. Commander, United States Coast Guard (USCG). Among other topics, Burbank discusses how his Coast Guard career evolved into spaceflight, his experiences flying helicopters for the Coast Guard, and his chief duties on the upcoming spaceflight. STS-106 is International Space Station assembly flight ISS-2A.2b and will utilize the SPACEHAB Double Module and the Integrated Cargo Carrier (ICC) to take supplies to the station. The mission will also include 2 spacewalks.

  10. The Second Voyage of the Mimi.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bank Street Coll. of Education, New York, NY.

    This book includes 12 units that have been adapted from the television series "Voyage of the Mimi." Each unit includes the episode, an activity, and an expedition. The episodes introduce and accompany each episode of the television series. The activity is an extension of that episode which can be done in the classroom. Mapping skills, foreign…

  11. Burbank Transportation Management Organization: Impact Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, E.; Aabakken, J.

    2006-11-01

    The Burbank Transportation Management Organization (BTMO), a private, membership-based, nonprofit organization dedicated to traffic reduction and air quality improvement, contracted with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), a U.S. Department of Energy-owned, contractor-operated national laboratory, to analyze its member programs and their benefits and effects. This report uses trip data collected by the BTMO, and defines and implements a methodology for quantifying non-traffic benefits such as gasoline savings, productivity, and pollution reduction.

  12. 21st century approach to improving Burbank's 'stoneless' plum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Luther Burbank had a theme running through many of his breeding programs; that of making the plants more tailored to man’s uses. Mr. Burbank thought that in plum fruit the stone was unessential to a tree that was propagated vegetatively, so he chose stoneless plums as a breeding goal. He made two ...

  13. Cassini/MIMI Science Today and Tomorrow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, D. G.

    2014-12-01

    Between Saturn Orbit Insertion in July 2004 and the present, the Magnetospheric IMaging Instrument (MIMI) on the Cassini spacecraft has measured electrons and ions (energies ~5 keV to over 10 MeV and energetic neutrals (energies ~5 - 200 keV) throughout Saturn's magnetosphere including Saturn's bow shock and magnetopause, plasma sheet, magnetotail, and cis-moon spaces. MIMI observations have included auroral acceleration, magnetotail reconnection, global and local-scale injection events, identifications of charged particle species,, dual and multiple periodicities associated with planetary rotation, and the seasonal variations of many of these phenomena. Most recent MIMI investigations have shown (1) short-period charged-particle oscillations (~1 hour) at high latitude are associated with similar magnetic field, radio, and aurora variations (2) quasi-periodic relativistic electron injection in Saturn's outer magnetosphere, (3) modeling of radiation belt particles to explain their distribution and energy spectrum, and to anticipate the population inside the D-ring, (4) continuing the imaging of energetic neutral atoms (ENAs) from the heliosheath and beyond, (5) characterizing the interaction of Titan with the un-shocked solar wind, (6) deep tail observations supporting the "bowl model" of plasma sheet curvature, (7) asymmetries in the charged particles that are associated with a still-unexplained noon-midnight electric field, (8) local time variations in the energetic particle periodicities, (9) and signatures of satellite-magnetosphere interactions and their implications for both the body and the whole system. During the final sets of orbits of the Cassini Mission at Saturn (dubbed the Grand Finale, which includes the F-ring—periapsis outside the F-ring—and the Proximal Orbits—periapsis between the innermost D-ring and the atmosphere), MIMI will make the first-ever measurements of the innermost radiation belts of Saturn, detailed ENA imaging of charged

  14. Easier access to Cassini/MIMI public data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kusterer, M. B.; Christon, S. P.; Mitchell, D. G.; DiFabio, R. D.; Hamilton, D. C.; Krimigis, S. M.; Manweiler, J. W.; Paranicas, C.; Vandegriff, J. D.

    2012-12-01

    We present calibrated, higher order data products, a data user guide, and public analysis software for the Magnetosphere Imaging Instrument (MIMI) on Cassini. These new products simplify the process of using and analyzing MIMI data. While raw MIMI data and basic calibration information has been available in the PDS, the new user guide describes the most up to date steps needed to convert the data into science units. The guide offers detailed procedures for reading and calibrating data from all three MIMI sensors: LEMMS, CHEMS, and INCA. Furthermore, we are now providing public access to software implementing the details in the user guide. We now make available pre-calibrated data products, including CHEMS 20 day energy-time spectrograms (for multiple species), and LEMMS energy-time spectrograms. Averaged LEMMS data is also available. For INCA, we include high spatial resolution ENA image skymaps and high time-of-flight resolution ion angle distribution images. Finally, we also have created ENA movies.

  15. Stoneless plums-from Luther Burbank to the present

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    At the beginning of the 20th century, legendary breeder, Luther Burbank, released the first of his stoneless plums, 'Miracle'. It and a subsequent release, 'Conquest', were not commercially successful and can no longer be found. In a quest to understand stone formation, germplasm was obtained from...

  16. Stoneless plums - from Luther Burbank to the present

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    At the beginning of the 20th century, legendary breeder Luther Burbank released the first of his stoneless plums ‘Miracle’. It and a subsequent release ‘Conquest’ were not commercially successful and can no longer be found. In a quest to understand stone formation, germplasm was obtained from Cali...

  17. Why are we still growing Russet Burbank? Part II. Being better than Russet Burbank is the easy part

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many varieties are better than Russet Burbank in terms of agronomic performance. They have lower sugars, higher marketable yields, a more uniform blocky shape and are easier to grow. However, experience over the past several decades has shown that this is not sufficient for success. For a new variet...

  18. A Curriculum Review: The Voyage of the Mimi.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johns, Kenneth W.

    1988-01-01

    The curriculum package, "The Voyage of the Mimi," uses computer, videocassette, student text, and workbook for integrated study of the great whales and the impact of social actions on society and the environment. This review suggests that the package also offers many ancillary teaching opportunities. (CB)

  19. MIMI: multimodality, multiresource, information integration environment for biomedical core facilities.

    PubMed

    Szymanski, Jacek; Wilson, David L; Zhang, Guo-Qiang

    2009-10-01

    The rapid expansion of biomedical research has brought substantial scientific and administrative data management challenges to modern core facilities. Scientifically, a core facility must be able to manage experimental workflow and the corresponding set of large and complex scientific data. It must also disseminate experimental data to relevant researchers in a secure and expedient manner that facilitates collaboration and provides support for data interpretation and analysis. Administratively, a core facility must be able to manage the scheduling of its equipment and to maintain a flexible and effective billing system to track material, resource, and personnel costs and charge for services to sustain its operation. It must also have the ability to regularly monitor the usage and performance of its equipment and to provide summary statistics on resources spent on different categories of research. To address these informatics challenges, we introduce a comprehensive system called MIMI (multimodality, multiresource, information integration environment) that integrates the administrative and scientific support of a core facility into a single web-based environment. We report the design, development, and deployment experience of a baseline MIMI system at an imaging core facility and discuss the general applicability of such a system in other types of core facilities. These initial results suggest that MIMI will be a unique, cost-effective approach to addressing the informatics infrastructure needs of core facilities and similar research laboratories. PMID:17999114

  20. 78 FR 64048 - Noise Exposure Map Notice for Bob Hope Airport, Burbank, California

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-25

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Noise Exposure Map Notice for Bob Hope Airport, Burbank, California AGENCY... that the noise exposure maps submitted by Burbank-Glendale-Pasadena Airport Authority, for Bob Hope... the noise exposure maps submitted for Bob Hope Airport are in compliance with applicable...

  1. Dynamics of Saturn's magnetosphere from MIMI during Cassini's orbital insertion.

    PubMed

    Krimigis, S M; Mitchell, D G; Hamilton, D C; Krupp, N; Livi, S; Roelof, E C; Dandouras, J; Armstrong, T P; Mauk, B H; Paranicas, C; Brandt, P C; Bolton, S; Cheng, A F; Choo, T; Gloeckler, G; Hayes, J; Hsieh, K C; Ip, W-H; Jaskulek, S; Keath, E P; Kirsch, E; Kusterer, M; Lagg, A; Lanzerotti, L J; Lavallee, D; Manweiler, J; McEntire, R W; Rasmuss, W; Saur, J; Turner, F S; Williams, D J; Woch, J

    2005-02-25

    The Magnetospheric Imaging Instrument (MIMI) onboard the Cassini spacecraft observed the saturnian magnetosphere from January 2004 until Saturn orbit insertion (SOI) on 1 July 2004. The MIMI sensors observed frequent energetic particle activity in interplanetary space for several months before SOI. When the imaging sensor was switched to its energetic neutral atom (ENA) operating mode on 20 February 2004, at approximately 10(3) times Saturn's radius RS (0.43 astronomical units), a weak but persistent signal was observed from the magnetosphere. About 10 days before SOI, the magnetosphere exhibited a day-night asymmetry that varied with an approximately 11-hour periodicity. Once Cassini entered the magnetosphere, in situ measurements showed high concentrations of H+, H2+, O+, OH+, and H2O+ and low concentrations of N+. The radial dependence of ion intensity profiles implies neutral gas densities sufficient to produce high loss rates of trapped ions from the middle and inner magnetosphere. ENA imaging has revealed a radiation belt that resides inward of the D ring and is probably the result of double charge exchange between the main radiation belt and the upper layers of Saturn's exosphere. PMID:15731445

  2. Michigan Molecular Interactions (MiMI): putting the jigsaw puzzle together

    PubMed Central

    Jayapandian, Magesh; Chapman, Adriane; Tarcea, V. Glenn; Yu, Cong; Elkiss, Aaron; Ianni, Angela; Liu, Bin; Nandi, Arnab; Santos, Carlos; Andrews, Philip; Athey, Brian; States, David; Jagadish, H. V.

    2007-01-01

    Protein interaction data exists in a number of repositories. Each repository has its own data format, molecule identifier and supplementary information. Michigan Molecular Interactions (MiMI) assists scientists searching through this overwhelming amount of protein interaction data. MiMI gathers data from well-known protein interaction databases and deep-merges the information. Utilizing an identity function, molecules that may have different identifiers but represent the same real-world object are merged. Thus, MiMI allows the users to retrieve information from many different databases at once, highlighting complementary and contradictory information. To help scientists judge the usefulness of a piece of data, MiMI tracks the provenance of all data. Finally, a simple yet powerful user interface aids users in their queries, and frees them from the onerous task of knowing the data format or learning a query language. MiMI allows scientists to query all data, whether corroborative or contradictory, and specify which sources to utilize. MiMI is part of the National Center for Integrative Biomedical Informatics (NCIBI) and is publicly available at: . PMID:17130145

  3. Energetic Neutral Atom (ENA) Movies and Other Cool Data from Cassini's Magnetosphere Imaging Instrument (MIMI)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kusterer, M. B.; Mitchell, D. G.; Krimigis, S. M.; Vandegriff, J. D.

    2014-12-01

    Having been at Saturn for over a decade, the MIMI instrument on Cassini has created a rich dataset containing many details about Saturn's magnetosphere. In particular, the images of energetic neutral atoms (ENAs) taken by the Ion and Neutral Camera (INCA) offer a global perspective on Saturn's plasma environment. The MIMI team is now regularly making movies (in MP4 format) consisting of consecutive ENA images. The movies correct for spacecraft attitude changes by projecting the images (whose viewing angles can substantially vary from one image to the next) into a fixed inertial frame that makes it easy to view spatial features evolving in time. These movies are now being delivered to the PDS and are also available at the MIMI team web site. Several other higher order products are now also available, including 20-day energy-time spectrograms for the Charge-Energy-Mass Spectrometer (CHEMS) sensor, and daily energy-time spectrograms for the Low Energy Magnetospheric Measurements system (LEMMS) sensor. All spectrograms are available as plots or digital data in ASCII format. For all MIMI sensors, a Data User Guide is also available. This paper presents details and examples covering the specifics of MIMI higher order data products. URL: http://cassini-mimi.jhuapl.edu/

  4. Knowledge held in common. Tales of Luther Burbank and science in the American vernacular.

    PubMed

    Pandora, K

    2001-09-01

    During the first half of the twentieth century, the horticulturist Luther Burbank was largely considered an irrelevant figure by the scientific community, despite winning acclaim from the public as an eminent scientist. In examining the intellectual, social, and political claims embedded in texts by and about Burbank, this essay argues that consideration of the Burbank stories as they circulated in the vernacular realm can aid historians in understanding the dynamics of science in American life. Among the themes it addresses are how the Burbank stories directly engaged the question of who should legitimately count as a student of nature; the varied philosophical perspectives that derived from siting science within the deomestic sphere; and how these stories played with the possibility of a philosophy of nature based on the concept of "living matter," as opposed to one grounded on mechanistic principles. The essay also discusses how Burbank's views on evolution were mediated by the image of the child and the way in which his convictions regarding the power of the environment to release latent characteristics in physiological material presented a view of the future of the American "race" that was at odds with conventional eugenic thinking and assigned a central role to women in the drama of American evolution. PMID:11810893

  5. Ethylene Is Not Involved in Hormone- and Bromoethane-Induced Dormancy Break in Russet Burbank Minitubers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The involvement of ethylene in the dormancy breaking actions of cytokinins, GA, and BE was investigated using Russet Burbank minitubers. Injection of 10µg tuber-1 BA, CP, GA, NG, or ZEA or 24 hour exposure to BE effectively broke dormancy and stimulated sprout growth over a two-week period. Althou...

  6. Trianthema portulacastrum Linn. (Bishkhapra)

    PubMed Central

    Shivhare, Manoj K.; Singour, P. K.; Chaurasiya, P. K.; Pawar, Rajesh S.

    2012-01-01

    World Health Organization (WHO) has recommended that traditional health and folk medicine systems are proved to be more effective in health problems worldwide. Trianthema portulacastrum Linn. is a herb used in Ayurvedic medicine. The principal constituent of T. portulacastrum Linn. is ecdysterone and the other constituents are trianthenol, 3-acetylaleuritolic acid, 5,2’-dihydroxy-7-methoxy-6,8-dimethylflavone, leptorumol, 3,4-dimethoxy cinnamic acid, 5-hydroxy-2-methoxybenzaldehyde, p-methoxybenzoic acid, and beta cyanin. Different parts of Trianthema portulacastrum Linn. are traditionally used as analgesic, stomachic, laxative, treatment of blood disease, anemia, inflammation, and night blindness. Laboratory investigations on extracts of the plant have demonstrated significant pharmacological activities, such as antioxidant, diuretic, analgesic, hepatoprotective, and anticarcinogenic. This article compiles all updated information related to T. portulacastrum Linn. Scientifically proved activities are co-related with traditional concepts. Scientific evidence exists with respect to their major and minor constituents. The novelty and applicability of T. portulacastrum are hidden. Such things should be overcome through modern scientific concepts. PMID:23055639

  7. Fuel Cell Bus Takes a Starring Role in the BurbankBus Fleet (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2010-05-01

    This fact sheet reports on the City of Burbank, California's fuel cell bus demonstration project and the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) involvement. Included are specifications for the fuel cell bus and information about its operation. BurbankBus, the city's mass transit entity, received a grant from the California Air Resources Board to fund its zero-emission bus demonstration and is collaborating with DOE's Fuel Cell Technologies Program to evaluate the bus performance. DOE's National Renewable Energy Laboratory will collect and analyze performance and operations data for at least one year. Researchers will use the data to better understand the technology and determine future development work. In addition, demonstration information will help fleets make informed purchase decisions.

  8. Why are we still growing Russet Burbank? Part I. The many weaknesses and great strengths of America’s No. 1 potato

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Russet Burbank remains the most widely grown potato variety in the United States. Knowing this, one might be tempted to conclude that Russet Burbank is an outstanding variety that is agronomically superior to other germplasm, but nothing could be farther from the truth. In variety trial after variet...

  9. Application of freshwater and brine polymer flooding in the North Burbank Unit, Osage County, Oklahoma

    SciTech Connect

    Moffitt, P.D.; Zornes, D.R.; Moradi-Araghi, A.; McGovern, J.M. )

    1993-05-01

    A freshwater polymer-flood project was implemented in a 1,440-acre area of the North Burbank Unit (NBU) in 1980 with sequential injection of 4.2 million Ibm of polyacrylamide and 4.0 million Ibm of a 2.9% aluminum citrate crosslinking solution. Response to polymer flooding has been very pronounced, with ultimate incremental oil recovery projected to exceed 2.5 MMSTB of oil and total project oil expected to be 4.5 MMSTB. A crosslinked polymer-flood process for use in brine was developed that displays equally favorable performance characteristics as the freshwater polymer-flooding system.

  10. Plasma Speeds Upstream of Saturn and in the Magnetosphere as Measured by Cassini's Magnetospheric Imaging Instrument (MIMI)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vandegriff, J. D.; Hill, M. E.; Gloeckler, G.; Hamilton, D. C.; Kane, M.; Krimigis, S. M.; Mitchell, D. G.; Steinberg, J. T.; Tao, C.; Thomsen, M. F.

    2014-12-01

    Knowledge of plasma speeds inside Saturn's magnetosphere and in the upstream solar wind is important for developing a complete picture of magnetospheric processes at Saturn. Therefore we have developed techniques for extracting plasma speeds from these environments using data from the Magnetospheric Imaging Instrument (MIMI) on Cassini. The Cassini Plasma Spectrometer (CAPS) also measures the plasma speed and other properties, and we rely on CAPS results to validate our approach. However, there are some intervals during which MIMI is oriented more favorably in terms of detecting ambient plasma flows. Furthermore, CAPS operations have ceased, and MIMI provides an alternative way to measure plasma characteristics. In the solar wind, the plasma speed can be determined directly from MIMI's Charge-Energy-Mass Spectrometer (CHEMS) using the easily observable cutoff in He+ pickup ion (PUI) spectra, because there is a well-known relationship between this PUI cutoff and the ambient solar wind speed. PUIs are distributed over a wide angular extent, and thus CHEMS can obtain solar wind speeds at times when CAPS does not see the direct solar wind ions. We present solar wind speeds derived in this way from 2001 to 2004, a period that includes most of the interplanetary cruise preceding the mid-2004 Saturn orbit insertion (SOI) and the long post-SOI loop back into the solar wind. These values show good agreement with CAPS measurements available during the same interval and with a solar wind propagation model. Inside Saturn's magnetosphere, we are using a combination of data from CHEMS and MIMI's Ion and Neutral Camera (INCA) to derive speeds based on anisotropies. CAPS measurements in the magnetosphere are used to validate the MIMI-based speeds, but it is also possible to use our technique for periods when CAPS cannot be used to measure plasma velocities directly. We will present initial results of magnetospheric speeds from 2004 to the present.

  11. The Involvement of Gibberellins in 1,8-Cineole-Mediated Inhibition of Sprout Growth in Russet Burbank Tubers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The involvement of gibberellins in 1,8-cineole-mediated inhibition of tuber sprout growth was investigated in non-dormant field- and greenhouse-grown tubers of Russet Burbank. Continuous exposure of tubers to cineole in the vapor-phase resulted in a dose-dependent inhibition of sprout growth. Comp...

  12. Effects of Synthetic Phenylurea and Nitroguanidine Cytokinins on Dormancy Break and Sprout Growth in Russet Burbank Minitubers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Treatment of dormant Russet Burbank minitubers with the synthetic cytokinins N-2-chloro-4-pyridyl)-N'-phenylurea (CP) or 1-(alpha-ethylbenzyl)-3-nitroguanidine (NG) resulted in the premature termination of tuber dormancy. In contrast, treatment with the thidiazoyl-urea cytokinin thidiazuron did not...

  13. Q & A with Ed Tech Leaders: Interview with Curtis J. Bonk, Mimi Miyoung Lee, Thomas C. Reeves, & Thomas H. Reynolds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viner, Mark; Gardner, Ellen; Shaughnessy, Michael F.

    2016-01-01

    Curtis J. Bonk, is Professor of Instructional Systems Technology at Indiana University and President of CourseShare. Mimi Miyoung Lee is Associate Professor in the Department of Curriculum and instruction at the University of Houston. Thomas C. Reeves is Professor Emeritus of Learning, Design, and Technology at the University of Georgia. Thomas H.…

  14. Practicing whole-patient cardiology: An interview with Mimi Guarneri, MD. Interview by Sheldon Lewis.

    PubMed

    Guarneri, Mimi

    2008-01-01

    Mimi Guarneri, MD, is medical director and co-founder of Scripps Center for Integrative Medicine in San Diego, California. She received her medical degree from SUNY Medical Center in New York and served an internship and residency at Cornell Medical Center, where she later became chief medical resident. Dr Guarneri and Rauni King, RN, in 1997 founded the Scripps Center for Integrative Medicine to address the emotional and spiritual needs of patients as well as their physical needs. Dr Guarneri is a member of the American College of Cardiology, Alpha Omega Alpha, and the American Medical Women's Association. She is a diplomate of the American Holistic Medical Association and has keynoted numerous integrative medicine conferences, authored the best-selling book The Heart Speaks, and appeared on NBC's Today show. Dr Guarneri was interviewed earlier this year by Sheldon Lewis, former editor in chief of Advances. PMID:20664142

  15. Overview of Results from the Cassini Magnetospheric Imaging Instrument (MIMI) During the First Year of Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krimigis, S. M.; Mitchell, D. G.; Hamilton, D. C.; Krupp, N.; Livi, S.; Roelof, E. C.; Dandouras, J.; Mauk, B. H.; Brandt, J. P.; Paranicas, C.

    2005-01-01

    The MIMI investigation comprises three sensors covering the indicated energy ranges: the Ion and Neutral Camera (INCA) -- 7 keV/nuc 3 Mev) and protons (1.6 < E < 160 Mev) from the back end of the dual field-of-view telescope. The Saturn observation sequences began in January, 2004 and culminated in Saturn Orbit Insertion on July 1, 2004. The MIMI sensors observed substantial activity in interplanetary space for several months prior to SOI, including several interplanetary shocks associated with corotating interaction regions, numerous increases most likely originating from particle streams in the vicinity of the Saturnian bow shock and energetic neutral atoms (ENA) emanating from Saturn s magnetosphere. Results following SOI revealed: a dynamical magnetosphere with a day-night asymmetry and an 11-hour periodicity; several water-product ions (O+, OH+, H2O+), but little N+; inferred quantities of neutral gas sufficient to cause major losses in the trapped ions and electrons in the middle and inner magnetosphere; a Titan exosphere that is a copious source of ENA; INCA imaging through ENA has also revealed a previously unknown radiation belt residing inward of the D-ring that is most likely the result of double charge-exchange between the main radiation belt and the upper layers of Saturn s exosphere. Finally, there is ample evidence for the presence of substorm-like injections of plasma that subsequently corotates for a number of days before dissipating on the night-side magnetotail. The observations will be presented and discussed in the context of current theoretical models.

  16. Saturn's radiation belts in the view of Cassini's MIMI/LEMMS observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roussos, Elias; Krupp, Norbert; Kollmann, Peter; Paranicas, Chris; Armstrong, Tom P.; Mitchell, Donald G.; Krimigis, Stamatios M.; Kotova, Anna

    2013-04-01

    Energetic charged particle measurements by Cassini's MIMI/LEMMS detector between 2004 and 2013 have revealed that the processes which form and sustain Saturn's radiation belts differ significantly for their electron and ion components. The permanent MeV ion belts are relatively stable in intensity over both short and long time scales, they have a outer boundary that continuously coincides with the L-shell of Saturn's moon Tethys (L=4.89) and comprise different sectors, each separated from the other by an ion depleted region that is centered on an L-shell of one of the planet's inner icy moons. Fluxes within these belts are dominated by secondaries that result from nuclear collisions between Galactic Cosmic Rays and the planet's main rings and atmosphere. Extensions of the ion belts beyond the orbit of Tethys, that may last several months, may occur after the interaction of Saturn's magnetosphere with a Solar Proton Event. Still, these transient extensions have no impact on the structure of the inner belts, making these inner belts ideal for detailed and a precise studies of nuclear source processes, such as CRAND. Contrary to the ion belts, the electron radiation belt is a continuous structure that extends between the outer edge of the main rings and has its outer boundary at an average distance of about 8 Saturn radii from the planet. The latter distance scatters considerably from orbit to orbit, while flux levels within the belt may vary by several orders of magnitude. MIMI/LEMMS observations show a series of interesting features, such as recurrent sudden belt expansions with periods in the order of one to several weeks and considerably variable responses following periods of ICME interactions with Saturn's magnetosphere. As the elecron belts extend until the very dynamic middle magnetosphere and the dominant electron source and loss processes change as a function of L-shell, energy and pitch angle, modelling of these belts is very challenging.

  17. Dynamics of energetic particles and neutrals in Saturn's variable magnetosphere: results from the MIMI investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krimigis, S. M.; Mitchell, D. G.; Hamilton, D. C.; Krupp, N.; Livi, S.; Roelof, E. C.; Dandouras, J.; Mauk, B. H.; Brandt, P. C.; Paranicas, C. P.; Saur, J.; Armstrong, T. P.; Bolton, S.; Cheng, A. F.; Gloeckler, G.; Hill, M. E.; Hsieh, K. C.; Ip, W. H.; Lagg, A.; Lanzerotti, L. J.; McEntire, R. W.; Williams, D. J.

    2005-08-01

    The Magnetospheric IMaging Instrument (MIMI) comprises three sensors: the Ion and Neutral Camera (INCA) provides images using energetic neutral atoms (ENA) and ions; the Charge-Energy-Mass-Spectrometer (CHEMS) determines the mass and charge state of ions; and the Low Energy Magnetospheric Measurement System (LEMMS) measures ion and electron distributions using a dual field-of-view telescope (Krimigis et al, Space Sci Rev,114, 2333-329, 2004). Measurements by MIMI after Saturn orbit insertion on 1 July 2004 have elucidated several new features of the planet's magnetosphere. These include: (1) A dynamical magnetosphere with an11-hour periodicity. (2) The first remotely-sensed radiation belt inside Saturn's D-ring. (3) Abundant water products in the magnetospheric plasma > or = 10 kev/charge, but little nitrogen (N+/O+<0.05); neutral gas is found to be a major mechanism for particle loss. (4) Injections of plasma in the ˜4-11Rs and also >20Rs corotate with the planet and can last for several days. (5) Activity (possibly analogous to Earth's substorms) occurs in Saturn's magnetotail in the 20-40 Rs region during large magnetospheric disturbances; this has not been observed during quiet times. (6) Field-aligned electron beams occur in the dawn to early morning sector as close as ˜10 Rs, and map to latitudes of observed Saturn aurora. (7) A gas cloud around Titan with dimensions > 1 Rs, with strong high ( 3200 km) altitude ENA emissions forms a continuous, asymmetric ``halo." (8) Titan's emission is centered on moon--hot plasma interaction with the exosphere; changing intensity depends on variable (x10-100) ion population and magnetic field orientation about Titan. (9) Upstream ion events have been measured to large (<50 to > 800 Rs) distances; several are enriched in oxygen ions, suggesting a magnetospheric origin. The observations will be presented and discussed in the context of current models of Saturn's magnetosphere.

  18. Application of a microbial selective-plugging process at the North Burbank unit: Prepilot tests

    SciTech Connect

    Jenneman, G.E.; Moffitt, P.D.; Young, G.R.

    1996-02-01

    Microbial enhanced-oil-recovery (MEOR) nutrients were injected in an injection well at North Burbank unit (NBU) in Oklahoma to plug off high-permeability layers through the growth of indigenous microorganisms and to divert injection fluid to lower-permeability, higher-oil-saturation zones. Several different types of treatments were performed using both sequential and co-injection of nutrients. Pressure falloff/injection tests and vertical injection profiles were conducted before and after nutrient injection. The results of pressure injection tests following co-injection of nutrients and an incubation period indicated a 33% drop in the effective permeability to the injection fluid and a negative skin factor, while injection profile surveys showed a 33% reduction in the zone taking water. Swabbed samples from the injector following shut in revealed abundant bacterial concentrations and products as well as oil and inorganic solids. Although significant in-depth permeability reduction was observed following nutrient co-injection tests, the unstable behavior of the plug suggested that insufficient biomass was being formed to effectively seal off the higher-permeability zones.

  19. Evolution of electron pitch angle distributions across Saturn's middle magnetospheric region from MIMI/LEMMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, G.; Paranicas, C.; Santos-Costa, D.; Livi, S.; Krupp, N.; Mitchell, D. G.; Roussos, E.; Tseng, W.-L.

    2014-12-01

    We provide a global view of ~20 to 800 keV electron pitch angle distributions (PADs) close to Saturn's current sheet using observations from the Cassini MIMI/LEMMS instrument. Previous work indicated that the nature of pitch angle distributions in Saturn's inner to middle magnetosphere changes near the radial distance of 10RS. This work confirms the existence of a PAD transition region. Here we go further and develop a new technique to statistically quantify the spatial profile of butterfly PADs as well as present new spatial trends on the isotropic PAD. Additionally, we perform a case study analysis and show the PADs exhibit strong energy dependent features throughout this transition region. We also present a diffusion theory model based on adiabatic transport, Coulomb interactions with Saturn's neutral gas torus, and an energy dependent radial diffusion coefficient. A data-model comparison reveals that adiabatic transport is the dominant transport mechanism between ~8 to 12RS, however interactions with Saturn's neutral gas torus become dominant inside ~7RS and govern the flux level of ~20 to 800 keV electrons. We have also found that field-aligned fluxes were not well reproduced by our modeling approach. We suggest that wave-particle interactions and/or a polar source of the energetic particles needs further investigation.

  20. Evolution of electron pitch angle distributions across Saturn's middle magnetospheric region from MIMI/LEMMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, G. B.; Paranicas, C.; Santos-Costa, D.; Livi, S. A.; Mitchell, D. G.; Krupp, N.; Roussos, E.

    2013-12-01

    We provide a global view of ~20 keV to 800 keV electron pitch angle distributions (PADs) in Saturn's magnetosphere using observations from the Cassini MIMI/LEMMS instrument. In this work, measurements are confined to ×1 Saturn Radii (RS) of the current sheet. Previous work indicated that the nature of pitch angle distributions in Saturn's inner to middle magnetosphere undergoes a change near the radial distance of 10 RS. This work confirms the existence of a PAD transition from trapped to field-aligned between ~8 and 12 RS and is the first to show the statistical nature of the butterfly PAD throughout this region, which exhibits strong energy dependent features. We also perform case study analyses that highlight PAD evolution in this region and explore possible mechanisms that generate these different angular profiles in Saturn's magnetosphere. Using a diffusive transport model of electrons inward of 15 RS, and under a loss free assumption, we find the modeling results match the LEMMS observations beyond ~10 RS. This theoretical result strongly suggests that adiabatic transport is a dominant process for the transport of electrons in the region ~10-12 RS and likely beyond. The discrepancies between simulation and data inside ~10 RS suggest that other mechanisms, such as scattering in Saturn's gas/grain environment or injections, must play a major role in the radial evolution of PADs from field-aligned to trapped profiles with the transition region.

  1. Dosimetric evaluation of a Monte Carlo IMRT treatment planning system incorporating the MIMiC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rassiah-Szegedi, P.; Fuss, M.; Sheikh-Bagheri, D.; Szegedi, M.; Stathakis, S.; Lancaster, J.; Papanikolaou, N.; Salter, B.

    2007-12-01

    The high dose per fraction delivered to lung lesions in stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) demands high dose calculation and delivery accuracy. The inhomogeneous density in the thoracic region along with the small fields used typically in intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) treatments poses a challenge in the accuracy of dose calculation. In this study we dosimetrically evaluated a pre-release version of a Monte Carlo planning system (PEREGRINE 1.6b, NOMOS Corp., Cranberry Township, PA), which incorporates the modeling of serial tomotherapy IMRT treatments with the binary multileaf intensity modulating collimator (MIMiC). The aim of this study is to show the validation process of PEREGRINE 1.6b since it was used as a benchmark to investigate the accuracy of doses calculated by a finite size pencil beam (FSPB) algorithm for lung lesions treated on the SBRT dose regime via serial tomotherapy in our previous study. Doses calculated by PEREGRINE were compared against measurements in homogeneous and inhomogeneous materials carried out on a Varian 600C with a 6 MV photon beam. Phantom studies simulating various sized lesions were also carried out to explain some of the large dose discrepancies seen in the dose calculations with small lesions. Doses calculated by PEREGRINE agreed to within 2% in water and up to 3% for measurements in an inhomogeneous phantom containing lung, bone and unit density tissue.

  2. Identification of fruits of Tribulus terrestris Linn. and Pedalium murex Linn.: A pharmacognostical approach.

    PubMed

    Kevalia, Jignesh; Patel, Bhupesh

    2011-10-01

    Gokshura is a well-known Ayurvedic drug that is used in many preparations. Botonically it is identified as Tribulus terrestris Linn., especially the roots and fruits of the plant. But instead the fruits of another plant Pedalium murex Linn. are commonly used and the drug is frequently substituted. Pharmacognostical study has been carried out to identify the distinguishing features, both morphological and microscopic, of the fruits of Tribulus terrestris Linn. and Pedalium murex Linn. This knowledge should help reduce the problem of substitution of the genuine drug. PMID:22661853

  3. The extended Saturnian neutral cloud as revealed by global ENA simulations using Cassini/MIMI measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dialynas, K.; Brandt, P. C.; Krimigis, S. M.; Mitchell, D. G.; Hamilton, D. C.; Krupp, N.; Rymer, A. M.

    2013-06-01

    We show that the neutral gas vertical distribution at Saturn must be ~3-4 times more extended than previously thought for the >5 RSregions, while the neutral H distribution is consistent with H densities that reach up to ~150/cm3close to the orbit of Titan. We utilize a technique to retrieve the global neutral gas distribution in Saturn's magnetosphere, using energetic ion and energetic neutral atom (ENA) measurements, obtained by the Magnetospheric Imaging Instrument (MIMI) onboard the Cassini spacecraft. Our ENA measurements are consistent with a neutral cloud that consists of H2O, OH, H, and O, while the overall shapes and densities numbers concerning the neutral gas distributions are constrained according to already existing models as well as recent observations. The neutral gas distribution at Saturn is determined by simulating a 24-55 keV hydrogen image of the Saturnian magnetosphere, measured by the Ion and Neutral Camera (INCA), averaged over the time period from 1 July 2004 to 23 August 2005. The ionic input of the model includes a proton distribution of combined Charge Energy Mass Spectrometer (CHEMS, 3-230 keV/e), Low Energy Magnetospheric Measurements System (LEMMS, 30.7 keV to 2.3 MeV), and INCA (5-300 keV) in situ measurements. These measurements cover several passes from 1 July 2004 to 10 April 2007, at various local times over the dipole L range 5< L <20RS. A parameterized neutral gas distribution is changed until agreement between the simulated and average INCA image is obtained.

  4. Semecarpus anacardium Linn.: A review

    PubMed Central

    Semalty, Mona; Semalty, Ajay; Badola, Ashutosh; Joshi, Geeta Pant; Rawat, M. S. M.

    2010-01-01

    Semecarpus anacardium Linn. (Family: Anacardiaceae), commonly known ‘Ballataka’ or ‘Bhilwa’, has been used in various traditional system of medicines for various ailments since ancient times. Its nuts contain a variety of biologically active compounds such as biflavonoids, phenolic compounds, bhilawanols, minerals, vitamins and amino acids, which show various medicinal properties. The fruit and nut extract shows various activities like antiatherogenic, antiinflammatory, antioxidant, antimicrobial, anti-reproductive, CNS stimulant, hypoglycemic, anticarcinogenic and hair growth promoter. The article reviews the various activities of the plant. PMID:22228947

  5. A defect in inducible beta-galactosidase of B lymphocytes in the osteopetrotic (mi/mi) mouse.

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, N; Naraparaju, V R

    1996-01-01

    Macrophages were activated by administration of an inflammatory lipid metabolite, lysophosphatidylcholine (lyso-Pc), to wild type mice but not murine (microphthalmic) osteopetrotic (mi/mi) mutant mice. In vitro treatment of wild type mouse peritoneal cells with lyso-Pc efficiently activated macrophages whereas lyso-Pc-treatment of mi mutant mouse peritoneal cells resulted in no activation of macrophages. Generation of macrophage activating factor requires a precursor protein, serum vitamin D binding protein (DBP), and participation of lyso-Pc-inducible beta-galactosidase of B lymphocytes. Lyso-Pc-inducible beta-galactosidase of B lymphocytes was found to be defective in mi mutant mice. PMID:8881764

  6. A naphthoquinone derivative from Tectona grandis (Linn.).

    PubMed

    Gupta, Pradeep K; Singh, Pahup

    2004-09-01

    A new naphthoquinone derivative has been isolated, along with a number of prenylnaphthoquinone congeners, from the heartwood of Tectona grandis (Linn.). It was characterized as dehydro-alpha-isodunnione (1) by careful analysis of its spectral data. PMID:15224424

  7. 140. Linn Cove contact station. Center opened in 1987 to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    140. Linn Cove contact station. Center opened in 1987 to provide information about the Linn Cove viaduct. Looking south-southeast. - Blue Ridge Parkway, Between Shenandoah National Park & Great Smoky Mountains, Asheville, Buncombe County, NC

  8. Effect of Initial Nematode Population Density on the Interaction of Pratylenchus penetrans and Verticillium dahliae on 'Russet Burbank' Potato.

    PubMed

    Saeed, I A; Macguidwin, A E; Rouse, D I

    1998-03-01

    Four similar growth chamber experiments were conducted to test the hypothesis that the initial population density (Pi) of Pratylenchus penetrans influences the severity of interactive effects of P. penetrans and Verticillium dahliae on shoot growth, photosynthesis, and tuber yield of Russet Burbank potato. In each experiment, three population densities of P. penetrans with and without concomitant inoculation with V. dahliae were compared with nematode-free controls. The three specific Pi of JR penetrans tested varied from experiment to experiment but fell in the ranges 0.8-2.5, 1.8-3.9, 2.1-8.8, and 7.5-32.4 nematodes/cm(3) soil. Inoculum of V. dahliaewas mixed into soil, and the assayed density was 5.4 propagules/gram dry soil. Plants were grown 60 to 80 days in a controlled environment. Plant growth parameters in two experiments indicated significant interactions between P. penetrans and V. dahliae. In the absence of V. dahliae, P. penetrans did not reduce plant growth and tuber yield below that of the nematode-free control or did so only at the highest one or two population densities tested. In the presence of K dahliae, the lowest population density significantly reduced shoot weight and photosynthesis in three and four experiments, respectively. Higher densities had no additional effect on shoot weight and caused additional reductions in photosynthesis in only one experiment. Population densities of 0.8 and 7.5 nematodes/cm(3) soil reduced tuber yield by 51% and 45%, whereas higher densities had no effect or a 15% additional effect, respectively. These data indicate that interactive effects between P. penetrans and V. dahliae on Russet Burbank potato are manifested at P. penetrans population densities less than 1 nematode/cm(3) soil and that the nematode population density must be substantially higher before additional effects are apparent. PMID:19274204

  9. Development of expressed sequence tag resources for Vanda Mimi Palmer and data mining for EST-SSR.

    PubMed

    Teh, Seow-Ling; Chan, Wai-Sun; Abdullah, Janna Ong; Namasivayam, Parameswari

    2011-08-01

    Vanda Mimi Palmer (VMP) is a highly sought as fragrant-orchid hybrid in Malaysia. It is economically important in cosmetic and beauty industries and also a famous potted ornamental plant. To date, no work on fragrance-related genes of vandaceous orchids has been reported from other research groups although the analysis of floral fragrance or volatiles have been extensively studied. An expressed sequence tag (EST) resource was developed for VMP principally to mine any potential fragrance-related expressed sequence tag-simple sequence repeat (EST-SSR) for future development as markers in the identification of fragrant vandaceous orchids endemic to Malaysia. Clustering, annotation and assembling of the ESTs identified 1,196 unigenes which defined 966 singletons and 230 contigs. The VMP dbEST was functionally classified by gene ontology (GO) into three groups: molecular functions (51.2%), cellular components (16.4%) and biological processes (24.6%) while the remaining 7.8% showed no hits with GO identifier. A total of 112 EST-SSR (9.4%) was mined on which at least five units of di-, tri-, tetra-, penta-, or hexa-nucleotide repeats were predicted. The di-nucleotide motif repeats appeared to be the most frequent repeats among the detected SSRs with the AT/TA types as the most abundant among the dimerics, while AAG/TTC, AGA/TCT-type were the most frequent trimerics. The mined EST-SSR is believed to be useful in the development of EST-SSR markers that is applicable in the screening and characterization of fragrance-related transcripts in closely related species. PMID:21116862

  10. Disease Progress Based on Effects of Verticillium dahliae and Pratylenchus penetrans on Gas Exchange in Russet Burbank Potato.

    PubMed

    Saeed, I A; Macguidwin, A E; Rouse, D I

    1997-04-01

    ABSTRACT The interactive effects of concomitant infection by the nematode Pratylenchus penetrans and the fungus Verticillium dahliae on symptom expression in Russet Burbank potato was studied in growth chamber experiments. Treatments were P. penetrans at three initial densities, V. dahliae at one inoculum density, the combination of the nematode at these three densities and the fungus, and a noninfested control. Gas exchange was measured nondestructively in leaf cohorts of different ages, one to three times weekly, with a LI-COR portable photosynthesis system. The single-pathogen treatments had no effect on assimilation or transpiration rates, but joint infection had a significant impact. In concomitant infection, photosynthesis was impaired more than transpiration, so estimates of leaf health were based on carbon assimilation rates only. Reductions in assimilation rate were apparent before the onset of visual symptoms. Assimilation rates decreased as much as 44% in the top, and newest, leaves of concomitantly infected plants, compared to rates in control plants. Even so, the health of newly produced leaves did not become progressively worse through time. With light use efficiency less than 0.20 mol of CO(2) fixed per mol of photosynthetically active radiation used as the criterion for disease incidence, disease progressed acropetally from the oldest to the youngest leaves. In plants infected with P. penetrans (0.8 nematodes per cm(3) of soil) in combination with V. dahliae, all leaves in cohorts 1 and 2 were symptomatic by 45 days after planting, and leaves in cohorts 3 to 6 became symptomatic at weekly intervals thereafter. For the control and single-pathogen treatments, the first time that light use efficiency fell below 0.20 in all leaves in cohort 1 was 71 days after planting. Concomitant infection reduced leaf life span by about 3 weeks. Both visual and physiological symptom expression were invariant to differences in initial nematode inoculum densities

  11. Sphaeranthus indicus Linn.: A phytopharmacological review

    PubMed Central

    Galani, Varsha J.; Patel, B. G.; Rana, D. G.

    2010-01-01

    Sphaeranthus indicus Linn. (Asteraceae) is widely used in Ayurvedic system of medicine to treat vitiated conditions of epilepsy, mental illness, hemicrania, jaundice, hepatopathy, diabetes, leprosy, fever, pectoralgia, cough, gastropathy, hernia, hemorrhoids, helminthiasis, dyspepsia and skin diseases. There are reports providing scientific evidences for hypotensive, anxiolytic, neuroleptic, hypolipidemic, immunomodulatory, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, bronchodialatory, antihyperglycemic and hepatoprotective activities of this plant. A wide range of phytochemical constituents have been isolated from this plant including sesquiterpene lactones, eudesmenolides, flavanoids and essential oil. A comprehensive account of the morphology, phytochemical constituents, ethnobotanical uses and pharmacological activities reported are included in this review for exploring the immense medicinal potential of this plant. PMID:21455454

  12. Antidiabetic activity of Terminalia catappa Linn fruits.

    PubMed

    Nagappa, A N; Thakurdesai, P A; Venkat Rao, N; Singh, Jiwan

    2003-09-01

    In view of alleged antidiabetic potential, effect of the petroleum ether, methanol, and aqueous extracts of Terminalia catappa Linn (combretaceae) fruit, on fasting blood sugar levels and serum biochemical analysis in alloxan-induced diabetic rats were investigated. All the three extracts of Terminalia catappa produced a significant antidiabetic activity at dose levels 1/5 of their lethal doses. Concurrent histological studies of the pancreas of these animals showed comparable regeneration by methanolic and aqueous extracts which were earlier, necrosed by alloxan. PMID:12902049

  13. 137. Linn Cove Viaduct. Placement of its foundations were determined ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    137. Linn Cove Viaduct. Placement of its foundations were determined by the location of the numerous boulders its built around. Looking south-southwest. - Blue Ridge Parkway, Between Shenandoah National Park & Great Smoky Mountains, Asheville, Buncombe County, NC

  14. Loranthus micranthus Linn.: Biological Activities and Phytochemistry

    PubMed Central

    Zorofchian Moghadamtousi, Soheil; Hajrezaei, Maryam; Abdul Kadir, Habsah

    2013-01-01

    Loranthus micranthus Linn. is a medicinal plant from the Loranthaceae family commonly known as an eastern Nigeria species of the African mistletoe and is widely used in folkloric medicine to cure various ailments and diseases. It is semiparasitic plant because of growing on various host trees and shrubs and absorbing mineral nutrition and water from respective host. Hence, the phytochemicals and biological activities of L. micranthus demonstrated strong host and harvesting period dependency. The leaves have been proved to possess immunomodulatory, antidiabetic, antimicrobial, antihypertensive, antioxidant, antidiarrhoeal, and hypolipidemic activities. This review summarizes the information and findings concerning the current knowledge on the biological activities, pharmacological properties, toxicity, and chemical constituents of Loranthus micranthus. PMID:24109490

  15. Phytopharmacological Profile of Jasminum grandiflorum Linn. (Oleaceae).

    PubMed

    Arun, Mittal; Satish, Sardana; Anima, Pandey

    2016-04-01

    Plants are the real basis towards animal life and are also central to people's livelihood. The contributions of the plants in performing varied religious celebrations and in other multiple beneficiaries like medicine, human happiness as well as in treating deadly diseases can never be neglected. In treating diseases, the plants and their constituents are better choice than any other synthetic chemical. The nature has been kind enough to provide the human beings with various types of medicinal plants and in the real sense these form the storehouse of curing almost all the ailments. Consequently, most of the drugs which are being used in preparing formulations have their origin and roots in the plants which form the chief natural source of medicines. Even in modern era, the plant-derived drugs are being extensively used, either in their original or semi-synthetic form. It is because their natural phytoconstituents are highly innocuous posing relatively fewer or no side effects. Based upon their observations, analysis and experience, our ancestors used many plants for medicinal purposes and thus their efforts need to be supported by scientific evidence. Jasminum grandiflorum Linn. is one of such important plants. It has been extensively used by the tribes all over India to treat different diseases which mainly include body pains, toothache, stomach ache, ulcers, and sexual impotency. Chemistry of the plant revealed the presence of mainly secoiridoids, terpenoids, flavonoids and tannins. Not much scientific support was given to the folklore claims for this plant but some of its traditional uses were investigated like spasmolytic, wound healing, antimicrobial, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor, antiulcer and antioxidant activities. This article is the review of research works done on the plant Jasminum grandiflorum Linn. to date. As a part of it the local names, morphology, traditional claims, chemistry and pharmacological activities have been discussed. PMID

  16. Modulating effect of Gmelina arborea Linn. on immunosuppressed albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Shukla, S. H.; Saluja, A. K.; Pandya, S. S.

    2010-01-01

    Aim: In the present study, the immunomodulatory effects of roots of Gmelina arborea Linn. were investigated Materials and Methods: Methanolic extract of G. arborea Linn. (MEGA) and its ethyl acetate fraction (EAFME) were used for evaluating the pharmacological activity. The modulating effect was evaluated on humoral and cell-mediated immune response using animal models like cyclophosphamide-induced myelosuppression, delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) response, and humoral antibody (HA) titre Results: Both test extracts produced significant increase in HA titre, DTH response, and levels of total white blood cell count Conclusion: This drug is found to be a potential immunostimulant PMID:21713139

  17. Neuropharmacological activity of Lippia nodiflora Linn.

    PubMed Central

    Thirupathy, Kumaresan P.; Tulshkar, Asish; Vijaya, C.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: In the recent years, plants containing flavonoids have gained much more interest in research area, as they are found to be specific ligands for benzodiazepine receptors. Material and Methods: In our investigation, we evaluated the neuropharmacological profile of petroleum, chloroform and ethanolic extracts of aerial part of Lippia nodiflora Linn. With experimental models using test such as potentiation of diazepam-induced sleeping time, locomotor activity, motor coordination, exploratory behavior pattern, elevated plus maze and maximal electroshock convulsions. Diazepam at doses of 5, 4, and 1 mg/kg served as standard. Results: Results showed that the ethanolic extract of L. nodifl ora at both doses (250 and 500 mg/kg p.o.) and its chloroform extract at a higher dose of 500 mg/kg produced central inhibitory (sedative) effects, anticonvulsant effect and anxiolytic effect in mice. Values were statistically significant (P < 0.05 and P < 0.01) when compared to the control group. The petroleum ether extract of plant at both dose levels (250 and 500 mg/kg p.o.) did not produce any central effects. Conclusion: In conclusion, we can say that the ethanolic and chloroform extracts showed the central inhibitory activity due to the presence of fl avonoids and this fact was also supported by the finding that the petroleum ether extract did not show any central effect and flavonoids were not found in it. PMID:22022169

  18. Pharmacognostic evaluation of Cayratia trifolia (Linn.) leaf

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Dinesh; Gupta, Jyoti; Kumar, Sunil; Arya, Renu; Kumar, Tarun; Gupta, Ankit

    2012-01-01

    Objective To present a detailed pharmacognostic study of the leaf of Cayratia trifolia (C. trifolia) Linn. (Vitaceae), an important plant in the Indian system of medicine. Methods The macroscopy, microscopy, physiochemical analysis, preliminary testing, fluorescence analysis of powder of the plant and other WHO recommended methods for standardization were investigated. Results Leaves are trifoliolated with petioles (2–3 cm) long. Leaflets are ovate to oblong-ovate, (2–8 cm) long, (1.5–5 cm) wide, pointed at the tip. The leaf surface shows the anisocytic type stomata covered with guard cells followed by epidermis layer. Leaf surface contents including veins, vein islet and vein termination were also determined. Transverse section of leaf shows the epidermis layer followed by cuticle layer and vascular bandles (xylem and phloem). The mesophyll is differentiated into palisade and spongy parenchyma. Abundant covering trichomes emerge from the upper epidermis. Trichomes are uniseriate and multicellular. Strips of collenchyma are present below and upper layer of epidermis. Conclusions It can be concluded that the pharmacognostic profile of the C. trifolia is helpful in developing standards for quality, purity and sample identification. PMID:23569825

  19. Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 9): North Hollywood/Burbank Well Field Area 1, San Fernando Valley Site, California (first remedial action), September 1987. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-09-24

    The North Hollywood - Burbank Well Field (NHBWF) is located within the San Fernando Valley Ground Water basin, which can provide drinking water for approximately 500,000 people residing in the San Fernando Valley and Los Angeles. In 1980 TCE and PCE were discovered in 25% of DWP's wells. In July 1981, DWP and the Southern California Association of Governments began a two-year study funded by EPA. The study revealed the occurrence of ground-water contamination plume patterns that are spreading toward the southeast. The primary contaminant of concern to the ground-water is TCE with PCE and other VOCs present. The selected remedial action for the site is ground-water pump and treatment using aeration and granular-activated-carbon - air-filtering units, with discharge to the DWP Pumping Station for chlorination and distribution. Spent carbon will be removed and replaced with fresh carbon, with the spent carbon scheduled either for disposal or regeneration. The estimated capital cost for this remedial action is $2,192,895 with present worth OandM of $2,284,105.

  20. 138. Linn Cove Viaduct. View of the Tanawha trail and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    138. Linn Cove Viaduct. View of the Tanawha trail and underneath of the viaduct. Shape of the piers was designed to provide aesthetic sense of light and shadow. Looking north-northeast. - Blue Ridge Parkway, Between Shenandoah National Park & Great Smoky Mountains, Asheville, Buncombe County, NC

  1. Protective Effect of Mangifera indica Linn., Cocos nucifera Linn., and Averrhoa carambola Linn. Extracts against Ultraviolet B-Induced Damage in Human Keratinocytes

    PubMed Central

    Ronpirin, Chalinee; Pattarachotanant, Nattaporn

    2016-01-01

    This study was aimed at investigating the antioxidant activity of Mangifera indica Linn., Cocos nucifera Linn., and Averrhoa carambola Linn. and their biological effect on human keratinocytes affected by the ultraviolet B (UVB), a major cause of cell damage and skin cancer through induction of DNA damage, production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and apoptosis. The richest antioxidant activity was found in ethanol fraction of M. indica (21.32 ± 0.66 mg QE/g dry weight), while the lowest one was found in aqueous fractions of M. indica and C. nucifera (1.76 ± 2.10 and 1.65 ± 0.38 mg QE/g dry weight, respectively). Ethanol and aqueous fractions of A. carambola (250 µg/mL) significantly reduced the number of apoptotic cells. The expression of cleaved caspase 3 in UVB-treated group was significantly greater than that in untreated group. Both fractions of A. carambola (50, 100, and 250 µg/mL) significantly decreased the expression of cleaved caspase 3. Regarding the induction of DNA repair, ethanol (100 and 250 µg/mL) and aqueous (50, 100 and 250 µg/mL) fractions of A. carambola significantly decreased the percentage of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPD). Taken together, our results suggest that both fractions of A. carambola may be potentially developed for dermal applications. PMID:27057195

  2. Protective Effect of Mangifera indica Linn., Cocos nucifera Linn., and Averrhoa carambola Linn. Extracts against Ultraviolet B-Induced Damage in Human Keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Ronpirin, Chalinee; Pattarachotanant, Nattaporn; Tencomnao, Tewin

    2016-01-01

    This study was aimed at investigating the antioxidant activity of Mangifera indica Linn., Cocos nucifera Linn., and Averrhoa carambola Linn. and their biological effect on human keratinocytes affected by the ultraviolet B (UVB), a major cause of cell damage and skin cancer through induction of DNA damage, production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and apoptosis. The richest antioxidant activity was found in ethanol fraction of M. indica (21.32 ± 0.66 mg QE/g dry weight), while the lowest one was found in aqueous fractions of M. indica and C. nucifera (1.76 ± 2.10 and 1.65 ± 0.38 mg QE/g dry weight, respectively). Ethanol and aqueous fractions of A. carambola (250 µg/mL) significantly reduced the number of apoptotic cells. The expression of cleaved caspase 3 in UVB-treated group was significantly greater than that in untreated group. Both fractions of A. carambola (50, 100, and 250 µg/mL) significantly decreased the expression of cleaved caspase 3. Regarding the induction of DNA repair, ethanol (100 and 250 µg/mL) and aqueous (50, 100 and 250 µg/mL) fractions of A. carambola significantly decreased the percentage of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPD). Taken together, our results suggest that both fractions of A. carambola may be potentially developed for dermal applications. PMID:27057195

  3. Acorus calamus Linn.: phytoconstituents and bactericidal property.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Rajesh K

    2016-10-01

    Acorus calamus Linn. of the family Araceae (Acoraceae), commonly known as Sweet Flag and Vacha. The rhizome of this plant has medicinal properties against bugs, moths, lice and emetic stomach in dyspepsia. Chemical composition of the hydro-distilled essential oil obtained from the rhizomes of A. calamus was analyzed by gas chromatography equipped with flame ionization detector and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. The essential oil of A. calamus and its major compound β-asarone were tested against five Gram-positive, eight Gram-negative bacteria, and three fungi by the tube-dilution method at a concentration rang of 5.0-0.009 mg/mL. Forty constituents were identified which comprised 98.3 % of the total oil. The major compound β-asarone (80.6 %) was identified and confirm by NMR ((1)H- & (13)C-) in rhizome oil of A. calamus. The organism Micrococcus luteus was found to be more susceptible to the oil with minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) value of 0.032 ± 0.004 mg/mL, followed by Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus niger and Micrococcus flavus with MBC values of 0.104 ± 0.016, 0.117 ± 0.017 and 0.143 ± 0.013 mg/mL, respectively. The compound β-asarone was susceptible to the microorganism A. niger with MBC value 0.416 ± 0.065 mg/mL. The present study revealed that tetraploid variety of A. calamus is growing in this region with substantial amount of β-asarone. The oil showed bactericidal property against tested bacteria and fungi. The β-asarone exhibited poorer bactericidal activity against test microorganisms. PMID:27562598

  4. Q & A with Ed Tech Leaders: Interview with Marcia C. Linn

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fulgham, Susan M.; Shaughnessy, Michael F.

    2014-01-01

    Susan M. Fulgham and Michael F. Shaughnessy, Contributing Editors for this journal, present their interview with Marcia C. Linn, Professor of Development and Cognition, specializing in education in mathematics, science, and technology, in the Graduate School of Education at the University of California, Berkeley. Linn is currently investigating…

  5. 136. Linn Cove Viaduct. This is the first precast concrete ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    136. Linn Cove Viaduct. This is the first precast concrete segmental viaduct to be built with the progressive method in the United States. It contains nearly every type of highway geometry within its length. With its super elevation of up to ten degrees and its tight horizontal and spiral curves, it was the most complicated bridge of its type built to that time looking south-southwest. - Blue Ridge Parkway, Between Shenandoah National Park & Great Smoky Mountains, Asheville, Buncombe County, NC

  6. 256. Linn Cove Viaduct. This is the first precast concrete ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    256. Linn Cove Viaduct. This is the first precast concrete segmental concrete segmental viaduct to be built with the progressive method in the United States. It contains nearly every type of highway construction within its length. With is super elevation of up to ten degrees and its tight horizontal and spiral curves, it was the most complicated bridge of its type built to that time. Looking south-southwest. - Blue Ridge Parkway, Between Shenandoah National Park & Great Smoky Mountains, Asheville, Buncombe County, NC

  7. REVIEW ON PHYTOCHEMICAL AND MEDICINAL ASPECTS OF JUSSIAEA SUFERUTICOSA LINN

    PubMed Central

    Murugesan, T.; Sinha, Sanghamitra; Pal, M.; Saha, B.P.

    2002-01-01

    The whole plant of Jussiaea suffruticosa Linn. Has been widely used in traditional medicine of India. Important bioactive molecules of the plant extract have been explored with modern phytochemical approaches and reported to consist of betulinic acid, quercetin and β- sitosterol. Furthermore, the experimental data obtained from rational clinical studies indicated that the methanol extract of the whole plant has found to possess potent anti-HIV, anti-diabetic, anti-diarrheal, anti- inflammatory, anti-pyretic, diuretic and psychopharmacological activities in several animal models. This paper reveales the phytochemical and clinical importance of the plant extract. PMID:22557056

  8. Review on phytochemical and medicinal aspects of jussiaea suferuticosa linn.

    PubMed

    Murugesan, T; Sinha, Sanghamitra; Pal, M; Saha, B P

    2002-01-01

    The whole plant of Jussiaea suffruticosa Linn. Has been widely used in traditional medicine of India. Important bioactive molecules of the plant extract have been explored with modern phytochemical approaches and reported to consist of betulinic acid, quercetin and β- sitosterol. Furthermore, the experimental data obtained from rational clinical studies indicated that the methanol extract of the whole plant has found to possess potent anti-HIV, anti-diabetic, anti-diarrheal, anti- inflammatory, anti-pyretic, diuretic and psychopharmacological activities in several animal models. This paper reveales the phytochemical and clinical importance of the plant extract. PMID:22557056

  9. Antidiarrhoeal Activity of Leaves of Melastoma malabathricum Linn.

    PubMed Central

    Sunilson, J. A. J.; Anandarajagopal, K.; Kumari, A. V. A. G.; Mohan, S.

    2009-01-01

    The antidiarrhoeal effect of the water extract of Melastoma malabathricum Linn. (Melastomataceae) leaves were investigated by employing four experimental models of diarrhea in Swiss mice. Melastoma malabathricum water extract treated mice showed significant reduction in the fecal output and protected them from castor oil-induced diarrhoea. The extract also reduced the intestinal fluid secretion induced by magnesium sulphate and gastrointestinal motility after charcoal meal administration in the mice. No mortality and visible signs of general weakness was observed in the mice following the test extract administration up to 2000 mg/kg dose. PMID:20376227

  10. Argyreia speciosa (Linn. f.) sweet: A comprehensive review

    PubMed Central

    Galani, V. J.; Patel, B. G.; Patel, N. B.

    2010-01-01

    Argyreia speciosa (Linn. f.) Sweet is a popular Indian medicinal plant, which has long been used in traditional Ayurvedic Indian medicine for various diseases. This plant is pharmacologically studied for nootropic, aphrodisiac, immunomodulatory, hepatoprotective, antioxidant, antiinflammatory, antihyperglycemic, antidiarrheal, antimicrobial, antiviral, nematicidal, antiulcer, anticonvulsant, analgesic and central nervous depressant activities. A wide range of phytochemical constituents have been isolated from this plant. A comprehensive account of the morphology, phytochemical constituents and pharmacological activities reported are included in view of the many recent findings of importance on this plant. PMID:22228958

  11. Cassia fistula Linn: Potential candidate in the health management

    PubMed Central

    Rahmani, Arshad H.

    2015-01-01

    Cassia fistula Linn is known as Golden shower has therapeutics importance in health care since ancient times. Research findings over the last two decade have confirmed the therapeutics consequence of C. fistula in the health management via modulation of biological activities due to the rich source of antioxidant. Several findings based on the animal model have confirmed the pharmacologically safety and efficacy and have opened a new window for human health management. This review reveals additional information about C. fistula in the health management via in vivo and in vitro study which will be beneficial toward diseases control. PMID:26130932

  12. Analgesic and antipyretic activities of Momordica charantia Linn. fruits

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Roshan; Mahobia, Naveen; Upwar, Nitin; Waseem, Naheed; Talaviya, Hetal; Patel, Zalak

    2010-01-01

    Plant Momordica charantia Linn. belongs to family Cucurbitaceae. It is known as bitter gourd in English and karela in Hindi. Earlier claims show that the plant is used in stomachic ailments as a carminative tonic; as an antipyretic and antidiabetic agent; and in rheumatoid arthritis and gout. The fruit has been claimed to contain charantin, steroidal saponin, momordium, carbohydrates, mineral matters, ascorbic acid, alkaloids, glucosides, etc. The ethanolic extract of the fruit showed the presence of alkaloids, tannins, glycosides, steroids, proteins, and carbohydrates. The present study was carried out using acetic acid-induced writhing and tail-immersion tests in mice, while yeast-induced pyrexia in rats. The ethanolic extracts (250 and 500 mg/kg, po.) showed an analgesic and antipyretic effect, which was significantly higher than that in the control rats. The observed pharmacological activities provide the scientific basis to support traditional claims as well as explore some new and promising leads. PMID:22247882

  13. Inheritance of fruit-coat colours in Trichosanthes anguina Linn.

    PubMed

    Sardar, A K; Mukherjee, K K

    1987-05-01

    In Trichosanthes anguina Linn. (Cucurbitaceae), reciprocal crosses among three naturally occurring fruit-coat colour varieties (deep green, green and white) and two yellow fruit-coat colour mutants isolated in the M1 generation showed that a multiple allelic series control the fruit-coat colours. In the F2 generation the fruit-coat colours segregated in a monohybrid ratio with deep green dominant over green, yellow and white, green dominant over yellow and white, and yellow dominant over white. Two yellow fruit-coat colour mutants used in this study were isolated from X-ray- and EMS-treated populations of a white fruit-coat colour variety. PMID:24241474

  14. Vitiquinolone--a quinolone alkaloid from Hibiscus vitifolius Linn.

    PubMed

    Ramasamy, D; Saraswathy, A

    2014-02-15

    Phytochemical investigations of the powdered root of Hibiscus vitifolius Linn. (Malvaceae) was extracted successively with n-hexane and chloroform. Analysis of the n-hexane extract by GC-MS led to the identification of twenty-six components by comparison of their mass spectra with GC-MS library data. A novel quinolone alkaloid, vitiquinolone (5) together with eight known compounds viz. β-Amyrin acetate (1), n-octacosanol (2), β-Amyrin (3), stigmasterol (4), xanthyletin (6), alloxanthoxyletin (7), xanthoxyletin (8) and betulinic acid (9) were isolated from chloroform extract by column chromatography over silica gel. The structure of vitiquinolone was established on the basis of spectroscopic methods including UV, IR, 1D, 2D NMR and ESI-MS. The known compounds were identified on the basis of their physical and spectroscopic data as reported in the literature. PMID:24128571

  15. In Vitro Propagation of Sambong (Blumea balsamifera Linn.).

    PubMed

    Soriano, Thelma L; Cangao, Evangelina C

    2016-01-01

    Terminal shoot tips of sambong (Blumea balsamifera Linn.) are cultured to initiate and regenerate shoots on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium containing 1.0 mg/L benzyl adenine (BA). After 1 month, shoots, usually 4.5 cm long are separated and subcultured for multiplication. Regenerated shoots, about 6 cm long are rooted on MS medium supplemented with 1.0 mg/L naphthalene acetic acid (NAA). Exposure of shoots to high humidity for the first 2 weeks and equal proportion (1:1:1) of sterile sand, compost, and coir dust as potting mix favors the development of whole sambong plants. Young shoots from in vitro-derived sambong plants could also be used for propagation. PMID:27108320

  16. The science behind sacredness of Tulsi (Ocimum sanctum Linn.).

    PubMed

    Mondal, Shankar; Mirdha, Bijay R; Mahapatra, Sushil C

    2009-01-01

    Medicinal properties of Tulsi (Ocimum sanctum Linn) are known for thousand years to various civilizations of the world. This medicinal herb is considered as a sacred plant by the Hindus in the Indian subcontinent. Scientific explorations of traditional belief of medicinal properties of Tulsi have got momentum mostly after the middle of the 20th century. In the present review, efforts have been made to sum up different aspects of scientific studies on this medicinal plant. Scientific evidences are available on various medicinal aspects i.e. antimicrobial, adaptogenic, antidiabetic, hepato-protective, anti-inflammatory, anti-carcinogenic, radioprotective, immunomodulatory, neuro-protective, cardio-protective, mosquito repellent etc. to name a few. Most of these evidences are based on in-vitro, experimental and a few human studies. PMID:20509321

  17. Ixora coccinea Linn.: traditional uses, phytochemistry and pharmacology.

    PubMed

    Baliga, Manjeshwar Shrinath; Kurian, Poruthukaran John

    2012-01-01

    Ixora coccinea Linn., (Rubiaceae) commonly known as jungle of geranium and red ixora, is an evergreen shrub found throughout India. Depending on the medical condition, the flowers, leaves, roots, and the stem are used to treat various ailments in the Indian traditional system of medicine, the Ayurveda, and also in various folk medicines. The fruits, when fully ripe, are used as a dietary source. Phytochemical studies indicate that the plant contains important phytochemicals such as lupeol, ursolic acid, oleanolic acid, sitosterol, rutin, lecocyanadin, anthocyanins, proanthocyanidins, glycosides of kaempferol and quercetin. Pharmacological studies suggest that the plant possesses antioxidative, antibacterial, gastroprotective, hepatoprotective, antidiarrhoeal, antinociceptive, antimutagenic, antineoplastic and chemopreventive effects, thus lending scientific support to the plant's ethnomedicinal uses. In the present review, efforts are made in addressing its ethnomedicinal uses, chemical constituents, and validated pharmacological observations. PMID:22231708

  18. Microscopic characterization of Scoparia dulcis Linn.(Scrophulariaceae).

    PubMed

    Mishra, Manas Ranjan; Mishra, Ashutosh; Pradhan, Dusmanta Kumar; Behera, Rajani Kanta; Jha, Shivesh; Panda, Ashok Kumar; Choudhary, Punit Ram

    2012-07-01

    This manuscript covers a detailed pharmacognostic evaluation of Scoparia dulcis Linn. whole plant (Scrophulariaceae), including morphology, microscopy, physicochemical, and phytochemical screening. Microscopy of different plant part was done by performing transverse sections and longitudinal sections, which were identified by the different staining reagents and dyes. Physicochemical constants were done for whole plant; it includes ash value, extractive value and moisture content. Phytochemical screening was done for aqueous and methanolic extract in maceration and soxhletion, results revealed the presence of alkaloids, glycosides, carbohydrates, phenolic compound, flavonoids, saponins, proteins, and amino acids. These study includes parameters to establish the authenticity of S. dulcis and can possibly help to differentiate the drug from its other species. PMID:23929991

  19. Potent Insulin Secretagogue from Scoparia dulcis Linn of Nepalese Origin.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Khaga Raj; Adhikari, Achyut; Hafizur, Rahman M; Hameed, Abdul; Raza, Sayed Ali; Kalauni, Surya Kant; Miyazaki, Jun-Ichi; Choudhary, M Iqbal

    2015-10-01

    Ethno-botanical inspired isolation from plant Scoparia dulcis Linn. (Sweet Broomweed) yielded six compounds, coixol (1), glutinol (2), glutinone (3), friedelin (4), betulinic acid (5), and tetratriacontan-1-ol (6). There structures were identified using mass and 1D- and 2D-NMR spectroscopy techniques. Compounds 1-6 were evaluated for their insulin secretory activity on isolated mice islets and MIN-6 pancreatic β-cell line, and compounds 1 and 2 were found to be potent and mildly active, respectively. Compound 1 was further evaluated for insulin secretory activity on MIN-6 cells. Compound 1 was subjected to in vitro cytotoxicity assay against MIN-6, 3T3 cell lines, and islet cells, and in vivo acute toxicity test in mice that was found to be non-toxic. The insulin secretory activity of compounds 1 and 2 supported the ethno-botanic uses of S. dulcis as an anti-diabetic agent. PMID:26178652

  20. Larvicidal Activity of Cassia occidentalis (Linn.) against the Larvae of Bancroftian Filariasis Vector Mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Deepak; Chawla, Rakesh; Dhamodaram, P.; Balakrishnan, N.

    2014-01-01

    Background & Objectives. The plan of this work was to study the larvicidal activity of Cassia occidentalis (Linn.) against the larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus. These larvae are the most significant vectors. They transmit the parasites and pathogens which cause a deadly disease like filariasis, dengue, yellow fever, malaria, Japanese encephalitis, chikungunya, and so forth, which are considered harmful towards the population in tropic and subtropical regions. Methods. The preliminary laboratory trail was undertaken to determine the efficacy of petroleum ether and N-butanol extract of dried whole plant of Cassia occidentalis (Linn.) belonging to the family Caesalpiniaceae at various concentrations against the late third instar larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus by following the WHO guidelines. Results. The results suggest that 100% mortality effect of petroleum ether and N-butanol extract of Cassia occidentalis (Linn.) was observed at 200 and 300 ppm (parts per million). The results obviously showed use of plants in insect control as an alternative method for minimizing the noxious effect of some pesticide compounds on the environment. Thus the extract of Cassia occidentalis (Linn.) is claimed as more selective and biodegradable agent. Conclusion. This study justified that plant Cassia occidentalis (Linn.) has a realistic mortality result for larvae of filarial vector. This is safe to individual and communities against mosquitoes. It is a natural weapon for mosquito control. PMID:24688786

  1. Antihyperglycemic activity of Tectona grandis Linn. bark extract on alloxan induced diabetes in rats.

    PubMed

    Varma, S B; Jaybhaye, D L

    2010-07-01

    Tectona Grandis Linn.(saag - tick wood), an indigenous medicinal plant, has a folk reputation among the Indian herbs as a hypoglycemic agent. The present study was carried out to evaluate the anti-hyperglycemic effect of T. grandis Linn. bark extract in control and alloxan-diabetic rats. Oral administration of the bark suspension of T. grandis (2.5 and 5 g/kg body wt.) for 30 days resulted in a significant reduction in blood glucose (from 250 ± 6.5 to 50 ± 2.5 mg/dL). Thus, the present study clearly shows that the T. grandis Linn. bark extract exerts anti-hyperglycemic activity. PMID:21170208

  2. Assessment of Antiobesity Potential of Achyranthes aspera Linn. Seed

    PubMed Central

    Rani, Neerja; Sharma, Surendra Kumar; Vasudeva, Neeru

    2012-01-01

    The present study was designed to evaluate the quality control parameters, quantitative phytochemical analysis (total phenols, total flavonoids, and total saponin content), and the antiobesity effect of ethanol extract of Achyranthes aspera Linn. seed (EAA) by employing in vitro and in vivo models. In in vitro study, the inhibitory activity of EAA on pancreatic amylase and lipase was measured. The in vivo pancreatic lipase activity was evaluated by measurement of plasma triacylglycerol levels after oral administration of EAA along with lipid emulsion to Swiss albino mice. The EAA inhibited pancreatic amylase and lipase activity in vitro and elevations of plasma triacylglycerol level in mice. Furthermore, the antiobesity effect of EAA (900 mg/kg) was assessed in mice fed a high-fat diet with or without EAA for 6 weeks. EAA significantly suppressed the increase in body, retroperitoneal adipose tissue, liver weights, and serum parameters, namely; total cholesterol, total triglyceride, and LDL-cholesterol level. The anti obesity effects of EAA in high-fat-diet-treated mice may be partly mediated through delaying the intestinal absorption of dietary fat by inhibiting pancreatic amylase and lipase activity. Histopathological effects of EAA on the liver of mice were also assessed. PMID:22919417

  3. A review on therapeutic potential of Lygodium flexuosum Linn.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Esha; Mani, Munesh; Chandra, Phool; Sachan, Neetu; Ghosh, A K

    2012-07-01

    From the centuries, herbal medicines are used to treat various diseases and now they had become an item of global importance, with both medicinal and economic implications. The demand of herbal medicine is being increasing day by day due to their safety and efficacy. Now herbals had taken over the allopathic system due to their less side effect and efficient working mechanism. Herbals are playing and pivotal role in increasing the economy of the country and had taken the nation on to the new path to achieve the goal of development. Lygodium flexuosum (Linn) Sw. is a fern found nearly throughout India up to an elevation of 1500 meter. It belongs to the family Lygodiaceae and widely used in treating various ailments like jaundice, dysmenorrhea, wound healing and eczema. It is the rich source of alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins and cumarin. The main constitute of the plant is lygodinolide which is mainly used in wound healing. In the present review an attempt had been made to explore different aspects of L. flexuosum. PMID:23055636

  4. Pharmacological screening of Coriandrum sativum Linn. for hepatoprotective activity

    PubMed Central

    Pandey, A.; Bigoniya, P.; Raj, V.; Patel, K. K.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Coriandrum sativum (Linn.), a glabrous, aromatic, herbaceous annual plant, is well known for its use in jaundice. Essential oil, flavonoids, fatty acids, and sterols have been isolated from different parts of C. sativum. The plant has a very effective antioxidant profile showing 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, lipoxygenase inhibition, phospholipid peroxidation inhibition, iron chelating activity, hydroxyl radical scavenging activity, superoxide dismutation, glutathione reduction and antilipid peroxidation due to its high total phenolic content with the presence of constituents like pyrogallol, caffeic acid, glycitin, etc. Materials and Methods: This study was aimed at investigating the hepatoprotective activity of C. sativum against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4), with estimation of serum serum glutamyl oxaloacetic acid transaminase (SGOT), serum glutamyl pyruvate transaminase (SGPT), alkaine phosphatase (ALP) and bilirubin, and with liver histopathology. Results: Ethanolic extract was found to be rich in alkaloids, phenolic compounds and flavonoids, and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) fingerprinting showed the presence of iso-quercetin and quercetin. C. sativum signifies hepatoprotection by reducing the liver weight, activities of SGOT, SGPT, and ALP, and direct bilirubin of CCl4 intoxicated animals. Administration of C. sativum extract at 300 mg/kg dose resulted in disappearance of fatty deposit, ballooning degeneration and necrosis, indicating antihepatotoxic activity. Conclusion: The results of this study have led to the conclusion that ethanolic extract of C. sativum possesses hepatoprotective activity which may be due to the antioxidant potential of phenolic compounds. PMID:21966166

  5. Pharmacognostical and physicochemical analysis of Tamarindus indica Linn. stem

    PubMed Central

    Kodlady, Naveena; Patgiri, B. J.; Harisha, C. R.; Shukla, V. J.

    2012-01-01

    Tamarindus indica Linn. fruits (Chincha) are extensively used in culinary preparations in Indian civilization. Its vast medicinal uses are documented in Ayurvedic classics and it can be used singly or as a component of various formulations. Besides fruit, the Kasta (wood) of T. indica L. is also important and used to prepare Kshara (alkaline extract) an Ayurvedic dosage form. Pharmacognostical and physicochemical details of Chincha Kasta are not available in authentic literature including API (Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India). The study is an attempt in this direction. T. indica L. stem with heartwood was selected and morphological, microscopic and physicochemical standardization characters along with TLC finger print, and fluorescence analysis were documented. Transverse section of stem showed important characters such as phelloderm, stone cells layer, fiber groups, calcium oxalate, crystal fibers, and tylosis in heartwood region. Four characteristic spots were observed under UV long wave, in thin layer chromatography with the solvent combination of toluene: ethyl acetate (8:2). The study can help correct identification and standardization of this plant material. PMID:22529673

  6. A review on therapeutic potential of Lygodium flexuosum Linn

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, Esha; Mani, Munesh; Chandra, Phool; Sachan, Neetu; Ghosh, A. K.

    2012-01-01

    From the centuries, herbal medicines are used to treat various diseases and now they had become an item of global importance, with both medicinal and economic implications. The demand of herbal medicine is being increasing day by day due to their safety and efficacy. Now herbals had taken over the allopathic system due to their less side effect and efficient working mechanism. Herbals are playing and pivotal role in increasing the economy of the country and had taken the nation on to the new path to achieve the goal of development. Lygodium flexuosum (Linn) Sw. is a fern found nearly throughout India up to an elevation of 1500 meter. It belongs to the family Lygodiaceae and widely used in treating various ailments like jaundice, dysmenorrhea, wound healing and eczema. It is the rich source of alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins and cumarin. The main constitute of the plant is lygodinolide which is mainly used in wound healing. In the present review an attempt had been made to explore different aspects of L. flexuosum. PMID:23055636

  7. Diuretic activity of different extracts of Biophytum sensitivum (Linn.) DC

    PubMed Central

    Chandavarkar, Sachin K.; Mamle Desai, S.N.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Drugs that induce diuresis are known as diuretics. Diuretic drugs act either by increasing the glomerular filtration rate (or) by decreasing the rate of reabsorption of fluid from the tubules. In recent years, interest in herbal agents as therapeutic treatment option has increased due to their limited side effects. Aim: To evaluate the diuretic activity of various extracts of whole plant of Biophytum sensitivum (Linn.) DC. in Wistar strain albino rats. Materials and Methods: Randomly selected animals were divided into five groups (n = 6 in each). First group served as a control group. Group 2 served as standard control in which furosemide was administered at a dose of 10 mg/kg. Groups 3–5 as test drug groups, in which chloroform, methanol, and aqueous extracts of B. sensitivum were administered orally at a dose of 200 mg/kg. The diuretic activity was evaluated by determination of urine volume and urinary electrolyte concentrations of sodium, potassium, and chloride ions. Results: Methanol and aqueous extracts significantly increased the urinary output and excretion of electrolyte concentrations of sodium and potassium comparatively better than the standard control, and chloroform extract showed insignificant effect. Conclusion: The study concluded that B. sensitivum possess moderate to significant diuretic activity. PMID:27313427

  8. Pharmacognostical and physicochemical analysis of Tamarindus indica Linn. stem.

    PubMed

    Kodlady, Naveena; Patgiri, B J; Harisha, C R; Shukla, V J

    2012-01-01

    Tamarindus indica Linn. fruits (Chincha) are extensively used in culinary preparations in Indian civilization. Its vast medicinal uses are documented in Ayurvedic classics and it can be used singly or as a component of various formulations. Besides fruit, the Kasta (wood) of T. indica L. is also important and used to prepare Kshara (alkaline extract) an Ayurvedic dosage form. Pharmacognostical and physicochemical details of Chincha Kasta are not available in authentic literature including API (Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India). The study is an attempt in this direction. T. indica L. stem with heartwood was selected and morphological, microscopic and physicochemical standardization characters along with TLC finger print, and fluorescence analysis were documented. Transverse section of stem showed important characters such as phelloderm, stone cells layer, fiber groups, calcium oxalate, crystal fibers, and tylosis in heartwood region. Four characteristic spots were observed under UV long wave, in thin layer chromatography with the solvent combination of toluene: ethyl acetate (8:2). The study can help correct identification and standardization of this plant material. PMID:22529673

  9. Antibacterial activities and phytochemical analysis of Cassia fistula (Linn.) leaf

    PubMed Central

    Panda, Sujogya K.; Padhi, L. P.; Mohanty, G.

    2011-01-01

    Cassia fistula Linn. which belongs to family Leguminosae is a medium-sized tree and its different parts are used in ayurvedic medicine as well as home remedies for common ailments. Sequential extraction was carried out using solvents viz. petroleum ether, chloroform, ethanol, methanol and water from leaf of the plant were investigated for preliminary phytochemical and antibacterial property. Results of the study showed that all the extracts had good inhibitory activity against Gram-positive test organism. Although all five extracts showed promising antibacterial activity against test bacterial species, yet maximum activity was observed in ethanol extract. The minimum inhibitory concentration ranged in between 94 to 1 500 μg/ml. Evaluation of phytochemicals such as alkaloids, flavonoids, carbohydrates, glycosides, protein and amino acids, saponins, and triterpenoids revealed the presence of most of constituents in polar extracts (ethanol, methanol, and aqueous) compared with nonpolar extracts (petroleum ether and chloroform). Furthermore, the ethanol extract was subjected to TLC bioautography and time-kill study against Staphylococcus epidermidis. All the findings exhibit that the leaf extracts have broad-spectrum activity and suggest its possible use in treatment of infectious diseases. PMID:22171295

  10. Wound healing activity of Sida cordifolia Linn. in rats

    PubMed Central

    Pawar, Rajesh S.; Chaurasiya, Pradeep K.; Rajak, Harish; Singour, Pradeep K.; Toppo, Fedelic Ashish; Jain, Ankit

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The present study provides a scientific evaluation for the wound healing potential of ethanolic (EtOH) extract of Sida cordifolia Linn. (SCL) plant. Materials and Methods: Excision, incision and burn wounds were inflicted upon three groups of six rats each. Group I was assigned as control (ointment base). Group II was treated with 10% EtOH extract ointment. Group III was treated with standard silver sulfadiazine (0.01%) cream. The parameters observed were percentage of wound contraction, epithelialization period, hydroxyproline content, tensile strength including histopathological studies. Result: It was noted that the effect produced by the ethanolic extract of SCL ointment showed significant (P < 0.01) healing in all wound models when compared with the control group. All parameters such as wound contraction, epithelialization period, hydroxyproline content, tensile strength and histopathological studies showed significant (P < 0.01) changes when compared with the control. Conclusion: The ethanolic extract ointment of SCL effectively stimulates wound contraction; increases tensile strength of excision, incision and burn wounds. PMID:24130382

  11. Antidiarrheal activity of flowers of Ixora Coccinea Linn. in rats

    PubMed Central

    Maniyar, Yasmeen; Bhixavatimath, Prabhu; Agashikar, N. V.

    2010-01-01

    Ixora coccinea Linn (Rubiaceae), a small shrub cultivated throughout India, has been reported to possess a number of medicinal properties. It has traditionally been used for the treatment of diarrhea and dysentery. However the claims of Ayurveda have to be validated by suitable experimental models. The present study was therefore undertaken to evaluate the effect of aqueous extract of I. coccinea for its antidiarrheal potential against several experimental models of diarrhea in albino Wistar rats. Here, we report the effects of aqueous extracts of flowers of I. coccinea in the castor oil induced diarrhea model. The gastrointestinal transit rate was expressed as the percentage of the longest distance traversed by charcoal divided by the total length of the small intestine. Weight and volume of intestinal content induced by castor oil were studied by the enteropooling method. Loperamide was used as a positive control. The plant-extract showed significant (P<0.001) inhibitor activity against castor oil induced diarrhea and castor oil induced enteropooling in rats at the dose of 400 mg/kg. There was also significant reduction in gastrointestinal motility in the charcoal meal test. Results obtained in this study substantiate the antidiarrheal effect of the aqueous extract and its use by traditional practitioners in the treatment of diarrhea. PMID:21731376

  12. Antidiarrheal activity of flowers of Ixora Coccinea Linn. in rats.

    PubMed

    Maniyar, Yasmeen; Bhixavatimath, Prabhu; Agashikar, N V

    2010-10-01

    Ixora coccinea Linn (Rubiaceae), a small shrub cultivated throughout India, has been reported to possess a number of medicinal properties. It has traditionally been used for the treatment of diarrhea and dysentery. However the claims of Ayurveda have to be validated by suitable experimental models. The present study was therefore undertaken to evaluate the effect of aqueous extract of I. coccinea for its antidiarrheal potential against several experimental models of diarrhea in albino Wistar rats. Here, we report the effects of aqueous extracts of flowers of I. coccinea in the castor oil induced diarrhea model. The gastrointestinal transit rate was expressed as the percentage of the longest distance traversed by charcoal divided by the total length of the small intestine. Weight and volume of intestinal content induced by castor oil were studied by the enteropooling method. Loperamide was used as a positive control. The plant-extract showed significant (P<0.001) inhibitor activity against castor oil induced diarrhea and castor oil induced enteropooling in rats at the dose of 400 mg/kg. There was also significant reduction in gastrointestinal motility in the charcoal meal test. Results obtained in this study substantiate the antidiarrheal effect of the aqueous extract and its use by traditional practitioners in the treatment of diarrhea. PMID:21731376

  13. Review on Sphaeranthus indicus Linn. (Koṭṭaikkarantai)

    PubMed Central

    Ramachandran, Shakila

    2013-01-01

    Sphaeranthus indicus Linn. is from the aroma family Asteraceae. It is also known with other synonyms such as Munditika, Mundi, Shravana, Bhikshu, Tapodhana, Mahashravani, Shravanahva, Shravanashirshaka. It is abundantly distributed in damp areas in plains and also as a weed in the rice fields. In the Indian system of medicine, the plant as a whole plant or its different anatomical parts viz., leaf, stem, bark, root, flower and seed are widely used for curing many diseases. The plant is bitter, stomachic, restorative, alterative, pectoral, demulcent and externally soothing. The whole plant and its anatomical parts have been reported with different types of secondary metabolites which include eudesmanolides, sesquiterpenoids, sesquiterpene lactones, sesquiterpene acids, flavone glycosides, flavonoid C-glycosides, isoflavone glycoside, sterols, sterol glycoside, alkaloid, peptide alkaloids, amino acids and sugars. The essential oils obtained from the flowers and whole plants were analyzed by different authors and reported the presence of many monoterpene hydrocarbons, oxygenated monoterpenes, sesquiterpene hydrocarbons and oxygenated sesquiterpenes. The whole plants, its isolated secondary metabolites and different anatomical parts have been reported for ovicidal, antifeedant, anthelmintic, antimicrobial, antiviral, macrofilaricidal, larvicidal, analgesic, antipyretic, hepatoprotective, antitussive, wound healing, bronchodilatory, mast cell stabilizing activity, anxiolytic, neuroleptic, immunomodulatory, anti-diabetic, antihyperlipidemic and antioxidant, antioxidant, central nervous system depressant, anti-arthritic, nephroprotective, anticonvulsant activities and many other activities. It is also effective on psoriasis. In the present paper, the plant is reviewed for its phytochemical and pharmacological reports in detail. PMID:24347924

  14. Insects associated with Jatropha curcas Linn. (Euphorbiaceae) in west Niger.

    PubMed

    Habou, Zakari Abdoul; Adam, Toudou; Haubruge, Eric; Mergeai, Guy; Verheggen, François J

    2014-01-01

    Jatropha curcas has been introduced into Niger since 2004 by International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT). This plant is cultivated for its oil, which can be used as a Biofuel. Through direct and indirect insect collection methods, an inventory of the insect associated with J. curcas has been conducted in Western Niger during two rainy seasons (from June to October) in 2010 and 2011. We have identified insects belonging to the following families: Acrididae (Oedaleus senegalensis Krauss, Oedaleus nigeriensis Uvarov, Heteracris leani Uvarov, Catantops stramineus Walker, Parga cyanoptera Uvarov, and Acanthacris ruficornis citrina Audinet-Serville), Pyrgomorphidae (Poekilocerus bufonius hieroglyphicus Klug), Cetoniidae (Pachnoda interrupta Olivier, Pachnoda marginata aurantia Herbst, Pachnoda sinuata Heinrich and McClain, and Rhabdotis sobrina Gory and Percheron), Meloidae (Decapotoma lunata Pallas), Pentatomidae (Agonoscelis versicoloratus Dallas, Nezara viridula Linn, and Antestia sp. Kirkaldy), Coreidae (Leptoglossus membranaceus Fabricius and Cletus trigonus Thunberg), and Scutelleridae (Calidea panaethiopica Kirkaldy). Origin and potential impact on J. curcas of all these insect species are presented and discussed. The lower insect's diversity indexes are observed in 2010 and 2011 for Niamey, Saga, and Gaya because of semi-arid character of the Sahelian area. PMID:25528746

  15. Records of larentiine moths (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) collected at the Station Linné in Sweden

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background The island of Öland, at the southeast of Sweden, has unique geological and environmental features. The Station Linné is a well-known Öland research station which provides facilities for effective studies and attracts researchers from all over the world. Moreover, the station remains a center for ecotourism due to extraordinary biodiversity of the area. The present paper is aimed to support popular science activities carried out on the island and to shed light on diverse geometrid moth fauna of the Station Linné. New information As an outcome of several research projects, including the Swedish Malaise Trap Project (SMTP) and the Swedish Taxonomy Initiative (STI) conducted at the Station Linné, a list of larentiine moths (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) collected on the territory of the station is presented. Images of moths from above and underside are shown. Of the totally 192 species registered for Sweden, 41 species (more than 21%) were collected in close proximity to the main building of the Station Linné. Malaise trap sampling of Lepidoptera is discussed. PMID:26929714

  16. Errata to the Werts-Linn Comments on Boyle's "Path Analysis and Ordinal Data."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Werts, Charles E.; Linn, Robert L.

    The Werts-Linn procedure for dealing with categorical errors of measurement in "Comments on Boyle's 'Path Analysis and Ordinal Data'" in The American Journal of Sociology, volume 76, number 6, May 1971, is shown to be inappropriate to the problem of ordered categories. (For related document, see TM 002 301.) (DB)

  17. Mosquito larvicidal activity of oleic and linoleic acids isolated from Citrullus colocynthis (Linn.) Schrad.

    PubMed

    Rahuman, A Abdul; Venkatesan, P; Gopalakrishnan, Geetha

    2008-11-01

    In mosquito control programs, botanical origin may have the potential to be used successfully as larvicides. The larvicidal activity of crude acetone, hexane, ethyl acetate, methanol, and petroleum ether extracts of the leaf of Centella asiatica Linn., Datura metal Linn., Mukia scabrella Arn., Toddalia asiatica (Linn.) Lam, extracts of whole plant of Citrullus colocynthis (Linn.) Schrad, and Sphaeranthus indicus Linn. were assayed for their toxicity against the early fourth instar larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae). The larval mortality was observed after 24 h exposure. All extracts showed moderate larvicidal effects; however, the highest larval mortality was found in whole plant petroleum ether extract of C. colocynthis. In the present study, bioassay-guided fractionation of petroleum ether extract led to the separation and identification of fatty acids; oleic acid and linoleic acid were isolated and identified as mosquito larvicidal compounds. Oleic and Linoleic acids were quite potent against fourth instar larvae of Aedes aegypti L. (LC50 8.80, 18.20 and LC90 35.39, 96.33 ppm), Anopheles stephensi Liston (LC50 9.79, 11.49 and LC90 37.42, 47.35 ppm), and Culex quinquefasciatus Say (LC50 7.66, 27.24 and LC90 30.71, 70.38 ppm). The structure was elucidated from infrared, ultraviolet, 1H-nuclear magnetic resonance, 13C-NMR, and mass spectral data. This is the first report on the mosquito larvicidal activity of the reported isolated compounds from C. colocynthis. PMID:18688644

  18. Ulcer Protective Activity of Jatropha gossypiifolia Linn. in Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Vijayakumar, Arumugam Ramamoorthy; Daniel, Epison Prabu; Ilavarasan, Raju; Venkataraman, S.; Vijayakumar, S.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Several synthetic drugs are useful in the treatment of peptic ulcer, but almost of these drugs are used in prolonging time, it may cause several adverse reactions. However, the herbal medicines are more potent to the treatment and minimize the side effects. Objective: To evaluate the methanol extract of Jatropha gossypiifolia Linn. (MEJG) for gastro protective activity against Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: Anti-ulcer potency of MEJG (100 and 200 mg/kg, b.w.) was assessed using aspirin (200 mg/kg, p.o.) plus pylorus ligation ulcer model and the parameters studied were ulcer index (UI), gastric juice volume, pH, total acidity, and total acid output. Same extract was studied by ethanol-induced (80%, 5 mL/kg, intragastrically) ulcer model, and the UI and biochemical parameters were studied. Results: The oral administration of MEJG (100 and 200 mg/kg) significantly (P < 0.001) attenuated the ulcer score and anti-secretary parameters (such as the volume of gastric content, free acidity, total acidity, and total acid output) in the aspirin plus pylorus ligation rats. The extract also significantly attenuated (P < 0.001) ulcer score in ethanol-induced ulcer model and lipid peroxidation level and significantly increased the level of glutathione peroxides, catalase, and superoxide dismutase activity. The MEJG may possess active constituents such as alkaloids, glycosides, flavonoids, and terpenes, which may play a major role in gastroprotective effect in Wistar rats. Conclusion: The present study provides scientific support for the anti-ulcer activities of extracts of JG and also claimed that antioxidant potential of the extracts. However, substantiates the traditional claims for the usage of this drug in the treatment of gastric ulcer. SUMMARY The methanolic extract of jatropha gossypiifolia Linn. for gastro protective activity against aspirin plus pyloric ligation and ethanol induced ulcer models was studied in Wistar rats. JG shows significantly

  19. Manilkara zapota (Linn.) Seeds: A Potential Source of Natural Gum.

    PubMed

    Singh, Sudarshan; Bothara, Sunil B

    2014-01-01

    Mucilage isolated from seeds of Manilkara zapota (Linn.) P. Royen syn. is a plant growing naturally in the forests of India. This mucilage is yet to be commercially exploited, and characterized as polymer. Various physicochemical methods like particle size analysis, scanning electron microscopy, thermal analysis, gel permeation chromatography, X-ray diffraction spectrometry, zeta potential, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy have been employed to characterize this gum in the present study. Particle size analyses suggest that mucilage has particle size in nanometer. Scanning electron microscopy analysis suggests that the mucilage has irregular particle size. The glass transition temperature of the gum was observed to be 138°C and 136°C by differential scanning calorimetry and differential thermal analysis, respectively. The thermogravimetric analysis suggested that mucilage had good thermal stability. The average molecular weight of mucilage was determined to be 379180, by gel permeation chromatography, while the viscosity of mucilage was observed to be 219.1 cP. The X-ray diffraction spectrometry pattern of the mucilage indicates a completely amorphous structure. Elemental analysis of the gum revealed the contents of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and sulfur to be 80.9 (%), 10.1 (%), 1.58 (%), and 512 (mg/kg), respectively. Mucilage had specific content of calcium, magnesium, potassium, lower concentrations of aluminum, cadmium, cobalt, lead, and nickel. The major functional groups identified from FT-IR spectrum include 3441 cm(-1) (-OH), 1660 cm(-1) (Alkenyl C-H & C=C Stretch), 1632 cm(-1) (-COO-), 1414 cm(-1) (-COO-), and 1219 cm(-1) (-CH3CO). Analysis of mucilage by paper chromatography and 1D NMR, indicated the presence of rhamnose, xylose, arabinose, mannose, and fructose. PMID:24729907

  20. Antibacterial activity of Lawsonia inermis Linn (Henna) against Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Habbal, O; Hasson, SS; El-Hag, AH; Al-Mahrooqi, Z; Al-Hashmi, N; Al-Bimani, Z; Al-Balushi, MS; Al-Jabri, AA

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the antibacterial activity of henna (Lawsonia inermis Linn) obtained from different regions of Oman against a wide array of micro-organisms. Methods Fresh henna samples were obtained from different regions of Oman as leaves and seeds. 100 g fresh and dry leaves and 50 g of fresh and dry seeds were separately soaked in 500 mL of ethanol for three days, respectively, with frequent agitation. The mixture was filtered, and the crude extract was collected. The crude extract was then heated, at 48 °C in a water bath to evaporate its liquid content. The dry crude henna extract was then tested for its antibacterial activity using well-diffusion antibiotic susceptibility technique. Henna extracts were investigated for their antibacterial activity at different concentrations against a wide array of different micro-organisms including a laboratory standard bacterial strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (NCTC 10662) (P. aeruginosa) and eleven fresh clinical isolates of P. aeruginosa obtained from patients attending the Sultan Qaboos University Hospital (SQUH). 2-Hydroxy-p-Nathoqinone-Tech (2-HPNT, MW=174.16, C10H6O3) was included as control (at 50% concentration) along with the henna samples tested. Results Henna samples demonstrated antibacterial activity against all isolates but the highest susceptibility was against P. aeruginosa with henna samples obtained from Al-sharqyia region. Conclusions Omani henna from Al-sharqyia region demonstrates high in vitro anti-P. aeruginosa activity compared with many henna samples from different regions of Oman. PMID:23569753

  1. Comparative micromorphological study of wild and micropropagated Dioscorea bulbifera Linn.

    PubMed Central

    Sonibare, Mubo A.; Adeniran, Adedapo A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To study the leaf epidermis of wild and micropropagated Dioscorea bulbifera Linn. (D. bulbifera) in order to document useful diagnostic features that may be employed for correct crude drug identification and to clear any taxonomic uncertainties in the micropropagated medicinal plant. Methods Growth responses of micropropagated D. bulbifera were observed on Murashige Skoog medium supplemented with 6-benzylamino purine (1.0 mg/L)+α-naphthaleneacetic acid (0.2 mg/L)+cysteine (20 mg/L) using nodal segments as explants. Leaves of the wild and micropropagated plants were studied microscopically. Results More than 80% shoot regeneration and formation of 10%-30% whitish-brown callus were observed within 3 weeks. The highest root proliferation was obtained from Murashige Skoog medium of 6-benzylamino purine (0.05 mg/L) and α-naphthaleneacetic acid (0.01 mg/L) with mean root length of (27.00±1.25) mm and elongated single shoot of mean length (38.00±11.09) mm. Leaf epidermal features that revealed similarities between the wild and micropropagated plants included amphistomatic condition, presence of mucilage, glandular unicellular trichome with multicellular head, polygonal cells with smooth walls, stomata type and shape. Slight variations included thick cuticular wall with closed stomata in wild plant compared to thin walled opened stomata in the in vitro plant. Opening of stomata accounted for larger average stomata sizes of (7.68±0.38) µm and (6.14±0.46) µm on the adaxial and abaxial surfaces, respectively of the micropropagated plant compared to the wild. Conclusions The diagnostic features obtained in the study could serve as a basis for proper identification for quality control for standardization of the medicinal plant. PMID:25182434

  2. Manilkara zapota (Linn.) Seeds: A Potential Source of Natural Gum

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Sudarshan; Bothara, Sunil B.

    2014-01-01

    Mucilage isolated from seeds of Manilkara zapota (Linn.) P. Royen syn. is a plant growing naturally in the forests of India. This mucilage is yet to be commercially exploited, and characterized as polymer. Various physicochemical methods like particle size analysis, scanning electron microscopy, thermal analysis, gel permeation chromatography, X-ray diffraction spectrometry, zeta potential, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy have been employed to characterize this gum in the present study. Particle size analyses suggest that mucilage has particle size in nanometer. Scanning electron microscopy analysis suggests that the mucilage has irregular particle size. The glass transition temperature of the gum was observed to be 138°C and 136°C by differential scanning calorimetry and differential thermal analysis, respectively. The thermogravimetric analysis suggested that mucilage had good thermal stability. The average molecular weight of mucilage was determined to be 379180, by gel permeation chromatography, while the viscosity of mucilage was observed to be 219.1 cP. The X-ray diffraction spectrometry pattern of the mucilage indicates a completely amorphous structure. Elemental analysis of the gum revealed the contents of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and sulfur to be 80.9 (%), 10.1 (%), 1.58 (%), and 512 (mg/kg), respectively. Mucilage had specific content of calcium, magnesium, potassium, lower concentrations of aluminum, cadmium, cobalt, lead, and nickel. The major functional groups identified from FT-IR spectrum include 3441 cm−1 (–OH), 1660 cm−1 (Alkenyl C–H & C=C Stretch), 1632 cm−1 (–COO–), 1414 cm−1 (–COO–), and 1219 cm−1 (–CH3CO). Analysis of mucilage by paper chromatography and 1D NMR, indicated the presence of rhamnose, xylose, arabinose, mannose, and fructose. PMID:24729907

  3. Metabolite footprinting of Plasmodium falciparum following exposure to Garcinia mangostana Linn. crude extract.

    PubMed

    Chaijaroenkul, Wanna; Mubaraki, Murad A; Ward, Stephen A; Na-Bangchang, Kesara

    2014-10-01

    Multidrug resistant Plasmodium falciparum is the major health problem in the tropics. Discovery and development of new antimalarial drugs with novel modes of action is urgently required. The aim of the present study was to investigate antimalarial activities of Garcinia mangostana Linn. crude ethanolic extract including its bioactive compounds as well as the metabolic footprinting of P. falciparum following exposure to G. mangostana Linn. extract. The median (range) IC50 (concentration that inhibits parasite growth by 50%) values of ethanolic extract of G. mangostana Linn., α-mangostin, β-mangostin, gartanin, 9-hydroxycarbaxathone, artesunate, and mefloquine for 3D7 vs K1 P. falciparum clones were 12.6 (10.5-13.2) vs 4.5 (3.5-6.3) μg/ml, 7.3 (7.1-8.5) vs 5.0 (3.7-5.9) μg/ml, 47.3 (46.8-54.0) vs 35.0 (30.0-43.7) μg/ml, 9.2 (8.1-11.9) vs 6.8 (6.2-9.1) μg/ml, 0.6 (0.4-0.8) vs 0.5 (0.4-0.7) μg/ml, 0.4 (0.2-1.2) vs 0.7 (0.4-1.0)ng/ml, and 5.0 (4.2-5.0) vs 2.7 (2.5-4.6) ng/ml, respectively. The action of G. mangostana Linn. started at 12 h of exposure, suggesting that the stage of its action is trophozoite. The 12-h exposure time was used as a suitable exposure time for further analysis of P. falciparum footprinting. G. mangostana Linn. extract was found to target several metabolic pathways particularly glucose and TCA metabolisms. The malate was not detected in culture medium of the exposed parasite, which may indirectly imply that the action of G. mangostana Linn. is through interruption of TCA metabolism. PMID:25102435

  4. Pharmacognostical evaluation of Cardiospermum halicacabum Linn. leaf and stem

    PubMed Central

    Zalke, Ashish S.; Duraiswamy, B.; Gandagule, Upendra B.; Singh, Nidhi

    2013-01-01

    Background: Cardiospermum halicacabum Linn (Sapindaceae) is an important medicinal plant in the traditional system of medicine, known as karṇasphoṭa. The root of it is officially included in Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia for its therapeutic uses such as jvara, kuṣṭha, pāṇḍu, kṣaya and sandhivāta etc. As no detailed analysis of macroscopy, microscopy characters of the plant, except root, have been carried out till date, it was thought worth to carry out the detailed macroscopic and microscopic study of leaves and stem, following standard pharmacognostical procedures. Materials and Methods: Pharmacognostic studies of C. halicacabum were carried out, and in this, the macroscopic, microscopic, physicochemical, fluorescence and phytochemical analyses were done. Physicochemical parameters such as total ash, moisture content, extractive values were determined by World Health Organization guidelines. The microscopic features of leaf and stem components were observed. Results: Macroscopically the leaves are bi-ternate, ovate-lanceolate in shape with dentate margin. Microscopically, leaf shows prominent midrib and thin dorsiventral lamina. The midrib shows the presence of epidermal layers, angular collenchyma, palisade cells and vascular strands comprised of thin walled xylem and thick walled phloem elements. The lamina shows prominent, narrow and cylindrical upper epidermis. The upper epidermal cells are large and contain mucilage, whereas lower epidermis possesses thin, small and elliptical epidermal cells. The mesophyll was differentiated into two zones upper and lower. The upper zones show narrow cylindrical palisade cells and lower zone shows 2-3 layers of loosely arranged spongy parenchyma cells. In the Paradermal section of the lamina we observe anomocytic stomata. The transverse section of stem shows a pentagonal appearance with five short blunt ridges and prominent cuticle. Parenchymatous cells, cortical sclerenchyma, lignified xylem fibers, phloem and pit

  5. Protective Effects of Capparis zeylanica Linn. Leaf Extract on Gastric Lesions in Experimental Animals.

    PubMed

    Sini, Karanayil R; Sinha, Barij N; Rajasekaran, Aiyolu

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the study was to study the anti-ulcer activity of the methanolic extract of the leaves of Capparis zeylanica Linn on experimental animal models. The methanol extract of Capparis zeylanica Linn. leaves was investigated for anti-ulcer activity against aspirin plus pylorus ligation induced gastric ulcer in rats. HCl-Ethanol induced ulcer in mice and indomethacin induced ulcer in rats at 200 mg/kg body weight p.o. A significant (p<0.01, p<0.001) anti-ulcer activity was observed in all the models. Pylorus ligation showed significant (p<0.01) reduction in gastric volume, free acidity and ulcer index as compared to control. It also showed 88.5% ulcer inhibition in HCl-ethanol induced ulcer and 83.78% inhibition in indomethacin induced ulcer. PMID:23407576

  6. Anti-microbial screening of endophytic fungi from Hypericum perforatum Linn.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huawei; Ying, Chen; Tang, Yifei

    2014-09-01

    Anti-microbial properties of 21 endophytic fungal strains from Hypericum perforatum Linn. were evaluated against three human pathogens, Staphyloccocus aureus, Escherichia coli and Rhodotorula glutinis, and two phytopathogens, Rhizoctonia cerealis and Pyricularia grisea. The results indicated that the ethyl acetate extracts of endophytic fermentation broth had stronger anti-microbial activities than their fermentation broth. And the inhibitory effect of the endophytic extracts on human pathogens was better than those on phytopathogens. Among these endophytic fungi, strains GYLQ-10, GYLQ-24 and GYLQ-22 respectively showed the strongest activities against S. aureu, E. coli, R. glutinis. GYLQ-14 and GYLQ-22 exhibited the most pronounced effect on P. Grisea while both GYLQ-06 and GYLQ-08 had the strongest anti-microbial activities against R. cerealis. Till now, this study is the first report on the isolation of endophytic fungi from H. perforatum Linn. and their anti-microbial evaluation. PMID:25176358

  7. Oreganum vulgare Linn. leaf: An Extensive Pharmacognostical and Phytochemical Quality Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Bharti, Veni; Vasudeva, Neeru

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Standardization and detailed pharmacognostical studies of Oreganum vulgare Linn. leaf for authentication and commercial utilization. Methods: Oreganum vulgare Linn. leaf was with standardization according to standard procedures described in WHO, 2011 and I.P. 1996. Results: The physicochemical parameters total ash, acid insoluble ash, water soluble ash and sulphated ash were found to be 11.5%, 11%, 5, 10.5% w/w respectively. Foaming index was found be <100. The trace elements were found to be copper, lead, cadmium, zinc, cobalt, manganese, nickel and copper in ethanol extract and phytochemical screening of aqueous and ethanol extract showed the presence of carbohydrates, flavonoids, anthocyanins, phenolic compounds etc. Conclusion: The standardization parameters viz. physico-chemical parameters, macroscopy, microscopy, taxonomy, anatomy and preliminary phytochemical screening, microbial and aflatoxin count, HPTLC profile is being reported to help in authentication and development of monograph of this plant. PMID:24312848

  8. The inhibitory activity of aldose reductase in vitro by constituents of Garcinia mangostana Linn.

    PubMed

    Fatmawati, Sri; Ersam, Taslim; Shimizu, Kuniyoshi

    2015-01-15

    We investigated aldose reductase inhibition of Garcinia mangostana Linn. from Indonesia. Dichloromethane extract of the root bark of this tree was found to demonstrate an IC50 value of 11.98 µg/ml for human aldose reductase in vitro. From the dichloromethane fraction, prenylated xanthones were isolated as potent human aldose reductase inhibitors. We discovered 3-isomangostin to be most potent against aldose reductase, with an IC50 of 3.48 µM. PMID:25636870

  9. Ocimum sanctum Linn--a study on gastric ulceration and gastric secretion in rats.

    PubMed

    Mandal, S; Das, D N; De, K; Ray, K; Roy, G; Chaudhuri, S B; Sahana, C C; Chowdhuri, M K

    1993-01-01

    The antiulcerogenic property of Ocimum sanctum Linn (Tulsi) was studied in pyloric ligated and pyloric ligated & aspirin treated rats. The extract of OSL reduced the ulcer index, free & total acidity on acute and chronic administration. Seven days pretreatment with the drug increased the mucous secretion also. It may be concluded that OSL extract has antiulcerogenic property against experimental ulcers, and it is due to its ability to reduce acid secretion and increase mucous secretion. PMID:8449557

  10. Glycogen contents in the rat uterus: response to Hibiscus rosa-sinensis Linn. extracts.

    PubMed

    Prakash, A O

    1979-08-15

    Ethanolic extracts (50%), as well the benzene extracts, of H. rosa-sinensis Linn. have reduced significantly the glycogen contents in the uterus of adult rat. Both the extracts exhibit a clear-cut dose-response relation. The inhibition in glycogen contents increases as the dose is increased. Of the 2, benzene extract seems to be more potent. The results are due to antiestrogenic nature of the extracts. PMID:477902

  11. Protective effect of leaves of Raphinus sativus Linn on experimentally induced gastric ulcers in rats.

    PubMed

    Devaraj, V C; Gopala Krishna, B; Viswanatha, G L; Satya Prasad, V; Vinay Babu, S N

    2011-07-01

    Raphinus sativus Linn (Cruciferae) commonly known as 'Radish' is a multipurpose herb cultivated in different parts of the world for its edible roots and leaves. The present study was aimed to evaluate the antiulcer activity of leaf extracts of R. sativus Linn on acetic acid induced chronic gastric ulcer and pylorus ligation induced gastric ulcer in rats. The acute oral toxicity study revealed that all the extracts were safe up to 2000 mg/kg per oral dose; hence one-tenth of this dose was selected for evaluation of antiulcer activity. In acetic acid induced gastric ulcer models, the ERS, CRS, EARS and AQRS have offered significant protection against acetic acid induced ulcers when compared to control group. While in pylorus ligation induced ulcer model the ERS, EARS and AQRS showed significant protection by decreasing the ulcer index, total acidity and free acidity. In conclusion the leaf extracts of R. sativus Linn are found to possess antiulcer property in the experimental animal models of gastric ulcers, which is consistent with the literature report in the folk medicine. PMID:23960756

  12. Of all foods bread is the most noble: Carl von Linné (Carl Linneaus) on bread1

    PubMed Central

    Räsänen, Leena

    2007-01-01

    Carl von Linné was interested in dietetics, which in his time covered all aspects of a healthy life. As a utilitarian he understood the importance of private economy and paid attention to bread in many of his publications. Two texts, Ceres noverca arctoum and De pane diaetetico, were wholly devoted to bread and bread-making. Linné classified different types of bread, and described their nutritional value and health-related aspects, as well as milling, baking and storing, in detail. While discussing the food habits of social classes Linné accepted as a fact that the peasants and the poor should eat less tasty bread than the rich. The less palatable bread had, however, many nutritional and health advantages. Linné paid much attention to substitutes for grain to be used in times of famine, an important topic in eighteenth century Sweden. He regarded flour made of pine bark or water arum roots as excellent famine food, was enthusiastic about the new plant, maize, but considered potato only as a poor substitute for grain. Linné and his followers praised bread not only as the core component of diet, but also for its versatile role both in health and in disease.

  13. Study on the effect of polysaccharides from Solanum nigrum Linne on cellular immune function in tumour-bearing mice.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hai; Qi, Xiaodong

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the anti-tumour effect of polysaccharides from Solanum nigrum Linne, and its relationship with the immune function of tumour-bearing organisms. MTT assay was used to observe the effect of different doses of polysaccharides from Solanum nigrum Linne on proliferation of lymphocytes in tumour-bearing mice. ELISA assay was also used to detect the levels of IL-2 in mice, and a laser scanning confocal microscope was used to detect the effect of polysaccharides from Solanum nigrum Linne on intralymphocytic free calcium ion concentration in tumour-bearing mice. Different doses of polysaccharides from Solanum nigrum Linne significantly inhibited the growth of mouse H22 solid tumours, improved the survival time of tumour-bearing mice, increased the proliferation of lymphocytes, elevated the levels of IL-2, and increased the concentration of calcium ions in the lymphocytes. Polysaccharides from Solanum nigrum Linne have certain anti-tumour effect, which is related with the cellular immune function that regulates the body. PMID:24146499

  14. Determination of anthelmintic activity of the leaf and bark extract of tamarindus indica linn.

    PubMed

    Das, S S; Dey, Monalisha; Ghosh, A K

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the anthelmintic activity of ethanolic and aqueous extract of leaves and bark of Tamarindus indica Linn using Pheretima posthuma and Tubifex tubifex as test worms. The time of paralysis and time of death were studied and the activity was compared with piperazine citrate as reference standard. The alcohol and aqueous extract of bark of Tamarindus indica exhibited significant anthelmintic activity as evidenced by decreased paralyzing time and death time. The results thus support the use of Tamarindus indica as an anthelmintic agent. PMID:22131633

  15. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of solidago canadensis linn. Root essential oil.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Devendra; Joshi, Shivani; Bisht, Ganga; Pilkhwal, Sangeeta

    2010-06-01

    The essential oil from the roots of Solidago canadensis Linn. (fam. Asteraceae) was analyzed by GC, GC/MS and NMR spectroscopy. Thirty nine constituents comprising 75.4% of the total oil were identified from the oil. Thymol constituted 20.25% of the oil followed by α-copaene (6.26%) and carvacrol (5.51%). The antimicrobial activity of the oil was evaluated using disc diffusion method. Results showed that the oil exhibited significant antibacterial activity against S. feacalis and E. coli whereas it showed moderate antifungal activity against C. albicans. PMID:24825986

  16. Evaluation of antidiarrhoeal profile of Jussiaea suffruticosa linn. extract in rats.

    PubMed

    Murugesan, T; Ghosh, L; Mukherjee, K; Das, J; Pal, M; Saha, B P

    2000-08-01

    The antidiarrhoeal potential of a methanol extract of the aerial parts of Jussiaea suffruticosa Linn. (MEJS) was studied with several experimental models of diarrhoea in rats. MEJS treated rats showed significant inhibitory activity against castor oil induced diarrhoea and PGE(2) induced enteropooling. It also showed a significant reduction in gastrointestinal motility following a charcoal meal in rats. The extract exhibited significant antidiarrhoeal potential at doses of 100,200 and 300 mg/kg in all the animal models and thus established the efficacy of MEJS as a potent antidiarrhoeal agent. PMID:10925410

  17. Evaluation of antitussive potential of Jussiaea suffruticosa linn. extract in albino mice.

    PubMed

    Murugesan, T; Ghosh, L; Mukherjee, P K; Pal, M; Saha, B P

    2000-11-01

    The antitussive activity of a methanol extract of Jussiaea suffruticosa Linn. (MEJS) (family Onagraceae) leaves has been evaluated for its potential on a cough induced by sulphur dioxide (SO(2)) gas model in mice. The extract (MEJS) showed significant antitussive activity in a dose dependent manner. The antitussive potential of MEJS was comparable to that of codeine phosphate (10 mg/kg), a standard drug. The extract (MEJS) at a dose level of 200 and 400 mg/kg, p.o. showed appreciable inhibition on the cough reflex by 48.52% and 59.8% respectively during 120 min of the experiment. PMID:11054846

  18. A new steroidal glycoside and fatty acid esters from the stem bark of Tectona grandis Linn.

    PubMed

    Khan, Zeba; Ali, M; Bagri, Priyanka

    2010-07-01

    The phytochemical investigation of the bark of Tectona grandis Linn. afforded a new steroidal glycoside identified as beta-sitosterol-beta-D-[4'-linolenyl-6'-(tridecan-4'''-one-1'''-oxy)] glucuranopyranoside and three new fatty esters, 7'-hydroxy-n-octacosanoyl n-decanoate, 20'-hydroxy eicosanyl linolenate and 18'-hydroxy n-hexacosanyl n-decanoate, along with the known compounds n-docosane, lup-20(29)-en-3beta-ol, betulinic acid and stigmast-5-en-3-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside. Their stereostructures have been elucidated on the basis of spectral data analyses and chemical reactions. PMID:20552529

  19. Post-Coital Antifertility Activity of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis Linn. roots.

    PubMed

    Vasudeva, Neeru; Sharma, S K

    2008-03-01

    Ancient literature mentions the use of a number of plants/preparations for fertility regulation. Some local contraceptive agents have also been described in Ayurvedic and Unani texts. Documented experiments or clinical data are, however, lacking. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to explore the antifertility and estrogenic activity of ethanolic extract of the roots of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis Linn. A strong anti-implantation (inhibition 100%) and uterotropic activity was observed at the dose level of 400 mg/kg body weight. Histological studies were carried out to confirm this effect. PMID:18317554

  20. Effect of Hibiscus rosa sinensis Linn. on oestrous cycle & reproductive organs in rats.

    PubMed

    Kholkute, S D; Chatterjee, S; Udupa, K N

    1976-11-01

    The effect of Hibiscus rosa sinensis Linn. on the estrous cycle and reproductive organs was studied in female albino rats. Depending on the dose and duration of treatment, the benzene extract of the flowers disrupted the estrous cycle. Treatment for 30 days resulted in a significant (p less than .05) reduction in the weight of the ovaries, uterus, and pituitary gland. Ovarian follicular atresia and uterine atrophy were observed. Treatment resulted in degranulated gonadotrophs in the pituitary, with the extent of damage being dose-dependent. PMID:1035904

  1. Geologic map of the Three Sisters Wilderness, Deschutes, Lane, and Linn counties, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Taylor, E.M.; MacLeod, N.S.; Sherrod, D.R.; Walker, G.W.

    1987-01-01

    The Wilderness Act (Public Law 88-577, September 3, 1964) and related acts require the U.S. Geological Survey and the U.S. Bureau of Mines to survey certain areas on Federal lands to determine the mineral values, if any, that may be present. Results must be made available to the public and to be submitted to the President and Congress. This report presents the results of a geologic survey of the Three Sisters Wilderness, Deschutes and Willamette National Forests, Deschutes, Lane and Linn Counties, Oregon

  2. A comparative study on growth pattern of Langali (Gloriosa superba Linn.) under wild and cultivated conditions.

    PubMed

    Asha, K V; Rajashekhara, N; Chauhan, M G; Ravishankar, B; Sharma, P P

    2010-04-01

    Langali (Gloriosa superba Linn.), obtained from wild habitat and by experimental cultivation under three groups, viz., control, cultivated as per the modern agricultural guidelines and as per the norms of Vriksha-ayurveda was compared and analyzed. Methods of Vriksha-ayurveda give good result in the case of Langali in terms of yield. Failure of control groups both in seed and tuber batches denotes that this plant needs some treatment for vegetative propagation under artificial conditions. Ayurveda group may be considered as a better one in the assessment of reproduction capacity in terms of yield of seeds. PMID:22131723

  3. In-vitro α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitory activity of Adiantum caudatum Linn. and Celosia argentea Linn. extracts and fractions

    PubMed Central

    Telagari, Madhusudhan; Hullatti, Kirankumar

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The objective of the present study was to provide an in-vitro evidence for the potential inhibitory activity of extracts and fractions of Adiantum caudatum Linn. and Celosia argentea Linn. on α-amylase and α-glucosidase enzymes. Materials and Methods: The plant extracts were prepared, first with cold maceration (70% v/v ethanol) and then by Soxhlation techniques (95% v/v ethanol). Subsequently, the combined extracts were subjected for fractionation. Different concentrations (0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, and 0.5 mg/ml) of extract and fractions were subjected to α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitory assay. The absorbance was measured at 540 and 405 nm using multiplate reader and the percentage of α- amylase and α- glucosidase inhibitory activity and IC50 values of extract and fractions were calculated. Results: Fraction 2 of A. caudatum and fraction 4 of C. argentea has shown highest α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitory potential with IC50 values of 0.241, 0.211 and 0.294, 0.249 mg/ml, respectively, which was comparable with acarbose (0.125 and 0.93 mg/ml). Whereas, extracts and remaining fractions of both the plants have shown lesser activity. Conclusion: The results of the present study indicate that, fraction 2 of A. caudatum, rich in triterpenoids and phenolics and fraction 4 of C. argentea, rich in flavonoids, are effective α- amylase and α- glucosidase inhibitors, which may be helpful to reduce the postprandial glucose levels. Hence, further studies may throw light on the antidiabetic potential of A. caudatum and C. argentea, especially in the management of type 2 diabetes. PMID:26288477

  4. COMPARISION OF DIURETIC ACTIVITY OF ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF AERVA LANATA (Linn.) Juss. ex. Schult & AERVA TOMENTOSA Forsk. Family: AMARANTHACEAE

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Deepak; Prasad, D.N.; Bhatnagar, S.P.

    2005-01-01

    The diuretic activity of concentrated ethanolic extract of Aerva lanata (Linn) & Aerva tomentosa Forsk on healthy albino rats were studied with frusemide as reference drug. The urine output increased with concentrated ethanolic extract of Aerva lanata only. In this case the level of electrolytes in urine also increased. But the diuretic activity was mild as compared to frusemide. PMID:22557194

  5. In vitro antioxidant activity of hydro alcoholic extract from the fruit pulp of Cassia fistula Linn

    PubMed Central

    Bhalodia, Nayan R.; Nariya, Pankaj B.; Acharya, R. N.; Shukla, V. J.

    2013-01-01

    The present study is aimed to investigate antioxidant activity of the extracts of Cassia fistula Linn. (Leguminosae) fruit pulp. Cassia fistula Linn., a Indian Laburnum, is widely cultivated in various countries and different continents including Asia, Mauritius, South Africa, Mexico, China, West Indies, East Africa and Brazil as an ornamental tree for its beautiful bunches of yellow flowers and also used in traditional medicine for several indications. The primary phytochemical study and in vitro antioxidant study was performed on hydro alcoholic extract of fruit pulp. Phytochemical screening of the plant has shown the presence of phenolic compounds, fatty acids, flavonoids, tannins and glycosides. Phenolic content was measured using Folin-Ciocalteu reagent and was calculated as gallic acid equivalents. Antiradical activity of hydro alcoholic extract was measured by DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1- picrylhydrazyl) assay and was compared to ascorbic acid. Ferric reducing power of the extract was also evaluated by Oyaizu method. In the present study, three methods were used for evaluation of antioxidant activity. First two methods were for direct measurement of radical scavenging activity and third method to evaluate the reducing power. Results indicate that hydro alcoholic fruit pulp extracts have marked amount of total phenols which could be responsible for the antioxidant activity. These in vitro assays indicate that this plant extract is a significant source of natural antioxidant, Cassia fistula fruit pulp extract shows lower activity in DPPH and total phenol content as compared with standard which might be helpful in preventing the progress of various oxidative stresses. PMID:24250133

  6. In vitro and in vivo Antiinflammatory Activity of Clerodendrum paniculatum Linn. Leaves

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, Jeenu; Bindhu, A. R.; Aleykutty, N. A.

    2013-01-01

    Preliminary phytochemical screening showed the presence of terpenes, flavonoids, tannins, alkaloids, phenolic acid, sterols, and glycosides. This study was intended to evaluate the antiinflammatory activity of various extracts of fresh leaves of Clerodendrum paniculatum Linn experimentally by in vitro (human red blood cell membrane stabilization method) and in vivo methods (0.1 ml of 1% w/v carrageenan-induced rat paw oedema model). Petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate, alcohol, and aqueous extracts were screened for in vitro antiinflammatory activity. Petroleum ether and chloroform extracts which showed, best in vitro antiinflammatory activity was screened for in vivo antiinflammatory activity at the dose level of 200 and 400 mg/kg. Indomethacin at the dose level of 10 mg/kg was used as reference standard drug. Both the extracts showed a dose dependent significant (P<0.001) reduction in paw edema when compared to the control, at all the time intervals and comparable to indomethacin (reference standard) treated group. The results of the present study demonstrate that petroleum ether and chloroform extracts possess significant (P<0.001) antiinflammatory potential which provide scientific basis for the traditional claims of Clerodendrum paniculatum Linn leaves as an antiinflammatory drug. PMID:24082358

  7. Chemical composition and resistance-modifying effect of the essential oil of Lantana camara Linn

    PubMed Central

    Sousa, Erlânio O.; Silva, Natálya F.; Rodrigues, Fabiola F. G.; Campos, Adriana R.; Lima, Sidney G.; Costa, José Galberto M.

    2010-01-01

    In this work, the chemical constituents, antibacterial and modulatory activities of the essential oil of Lantana camara Linn were studied. The essential oil was extracted from the leaves of L. camara by hydrodistillation method using Clevenger's apparatus and its chemical constituents were separated and identified by GC-MS, and the relative content of each constituent was determined by area normalization. Among the 25 identified components, bicyclogermacrene (19.42%), isocaryophyllene (16.70%), valecene (12.94%) and germacrene D (12.34%) were the main constituents. The oil was examined to antibacterial and modulatory activities against the multiresistant strains of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus by microdilution test. The results show an inhibitory activity to E. coli (MIC 512 μg/ml) and S. aureus (MIC 256 μg/ml). The synergism of the essential oil and aminoglycosides was verified too, with significant reduction of MICs (7 ×, 1250-5 μg/ml) against E. coli. It is suggested that the essential oil of Lantana camara Linn could be used as a source of plant-derived natural products with resistance-modifying activity. PMID:20668570

  8. Anticancer activity of Cyathula prostrata (Linn) Blume against Dalton's lymphomae in mice model.

    PubMed

    Mayakrishnan, Vijayakumar; Kannappan, Priya; Shanmugasundaram, Krishnakumari; Abdullah, Noorlidah

    2014-11-01

    Cyathula prostrata (Linn) Blume herbs are commonly used for the treatment of inflammatory and pain in Nigeria. The objective of the present study was to assess the antitumor and antioxidant activity of Cyathula prostrata (Linn) Blume in mice model. The treatment of Dalton's lymphoma ascites cells induced tumor by the methanolic extract of Cyathula prostrata was determined at concentration of 100 mg/ kg body weight given orally for 11 days, antitumor activity was assessed by monitoring the mean survival time, body weight, effect on hematological parameters, antioxidant enzyme levels and histopathological evidence. The results showed that the methanolic extract of Cyathula prostrata increased the survival period of animals, decreased the body weight and also altered many hematological markers and also restored the antioxidant enzymes when compared to the mice of the DLA control group. These findings indicate that the methanolic extract of C. prostrata has anti-tumor activity by preventing the lipid peroxidation and thereby promoting the antioxidant systems in Dalton's lymphoma ascites induced mice. So, these extract could be a natural anticancer agent for human health. PMID:25362615

  9. In vitro antioxidant activity of hydro alcoholic extract from the fruit pulp of Cassia fistula Linn.

    PubMed

    Bhalodia, Nayan R; Nariya, Pankaj B; Acharya, R N; Shukla, V J

    2013-04-01

    The present study is aimed to investigate antioxidant activity of the extracts of Cassia fistula Linn. (Leguminosae) fruit pulp. Cassia fistula Linn., a Indian Laburnum, is widely cultivated in various countries and different continents including Asia, Mauritius, South Africa, Mexico, China, West Indies, East Africa and Brazil as an ornamental tree for its beautiful bunches of yellow flowers and also used in traditional medicine for several indications. The primary phytochemical study and in vitro antioxidant study was performed on hydro alcoholic extract of fruit pulp. Phytochemical screening of the plant has shown the presence of phenolic compounds, fatty acids, flavonoids, tannins and glycosides. Phenolic content was measured using Folin-Ciocalteu reagent and was calculated as gallic acid equivalents. Antiradical activity of hydro alcoholic extract was measured by DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1- picrylhydrazyl) assay and was compared to ascorbic acid. Ferric reducing power of the extract was also evaluated by Oyaizu method. In the present study, three methods were used for evaluation of antioxidant activity. First two methods were for direct measurement of radical scavenging activity and third method to evaluate the reducing power. Results indicate that hydro alcoholic fruit pulp extracts have marked amount of total phenols which could be responsible for the antioxidant activity. These in vitro assays indicate that this plant extract is a significant source of natural antioxidant, Cassia fistula fruit pulp extract shows lower activity in DPPH and total phenol content as compared with standard which might be helpful in preventing the progress of various oxidative stresses. PMID:24250133

  10. Preliminary pharmacological evaluation of Martynia annua Linn leaves for wound healing

    PubMed Central

    Santram, Lodhi; Singhai, AK

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the wound healing potential of fractions from ethanol extract of Martynia annua (M. annua) Linn leaves. Methods Ethanol extract of M. annua Linn leaves was fractionate into three different fractions (MAF-A, MAF-B and MAF-C) which were screened for wound healing potential using two models: excision and incision on rats. The thin layer chromatography (TLC) profile of all fractions were analyzed and TLC of luteolin was also done. The Povidone-Iodine Ointment was used as reference for comparision. Excision and incision wounds were created on dorsal portion of rats for study. Wound contraction, biochemical parameters (protein level and hydroxyproline level) and histopathological study were performed in excision wound model whereas incision model was used for determination of tensile strength. Results The wound contraction and tensile strength of skin tissues were observed significantly greater in MAF-C fraction treated group than other two fractions (P<0.01). In excision wound method (on day 18) protein content and hydroxyproline were found significantly higher in MAF-C group than control group (P<0.01). Histopathological study also showed better angiogenesis, matured collagen fibres and fibroblast cells as compared with the control group. Conclusions In conclusion, our findings suggest that fraction MAF-C from ethanol extract of M. annua leaves is found most effective in wound healing. PMID:23569806

  11. Effect of leaf extract of Capparis zeylanica Linn. on spatial learning and memory in rats.

    PubMed

    Solanki, Ruchi; Chaudhary, Amrendra Kumar; Singh, Ranjit

    2012-10-01

    This study was designed to investigate the nootropic activity of Capparis zeylanica Linn. leaves in rats. The raw material of Capparis zeylanica leaves was successively extracted with petroleum ether and methanol using a Soxhlet apparatus and macerated to form an aqueous extract. The methanolic and aqueous extracts were evaluated for their effect on spatial learning and memory in rats using the Morris water maze task. Three doses (50, 100 and 150 mg/kg; p.o.) of methanolic and aqueous extracts of Capparis zeylanica were administered for 7 successive days to separate groups of animals. Results showed that both the extracts significantly enhanced memory, as shown by decrease in escape latency time. Furthermore, methanolic and aqueous extracts in all doses tested significantly increased the time spent in the target quadrant during the probe trial, indicating retention of spatial memory of the location of a previously placed platform in the target quadrant. These findings indicate that methanolic and aqueous extracts of Capparis zeylanica Linn. leaves have potent nootropic activity. The anti-oxidant property of Capparis zeylanica may contribute favorably to the memory enhancement effect. However, further studies are needed to identify the exact mechanism of action. PMID:22261859

  12. New dammarane and ursane-type triterpenoids from the flower of Ixora coccinea Linn.

    PubMed

    Ikram, Ambreen; Versiani, Muhammad Ali; Khatoon, Amna; Ahmed, Salman Khalid; Sattar, Samina Abdul; Faizi, Shaheen

    2016-01-01

    Two new esters of dammarane triterpenoids ixorene isovalerate (1), ixorene 3',8'-dimethyloctanoate (2) and a new ursane-type triterpenoids Ixoroid acid (3) were isolated from the methanolic extract of flowers of Ixora coccinea Linn., along with the three known constituents. The structures of compounds 1 and 3 were elucidated on the basis of extensive 1D,2D NMR studies and mass spectrometry as 17β-dammara-12,20-diene-3β-isovelarate and 3β-hydroxy-18β-urs-12ene-29β-oic acid, respectively, whereas 2 was identified as 17β-dammara-12,20-diene-3β-3',8'-dimethyloctanoate through (1)H NMR and mass spectral data. Compounds 1, 2, 4 and 5 were evaluated for their in vitro cytotoxic activity, which exhibited weak activity against the 3T3, PC3 and HeLa cell lines with the IC50 value >30 μM. Antioxidant results of 1 - 5 revealed that only compound 5 showed antioxidant activity in DPPH radical scavenging inhibition with the IC50 1.31 × 10(- 6) ± 0.005 μm mL(- 1). Both activities are the first records of these isolated compounds from the flowers of Ixora coccinea Linn. PMID:26214753

  13. Solanum nigrum Linn. water extract inhibits metastasis in mouse melanoma cells in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hsueh-Chun; Wu, Dun-Hao; Chang, Yun-Ching; Li, Yi-Ju; Wang, Chau-Jong

    2010-11-24

    Metastatic melanoma is an aggressive skin cancer notoriously resistant to current cancer therapies. Thus, new treatment strategies are urgently needed. Solanum nigrum Linn., commonly used in Oriental medicine, has showed antineoplastic activity in human cancer cell lines. The aim of this study was to evaluate the inhibitive effect of S. nigrum Linn. water extract (SNWE) on melanoma metastasis and dissect the underlying mechanisms of SNWE actions. B16-F1 cells were analyzed for migrating and invasive abilities with SNWE treatment, and several putative targets involved in metastatic melanoma were examined. In parallel, primary mouse xenograft and lung metastasis of melanoma models were established to examine the therapeutic potential of SNWE. The results indicated SNWE significantly inhibited B16-F1 cell migration and invasion. Meanwhile, decreased Akt activity and PKCα, Ras, and NF-κB protein expressions were detected in dose-dependent manners. In line with this notion, >50% reduced tumor weight and lung metastatic nodules were observed in 1% SNWE fed mice. This was associated with reduced serum MMP-9 as well as Akt activity and PKCα, Ras, and NF-κB protein expressions. Thus, this work indicates SNWE has potential application for treating metastatic melanoma. PMID:21028816

  14. Ficus hispida Linn.: A review of its pharmacognostic and ethnomedicinal properties

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Mohammad; Chaudhary, Nisha

    2011-01-01

    Ficus hispida (FH) Linn. is a moderate sized tree found throughout the year and is grown wild or cultivated for its edible fruits and folklore value. Traditionally, different parts of the plant have been used in the treatment of ulcers, psoriasis, anemia, piles jaundice, vitiligo, hemorrhage, diabetes, convulsion, hepatitis, dysentery, biliousness, and as lactagogue and purgative. FH contains wide varieties of bioactives from different phytochemical groups like alkaloids, carbohydrates, proteins and amino acids, sterols, phenols, flavonoids, gums and mucilage, glycosides, saponins, and terpenes. Various scientific works have been published to establish the scientific basis of traditional medicinal values attributed to FH. Furthermore, newer pharmacological activities like antineoplastic, cardioprotective, neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory effects were also reported recently. Till now, no work has been published to elaborate the pharmacognostic features of FH Linn. The present review is, therefore, an effort to give a detailed account on its pharmacognosy and phytochemistry, and an extensive survey on its pharmacological activities. Moreover, we are trying to establish the mechanism of action behind its earlier reported pharmacology. The review also looks at the future formulation based delivery approaches of its lipophilic bioactives, which is done to enhance its dissolution so as to increase its bioavailability, and thus the associated pharmacological action. PMID:22096323

  15. Investigation on antimicrobial activity of root extracts of Thespesia populnea Linn.

    PubMed

    Senthil-Rajan, D; Rajkumar, M; Srinivasan, R; Kumarappan, C; Arunkumar, K; Senthilkumar, K L; Srikanth, M V

    2013-12-01

    Many medicinal plants have been used for centuries in daily life to treat microbial diseases all over the world. In this study, the in vitro antibacterial activity of aqueous and ethanol root extracts of Thespesia populnea Linn were investigated. Antimicrobial properties of T. populnea Linn was evaluated against five pathogenic bacteria and two fungi. Disc diffusion method and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) were determined by broth serial dilution method. The ciprofloxacin (5 μg/ml) and flucanozole (100 units/disc) were used as positive controls for bacteria and fungi respectively. Different concentrations (50, 100, 150 μg/ml) of ethanolic and aqueous root extracts of T. populnea were checked for the dose dependent antibacterial activity. Thespesia populnea showed broad spectrum antimicrobial activity against gram positive and gram negative bacteria and maximum inhibition by ethanolic extract was observed at higher dose (250 μg/ml) as 27±0.2mm. The MIC of the ethanol extract was 10 μg/ml for Staphylococcus aureus and 750 μg/ml for Candida albicans. The antifungal activity offered against S. aureus by the ethanolic extract is more than the aqueous extract. The results concluded that the anti-microbial activity of T. populnea was dose dependent. As the concentration increased the inhibition zone also increased. Flavonoids and tannins present in the extracts may be responsible for the antimicrobial activity. PMID:24522124

  16. Anxiolytic activity of Nymphaea alba Linn. in mice as experimental models of anxiety

    PubMed Central

    Thippeswamy, B.S.; Mishra, Brijesh; Veerapur, V.P.; Gupta, Gourav

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the present work was to evaluate the anxiolytic effect of an ethanolic extract of Nymphaea alba Linn. in mice. Materials and Methods: The elevated plus maze test (EPMT), light and dark test (L and DT) and open field test (OFT) were used to assess the anxiolytic activity of the ethanolic extract of N. alba Linn. in mice. In addition, aggressive behavior and motor coordination was also assessed by foot shock induced aggression test (FSIAT) and rota rod test (RRT). Diazepam 1 mg/kg served as a standard anxiolytic drug, administered orally. Results: The ethanolic extract of N. alba (100 and 200 mg/kg, p.o.) significantly increased the percentage of time spent and number of entries in open arm in EPMT. In L and DT, the extract produced significant increase in time spent, number of crossing and decrease in the duration of immobility in light box. In OFT, the extract showed significant increase in number of rearings, assisted rearings and number of square crossed, all of which are demonstrations of exploratory behavior. In FSIAT, N. alba extract attenuated aggressive behavior related to anxiolytic activity, such as number of vocalization, leaps, rearing, biting/attacks and facing each other in paired mice. Furthermore, the extract produced skeletal muscle relaxant effect assessed by RRT. Conclusion: The results of the present study suggest that an ethanolic extract of N. alba may possess anxiolytic activity and provide a scientific evidence for its traditional claim. PMID:21455422

  17. Phytochemistry and hepatoprotective activity of aqueous extract of Amaranthus tricolor Linn. roots

    PubMed Central

    Aneja, Simran; Vats, Manisha; Aggarwal, Sushma; Sardana, Satish

    2013-01-01

    Background: The genus Amaranthus has potential activity as a hepatoprotective agent. Objective: The present pharmacological investigation focuses on evaluation of the efficacy of aqueous extract of roots of Amaranthus tricolor Linn. for their protection against paracetamol (PCM) overdose induced hepatotoxicity. Materials and Methods: The aqueous extract of roots of A. tricolor Linn. was prepared and phytochemical screening was done. The biochemical investigation viz. serum glutamic oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT), serum glutamic pyruvate transaminase (SGPT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and total Bilirubin (TB) was done against PCM-induced hepatotoxicity in wistar albino rats. The histopathological studies of liver were also done. Results: The phytochemical screening of the aqueous extract showed the presence of alkaloids, carbohydrates, flavanoids, amino acids, proteins, fixed oil, saponins and tannins, and phenolic compounds. Pretreatment with the aqueous extract of root significantly prevented the physical, biochemical, histological, and functional changes induced by paracetamol in the liver. The extract showed significant hepatoprotective effects as evidenced by decreased serum enzyme activities like SGPT, SGOT, ALP, and TB, which was supported by histopathological studies of liver. The aqueous extract showed significant hepatoprotective activity comparable with standard drug silymarin as well as hepatotoxin drug PCM. Conclusion: From these results, it is concluded that the A. tricolor has potential effectiveness in treating liver damage in a dose dependent manner. PMID:24459387

  18. Minerals salt composition and secondary metabolites of Euphorbia hirta Linn., an antihyperglycemic plant

    PubMed Central

    Yvette Fofie, N’Guessan Bra; Sanogo, Rokia; Coulibaly, Kiyinlma; Kone-Bamba, Diénéba

    2015-01-01

    Phytochemical study and research on acute toxicity were performed on the aerial parts (leaves and stems) of Euphorbia hirta Linn. The phytochemical screening and chromatography revealed the presence of saponin, sterol, terpene, alkaloids, polyphenols, tannins and flavonoids and especially mucilage. The evaluation of total polyphenols and total flavonoids gave 120.97 ± 7.07 gallic acid equivalents (GAE) mg/g (mg of GAE/g of extract) of dry extract and 41.4 ± 0.5 mg quercetin equivalent per gram (QE/g) (mg of QE/g of plant extract) of dry extract respectively. The physicochemical study revealed moisture content of 7.73% ± 0.00%, total ash 7.48% ± 0.03%. Sulfuric ash 9.05% ± 0.01%, hydrochloric acid insoluble ash of 0.8% ± 0.02%. The search for minerals salt revealed the presence of Cr, Zn, K, Ca and Mg having an important role in glucose metabolism. The acute toxicity study showed that the toxic dose may be above 3000 mg/kg. The results of these studies indicate that extracts from the leaves and stem of E. hirta Linn. contains trace elements and minerals salt and bioactive secondary metabolites which explain their therapeutic uses for treating diabetes mellitus. PMID:25598628

  19. Paederia foetida Linn. leaf extract: an antihyperlipidemic, antihyperglycaemic and antioxidant activity

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The primary objective of the present investigation is to evaluate the antidiabetic, antihyperlidemic and antioxidant activity of the methanolic extract of the Paederia foetida Linn. (PF) leaf extract in the streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Methods Single intraperitoneal injection (IP) of streptozotocin (60 mg/kg body weight) was used for induction of diabetes is swiss albino (wistar strain) rats. The induction of diabetes was confirmed after 3 days as noticing the increase in blood sugar level of tested rats. PF at a once a daily dose of 100 mg/kg, 250 mg/kg, 500 mg/kg, p.o. along with glibenclamide 10 mg/kg, p.o. was also given for 28 days. On the 28th day rats from all the groups fasted overnight fasted and the blood was collected from the puncturing the retro orbit of the eye under mild anesthetic condition. There collected blood sample was used to determine the antihyperlipidemic, hypoglycemic and antioxidant parameters. Results The oral acute toxicity studies did not show any toxic effect till the dose at 2000 mg/kg. While oral glucose tolerance test showed better glucose tolerance in tested rats. The statistical data indicated that the different dose of the PF significantly increased the body weight, hexokinase, plasma insulin, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxides. It also decreases the level of fasting blood glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, very low density lipoprotein cholesterol, malonaldehyde, glucose-6-phosphate, fructose-1-6-biphosphate and glycated hemoglobin in STZ induced diabetic rats. The histopathology of STZ induce diabetic rats, as expected the test dose of PF extract considerably modulates the pathological condition of various vital organ viz. heart, kidney, liver, pancreas as shown in the histopathology examinations. Conclusions Our investigation has clearly indicated that the leaf extract of Paederia foetida Linn

  20. History and origin of Russet Burbank (Netted Gem) a sport of Burbank

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The foremost French fry processing cultivar in the world, ‘Russet Burbank’, will soon reach an important milestone. In 2014 it will be 100 years since it was first identified. This review investigated the colorful history of ‘Russet Burbank’, clarified its lineage, used a Multiplex PCR system to con...

  1. Relationship between Antioxidant Properties and Chemical Composition of Abutilon Indicum Linn.

    PubMed

    Srividya, A R; Dhanabal, S P; Jeevitha, S; Varthan, V J Vishnu; Kumar, R Rajesh

    2012-03-01

    Aim of this paper is to find out the relationship between antioxidant activity of Abutilon indicum Linn and their phytochemical composition especially phenols and flavonols. Successive extractions were carried out for the Abutilon indicum plant with petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate, n-butanol, ethanol and water. All these extracts were evaluated for their antioxidant activities. Their antioxidant activities were correlated with their total phenol and flavonol content present in the plant. Ethyl acetate showed maximum free radical scavenging activity. IC(50) value for various antioxidant methods for all extract showed no significance with total antioxidant capacity except IC(50) value of LPO (r(2) = 0.7273). Correlation between total antioxidant capacity and total phenolic content was not significant with r(2) = 0.2554, P<0.3065. Total antioxidant capacity and total flavonol content showed similar correlation with r(2) = 0.2554, P<0.0962. PMID:23325999

  2. Relationship between Antioxidant Properties and Chemical Composition of Abutilon Indicum Linn

    PubMed Central

    Srividya, A. R.; Dhanabal, S. P.; Jeevitha, S.; Varthan, V. J. Vishnu; Kumar, R. Rajesh

    2012-01-01

    Aim of this paper is to find out the relationship between antioxidant activity of Abutilon indicum Linn and their phytochemical composition especially phenols and flavonols. Successive extractions were carried out for the Abutilon indicum plant with petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate, n-butanol, ethanol and water. All these extracts were evaluated for their antioxidant activities. Their antioxidant activities were correlated with their total phenol and flavonol content present in the plant. Ethyl acetate showed maximum free radical scavenging activity. IC50 value for various antioxidant methods for all extract showed no significance with total antioxidant capacity except IC50 value of LPO (r2 = 0.7273). Correlation between total antioxidant capacity and total phenolic content was not significant with r2 = 0.2554, P<0.3065. Total antioxidant capacity and total flavonol content showed similar correlation with r2 = 0.2554, P<0.0962. PMID:23325999

  3. PRELIMIARY PHYTOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS AND ANTIFUNGAL ACTIVITIES OF CRUDE EXTRACTS OF ZALEYA PENTANDRA AND CORCHORUS DEPRESSUS LINN.

    PubMed

    Afzal, Samina; Chaudhary, Bashir Ahmad; Ahmad, Ashfaq; Afzali, Khurram

    2015-01-01

    Zaleya pentandra (Zp) and Cochoms depressus Linn. (Cd) have been considered as herbs with potential therapeutic benefits. Zp and Cd belong to the important family Aizoaceae and Tiliaceae, respectively. The extractions were carried out successively with methanol and dichloromethane at room temperature for 24 h. Preliminary phytochemical screening of Zp and Cd revealed the presence of steroids, alkaloids, saponins, and anthraquinones. The methanolic and dichloromethane extracts of selected plants were subjected to examination of antifungal activity by using agar tube dilution. The extracts were tested against different fungi such as A. nigeir, A. flavus, F. solani, A. funigatis and Mucor. The dichloromethane extract of aerial parts of Cd showed high antifungal activity against A. niger as compared to all other tested extracts. PMID:26642683

  4. Anti-diabetic activity of alcoholic extract of Celosia argentea Linn. seeds in rats.

    PubMed

    Vetrichelvan, Thangarasu; Jegadeesan, Maniappan; Devi, Bangaru Adigalar Uma

    2002-04-01

    Celosia argentea Linn. commonly known as "Cocks Comb" and its seeds are widely used in Indian folk medicine for the treatment of diabetes mellitus. This study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of an alcoholic extract of Celosia argentea seeds (ACAS) on blood glucose and body weight in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. ACAS was found to reduce the increase of blood glucose in alloxan-induced diabetic rats (27.8% at 250 mg/kg and 38.8% at 500 mg/kg body weight). Chronic administration of ACAS significantly (p<0.01) reduced the blood glucose in alloxan-induced diabetic rats for two weeks. Also the extract prevented a decrease in body weight in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. These results suggest that the ACAS possesses anti-diabetic activity in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. PMID:11995938

  5. CNS activity of aqueous extract of root of Cissus quadrangularis Linn. (Vitaceae).

    PubMed

    Kumar, Rajesh; Sharma, Ashish Kumar; Saraf, Shubhini A; Gupta, Rajiv

    2010-03-01

    In Ayurveda, Cissus quadrangularis Linn. is used to treat anorexia, asthma, sickle cell, colds, pain, and malaria. Aqueous C. quadrangularis extract was evaluated in vivo for its antiepileptic activity by using the maximal electroshock and isonicotinic hydrazide acid models, for its analgesic activity by using the hot plate method, and for its smooth muscle relaxant activity by using the rotarod method. Adult male Swiss mice were used for this study and animals were divided into 6 animals per group. Doses of 250 mg/kg body weight and 500 mg/kg body weight protected the mice against maximal electroshock seizure, and delayed the onset time of seizures induced by isonicotinic hydrazide acid. Prominent analgesic activity was observed using the hot plate method. The paw licking time was delayed significantly. The extract also displayed prominent smooth muscle relaxant activity. The results suggest that the aqueous extracts of C. quadrangularis roots possess anticonvulsant, analgesic, and smooth muscle relaxant properties. PMID:22435569

  6. A Study of hepatoprotective activity of Hedyotis corymbosa. Linn, in albino rats.

    PubMed

    Chimkode, Rajshekar; Patil, M B; Jalalpure, Sunil; Pasha, T Y; Sarkar, Sibaji

    2009-04-01

    Hedyotis corymbosa Linn is spreading, suffruticose annual, belongs to family Rubiaceae frequently met with in field through out India, usually during rainy season. This plant is used for their medicinal properties as a folk medicine to treat jaundice, mouth wash in toothache. Hence the present study was aimed to investigate the hepatoprotective activity of ethanolic extract of Hedyotis corymbosa which was separated in to different fractions against carbon tetrachloride intoxification. The results indicate that, Intoxification with CCl(4) increase the levels of SGOT and SGPT. The elevated levels of SGOT and SGPTwere significantly decreased by ether and butanol fractions at P<0.001 and butanone and ethanol at p<0.05, where as petroleum ether and ethyl acetate did not shown any significant reduction in the level of SGOT and SGPT. PMID:22557330

  7. Annona reticulata Linn. (Bullock's heart): Plant profile, phytochemistry and pharmacological properties

    PubMed Central

    Jamkhande, Prasad G.; Wattamwar, Amruta S.

    2015-01-01

    From the beginning of human civilization plants and plant based chemicals are the most important sources of medicines. Phytochemical and different products obtained from plant are used as medicines, pharmaceuticals, cosmetics and food supplements. Annona reticulata Linn. (牛心果 niú xīn guǒ; Bullock's heart) is a versatile tree and its fruits are edible. Parts of A. reticulata are used as source of medicine and also for industrial products. It possesses several medicinal properties such as anthelmintic, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, wound healing and cytotoxic effects. It is widely distributed with phytochemicals like tannins, alkaloids, phenols, glycosides, flavonoids and steroids. Present article is an attempt to highlight over taxonomy, morphology, geographical distribution, phytoconstituents and pharmacological activities of A. reticulata reported so far. PMID:26151026

  8. Plant profile, phytochemistry and pharmacology of Avartani (Helicteres isora Linn.): A review

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Nirmal; Singh, Anil Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Plants are used as medicine since ancient time, in organized (Ayurveda, Unani & Siddha) and unorganized (folk, native & tribal) form. In these systems, drugs are described either in Sanskrit or vernacular languages. Avartani (Helicteres isora Linn.) is a medicinal plant which is used in several diseases. It is commonly known as Marodphali, Marorphali, Enthani etc. due to screw like appearance of its fruit. Avartani is used as a folk medicine to treat snake bite, diarrhoea and constipation of new born baby. In the research, antioxidant, hypolipidaemic, antibacterial and antiplasmid activities, cardiac antioxidant, antiperoxidative potency, brain-antioxidation potency, anticancer activity, antinociceptive activity, hepatoprotective activity, anti-diarrheal activity and wormicidal activity in this plant were reviewed. PMID:25183085

  9. The Chemical Constituents and Bioactivities of Psoralea corylifolia Linn.: A Review.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xuenong; Zhao, Wenwen; Wang, Ying; Lu, Jinjian; Chen, Xiuping

    2016-01-01

    Psoralea corylifolia Linn. (P. corylifolia) is an important medicinal plant with thousands of years of clinical application. It has been widely used in many traditional Chinese medicine formulas for the treatment of various diseases such as leucoderma and other skin diseases, cardiovascular diseases, nephritis, osteoporosis, and cancer. Phytochemical studies indicated that coumarins, flavonoids, and meroterpenes are the main components of P. corylifolia, and most of these components are present in the seeds or fruits. The extracts and active components of P. corylifolia demonstrated multiple biological activities, including estrogenic, antitumor, anti-oxidant, antimicrobial, antidepressant, anti-inflammatory, osteoblastic, and hepatoprotective activities. This paper systematically summarized literatures on the chemical constituents and biological activities of P. corylifolia, which provided useful information for the further research and development toward this potent medicinal plant. PMID:26916913

  10. Annona reticulata Linn. (Bullock's heart): Plant profile, phytochemistry and pharmacological properties.

    PubMed

    Jamkhande, Prasad G; Wattamwar, Amruta S

    2015-07-01

    From the beginning of human civilization plants and plant based chemicals are the most important sources of medicines. Phytochemical and different products obtained from plant are used as medicines, pharmaceuticals, cosmetics and food supplements. Annona reticulata Linn. ( niú xīn guǒ; Bullock's heart) is a versatile tree and its fruits are edible. Parts of A. reticulata are used as source of medicine and also for industrial products. It possesses several medicinal properties such as anthelmintic, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, wound healing and cytotoxic effects. It is widely distributed with phytochemicals like tannins, alkaloids, phenols, glycosides, flavonoids and steroids. Present article is an attempt to highlight over taxonomy, morphology, geographical distribution, phytoconstituents and pharmacological activities of A. reticulata reported so far. PMID:26151026

  11. Effect of leucopelargonin derivative from Ficus bengalensis Linn. on diabetic dogs.

    PubMed

    Augusti, K T; Daniel, R S; Cherian, S; Sheela, C G; Nair, C R

    1994-02-01

    Dimethoxy ether of Leucopelargonidin-3-0-alpha-L rhamnoside isolated from the bark of the Indian Banyan tree Ficus bengalensis Linn. was tested for antidiabetic effect. At a medium effective dose (100 mg/kg) on oral administration, the compound showed significant hypoglycemic and serum insulin raising action in normal as also moderately diabetic dogs (induced by alloxan) during a period of two hours. The mechanism of action of the glycoside compound seems to be similar to that of drugs which stimulate insulin secretion. On acute and chronic administration in single doses of 0.2-1.8 g/kg to different groups of mice and daily administration of 100, 250 and 500 mg/kg to rats for a period of one month respectively did not show any toxic effect and the compound was not lethal even at the high dose of 1.8 g/kg in experimental animals. PMID:8005644

  12. Evaluation of Antiseizure Activity of Essential Oil from Roots of Angelica archangelica Linn. in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Pathak, Shalini; Wanjari, M. M.; Jain, S. K.; Tripathi, M.

    2010-01-01

    In the present study, the effect of essential oil of the root of Angelica archangelica Linn. was evaluated against electrically and chemically induced seizures. The seizures were induced in mice by maximal electroshock and pentylenetetrazol. The effect of essential oil of the root of Angelica archangelica on seizures was compared with standard anticonvulsant agents, phenytoin and diazepam. The essential oil of the root of Angelica archangelica suppressed duration of tonic convulsions and showed recovery in maximal electroshock induced seizures while it delayed time of onset of clonic convulsions and showed mortality protection in pentylenetetrazol induced seizures. The essential oil of the root of Angelica archangelica also produced motor impairment at the antiseizure doses. The study indicated that the essential oil exhibited antiseizure effect. The antiseizure effect may be attributed to the presence of terpenes in the essential oil. PMID:21188050

  13. Evaluation of Antiseizure Activity of Essential Oil from Roots of Angelica archangelica Linn. in Mice.

    PubMed

    Pathak, Shalini; Wanjari, M M; Jain, S K; Tripathi, M

    2010-05-01

    In the present study, the effect of essential oil of the root of Angelica archangelica Linn. was evaluated against electrically and chemically induced seizures. The seizures were induced in mice by maximal electroshock and pentylenetetrazol. The effect of essential oil of the root of Angelica archangelica on seizures was compared with standard anticonvulsant agents, phenytoin and diazepam. The essential oil of the root of Angelica archangelica suppressed duration of tonic convulsions and showed recovery in maximal electroshock induced seizures while it delayed time of onset of clonic convulsions and showed mortality protection in pentylenetetrazol induced seizures. The essential oil of the root of Angelica archangelica also produced motor impairment at the antiseizure doses. The study indicated that the essential oil exhibited antiseizure effect. The antiseizure effect may be attributed to the presence of terpenes in the essential oil. PMID:21188050

  14. Phytochemical investigation and evaluation of in vitro free radical scavenging activity of Tabernaemontana divaricata Linn.

    PubMed

    Jain, Sachin; Jain, Avijeet; Jain, Neetesh; Jain, D K; Balekar, Neelam

    2010-02-01

    We evaluate the in vitro free radical scavenging activity of the leaves of Tabernaemontana divaricata Linn. Petroleum ether, ethanol and aqueous extracts of T. divaricata were prepared with successive extraction in a soxhlet apparatus. Each extract was selected to study the free radical scavenging activity by superoxide scavenging assay method. It was found that the aqueous extract contained carbohydrates, glycosides, amino acids, flavonoids, tannins, alkaloids, and steroids, and the ethanolic extract contained glycosides, amino acids, flavonoids, tannins, alkaloids and steroids. The ethanolic extract of T. divaricata showed 58.7 +/- 0.62% inhibition in the superoxide scavenging model. The aqueous extract also showed almost similar activity (54.9 +/- 0.53% compared to the ethanolic extract), while petroleum ether extract showed poor inhibition of superoxide scavenging activity. All extracts showed the dose- and time-dependent inhibition of the superoxide scavenging activity. PMID:20140809

  15. [Effects of nutrient solution concentration on inorganic and glycyrrhizin contents of Glycyrrhiza glabra Linn].

    PubMed

    Sato, Suguru; Ikeda, Hideo; Furukawa, Hajime; Murata, Yuji; Tomoda, Mayuko

    2004-10-01

    Licorice, Glycyrrhiza glabra Linn., is one of herbal medicines widely used for various purposes, including as a sweetener and for gastric ulcer treatment. However, environmental destruction due to the harvesting of wild licorice is becoming a serious problem. We cultured licorice in a hydroponic system to examine the relation between the concentration of nutritional solution applied and glycyrrhizin content to determine the optimal nutrient solution concentration for commercial licorice production. Licorice growth and glycyrrhizin content in the root reached the highest values when the plants received nutrient solution approximately equivalent to a quarter unit of Hoagland solution. The results also indicated that the glycyrrhizin content does not correlate with the concentration of nutrient solution applied and/or inorganic contents absorbed, i.e., licorice may absorb large amounts of nutrient solution but the glycyrrhizin content may not increase. PMID:15467279

  16. Comparative physico-chemical profiles of Tugaksheeree (Curcuma angustifolia Roxb. and Maranta arundinacea Linn.).

    PubMed

    Rajashekhara, N; Shukla, Vinay J; Ravishankar, B; Sharma, Parameshwar P

    2013-10-01

    Tugaksheeree is as an ingredient in many Ayurvedic formulations. The starch obtained from the rhizomes of two plants, is used as Tugaksheeree, Curcuma angustifolia (CA) Roxb. (Family: Zingiberaceae) and Maranta arundinacea (MA) Linn. (Family Marantaceae). In the present study, a comparative physico-analysis of both the drugs has been carried out. The results suggest that the starch from CA and MA has similar organoleptic characters. The percentage of starch content is higher in the rhizome of CA when compared with that of MA and the starch of MA is packed more densely than the starch in CA. The chemical constituents of both the starch and rhizomes are partially similar to each other. Hence, the therapeutic activities may be similar. PMID:24696578

  17. Comparative physico-chemical profiles of Tugaksheeree (Curcuma angustifolia Roxb. and Maranta arundinacea Linn.)

    PubMed Central

    Rajashekhara, N.; Shukla, Vinay J.; Ravishankar, B.; Sharma, Parameshwar P.

    2013-01-01

    Tugaksheeree is as an ingredient in many Ayurvedic formulations. The starch obtained from the rhizomes of two plants, is used as Tugaksheeree, Curcuma angustifolia (CA) Roxb. (Family: Zingiberaceae) and Maranta arundinacea (MA) Linn. (Family Marantaceae). In the present study, a comparative physico-analysis of both the drugs has been carried out. The results suggest that the starch from CA and MA has similar organoleptic characters. The percentage of starch content is higher in the rhizome of CA when compared with that of MA and the starch of MA is packed more densely than the starch in CA. The chemical constituents of both the starch and rhizomes are partially similar to each other. Hence, the therapeutic activities may be similar. PMID:24696578

  18. Chemical constituents from the flowering buds of Bauhinia tomentosa Linn (FBBT).

    PubMed

    Radha, Raja; Vasantha, Vairathevar Sivasamy; Pitchumani, Kasi

    2016-07-01

    Isolation and characterisation of compounds, 1-(2'-hydroxy-4'-methoxyphenyl)-3-(4″-methoxyphenyl)-2-hydroxypropane-1,3-dione (1), 5-hydroxyflavone (2), 3,5,7,3',4'-pentahydroxyflavone (3), 3,5,7,2',4'-pentahydroxyflavone (4) and 5,7,3',4'-tetrahydroxyflavone-3-O-rhamnoside (5) are reported from the air dried flowering buds of Bauhinia tomentosa Linn. Their structures are determined on the basis of extensive chemical and spectral evidences. Compound (1) is reported for the first time from the plant source. While compounds (2) and (4) are reported for the first time from this genus, compound (2) is reported for the second time from the natural source. PMID:26745556

  19. Hyperascyrones A-H, polyprenylated spirocyclic acylphloroglucinol derivatives from Hypericum ascyron Linn.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Hucheng; Chen, Chunmei; Liu, Junjun; Sun, Bin; Wei, Guangzheng; Li, Yan; Zhang, Jinwen; Yao, Guangmin; Luo, Zengwei; Xue, Yongbo; Zhang, Yonghui

    2015-07-01

    Eight polyprenylated spirocyclic acylphloroglucinol derivatives (PSAPs), hyperascyrones A-H, were isolated from the aerial parts of Hypericum ascyron Linn., together with six known analogs. Their structures were established by spectroscopic analyses including HRESIMS, 1D and 2D NMR, and their absolute configurations were determined by electronic circular dichroism calculations (ECD, Gaussian 09). Structures of previously reported tomoeones C, D, G, and H were revised. Hyperascyrones A-H were evaluated for their cytotoxic and anti-HIV-1 activities, with hyperascyrones C and G exhibiting significant cytotoxicities against HL-60 cell lines with IC50 values of 4.22 and 8.36 μM, respectively. In addition, the chemotaxonomic significance of these compounds was also discussed. PMID:25800107

  20. An in silico study on antidiabetic activity of bioactive compounds in Euphorbia thymifolia Linn.

    PubMed

    Nguyen Vo, T Hoang; Tran, Ngan; Nguyen, Dat; Le, Ly

    2016-01-01

    Herbal medicines have become strongly preferred treatment to reduce the negative impacts of diabetes mellitus (DM) and its severe complications due to lesser side effects and low cost. Recently, strong anti-hyperglycemic effect of Euphorbia thymifolia Linn. (E. thymifolia) on mice models has reported but the action mechanism of its bioactive compounds has remained unknown. This study aimed to evaluate molecular interactions existing between various bioactive compounds in E. thymifolia and targeted proteins related to Type 2 DM. This process involved the molecular docking of 3D structures of those substances into 4 targeted proteins: 11-β hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1, glutamine: fructose-6-phosphate amidotransferase, protein-tyrosine phosphatase 1B and mono-ADP-ribosyltransferase sirtuin-6. In the next step, LigandScout was applied to evaluate the bonds formed between 20 ligands and the binding sites of each targeted proteins. The results identified seven bioactive compounds with high binding affinity (<-8.0 kcal/mol) to all 4 targeted proteins including β-amyrine, taraxerol, 1-O-galloyl-β-d-glucose, corilagin, cosmosiin, quercetin-3-galactoside and quercitrin. The pharmacophore features were also explained in 2D figures which indicated hydrophobic interactions, hydrogen bond acceptors and hydrogen bond donors forming between carbonyl oxygen molecules of those ligands and active site residues of 4 targeted protein.Graphical abstract Euphorbia thymifolia Linn. is a small prostrate herbaceous annual weed that can positively impact on reducing hyperglycemic effect. In order to clearly understand about molecular level of the its bioactive compounds, in silico approach is performed. PMID:27588252

  1. Anti-anxiety Activity of Methanolic Extracts of Different Parts of Angelica archangelica Linn.

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Dinesh; Bhat, Zulfiqar Ali

    2012-01-01

    Angelica archangelica Linn.is a herb distributed in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. In Indian and Chinese system of medicine, it is used for nervous disorders and cerebral diseases. Previously the aqueous extract of the A. archangelica was evaluated for anxiolytic activity and was found to have significant potential for the same. The present study is aimed to evaluate the anxiolytic activity of methanol extract of root (MER), stem (MES), leaf (MEL), fruit (MEF) and whole plant (MEW) of Angelica archangelica Linn. All the extracts (MER, MES, MEL, MEF and MEW) were evaluated for anxiolytic effects using elevated plus maze test (EPM) model in rats. Methanol extracts of different parts of A.archangelica had increased number of entries and time spent in open arms while they decreased the number of entries and duration of time spent in closed arm of the EPM. In a similar fashion, the diazepam increased the percentage of time spent and percentage of arm entries in the open arms (*P <0.05, **P <0.01). Whole plant and the root had the maximum, leaf and fruits showed intermediate, while stem had the least anxiolytic activity (*P <0.05, **P <0.01) in EPM (Figure 1-5). The head dip count in DZ, SMR400, SML400, SMF400 and SMW400 in open arm are significantly shown in Table 1. The DZ, SMF400 and SMW did not show the fecal bolus while other groups were reduced the fecal bolus significantly (**P <0.01) as compared to control (Table 1). Whole plant and leaf showed the most, root and fruit the intermediate and stem the least anxiolytic activity (**P <0.01) in EPM. PMID:24716138

  2. Anti-anxiety Activity of Methanolic Extracts of Different Parts of Angelica archangelica Linn.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Dinesh; Bhat, Zulfiqar Ali

    2012-07-01

    Angelica archangelica Linn.is a herb distributed in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. In Indian and Chinese system of medicine, it is used for nervous disorders and cerebral diseases. Previously the aqueous extract of the A. archangelica was evaluated for anxiolytic activity and was found to have significant potential for the same. The present study is aimed to evaluate the anxiolytic activity of methanol extract of root (MER), stem (MES), leaf (MEL), fruit (MEF) and whole plant (MEW) of Angelica archangelica Linn. All the extracts (MER, MES, MEL, MEF and MEW) were evaluated for anxiolytic effects using elevated plus maze test (EPM) model in rats. Methanol extracts of different parts of A.archangelica had increased number of entries and time spent in open arms while they decreased the number of entries and duration of time spent in closed arm of the EPM. In a similar fashion, the diazepam increased the percentage of time spent and percentage of arm entries in the open arms (*P <0.05, **P <0.01). Whole plant and the root had the maximum, leaf and fruits showed intermediate, while stem had the least anxiolytic activity (*P <0.05, **P <0.01) in EPM (Figure 1-5). The head dip count in DZ, SMR400, SML400, SMF400 and SMW400 in open arm are significantly shown in Table 1. The DZ, SMF400 and SMW did not show the fecal bolus while other groups were reduced the fecal bolus significantly (**P <0.01) as compared to control (Table 1). Whole plant and leaf showed the most, root and fruit the intermediate and stem the least anxiolytic activity (**P <0.01) in EPM. PMID:24716138

  3. A review on chemical and biological properties of Cayratia trifolia Linn. (Vitaceae).

    PubMed

    Kumar, Dinesh; Kumar, Sunil; Gupta, Jyoti; Arya, Renu; Gupta, Ankit

    2011-07-01

    Cayratia trifolia Linn. Domin Syn. Vitis trifolia (Family: Vitaceae) is commonly known as Fox grape in English; Amlabel, Ramchana in Hindi and Amlavetash in Sanskrit. It is native to India, Asia and Australia. It is a perennial climber having trifoliated leaves with 2-3 cm long petioles and ovate to oblong-ovate leaflets. Flowers are small greenish white and brown in color. Fruits are fleshy, juicy, dark purple or black, nearly spherical, about 1 cm in diameter. It is found throughout the hills in India. This perennial climber is also found in the hotter part of India from Jammu and Rajasthan to Assam extending into the peninusular India upto 600 m height. Whole plant of Cayratia trifolia has been reported to contain yellow waxy oil, steroids/terpenoids, flavonoids, tannins upon preliminary phytochemical screening. Leaves contain stilbenes (piceid, reveratrol, viniferin, ampelopsin). Stem, leaves, roots are reported to possess hydrocyanic acid, delphinidin and several flavonoids such as cyanidin is reported in the leaves. This plant also contains kaempferol, myricetin, quercetin, triterpenes and epifriedelanol. Infusion of seeds along with extract of tubers is traditionally given orally to diabetic patients to check sugar level of blood. Paste of tuberous is applied on the affected part in the treatment of snake bite. Whole plant is used as diuretic, in tumors, neuralgia and splenopathy. Its climbers wrapped around the neck of frantic bullock and poultice of leaves are used to yoke sores of bullock. The bark extract shows the antiviral, antibacterial, antiprotozoal, hypoglycemic, anticancer and diuretic activity. This article focuses on the upgraded review on chemical and biological properties of Cayratia trifolia Linn. and triggers further investigation on this plant. PMID:22279376

  4. Elemental analysis of Anethum gravedlens, Sismbrium Irio Linn and Veronia Anthelmintica seeds by instrumental neutron activation analysis.

    PubMed

    Fatima, I; Waheed, S; Zaidi, J H

    2013-01-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis has been used to characterize As, Ba, Br, Ce, Cl, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hg, K, Mn, Na, Rb, Sb, Se and Zn, and Sc in seeds of Anethum graveolens (Dill), Sisymbrium irio Linn. (Wild Mustard) and Vernonia anthelmintica (Iron Weed). Dill seed was found to contain high K while Wild Mustard has high Fe, Mn and Na levels. Iron Weed has highest Cl, Co, Cr and Zn content with least concentration of Fe. PMID:23103327

  5. Cardioprotective effect of methanolic extract of Ixora coccinea Linn. leaves on doxorubicin-induced cardiac toxicity in rats

    PubMed Central

    Momin, Firoz N.; Kalai, Bharatesh R.; Shikalgar, Tabassum S.; Naikwade, Nilofar S.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the effect of methanolic extract of Ixora coccinea Linn. (MEIC) leaves against doxorubicin-induced cardiac toxicity in rats. Material and Methods: Albino Wistar rats were pretreated with the methanolic extract of Ixora coccinea Linn. leaves (200 and 400 mg/kg, orally) for 1 week followed with the simultaneous treatment with doxorubicin (cumulative dose of 15 mg/kg in six divided doses for 2 weeks) along with the extracts for the next 14 days. On the 22nd day hemodynamic parameters such as blood pressure and ECG were recorded. Biochemical study including biomarkers like creatine kinase – MB (CK – MB), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), SGOT and SGPT, tissue antioxidant markers viz. catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and extent of lipid peroxidation viz. malondialdehyde (MDA) was estimated. Histopathology of heart was also done to assess the cardioprotective effect. Results: Pretreatment with MEIC significantly reduced (P<0.01) the ST segment elevation and also maintained the BP (P<0.01) close to normal. The MEIC significantly reduced the elevated level of biomarkers like CK - MB, LDH, SGOT, SGPT (P<0.01) near to normal, the MEIC also increased the tissue antioxidant markers viz. CAT, SOD and decreased the level of MDA (P<0.01) in cardiac tissue by dose-dependant manner. The histopathology of heart also further confirmed the cardioprotection provided by the methanolic extract of Ixora coccinea Linn. leaves. Conclusion: The results suggest a cardioprotective effect of Ixora coccinea Linn. leaves due to its antioxidant properties. PMID:22529471

  6. Antipsychotic-like activity of Noni (Morinda citrifolia Linn.) in mice

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Noni fruit is widely consumed in tropical regions of Indonesia to the Hawaiian Islands. The noni plant has a long history of use as a medicinal plant to treat a wide variety of ailments including CNS disorders. The present investigation was designed to evaluate the antipsychotic effect of noni fruits (Morinda citrifolia Linn.) using mouse models of apomorphine-induced climbing behaviour and methamphetamine-induced stereotypy (licking, biting, gnawing and sniffing). Methods In acute study, the methanolic extract of Morinda citrifolia (MMC) at different doses 1, 3, 5, 10 g/kg was administered orally one hour prior to apomorphine (5 mg/kg, i.p) and methamphetamine ( 5 mg/kg, i.p) injection respectively in Swiss albino mice. In chronic studies, (TAHITIAN NONI® Juice, TNJ) was made available freely in daily drinking water at 30, 50 and 100% v/v for 7 days; 30 and 50% v/v for 21 days respectively. On the test day, an equivalent average daily divided dose of TNJ was administered by oral gavage one hour prior to apomorphine treatment. Immediately after apomorphine/ methamphetamine administration, the animals were placed in the cylindrical metal cages and observed for climbing behaviour/ stereotypy and climbing time. Results The acute treatment of MMC (1, 3, 5, 10 g/kg, p.o) significantly decreased the apomorphine-induced cage climbing behaviour and climbing time in mice in a dose dependent manner. The MMC also significantly inhibited methamphetamine-induced stereotypy behaviour and climbing time in mice dose-dependently. The 7 and 21 days treatment of TNJ in drinking water at 50 and 100%v/v significantly alleviated the apomorphine-induced climbing behaviour and climbing time in mice. Conclusions The present study results demonstrated the antidopaminergic effect of Morinda citrifolia Linn. in mice, suggesting that noni has antipsychotic-like activity which can be utilized in the treatment of psychiatric disorders. However further studies are warranted to

  7. Insecticidal and genotoxic activity of Psoralea corylifolia Linn. (Fabaceae) against Culex quinquefasciatus Say, 1823

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Indiscriminate use of synthetic insecticides to eradicate mosquitoes has caused physiological resistance. Plants provide a reservoir of biochemical compounds; among these compounds some have inhibitory effect on mosquitoes. In the present study the larvicidal, adulticidal and genotoxic activity of essential oil of Psoralea corylifolia Linn. against Culex quinquefasciatus Say was explored. Methods Essential oil was isolated from the seeds of P. corylifolia Linn. Larvicidal and adulticidal bioassay of Cx. quinquefasciatus was carried out by WHO method. Genotoxic activity of samples was determined by comet assay. Identification of different compounds was carried out by gas chromatography- mass spectrometry analysis. Results LC50 and LC90 values of essential oil were 63.38±6.30 and 99.02±16.63 ppm, respectively against Cx. quinquefasciatus larvae. The LD50 and LD90 values were 0.057±0.007 and 0.109±0.014 mg/cm2 respectively against adult Cx. quinquefasciatus,. Genotoxicity of adults was determined at 0.034 and 0.069 mg/cm2. The mean comet tail length was 6.2548±0.754 μm and 8.47±0.931 μm and the respective DNA damage was significant i.e. 6.713% and 8.864% in comparison to controls. GCMS analysis of essential oil revealed 20 compounds. The major eight compounds were caryophyllene oxide (40.79%), phenol,4-(3,7-dimethyl-3-ethenylocta-1,6-dienyl) (20.78%), caryophyllene (17.84%), α-humulene (2.15%), (+)- aromadendrene (1.57%), naphthalene, 1,2,3,4-tetra hydro-1,6-dimethyle-4-(1-methyl)-, (1S-cis) (1.53%), trans- caryophyllene (0.75%), and methyl hexadecanoate (0.67%). Conclusion Essential oil obtained from the seeds of P. corylifolia showed potent toxicity against larvae and adult Cx. quinquefasciatus. The present work revealed that the essential oil of P. corylifolia could be used as environmentally sound larvicidal and adulticidal agent for mosquito control. PMID:23379981

  8. InSAR detection of permafrost landform dynamics at Kapp Linné central Svalbard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rune Lauknes, Tom; Christiansen, Hanne; Eckerstorfer, Markus; Larsen, Yngvar

    2013-04-01

    Permafrost is one of six cryospheric indicators of global climate change. As permafrost contains various forms of ground ice, thawing, degradation and speed up of particularly ice-rich periglacial landforms can lead to substantial landscape change and development. This has geomorphological, biological and socio-economical impacts, with changes in the water balance, increase in greenhouse gas emissivity, changes in flora and fauna and impacts on infrastructure. The present scientific challenge is to combine detailed site/point scale geomorphological field process observations with remote sensing data covering at landscape scale. We apply a multi-temporal satellite radar interferometric (InSAR) method to data obtained using the TerraSAR-X satellite. TerraSAR-X has a high spatial resolution and with 11 days repeat cycle, it is well suited to detect seasonal permafrost deformation. To test the usability of X-band InSAR data, we compare hourly field measurements between 2008-2011 of solifluction ground deformation at Kapp Linné, central Svalbard, with InSAR deformation time-series. We show that InSAR is able to pick up the seasonal deformation patterns of frost heave, ground settlement and associated solifluction as well as the interannual downslope movement. These results are a promising first step towards successful upscaling periglacial field point measurements to landscape scale, enabling observations of periglacial processes in larger parts of the permafrost landscapes.

  9. Annona squamosa Linn: cytotoxic activity found in leaf extract against human tumor cell lines.

    PubMed

    Wang, De-Shen; Rizwani, Ghazala H; Guo, Huiqin; Ahmed, Mansoor; Ahmed, Maryam; Hassan, Syed Zeeshan; Hassan, Amir; Chen, Zhe-Sheng; Xu, Rui-Hua

    2014-09-01

    Cancer is a common cause of death in human populations. Surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy still remain the corner stone of treatment. However, herbal medicines are gaining popularity on account of their lesser harmful side effects on non-targeted human cells and biological environment. Annona squamosa Linn is a common delicious edible fruit and its leaf have been used for the treatment in various types of diseases. The objective of present study is to determine the anticancer potential of the organic and aqueous extracts of leaf of Annona squamosa L. MTT (3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazole-2yl)-2, 5-biphenyl tetrazolium bromide) assay against hepatocellular carcinoma cell line BEL-7404, lung cancer line H460, human epidermoid carcinoma cell line KB-3-1, prostatic cancer cell line DU145, breast carcinoma cell line MDA-MB-435, and colon cancer cell line HCT-116 Human primary embryonic kidney cell line HEK293 as control were used for the study. The crude extract (Zcd) and Ethyl acetate extract (ZE) were found significant anticancer activity only on human epidermoid carcinoma cell line KB-3-1 and colon cancer cell line HCT-116. PMID:25176251

  10. Study on Phytochemical Composition, Antibacterial and Antioxidant Properties of Different Parts of Alstonia scholaris Linn.

    PubMed Central

    Ganjewala, Deepak; Gupta, Ashish Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate phytochemical composition, antibacterial and antioxidant properties of methanolic extracts of different parts viz., leaves, follicles and latex of Indian devil tree (Alstonia scholaris Linn.) R. Br. Methods: Antibacterial activities of the methanol extracts against Gram +ve (Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus) and Gram -ve (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa) bacteria were determined by well diffusion techniques. Aantioxidant profiles of methanol extracts were determined by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazil (DPPH) free radical scavenging, superoxide anion radial scavenging and ferric thiocyanate reducing assays. Results: Phytochemical composition revealed abundance of flavonoids (97.3 mg QE/g DW), proanthocynidins (99.3 mg CE/g DW) and phenolics (49.7 mgGAE/g DW) in the leaf extract. Extracts of follicles and latex had comparatively very content of phenolics, flavonoids and proanthocyanidins. However, in follicle extract level of proanthocyanidins was significantly higher (46.8 mg CE/gDW). Latex extract among others exhibited most potent antibacterial activity. All the extracts displayed strong DPPH free radical and superoxide anion scavenging activities, only leaf extract displayed powerful reducing and ferrous ion chelating activities. Conclusion: Study revealed significant antioxidant activities of A. scholaris leaf, follicles and latex extracts and potential antibacterial activity of latex extract. PMID:24312864

  11. Effects of Tamarind (Tamarindus indicus Linn) seed extract on Russell's viper (Daboia russelli siamensis) venom.

    PubMed

    Maung, K M; Lynn, Z

    2012-12-01

    Snake bite has been regarded as an important health problem in Myanmar since early 1960's. In the recent years, there has been growing interest in alternative therapies and therapeutic use of natural products, especially those derive from plants. In Myanmar and Indian traditional medicine, various plants have used as a remedy for treating snake bite. The present study was carried out to evaluate the effects of alcohol extract of Tamarind (Tamarindus indica Linn.) seed on some biologic properties of Russell's viper (Daboia russelli siamensis) venom (RVV). The Phospholipase A2 (PLA2) enzyme, coagulase enzyme and caseinolytic enzyme activities of Russell's viper venom (RVV) were reduced when mixed and incubated with the extract. When the RVV and the different amount of extracts were preincubated and injected intramuscularly into mice, all of them survived, but all the mice in the control group died. On the other hand, when RVV were injected first followed by the extract into mice, all of them died. If the extract was injected near the site where Russell's viper venom was injected, all the mice survived for more than 24 hours and the survival time prolonged but they all died within 96 hours. In conclusion, according to the results obtained, the extract neutralizes some biologic properties of the Russell's viper venom and prolonged the survival time if the extract was injected near the site where the Russell's viper venom was injected. PMID:23202603

  12. Progressive deconstruction of Arundo donax Linn. to fermentable sugars by acid catalyzed ionic liquid pretreatment.

    PubMed

    You, Ting-Ting; Zhang, Li-Ming; Xu, Feng

    2016-01-01

    Acid enhanced ionic liquid (IL) 1-n-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([C4 mim]Cl) pretreatment has shown great potential for boosting the yield of sugars from biomass cost-effectively and environmental-friendly. Pretreatment with shorter processing time will promote the commercial viability. In this work, pretreatment of reduced Amberlyst catalysis time of 34 min was demonstrated to be the most effective among time-varying pretreatments, evidenced by partial removal of hemicellulose and cellulose crystal transformation of Arundo donax Linn. A higher fermentable sugar concentration of 10.42 g/L (2% substrate) was obtained after 72 h of saccharification than the others. Total processing time to reach 92% glucose yield was cut down to approximately 26 h. Progressive deconstruction of crop cell wall was occurred with increased catalysis time by gradual releasing of H3O(+) of Amberlyst. However, vast lignin re-deposited polymers on fibers could hinder further enzymatic hydrolysis. These discoveries provide new insights into a more economic pretreatment for bioethanol production. PMID:26363822

  13. Antioxidant and Immunomodulatory Activity of the Alkaloidal Fraction of Cissampelos pareira Linn.

    PubMed Central

    Bafna, Anand; Mishra, Shrihari

    2010-01-01

    The alkaloidal fraction (AFCP) of roots of Cissampelos pareira Linn. was screened for in-vitro antioxidant activity and immunomodulatory activity in mice. The HPTLC finger print profile was also established for the identification of AFCP which was found to contain 0.176 % of berberine. AFCP possess strong antioxidant activity which was revealed by its ability to scavenge the stable free radical DPPH, superoxide ion and to inhibit lipid peroxidation in rat liver homogenate induced by iron/ADP/Ascorbate complex. AFCP was found to have significant immunosuppressive activity at lower doses (25 and 50 mg/kg) while no activity was observed at higher doses (75 and 100 mg/kg). Humoral antibody titre was significantly (p<0.01) lowered by AFCP at the doses of 25 and 50 mg/kg. Delayed type hypersensitivity response was also significantly (p<0.01) suppressed by the AFCP at the dose of 75 mg/kg. Thus the present study revealed the immunosuppressive and antioxidant activities of the alkaloidal fraction of C. pareira roots. PMID:21179368

  14. Antioxidant and immunomodulatory activity of the alkaloidal fraction of Cissampelos pareira linn.

    PubMed

    Bafna, Anand; Mishra, Shrihari

    2010-01-01

    The alkaloidal fraction (AFCP) of roots of Cissampelos pareira Linn. was screened for in-vitro antioxidant activity and immunomodulatory activity in mice. The HPTLC finger print profile was also established for the identification of AFCP which was found to contain 0.176 % of berberine. AFCP possess strong antioxidant activity which was revealed by its ability to scavenge the stable free radical DPPH, superoxide ion and to inhibit lipid peroxidation in rat liver homogenate induced by iron/ADP/Ascorbate complex. AFCP was found to have significant immunosuppressive activity at lower doses (25 and 50 mg/kg) while no activity was observed at higher doses (75 and 100 mg/kg). Humoral antibody titre was significantly (p<0.01) lowered by AFCP at the doses of 25 and 50 mg/kg. Delayed type hypersensitivity response was also significantly (p<0.01) suppressed by the AFCP at the dose of 75 mg/kg. Thus the present study revealed the immunosuppressive and antioxidant activities of the alkaloidal fraction of C. pareira roots. PMID:21179368

  15. Effect of Tectona grandis Linn. seeds on hair growth activity of albino mice.

    PubMed

    Jaybhaye, Deepali; Varma, Sushikumar; Gagne, Nitin; Bonde, Vijay; Gite, Amol; Bhosle, Deepak

    2010-10-01

    The seeds of Tectona grandis Linn. are traditionally acclaimed as hair tonic in the Indian system of medicine. Studies were therefore undertaken in order to evaluate petroleum ether extract of T. grandis seeds for its effect on hair growth in albino mice. The 5% and 10% extracts incorporated into simple ointment base were applied topically on shaved denuded skin of albino mice. The time required for initiation of hair growth as well as completion of hair growth cycle was recorded. Minoxidil 2% solution was applied topically and served as positive control. The result of treatment with minoxidil 2% is 49% hair in anagenic phase. Hair growth initiation time was significantly reduced to half on treatment with the extracts compared to control animals. The treatment was successful in bringing a greater number of hair follicles (64% and 51%) in anagenic phase than standard minoxidil (49%). The results of treatment with 5% and 10% petroleum ether extracts were comparable to the positive control minoxidil. PMID:21455447

  16. Antihyperglycemic and antioxidant activity of Clitorea ternatea Linn. on streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Talpate, Karuna A; Bhosale, Uma A; Zambare, Mandar R; Somani, Rahul

    2013-10-01

    Ethanol extract of Clitorea ternatea Linn. (EECT) was evaluated for its antihyperglycemic and antioxidative activity in normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Antihyperglycemic activity of EECT was studied in normal fasted and glucose fed hyperglycemic and epinephrine induced hyperglycemic rats by estimating fasting serum glucose (FSG) by glucose oxidisae or peroxidase enzymatic method. Antioxidant activity of EECT was studied by assaying lipid peroxide/Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), superoxide dismutase (SOD), total nitric oxide, catalase (CAT) and glutathione levels in diabetic rats. The EECT (200 and 400 mg/kg) showed significant antihyperglycemic activity by decreasing FSG in all hyperglycemic models except epinephrine induced hyperglycemic rats; in which improvement in FSG was observed only with EECT in 400 mg/kg dose, whereas significant decrease in TBARS (P < 0.001), nitric oxide (P < 0.001) and significant increase in SOD (P < 0.001), CAT (P < 0.01) and reduced glutathione levels (P < 0.001) was observed in animals treated with EECT (200 and 400 mg/kg) compared to diabetic control group. The results indicated that EECT has remedial effects on hyperglycemia and oxidative stress in diabetic rats. PMID:24696583

  17. Identification of bacterial endophytes associated with traditional medicinal plant Tridax procumbens Linn.

    PubMed Central

    Preveena, Jagadesan; Bhore, Subhash J.

    2013-01-01

    Background: In traditional medicine, Tridax procumbens Linn. is used in the treatment of injuries and wounds. The bacterial endophytes (BEs) of medicinal plants could produce medicinally important metabolites found in their hosts; and hence, the involvement of BEs in conferring wound healing properties to T. Procumbens cannot be ruled out. But, we do not know which types of BEs are associated with T. Procumbens. Objective: The objective of this study was to investigate the fast growing and cultivable BEs associated with T. procumbens. Materials and Methods: Leaves and stems of healthy T. Procumbens plants were collected and cultivable BEs were isolated from surface-sterilized leaf and stem tissue samples using Luria-Bertani (LB) agar (medium) at standard conditions. A polymerase chain reaction was employed to amplify 16S rRNA coding gene fragments from the isolates. Cultivable endophytic bacterial isolates (EBIs) were identified using 16S rRNA gene nucleotide sequence similarity based method of bacterial identification. Results: Altogether, 50 culturable EBIs were isolated. 16S rRNA gene nucleotide sequences analysis using the Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST) revealed identities of the EBIs. Analysis reveals that cultivable Bacillus spp., Cronobacter sakazakii, Enterobacter spp., Lysinibacillus sphaericus, Pantoea spp., Pseudomonas spp. and Terribacillus saccharophilus are associated with T. Procumbens. Conclusion: Based on the results, we conclude that 24 different types of culturable BEs are associated with traditionally used medicinal plant, T. Procumbens, and require further study. PMID:24501447

  18. Hexavalent chromium and its effect on health: possible protective role of garlic (Allium sativum Linn).

    PubMed

    Das, Kusal K; Dhundasi, Salim A; Das, Swastika N

    2011-01-01

    Hexavalent chromium or chromium (VI) is a powerful epithelial irritant and a confirmed human carcinogen. This heavy metal is toxic to many plants, aquatic animals, and bacteria. Chromium (VI) which consists of 10%-15% total chromium usage, is principally used for metal plating (H2Cr2O7), as dyes, paint pigments, and leather tanning, etc. Industrial production of chromium (II) and (III) compounds are also available but in small amounts as compared to chromium (VI). Chromium (VI) can act as an oxidant directly on the skin surface or it can be absorbed through the skin, especially if the skin surface is damaged. The prooxidative effects of chromium (VI) inhibit antioxidant enzymes and deplete intracellular glutathione in living systems and act as hematotoxic, immunotoxic, hepatotoxic, pulmonary toxic, and nephrotoxic agents. In this review, we particularly address the hexavalent chromium-induced generation of reactive oxygen species and increased lipid peroxidation in humans and animals, and the possible role of garlic (Allium sativum Linn) as a protective antioxidant. PMID:22865357

  19. Flood of June 4, 2002, in the Indian Creek Basin, Linn County, Iowa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eash, David A.

    2004-01-01

    Severe flooding occurred on June 4, 2002, in the Indian Creek Basin in Linn County, Iowa, following thunderstorm activity over east-central Iowa. The rain gage at Cedar Rapids, Iowa, recorded a 24-hour rainfall of 4.76 inches at 6:00 p.m. on June 4th. Radar indications estimated as much as 6 inches of rain fell in the headwaters of the Indian Creek Basin. Peak discharges on Indian Creek of 12,500 cubic feet per second at County Home Road north of Marion, Iowa, and 24,300 cubic feet per second at East Post Road in southeast Cedar Rapids, were determined for the flood. The recurrence interval for these peak discharges both exceed the theoretical 500-year flood as computed using flood-estimation equations developed by the U.S. Geological Survey. Information about the basin and flood history, the 2002 thunderstorms and associated flooding, and a profile of high-water marks are presented for selected reaches along Indian and Dry Creeks.

  20. Cichorium intybus Linn. Extract Prevents Type 2 Diabetes Through Inhibition of NLRP3 Inflammasome Activation.

    PubMed

    Shim, Do-Wan; Han, Ji-Won; Ji, Young-Eun; Shin, Woo-Young; Koppula, Sushruta; Kim, Myong-Ki; Kim, Tae-Kweon; Park, Pyo-Jam; Kang, Tae-Bong; Lee, Kwang-Ho

    2016-03-01

    This study provides the scientific basis for the inhibitory effect of the aerial parts of Cichorium intybus Linn. (C. intybus) on the activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome in vitro and on high-fat diet (HFD)-induced type-2 diabetes (T2D). Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-primed bone marrow-derived macrophages were used to study the effects methanolic extract of C. intybus leaf (CI) on inflammasome activation. An insulin resistance model (mice fed a HFD) was used to study the in vivo effect of CI on T2D. CI attenuated interleukin-1β (IL-1β) secretion by inhibiting the activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome in mouse bone marrow macrophages. The CI treatment attenuated the intracellular movement of NLRP3 in Triton X-100 insoluble fraction, without affecting the expression of other NLRP3 inflammasome-related proteins. Attenuated IL-1β secretion may improve glucose metabolism in the HFD-fed insulin resistance mouse model. CI also attenuated the infiltration of M1 macrophages and increased the M2 macrophage population in white adipose tissue. Collectively, our data showed that CI inhibits IL-1β secretion through attenuation of NLRP3 inflammasome activation, leading to an antidiabetic effect by improving glucose metabolism and inhibiting metainflammation. PMID:26987023

  1. Novel neuroprotective effects of the aqueous extracts from Verbena officinalis Linn.

    PubMed

    Lai, Sau-Wan; Yu, Man-Shan; Yuen, Wai-Hung; Chang, Raymond Chuen-Chung

    2006-05-01

    Verbena officinialis Linn. (Verbenaceae) is a perennial plant which has been used as herbal medicine or health supplement in both Western and Eastern countries for centuries. It has been used to treat acute dysentery, enteritis, amenorrhea and depression. In view of its wide array of biological effects, we hypothesized that V. officinalis can exert cytoprotective effects on cells of the central nervous system. Pre-treatment of aqueous extracts of V. officinalis significantly attenuated the toxicity of beta-amyloid (Abeta) peptide and reducing agent dithiothreitol in primary cultures of cortical neurons. As extracellular accumulation of Abeta peptide is an important cytotoxic factor involved in Alzheimer's disease (AD), we have further explored its neuroprotective effect against Abeta. Treatment of V. officinalis attenuated Abeta-triggered DEVD- and VDVAD-cleavage activities in a dose-dependent manner. Further studies elucidated that phosphorylation of both interferon-inducing protein kinase (PKR) and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) was attenuated in Abeta-treated neurons. Taken together, we have proved our hypothesis by showing the novel neuroprotective effects of V. officinalis. As V. officinalis has long been used for many years to be a folk medicine, our study may provide a lead for its potential to be a neuroprotective agent against neuronal loss in AD. PMID:16406021

  2. Anti-diarrhoeal investigation from aqueous extract of Cuminum cyminum Linn. Seed in Albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Sahoo, Himanshu Bhusan; Sahoo, Saroj Kumar; Sarangi, Sarada Prasad; Sagar, Rakesh; Kori, Mohan Lal

    2014-01-01

    Background: Cuminum cyminum Linn. (Umbelliferae), commonly known as Jeera. It is native from mediterranean region, but today widely cultivated in Asian countries. It has been reported to possess various medicinal properties and an important food ingredient. The seed of the plant are claimed for treatment of diarrhoea by various traditional practitioners. Objectives: Hence, the present investigation was undertaken to evaluate aq. extract of C. cyminum seeds (ACCS) against diarrhoea on albino rats. Materials and Methods: The animals were divided into five groups and the control group was applied with 2% acacia suspension, the standard group with loperamide (3 mg/kg) or atropine sulphate (5mg/kg) and three test groups administered orally with 100, 250 and 500 mg/kg of ACCS. The antidiarrhoeal effect was investigated by castor oil induce diarrhoea model, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) induced enteropooling model, intestinal transit by charcoal meal test. Results: The ACCS showed significant (P < 0.001) inhibition in frequency of diarrhoea, defecation time delaying, secretion of intestinal fluid as well as intestinal propulsion as compared to control and the graded doses of tested extract followed dose dependent protection against diarrhoea. Conclusions: The study reveals that the ACCS is a potent antidiarrhoeal drug which supports the traditional claim. PMID:25002800

  3. Mn accumulation and tolerance in Celosia argentea Linn.: a new Mn-hyperaccumulating plant species.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jie; Shang, Weiwei; Zhang, Xuehong; Zhu, Yinian; Yu, Ke

    2014-02-28

    Identifying a hyperaccumulator is an important groundwork for the phytoextraction of heavy metal-contaminated soil. Celosia argentea Linn., which grew on a Mn tailing wasteland, was found to hyperaccumulate Mn (14 362mgkg(-1) in leaf dry matter) in this study. To investigate Mn tolerance and accumulation in C. argentea, a hydroponic culture experiment was conducted in a greenhouse. Results showed that the biomass and the relative growth rate of C. argentea were insignificantly different (p>0.05) at the Mn supply level ranging from 2.5mgL(-1) (control) to 400mgL(-1). Manganese concentrations in leaves, stems, and roots reached maxima of 20228, 8872, and 2823mgkg(-1) at 600mgMnL(-1), respectively. The relative rate of Mn accumulation increased by 91.2% at 400mgMnL(-1). Over 95% of the total Mn taken up by C. argentea was translocated to shoots. Thus, C. argentea exhibits the basic characteristics of a Mn-hyperaccumulator. This species has great potential to remediate Mn-contaminated soil cheaply and can also aid the studies of Mn uptake, translocation, speciation, distribution and detoxification in plants. PMID:24444455

  4. Analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity of root bark of Grewia asiatica Linn. in rodents

    PubMed Central

    Paviaya, Udaybhan Singh; Kumar, Parveen; Wanjari, Manish M.; Thenmozhi, S.; Balakrishnan, B. R.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Grewia asiatica Linn. (Family: Tiliaceae), called Phalsa in Hindi is an Indian medicinal plant used for a variety of therapeutic and nutritional uses. The root bark of the plant is traditionally used in rheumatism (painful chronic inflammatory condition). Aims: The present study demonstrates the analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity of root bark of G. asiatica in rodents. Settings and Design: The methanolic extract of Grewia asiatica (MEGA) and aqueous extract of Grewia asiatica (AEGA) of the bark were prepared and subjected to phytochemical tests and pharmacological screening for analgesic and anti-inflammatory effect in rodents. Materials and Methods: Analgesic effect was studied using acetic acid-induced writhing in mice and hot plate analgesia in rats while anti-inflammatory activity was investigated using carrageenan-induced paw oedema in rats. The MEGA or AEGA was administered orally in doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg/day of body weight. Statistical Analysis: Data were analysed by one-way analysis of variance followed by Dunnett's test. Results: The extracts showed a significant inhibition of writhing response and increase in hot plate reaction time and also caused a decrease in paw oedema. The effects were comparable with the standard drugs used. Conclusions: The present study indicates that root bark of G. asiatica exhibits peripheral and central analgesic effect and anti-inflammatory activity, which may be attributed to the various phytochemicals present in root bark of G. asiatica. PMID:24501443

  5. Antibacterial Effect of Hydroalcoholic Extract of Punica granatum Linn. Petal on Common Oral Microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Hajifattahi, Farnaz; Moravej-Salehi, Elham; Taheri, Maryam; Mahboubi, Arash; Kamalinejad, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. This study aimed to assess the effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Punica granatum Linn. (P. granatum) petal on Streptococcus sanguinis, Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus salivarius, Streptococcus sobrinus, and Enterococcus faecalis. Materials and Methods. In this in vitro study, P. granatum extract was prepared using powdered petals and water-ethanol solvent. Antibacterial effect of the extract, chlorhexidine (CHX), and ampicillin was evaluated on brain heart infusion agar (BHIA) using the cup-plate method. By assessing the diameter of the growth inhibition zone, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of the extract were determined for the above-mentioned bacteria. Results. Hydroalcoholic extract of P. granatum petal had inhibitory effects on the proliferation of all five bacterial strains with maximum effect on S. mutans with MIC and MBC of 3.9 mg/mL. The largest growth inhibition zone diameter belonged to S. sanguinis and the smallest to E. faecalis. Ampicillin and CHX had the greatest inhibitory effect on S. sanguinis. Conclusions. Hydroalcoholic extract of P. granatum had a significant antibacterial effect on common oral bacterial pathogens with maximum effect on S. mutans, which is the main microorganism responsible for dental plaque and caries. PMID:26884763

  6. Phytochemical screening and in vitro bioactivities of the extracts of aerial part of Boerhavia diffusa Linn.

    PubMed Central

    Apu, Apurba Sarker; Liza, Mahmuda Sultana; Jamaluddin, A.T.M.; Howlader, Md. Amran; Saha, Repon Kumer; Rizwan, Farhana; Nasrin, Nishat

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the bioactivities of crude n-hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of aerial part of Boerhavia diffusa Linn. (B. diffusa) and its phytochemical analysis. Methods The identification of phytoconstituents and assay of antioxidant, thrombolytic, cytotoxic, antimicrobial activities were conducted using specific standard in vitro procedures. Results The results showed that the plant extracts were a rich source of phytoconstituents. Methanol extract showed higher antioxidant, thrombolytic activity and less cytotoxic activity than those of n-hexane and ethyl acetate extracts of B. diffusa. Among the bioactivities, antioxidant activity was the most notable compared to the positive control and thus could be a potential rich source of natural antioxidant. In case of antimicrobial screening, crude extracts of the plant showed remarkable antibacterial activity against tested microorganisms. All the extracts showed significant inhibitory activity against Candida albicuns, at a concentration of 1000 µg/disc. Conclusions The present findings suggest that, the plant widely available in Bangladesh, could be a prominent source of medicinally important natural compounds. PMID:23569993

  7. Antimicrobial Activity and Brine Shrimp Lethality Bioassay of the Leaves Extract of Dillenia indica Linn

    PubMed Central

    Apu, AS; Muhit, MA; Tareq, SM; Pathan, AH; Jamaluddin, ATM; Ahmed, M

    2010-01-01

    The crude methanolic extract of Dillenia indica Linn. (Dilleniaceae) leaves has been investigated for the evaluation of antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities. Organic solvent (n-hexane, carbon tetrachloride and chloroform) fractions of methanolic extract and methanolic fraction (aqueous) were screened for their antimicrobial activity by disc diffusion method. Besides, the fractions were screened for cytotoxic activity using brine shrimp (Artemia salina) lethality bioassay. Among the four fractions tested, n-hexane, carbon tetrachloride, and chloroform fractions showed moderate antibacterial and antifungal activity compared to standard antibiotic, kanamycin. The average zone of inhibition was ranged from 6 to 8 mm at a concentration of 400 µg/disc. But the aqueous fraction was found to be insensitive to microbial growth. Compared to vincristine sulfate (with LC50 of 0.52 µg/ ml), n-hexane and chloroform fractions demonstrated a significant cytotoxic activity (having LC50 of 1.94 µg/ml and 2.13 µg/ml, respectively). The LC50 values of the carbon tetrachloride and aqueous fraction were 4.46 µg/ml and 5.13 µg/ ml, respectively. The study confirms the moderate antimicrobial and potent cytotoxic activities of Dillenia indica leaves extract and therefore demands the isolation of active principles and thorough bioassay. PMID:21331191

  8. Physical Stability and HPLC Analysis of Indian Kudzu (Pueraria tuberosa Linn.) Fortified Milk

    PubMed Central

    Rastogi, Subha; Katara, Antariksha; Pandey, Madan M.; Arora, Sumit; Singh, R. R. B.; Rawat, A. K. S.

    2013-01-01

    Functional foods provide health benefit beyond basic nutrition. Functional foods fortified with plant ingredients are well known. Ayurveda (Indian System of Medicine) has found several ways in which the medicinal benefits of herbs can be conveyed via certain foods as carriers. Milk is one such carrier which has been effectively used to deliver phytochemicals for targeted health benefits. Indian Kudzu or Pueraria tuberosa Linn. (Fabaceae) is an important medicinal plant of Ayurveda, and experiments suggest that it enhances the health benefits of milk when taken with milk as a carrier. Different milk combinations with P. tuberosa were prepared by homogenizing pasteurized toned milk with its ethanolic and hot water extracts and their stability with reference to pH and coagulation was studied over a period of 15 days. The combinations were also analyzed for puerarin, the major isoflavone C-glucoside present in P. tuberosa, through high-performance liquid chromatography using photo diode array detector. It was observed that there was no precipitate formation and the pH also did not change during the study period indicating their physical stability under the experimental conditions. Also there was no significant change in the content of puerarin during the study period, thereby indicating the chemical stability of the samples. These studies will be useful for developing milk nutraceuticals fortified with Indian Kudzu which has the potential to be included as an ingredient in health and functional foods. PMID:23690842

  9. Synthesis of silver nanoparticles using leaves of Catharanthus roseus Linn. G. Don and their antiplasmodial activities

    PubMed Central

    Ponarulselvam, S; Panneerselvam, C; Murugan, K; Aarthi, N; Kalimuthu, K; Thangamani, S

    2012-01-01

    Objective To develop a novel approach for the green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using aqueous leaves extracts of Catharanthus roseus (C. roseus) Linn. G. Don which has been proven active against malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum (P. falciparum). Methods Characterizations were determined by using ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectrophotometry, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray and X-ray diffraction. Results SEM showed the formation of silver nanoparticles with an average size of 35–55 nm. X-ray diffraction analysis showed that the particles were crystalline in nature with face centred cubic structure of the bulk silver with the broad peaks at 32.4, 46.4 and 28.0. Conclusions It can be concluded that the leaves of C. roseus can be good source for synthesis of silver nanoparticle which shows antiplasmodial activity against P. falciparum. The important outcome of the study will be the development of value added products from medicinal plants C. roseus for biomedical and nanotechnology based industries. PMID:23569974

  10. Antibacterial Effect of Hydroalcoholic Extract of Punica granatum Linn. Petal on Common Oral Microorganisms

    PubMed Central

    Hajifattahi, Farnaz; Moravej-Salehi, Elham; Taheri, Maryam; Mahboubi, Arash; Kamalinejad, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. This study aimed to assess the effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Punica granatum Linn. (P. granatum) petal on Streptococcus sanguinis, Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus salivarius, Streptococcus sobrinus, and Enterococcus faecalis. Materials and Methods. In this in vitro study, P. granatum extract was prepared using powdered petals and water-ethanol solvent. Antibacterial effect of the extract, chlorhexidine (CHX), and ampicillin was evaluated on brain heart infusion agar (BHIA) using the cup-plate method. By assessing the diameter of the growth inhibition zone, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of the extract were determined for the above-mentioned bacteria. Results. Hydroalcoholic extract of P. granatum petal had inhibitory effects on the proliferation of all five bacterial strains with maximum effect on S. mutans with MIC and MBC of 3.9 mg/mL. The largest growth inhibition zone diameter belonged to S. sanguinis and the smallest to E. faecalis. Ampicillin and CHX had the greatest inhibitory effect on S. sanguinis. Conclusions. Hydroalcoholic extract of P. granatum had a significant antibacterial effect on common oral bacterial pathogens with maximum effect on S. mutans, which is the main microorganism responsible for dental plaque and caries. PMID:26884763

  11. Chemopreventive effect of Curcuma longa Linn on liver pathology in HBx transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jungsun; Ha, Hye-Lin; Moon, Hyung-Bae; Lee, Yeon-Weol; Cho, Chong-Kwan; Yoo, Hwa-Seung; Yu, Dae-Yeul

    2011-06-01

    Unlike other forms of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), HCC induced by hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection shows a poor prognosis after conventional therapies. HBV induces liver cirrhosis and HCC. Many researchers have made efforts to find new substances that suppress the activity of HBV. Curcuma longa Linn (CLL) has been used for traditional medicine and food in Asia, especially in India, and has shown chemopreventive effects in a HBV-related in vitro model. This in vivo study was designed to seek the chemopreventive effects of CLL and its mechanisms. CLL mixture concentrated with dextrose water by boiling was lyophilized. CLL extracts were administrated to HBV X protein (HBx) transgenic mice aged 4 weeks for 2 to 4 weeks and aged 6 months for 3 months. After administration, histological changes in the liver tissue and expression of HBx-related genes were investigated. CLL-treated mice showed less visceral fat, a smaller liver/body weight ratio and delayed liver pathogenesis. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) expression was also increased in CLL-treated HBx transgenic mice, indicating regeneration of damaged liver tissue. CLL treatment decreased expression of HBx and increased p21 and cyclin D1 in livers of HBx transgenic mice. In addition, p-p53 was increased after CLL treatment. These results suggest that CLL can have beneficial effects on the early and late stages of liver pathogenesis, preventing and delaying liver carcinogenesis. This drug should be considered as a potential chemopreventive agent for HBV-related hepatocarcinogenesis. PMID:21190953

  12. Protective effect of Thunbergia laurifolia (Linn.) on lead induced acetylcholinesterase dysfunction and cognitive impairment in mice.

    PubMed

    Phyu, Moe Pwint; Tangpong, Jitbanjong

    2013-01-01

    Thunbergia laurifolia (linn., TL), a natural phenolic compound, has been reported to have many benefits and medicinal properties. The current study ascertains the total phenolic content present in TL aqueous leaf extract and also examines the antioxidant ability of the extract in preserving acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity of mice exposed to lead in vivo and in vitro model. Mice were given lead acetate (Pb) in drinking water (1 g/L) together with TL 100 and 200 mg/kg/day. The result showed that Pb induced AChE dysfunction in both in vitro and in vivo studies. TL significantly prevented Pb induced neurotoxicity in a dose-dependent manner which was indicated by comparatively better performance of TL treated mice in Morris Water Maze Swimming Test and increased AChE activity in the tissue sample collected from the brains of these mice. TL also exhibited the greatest amount of phenolic content, which has a significant positive correlation with its antioxidant capacity (P < 0.05). Taken together, these data suggested that the total phenolic compounds in TL could exhibit antioxidant and in part neuroprotective properties. It may play a potential treatment strategy for Pb contamination. PMID:24455676

  13. Spasmolytic effect of Psidium guajava Linn. (Myrtaceae) leaf aqueous extract on rat isolated uterine horns.

    PubMed

    Chiwororo, Witness D H; Ojewole, John A O

    2009-02-01

    Globally, primary dysmenorrhoea is one of the most frequent gynaecological disorders in young women. It is associated with increased uterine tone, and exaggerated contractility of uterine smooth muscles. In many rural African communities, a number of medicinal plants, including Psidium guajava Linn. (family: Myrtaceae), are used traditionally for the management, control and/or treatment of primary dysmenorrhoea. The present study was, therefore, undertaken to examine the spasmolytic effect of Psidium guajava leaf aqueous extract (PGE) on isolated, spontaneously-contracting and oestrogen-dominated, quiescent uterine horns of healthy, young adult, female Wistar rats. Graded, escalated concentrations of PGE (0.5-4.0 mg/ml) produced concentration-dependent and significant inhibitions of the amplitude of spontaneous phasic contractions of the isolated rat uterine horn preparations. In a concentration-related manner, PGE also significantly inhibited or abolished contractions produced by acetylcholine (ACh, 0.5-8.0 microg/ml), oxytocin (0.5-4.0 microU), bradykinin (2.5-10 ng/ml), carbachol (CCh, 0.5-8.0 microg/ml) or potassium chloride (K+, 10-80 mM) in quiescent uterine horn preparations isolated from the oestrogen-dominated rats. The spasmolytic effect of PGE observed in the present study lends pharmacological support to the traditional use of ;guava' leaves in the management, control and/or treatment of primary dysmenorrhoea in some rural African communities. PMID:19377271

  14. A novel antiproliferative and antifungal lectin from Amaranthus viridis Linn seeds.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Navjot; Dhuna, Vikram; Kamboj, Sukhdev Singh; Agrewala, Javed N; Singh, Jatinder

    2006-01-01

    A lectin from the seeds of Amaranthus viridis Linn has been purified by affinity chromatography on asialofetuin-linked amino activated silica. Amaranthus viridis lectin (AVL) has a native molecular mass of 67 kDa. It is a homodimer composed of two 36.6 kDa subunits. The lectin gave a single band in non-denaturing PAGE at pH 4.5 and pH 8.3 and a single peak on HPLC size exclusion and cation exchange columns. The purified lectin was specific for both T-antigen and N-acetyl-D-lactosamine, markers for various carcinomas, in addition to N-acetyl-D-galactosamine, asialofetuin and fetuin. This lectin reacted strongly with red blood cells (RBCs) from human ABO blood groups and rat. It also reacted with rabbit, sheep, goat and guinea pig RBCs. The lectin is a glycoprotein having no metal ion requirement for its activity. Denaturing agents such as urea, thiourea and guanidine-HCl had no effect on its activity when treated for 15 minutes. AVL showed significant antiproliferative activity towards HB98 and P388D1 murine cancer cell lines. It also exerted antifungal activity against phytopathogenic fungi Botrytis cincerea and Fusarium oxysporum but not against Rhizoctonia solani, Trichoderma reesei, Alternaria solani and Fusarium graminearum. PMID:17100645

  15. Clinical study of Tribulus terrestris Linn. in Oligozoospermia: A double blind study.

    PubMed

    Sellandi, Thirunavukkarasu M; Thakar, Anup B; Baghel, Madhav Singh

    2012-07-01

    Infertility is a problem of global proportions, affecting on an average 8-12% of couples worldwide. Low sperm count (Oligozoospermia) is one of the main causes of male infertility and it is correlated with Kshina Shukra. The fruits of Gokshura (Tribulus terrestris. Linn) are considered to act as a diuretic and aphrodisiac; they used for urolithiasis, sexual dysfunctions, and infertility. Hence, it was planned to study the effect of Gokshura in the management of Kshina Shukra (Oligozoospermia), and to evade the preconception, a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study was designed. In this study, eligible subjects between the age of 21 and 50 years, with a complaint of Kshina Shukra (Oligozoospermia), were randomized to receive either Gokshura granules or placebo granules for 60 days. The primary outcome measures were percentage changes in the Pratyatmaka Lakshanas (cardinal symptoms) of Kshina Shukra, Agni bala, Deha bala, Satva bala, the semenogram, and in the Quality of the Sexual Health Questionnaire. The placebo granules showed 70.95% improvement, whereas, the Gokshura granules showed 78.11% improvement in Rogi bala (Agni bala, Deha bala, Satva bala, and the Quality of Sexual Health) and Rogabala (Semen Analysis and Pratyatmaka Lakshanas). The Gokshura granules have shown superior results in the management of Kshina Shukra, as compared to the placebo granules. PMID:23723641

  16. Evaluation of mucilage of Hibiscus rosasinensis Linn as rate controlling matrix for sustained release of diclofenac.

    PubMed

    Jani, Girish K; Shah, Dhiren P

    2008-08-01

    This article reports the exploitation of novel hydrophilic excipient, that is, mucilage from Hibiscus rosasinensis Linn, for the development of sustained release tablet. Swelling ratio and flow properties analyses of dried mucilage powder were carried out. A 3(2) full factorial design was used. In factorial design, amounts of dried mucilage and dibasic calcium phosphate (DCP) were taken as independent factors and percentage drug release in 60 and 300 min and time for 80% drug release as dependent variables. Matrix tablet containing dried mucilage and diclofenac sodium (DS) was prepared through direct compression techniques. DS tablets were evaluated for hardness, friability, weight variation, in vitro drug release and water uptake, and mass loss study. The dried mucilage powder shows superior swelling capacity and excellent flow properties. Prepared tablets have acceptable hardness, friability, and uniformity in weight. It was found that batch HD8 fulfills all selected criteria. Drug release kinetics from these formulations corresponded best to the zero-order kinetics. Water uptake was independent whereas mass loss was dependent on agitation speed. The concept of similarity factor (f(2)) was used to prove similarity of dissolution profile in distilled water and phosphate buffer and was found to be 90.68. It was concluded that mucilage can be used as release-retarding agent for 12 h when the drug-mucilage ratio was 1:1.5. So, matrix tablet containing dried mucilage is most suitable for sustained release of DS. PMID:18686091

  17. Quality control and in vitro antioxidant potential of Coriandrum sativum Linn.

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Mhaveer; Tamboli, E. T.; Kamal, Y. T.; Ahmad, Wasim; Ansari, S. H.; Ahmad, Sayeed

    2015-01-01

    Background: Coriandrum sativum Linn., commonly known as coriander, is a well-known spice and drug in India. It has various health-related benefits and used in various Unani formulations. In this present study, quality assessment of coriander fruits was carried out by studying anatomical characters, physicochemical tests, and chemoprofiling using high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) and gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) along with in vitro antioxidant potential. Materials and Methods: Standardization was carried out as per the pharmacopeial guidelines. Estimation of heavy metals, pesticides, and aflatoxins was carried out to ascertain the presence of any contaminant in the sample. Chemoprofiling was achieved by thin layer chromatography (TLC) by optimizing the mobile phase for different extracts. The most of the pharmacological activities of coriander are based on volatile oil constituents. Hence, GC-MS profiling was also carried out using hexane-soluble fraction of hydro-alcoholic extract. The total phenolic contents and in vitro antioxidant efficacy were determined using previously established methods. Results: The quality control and anatomical studies were very valuable for the identification whereas good antioxidant potential was observed when compared to ascorbic acid. The drug was found free of contaminant when analyzed for pesticides and aflatoxins whereas heavy metals were found under reported limits. Conclusion: The work embodied in this present research can be utilized for the identification and the quality control of the coriander fruit. PMID:26681883

  18. Antioxidative polyphenols from Nigerian mistletoe Loranthus micranthus (Linn.) parasitizing on Hevea brasiliensis.

    PubMed

    Agbo, Matthias Onyebuchi; Lai, Daowan; Okoye, Festus B C; Osadebe, Patience O; Proksch, Peter

    2013-04-01

    Two new phenolic glycosides, linamarin gallate (1) and walsuraside B (2), together with nine known compounds, catechin (3), epicatechin (4), epicatechin 3-O-gallate (5), epicatechin 3-O-(3-O-methyl)gallate (6), epicatechin 3-O-(3,5-O-dimethyl)gallate (7), epicatechin 3-O-(3,4,5-O-trimethyl)gallate (8), quercetin 3-O-β-d-glucopyranoside (9), rutin (10), and peltatoside (11), were isolated from the leafy twigs of Nigerian mistletoe Loranthus micranthus (Linn.) parasitic on Hevea brasiliensis. Compound 1 was characterized as an unusual cyanogenic glycoside, while compound 8 was isolated for the first time from a natural source. This is the first report of a cyanogenic glycoside from mistletoes. The structures of the new compounds were unambiguously elucidated by 1D ((1)H, (13)C), 2D NMR (COSY, HSQC, and HMBC) and by mass spectroscopy. The antioxidant activities of the isolated compounds (1-11) were evaluated using the 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay. PMID:23422225

  19. Rheological characterization and drug release studies of gum exudates of Terminalia catappa Linn.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sadhis V; Sasmal, Dinakar; Pal, Subodh C

    2008-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to evaluate the gum exudates of Terminalia catappa Linn. (TC gum) as a release retarding excipient in oral controlled drug delivery system. The rheological properties of TC gum were studied and different formulation techniques were used to evaluate the comparative drug release characteristics. The viscosity was found to be dependent on concentration and pH. Temperature up to 60 degrees C did not show significant effect on viscosity. The rheological kinetics evaluated by power law, revealed the shear thinning behavior of the TC gum dispersion in water. Matrix tablets of TC gum were prepared with the model drug dextromethorphan hydrobromide (DH) by direct compression, wet granulation and solid dispersion techniques. The dissolution profiles of the matrix tablets were compared with the pure drug containing capsules using the USP Basket apparatus with 500 ml phosphate buffer of pH 6.8 as a dissolution medium. The drug release from the compressed tablets containing TC gum was comparatively sustained than pure drug containing capsules. Even though all the formulation techniques showed reduction of dissolution rate, aqueous wet granulation showed the maximum sustained release of more than 8 h. The release kinetics estimated by the power law revealed that the drug release mechanism involved in the dextromethorphan matrix is anomalous transport as indicated by the release exponent n values. Thus the study confirmed that the TC gum might be used in the controlled drug delivery system as a release-retarding polymer. PMID:18661243

  20. Biological activities of fructooligosaccharide (FOS)-containing Coix lachryma-jobi Linn. extract.

    PubMed

    Manosroi, Jiradej; Khositsuntiwong, Narinthorn; Manosroi, Aranya

    2014-02-01

    Fructooligosaccharide (FOS), a prebiotic was extracted from the grain of Coix lachryma-jobi Linn. (Job's tears) by hot water extraction at 60 °C for 1 h. The resulting dried powder extract was assayed for FOS content of 1-kestose (GF2), nystose (GF3) and 1-β-D-fructofuranosylnystose (GF4) using HPLC equipped with RI detector. Total FOS content of the extract was 24.98 ± 7.48% (g/100 g crude extract). The biological activity including antioxidant and cytotoxicity of the FOS-containing extract was determined. The antioxidant activity by DPPH free radical scavenging of FOS-containing extract was comparable to vitamin C (0.97 fold of vitamin C) with a slight lipid peroxidation inhibition activity. The extract exhibited no cytotoxic effect on normal human skin fibroblast. These results have confirmed not only the source of FOS from Job's tears extract but also its potential application as antioxidant in food or cosmetic products. PMID:24493893

  1. Medico-historical review of Nyagrŏdha (Ficus bengalensis Linn.).

    PubMed

    Varanasi, Subhose; Narayana, A

    2007-01-01

    Nyagrŏdha the Banyan tree (Ficus bengalensis Linn.) is a sacred medicinal plant since Vedic times. The English name Banyan is given by the Britishers to this tree because under the tree Banias i.e., the Hindu merchants used to assemble for business. The triad Ganges, the Himalayas and the Banyan tree are symbolise the images of India, hence it is considered as National Tree. Ficus means fig and bengalensis means belonging to or is of Bengal. To the most of Indians it is Sacred and symbolizes all three Gods of Hindus. The bark represents Lord Visnu, Brahma the roots and Siva the branches. Since Vedic times its small branches are used in Yajña (a sacrificial rite) and known for its giant structure. Alexander the Great is said to have camped under a banyan tree, which was big enough to shelter his whole army of 7,000 men. As per Vĕda it checks the environmental pollution and one of the source of Lăksă (Lac). Its medicinal importance is well documented in Ayurvĕda literature. However, more research needs for understanding the medicinal properties of this symbolic tree. PMID:19580111

  2. Urushiol-induced contact dermatitis caused during Shodhana (purificatory measures) of Bhallataka (Semecarpus anacardium Linn.) fruit

    PubMed Central

    llanchezhian, R.; Joseph C., Roshy; Rabinarayan, Acharya

    2012-01-01

    Bhallataka (Semecarpus anacardium Linn.; Ancardiaceae) is mentioned under Upavisha group in Ayurvedic classics and it is described as a poisonous medicinal plant in Drugs and Cosmetics Act (India), 1940. Fruit of Bhallataka is used either as a single drug or as an ingredient in many compound formulations of Indian systems of medicine to cure many diseases. Tarry oil present in the pericarp of the fruit causes blisters on contact. The major constituent of the tarry oil is anacardic acid and bhilawanol, a mixture of 3-n-pentadec(en)yl catechols. Bhilawanol A and B are known as Urushiols, and also, anacardic acid is closely related to Urushiol. Urushiol-induced contact dermatitis is the medical name given to allergic rashes produced by the oil Urushiol. This paper deals with five case reports of contact dermatitis caused during different stages of Shodhana (purificatory measures) of Bhallataka fruit due to improper handling of the utensils and disposal of media used in Shodhana procedure and their Ayurvedic management. To combat these clinical conditions, the affected persons were advised external application with pounded Nimba (Azadirachta indica A. Juss.) leaves on the affected parts and internal administration of Sarivadyasava 30 ml thrice daily after food and Triphala Churna 5 g before food twice daily. Reduction of itching and burning sensation was observed after topical application. PMID:23559802

  3. Evaluation of Sedative and Hypnotic Activity of Ethanolic Extract of Scoparia dulcis Linn.

    PubMed Central

    Moniruzzaman, Md.; Atikur Rahman, Md.; Ferdous, Afia

    2015-01-01

    Scoparia dulcis Linn. (SD) is a perennial herb that has been well studied for its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, and hepatoprotective effects. However, scientific information on SD regarding the neuropharmacological effect is limited. This study evaluated the sedative and hypnotic effect of the ethanolic extract of whole plants of Scoparia dulcis (EESD). For this purpose, the whole plants of S. dulcis were extracted with ethanol following maceration process and tested for the presence of phytochemical constituents. The sedative and hypnotic activity were then investigated using hole cross, open field, hole-board, rota-rod, and thiopental sodium-induced sleeping time determination tests in mice at the doses of 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg of EESD. Diazepam at the dose of 1 mg/kg was used as a reference drug in all the experiments. We found that EESD produced a significant dose-dependent inhibition of locomotor activity of mice both in hole cross and open field tests (P < 0.05). Besides, it also decreased rota-rod performances and the number of head dips in hole-board test. Furthermore, EESD significantly decreased the induction time to sleep and prolonged the duration of sleeping, induced by thiopental sodium. Taken together, our study suggests that EESD may possess sedative principles with potent hypnotic properties. PMID:25861372

  4. Radio protective effects of the Ayurvedic medicinal plant Ocimum sanctum Linn. (Holy Basil): A memoir.

    PubMed

    Baliga, Manjeshwar Shrinath; Rao, Suresh; Rai, Manoj P; D'souza, Prema

    2016-01-01

    The use of compounds which can selectively protect normal tissues against radiation injury is of immense use because in addition to it protecting the normal tissue, will also permits use of higher doses of radiation to obtain better cancer control and possible cure. However, most of the radio protective compounds investigated possess inadequate clinical application principally due to their inherent systemic toxicity at their optimal protective concentrations. Plants commonly used as medicinal and dietary agents have recently been the focus of attention and studies have shown that Ocimum sanctum Linn. commonly known as the Holy Basil and its water soluble flavonoids, orientin and vicenin protects experimental animals against the radiation-induced sickness and mortality at nontoxic concentrations. Studies with tumor bearing mice have also shown that both Tulsi extract and its flavonoids selectively protect the normal tissues against the tumoricidal effects of radiation. Preclinical studies have also shown that the aqueous extract of the Tulsi leaves; its flavanoids orientin and vicenin, and eugenol, the principal nonpolar constituent present in Tulsi prevent radiation-induced clastogenesis. Mechanistic studies have indicated that free radical scavenging, antioxidant, metal chelating and anti-inflammatory effects may contribute toward the observed protection. In addition, clinical studies with a small number of patients have shown that Tulsi was effective as a radio protective agent. This review summarizes the results related to the radio protective properties of Tulsi and its phytochemicals and also emphasizes the aspects that warrant future research to establish its use as a radio protective agent. PMID:27072205

  5. Evaluation of antinociceptive effect of methanolic leaf and root extracts of Clitoria ternatea Linn. in rats

    PubMed Central

    Kamilla, Linggam; Ramanathan, Surash; Sasidharan, Sreenivasan; Mansor, Sharif Mahsufi

    2014-01-01

    Aim: Clitoria ternatea Linn. (C. ternatea) is an Ayurvedic herb traditionally used as medicine to relieve inflammatory, rheumatism, ear diseases, fever, arthritis, eye ailments, sore throat and body ache. This study aims to evaluate and elucidate the possible mechanism underlying the antinociceptive action of methanolic extracts of C. ternatea leaf and root using several antinociception models. Materials and Methods: The different antinociception models such as hot plate, tail-flick and formalin tests were used along with naloxone (a non-selective opioid antagonist) to establish the antinociceptive activity of both leaf and root extracts. Results: Both C. ternatea leaf and root extracts markedly demonstrated antinociceptive action in experimental animals. Results of formalin test showed that the antinociceptive activity of the extracts may be mediated at both central and peripheral level. Moreover, the results of hot plate and tail-flick tests further implies that C. ternatea root extract mediates antinociceptive activity centrally at supraspinal and spinal levels whereas, the C. ternatea leaf extract's antinociceptive activity is mediated centrally at supraspinal level only. It is believed that the opioid receptors are probably involved in antinociceptive activity of both C. ternatea root extract. Conclusions: Our studies support the traditional use of C. ternatea leaf and root against pain. The extracts can also be utilised as a new source of central analgesics in treatment of pain. PMID:25298581

  6. Antihyperglycemic and antioxidant activity of Clitorea ternatea Linn. on streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    Talpate, Karuna A.; Bhosale, Uma A.; Zambare, Mandar R.; Somani, Rahul

    2013-01-01

    Ethanol extract of Clitorea ternatea Linn. (EECT) was evaluated for its antihyperglycemic and antioxidative activity in normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Antihyperglycemic activity of EECT was studied in normal fasted and glucose fed hyperglycemic and epinephrine induced hyperglycemic rats by estimating fasting serum glucose (FSG) by glucose oxidisae or peroxidase enzymatic method. Antioxidant activity of EECT was studied by assaying lipid peroxide/Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), superoxide dismutase (SOD), total nitric oxide, catalase (CAT) and glutathione levels in diabetic rats. The EECT (200 and 400 mg/kg) showed significant antihyperglycemic activity by decreasing FSG in all hyperglycemic models except epinephrine induced hyperglycemic rats; in which improvement in FSG was observed only with EECT in 400 mg/kg dose, whereas significant decrease in TBARS (P < 0.001), nitric oxide (P < 0.001) and significant increase in SOD (P < 0.001), CAT (P < 0.01) and reduced glutathione levels (P < 0.001) was observed in animals treated with EECT (200 and 400 mg/kg) compared to diabetic control group. The results indicated that EECT has remedial effects on hyperglycemia and oxidative stress in diabetic rats. PMID:24696583

  7. Structure of the conchiolin cases of the prisms in Mytilus edulis Linne.

    PubMed

    GREGOIRE, C

    1961-02-01

    The prisms in the shell of Mytilus edulis Linné are calcite needles. Their small size and their thin conchiolin cases distinguish them from the prisms of many other species of mollusks. These Mytilus prisms have been studied with the electron microscope. The material consisted of positive replicas of surfaces of the prismatic layer, etched with chelating agents, and of preparations of tubular cases from decalcified prisms which were compared with the conchiolin from decalcified mother-of-pearl of the same species. In the replicas, the cases appear as thin pellicles in the intervals between the prism crystals. Both the prism cases and the nacreous conchiolin, disintegrated by exposure to ultrasonic waves and sedimented on supporting films, appear in the form of tightly meshed, reticulated sheets, described as "tight pelecypod pattern" in former studies on nacreous conchiolin of Mytilus. The results show that in the shell of this species the same conchiolin structure is associated with aragonite in mother-of-pearl and with calcite in the prismatic layer. PMID:13708397

  8. STRUCTURE OF THE CONCHIOLIN CASES OF THE PRISMS IN MYTILUS EDULIS LINNE

    PubMed Central

    Grégoire, Charles

    1961-01-01

    The prisms in the shell of Mytilus edulis Linné are calcite needles. Their small size and their thin conchiolin cases distinguish them from the prisms of many other species of mollusks. These Mytilus prisms have been studied with the electron microscope. The material consisted of positive replicas of surfaces of the prismatic layer, etched with chelating agents, and of preparations of tubular cases from decalcified prisms which were compared with the conchiolin from decalcified mother-of-pearl of the same species. In the replicas, the cases appear as thin pellicles in the intervals between the prism crystals. Both the prism cases and the nacreous conchiolin, disintegrated by exposure to ultrasonic waves and sedimented on supporting films, appear in the form of tightly meshed, reticulated sheets, described as "tight pelecypod pattern" in former studies on nacreous conchiolin of Mytilus. The results show that in the shell of this species the same conchiolin structure is associated with aragonite in mother-of-pearl and with calcite in the prismatic layer. PMID:13708397

  9. Trema orientalis Linn. Blume: A potential for prospecting for drugs for various uses.

    PubMed

    Adinortey, Michael Buenor; Galyuon, Isaac K; Asamoah, Nicholas Oteng

    2013-01-01

    Medicinal plants are used by traditional practitioners to treat several ailments. Ethnomedicinal studies on Trema orientalis Linn. Blume (Ulmaceae) have shown that it is used in the treatment of diabetes mellitus, respiratory diseases, oliguria, and malaria. This article is aimed at providing comprehensive information on the medicinal uses, biology, phytochemical constituents, and pharmacological data available on T. orientalis. This has been done to explore its therapeutic potential for future research opportunities. This review was compiled with information obtained from databases such as Medline, Elsevier, Springer, Science Direct, Pubmed, Google Scholar, and a library search for articles published in peer-reviewed journals. Compounds present in the plant include tannins, saponins, flavanoids, triterpenes, phytosterols, and several constituents of xanthones. Some pharmacological research done on the plant has focused on, hypoglycemic activity, analgesic, anti-inflammatory activities, anti-plasmodial activity, diuretic activity, laxativity effect, anti-convulsant activity, anti-helmintic activity, anti-sickling effect, anti-oxidant, and anti-bacterial activity. This compilation strongly supports the view that T. orientalis has beneficial therapeutic properties, and indicates its potential as an effective herbal remedy for several diseases. The promising results from several research works could be further substantiated by clinical trials. PMID:23922459

  10. Ocimum sanctum Linn. (Tulsi): an ethnomedicinal plant for the prevention and treatment of cancer.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharyya, Piyali; Bishayee, Anupam

    2013-08-01

    Ocimum sanctum Linn., commonly known as 'Tulsi' or 'Holy Basil', is considered to be the most sacred herb of India. Several anatomical parts of O. sanctum are known to have an impressive number of therapeutic properties and accordingly find use in several traditional systems of medicine, such as Ayurveda, Unani, and Siddha. Scientific investigations have shown that O. sanctum has a plethora of biological and pharmacological activities. The presence of an impressive number of phytoconstituents in O. sanctum could explain its exceptional beneficial effects. Although several recent articles provide an overview of the various pharmacological properties of O. sanctum, the use of this herb for either prevention or therapy of oncologic diseases has not been exclusively and critically discussed in the literature. The present review critically and comprehensively examines the current knowledge on the chemopreventive and therapeutic potential of O. sanctum. The review also examines, in detail, the biochemical and molecular mechanisms involved in the antineoplastic effects of O. sanctum. Finally, we discuss the role of synergy, current limitations, and future directions of research toward the effective use of this ethnomedicinal plant for the prevention and treatment of human cancer. PMID:23629478

  11. Toxicological Study of Ocimum sanctum Linn Leaves: Hematological, Biochemical, and Histopathological Studies

    PubMed Central

    Gautam, M. K.; Goel, R. K.

    2014-01-01

    The present study was aimed to study the acute and subacute toxicity studies with orally administered 50% ethanolic leaves extract of Ocimum sanctum Linn (OSE). In acute toxicity tests, four groups of mice (n = 6/group/sex) were orally treated with doses of 200, 600, and 2000 mg/kg, and general behavior, adverse effects, and mortality were recorded for up to 14 days. In subacute toxicity study, rats received OSE by gavage at the doses of 200, 400, and 800 mg/kg/day (n = 6/group/sex) for 28 days, and biochemical, hematological, and histopathological changes in tissues (liver, kidney, spleen, heart, and testis/ovary) were determined. OSE did not produce any hazardous symptoms or death and CNS and ANS toxicities in the acute toxicity test. Subacute treatment with OSE did not show any change in body weight, food and water consumption, and hematological and biochemical profiles. In addition, no change was observed both in macroscopic and microscopic aspects of vital organs in rats. Our result showed that Ocimum sanctum extract could be safe for human use. PMID:24616736

  12. A clinical trial of Pippali (Piper longum Linn.) with special reference to Abheshaja.

    PubMed

    Pathak, Megha; Vyas, Hitesh; Vyas, Mahesh Kumar

    2010-10-01

    The classification of Dravya has been undertaken in many ways, but according to the medicinal value, they are mainly divided into two - Bheshaja and Abheshaja. No study has been documented on Abheshaja to date as per the scholar's knowledge. Therefore, the present study was carried out to understand the concept of Abheshaja by a practical study. The drug Pippali (Piper Longum Linn.) has been contraindicated to be used for a longer duration. A clinical study was carried out on patients with Kaphaja Kasa, to evolve and assess if the drug acts as Abheshaja or not, and if yes, then under what circumstances. The patients of Kaphaja Kasa had been selected by the random sampling method. They were randomly divided into two groups - Group A and Group B. In Group A, test drug Pippali Churna was administered. Group B was a standard control group and Vasa Churna was given to this group. The dose of both the drugs was 4 g B.I.D. The result was assessed after three weeks of drug administration with the help of a specially prepared proforma. All the important hematological, biochemical, urine, and stool investigations were carried out. There was no adverse drug reaction (ADR) observed after the administration of Pippali in this particular study. PMID:22048536

  13. Green synthesis of copper nanoparticles by Citrus medica Linn. (Idilimbu) juice and its antimicrobial activity.

    PubMed

    Shende, Sudhir; Ingle, Avinash P; Gade, Aniket; Rai, Mahendra

    2015-06-01

    We report an eco-friendly method for the synthesis of copper nanoparticles (CuNPs) using Citron juice (Citrus medica Linn.), which is nontoxic and cheap. The biogenic copper nanoparticles were characterized by UV-Vis spectrophotometer showing a typical resonance (SPR) at about 631 nm which is specific for CuNPs. Nanoparticles tracking analysis by NanoSight-LM20 showed the particles in the range of 10-60 nm with the concentration of 2.18 × 10(8) particles per ml. X-ray diffraction revealed the FCC nature of nanoparticles with an average size of 20 nm. The antimicrobial activity of CuNPs was determined by Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method against some selected species of bacteria and plant pathogenic fungi. It was reported that the synthesized CuNPs demonstrated a significant inhibitory activity against Escherichia coli followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Propionibacterium acnes and Salmonella typhi. Among the plant pathogenic fungi tested, Fusarium culmorum was found to be most sensitive followed by F. oxysporum and F. graminearum. The novelty of this work is that for the first time citron juice was used for the synthesis of CuNPs. PMID:25761857

  14. Whole body radioprotective effect of phenolic extracts from the fruits of Malus baccata (Linn.) Borkh.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lu; Li, Xiaoyu; Wang, Zhenyu

    2016-02-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the radioprotective effect of phenolics extracted from the fruits of Malus baccata (Linn.) Borkh. (MBP-3b) against damage induced by (60)Co γ-irradiation in vivo. MBP-3b could significantly improve the activity of endogenous antioxidant enzymes and the T-AOC, as well as reduce the MDA level in the liver and kidneys of irradiated mice. In addition, pretreatment with MBP-3b at a dose of 150 mg per kg bw could significantly enhance immunomodulation activity by promoting the proliferation of spenocytes and monocyte phagocytosis. The administration of MBP-3b prevented the decline induced by radiation of haematological parameters (WBC, RBC, PLT and HGB). Furthermore, MBP-3b could protect spenocytes from radiation-induced damage by inhibiting cell apoptosis. The results indicated that MBP-3b possesses strong whole body radioprotective and immunomodulatory activities. The main constituents of MBP-3b were tentatively identified as delphinidin-3,5-diglucoside, cyanidin-3-glucoside, chlorogenic acid, proanthocyanidin C1, quercetin-3-galactoside, quercetin-3-glucoside, quercetin-3-xyloside/arabinoside, phloretin-2-xyloseglucoside, quercetin-3-rhamnoside and phlorizin. MBP-3b could be used as a probable radioprotector against gamma radiation induced oxidative damage. PMID:26741951

  15. In Vitro α-Amylase Inhibition and Antioxidant Activities of Methanolic Extract of Amaranthus Caudatus Linn

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Ashok; Khan, Saleemulla

    2011-01-01

    Objectives The present study was aimed to investigate the α-amylase inhibition and antioxidant activities of methanolic extract of Amaranthus caudatus Linn (MeAc). Methods Methanolic extract of Amaranthus caudatus was screened for α-amylase inhibition activity by CNPG3 method (2-chloro-p-nitrophenyl-α-D-maltotrioside) and antioxidant activity was evaluated by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazile (DPPH) free radical scavenging, superoxide dismutase (SOD) scavenging, hydroxyl free radical scavenging, nitric oxide (NO) radical scavenging, and 2.2’-azinobis-3-ethylbenzothiazole-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) radical scavenging assays. MeAc was also screened for non enzymatic hemoglycosylation. Results The methanolic extract of Amaranthus caudatus showed potent α-amylase inhibition activity (IC50 19.233 µg/ml). MeAc showed significant antioxidant activity in all the in vitro antioxidant models. Furthermore, the MeAc was found to be extremely effective in scavenging ABTS radical activity (IC50 48.75±1.1 µg/ml) when compared to DPPH (IC50 77.5±0.4 µg/ml), SOD (IC50 62.5±2.1 µg/ml), hydroxyl (IC50 88.50±1.8 µg/ml) and NO (IC50 67.5±2.2 µg/ml) scavenging activity. Conclusions The methanolic extract of A. caudatus showed potent α-amylase inhibition and antioxidant activities. PMID:22043408

  16. Acute and Sub-Acute Toxicity Studies of Plumeria alba Linn. (Apocynaceae) Hydroalcoholic Extract in Rat

    PubMed Central

    Tessou, K. Z.; Lawson-Evi, P.; Metowogo, K.; Diallo, A.; Eklu-Gadegkeku, K.; Aklikokou, K.; Gbeassor, M.

    2013-01-01

    Plumeria alba Linn (Apocynaceae) is used in Togolese traditional medicine to treat diabetes mellitus and wounds. The present investigation was carried out to evaluate the toxicity of hydroalcoholic extract of Plumeria alba roots in Sprague Dawley rats. The acute toxicity test was conducted by administering orally dose of 5 g/Kg. General behavior and mortality were examined for up to 14 days. The sub-acute toxicity test was performed by daily gavage at 250, 500 and 1000 mg/Kg for 28 days. Body weight and blood glucose were measured weekly. Hematological and biochemical parameters, relative organ weight were determined at the end of the 28 days administration. In acute study, no adverse effect of the extract was observed at 5.0 g/Kg. Sub-acute oral administration of the extract at the dose up to 1000 mg/Kg did not induce death or significant changes in body weight, relative weight of vital organs, hematological parameters and was not associated with liver and kidney toxicity. PMID:24711763

  17. Studies on Wound Healing Activity of Heliotropium indicum Linn. Leaves on Rats

    PubMed Central

    Dash, G. K.; Murthy, P. N.

    2011-01-01

    The petroleum ether, chloroform, methanol, and aqueous extracts of Heliotropium indicum Linn. (Family: Boraginaceae) were separately evaluated for their wound healing activity in rats using excision (normal and infected), incision, and dead space wound models. The effects of test samples on the rate of wound healing were assessed by the rate of wound closure, period of epithelialisation, wound breaking strength, weights of the granulation tissue, determination of hydroxyproline, super oxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, and histopathology of the granulation tissues. Nitrofurazone (0.2% w/w) in simple ointment I. P. was used as reference standard for the activity comparison. The results revealed significant promotion of wound healing with both methanol and aqueous extracts with more promising activity with the methanol extract compared to other extracts under study. In the wound infection model (with S. aureus and P. aeruginosa), the methanol extract showed significant healing activity similar to the reference standard nitrofurazone. Significant increase in the granulation tissue weight, increased hydroxyproline content, and increased activity of SOD and catalase level with the animals treated with methanol extract in dead space wound model further augmented the wound healing potential of H. indicum. The present work substantiates its validity of the folklore use. PMID:22084720

  18. Determination of Proximate, Minerals, Vitamin and Anti-Nutrients Composition of Solanum verbascifolium Linn.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sam, S. M.; Udosen, I. R.; Mensah, S. I.

    2012-07-01

    The proximate, minerals, vitamins and anti-nutrients composition of Solanum verbascifolium Linn were determined. The proximate composition showed that moisture content was (85.5%), protein was (32.55%), lipid was (2.90%), ash was (7.20%), fibre was (4.80%), carbohydrate was (52.55%) and caloric value was (366.50%) respectively. This was found to be rich in protein and considerably high amount of carbohydrate. The anti-nutrient composition analysis revealed the presence of hydrocyanide (1.39mg/100g), Oxalate (114.40mg/100g), all of which are below toxic level except for oxalic acid. For mineral and vitamin compositions, potassium was significantly (P>0.05) higher than iron, sodium, calcium and phosphorus while vitamin A retinol was (371.72mg/100g) and vitamin C ascorbic acid (39.99mg/100g). Based on these findings the plant is recommended for consumption and for further investigation as a potential raw material for pharmaceutical industry.

  19. A clinical trial of Pippali (Piper longum Linn.) with special reference to Abheshaja

    PubMed Central

    Pathak, Megha; Vyas, Hitesh; Vyas, Mahesh Kumar

    2010-01-01

    The classification of Dravya has been undertaken in many ways, but according to the medicinal value, they are mainly divided into two - Bheshaja and Abheshaja. No study has been documented on Abheshaja to date as per the scholar's knowledge. Therefore, the present study was carried out to understand the concept of Abheshaja by a practical study. The drug Pippali (Piper Longum Linn.) has been contraindicated to be used for a longer duration. A clinical study was carried out on patients with Kaphaja Kasa, to evolve and assess if the drug acts as Abheshaja or not, and if yes, then under what circumstances. The patients of Kaphaja Kasa had been selected by the random sampling method. They were randomly divided into two groups - Group A and Group B. In Group A, test drug Pippali Churna was administered. Group B was a standard control group and Vasa Churna was given to this group. The dose of both the drugs was 4 g B.I.D. The result was assessed after three weeks of drug administration with the help of a specially prepared proforma. All the important hematological, biochemical, urine, and stool investigations were carried out. There was no adverse drug reaction (ADR) observed after the administration of Pippali in this particular study. PMID:22048536

  20. Antimicrobial Activity and Brine Shrimp Lethality Bioassay of the Leaves Extract of Dillenia indica Linn.

    PubMed

    Apu, As; Muhit, Ma; Tareq, Sm; Pathan, Ah; Jamaluddin, Atm; Ahmed, M

    2010-01-01

    The crude methanolic extract of Dillenia indica Linn. (Dilleniaceae) leaves has been investigated for the evaluation of antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities. Organic solvent (n-hexane, carbon tetrachloride and chloroform) fractions of methanolic extract and methanolic fraction (aqueous) were screened for their antimicrobial activity by disc diffusion method. Besides, the fractions were screened for cytotoxic activity using brine shrimp (Artemia salina) lethality bioassay. Among the four fractions tested, n-hexane, carbon tetrachloride, and chloroform fractions showed moderate antibacterial and antifungal activity compared to standard antibiotic, kanamycin. The average zone of inhibition was ranged from 6 to 8 mm at a concentration of 400 µg/disc. But the aqueous fraction was found to be insensitive to microbial growth. Compared to vincristine sulfate (with LC(50) of 0.52 µg/ ml), n-hexane and chloroform fractions demonstrated a significant cytotoxic activity (having LC(50) of 1.94 µg/ml and 2.13 µg/ml, respectively). The LC(50) values of the carbon tetrachloride and aqueous fraction were 4.46 µg/ml and 5.13 µg/ ml, respectively. The study confirms the moderate antimicrobial and potent cytotoxic activities of Dillenia indica leaves extract and therefore demands the isolation of active principles and thorough bioassay. PMID:21331191

  1. A comparative study of efficacy of Tugaksheeree [Curcuma angustifolia Roxb. and Maranta arundinacea Linn.] in management of Amlapitta

    PubMed Central

    Rajashekhara, N.; Sharma, P. P.

    2010-01-01

    Amlapitta is a disease caused by increase of Amla Guna of Pitta. Starch obtained from the rhizomes of two plants viz., Curcuma angustifolia Roxb. (Fam. Zingiberaceae) and Maranta arundinacea Linn. (Fam. Marantaceae) are used as Tugaksheeree. In the present clinical study, the efficacy of Tugaksheeree was studied on 67 patients of Amlapitta. A 0 total of 84 patients suffering from Amlapitta were selected from the O.P.D. and I.P.D. sections in the department of Dravyaguna, I.P.G.T. and R.A., Hospital, Jamnagar, and were randomly divided into two groups. Thirty four patients completed the treatment course in Group I, and 33 patients completed the treatment course in Group II. The efficacy of drug Tugaksheeree was studied through internal administration of the starches of C. angustifolia Roxb. (Fam. Zingiberaceae) in Group I and M. arundinacea Linn. (Fam. Marantaceae) in Group II with the dose of 4 g TID with water for 30 days. Both the drugs were found highly effective in treating Amlapitta. They significantly relieved the cardinal symptoms viz., Avipaka, Tikta-amlodgara, Daha, Shoola, Chhardi and the associated symptoms viz., Aruchi, Gaurava, Udaradhmana, Antrakujana, Vit bheda, Shiroruja, Angasada, and Trit. Statistically significant increase in body weight was noticed in both the groups. This may be because the drugs corrected the Agni and acted as Brihmana and Dhatupushtikara. Both the drugs did not produce any side effects. Therefore, both these drugs (C. angustifolia Roxb. and M. arundinacea Linn.) can be used as substitutes for each other. PMID:22048544

  2. Study on anti-diabetic activities of crude methanolic extracts of Loranthus micranthus (Linn.) sourced from five different host trees.

    PubMed

    Osadebe, P O; Okide, G B; Akabogu, I C

    2004-12-01

    The hypoglycaemic and anti-hyperglycemic activities of dried leaves of Loranthus micranthus (Linn.) (Loranthaceae), parasitic on Persea americana, Baphia nitda, Kola acuminata, Pentaclethra macrophylla, Azadirchta indica, were evaluated in normoglycemic and alloxan-induced diabetic albino rats. Normoglycemic and alloxan-induced diabetic rats were treated (intraperitoneally) with 200 mg/kg of the respective methanolic extracts of Loranthus micranthus (Linn.), glibenclamide (positive control), and 20% (v/v) Tween 20 solution (negative control). The sugar levels of the withdrawn blood samples were determined by o-toluidine spectrophotometric method. The studies indicate that the crude methanolic extract of Loranthus micranthus (Linn.) exhibited statistically significant hypoglycaemic (P < 0.001) and anti-hyperglycemic (P < 0.001) activities in normoglycemic and alloxan-induced diabetic albino rats, respectively. The hypoglycaemic effect was found to be dose-dependent. The maximum effect of the mistletoe extract (400 mg/kg) from Persea americana on alloxan-induced diabetic rats was found to be statistically comparable with that of the positive control, glibenclamide, at 24 h after administration, with a percentage reduction of blood sugar levels of 82.59 and 83.34%, respectively. Acute toxicity tests of the methanolic extracts of Persea americana, Baphia nitda, Kola acuminata, Pentaclethra macrophylla, Azadirchta indica host trees in mice gave LD(50) values of 11650, 11650, 5900, 5900 and 5900 mg/kg, respectively, which are all within the practically non-toxic range. The methanolic extract of African mistletoe was found to be a good candidate for alternative and/or complimentary medicine in the management of diabetes mellitus. The leaves of the Eastern Nigerian species of the African mistletoe harvested from Kola acuminata, Azadirchta indica and Baphia nitda host trees exhibited comparatively better anti-hyperglycemic activities among the host trees studied. PMID

  3. A comparative study of efficacy of Tugaksheeree [Curcuma angustifolia Roxb. and Maranta arundinacea Linn.] in management of Amlapitta.

    PubMed

    Rajashekhara, N; Sharma, P P

    2010-10-01

    Amlapitta is a disease caused by increase of Amla Guna of Pitta. Starch obtained from the rhizomes of two plants viz., Curcuma angustifolia Roxb. (Fam. Zingiberaceae) and Maranta arundinacea Linn. (Fam. Marantaceae) are used as Tugaksheeree. In the present clinical study, the efficacy of Tugaksheeree was studied on 67 patients of Amlapitta. A 0 total of 84 patients suffering from Amlapitta were selected from the O.P.D. and I.P.D. sections in the department of Dravyaguna, I.P.G.T. and R.A., Hospital, Jamnagar, and were randomly divided into two groups. Thirty four patients completed the treatment course in Group I, and 33 patients completed the treatment course in Group II. The efficacy of drug Tugaksheeree was studied through internal administration of the starches of C. angustifolia Roxb. (Fam. Zingiberaceae) in Group I and M. arundinacea Linn. (Fam. Marantaceae) in Group II with the dose of 4 g TID with water for 30 days. Both the drugs were found highly effective in treating Amlapitta. They significantly relieved the cardinal symptoms viz., Avipaka, Tikta-amlodgara, Daha, Shoola, Chhardi and the associated symptoms viz., Aruchi, Gaurava, Udaradhmana, Antrakujana, Vit bheda, Shiroruja, Angasada, and Trit. Statistically significant increase in body weight was noticed in both the groups. This may be because the drugs corrected the Agni and acted as Brihmana and Dhatupushtikara. Both the drugs did not produce any side effects. Therefore, both these drugs (C. angustifolia Roxb. and M. arundinacea Linn.) can be used as substitutes for each other. PMID:22048544

  4. Studies on activity of various extracts of Mentha arvensis Linn against drug induced gastric ulcer in mammals

    PubMed Central

    Londonkar, Ramesh L; Poddar, Pramod V

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To examine the antiulcerogenic effects of various extracts of Mentha arvensis Linn on acid, ethanol and pylorus ligated ulcer models in rats and mice. METHODS: Various crude extracts of petroleum ether, chloroform, or aqueous at a dose of 2 g/kg po did not produce any signs or symptoms of toxicity in treated animals. In the pyloric ligation model oral administration of different extracts such as petroleum ether, chloroform and aqueous at 375 mg/kg po, standard drug ranitidine 60 mg/kg po and control group 1% Tween 80, 5 mL/kg po to separate groups of Wister rats of either sex (n = 6) was performed. Total acidity, ulcer number, scoring, incidence, area, and ulcer index were assessed. RESULTS: There was a decrease in gastric secretion and ulcer index among the treated groups i.e. petroleum ether (53.4%), chloroform (59.2%), aqueous (67.0%) and in standard drug (68.7%) when compared to the negative control. In the 0.6 mol/L HCl induced ulcer model in rats (n = 6) there was a reduction in ulcerative score in animals receiving petroleum ether (50.5%), chloroform (57.4%), aqueous (67.5%) and standard. drug (71.2%) when compared to the negative control. In the case of the 90% ethanol-induced ulceration model (n = 6) in mice, there was a decrease in ulcer score in test groups of petroleum ether (53.11%), chloroform (62.9%), aqueous (65.4%) and standard drug ranitidine (69.7%) when compared to the negative control. It was found that pre-treatment with various extracts of Mentha arvensis Linn in three rat/mice ulcer models ie ibuprofen plus pyloric ligation, 0.6 mol/L HCl and 90% ethanol produced significant action against acid secretion (49.3 ± 0.49 vs 12.0 ± 0.57, P < 0.001). Pre-treatment with various extracts of Mentha arvensis Linn showed highly -significant activity against gastric ulcers (37.1 ± 0.87 vs 12.0 ± 0.57, P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Various extracts of Mentha arvensis Linn. 375 mg/kg body weight clearly shows a protective effect against acid secretion

  5. Potential use of durian fruit (Durio zibenthinus Linn) as an adjunct to treat infertility in polycystic ovarian syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ansari, Reshma M

    2016-01-01

    Infertility due to polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is a worldwide problem that is increasing at alarming rates. Insulin resistance, the prime factor of PCOS, induces comorbid metabolic syndrome as well. Durian (Durio zibenthinus Linn), a fruit of Southeast Asia, is used as a natural supplement in healthy diets. This paper is a short literature review that examines the fruit's effects against various components of metabolic syndrome and its fertility-enhancing properties in PCOS. Various published literature was reviewed to learn of the anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, anti-obesity, anticholesterol, and antihypoglycaemic nature of the fruit. The literature search was done using PubMed, Google Scholar and library databases. The keywords used were polycystic ovarian syndrome, infertility, metabolic syndrome and Durian zibenthinus Linn. Reviewed studies showed that the fruit is effective against various components of metabolic syndrome, but the mechanisms of action against anovulation and menstrual disturbances in PCOS have yet to be studied. The traditional use of durian as a fertility-enhancing agent needs to be validated scientifically by isolating its various components and ascertaining its fertility enhancing properties. PMID:26778225

  6. ANTIPLAQUE AND ANTIGINGIVITIS EFFECTS OF A GEL CONTAINING PUNICA GRANATUM LINN EXTRACT. A DOUBLE-BLIND CLINICAL STUDY IN HUMANS

    PubMed Central

    Salgado, Alexandre Daher Yunes; Maia, Juliana Lemos; Pereira, Sérgio Luís da Silva; de Lemos, Telma Leda Gomes; Mota, Olívia Morais de Lima

    2006-01-01

    Objectives: The antiplaque and antigingivitis effects of a gel containing 10% Punica granatum Linn extract were evaluated using a 21-day partial-mouth experimental model of gingivitis. Methods: 23 volunteers participated in this cross-over, doubleblind study, carried out in 2 phases of 21 days each. For each period of the experiment, an acrylic toothshield was made for each volunteer to carry the test or placebo gel as well as to avoid brushing of the 4 experimental teeth (posterior teeth in the lower left quadrant). The subjects were randomly assigned to use either the placebo gel (control group) or the test gel (experimental group) and were instructed to brush the remaining teeth normally 3 times a day. On days 0 and 21, the visible plaque index (VPI) and gingival bleeding index (GBI) were recorded. Results: The results did not show statistically significant difference between control and experimental groups for either of the indices (VPI and GBI). Conclusion: The gel containing 10% Punica granatum Linn extract was not efficient in preventing supragingival dental plaque formation and gingivitis. PMID:19089066

  7. Antitumor activity of crude polysaccharides isolated from Solanum nigrum Linne on U14 cervical carcinoma bearing mice.

    PubMed

    Li, Jian; Li, Qingwang; Feng, Tao; Zhang, Tao; Li, Kun; Zhao, Rui; Han, Zengsheng; Gao, Dawei

    2007-09-01

    Solanum nigrum Linne (SNL) has been used in traditional Chinese medicine for centuries because of its diuretic and antipyretic effects. The present study examined the effect of the crude polysaccharides isolated from Solanum nigrum Linne (SNL-P) on tumor growth. SNL-P had a significant growth inhibition effect on cervical cancer (U14) of tumor-bearing mice. Further analysis of the tumor inhibition mechanism indicated that the number of apoptotic tumor cells increased significantly, the expression of Bax increased and the expression of Bcl-2 and mutant p53 decreased dramatically in cervical cancer sections after oral administration of SNL-P for 12 days. Moreover, SNL-P treatment decreased the level of blood serum TNF-alpha. These results indicated that the tumor growth inhibition of SNL-P administration might correlate with the reduction of TNF-alpha level of blood serum, which resulted in a massive necrosis in tumor tissues and the up-regulation of Bax and down-regulation of Bcl-2 and mutant p53 gene expression, which triggered apoptosis in tumor cells. These findings demonstrated that the SNL-P is a potential antitumor agent. PMID:17486683

  8. Analgesic and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of the Methanolic Stem Bark Extract of Nyctanthes arbor-tristis Linn.

    PubMed Central

    Kakoti, Bibhuti Bhusan; Pradhan, Paresh; Borah, Sudarshana; Mahato, Kabita; Kumar, Mritunjay

    2013-01-01

    Stem bark of Nyctanthes arbor-tristis Linn. was extracted in methanol to evaluate their analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities. The analgesic activity was determined on Wistar albino rats by hot plate method, tail flick assay, and tail immersion method using Morphine sulphate as standard drug at a dose of 5 mg/kg of body weight and the results were expressed as mean increase in latency after drug administration ± SEM. The anti-inflammatory activity was assessed by Carrageenan-induced rat paw oedema using diclofenac sodium as standard drug at a dose of 100 mg/kg of body weight and expressed in terms of mean increase in paw volume ± SEM. Stem bark extract was given at a dose of 250 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg of body weight. Both standard drugs and extract were administered orally to the animals. Control received distilled water orally. Results showed that Nyctanthes arbor-tristis Linn. had potent analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities. PMID:23984409

  9. Use of agricultural land evaluation and site assessment in Linn County, Oregon, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huddleston, J. Herbert; Pease, James R.; Forrest, William G.; Hickerson, Hugh J.; Langridge, Russell W.

    1987-07-01

    Oregon state law requires each county in the state to identify agricultural land and enact policies and regulations to protect agricultural land use. State guidelines encourage the preservation of large parcels of agricultural land and discourage partitioning of agricultural land and construction of nonfarm dwellings in agricultural areas. A land evaluation and site assessment (LESA) system was developed in Linn County to aid in the identification of agricultural land and provide assistance to decision makers concerning the relative merits of requests to partition existing parcels of ricultural land and introduce nonagricultural uses. Land evaluation was determined by calculating soil potential ratings for each agricultural soil in the county based on the soil potentials for winter wheat, annual ryegrass, permanent pasture, and irrigated sweet corn. Soil potential ratings were expressed on a scale of 0 to 150 points. The land evaluation score for a parcel consists of the weighted average soil potential rating for all of the soils in the parcel, weighted by the percentage of each soil present in the parcel. Site assessment was based on the size of a parcel and on the amount of existing conflict between agricultural and nonagricultural uses, particularly rural residential uses, both adjacent to and in the vicinity of a parcel. Parcel size refers to both size in relation to a typical field and size in relation to a typical farm unit. Conflict takes into account the number of nonfarm dwellings within 1/4 mile (0.4 km) of a parcel, the amount of the perimeter that adjoins conflicting land uses, and the residential density adjacent to the parcel. Empirical scales were derived for assigning points to each of the site assessment factors. Both parcel size and conflict were worth 75 points in the model. For parcel size, 45 points were allocated to field size and 30 points to farm-unit size. For conflict, 30 points were allocated to nonfarm dwellings within 1/4 mile and 45

  10. Quality assessment and anti-obesity activity of Stellaria media (Linn.) Vill

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Obesity is recognized as a social problem, associated with serious health risks and increased mortality. Numerous trials have been conducted to find and develop new anti-obesity drugs through herbal sources to minimize side effects associated with the present anti-obesity drugs. The present study was designed to evaluate the quality control parameters, quantitative phytochemical analysis (total phenolic, total flavonoids and total saponin content), and the anti-obesity effect of lyophilized juice (LJ) of Stellaria media (Linn.) Vill. by employing in vitro and in vivo models. Methods In vitro studies were performed to evaluate the inhibitory activity of LJ on pancreatic amylase and lipase. The in vivo pancreatic lipase activity was evaluated by measurement of plasma triacylglycerol levels after oral administration of lipid emulsion to swiss albino mice. Furthermore, the anti-obesity effect of LJ was assessed at two doses, 400 mg/kg and 900 mg/kg body weight in mice fed a high-fat-diet with or without LJ for 6 weeks. Results The LJ inhibited pancreatic amylase and lipase activity in vitro and elevated plasma triacylglycerol level in mice. LJ suppressed the increase in body weight, retroperitoneal adipose tissue, liver weights and serum parameters viz., total cholesterol, total triglyceride, LDL-cholesterol level at the dose of 900 mg/kg body weight of the mice fed with high fat diet. The total phenolic, flavonoid and saponin contents were found to be 0.26 mg/g, 1.4 mg/g and 1.19 μg/g respectively of LJ. Conclusion The anti-obesity effects of LJ in high-fat-diet fed mice may be partly mediated through delaying the intestinal absorption of dietary fat and carbohydrate by inhibiting digestive enzymes. PMID:22943464

  11. Trypsin inhibitors from ridged gourd (Luffa acutangula Linn.) seeds: purification, properties, and amino acid sequences.

    PubMed

    Haldar, U C; Saha, S K; Beavis, R C; Sinha, N K

    1996-02-01

    Two trypsin inhibitors, LA-1 and LA-2, have been isolated from ridged gourd (Luffa acutangula Linn.) seeds and purified to homogeneity by gel filtration followed by ion-exchange chromatography. The isoelectric point is at pH 4.55 for LA-1 and at pH 5.85 for LA-2. The Stokes radius of each inhibitor is 11.4 A. The fluorescence emission spectrum of each inhibitor is similar to that of the free tyrosine. The biomolecular rate constant of acrylamide quenching is 1.0 x 10(9) M-1 sec-1 for LA-1 and 0.8 x 10(9) M-1 sec-1 for LA-2 and that of K2HPO4 quenching is 1.6 x 10(11) M-1 sec-1 for LA-1 and 1.2 x 10(11) M-1 sec-1 for LA-2. Analysis of the circular dichroic spectra yields 40% alpha-helix and 60% beta-turn for La-1 and 45% alpha-helix and 55% beta-turn for LA-2. Inhibitors LA-1 and LA-2 consist of 28 and 29 amino acid residues, respectively. They lack threonine, alanine, valine, and tryptophan. Both inhibitors strongly inhibit trypsin by forming enzyme-inhibitor complexes at a molar ratio of unity. A chemical modification study suggests the involvement of arginine of LA-1 and lysine of LA-2 in their reactive sites. The inhibitors are very similar in their amino acid sequences, and show sequence homology with other squash family inhibitors. PMID:8924202

  12. Evaluation of Nutritional and Antioxidant Status of Lepidium latifolium Linn.: A Novel Phytofood from Ladakh

    PubMed Central

    Koul, Sushma; Vishwakarma, Ram; Vyas, Dhiraj

    2013-01-01

    Lepidium latifolium Linn. (perennial pepperweed) is one of the preferred phytofoods among cold arid region of Ladakh, India and its leaves contribute significantly to people's diet. This study was conducted to determine its nutritive value and antioxidant activity. Plant samples from three different locations were selected in the present study. Results showed that this plant is an excellent source of glucosinolates, notably sinigrin that is present in very high amount (∼70–90%). Its value ranged from 149 to 199 µg per g fresh weight. Fatty acid composition analysis showed that its leaves were abundant in unsaturated fatty acids, specifically linolenic acid (18∶3) whose percentage is about 50%. Higher glucose and crude protein along with higher nitrogen to sulfur ratio, supplements the nutritive value of this plant. Based on total phenol, flavanoids, free radical scavenging activity and DNA protective activity showed that this ecotype of perennial pepperweed contains high antioxidant properties. The percentage inhibition for O2− scavenging activity ranged from 41.3% to 83.9%. Higher content of phenols (26.89 to 50.51 mg gallic acid equivalents per g dry weight) and flavanoids (38.66 to 76.00 mg quercetin equivalents per g dry weight) in leaves could be responsible for the free radical scavenging activity of this plant. Depending upon the location of the plants, variations were observed in different activities. Based on the systematic evaluation in this study, preparations of Lepidium latifolium from Ladakh can be promoted as substitute to dietary requirements. PMID:23936316

  13. Study of wound healing activity of Tectona grandis Linn. leaf extract on rats

    PubMed Central

    Varma, Sushilkumar B.; Giri, Sapna P.

    2013-01-01

    Aims: The aim of the study is to determine the wound healing activity of Tectona grandis (TG) Linn. leaf extract on rats. Materials and Methods: Healthy albino rats (150-200 g) of either sex were taken for excision and incision wound model. Animals were divided into four groups of six animals in each group. For Group simple ointment served as control. The Groups 2 and 3 had 5 and 10% ointment of TG leaf extract and Group 4 soframycin ointment served as standard. In excision wound percentage of wound contraction was assessed, whereas in incision wound tensile strength was assessed. Statistical analysis was performed by one-way analysis of variance followed by t-test. Results: In excision wound model, 5% ointment of TG leaf extract showed a reduction in wound area 8th day onwards. Reduction in wound area was very significant (P < 0.01) as compared to control. Whereas 10% ointment of TG leaf extract and standard showed a reduction in wound area fourth day onwards, which was highly significant (P < 0.001) as compared to control. In incision wound model, animals treated with 5% ointment of TG leaf extract showed significant (P < 0.05) increase in tensile strength as compare to control. However, animals treated with 10% ointment of TG leaf extract showed very significant (P < 0.001) increase in tensile strength as compare with control. However, animals treated with soframycin showed highly significant (P < 0.001) increase in tensile strength as compare with control. Conclusions: TG leaf extract showed significant wound healing activity. PMID:24991074

  14. Cissampelos pareira Linn: Natural Source of Potent Antiviral Activity against All Four Dengue Virus Serotypes

    PubMed Central

    Sood, Ruchi; Raut, Rajendra; Tyagi, Poornima; Pareek, Pawan Kumar; Barman, Tarani Kanta; Singhal, Smita; Shirumalla, Raj Kumar; Kanoje, Vijay; Subbarayan, Ramesh; Rajerethinam, Ravisankar; Sharma, Navin; Kanaujia, Anil; Shukla, Gyanesh; Gupta, Y. K.; Katiyar, Chandra K.; Bhatnagar, Pradip K.; Upadhyay, Dilip J.; Swaminathan, Sathyamangalam; Khanna, Navin

    2015-01-01

    Background Dengue, a mosquito-borne viral disease, poses a significant global public health risk. In tropical countries such as India where periodic dengue outbreaks can be correlated to the high prevalence of the mosquito vector, circulation of all four dengue viruses (DENVs) and the high population density, a drug for dengue is being increasingly recognized as an unmet public health need. Methodology/Principal findings Using the knowledge of traditional Indian medicine, Ayurveda, we developed a systematic bioassay-guided screening approach to explore the indigenous herbal bio-resource to identify plants with pan-DENV inhibitory activity. Our results show that the alcoholic extract of Cissampelos pariera Linn (Cipa extract) was a potent inhibitor of all four DENVs in cell-based assays, assessed in terms of viral NS1 antigen secretion using ELISA, as well as viral replication, based on plaque assays. Virus yield reduction assays showed that Cipa extract could decrease viral titers by an order of magnitude. The extract conferred statistically significant protection against DENV infection using the AG129 mouse model. A preliminary evaluation of the clinical relevance of Cipa extract showed that it had no adverse effects on platelet counts and RBC viability. In addition to inherent antipyretic activity in Wistar rats, it possessed the ability to down-regulate the production of TNF-α, a cytokine implicated in severe dengue disease. Importantly, it showed no evidence of toxicity in Wistar rats, when administered at doses as high as 2g/Kg body weight for up to 1 week. Conclusions/Significance Our findings above, taken in the context of the human safety of Cipa, based on its use in Indian traditional medicine, warrant further work to explore Cipa as a source for the development of an inexpensive herbal formulation for dengue therapy. This may be of practical relevance to a dengue-endemic resource-poor country such as India. PMID:26709822

  15. Purified Essential Oil from Ocimum sanctum Linn. Triggers the Apoptotic Mechanism in Human Breast Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Manaharan, Thamilvaani; Thirugnanasampandan, Ramaraj; Jayakumar, Rajarajeswaran; Kanthimathi, M. S.; Ramya, Gunasekar; Ramnath, Madhusudhanan Gogul

    2016-01-01

    Background: Essential oil of Ocimum sanctum Linn. exhibited various pharmacological activities including antifungal and antimicrobial activities. In this study, we analyzed the anticancer and apoptosis mechanisms of Ocimum sanctum essential oil (OSEO). Objective: To trigger the apoptosis mechanism in human breast cancer cells using OSEO. Materials and Methods: OSEO was extracted using hydrodistillation of the leaves. Cell proliferation was determined using different concentrations of OSEO. Apoptosis studies were carried out in human breast cancer cells using propidium iodide (PI) and Hoechst staining. Results: We found that OSEO inhibited proliferation (IC50 = 170 μg/ml) of Michigan cancer foundation-7 (MCF-7) cells in a dose-dependent manner. The OSEO also induced apoptosis as evidenced by the increasing number of PI-stained apoptotic nucleic of MCF-7 cells. Flow cytometry analysis revealed that treatment with OSEO (50–500 μg/ml) increased the apoptotic cells population (16–84%) dose dependently compared to the control. OSEO has the ability to up-regulate the apoptotic genes p53 and Bid and as well as elevates the ratio of Bax/Bcl-2. Conclusion: Our findings indicate that OSEO has the ability as proapoptotic inducer and it could be developed as an anticancer agent. SUMMARY OSEO inhibited proliferation of MCF-7 cells with an IC50 of 170 μg/mLOSEO at 500 μg/mL increased the population of apoptotic cells by 84%OSEO up-regulated the expression of apoptotic genes and as well increased the Bax/Bcl2 ratio. Abbreviations used: BAX: BAX BCL2-associated X protein; BCL2: B-cell CLL/lymphoma 2; BID: BH3 Interacting domain death agonist; OSEO: Ocimum sanctum essential oil; DMSO: Dimethyl sulfoxide; DMEM: Dulbecco's modified Eagle medium; MCF-7: Michigan cancer foundation-7; RT-PCR: Real Time Polymerase Chain Reaction.

  16. A 24-Weeks Toxicity Study of Eryngium foetidum Linn. Leaves in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Janwitthayanuchit, Kanittha; Kupradinun, Piengchai; Rungsipipat, Anudep; Kettawan, Aikkarach; Butryee, Chaniphun

    2016-01-01

    Eryngium foetidum Linn. leaves (EF) are widely used in Thailand and many countries throughout Asia as a culinary seasoning and a traditional medicine. However, adverse effect of high dose consumption in long duration has not been evaluated. The aim of this study was to investigate chronic toxicity of EF in mice. Thirty-two ICR male mice were divided into 4 groups of 8 mice each. The mice were fed AIN-76 rodent diet, or AIN-76 rodent diet supplemented with ground freeze-dried EF at 0.8%, 1.6% and 3.2% that is equivalent to approximately 35, 73 and 155 times that of human consumption, respectively, at 97.5 percentile for a period of 24 weeks. At the end of experiment, the mice were euthanized and blood samples were collected for hematological and biochemical evaluations. Necropsy was performed while visceral organs such as lung, liver, kidneys, spleen etc. were collected, weighed and histopathologically examined. Blood urea nitrogen (BUN) results of mice in 1.6% and 3.2% EF diet groups were significantly higher than the BUN of control group. No significant difference was noted in other biochemical and hematological properties between the treatment groups and control; all results were within normal range. Histopathology of almost all visceral organs showed no significant changes. However, tubulonephrosis and chronic interstitial nephritis were observed in the groups treated with 1.6% and 3.2% EF diet. Body weight was reduced significantly at week 12 to week 20 when compared to the control group while relative kidney weights were significantly increased. In conclusion, the consumption of EF in diet at high doses illustrated the adverse effect on some biochemical parameters and histopathology in mice. Our findings suggested that EF daily consumption for 24 weeks, at higher doses than the 0.8% EF diet (35 times of human consumption), might cause adverse effect on kidney function in mice. PMID:27437090

  17. Evaluation of Antidiarrheal Activity of Methanolic Extract of Maranta arundinacea Linn. Leaves.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Md Khalilur; Chowdhury, Md Ashraf Uddin; Islam, Mohammed Taufiqual; Chowdhury, Md Anisuzzaman; Uddin, Muhammad Erfan; Sumi, Chandra Datta

    2015-01-01

    Diarrhea is one of the most common causes for thousands of deaths every year. Therefore, identification of new source of antidiarrheal drugs becomes one of the most prominent focuses in modern research. Our aim was to investigate the antidiarrheal and cytotoxic activities of methanolic extract of Maranta arundinacea linn. (MEMA) leaves in rats and brine shrimp, respectively. Antidiarrheal effect was evaluated by using castor oil-induced diarrhea, enteropooling, and gastrointestinal motility tests at 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg body weight in rats where the cytotoxic activity was justified using brine shrimp lethality bioassay at different concentrations of MEMA. The extract showed considerable antidiarrheal effect by inhibiting 42.67% and 57.75% of diarrheal episode at the doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg, respectively. MEMA also significantly (p < 0.01) reduced the castor oil-induced intestinal volume (2.14 ± 0.16 to 1.61 ± 0.12 mL) in enteropooling test as well as intestinal transit (33.00 to 43.36%) in GI motility test, compared to their respective control. These observed effects are comparable to that of standard drug loperamide (5 mg/kg). On the other hand, in brine shrimp lethality test after 24 h, surviving brine shrimp larvae were counted and LD50 was assessed. Result showed that MEMA was potent against brine shrimp with LD50 value of 420 µg/mL. So the highest dose of 400 µg/mL of MEMA was not toxic to mice. So these results indicate that bioactive compounds are present in methanolic extract of Maranta arundinacea leaves including significant antidiarrheal activity and could be accounted for pharmacological effects. PMID:26346095

  18. Evaluation of Antidiarrheal Activity of Methanolic Extract of Maranta arundinacea Linn. Leaves

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Md. Khalilur; Chowdhury, Md. Ashraf Uddin; Islam, Mohammed Taufiqual; Chowdhury, Md. Anisuzzaman; Uddin, Muhammad Erfan; Sumi, Chandra Datta

    2015-01-01

    Diarrhea is one of the most common causes for thousands of deaths every year. Therefore, identification of new source of antidiarrheal drugs becomes one of the most prominent focuses in modern research. Our aim was to investigate the antidiarrheal and cytotoxic activities of methanolic extract of Maranta arundinacea linn. (MEMA) leaves in rats and brine shrimp, respectively. Antidiarrheal effect was evaluated by using castor oil-induced diarrhea, enteropooling, and gastrointestinal motility tests at 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg body weight in rats where the cytotoxic activity was justified using brine shrimp lethality bioassay at different concentrations of MEMA. The extract showed considerable antidiarrheal effect by inhibiting 42.67% and 57.75% of diarrheal episode at the doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg, respectively. MEMA also significantly (p < 0.01) reduced the castor oil-induced intestinal volume (2.14 ± 0.16 to 1.61 ± 0.12 mL) in enteropooling test as well as intestinal transit (33.00 to 43.36%) in GI motility test, compared to their respective control. These observed effects are comparable to that of standard drug loperamide (5 mg/kg). On the other hand, in brine shrimp lethality test after 24 h, surviving brine shrimp larvae were counted and LD50 was assessed. Result showed that MEMA was potent against brine shrimp with LD50 value of 420 µg/mL. So the highest dose of 400 µg/mL of MEMA was not toxic to mice. So these results indicate that bioactive compounds are present in methanolic extract of Maranta arundinacea leaves including significant antidiarrheal activity and could be accounted for pharmacological effects. PMID:26346095

  19. Antioxidant and Immunomodulatory Activity of Hydroalcoholic Extract and its Fractions of Leaves of Ficus benghalensis Linn.

    PubMed Central

    Bhanwase, Anil Subhash; Alagawadi, Kallanagouda Ramappa

    2016-01-01

    Background: Ficus benghalensis is a folk medicine indigenous plant of India. Several studies on this plant reported and focused on the biological profile of the plant. Objectives: This study is aimed to evaluate the antioxidant and immunomodulatory activity of F. benghalensis leaf extract using various in vitro screening methods of both parameters. Materials and Methods: Hydroalcoholic (FB1) extract and it's four fractions viz. n-hexane (FB2), n-butanol (FB3), chloroform (FB4), and water (FB5) of leaves of F. benghalensis investigated for their free radical scavenging activity using 1-1-diphneyl-2-picrylhydrazyl and 2, 2′-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) radicals. A dose-response curve was plotted and IC50 values were determined to assess antioxidant activity. Nitroblue tetrazolium test, phagocytosis of killed Candida albicans and candidacidal assay were carried out to assess the immunomodulatory activity. Positive non-lymphoid cell number, mean particle number of killed C. albicans, percent value of killed C. albicans by neutrophils were calculated and presented. Results: All extracts showed antioxidant and prominent immunomodulatory activity with compared to standard. Conclusions: Hydroalcoholic (FB1) extract and its four fractions viz. n-hexane (FB2), n-butanol (FB3), chloroform (FB4), and water (FB5) showed promising antioxidant and immunomodulatory activity. SUMMARY Hydroalcoholic extract and its fractions of F. benghalensis Linn exhibited different DPPH and ABTS scavenging activity in concentration dependent manner.The extract, fractions and reference antioxidants showed DPPH scavenging effect in the order of Vit-C > Quercetin > FB2 > FB1 > FB5 > FB4> FB3 and ABTS scavenging effect in the order of Vit-C > Quercetin > FB1> FB2 > FB5 > FB3> FB4.FB2 and FB3 showed promising immunomodulatory activity at all concentrations. PMID:26941536

  20. Influence of Total Anthocyanins from Bitter Melon (Momordica charantia Linn.) as Antidiabetic and Radical Scavenging Agents

    PubMed Central

    Güdr, Aytaç

    2016-01-01

    The majority of the antioxidant and antidiabetic activities of fruits are anthocyanins; a group of polyphenolics that are responsible for the color of many fruits, vegetables and flowers. The harvesting time, storage conditions, maturity, extraction steps etc. are very important for the biological activities based on the alteration of chemical composition. The free radical scavenging and antidiabetic activities of total anthocyanins from bitter melon (Momordica charantia Linn) fruit (TAMC) were evaluated by considering four harvesting times. The free radical scavenging activities of the TAMC samples were assessed using DPPH•, DMPD•+ and ABTS•+ assays against BHA, rutin and trolox standards. September as a harvesting period (TAMC-S) had effective DPPH• (SC50 2.55 ± 0.08 μg/mL), DMPD•+ (SC50 2.68 ± 0.09 μg/mL) and ABTS•+ (SC50 8.19 ± 0.09 μg/mL) scavenging activities compared with other samples and standards. In addition, August (TAMC-A) as a harvesting period showed very influential inhibitory activity against α-amylase (IC50 56.86 ± 1.12 μg/mL) and moderate inhibitory activity against α-glucosidase (IC50 88.19 ± 0.74 μg/mL). In comparison, pharmaceutical active ingredients such as acarbose exhibited anti-amylase and anti-glucosidase activities with IC50 values of 93.07 ± 1.49 μg/mL and 77.25 ± 1.20 μg/mL respectively. These results suggest that the correct selection of harvest period can significantly increase anthocyanin quantity because of the pharmaceutic properties of TAMC. Consequently, TAMC may be interesting for incorporation in pharmaceutical preparations for human health, since it can suppress hyperglycaemia that can be also used as food additives due to its antiradical activity. PMID:27610171

  1. Isolation, characterization, and evaluation of Cassia fistula Linn. seed and pulp polymer for pharmaceutical application

    PubMed Central

    Killedar, Suresh G; Nale, Ashwini B; more, Harinath N; Nadaf, Sameer J; Pawar, Anuja A; Tamboli, Umarfarukh S

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Present work, is an effort toward exploring the potential of Cassia fistula Linn. seed gum as an extended release polymer and laxative. While, C. fistula pulp polymer has evaluated as suspending agent. Materials and Methods: For extended release application, total five batches (F1-F5) were prepared by varying the ratio of drug:polymer as 1:1, 1:2, 1:3, 1:4, and 1:5, respectively. The granules were prepared by wet granulation method and further evaluated for micromeritic properties such as angle of repose (θ), Carr's compressibility index (CCI), and Hausner's ratio. Further compacts were evaluated by hardness, thickness, swelling index, in-vitro dissolution, and so on. Laxative activity was evaluated by administration of seed polymer (100 mg/kg) alone or in combination with bisacodyl (2.5 mg/kg) in 1% Tween 80. Zinc oxide suspension was prepared by varying the concentration of C. fistula pulp polymer and compared with suspension made by use of tragacanth, sodium carboxymethyl cellulose and bentonite. Results: Result showed that granules were free flowing, while the compact extended the drug release up to 10 h (72.84 ± 0.98; batch F5) and followed Higuchi matrix release kinetics. This extended release might be due to the formation of polyelectrolyte complex because of gluco-mannose in seed gum. Result of in-vivo laxative activity showed that seed polymer reduced faeces weight after 24 h compared to control (P < 0.01). Conclusions: Pulp polymer showed good sedimentation volume, but alone fails to stabilize the suspension for a longer period, so it could be useful in combination with other suspending agents and can be useful as novel excipient. PMID:25426443

  2. Evaluation of Tribulus terrestris Linn (Zygophyllaceae) acetone extract for larvicidal and repellence activity against mosquito vectors.

    PubMed

    Singh, S P; Raghavendra, K; Singh, R K; Mohanty, S S; Dash, A P

    2008-12-01

    Acetone extracts of leaves and seeds from the Tribulus terrestris (Zygophyllaceae) were tested against mature and immature different mosquito vectors under laboratory condition. The extract showed strong larvicidal, properties 100 per cent mortality in the 3rd-instar larvae was observed in the bioassays with An. culicifacies Giles species A, An. stephensi Liston, Culex quinquefasciatus Say and Aedes aegypti Linn, against 200 ppm of the leaf acetone extract and 100 ppm seed acetone extract. The LC50 values of leaf acetone extract estimated for 3rd-instars An. culicifacies species A, An. stephensi, Cx. quinquefasciatus and Ae. aegypti after 24 hour of exposure were 117, 124, 168 and 185 ppm respectively. The LC50 values of seed acetone extract estimated for 3rd-instars An. culicifacies species A, An. stephensi, Cx. quinquefasciatus and Ae. aegypti after 24 hour of exposure were 100, 72, 91 and 91 ppm respectively. It is confirmed from the LC50 values that the seed acetone extract of T. terrestris is more effective compared to leaf extracts. A significant (P<0.004) higher concentration of acetone extract leaf was required to kill equal number of larvae i.e. against acetone extract of seed. The seed acetone extract showed strong repellent activity against adults mosquitoes. Per cent protection obtained against Anopheles culicifacies species A 100% repellency in 1 h, 6 h; Anopheles stephensi 100% repellency in 0 h, 4 h, 6 h; and Culex quinquefasciatus 100% repellency in 0 h, 2 h, 4 h, at 10% concentration respectively. Against Deet- 2.5% An. culicifacies Giles species A has shown 100% repellency in 1 h, 2 h, 6 h, An. stephensi Liston 99% repellency in 4 h, and Culex quinquefasciatus Say has shown 100% repellency in 1 h, 2 h. PMID:19579717

  3. Antioxidant and antibacterial activities of Hibiscus Rosa-sinensis Linn flower extracts.

    PubMed

    Khan, Zulfiqar Ali; Naqvi, Syed Ali-Raza; Mukhtar, Ammara; Hussain, Zaib; Shahzad, Sohail Anjum; Mansha, Asim; Ahmad, Matloob; Zahoor, Ameer Fawad; Bukhari, Iftikhar Hussain; Ashraf-Janjua, Muhammad Ramazan-Saeed; Mahmood, Nasir; Yar, Muhammad

    2014-05-01

    Antioxidant and antibacterial potential of different solvent extracts of locally grown Hibiscus rosa-sinensis Linn was evaluated. The antioxidant activity was assessed by estimation of total flavonoids contents, total phenolic contents, DPPH free radical scavenging activity and percentage inhibition of linoleic acid oxidation capacity. Agar disc diffusion method was used to assess antibacterial potential of crude extract of H. rosa-sinensis. The yield of the crude extracts (23.21 ± 3.67 and 18.36 ± 2.98% in 80% methanol and ethanol solvents was calculated, respectively. Methanol and ethanol extract of H. rosa-sinensis showed total phenolics 61.45 ± 3.23 and 59.31 ± 4.31 mg/100g as gallic acid equivalent, total flavonoids 53.28 ± 1.93 and 32.25±1.21 mg/100g as catechine equivalent, DPPH free radical scavenging activity 75.46±4.67 and 64.98 ± 2.11% and inhibition of linoleic acid oxidation potential 75.8 ±3.22 and 61.6 ± 2.01% respectively, was measured. Antibacterial study against three human pathogens such as staphlococus sp. Bacillus sp. and Escherichia coli showed growth inhibitory effect in the range of 12.75 ± 1.17 to 16.75 ± 2.10 mm. These results showed H. rosa-sinensis indigenous to Kallar Kahar and its allied areas bear promising medicinal values and could be used for developing herbal medicines to target oxidative stress and infectious diseases. PMID:24811803

  4. Antihypertensive and Diuretic Effects of the Aqueous Extract of Colocasia esculenta Linn. Leaves in Experimental Paradigms.

    PubMed

    Vasant, Otari Kishor; Vijay, Bhalsing Gaurav; Virbhadrappa, Shete Rajkumar; Dilip, Nandgude Tanaji; Ramahari, Mali Vishal; Laxamanrao, Bodhankar Subhash

    2012-01-01

    Colocasia esculenta Linn (CE) is traditionally used for the treatment of various ailments such as high blood pressure, rheumatic pain, pulmonary congestion, etc. Hence in present study, the effect of aqueous extract of CE leaves (AECE) was evaluated for antihypertensive and acute diuretic activity in rats. Preliminary phytochemical evaluation revealed the presence of carbohydrate, saponins, tannins, and flavonoids in AECE. The animals did not show any sign of toxicity and mortality after the administration of AECE 2000 mg/Kg in acute oral toxicity study. The administration of AECE (100, 200, and 400 mg/Kg/day, p.o.) for six weeks and AECE (10, 20, and 40 mg/Kg, IV) on the day of experiment in renal artery-occluded hypertensive rats and AECE (20 and 40 mg/Kg, IV) in noradrenalin-induced hypertension in rats produced significant (p < 0.05) anti-hypertensive effects. AECE (400 mg/Kg, p.o.) showed positive diuretic activity at 5 h. AECE (200 and 400 mg/Kg, p.o.) significantly increased sodium and chloride content of urine in 5 h and 24 h and additionally potassium in 24 h urine. Hence, the results of the present study revealed the antihypertensive and weak diuretic activity of AECE. These effects may be attributed due to the ACE inhibitory, vasodilatory, β-blocking, and/ or Ca(2+) channel blocking activities, which were reported for the phytoconstitunts, specifically flavonoids such as vitexin, isovitexin, orientin, and isoorientin present in the leaves of CE. PMID:24250487

  5. Effect of Adiantum Capillus veneris Linn on an Animal Model of Testosterone-Induced Hair Loss

    PubMed Central

    Noubarani, Maryam; Rostamkhani, Hossein; Erfan, Mohammad; Kamalinejad, Mohammad; Eskandari, Mohammad Reza; Babaeian, Mohammad; Salamzadeh, Jamshid

    2014-01-01

    Androgenetic alopecia is the most common form of hair loss in men. The present study was designed to evaluate the hair growth-promoting activity of a preparation of the Adiantum capillus-veneris Linn. (A. capillus-veneris) on albino mice using a testosterone-induced alopecia model. Five groups of albino mice were studied: (A) Testosterone solution only (n=6); (B) Testosterone + Finasteride solution (2%) (n=6); (C) Testosterone + vehicle (n=6); (D) Testosterone + A. capillus-veneris solution (1%) (n=6); (E) intact control (n=2, without testosterone). Alopecia was induced in all intervention groups by testosterone 1.0 mg subcutaneous. A. capillus-veneris solution was applied topically to the back skin of animals in the respective group. Hair growth was evaluated by visual observation and histological study of several skin sections via various parameters as follicle density (number of follicles/mm) and anagen/telogen ratio. After 21 days, a patch of diffuse hair loss was seen in animals received testosterone while animals treated with A. capillus-veneris showed less hair loss as compared to those treated with testosterone only. The follicular density observed in the A. capillus-veneris-treated group was 1.92 ± 0.47, compared to 1.05 ± 0.21 in testosterone-group and 2.05 ± 0.49 in finasteride-treated animals. Anagen/telogen ratio was significantly affected by A. capillus-veneris, which was 0.92 ± 0.06 as compared with 0.23 ± 0.03 and 1.12 ± 0.06 for testosterone and finasteride treated groups, respectively. According to visual observation and quantitative data (follicular density and anagen/telogen ratio), A. capillus-veneris was found to possess good activity against testosterone-induced alopecia. PMID:24711836

  6. Influence of Total Anthocyanins from Bitter Melon (Momordica charantia Linn.) as Antidiabetic and Radical Scavenging Agents.

    PubMed

    Güdr, Aytaç

    2016-01-01

    The majority of the antioxidant and antidiabetic activities of fruits are anthocyanins; a group of polyphenolics that are responsible for the color of many fruits, vegetables and flowers. The harvesting time, storage conditions, maturity, extraction steps etc. are very important for the biological activities based on the alteration of chemical composition. The free radical scavenging and antidiabetic activities of total anthocyanins from bitter melon (Momordica charantia Linn) fruit (TAMC) were evaluated by considering four harvesting times. The free radical scavenging activities of the TAMC samples were assessed using DPPH(•), DMPD(•+) and ABTS(•+) assays against BHA, rutin and trolox standards. September as a harvesting period (TAMC-S) had effective DPPH(•) (SC50 2.55 ± 0.08 μg/mL), DMPD(•+) (SC50 2.68 ± 0.09 μg/mL) and ABTS(•+) (SC50 8.19 ± 0.09 μg/mL) scavenging activities compared with other samples and standards. In addition, August (TAMC-A) as a harvesting period showed very influential inhibitory activity against α-amylase (IC50 56.86 ± 1.12 μg/mL) and moderate inhibitory activity against α-glucosidase (IC50 88.19 ± 0.74 μg/mL). In comparison, pharmaceutical active ingredients such as acarbose exhibited anti-amylase and anti-glucosidase activities with IC50 values of 93.07 ± 1.49 μg/mL and 77.25 ± 1.20 μg/mL respectively. These results suggest that the correct selection of harvest period can significantly increase anthocyanin quantity because of the pharmaceutic properties of TAMC. Consequently, TAMC may be interesting for incorporation in pharmaceutical preparations for human health, since it can suppress hyperglycaemia that can be also used as food additives due to its antiradical activity. PMID:27610171

  7. Fabrication of dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) using annato seeds (Bixa orellana Linn)

    SciTech Connect

    Haryanto, Ditia Allindira; Landuma, Suarni; Purwanto, Agus

    2014-02-24

    The Fabrication of dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC) using Annato seeds has been conducted in this study. Annato seeds (Bixa orellana Linn) used as a sensitizer for dye sensitized solar cell. The experimental parameter was concentration of natural dye. Annato seeds was extracted using etanol solution and the concentration was controlled by varying mass of Annato seeds. A semiconductor TiO{sub 2} was prepared by a screen printing method for coating glass use paste of TiO{sub 2}. Construction DSSC used layered systems (sandwich) consists of working electrode (TiO{sub 2} semiconductor-dye) and counter electrode (platina). Both are placed on conductive glass and electrolytes that occur electrons cycle. The characterization of thin layer of TiO{sub 2} was conducted using SEM (Scanning Electron Microscpy) analysis showed the surface morphology of TiO{sub 2} thin layer and the cross section of a thin layer of TiO{sub 2} with a thickness of 15–19 μm. Characterization of natural dye extract was determined using UV-Vis spectrometry analysis shows the wavelength range annato seeds is 328–515 nm, and the voltage (V{sub oc}) and electric current (I{sub sc}) resulted in keithley test for 30 gram, 40 gram, and 50 gram were 0,4000 V; 0,4251 V; 0,4502 V and 0,000074 A; 0,000458 A; 0,000857 A, respectively. The efficiencies of the fabricated solar cells using annato seeds as senstizer for each varying mass are 0,00799%, 0,01237%, and 0,05696%.

  8. Antihypertensive and Diuretic Effects of the Aqueous Extract of Colocasia esculenta Linn. Leaves in Experimental Paradigms

    PubMed Central

    Vasant, Otari Kishor; Vijay, Bhalsing Gaurav; Virbhadrappa, Shete Rajkumar; Dilip, Nandgude Tanaji; Ramahari, Mali Vishal; Laxamanrao, Bodhankar Subhash

    2012-01-01

    Colocasia esculenta Linn (CE) is traditionally used for the treatment of various ailments such as high blood pressure, rheumatic pain, pulmonary congestion, etc. Hence in present study, the effect of aqueous extract of CE leaves (AECE) was evaluated for antihypertensive and acute diuretic activity in rats. Preliminary phytochemical evaluation revealed the presence of carbohydrate, saponins, tannins, and flavonoids in AECE. The animals did not show any sign of toxicity and mortality after the administration of AECE 2000 mg/Kg in acute oral toxicity study. The administration of AECE (100, 200, and 400 mg/Kg/day, p.o.) for six weeks and AECE (10, 20, and 40 mg/Kg, IV) on the day of experiment in renal artery-occluded hypertensive rats and AECE (20 and 40 mg/Kg, IV) in noradrenalin-induced hypertension in rats produced significant (p < 0.05) anti-hypertensive effects. AECE (400 mg/Kg, p.o.) showed positive diuretic activity at 5 h. AECE (200 and 400 mg/Kg, p.o.) significantly increased sodium and chloride content of urine in 5 h and 24 h and additionally potassium in 24 h urine. Hence, the results of the present study revealed the antihypertensive and weak diuretic activity of AECE. These effects may be attributed due to the ACE inhibitory, vasodilatory, β-blocking, and/ or Ca2+ channel blocking activities, which were reported for the phytoconstitunts, specifically flavonoids such as vitexin, isovitexin, orientin, and isoorientin present in the leaves of CE. PMID:24250487

  9. A 24-Weeks Toxicity Study of Eryngium foetidum Linn. Leaves in Mice.

    PubMed

    Janwitthayanuchit, Kanittha; Kupradinun, Piengchai; Rungsipipat, Anudep; Kettawan, Aikkarach; Butryee, Chaniphun

    2016-07-01

    Eryngium foetidum Linn. leaves (EF) are widely used in Thailand and many countries throughout Asia as a culinary seasoning and a traditional medicine. However, adverse effect of high dose consumption in long duration has not been evaluated. The aim of this study was to investigate chronic toxicity of EF in mice. Thirty-two ICR male mice were divided into 4 groups of 8 mice each. The mice were fed AIN-76 rodent diet, or AIN-76 rodent diet supplemented with ground freeze-dried EF at 0.8%, 1.6% and 3.2% that is equivalent to approximately 35, 73 and 155 times that of human consumption, respectively, at 97.5 percentile for a period of 24 weeks. At the end of experiment, the mice were euthanized and blood samples were collected for hematological and biochemical evaluations. Necropsy was performed while visceral organs such as lung, liver, kidneys, spleen etc. were collected, weighed and histopathologically examined. Blood urea nitrogen (BUN) results of mice in 1.6% and 3.2% EF diet groups were significantly higher than the BUN of control group. No significant difference was noted in other biochemical and hematological properties between the treatment groups and control; all results were within normal range. Histopathology of almost all visceral organs showed no significant changes. However, tubulonephrosis and chronic interstitial nephritis were observed in the groups treated with 1.6% and 3.2% EF diet. Body weight was reduced significantly at week 12 to week 20 when compared to the control group while relative kidney weights were significantly increased. In conclusion, the consumption of EF in diet at high doses illustrated the adverse effect on some biochemical parameters and histopathology in mice. Our findings suggested that EF daily consumption for 24 weeks, at higher doses than the 0.8% EF diet (35 times of human consumption), might cause adverse effect on kidney function in mice. PMID:27437090

  10. Anti-microbial Activity of Tulsi {Ocimum Sanctum (Linn.)} Extract on a Periodontal Pathogen in Human Dental Plaque: An Invitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Devaraj, C.G.; Agarwal, Payal

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Tulsi is a popular healing herb in Ayurvedic medicine. It is widely used in the treatment of several systemic diseases because of its anti-microbial property. However, studies documenting the effect of Tulsi on oral disease causing organisms are rare. Hence, an attempt was made to determine the effect of Tulsi on a periodontal microorganism in human dental plaque. Aim To determine if Ocimum sanctum (Linn.) has an anti-microbial activity (Minimum Inhibitory Concentration and zone of inhibition) against Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans in human dental plaque and to compare the antimicrobial activity of Ocimum sanctum(Linn.) extract with 0.2% chlorhexidine as the positive control and dimethyl sulfoxide as the negative control. Materials and Methods A lab based invitro experimental study design was adopted. Ethanolic extract of Ocimum sanctum (Linn.) was prepared by the cold extraction method. The extract was diluted with an inert solvent, dimethyl sulfoxide, to obtain ten different concentrations (1%, 2%, 3%, 4%, 5%, 6%, 7%, 8%, 9%, 10%) of extract. Plaque sample was collected from 05 subjects diagnosed with periodontal disease. Isolation of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans from plaque samples was done using Tryptic Soy Serum Bacitracin Vancomycin agar (TSBV) medium. Identification of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans was done based on cultural, microscopic, biochemical characterization and multiple drug resistance patterns. Anti-microbial activity of Ocimum sanctum (Linn.) extract was tested by agar well-diffusion method against 0.2% chlorhexidine as a positive control and dimethyl sulfoxide as a negative control. The zone of inhibition was measured in millimeters using Vernier callipers. Results At the 6% w/v concentration of Ocimum sanctum (Linn.) extract, a zone of inhibition of 22 mm was obtained. This was the widest zone of inhibition observed among all the 10 different concentrations tested. The zone of inhibition for positive control

  11. Monitoring of the active layer at Kapp Linne', SVALBARD 1972-2002

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akerman, J.

    2003-04-01

    The active layer has been monitored at ten sites in the vicinity of Kapp Linné, (78o03'42" 13o37'07") Svalbard during the period 1972 - 2002. The ten sites differ in elevation, distance from the sea, vegetation cover, substrate and active periglacial processes. From 1994 the International permafrost Association "CALM" standard grids, with measurement within 100x100m squares, has been applied. Microclimate and soil temperatures have been monitored by data logger covering levels form 2 m above to 7m below the ground. The macroclimate is covered by complete data series from the nearby weather station at Kapp Linne’, covering the period 1912 to 2002. A number of periglacial processes, especially slope processes, are monitored parallel with the active layer. The mean active layer for the sites varies between 1,13m and 0,43m. The deepest active layer is found in the exposed, well drained raised beach ridges and the shallowest in the bogs. The interannual variability during the observation period do not correlate well with the MAAT but better with the summer climate, June - August mean or DDT. The data clearly illustrate colder summers during the period 1972 to 1983 and after that steadily increasing summer temperatures. The active layer follows the same general pattern with good correlations. There are several surface indications as a response to the deepening active layer especially in the bogs. Thermokarst scars appear frequently and a majority of the palsa like mounds and pounus have disappeared. A drastic change in the vegetation on the bogs has also occurred, from dry heath to wet Carex vegetation. In summary the observations from Kapp Linne’ are; 1. A clear trend towards milder summers, 2. A clear trend towards deeper active layers, 3. All sites show a similar pattern, 4. The bogs are getting strikingly wetter, 5. Mounds in the bog sites are disappearing, 6. The slow slope processes are getting accelerated, 7. Thermokarst depressions and scars are appearing in

  12. Evaluation of gut modulatory and bronchodilator activities of Amaranthus spinosus Linn.

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The aqueous-methanolic extract of Amaranthus spinosus (A. spinosus Linn.,) whole plant, was studied for its laxative, spasmolytic and bronchodilator activities to validate some of its medicinal uses. Methods The crude extract of A. spinosus was studied in-vivo for bronchodilator and laxative activities and in-vitro using isolated tissue preparations which were mounted in tissue baths assembly containing physiological salt solutions, maintained at 37°C and aerated with carbogen, to assess the spasmolytic effect and to find out the possible underlying mechanisms. Results In the in-vivo experiments in mice, the administration of A. spinosus increased fecal output at doses of 100 and 300 mg/kg showing laxative activity. It also inhibited carbachol-induced bronchospasm in anesthetized rats at 1, 3, 10 and 30 mg/kg indicative of bronchodilator activity. When tested on isolated gut preparations, the plant extract showed a concentration-dependent (0.01-10.0 mg/ml) spasmogenic effect in spontaneously contracting rabbit jejunum and guinea-pig ileum. The spasmogenic effect was partially blocked in tissues pretreated with atropine (0.1 μM). When tested on K+ (80 mM)-induced sustained contractions in isolated rabbit jejunum, the plant extract caused complete relaxation and also produced a shift in the Ca++ concentration-response curves (CRCs) towards right, similar to diltiazem. In rabbit trachea, the plant extract completely inhibited K+ (80 mM) and carbachol (CCh, 1 μM)-induced contractions at 1 mg/ml but pretreatment of tissue with propranolol (1 μM), caused around 10 fold shift in the inhibitory CRCs of the plant extract constructed against CCh-induced contraction. The plant extract (up to 0.3 mg/ml) also increased both force and rate of spontaneous contractions of isolated guinea-pig atria, followed by relaxation at higher concentration (1.0-5.0 mg/ml). The cardio-stimulant effect was abolished in the presence of propranolol, similar to that of isoprenaline

  13. Neuroprotection of Chrysanthemum indicum Linne against cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury by anti-inflammatory effect in gerbils.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Ki-Yeon; Kim, In Hye; Cho, Jeong-Hwi; Ahn, Ji Hyeon; Park, Joon Ha; Lee, Jae-Chul; Tae, Hyun-Jin; Kim, Dae Won; Kim, Jong-Dai; Hong, Seongkweon; Won, Moo-Ho; Kang, Il Jun

    2016-02-01

    In this study, we tried to verify the neuroprotective effect of Chrysanthemum indicum Linne (CIL) extract, which has been used as a botanical drug in East Asia, against ischemic damage and to explore the underlying mechanism involving the anti-inflammatory approach. A gerbil was given CIL extract for 7 consecutive days followed by bilateral carotid artery occlusion to make a cerebral ischemia/reperfusion model. Then, we found that CIL extracts protected pyramidal neurons in the hippocampal CA1 region (CA1) from ischemic damage using neuronal nucleus immunohistochemistry and Fluoro-Jade B histofluorescence. Accordingly, interleukin-13 immunoreactivities in the CA1 pyramidal neurons of CIL-pretreated animals were maintained or increased after cerebral ischemia/reperfusion. These findings indicate that the pre-treatment of CIL can attenuate neuronal damage/death in the brain after cerebral ischemia/reperfusion via an anti-inflammatory approach. PMID:27073380

  14. Abroma augusta Linn bark extract-mediated green synthesis of gold nanoparticles and its application in catalytic reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Subhajit; Bag, Braja Gopal; Basu, Ranadhir

    2014-11-01

    The bark extract of Abroma augusta Linn is rich in medicinally important phytochemicals including antioxidants and polyphenols. First one step green synthesis of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) has been described utilizing the bark extract of Abroma augusta L. and chloroauric acid under very mild reaction conditions. The phytochemicals present in the bark extract acted both as a reducing as well as a stabilizing agent, and no additional stabilizing and capping agents were needed. Detailed characterizations of the stabilized AuNPs were carried out by surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy, high resolution transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray diffraction studies. The catalytic activity of the freshly synthesized gold nanoparticles has been demonstrated for the sodium borohydride reduction of 4-nitrophenol to 4-aminophenol, and the kinetics of the reduction reaction have been studied spectrophotometrically.

  15. The phytochemistry, traditional uses and pharmacology of Piper Betel. linn (Betel Leaf): A pan-asiatic medicinal plant.

    PubMed

    Fazal, Farhan; Mane, Prajwal P; Rai, Manoj P; Thilakchand, Karadka R; Bhat, Harshith P; Kamble, Prathibha S; Palatty, Princy L; Baliga, Manjeshwar Shrinath

    2014-08-26

    Since antiquity, Piper betel. Linn, commonly known as betel vine, has been used as a religious, recreational and medicinal plant in Southeast Asia. The leaves, which are the most commonly used plant part, are pungent with aromatic flavor and are widely consumed as a mouth freshener. It is carminative, stimulant, astringent and is effective against parasitic worms. Experimental studies have shown that it possess diverse biological and pharmacological effects, which includes antibacterial, antifungal, larvicidal, antiprotozal, anticaries, gastroprotective effects, free radical scavenging, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory hepatoprotective, immunomodulatory, antiulcer and chemopreventive activities. The active principles hydroxychavicol, allylpyrocatechol and eugenol with their plethora of pharmacological properties may also have the potential to develop as bioactive lead molecule. In this review, an attempt is made to summarize the religious, traditional uses, phytochemical composition and experimentally validated pharmacological properties of Piper betel. Emphasis is also placed on aspects warranting detail studies for it to be of pharmaceutical/clinical use to humans. PMID:25159859

  16. Rapid identification of molecular changes in tulsi (Ocimum sanctum Linn) upon ageing using leaf spray ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Depanjan; Srimany, Amitava; Pradeep, T

    2012-10-01

    Tulsi or Holy Basil (Ocimum sanctum Linn) is a medicinally important plant. Ursolic acid (UA) and oleanolic acid (OA) are among its major constituents which account for many medicinal activities of the plant. In the present work, we deployed a new ambient ionization method, leaf spray ionization, for rapid detection of UA, OA and their oxidation products from tulsi leaves. Tandem electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) has been performed on tulsi leaf extracts in methanol to establish the identity of the compounds. We probed changes occurring in the relative amounts of the parent compounds (UA and OA) with their oxidized products and the latter show an increasing trend upon ageing. The findings are verified by ESI-MS analysis of tulsi leaf extracts, which shows the same trend proving the reliability of the leaf spray method. PMID:22900261

  17. Lantana camara Linn leaf extract mediated green synthesis of gold nanoparticles and study of its catalytic activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dash, Shib Shankar; Bag, Braja Gopal; Hota, Poulami

    2015-03-01

    A facile one-step green synthesis of stable gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) has been described using chloroauric acid (HAuCl4) and the leaf extract of Lantana camara Linn (Verbenaceae family) at room temperature. The leaf extract enriched in various types of plant secondary metabolites is highly efficient for the reduction of chloroaurate ions into metallic gold and stabilizes the synthesized AuNPs without any additional stabilizing or capping agents. Detailed characterizations of the synthesized gold nanoparticles were carried out by surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering, Zeta potential, X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy studies. The synthesized AuNPs have been utilized as a catalyst for the sodium borohydride reduction of 4-nitrophenol to 4-aminophenol in water at room temperature under mild reaction condition. The kinetics of the reduction reaction has been studied spectrophotometrically.

  18. Neuroprotection of Chrysanthemum indicum Linne against cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury by anti-inflammatory effect in gerbils

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Ki-Yeon; Kim, In Hye; Cho, Jeong-Hwi; Ahn, Ji Hyeon; Park, Joon Ha; Lee, Jae-Chul; Tae, Hyun-Jin; Kim, Dae Won; Kim, Jong-Dai; Hong, Seongkweon; Won, Moo-Ho; Kang, Il Jun

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we tried to verify the neuroprotective effect of Chrysanthemum indicum Linne (CIL) extract, which has been used as a botanical drug in East Asia, against ischemic damage and to explore the underlying mechanism involving the anti-inflammatory approach. A gerbil was given CIL extract for 7 consecutive days followed by bilateral carotid artery occlusion to make a cerebral ischemia/reperfusion model. Then, we found that CIL extracts protected pyramidal neurons in the hippocampal CA1 region (CA1) from ischemic damage using neuronal nucleus immunohistochemistry and Fluoro-Jade B histofluorescence. Accordingly, interleukin-13 immunoreactivities in the CA1 pyramidal neurons of CIL-pretreated animals were maintained or increased after cerebral ischemia/reperfusion. These findings indicate that the pre-treatment of CIL can attenuate neuronal damage/death in the brain after cerebral ischemia/reperfusion via an anti-inflammatory approach. PMID:27073380

  19. Isolation and structure elucidaton of polyphenols from Loranthus micranthus Linn. parasitic on Hevea brasiliensis with antiinflammatory property

    PubMed Central

    Agbo, Matthias Onyebuchi; Nworu, Chukwuemeka Sylvester; Okoye, Festus Basden Chied; Osadebe, Patience Ogoamaka

    2014-01-01

    The present study was carried out to evaluate the anti-inflammatory activities of polyphenols isolated from the leaves of mistletoe (Loranthus micranthus Linn.) parasitic on Hevea brasiliensis. The anti-inflammatory properties of the isolated compounds were evaluated on the basis of their ability to inhibit the production of nitric oxide (NO) and tumuor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) activated RAW 264.7 mouse macrophages. Semi-preparative HPLC separation of the ethyl acetate (EtOAc) and butanol (n-BuOH) fractions of the leaves of mistletoe (Loranthus micranthus Linn) parasitic on Hevea brasiliensis led to the isolation of four polyphenols: 3-O-(3,4,5-trimethoxybenzoyl)-(-)-epicatechin (TMECG) (1); (-)-epicatechin-3-O-(3″-O-methyl)-gallate (ECG3″Me) (2); rutin (3) and peltatoside (4). Compounds 1-4 were isolated for the first time from this plant while 1 was isolated for the first time in nature. These compounds (1-4) were readily identified by comparison of their spectroscopic data with those reported in the literature. The polyphenols proved to have anti-inflammatory activity as evidenced by the suppression of inducible nitric oxide (iNO) and cytokine (TNF-α) levels in the culture supernatant of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 murine macrophages. However, the study showed that the quercetin diglycosides showed stronger inhibition of proinflammatory mediators than the epicatechin derivates. These data provide evidence that polyphenolic compounds isolated from the mistletoe parasitic on Hevea brasiliensis may contribute to its anti-inflammatory properties by inhibiting the expression of inducible nitric oxide and proinflammatory cytokines such as tumour necrosis factor-α. PMID:26417309

  20. Antivenom activity of triterpenoid (C34H68O2) from Leucas aspera Linn. against Naja naja naja venom induced toxicity: antioxidant and histological study in mice.

    PubMed

    Venkatesan, C; Sarathi, M; Balasubramanian, G; Thomas, John; Balachander, V; Babu, V Sarath; Bilal, S Mohammed Yusuf; Majeed, S Abdul; Madan, N; Raj, N Sundar; Vimal, S; Nambi, K S N; Hameed, A S Sahul

    2014-04-01

    The isolated and identified triterpenoid, 1-hydroxytetratriacontane-4-one (C34H68O2), obtained from the methanolic leaf extract of Leucas aspera Linn. was explored for the first time for antisnake venom activity. The plant (L. aspera Linn.) extract significantly antagonized the spectacled cobra (Naja naja naja) venom induced lethal activity in a mouse model. It was compared with commercial antiserum obtained from King Institute of Preventive Medicine (Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India). N. naja naja venom induced a significant decrease in antioxidant superoxide dismutase, glutathione (GSH) peroxidase, catalase, reduced GSH and glutathione-S-transferase activities and increased lipid peroxidase (LPO) activity in different organs such as heart, liver, kidney and lungs. The histological changes following the antivenom treatment were also evaluated in all these organs. There were significant alterations in the histology. Triterpenoid from methanol extract of L. aspera Linn. at a dose level of 75 mg per mouse significantly attenuated (neutralized) the venom-induced antioxidant status and also the LPO activity in different organs. PMID:23857030

  1. E.T., Call Nome...or Phoenix, or Burbank.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riddle, Bob

    1988-01-01

    Presents several classroom ideas to help students understand their relationship to and their place in the universe as well as how difficult it would be to find life beyond Earth. Lists activities for children including the "Map Procedure," the "Model Procedure," and "Good Ol' Sol." (CW)

  2. [Influence of Mirabilis jalapa Linn. Growth on the Microbial Community and Petroleum Hydrocarbon Degradation in Petroleum Contaminated Saline-alkali Soil].

    PubMed

    Jiao, Hai-hua; Cui, Bing-jian; Wu, Shang-hua; Bai, Zhi-hui; Huang, Zhan-bin

    2015-09-01

    In order to explore the effect of Mirabilis jalapa Linn. growth on the structure characteristics of the microbial community and the degradation of petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) in the petroleum-contaminated saline-alkali soil, Microbial biomass and species in the rhizosphere soils of Mirabilis jalapa Linn. in the contaminated saline soil were studied with the technology of phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) analysis. The results showed that comparing to CK soils without Mirabilis jalapa Linn., the ratio of PLFAs species varied were 71. 4%, 69. 2% and 33. 3% in the spring, summer and autumn season, respectively. In addition, there was distinct difference of the biomasses of the microbial community between the CK and rhizosphere soils and among the difference seasons of growth of Mirabilis jalapa Linn.. Compare to CK soil, the degradation rates of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) was increased by 47. 6%, 28. 3%, and 18. 9% in spring, summer, and autumn rhizosphere soils, respectively. Correlation analysis was used to determine the correlation between TPH degradation and the soil microbial community. 77. 8% of the total soil microbial PLFAs species showed positive correlation to the TPH degradation (the correlation coefficient r > 0), among which, 55. 6% of PLFAs species showed high positive correlation(the correlation coefficient was r≥0. 8). In addition, the relative content of SAT and MONO had high correlation with TPH degradation in the CK sample soils, the corelation coefficient were 0. 92 and 0. 60 respectively; However, the percent of positive correlation was 42. 1% in the rhizosphere soils with 21. 1% of them had high positive correlation. The relative content of TBSAT, MONO and CYCLO had moderate or low correlation in rhizosphere soils, and the correlation coefficient were 0. 56, 0. 50, and 0. 07 respectively. Our study showed that the growth of mirabilis Mirabilis jalapa Linn. had a higher influence on the species and biomass of microbial community in the

  3. Hypolipidemic activity of a hydroalcoholic extract of Cyperus scariosus Linn. root in guinea pigs fed with a high cholesterol diet.

    PubMed

    Chawda, Hiren M; Mandavia, Divyesh R; Parmar, Pravin H; Baxi, Seema N; Tripathi, Chandrabhanu R

    2014-11-01

    Lipid-lowering and antioxidant activities of a hydroalcoholic extract of Cyperus scariosus Linn. root (HCS) were evaluated in guinea pigs fed with a high cholesterol diet. Serum lipid profile (total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL-C, VLDL-C, and HDL-C), atherogenic indices and serum enzymes (ALT, AST, ALP, LDH, and CK-MB) were performed in each group at 0 days and at the end of 60 days. Histological study of liver and kidney was done in groups 1, 2, 5, 6 and 7. The total phenolic and flavonoid content in HCS and its antioxidant activity were evaluated by the DPPH assay. Both doses of HCS decreased serum lipid profile and atherogenic indices (P < 0.05). HCS has lipid lowering, immunosuppressive and antioxidant properties, and mays have value in atherosclerosis prevention. The higher dose of HCS also reduced serum AST, ALP, and LDH levels and rosuvastatin increased AST and ALP levels (P < 0.05). Histology of the liver showed decreased lipid accumulation and improvement in hepatocytes in HCS-treated animals. The antioxidant activity of HCS may be responsible for its lipid lowering and cytoprotective action. HCS had significant lipid lowering and antioxidant activity, which; may be due to the phenolic compounds. HCS may be a safe and cost effective alternative to current statin therapy for patients with dyslipidaemia. PMID:25480512

  4. A Green Sequential Injection Spectrophotometric Approach Using Natural Reagent Extracts from Heartwood of Ceasalpinia sappan Linn. for Determination of Aluminium.

    PubMed

    Siriangkhawut, Watsaka; Khanhuathon, Yaowalak; Chantiratikul, Piyanete; Ponhong, Kraingkrai; Grudpan, Kate

    2016-01-01

    A cost-effective and environmentally friendly approach using a simple sequential injection spectrophotometric system with a non-synthetic reagent from plant extracts was proposed for a green analytical-chemistry methodology. The crude aqueous extracts from heartwood of Ceasalpinia sappan Linn. in acetate buffer pH 5.5 were utilized as an alternative natural reagent for the quantification of aluminium. The extracts contained homoisoflavonoid compounds, brazilin, and brazilein, which reacted with Al(3+) to form reddish complexes with the maximum absorption wavelength at 530 nm. The optimum conditions for the sequential injection parameters, such as sequential profile, sample and reagent volumes, and the pH effect, were investigated. Under the optimum conditions, a linear calibration graph in the range of 0.075 - 1.0 mg L(-1) Al(3+) was obtained with limits of detection and quantification of 0.021 and 0.072 mg L(-1) Al(3+), respectively. Relative standard deviations of 3.2 and 2.4% for 0.1 and 0.25 mg L(-1) Al(3+) (n = 11), respectively, and sampling rate of 128 injections h(-1) were achieved. The developed system was successfully applied to pharmaceutical preparations, water, and beverage samples. The results agreed well with those obtained from the ICP-AES method. Good recoveries between 87 and 104% were obtained. PMID:26960614

  5. Health-promoting and disease-preventive potential of Trianthema portulacastrum Linn. (Gadabani) -An Indian medicinal and dietary plant.

    PubMed

    Yamaki, Jason; Nagulapalli Venkata, Kalyan C; Mandal, Animesh; Bhattacharyya, Piyali; Bishayee, Anupam

    2016-03-01

    It is estimated that 80% of the world population depends on traditional medicine for primary healthcare need. Trianthema portulacastrum Linn. (family: Aizoaceae) is a small perennial weed found in the Americas, Africa, India, and other regions of the world. This plant is used extensively in Indian traditional medicines and is also consumed as a vegetable throughout Asia for its perceived health benefits. Phytochemical analysis of T. portulacastrum reveals the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, terpenoids, saponins, and phenolic compounds. Emerging studies demonstrate that crude extracts as well as bioactive phytoconstituents of T. portulacastrum exhibit potent antioxidant, anti-infective, analgesic, and anti-inflammatory activities. A growing number of in vitro and in vivo studies demonstrate various biological and pharmacological activities, including prevention and amelioration of hepatotoxicity, nephrotoxicity, hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, infectious diseases and cancer. This review aims to present and analyze available literature to understand the full potential of T. portulacastrum in health promotion and disease prevention. Current limitations and future directions of research on this medicinal and dietary plant are also critically discussed. PMID:26988430

  6. Unraveling the Structural Modifications in Lignin of Arundo donax Linn. during Acid-Enhanced Ionic Liquid Pretreatment.

    PubMed

    You, Tingting; Zhang, Liming; Guo, Siqin; Shao, Lupeng; Xu, Feng

    2015-12-23

    Solid acid-enhanced ionic liquid (IL) pretreatment is of paramount importance for boosting the yield of sugars from biomass cost-effectively and environmentally friendly. To unravel the chemical and supramolecular structural changes of lignin after pretreatment, IL-acid lignin (ILAL) and subsequent residual cellulolytic enzyme lignin (RCEL) were isolated from Arundo donax Linn. The structural features were compared with those of the corresponding milled wood lignin (MWL). Results indicated that the pretreatment caused loss of β-O-4', β-β', β-1' linkages and formation of condensed structures in lignin. A preferential breakdown of G-type lignin may have occurred, evidenced by an increased S/G ratio revealed by 2D HSQC NMR analysis. It was determined that the depolymerization of β-O-4' linkage, lignin recondensation, and cleavage of ferulate-lignin ether linkages took place. Moreover, a simulation module was first developed to define morphological changes in lignin based on AFM and TEM analyses. Briefly, tree branch like aggregates was destroyed to monodisperse particles. PMID:26621450

  7. Ultrastructural Changes and Death of Leishmania infantum Promastigotes Induced by Morinda citrifolia Linn. Fruit (Noni) Juice Treatment.

    PubMed

    Almeida-Souza, Fernando; Taniwaki, Noemi Nosomi; Amaral, Ana Cláudia Fernandes; de Souza, Celeste da Silva Freitas; Calabrese, Kátia da Silva; Abreu-Silva, Ana Lúcia

    2016-01-01

    The search for new treatments against leishmaniasis has increased due to high frequency of drug resistance registered in endemics areas, side effects, and complications caused by coinfection with HIV. Morinda citrifolia Linn., commonly known as Noni, has a rich chemical composition and various therapeutic effects have been described in the literature. Studies have shown the leishmanicidal activity of M. citrifolia; however, its action on the parasite has not yet been elucidated. In this work, we analyzed leishmanicidal activity and ultrastructural changes in Leishmania infantum promastigotes caused by M. citrifolia fruit juice treatment. M. citrifolia fruit extract showed a yield of 6.31% and high performance liquid chromatography identified phenolic and aromatic compounds as the major constituents. IC50 values were 260.5 µg/mL for promastigotes and 201.3 µg/mL for intracellular amastigotes of L. infantum treated with M. citrifolia. Cytotoxicity assay with J774.G8 macrophages showed that M. citrifolia fruit juice was not toxic up to 2 mg/mL. Transmission electron microscopy showed cytoplasmic vacuolization, lipid inclusion, increased exocytosis activity, and autophagosome-like vesicles in L. infantum promastigotes treated with M. citrifolia fruit juice. M. citrifolia fruit juice was active against L. infantum in the in vitro model used here causing ultrastructural changes and has a future potential for treatment against leishmaniasis. PMID:27313649

  8. Safety Evaluation of Oral Toxicity of Carica papaya Linn. Leaves: A Subchronic Toxicity Study in Sprague Dawley Rats.

    PubMed

    Ismail, Zakiah; Halim, Siti Zaleha; Abdullah, Noor Rain; Afzan, Adlin; Abdul Rashid, Badrul Amini; Jantan, Ibrahim

    2014-01-01

    The subchronic toxicity effect of the leaf extract of Carica papaya Linn. in Sprague Dawley (SD) rats was investigated in this study. The extract was prepared by dissolving the freeze dried extract of the leaves in distilled water and was administered orally to SD rats (consisted of 10 rats/sex/group) at 0 (control), 0.01, 0.14, and 2 g/kg body weight (BW) for 13 weeks. General observation, mortality, and food and water intake were monitored throughout the experimental period. Hematological and biochemical parameters, relative organ weights, and histopathological changes were evaluated. The study showed that leaf extract when administered for 13 weeks did not cause any mortality and abnormalities of behavior or changes in body weight as well as food and water intake. There were no significant differences observed in hematology parameters between treatment and control groups; however significant differences were seen in biochemistry values, for example, LDH, creatinine, total protein, and albumin. However, these changes were not associated with histopathological changes. In conclusion, the results suggested that daily oral administration of rats with C. papaya leaf extract for 13 weeks at a dose up to fourteen times the levels employed in traditional medicine practice did not cause any significant toxic effect. PMID:25530788

  9. Hibiscus rosa sinensis Linn. Petals Modulates Glycogen Metabolism and Glucose Homeostasis Signalling Pathway in Streptozotocin-Induced Experimental Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Pillai, Sneha S; Mini, S

    2016-03-01

    The prevalence of diabetes mellitus is becoming more and more serious and reaches epidemic proportions worldwide. Scientific research is constantly looking for new agents that could be used as dietary functional ingredients in the fight against diabetes. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of ethyl acetate fraction of Hibiscus rosa sinensis Linn. petals on experimental diabetes at a dose of 25 mg/kg body weight and it was compared with standard anti-diabetic drug metformin. The elevated levels of serum glucose (398.56 ± 35.78) and glycated haemoglobin (12.89 ± 1.89) in diabetic rats were significantly decreased (156.89 ± 14.45 and 6.12 ± 0.49, respectively) by Hibiscus rosa sinensis petals (EHRS) administration. Hepatotoxicity marker enzyme levels in serum were normalized. The fraction supplementation restored the glycogen content by regulating the activities of glycogen metabolizing enzymes. It significantly modulated the expressions of marker genes involved in glucose homeostasis signalling pathway. Histopathological analysis of liver and pancreas supported our findings. The overall effect was comparable with metformin. Hence, our study reveals the role of hibiscus petals for alleviation of diabetes complications, thus it can be propagated as a nutraceutical agent. PMID:26590603

  10. Antidiabetic and antihyperlipidaemic activity of ethanol extract of Melastoma malabathricum Linn. leaf in alloxan induced diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    Balamurugan, Karuppasamy; Nishanthini, Antony; Mohan, Veerabahu Ramasamy

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the antidiabetic and antihyperlipidaemic effect of ethanol extract of Melastoma malabathricum (M. malabathricum) Linn. leaf in alloxan induced diabetic rats. Methods Diabetes was induced in albino rats by administration of alloxan monohydrate (150 mg/kg i.p). the ethanol extracts of M. malabathricum at a dose of 150 and 300 mg/kg of body weight were administrated at a single dose per day to diabetes induced rats for a period of 14 d. The effect of ethanol extract of M. malabathricum leaf extract on blood glucose, plasma insulin, creatinine, glycosylated haemoglobin, urea serum lipid profile [total cholesterol, triglycerides, low density lipoprotein-cholesterol, very low density lipoprotein-cholesterol, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol and phospholipid, serum protein, albumin, globulin, serum enzymes (serum glutamate pyruvate transaminases), serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminases, and alkaline phosphatase] were measured in the diabetic rats. Results In the acute toxicity study, ethanol extract of M. malabathricum leaf was non-toxic at 2 000 mg/kg in rats. The increased body weight, decreased blood glucose, glycosylated haemoglobin and other biochemical parameters level were observed in diabetic rats treated with both doses of ethanol extract of M. malabathricum leaf compared to diabetic control rats. In diabetic rats, ethanol extract of M. malabathricum leaf administration, altered lipid profiles were reversed to near normal than diabetic control rats. Conclusions Ethanol extract of M. malabathricum leaf possesses significant antidiabetic and antihyperlipidaemic activity in diabetic rats. PMID:25183126

  11. Synthesis, activity, and QSAR studies of tryptamine derivatives on third-instar larvae of Aedes aegypti Linn.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Rafael R B; Brito, Thaysnara B; Nepel, Angelita; Costa, Emmanoel V; Barison, Andersson; Nunes, Rogéria S; Santos, Roseli L C; Cavalcanti, Sócrates C H

    2014-01-01

    Special attention has been given to the mosquito Aedes aegypti Linn. (Diptera: Culicidae) owing to numerous dengue epidemic outbreaks worldwide. Failure to control vector spreading is accounted for unorganized urban growth and resistance to larvicides and insecticides. Therefore, researchers are currently searching for new and more efficient larvicides and insecticides to aid dengue control measures. Triptamine is known to affect insect behavior, development, and physiology. Expression of this compound in plants has reduced the growth rate of herbivore insects. In view of these facts, it was of our interest to synthesize triptamine amide derivatives as potential larvicides against Ae. aegypti, establishing a Structure-Activity Relationship. Eleven amide derivatives of triptamine were synthesized, characterized, and evaluated for their larvicidal activity against third-instar Ae. aegypti larvae. N-(2-(1H-indol-3-yl)ethyl)-2,2,2-trichloroacetamide exhibited the highest overall larvicidal potency, while N-(2-(1H-Indol-3-yl)ethyl) acetamide displayed the lowest larvicidal potency. A regression equation correlating the larvicidal activity with Log P was obtained. We have found a clear relationship between the larvicidal activity of non-chlorinated compounds and Log P. Analysis of the relationship between Log P and larvicidal activity against Ae. aegypti may be useful in the evaluation of potential larvicidal compounds. PMID:24295020

  12. Isolation, structure elucidation and in vivo hepatoprotective potential of trans-tetracos-15-enoic acid from Indigofera tinctoria Linn.

    PubMed

    Singh, B; Chandan, B K; Sharma, N; Bhardwaj, V; Satti, N K; Gupta, V N; Gupta, B D; Suri, K A; Suri, O P

    2006-10-01

    The bioassay guided fractionation of the dried aerial part of Indigofera tinctoria Linn. led to the identification of an active fraction labelled as indigotin. On further chemical analysis, a compound isolated from indigotin was identified and characterized as trans-tetracos-15-enoic acid (TCA). The chemical structure of this compound was established on the basis of physical properties and spectral data, including NMR. It afforded significant hepatoprotection against carbon tetrachloride and paracetamol induced hepatotoxicity in experimental models. Silymarin, a well known plant based hepatoprotective agent, and N-acetylcysteine, which has proven efficacy as a replenisher of sulfhydryls, were used for relative efficacy. TCA was found to reverse the altered hepatic parameters in experimental liver damage. In the safety evaluation study the oral LD50 was found to be more than 2000 mg/kg, with no signs of abnormalities or any mortality for the 15 day period of observation after administration of a single dose of drug in mice. The studies revealed significant and concentration dependent hepatoprotective potential of TCA as it reversed the majority of the altered hepatic parameters in experimental liver damage in rats and mice and may be useful in the management of liver disorders. PMID:16841368

  13. Anti-diabetic activity of methanolic extract of Alpinia galanga Linn. aerial parts in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Ramesh Kumar; Mishra, Garima; Singh, Pradeep; Jha, Keshri K.; Khosa, Ratan L.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Alpinia galanga Linn. belongs to the family Zingiberaceae has been used as a traditional medicine in China for relieving stomach ache, treating cold, invigorating the circulatory systems, diabetes, and reducing swelling. Aim: To evaluate the antidiabetic activity of methanolic extract of A. galanga aerial parts on streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: Diabetes was induced by single intraperitoneal injection of STZ at a dose of 60 mg/kg bodyweight. Test drug methanolic extract of A. galanga (200 and 400 mg/kg b.w.) and glibenclamide (10 mg/kg b.w.) as standard drug was administered orally for 21 consecutive days in STZ-induced diabetic rats. Fasting blood glucose level, serum lipid profiles, as well as initial and final changes in body weight were assessed along with histopathology. All the parameters were statistically analyzed by using one-way ANOVA followed by Bonferroni t-test. Results: Experimental findings showed significant dose dependent antidiabetic potential of methanolic extract in terms of reduction of fasting blood glucose level and various biochemical parameters in diabetic rats when compared with that of the diabetic control group, which might be due to the stimulatory effect of methanolic extracts on the regenerating β-cells and also on the surviving β-cells. Conclusion: Methanolic extract of aerial parts of A. galanga was effective in controlling blood glucose level and improve lipid profile in euglycemic as well as diabetic rats. PMID:26730146

  14. Antihyperglycemic and hypolipidemic activities of aqueous extract of Carica papaya Linn. leaves in alloxan-induced diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    Maniyar, Yasmeen; Bhixavatimath, Prabhu

    2012-01-01

    Background: India is considered as the diabetic capital of the world. The study of plants having antihyperglycemic and hypolipidemic activities may give a new approach in the treatment of diabetes mellitus. Objective: The study was intended to evaluate the antihyperglycemic and hypolipidemic activity of aqueous extract of leaves of Carica papaya Linn. (AECPL) in alloxan-induced diabetic albino rats. Materials and Methods: Diabetes was induced in albino rats by administration of alloxan monohydrate (120 mg/kg, i.p.). Rats were divided into 6 groups of 6 animals each. First group served as non-diabetic control, second group as diabetic control, third group as standard and was treated with 0.1 mg/kg/day of glibenclamide. Group 4, 5, and 6 received 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg body weight of AECPL. Blood samples were analyzed for blood glucose on day 0, 1, 7, 14, 21 and lipid profile on day 21. Results: The AECPL showed significant reduction (P<0.01) in blood glucose level and serum lipid profile levels with 400 mg/kg body weight in alloxan-induced diabetic rats as compared with the control. Conclusion: It is concluded that AECPL is effective in controlling blood glucose levels and in improving lipid profile in diabetic rats. PMID:22707862

  15. Isolation of a haemorrhagic protein toxin (SA-HT) from the Indian venomous butterfish (Scatophagus argus, Linn) sting extract.

    PubMed

    Karmakar, S; Muhuri, D C; Dasgupta, S C; Nagchaudhuri, A K; Gomes, A

    2004-05-01

    A haemorrhagic protein toxin (SA-HT) was isolated and purified from the spine extract of the Indian venomous butterfish, S. argus Linn, by two step ion exchange chromatography. The toxin was homogeneous in native and SDS-PAGE gel. SDS-molecular weight of the toxin was found to be 18.1 +/- 0.09 kDa. SA-HT produced severe haemorrhage on stomach wall but devoid of cutaneous haemorrhage. UV, EDTA, trypsin, protease, cyproheptadine, indomethacin, acetylsalicylic acid and BW755C treatment significantly antagonized the haemorrhagic activity of SA-HT. The toxin produced dose and time dependent oedema on mice hind paw, which was significantly encountered by cyproheptadine, indomethacin and BW755C. SA-HT increased capillary permeability on guinea pig dorsal flank. On isolated guineapig ileum, rat fundus and uterus, SA-HT produced slow contraction which was completely antagonised by prostaglandin blocker SC19220. On isolated rat duodenum, SA-HT produced slow relaxation. SA-HT significantly increased plasma plasmin, serum MDA level and decreased serum SOD level indicating the possible involvement of cyclooxygenase and lipooxygenase pathway. PMID:15233468

  16. Study on the release routes of allelochemicals from Pistia stratiotes Linn., and its anti-cyanobacteria mechanisms on Microcystis aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiang; Wu, Hao; Ye, Jinyun; Zhong, Bin

    2015-12-01

    Allelochemicals in Pistia stratiotes Linn. have a strong anti-cyanobacteria effect on Microcystis aeruginosa. To further determine the release routes of allelochemicals in P. stratiotes and understand their anti-cyanobacteria mechanisms, we aimed to systematically investigate the allelopathic effects of leaf leachates, leaf volatilization, root exudates, and residue decomposition of P. stratiotes on M. aeruginosa. The influences of P. stratiotes allelochemicals on the physiological properties of M. aeruginosa were also studied. Root exudates of P. stratiotes exhibited the strongest inhibitory effect on M. aeruginosa growth. The residue decomposition and leaf leachates exhibited a relatively strong inhibitory effect on M. aeruginosa growth. By contrast, the leaf volatilization stimulated M. aeruginosa growth. Therefore, root exudation was determined to be the main release route of allelochemicals from P. stratiotes. The mixed culture experiment of P. stratiotes root exudates and M. aeruginosa showed that the allelochemicals released from root exudation had no effect on the electron transfer of M. aeruginosa photosynthetic system II. However, it reduced the phycocyanin (PC) content and phycocyanin to allophycocyanin (PC/APC) ratio in the photosynthetic system. As the root exudates concentration increased, the electrical conductivity (EC) and superoxide anion radical (O2(*-)) values in the M. aeruginosa culture fluid increased significantly, indicating that the allelochemicals released from the root of P. stratiotes inhibited algae growth by affecting the PC and PC/APC levels in photosynthesis, destroying the cell membrane, and increasing O2(*-) content to result in oxidative damage of M. aeruginosa. PMID:26233747

  17. Therapeutic Effect of Saponin Rich Fraction of Achyranthes aspera Linn. on Adjuvant-Induced Arthritis in Sprague-Dawley Rats.

    PubMed

    Kothavade, Pankaj S; Bulani, Vipin D; Nagmoti, Dnyaneshwar M; Deshpande, Padmini S; Gawali, Nitin B; Juvekar, Archana R

    2015-01-01

    Objective. Achyranthes aspera Linn. (AA) is used in folklore for the treatment of various inflammatory ailments and arthritis like conditions. Anti-inflammatory activity of saponin rich (SR) fraction of AA has been previously reported. The objective of this study was to assess the antiarthritic effect of SR fraction of Achyranthes aspera in adjuvant-induced arthritic rats. Methods. Arthritis was assessed by arthritis score, paw volume, changes in tibiotarsal joint thickness, hyperalgesic parameters, and spleen and thymus index. Haematological, serum, biochemical, and inflammatory cytokine and in vivo antioxidant parameters were measured on the last day of the study. Results. SR fraction significantly suppressed paw swelling and arthritic score and improved the pain threshold in motility and stair climbing tests. There was a reversal in the levels of altered parameters, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, and antioxidant parameters like superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione, malondialdehyde, and nitric oxide. SR fraction significantly decreased plasma levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-6. Moreover, histopathology revealed a significant reduction in synovial hyperplasia, inflammatory cell infiltration, and bone destruction in the joints. Conclusion. These observations explain the therapeutic benefit of SR fraction of AA in suppressing the progression of adjuvant-induced arthritis in rats. PMID:26273477

  18. Anti-Inflammatory, gastrointestinal and hepatoprotective effects of Ocimum sanctum Linn: an ancient remedy with new application.

    PubMed

    Kamyab, Amir A 'lam; Eshraghian, Ahad

    2013-12-01

    Herbal medicine has a long background equal to history of humankind. Several plants have been used as remedies in ancient Persian, Egyptian, Chinese and Indian civilizations. The plant Ocimum sanctum Linn. (Tulsi) is one of these medicinal plants with a wide variety of applications in traditional medicine. In modern era, it has been shown to be effective against diabetes mellitus, hypertension, cancers, bronchitis, and found to have anti-microbial properties. Several experimental studies have confirmed its anti-inflammatory properties and its role in modulation of both cellular and humeral immunity. Recently its efficacy against inflammatory response, hepatic injury and gastric ulcer has been elucidated in animal studies. In liver, essential oils and extracts of Ocimum sanctum could prevent oxidative stress by increasing glutathione peroxidae and catalase and were also effective in prevention of hepatic steatosis. In gastric epithelial tissue different derivatives of Ocimum sanctum had anti-ulcer and anti-secretory characteristics and could heal gastric ulceration. These beneficial properties of this medicinal plant can mainly originate from its major biochemically active constituents like eugenol, carvacrol, ursolic acid, β-caryophyllene and rosmarinic acid. Here in, we reviewed current literature about anti-inflammatory, gastric and hepatoprotective properties of Ocimum sanctum. PMID:24266685

  19. Evaluation of the effect of Ferula asafoetida Linn. gum extract on learning and memory in Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Vijayalakshmi; Adiga, Shalini; Bhat, Priyanka; Chaturvedi, Abhishek; Bairy, K. L.; Kamath, Shobha

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Memory loss is universal and is the first symptom to manifest in majority of the patients suffering from Alzheimer's disease. This study is designed to investigate the effect of Ferula asafoetida linn. (F. foetida) extract on learning and memory in rats. Materials and Methods: Learning and memory were evaluated using elevated plus maze and passive avoidance paradigm after the oral administration of two doses (200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg) of F. foetida aqueous extract with rivastigmine as positive control. Brain cholinesterase activity, serum thiols and cholesterol were also estimated. Results: Extract produced significant improvement in memory score i.e. step through latency at 400 mg/kg dose in passive avoidance model (P< 0.05) and dose-dependent improvement of transfer latency in elevated plus maze model (P< 0.001). Dose-dependent inhibition of brain cholinesterase (P< 0.001) and significant improvement in antioxidant levels (P< 0.05) were also noted. Conclusions: Memory enhancing potential of F. foetida can be attributed to acetylcholinesterase inhibiting and antioxidant properties. Hence, dietary usage of F. foetida is beneficial and can also be employed as an adjuvant to existing anti-dementia therapies. PMID:22345876

  20. Evaluation of Antimicrobial and Wound Healing Potentials of Ethanol Extract of Wedelia biflora Linn D.C. Leaves

    PubMed Central

    Biswas, D.; Yoganandam, G. P.; Dey, A.; Deb, L.

    2013-01-01

    To rationalize scientifically the traditional claim on use of Wedelia biflora (Linn.) D. C. for the treatment of wounds and infections, the present study was designed to evaluate the antimicrobial and wound healing activity of ethanol extract of leaves of W. biflora. In in vitro assays the test extract was subjected to antimicrobial activity by agar well-diffusion method and minimum inhibitory concentration method in different microbial strains. Wound healing activity of the test extract was studied by excision wound model and incision wound model in Wistar albino rats. In excision wound model, 97.90% wound healing was recorded in 10% w/w extract treated group on 16th days of postsurgery, whereas only 58.50% was observed in control group. In incision model, higher breaking strength, high hydroxyl proline content and histopathological study in extract treated groups revealed higher collagen redeposition than the control group. The agar well-diffusion evaluation and minimum inhibitory concentration established antimicrobial efficacy of ethanol extracts of W. biflora. These observations established the traditional claim and therapeutic activity of W. biflora and it could be a potent wound healing candidate for use in future. PMID:24019563

  1. Safety Evaluation of Oral Toxicity of Carica papaya Linn. Leaves: A Subchronic Toxicity Study in Sprague Dawley Rats

    PubMed Central

    Ismail, Zakiah; Abdullah, Noor Rain; Abdul Rashid, Badrul Amini; Jantan, Ibrahim

    2014-01-01

    The subchronic toxicity effect of the leaf extract of Carica papaya Linn. in Sprague Dawley (SD) rats was investigated in this study. The extract was prepared by dissolving the freeze dried extract of the leaves in distilled water and was administered orally to SD rats (consisted of 10 rats/sex/group) at 0 (control), 0.01, 0.14, and 2 g/kg body weight (BW) for 13 weeks. General observation, mortality, and food and water intake were monitored throughout the experimental period. Hematological and biochemical parameters, relative organ weights, and histopathological changes were evaluated. The study showed that leaf extract when administered for 13 weeks did not cause any mortality and abnormalities of behavior or changes in body weight as well as food and water intake. There were no significant differences observed in hematology parameters between treatment and control groups; however significant differences were seen in biochemistry values, for example, LDH, creatinine, total protein, and albumin. However, these changes were not associated with histopathological changes. In conclusion, the results suggested that daily oral administration of rats with C. papaya leaf extract for 13 weeks at a dose up to fourteen times the levels employed in traditional medicine practice did not cause any significant toxic effect. PMID:25530788

  2. Insecticidal and repellent activities of thymol from the essential oil of Trachyspermum ammi (Linn) Sprague seeds against Anopheles stephensi.

    PubMed

    Pandey, S K; Upadhyay, Shikha; Tripathi, A K

    2009-08-01

    Essential oil of seeds of Trachyspermum ammi (Linn.) Sprauge and its pure constituent thymol showed promising results when evaluated for larvicidal, oviposition-deterrent, vapor toxicity, and repellent activity against malarial vector, Anopheles stephensi. Thymol was 1.6-fold more toxic than the oil toward fourth-instar larvae of A. stephensi with LD(50) values of 48.88 and 80.77 microg/ml, respectively. Egg laying by female adults of A. stephensi was much significantly reduced when exposed to vapors of thymol compared to the oil of T. ammi seeds, and similar effects were recorded for subsequent egg hatching and larval survival. Vapor toxicity assay showed LC(50) value of 79.5 mg/mat for thymol against adults of A. stephensi, whereas the crude oil exhibited the LC(50) value of 185.4 mg/mat. Thymol provided complete repellency toward A. stephensi adults at the dose of 25.0 mg/mat after 1 h duration, whereas same degree of repellency was obtained by the oil at the dose of 55.0 mg/mat, indicating its double-fold activity than the oil. PMID:19343365

  3. Characterization and storage stability of the extract of Thai mango (Mangifera indica Linn. Cultivar Chok-Anan) seed kernels.

    PubMed

    Maisuthisakul, Pitchaon; Gordon, Michael H

    2014-08-01

    Qualitative analysis of hydrolysable extract from mango (Mangifera indica Linn. cultivar Chok-Anan) seed kernel was performed by means of reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to diode array detection and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (RPHPLC-DAD-ESI-MS). The main phenolic compound was identified as methyl gallate by comparing their retention time, UV-vis absorption spectra and mass spectra with a reference standard. Quantification of phenolic compounds was performed by HPLC-DAD, which revealed that the extract contained total phenolics at a concentration of 194.1 mg GAE/g dry weight of mango seed kernel (MSK), of which 85.7% was identified as methyl gallate. In addition, the antioxidant activities of the extract and the main compound were assessed by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and 2,2'-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) assays, by the ferric thiocyanate method and by an assay of metal chelating activity. Tyrosinase inhibition was also investigated. Furthermore, the antioxidant capacity and the total phenolic content of MSK extract stored in a plastic (polyethylene) PE bag decreased during storage at freezing (-20 °C), refrigerated (7 °C) and room (28-32 °C) temperature for 182 days. The loss of antioxidant capacity and total phenolic content increased at higher storage temperatures for more than 182 days. PMID:25114335

  4. Effect of purificatory measures through cow's urine and milk on strychnine and brucine content of Kupeelu (Strychnos nuxvomica Linn.) seeds.

    PubMed

    Mitra, Swarnendu; Shukla, V J; Acharya, Rabinarayan

    2012-01-01

    Strychnos nux vomica Linn.(Loganaceae) commonly known as Nux vomica (Kupeelu), is a poisonous plant and its seeds are used widely in Ayurvedic system of medicine since time immemorial. Ayurveda advocates that nux vomica seeds are to be administered in therapeutics only after going through certain purificatory measures (Shodhana). There are more than six media: cow's urine (Go mutra), cow's milk (Go dugdha), cow's ghee (Go ghrita), Kanji (thin gruel), castor oil (Eranda taila) and fresh ginger juice (Ardraka swarasa) etc., which have been reported in different classical texts of Ayurveda for proper processing of nux vomica seeds. In this study, an attempt has been made to purify the seeds by using three different methods as described in ancient treatise by using cow's urine and cow's milk as media alone and together. This study revealed that all the methods studied reduced the toxicity of strychnine and brucine contents in comparison to the raw seeds as determined by HPTLC. Out of these three methods maximum reduction in strychnine and brucine contents was found when the seeds were purified by keeping them in cow's urine for seven days followed by boiling in cow's milk for three hrs. PMID:23983327

  5. Genotoxic assessment of calcium hypochlorite and Strychnos potatorum Linn. seeds-two commonly used water purifying agents.

    PubMed

    Neelamkavil, Sandhya Vincent; Thoppil, John E

    2015-01-01

    The role of water in our daily lives cannot be highlighted enough, and ensuring the availability of pure water is an urgent need. Bleaching powder (calcium hypochlorite) and Strychnos potatorum Linn. seeds are commonly used in water purification as a disinfectant and anticoagulant, respectively, yet their safety levels have not been analyzed so far. Hence, a genotoxic assessment was conducted using Allium cepa chromosome aberration assay. Reduction in mitotic index and increase in abnormality percentage was observed for both, but this effect was dose dependent. All values were statistically significant at p<0.05%. Bleaching powder was found to be cytotoxic and genotoxic compared with the control. Abnormality percentage was found to be significantly high when compared with the positive control. Chromosome aberrations like binucleate condition, micronuclei formation, stickiness, and lesions could only be observed in root meristems treated with positive control and bleaching powder. The seeds of S. potatorum expressed mild cytotoxicity, but the genotoxic effect was found to be negligible when compared with positive control. Other chromosome aberrations observed included chromosome bridges, c-metaphases, chromosome laggards, shift in microtubule organizing centre, polyploidy, early movement of chromosomes, vagrant chromosomes, as well as diagonal, disturbed, and scattered arrangement of chromosomes. Thus, the genotoxic effect of bleaching powder warns people to use a safer choice of S. potatorum in water purification, whenever possible, as in the condition of muddy, coagulated water. PMID:25411981

  6. Therapeutic Effect of Saponin Rich Fraction of Achyranthes aspera Linn. on Adjuvant-Induced Arthritis in Sprague-Dawley Rats

    PubMed Central

    Kothavade, Pankaj S.; Bulani, Vipin D.; Nagmoti, Dnyaneshwar M.; Deshpande, Padmini S.; Gawali, Nitin B.; Juvekar, Archana R.

    2015-01-01

    Objective. Achyranthes aspera Linn. (AA) is used in folklore for the treatment of various inflammatory ailments and arthritis like conditions. Anti-inflammatory activity of saponin rich (SR) fraction of AA has been previously reported. The objective of this study was to assess the antiarthritic effect of SR fraction of Achyranthes aspera in adjuvant-induced arthritic rats. Methods. Arthritis was assessed by arthritis score, paw volume, changes in tibiotarsal joint thickness, hyperalgesic parameters, and spleen and thymus index. Haematological, serum, biochemical, and inflammatory cytokine and in vivo antioxidant parameters were measured on the last day of the study. Results. SR fraction significantly suppressed paw swelling and arthritic score and improved the pain threshold in motility and stair climbing tests. There was a reversal in the levels of altered parameters, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, and antioxidant parameters like superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione, malondialdehyde, and nitric oxide. SR fraction significantly decreased plasma levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-6. Moreover, histopathology revealed a significant reduction in synovial hyperplasia, inflammatory cell infiltration, and bone destruction in the joints. Conclusion. These observations explain the therapeutic benefit of SR fraction of AA in suppressing the progression of adjuvant-induced arthritis in rats. PMID:26273477

  7. Ultrastructural Changes and Death of Leishmania infantum Promastigotes Induced by Morinda citrifolia Linn. Fruit (Noni) Juice Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Almeida-Souza, Fernando; Taniwaki, Noemi Nosomi; Amaral, Ana Cláudia Fernandes; de Souza, Celeste da Silva Freitas; Calabrese, Kátia da Silva; Abreu-Silva, Ana Lúcia

    2016-01-01

    The search for new treatments against leishmaniasis has increased due to high frequency of drug resistance registered in endemics areas, side effects, and complications caused by coinfection with HIV. Morinda citrifolia Linn., commonly known as Noni, has a rich chemical composition and various therapeutic effects have been described in the literature. Studies have shown the leishmanicidal activity of M. citrifolia; however, its action on the parasite has not yet been elucidated. In this work, we analyzed leishmanicidal activity and ultrastructural changes in Leishmania infantum promastigotes caused by M. citrifolia fruit juice treatment. M. citrifolia fruit extract showed a yield of 6.31% and high performance liquid chromatography identified phenolic and aromatic compounds as the major constituents. IC50 values were 260.5 µg/mL for promastigotes and 201.3 µg/mL for intracellular amastigotes of L. infantum treated with M. citrifolia. Cytotoxicity assay with J774.G8 macrophages showed that M. citrifolia fruit juice was not toxic up to 2 mg/mL. Transmission electron microscopy showed cytoplasmic vacuolization, lipid inclusion, increased exocytosis activity, and autophagosome-like vesicles in L. infantum promastigotes treated with M. citrifolia fruit juice. M. citrifolia fruit juice was active against L. infantum in the in vitro model used here causing ultrastructural changes and has a future potential for treatment against leishmaniasis. PMID:27313649

  8. Amelioration of inflammation by phenolic rich methanolic extract of Ocimum sanctum Linn. leaves in isoproterenol induced myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Kavitha, S; John, Febi; Indira, M

    2015-10-01

    Myocardial infarction (MI) is one of the leading causes of death worldwide. Oxidative stress and inflammation play vital role in the development of MI. The Indian basil or Tulsi (Ocimum sanctum Linn.), owing to its antioxidant potential, is used in the traditional system of Indian medicine to treat various disorders. We evaluated methanolic extract of O. sanctum (Tulsi) leaves on inflammation in isoproterenol (ISP) induced MI in rats. ISP-induced MI increased the levels of cardiac markers, phospholipases and phospholipid content. However, the same were reduced on pre-treatment with methanolic extract of O. sanctum leaves. The activities of 5-lipoxygenase and cycloxygenase-2 and levels of leukotriene B4 and thromboxane B2 were also elevated in ISP-treated rats, which were significantly decreased (P < 0.001) in extract pre-treated rats. The enhanced mRNA expressions of nuclear factor kappa-B, 5-lipoxygenase activating protein and receptor for leukotriene B4 on MI induction, were considerably reduced (P < 0.001) on extract pre-treatment. Histopathological analysis also confirmed the findings. The results also revealed the high phenolic content of methanolic extract of O. sanctum leaves. The study demonstrated that methanolic extract of Tulsi leaves can decrease inflammation in the cardiac tissue of ISP-induced MI in rats and its effect may be through downregulation of oxidative stress and arachidonic acid pathway. This cardioprotective effect may be due to the high phenolic content of methanolic extract of O. sanctum leaves. PMID:26665293

  9. Antibacterial Activity of Lantana camara Linn and Lantana montevidensis Brig Extracts from Cariri-Ceará, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Barreto, FS; Sousa, EO; Campos, AR; Costa, JGM; Rodrigues, FFG

    2010-01-01

    The use of medicinal plants with therapeutics properties represents a secular tradition in different cultures, mainly in underdeveloped countries. Lantana camara Linn and Lantana montevidensis Briq (Verbenaceae) found in tropical and subtropical areas around the world are popularly known as “camará” or “chumbinho.” In popular medicines, both plants are used as antipyretic and carminative and in the treatment of respiratory system infections. In this study, the antibacterial activity of the ethanolic extracts of L. camara and L. montevidensis leaves and roots against gram-positive and gram-negative strains standard and multi-resistant bacteria isolated from clinical material are presented. In order to determine the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC), the microdilution method was used. The extracts demonstrated antibacterial activity against all tested bacteria, but the L. montevidensis fresh leaves extract present the best result against P. aeruginosa (MIC 8 μg/mL) and against multi-resistant E. coli (Ec 27) (MIC 16 μg/mL). These results drive new researches with both species in order to isolate the constituents responsible for the activity. PMID:21331189

  10. Hydrogeology and ground-water-quality conditions at the Linn County landfill, eastern Kansas, 1988-89

    SciTech Connect

    Falwell, R.; Bigsby, P.R.; Myers, N.C. )

    1991-01-01

    An investigation of the hydrogeology and groundwater quality conditions near the Linn County Landfill, eastern Kansas was conducted from July 1988 through June 1989. The landfill is located in an unreclaimed coal strip-mine area near Prescott. Analysis of water levels from nine temporary wells and from strip-mine ponds indicated that groundwater flows southwest through the present landfill. A county road west of the landfill acts as a barrier to shallow westerly groundwater flow. Seasonal variations in the direction of groundwater flow may occur. Water samples from monitoring wells and a strip-mine pond were analyzed for inorganic and organic compounds. Iron, manganese, and dissolved-organic-carbon concentrations were good indicators of the presence of landfill leachate in the groundwater. Benzene, carbon tetrachloride, 1,1-dichloroethane, and 1,1,1-trichloroethane were also detected. None of the inorganic or organic compounds detected exceeded Kansas primary drinking-water standards. Chemical concentrations and water levels in some nested wells indicate there is a hydraulic connection between the strip-mine spoil material and the underlying limestone. Leachate-contaminated groundwater has the potential to migrate southwest corner of the landfill through either strip-mine spoil material or through the underlying Pawnee Limestone.

  11. Analysis of endophytic fungi in roots of Santalum album Linn. and its host plant Kuhnia rosmarinifolia Vent.*

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Si-sheng; Chen, Xiao-mei; Guo, Shun-xing

    2014-01-01

    Santalum album Linn. is an evergreen and hemi-parasitic tree, the heartwood-sandalwood of which was used during a long history in traditional Chinese medicine. Kuhnia rosmarinifolia Vent. is a good host for 1- or 2-year-old growing S. album. The interaction between S. album and K. rosmarinifolia is still little known. Many studies have been carried out on a number of plants for identification and diversity of endophytes. In this study, in total 25 taxa of endophytic fungi were isolated from the roots of S. album and the roots of K. rosmarinifolia. The most frequently isolated genera were Penicillium sp. 1 and Fusarium sp. 1 in the roots of S. album and K. rosmarinifolia, respectively. S. album is a root parasite of K. rosmarinifolia. The interesting result is that they apparently do not share the same endophytic fungi isolates. This study for the first time explored the content of endophytic fungi from S. album and K. rosmarinifolia, which provides important information for further studies. PMID:24510703

  12. Green coconut ( Cocos nucifera Linn) shell extract mediated size controlled green synthesis of polyshaped gold nanoparticles and its application in catalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, Koushik; Bag, Braja Gopal; Samanta, Kousik

    2014-08-01

    The shell extract of green coconut ( Cocos nucifera Linn) has been utilized for the synthesis of gold nanoparticles at room temperature under very mild condition without any extra stabilizing or capping agents. The size of the synthesized gold nanoparticles could be controlled by varying the concentration of the shell extract. The stabilized gold nanoparticles were analyzed by surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy, HRTEM, Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction studies. The catalytic activity of the freshly synthesized gold nanoparticles was studied for the sodium borohydride reduction of 4-nitrophenol and the kinetics of the reduction reaction were studied spectrophotometrically.

  13. Anti-diabetic, anti-oxidant and anti-hyperlipidemic activities of Melastoma malabathricum Linn. leaves in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Melastoma malabathricum (MM) Linn leaves traditionally use in the treatment of diabetic conditions. The aim of the present investigation was to evaluate the antioxidant, antihyperlipidemic and antidiabetic activity of methanolic extract taken from Melastoma malabathricum Linn (Melastomaceae). Methods The methanolic leaves extract of MM Linn leaves used for the study. Chemical test of different extract, acute toxicity study and oral glucose test was performed. Diabetes was induced in rat by single intra-peritoneal injection of streptozotocin (55 mg/kg). The rats were divided into following groups: Group I – normal control, Group II (Vehicle) – diabetic control, Group III (STZ-toxic) – MM I (100 mg/kg, p.o.), Group IV – MM II (250 mg/kg, p.o.), Group V – MM III (500 mg/kg, p.o.), Group VI – glibenclamide (10 mg/kg, p.o.). Bodyweight of each rat in the different groups was recorded daily. Biochemical and antioxidant enzyme parameters were determined on day 28. Histology of different organ (heart, liver, kidney, and pancreas) was performed after sacrificing the rats with euthanasia. Results The methanolic extract of MM did not show any acute toxicity up-to the dose of 2000 mg/kg and shown better glucose utilization in oral glucose tolerance test. Orally treatment of different doses of MM leaves extract decreased the level of serum glucose, glycated hemoglobin, glucose-6-phosphatase, fructose-1-6-biphosphate and increased the level of plasma insulin, hexokinase. MM treatment decreased liver malondialdehyde but increased the level of superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase. In oral glucose tolerance test observed increased utilization of glucose. Streptozotocin induced diabetes groups rat treated with different doses of MM leaves extract and glibenclamide significantly increased the body weight. Histopathology analysis on different organ of STZ (streptozotocin) induced diabetic rat show there regenerative effect on the liver

  14. Piper betel Linn (betel vine), the maligned Southeast Asian medicinal plant possesses cancer preventive effects: time to reconsider the wronged opinion.

    PubMed

    Rai, Manoj P; Thilakchand, Karadka Ramdas; Palatty, Princy L; Rao, Prathima; Rao, Suresh; Bhat, Harshith P; Baliga, Manjeshwar Shrinath

    2011-01-01

    Since antiquity, Piper betel Linn (betel vine; family Piperaceae) has been an important medicinal agent in the various traditional and folk systems of medicine in Southeast Asia countries. The leaves are the most valued plant part and in the past were routinely used as a chewing agent to prevent halitosis. The leaves are also supposed to harden the gum, conserve the teeth and to prevent indigestion, bronchitis, constipation, congestion, coughs and asthma. Innumerable scientific studies have validated the ethnomedicinal claims. Betel leaves are an integral component of the betel quid that consists of areca nut (Areca catechu Linn.), tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L) and slaked lime; a highly abused agent with carcinogenic properties. Regular chewing of betel quid is associated mainly with oral cancer and detail studies with individual constituents of the quid have shown that both tobacco and areca nut are carcinogenic, while slaked lime is shown to promote the process of carcinogenesis. However unlike other constituents of the betel quid, the betel leaves devoid carcinogenic effects and on the contrary possesses cancer preventive effects including against the carcinogens present in tobacco. This review for the first time provides information on cancer preventive effects and also addresses the various mechanisms which might be involved. PMID:22296348

  15. Radical intermediate generation and cell cycle arrest by an aqueous extract of Thunbergia Laurifolia Linn. In human breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Jetawattana, Suwimol; Boonsirichai, Kanokporn; Charoen, Savapong; Martin, Sean M

    2015-01-01

    Thunbergia Laurifolia Linn. (TL) is one of the most familiar plants in Thai traditional medicine that is used to treat various conditions, including cancer. However, the antitumor activity of TL or its constituents has never been reported at the molecular level to support the folklore claim. The present study was designed to investigate the antitumor effect of an aqueous extract of TL in human breast cancer cells and the possible mechanism(s) of action. An aqueous crude extract was prepared from dried leaves of TL. Folin-Ciocalteu colorimetric assays were used to determine the total phenolic content. Antiproliferative and cell cycle effects were evaluated in human breast adenocarcinoma MCF-7 cells by MTT reduction assay, cell growth inhibition, clonogenic cell survival, and flow cytometric analysis. Free radical generation by the extracts was detected using electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy. The exposure of human breast adenocarcinoma MCF-7 cells to a TL aqueous extract resulted in decreases in cell growth, clonogenic cell survival, and cell viability in a concentration-dependent manner with an IC50 value of 843 μg/ml. Treatments with extract for 24 h at 250 μg/ml or higher induced cell cycle arrest as indicated by a significant increase of cell population in the G1 phase and a significant decrease in the S phase of the cell cycle. The capability of the aqueous extract to generate radical intermediates was observed at both high pH and near-neutral pH conditions. The findings suggest the antitumor bioactivities of TL against selected breast cancer cells may be due to induction of a G1 cell cycle arrest. Cytotoxicity and cell cycle perturbation that are associated with a high concentration of the extract could be in part explained by the total phenolic contents in the extract and the capacity to generate radical intermediates to modulate cellular proliferative signals. PMID:26028099

  16. Anti-Obesity Effects of Melastoma malabathricum var Alba Linn in Rats Fed with a High-Fat Diet.

    PubMed

    Karupiah, Sundram; Ismail, Zhari

    2015-06-01

    Obesity is one of the major public health problems worldwide and it is generally associated with many diseases. Although synthetic drugs are available for the treatment of obesity, herbal remedies may provide safe, natural, and cost-effective alternative to synthetic drugs. One example of such drugs is Melastoma malabathricum var Alba Linn (MM). Although several studies have been reported for the pharmacological activities of MM, there is no report on the anti-obesity effect of MM. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the anti-obesity potential of methanolic extract of MM. The anti-obesity effect of MM on rats fed with a high-fat diet was investigated through determination of the changes in body weight, fat weight, organ weights, and blood biochemicals. The animals in this study were divided into three groups: a normal group with a standard diet (N), a control group fed with high-fat diet (C), and a MM treatment group fed with high-fat (HFD + MM) diet for 8 weeks. There was no significant difference in the amount of food intake between control and HFD + MM treatments. These results also suggest that MM does not induce a dislike for the diet due to its smell or taste. The study shows that MM significantly prevented increases in body weight, cholesterol, LDL, HDL, and total lipids that resulted from the high-fat diet. MM also decreased the epididymal fat (E-fat) and retroperitoneal fat (R-fat) weights and phospholipid concentrations induced by the high-fat diet. On the basis of these findings, it was concluded that MM had anti-obesity effects by suppressing body weight gain and abdominal fat formation. PMID:25374344

  17. Screening of flavonoid “quercetin” from the rhizome of Smilax china Linn. for anti-psoriatic activity

    PubMed Central

    Vijayalakshmi, A; Ravichandiran, V; Malarkodi, Velraj; Nirmala, S; Jayakumari, S

    2012-01-01

    Objective To assess anti-psoriatic activity of the methanol extract and the isolated flavonoid quercetin from the rhizome of Smilax china (S. china) Linn. Methods Mouse tail test was used for the evaluation of anti-psoriatic activity. Methanol extract (100 and 200 mg/kg b.w.) and isolated flavonoid quercetin (25 and 50 mg/kg b.w.) were tested in Swiss albino mice. Parameters studied in the mouse tail test were changes in epidermal thickness and percentage orthokeratotic values. The anti-inflammatory role of the methanol extract and isolated flavonoid quercetin was evaluated using carrageenan-induced pleurisy in rats. In vitro antiproliferant assay on HaCaT cell lines was also carried out. Results The isolated flavonoid quercetin from the rhizome of S. china produced significant orthokeratosis (P<0.01) in the mouse tail test. In epidermal thickness, a significant reduction with respect to control was observed in groups treated with retinoic acid and isolated flavonoid quercetin. The methanol extract (200 mg/kg) and isolated flavonoid quercetin (50 mg/kg) showed anti-inflammatory effect in terms of significant inhibition (P<0.001) in leukocyte migration. Maximum antiproliferant activity was shown by isolated flavonoid quercetin (IC50, 62.42±10.20 µg/mL). Conclusions From the above data, the flavonoid quercetin shows significant orthokeratosis, anti-inflammatory and maximum antiproliferant activities. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the anti-psoriatic effect of the flavonoid quercetin which is promising for further investigations to prove its anti-psoriatic activity. PMID:23569912

  18. A comparative clinical study of Jethimala (Taverniera nummularia Baker.) and Yashtimadhu (Glycyrrhiza glabra Linn.) in the management of Amlapitta

    PubMed Central

    Prajapati, Shashikant M.; Patel, Bhupesh R.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Amlapitta is very common disease in society. In present era hectic lifestyle, irregular and faulty dietary habits, etc. are the causative factors of Amlapitta. Most of the symptoms of hyper acidity are enumerated in the conditions of Amlapitta delineated in Ayurvedic classics. The local people and Vaidyas of Saurashtra and Kutchh region have been frequently using Jethimala as Yashtimadhu, botanically known as Taverniera nummularia Baker. Aim: To evaluate and compare the clinical efficacy of Jethimala (T. nummularia) and Yasthimadhu (Glycyrrhiza glabra Linn.) in Amlapitta. Materials and Methods: In this present clinical study, total 40 patients of Amlapitta were registered and randomly divided into two groups. In group A, Yashtimadhu Moola Choorna (G. glabra root powder) and in group B Jethimala Moola Choorna (T. nummularia root powder) was given for 2 weeks with water. A clinical research proforma was specially designed on the basis of classically reported signs and symptoms of Amlapitta for assessing the efficacy of the study drugs. Results: Yashtimadhu and Jethimala significantly relieved the cardinal symptoms of Amlapitta like, Tikta-Amlodgara (eryctations with bitter or sour taste) 67.64% in group A and 60% in group B, Hrit-Kanthadaha (burning sensation in the chest and throat) 69% in group A and 66.06% in group B and Utklesha (nausea) 65.35% in group A and 61.70% in group B. Conclusion: Statistically significant improvement was observed in all the symptoms in both the groups. While in comparison Jethimala showed better effect than Yashtimadhu (G. glabra) in Aruchi. It is concluded that Jethimala can be used as a substitute for Yashtimadhu. PMID:27011716

  19. Trianthema portulacastrum Linn. exerts chemoprevention of 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene-induced mammary tumorigenesis in rats.

    PubMed

    Bishayee, Anupam; Mandal, Animesh

    2014-10-01

    Due to limited treatment options for advanced-stage metastatic breast cancer, a high priority should be given to develop non-toxic chemopreventive drugs. The value of various natural and dietary agents to reduce the risk of developing breast cancer is well established. Trianthema portulacastrum Linn. (Aizoaceae), a dietary and medicinal plant, has been found to exert antihepatotoxic and antihepatocarcinogenic properties in rodents. This study was initiated to investigate mechanism-based chemopreventive potential of an ethanolic extract of T. portulacastrum (TPE) against 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA)-initiated rat mammary gland carcinogenesis, an experimental tumor model that closely resembles human breast cancer. Rats had access to a basal diet supplemented with TPE to yield three dietary doses of the extract, i.e., 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight. Following two weeks of TPE treatment, mammary tumorigenesis was initiated by oral administration of DMBA (50 mg/kg body weight). At the end of the study (16 weeks after DMBA exposure), TPE exhibited a striking reduction of DMBA-induced mammary tumor incidence, total tumor burden and average tumor weight and reversed intratumor histopathological alterations. TPE dose-dependently suppressed proliferating cell nuclear antigen and cyclin D1 expression, induced apoptosis, upregulated proapoptotic protein Bax, downregulated antiapoptotic protein Bcl-2 and diminished the expression of nuclear and cytosolic β-catenin in mammary tumors. Our results clearly provide the first experimental evidence that TPE exerts chemopreventive effect in the classical DMBA model of breast cancer by suppressing abnormal cell proliferation and inducing apoptosis mediated through alteration of Bax/Bcl-2 ratio. Mechanistically, TPE is capable of diminishing activated canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling to exhibit antiproliferative, proapoptotic and oncostatic effects during an early-stage breast cancer. These results may encourage further

  20. Biochemical Evaluation of the Hypoglycemic Effects of Extract and Fraction of Cassia fistula Linn. in Alloxan-induced Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Jarald, E. E.; Joshi, S. B.; Jain, D. C.; Edwin, S.

    2013-01-01

    Various extracts of flowers of Cassia fistula Linn (Leguminosae) such as petroleum ether (60-80°), chloroform, acetone, ethanol, aqueous, and crude aqueous extracts and two fractions of ethanol extract were tested for antihyperglycemic activity in glucose-overloaded hyperglycemic rats. The effective antihyperglycemic extracts and fraction were tested for their hypoglycemic activity at two dose levels, 200 and 400 mg/kg, respectively. To confirm their utility in higher models, the effective extracts and fraction of C. fistula were subjected to antidiabetic study in an alloxan-induced diabetic model at two dose levels, 200 and 400 mg/kg, respectively. Biochemical parameters like glucose, urea, creatinine, serum cholesterol, serum triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein, low-density lipoprotein, hemoglobin, and glycosylated hemoglobin were also assessed in experimental animals. The petroleum ether and ethanol extracts of C. fistula and the water-soluble fraction of ethanol extract were found to exhibit significant antihyperglycemic activity. The extracts, at the given doses, did not produce hypoglycemia in fasted normal rats, and the fraction exhibited weak hypoglycemic effect after 2 h of the treatment. Treatment of diabetic rats with ethanol extract and water-soluble fraction of this plant restored the elevated biochemical parameters significantly (P<0.05) to the normal level. No activity was found in the petroleum ether extract of the plant. Comparatively, the water-soluble fraction of ethanol extract was found to be more effective than the ethanol extract, and the activity was comparable with that of the standard, glibenclamide (5 mg/kg). PMID:24302797

  1. In vitro antibacterial activity and acute toxicity studies of aqueous-methanol extract of Sida rhombifolia Linn. (Malvaceae)

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Many bacteria among the Enterobacteria family are involved in infectious diseases and diarrhoea. Most of these bacteria become resistant to the most commonly used synthetic drugs in Cameroon. Natural substances seem to be an alternative to this problem. Thus the aim of this research was to investigate the in vitro antibacterial activity of the methanol and aqueous-methanol extracts of Sida rhombifolia Linn (Malvaceae) against seven pathogenic bacteria involved in diarrhoea. Acute toxicity of the most active extract was determined and major bioactive components were screened. Methods The agar disc diffusion and the agar dilution method were used for the determination of inhibition diameters and the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MICs) respectively. The acute toxicity study was performed according WHO protocol. Results The aqueous-methanol extract (1v:4v) was the most active with diameters of inhibition zones ranging from 8.7 - 23.6 mm, however at 200 μg/dic this activity was relatively weak compared to gentamycin. The MICs of the aqueous-methanol extract (1v:4v) varied from 49.40 to 78.30 μg/ml. Salmonella dysenteriae was the most sensitive (49.40 μg/ml). For the acute toxicity study, no deaths of rats were recorded. However, significant increase of some biochemical parameters such as aspartate amino-transferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and creatinine (CRT) were found. The phytochemical analysis of the aqueous methanol extract indicated the presence of tannins, polyphenols, alkaloids, glycosides, flavonoids and saponins Conclusion The results showed that the aqueous-methanol extract of S. rhombifolia exhibited moderate antibacterial activity. Some toxic effects were found when rats received more than 8 g/kg bw of extract. Antibacterial; Enterobacteria; Acute toxicity; Phytochemical analysis PMID:20663208

  2. Cissus quadrangularis Linn. Stem Ethanolic Extract Liberates Reactive Oxygen Species and Induces Mitochondria Mediated Apoptosis in KB Cells

    PubMed Central

    Sheikh, Saba; Siddiqui, Sahabjada; Dhasmana, Anupam; Safia; Haque, Ejazul; Kamil, Mohammed; Lohani, Mohtashim; Arshad, Mohammad; Mir, Snober Shabnam

    2015-01-01

    Background: Cissus quadrangularis Linn. (CQ) commonly known as Hadjod (Family: Vitaceae) is usually distributed in India and Sri Lanka and contains several bioactive compounds responsible for various metabolic and physiologic effects. Objective: In this study, the biological effects of CQ ethanolic extract were evaluated by in vitro and supported by in silico analysis on KB oral epidermoid cancer cell line. Materials and Methods: Anti-cancer potential of ethanolic extract of CQ stem against KB oral epidermoid cancer cells was evaluated in terms of morphological analysis, nuclei staining, liberation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), cell cycle arrest, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and p53 and Bcl-2 protein expression which reveal the induction of apoptosis along with supporting in silico analysis. Results: Ethanolic extract of CQ stem contains various bioactive compounds responsible for cancer cell morphological alterations, liberation of ROS, G1 phase cell cycle arrest and decreased MMP along with up-regulation of p53 and down-regulation of Bcl-2. By employing in silico approach, we have also postulated that the CQ extract active constituents sequester Bcl-2 with higher affinity as compared to p53, which may be the reason for induction of growth arrest and apoptosis in KB cells. Conclusion: Our data indicate that the CQ extract has a remarkable apoptotic effect that suggests that it could be a viable treatment option for specific types of cancers. SUMMARY Cissus quadrangularis stem ethanolic extract induces apoptosis and cell cycle arrest at G1 phaseIt liberates (ROS) and mitochondria mediated apoptosisIt upregulates p53 and down-regulates Bcl-2 protein expressionIn silico studies indicates that the active constituents of CQ binds Bcl-2 with higher affinity as compared to p53. PMID:26929569

  3. Proapoptotic and Antimetastatic Properties of Supercritical CO2 Extract of Nigella sativa Linn. Against Breast Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Baharetha, Hussein M.; Nassar, Zeyad D.; Aisha, Abdalrahim F.; Ahamed, Mohamed B. Khadeer; Al-Suede, Foaud Saleih R.; Kadir, Mohd Omar Abd; Ismail, Zhari

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Nigella sativa, commonly referred as black cumin, is a popular spice that has been used since the ancient Egyptians. It has traditionally been used for treatment of various human ailments ranging from fever to intestinal disturbances to cancer. This study investigated the apoptotic, antimetastatic, and anticancer activities of supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) extracts of the seeds of N. sativa Linn. against estrogen-dependent human breast cancer cells (MCF-7). Twelve extracts were prepared from N. sativa seeds using the SC-CO2 extraction method by varying pressure and temperature. Extracts were analyzed using FTIR and UV-Vis spectrometry. Cytotoxicity of the extracts was evaluated on various human cancer and normal cell lines. Of the 12 extracts, 1 extract (A3) that was prepared at 60°C and 2500 psi (∼17.24 MPa) showed selective antiproliferative activity against MCF-7 cells with an IC50 of 53.34±2.15 μg/mL. Induction of apoptosis was confirmed by evaluating caspases activities and observing the cells under a scanning electron microscope. In vitro antimetastatic properties of A3 were investigated by colony formation, cell migration, and cell invasion assays. The elevated levels of caspases in A3 treated MCF-7 cells suggest that A3 is proapoptotic. Further nuclear condensation and fragmentation studies confirmed that A3 induces cytotoxicity through the apoptosis pathway. A3 also demonstrated remarkable inhibition in migration and invasion assays of MCF-7 cells at subcytotoxic concentrations. Thus, this study highlights the therapeutic potentials of SC-CO2 extract of N. sativa in targeting breast cancer. PMID:24328702

  4. Protective effect of Calendula officinalis Linn. flowers against 3-nitropropionic acid induced experimental Huntington's disease in rats.

    PubMed

    Shivasharan, B D; Nagakannan, Pandian; Thippeswamy, Boreddy Shivanandappa; Veerapur, Veeresh Prabakar; Bansal, Punit; Unnikrishnan, Mazhuvancherry K

    2013-10-01

    Oxidative stress (OS) and nitric oxide mechanisms have been recently proposed in 3-nitropropionic acid (3-NP)-induced neurotoxicity. The compounds, having antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and estrogenic effects, have been suggested for neuroprotection in different experimental models. Calendula officinalis Linn. flower extract (COE) is known for its potent antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, estrogenic and neuroprotective activities. Hence, the present study was designed to evaluate the neuroprotective effect of COE on 3-NP-induced neurotoxicity in rats by observing behavioral changes, OS and striatal damage in rat brain. Adult female Wistar rats were pretreated with vehicle or COE (100 and 200 mg/kg) for 7 days, followed by cotreatment with 3-NP (15 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) for the next 7 days. At the end of the treatment schedule, rats were evaluated for alterations in sensory motor functions and short-term memory. Animals were sacrificed and brain homogenates were used for the estimation of lipid peroxidation (LPO), glutathione, total thiols, glutathione S-transferase, catalase and nitrite. A set of brain slices was used for the evaluation of neuronal damage in the striatal region of the brain. 3-NP caused significant alterations in animal behavior, oxidative defense system evidenced by raised levels of LPO and nitrite concentration, and depletion of antioxidant levels. It also produced a loss of neuronal cells in the striatal region. Treatment with COE significantly attenuated behavioral alterations, oxidative damage and striatal neuronal loss in 3-NP-treated animals. The present study shows that COE is protective against 3-NP-induced neurotoxicity in rats. The antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and estrogenic properties of COE may be responsible for its neuroprotective action. PMID:23590827

  5. Therapeutic uses of Ocimum sanctum Linn (Tulsi) with a note on eugenol and its pharmacological actions: a short review.

    PubMed

    Prakash, P; Gupta, Neelu

    2005-04-01

    The medicinal plants are widely used by the traditional medical practitioners for curing various diseases in their day to day practice. In traditional systems of medicine, different parts (leaves, stem, flower, root, seeds and even whole plant) of Ocimum sanctum Linn (known as Tulsi in Hindi), a small herb seen throughout India, have been recommended for the treatment of bronchitis, bronchial asthma, malaria, diarrhea, dysentery, skin diseases, arthritis, painful eye diseases, chronic fever, insect bite etc. The Ocimum sanctum L. has also been suggested to possess antifertility, anticancer, antidiabetic, antifungal, antimicrobial, hepatoprotective, cardioprotective, antiemetic, antispasmodic, analgesic, adaptogenic and diaphoretic actions. Eugenol (1-hydroxy-2-methoxy-4-allylbenzene), the active constituent present in Ocimum sanctum L., has been found to be largely responsible for the therapeutic potentials of Tulsi. Although because of its great therapeutic potentials and wide occurrence in India the practitioners of traditional systems of medicine have been using Ocimum sanctum L. for curing various ailments, a rational approach to this traditional medical practice with modern system of medicine is, however, not much available. In order to establish the therapeutic uses of Ocimum sanctum L. in modern medicine, in last few decades several Indian scientists and researchers have studied the pharmacological effects of steam distilled, petroleum ether and benzene extracts of various parts of Tulsi plant and eugenol on immune system, reproductive system, central nervous system, cardiovascular system, gastric system, urinary system and blood biochemistry and have described the therapeutic significance of Tulsi in management of various ailments. These pharmacological studies have established a scientific basis for therapeutic uses of this plant. PMID:16170979

  6. Effects of allelochemical extracted from water lettuce (Pistia stratiotes Linn.) on the growth, microcystin production and release of Microcystis aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiang; Wu, Hao; Chen, Junren; Ye, Jinyun

    2013-11-01

    This study explored the optimisation of a method of extracting allelochemicals from Pistia stratiotes Linn., identified the optimal dose range for the allelochemicals' anti-algal effect and investigated their impact on the growth of Microcystis aeruginosa, as well as the production and release of microcystin-LR (MC-LR). Based on measured changes in algal cell density and chlorophyll a (Chl-a) content, the allelochemicals were confirmed to have the strongest anti-algal effect with the lowest half-effect concentration of 65 mg L(-1) when they were extracted using ethyl acetate as the extraction solvent, 1:20 g mL(-1) as the extraction ratio and 1 h as the extraction time. The allelochemicals extracted from P. stratiotes using this optimal method exhibited the strongest inhibitory effect on the growth of algae when used within a dose range of 60-100 mg L(-1); the relative inhibitory ratio reached 50-90%, and Chl-a content reduced 50-75% in algae cell cultures within 3-7 days. In addition, the extracted allelochemical compounds demonstrated no significant impact on the extracellular release of MC-LR during the culturing period. The amount of intracellular MC-LR per 10(6) algal cells increased depending on the increasing dose of allelochemicals from P. stratiotes after 7 days of culturing and maintained stability after 16 days. There was no increase in the total amount of MC-LR in the algal cell culture medium. Therefore, the application of allelochemicals from P. stratiotes to inhibit M. aeruginosa has a high degree of ecological safety and can be adopted in practical applications for treating water subjected to algae blooms because the treatment can effectively inhibit the proliferation of algal cells without increasing the release of cyanotoxin. PMID:23653319

  7. Plant regeneration from organogenic callus and assessment of clonal fidelity in Elephantopus scaber Linn., an ethnomedicinal herb.

    PubMed

    Abraham, Jyothi; Thomas, T Dennis

    2015-04-01

    An efficient callus induction and plant regeneration system has been standardized for an ethnomedicinal plant, Elephantopus scaber Linn. Two explants i. e. seeds and leaf segments were used for callus induction. Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with 5.0 μM 2, 4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2, 4-D) and 0.5 μM kinetin (Kn) gave the optimum frequency (89 %) of callus induction from seed explant. The results showed that the highest response in terms of percent callus regenerating (91 %) and number of shoots (56) per culture was recorded on MS medium supplemented with 6.0 μM N6-benzylaminopurine (BA) and 1.5 μM α naphthalene acetic acid (NAA). The best rooting of regenerated shoots was obtained on half strength MS medium supplemented with 6.0 μM indole-3- butyric acid (IBA). On this medium, 100 % of the shoots produced roots with a mean number of 3.2 roots per shoot. The positive role of vesicular arbuscular mycorrhizae (VAM) along with potting mix has been well established in the present study. Of the various potting mix employed for plant acclimatization, the highest response of 100 % plant survival was noticed when autoclaved garden soil, sand (2:1) and VAM was utilized as potting mix. Inter-simple sequence repeats (ISSR) were used to establish the clonal fidelity of regenerated plantlets and the banding profiles from callus derived plants were monomorphic and similar to those of mother plant, thus ascertaining the true-to-type nature of these plants. PMID:25964719

  8. Mechanisms of Analgesic and Anti-Inflammatory Properties of Annona muricata Linn. (Annonaceae) Fruit Extract in Rodents

    PubMed Central

    Ishola, Ismail O.; Olusayero, Abayomi Micheal; Ochieng, Charles O.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Unripe fruit of Annona muricata Linn. (Annonaceae) (soursop) is used in traditional African medicine for the treatment of neuralgia, rheumatism, and arthritic pain. This study sought to investigate the analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of lyophilized fruit extract of Annona muricata (AM) in rodents. The analgesic activity was evaluated using the mouse writhing, formalin, and hot-plate tests while the anti-inflammatory action was investigated using the carrageenan-induced rat paw edema and xylene-induced ear edema tests. Pretreatment with AM (50, 100, and 200 mg/kg, p.o.) produced dose-dependent (P<.001) inhibition of writhes and formalin-induced pain in the late phase. AM and morphine produced time-course increase in pain threshold in hot-plate test. However, the analgesic effect elicited by AM was reversed (P<.05) by naloxone pretreatment. Similarly, the time-dependent increase in paw circumference induced by carrageenan was inhibited by AM treatment with peak effect (0.23±0.10 cm; P<.001, 200 mg/kg; 6 h), which was comparatively similar to that of diclofenac treated. Further, the xylene-induced ear edema was significantly reduced by AM (50 or 100 mg/kg) pretreatment; however, the anti-inflammatory effect elicited by AM was prevented by pretreatment of mice with NG-nitro-l-arginine (20 mg/kg, i.p., nitric-oxide synthase inhibitor) 15 min before AM (200 mg/kg, p.o.). The in vitro cyclooxygenase assay also showed that AM produced concentration-dependent inhibition of both cyclooxygenase (COX)-1 and COX-2 activity by 39.44%±0.05% and 55.71%±0.12%, respectively, at 100 μg/mL. In conclusion, A. muricata possesses analgesic effect through interaction with opioidergic pathway and anti-inflammatory property through inhibition of chemical mediators of inflammation. PMID:25133801

  9. Digestive physiology, metabolism and methane production of captive Linné's two-toed sloths (Choloepus didactylus).

    PubMed

    Vendl, C; Frei, S; Dittmann, M T; Furrer, S; Osmann, C; Ortmann, S; Munn, A; Kreuzer, M; Clauss, M

    2016-06-01

    Sloths are renowned for their low metabolic rate, low food intake and low defecation frequency. We investigated factors of digestive physiology and energy metabolism in four captive individuals (mean body mass 10.0 ± SD 3.7 kg) of a hitherto mostly unstudied sloth species, Linné's two-toed sloth (Choloepus didactylus), in a 2-week digestion recording and 23-h respiration experiment on animals fed a standard zoo diet of vegetables and starchy components. Dry matter intake, defecation frequency and particle mean retention time (MRT) in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) were 12 ± 3 g/(kg(0.75)  day), once every 5 days and >140 h in three individuals, but 53 g/(kg(0.75)  day), daily and 82 h in one individual that was apparently compensating for a period of weight loss prior to the experiment. In all animals, solute marker was eliminated at a faster rate than the particle marker, indicating 'digesta washing' in the sloths' GIT. The overall metabolic rate calculated from oxygen consumption matched the metabolisable energy intake in three individuals [173 ± 22 vs. 168 ± 44 kJ/(kg(0.75)  day)] but not in the fourth one [225 vs. 698 kJ/(kg(0.75)  day)], supporting the interpretation that this animal was replenishing body stores. In spite of the low food intake and the low-fibre diet (209 ± 26 g neutral detergent fibre/kg dry matter), methane production was rather high accounting for 9.4 ± 0.8% of gross energy intake (2.7% in the fourth individual), which exceeded literature data for ruminants on forage-only diets. These results corroborate literature reports on low intake, low defecation frequency, low metabolic rate and long MRT in other sloth species. The long MRT is probably responsible for the comparatively high methane production, providing more opportunity for methanogenic archaea than in other non-ruminant mammals to produce significant amounts of methane. PMID:26122705

  10. Mechanisms of analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties of Annona muricata Linn. (Annonaceae) fruit extract in rodents.

    PubMed

    Ishola, Ismail O; Awodele, Olufunsho; Olusayero, Abayomi Micheal; Ochieng, Charles O

    2014-12-01

    Unripe fruit of Annona muricata Linn. (Annonaceae) (soursop) is used in traditional African medicine for the treatment of neuralgia, rheumatism, and arthritic pain. This study sought to investigate the analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of lyophilized fruit extract of Annona muricata (AM) in rodents. The analgesic activity was evaluated using the mouse writhing, formalin, and hot-plate tests while the anti-inflammatory action was investigated using the carrageenan-induced rat paw edema and xylene-induced ear edema tests. Pretreatment with AM (50, 100, and 200 mg/kg, p.o.) produced dose-dependent (P<.001) inhibition of writhes and formalin-induced pain in the late phase. AM and morphine produced time-course increase in pain threshold in hot-plate test. However, the analgesic effect elicited by AM was reversed (P<.05) by naloxone pretreatment. Similarly, the time-dependent increase in paw circumference induced by carrageenan was inhibited by AM treatment with peak effect (0.23±0.10 cm; P<.001, 200 mg/kg; 6 h), which was comparatively similar to that of diclofenac treated. Further, the xylene-induced ear edema was significantly reduced by AM (50 or 100 mg/kg) pretreatment; however, the anti-inflammatory effect elicited by AM was prevented by pretreatment of mice with N(G)-nitro-l-arginine (20 mg/kg, i.p., nitric-oxide synthase inhibitor) 15 min before AM (200 mg/kg, p.o.). The in vitro cyclooxygenase assay also showed that AM produced concentration-dependent inhibition of both cyclooxygenase (COX)-1 and COX-2 activity by 39.44%±0.05% and 55.71%±0.12%, respectively, at 100 μg/mL. In conclusion, A. muricata possesses analgesic effect through interaction with opioidergic pathway and anti-inflammatory property through inhibition of chemical mediators of inflammation. PMID:25133801

  11. Radical scavenging and radiomodulatory effects of Psoralea corylifolia Linn. substantiated by in vitro assays and EPR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Arora, Rajesh; Dhaker, Atlar Singh; Adhikari, Manish; Sharma, Jyoti; Chawla, Raman; Gupta, Damodar; Zheleva, Antoaneta; Karamalakova, Yanka; Kumar, Raj; Sharma, Raj K; Sharma, Ashok; Sultana, Sarwat; Sharma, Rakesh K; Tripathi, Rajendra P; Gadjeva, Veselina

    2011-01-01

    The present study is the first report of the radiomodulatory effects of Psoralea corylifolia Linn. The extract (IBG-RA-26) prepared from P. corylifolia was chemically analysed by HPLC, LC-MS/MS and NMR. The total polyphenolic content of IBG-RA-26 was 0.287 mg/ml of quercetin equivalents. IBG-RA-26 exhibited a dose-dependent increase in 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity. It exhibited comparable (> 50%) site-specific and non-site-specific hydroxyl radical scavenging activity in higher concentration ranges (500-1000 microg/ml), while at lower concentrations (5-50 microg/ml) it exhibited significantly (p < 0.05) higher non-site-specific scavenging ability compared to site-specific activity. Nitric oxide scavenging activity of IBG-RA-26 (5-1000 microg/ml) increased in a concentration-dependent manner, while maximum superoxide ion scavenging ability (79%) was observed at 50 microg/ml. The electron donation potential of IBG-RA-26 was found to be higher than that of ascorbic acid at lower concentrations (up to 5 microg/ml). Analysis of the ability of IBG-RA-26 to protect membranes against gamma-radiation, utilizing an artificial membrane system (liposome), revealed a significant (p < 0.05) decrease in the formation of malondialdehyde (MDA) as a function of the concentration of IBG-RA-26. Radiation-induced lysis of human erythrocytes was monitored and efficacy of IBG-RA-26 was tested in the concentration range 25-1000 microg/ml, with significant protective efficacy observed in the range 25-50 microg/ml. IBG-RA-26 rendered significant (p < 0.05) protection against radiation (0.25 kGy)-induced DNA damage. EPR spectroscopy was used to investigate the DPPH radical scavenging capacity of IBG-RA-26. IBG-RA-26 exhibited a good DPPH radical scavenging capacity in a concentration-dependent manner. By direct EPR spectroscopy we have also demonstrated the possible formation of free radical species in a solution of IBG-RA-26. The wide spectrum of

  12. Chromium resistance of dandelion (Taraxacum platypecidum Diels.) and bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon [Linn.] Pers.) is enhanced by arbuscular mycorrhiza in Cr(VI)-contaminated soils.

    PubMed

    Wu, Song-Lin; Chen, Bao-Dong; Sun, Yu-Qing; Ren, Bai-Hui; Zhang, Xin; Wang, You-Shan

    2014-09-01

    In a greenhouse pot experiment, dandelion (Taraxacum platypecidum Diels.) and bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon[Linn.] Pers.), inoculated with and without arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (AMF) Rhizophagus irregularis, were grown in chromium (Cr)-amended soils (0 mg/kg, 5 mg/kg, 10 mg/kg, and 20 mg/kg Cr[VI]) to test whether arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis can improve Cr tolerance in different plant species. The experimental results indicated that the dry weights of both plant species were dramatically increased by AM symbiosis. Mycorrhizal colonization increased plant P concentrations and decreased Cr concentrations and Cr translocation from roots to shoots for dandelion; in contrast, mycorrhizal colonization decreased plant Cr concentrations without improvement of P nutrition in bermudagrass. Chromium speciation analysis revealed that AM symbiosis potentially altered Cr species and bioavailability in the rhizosphere. The study confirmed the protective effects of AMF on host plants under Cr contaminations. PMID:24920536

  13. Effect of orally administered betel leaf (Piper betle Linn.) on digestive enzymes of pancreas and intestinal mucosa and on bile production in rats.

    PubMed

    Prabhu, M S; Platel, K; Saraswathi, G; Srinivasan, K

    1995-10-01

    The influence of two varieties of betel leaf (Piper betle Linn.) namely, the pungent Mysore and non-pungent Ambadi, was examined on digestive enzymes of pancreas and intestinal mucosa and on bile secretion in experimental rats. The betel leaves were administered orally at two doses which were either comparable to human consumption level or 5 times this. The results indicated that while these betel leaves do not influence bile secretion and composition, they have a significant stimulatory influence on pancreatic lipase activity. Besides, the Ambadi variety of betel leaf has a positive stimulatory influence on intestinal digestive enzymes, especially lipase, amylase and disaccharidases. A slight lowering in the activity of these intestinal enzymes was seen when Mysore variety of betel leaf was administered, and this variety also had a negative effect on pancreatic amylase. Further, both the betel leaf varieties have shown decreasing influence on pancreatic trypsin and chymotrypsin activities. PMID:8575807

  14. Antiestrogenic and Anti-Inflammatory Potential of n-Hexane Fraction of Vitex negundo Linn Leaf Extract: A Probable Mechanism for Blastocyst Implantation Failure in Mus musculus

    PubMed Central

    Jivrajani, Mehul; Ravat, Nirav; Anandjiwala, Sheetal; Nivsarkar, Manish

    2014-01-01

    The anti-implantation potential of different fractions of Vitex negundo Linn leaf extract was evaluated in female Swiss Albino mice. Animals from different groups were dosed orally either with 0.2% agar (vehicle) or with fractions of V. negundo leaf extract (n-hexane, chloroform, n-butanol, and remnant fractions) at 10:00 a.m., from day 1 to day 6 of pregnancy. The pregnant females from each group were sacrificed on different days of pregnancy (n = 6), and uterus was excised and used for estimation of lipid peroxidation and assay of superoxide dismutase activity as a marker for blastocyst implantation. Animals treated with n-hexane fraction showed altered level of superoxide anion radical and superoxide dismutase activity as compared to control animals. The probable mechanism by which this extract exhibits inhibition of blastocyst implantation is through the anti-inflammatory and antiestrogenic potential. PMID:27351007

  15. A new linoleiyl arabinopyranoside from the bark of Bauhinia racemosa Lam and a new flavonoidal glycoside from the leaves of Cordia dichotoma Linn.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Md Azizur; Akhtar, Juber

    2016-10-01

    Phytochemical investigation is very valuable for the ethnomedicinally important plants Bauhinia racemosa Lam (BR) and Cordia dichotoma Linn (CD) used for the cure of variety of ailments. This study was thus designed for phytochemical investigation of BR bark and CD leaves. Phytoconstituents were isolated from the methanolic extracts of the plants by column chromatography using silica gel as stationary phase. The structures had been established on the basis of their physicochemical and spectral data, i.e. IR, (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR and MS. Elution of the columns with different solvents furnished six compounds (1-6) from the methanolic extract of BR bark and three compounds (7-9) from the methanolic extract of CD leaves which were structurally elucidated. The present phytochemical investigation reported several new compounds useful in increasing the existing knowledge of phytoconstituents from BR bark and CD leaves which is very valuable, as these drugs are used in the Indian traditional systems of medicine. PMID:27618564

  16. Evaluation of the effect of ethanolic extract of fruit pulp of Cassia fistula Linn. on forced swimming induced chronic fatigue syndrome in mice

    PubMed Central

    Sarma, P.; Borah, M.; Das, S.

    2015-01-01

    The fruit of Cassia fistula Linn. is a legume, has antioxidant and lots of other medicinal properties. As oxidants are involved in the pathogenesis of chronic fatigue syndrome, the present study was done to evaluate the effect of ethanolic extract of fruit pulp of C. fistula Linn. (EECF) on forced swimming induced chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). Albino mice of 25-40 grams were grouped into five groups (n=5). Group A served as naive control and group B served as stress control. Group C received EECF 200 mg/kg and group D received EECF 400 mg/kg respectively. Group E received imipramine 20 mg/kg (standard). All animals were treated with their respective agent orally daily for 7 days. Except for group A, animals in other groups were subjected to force swimming 6 min daily for 7 days to induce a state of chronic fatigue. Duration of immobility was assessed on day 1st, 3rd, 5th and 7th. Anxiety level (by elevated plus maze and mirrored chamber) and loco-motor activity (by open field test) were assessed 24 h after last force swimming followed by biochemical estimations of oxidative biomarkers in brain homogenate at the end of study. Treatment with EECF resulted in significant reduction in the duration of immobility, reduced anxiety and increased loco-motor activity. Malondialdehyde level was also reduced and catalase level was increased in the extract treated group and standard group compared to stress control group. The study indicates that EECF has protective effect against experimentally induced CFS. PMID:26600847

  17. Impact of low dose of organophosphate, monocrotophos on the epithelial cells of gills of Cyprinus carpio communis Linn.--SEM study.

    PubMed

    Johal, M S; Sharma, M L; Ravneet

    2007-07-01

    The paper deals with the deleterious changes at ultrastructural level of the epithelial cells of gills of Cyprinus carpio communis Linn. upon exposure to 1/10th of LC50 of monocrotophos which is considered to be insignificant concentration from toxicological point of view. The gills of the fish are the primary corridor formolecularexchange between the internal milieu of a fish and its environment. Gills perform numerous functions such as oxygen uptake and CO2 excretion, osmoregulation, acid-basic balance, excretion of nitrogenous compounds and taste. Hazardous chemicals present in water may alter the morphology of the epithelial cells of gills of the fish, which may affect the process of diffusion of gases and ultimately the overall health of the fish. To prove this fact Cyprinus carpio communis Linn. was kept in water for 30 days having low concentration of 0.038 ppm (1\\10th of LC50) of monocrotophos and an attempt was made to study the different types of degenerations produced in the epithelial cells of gills as compared to the normal epithelial cells of gills of this culturable fish using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) technique. The ultrastructural changes due to the toxic exposure at finer scale were thinning of microridges, upliftment of epithelial cells, development of hyperplasia, decrease in the density of mucous cells which are considered to be the first line of defence and total dystrophy of epithelial tissue. Thus, it is opined that a low concentration of monocrotophos has the potential to bring different type of degenerations at finer scale hence affecting the fish's health drastically and altering the fitness of the fish in water even having insignificant amount of this toxicant in the ambient water PMID:18380092

  18. [The alphabet of nature and the alphabet of culture in the eighteenth century. botany, diplomatics, and ethno-linguistics according to Carl von Linné, Johann Christoph Gatterer, and Christian Wilhelm Büttner : Botany, Diplomatics, and ethno-linguistics according to Carl von Linné, Johann Christoph Gatterer, and Christian Wilhelm Büttner].

    PubMed

    Gierl, Martin

    2010-01-01

    In the middle of the eighteenth century, Carl von Linné, Johann Christoph Gatterer, and Christian Wilhelm Büttner attempted to realize the old idea of deciphering the alphabet of the world, which Francis Bacon had raised as a general postulate of science. This article describes these attempts and their interrelations. Linné used the model of the alphabet to classify plants according to the characters of this fruiting body. Gatterer, one of the leading German historians during the Enlightenment, adopted the botanical method of classification by genus and species to classify the history of scripts. He used the forms of the alphabetic characters to measure the age of manuscripts and to map the process of history as a genealogy of culture. Gatterer collaborated closely with Büttner, the first Göttingen professor of natural history. Büttner constructed a general alphabet of languages which connected the phonetics of language with the historically known alphabets. Early on, diplomatics and ethnography combined the natural order of natural history and the cultural order of the alphabet with the attempt to register development and to document development by the evolution of forms. Based on the shared model of the alphabet and on the common necessity to classify their empirical material, natural history and the description of culture were related attempts in the middle of the eighteenth century to comprehend the alphabetically organized nature and a naturally ordered culture. PMID:20665241

  19. Potential application of extracts from Indian almond (Terminalia catappa Linn.) leaves in Siamese fighting fish (Betta splendens Regan) culture.

    PubMed

    Purivirojkul, Watchariya

    2012-01-01

    Indian almond (Terminalia catappa Linn.) leaves with green and red coloration were tested for bactericidal activity with pathogenic bacteria and their acute toxicity to Siamese fighting fish (Betta splendens Regan). Powder of Indian almond leaves was extracted with water at the ratio of 1:10 (w/v) and then freeze-dried to a dry powder. Bactericidal efficacy was tested against 28 isolates of pathogenic bacteria (Aeromonas hydrophila, Edwardsiella tarda, Enterobacter spp., Plesiomonas shigelloides, Pseudomonas spp., Shewanella putrefaciens, Staphylococcus sp. and Streptococcus sp.) isolated from Siamese fighting fish. A paper disc diffusion method was tested on Mueller Hinton Agar (MHA) by inoculating 1 x 106 CFU/mL of each bacterial suspension. Paper disks (5 mm) were impregnated with either 10 microl of green or red Indian almond leaf extract at a concentration of 12,000 ppm, then laid on the surface of the MHA. The results revealed that aqueous extract of red Indian almond leaves could inhibit the growth of tested bacteria better than the green extract. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) were determined. Extracts of green and red leaves were diluted in Mueller Hinton Broth (MHB) to obtain a starting extract concentration of 6,000 ppm then twofold serially diluted in a 96-well microtitre plate. The pathogenic bacteria were inoculated into each well at a density of 1 x 105 CFU/mL and incubated at 35 degrees C for 24 h. The growth of bacteria was detected by 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazoliium bromide. The MIC of the red leaf extract ranged from 187.5 to 375 ppm which was lower than for green leaf extract (375-750 ppm). The MBC range of the red leaf extract was 375-750 ppm which was lower than for the green leaf extract (750-1,500 ppm). Acute toxicity tests (96-h LC50) of Indian almond green and red leaf water extracts in Siamese fighting fish were conducted. A logarithmic-spaced series of Indian

  20. A Clinico-analytical Study on Seed of Wrightia antidysenterica Linn. as a Therapeutic Emetic Agent (Vamaka Yoga) in the Management of Psoriasis

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharyya, Nirupam; Pujar, Muralidhar P.; Chaturvedi, Ashutosh; Kumar, M. Ashvini; Lohith, B. A.; Kumar, K. N. Sunil

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Wrightia antidysenterica Linn. (WA) is male variety Kutaja stated to be potent therapeutic emetic agent in skin disorders. Expulsion of doshas through oral route is termed as Vamana Karma (VK) (therapeutic emesis). However, so far, its utility for Vamana is not explored in detail, therefore there is a need to revalidate the utility of WA for Vamana. Hence, the above study was conducted to ascertain the efficacy as a therapeutic emetic agent (vamaka yoga) in the management of psoriasis along with quality control and standardization of this herb. Materials and Methods: The drug was standardized as per analytical procedures in Pharmacopeias. Thirty patients of psoriasis fulfilling inclusion criteria were taken for the study and Vamana with WA was conducted. Criteria were prepared to assess the signs and Symptoms of psoriasis. VK was assessed using the classical Lakshanas (features) such as Anthiki shudhi (Ending symptoms of emesis), Vaigiki shudhi (features of vomiting bouts), Maniki shudhi (Quantitative and qualitative purification), complications. Result: VK with WA showed significant relief in parameters of psoriasis such as scaling, itching, candle grease sign (P < 0.001), and psoriasis area and severity index score (P = 0.001). In VK with WA, mean number of Vegas (vomiting bouts) was 6.91. 66% patients showing quantitative purification between 301 and 600 ml. 73.33% showed all Symptoms of purification. 73.33% patients showed Kaphanta vamana (Moderate expulsion of desire humor). In the level of biopurification, 66.66% patients showed moderated purification. No complication was noted with moderate drug palatability. Conclusion: Pharmacopeial analytical study showed its standardized values for testing the drug used for the study. It is proved as potent therapeutic emetic agent with no complication showed its clinical benefits over skin disorder like psoriasis. SUMMARY Seeds of Wrightia antidysenterica (WA) Linn. free from any foreign matter were selected

  1. Polyphenolic compounds from flowers of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis Linn. and their inhibitory effect on alkaline phosphatase enzyme activity in vitro.

    PubMed

    Salib, Josline Y; Daniel, Enas N; Hifnawy, Mohamed S; Azzam, Shadia M; Shaheed, Iman B; Abdel-Latif, Sally M

    2011-01-01

    Graded concentrations (0.1-100 mg/mL reaction mixture) of the methanolic extract of the flowers of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis Linn., its water-soluble fraction as well as compounds isolated from this fraction were tested for their inhibitory effect on alkaline phosphatase enzyme activity in vitro. Both the methanolic extract and its water-soluble fraction showed significant inhibitory effects on the enzyme activity in vitro. On screening the activity of the compounds isolated from the water-soluble fraction, its high inhibitory activity was attributed to the presence of quercetin-7-O-galactoside which showed a high potent inhibition of the enzyme activity reaching 100% at 100 mg/mL reaction mixture. Phytochemical investigations of the water-soluble fraction were also carried out and afforded ten polyphenolic compounds including two new natural compounds, namely kaempferol-7-O-[6'''-O-p-hydroxybenzoyl-beta-D-glucosyl-(1-->6)-beta-D-glucopyranoside] and scutellarein-6-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranoside-8-C-beta-D-glucopyranoside). The chemical structure of the isolated compounds was elucidated on the basis of chemical and spectral data. PMID:22191209

  2. Isolation, Characterization, and RP-HPLC Estimation of P-Coumaric Acid from Methanolic Extract of Durva Grass (Cynodon dactylon Linn.) (Pers.)

    PubMed Central

    Karthikeyan, Ramadoss; Devadasu, Chapala; Srinivasa Babu, Puttagunta

    2015-01-01

    P-coumaric acid is a nonflavonoid phenolic acid and is a major constituent of the species Cynodon dactylon Linn. (Pers.). In this study isolation of P-coumaric acid was achieved by preparative TLC and the compound thus isolated was characterised by UV, mass, and H1 NMR spectral analysis. An isocratic RP-HPLC method was developed for the estimation of P-coumaric acid from methanolic extracts of durva grass. The chromatographic separations were achieved by RP-C18 column (250 mm × 4.6 mm, 5 μ), Shimadzu LC-20AT Prominence liquid chromatograph, and a mobile phase composed of water : methanol : glacial acetic acid (65 : 34 : 1 v/v). The flow rate was 1.0 mL/min and the analyses of column effluents were performed using UV-visible detector at 310 nm. Retention time of P-coumaric acid was found to be 6.617 min. This method has obeyed linearity over the concentration range of 2–10 μg/mL and the regression coefficient obtained from linearity plot for P-coumaric acid was found to be 0.999. RP-HPLC method was validated in pursuance of ICH guidelines. PMID:25788944

  3. Effect of Rubia cordifolia, Fagonia cretica linn, and Tinospora cordifolia on free radical generation and lipid peroxidation during oxygen-glucose deprivation in rat hippocampal slices.

    PubMed

    Rawal, Avinash; Muddeshwar, Manohar; Biswas, Saibal

    2004-11-12

    The major damaging factor during and after the ischemic/hypoxic insult is the generation of free radicals, which leads to apoptosis, necrosis, and ultimately cell death. Rubia cordifolia (RC), Fagonia cretica linn (FC), and Tinospora cordifolia (TC) have been reported to contain a wide variety of antioxidants and have been in use in the eastern system of medicine for various disorders. Hippocampal slices were subjected to oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) and divided into three groups, control, OGD, and OGD+drug treated. Cytosolic reduced glutathione (GSH), nitric oxide [NO, measured as nitrite (NO2)]. EPR was used to establish the antioxidant effect of RC, FC, and TC with respect to superoxide anion (O*2-), hydroxyl radicals (*OH), nitric oxide (NO) radical, and peroxynitrite anion (ONOO-) generated from pyrogallol, menadione, DETA-NO, and Sin-1, respectively. RT-PCR was performed for the three herbs to assess their effect on the expression of gamma-glutamylcysteine ligase (GCLC), iNOS, and GAPDH gene expression. All the three herbs were effective in elevating the GSH levels and expression of the GCLC. The herbs also exhibited strong free radical scavenging properties against reactive oxygen and nitrogen species as revealed by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy, diminishing the expression of iNOS gene. RC, FC, and TC therefore attenuate oxidative stress mediated cell injury during OGD and exert the above effects at both the cytosolic as well as at gene expression levels and may be effective therapeutic tool against ischemic brain damage. PMID:15474468

  4. Comparative Studies on Cellular Behaviour of Carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus Linn. cv. Grenadin) Grown In Vivo and In Vitro for Early Detection of Somaclonal Variation

    PubMed Central

    Yaacob, Jamilah Syafawati; Taha, Rosna Mat; Khorasani Esmaeili, Arash

    2013-01-01

    The present study deals with the cytological investigations on the meristematic root cells of carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus Linn.) grown in vivo and in vitro. Cellular parameters including the mitotic index (MI), chromosome count, ploidy level (nuclear DNA content), mean cell and nuclear areas, and cell doubling time (Cdt) were determined from the 2 mm root tip segments of this species. The MI value decreased when cells were transferred from in vivo to in vitro conditions, perhaps due to early adaptations of the cells to the in vitro environment. The mean chromosome number was generally stable (2n = 2x = 30) throughout the 6-month culture period, indicating no occurrence of early somaclonal variation. Following the transfer to the in vitro environment, a significant increase was recorded for mean cell and nuclear areas, from 26.59 ± 0.09 μm2 to 35.66 ± 0.10 μm2 and 142.90 ± 0.59 μm2 to 165.05 ± 0.58 μm2, respectively. However, the mean cell and nuclear areas of in vitro grown D. caryophyllus were unstable and fluctuated throughout the tissue culture period, possibly due to organogenesis or rhizogenesis. Ploidy level analysis revealed that D. caryophyllus root cells contained high percentage of polyploid cells when grown in vivo and maintained high throughout the 6-month culture period. PMID:23766703

  5. Comparative histochemical localization of secondary metabolites in seed-raised and in vitro propagated plants of Excoecaria agallocha Linn. (Euphorbiaceae), the milky mangrove tree of historical significance.

    PubMed

    Satyan, R S; Aveek, N; Eganathan, P; Parida, A

    2010-10-01

    Mangroves synthesize novel secondary chemicals that are poorly understood. Among the euphorbiaceous mangrove species, Excoecaria agallocha Linn. produces novel terpenoids and alkaloids of medicinal importance. We conducted a comparative tissue level histochemical study of E. agallocha L. to determine whether in vitro propagation alters the content of phytochemicals within the plant parts. Transverse sections of the root, stem and leaves of seed-raised saplings and in vitro propagated plants stained with 10% vanillin-perchloric acid revealed accumulation of terpenoids in the cork cambium. Alkaloids were localized using Dragendorf's reagent in the cortex of the root sections as brown layers. Methylene blue staining revealed that seed-raised plants possessed more lignified cells, distinct latex ducts and ellipsoidal guard cells compared to the plants propagated in vitro, which revealed abnormal, circular guard cells. The phytochemical content of E. agallocha propagated by the in vitro method was comparable to the seed-raised plants. Phytochemical studies of the species of E. agallocha propagated in vitro would confirm whether the species could be used for its medicinal compounds. PMID:19701827

  6. Effect of Noni (Morinda citrifolia Linn.) Fruit and Its Bioactive Principles Scopoletin and Rutin on Rat Vas Deferens Contractility: An Ex Vivo Study

    PubMed Central

    Narasingam, Megala; Murugan, Dharmani Devi; Mohamed, Zahurin

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the effect of methanolic extract of Morinda citrifolia Linn. (MMC) and its bioactive principles, scopoletin and rutin, on dopamine- and noradrenaline-evoked contractility in isolated rat vas deferens preparations. MMC (1–40 mg/mL), scopoletin (1–200 μg/mL), and rutin hydrate (0.6–312.6 μg/mL) dose-dependently inhibited the contractility evoked by submaximal concentrations of both dopamine and noradrenaline, respectively. Haloperidol and prazosin, reference dopamine D2, and α1-adrenoceptors antagonists significantly reversed the dopamine- and noradrenaline-induced contractions, respectively, in a dose-dependent manner. Interestingly, MMC per se at higher doses (60–100 mg/mL) showed dose-dependent contractile response in rat vas deferens which was partially inhibited by high doses of haloperidol but not by prazosin. These results demonstrated the biphasic effects of MMC on dopaminergic system; that is, antidopaminergic effect at lower concentrations (<40 mg/mL) and dopaminergic agonistic effect at higher concentrations (>60 mg/mL). However, similar contractile response at high doses of scopoletin (0.5–5 mg/mL) and rutin hydrate (0.5–5 mg/mL) per se was not observed. Therefore, it can be concluded that the bioactive principles of MMC, scopoletin, and rutin might be responsible for the antidopaminergic and antiadrenergic activities of MMC. PMID:25045753

  7. Total antioxidant and oxidant status of plasma and renal tissue of cisplatin-induced nephrotoxic rats: protection by floral extracts of Calendula officinalis Linn.

    PubMed

    Verma, Pawan Kumar; Raina, Rajinder; Sultana, Mudasir; Singh, Maninder; Kumar, Pawan

    2016-01-01

    The present study was aimed to determine the total antioxidant status (TAS), total oxidant status (TOS) and oxidative stress index (OSI) of plasma and renal tissue in cisplatin (cDDP) induced nephrotoxic rats and its protection by treatments with floral extracts of Calendula officinalis Linn. Treatment with cDDP elevated (p < 0.05) the levels of blood urea nitrogen, creatinine (CR), TOS, OSI and malondialdehyde (MDA) but lowered (p < 0.05) total plasma proteins, TAS, total thiols (TTH), blood glutathione (GSH) and antioxidant enzymes compared to the control group. Pre- and post-treatments of ethanolic floral extract of C. officinalis along with cDDP restored (p > 0.05) CR, albumin, TOS, GSH and activities of antioxidant enzymes in blood and renal tissue. Ethanolic extract treatments reduced (p < 0.05) MDA level in renal tissue without restoring the erythrocyte MDA level following cDDP treatment. These observations were further supported by the histopathological findings in renal tissue. Observations of the present study have shown that treatments with ethanolic floral extract of C. officinalis protect cDDP induced nephrotoxicity by restoring antioxidant system of the renal tissue. PMID:26513373

  8. Plant regeneration through callus organogenesis and true-to-type conformity of plants by RAPD analysis in Desmodium gangeticum (Linn.) DC.

    PubMed

    Cheruvathur, Meena K; Abraham, Jyothi; Thomas, T Dennis

    2013-03-01

    An efficient plant regeneration protocol was established for an endangered ethnomedicinal plant Desmodium gangeticum (Linn.) DC. Morphogenic calli were produced from 96 % of the cultures comprising the immature leaf explants on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (4.0 mg l(-1)) in combination with 6-benzylaminopurine (BA; 0.8 mg l(-1)). For callus regeneration, various concentrations of BA (1.0-5.0 mg l(-1)) or thidiazuron (TDZ; 1.0-5.0 mg l(-1)) alone or in combination with indole-3-acetic acid (IAA; 0.2-1.0 mg l(-1)) were used. Highest response of shoot regeneration was observed on MS medium fortified with TDZ (4.0 mg l(-1)) and IAA (0.5 mg l(-1)) combination. Here, 100 % cultures responded with an average number of 22.3 shoots per gram calli. Inclusion of indole-3-butyric acid in half MS medium favored rooting of recovered shoots. Out of 45 rooted plants transferred to soil, 40 survived. Total DNA was extracted from the leaves of the acclimatized plants of D. gangeticum. Analysis of random amplified polymorphic DNA using 13 arbitrary decanucleotide primers showed the genetic homogeneity in all the ten plants regenerated from callus with parental plant, suggesting that shoot regeneration from callus could be used for the true-to-type multiplication of this plant. PMID:23340869

  9. Antimicrobial, Anthelmintic Activities and Characterisation of Functional Phenolic Acids of Achyranthes aspera Linn.: A Medicinal Plant Used for the Treatment of Wounds and Ringworm in East Africa

    PubMed Central

    Ndhlala, Ashwell R.; Ghebrehiwot, Habteab M.; Ncube, Bhekumthetho; Aremu, Adeyemi O.; Gruz, Jiří; Šubrtová, Michaela; Doležal, Karel; du Plooy, Christian P.; Abdelgadir, Hafiz A.; Van Staden, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    Achyranthes aspera Linn. (Amaranthaceae) commonly known as Prickly Chaff flower (English) is traditionally used for treating a number of ailments. Different parts of the plant are used in treating wounds and ringworm in East Africa and elsewhere for a number of ailments. In this study, leaf extracts of A. aspera collected from two different geographical locations (Ciaat, Eritrea and Ukulinga, South Africa) were evaluated for antibacterial, antifungal, anthelmintic activities and the plant characterized for functional phenolic acids as well as protein binding capacity. The pathogens used in the tests were, two Gram-negative (Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae), two Gram-positive bacteria (Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus), a filamentus yeast-like fungus (Candida albicans) and a free-living nematode (Caenorhabditis elegans). The water and acetone extracts of the samples collected from Ciaat exhibited good antibacterial, antifungal and anthelmintic activity (MIC < 1 mg/ml) except the water extract against E. coli which showed moderate activity. In contrast, the extracts collected from Ukulinga exhibited moderate to weak activities except for the acetone (aq.) extracts which had good activity against some of the tested organisms. UHPLC-MS/MS revealed variation in the levels of some functional phenolic compounds, with rutin, chlorogenic acid and genistein not being detected in the extracts from Ukulinga. The variation was also observed in the protein binding capacity, which could offer a predictive wound healing model. All extracts from plant samples collected at Ciaat expressed significant dominant potency compared to similar extracts from Ukulinga. PMID:26635604

  10. Comparative Studies on the Fungi and Bio-Chemical Characteristics of Snake Gourd (Trichosanthes curcumerina Linn) and Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentus Mill) in Rivers State, Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chuku, E. C.; Ogbonna, D. N.; Onuegbu, B. A.; Adeleke, M. T. V.

    Comparative studies on the fungi and biochemical characteristics of Tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentus Mill) and the Snake gourd (Trichosanthes curcumerina Linn) products were investigated in Rivers State using various analytical procedures. Results of the proximate analysis of fresh snake gourd and tomatoes show that the essential minerals such as protein, ash, fibre, lipid, phosphorus and niacin contents were higher in snake gourd but low in carbohydrate, calcium, iron, vitamins A and C when compared to the mineral fractions of tomatoes which has high values of calcium, iron, vitamins A and C. The mycoflora predominantly associated with the fruit rot of tomato were Fusarium oxysporium, Fusarium moniliforme, Rhizopus stolonifer and Aspergillus niger, while other fungi isolates from Snake gourd include Rhizopus stolonifer, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus tamari, Penicillium ita/icum and Neurospora crassa. Rhizopus stolonifer and Aspergillus niger were common spoilage fungi to both the Tomato and Snake gourd. All the fungal isolates were found to be pathogenic. The duration for storage of the fruits at room temperature (28±1°C) showed that Tomato could store for 5 days while Snake gourd stored for as much as 7 days. Sensory evaluation shows that Snake gourd is preferred to Tomatoes because of its culinary and medicinal importance.

  11. Lupeol Is One of Active Components in the Extract of Chrysanthemum indicum Linne That Inhibits LMP1-Induced NF-κB Activation

    PubMed Central

    Song, Yoon-Jae

    2013-01-01

    We have previously reported that seventy percent ethanol extract of Chrysanthemum indicum Linne (CIE) strongly reduces Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-transformed lymphoblastoid cell line (LCL) survival by inhibiting virus-encoded latent infection membrane protein 1 (LMP1)-induced NF-κB activation. To identify an active compound(s) in CIE that inhibits LMP1-induced NF-κB activation, activity-guided fractionation was employed. The CH2Cl2 fraction of CIE strongly reduced LMP1-induced NF-κB activation and LCL viability with relatively low cytotoxic effects on primary human foreskin fibroblast (HFF), HeLa or Burkitt’s lymphoma (BL41) cells. Furthermore, lupeol, a pentacyclic triterpene, was identified in the CH2Cl2 fraction of CIE to attenuate LMP1-induced NF-κB activation and LCL viability. This study demonstrates that lupeol is one of active compounds in the CH2Cl2 fraction of CIE that inhibits LMP1-induced NF-κB activation and reduces NF-κB-dependent LCL viability. PMID:24303085

  12. Effect of noni (Morinda citrifolia Linn.) fruit and its bioactive principles scopoletin and rutin on rat vas deferens contractility: an ex vivo study.

    PubMed

    Pandy, Vijayapandi; Narasingam, Megala; Kunasegaran, Thubasni; Murugan, Dharmani Devi; Mohamed, Zahurin

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the effect of methanolic extract of Morinda citrifolia Linn. (MMC) and its bioactive principles, scopoletin and rutin, on dopamine- and noradrenaline-evoked contractility in isolated rat vas deferens preparations. MMC (1-40 mg/mL), scopoletin (1-200 μg/mL), and rutin hydrate (0.6-312.6 μg/mL) dose-dependently inhibited the contractility evoked by submaximal concentrations of both dopamine and noradrenaline, respectively. Haloperidol and prazosin, reference dopamine D2, and α 1-adrenoceptors antagonists significantly reversed the dopamine- and noradrenaline-induced contractions, respectively, in a dose-dependent manner. Interestingly, MMC per se at higher doses (60-100 mg/mL) showed dose-dependent contractile response in rat vas deferens which was partially inhibited by high doses of haloperidol but not by prazosin. These results demonstrated the biphasic effects of MMC on dopaminergic system; that is, antidopaminergic effect at lower concentrations (<40 mg/mL) and dopaminergic agonistic effect at higher concentrations (>60 mg/mL). However, similar contractile response at high doses of scopoletin (0.5-5 mg/mL) and rutin hydrate (0.5-5 mg/mL) per se was not observed. Therefore, it can be concluded that the bioactive principles of MMC, scopoletin, and rutin might be responsible for the antidopaminergic and antiadrenergic activities of MMC. PMID:25045753

  13. Antimicrobial, Anthelmintic Activities and Characterisation of Functional Phenolic Acids of Achyranthes aspera Linn.: A Medicinal Plant Used for the Treatment of Wounds and Ringworm in East Africa.

    PubMed

    Ndhlala, Ashwell R; Ghebrehiwot, Habteab M; Ncube, Bhekumthetho; Aremu, Adeyemi O; Gruz, Jiří; Šubrtová, Michaela; Doležal, Karel; du Plooy, Christian P; Abdelgadir, Hafiz A; Van Staden, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    Achyranthes aspera Linn. (Amaranthaceae) commonly known as Prickly Chaff flower (English) is traditionally used for treating a number of ailments. Different parts of the plant are used in treating wounds and ringworm in East Africa and elsewhere for a number of ailments. In this study, leaf extracts of A. aspera collected from two different geographical locations (Ciaat, Eritrea and Ukulinga, South Africa) were evaluated for antibacterial, antifungal, anthelmintic activities and the plant characterized for functional phenolic acids as well as protein binding capacity. The pathogens used in the tests were, two Gram-negative (Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae), two Gram-positive bacteria (Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus), a filamentus yeast-like fungus (Candida albicans) and a free-living nematode (Caenorhabditis elegans). The water and acetone extracts of the samples collected from Ciaat exhibited good antibacterial, antifungal and anthelmintic activity (MIC < 1 mg/ml) except the water extract against E. coli which showed moderate activity. In contrast, the extracts collected from Ukulinga exhibited moderate to weak activities except for the acetone (aq.) extracts which had good activity against some of the tested organisms. UHPLC-MS/MS revealed variation in the levels of some functional phenolic compounds, with rutin, chlorogenic acid and genistein not being detected in the extracts from Ukulinga. The variation was also observed in the protein binding capacity, which could offer a predictive wound healing model. All extracts from plant samples collected at Ciaat expressed significant dominant potency compared to similar extracts from Ukulinga. PMID:26635604

  14. Investigation of Antidiabetic, Antihyperlipidemic, and In Vivo Antioxidant Properties of Sphaeranthus indicus Linn. in Type 1 Diabetic Rats: An Identification of Possible Biomarkers

    PubMed Central

    Ramachandran, S.; Asokkumar, K.; Uma Maheswari, M.; Ravi, T. K.; Sivashanmugam, A. T.; Saravanan, S.; Rajasekaran, A.; Dharman, J.

    2011-01-01

    The present investigation was aimed to study the antidiabetic, antihyperlipidemic, and in vivo antioxidant properties of the root of Sphaeranthus indicus Linn. in streptozotocin- (STZ-) induced type 1 diabetic rats. Administration of ethanolic extract of Sphaeranthus indicus root (EESIR) 100 and 200 mg/kg to the STZ-induced diabetic rats showed significant (P < .01) reduction in blood glucose and increase in body weight compared to diabetic control rats. Both the doses of EESIR-treated diabetic rats showed significant (P < .01) alteration in elevated lipid profile levels than diabetic control rats. The EESIR treatment in diabetic rats produced significant increase in superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and decrease in thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) levels than diabetic control rats. Administration of EESIR 200 mg/kg produced significant (P < .01) higher antioxidant activity than EESIR 100 mg/kg. The high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis of EESIR revealed the presence of biomarkers gallic acid and quercetin. In conclusion, EESIR possess antidiabetic, antihyperlipidemic, and in vivo antioxidant activity in type 1 diabetic rats. Its antioxidant and lipid lowering effect will help to prevent diabetic complications, and these actions are possibly due to presence of above biomarkers. PMID:20953435

  15. The Alphabet of Nature and the Alphabet of Culture in the Eighteenth Century. Botany, Diplomatics, and Ethno-Linguistics according to Carl von Linné, Johann Christoph Gatterer, and Christian Wilhelm Büttner

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    In the middle of the eighteenth century, Carl von Linné, Johann Christoph Gatterer, and Christian Wilhelm Büttner attempted to realize the old idea of deciphering the alphabet of the world, which Francis Bacon had raised as a general postulate of science. This article describes these attempts and their interrelations. Linné used the model of the alphabet to classify plants according to the characters of this fruiting body. Gatterer, one of the leading German historians during the Enlightenment, adopted the botanical method of classification by genus and species to classify the history of scripts. He used the forms of the alphabetic characters to measure the age of manuscripts and to map the process of history as a genealogy of culture. Gatterer collaborated closely with Büttner, the first Göttingen professor of natural history. Büttner constructed a general alphabet of languages which connected the phonetics of language with the historically known alphabets. Early on, diplomatics and ethnography combined the natural order of natural history and the cultural order of the alphabet with the attempt to register development and to document development by the evolution of forms. Based on the shared model of the alphabet and on the common necessity to classify their empirical material, natural history and the description of culture were related attempts in the middle of the eighteenth century to comprehend the alphabetically organized nature and a naturally ordered culture. PMID:20665241

  16. Flower Bud Transcriptome Analysis of Sapium sebiferum (Linn.) Roxb. and Primary Investigation of Drought Induced Flowering: Pathway Construction and G-Quadruplex Prediction Based on Transcriptome

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Jinyan; Mao, Yingji; Liu, Wenbo; Shen, Yangcheng; Wu, Lifang

    2015-01-01

    Sapium sebiferum (Linn.) Roxb. (Chinese Tallow Tree) is a perennial woody tree and its seeds are rich in oil which hold great potential for biodiesel production. Despite a traditional woody oil plant, our understanding on S. sebiferum genetics and molecular biology remains scant. In this study, the first comprehensive transcriptome of S. sebiferum flower has been generated by sequencing and de novo assembly. A total of 149,342 unigenes were generated from raw reads, of which 24,289 unigenes were successfully matched to public database. A total of 61 MADS box genes and putative pathways involved in S. sebiferum flower development have been identified. Abiotic stress response network was also constructed in this work, where 2,686 unigenes are involved in the pathway. As for lipid biosynthesis, 161 unigenes have been identified in fatty acid (FA) and triacylglycerol (TAG) biosynthesis. Besides, the G-Quadruplexes in RNA of S. sebiferum also have been predicted. An interesting finding is that the stress-induced flowering was observed in S. sebiferum for the first time. According to the results of semi-quantitative PCR, expression tendencies of flowering-related genes, GA1, AP2 and CRY2, accorded with stress-related genes, such as GRX50435 and PRXⅡ39562. This transcriptome provides functional genomic information for further research of S. sebiferum, especially for the genetic engineering to shorten the juvenile period and improve yield by regulating flower development. It also offers a useful database for the research of other Euphorbiaceae family plants. PMID:25738565

  17. Evaluation of cardioprotective effect of aqueous extract of Garcinia indica Linn. fruit rinds on isoprenaline-induced myocardial injury in Wistar albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Kaksha J.; Panchasara, Ashwin K.; Barvaliya, Manish J.; Purohit, Bhargav M.; Baxi, Seema N.; Vadgama, Vishal K.; Tripathi, C. B.

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, cardioprotective effect of aqueous extract of Garcinia indica Linn. fruit rinds in isoprenaline-induced myocardial infarction in Wistar albino rats was evaluated. In vitro total phenolic, total flavonoid content and 2, 2’-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl hydrate radical scavenging activity was measured. In vivo effect of aqueous extract of G. indica was evaluated in Wistar albino rats by isoprenaline-induced myocardial injury model. Thirty six rats were randomly divided in 6 groups. Rats were treated with G. indica 250 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg doses for 21 days and myocardial injury was produced by subcutaneous injection of isoprenaline 85 mg/kg on day 20 and 21. Carvedilol 1 mg/kg for 21 days served as active control. Electrocardiogram parameters, cardiac injury markers (serum troponin-I, uric acid, lactate dehydrogenase, creatinine kinase-MB, aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase), oxidative stress markers (superoxide dismutase, catalase and malondialdehyde level) and histopathological changes were evaluated in each group and compared using appropriate statistical tests. In vitro evaluation of aqueous extract showed significant antioxidant property. Isoprenaline produced significant myocardial ischemia as compared to normal control group (P<0.05). Administration of G. indica in both the doses did not significantly recover the altered electrocardiogram, cardiac injury markers, oxidative stress markers and histopathological myocardial damage as compared to disease control group (P>0.05). The aqueous extract of G. indica was not found to be cardioprotective against myocardial injury. Further study with more sample size and higher dose range may be required to evaluate its cardioprotective effect. PMID:26752987

  18. Assessment of the in vitro cytotoxicity and in vivo anti-tumor activity of the alcoholic stem bark extract/fractions of Mimusops elengi Linn.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Harish; Savaliya, Mihir; Biswas, Subhankar; Nayak, Pawan G; Maliyakkal, Naseer; Manjunath Setty, M; Gourishetti, Karthik; Pai, K Sreedhara Ranganath

    2016-08-01

    Various parts of Mimusops elengi Linn. (Sapotaceae) have been used widely in traditional Indian medicine for the treatment of pain, inflammation and wounds. The study was conducted to explore the use of stem bark of M. elengi on pharmacological grounds and to evaluate the scientific basis of cytotoxic and anti-tumor activity. Extract/fractions were prepared and in vitro cytotoxicity was assessed using SRB assay. Most effective fractions were subjected to fluorescence microscopy based acridine orange/ethidium bromide (AO/EB) and Hoechst 33342 staining to determine apoptosis induction and DNA fragmentation assay. Comet and micronuclei assay were performed to assess genotoxicity. Cell cycle analysis was also performed. In vivo anti-tumor potential was evaluated by Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) model in mice. The alcoholic stem bark extract of M. elengi along with four fractions showed potential in vitro cytotoxicity in SRB assay. Of these, dichloromethane and ethyl acetate fractions were selected for further studies. The fractions revealed apoptosis inducing potential in AO/EB and Hoechst 33342 staining, which was further confirmed by DNA fragmentation assay. Genotoxic potential was revealed by comet and micronuclei assay. Fractions also exhibited specific cell cycle inhibition in G0/G1 phase. In EAC model, ethyl acetate fraction along with the standard (cisplatin) effectively reduced the increase in body weight compared to control and improved mean survival time. Both fractions were able to restore the altered hematological and biochemical parameters. Hence, M. elengi stem bark may be a possible therapeutic candidate having cytotoxic and anti-tumor potential. PMID:25701190

  19. Morinda citrifolia Linn. fruit (Noni) juice induces an increase in NO production and death of Leishmania amazonensis amastigotes in peritoneal macrophages from BALB/c.

    PubMed

    Almeida-Souza, Fernando; de Souza, Celeste da Silva Freitas; Taniwaki, Noemi Nosomi; Silva, João José Mendes; de Oliveira, Renata Mondêgo; Abreu-Silva, Ana Lúcia; Calabrese, Kátia da Silva

    2016-08-31

    Leishmaniasis is a complex disease that is considered a serious public health problem. Due to the absence of an effective vaccine and debilitating chemotherapy better therapies are urgently needed. This situation has stimulated the search for alternative treatments such as the use of herbal medicines. Several studies conducted with Morinda citrifolia Linn. have shown various biological activities such as antitumor, immunomodulation and antileishmanial activity, however its mechanisms of action are still unknown. This study aimed to analyze the activity of M. citrifolia fruit juice against Leishmania amazonensis and its action on peritoneal macrophages from BALB/c infected with L. amazonensis. Activity against the promastigote forms showed IC50 at 275.3 μg/mL. Transmission electron microscopy was used to evaluate the ultrastructural alterations in the promastigotes treated with the juice and the results showed cytoplasmic vacuolization, lipid inclusion and increased activity of exocytosis. The juice treatment presented an IC50 at 208.4 μg/mL against intracellular amastigotes and led to an increased nitrite production in infected and non-infected macrophages. When macrophages were pre-treated with iNOS inhibitors, aminoguanidine or 1400W, the intracellular amastigotes increased, demonstrating the important role of NO production in M. citrifolia fruit activity. In conclusion, our results reveal that treatment with M. citrifolia fruit juice can increase NO production in peritoneal macrophages and this ability has an important role in the killing of L. amazonensis intracellular amastigotes. PMID:27328771

  20. Evaluation of cardioprotective effect of aqueous extract of Garcinia indica Linn. fruit rinds on isoprenaline-induced myocardial injury in Wistar albino rats.

    PubMed

    Patel, Kaksha J; Panchasara, Ashwin K; Barvaliya, Manish J; Purohit, Bhargav M; Baxi, Seema N; Vadgama, Vishal K; Tripathi, C B

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, cardioprotective effect of aqueous extract of Garcinia indica Linn. fruit rinds in isoprenaline-induced myocardial infarction in Wistar albino rats was evaluated. In vitro total phenolic, total flavonoid content and 2, 2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl hydrate radical scavenging activity was measured. In vivo effect of aqueous extract of G. indica was evaluated in Wistar albino rats by isoprenaline-induced myocardial injury model. Thirty six rats were randomly divided in 6 groups. Rats were treated with G. indica 250 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg doses for 21 days and myocardial injury was produced by subcutaneous injection of isoprenaline 85 mg/kg on day 20 and 21. Carvedilol 1 mg/kg for 21 days served as active control. Electrocardiogram parameters, cardiac injury markers (serum troponin-I, uric acid, lactate dehydrogenase, creatinine kinase-MB, aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase), oxidative stress markers (superoxide dismutase, catalase and malondialdehyde level) and histopathological changes were evaluated in each group and compared using appropriate statistical tests. In vitro evaluation of aqueous extract showed significant antioxidant property. Isoprenaline produced significant myocardial ischemia as compared to normal control group (P<0.05). Administration of G. indica in both the doses did not significantly recover the altered electrocardiogram, cardiac injury markers, oxidative stress markers and histopathological myocardial damage as compared to disease control group (P>0.05). The aqueous extract of G. indica was not found to be cardioprotective against myocardial injury. Further study with more sample size and higher dose range may be required to evaluate its cardioprotective effect. PMID:26752987

  1. Antibacterial activity and in vitro cytotoxicity of extracts and fractions of Parkia biglobosa (Jacq.) Benth. stem bark and Ageratum conyzoides Linn. leaves.

    PubMed

    Adetutu, Adewale; Morgan, Winston A; Corcoran, Olivia; Chimezie, F

    2012-09-01

    Many species of plants in African countries are widely used in the rural communities where there is little or no access to modern medicine. However, the safety and effectiveness of these medicinal plants are poorly evaluated. The stem bark of Parkia biglobosa Jacq. and leaves of Ageratum conyzoides Linn. were investigated for their antibacterial and cytotoxic activities. The plant materials were extracted with 95% ethanol, and fractionated with petroleum ether, chloroform and ethyl acetate. The antibacterial effects of the extracts and fractions of the plant materials were assayed on the bacterial cultures of Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Clostridium perfringes. Ethanol extracts of P. biglobosa and A. conyzoides were screened for cytotoxicity using the 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Two cancer cell lines (SK-MES 1 and SK-LU 1) and one normal cell line (human skin fibroblast cell line, FS5) were used for the screening of the extracts and the fractions obtained. The ethanolic extracts and fractions of P. biglobosa and A. conyzoides showed the best activity against E. coli, S. aureus and MRSA. All fractions of A. conyzoides leaves have no activity against P. aeruginosa. Human lung cancer cell lines (SK-LU 1 and SK-MES 1) and human skin fibroblast cell line (FS5 cells) were treated with various concentrations (3.9μg/ml-2mg/ml) of the extracts and fractions for 24h. SK-MES 1 cells are more susceptible to treatment with the plant fractions. All the fractions of A. conyzoides leaves and the petroleum ether fraction of P. biglobosa were cytotoxic to SK-MES 1 cells, which to some extent may support their traditional inclusion in herbal preparations for treatment of cancer. The overall results provided evidence that the studied plant extracts might be potential sources of new antibacterial and anticancer drug. PMID:22797325

  2. Modulatory potentials of aqueous leaf and unripe fruit extracts of Carica papaya Linn. (Caricaceae) against carbon tetrachloride and acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity in rats

    PubMed Central

    Awodele, Olufunsho; Yemitan, Omoniyi; Ise, Peter Uduak; Ikumawoyi, Victor Olabowale

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Carica papaya Linn is used in a traditional medicine for hepatobiliary disorders. This study investigated the hepatomodulatory effects of aqueous extracts of C. papaya leaf (CPL) and unripe fruit (CPF) at doses of 100 and 300 mg/kg on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) and acetaminophen (ACM)-induced liver toxicities in rats. Materials and Methods: Rats were administered CCl4 (3 ml/kg in olive oil, i.p.) followed by oral administration of CPL and CPF at 2, 6 and 10 h intervals. The ACM model proceeded with the same method but inclusive of animals treated with N-acetyl cysteine (3 ml/kg i.p). At the end of the study, serum levels of liver biomarkers and antioxidant enzymes were assessed and histology of the liver tissues determined. Results: There was a significant (P < 0.05) reduction in CCl4 and ACM-induced increases in serum levels of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase and direct bilirubin at 100 and 300 mg/kg, respectively. The levels of catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase and reduced GSH were decreased in both models with corresponding significantly (P < 0.05) elevated level of malondialdehyde. However, these antioxidant enzymes were significantly (P < 0.05) increased in CPL and CPF-treated rats. Histopathological assessment of the liver confirmed the protective effects of CPL and CPF on CCl4 and ACM-induced hepatic damage evidenced by the normal presentation of liver tissue architecture. Conclusion: These results indicate that aqueous extracts of C. papaya may be useful in preventing CCl4 and ACM-induced liver toxicities. PMID:27069723

  3. Anticancer and antimutagenic properties of Acacia nilotica (Linn.) on 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene-induced skin papillomagenesis in Swiss albino mice.

    PubMed

    Meena, Punar Dutt; Kaushik, Pallavi; Shukla, Shalini; Soni, Anil Kumar; Kumar, Manish; Kumar, Ashok

    2006-01-01

    We report the chemopreventive activity of Acacia nilotica (Linn.) gum, flower and leaf aqueous extracts, on 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) induced skin papillomagenesis in male Swiss albino mice. Animals were divided into following groups: Group I (Controls) given DMBA and croton oil, with no extract ; Group II (treatment) animals treated with Acacia nilotica gum (Group II-a) (800 mg/kg body weight), flowers (Group II-b) (800 mg/kg body weight), or leaves (Group II-c) (800 mg/kg body weight) during the peri- and post initiation periods of DMBA and croton oil application. A significant reduction in the values of tumor burden, tumor incidence and cumulative number of papillomas was observed in mice treated by oral gavage with the Acacia nilotica gum, flower and leaf extracts as compared with the control group. The latency period in treatment Group-II (b) and Group-II (c) was significantly increased as compared with the control group. A significant reduction in the frequency of micronuclei was also observed in mice treated by oral gavage with the aqueous extracts, along with significant decrease in total chromosomal aberrations in the form of chromatid breaks, chromosome breaks, centric rings, dicentrics, acentric fragments and exchange. Treatment with Acacia nilotica flower (Group II-B) and leaf (Group II-C) aqueous extracts by oral gavage for 15 days resulted in a highly significant decrease in the lipid peroxidation (LPO) level in the liver, but this was less evident with the gum (Group II-A) . Conversely, reduced glutathione (GSH) content was observed to be significantly elevated as compared with the control group with leaves (Group II-C) and flowers (Group II-B). The chemopreventive and antimutagenic activity of the leaf extract of Acacia nilotica was most significant followed by the flower extract and then by gum. PMID:17250441

  4. The mitigating effect of calcification-dependent of utilization of inorganic carbon of Chara vulgaris Linn on NH4-N toxicity.

    PubMed

    Wang, Heyun; Ni, Leyi; Xie, Ping

    2013-09-01

    Increased ammonium (NH4-N) concentrations in water bodies have been reported to adversely affect the dominant species of submersed vegetation in meso-eutrophic waters worldwide. However calcareous plants were lowly sensitive to NH4-N toxicity. In order to make clear the function of calcification in the tolerance of calcareous plants to NH4-N stress, we studied the effects of increased HCO3(-) and additional NH4-N on calcification and utilization of dissolve inorganic carbon (DIC) in Chara vulgaris Linn in a 7-d sub-acute experiment (light:dark 12:12h) carried out in an open experimental system in lab. Results revealed that calcification was dependent of utilization of dissolve inorganic carbon. Additional HCO3(-) significantly decreased the increase of pH while additional NH4-N did not. And additional HCO3(-) significantly improved calcification while NH4-N did in versus in relation to the variation of DIC concentration. However, addition of both HCO3(-) and NH4-N increased utilization of DIC. This resulted in calcification to utilization of DIC ratio decreased under additional NH4-N condition while increased under additional HCO3(-) conditions in response to the variation of solution pH. In the present study, external HCO3(-) decreased the increase of solution pH by increasing calcification, which correspondingly mitigated the toxic effect of high NH4-N. And we argue that the mitigating effect of increased HCO3(-) on NH4-N toxicity is dependent of plant calcification, and it is a positive feedback mechanism, potentially leading to the dominance of calcareous plants in meso-eutrophic water bodies. PMID:23755986

  5. Chemical composition of Solanum nigrum linn extract and induction of autophagy by leaf water extract and its major flavonoids in AU565 breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Huang, Hsiu-Chen; Syu, Kai-Yang; Lin, Jen-Kun

    2010-08-11

    Solanum nigrum Linn (SN) belongs to the Solanaceae family, is a plant growing widely in south Asia, and has been used in traditional folk medicine. It is believed to have antipyretic, diuretic, anticancer, and hepatoprotective effects. During the summertime, this plant has been heavily used to supplement beverages to quench thirst on hot days in Taiwan and several southern Asian countries. In this study, the polyphenols and anthocyanidin in various parts of the SN plant were analyzed by HPLC. The leaves were found to be richer in polyphenols than stem and fruit. SN leaves contained the highest concentration of gentisic acid, luteolin, apigenin, kaempferol, and m-coumaric acid. However, the anthocyanidin existed only in the purple fruits. Additionally, the cytotoxicity of the leaf, stem, or fruit extract was evaluated against cancer cell lines and normal cells. The results showed that AU565 breast cancer cells were more sensitive to the extract. Furthermore, the results demonstrated a significant cytotoxic effect of SN leaf extract on AU565 cells that was mediated via two different mechanisms depending on the exposure concentrations. A low dose of SN leaf extract induced autophagy but not apoptosis. Higher doses (>100 microg/mL) of SN leaf extract could inhibit the level of p-Akt and cause cell death due to the induction of autophagy and apoptosis. However, these findings indicate that SN leaf extract induced cell death in breast cells via two distinct antineoplastic activities, the abilities to induce apoptosis and autophagy, therefore suggesting that it may provide a useful remedy to treat breast cancer. PMID:20681660

  6. The evaluation of anti-ulcerogenic effect of rhizome starch of two source plants of Tugaksheeree (Curcuma angustifolia Roxb. and Maranta arundinacea Linn.) on pyloric ligated rats

    PubMed Central

    Rajashekhara, N.; Ashok, B. K.; Sharma, Parmeshwar P.; Ravishankar, B.

    2014-01-01

    Background: In the present era, because of the life-style, the disorders such as hyperacidity and gastric ulcers are found very frequently. Satwa (starch) obtained from the rhizomes of two plants namely Curcuma angustifolia Roxb. and Maranta arundinacea Linn. are used in folklore practice for the treatment of above complaints under the name Tugaksheeree. Aim: To compare the anti-ulcerogenic activity of the above two drugs in pyloric ligation induced gastric ulcer in albino rats. Materials and Methods: A total of 18 Wistar strain albino rats of both sexes grouped into three groups. Group C served as pyloric ligated control group, Group I received starch of C. angustifolia suspension and Group II received starch of M. arundinacea for seven days. On 8th day pylorus was ligated. After ligation the animals were deprived of food and water and sacrificed at the end of 14 h. The collected gastric contents were used for biochemical estimation and ulcer index was calculated from excised stomach. Results: Both the test drugs showed statistically significant decrease in the volume, increase in the pH, reduced the free acidity of gastric juice and decreased the peptic activity. The starch of C. angustifolia reduced a total acidity non-significantly while M. arundinacea reduced it significantly. Among the two drugs the M. arundinacea has effectively reduced the peptic activity, which is statistically significant. M. arundinacea shown statistically significant increase of total carbohydrates. Conclusion: Both the test drugs proved anti-ulcer activity and prevents the chance of gastric ulcer. Among these two M. arundinacea is more effective. PMID:25558167

  7. Evaluation of acute toxicity and anti-ulcerogenic study of rhizome starch of two source plants of Tugaksheeree (Curcuma angustifolia Roxb. and Maranta arundinacea Linn.)

    PubMed Central

    Rajashekhara, N.; Ashok, B.K.; Sharma, Parmeshwar P.; Ravishankar, B.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Disorders like hyperacidity and gastric ulcers are found very frequently now days because of a faulty lifestyle. Starches (Satwa) obtained from the rhizomes of two plants namely, Curcuma angustifolia Roxb. (Fam. Zingiberaceae) and Maranta arundinacea Linn. (Fam. Marantaceae) are used in folklore practice, as Tugaksheeree, for the treatment of the above-mentioned complaints. Aim: To assess the acute toxicity potential of the C. angustifolia and M. arundinacea along with their assessment for adaptogenic activity, by noting their effect on forced swimming-induced hypothermia and gastric ulceration in rats. Materials and Methods: For acute toxicity study, the effect of test drugs C. angustifolia and M. arundinacea rhizome starch were studied after a single administration of up to three dose levels, with 4400 mg/kg as the maximum dose. The animals were observed for 72 hours periodically and mortality was recorded up to seven days. The adaptogenic and anti-ulcer activities were assessed by determining and comparing the changes in rectal temperature, ponderal changes, ulcer index and histopathological parameters in the test drug group with that of stress control group. Results: Both the drugs did not produce any toxic symptoms or mortality even up to the maximum dose level of 4400 mg/kg. Both the test drugs significantly reversed the stress-induced gastric ulceration in comparison to stress-control rats. Starch from rhizome of C. angustifolia reversed forced swimming-induced hypothermia apparently, but not to a significant extent. However, the reversal of hypothermia found statistically significant in the rhizome starch of the M. arundinacea treated group. Conclusion: M. arundinacea had better anti-stress activity in comparision to C. angustifolia. PMID:26195908

  8. Juniperus communis Linn oil decreases oxidative stress and increases antioxidant enzymes in the heart of rats administered a diet rich in cholesterol.

    PubMed

    Gumral, Nurhan; Kumbul, Duygu Doguc; Aylak, Firdevs; Saygin, Mustafa; Savik, Emin

    2015-01-01

    It has been asserted that consumption of dietary cholesterol (Chol) raises atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases and that Chol causes an increase in free radical production. Hypercholesterolemic diet has also been reported to cause changes in the antioxidant system. In our study, different doses of Juniperus communis Linn (JCL) oil, a tree species growing in Mediterranean and Isparta regions and having aromatic characteristics, were administered to rats; and the levels of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), catalase (CAT), and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances assay (TBARS) were examined in the heart tissue of rats. In this study, 35 Wistar Albino male adult rats weighing approximately 250-300 g were used. The rats were divided into five groups of seven each. The control group was administered normal pellet chow, and the Chol group was administered pellet chow including 2% Chol, while 50 JCL, 100 JCL, and 200 JCL groups were administered 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg JCL oil dissolved in 0.5% sodium carboxy methyl cellulose, respectively, in addition to the pellet chow containing 2% Chol, by gavage. After 30 days, the experiment was terminated and the antioxidant enzyme activities were examined in the heart tissue of rats. While consumption of dietary Chol decreases the activities of SOD, GSH-Px, and CAT in heart tissue of rats (not significant), administeration of 200 mg/kg JCL oil in addition to Chol led to a significant increase in the activity of antioxidant enzymes. Administering Chol led to a significant increase in TBARS level. Administering 100 and 200 mg/kg JCL oil together with Chol prevented significantly the increase in lipid peroxides. As a result of the study, JCL oil showed oxidant-antioxidant effect in the heart tissue of rats. PMID:23293127

  9. Distribution of ice- and soil wedges in Kapp Linné, Svalbard, mapped by two- and three-dimensional ground-penetrating radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, T.; Matsuoka, N.; Christiansen, H.

    2009-12-01

    Wedges along non-sorted polygons are consisting of ice or sediments. The wedge infill is often difficult to judge from the surface pattern, since the type of wedge filling depends on both climate and sediment characteristics. In fact, previous studies have reported that ice and active-layer soil wedges can coexist within a small area. We applied two- and three-dimensional ground-penetrating radar (2D and 3D GPR) for mapping subsurface ice and active-layer soil wedges in Kapp Linné, one of the warmest coastal areas in Svalbard. GPR surveys were conducted at six sites on beach ridges, which had emerged in different periods (11-5.5 ka BP). Shallow trenches and boreholes at four sites complemented the interpretation of the GPR results. On the 2D GPR profiles, most of the troughs delimiting the polygons are underlain by a single hyperbolic reflection spreading downward from the ground surface, which represents an active-layer soil wedge. Some troughs are underlain by double hyperbolic reflections extending downward from the ground surface and the frost table, which correspond to a soil wedge penetrating into the top permafrost and an underlying ice-wedge, respectively. However, radar interpretations are sometimes obscured by similar hyperbolic reflections from large stones and unclear reflections from small, narrow (< 50 cm) ice-wedges. The 3D GPR images delineate subsurface ice-wedges underlying the polygon troughs by radar amplitude anomalies more clearly than the 2D profiles. GPR results show that ice-wedges underlie primary polygon troughs and extraordinarily long and wide troughs on lower (younger) beach ridges. This suggests that ice-wedges have been active in the last 5,500 years since beach ridge formation ceased. In contrast, no ice-wedges were detected on higher (older) beach ridges even below the primary polygon troughs. This would be due to the low thermal coefficient of expansion of the material as the high lying snowfree blown ridges are lacking in

  10. Rhus javanica Linn protects against hydrogen peroxide‑induced toxicity in human Chang liver cells via attenuation of oxidative stress and apoptosis signaling.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Chanjin; Koppula, Sushruta; Yoo, Seunghoon; Yum, Munjeong; Kim, Jinseoub; Lee, Jaedong; Song, Mindong

    2016-01-01

    Rhus javanica Linn, a traditional medicinal herb from the family Anacardiaceae, has been used in the treatment of liver diseases, cancer, parasitic infections, malaria and respiratory diseases in China, Korea and other Asian countries for centuries. In the present study, the protective effects of R. javanica ethanolic extract (RJE) on hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced oxidative stress in human Chang liver cells was investigated. The cell cytotoxicity and viability were assessed using a 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) were measured using respective enzymatic kits. Cell cycle analysis was performed using flow cytometric analysis. The protein expression levels of p53, B-cell lymphoma (Bcl)-2, Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax) and caspase-3 were assessed by western blotting. Human Chang liver cells were treated with different concentrations (0.1, 0.3 or 0.5 mg/ml) of RJE, and were subsequently exposed to H2O2 (30 µM). Treatment with H2O2 (30 µM) significantly induced cytotoxicity (P<0.05) and reduced the viability of the Chang liver cells. However, pretreatment of the cells with RJE (0.1, 0.3 or 0.5 mg/ml) significantly increased the cell viability (P<0.001 at 0.5 mg/ml) in a concentration-dependent manner following H2O2 treatment. Furthermore, pretreatment with RJE increased the enzyme activities of SOD and CAT, and decreased the sub-G1 growth phase of the cell cycle in response to H2O2-induced oxidative stress (P<0.001 at 0.3 and 0.5 mg/ml H2O2). RJE also regulated the protein expression levels of p53, Bax, caspase-3 and Bcl-2. These results suggested that RJE may protect human Chang liver cells against oxidative damage by increasing the levels of antioxidant enzymes and regulating antiapoptotic oxidative stress mechanisms, thereby providing insights into the mechanism which underpins the traditional claims made for RJE in the treatment of liver diseases. PMID

  11. Paederia foetida Linn. inhibits adjuvant induced arthritis by suppression of PGE(2) and COX-2 expression via nuclear factor-κB.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Vikas; Al-Abbasi, F A; Ahmed, Danish; Verma, Amita; Mujeeb, Mohd; Anwar, Firoz

    2015-05-01

    The current investigation was undertaken to determine the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects of Paederia foetida Linn. (PF) along with its mechanism of action when implemented in tissue protection. HPTLC was used in the identification of the compound quercetin, while in vitro analysis confirmed the significance of the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory action of PF. We initially demonstrated the in vivo anti-inflammatory effect of PF, evaluating it against a variety of phlogistic agents as well as turpentine oil, prostaglandin and arachidonic acid. Groups of rats, fasted overnight, were treated as follows: Group I: normal control (vehicle), Group II: PF (100 mg kg(-1)), Group III: arthritic control (CFA only, 0.05 ml), Group IV, V, VI: CFA (0.05 ml) + PF (25, 50 and 100 mg kg(-1)) and Group VII: CFA (0.05 ml) + indomethacin (10 mg per kg b.w.). PF significantly protected against paw edema, arthritic index and body weight alteration induced by Complete Fruend's Adjuvant (CFA). Other observations, like histological and macroscopic changes, were observed in CFA induced inflammation in knee joints. Subcutaneous administration of CFA was accompanied by proinflammatory cytokine status, as appraised by the amplification of interleukin-2 (IL-2), interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α); oxidative stress status was estimated by the enhancement of the level of lipid peroxidation (LPO) and the depletion of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione (GSH). Pre-treatment with PF significantly (P < 0.001) protected against CFA induced oxidative stress and proinflammatory cytokines. More prominently, CFA administration augmented tissue and plasma superoxide (O2) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) levels, while the PF pre-treatment significantly (P < 0.001) reversed all CFA induced intracellular interruption. Following CFA induced arthritis, PF was tested for its free radical scavenging activity against the DPPH and ABTS radicals

  12. Effect of Beta vulgaris Linn. Leaves Extract on Anxiety- and Depressive-like Behavior and Oxidative Stress in Mice after Acute Restraint Stress

    PubMed Central

    Sulakhiya, Kunjbihari; Patel, Vikas Kumar; Saxena, Rahul; Dashore, Jagrati; Srivastava, Amit Kumar; Rathore, Manoj

    2016-01-01

    Background: Stress plays a significant role in the pathogenesis of neuropsychiatric disorders such as anxiety and depression. Beta vulgaris is commonly known as “beet root” possessing antioxidant, anticancer, hepatoprotective, nephroprotective, wound healing, and anti-inflammatory properties. Objective: To study the protective effect of Beta vulgaris Linn. ethanolic extract (BVEE) of leaves against acute restraint stress (ARS)-induced anxiety- and depressive-like behavior and oxidative stress in mice. Materials and Methods: Mice (n = 6) were pretreated with BVEE (100 and 200 mg/kg, p. o.) for 7 days and subjected to ARS for 6 h to induce behavioral and biochemical changes. Anxiety- and depressive-like behavior were measured by using different behavioral paradigms such as open field test (OFT), elevated plus maze (EPM), forced swim test (FST), and tail suspension test (TST) 40 min postARS. Brain homogenate was used to analyze oxidative stress parameters, that is, malondialdehyde (MDA) and reduced glutathione (GSH) level. Results: BVEE pretreatment significantly (P < 0.05) reversed the ARS-induced reduction in EPM parameters, that is, percentage entries and time spent in open arms and in OFT parameters, that is, line crossings, and rearings in mice. ARS-induced increase in the immobility time in FST and TST was attenuated significantly (P < 0.05) by BVEE pretreatment at both the dosage. An increase in MDA and depletion of GSH level postARS was prevented significantly (P < 0.05) with BVEE pretreatment at both the dosage (100 and 200 mg/kg). Conclusion: BVEE exhibits anxiolytic and antidepressant activity in stressed mice along with good antioxidant property suggesting its therapeutic potential in the treatment of stress-related psychiatric disorders. SUMMARY Stress plays major role in the pathogenesis of anxiety and depressionARS-induced anxiety- and depressive-like behavior through oxidative damage in miceBVEE pretreatment reversed ARS-induced behavioral changes

  13. Antioxidant activities of essential oil of Bidens pilosa (Linn. Var. Radita) used for the preservation of food qualities in North Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Goudoum, Augustin; Abdou, Armand B; Ngamo, Léonard Simon T; Ngassoum, Martin Benoît; Mbofung, Carl M F

    2016-09-01

    This study aimed to determine the total antioxidant capacity of the essential oil (EO) of leaves of Bidens pilosa (Linn. Var. Radita) used as protectant of stored grains in Northern Cameroon. EO was characterized by GC-FID, antioxidant activity (AA) was determined by combining: evaluation of radical-scavenging activity, reducing power (RP) and co-oxidation of β-carotene methods. Tests were carried out on crude and stored EO kept for two weeks at 31.48 ± 2.88°C and 58.56 ± 6.78% relative humidity. These conditions are the same as those of grain storage. GC analyses enabled the identification of 27 compounds, representing around 97.57% of the total oil contents. The major constituents of the EO were α-pinene (14.7%), ε-caryophyllene (13.5), and β-ocimene (12.8%). The AA of the crude and stored EO are proportional to the concentrations and time of exposition. Exposed at the day light, this EO inhibit 77.4-18.69% for the DPPH system, 59.55-19.14% for RP method and 91.88-21.8% for β-carotene-linoleate model system, respectively, from crude and 15 days storage EO at 20 mg L(-1). For the EC50 values, β-carotene method is excellent and in the decreasing order of DPPH method, PR with 2.52 mg L(-1), 2.77 mg L(-1) and 4.13 mg L(-1), respectively, for the crude oil. The ET50 were 1.59 days for the RP method and 2.88 days DPPH system and β-carotene-linoleate model system at 20 mg L(-1). These results showed that the EO of B. pilosa leaves exhibits AA that might be an added value for this EO preventing stored products from pest attacks. PMID:27625769

  14. System Identification of Burbank Six-Story Building Using Earthquake Data

    SciTech Connect

    D'Amore, Enzo; Amaddeo, Carmen; Astaneh-Asl, Abolhassan

    2008-07-08

    This paper examines the problem of identifying the dynamic characteristics of an instrumented building using an input-output system identification method. The building studied was a six-story steel moment-resisting frame (SMRF) instrumented by the California Strong Motion Instrumentation Program (CSMIP). The building was shaken by several earthquakes and strong motion data of the building response was recorded during these earthquakes and were made available through SMIP. In particular the Whittier Narrows (October, 1987), the Sierra Madre (June, 1991) and the Northridge (January, 1994) earthquakes were considered in the studies reported here. The seismic performance of steel moment-framed buildings has been of particular interest after the 1994 Northridge earthquake because brittle fractures were discovered at the beam-column connection. The Eigensystem Realization Algorithm with Data Correlation (ERA/DC) and Observer/Kalman filter Identification (OKID) were used in these studies for system identification purposes. The identified modal properties of the structure were compared and verified with the spectral analysis of the response of the structure excited by three different earthquakes.

  15. Vine kill interval and temperature effects on Fusarium dry rot development in Russet Burbank

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium dry rot disease development in potato storage is universal to all market sectors and regions. The objective of this 2-year study was to evaluate three possible management decisions that may impact Fusarium dry rot development in storage: a) vine kill to harvest time, b) harvested tuber pulp...

  16. Sugar End Defect in Stressed Russet Burbank Potatoes Grown Under Controlled Environment Conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugar end defect results from an accumulation of reducing sugars at the stem end of the tuber. Such tubers turn dark at the stem end when fried and may not be acceptable to processors. Sugar end defect is thought to be caused by heat and/or drought stress during tuber growth, and may be promoted by ...

  17. Updated Background Subtraction Procedures for Electrons measured by LEMMS on Cassini/MIMI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gramling, H.; Mitchell, D. G.; Vandegriff, J. D.

    2010-12-01

    Electrons measured by the Low Energy Magnetospheric Measurement System (LEMMS) instrument on Cassini show variable increases in background levels during time periods when sunlight enters the detector. The lowest energy electron channel (C0, 18 to 40 keV) is affected the most dramatically, but a higher energy channel (C5, 175 to 300 keV) also shows an increased background during these times. We have compiled a list of times when this problem has been detected, and we have also created an algorithm for automatically detecting its occurrence. We present the detection algorithm, along with the list of times during which this anomalous light contamination affected the data. Examples of the data during some of these time periods are also illustrated.

  18. Rhea's magnetospheric interaction: energetic electron observations by Cassini MIMI/LEMMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roussos, E.; Kollmann, P.; Krupp, N.; Paranicas, C.; Persoon, A.; Kriegel, H.; Simon, S.; Khurana, K.; Krimigis, S. M.; Mitchell, D. G.

    2012-04-01

    Although Rhea is a plasma absorbing moon, energetic particle observations in its vicinity show a variety of unexpected interaction features, besides the expected wake signature. Energetic electron data contain a series of flux depletions, some of which extend up to 8 moon radii on each side of the wake. The association of these depletions with absorption by dust and boulders orbiting within Rhea's Hill sphere was not confirmed, so in this study we review data from all four Cassini flybys of Rhea to date seeking for alternative interpretations. We focus on energetic electron observations, which are placed in context with magnetometer and cold plasma electron density data. The most interesting common structure in all flybys is that of narrow dropouts in energetic electron fluxes, visible near the wake flanks. These are typically seen together with narrow flux enhancements inside the wake. A phase-space-density analysis indicates that these structures form due to rapid transport of energetic electrons from the magnetosphere to the wake, through narrow channels. The possibility that this transport is a signature of a flute (interchange) instability that acts on the electrons is discussed. Besides the small structures, there are many more puzzling observations. For instance the electron number density appears unaffected during Rhea's wake crossings, although the magnetometer shows signatures consistent with plasma pressure loss due to ion absorption at Rhea. The impact of such observations in understanding Rhea's system is also discussed.

  19. Minireview on Achillea millefolium Linn.

    PubMed

    Akram, Muhammad

    2013-09-01

    Yarrow (Achillea millefolium L.) is an important medicinal plant with different pharmaceutical uses. A. millefolium has been used for centuries to treat various diseases including malaria, hepatitis and jaundice. A. millefolium is commonly prescribed to treat liver disorders. It is also used as an anti-inflammatory agent and is a hepatoprotective herb. A. millefolium is considered safe for supplemental use. It has antihepatotoxic effects also. It is prescribed as an astringent agent. It is prescribed in hemorrhoids, headache, bleeding disorders, bruises, cough, influenza, pneumonia, kidney stones, high blood pressure, menstrual disorders, fever, rheumatoid arthritis, gout, osteoarthritis, hemorrhagic disorders, chicken pox, cystitis, diabetes mellitus, indigestion, dyspepsia, eczema, psoriasis and boils. PMID:23959026

  20. L-serine capped ZnS:Mn nanocrystals for plant cell biological studies and as a growth enhancing agent for micropropagation of Bacopa monnieri Linn. (Brahmi:Scrophulariaceae)

    SciTech Connect

    Augustine, M. Sajimol; Mathew, Lizzy; Alex, Roselin; Deepa, G. D.; Jayalekshmi, S.

    2014-01-28

    In the present work, the prospects of ZnS:Mn nanocrystals capped with L- serine, a bio-compatible amino acid, synthesized by wet chemical route, as efficient fluorescent probes for plant cell biological studies have been investigated. The present synthesis route using bio-compatible material is a low cost and easy to control method. The colloidal stability of the capped nano crystals is very good as they remain stable without settling down for long time. It is observed that L- serine significantly modifies the structural and optical characteristics of the ZnS:Mn nanocrystals and hence is suitable as a bio-compatible capping agent. The structural properties of L- serine capped nanocrystals were investigated by XRD technique. The size of the L- serine capped ZnS:Mn nanocrystals is found to be around 2 nm . The optical characterization of the nanocrystals was carried out on the basis of photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopic studies. The intense photoluminescence emission observed around 597nm for L-serine capped ZnS:Mn offers high prospects of applications in bio-imaging fields. The unique optical properties of nanoparticles make them appealing as in vivo and in vitro fluorophores in a variety of biological investigations. In the present study, L-serine capped ZnS:Mn nanocrystals were used as a staining dye in fluorescent microscope for observing cell division, cell structure etc. These nanocrystals were also incorporated into the culture media along with the normal auxin- cytokinin hormone combinations in Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium for micropropagation of Bacopa monnieri Linn. (Brahmi:Scrophulariaceae), an Ayurvedic medicine. The results suggest that L-serine capped ZnS:Mn nanocrystals can act as efficient enhancers towards quick callusing and shoot proliferation.

  1. Synergistic topical application of salt-processed Phellodendron amurense and Sanguisorba officinalis Linne alleviates atopic dermatitis symptoms by reducing levels of immunoglobulin E and pro-inflammatory cytokines in NC/Nga mice.

    PubMed

    Park, Sunmin; Kim, Da Sol; Kang, Suna; Shin, Bae Keun

    2015-11-01

    Atopic dermatitis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease, and salt-processed Phellodendron amurense (CPE) and Sanguisorba officinalis Linne (SOE) are widely used as anti-inflammatory agents in Asia. Therefore, the present study investigated the efficacy of CPE, SOE, and CPE+SOE in the treatment of atopic dermatitis-like symptoms in mice. Following topical application of 1,3‑butylen glycol (control), 30% CPE, 30% SOE, 15% CPE+15% SOE or 0.1% hydrocortisone (HC) on the atopic dermatitis‑like skin lesions of 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene‑treated NC/Nga mice for 5 weeks, the severity of clinical atopic dermatitis, mast cell infiltration, serum expression levels of immunoglobulin (Ig)E, IgG1, interleukin (IL)-4 and interferon (IFN)-γ, and cytokine expression in the dorsal skin were measured. Compared with the control group, treatment with CPE alleviated the clinical severity of the AD symptoms, with decreased numbers of mast cells, decreased expression levels of serum tumor necrosis factor (TNF)‑α, IL‑4 and IFN‑γ, and decreased expression levels of inflammatory cytokines in the dorsal lesions. Treatment with SOE did not reduce these expression levels, however, the serum expression levels of IgE and IgG1 were suppressed to similar levels as those in the CPE group. Furthermore, synergistic treatment with CPE and SOE relieved the clinical severity of atopic dermatitis, reduced the serum expression levels of IgE, IgG1, TNF‑α, IL‑4 and IFN‑γ, and suppressed the mRNA expression levels of TNF‑α, IL‑4, IL‑13, and IFN‑γ in the dorsal skin lesions. Treatment with CPE+SOE was superior to treatment with HC alone for reducing dermal thickness and suppressing the production of several cytokines. Therefore, combined treatment with CPE and SOE may be an effective alternative intervention for the management of atopic dermatitis. PMID:26397864

  2. L-serine capped ZnS:Mn nanocrystals for plant cell biological studies and as a growth enhancing agent for micropropagation of Bacopa monnieri Linn. (Brahmi:Scrophulariaceae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Augustine, M. Sajimol; Mathew, Lizzy; Alex, Roselin; Deepa, G. D.; Jayalekshmi, S.

    2014-01-01

    In the present work, the prospects of ZnS:Mn nanocrystals capped with L- serine, a bio-compatible amino acid, synthesized by wet chemical route, as efficient fluorescent probes for plant cell biological studies have been investigated. The present synthesis route using bio-compatible material is a low cost and easy to control method. The colloidal stability of the capped nano crystals is very good as they remain stable without settling down for long time. It is observed that L- serine significantly modifies the structural and optical characteristics of the ZnS:Mn nanocrystals and hence is suitable as a bio-compatible capping agent. The structural properties of L- serine capped nanocrystals were investigated by XRD technique. The size of the L- serine capped ZnS:Mn nanocrystals is found to be around 2 nm . The optical characterization of the nanocrystals was carried out on the basis of photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopic studies. The intense photoluminescence emission observed around 597nm for L-serine capped ZnS:Mn offers high prospects of applications in bio-imaging fields. The unique optical properties of nanoparticles make them appealing as in vivo and in vitro fluorophores in a variety of biological investigations. In the present study, L-serine capped ZnS:Mn nanocrystals were used as a staining dye in fluorescent microscope for observing cell division, cell structure etc. These nanocrystals were also incorporated into the culture media along with the normal auxin- cytokinin hormone combinations in Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium for micropropagation of Bacopa monnieri Linn. (Brahmi:Scrophulariaceae), an Ayurvedic medicine. The results suggest that L-serine capped ZnS:Mn nanocrystals can act as efficient enhancers towards quick callusing and shoot proliferation.

  3. Effects of microclimate, cropping systems, and irrigation management on early and late blight potential on Russet Burbank potato

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil and irrigation management have been used to optimize crop production. However,their effects on microclimate, development, and controls of potato diseases have not been adequately quantified. The effects of soil, crop, and water management on development of potato early blight and late blight we...

  4. Relationships of crop and soil management systems to meteorological variables and potato diseases on a Russet burbank cultivar

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Crop, soil and water management systems may alter microclimatic conditions and affect plant growth and pest dynamics. However, the extent to which meteorological variables of potato canopy may be impacted in a humid temperate region has not been adequately ascertained. Field plots of a Russet Burban...

  5. Ion energetics at Saturn's magnetosphere using Cassini/MIMI measurements: A simple model for the energetic ion integral moments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dialynas, K.; Paranicas, C.; Roussos, E.; Krimigis, S. M.; Kane, M.; Mitchell, D. G.

    2015-12-01

    We present a composite analysis (H+ and O+) of energetic ion spectra and kappa distribution fits, using combined ion measurements from Charge Energy Mass Spectrometer (CHEMS, 3 to 236 keV/e), Low Energy Magnetospheric Measurements System (LEMMS, 0.024 < E < 18 MeV), and the Ion Neutral Camera (INCA, ~5.2 to >220 keV for H+). The modeled expressions of these energetic ion distributions are then used to obtain the four integral particle moments (from zeroth to 3rd moment: n, In, P, IE, i.e. Density, Integral number intensity, Pressure, Integral energy intensity) as well as the characteristic energy (EC=IE/In) of these ions as a function of Local Time and L-Shell. We find that a) protons dominate the energetic ion (>30 keV) integral number and energy intensity at all radial distances (L>5 Rs) and local times, while the H+ and O+ partial pressures and densities are comparable; b) the 12

  6. Identity and pharmacognosy of Ruta graveolens Linn

    PubMed Central

    Kannan, R.; Babu, U. V.

    2012-01-01

    Ruta graveolens L., is a odoriferous herb belonging to the family Rutaceae. It is the source of Rue or Rue oil, called as Sadab or Satab in Hindi. It is distributed throughout the world and cultivated as a medicinal and ornamental herb. The ancient Greeks and Romans, held the plant in high esteem. It is used in Ayurveda, Homoeopathy and Unani. Phytochemical constituents and pharmacological properties were studied in depth. In 14 species of genus Ruta, R. graveolens and R. chalepensis are available in India and also cultivated in gardens. Taxonomical characters to identify the Indian plants are very clear with fringed and or non-fringed petals. However, references to it are confused in the traditional literature. Due to sharing of regional language name, its identity is confused with Euphorbia dracunculoides. Morphological and anatomical characters were described. Pharmacognostic studies with microscopic characters were also published. Upon reviewing the anatomical characters and pharmacognostic characters one finds that it is highly confused and conflicting. The characters described are opposite of each other and authenticity of the market sample of R. graveolens cannot be guaranteed and able to be differentiated from R. chalepensis. Present work is to describe the pharmacognostic characters of R. graveolens to differentiate it from R. chalepensis. It is concluded that morphologically, R. graveolens can be identified with its non-fringed petals and blunted apices of fruit lobes. Whereas, in R. chalepensis petals are fringed or ciliated and apices of the fruit lobes are sharp and projected. Microscopically, in stem of R. graveolens pericyclic fibers have wide lumen. Whereas, in R. chalepensis, it is narrow. The published pharmacognosy reports do not pertain to authentic plant or some of the characteristic features like glandular trichomes are not observed in our samples. PMID:23929988

  7. Identity and pharmacognosy of Ruta graveolens Linn.

    PubMed

    Kannan, R; Babu, U V

    2012-07-01

    Ruta graveolens L., is a odoriferous herb belonging to the family Rutaceae. It is the source of Rue or Rue oil, called as Sadab or Satab in Hindi. It is distributed throughout the world and cultivated as a medicinal and ornamental herb. The ancient Greeks and Romans, held the plant in high esteem. It is used in Ayurveda, Homoeopathy and Unani. Phytochemical constituents and pharmacological properties were studied in depth. In 14 species of genus Ruta, R. graveolens and R. chalepensis are available in India and also cultivated in gardens. Taxonomical characters to identify the Indian plants are very clear with fringed and or non-fringed petals. However, references to it are confused in the traditional literature. Due to sharing of regional language name, its identity is confused with Euphorbia dracunculoides. Morphological and anatomical characters were described. Pharmacognostic studies with microscopic characters were also published. Upon reviewing the anatomical characters and pharmacognostic characters one finds that it is highly confused and conflicting. The characters described are opposite of each other and authenticity of the market sample of R. graveolens cannot be guaranteed and able to be differentiated from R. chalepensis. Present work is to describe the pharmacognostic characters of R. graveolens to differentiate it from R. chalepensis. It is concluded that morphologically, R. graveolens can be identified with its non-fringed petals and blunted apices of fruit lobes. Whereas, in R. chalepensis petals are fringed or ciliated and apices of the fruit lobes are sharp and projected. Microscopically, in stem of R. graveolens pericyclic fibers have wide lumen. Whereas, in R. chalepensis, it is narrow. The published pharmacognosy reports do not pertain to authentic plant or some of the characteristic features like glandular trichomes are not observed in our samples. PMID:23929988

  8. Psoralea corylifolia Linn.—“Kushtanashini”

    PubMed Central

    Khushboo, P. S.; Jadhav, V. M.; Kadam, V. J.; Sathe, N. S.

    2010-01-01

    Plants have been the basis of many traditional medicines throughout the world for thousands of years and continue to provide new remedies to mankind. Plants have been one of the important sources of medicines since the beginning of human civilization. The recent resurgence of plant remedies resulted from several factors, such as effectiveness of plant medicines and lesser side effects compared with modern medicines. Psoralea corylifolia, commonly known as babchi, is a popular herb, which has since long been used in traditional Ayurvedic and Chinese medicine for its magical effects to cure various skin diseases. This plant is also pharmacologically studied for its chemoprotective, antioxidant, antimicrobial, and antiinflammatory properties. This review attempts to highlight the available literature on P. corylifolia with respect to its ethnobotany, pharmacognostic characteristics, traditional uses, chemical constituents, and summary of its various pharmacologic activities and clinical effects. Other aspects, such as toxicology and precautions are also discussed. This will be helpful to create interest toward babchi and may be useful in developing new formulations with more therapeutic and economical value. PMID:22228944

  9. Early and late blight potential on Russet Burbank potato as affected by microclimate, cropping systems and irrigation management in North-eastern United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil and irrigation management have been used to optimize crop production; however,their effects on microclimate, development, and potato diseases have not been adequately quantified. The effects of soil, crop, and water management on development of potato early blight and late blight were quantifie...

  10. The magnetospheric interaction of Dione in the view of energetic particles: Cassini MIMI/LEMMS results during the encounters D1-D3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krupp, N.; Roussos, E.; Paranicas, C.; Mitchell, D. G.; Krimigis, S. M.; Khurana, K. K.

    2012-04-01

    Low Energy Magnetospheric Measurement System (LEMMS) data are presented from the three Dione flybys of the Cassini spacecraft between 2005 and 2011. We observed absorption signatures in the fluxes of electrons with energies between 20 keV and several MeV. The signatures are dependent on the flyby geometry. The two downstream flybys D2 and D3 show clearly an asymmetry which becomes stronger for higher energies. The most prominent signature of this asymmetry is a much sharper flux drop-out at the Saturn-facing wake boundary consistent with particle tracing simulation results. The absorption in higher-energy channels (several hundreds of keV) is more sporadic. Differences between the results of D2 and D3 are caused by the flyby distance and from the fact that during D2 the magnetosphere was very much disturbed in an ongoing injection event at that time. The flyby D1 was slightly south and upstream of the moon partially crossing the magnetic flux tube. The result during that flyby is an absorption in the higher-energy channels with the size of the moon while the signature in lower-energy channels is only half of it. The reason is that only part of the flux tube was crossed by Cassini. Energetic ion observation also show absorption features with an energy-dependent position relative to the geometrical moon's wake consistent with gyroradius effects. We interpret the results as evidence of particle absorption at the moon but also an indication that energy dependent particle trajectories around the moon can cause features in the moon's wake.

  11. Synergistic effect of Eugenia jambolana Linn. and Solidago canadensis Linn. leaf extracts with deltamethrin against the dengue vector Aedes aegypti Linn. at Mysore.

    PubMed

    Raghavendra, B S; Prathibha, K P; Vijayan, V A

    2013-06-01

    With the goal in mind to minimize the application of environmentally hazardous chemical insecticides, the larvicidal activity of two plant extracts along with deltamethrin was studied at University of Mysore. The extracts of Solidago canadensis and Eugenia jambolana were employed for working out the synergistic efficacy against Aedes aegypti larvae, as the extracts of both the plants exhibited high efficacy when applied individually. The deltamethrin when analyzed separately, LC50 and LC90 values were 0.00045 and 0.00148 ppm, respectively. Synergistic studies with two plant extracts on deltamethrin revealed S. canadensis as more effective with synergistic factor(SF) of 4.090 for LC50 value and 4.781 for LC90 followed by E. jambolana with SF 1.80 for LC50 and 2.467 for LC90 at 1:1 ratio of the phytoextracts and deltamethrin. Thus, S. canadensis was found to be a better larvicidal and synergistic agent. Combination of phytochemical and insecticide were found to be more effective than insecticides or phytochemicals alone which could be a good ecofriendly and cost-effective approach to reduce the dose of chemicals with high residual effect to be applied in vector control programs. PMID:23179216

  12. Station Commander Captures Unprecedented View of Comet

    NASA Video Gallery

    International Space Station Commander Dan Burbank captured spectacular imagery of Comet Lovejoy as seen from about 240 miles above the Earth’s horizon on Wednesday, Dec. 21. Burbank described se...

  13. Antimicrobial activity of essential oil from Schinus molle Linn.

    PubMed

    Gundidza, M

    1993-11-01

    The essential oil from the fresh leaves of Schinus molle isolated by hydrodistillation was tested for antibacterial activity using the hole plate diffusion method and for antifungal activity using the mycelium or single cell growth inhibition method. Results obtained showed that the volatile oil exhibited significant activity against the following bacterial species: Klebsiella pneumoniae, Alcaligenes faecalis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Leuconostoc cremoris, Enterobacter aerogenes, Proteus vulgaris, Clostridium sporogenes, Acinetobacter calcoacetica, Escherichia coli, Beneckea natriegens, Citrobacter freundii, Serratia marcescens, Bacillus subtilis and Brochothrix thermosphacata. The fungal species Aspergillus ochraceus, Aspergillus parasiticus, Fusarium culmorum and Alternaria alternata exhibited significant sensitivity to the volatile oil. PMID:8055554

  14. Clinical toxicity study of Semecarpus anacardium Linn. f.

    PubMed

    Murty, G K

    1974-09-01

    Semecarpus anacardium was administered to 266 cases in 3 formulations: Amrit Bhallatak (186 cases), RB 3 (48 cases), and Garsin (32 cases). The Amrit Bhallatak is a compound formulation containing extract of both the cotyledons and the pericarp of the fruit of Semecarpus anacardium. RB3 is composed of the whole cotyledon (300 mg); the daily dose of cotyledons was 3.6 g. Garsin contained 200 g of cotyledons. The extract is derived by separating the oil by a physical process. The daily dosage of Amrit Bhallatak was 10 g/day, that of Garsin, 2.4 g/day. No toxicity or side effects were observed. The therapeutic value of Semecarpus anacardium in arthropathies, atopic dermatitis, leucoderma, leprosy, hypothyroidism, oligospermia, and azoospermia and its value as an oral contraceptive have been studied. The most significant effect was on the ovaries and testes. The drug probably acts via the hypophysics. Out of 266 patients, 189 were men, 77 women between 30-45 years of age. The treatment was restricted to internal medication by mouth. No external contact or application of the drug was applied. Of the 77 women treated with the drug, 41 were followed up after treatment. 12 had become pregnant and none showed any teratogenecity. PMID:4448495

  15. Remedial Prospective of Hippophae rhamnoides Linn. (Sea Buckthorn).

    PubMed

    Patel, Chirag A; Divakar, Kalyani; Santani, Devdas; Solanki, Himanshu K; Thakkar, Jalaram H

    2012-01-01

    Sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) constitutes thorny nitrogen fixing deciduous shrub. Sea buckthorn(SBT) is primarily valued for its very rich vitamins A, B(1), B(12), C, E, K, and P; flavonoids, lycopene, carotenoids, and phytosterols. and therapeutically important since it is rich with potent antioxidants. Scientifically evaluated pharmacological actions of SBT are like inflammation inhibited by reduced permeability, loss of follicular aggregation of lymphocytes from the inflamed synovium and suppress lymphocyte proliferation. SBT-reduced recurrence of angina, ischemic electrocardiogram which might be due to decreased myocardial oxygen consumption and inhibition of platelet aggregation induced by collagen. SBT can kill both cancer cells of S180, P388, SGC7901 and lymphatic leukemia (L1200). The antiulcer activity may be related to reduce gastric empty time, inhibiting proteolytic activity and promoting wound reparation processes of mucosa. SBT exerts antihypertensive effect in part by blocking angiotensin-2 receptor on cell surface. SBT decreased the level of stress hormones and enhanced hypoxic tolerance in animals indicating its anti-stress, adaptogenic activity. A lot of research work is still needed to find cellular and molecular mechanisms of these activities and also yet to be explored for its activity in osteoporosis, hemorrhage, cataract, urinary stone, acne, psoriasis, polyneuritis, cheilosis, glossities, baldness, anti-obesity, gout, and chronic prostitis. PMID:22530142

  16. Remedial Prospective of Hippophae rhamnoides Linn. (Sea Buckthorn)

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Chirag A.; Divakar, Kalyani; Santani, Devdas; Solanki, Himanshu K.; Thakkar, Jalaram H.

    2012-01-01

    Sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) constitutes thorny nitrogen fixing deciduous shrub. Sea buckthorn(SBT) is primarily valued for its very rich vitamins A, B1, B12, C, E, K, and P; flavonoids, lycopene, carotenoids, and phytosterols. and therapeutically important since it is rich with potent antioxidants. Scientifically evaluated pharmacological actions of SBT are like inflammation inhibited by reduced permeability, loss of follicular aggregation of lymphocytes from the inflamed synovium and suppress lymphocyte proliferation. SBT-reduced recurrence of angina, ischemic electrocardiogram which might be due to decreased myocardial oxygen consumption and inhibition of platelet aggregation induced by collagen. SBT can kill both cancer cells of S180, P388, SGC7901 and lymphatic leukemia (L1200). The antiulcer activity may be related to reduce gastric empty time, inhibiting proteolytic activity and promoting wound reparation processes of mucosa. SBT exerts antihypertensive effect in part by blocking angiotensin-2 receptor on cell surface. SBT decreased the level of stress hormones and enhanced hypoxic tolerance in animals indicating its anti-stress, adaptogenic activity. A lot of research work is still needed to find cellular and molecular mechanisms of these activities and also yet to be explored for its activity in osteoporosis, hemorrhage, cataract, urinary stone, acne, psoriasis, polyneuritis, cheilosis, glossities, baldness, anti-obesity, gout, and chronic prostitis. PMID:22530142

  17. Antidiabetic activity of flower buds of Michelia champaca Linn

    PubMed Central

    Jarald, E. Edwin; Joshi, S.B.; Jain, D.C.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To identify the antihyperglycemic activity of various extracts, petroleum ether (60-80°), chloroform, acetone, ethanol, aqueous and crude aqueous, of the flower buds of Michelia champaca, and to identify the antidiabetic activity of active antihyperglycemic extract. Materials and Methods: Plant extracts were tested for antihyperglycemic activity in glucose overloaded hyperglycemic rats. The effective antihyperglycemic extract was tested for its hypoglycemic activity at two-dose levels, 200 and 400 mg/kg respectively. To confirm its utility in the higher model, the effective extract of M. champaca was subjected to antidiabetic study in alloxan induced diabetic model at two dose levels, 200 and 400 mg/kg respectively. The biochemical parameters, glucose, urea, creatinine, serum cholesterol, serum triglyceride, high density lipoprotein, low density lipoprotein, hemoglobin and glycosylated hemoglobin were also assessed in the experimental animals. Results: The ethanolic extract of M. champaca exhibited significant antihyperglycemic activity but did not produce hypoglycemia in fasted normal rats. Apart from this extract, the crude aqueous and petroleum ether extracts were found active only at the end of the first hour. Treatment of diabetic rats with ethanolic extract of this plant restored the elevated biochemical parameters significantly (P<0.05) (P<0.01) and the activity was found dose dependent. Conclusion: This study supports the traditional claim and the ethanolic extract of this plant could be added in traditional preparations for the ailment of various diabetes-associated complications. PMID:21279181

  18. A review on Cressa cretica Linn.: A halophytic plant

    PubMed Central

    Priyashree, S.; Jha, S.; Pattanayak, S. P.

    2010-01-01

    Herbal medicine is used by up to 80% of the population in developing countries. Cressa cretica L. is a popular holophytic plant and is used in folklore medicine for ailments including diabetes, ulcers, asthma, anthelmintic, stomachic, tonic and aphrodisiac purposes, enriches the blood, and is useful in constipation, leprosy, and urinary discharges. The plant is traditionally used in Bahrain as expectorant and antibilious agent. Scientific evidence suggests its versatile biological functions such as its antibacterial, antifungal, antitussive, anticancer with some other plants, anti-inflammatory, and improving testicular function in rats. In this article, a comprehensive account of the morphology, phytochemical constituents, ethnobotany, and biological activities are included in view of the recent findings of importance on the plant, C. cretica. PMID:22228956

  19. Chenopodium album Linn: review of nutritive value and biological properties.

    PubMed

    Poonia, Amrita; Upadhayay, Ashutosh

    2015-07-01

    Green leafy vegetables have generated interest worldwide as they exhibit multiple benefits for health of human beings. Vegetables can form the cheapest and most readily available sources of important vitamins, minerals, fibres and essential amino acids particularly. In most of the developing countries where the daily diet is dominated by starchy staple foods, vegetables can form the cheapest and most readily available sources of important vitamins, minerals, fibres and essential amino acids. Across the globe there are several local and wild vegetables which are under-exploited because of inadequate scientific information on knowledge of their nutritional potentials. A resurgence of interest has developed in wild vegetables for their possible medicinal values in diets. C. album is under exploited vegetable which has high functional potential apart from basic nutritional benefits. The plant is used in diet not only to provide minerals, fibre, vitamins and essential fatty acids but also enhance sensory and functional value of the food. The plant has been traditionally used as a bloodpurifier, diuretic, sedative, hepatoprotective, antiscorbutic laxative and as an anthelmentic against round and hookworms. Pharmacological studies have revealed that the plant possesses anthelmentic, sperm immobilizing and contraceptive properties. It is also claimed to be antipruritic and antinociceptive in action. Therefore C. album holds a great potential for in depth biological evaluation. No significant work has ever been carried out for processing parameters for this potentially useful plant. Significance and future scope of C. album for public and dietary awareness of its nutritional status has been discussed in this review. PMID:26139865

  20. Antioxidant activity of tuberosin isolated from Pueraria tuberose Linn

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Antioxidant activity of Pueraria tuberose DC, (PT) Leguminosae (Fabaceae) has already been reported by us and here an active compound has been isolated and its action on expression of iNOS protein has been explored by using LPS induced changes in attached rat peritoneal macrophage cell culture. The pure compound was isolated by column chromatography and its structure was characterized by spectral studies, which was identified as tuberosin (5 hydroxy 3,4,7,3',4' pentamethoxy flavone). Its antioxidant capacity was determined and compared with alcoholic extract as EC50 value for scavenging potential towards pre-generated monocation ABTS* radical, superoxide radicals, hydroxyl radicals, metal chelation property and on lipid peroxidation. Further, rat peritoneal macrophages were isolated, cultured and the attached macrophages were exposed to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) with different concentrations of tuberosin (pretreatment for 30 min). After 17 h the released NO content, in culture supernatant, was indirectly estimated as accumulated nitrite by Griess reagent. To understand the mechanism of action, the extent of expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase genes, the iNOS protein was assessed in macrophage lysate by using its antibody on western blot analysis. Tuberosin significantly scavenged all the species of FRs, described above and it also inhibited the LPS induced release of NO and amount of iNOS protein in macrophages. All the changes were significant and concentration dependent. Thus it could be suggested that tuberosin, is one of the active principles of Pueraria tuberose, which directly scavenges various species of Free radicals (FRs) and also inhibits LPS induced inflammatory changes in macrophages. PMID:20836891

  1. Antidiabetic and Antioxidant Activity of Scoparia dulcis Linn.

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, M. R.; Mishra, A.; Pradhan, D. K.; Panda, A. K.; Behera, R. K.; Jha, S.

    2013-01-01

    The hypoglycaemic activity of methanol extract of Scoparia dulcis was performed on both in vitro and in vivo models along with determination of total extractable polyphenol. Methanol extract of Scoparia dulcis contains 4.9% and water extract contains 3.2% of total extractable polyphenol. The antioxidant activity showed very promising result in both the tested methods that is 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and ferric ion reducing capacity. The antioxidant activity is directly correlated to the antidiabetic potential of drug. The two enzymes (amylase and glycosidase) found in intestine are responsible for the increasing postprandial glucose in body. In vitro model was performed on these enzymes and the results showed that methanol extract of Scoparia dulcis was effective to check the postprandial glucose level. The in vivo hypoglycaemic activity of methanol extract of Scoparia dulcis was performed on streptozotocin-induced diabetes mellitus showed significant inhibition of blood glucose level as compared to control and similar to that of standard glibenclamide. The overall data potentiates the traditional value of Scoparia dulcis as an antidiabetic drug. PMID:24403665

  2. A newly found manganese hyperaccumulator--Polygonum lapathifolium Linn.

    PubMed

    Liu, Kehui; Yu, Fangming; Chen, Menglin; Zhou, Zhenming; Chen, Chaoshu; Li, Ming Shun; Zhu, Jing

    2016-01-01

    In the present work, both field investigation and laboratory experiment were carried out to testify whether Polygonum lapathifolium L. is a potential manganese (Mn) hyperaccumulator. Results from field investigation showed that P. lapathifolium had great tolerance and accumulation to Mn. Mn concentrations in leaves were the highest, varied from 6889.2 mg kg-1 dry weight (DW) to 18841.7 mg kg(-1) DW with the average of 12180.6 mg kg(-1). The values of translocation factor (the concentrations of Mn in leaf to that in root) ranged from 5.72 to 9.53. Results from laboratory experiment illuminated that P. lapathifolium could grow well and show no toxic symptoms even under high Mn stress (16 mmol L(-1)). Although the changes of antioxidant enzymes activities were triggered under Mn stress, the alterations of pigments were not significant (P > 0.05) as compared with control. Total plant biomass and plant height increased with increasing Mn supply. Mn concentrations in leaves and stems were constantly greater than those in roots, the ratio of concentrations in leaves to that in roots were 2.58-6.72 and the corresponding values in stems to that in roots were 1.45-3.18. The results showed that P. lapathifolium is a Mn-hyperaccumulator. PMID:26514228

  3. Antifertility activity of Ailanthus excelsa Linn. in female albino rats.

    PubMed

    Dhanasekaran, S; Suresh, B; Sethuraman, M; Rajan, S; Dubey, R

    1993-04-01

    Alcoholic extract of leaf and stem bark of A. excelsa at a dose of 250 mg equivalent of plant material/kg body weight, exhibited remarkably high anti-implantation and early abortifacient activities. The results are in agreement with the traditional use of this plant as a abortifacient by the Irula women of the Nilgiri district. PMID:8359839

  4. Elemental, nutritional, phytochemical and biological evaluation of Hypericum perforatum Linn.

    PubMed

    Dastagir, Ghulam; Ahmed, Rizwan; Shereen, Saima

    2016-03-01

    This study was carried out to study elemental, nutritional, phytochemical and biological evaluation of Hypericum perforatum collected from Swat in 2010. The elemental analysis showed that Ca was highest (5600 μg/g) in leaves and lowest (2500 μg/g) in flowers. The potassium was highest (840 μg/g) in fruit and lowest (80 μg/g) in leaves. Magnesium was highest (260 μg/g) in stem and lowest (200 μg/g) in flowers. Sodium was highest (4900 μg/g) in stem and lowest (4700 μg/g) in leaves and flowers. Copper was highest (26 μg/g) in stem and lowest (10 μg/g) in leaves. Iron was highest (5000 μg/g) in flowers lowest (1200 μg/g) in stem. Zinc was highest (80 μg/g) in flowers and lowest (46 μg/g) in stem. Nickle, cadmium and Cobalt were <5 μg/g for all plant parts. The nutritional analysis showed that the dry matter was in the range of (97.61%) in stem and (96.38%) in leaf, ash (5.43%) in flowers and (1.90%) in stem, crude protein (12.63%) in leaf and (6.15%) in stem, crude fibre (64.74%) in flowers and (13.0%) in leaf, ether extract (10.98%) in fruit and (1.88%) in stem and nitrogen free extract was (65.80%) in leaf and (10.98%) in flower, respectively. Hypericum perforatum did not show cytotoxic, insecticidal and antibacterial activity in vitro at different doses. The % activity was zero% in cytotoxic and insecticidal activities. However, H. perforatum plant parts revealed phytotoxic activity. The phytotoxic activity of leaf and fruit remained same (44.0%) at highest dose (500 μg/ml). The phytochemical screening showed the presence of mucilage, tannins, anthraquinones, saponins, fats and oils and proteins in all parts of the plant. Calcium oxalate was found in all parts except the fruit. Lignin and catechin was found in all parts except the leaf. Cutin was found only in stem and flower while chlorophyll was found only in stem and leaf. In various localities (Shartangaar, Panj Pali and Sharanko) of Swat fresh leaves were used while in Barani and Jaba fresh as well as dried leaves were used as stimulant, in fever, cough, diphtheria and as an anthelmintic only in Shartangaar. PMID:27087099

  5. Antiulcer Activity of Indigenous Plant Operculina turpethum Linn.

    PubMed Central

    Ignatius, Vidya; Narayanan, Madhusudhanan; Subramanian, Venkataraman; Periyasamy, Balasubramanian Maruthaiveeran

    2013-01-01

    In the Indian traditional system of medicine Operculina turpethum is commonly used to treat various ailments including peptic ulcer, inflammation, and pain. Ulcer preventive and ulcer protective activities of HAOP and MOP stem bark extracts of Operculina turpethum (100 mg/kg, b.w., orally) were evaluated employing aspirin + pylorus ligation (APL) model in experimental rats. The results suggested that both extracts (HAOP and MOP) possess enhanced ulcer preventive and protective activities when compared with the standard drug ranitidine. HAOP showed more pronounced effect when compared to MOP. Further the result of the histopathological and biochemical studies also confirms potent ulcer preventive and protective nature of a extracts in a similar manner. PMID:23476683

  6. Chemical composition of Nigella sativa Linn: Part 2 Recent advances.

    PubMed

    Akram Khan, M; Afzal, M

    2016-06-01

    The black cumin or Nigella sativa L. seeds have many acclaimed medicinal properties such as bronchodilatory, hypotensive, antibacterial, antifungal, analgesic, anti-inflammatory and immunopotentiating. This review article is an update on the previous article published on Nigella sativa L. in this journal in 1999. It covers the medicinal properties and chemical syntheses of the alkaloids isolated from the seeds of the herb. PMID:27068721

  7. Antibiofilm activity of coconut (Cocos nucifera Linn.) husk fibre extract

    PubMed Central

    Viju, N.; Satheesh, S.; Vincent, S.G.P.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, antibiofilm activity of coconut husk extract (CHE) was tested by various assays in the laboratory. The effects of CHE on extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) production, hydrophobicity and adhesion ability of Pseudomonas sp., Alteromonas sp. and Gallionella sp. and the antimicrobial activity of the extract against these bacteria were assessed. CHE was found to possess antibacterial activity against all the bacterial strains and affected the EPS production. The CHE affected the growth of the biofilm-forming bacteria in a culture medium. The hydrophobicity of the bacterial cells was also changed due to the CHE treatment. The active compound of the CHE was characterised by thin-layer chromatography (TLC), high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) analysis. HPLC spectrum showed a single peak and the FT-IR spectrum indicated the presence of an OH-group-containing compound in the extract. In conclusion the CHE could be used as a source for the isolation of antifouling compounds. PMID:23961225

  8. Wound healing potential of Pterocarpus santalinus linn: a pharmacological evaluation.

    PubMed

    Biswas, Tuhin Kanti; Maity, Lakshmi Narayan; Mukherjee, Biswapati

    2004-09-01

    The need for new therapeutics for wound healing has encouraged the drive to examine the nature and value of plant products. Ayurveda, the Indian traditional system of medicine, mentions the values of medicinal plants for wound healing. One of these is Pterocarpus santalinus. This article describes a pharmacological study to evaluate its toxicity as well as wound-healing potential in animal studies. Powder made from the wood of the P. santalinus tree was used to make up an ointment in a petroleum jelly base. No toxic effects were observed in 72 hours. Studies were done on punch and burn wound models on normal and diabetic rats using the test ointment, untreated and vehicle controls, and standard therapy. Physical and biochemical measurements were made. The test ointment-treated wounds healed significantly faster. On healing, collagenesis and biochemical measurements yielded supportive data. These studies permit the conclusion that the P. santalinus ointment is safe and effective in treating acute wounds in animal models. PMID:15866805

  9. A new antibacterial benzophenone glycoside from Psidium guajava (Linn.) leaves.

    PubMed

    Ukwueze, Stanley E; Osadebe, Patience O; Okoye, Festus B C

    2015-01-01

    Bioactivity-guided fractionation of methanol extract from the leaves of Psidium guajava L. (Myrtaceae) yielded a new benzophenone glycoside, Guajaphenone A (2) together with two known compounds, Garcimangosone D (1) and Guaijaverin (3). Their structures were elucidated by analysis of spectroscopic data including 1D and 2D NMR and electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). The isolated compounds were screened against standard strains of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria using broth dilution assay method, and the MIC values determined and compared with reference antibiotic ceftriaxone. They were found to have significant antibacterial activities against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus with all of them showing better activities against S. aureus, but displaying weaker activities, in comparison to ceftriaxone. However, despite reduced effect of these compounds against the organisms, this work opens the perspective to use these molecules as 'leads' for the design of novel and selective drug candidates for some tropical infectious diseases. PMID:25631395

  10. Antidepressant activity of ethanolic extract of Hibiscus rosa sinenesis Linn.

    PubMed

    Khalid, Leena; Rizwani, Ghazala H; Sultana, Viqar; Zahid, Hina; Khursheed, Raheela; Shareef, Huma

    2014-09-01

    The present study was undertaken to assess the antidepressant effect of crude ethanolic extract of floral part of Hibiscusrosa sinensis (HRS) at doses 100mg/kg, 250mg/kg and 500mg/kg using three parameters which are forced induced swimming test (FST), tail suspension test (TST) and open field test(OFT). Flouxetine (15mg/kg, body weight) was used as standard. Significant dose dependent decline in immobility time was observed in all the three doses in FST and TST while in case of OFT none of the dose of HRS exhibited effectual results. To determine MAO"A" and MAO"B" activity HRS extract was used and the results revealed that each dose of this plant exhibited marked effect on MAO"A", while on MAO"B" only 250mg/kg dose was found significant. PMID:25176367

  11. Endophytic Penicillium citrinum Thom. from Scoparia dulcis Linn.

    PubMed

    Mathew, Annie J; Jayachandran, K; Mathew, Jyothis

    2010-10-01

    Scoparia dulcis of Scrophulariaceae is an annual herb distributed through out the tropics. Penicillium citrinum was obtained from apparently healthy roots, stem, leaves and fruits of this plant. Callus and multiple shoots produced during micropropagation from various explants were also symptomless but showed occurrence of Penicillium citrinum when cultured in Murashige & Skoog liquid medium for the production of secondary metabolites. PMID:22815580

  12. Antidiabetic and Antioxidant Activity of Scoparia dulcis Linn.

    PubMed

    Mishra, M R; Mishra, A; Pradhan, D K; Panda, A K; Behera, R K; Jha, S

    2013-09-01

    The hypoglycaemic activity of methanol extract of Scoparia dulcis was performed on both in vitro and in vivo models along with determination of total extractable polyphenol. Methanol extract of Scoparia dulcis contains 4.9% and water extract contains 3.2% of total extractable polyphenol. The antioxidant activity showed very promising result in both the tested methods that is 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and ferric ion reducing capacity. The antioxidant activity is directly correlated to the antidiabetic potential of drug. The two enzymes (amylase and glycosidase) found in intestine are responsible for the increasing postprandial glucose in body. In vitro model was performed on these enzymes and the results showed that methanol extract of Scoparia dulcis was effective to check the postprandial glucose level. The in vivo hypoglycaemic activity of methanol extract of Scoparia dulcis was performed on streptozotocin-induced diabetes mellitus showed significant inhibition of blood glucose level as compared to control and similar to that of standard glibenclamide. The overall data potentiates the traditional value of Scoparia dulcis as an antidiabetic drug. PMID:24403665

  13. Evaluation of Anthelmintic Activity of Pistia stratiotes Linn.

    PubMed

    Kumar, H K Sundeep; Bose, Anindya; Raut, Arundhuti; Sahu, Sujit Kumar; Raju, M B V

    2010-03-01

    The ethanolic extract of the plant Pistia stratiotes (Araceae) was investigated for activity against Indian earthworms Pheretima posthuma and nematode Ascardi galli. Various concentrations (10, 20, 50 mg/ml) of ethanolic extract were tested, which involved determination of time of paralysis and time of death of the worms. It was compared with Piperazine citrate (15 mg/ml) and Albendazole (20 mg/ml) as standard reference and normal saline as control. The study indicated the potential usefulness of Pistia stratiotes against earthworm infections. PMID:24825974

  14. Evaluation of Anthelmintic Activity of Pistia stratiotes Linn.

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, H. K. Sundeep; Bose, Anindya; Raut, Arundhuti; Sahu, Sujit Kumar; Raju, M. B. V.

    2010-01-01

    The ethanolic extract of the plant Pistia stratiotes (Araceae) was investigated for activity against Indian earthworms Pheretima posthuma and nematode Ascardi galli. Various concentrations (10, 20, 50 mg/ml) of ethanolic extract were tested, which involved determination of time of paralysis and time of death of the worms. It was compared with Piperazine citrate (15 mg/ml) and Albendazole (20 mg/ml) as standard reference and normal saline as control. The study indicated the potential usefulness of Pistia stratiotes against earthworm infections. PMID:24825974

  15. Phytochemistry, pharmacology and medicinal properties of Phyllanthus emblica Linn.

    PubMed

    Gaire, Bhakta Prasad; Subedi, Lalita

    2014-12-01

    Phyllanthus emblica L. (syn. Emblica officinalis) is commonly known as Indian gooseberry. In Ayurveda, P. emblica has been extensively used, both as edible (tonic) plants and for its therapeutic potentials. P. emblica is highly nutritious and is reported as an important dietary source of vitamin C, minerals and amino acids. All parts of the plant are used for medicinal purposes, especially the fruit, which has been used in Ayurveda as a potent Rasayana (rejuvenator). P. emblica contains phytochemicals including fixed oils, phosphatides, essential oils, tannins, minerals, vitamins, amino acids, fatty acids, glycosides, etc. Various pharmaceutical potential of P. emblica has been reported previously including antimicrobial, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic, adaptogenic, hepatoprotective, antitumor and antiulcerogenic activities either in combined formulation or P. emblica alone. The various other Ayurvedic potentials of P. emblica are yet to be proven scientifically in order to explore its broad spectrum of therapeutic effects. On this regards we, in this review, tried to explore the complete information of P. emblica including its pharmacognosy, phytochemistry and pharmacology. PMID:25491539

  16. Evaluation of In Vitro Cytotoxic and Antioxidant Activity of Datura metel Linn. and Cynodon dactylon Linn. Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Soumen; Pawar, Sandip; Chowdhary, Abhay

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate in vitro cytotoxicity and antioxidant activity of Datura metel L. and Cynodon dactylon L. extracts. Materials and Methods: The extraction of plants parts (datura seed and fruit pulp) and areal parts of durva was carried out using soxhlet and cold extraction method using solvents namely methanol and distilled water. The total phenolic content (TPC) and total flavonoid content (TFC) was determined by established methods. The in vitro cytotoxicity assay was performed in vero cell line by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay method. In vitro antioxidant activity of the extract was performed by 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging method. Results: We found that the highest amount of TPC and TFC in methanolic extracts of seed (268.6 μg of gallic acid equivalence/mg of dry plant material) and fruit pulp (8.84 μg of quercetin equivalence/mg dry plant material) of D. metel, respectively prepared by Soxhlet method. The methanolic extract of C. dactylon prepared using soxhlation has shown potent free radical scavenging activity with 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) value of 100 μg/ml. The IC50 of a methanolic cold extract of datura fruit was found to be 3 mg/ml against vero cell line. Conclusion: We observed that plant parts of C. dactylon and D. metel have a high antioxidant activity. Further research is needed to explore the therapeutic potential of these plant extracts. SUMMARY In the present study we observed a positive correlation was between the phenolic and flavanoid content of the Datura metel and cynodon doctylon (durva) extracts with the free radical scavenging activities. Both were found to have a high antioxidant activity. Abbreviations used: BHA: Butylated hydroxyanisole, BHT: Butylated hydroxytoluene, CC50: 50% cell cytotoxic concentration, CNS: Central nervous system, DPPH: 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, IC50: 50% inhibitory concentration, MTT: 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide), TFC: Total flavonoid content, TPC: Total phenolic content. PMID:27034603

  17. EPIC Computer Upgrade

    NASA Video Gallery

    Expedition 30 Commander Dan Burbank and Flight Engineer Don Pettit work on installing hardware for the Enhanced Processor and Integrated Communications (EPIC) upgrade of the International Space Sta...

  18. Antioxidant and hepatoprotective activities of Ocimum basilicum Linn. and Trigonella foenum-graecum Linn. against H2O2 and CCL4 induced hepatotoxicity in goat liver.

    PubMed

    Meera, R; Devi, P; Kameswari, B; Madhumitha, B; Merlin, N J

    2009-07-01

    Significant hepatoprotective effects were obtained by ethanolic extract of leaves of O. basilicum and T. foenum-graecum against liver damage induced by H2O2 and CCl4 as evidenced by decreased levels of antioxidant enzymes (enzymatic and non enzymatic). The extract also showed significant anti lipid peroxidation effects in vitro, besides exhibiting significant activity in superoxide radical and nitric oxide radical scavenging, indicating their potent antioxidant effects. PMID:19761043

  19. Effect of onion (Allium cepa Linn.) and garlic (Allium sativum Linn.) on plasma triglyceride content in Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonicum).

    PubMed

    Kumar, V Girish; Surendranathan, K P; Umesh, K G; Gayathri Devi, D R; Belwadi, M R Sandhya

    2003-01-01

    Dietary onion and garlic caused an increase in the level of plasma triglyceride which could be due to insulin like activity of dietary alliums and other factors that promote lipogenesisi in growing stages. Changes in the plasma triglyceride level in the control group due to change in age and sex were also noted. The triglyceride level was more in female birds when compared to males of similar age group. The plasma trigelyceride level increased with age in both sex except for the level being similar in the 6 and 9-week old females and 3 and 6-week old male birds. The results suggest that the effects of alliums in growing and adult stages may be different which needs further study. PMID:15267143

  20. Targhee Russet: A high yielding dual purpose, long russet potato cultivar having higher protein and vitamin C content and resistance to tuber soft rot

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Targhee Russet is a dark-skinned russet potato variety with tubers slightly longer than Russet Burbank. It produces higher total and marketable yields than does Russet Burbank at most of the sites it was tested in the western United States. Tuber dormancy is about 58 days shorter than Russet Burba...

  1. Alpine Russet: A potato cultivar having long tuber dormancy making it suitable for processing from long-term storage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alpine Russet is a later maturing, oblong-long, lightly russeted potato cultivar, notable for having tuber dormancy comparable to Russet Burbank. Processing quality of Alpine Russet from long-term storage is superior to Russet Burbank, with low percent reducing sugars and uniform fry color due to a...

  2. Antitrypanosomal effects of petroleum ether, chloroform and methanol extracts of Artemisia maciverae Linn.

    PubMed

    Ene, A C; Atawodi, S E; Ameh, D A; Nnamani, C N; Apeh, Y E O

    2009-12-01

    Petroleum ether, chloroform and methanol extracts of A. maciverae were studied in vitro and in vivo for activity against Trypanosoma brucei brucei in Swiss albino mice. Thereafter, the chloroform extract which showed the highest activity in both in vitro and in vivo assessments was subjected to bioassay-guided fractionation. The crude extracts and the fractions of the chloroform extract of A. maciverae were screened for phytochemicals and secondary metabolites. Combined fractions 54-57 of this extract showed the highest in vitro antitrypanosomal activity, and at 10 mg/kg body weight, this fraction cleared the parasitemia completely from T. brucei brucei infected Swiss albino mice after 7 days of treatment. There was no statistically significant difference in the level of parasitemia when the infected mice treated with this fraction was compared with the standard trypanocidal drug, diminal. The results of the phytochemical analysis showed that the crude extracts contained secondary metabolites like flavonoids, triterpenes, terpenoids, tannins, phlobatannins and alkaloids, while the active fraction contains only triterpenes and alkaloids. It can be inferred that fraction 54-57 contains the active component responsible for the high antitrypanosomal activity of the chloroform extract of A. maciverae. PMID:20329702

  3. Floral Nectary Morphology and Proteomic Analysis of Nectar of Liriodendron tulipifera Linn.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yanwei; Li, Meiping; Zhao, Fangfang; Zha, Hongguang; Yang, Liming; Lu, Ye; Wang, Guangping; Shi, Jisen; Chen, Jinhui

    2016-01-01

    Nectar is a primary nutrient reward for a variety of pollinators. Recent studies have demonstrated that nectar also has defensive functions against microbial invasion. In this study, the Liriodendron tulipifera nectary was first examined by scanning electron microscopy, and then the nectar was analyzed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, which led to identification of 42 nectar proteins involved in various biological functions. Bioinformatic analysis was then performed on an identified novel rubber elongation factor (REF) protein in L. tulipifera nectar. The protein was particularly abundant, representing ∼60% of the major bands of 31 to 43 kDa, and showed high, stage-specific expression in nectary tissue. The REF family proteins are the major allergens in latex. We propose that REF in L. tulipifera nectar has defensive characteristics against microorganisms. PMID:27379122

  4. Influence of fungal elicitation on glycyrrhizin production in transformed cell cultures of Abrus precatorius Linn

    PubMed Central

    Karwasara, Vijai Singh; Tomar, Priti; Dixit, Vinod K.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Glycyrrhizin, obtained from Abrus precatorius (Indian liquorice), is a phytoconstituent of importance for pharmaceutical and food industries. Materials and Methods: High producing and fast growing cell lines of A. precatorius were developed by transformation with Agrobacterium tumefaciens for glycyrrhizin production. Its maximum transformation efficiency of 85% was obtained by infecting leaves with A. tumefaciens MTCC-431 supplemented with 50 μM acetosyringone. Thorough culture growth kinetics with sugar consumption profiles was established. Results: A twofold increase in glycyrrhizin productivity was obtained in transformed A. precatorius cell suspension cultures over the untransformed cultures. The fungal elicitors prepared from Aspergillus niger and Rhizopus stolonifer were tested at different concentrations to enhance glycyrrhizin production in transformed cell suspension cultures of A. precatorius. Maximum enhancement of 4.9- and 3.8-fold in glycyrrhizin contents, were obtained with A. niger (7.5% v/v) and R. stolonifer (5.0% v/v), respectively, on the 5th day after elicitor treatment. Conclusion: This study indicates the prospective of the amalgamation of elicitation methodology with transformed cell cultures for the large-scale production of glycyrrhizin. PMID:22262933

  5. Two triterpenes lupanone and lupeol isolated and identified from Tamarindus indica linn.

    PubMed

    Imam, Shehla; Azhar, Iqbal; Hasan, M Mohtaseemul; Ali, M S; Ahmed, S Waseemuddin

    2007-04-01

    Tamarindus indica, a useful medicinal plant was subjected to phytochemical investigation. Two triterpenes (lupanone and lupeol) have been isolated from the leaves of this plant. Their structures were elucidated with the help of physico-chemical methods and spectroscopic techniques. The lupanone and lupeol from this plant are being reported for the first time. PMID:17416567

  6. Antiinflammatory, Diuretic and Antimicrobial Activities of Rungia pectinata Linn. and Rungia repens Nees

    PubMed Central

    Swain, S. R.; Sinha, B. N.; Murthy, P. N.

    2008-01-01

    The hydroalcoholic extracts prepared from leaves of Rungia pectinata and Rungia repens were investigated for antiinflammatory and diuretic activity in wistar rats. The results obtained were compared with that of standard drug aspirin and frusemide for their antiinflammatory and diuretic activity respectively. The acute toxicity study was also carried out using adult swiss albino mice of either sex which indicates the safety of the extracts even at a dose of 4000 mg/kg. R. pectinata showed better anti-inflammatory activity than R. repens. In the present study, it was demonstrated that hydroalcoholic extracts of both R. repens and R. pectinata produce diuretic effect by increasing the excretion of Na+, K+ and Cl−. Results showed that R. repens is most effective in increasing urinary electrolyte concentration of Na+ and K+ ions. The antimicrobial potency of the aerial parts of Rungia pectinata and Rungia repens have been studied using the petroleum ether, benzene, chloroform, acetone and ethanol extract against a wide number of bacteria and fungi by disc diffusion method. The ethanol extract at a concentration of 30 to 60 μg/disc showed significant activity against the bacteria and fungus investigated. All the extracts of R. pectinata and R. repens have got moderate action but chloroform and acetone extracts of R. repens and ethanol extract of R. pectinata have got significant activity against Trichophyton mentagrophytes. PMID:21394276

  7. In vitro antibacterial and antifungal activities of Cassia fistula Linn. fruit pulp extracts

    PubMed Central

    Bhalodia, N. R.; Nariya, P. B.; Acharya, R. N.; Shukla, V. J.

    2012-01-01

    Aim of the study is to assess the antimicrobial activity Cassia fistula fruit pulp extracts on some bacterial and fungal strains. Hydro alcohol and chloroform extracts of Cassia fistula fruit pulp were evaluated for the potential antimicrobial activity. The antimicrobial activity was determined in both the extracts using the agar disc diffusion method. Extracts were effective on tested microorganisms. The antibacterial and antifungal activities of solvent extracts (5, 25, 50, 100, 250 μg/mL) of C. fistula were tested against two gram positive, two gram negative human pathogenic bacteria and three fungi, respectively. Crude extracts of C. fistula exhibited moderate to strong activity against most of the bacteria tested. The tested bacterial strains were Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, Escherichia coil, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and fungal strains were Aspergillus. niger, Aspergillus. clavatus, Candida albicans. The antibacterial potential of the extracts were found to be dose dependent. The antibacterial activities of the C. fistula were due to the presence of various secondary metabolites. Hence, these plants can be used to discover bioactive natural products that may serve as leads in the development of new pharmaceuticals research activities. PMID:23049197

  8. Evaluation of Antioxidant and Cerebroprotective Effect of Medicago sativa Linn. against Ischemia and Reperfusion Insult

    PubMed Central

    Bora, Kundan Singh; Sharma, Anupam

    2011-01-01

    Antioxidants have been the focus of studies for developing neuroprotective agents to be used in the therapy for stroke, which is an acute and progressive neurodegenerative disorder. Medicago sativa (MS) has a long tradition of use as ayurvedic and homoeopathic medicine in central nervous system disorders. The plant has been reported to have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antidiabetic effects. Therefore, the present study was designed to investigate the neuroprotective effect of methanol extract of MS on ischemia and reperfusion-induced cerebral injury in mice. Bilateral carotid artery occlusion (BCAO) for 15 min followed by 24-h reperfusion, resulted in significant elevation in infarct size, xanthine oxidase (XO) activity, superoxide anion (O•−2) production and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance (TBARS) levels, and significant depletion in endogenous antioxidant [reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and total tissue sulfhydryl (T-SH) groups] systems in mice brain. Further, BCAO led to impairment in short-term memory and motor coordination. Pre-treatment with MS (100 or 200 mg kg−1, p.o.) markedly reduced cerebral infarct size, XO, O•−2 and TBARS levels, significantly restored GSH, SOD and T-SH levels and attenuated impairment in short-term memory and motor coordination. In addition, MS directly scavenged free radicals generated against a stable radical 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl and O•−2 generated in phenazine methosulphate-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide systems, and also inhibited XD/XO conversion and resultant O•−2 production. The data from this study suggest that treatment with MS enhances the antioxidant defense against BCAO-induced global cerebral ischemia and exhibits neuroprotective activity. PMID:21785631

  9. Overview for various aspects of the health benefits of Piper longum linn. fruit.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Suresh; Kamboj, Jitpal; Suman; Sharma, Sunil

    2011-06-01

    Herbal remedies have become popular, due in part to the lower risk of adverse reactions. Thousands of plants have been used traditionally to treat various diseases. Among them, species of the genus Piper are important medicinal plants used in various systems of medicine. The Piper longum fruit has been used in traditional medicine, including the Ayurvedic system of medicine. Although there are numerous indications for its use, controlled trials are needed to determine its efficacy. The primary constituents isolated from various parts of P. longum are piperine, piperlongumine, sylvatin, sesamin, diaeudesmin piperlonguminine, pipermonaline, and piperundecalidine. It is most commonly used to treat chronic bronchitis, asthma, constipation, gonorrhea, paralysis of the tongue, diarrhea, cholera, chronic malaria, viral hepatitis, respiratory infections, stomachache, bronchitis, diseases of the spleen, cough, and tumors. This study provides detailed information about the P. longum fruit, including phytochemistry, pharmacological profile and safety profile. In view of the commercial, economic, and medicinal importance of the P. longum plant, it is useful for researchers to study the plant in detail. PMID:21704957

  10. Hypoglycemic Effect of Calotropis gigantea Linn. Leaves and Flowers in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Rathod, Nanu R; Chitme, Havagiray R; Irchhaiya, Raghuveer; Chandra, Ramesh

    2011-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the hypoglycemic and anti-diabetic activity of chloroform extract of Calotropis gigantea leaves and flowers in normal rats and streptozotocin induced diabetes. Methods The hypoglycemic activity in normal rats was carried out by treatment using chloroform extract of Calotropis gigantea leaf and flower 10, 20 and 50 mg/kg, orally. The oral glucose tolerance test was carried out by administering glucose (2 g/kg, p.o), to non-diabetic rats treated with leaf and flowers extracts at oral doses 10, 20 and 50 mg/kg, p.o and glibenclamide 10 mg/kg. The serum glucose was then measured at 0, 1.5, 3 and 5 hr after administration of extracts/drug. Streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats were administered the same doses of leaf and flower extracts, and standard drugs glibenclamide was given to the normal rats or 0.5 ml of 5% Tween-80, for 27 days. The blood sample from all groups collected by retro-orbital puncture on 7, 14, 21 and 27th days after administration of the extracts/drug and used for the estimation of serum glucose levels using the glucose kit. Results The Calotropis gigantea leaves and flowers extracts were effective in lowering serum glucose levels in normal rats. Improvement in oral glucose tolerance was also registered by treatment with Calotropis gigantean. The administration of leaf and flower extracts to streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats showed a significant reduction in serum glucose levels. Conclusion It is concluded that chloroform extracts of Calotropis gigantea leaves and flowers have significant anti-diabetic activity. PMID:22043394

  11. Gastroprotective Effect of Rubia cordifolia Linn. on Aspirin Plus Pylorus-Ligated Ulcer

    PubMed Central

    Deoda, R. S.; Kumar, Dinesh; Bhujbal, S. S.

    2011-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the effect of Rubia cordifolia (Rubiaceae) against experimentally induced gastric ulcer and compare activity with its fractions by employing aspirin plus pylorus-ligated ulcer screening model in Wistar rats. Total acidity, volume of gastric acid secretion, total acid output, and pepsin activity show significant reduction, when compared with the control group. The present study confirmed that chloroform fraction showed the significant activity at lower doses compared to parent extract. The mechanism can be attributed to decrease in gastric acid secretary activity along with strengthening of mucosal defensive mechanism by prostaglandin synthesis and antioxidant potential. PMID:21423635

  12. Isolation and identification of mosquito larvicidal compound from Abutilon indicum (Linn.) Sweet.

    PubMed

    Abdul Rahuman, A; Gopalakrishnan, Geetha; Venkatesan, P; Geetha, Kannappan

    2008-04-01

    Larvicidal activity of crude hexane, ethyl acetate, petroleum ether, acetone and methanol extracts of five medicinal plants, Abutilon indicum, Aegle marmelos, Euphorbia thymifolia, Jatropha gossypifolia and Solanum torvum were assayed for their toxicity against the early fourth-instar larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus. The larval mortality was observed after 24 h exposure. All extracts showed moderate larvicidal effects; however, the highest larval mortality was found in petroleum ether extract of A. indicum. In the present study, bioassay-guided fractionation of A. indicum led to the separation and identification of a beta-sitosterol as a potential new mosquito larvicidal compound with LC50 value of 11.49, 3.58 and 26.67 ppm against Aedes aegypti L, Anopheles stephensi Liston and C. quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae), respectively. 1H NMR, 13C NMR and mass spectral data confirmed the identification of the active compound. beta-sitosterol has been recognized as the active ingredient of many medicinal plant extracts. All the crude extracts when screened for their larvicidal activities indicated toxicity against the larvae of C. quinquefasciatus. This article reports the isolation and identification of the beta-sitosterol as well as bioassay data for the crude extracts. There are no reports of beta-sitosterol in the genus A. indicum, and their larvicidal activities are being evaluated for the first time. Results of this study show that the petroleum ether extract of A. indicum may be considered as a potent source and beta-sitosterol as a new natural mosquito larvicidal agent. PMID:18176816

  13. RNA-Seq Analysis and De Novo Transcriptome Assembly of Jerusalem Artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus Linne)

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Chul Wook; Kim, Hyun-Soon; Min, Sung Ran; Moon, Jae Sun; Kwon, Suk-Yoon; Jeon, Jae-Heung; Cho, Hye Sun

    2014-01-01

    Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) has long been cultivated as a vegetable and as a source of fructans (inulin) for pharmaceutical applications in diabetes and obesity prevention. However, transcriptomic and genomic data for Jerusalem artichoke remain scarce. In this study, Illumina RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) was performed on samples from Jerusalem artichoke leaves, roots, stems and two different tuber tissues (early and late tuber development). Data were used for de novo assembly and characterization of the transcriptome. In total 206,215,632 paired-end reads were generated. These were assembled into 66,322 loci with 272,548 transcripts. Loci were annotated by querying against the NCBI non-redundant, Phytozome and UniProt databases, and 40,215 loci were homologous to existing database sequences. Gene Ontology terms were assigned to 19,848 loci, 15,434 loci were matched to 25 Clusters of Eukaryotic Orthologous Groups classifications, and 11,844 loci were classified into 142 Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathways. The assembled loci also contained 10,778 potential simple sequence repeats. The newly assembled transcriptome was used to identify loci with tissue-specific differential expression patterns. In total, 670 loci exhibited tissue-specific expression, and a subset of these were confirmed using RT-PCR and qRT-PCR. Gene expression related to inulin biosynthesis in tuber tissue was also investigated. Exsiting genetic and genomic data for H. tuberosus are scarce. The sequence resources developed in this study will enable the analysis of thousands of transcripts and will thus accelerate marker-assisted breeding studies and studies of inulin biosynthesis in Jerusalem artichoke. PMID:25375764

  14. RNA-seq analysis and de novo transcriptome assembly of Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus Linne).

    PubMed

    Jung, Won Yong; Lee, Sang Sook; Kim, Chul Wook; Kim, Hyun-Soon; Min, Sung Ran; Moon, Jae Sun; Kwon, Suk-Yoon; Jeon, Jae-Heung; Cho, Hye Sun

    2014-01-01

    Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) has long been cultivated as a vegetable and as a source of fructans (inulin) for pharmaceutical applications in diabetes and obesity prevention. However, transcriptomic and genomic data for Jerusalem artichoke remain scarce. In this study, Illumina RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) was performed on samples from Jerusalem artichoke leaves, roots, stems and two different tuber tissues (early and late tuber development). Data were used for de novo assembly and characterization of the transcriptome. In total 206,215,632 paired-end reads were generated. These were assembled into 66,322 loci with 272,548 transcripts. Loci were annotated by querying against the NCBI non-redundant, Phytozome and UniProt databases, and 40,215 loci were homologous to existing database sequences. Gene Ontology terms were assigned to 19,848 loci, 15,434 loci were matched to 25 Clusters of Eukaryotic Orthologous Groups classifications, and 11,844 loci were classified into 142 Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathways. The assembled loci also contained 10,778 potential simple sequence repeats. The newly assembled transcriptome was used to identify loci with tissue-specific differential expression patterns. In total, 670 loci exhibited tissue-specific expression, and a subset of these were confirmed using RT-PCR and qRT-PCR. Gene expression related to inulin biosynthesis in tuber tissue was also investigated. Exsiting genetic and genomic data for H. tuberosus are scarce. The sequence resources developed in this study will enable the analysis of thousands of transcripts and will thus accelerate marker-assisted breeding studies and studies of inulin biosynthesis in Jerusalem artichoke. PMID:25375764

  15. Spectrofluorimetric Estimation of Scopoletin in Evolvulus alsinoides Linn. and Convulvulus pluricaulis Choisy.

    PubMed Central

    Nahata, A.; Dixit, V. K.

    2008-01-01

    A simple sensitive spectrofluorimetric method was developed for the analysis of total coumarins calculated as scopoletin in the plants Evolvulus alsinoides and Convulvulus pluricaulis. The fluorescent nature of scopoletin proved to be of immense value in the development of the spectrofluorimetric method. The excitation and emission wavelengths for scopoletin were 430 nm and 460 nm respectively and the instrument was Shimadzu RF 5301 PC spectrofluorophotometer. The method was validated in terms of linearity, accuracy and precision. The proposed spectrofluorimetric method provides a faster and cost effective qualitative and quantitative control for routine analysis of scopoletin in Evolvulus alsinoides and Convulvulus pluricaulis and their formulations. PMID:21369458

  16. Antioxidative and anticarcinogenic activities of methylpheophorbide a, isolated from wheat grass (Triticum aestivum Linn.).

    PubMed

    Das, Priyabrata; Mandal, Suvra; Gangopadhyay, Sudeshna; Das, Kalipada; Mitra, Arpita Ghosh; Dasgupta, Swati; Mukhopadhyay, Soma; Mukhopadhyay, Ashis

    2016-01-01

    Methylphophorbide a (MPa) has been isolated from the ethanol extract of the wheat grass plant. Its antioxidative efficacy is evaluated by hydroxyl radical scavenging activities and reducing capacity which are significantly up regulated in comparison with aqueous extract of the plant. The compound shows iron-binding capacity where the Fe(2+) binds with MPa by two types of binding patterns with dissociation constants 157.17 and 27.89. It has antioxidative and cytotoxic effects on HeLa and Hep G2 cells. The cancerous cell survivability decreases with increasing concentration of MPa. These findings have provided evidence for the traditional use of the wheat grass plant in the treatment of cancers, oxidative stress and iron overloaded disorders. PMID:25782530

  17. Mustard seed (Sinapis Alba Linn) attenuates imiquimod-induced psoriasiform inflammation of BALB/c mice.

    PubMed

    Yang, Runping; Zhou, Qiang; Wen, Chunmiao; Hu, Jian; Li, Hengjin; Zhao, Ming; Zhao, Hua

    2013-07-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory autoimmune disease with undefined etiology. All present treatments are symptomatic. The unsatisfactory outcome in the treatment of psoriasis is partially due to the poor compliance to the present therapies with more or less side-effects. As is known, drug homologous food is a popular intervention of some chronic diseases in Chinese traditional medicine. Mustard seed, consumed largely as a spice and a medicine in China, has recently been found to possess the bioactivities of anti-oxidation, anti-inflammation and anticancer. Therefore, it was supposed that mustard seed may have effects on psoriasis, and it was preliminarily validated using a BALB/c mouse model of psoriasiform inflammation induced by the topical application of imiquimod cream (Aldara) for 6 days consecutively. It was found that the forage containing 5% mustard seed obviously attenuated imiquimod-induced psoriasiform inflammation, but did not clear it completely, accompanied by reduced infiltrations of T cells, plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDC) and macrophages in lesional skin; reduced percentages of pDC and macrophages in the composition of immunocytes of spleens; reduced content of lesion nuclear factor-κB p65, plasma malondialdehyde, lesion inducible nitric oxide synthase, interferon-α, interleukin (IL)-17 and IL-22 at mRNA and protein levels; increased activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase; and increased percentage of CD4(+) T cells and increased ratio of CD4(+) /CD8(+) T cells in the composition of immunocytes of spleen. These results presented herein provide a basis for mustard seed to be used as a promising intervention for psoriasis in the future. PMID:23682616

  18. Alterations in enzymes in an Indian catfish, Clarias batrachus (Linn.), exposed to vanadium

    SciTech Connect

    Chakraborty, A.; Bhattacharjee, S.; Chatterjee, M.

    1995-02-01

    The increase in air and water borne concentrations of vanadium, a physiologically and pharmacologically active substance, has caused renewed interest in the toxicology of this metal. Toxicity studies of vanadium on fish are comparatively scarce. Cytochrome P-450 monoxygenases and conjugating enzymes are important in fish metabolism and elimination of endogenous as well as foreign lipophilic compounds. These enzymes are also known to participate in activation and inactivation of carcinogenic and environmental chemicals. (In vitro) investigations have shown that fish metabolize xenobiotics by mechanisms very similar to those found in mammals. Impairment of drug-metabolizing enzymes is thus deleterious to the organism. Heavy metals are known to influence this group of enzymes. This prompted us to investigate the effect of vanadate, in a dose-responsive and time-dependent manner, on the relative rates and patterns of hepatic glutathione transferase (GST) activity, UDP-glucuronyl transferase (UDPGT) activity and cytochrome P-450 (Cyt P-450) level in an Indian catfish, Clarias batrachus. We chose an aquatic species for our experiment since the environment where aquatic animals live is the main destination of industrial and agricultural wastes. The variations recorded in the level and activity of cytochrome P-450, glutathione transferase and UDP-glu-curonyl transferase are discussed in relation to carcinogenic risk depending on the environment of the fish. In support of the above, petroleum has been found to induce cytochrome P-450 and subsequently produce high levels of neoplasia in fish. Furthermore, GST, UDPGT and Cyt P-450 have been reported as reliable markers for preneoplastic lesions in liver. 21 refs., 3 tabs.

  19. Effect of Ocimum sanctum Linn on noise induced changes in plasma corticosterone level.

    PubMed

    Sembulingam, K; Sembulingam, P; Namasivayam, A

    1997-04-01

    Ethanol extract of leaves of ocimum sanctum was screened for its antistressor actions against acute and chronic noise stress in albino rats by investigating the plasma corticosterone level in these animals. There was a significant elevation of the corticosterone level in plasma of rats subjected to 30 min noise (100 dB) stress. Chromic exposure (4 hr daily for 30 days) to noise with same intensity reduced the hormonal level significantly. Treatment of animals with ethanol extract of Ocimum sanctum prevented the changes in plasma level of corticosterone induced by exposure to both acute and chronic noise stress, indicating the antistressor property of the plant against noise. PMID:9142558

  20. Preliminary Phytochemical Screening and In Vitro Antioxidant Activities of Parkinsonia aculeata Linn.

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Sonia; Vig, Adarsh Pal

    2014-01-01

    Butanol and hexane leaves extracts of Parkinsonia aculeata L. (Fabaceae) were assessed for its antioxidant potential by in vitro methods. Phytochemical analysis and antioxidant activity of plant extracts were studied using different in vitro assays. UPLC analysis of extracts was carried out for the identification of chemical constituents. The total phenolic contents of the butanol and hexane leaf extract were 42 mgGAE/g and 34 mgGAE/g whereas flavonoid contents of these extracts were found to be 0.044 mgRE/g and 0.005 mgRE/g, respectively. Among both extracts, butanol extract shows maximum inhibition (%) of 93.88%, 80.02%, 52.06%, 94.68%, and 69.37% in DPPH, non-site-specific and site-specific, FTC, and TBA assays and absorbance of 0.852 and 0.522 in reducing power and CUPRAC assay at the highest concentration tested. The FRAP and TAC values of butanol extract were found to be 678 μM Fe(II)/g and 36 mgAAE/100 mg. UPLC analysis of extracts revealed the presence of various polyphenols. The tested plant extracts were found to possess potent antioxidant and free radical scavenging activity which may be due to the presence of flavonoids and polyphenols. PMID:24822217

  1. Methanolic extract of leaves of Jasminum grandiflorum Linn modulates oxidative stress and inflammatory mediators.

    PubMed

    Chaturvedi, Adya Prasad; Tripathi, Yamini Bhusan

    2011-10-01

    The leaves of Jasminum grandiflorum (JG) are in clinical use in Ayurveda for wound management. Since, oxidative stress and inflammation are the primary causes in delayed wound healing, so here its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities have been investigated using in vitro as well as in vivo models. The solvent-free methanolic extract of dried leaves of JG were tested for its trapping capacity toward pre-generated ABTS•+ radicals, instantly generated superoxide and hydroxyl radicals, along with metal chelation property, reducing power and total phenolic content. Further, it was tested on LPS-induced nitric oxide and cell viability, on primary culture of rat peritoneal macrophages. Its anti-inflammatory property was also tested on carrageenan-induced paw edema in rats. This extract significantly inhibited iron-induced lipid peroxidation and trapped ABTS•+, superoxide and OH radicals. It significantly inhibited nitric oxide (NO) release, without affecting the cell viability at 800 μg/ml concentration and reduced the formation of paw edema in rats. Thus, it could be suggested that the aforesaid anti-inflammatory properties of JG leaves are associated to its high phenolic content (2.25±0.105 mg/l of gallic acid equivalent), reducing power and its free radical-scavenging property. PMID:21701798

  2. Virulency of novel nanolarvicide from Trichoderma atroviride against Aedes aegypti (Linn.): a CLSM analysis.

    PubMed

    Singh, Gavendra; Prakash, Soam

    2015-08-01

    Aedes aegypti is the vector for transmitting dengue, chikungunya, and yellow fever. These diseases' transmission has increased predominantly in urban and semi-urban areas as a major public health concern. In present investigation, Trichoderma atroviride culture filtrates were used for the synthesis of silver nanoparticle. Moreover, T. atroviride is a free-living and rapidly growing fungi common in soil and root ecosystem. This fungi is an exceptionally good model for biocontrol and more significant as a bioagent. T. atroviride was grown in malt extract. T. atroviride culture filtrates were exposed to silver nitrates solution for 24 h at 25 °C for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). These AgNPs were characterized to find their unique properties with UV-visible spectrophotometer and transmission electron microscope (TEM) analysis. The T. atroviride culture filtrates have formed hexagonal (diamond shape) AgNPs with the range of size of 14.01-21.02 nm. These AgNPs have shown significant efficacies against first, second, third, and fourth instar larvae of A. aegypti. The LC90 and LC99 values for the first instar were 1 and 3 ppm, second instar 2 and 3.18 ppm, third instar 3.12 and 4.12 ppm, and fourth instar 6.30 and 6.59 ppm, respectively, after an exposure of 7 h. The confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) studies were verdict that these AgNPs embedded in the cuticle of larvae and cause instant lethality in 7 h. Present investigations have demonstrated that the AgNPs of T. atroviride culture filtrates synthesized can be used for larvae control of A. aegypti. T. atroviride is synthesized to silver nanoparticles to be a promising new candidate for application in mosquito control. We therefore suggested that the ability of T. atroviride culture filtrates in synthesis can also be explored for synthesizing silver nanoparticles for commercial exploitation. PMID:25907629

  3. [Textual research on Amara (Mangifera Indica Linn), Butea monsperma (Lam) Kuntze, and Ferula asatoitida L].

    PubMed

    Li, Zhaohua; Wang, Yulin

    2015-01-01

    In the Buddhist canons, there are lots of medicines imported from abroad recorded. The dictionary works of such Buddhist canons give detailed annotations and explanations to all these foreign medicines, from which we can investigate the features of all these medicines. It is also clear that these three medicines were imported into China no later than the Tang Dynasty. Amara was originally grown in the xi yu (Western Region) , now called Mango. Its form and connotation appeared no later than the eastern Han Dynasty, and the explanation of this medicine appears in the A Great Modern Dictionary of Chinese is wrong. While its explanation for Butea monsperma should be supplemented. There are two kinds of asafoitida, herbaceous and woody. Only the former one is used for medical purpose, and the annotation appeared in A Great Modern Dictionary of Chinese is problematic. PMID:26268251

  4. Protein mediated cholesterol absorption in locusts Schistocerca gregaria (Forskal) and Locusta migratoria (Linn).

    PubMed

    Upadhyay, Ravi Kant; Agarwal, H C; Dhar, Ravi

    2002-02-01

    Absorption and transport of 3H cholesterol from the midgut to hemolymph and other tissues was studied in the locusts Schistocerca gregaria and Locusta migratoria. S. gregaria are able to absorb dietary cholesterol in the midgut and release into the hemolymph in vivo and into the incubation medium in virto. Certain proteins of midgut origin are involved in the absorption and release of cholesterol. The proteins designated as cholesterol binding proteins (CBP's) were fractionated by gel filtration chromatography using Sepharose CL-6B-200 column. Presence of a protein and its binding with cholesterol is confirmed by TCA precipitation after subsequent incubation of midgut in the incubation medium. Cholesterol binding with the proteins was also confirmed in native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Biosynthesis of this protein takes place in the midgut which is inhibited by a protein synthesis inhibitor, cycloheximide. It also inhibits absorption and release of cholesterol from the midgut. The cholesterol binding activity was associated with a peak containing proteins ranging from molecular weights of 17-32 kDa in SDS-PAGE gels. Treatment of midgut with cycloheximide resulted in reduced cholesterol binding activity. Dilipidation of mucin and transport in presence of bile salts yielded a higher cholesterol binding activity. Although the absorption and release of cholesterol was observed in the hemolymph of both sexes, the ovary exhibited higher cholesterol binding as compared to testis. PMID:12622177

  5. Repellent properties of Cardiospermum halicacabum Linn. (Family: Sapindaceae) plant leaf extracts against three important vector mosquitoes

    PubMed Central

    Govindarajan, M; Sivakumar, R

    2012-01-01

    Objective To determine repellent activity of hexane, ethyl acetate, benzene, chloroform and methanol extract of Cardiospermum halicacabum (C. halicacabum) against Culex quinquefasciatus (Cx. quinquefasciatus), Aedes aegypti (Ae. aegypti) and Anopheles stephensi (An. stephensi). Methods Evaluation was carried out in a net cage (45 cm×30 cm×25 cm) containing 100 blood starved female mosquitoes of three mosquito species and were assayed in the laboratory condition by using the protocol of WHO 2005; The plant leaf crude extracts of C. halicacabum was applied at 1.0, 2.5, and 5.0 mg/cm2 separately in the exposed area of the fore arm. Only ethanol served as control. Results In this observation, the plant crude extracts gave protection against mosquito bites without any allergic reaction to the test person, and also, the repellent activity was dependent on the strength of the plant extracts. The tested plant crude extracts had exerted promising repellent against all the three mosquitoes. Conclusions From the results it can be concluded the crude extract of C. halicacabum was potential for controlling Cx. quinquefasciatus, Ae. aegypti and An. stephensi mosquitoes. PMID:23569979

  6. Fungal Endophyte Diversity and Bioactivity in the Indian Medicinal Plant Ocimum sanctum Linn.

    PubMed

    Chowdhary, Kanika; Kaushik, Nutan

    2015-01-01

    Endophytic mycopopulation isolated from India's Queen of herbs Tulsi (Ocimum sanctum) were explored and investigated for their diversity and antiphytopathogenic activity against widespread plant pathogens Botrytis cinerea, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, Rhizoctonia solani and Fusarium oxysporum. 90 fungal isolates, representing 17 genera were recovered from 313 disease-free and surface sterilised plant segments (leaf and stem tissues) from three different geographic locations (Delhi, Hyderabad and Mukteshwar) during distinct sampling times in consequent years 2010 and 2011 in India. Fungal endophytes were subjected to molecular identification based on rDNA ITS sequence analysis. Plant pathogens such as F. verticillioides, B. maydis, C. coarctatum, R. bataticola, Hypoxylon sp., Diaporthe phaseolorum, Alternaria tenuissima and A. alternata have occurred as endophyte only during second sampling (second sampling in 2011) in the present study. Bi-plot generated by principal component analysis suggested tissue specificity of certain fungal endophytes. Dendrogram revealed species abundance as a function of mean temperature of the location at the time of sampling. Shannon diversity in the first collection is highest in Hyderabad leaf tissues (H' = 1.907) whereas in second collection it was highest from leaf tissues of Delhi (H' = 1.846). Mukteshwar (altitude: 7500 feet) reported least isolation rate in second collection. Nearly 23% of the total fungal isolates were considered as potent biocontrol agent. Hexane extract of M. phaseolina recovered from Hyderabad in first collection demonstrated highest activity against S. sclerotiorum with IC50 value of 0.38 mg/ml. Additionally, its components 2H-pyran-2-one, 5,6-dihydro-6-pentyl and palmitic acid, methyl ester as reported by GC-MS Chromatogram upon evaluation for their antiphytopathogenic activity exhibited IC50 value of 1.002 and 0.662 against respectively S. sclerotiorum indicating their significant role in antiphytopathogenic activity of hexane extract. The production of 2H-pyran-2-one, 5,6-dihydro-6-pentyl from M. phaseolina, an endophytic fungus is being reported for the first time. PMID:26529087

  7. Celosia argentea Linn. leaf extract improves wound healing in a rat burn wound model.

    PubMed

    Priya, Kulasekaran S; Arumugam, Gnanamani; Rathinam, Bhuvaneswari; Wells, Alan; Babu, Mary

    2004-01-01

    Celosia argentea (CA) is used in traditional medicine for sores, ulcers, and skin eruptions. The present study was aimed at investigating the healing efficacy of CA extract in an ointment formulated (10 % w/w) as an alcohol extract of CA using a rat burn wound model. Wound closure occurred earlier in the treated rats (15 days vs. 30 in the untreated group; p < 0.05). Granulation tissue collected on every fifth day of healing showed an increase in collagen and hexosamine content at a faster rate in the treated wounds. This correlated with the accelerated wound closure observed in the treated groups. To probe the cellular basis of this effect, we investigated the effect of this extract on two major cellular responses; cell proliferation and cell motility, in two key cell lineages, fibroblasts and keratinocytes. CA was not toxic at concentrations of < 3 microg/ml in fibroblasts and < 30 microg/ml in keratinocytes. The alcohol extract promoted cell motility and proliferation of primary dermal fibroblasts at 0.1-1.0 microg/ml but did not alter these responses in primary keratinocytes. In an initial examination of molecular mechanisms, we found that the CA extract did not alter fibroblast and keratinocyte responses to the wound repair-associated epidermal growth factor receptor ligands. In short, we demonstrate a salutary action of the CA extract on wound healing, and suggest that this may be due to mitogenic and motogenic promotion of dermal fibroblasts. PMID:15555053

  8. In vitro larvicidal effects of ethanolic extract of Curcuma longa Linn. on Haemonchus larval stage

    PubMed Central

    Nasai, Norisal Binti; Abba, Yusuf; Abdullah, Faez Firdaus Jesse; Marimuthu, Murugaiyah; Tijjani, Abdulnasir; Sadiq, Muhammad Abubakar; Mohammed, Konto; Chung, Eric Lim Teik; Omar, Mohammed Ariff Bin

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Gastrointestinal helminthosis is a global problem in small ruminant production. Most parasites have developed resistance to commonly available anthelminthic compounds, and there is currently an increasing need for new compounds with more efficacies. This study evaluated the in vitro effects of ethanolic extract of Curcuma longa (EECL) as a biological nematicide against third stage Haemonchus larvae (L3) isolated from sheep. Materials and Methods: Haemonchus L3 were cultured and harvested from the feces of naturally infected sheep. EECL was prepared and three concentrations; 50, 100, and 200 mg/mL were tested for their efficacies on Haemonchus L3. Levamisole at concentration 1.5 and 3 mg/mL were used as positive controls. Results: EECL showed anthelmintic activity in a dose-dependent manner with 78% worm mortality within 24 h of exposure at the highest dose rate of 200 mg/mL. There was a 100% worm mortality rate after 2 h of levamisole (3 mg/mL) admisntration. However, there was a comparable larvicidal effect between when levamisole (1.5 mg/mL) and EECL (200 mg) were administered. Conclusion: The study shows that EECL does exhibit good anthelmintic properties at 200 mg/mL which is comparable with levamisole at 1.5 mg/mL. PMID:27182139

  9. Isolation and primary structure of proteinase inhibitors from Erythrina variegata (Linn.) var. Orientalis seeds.

    PubMed

    Kouzuma, Y; Suetake, M; Kimura, M; Yamasaki, N

    1992-11-01

    The Kunitz-type trypsin inhibitors, ETIa and ETIb, and chymotrypsin inhibitor ECI were isolated from the seeds of Erythrina variegata. The proteins were extracted from a defatted meal of seeds with 10 mM phosphate buffer, pH 7.2, containing 0.15 M NaCl, and purified by DEAE-cellulose and Q-Sepharose column chromatographies. The stoichiometry of trypsin inhibitors with trypsin was estimated to be 1:1, while that of chymotrypsin inhibitor with chymotrypsin was 1:2, judging from the titration patterns of their inhibitory activities. The complete amino acids of the two trypsin inhibitors were sequenced by protein chemical methods. The proteins ETIa and ETIb consist of 172 and 176 amino acid residues and have M(r) 19,242 and M(r) 19,783, respectively, and share 112 identical amino acid residues, which is 65% identity. They show structural features characteristic of the Kunitz-type trypsin inhibitor (i.e., identical residues at about 45% with soybean trypsin inhibitor STI). Furthermore, the trypsin inhibitors show a significant homology to the storage proteins, sporamin, in sweet potato and the taste-modifying protein, miraculin, in miracle fruit, having about 30% identical residues. PMID:1369077

  10. Studies on nest construction and nest microclimate of the Baya weaver, Ploceus philippinus (Linn.).

    PubMed

    Asokan, S; Ali, A Mohamed Samsoor; Nagarajan, R

    2008-05-01

    The nest construction pattern at different stages of nest and variations in the nest microclimate, i.e., temperature and light intensity were assessed in different nests of Baya weaver (Ploceus philippinus) between November 2002 and March 2003 in Nagapattinam and Tiruvarur District of Tamil Nadu, India. The Baya weaver constructed nests in palm (Borassus flabellifer), coconut (Cocos nucifera) and date palm trees (Phoneix psuilla) and majority of the nests were found in the solitary palm. The male bird only involved in the construction and took 18 days to construct a single nest. The birds spent different amount of working hours (in terms of days) for completing various stages of nests viz., wad, ring and helmet stage and in which the 'helmet stage took a maximum of eight days. Furthermore, totally eight active nests were selected and once in a week the variations in the nest microclimate was investigated with reference to atmospheric temperature and light intensity (two active nests) across day throughout the study period. The mean temperature of the nests ranged from 25 degrees C to 29 degrees C and light intensity varied between 25 Lux and 625 Lux. The analysis of variance (ANOVA and ANCOVA) indicated that the nest microclimate varied among the nests in different hr of a day PMID:18972698

  11. Molecular approaches to improvement of Jatropha curcas Linn. as a sustainable energy crop.

    PubMed

    Sudhakar Johnson, T; Eswaran, Nalini; Sujatha, M

    2011-09-01

    With the increase in crude oil prices, climate change concerns and limited reserves of fossil fuel, attention has been diverted to alternate renewable energy sources such as biofuel and biomass. Among the potential biofuel crops, Jatropha curcas L, a non-domesticated shrub, has been gaining importance as the most promising oilseed, as it does not compete with the edible oil supplies. Economic relevance of J. curcas for biodiesel production has promoted world-wide prospecting of its germplasm for crop improvement and breeding. However, lack of adequate genetic variation and non-availability of improved varieties limited its prospects of being a successful energy crop. In this review, we present the progress made in molecular breeding approaches with particular reference to tissue culture and genetic transformation, genetic diversity assessment using molecular markers, large-scale transcriptome and proteome studies, identification of candidate genes for trait improvement, whole genome sequencing and the current interest by various public and private sector companies in commercial-scale cultivation, which highlights the revival of Jatropha as a sustainable energy crop. The information generated from molecular markers, transcriptome profiling and whole genome sequencing could accelerate the genetic upgradation of J. curcas through molecular breeding. PMID:21584678

  12. Fungal Endophyte Diversity and Bioactivity in the Indian Medicinal Plant Ocimum sanctum Linn

    PubMed Central

    Chowdhary, Kanika; Kaushik, Nutan

    2015-01-01

    Endophytic mycopopulation isolated from India’s Queen of herbs Tulsi (Ocimum sanctum) were explored and investigated for their diversity and antiphytopathogenic activity against widespread plant pathogens Botrytis cinerea, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, Rhizoctonia solani and Fusarium oxysporum. 90 fungal isolates, representing 17 genera were recovered from 313 disease-free and surface sterilised plant segments (leaf and stem tissues) from three different geographic locations (Delhi, Hyderabad and Mukteshwar) during distinct sampling times in consequent years 2010 and 2011 in India. Fungal endophytes were subjected to molecular identification based on rDNA ITS sequence analysis. Plant pathogens such as F. verticillioides, B. maydis, C. coarctatum, R. bataticola, Hypoxylon sp., Diaporthe phaseolorum, Alternaria tenuissima and A. alternata have occurred as endophyte only during second sampling (second sampling in 2011) in the present study. Bi-plot generated by principal component analysis suggested tissue specificity of certain fungal endophytes. Dendrogram revealed species abundance as a function of mean temperature of the location at the time of sampling. Shannon diversity in the first collection is highest in Hyderabad leaf tissues (H' = 1.907) whereas in second collection it was highest from leaf tissues of Delhi (H' = 1.846). Mukteshwar (altitude: 7500 feet) reported least isolation rate in second collection. Nearly 23% of the total fungal isolates were considered as potent biocontrol agent. Hexane extract of M. phaseolina recovered from Hyderabad in first collection demonstrated highest activity against S. sclerotiorum with IC50 value of 0.38 mg/ml. Additionally, its components 2H-pyran-2-one, 5,6-dihydro-6-pentyl and palmitic acid, methyl ester as reported by GC-MS Chromatogram upon evaluation for their antiphytopathogenic activity exhibited IC50 value of 1.002 and 0.662 against respectively S. sclerotiorum indicating their significant role in antiphytopathogenic activity of hexane extract. The production of 2H-pyran-2-one, 5,6-dihydro-6-pentyl from M. phaseolina, an endophytic fungus is being reported for the first time. PMID:26529087

  13. EVALUATION OF SUBLETHAL EFFECTS OF Ipomoea cairica LINN. EXTRACT ON LIFE HISTORY TRAITS OF DENGUE VECTORS

    PubMed Central

    ZUHARAH, Wan Fatma; AHBIRAMI, Rattanam; DIENG, Hamady; THIAGALETCHUMI, Maniam; FADZLY, Nik

    2016-01-01

    Plant derived insecticides have considerable potential for mosquito control because these products are safer than conventional insecticides. This study aimed to investigate sublethal activities of Ipomoea carica or railway creeper crude acethonilic extract against life history trait of dengue vectors, Aedes albopictus and Aedes aegypti. The late third instar larvae of Ae. albopictus and Ae. aegypti were exposed to a sublethal dose at LC50 and larvae that survived were further cultured. Overall, Ipomea cairica crude extracts affected the whole life history of both Aedes species. The study demonstrated significantly lower egg production (fecundity) and eggs hatchability (fertility) in Ae. albopictus. The sublethal dose of crude extracts reduced significantly the width of larval head capsule and the wing length of both sexes in both Aedes species. The significance of sublethal effects of I. cairica against Aedes mosquitoes was an additional hallmark to demonstrate further activity of this plant despite its direct toxicity to the larvae. The reduced reproductive capacity as well as morphological and physiological anomalies are some of the effects that make I. cairica a potential candidate to be used as a new plant-based insecticide to control dengue vectors. PMID:27253746

  14. 78 FR 65040 - Chicago Central & Pacific Railroad Company-Abandonment Exemption-in Linn County, Iowa

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-30

    ... condition adequately protects affected employees, a petition for partial revocation under 49 U.S.C. 10502(d) must be filed. Provided no formal expression of intent to file an offer of financial assistance...

  15. Clove (Syzygium aromaticum Linn) extract rich in eugenol and eugenol derivatives shows bone-preserving efficacy.

    PubMed

    Karmakar, Subhra; Choudhury, Monalisa; Das, Asankur Sekhar; Maiti, Anasuya; Majumdar, Sangita; Mitra, Chandan

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the efficacy of hydroalcoholic extract of dried clove buds, which is rich in phenolic compounds namely eugenol and eugenol derivatives (precursors of flavones, isoflavones and flavonoids), on different primary and secondary osteoporotic marker changes in an ovariectomised (OVX) rat model of osteoporosis. Female Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups: sham-operated control (A), OVX (B) and OVX plus 50% hydroalcoholic extract of dried clove buds for 4 weeks (C). Results indicated that, compared to control, serum alkaline phosphatase (AP; 48.25%, p < 0.01), serum tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP; 63.48%, p < 0.01), urinary calcium (14.70%, p < 0.01), urinary phosphate (50.30%, p < 0.01) and urinary creatinine (122.44%, p < 0.01) were significantly altered in OVX rats. All these altered responses were significantly restored (AP: 27.53%, p < 0.01; TRAP: 33.51%, p < 0.01; calcium: 53.15%, p < 0.01; phosphate: 27.49%, p < 0.01; creatinine: 46.40%, p < 0.01) by supplementation with hydroalcoholic extract of dried clove buds. Results of bone density, bone mineral content, bone tensile strength and histological analysis also showed similar trend of results, which supported initial observations of this study. It is proposed that hydroalcoholic extract of dried clove buds has bone-preserving efficacy against hypogonadal osteoporosis. PMID:21711176

  16. Therapeutic Efficacy of Nigella Sativa Linn. against Antituberculosis Drug-Induced Hepatic Injury in Wistar Rats.

    PubMed

    Jaswal, Amita; Sharma, Monika; Raghuvanshi, Suchita; Sharma, Samta; Reshi, Mohd Salim; Uthra, Chhavi; Shukla, Sangeeta

    2016-01-01

    Antituberculosis drug (ATD)-induced hepatotoxicity is a major impediment for the effective treatment of tuberculosis (TB). All first-line anti-TB medications have adverse effects that interrupt the successful completion of TB treatment. This investigation focuses on the evaluation of the protective role of Nigella sativa (NS) against liver injury caused by ATDs. Female rats were treated with ATDs for 8 weeks (3 d/wk) followed by NS for 8 weeks (3 d/wk). The antioxidant activity of NS was estimated with a 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay and by analyzing total phenolic contents. Qualitative characterization of active compounds of the plant was done by high-performance liquid chromotography (HPLC). ATD-induced adverse effects were associated with sharp elevation in levels of serum transaminases, albumin, cholesterol, urea, uric acid, creatinine, and blood urea nitrogen (BUN). ATDs significantly increased lipid peroxidation (LPO) and decreased enzyme activities (superoxide dismutase [SOD], catalase [CAT], adenosine triphosphatase [ATPase], and glucose-6-phosphatase [G6Pase]) in liver, indicating oxidative stress. Conjoint treatment with NS could reverse the serological biochemistry and inhibit oxidative stress by suppressing LPO and augmenting antioxidant enzyme activity toward that of the control. Histological studies support the above biochemical findings. Results indicate that NS exerts excellent hepatoprotective abilities and can be used as a supplement to improve patient adherence and reduce interruptions in treatment due to ATD-related liver injury. PMID:27279584

  17. Phytochemical screening and antimicrobial activity of roots of Murraya koenigii (Linn.) Spreng. (Rutaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Vats, Manisha; Singh, Harneet; Sardana, Satish

    2011-01-01

    Murraya koenigii, family Rutaceae, commonly known as Curry leaf plant is a highly valued plant for its medicinal value and characteristic aroma. The plant is a rich source of carbazole alkaloids. The petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate and ethanol extracts of roots of the plant were screened for phytochemical properties and antimicrobial activity for Staphylococcus aureus, Micrococcus luteus, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger. Phytochemical screening showed the presence of carbohydrates, alkaloids, steroids and flavonoids in the root extracts of the plant. The study shows that all the extracts possess remarkable antibacterial activity. Additionally, petroleum ether and chloroform extracts also had antifungal activity. PMID:24031791

  18. The presence of cholinomimetic and calcium channel antagonist constituents in Piper betle Linn.

    PubMed

    Gilani, A H; Aziz, N; Khurram, I M; Rao, Z A; Ali, N K

    2000-09-01

    The crude aqueous extract of Piper betle leaves (Pb.Cr) was studied for the possible presence of cholinomimetic and calcium channel antagonist constituents. Pb.Cr at doses of 1-10 mg/mL caused a moderate spasmogenic effect in isolated guinea-pig ileum and this activity was concentrated in the aqueous fraction, which was found to be about 5 times more potent. Pretreatment of the tissue with atropine (1 microM) but not hexamethonium (100 microM) completely abolished the contractile effect of the aqueous fraction indicating a cholinergic (muscarinic) mechanism. In isolated rabbit jejunum preparations Pb.Cr did not produce a significant increase in the spontaneous contractions, but instead produced a dose-dependent (0.03-3.0 mg/mL) inhibition of spontaneous activity. Activity-directed fractionation revealed that the spasmolytic action was concentrated in the ethyl acetate fraction. When tested against K(+)-induced contractions, both Pb.Cr and its ethyl acetate fraction (Pb.EtAc) caused a dose-dependent inhibition, suggesting calcium channel blockade (CCB). The potent CCB effect of the crude extract and its ethyl acetate fraction was confirmed when pretreatment of the tissue with Pb.Cr or Pb.EtAc shifted the Ca(++) dose-response curves to the right in a dose-dependent manner. These data indicate that the plant contains cholinomimetic and possible calcium channel antagonist constituents, which are concentrated in the aqueous and ethyl acetate fractions respectively. It is suggested that some of the traditional uses of this plant may be explained on the basis of these activities. PMID:10960898

  19. Isolation and Evaluation of Mucilage of Adansonia digitata Linn as a Suspending Agent

    PubMed Central

    Deshmukh, S. S.; Katare, Y. S.; Shyale, S. S.; Bhujbal, S. S.; Kadam, S. D.; Landge, D. A.; Shah, D. V.; Pawar, J. B.

    2013-01-01

    Natural excipients can serve as alternative to synthetic products because of local accessibility, biodegradability, eco-friendly nature and cost effectiveness as compared to synthetic products. Therefore, it is a current need to explore natural excipients that can be used as an effective alternative excipient for the formulation of pharmaceutical dosage forms. Adansonia digitata (Malvaceae) has been traditionally used as febrifuge, antiasthmatic and also in the treatment of dysentery, smallpox, and measles. Reports have indicated that mucilage of the leaves of the plant is edible and nontoxic; hence, the present study is an attempt of isolation and evaluation of mucilage obtained from leaves of Adansonia digitata as suspending agent. Various physicochemical as well as suspending agent properties of mucilage were studied. Mucilage obtained from leaves has shown comparable results with sodium carboxy methyl cellulose. PMID:26709363

  20. Amelioration of carbon tetrachloride induced hepatotoxicity in rats by standardized Feronia limonia. Linn leaf extracts

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Mahendra; Kapadia, Rakhee; Jadeja, Ravirajsinh N.; Thounaojam, Menaka C.; Devkar, Ranjitsinh V.; Mishra, S.H.

    2012-01-01

    The hepatoprotective potential of standardized Feronia limonia (Family, Rutaceae) methanolic extract (FL-7) and chloroform soluble fraction (FL-9) were assessed against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induced oxidative stress and hepatotoxicity in rats. Rats treated with CCl4 recorded significant elevation in plasma markers of hepatic injury, alteration in hepatic antioxidant status and histopathological damages. However, rats pretreated with FL-7 (200 or 400 mg/kg, p.o.) and FL-9 (100 or 200 mg/kg, p.o.) for 7 days and later administered CCl4 (0.5 ml/kg, i.p.) recorded lowered indices of the above mentioned parameters and minimal histological damage in a dose dependent manner. These results were comparable to that of CCl4+silymarin treated rats. The results obtained with FL-7 and FL-9 are attributable to their free radical scavenging potential due to high contents of polyphenols and flavonols recorded herein. Overall, this study establishes the efficacy of FL-7 and FL-9 as hepatoprotective agents against CCl4 induced hepatotoxicity in rats. PMID:27418903

  1. Polyphenolic Contents and Antioxidant Potential of Stem Bark Extracts from Jatropha curcas (Linn)

    PubMed Central

    Igbinosa, Osamuyimen O.; Igbinosa, Isoken H.; Chigor, Vincent N.; Uzunuigbe, Olohirere E.; Oyedemi, Sunday O.; Odjadjare, Emmanuel E.; Okoh, Anthony I.; Igbinosa, Etinosa O.

    2011-01-01

    We assessed the polyphenolic contents and antioxidant potential of the aqueous, ethanol and methanol stem bark extracts of Jatropha curcas. The total phenol, flavonoids, flavonols and proanthocyanidin contents of the extracts were evaluated to determine their effect on the antioxidant property of this plant, using standard phytochemical methods. The antioxidant and free radical scavenging activity of ethanol, methanol and aqueous extracts of the plant were also assessed against 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2′-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS), ferric reducing, nitric oxide (NO), superoxide anion, (O2−) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) using spectroscopic methods and results were compared with that of butylated hydroxyl toluene (BHT) and ascorbic acid as standards. The concentrations of different classes of phenolic compounds were higher in methanol and ethanol extracts compared to aqueous extracts. There was correlation between total phenol, total flavonoids, total flavonol and total proanthocyanidins (r = 0.996, 0.978, 0.908, and 0.985) respectively. There was correlations between the amount of phenolic compounds and percentage inhibition of DPPH radicals scavenging activity of the extract (r = 0.98). Findings from the present study indicated that J. curcas is a potential source of natural antioxidants and may be a good candidate for pharmaceutical plant based products. PMID:21686161

  2. Rationale of using Vinca minor Linne dry extract phytocomplex as a vincamine's oral bioavailability enhancer.

    PubMed

    Hasa, Dritan; Perissutti, Beatrice; Dall'Acqua, Stefano; Chierotti, Michele R; Gobetto, Roberto; Grabnar, Iztok; Cepek, Cinzia; Voinovich, Dario

    2013-05-01

    Vincamine is a poorly soluble potent neuroprotector and cerebral vasodilator, used for the treatment for CNS disorders. In some cases, the bioavailability of pure compounds is strongly influenced by the co-administration of other constituents, and in some cases, the so called 'phytocomplex' may act as enhancer of absorption of selected phytochemicals. In this paper, the oral bioavailability of vincamine when administered as a standardised Vinca minor L. leaf dry extract rather than pure indole alkaloid is demonstrated to be higher. The chosen alkaloid-enriched and standardised dry extract was widely characterised by means of HPLC-MS, PXRD, DSC, XPS, (13)C and (15)N solid-state NMR (SSNMR) using pure vincamine as a matter of comparison. Then, the in vitro dissolution performances of the two products and their in vivo bioavailability in rats were evaluated. The sevenfold improvement in oral bioavailability of the dry extract with respect to the pure vincamine was ascribed to interactions between the indole alkaloid and the corollary of ingredients of the dry extract, giving rise to the protonation of the alkaloid vincamine, thus enhancing its dissolution in physiological fluids. Present data demonstrate that alkaloid vincamine administered as a whole plant extract has a higher bioavailability compared to the pure chemical compound. PMID:23238273

  3. Synthesis and characterization of natural red dye from Caesalpinia sappan linn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulyanto, Subur; Suyitno, Rachmanto, Rendy Adhi; Hidayat, Lullus Lambang Govinda; Wibowo, Atmanto Heru; Hadi, Syamsul

    2016-03-01

    The study reports the synthesis and characterization of natural red dye. The dyes were extracted from woods of Caesalpiniasappanlinn at varied temperatures of 70, 80, 90, and 100°C for three hours. The dry wood chips and water at a ratio of 6:1 were immersed in the reactor of 150 liters. The absorbance spectra of the natural red dyes were measured by ultra-violet-visible spectroscopy. Meanwhile, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was used to investigate the functional groups of the natural red dyes. In addition, the basic production cost was calculated and the fastness property towards cotton fabrics was investigated according to the Indonesia national standard of 105-C06:2010, 105-B01:2010, and 0288-2008. The results showed that the functional groups found the extracted red dyes indicated the complex bond of brazilein with peak absorbance at a wavelength of 538-540 nm. The extraction temperature also changed the functional group of brazilein. From the color, the absorbance peak, the functional groups, and the main production cost, the best parameter to synthesize the natural red dyes from Caesalpiniasappanlinn was at a temperature of 80°C for two hours. Moreover, the natural red dyes has the fastness to wash resistance, light resistance, and scrub resistance by 4-5, 4, and 3-4, respectively. However, further studies for synthesis the natural red dyes by using a continuous reactor are required to identify the naturally complex compounds in brazilein for improving the fastness properties and for reducing the cost.

  4. Larvicidal activity of extracts from Ammi visnaga Linn. (Apiaceae) seeds against Culex quinquefasciatus Say. (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Pavela, Roman; Vrchotová, Naděžda; Tříska, Jan

    2016-06-01

    Efficacies of the Ammi visnaga seeds extract and a majority of substances on larval Culex quinquefasciatus mortality in various development stages including pupae were studied. The effect of exposure time on larval mortality was also studied. The effect of sublethal concentrations or short exposure times on further larval development and subsequent fecundity in adults were studied as well. Lethal doses of the extract were estimated for the 2nd, 3rd and 4th instar of C. quinquefasciatus (LC50 for 18, 23 and 180 mg L(-1), respectively). The majority of furanochromenes, khellin and visnagin, were identified by analysing the extract. Khellin was significantly more effective compared to visnagin, whose LC50 was estimated at 8, 10 and 41 mg L(-1) for the 2nd, 3rd and 4th instar larvae. Khellin showed very fast efficacy on mortality for the 3rd instar larvae in a concentration of 100 mg L(-1). Fifty percent mortality was determined 30 min after application, a time which was considerably shorter compared to the extract (113 min) or visnagin (169 min). The effect of the application of lethal concentrations on C. quinquefasciatus larval mortality was studied. The least number of adults were hatched after application of the extract and khellin (41.8% and 37.9%, respectively), less than after visnagin application (46.7%) or in the control (94.2%). LC50 application caused lower fecundity in the hatched adults, lower hatchability of the eggs, and also very low natality, more than 77% lower for khellin compared to the control. A short exposure, corresponding to our estimated LT30, caused no significant acute toxicity in the larvae (until 24 h) for the extract or visnagin (4.3% and 11.5%, respectively); however, 18 min of action from khellin caused a 54.3% mortality rate of the larvae within 24 h. PMID:26995534

  5. Hepatoprotective activity of hydroalcoholic extract of leaves of Alocasia indica (Linn.).

    PubMed

    Mulla, Wahid A; Salunkhe, Vijay R; Bhise, Satish B

    2009-10-01

    Oral administration of hydroalcoholic extract of A. indica (250 and 500 mg/kg) effectively inhibited CCl4 and paracetamol induced changes in the serum marker enzymes, cholesterol, serum protein and albumin in a dose-dependent manner as compared to the normal and the standard drug silymarin-treated groups. Hepatic steatosis, fatty infiltration, hydropic degeneration and necrosis observed in CCl4 and paracetamol-treated groups were completely absent in histology of the liver sections of the animals treated with the extracts. The results suggests that the hydroalcoholic extract of leaves of A. indica possess significant potential as hepatoprotective agent. PMID:20112809

  6. Ethnopharmacological studies of Tribulus terrestris (Linn). in relation to its aphrodisiac properties.

    PubMed

    Mathur, Manish; Sundaramoorthy, S

    2012-01-01

    Synergism and antagonism impact of different plant metabolites present in crude fruit extract of Tribulus terrestris 'the herbal Viagra' have been studied. Variability in plant composition, biomass and metabolites concentration in different modules was significantly contributed by spatial factor. However the edhaphic parameters also changes with both spatial and temporal factors significantly. Fruit is the officinal part and the fruit production significantly related with soil nitrogen (P<0.01), whereas the soil nitrogen and pH also influenced the alkaloid content in fruit (P<0.05). The linear relation between fruit protein and fruit alkaloid (P<0.01) also observed and the relationship in between different soil parameters were established. Bioassay work confirmed its aphrodisiac properties, and site III is suggested for maximum biomass and high concentration of different metabolites. PMID:24082329

  7. Protective effect of Tribulus terrestris linn on liver and kidney in cadmium intoxicated rats.

    PubMed

    Lakshmi, G Dhana; Kumar, P Ravi; Bharavi, K; Annapurna, P; Rajendar, B; Patel, Pankaj T; Kumar, C S V Satish; Rao, G S

    2012-02-01

    Administration of cadmium (Cd) significantly increased the peroxidation markers such as malondialdehyde and protein carbonyls along with significant decrease in antioxidant markers such as super oxide dismutase and reduced glutathione in liver and kidney tissues. Cadmium also caused a significant alteration in hepatic and renal functional markers in serum viz. total protein, albumin, alanine transaminase, blood urea nitrogen and creatinine. Prominent pathological changes observed in liver were severe vascular and sinusoidal congestion with diffuse degenerative changes and mononuclear infiltration into peripheral areas, while the kidney showed vascular and glomerular congestion, cloudy swelling of tubular epithelium. Coadministration of ethonolic extract of T. terrestris or vitamin E along with Cd significantly reversed the Cd induced changes along with significant reduction in Cd load. PMID:22670477

  8. EVALUATION OF SUBLETHAL EFFECTS OF Ipomoea cairica LINN. EXTRACT ON LIFE HISTORY TRAITS OF DENGUE VECTORS.

    PubMed

    Zuharah, Wan Fatma; Ahbirami, Rattanam; Dieng, Hamady; Thiagaletchumi, Maniam; Fadzly, Nik

    2016-01-01

    Plant derived insecticides have considerable potential for mosquito control because these products are safer than conventional insecticides. This study aimed to investigate sublethal activities of Ipomoea carica or railway creeper crude acethonilic extract against life history trait of dengue vectors, Aedes albopictus and Aedes aegypti. The late third instar larvae of Ae. albopictus and Ae. aegypti were exposed to a sublethal dose at LC50 and larvae that survived were further cultured. Overall, Ipomea cairica crude extracts affected the whole life history of both Aedes species. The study demonstrated significantly lower egg production (fecundity) and eggs hatchability (fertility) in Ae. albopictus. The sublethal dose of crude extracts reduced significantly the width of larval head capsule and the wing length of both sexes in both Aedes species. The significance of sublethal effects of I. cairica against Aedes mosquitoes was an additional hallmark to demonstrate further activity of this plant despite its direct toxicity to the larvae. The reduced reproductive capacity as well as morphological and physiological anomalies are some of the effects that make I. cairica a potential candidate to be used as a new plant-based insecticide to control dengue vectors. PMID:27253746

  9. Evaluation of Musa (Paradisiaca Linn. cultivar)--"Puttubale" stem juice for antilithiatic activity in albino rats.

    PubMed

    Prasad, K V; Bharathi, K; Srinivasan, K K

    1993-10-01

    The fresh juice of Musa stem (Puttubale) was tested for its antilithiatic activity. Zinc discs were implanted in the urinary bladder of albino rats to induce urolithiasis. The stones formed were mainly of magnesium ammonium phosphate with traces of calcium oxalate. Musa stem juice (3 mL/rat/day orally) was found to be effective in reducing the formation and also in dissolving the pre-formed stones. PMID:8112813

  10. Pharmacological studies on the venomous spotted butterfish (Scatophagus argus Linn) sting extract on experimental animals.

    PubMed

    Muhuri, D; Karmakar, S; Dasgupta, S C; Nagchaudhuri, A K; Gomes, A

    2004-05-01

    A sting of the fish S. argus, a venomous edible spotted butterfish, produces tremendous local pain, severe swelling, rise of body temperature, throbbing sensation etc. To establish the pharmacological activities of S. argus sting extract, the present investigation, was carried out on experimental animals. The LD50 of extract was found to be 9.3 mg/kg (iv) in male albino mice. The extract showed loss of sensation, urination and salivation in mice. It potentiated pentobarbitone induced sleeping time in male albino mice and produced hypothermia. Extract produced a fall of cat and guinea pig blood pressure, which was completely abolished by mepyramine. It produced a transient reduction of respiratory rate in rat, but decreased respiratory amplitude in cat, which was abolished after vagotomy. On isolated toad heart, the extract increased both the amplitude and rate of contraction. On isolated guinea pig heart, the sting extract decreased both the rate and amplitude of contraction leading to cardiac arrest, but it had no effect on isolated guinea pig auricle. The extract produced a reversible blockade of electrically induced twitch response of isolated chick biventer cervices preparation, but it had no effect on the isolated rat phrenic nerve diaphragm preparation. It produced a slow contractile response on isolated guinea pig ileum, rat uterus and rat fundal strip preparations but produced slow relaxation on isolated rat duodenum preparation. The contractile response on isolated guinea pig ileum and rat fundal strip was antagonised by SC19220. It did not produce any significant cutaneous haemorrhage in mice and did not produce any haemolysis on saline washed erythrocytes. The sting extract significantly increased capillary permeability of guinea pig dorsal flank and produced oedema in mice hind paw. PMID:15233469

  11. Effect of NPK fertilizer on chemical composition of pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo Linn.) seeds.

    PubMed

    Oloyede, F M; Obisesan, I O; Agbaje, G O; Obuotor, E M

    2012-01-01

    An investigation of the proximate composition and antioxidant profile of pumpkin seeds obtained from different levels of NPK 15 : 15 : 15 compound fertilizer application at the Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria was carried out. Pumpkin seeds were grown in 2010 for two cropping seasons (May to August and August to November), and the following fertilizer rates were applied: 0, 50, 100, 150, 200, and 250 kg/ha. Standard analytical methods were used to determine protein, crude fibre, ash, fat, carbohydrate, antioxidant activities, phenol, flavonoid, proanthocyanidin, and anthocyanin. The highest concentrations of the proximate and antioxidants analysed were found from the seeds of control and those treated with lower NPK rates. The mean protein, ash, crude fibre, and carbohydrate values of pumpkin seeds at zero to 100 kg NPK/ha were 27%, 1.56%, 0.56%, and 11.7% respectively. At these same levels of fertilizer, pumpkin seed oil yield was 59%. Antioxidant activities ranged from 89.9 to 90.4% while total phenol was 47 mg/100 g. Except for carbohydrate, the % concentration of nutrients and antioxidants in pumpkin seeds was significantly (P = 0.05) depressed with fertilizer rates above 100 g/ha. PMID:22629204

  12. Antifungal susceptibility and growth inhibitory response of oral Candida species to Brucea javanica Linn. extract

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Candida species have been associated with the emergence of resistant strains towards selected antifungal agents. Plant products have been used traditionally as alternative medicine to ease candidal infections. The present study was undertaken to investigate the antifungal susceptibility patterns and growth inhibiting effect of Brucea javanica seeds extract against Candida species. Methods A total of seven Candida strains that includes Candida albicans ATCC14053, Candida dubliniensis ATCCMYA-2975, Candida glabrata ATCC90030, Candida krusei ATCC14243, Candida lusitaniae ATCC64125, Candida parapsilosis ATCC22019 and Candida tropicalis ATCC13803 were used in this study. The antifungal activity, minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum fungicidal concentration of B. javanica extract were evaluated. Each strain was cultured in Yeast Peptone Dextrose broth under four different growth environments; (i) in the absence and presence of B. javanica extract at respective concentrations of (ii) 1 mg/ml (iii) 3 mg/ml and (iv) 6 mg/ml. The growth inhibitory responses of the candidal cells were determined based on changes in the specific-growth rates (μ) and doubling time (g). The values in the presence of extract were computed as percentage in the optical density relative to that of the total cells suspension in the absence of extract. Results B. javanica seeds extract exhibited antifungal properties. C. tropicalis showed the highest growth rate; 0.319 ± 0.002 h-1, while others were in the range of 0.141 ± 0.001 to 0.265 ± 0.005 h-1. In the presence of extract, the lag and log phases were extended and deviated the μ- and g-values. B. javanica extract had significantly reduced the μ-values of C. dubliniensis, C. krusei and C. parapsilosis at more than 80% (ρ < 0.05), while others were reduced within the range of 2.28% to 57.05%. The g-values of most candidal strains were extended and significantly reduced (ρ < 0.05) in relative to the untreated. The candidal population was reduced from an average of 10 x 106 to 6 x 106 CFU/ml. Conclusions B. javanica extract exhibited in vitro antifungal activity against seven oral Candida species. The fungistatic and growth inhibiting effects of B. javanica extract have shown that it has potential to be considered as a promising candidate for the development of antifungal agent in oral health products. PMID:24305010

  13. Selected hydrologic data from the Cedar Rapids area, Linn County, Iowa, April 1996 through March 1999

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boyd, R.A.; Kuzniar, R.L.; Schulmeyer, P.M.

    1999-01-01

    The City of Cedar Rapids, Iowa obtains its municipal water supply from four well fields along the Cedar River. The wells are completed at depths of about 60 to 80 feet in a shallow alluvial aquifer adjacent to the Cedar River. The City of Cedar Rapids and the U.S. Geological Survey have conducted a cooperative study of the groundwater flow system and water quality near the well fields since 1992. The purpose of this report is to document selected hydrologic data collected from April 1996 through March 1999. Data include the results of water-quality analyses, ground-waterlevels continuously measured with pressure transducers and data recorders, and physical properties continuously monitored using multiprobe instruments. Water-quality samples were collected from selected wells and the Cedar River to conduct periodic monitoring, to evaluate ground-water geochemistry, to assess the occurrence of pesticides and herbicide degradates in the alluvial aquifer, and to characterize water quality in shallow ground water near a wetland area in the Seminole Well Field. Types of water-quality analyses included common ions (calcium, chloride, iron, magnesium, manganese, potassium, silica, sodium, and sulfate), trace elements (boron, bromide, and fluoride), nutrients (ammonia as nitrogen, nitrite as nitrogen, nitrite plus nitrate as nitrogen, and orthophosphate as phosphorus), dissolved organic carbon, and selected pesticides and herbicide degradates. Ground-water levels in selected observation wells were continuously measured to assess temporal trends in groundwater levels in the alluvial aquifer and bedrock aquifer, to help calibrate a ground-water flow model being constructed to simulate local groundwater flow under transient conditions near the well fields, and to assess hydrologic conditions near a wetland area in the Seminole Well Field. Physical properties (specific conductance, pH, dissolved oxygen, and water temperature) were continuously monitored to assess temporal variation and to help evaluate the interaction between the Cedar River and ground water in the alluvial aquifer.

  14. A rapid method for isolation of piperine from the fruits of Piper nigrum Linn.

    PubMed

    Kanaki, Niranjan; Dave, Mansi; Padh, Harish; Rajani, Mandapati

    2008-07-01

    A simple, rapid and efficient method has been developed for the isolation of piperine from the fruits of Piper nigrum. The method involves extraction of the fruit powder with glacial acetic acid, from which piperine is partitioned into chloroform and subsequently crystallized. The identity of the compound was confirmed by its melting point, comparison of UV, IR, and mass spectral data with those from a reference standard, and co-chromatography with the reference standard using thin-layer chromatography (TLC). The purity of the compound was ascertained by TLC, by recording UV absorption spectra at the start, middle, and end positions of the spot on the plate, and by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). PMID:18404304

  15. Floral Nectary Morphology and Proteomic Analysis of Nectar of Liriodendron tulipifera Linn.

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yanwei; Li, Meiping; Zhao, Fangfang; Zha, Hongguang; Yang, Liming; Lu, Ye; Wang, Guangping; Shi, Jisen; Chen, Jinhui

    2016-01-01

    Nectar is a primary nutrient reward for a variety of pollinators. Recent studies have demonstrated that nectar also has defensive functions against microbial invasion. In this study, the Liriodendron tulipifera nectary was first examined by scanning electron microscopy, and then the nectar was analyzed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry, which led to identification of 42 nectar proteins involved in various biological functions. Bioinformatic analysis was then performed on an identified novel rubber elongation factor (REF) protein in L. tulipifera nectar. The protein was particularly abundant, representing ∼60% of the major bands of 31 to 43 kDa, and showed high, stage-specific expression in nectary tissue. The REF family proteins are the major allergens in latex. We propose that REF in L. tulipifera nectar has defensive characteristics against microorganisms. PMID:27379122

  16. Mosquito larvicidal properties of essential oil of an indigenous plant, Ipomoea cairica Linn.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Thekkevilayil George; Rao, Sunder; Lal, Shiv

    2004-08-01

    Laboratory bioassay of the essential oil extracted from an indigenous plant, Ipomoea cairica, commonly known as 'Railway creeper', was carried out against the larvae of four vector species of mosquitoes in order to evaluate its mosquito larvicidal effect. Bioassay test revealed that the essential oil of the plant possess remarkable larvicidal properties as it could induce 100% mortality in the larvae of Culex tritaeniorhynchus (100 ppm), Aedes aegypti (120 ppm), Anopheles stephensi (120 ppm), and Culex quinquefasciatus (170 ppm) mosquitoes at concentrations rangeing from 100 to 170 ppm. The LC(50) and LC(90) values estimated for Cx. tritaeniorhynchus, Ae. aegypti, An. stephensi, and Cx. quinquefasciatus were 14.8 and 78.3, 22.3 and 92.7, 14.9 and 109.9, and 58.9 and 161.6 ppm, respectively. The essential oil was found to be most highly toxic to the larvae of Cx. tritaeniorhynchus followed by Ae. aegypti, An. stephensi, and Cx. quinquefasciatus mosquitoes. PMID:15329451

  17. Chemical composition and larvicidal activity of essential oil from Mentha spicata (Linn.) against three mosquito species.

    PubMed

    Govindarajan, M; Sivakumar, R; Rajeswari, M; Yogalakshmi, K

    2012-05-01

    Mosquitoes are blood-feeding insects and serve as the most important vectors for spreading human diseases such as malaria, yellow fever, dengue fever, and filariasis. The continued use of synthetic insecticides has resulted in resistance in mosquitoes. Synthetic insecticides are toxic and affect the environment by contaminating soil, water, and air, and then natural products may be an alternative to synthetic insecticides because they are effective, biodegradable, eco-friendly, and safe to environment. Botanical origin may serve as suitable alternative biocontrol techniques in the future. Mentha spicata, an edible and medicinal plant, is chiefly distributed in Southeast Asia and South Asia. In the present study, the toxicity of mosquito larvicidal activity of leaf essential oil (EO) and their major chemical constituents from Mentha spicata against Culex quinquefasciatus, Aedes aegypti, and Anopheles stephensi. The chemical composition of the leaf EO was analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). GC-MS revealed that the EO of M. spicata contained 18 compounds. The major chemical components identified were carvone (48.60%), cis-carveol (21.30%), and limonene (11.30%). The EO had a significant toxic effect against early third-stage larvae of C. quinquefasciatus, A. aegypti, and A. stephensi with LC(50) values of 62.62, 56.08, and 49.71 ppm and LC(90) values of 118.70, 110.28, and 100.99 ppm, respectively. The three major pure constituents extracted from the M. spicata leaf EO were also tested individually against three mosquito larvae. The LC(50) values of carvone, cis-carveol, and limonene appeared to be most effective against A. stephensi (LC(50) 19.33, 28.50, and 8.83 ppm) followed by A. aegypti (LC(50) 23.69, 32.88, and 12.01 ppm), and C. quinquefasciatus (LC(50) 25.47, 35.20, and 14.07 ppm). The results could be useful in search for newer, safer, and more effective natural larvicidal agents against C. quinquefasciatus, A. aegypti, and A. stephensi. PMID:22139403

  18. The Role of Endophytic Fungi in the Anticancer Activity of Morinda citrifolia Linn. (Noni)

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yougen; Girmay, Sisay; da Silva, Vitor Martins; Perry, Brian; Hu, Xinwen; Tan, Ghee T.

    2015-01-01

    We hypothesize that the fungal endophytes of noni may possibly play a role in its overall pharmacological repertoire, especially since the perceived efficacy of the fruit in ethnomedicinal use is associated with the fermented juice. The foremost goal of this study is to explore the role of endophyte-derived secondary metabolites in the purported anticancer properties of noni. To that end, culturable endophytic fungi resident within the healthy leaves and fruit of the plant were isolated and identified by molecular sequence analysis of the 5.8S gene and internal transcribed spacers (ITS). Purified organisms were subjected to in vitro fermentation in malt extract broth for 8 weeks under anaerobic conditions at room temperature (25°C), in order to simulate the conditions under which traditional fermented noni juice is prepared. The cytotoxic potential of organic extracts derived from the fermented broths of individual endophytes was then tested against three major cancers that afflict humans. Twelve distinct endophytic fungal species were obtained from the leaves and 3 from the fruit. Three of the leaf endophytes inhibited the growth of human carcinoma cell lines LU-1 (lung), PC-3 (prostate), and MCF-7 (breast) with IC50 values of ≤10 μg/mL. PMID:26783408

  19. Antidiabetic Effect of GII Compound Purified from Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum graecum Linn) Seeds in Diabetic Rabbits.

    PubMed

    Puri, D; Prabhu, K M; Murthy, P S

    2012-01-01

    Aim is to study the antidiabetic effect of a compound GII purified earlier from the water extract of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum graecum) seeds by Murthy and his colleagues (patented in India and USA) in diabetic rabbits. Diabetes was induced in rabbits by injecting 80 mg/kg bw of alloxan intravenously into rabiits. Rabbits were subdivided into subdiabetic [fasting blood sugar (FBG) up to 120 mg/dl with abnormal glucose tolerance in glucose tolerance test (GTT)], moderately diabetic (FBG below 250 mg/dl) and severely diabetic (FBG above 250 mg/dl). Blood glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1C) were estimated by procedures in the kits of Stangen Immunodiagnostics, Mumbai using, respectively, glucose oxidase method and absorbance at 415 nm. Serum insulin was estimated by the ELISA method as described in the kit of Boehringer Mannheim Immunodiagnostics, Mumbai, India. GII was found to improve blood glucose utilization in GTT and reduced FBG and HbA1C. In the present communication detailed studies were carried out with GII in the subdiabetic, moderately diabetic and severely diabetic rabbits. GII at a dose of 50 mg/kg bw per day brought down the elevated FBG levels in the untreated subdiabetic (FBG 96.6 ± 7 mg/dl), moderately diabetic (150.1 ± 14 mg/dl) and severely diabetic rabbits (427 ± 46 mg/dl) to normal in 12, 15 and 28 days of treatment. It improved serum HbA1C and insulin levels also in these rabbits. Intermittent therapy once a week for 6 weeks with GII at the same dose brought down the FBG values to normal in the subdiabetic (FBG 96.0 ± 2 mg/dl) and in the moderately diabetic rabbits to 133.0 ± 12 mg/dl. After stopping therapy of the subdiabetic and moderately diabetic rabbits whose FBG values came to normal after treatment with GII 50 mg/kg bw, the values remained normal for 1 week and showed a tendency to increase only after 15 days. If these animal studies are applicable to humans these results indicate that a diabetic person need not take GII daily when once the FBG value comes to normal or near to normal. Patients might be able to take GII only when the FBG value shows tendency to increase. So, intermittent therapy is possible with the potent product GII of the fenugreek seeds which is of a great advantage. PMID:23277708

  20. ANTIOXIDANT AND IMMUNOSTIMULANT EFFECT OF CARICA PAPAYA LINN. AQUEOUS EXTRACT IN ACRYLAMIDE INTOXICATED RATS

    PubMed Central

    Mohamed Sadek, Kadry

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: The present study was conducted to evaluate the antioxidant and immunostimulant effects of The Carica papaya fruit aqueous extract (CPF, Caricaceae) against acrylamide induced oxidative stress and improvement of Immune functions which affected by free radicals liberating acrylamide in rats. Material and methods: Sixty male wistar albino rats (195-230g) were assigned to four groups, (fifteen/group). The first group used as control group and received normal physiological saline orally daily. The second group was supplemented with acrylamide 0.05% in drinking water. The third group was gastro-gavaged with 250 mg/kg of papaya fruit extract orally on daily basis. The fourth group was supplemented with acrylamide 0.05% in drinking water and gastro-gavaged with 250 mg/kg of papaya fruit extract orally on daily basis. The chosen dose of papaya fruit extract was based on the active pharmacological dose range obtained from the orientation study earlier conducted. The experimental period was extended to forty day. At the expiration of the experimental period and night fasting, blood samples were collected from the orbital venous sinus. The sera were separated and used for determining of IgG and IgM and the stomach, liver and kidney homogenates for estimation of MDA, GSH level, SOD and CAT activity as a biomarker of lipid peroxidation and antioxidative stress. Results and discussion: The obtained results revealed that, acrylamide caused significant increases in MDA and decrease of GSH level, SOD and CAT activity due to the oxidative stress induced by acrylamide on membrane polyunsaturated fatty acids in rat’s stomach, liver and kidney while administration of CPF aqueous extract, was significantly ameliorated the increased levels of MDA and decline of GSH, SOD and CAT activity in the stomach, liver and kidney tissues caused by acrylamide toxicity. Meanwhile, CPF aqueous extract significantly increased immune functions (IgG and IgM) while acrylamide significantly decrease it specially IgG. Thus, this study suggests that acrylamide-induced oxidative stress in rats can be ameliorated by administration of CPF aqueous extract. PMID:23322975

  1. The clinical evaluation of Pterocarpus santalinus Linn. Ointment on lower extremity wounds--a preliminary report.

    PubMed

    Biswas, Tuhin Kanti; Maity, Lakshmi Narayan; Mukherjee, Biswapati

    2004-12-01

    Pterocarpus santalinus is described in the Ayurveda for its wide spectrum of medicinal properties including wound healing. Previously the authors reported animal studies that demonstrated that an ointment made from the bark of this tree was effective without any toxic effects. They used the same ointment in 6 cases of lower extremity wounds. Healing was observed in all wounds. The study was not controlled, the findings are presented here as case studies. Further studies are planned to develop a wound healing ointment from a locally available and inexpensive plant. PMID:15866819

  2. Therapeutic Potential of the Medicinal Plant Aegle Marmelos (Linn.) Correa: Insight.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Chandra Kant; Sharma, Monika; Sharma, Vinay

    2016-01-01

    Various plant species are used globally for therapeutic purposes and have been authenticated by the World Health Organization. Aegle marmelos (L.) Corr., one of only three species in the genus Aegle, is a subtropical, fruit-bearing, deciduous tree that grows throughout the hills and plains of sub-Himalayan countries. Plants with medicinal importance have been used in almost every culture since ancient times. Various studies are underway to understand more about the qualities and components of medicinal plants, including drug preparation, phytochemical analysis, cultivation, toxicology, and pharmacology. According to the Indian conventional system of medicine, A. marmelos can successfully treat many diseases and conditions; for example, its extracts have been found to reduce the intensities of hepatic lipid peroxidation and augment the levels of hepatic antioxidants such as catalase, superoxide dismutase, and glutathione. The essential oils present in the foliage (leaves), fruits, and bark of A. marmelos provide strong antifungal action. A. marmelos is thus cytoprotective, works against ulcers and diarhea, promotes skin and bone healing, and acts as a hypoglycemic, antidiabetic, hepatoprotective, antimicrobial, analgesic, antiinflammatory, antipyretic, and anticancer agent. Such qualities have been well documented with scientific evidence. PMID:27279580

  3. Clitoria ternatea (Linn) root extract treatment during growth spurt period enhances learning and memory in rats.

    PubMed

    Rai, K S; Murthy, K D; Karanth, K S; Rao, M S

    2001-07-01

    Neonatal rat pups (7 days old) were intubated with either 50 mg/kg body weight or 100 mg/kg body weight of aqueous root extract of Clitoria ternatea (CTR) for 30 days. These rats were then subjected to open field, two compartment passive avoidance and spatial learning (T-Maze) tests (i) immediately after the treatment and (ii) 30 days after the treatment, along with age matched normal and saline control rats. Results showed no change in open field behaviour, but showed improved retention and spatial learning performance at both time points of behavioural tests, indicating the memory enhancing property of CTR which implicates a permanent change in the brain of CTR treated rats. PMID:11881569

  4. Phytochemistry and heamatological potential of ethanol seed leaf and pulp extracts of Carica papaya (Linn.).

    PubMed

    Ikpeme, E V; Ekaluo, U B; Kooffreh, M E; Udensi, O

    2011-03-15

    This study was aimed at qualitative evaluation of the ethanol seed, leaf and pulp extracts of C. papaya for bioactive compounds and also to investigate their effect on the haematology in male albino rats. A 3 x 4 factorial experimental layout using randomized complete design was adopted. Results show that the phytochemicals found in seed, leaf and pulp were almost the same but however, in varying proportions. Present result also revealed that there were significant effects (p < 0.05) of the extracts on the heamatology of the treated rats, which was blamed on the varying and different variants ofbioactive compounds found in the extracts they were administered with. Suggestively, C. papaya extracts could be used to enhance the production of selected blood parameters, taking issue of dosage into consideration. PMID:21902066

  5. Effect of Capparis spinosa Linn. extract on lipopolysaccharide-induced cognitive impairment in rats.

    PubMed

    Goel, Ashish; Digvijaya; Garg, Arun; Kumar, Ashok

    2016-02-01

    Cognitive disorders in mankind are not uncommon. Apart from neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's (AD), various stresses also affect cognitive functions. Plants are known to be potential source of compounds that ameliorate several diseases including cognitive impairment. Here, we evaluated effect of aqueous extract of caper (Capparis spinosa) buds on lipopolysaccharide-induced cognitive impairment in rats using two different oral doses i.e. 10 (pre-treatment) and 30 mg/rat(post-treatment) through assessment of behavioural (Morris Water maze test and Y maze test), biochemical (Cholinesterase assay) and histopathological (H&E staining) parameters. Lipopolysaccharide (from E. coli) administration resulted in an increased neurodegeneration and time taken to reach the platform (in Morris water maze). The increased neurodegeneration in CA1 region of hippocampus was significantly reduced in animals which received caper bud extract; they showed marked reduction in time taken to reach the platform at both the dose levels. The experiment demonstrated that caper bud extract exhibits potential protective effect against learning and memory damage induced by chronic administration of lipopolysaccharide (175 μg/kg) for 7 days. The results suggest that the caper bud extract could be explored for its use in the treatment of cognitive disorders. PMID:26934780

  6. Aqueous extract of Ficus religiosa linn. reduces oxidative stress in experimentally induced type 2 diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Kirana, H; Agrawal, S S; Srinivasan, B P

    2009-10-01

    One of the major etiologies in pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes especially complications is oxidative stress. Aqueous extract of Ficus religiosa at a dose of 100 and 200 mg/kg orally decreased the fasting blood glucose in streptozotocin induced type 2 diabetic rats. The drug had enzyme induction effect with respect to catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity, however decreased the exaggerated activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) in type 2 diabetic rats. F. religiosa modulated the enzymes of antioxidant defence system to combat oxidative stress. As a result, glutathione (GSH-reduced form) was restored and inhibited the formation of malondialdehyde. Drug at higher dose (200 mg/kg) had more pronounced effect. F. religiosa, a rasayana group of plant drug having anti-diabetic activity along with antioxidant potential was beneficial in treatment of type 2 diabetes. PMID:20112810

  7. Malathion exposure induces the endocrine disruption and growth retardation in the catfish, Clarias batrachus (Linn.).

    PubMed

    Lal, Bechan; Sarang, Mukesh Kumar; Kumar, Pankaj

    2013-01-15

    Many hormones are known for their role in the regulation of metabolic activities and somatic growth in fishes. The present study deals with the effects of malathion (an organophosphorous pesticide) on the levels of metabolic hormones that are responsible for promotion of somatic and ovarian growth of the freshwater catfish, Clarias batrachus. Malathion treatment for thirty days drastically reduced the food intake and body weight of fish. These fish also exhibited a great avoidance to food. Exposure of catfish to malathion reduced the levels of thyroxine (T(4)), triiodothyronine (T(3)), growth hormone (GH), insulin like growth factor-I (IGF-I), testosterone (T) and estradiol-17β (E(2)) in a dose dependent manner during all the studied reproductive phases, in general, except that malathion increased the level of GH during the quiescence phase. Significant reduction in muscle and hepatic protein content also occurred in the malathion-treated fish. Malathion exposure induced lipolysis too in the liver and muscle. The results thus support that malathion treatment disrupts the endocrine functions and the olfactory sensation responsible for food intake and gustatory feeding behavior, which ultimately leads to retardation of fish growth. PMID:23174696

  8. Phytochemical, Therapeutic, and Ethnopharmacological Overview for a Traditionally Important Herb: Boerhavia diffusa Linn.

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Shikha; Aeri, Vidhu; Gaur, Praveen Kumar; Jachak, Sanjay M.

    2014-01-01

    Boerhavia diffusa (BD) is a plant of rasayana category as per ayurvedic claims. It is reported to possess antiaging, disease prevention, and life strengthening activities which hold enormous influence in disease burden and affordability/availability of healthcare in the world. Objective. This paper has been compiled to comment on the studies reported for BD to highlight its chemical and therapeutic potential along with its ethnopharmacological considerations. Methods. In the present paper, a detailed account of chemical constituents and pharmacological activities has been presented. All the findings were correlated with modern pharmacological activities to appraise the value of BD. Results. Chemical analysis of BD gives a wide variety of chemical constituents, namely, rotenoids, flavonoids, xanthones, purine nucleoside, lignans, and steroids. Various ethnopharmacological reports emphasize its role in disorders of reproductive system, gastrointestinal system, respiratory system, urinary system, hepatic system/jaundice, cardiovascular system, and cancer. Conclusions. The studies on the therapeutic activities of BD range from studies on crude extracts to isolated compounds; however some of the studies require sophistication and validated results. BD is a plant of enormous importance in the purview of its chemical and therapeutic properties. PMID:24949473

  9. Comparative pharmacognostical and phytochemical study on Bergenia ligulata Wall. and Ammania buccifera Linn

    PubMed Central

    Jani, Switu; Shukla, Vinay J.; Harisha, C. R.

    2013-01-01

    “Pashanbheda” is a controversial plant. Pharmacopeia considers Bergenia ligulata as official source of Pashanbheda and official substitute is Avera lanta. Review of the literature reveals that 23 different plants are reported in name of “Pashanbheda”. Ammania buccifera is an adulterant, which is used in Kerala under the name of Pashanbheda, found in moist places of India. The present study was undertaken to compare the roots of both the plants and to have a brief view point on similarities and dissimilarities between the plants. The pharmacognostical evaluation reveals that the rosette crystals of B. ligulata are bigger in size compared to that of A. buccifera and cork is present in B. ligulata, whereas it is absent in A. buccifera. HPTLC shows similar Rf values of both the drug, The quantitative estimation showed that total phenol content of both the drug was almost equal. PMID:24696579

  10. Comparative pharmacognostical and phytochemical study on Bergenia ligulata Wall. and Ammania buccifera Linn.

    PubMed

    Jani, Switu; Shukla, Vinay J; Harisha, C R

    2013-10-01

    "Pashanbheda" is a controversial plant. Pharmacopeia considers Bergenia ligulata as official source of Pashanbheda and official substitute is Avera lanta. Review of the literature reveals that 23 different plants are reported in name of "Pashanbheda". Ammania buccifera is an adulterant, which is used in Kerala under the name of Pashanbheda, found in moist places of India. The present study was undertaken to compare the roots of both the plants and to have a brief view point on similarities and dissimilarities between the plants. The pharmacognostical evaluation reveals that the rosette crystals of B. ligulata are bigger in size compared to that of A. buccifera and cork is present in B. ligulata, whereas it is absent in A. buccifera. HPTLC shows similar Rf values of both the drug, The quantitative estimation showed that total phenol content of both the drug was almost equal. PMID:24696579

  11. Hypoglycaemic, hypolipidemic and antioxidant properties of tulsi (Ocimum sanctum linn) on streptozotocin induced diabetes in rats.

    PubMed

    Hussain, E H; Jamil, K; Rao, M

    2001-07-01

    Effect of oral administration of 200 mg/Kg body weight of the aqueous extract ofOcimum sanctum (Tulsi) mixed with diet for eight weeks to diabetic (streptozotocin induced) rats was studied. There was significant reduction in fasting blood glucose, serum lipid profile, lipid peroxidation products, (LPO) and improvement in glucose tolerance. The aqueous extract also decreased LPO formation (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances TBARS) and increased antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), glutathione transferase (GT) and one antioxidant reduced glutathione (GSH) in plasma and rat liver, lung, kidney and brain. The decrease in TBARS and increase in GSH, SOD, CAT, GPX, and GT clearly shows the antioxidant property ofOcimum sanctum. PMID:23105316

  12. Effect of tulsi (Ocimum Sanctum Linn.) on sperm count and reproductive hormones in male albino rabbits.

    PubMed

    Sethi, Jyoti; Yadav, Mridul; Sood, Sushma; Dahiya, Kiran; Singh, Veena

    2010-10-01

    Fresh leaves of Ocimum Sanctum (OS) were used to study its effect on male reproductive function (sperm count and reproductive hormones) in male albino rabbits. Animals in the test group received supplementation of 2 g of fresh leaves of OS per rabbit for 30 days, while the control group was maintained on normal diet for the same duration. Sperm count and hormonal estimation [testosterone, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), and luteinizing hormone (LH)] were done in serum samples of both groups and compared. A significant decrease was noted in the sperm count in test group rabbits. Serum testosterone levels showed marked increase while FSH and LH levels were significantly reduced in OS-treated rabbits. The results suggest the potential use of OS as an effective male contraceptive agent. PMID:21455446

  13. Validation of traditional claim of Tulsi, Ocimum sanctum Linn. as a medicinal plant.

    PubMed

    Gupta, S K; Prakash, Jai; Srivastava, Sushma

    2002-07-01

    In several ancient systems of medicine including Ayurveda, Greek, Roman, Siddha and Unani, Ocimum sanctum has vast number of therapeutic applications such as in cardiopathy, haemopathy, leucoderma, asthma, bronchitis, catarrhal fever, otalgia, hepatopathy, vomiting, lumbago, hiccups, ophthalmia, gastropathy, genitourinary disorders, ringworm, verminosis and skin diseases etc. The present review incorporates the description of O. sanctum plant, its chemical constituents, and various pharmacological activities. PMID:12597545

  14. Cassia tora Linn Cream Inhibits Ultraviolet-B-Induced Psoriasis in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Singhal, Manmohan; Kansara, Niraj

    2012-01-01

    The aim of present study was to determine the antipsoriatic activity of newly formulated O/W creams of methanolic extract of Cassia tora L. leaves by using ultraviolet-B-induced psoriasis in rat. The plant Cassia tora L. is traditionally claimed to be useful in the treatment of a number of skin diseases. However, there are no established scientific reports for its antipsoriatic activity. Methanolic Cassia tora L. leaves extract was used to prepare various concentrations of O/W creams and tested for acute dermal toxicity study. The different O/W creams showed good physical characteristics and passed the sensitivity, irritation, grittiness and bleeding test. The results of acute dermal toxicity showed that the creams were safe up to the dose of 2000 mg/kg. In case of psoriasis model, histopathological analysis revealed that there were absence of Munro's microabscess, elongation of rete ridges, and capillary loop dilation in the section in Test 2 (0.1%) and standard group. O/W creams and methanolic extract of Cassia tora L. leaves exhibited significant reduction in percentage of relative epidermal thickness and spleen index as compared to positive control. We concluded that topical O/W creams and crude extract containing methanolic extract of Cassia tora L. leaves have potent antipsoriatic activity in ultraviolet-B-induced psoriasis in rat. PMID:22536527

  15. Effects of the flower extract of Ixora coccinea Linn. On the meristematic cells of Allium Cepa

    PubMed Central

    Latha, P.G.; Chandralekha, C.T.; Vilasini, G.; Panikkar, K.R.

    1998-01-01

    The aqueous extract of flowers of I. coccinea was evaluated for its cytotoxic and mutagenic effects on the meristematic cells of onion root tip. The percentage of abnormalities was found to increase with the increase in the concentration of the extract from 20 to 60 mg/ml. With 80 mg/ml completed arrest or total inhibition of cell division was observed. The major abnormalities were unprinted chromosomes at metaphase. Stickiness and clumping of chromosomes were induced by higher concentrations of the extract. Sticky anaphase bridges and formation of micronuclei were induced at the highest concentration (80mg/ml) tried. The significance of these abnormalities is discussed in detail. The results point to the potential use of the aqueous extract of flowers of I. coccinea in the chemotherapy of cancer. PMID:22556853

  16. Effects of the flower extract of Ixora coccinea Linn. On the meristematic cells of Allium Cepa.

    PubMed

    Latha, P G; Chandralekha, C T; Vilasini, G; Panikkar, K R

    1998-04-01

    The aqueous extract of flowers of I. coccinea was evaluated for its cytotoxic and mutagenic effects on the meristematic cells of onion root tip. The percentage of abnormalities was found to increase with the increase in the concentration of the extract from 20 to 60 mg/ml. With 80 mg/ml completed arrest or total inhibition of cell division was observed. The major abnormalities were unprinted chromosomes at metaphase. Stickiness and clumping of chromosomes were induced by higher concentrations of the extract. Sticky anaphase bridges and formation of micronuclei were induced at the highest concentration (80mg/ml) tried. The significance of these abnormalities is discussed in detail. The results point to the potential use of the aqueous extract of flowers of I. coccinea in the chemotherapy of cancer. PMID:22556853

  17. Timber industry waste-teak ( Tectona grandis Linn.) leaf extract mediated synthesis of antibacterial silver nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devadiga, Aishwarya; Shetty, K. Vidya; Saidutta, M. B.

    2015-08-01

    The current research article emphasizes efficacious use of teak leaves, an agro -biowaste from world's premier hardwood timber industry, for "green" synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). Bioactive compounds of the leaves act as prolific reducing and stabilizing agents in AgNP synthesis. The characterization of the AgNPs synthesized using teak leaves revealed that the particles are spherical with an average size of 28 nm and the presence of bioactive compounds present in teak leaf extract as capping agents on the nanoparticles. A prominent decrease in the content of bioactive compounds such as polyphenols, antioxidants and flavonoids after the biosynthesis of AgNPs signifies that these class of compounds act as reductants and stabilizers during biosynthesis. The biosynthesized silver nanoparticles were also successfully evaluated for their antibacterial characteristics against waterborne pathogens, E. coli and S. aureus, with minimum inhibitory concentration of 25.6 μg/mL. Exploitation of agrowaste resources for synthesis of AgNPs curtails indiscriminate usage of food and commercial plant materials, rather contributing a sustainable way for effective plant waste biomass utilization and management. The biosynthesized AgNps have potential application in water purifiers, antibacterial fabrics, sports wear and in cosmetics as antibacterial agent and the process used for its synthesis being greener is highly beneficial from environmental, energy consumption and economic perspectives.

  18. Repellent activity of herbal essential oils against Aedes aegypti (Linn.) and Culex quinquefasciatus (Say.)

    PubMed Central

    Sritabutra, Duangkamon; Soonwera, Mayura

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine the mosquito repellent activity of herbal essential oils against female Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus. Methods On a volunteer's forearm, 0.1 mL of each essential oil was applied to 3 cm×10 cm of exposed skin. The protection time was recorded for 3 min after every 30 min. Results Essential oil from clove oil in olive oil and in coconut oil gave the longest lasting period of 76.50 min and 96.00 min respectively against Aedes aegypti. The citronella grass oil in olive oil, citronella grass oil in coconut oil and lemongrass oil in coconut oil exhibited protection against Culex quinquefasciatus at 165.00, 105.00, and 112.50 min respectively. Conclusions The results clearly indicated that clove, citronella and lemongrass oil were the most promising for repellency against mosquito species. These oils could be used to develop a new formulation to control mosquitoes.

  19. In vivo and in vitro evaluation of hair growth potential of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis Linn.

    PubMed

    Adhirajan, N; Ravi Kumar, T; Shanmugasundaram, N; Babu, Mary

    2003-10-01

    Petroleum ether extract of leaves and flowers of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis was evaluated for its potential on hair growth by in vivo and in vitro methods. In vivo, 1% extract of leaves and flowers in liquid paraffin was applied topically over the shaved skin of albino rats and monitored and assessed for 30 days. The length of hair and the different cyclic phases of hair follicles, like anagen and telogen phases, were determined at different time periods. In vitro, the hair follicles from albino rat neonates were isolated and cultured in DMEM supplemented with 0.01 mg/ml petroleum ether extract of leaves and flowers. From the study it is concluded that the leaf extract, when compared to flower extract, exhibits more potency on hair growth. PMID:12963149

  20. Evaluation of anti-fertility activity of Tabernaemontana divaricata (Linn) R.Br. leaves in rats.

    PubMed

    Jain, Sachin; Jain, Avijeet; Deb, Lokesh; Dutt, K R; Jain, Deepak Kumar

    2010-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the anti-fertility activity of ethanolic extracts of Tabernaemontana divaricata (TD) leaves in oestrogenic activity models in immature female rats. Mature green leaves of TD were collected and authenticated. Extractions of the dried leaves were carried out with ethanol in a Soxhlet's apparatus. For oestrogenic activity, the extracts were administered orally once daily at a dose of 200 and 400 mg kg(-1), and the activity was compared with the standard drug ethinyl oestradiol (0.02 mg). The extracts caused significant increase in uterine weight compared to the control. The ethanolic extract exhibited oestrogenic activity. The histological study of epithelium tissues with the 400 mg of TD extract-treated animals showed increases in the height of the luminal epithelium and loose edematous stroma when compared with the 200 mg of TD extract-treated group of animals. However, this was better than the control group of animals. Enhanced uterine weight and increase in the height of luminal epithelium and histological characteristics suggest that TD extract may be useful in anti-fertility therapy. PMID:20306358

  1. HPTLC analysis of Scoparia dulcis Linn (Scrophulariaceae) and its larvicidal potential against dengue vector Aedes aegypti.

    PubMed

    Wankhar, Wankupar; Srinivasan, Sakthivel; Rathinasamy, Sheeladevi

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluates the larvicidal activity of Scoparia dulcis aqueous extract against dengue vector and determines its major chemical components. The extract was tested at various concentrations ranging from 0.1 to 2 mg/mL against Aedes aegypti larvae. The extracts displayed significant larvicidal efficacy against Ae. aegypt species after 24 h exposure revealing LC50 of 3.3835 (mg/mL) and LC90 of 5.7578 (mg/mL). Finger printing profile carried out by CAMAG automatic TLC sample applicator programmed through WIN CATS software revealed peaks with different Rf values for three different volumes injected: 16, 15 and 18 peaks were spotted for 3, 6 and 9 μL, respectively. Ascending order of Rf values was also ascertained for each peak recorded. This study clearly signifies that S. dulcis extract contains numerous compounds that are known to have larvicidal properties which clearly substantiates its efficacy on Ae. aegypti larvae. PMID:25573588

  2. A high sensitivity of children to swimming associated gastrointestinal illness (response to letter by Linn)

    EPA Science Inventory

    We disagree with Mr. Linn’s interpretation of our paper, “High Sensitivity of Children to Swimming-Associated Gastrointestinal Illness”.1 His comments are focused on hypothetical interpretation of our results as related to criteria development rather than the science presented. ...

  3. Protective effects of aqueous extract of Solanum nigrum Linn. leaves in rat models of oral mucositis.

    PubMed

    Patel, Alkesh; Biswas, Subhankar; Shoja, Muhammed Haneefa; Ramalingayya, Grandhi Venkata; Nandakumar, K

    2014-01-01

    Oral mucositis is one of the most debilitating side effects in patient undergoing chemotherapy or chemoradiotherapy. Leaves of the plant Solanum nigrum are used in folklore medicine to treat oral ulcers in India. However, no pharmacological investigation has been carried out till date. Aqueous extract of Solanum nigrum leaves (AESN) was prepared and subjected to various phytochemical screening. HPLC analysis of the ethyl acetate fraction was carried out. The aqueous extract (100 and 200 mg/kg) was further evaluated for its protective effect on two rat models: (a) busulfan plus infrared radiation (chemoradiotherapy) induced oral mucositis and (b) methotrexate (chemotherapy) induced oral mucositis. Various parameters including body weight change, food intake, and mortality were measured. AESN showed protective effect in both models of oral mucositis; however, the higher dose was more effective in chemotherapy induced oral mucositis. A reduction in oral mucositis score (P < 0.05) was observed in the treatment groups. Significant (P < 0.05) improvement in food intake was also observed in AESN treated groups. Aqueous extract of Solanum nigrum leaves has protective effect on chemotherapy and chemoradiotherapy induced oral mucositis in rats. PMID:25506066

  4. Biocompatibility and antibacterial activity of the Adathoda vasica Linn extract mediated silver nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Latha, M; Priyanka, M; Rajasekar, P; Manikandan, R; Prabhu, N M

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the biocompatibility and anti-Vibrio efficacy of green synthesized silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using an aqueous leaf extract of Adathoda vasica (A. vasica). The green synthesized silver nanoparticles were characterized by UV-vis, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX). A. vasica AgNPs showed significant antibacterial activity against Vibrio parahaemolyticus in agar bioassay and well diffusion method. Further, nanoparticles interactions with bacteria and its antibacterial activity were confirmed by CLSM analysis. In vivo evaluation results confirmed that synthesized A. vasica AgNPs had good antibacterial efficacy and also nontoxic to the Artemia nauplii. PMID:26802519

  5. Evaluation of the histo - gastroprotective and antimicrobial activities of heliotropium indicum linn (boraginaceae).

    PubMed

    Adelaja, Akinlolu Abdulazeez; Ayoola, M D; Otulana, J O; Akinola, O B; Olayiwola, Abimbola; Ejiwunmi, A B

    2008-07-01

    Heliotropium indicum of the family Boraginaceae is used locally in Nigeria to treat ailments such as ulcer and fever. In this study, ulceration of the gastric mucosa in Wistar rats was induced via the oral administration of 80mg/kg/bodyweight of Indomethacin. Histological analyses of the stomach body wall in the rats of Groups 2 and 4 (which received 100mg/kg/bodyweight of extract before oral administration of 80mg/kg/bodyweight Indomethacin and 80mg/kg/bodyweight Indomethacin only respectively) showed erosion of the mucus-secreting cells, gastric pit, upper and middle parts of gastric glands and some of the parietal cells. Histological observations of the stomach body wall in rats of Group 5 (which received 200mg/kg/bodyweight of extract before oral administration of 80mg/kg/bodyweight of Indomethacin) showed erosion of the mucus-secreting cells, gastric pit and the upper most part of the gastric gland. Histological observations of the stomach body wall in rats of Groups 1, 6 and 3 (which received 50mg/kg/bodyweight of Ranitidine and 400mg/kg/bodyweight of extract before oral administration of 80mg/kg/bodyweight Indomethacin; and only 80mg/kg/bodyweight of Normal Saline respectively) showed normal morphological appearance of the different components of the mucosa layer. Thus, the aqueous extracts of the dried leaves of Heliotropium indicum have dose dependent histo-gastroprotective effects. PMID:22570586

  6. Organic Tracers from Asphalt in Propolis Produced by Urban Honey Bees, Apis mellifera Linn.

    PubMed Central

    Alqarni, Abdulaziz S.; Rushdi, Ahmed I.; Owayss, Ayman A.; Raweh, Hael S.; El-Mubarak, Aarif H.; Simoneit, Bernd R. T.

    2015-01-01

    Propolis is a gummy material produced by honey bees to protect their hives and currently has drawn the attention of researchers due to its broad clinical use. It has been reported, based only on observations, that honey bees also collect other non-vegetation substances such as paint or asphalt/tar to make propolis. Therefore, propolis samples were collected from bee hives in Riyadh and Al-Bahah, a natural area, Saudi Arabia to determine their compositional characteristics and possible sources of the neutral organic compounds. The samples were extracted with hexane and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The results showed that the major compounds were n-alkanes, n-alkenes, methyl n-alkanoates, long chain wax esters, triterpenoids and hopanes. The n-alkanes (ranging from C17 to C40) were significant with relative concentrations varying from 23.8 to 56.8% (mean = 44.9+9.4%) of the total extracts. Their odd carbon preference index (CPI) ranged from 3.6 to 7.7, with a maximum concentration at heptacosane indicating inputs from higher plant vegetation wax. The relative concentrations of the n-alkenes varied from 23.8 to 41.19% (mean = 35.6+5.1%), with CPI = 12.4-31.4, range from C25 to C35 and maximum at tritriacontane. Methyl n-alkanoates, ranged from C12 to C26 as acids, with concentrations from 3.11 to 33.2% (mean = 9.6+9.5%). Long chain wax esters and triterpenoids were minor. The main triterpenoids were α- and β-amyrins, amyrones and amyryl acetates. The presence of hopanes in some total extracts (up to 12.5%) indicated that the bees also collected petroleum derivatives from vicinal asphalt and used that as an additional ingredient to make propolis. Therefore, caution should be taken when considering the chemical compositions of propolis as potential sources of natural products for biological and pharmacological applications. Moreover, beekeepers should be aware of the proper source of propolis in the flight range of their bee colonies. PMID:26075382

  7. Envenomation by neotropical opisthoglyphous colubrid Thamnodynastes cf. pallidus Linne, 1758 (Serpentes:Colubridae) in Venezuela.

    PubMed

    Diaz, Fresnel; Navarrete, Luis F; Pefaur, Jaime; Rodriguez-Acosta, Alexis

    2004-01-01

    This is a case report of a "non-venomous" snake bite in a herpetologist observed at the Sciences Faculty of the Universidad de los Andes (Mérida, Venezuela). The patient was bitten on the middle finger of the left hand, and shows signs of pronounced local manifestations of envenomation such as bleeding from the tooth imprint, swelling and warmth. He was treated with local care, analgesics, and steroids. He was dismissed from the hospital and observed at home during five days with marked improvement of envenomation. The snake was brought to the medical consult and identified as a Thamnodynastes cf. pallidus specimen. This report represents the first T. pallidus accident described in a human. PMID:15517037

  8. The Role of Endophytic Fungi in the Anticancer Activity of Morinda citrifolia Linn. (Noni).

    PubMed

    Wu, Yougen; Girmay, Sisay; da Silva, Vitor Martins; Perry, Brian; Hu, Xinwen; Tan, Ghee T

    2015-01-01

    We hypothesize that the fungal endophytes of noni may possibly play a role in its overall pharmacological repertoire, especially since the perceived efficacy of the fruit in ethnomedicinal use is associated with the fermented juice. The foremost goal of this study is to explore the role of endophyte-derived secondary metabolites in the purported anticancer properties of noni. To that end, culturable endophytic fungi resident within the healthy leaves and fruit of the plant were isolated and identified by molecular sequence analysis of the 5.8S gene and internal transcribed spacers (ITS). Purified organisms were subjected to in vitro fermentation in malt extract broth for 8 weeks under anaerobic conditions at room temperature (25°C), in order to simulate the conditions under which traditional fermented noni juice is prepared. The cytotoxic potential of organic extracts derived from the fermented broths of individual endophytes was then tested against three major cancers that afflict humans. Twelve distinct endophytic fungal species were obtained from the leaves and 3 from the fruit. Three of the leaf endophytes inhibited the growth of human carcinoma cell lines LU-1 (lung), PC-3 (prostate), and MCF-7 (breast) with IC50 values of ≤10 μg/mL. PMID:26783408

  9. Natural male contraceptive: phytochemical investigation and anti-spermatogenic activity of Pistia stratiotes Linn.

    PubMed

    Singh, Kiran; Dubey, Bidhyut Kumar; Tripathi, Avinash C; Singh, Ajeet Pal; Saraf, Shailendra K

    2014-01-01

    This work is an attempt to explore the anti-spermatogenic activity of Pistia stratiotes and to investigate it as a male contraceptive. The prepared extracts were screened for the presence of alkaloids, glycosides, steroids, flavonoids, saponin and phenolic compounds. To assess the anti-spermatogenic activity, mice were orally administered with the various extracts of P. stratiotes (dose: 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight/day, for 45 days) and the most active, ethanolic extract was subjected to the isolation of phytoconstituent responsible for the activity. Diethyl ether fraction of ethanolic extract was taken to isolate a saponin, sitosterol-3-O-[2,4-di-O-acetyl-6-O-stearyl-β-D-glucopyranoside]. Anti-spermatogenic activity of the isolated saponin was evaluated at a dose of 50 mg/kg body weight/day, for 45 days. The treatment caused significant decrease (P < 0.01) in the weight of reproductive organs (testis, epididymis and seminal vesicle). The sperm count, sperm viability and serum testosterone levels were significantly lowered compared with that of the control group. PMID:24666370

  10. Modification of mercury-induced biochemical alterations by Triticum Aestivum Linn in rats.

    PubMed

    Lakshmi, B V S; Sudhakar, M; Nireesha, G

    2014-01-01

    The present investigation has been undertaken to evaluate role of Wheat grass extract in modifying mercury-induced biochemical alterations in albino rats. Mercuric chloride 5 mg/kg body weight i.p. was given on 11, 13 & 15th day of the experiment. Wheat grass extract (400 mg/kg) and Quercetin (10 mg/kg) were administered 10 days before mercuric chloride administration and continued up to 30 days after mercuric chloride administration. The animals were sacrificed on 1, 15 and 30 days, the activity of serum alkaline and acid phosphatase and the iron, calcium, BUN, creatinine, SGPT, SGOT, total bilirubin, total protein levels were measured. Tissue lipid peroxidation content, glutathione (GSH) level, anti-oxidant enzymes- CAT and GR were measured. Hematological indices were also estimated. Mercury intoxication causes significant increase (P < 0.001) in calcium level, acid phosphatase, BUN, creatinine, SGOT, SGPT, total bilirubin, lipid peroxidation content and significant decrease in iron level, alkaline phosphatase, total protein, and CAT, GR and glutathione level. Wheat grass extract pre- and post-treatment ameliorated mercury-induced alterations in terms of biochemical and hematological parameters. Concomitant treatment of Wheatgrass extract with Mercury showed prominent recovery and normal architecture with mild residual degeneration in the tissues. Thus from present investigation, it can be concluded that Wheat grass extract pre- and post-treatment with HgCl2 significantly modulate or modify mercury-induced biochemical alteration in albino rats. PMID:26215012

  11. 76 FR 30382 - Willamette Valley National Wildlife Refuge Complex, Benton, Linn, Marion, and Polk Counties, OR

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-25

    ... Intent in the Federal Register (73 FR 11137; February 29, 2008), announcing our intent to complete a CCP... checker- ] mallow, and Willamette daisy, and provide migration habitat for listed Chinook salmon...

  12. Antihepatotoxic effect of golden berry (Physalis peruviana Linn.) in carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) intoxicated rats.

    PubMed

    Taj, Darakhshan; Khan, Hira; Sultana, Viqar; Ara, Jehan; Ehteshamul-Haque, Syed

    2014-05-01

    Liver is the main site in the body for intense metabolism and excretion. A number of chemicals and drugs which are used routinely cause liver damage. The present study investigates the antihepatotoxic effect of Physalis peruviana whole ripe fruit, water and ethanol extracts of fruit in normal as well as in carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4)) intoxicated rats. The CCl(4) treated rats showed marked elevation in liver enzymes: alanine transaminse, aspratate transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, lactate dehydrogenase and other biochemical parameters: bilirubin, creatinine and urea, thus indicating liver injury. Whereas animal treated/fed with various preparations of Physalis peruviana showed significant lowering effect (p<0.05) in the elevated levels of serum markers like ALAT, ASAT, ALP, LDH, creatinine, urea and bilirubin indicating the protection against hepatic cell damage. The water extract of Physalis peruviana showed highest activity in both rat models while ripe fruit and ethanol extract showed moderate activity compared to standard drug. PMID:24811807

  13. Protective effect of stem bark of Ceiba pentandra linn. against paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity in rats

    PubMed Central

    Bairwa, Nirmal K.; Sethiya, Neeraj K.; Mishra, S. H.

    2010-01-01

    The present study reports protective activity of ethyl acetate fraction of methanol extract of stem bark of Ceiba pentandra against paracetamol-induced liver damage in rats. The ethyl acetate fraction (400 mg/kg) was administered orally to the rats with hepatotoxicity induced by paracetamol (3 gm/kg). Silymarin (100 mg/kg) was used as positive control. High performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) fingerprinting of ethyl acetate fraction revealed presence of its major chemical constituents. A significant (P < 0.05) reduction in serum enzymes GOT (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), GPT alkaline phosphatase (ALP), total bilirubin content and histopathological screening in the rats treated gave indication that ethyl acetate fraction of methanolic extract of Ceiba pentandra possesses hepatoprotective potential against paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. PMID:21808535

  14. Erythrina variegata Linn: A review on morphology, phytochemistry, and pharmacological aspects

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, A.; Lingadurai, S.; Jain, A.; Barman, N. R.

    2010-01-01

    This review gives an account of the current knowledge on the morphology, phytochemistry, and pharmacological aspects of Erythrina variegata. E. variegata also called Erythrina indica is a thorny deciduous tree growing to 60 feet tall. A wide range of chemical compounds have been isolated, mainly alkaloids, flavonoids, triterpenoids, and lectin. Different parts of the plant have been used in traditional medicine as nervine sedative, collyrium in opthalmia, antiasthmatic, antiepileptic, antiseptic, and as an astringent. The alkaloids extracted from the leaves of E. variegata are reported to have anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity. Isoflavonoids isolated from E. variegata having antibacterial and anthelmintic activity. E. variegata shows several other characteristic pharmacological effects like neuromuscular blocking, smooth muscle relaxant, CNS depressant, and hydrocholeretic, which are consistent with the reported uses of the plant extracts in the indigenous system of medicine. Hence the present article includes the detailed exploration of morphology, phytochemistry, and pharmacological aspects of E. variegata in an attempt to provide a direction for further research. PMID:22228954

  15. In vitro evaluation of antioxidant properties of Cocos nucifera Linn. water.

    PubMed

    Mantena, Sudheer Kumar; Jagadish; Badduri, Sridhar Reddy; Siripurapu, Kiran Babu; Unnikrishnan, Mazhuvancherry Kesavan

    2003-04-01

    Tender Cocos nucifera L. (Palmacea) water (CW), variety Chandrasankara, was tested for its ability to scavenge free radicals, inhibit lipid peroxidation and protect hemoglobin from nitrite-induced oxidation. Fresh sample of CW scavenged 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenz-thiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) and superoxide radicals but promoted the production of hydroxyl radicals and increased lipid peroxidation. The activity was most significant for fresh samples of CW and diminished significantly upon heat, acid or alkali treatment or dialysis. Maturity of coconut drastically decreased the scavenging ability of CW against DPPH, ABTS and superoxide radicals. CW protected hemoglobin from nitrite-induced oxidation to methemoglobin when added before the autocatalytic stage of the oxidation. Acid, alkali or heat treated or dialyzed CW showed a decreased ability in protecting hemoglobin from oxidation. The scavenging ability and protection of hemoglobin from oxidation may be partly attributed to the ascorbic acid, which is an important constituent of CW. As CW is a rich source of vitamins, amino acids and enzymes, etc., more than one active principle maybe involved. PMID:12744292

  16. Treatment of hypercholesterolemia: screening of Solanum macrocarpon Linn (Solanaceae) as a medicinal plant in Benin

    PubMed Central

    Dougnon, Tamègnon Victorien; Bankolé, Honoré Sourou; Klotoé, Jean Robert; Sènou, Maximin; Fah, Lauris; Koudokpon, Hornel; Akpovi, Casimir; Dougnon, Tossou Jacques; Addo, Phyllis; Loko, Frédéric; Boko, Michel

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Hypercholesterolemia is the greatest risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. The present study is conducted to evaluate the lipid lowering activity of leaves and fruits of Solanum macrocarpon, a vegetable, on Wistar rats experimentally rendered hypercholesterolemic by Triton X-100. Materials and Methods: The leaves and fruits were administered (p.o.) for 7 days to rats at doses of 400 and 800 mg/kg of body weight. Atorvastatin was used as reference treatment drug. The data were analyzed by the Brown-Forsythe ANOVA, Dunnett’s T3 multiple comparison test, and Dunnett’s t test. All tests were done at the 5% significance level. Results: Administration of S. macrocarpon (fruits as well as leaves) resulted in a statistically significant decrease in total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, VLDL-cholesterol, and triglycerides in the treated groups compared with the untreated hypercholesterolemic group, regardless of the administrated doses. A significant increase in HDL-cholesterol was observed in the treated groups. Hepatic disorders due to the Triton have been corrected by S. macrocarpon. Conclusions: This vegetable effectively suppresses experimental hypercholesterolemia in Wistar rats, suggesting a protective role in cardiovascular diseases. Its use by individuals at risk should be promoted. PMID:25050314

  17. The Integrated Design and Use of Computers and Television in Education. TR-85-20.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Storey, Kim S.; Julyan, Candace L.

    The goals of this study were to understand the expectations of both designers and teachers for the design and use of packages that integrate computer and television technologies, and to investigate the implementation of these packages in the classroom. Interviews were conducted with eight designers of "The Voyage of the Mimi" (MIMI), a package…

  18. STS-106 Crew Activities Report/Flight Day 05 Highlights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    On this fifth day of the STS-106 Atlantis mission, the flight crew, Commander Terrence W. Wilcutt, Pilot Scott D. Altman, and Mission Specialists Daniel C. Burbank, Edward T. Lu, Richard A. Mastracchio, Yuri Ivanovich Malenchenko, and Boris V. Morukov are seen participating in several activities. Malenchenko and Wilcutt are seen opening the hatches of the Zvezda Service Module and the Zarya Control Module, and finally, the transfer chamber of Zvezda, Progress. Burbank and Mastracchio are seen transferring food and equipment, and removing the manual docking system of Zarya. Lu, Burbank and Malenchenko are also seen checking the hatch interfaces. Footage also shows the entire interior of the International Space Station (ISS) complex.

  19. Molecular cloning, characterization and expression analysis of a CC chemokine gene from miiuy croaker (Miichthys miiuy).

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yuanzhi; Sun, Yuena; Shi, Ge; Wang, Rixin; Xu, Tianjun

    2012-12-01

    Chemokines are a family of structurally related chemotactic cytokines that regulate the migration of leukocytes, under both physiological and inflammatory conditions. A partial cDNA of CC chemokine gene designed as Mimi-CC3 was isolated from miiuy croaker (Miichthys miiuy) spleen cDNA library. Unknown 3' part of the cDNA was amplified by 3'-RACE. The complete cDNA of Mimi-CC3 contains an 89-nt 5'-UTR, a 303-nt open reading frame and a 441-nt 3'-UTR. Three exons and two introns were identified in Mimi-CC3. The deduced Mimi-CC3 protein sequences contain a 22 amino acids signal peptide and a 78 amino acids mature polypeptide, which possesses the typical arrangement of four cysteines as found in other known CC chemokines. It shares low amino acid sequence identities with most other fish and mammalian CC chemokines (less than 54.1 %), but shares very high identities with large yellow croaker CC chemokine (94.6 %). Phylogenetic analysis showed that Mimi-CC3 gene may have an orthologous relationship with mammalian/amphibian CCL25 gene. Tissue expression distributed analysis showed that Mimi-CC3 gene was constitutively expressed in all nine tissues examined, although at different levels. Upon stimulated with Vibrio anguillarum, the time-course analysis using a real-time PCR showed that Mimi-CC3 transcript in kidney and liver was obviously up-regulated and reached the peak levels, followed by a recovery. Mimi-CC3 expression in kidney was more strongly increased than in liver. However, down-regulation was observed in spleen. These results indicated that Mimi-CC3 plays important roles in miiuy croaker immune response as well as in homeostatic mechanisms. PMID:22736236

  20. Expedition 29 Crew Profile

    NASA Video Gallery

    The six members of Expedition 29 are profiled and interviewed. NASA astronauts Mike Fossum and Dan Burbank; JAXA astronaut Satoshi Furukawa; and cosmonauts Anton Shkaplerov and Anatoly Ivanishin di...