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Sample records for lionfish invasion continuing

  1. Invasive lionfish reduce native fish abundance on a regional scale.

    PubMed

    Ballew, Nicholas G; Bacheler, Nathan M; Kellison, G Todd; Schueller, Amy M

    2016-01-01

    Invasive lionfish pose an unprecedented threat to biodiversity and fisheries throughout Atlantic waters off of the southeastern United States, the Caribbean, and the Gulf of Mexico. Here, we employ a spatially replicated Before-After-Control-Impact analysis with temporal pairing to quantify for the first time the impact of the lionfish invasion on native fish abundance across a broad regional scale and over the entire duration of the lionfish invasion (1990-2014). Our results suggest that 1) lionfish-impacted areas off of the southeastern United States are most prevalent off-shore near the continental shelf-break but are also common near-shore and 2) in impacted areas, lionfish have reduced tomtate (a native forage fish) abundance by 45% since the invasion began. Tomtate served as a model native fish species in our analysis, and as such, it is likely that the lionfish invasion has had similar impacts on other species, some of which may be of economic importance. Barring the development of a control strategy that reverses the lionfish invasion, the abundance of lionfish in the Atlantic, Caribbean, and Gulf of Mexico will likely remain at or above current levels. Consequently, the effect of lionfish on native fish abundance will likely continue for the foreseeable future. PMID:27578096

  2. Invasive lionfish reduce native fish abundance on a regional scale

    PubMed Central

    Ballew, Nicholas G.; Bacheler, Nathan M.; Kellison, G. Todd; Schueller, Amy M.

    2016-01-01

    Invasive lionfish pose an unprecedented threat to biodiversity and fisheries throughout Atlantic waters off of the southeastern United States, the Caribbean, and the Gulf of Mexico. Here, we employ a spatially replicated Before-After-Control-Impact analysis with temporal pairing to quantify for the first time the impact of the lionfish invasion on native fish abundance across a broad regional scale and over the entire duration of the lionfish invasion (1990–2014). Our results suggest that 1) lionfish-impacted areas off of the southeastern United States are most prevalent off-shore near the continental shelf-break but are also common near-shore and 2) in impacted areas, lionfish have reduced tomtate (a native forage fish) abundance by 45% since the invasion began. Tomtate served as a model native fish species in our analysis, and as such, it is likely that the lionfish invasion has had similar impacts on other species, some of which may be of economic importance. Barring the development of a control strategy that reverses the lionfish invasion, the abundance of lionfish in the Atlantic, Caribbean, and Gulf of Mexico will likely remain at or above current levels. Consequently, the effect of lionfish on native fish abundance will likely continue for the foreseeable future. PMID:27578096

  3. Environmental and Biotic Correlates to Lionfish Invasion Success in Bahamian Coral Reefs

    PubMed Central

    Anton, Andrea; Simpson, Michael S.; Vu, Ivana

    2014-01-01

    Lionfish (Pterois volitans), venomous predators from the Indo-Pacific, are recent invaders of the Caribbean Basin and southeastern coast of North America. Quantification of invasive lionfish abundances, along with potentially important physical and biological environmental characteristics, permitted inferences about the invasion process of reefs on the island of San Salvador in the Bahamas. Environmental wave-exposure had a large influence on lionfish abundance, which was more than 20 and 120 times greater for density and biomass respectively at sheltered sites as compared with wave-exposed environments. Our measurements of topographic complexity of the reefs revealed that lionfish abundance was not driven by habitat rugosity. Lionfish abundance was not negatively affected by the abundance of large native predators (or large native groupers) and was also unrelated to the abundance of medium prey fishes (total length of 5–10 cm). These relationships suggest that (1) higher-energy environments may impose intrinsic resistance against lionfish invasion, (2) habitat complexity may not facilitate the lionfish invasion process, (3) predation or competition by native fishes may not provide biotic resistance against lionfish invasion, and (4) abundant prey fish might not facilitate lionfish invasion success. The relatively low biomass of large grouper on this island could explain our failure to detect suppression of lionfish abundance and we encourage continuing the preservation and restoration of potential lionfish predators in the Caribbean. In addition, energetic environments might exert direct or indirect resistance to the lionfish proliferation, providing native fish populations with essential refuges. PMID:25184250

  4. Environmental and biotic correlates to lionfish invasion success in Bahamian coral reefs.

    PubMed

    Anton, Andrea; Simpson, Michael S; Vu, Ivana

    2014-01-01

    Lionfish (Pterois volitans), venomous predators from the Indo-Pacific, are recent invaders of the Caribbean Basin and southeastern coast of North America. Quantification of invasive lionfish abundances, along with potentially important physical and biological environmental characteristics, permitted inferences about the invasion process of reefs on the island of San Salvador in the Bahamas. Environmental wave-exposure had a large influence on lionfish abundance, which was more than 20 and 120 times greater for density and biomass respectively at sheltered sites as compared with wave-exposed environments. Our measurements of topographic complexity of the reefs revealed that lionfish abundance was not driven by habitat rugosity. Lionfish abundance was not negatively affected by the abundance of large native predators (or large native groupers) and was also unrelated to the abundance of medium prey fishes (total length of 5-10 cm). These relationships suggest that (1) higher-energy environments may impose intrinsic resistance against lionfish invasion, (2) habitat complexity may not facilitate the lionfish invasion process, (3) predation or competition by native fishes may not provide biotic resistance against lionfish invasion, and (4) abundant prey fish might not facilitate lionfish invasion success. The relatively low biomass of large grouper on this island could explain our failure to detect suppression of lionfish abundance and we encourage continuing the preservation and restoration of potential lionfish predators in the Caribbean. In addition, energetic environments might exert direct or indirect resistance to the lionfish proliferation, providing native fish populations with essential refuges. PMID:25184250

  5. Density-Dependent Growth in Invasive Lionfish (Pterois volitans)

    PubMed Central

    Benkwitt, Cassandra E.

    2013-01-01

    Direct demographic density dependence is necessary for population regulation and is a central concept in ecology, yet has not been studied in many invasive species, including any invasive marine fish. The red lionfish (Pterois volitans) is an invasive predatory marine fish that is undergoing exponential population growth throughout the tropical western Atlantic. Invasive lionfish threaten coral-reef ecosystems, but there is currently no evidence of any natural population control. Therefore, a manipulative field experiment was conducted to test for density dependence in lionfish. Juvenile lionfish densities were adjusted on small reefs and several demographic rates (growth, recruitment, immigration, and loss) were measured throughout an 8-week period. Invasive lionfish exhibited direct density dependence in individual growth rates, as lionfish grew slower at higher densities throughout the study. Individual growth in length declined linearly with increasing lionfish density, while growth in mass declined exponentially with increasing density. There was no evidence, however, for density dependence in recruitment, immigration, or loss (mortality plus emigration) of invasive lionfish. The observed density-dependent growth rates may have implications for which native species are susceptible to lionfish predation, as the size and type of prey that lionfish consume is directly related to their body size. The absence of density-dependent loss, however, contrasts with many native coral-reef fish species and suggests that for the foreseeable future manual removals may be the only effective local control of this invasion. PMID:23825604

  6. Density-dependent growth in invasive Lionfish (Pterois volitans).

    PubMed

    Benkwitt, Cassandra E

    2013-01-01

    Direct demographic density dependence is necessary for population regulation and is a central concept in ecology, yet has not been studied in many invasive species, including any invasive marine fish. The red lionfish (Pterois volitans) is an invasive predatory marine fish that is undergoing exponential population growth throughout the tropical western Atlantic. Invasive lionfish threaten coral-reef ecosystems, but there is currently no evidence of any natural population control. Therefore, a manipulative field experiment was conducted to test for density dependence in lionfish. Juvenile lionfish densities were adjusted on small reefs and several demographic rates (growth, recruitment, immigration, and loss) were measured throughout an 8-week period. Invasive lionfish exhibited direct density dependence in individual growth rates, as lionfish grew slower at higher densities throughout the study. Individual growth in length declined linearly with increasing lionfish density, while growth in mass declined exponentially with increasing density. There was no evidence, however, for density dependence in recruitment, immigration, or loss (mortality plus emigration) of invasive lionfish. The observed density-dependent growth rates may have implications for which native species are susceptible to lionfish predation, as the size and type of prey that lionfish consume is directly related to their body size. The absence of density-dependent loss, however, contrasts with many native coral-reef fish species and suggests that for the foreseeable future manual removals may be the only effective local control of this invasion. PMID:23825604

  7. Invasive Lionfish Drive Atlantic Coral Reef Fish Declines

    PubMed Central

    Green, Stephanie J.; Akins, John L.; Maljković, Aleksandra; Côté, Isabelle M.

    2012-01-01

    Indo-Pacific lionfish (Pterois volitans and P. miles) have spread swiftly across the Western Atlantic, producing a marine predator invasion of unparalleled speed and magnitude. There is growing concern that lionfish will affect the structure and function of invaded marine ecosystems, however detrimental impacts on natural communities have yet to be measured. Here we document the response of native fish communities to predation by lionfish populations on nine coral reefs off New Providence Island, Bahamas. We assessed lionfish diet through stomach contents analysis, and quantified changes in fish biomass through visual surveys of lionfish and native fishes at the sites over time. Lionfish abundance increased rapidly between 2004 and 2010, by which time lionfish comprised nearly 40% of the total predator biomass in the system. The increase in lionfish abundance coincided with a 65% decline in the biomass of the lionfish's 42 Atlantic prey fishes in just two years. Without prompt action to control increasing lionfish populations, similar effects across the region may have long-term negative implications for the structure of Atlantic marine communities, as well as the societies and economies that depend on them. PMID:22412895

  8. Invasive lionfish drive Atlantic coral reef fish declines.

    PubMed

    Green, Stephanie J; Akins, John L; Maljković, Aleksandra; Côté, Isabelle M

    2012-01-01

    Indo-Pacific lionfish (Pterois volitans and P. miles) have spread swiftly across the Western Atlantic, producing a marine predator invasion of unparalleled speed and magnitude. There is growing concern that lionfish will affect the structure and function of invaded marine ecosystems, however detrimental impacts on natural communities have yet to be measured. Here we document the response of native fish communities to predation by lionfish populations on nine coral reefs off New Providence Island, Bahamas. We assessed lionfish diet through stomach contents analysis, and quantified changes in fish biomass through visual surveys of lionfish and native fishes at the sites over time. Lionfish abundance increased rapidly between 2004 and 2010, by which time lionfish comprised nearly 40% of the total predator biomass in the system. The increase in lionfish abundance coincided with a 65% decline in the biomass of the lionfish's 42 Atlantic prey fishes in just two years. Without prompt action to control increasing lionfish populations, similar effects across the region may have long-term negative implications for the structure of Atlantic marine communities, as well as the societies and economies that depend on them. PMID:22412895

  9. Invasive lionfish use a diversity of habitats in Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schofield, Pamela J.; Akins, Lad; Gregoire-Lucente, Denise R.; Pawlitz, Rachel J.

    2014-01-01

    Two species of lionfish (Pterois volitans and Pterois miles) are the first marine fishes known to invade and establish self-sustaining populations along the eastern seaboard of the United States. First documented off the coast of Florida in 1985, lionfish are now found along the Atlantic coast of the United States as well as in the Caribbean Sea and Gulf of Mexico. Although long-term effects of this invasion are not yet fully known, there is early evidence that lionfish are negatively impacting native marine life. The lionfish invasion raises questions about which types of habitat the species will occupy in its newly invaded ecosystem. In their native range, lionfish are found primarily on coral reefs but sometimes are found in other habitats such as seagrasses and mangroves. This fact sheet documents the diversity of habitat types in which invasive lionfish have been reported within Florida’s coastal waters, based on lionfish sightings recorded in the U.S. Geological Survey Nonindigenous Aquatic Species database (USGS-NAS).

  10. Grouper as a Natural Biocontrol of Invasive Lionfish

    PubMed Central

    Mumby, Peter J.; Harborne, Alastair R.; Brumbaugh, Daniel R.

    2011-01-01

    Lionfish (Pterois volitans/miles) have invaded the majority of the Caribbean region within five years. As voracious predators of native fishes with a broad habitat distribution, lionfish are poised to cause an unprecedented disruption to coral reef diversity and function. Controls of lionfish densities within its native range are poorly understood, but they have been recorded in the stomachs of large-bodied Caribbean groupers. Whether grouper predation of lionfish is sufficient to act as a biocontrol of the invasive species is unknown, but pest biocontrol by predatory fishes has been reported in other ecosystems. Groupers were surveyed along a chain of Bahamian reefs, including one of the region's most successful marine reserves which supports the top one percentile of Caribbean grouper biomass. Lionfish biomass exhibited a 7-fold and non-linear reduction in relation to the biomass of grouper. While Caribbean grouper appear to be a biocontrol of invasive lionfish, the overexploitation of their populations by fishers, means that their median biomass on Caribbean reefs is an order of magnitude less than in our study. Thus, chronic overfishing will probably prevent natural biocontrol of lionfishes in the Caribbean. PMID:21731769

  11. Hurricanes accelerated the Florida-Bahamas lionfish invasion.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Matthew W; Purkis, Sam J

    2015-06-01

    In this study, we demonstrate how perturbations to the Florida Current caused by hurricanes are relevant to the spread of invasive lionfish from Florida to the Bahamas. Without such perturbations, this current represents a potential barrier to the transport of planktonic lionfish eggs and larvae across the Straits of Florida. We further show that once lionfish became established in the Bahamas, hurricanes significantly hastened their spread through the island chain. We gain these insights through: (1) an analysis of the direction and velocity of simulated ocean currents during the passage of hurricanes through the Florida Straits and (2) the development of a biophysical model that incorporates the tolerances of lionfish to ocean climate, their reproductive strategy, and duration that the larvae remain viable in the water column. On the basis of this work, we identify 23 occasions between the years 1992 and 2006 in which lionfish were provided the opportunity to breach the Florida Current. We also find that hurricanes during this period increased the rate of spread of lionfish through the Bahamas by more than 45% and magnified its population by at least 15%. Beyond invasive lionfish, we suggest that extreme weather events such as hurricanes likely help to homogenize the gene pool for all Caribbean marine species susceptible to transport. PMID:25620639

  12. Evaluating the potential efficacy of invasive lionfish (Pterois volitans) removals.

    PubMed

    Barbour, Andrew B; Allen, Micheal S; Allen, Michael S; Frazer, Thomas K; Sherman, Krista D

    2011-01-01

    The lionfish, Pterois volitans (Linnaeus) and Pterois miles (Bennett), invasion of the Western Atlantic Ocean, Caribbean Sea and Gulf of Mexico has the potential to alter aquatic communities and represents a legitimate ecological concern. Several local removal programs have been initiated to control this invasion, but it is not known whether removal efforts can substantially reduce lionfish numbers to ameliorate these concerns. We used an age-structured population model to evaluate the potential efficacy of lionfish removal programs and identified critical data gaps for future studies. We used high and low estimates for uncertain parameters including: length at 50% vulnerability to harvest (L(vul)), instantaneous natural mortality (M), and the Goodyear compensation ratio (CR). The model predicted an annual exploitation rate between 35 and 65% would be required to cause recruitment overfishing on lionfish populations for our baseline parameter estimates for M and CR (0.5 and 15). Lionfish quickly recovered from high removal rates, reaching 90% of unfished biomass six years after a 50-year simulated removal program. Quantifying lionfish natural mortality and the size-selective vulnerability to harvest are the most important knowledge gaps for future research. We suggest complete eradication of lionfish through fishing is unlikely, and substantial reduction of adult abundance will require a long-term commitment and may be feasible only in small, localized areas where annual exploitation can be intense over multiple consecutive years. PMID:21572951

  13. Grouper as a natural biocontrol of invasive lionfish.

    PubMed

    Mumby, Peter J; Harborne, Alastair R; Brumbaugh, Daniel R

    2011-01-01

    Lionfish (Pterois volitans/miles) have invaded the majority of the Caribbean region within five years. As voracious predators of native fishes with a broad habitat distribution, lionfish are poised to cause an unprecedented disruption to coral reef diversity and function. Controls of lionfish densities within its native range are poorly understood, but they have been recorded in the stomachs of large-bodied Caribbean groupers. Whether grouper predation of lionfish is sufficient to act as a biocontrol of the invasive species is unknown, but pest biocontrol by predatory fishes has been reported in other ecosystems. Groupers were surveyed along a chain of Bahamian reefs, including one of the region's most successful marine reserves which supports the top one percentile of Caribbean grouper biomass. Lionfish biomass exhibited a 7-fold and non-linear reduction in relation to the biomass of grouper. While Caribbean grouper appear to be a biocontrol of invasive lionfish, the overexploitation of their populations by fishers, means that their median biomass on Caribbean reefs is an order of magnitude less than in our study. Thus, chronic overfishing will probably prevent natural biocontrol of lionfishes in the Caribbean. PMID:21731769

  14. Evaluating the Potential Efficacy of Invasive Lionfish (Pterois volitans) Removals

    PubMed Central

    Barbour, Andrew B.; Allen, Michael S.; Frazer, Thomas K.; Sherman, Krista D.

    2011-01-01

    The lionfish, Pterois volitans (Linnaeus) and Pterois miles (Bennett), invasion of the Western Atlantic Ocean, Caribbean Sea and Gulf of Mexico has the potential to alter aquatic communities and represents a legitimate ecological concern. Several local removal programs have been initiated to control this invasion, but it is not known whether removal efforts can substantially reduce lionfish numbers to ameliorate these concerns. We used an age-structured population model to evaluate the potential efficacy of lionfish removal programs and identified critical data gaps for future studies. We used high and low estimates for uncertain parameters including: length at 50% vulnerability to harvest (Lvul), instantaneous natural mortality (M), and the Goodyear compensation ratio (CR). The model predicted an annual exploitation rate between 35 and 65% would be required to cause recruitment overfishing on lionfish populations for our baseline parameter estimates for M and CR (0.5 and 15). Lionfish quickly recovered from high removal rates, reaching 90% of unfished biomass six years after a 50-year simulated removal program. Quantifying lionfish natural mortality and the size-selective vulnerability to harvest are the most important knowledge gaps for future research. We suggest complete eradication of lionfish through fishing is unlikely, and substantial reduction of adult abundance will require a long-term commitment and may be feasible only in small, localized areas where annual exploitation can be intense over multiple consecutive years. PMID:21572951

  15. Invasive lionfish preying on critically endangered reef fish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rocha, Luiz A.; Rocha, Claudia R.; Baldwin, Carole C.; Weigt, Lee A.; McField, Melanie

    2015-09-01

    Caribbean coral reef ecosystems are at the forefront of a global decline and are now facing a new threat: elimination of vulnerable species by the invasive lionfish ( Pterois spp.). In addition to being threatened by habitat destruction and pollution, the critically endangered social wrasse ( Halichoeres socialis), endemic to Belize's inner barrier reef, has a combination of biological traits (small size, schooling, and hovering behavior) that makes it a target for the invasive lionfish. Based on stomach content analyses, this small fish comprises almost half of the lionfish diet at the inner barrier reef in Belize. The combination of lionfish predation, limited range, and ongoing habitat destruction makes the social wrasse the most threatened coral reef fish in the world. Other species with small range and similar traits occur elsewhere in the Caribbean and face similar risks.

  16. Re-examining the relationship between invasive lionfish and native grouper in the Caribbean

    PubMed Central

    Bruno, John F.; Cox, Courtney E.; Hackerott, Serena; Green, Stephanie J.

    2014-01-01

    Biotic resistance is the idea that native species negatively affect the invasion success of introduced species, but whether this can occur at large spatial scales is poorly understood. Here we re-evaluated the hypothesis that native large-bodied grouper and other predators are controlling the abundance of exotic lionfish (Pterois volitans/miles) on Caribbean coral reefs. We assessed the relationship between the biomass of lionfish and native predators at 71 reefs in three biogeographic regions while taking into consideration several cofactors that may affect fish abundance, including among others, proxies for fishing pressure and habitat structural complexity. Our results indicate that the abundance of lionfish, large-bodied grouper and other predators were not negatively related. Lionfish abundance was instead controlled by several physical site characteristics, and possibly by culling. Taken together, our results suggest that managers cannot rely on current native grouper populations to control the lionfish invasion. PMID:24765582

  17. Re-examining the relationship between invasive lionfish and native grouper in the Caribbean.

    PubMed

    Valdivia, Abel; Bruno, John F; Cox, Courtney E; Hackerott, Serena; Green, Stephanie J

    2014-01-01

    Biotic resistance is the idea that native species negatively affect the invasion success of introduced species, but whether this can occur at large spatial scales is poorly understood. Here we re-evaluated the hypothesis that native large-bodied grouper and other predators are controlling the abundance of exotic lionfish (Pterois volitans/miles) on Caribbean coral reefs. We assessed the relationship between the biomass of lionfish and native predators at 71 reefs in three biogeographic regions while taking into consideration several cofactors that may affect fish abundance, including among others, proxies for fishing pressure and habitat structural complexity. Our results indicate that the abundance of lionfish, large-bodied grouper and other predators were not negatively related. Lionfish abundance was instead controlled by several physical site characteristics, and possibly by culling. Taken together, our results suggest that managers cannot rely on current native grouper populations to control the lionfish invasion. PMID:24765582

  18. Invasive lionfish harbor a different external bacterial community than native Bahamian fishes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevens, J. L.; Olson, J. B.

    2013-12-01

    The introduction and subsequent spread of lionfish into the Atlantic Ocean and Caribbean Sea has become a worldwide conservation issue. These highly successful invaders may also be capable of introducing non-native microorganisms to the invaded regions. This study compared the bacterial communities associated with lionfish external tissue to those of native Bahamian fishes and ambient water. Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analyses demonstrated that lionfish bacterial communities were significantly different than those associated with three native Bahamian fishes. Additionally, all fishes harbored distinct bacterial communities from the ambient bacterioplankton. Analysis of bacterial clone libraries from invasive lionfish and native squirrelfish indicated that lionfish communities were more diverse than those associated with squirrelfish, yet did not contain known fish pathogens. Using microscopy and molecular genetic approaches, lionfish eggs were examined for the presence of bacteria to evaluate the capacity for vertical transmission. Eggs removed from the ovaries of gravid females were free of bacteria, suggesting that lionfish likely acquire bacteria from the environment. This study was the first examination of bacterial communities associated with the invasive lionfish and indicated that they support different communities of environmentally derived bacteria than Caribbean reef fishes.

  19. Are lionfish set for a Mediterranean invasion? Modelling explains why this is unlikely to occur.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Matthew W; Purkis, Sam J

    2014-11-15

    The Atlantic invasion of Indo-Pacific lionfish (Pterois volitans/P. miles) has been as swift as it has been disastrous. Lionfish are non-native to the Mediterranean, but an invasion is perhaps even more likely than for the Atlantic. First, as for the Atlantic, there are many major cities on the coast of the Mediterranean (where aquarium-keeping is a common practice and chances of accidental and deliberate releases are high), and second, lionfish are native to the Red Sea, to which the Mediterranean is connected via the Suez Canal. Furthermore, there have already been four records of lionfish in the Mediterranean and so the pretext for an invasion is already in place. Up until now, however, it has been difficult to gauge the likelihood of an infestation of lionfish in the Mediterranean as, unlike the Atlantic, this sea has not been examined in terms of its hydrodynamics, ocean climate, and bathymetry, all factors known to be relevant to assessing the possibility of invasion. Motivated by this knowledge-gap, this study used remote sensing and computer modeling to investigate the connectivity between areas along the Mediterranean coastline that fulfill the necessary physical criteria to serve as potential lionfish habitat. Model results from the Mediterranean were compared and contrasted to those from the Atlantic and eastern Pacific. The Atlantic was considered because the lionfish invasion there has been voracious. Meanwhile, the eastern Pacific is interesting as a site without native lionfish, but with plenty of opportunity for their introduction, but no invasion yet recorded. Results indicated that, unlike in the Atlantic, connectivity among potential lionfish habitats in the Mediterranean was low in the study and comparable to that in the eastern Pacific. Although oceanographic conditions in the Mediterranean were found unfavorable for wide dispersion of lionfish larvae, hotspots where numerous lionfish sightings would forewarn an impending invasion were

  20. Invasive lionfish (Pterois volitans): a potential human health threat for ciguatera fish poisoning in tropical waters.

    PubMed

    Robertson, Alison; Garcia, Ana C; Quintana, Harold A Flores; Smith, Tyler B; Castillo, Bernard F; Reale-Munroe, Kynoch; Gulli, Joseph A; Olsen, David A; Hooe-Rollman, Jennifer I; Jester, Edward L E; Klimek, Brian J; Plakas, Steven M

    2014-01-01

    Invasive Indo-Pacific lionfish (Pterois volitans) have rapidly expanded in the Western Atlantic over the past decade and have had a significant negative impact on reef fish biodiversity, habitat, and community structure, with lionfish out-competing native predators for resources. In an effort to reduce this population explosion, lionfish have been promoted for human consumption in the greater Caribbean region. This study examined whether the geographical expansion of the lionfish into a known ciguatera-endemic region can pose a human health threat for ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP). More than 180 lionfish were collected from waters surrounding the US Virgin Islands throughout 2010 and 2011. Ciguatoxin testing included an in vitro neuroblastoma cytotoxicity assay for composite toxicity assessment of sodium-channel toxins combined with confirmatory liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. A 12% prevalence rate of ciguatoxic lionfish exceeding the FDA guidance level of 0.1 µg/kg C-CTX-1 equivalents was identified in fish from the U.S. Virgin Islands, highlighting a potential consumption risk in this region. This study presents the first evidence that the invasive lionfish, pose a direct human health risk for CFP and highlights the need for awareness and research on this food safety hazard in known endemic areas. PMID:24378919

  1. Invasive Lionfish (Pterois volitans): A Potential Human Health Threat for Ciguatera Fish Poisoning in Tropical Waters

    PubMed Central

    Robertson, Alison; Garcia, Ana C.; Flores Quintana, Harold A.; Smith, Tyler B.; Castillo, Bernard F.; Reale-Munroe, Kynoch; Gulli, Joseph A.; Olsen, David A.; Hooe-Rollman, Jennifer I.; Jester, Edward L. E.; Klimek, Brian J.; Plakas, Steven M.

    2013-01-01

    Invasive Indo-Pacific lionfish (Pterois volitans) have rapidly expanded in the Western Atlantic over the past decade and have had a significant negative impact on reef fish biodiversity, habitat, and community structure, with lionfish out-competing native predators for resources. In an effort to reduce this population explosion, lionfish have been promoted for human consumption in the greater Caribbean region. This study examined whether the geographical expansion of the lionfish into a known ciguatera-endemic region can pose a human health threat for ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP). More than 180 lionfish were collected from waters surrounding the US Virgin Islands throughout 2010 and 2011. Ciguatoxin testing included an in vitro neuroblastoma cytotoxicity assay for composite toxicity assessment of sodium-channel toxins combined with confirmatory liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. A 12% prevalence rate of ciguatoxic lionfish exceeding the FDA guidance level of 0.1 µg/kg C-CTX-1 equivalents was identified in fish from the U.S. Virgin Islands, highlighting a potential consumption risk in this region. This study presents the first evidence that the invasive lionfish, pose a direct human health risk for CFP and highlights the need for awareness and research on this food safety hazard in known endemic areas. PMID:24378919

  2. Survival and growth of invasive Indo-Pacific lionfish at low salinities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schofield, Pamela J.; Huge, Dane H.; Rezek, Troy C.; Slone, Daniel H.; Morris, James A., Jr.

    2015-01-01

    Invasive Indo-Pacific lionfish [Pterois volitans (Linnaeus, 1758) and P. miles (Bennett, 1828)] are now established throughout the Western North Atlantic. Several studies have documented negative effects of lionfish on marine fauna including significant changes to reef fish community composition. Established populations of lionfish have been documented in several estuaries, and there is concern that the species may invade other low-salinity environments where they could potentially affect native fauna. To gain a better understanding of their low-salinity tolerance, we exposed lionfish to four salinities [5, 10, 20 and 34 (control)]. No lionfish mortality was observed at salinities of 34, 20 or 10, but all fish died at salinity = 5 within 12 days. Lionfish survived for at least a month at a salinity of 10 and an average of about a week at 5. Fish started the experiment at an average mass of 127.9 g, which increased at a rate of 0.55 g per day while they were alive, regardless of salinity treatment. Our research indicated lionfish can survive salinities down to 5 for short periods and thus may penetrate and persist in a variety of estuarine habitats. Further study is needed on effects of salinity levels on early life stages (eggs, larvae).

  3. Predicted impact of the invasive lionfish Pterois volitans on the food web of a Caribbean coral reef.

    PubMed

    Arias-González, Jesús Ernesto; González-Gándara, Carlos; Luis Cabrera, José; Christensen, Villy

    2011-10-01

    The invasion of lionfish in the Caribbean is causing grave concern because of its deleterious impacts on coral reef food-webs. We have used an Ecopath-with-Ecosim model to predict the impacts of lionfish invasion on a coral reef community based on pre-invasion fish community data. Forty-six groups were defined, and an initial Ecopath model was balanced with a near-zero biomass of lionfish. In Ecosim, the near-zero biomass was eradicated by applying a very high fishing pressure in the first year of simulation. We subsequently (re-)introduced lionfish with a very low biomass, and allowed them to increase to very high abundance. With a near-zero lionfish biomass, the great majority of mesocarnivorous/omnivorous coral reef fish were predicted to be dominant while sharks were predicted to be the apex predators. Different management scenarios were established in the ecosystem to explore the eradication and resilience of lionfish. The management scenarios showed that if all adult lionfish were exploitable it will in theory be possible to fish the lionfish to a very low level, but the fishing pressure will have to be maintained, or the lionfish will recover. If the largest individuals are unexploitable it will be much more difficult to control the lionfish population. PMID:21840517

  4. Spatial and temporal distribution of the invasive lionfish Pterois volitans in coral reefs of Tayrona National Natural Park, Colombian Caribbean

    PubMed Central

    Alarcón-Moscoso, Javier; Polanco F., Andrea; Wild, Christian

    2014-01-01

    The lionfish Pterois volitans is an invasive species throughout the Western Atlantic that disturbs functioning of local ecosystems such as coral reefs via fast and intense consumption of small fish and invertebrates. In 2009, lionfish populated the bays of Tayrona National Natural Park (TNNP), a biodiversity hotspot in the Colombian Caribbean that is strongly influenced by changing environmental conditions due to a rainy and dry season. So far, the spatial and temporal distribution of P. volitans in the bays of TNNP is unknown. Therefore, this study assessed the abundance and body lengths of P. volitans during monthly surveys throughout the year 2012 in four bays (thereof two bays where lionfish removals were undertaken) of TNNP at 10 m water depth in coral reefs using transect tools. Findings revealed lionfish abundances of 2.9 ± 0.9 individuals ha−1 with lengths of 20–25 cm for TNNP, hinting to an established, mostly adult local population. Actual TNNP lionfish abundances are thereby very similar to those at Indo–Pacific reef locations where the invasive lionfish formerly originated from. Significant spatial differences for lionfish abundances and body lengths between different bays in TNNP suggest habitat preferences of P. volitans depending on age. Lionfish abundances were highly variable over time, but without significant differences between seasons. Removals could not reduce lionfish abundances significantly during the period of study. This study therefore recommends improved management actions in order to control the already established invasive lionfish population in TNNP. PMID:24883257

  5. Spatial and temporal distribution of the invasive lionfish Pterois volitans in coral reefs of Tayrona National Natural Park, Colombian Caribbean.

    PubMed

    Bayraktarov, Elisa; Alarcón-Moscoso, Javier; Polanco F, Andrea; Wild, Christian

    2014-01-01

    The lionfish Pterois volitans is an invasive species throughout the Western Atlantic that disturbs functioning of local ecosystems such as coral reefs via fast and intense consumption of small fish and invertebrates. In 2009, lionfish populated the bays of Tayrona National Natural Park (TNNP), a biodiversity hotspot in the Colombian Caribbean that is strongly influenced by changing environmental conditions due to a rainy and dry season. So far, the spatial and temporal distribution of P. volitans in the bays of TNNP is unknown. Therefore, this study assessed the abundance and body lengths of P. volitans during monthly surveys throughout the year 2012 in four bays (thereof two bays where lionfish removals were undertaken) of TNNP at 10 m water depth in coral reefs using transect tools. Findings revealed lionfish abundances of 2.9 ± 0.9 individuals ha(-1) with lengths of 20-25 cm for TNNP, hinting to an established, mostly adult local population. Actual TNNP lionfish abundances are thereby very similar to those at Indo-Pacific reef locations where the invasive lionfish formerly originated from. Significant spatial differences for lionfish abundances and body lengths between different bays in TNNP suggest habitat preferences of P. volitans depending on age. Lionfish abundances were highly variable over time, but without significant differences between seasons. Removals could not reduce lionfish abundances significantly during the period of study. This study therefore recommends improved management actions in order to control the already established invasive lionfish population in TNNP. PMID:24883257

  6. Native Predators Do Not Influence Invasion Success of Pacific Lionfish on Caribbean Reefs

    PubMed Central

    Hackerott, Serena; Valdivia, Abel; Green, Stephanie J.; Côté, Isabelle M.; Cox, Courtney E.; Akins, Lad; Layman, Craig A.; Precht, William F.; Bruno, John F.

    2013-01-01

    Biotic resistance, the process by which new colonists are excluded from a community by predation from and/or competition with resident species, can prevent or limit species invasions. We examined whether biotic resistance by native predators on Caribbean coral reefs has influenced the invasion success of red lionfishes (Pterois volitans and Pterois miles), piscivores from the Indo-Pacific. Specifically, we surveyed the abundance (density and biomass) of lionfish and native predatory fishes that could interact with lionfish (either through predation or competition) on 71 reefs in three biogeographic regions of the Caribbean. We recorded protection status of the reefs, and abiotic variables including depth, habitat type, and wind/wave exposure at each site. We found no relationship between the density or biomass of lionfish and that of native predators. However, lionfish densities were significantly lower on windward sites, potentially because of habitat preferences, and in marine protected areas, most likely because of ongoing removal efforts by reserve managers. Our results suggest that interactions with native predators do not influence the colonization or post-establishment population density of invasive lionfish on Caribbean reefs. PMID:23874565

  7. Native predators do not influence invasion success of pacific lionfish on Caribbean reefs.

    PubMed

    Hackerott, Serena; Valdivia, Abel; Green, Stephanie J; Côté, Isabelle M; Cox, Courtney E; Akins, Lad; Layman, Craig A; Precht, William F; Bruno, John F

    2013-01-01

    Biotic resistance, the process by which new colonists are excluded from a community by predation from and/or competition with resident species, can prevent or limit species invasions. We examined whether biotic resistance by native predators on Caribbean coral reefs has influenced the invasion success of red lionfishes (Pterois volitans and Pterois miles), piscivores from the Indo-Pacific. Specifically, we surveyed the abundance (density and biomass) of lionfish and native predatory fishes that could interact with lionfish (either through predation or competition) on 71 reefs in three biogeographic regions of the Caribbean. We recorded protection status of the reefs, and abiotic variables including depth, habitat type, and wind/wave exposure at each site. We found no relationship between the density or biomass of lionfish and that of native predators. However, lionfish densities were significantly lower on windward sites, potentially because of habitat preferences, and in marine protected areas, most likely because of ongoing removal efforts by reserve managers. Our results suggest that interactions with native predators do not influence the colonization or post-establishment population density of invasive lionfish on Caribbean reefs. PMID:23874565

  8. Invasive Lionfish (Pterosis volitans) Pose Public Health Threats.

    PubMed

    Diaz, James H

    2015-01-01

    The lionfish, Pterosis volitans, a native of Indo-Pacific oceans, is a popular saltwater aquarium fish despite venomous spines on its fins. Lionfish were inadvertently introduced into the western Atlantic from Florida in the early 1990s and have overpopulated and dispersed widely into the Caribbean Sea and Gulf of Mexico. Initiatives to control lionfish populations were launched, including the National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)-sponsored "Lionfish as Food Campaign".2 Recently, scientists from the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) reported that lionfish caught off the US Virgin Islands contained ciguatoxins and could cause ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP); a seafood-borne poisoning without an antidote or any specific treatment, and a potential for prolonged neurotoxicity. Lionfish pose several public health threats. New strategies to control the lionfish population explosion in coastal waters and offshore fisheries are needed now to ensure seafood safety and public health. The lionfish, Pterosis volitans, is native to the reefs of the western Indian and Pacific Oceans (Figure 1). Brightly colored with red, white, and black stripes and adorned with feathery fins, the lionfish is a popular saltwater aquarium fish despite venomous spines on its fins (Figure 2). Lionfish were introduced into the western North Atlantic from Florida in the early 1990s after some specimens were discarded by dissatisfied amateur aquarists and others escaped from hurricane-flooded public aquariums.1 Since lionfish are voracious carnivores, have few natural predators, and reproduce prolifically, they have overpopulated and dispersed widely from Cape Hatteras to Florida, throughout the Caribbean Sea, and into the Gulf of Mexico.1 The population density of lionfish in its new, invaded territory now exceeds that of its native habitat.1 As a result, campaigns to control lionfish populations were launched in Florida and the Caribbean. Lionfish now pose several public

  9. First Record of Invasive Lionfish (Pterois volitans) for the Brazilian Coast.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Carlos E L; Luiz, Osmar J; Floeter, Sergio R; Lucena, Marcos B; Barbosa, Moysés C; Rocha, Claudia R; Rocha, Luiz A

    2015-01-01

    The invasion of the northwestern Atlantic by the Indo-Pacific lionfish has developed extraordinarily fast, and is expected to cause one of the most negative ecological impacts among all marine invasions. In less than 30 years, lionfish have dramatically expanded their distribution range to an area encompassing the eastern coast of the USA, Bermuda, the entire Caribbean region and the Gulf of Mexico. The rapidity of the lionfish spread has raised concerns in other parts of the Atlantic that may be under the reach of the invasion. Despite the anticipation that lionfish would eventually extend their range throughout most of the eastern coast of South America, it had not been recorded in Brazil until now. Here we report the first lionfish appearance for the Brazilian coast and show that the individual collected by us is genetically linked to the invasive Caribbean population. Since small-range endemics are found in several locations in Brazil and are among the species that are most vulnerable to extinction, we recommend urgent control, management and education measures aimed at minimizing the effects of this impending invasion. PMID:25901361

  10. First Record of Invasive Lionfish (Pterois volitans) for the Brazilian Coast

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Carlos E. L.; Luiz, Osmar J.; Floeter, Sergio R.; Lucena, Marcos B.; Barbosa, Moysés C.; Rocha, Claudia R.; Rocha, Luiz A.

    2015-01-01

    The invasion of the northwestern Atlantic by the Indo-Pacific lionfish has developed extraordinarily fast, and is expected to cause one of the most negative ecological impacts among all marine invasions. In less than 30 years, lionfish have dramatically expanded their distribution range to an area encompassing the eastern coast of the USA, Bermuda, the entire Caribbean region and the Gulf of Mexico. The rapidity of the lionfish spread has raised concerns in other parts of the Atlantic that may be under the reach of the invasion. Despite the anticipation that lionfish would eventually extend their range throughout most of the eastern coast of South America, it had not been recorded in Brazil until now. Here we report the first lionfish appearance for the Brazilian coast and show that the individual collected by us is genetically linked to the invasive Caribbean population. Since small-range endemics are found in several locations in Brazil and are among the species that are most vulnerable to extinction, we recommend urgent control, management and education measures aimed at minimizing the effects of this impending invasion. PMID:25901361

  11. Rapid invasion of the Indo-Pacific lionfishes (Pterois volitans and Pterois miles) in the Florida Keys, USA: evidence from multiple pre-and post-invasion data sets

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ruttenberg, Benjamin I.; Schofield, Pamela J.; Akins, J. Lad; Acosta, Alejandro; Feeley, Michael W.; Blondeau, Jeremiah; Smith, Steven G.; Ault, Jerald S.

    2012-01-01

    Over the past decade, Indo-Pacific lionfishes, Pterois volitans (Linnaeus, 1758) and Pterois miles (Bennett, 1828), venomous members of the scorpionfish family (Scorpaenidae), have invaded and spread throughout much of the tropical and subtropical northwestern Atlantic Ocean and Caribbean Sea. These species are generalist predators of fishes and invertebrates with the potential to disrupt the ecology of the invaded range. Lionfishes have been present in low numbers along the east coast of Florida since the 1980s, but were not reported in the Florida Keys until 2009. We document the appearance and rapid spread of lionfishes in the Florida Keys using multiple long-term data sets that include both pre- and post-invasion sampling. Our results are the first to quantify the invasion of lionfishes in a new area using multiple independent, ongoing monitoring data sets, two of which have explicit estimates of sampling effort. Between 2009 and 2011, lionfish frequency of occurrence, abundance, and biomass increased rapidly, increasing three- to six-fold between 2010 and 2011 alone. In addition, individuals were detected on a variety of reef and non-reef habitats throughout the Florida Keys. Because lionfish occurrence, abundance, and impacts are expected to continue to increase throughout the region, monitoring programs like those used in this study will be essential to document ecosystem changes that may result from this invasion.

  12. Spatial analysis of the invasion of lionfish in the western Atlantic and Caribbean.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Matthew W; Purkis, Samuel J

    2011-06-01

    Pterois volitans and Pterois miles, two sub-species of lionfish, have become the first non-native, invasive marine fish established along the United States Atlantic coast and Caribbean. The route and timing of the invasion is poorly understood, however historical sightings and captures have been robustly documented since their introduction. Herein we analyze these records based on spatial location, dates of arrival, and prevailing physical factors at the capture sights. Using a cellular automata model, we examine the relationship between depth, salinity, temperature, and current, finding the latter as the most influential parameter for transport of lionfish to new areas. The model output is a synthetic validated reproduction of the lionfish invasion, upon which predictive simulations in other locations can be based. This predictive model is simple, highly adaptable, relies entirely on publicly available data, and is applicable to other species. PMID:21511308

  13. Low Susceptibility of Invasive Red Lionfish (Pterois volitans) to a Generalist Ectoparasite in Both Its Introduced and Native Ranges

    PubMed Central

    Sikkel, Paul C.; Tuttle, Lillian J.; Cure, Katherine; Coile, Ann Marie; Hixon, Mark A.

    2014-01-01

    Escape from parasites in their native range is one of many mechanisms that can contribute to the success of an invasive species. Gnathiid isopods are blood-feeding ectoparasites that infest a wide range of fish hosts, mostly in coral reef habitats. They are ecologically similar to terrestrial ticks, with the ability to transmit blood-borne parasites and cause damage or even death to heavily infected hosts. Therefore, being highly resistant or highly susceptible to gnathiids can have significant fitness consequences for reef-associated fishes. Indo-Pacific red lionfish (Pterois volitans) have invaded coastal habitats of the western tropical and subtropical Atlantic and Caribbean regions. We assessed the susceptibility of red lionfish to parasitic gnathiid isopods in both their native Pacific and introduced Atlantic ranges via experimental field studies during which lionfish and other, ecologically-similar reef fishes were caged and exposed to gnathiid infestation on shallow coral reefs. Lionfish in both ranges had very few gnathiids when compared with other species, suggesting that lionfish are not highly susceptible to infestation by generalist ectoparasitic gnathiids. While this pattern implies that release from gnathiid infestation is unlikely to contribute to the success of lionfish as invaders, it does suggest that in environments with high gnathiid densities, lionfish may have an advantage over species that are more susceptible to gnathiids. Also, because lionfish are not completely resistant to gnathiids, our results suggest that lionfish could possibly have transported blood parasites between their native Pacific and invaded Atlantic ranges. PMID:24796701

  14. Low susceptibility of invasive red lionfish (Pterois volitans) to a generalist ectoparasite in both its introduced and native ranges.

    PubMed

    Sikkel, Paul C; Tuttle, Lillian J; Cure, Katherine; Coile, Ann Marie; Hixon, Mark A

    2014-01-01

    Escape from parasites in their native range is one of many mechanisms that can contribute to the success of an invasive species. Gnathiid isopods are blood-feeding ectoparasites that infest a wide range of fish hosts, mostly in coral reef habitats. They are ecologically similar to terrestrial ticks, with the ability to transmit blood-borne parasites and cause damage or even death to heavily infected hosts. Therefore, being highly resistant or highly susceptible to gnathiids can have significant fitness consequences for reef-associated fishes. Indo-Pacific red lionfish (Pterois volitans) have invaded coastal habitats of the western tropical and subtropical Atlantic and Caribbean regions. We assessed the susceptibility of red lionfish to parasitic gnathiid isopods in both their native Pacific and introduced Atlantic ranges via experimental field studies during which lionfish and other, ecologically-similar reef fishes were caged and exposed to gnathiid infestation on shallow coral reefs. Lionfish in both ranges had very few gnathiids when compared with other species, suggesting that lionfish are not highly susceptible to infestation by generalist ectoparasitic gnathiids. While this pattern implies that release from gnathiid infestation is unlikely to contribute to the success of lionfish as invaders, it does suggest that in environments with high gnathiid densities, lionfish may have an advantage over species that are more susceptible to gnathiids. Also, because lionfish are not completely resistant to gnathiids, our results suggest that lionfish could possibly have transported blood parasites between their native Pacific and invaded Atlantic ranges. PMID:24796701

  15. Regional Variation in Parasite Species Richness and Abundance in the Introduced Range of the Invasive Lionfish, Pterois volitans.

    PubMed

    Sellers, Andrew J; Ruiz, Gregory M; Leung, Brian; Torchin, Mark E

    2015-01-01

    Parasites can play an important role in biological invasions. While introduced species often lose parasites from their native range, they can also accumulate novel parasites in their new range. The accumulation of parasites by introduced species likely varies spatially, and more parasites may shift to new hosts where parasite diversity is high. Considering that parasitism and disease are generally more prevalent at lower latitudes, the accumulation of parasites by introduced hosts may be greater in tropical regions. The Indo-Pacific lionfish (Pterois volitans) has become widely distributed across the Western Atlantic. In this study, we compared parasitism across thirteen locations in four regions, spanning seventeen degrees of latitude in the lionfish's introduced range to examine potential spatial variation in parasitism. In addition, as an initial step to explore how indirect effects of parasitism might influence interactions between lionfish and ecologically similar native hosts, we also compared parasitism in lionfish and two co-occurring native fish species, the graysby grouper, Cephalopholis cruentata, and the lizardfish, Synodus intermedius, in the southernmost region, Panama. Our results show that accumulation of native parasites on lionfish varies across broad spatial scales, and that colonization by ectoparasites was highest in Panama, relative to the other study sites. Endoparasite richness and abundance, on the other hand, were highest in Belize where lionfish were infected by twice as many endoparasite species as lionfish in other regions. The prevalence of all but two parasite species infecting lionfish was below 25%, and we did not detect an association between parasite abundance and host condition, suggesting a limited direct effect of parasites on lionfish, even where parasitism was highest. Further, parasite species richness and abundance were significantly higher in both native fishes compared to lionfish, and parasite abundance was negatively

  16. Regional Variation in Parasite Species Richness and Abundance in the Introduced Range of the Invasive Lionfish, Pterois volitans

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Parasites can play an important role in biological invasions. While introduced species often lose parasites from their native range, they can also accumulate novel parasites in their new range. The accumulation of parasites by introduced species likely varies spatially, and more parasites may shift to new hosts where parasite diversity is high. Considering that parasitism and disease are generally more prevalent at lower latitudes, the accumulation of parasites by introduced hosts may be greater in tropical regions. The Indo-Pacific lionfish (Pterois volitans) has become widely distributed across the Western Atlantic. In this study, we compared parasitism across thirteen locations in four regions, spanning seventeen degrees of latitude in the lionfish's introduced range to examine potential spatial variation in parasitism. In addition, as an initial step to explore how indirect effects of parasitism might influence interactions between lionfish and ecologically similar native hosts, we also compared parasitism in lionfish and two co-occurring native fish species, the graysby grouper, Cephalopholis cruentata, and the lizardfish, Synodus intermedius, in the southernmost region, Panama. Our results show that accumulation of native parasites on lionfish varies across broad spatial scales, and that colonization by ectoparasites was highest in Panama, relative to the other study sites. Endoparasite richness and abundance, on the other hand, were highest in Belize where lionfish were infected by twice as many endoparasite species as lionfish in other regions. The prevalence of all but two parasite species infecting lionfish was below 25%, and we did not detect an association between parasite abundance and host condition, suggesting a limited direct effect of parasites on lionfish, even where parasitism was highest. Further, parasite species richness and abundance were significantly higher in both native fishes compared to lionfish, and parasite abundance was negatively

  17. Ecology and management of the invasive lionfish Pterois volitans/miles complex (Perciformes: Scorpaenidae) in Southern Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Sandel, Vera; Martínez-Fernández, Damián; Wangpraseurt, Daniel; Sierra, Luis

    2015-03-01

    Invasive species alter ecosystem integrity and functioning and are considered one of the major threats to biodiversity on a global scale. The indopacific lionfish (Plerois volitans [Linnaeus, 1758] / miles [Bennet, 1882] complex) is the first non-native marine fish that has established itself in the Western Atlantic. It was first reported in Florida in the 1980s and then spread across the entire Caribbean in subsequent years. In Costa Rica, lionfish were first sighted by the end of 2008 and are now present in all South Caribbean reefs. Lionfish are a major problem for local fisherman by displacing native fish species. The aim of this study was to determine population density, size and diet of lionfish populations at four study sites along the Southern Caribbean coast of Costa Rica. Two of the sites were located inside the National Park Cahuita where regular lionfish removal occurs, whereas the other two study sides do not experiment this kind of management. Total length and wet weight of >450 lionfish individuals were determined between March and June 2011. Three relative metrics of prey quantity (percent number, percent frequency, and percent weight) were compared from approximately 300 lionfish caught with the polespear in shallow waters (<7 m depth). Population density was assessed weekly through visual transect surveys. Our results showed that lionfish preyed mostly upon teleosts and crustaceans. Teleosts dominated lionfish diet in percent frequency (71%) and percent weight (85%), whereas crustaceans had the highest percent number (58%). The top five teleost families of dietary importance were Pomacentridae, Acanthuridae, Blennidae, Labridae and Serranidae. The average total length (+/- SD) of lionfish was 18.7 (+/- 5.7)cm and varied significantly between sites (p<0.001). Mean density of lionfish was 92fish/ha with no significant differences between sites. Smallest fish and lowest densities were found at the two sites inside the National Park Cahuita. Despite

  18. Hematology, plasma biochemistry, and tissue enzyme activities of invasive red lionfish captured off North Carolina, USA.

    PubMed

    Anderson, E T; Stoskopf, M K; Morris, J A; Clarke, E O; Harms, C A

    2010-12-01

    The red lionfish Pterois volitans is important not only in the aquarium trade but also as an invasive species in the western Atlantic. Introduced to waters off the southeastern coast of the United States, red lionfish have rapidly spread along much of the East Coast and throughout Bermuda, the Bahamas, and much of the Caribbean. Hematology and plasma biochemistry were evaluated in red lionfish captured from the offshore waters of North Carolina to establish baseline parameters for individual and population health assessment. Blood smears were evaluated for total and differential white blood cell counts, and routine clinical biochemical profiles were performed on plasma samples. To improve the interpretive value of routine plasma biochemistry profiles, tissue enzyme activities (alkaline phosphatase [ALP], alanine aminotransferase [ALT], aspartate aminotransferase [AST], gamma-glutamyl transferase [GGT], lactate dehydrogenase [LD], and creatine kinase [CK]) were analyzed from liver, kidney, skeletal muscle, gastrointestinal tract, and heart tissues from five fish. The hematological and plasma biochemical values were similar to those of other marine teleosts except that the estimated white blood cell counts were much lower than those routinely found in many species. The tissue enzyme activity findings suggest that plasma LD, CK, and AST offer clinical relevance in the assessment of red lionfish. PMID:21413511

  19. Modeling suitable habitat of invasive red lionfish Pterois volitans (Linnaeus, 1758) in North and South America’s coastal waters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Evangelista, Paul H.; Young, Nicholas E.; Schofield, Pamela J.; Jarnevich, Catherine S.

    2016-01-01

    We used two common correlative species-distribution models to predict suitable habitat of invasive red lionfish Pterois volitans (Linnaeus, 1758) in the western Atlantic and eastern Pacific Oceans. The Generalized Linear Model (GLM) and the Maximum Entropy (Maxent) model were applied using the Software for Assisted Habitat Modeling. We compared models developed using native occurrences, using non-native occurrences, and using both native and non-native occurrences. Models were trained using occurrence data collected before 2010 and evaluated with occurrence data collected from the invaded range during or after 2010. We considered a total of 22 marine environmental variables. Models built with non-native only or both native and non-native occurrence data outperformed those that used only native occurrences. Evaluation metrics based on the independent test data were highest for models that used both native and non-native occurrences. Bathymetry was the strongest environmental predictor for all models and showed increasing suitability as ocean floor depth decreased, with salinity ranking the second strongest predictor for models that used native and both native and non-native occurrences, indicating low habitat suitability for salinities <30. Our model results also suggest that red lionfish could continue to invade southern latitudes in the western Atlantic Ocean and may establish localized populations in the eastern Pacific Ocean. We reiterate the importance in the choice of the training data source (native, non-native, or native/non-native) used to develop correlative species distribution models for invasive species.

  20. Lionfish, Pterois volitans Linnaeus 1758, the complete mitochondrial DNA of an invasive species.

    PubMed

    Del Río-Portilla, Miguel A; Vargas-Peralta, Carmen E; Machkour-M'Rabet, Salima; Hénaut, Yann; García-De-León, Francisco J

    2016-01-01

    The lionfish, Pterois volitans, native from the Indo-Pacific, has been found in Atlantic and Caribbean waters and is considered as an invasive species. Here we sequence its mitogenome (Genbank accession number KJ739816), which has a total length of 16,500 bp, and the arrangement consist of 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes and 22 transfer RNA similar to other Pteroinae subfamily (family Scorpaenidae). This mitogenome will be useful for phylogenetic and population genetic studies of this invasive species. PMID:25187501

  1. Habitat-Specific Density and Diet of Rapidly Expanding Invasive Red Lionfish, Pterois volitans, Populations in the Northern Gulf of Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Dahl, Kristen A.; Patterson, William F.

    2014-01-01

    Invasive Indo-Pacific red lionfish, Pterois volitans, were first reported in the northern Gulf of Mexico (nGOM) in summer 2010. To examine potential impacts on native reef fish communities, lionfish density and size distributions were estimated from fall 2010 to fall 2013 with a remotely operated vehicle at natural (n = 16) and artificial (n = 22) reef sites. Lionfish (n = 934) also were sampled via spearfishing to examine effects of habitat type, season, and fish size on their diet and trophic ecology. There was an exponential increase in lionfish density at both natural and artificial reefs over the study period. By fall 2013, mean lionfish density at artificial reefs (14.7 fish 100 m−2) was two orders of magnitude higher than at natural reefs (0.49 fish 100 m−2), and already was among the highest reported in the western Atlantic. Lionfish diet was significantly different among habitats, seasons, and size classes, with smaller (<250 mm total length) fish consuming more benthic invertebrates and the diet of lionfish sampled from artificial reefs being composed predominantly of non-reef associated prey. The ontogenetic shift in lionfish feeding ecology was consistent with δ15N values of white muscle tissue that were positively related to total length. Overall, diet results indicate lionfish are generalist mesopredators in the nGOM that become more piscivorous at larger size. However, lionfish diet was much more varied at artificial reef sites where they clearly were foraging on open substrates away from reef structure. These results have important implications for tracking the lionfish invasion in the nGOM, as well as estimating potential direct and indirect impacts on native reef fish communities in this region. PMID:25170922

  2. Habitat-specific density and diet of rapidly expanding invasive red lionfish, Pterois volitans, populations in the northern Gulf of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Dahl, Kristen A; Patterson, William F

    2014-01-01

    Invasive Indo-Pacific red lionfish, Pterois volitans, were first reported in the northern Gulf of Mexico (nGOM) in summer 2010. To examine potential impacts on native reef fish communities, lionfish density and size distributions were estimated from fall 2010 to fall 2013 with a remotely operated vehicle at natural (n = 16) and artificial (n = 22) reef sites. Lionfish (n = 934) also were sampled via spearfishing to examine effects of habitat type, season, and fish size on their diet and trophic ecology. There was an exponential increase in lionfish density at both natural and artificial reefs over the study period. By fall 2013, mean lionfish density at artificial reefs (14.7 fish 100 m(-2)) was two orders of magnitude higher than at natural reefs (0.49 fish 100 m(-2)), and already was among the highest reported in the western Atlantic. Lionfish diet was significantly different among habitats, seasons, and size classes, with smaller (<250 mm total length) fish consuming more benthic invertebrates and the diet of lionfish sampled from artificial reefs being composed predominantly of non-reef associated prey. The ontogenetic shift in lionfish feeding ecology was consistent with δ15N values of white muscle tissue that were positively related to total length. Overall, diet results indicate lionfish are generalist mesopredators in the nGOM that become more piscivorous at larger size. However, lionfish diet was much more varied at artificial reef sites where they clearly were foraging on open substrates away from reef structure. These results have important implications for tracking the lionfish invasion in the nGOM, as well as estimating potential direct and indirect impacts on native reef fish communities in this region. PMID:25170922

  3. First record of a digenean from invasive lionfish, Pterois cf. volitans, (Scorpaeniformes: Scorpaenidae) in the northwestern Atlantic Ocean.

    PubMed

    Bullard, S A; Barse, A M; Curran, S S; Morris, J A

    2011-10-01

    Adults of Lecithochirium floridense (Digenea: Hemiuridae) parasitized the stomach in each of 22 necropsied lionfish, Pterois cf. volitans (Scorpaeniformes: Scorpaenidae) (prevalence  =  100%, mean intensity  =  11), captured in the northwestern Atlantic Ocean off Beaufort, North Carolina (34°14.83'N, 76°35.25'W). This is the first report of a digenean from the invasive lionfish and that of L. floridense from a species of Pterois. The leech specimen previously identified as Myzobdella lugubris from P. volitans in the northwestern Atlantic Ocean is re-identified as Trachelobdella lubrica based on a study of the original voucher specimen. PMID:21506808

  4. Wide-ranging phylogeographic structure of invasive red lionfish in the Western Atlantic and Greater Caribbean

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Butterfield, John S.; Díaz-Ferguson, Edgardo; Silliman, Brian R.; Saunders, Jonathan W.; Buddo, Dayne; Mignucci-Giannoni, Antonio A.; Searle, Linda; Allen, Aarin C; Hunter, Margaret E.

    2015-01-01

    The red lionfish (Pterois volitans) is an invasive predatory marine fish that has rapidly expanded its presence in the western hemisphere. We collected 214 invasive red lionfish samples from nine countries and territories, including seven unpublished locations. To evaluate connectivity better, we compiled our d-loop data with 846 published sequences resulting in 1060 samples from 14 locations. We found low nucleotide diversity (π=0.003) and moderate haplotype diversity (h=0.59). Using haplotype population pairwise ΦST tests, we analyzed possible phylogeographic breaks that were previously proposed based on other reef organisms. We found support for the Bahamas/Turks/Caicos vs. Caribbean break (ΦST=0.12) but not for the northwestern, eastern, or United States vs. Bahamas breaks. The northern region had higher variation and more haplotypes, supporting introduction(s) of at least five haplotypes in the region. Our wide-ranging samples showed that a lower-frequency haplotype in the north region dominated the southern region, and suggested multiple and possibly southern introductions. We tested multiple scenarios of phylogeographic structure with analyses of molecular variance and found support for a northern and southern region split at the Bahamas/Turks/Caicos vs. Caribbean break (percentage of variation among regions=8.49%). We found that Puerto Rico clustered with the southern region more strongly than with the northern region, as opposed to previous reports. We also found the rare haplotype, H03, for the first time in the southern Caribbean (Panama), indicating that either secondary releases occurred or that the low frequency haplotypes have had time to disperse to extreme southern Caribbean locations.

  5. Update on geographic spread of invasive lionfishes (Pterois volitans [Linnaeus, 1758] and P. miles [Bennett, 1828]) in the Western North Atlantic Ocean, Caribbean Sea and Gulf of Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schofield, Pamela J.

    2010-01-01

    The Indo-Pacific lionfishes (Pterois volitans [Linnaeus, 1758] and P. miles [Bennett, 1828]: Family Scorpaenidae) are the first nonnative marine fishes to establish in the Western North Atlantic/Caribbean region. The chronology of the invasion was reported last year (Schofield 2009) using records from the US Geological Survey's Nonindigenous Aquatic Species database. This article provides an update of lionfish geographic spread (as of October 2010) and predictions of future range.

  6. Habitat use patterns of the invasive red lionfish Pterois volitans: a comparison between mangrove and reef systems in San Salvador, Bahamas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pimiento, Catalina; Nifong, James C.; Hunter, Margaret E.; Monaco, Eric; Silliman, Brian R.

    2015-01-01

    The Indo-Pacific red lionfish Pterois volitans is widespread both in its native and its non-native habitats. The rapid invasion of this top predator has had a marked negative effect on fish populations in the Western Atlantic and the Caribbean. It is now well documented that lionfish are invading many tropical and sub-tropical habitats. However, there are fewer data available on the change in lionfish abundance over time and the variation of body size and diet across habitats. A recent study in San Salvador, Bahamas, found body size differences between individuals from mangrove and reef systems. That study further suggested that ontogenetic investigation of habitat use patterns could help clarify whether lionfish are using the mangrove areas of San Salvador as nurseries. The aim of the present study is to determine temporal trends in lionfish relative abundance in mangrove and reef systems in San Salvador, and to further assess whether there is evidence suggesting an ontogenetic shift from mangroves to reef areas. Accordingly, we collected lionfish from mangrove and reef habitats and calculated catch per unit effort (a proxy for relative abundance), compared body size distributions across these two systems, and employed a combination of stable isotope, stomach content, and genetic analyses of prey, to evaluate differences in lionfish trophic interactions and habitat use patterns. Our results show that populations may have increased in San Salvador during the last 4 years, and that there is a strong similarity in body size between habitats, stark differences in prey items, and no apparent overlap in the use of habitat and/or food resources. These results suggest that there is not evidence an for ontogenetic shift from mangroves to reefs, and support other studies that propose lionfish are opportunistic forages with little movement across habitats.

  7. Habitat complexity and fish size affect the detection of Indo-Pacific lionfish on invaded coral reefs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, S. J.; Tamburello, N.; Miller, S. E.; Akins, J. L.; Côté, I. M.

    2013-06-01

    A standard approach to improving the accuracy of reef fish population estimates derived from underwater visual censuses (UVCs) is the application of species-specific correction factors, which assumes that a species' detectability is constant under all conditions. To test this assumption, we quantified detection rates for invasive Indo-Pacific lionfish ( Pterois volitans and P. miles), which are now a primary threat to coral reef conservation throughout the Caribbean. Estimates of lionfish population density and distribution, which are essential for managing the invasion, are currently obtained through standard UVCs. Using two conventional UVC methods, the belt transect and stationary visual census (SVC), we assessed how lionfish detection rates vary with lionfish body size and habitat complexity (measured as rugosity) on invaded continuous and patch reefs off Cape Eleuthera, the Bahamas. Belt transect and SVC surveys performed equally poorly, with both methods failing to detect the presence of lionfish in >50 % of surveys where thorough, lionfish-focussed searches yielded one or more individuals. Conventional methods underestimated lionfish biomass by ~200 %. Crucially, detection rate varied significantly with both lionfish size and reef rugosity, indicating that the application of a single correction factor across habitats and stages of invasion is unlikely to accurately characterize local populations. Applying variable correction factors that account for site-specific lionfish size and rugosity to conventional survey data increased estimates of lionfish biomass, but these remained significantly lower than actual biomass. To increase the accuracy and reliability of estimates of lionfish density and distribution, monitoring programs should use detailed area searches rather than standard visual survey methods. Our study highlights the importance of accounting for sources of spatial and temporal variation in detection to increase the accuracy of survey data from

  8. Lionfish envenomation.

    PubMed

    Vetrano, Stephen J; Lebowitz, Jeffery B; Marcus, Steven

    2002-11-01

    Lionfish (Pterois volitans) are venomous fish most often found as aquarium pets throughout the United States. Lionfish envenomations frequently occur on the upper extremities, with pain as the predominant symptom. Immersing the injured part in warm (45 degrees C) water is considered the first and foremost important treatment as it is reported to relieve pain and inactivate the venom. Other methods of analgesia are discussed. We present a case of lionfish envenomation that failed to respond to warm water immersion. PMID:12480019

  9. In situ tagging technique for fishes provides insight into growth and movement of invasive lionfish.

    PubMed

    Akins, John L; Morris, James A; Green, Stephanie J

    2014-10-01

    Information on fish movement and growth is primarily obtained through the marking and tracking of individuals with external tags, which are usually affixed to anesthetized individuals at the surface. However, the quantity and quality of data obtained by this method is often limited by small sample sizes owing to the time associated with the tagging process, high rates of tagging-related mortality, and displacement of tagged individuals from the initial capture location. To address these issues, we describe a technique for applying external streamer and dart tags in situ, which uses SCUBA divers to capture and tag individual fish on the sea floor without the use of anesthetic. We demonstrate this method for Indo-Pacific lionfish (Pterois volitans/P. miles), species which are particularly vulnerable to barotrauma when transported to and handled at the surface. To test our method, we tagged 161 individuals inhabiting 26 coral reef locations in the Bahamas over a period of 3 years. Our method resulted in no instances of barotrauma, reduced handling and recovery time, and minimal post-tagging release displacement compared with conventional ex situ tag application. Opportunistic resighting and recapture of tagged individuals reveals that lionfish exhibit highly variable site fidelity, movement patterns, and growth rates on invaded coral reef habitats. In total, 24% of lionfish were resighted between 29 and 188 days after tagging. Of these, 90% were located at the site of capture, while the remaining individuals were resighted between 200 m and 1.1 km from initial site of capture over 29 days later. In situ growth rates ranged between 0.1 and 0.6 mm/day. While individuals tagged with streamer tags posted slower growth rates with increasing size, as expected, there was no relationship between growth rate and fish size for individuals marked with dart tags, potentially because of large effects of tag presence on the activities of small bodied lionfish (i.e., <150

  10. In situ tagging technique for fishes provides insight into growth and movement of invasive lionfish

    PubMed Central

    Akins, John L; Morris, James A; Green, Stephanie J

    2014-01-01

    Information on fish movement and growth is primarily obtained through the marking and tracking of individuals with external tags, which are usually affixed to anesthetized individuals at the surface. However, the quantity and quality of data obtained by this method is often limited by small sample sizes owing to the time associated with the tagging process, high rates of tagging-related mortality, and displacement of tagged individuals from the initial capture location. To address these issues, we describe a technique for applying external streamer and dart tags in situ, which uses SCUBA divers to capture and tag individual fish on the sea floor without the use of anesthetic. We demonstrate this method for Indo-Pacific lionfish (Pterois volitans/P. miles), species which are particularly vulnerable to barotrauma when transported to and handled at the surface. To test our method, we tagged 161 individuals inhabiting 26 coral reef locations in the Bahamas over a period of 3 years. Our method resulted in no instances of barotrauma, reduced handling and recovery time, and minimal post-tagging release displacement compared with conventional ex situ tag application. Opportunistic resighting and recapture of tagged individuals reveals that lionfish exhibit highly variable site fidelity, movement patterns, and growth rates on invaded coral reef habitats. In total, 24% of lionfish were resighted between 29 and 188 days after tagging. Of these, 90% were located at the site of capture, while the remaining individuals were resighted between 200 m and 1.1 km from initial site of capture over 29 days later. In situ growth rates ranged between 0.1 and 0.6 mm/day. While individuals tagged with streamer tags posted slower growth rates with increasing size, as expected, there was no relationship between growth rate and fish size for individuals marked with dart tags, potentially because of large effects of tag presence on the activities of small bodied lionfish (i.e., <150

  11. Geographic extent and chronology of the invasion of non-native lionfish (Pterois volitans [Linnaeus 1758] and P. miles [Bennett 1828]) in the Western North Atlantic and Caribbean Sea

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schofield, Pamela J.

    2009-01-01

    The Indo-Pacific lionfishes (Pterois volitans [Linnaeus 1758] and P. miles [Bennett 1828]: Family Scorpaenidae) are the first non-native marine fishes to establish in the Western North Atlantic. The chronology of the invasion is reported here using records from the US Geological Survey's Nonindigenous Aquatic Species database. Currently, lionfish are established off the Atlantic coast of the USA from the Florida Keys to Cape Hatteras (North Carolina), the Great Antilles, Bermuda, Bahamas, Cayman Islands and Turks and Caicos. The species have been reported from only one island in the Lesser Antilles (St. Croix), but it is not yet established there. Lionfish are established in Mexico, Honduras and Costa Rica. Reports have come from the Gulf of Mexico (Florida), Belize, Panama and Colombia; although lionfish are not considered established in these localities at this time (August 2009), invasion is likely imminent.

  12. The invasive lionfish, Pterois volitans, used as a sentinel species to assess the organochlorine pollution by chlordecone in Guadeloupe (Lesser Antilles).

    PubMed

    Charlotte, Dromard R; Yolande, Bouchon-Navaro; Cordonnier, Sebastien; Claude, Bouchon

    2016-06-15

    In Guadeloupe, many marine organisms are affected by an organochlorine pollution used in the past by the banana industry to fight against the banana weevil. In the present study, we evaluated the level of contamination of the invasive Indo-Pacific lionfish, Pterois volitans, all around the island. Concentrations of chlordecone varied from 3 to 144μg.kg(-1) wet weight. The highest concentrations were recorded when samples were captured in the marine zones located downstream of the previous banana plantations. This contamination seemed to decrease rapidly with the distance from the coast. Mean concentration of chlordecone in Pterois volitans was higher than that of five other fish species collected in similar sites. Due to its position at the top of the trophic web, lionfish was affected by bioaccumulation of chlordecone and can be used as a sentinel species to assess and control the level of contamination of the marine environment by chlordecone. PMID:27113021

  13. Monitoring an Alien Invasion: DNA Barcoding and the Identification of Lionfish and Their Prey on Coral Reefs of the Mexican Caribbean

    PubMed Central

    Valdez-Moreno, Martha; Quintal-Lizama, Carolina; Gómez-Lozano, Ricardo; García-Rivas, María del Carmen

    2012-01-01

    Background In the Mexican Caribbean, the exotic lionfish Pterois volitans has become a species of great concern because of their predatory habits and rapid expansion onto the Mesoamerican coral reef, the second largest continuous reef system in the world. This is the first report of DNA identification of stomach contents of lionfish using the barcode of life reference database (BOLD). Methodology/Principal Findings We confirm with barcoding that only Pterois volitans is apparently present in the Mexican Caribbean. We analyzed the stomach contents of 157 specimens of P. volitans from various locations in the region. Based on DNA matches in the Barcode of Life Database (BOLD) and GenBank, we identified fishes from five orders, 14 families, 22 genera and 34 species in the stomach contents. The families with the most species represented were Gobiidae and Apogonidae. Some prey taxa are commercially important species. Seven species were new records for the Mexican Caribbean: Apogon mosavi, Coryphopterus venezuelae, C. thrix, C. tortugae, Lythrypnus minimus, Starksia langi and S. ocellata. DNA matches, as well as the presence of intact lionfish in the stomach contents, indicate some degree of cannibalism, a behavior confirmed in this species by the first time. We obtained 45 distinct crustacean prey sequences, from which only 20 taxa could be identified from the BOLD and GenBank databases. The matches were primarily to Decapoda but only a single taxon could be identified to the species level, Euphausia americana. Conclusions/Significance This technique proved to be an efficient and useful method, especially since prey species could be identified from partially-digested remains. The primary limitation is the lack of comprehensive coverage of potential prey species in the region in the BOLD and GenBank databases, especially among invertebrates. PMID:22675470

  14. Photo-identification as a simple tool for studying invasive lionfish Pterois volitans populations.

    PubMed

    Chaves, L C T; Hall, J; Feitosa, J L L; Côté, I M

    2016-02-01

    Photo-tagging, i.e. using a specific software to match colour patterns on photographs, was tested as a means to identify individual Indo-Pacific Pterois volitans to assist with population and movement studies of this invasive species. The stripe pattern on the flank of adult P. volitans (n = 48) was the most individually distinctive of three body regions tested, leading to correct individual identification on 68 and 82% of tests with a single and two images of the reference individual, respectively. Photo-tagging is inexpensive, logistically simple and can involve citizen scientists, making it a viable alternative to traditional tagging to provide information on P. volitans distribution, movement patterns and recolonization rates after removals. PMID:26694077

  15. Total mercury concentrations in lionfish (Pterois volitans/miles) from the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Huge, Dane H.; Schofield, Pamela J.; Jacoby, Charles A.; Frazer, Thomas K.

    2014-01-01

    Strategies to control invasive lionfish in the western Atlantic and Caribbean are likely to include harvest and consumption. Until this report, total mercury concentrations had been documented only for lionfish from Jamaica, and changes in concentrations with increasing fish size had not been evaluated. In the Florida Keys, total mercury concentrations in dorsal muscle tissue from 107 lionfish ranged from 0.03 to 0.48 ppm, with all concentrations being less than the regulatory threshold for limited consumption. Mercury concentrations did not vary consistently with standard lengths or wet weights of lionfish. In 2010, lionfish from the upper Keys had mean concentrations that were 0.03–0.04 ppm higher than lionfish from the middle Keys, but mean concentrations did not differ consistently among years and locations. Overall, total mercury concentrations in lionfish were lower than those in several predatory fishes that support commercial and recreational fisheries in Florida.

  16. Total mercury concentrations in lionfish (Pterois volitans/miles) from the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary, USA.

    PubMed

    Huge, Dane H; Schofield, Pamela J; Jacoby, Charles A; Frazer, Thomas K

    2014-01-15

    Strategies to control invasive lionfish in the western Atlantic and Caribbean are likely to include harvest and consumption. Until this report, total mercury concentrations had been documented only for lionfish from Jamaica, and changes in concentrations with increasing fish size had not been evaluated. In the Florida Keys, total mercury concentrations in dorsal muscle tissue from 107 lionfish ranged from 0.03 to 0.48 ppm, with all concentrations being less than the regulatory threshold for limited consumption. Mercury concentrations did not vary consistently with standard lengths or wet weights of lionfish. In 2010, lionfish from the upper Keys had mean concentrations that were 0.03-0.04 ppm higher than lionfish from the middle Keys, but mean concentrations did not differ consistently among years and locations. Overall, total mercury concentrations in lionfish were lower than those in several predatory fishes that support commercial and recreational fisheries in Florida. PMID:24341943

  17. Lionfish envenomations in Poland.

    PubMed

    Satora, Leszek

    2009-01-01

    14 injuries caused by lionfish Pterois volitans (L) kept in home aquariums were noted over a time period of 3 years. All the punctures occurred in the victims' hands. Intense pain and systemic findings observed in 11 patients. Enveno-mations had a mild course, the patients were treated for their symptoms. Toxicology information centers have also recorded 3 cases of exposure to tank-bred lionfish in which typical envenomation symptoms did not appear. Those cases were probably what is referred to as "empty stings", in which no toxin is injected into the victim's body. Empty stings are known to be made by snakes, which can consciously inject no venom, while for lionfish, the lack of exposure to venom was probably caused by the structure of the venom organ in which there was no channel to deliver the venom. PMID:19788130

  18. Ultimate Predators: Lionfish Have Evolved to Circumvent Prey Risk Assessment Abilities

    PubMed Central

    Lönnstedt, Oona M.; McCormick, Mark I.

    2013-01-01

    Invasive species cause catastrophic alterations to communities worldwide by changing the trophic balance within ecosystems. Ever since their introduction in the mid 1980's common red lionfish, Pterois volitans, are having dramatic impacts on the Caribbean ecosystem by displacing native species and disrupting food webs. Introduced lionfish capture prey at extraordinary rates, altering the composition of benthic communities. Here we demonstrate that the extraordinary success of the introduced lionfish lies in its capacity to circumvent prey risk assessment abilities as it is virtually undetectable by prey species in its native range. While experienced prey damselfish, Chromis viridis, respond with typical antipredator behaviours when exposed to a common predatory rock cod (Cephalopholis microprion) they fail to visibly react to either the scent or visual presentation of the red lionfish, and responded only to the scent (not the visual cue) of a lionfish of a different genus, Dendrochirus zebra. Experienced prey also had much higher survival when exposed to the two non-invasive predators compared to P. volitans. The cryptic nature of the red lionfish has enabled it to be destructive as a predator and a highly successful invasive species. PMID:24146775

  19. Ultimate predators: lionfish have evolved to circumvent prey risk assessment abilities.

    PubMed

    Lönnstedt, Oona M; McCormick, Mark I

    2013-01-01

    Invasive species cause catastrophic alterations to communities worldwide by changing the trophic balance within ecosystems. Ever since their introduction in the mid 1980's common red lionfish, Pterois volitans, are having dramatic impacts on the Caribbean ecosystem by displacing native species and disrupting food webs. Introduced lionfish capture prey at extraordinary rates, altering the composition of benthic communities. Here we demonstrate that the extraordinary success of the introduced lionfish lies in its capacity to circumvent prey risk assessment abilities as it is virtually undetectable by prey species in its native range. While experienced prey damselfish, Chromis viridis, respond with typical antipredator behaviours when exposed to a common predatory rock cod (Cephalopholis microprion) they fail to visibly react to either the scent or visual presentation of the red lionfish, and responded only to the scent (not the visual cue) of a lionfish of a different genus, Dendrochirus zebra. Experienced prey also had much higher survival when exposed to the two non-invasive predators compared to P. volitans. The cryptic nature of the red lionfish has enabled it to be destructive as a predator and a highly successful invasive species. PMID:24146775

  20. Further evidence for the invasion and establishment of Pterois volitans (Teleostei: Scorpaenidae) along the Atlantic Coast of the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meister, H.S.; Wyanski, D.M.; Loefer, J.K.; Ross, S.W.; Quattrini, A.M.; Sulak, K.J.

    2005-01-01

    We document the continued population expansion of red lionfish, Pterois volitans, the first documented successful introduction of an invasive marine fish species from the western Pacific to Atlantic coastal waters of the United States. Red lionfish are indigenous to the Indo-Pacific and have apparently established one or more breeding populations on reefs off the southeastern United States. Fifty-nine specimens, most presumably adult red lionfish, were documented or collected on live-bottom reefs off North Carolina, South Carolina, and Florida, and on a manmade structure off Georgia. Observation/collection depths and bottom water temperatures for these fish ranged from 40-99 m and 13.8-24.4??C, respectively. Eleven juvenile lionfish, believed to be expatriated from southeastern waters, were collected in estuaries along the coast of Long Island, NY, at depths of 0-5 m and water temperatures ranging from 13.8-16.5??C. Twelve of the total 70 specimens collected or observed were positively identified as red lionfish. Based on histological assessment of gonad tissue, two reproductively-active males and one immature female were collected. The life history of red lionfish, especially their reproductive biology and food habits, should be investigated along the east coast of the US to determine the potential impacts of this species on ecosystems they have invaded.

  1. The status and management of the lionfish, Pterois sp. in Trinidad and Tobago.

    PubMed

    Alemu I, Jahson B

    2016-08-15

    Trinidad and Tobago was the last Caribbean island to be invaded by the lionfish and since its invasion in 2012 they have spread to most coral reef and hard bottom environments. Standard reef fish surveys were used to assess lionfish population densities and size distributions from 2013-2015. Total lengths ranged between 6.2-40.4cm and 2.2-950g in weight. The length-weight relationship was described by W=0.0002L(2.5654). Fish densities were highest in the northeast Tobago at 326lionfish/ha and the lowest in the southwest Tobago at 10.5lionfish/ha. In order to curtail the spread of this invasive species, a culling programme was initiated at selected reefs to regularly remove lionfish at monthly intervals. On the selected reefs 26-30% reduction in mean lionfish biomass and 25-27% reduction in abundance was noted compared to control sites (p<0.05). PMID:27236231

  2. Lionfish envenomation of the hand.

    PubMed

    Patel, M R; Wells, S

    1993-05-01

    Lionfish (Pterois volitans) envenomation of the hand causes excruciating pain and occurs in three grades: (1) erythematous reaction, (2) blister formation, and (3) dermal necrosis. The initial treatment in all cases is to soak the hand in nonscalding water (45 degrees C) until the pain subsides by denaturing the thermolabile venom proteins. The blisters should be immediately excised to prevent dermal necrosis, inasmuch as the blister fluid contains residual active venom. To prevent a hypersensitivity reaction, any further contact with the fish should be avoided. PMID:8515029

  3. Prevalence of ciguatoxins in lionfish (Pterois spp.) from Guadeloupe, Saint Martin, and Saint Barthélmy Islands (Caribbean).

    PubMed

    Soliño, Lucía; Widgy, Saha; Pautonnier, Anthony; Turquet, Jean; Loeffler, Christopher R; Flores Quintana, Harold A; Diogène, Jorge

    2015-08-01

    Lionfish (Pterois spp.) are invasive species that have recently spread throughout the Caribbean. Lionfish are available for purchase in local markets for human consumption in several islands of the region. We examined the prevalence of ciguatoxins (CTXs) in lionfish from the French Antilles, a ciguatera-endemic region. The neuroblastoma-2a (N2a) cell assay was used to assess composite cytotoxicity in 120 fish samples collected from the surrounding waters of Guadeloupe (n = 60), Saint Barthélemy Islands (n = 55) and Saint Martin (n = 5). Twenty-seven of these samples exhibited CTX-like activity by the N2a assay. Ciguatoxin (CTX) was confirmed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) in multiple samples that presented highest composite toxicity levels by N2a. Those fish found to contain CTXs were all from Saint Barthélemy. Lionfish from Guadeloupe and Saint Martin did not exhibit toxin activity, although the sample size from Saint Martin was insufficient to draw any conclusions as to the incidence of CTXs. In this study, we provide information about the potential hazard of ciguatera associated with the consumption of lionfish from known endemic areas. We also demonstrate the utility of the cell-based assay combined with LC-MS/MS to assess activity and to provide structural confirmation of CTXs respectively. PMID:26026621

  4. Lionfish on the Loose in the Waters off St Vincent

    PubMed Central

    Welsh, JS; Young, J; Gupta, R

    2014-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to determine if the exotic venomous species, Pterois volitans (lionfish) had reached as far south as St Vincent in the Caribbean. This predatory marine fish has successfully invaded the waters of the Western Atlantic and the Caribbean. Such success as an exotic invasive species is rare for a predatory marine fish. It is possible that the fish are growing larger and spreading faster than anticipated, thanks to a lower burden of parasites and a paucity of natural predators in their new environment. But prior to this report, no sightings of this species this far south had been reported. Methods The authors conducted a search along with the help of local divers and fishermen in the waters of St Vincent. Results Approximately one year after the initiation of the search, a juvenile specimen was positively confirmed and captured off the southern coast of St Vincent. Conclusions The exotic predatory and venomous red lionfish, Pterois volitans, has successfully invaded marine waters as far south as the Windward Islands. Fishermen in these regions should be aware of this venomous species in the region and physicians must be aware of how to manage stings from such animals. PMID:25303255

  5. Invasion percolation between two wells in continuous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sang Bub

    2016-03-01

    Invasion percolation between two wells was studied in continuous media consisted of overlapping disks and spheres. The invasion percolation between injection and extraction wells occurs when a fluid injected through the injection well invades less pressurized neighboring pores until it reaches the extraction well. Attention was paid to whether the probability distribution of the invading mass m and the fractal dimension of the clusters of invaded pore particles remain similar to those of the lattice model. Our results indicated that the power α characterizing the probability distribution via P( m) ∝ m - α was considerably larger than that of the lattice model for a reduced volume density η = η c of pore particles, η c being the percolation critical density, and that it converged to the value for the lattice model for p e = 0 as η was increased, where p e is the pressure of an extraction site for the lattice model. The fractal dimension of the invaded clusters was found to be similar to that of the ordinary lattice percolation clusters generated at the percolation threshold. The scaling of the invaded clusters was also examined, and it held in both two and three dimensions.

  6. Continuous non-invasive finger blood pressure monitoring in children.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, H; Thulesius, O; Yamaguchi, H; Mino, M; Konishi, K

    1994-06-01

    We evaluated the performance of continuous non-invasive finger arterial pressure measurement using the volume-clamp technique (Finapres). This study was designed to compare finger arterial pressure with brachial blood pressure estimated by the auscultatory method in 217 children (90 boys and 127 girls) aged 4-16 years and in 38 adults (aged 18-45 years). Finger and brachial artery pressure readings were obtained consecutively from the ipsilateral side in the supine position. Finger arterial pressure waveforms were recorded in all children except 4 with small and thin fingers. There was good agreement for systolic pressure with only a slight underestimation of 1.9 mmHg and 5.1 mmHg lower for diastolic pressure. This difference most probably reflects inaccuracy of the auscultatory cuff method rather than an error in the Finapres. There was large inter-individual variability in Finapres recordings which might be due to differences in vasomotor tone, as demonstrated by systolic amplification in 5 patients with anorexia. However, Finapres showed a small within-subject variability (3.8 mmHg for systolic and 4.1 mmHg for diastolic pressure) determined in 5 patients during phenylephrine infusion, and as good reproducibility as the auscultatory method. These results suggest that finger arterial pressure measurement in children older than 6 years of age has similar accuracy as that in adults, and that this method is useful for clinical applications in children, especially for the non-invasive evaluation of autonomic control and cardiovascular reflexes involving transient and rapid blood pressure changes. PMID:7919764

  7. Lionfish envenomations in an urban wilderness.

    PubMed

    Aldred, B; Erickson, T; Lipscomb, J

    1996-11-01

    Marine envenomations are commonly encountered along coastal regions of the United States. Although less frequent, marine bites and stings do occur in landlocked locales, such as the Midwest, because of an increased interest in keeping these exotic creatures as pets. We report 33 cases of envenomations by captive lionfish (Pterois volitans) called to a regional Chicago poison control center over a 2-year period. All stings were accidental, and 10 (30%) were treated in an emergency department. The wounds were uniformly on the hand, and all presented with local, intense pain. The majority of envenomations were responsive to prompt immersion in nonscalding water within 90 min, and all were advised on tetanus prophylaxis and local wound care. Two patients (6%) required hospitalization. In all cases, those patients envenomated recovered without permanent sequelae. As a result of increasing encounters with lionfish as pets, health care providers. regardless of their locale, should be familiar with the current treatment recommendations. PMID:11990126

  8. Predicting spatial and temporal distribution of Indo-Pacific lionfish (Pterois volitans) in Biscayne Bay through habitat suitability modeling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bernal, Nicholas A.; DeAngelis, Donald L.; Schofield, Pamela J.; Sullivan Sealey, Kathleen

    2014-01-01

    Invasive species may exhibit higher levels of growth and reproduction when environmental conditions are most suitable, and thus their effects on native fauna may be intensified. Understanding potential impacts of these species, especially in the nascent stages of a biological invasion, requires critical information concerning spatial and temporal distributions of habitat suitability. Using empirically supported environmental variables (e.g., temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen, rugosity, and benthic substrate), our models predicted habitat suitability for the invasive lionfish (Pterois volitans) in Biscayne Bay, Florida. The use of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) as a platform for the modeling process allowed us to quantify correlations between temporal (seasonal) fluctuations in the above variables and the spatial distribution of five discrete habitat quality classes, whose ranges are supported by statistical deviations from the apparent best conditions described in prior studies. Analysis of the resulting models revealed little fluctuation in spatial extent of the five habitat classes on a monthly basis. Class 5, which represented the area with environmental variables closest to the best conditions for lionfish, occupied approximately one-third of Biscayne Bay, with subsequent habitats declining in area. A key finding from this study was that habitat suitability increased eastward from the coastline, where higher quality habitats were adjacent to the Atlantic Ocean and displayed marine levels of ambient water quality. Corroboration of the models with sightings from the USGS-NAS database appeared to support our findings by nesting 79 % of values within habitat class 5; however, field testing (i.e., lionfish surveys) is necessary to confirm the relationship between habitat classes and lionfish distribution.

  9. What doesn't kill you makes you wary? Effect of repeated culling on the behaviour of an invasive predator.

    PubMed

    Côté, Isabelle M; Darling, Emily S; Malpica-Cruz, Luis; Smith, Nicola S; Green, Stephanie J; Curtis-Quick, Jocelyn; Layman, Craig

    2014-01-01

    As a result of being hunted, animals often alter their behaviour in ways that make future encounters with predators less likely. When hunting is carried out for conservation, for example to control invasive species, these behavioural changes can inadvertently impede the success of future efforts. We examined the effects of repeated culling by spearing on the behaviour of invasive predatory lionfish (Pterois volitans/miles) on Bahamian coral reef patches. We compared the extent of concealment and activity levels of lionfish at dawn and midday on 16 coral reef patches off Eleuthera, The Bahamas. Eight of the patches had been subjected to regular daytime removals of lionfish by spearing for two years. We also estimated the distance at which lionfish became alert to slowly approaching divers on culled and unculled reef patches. Lionfish on culled reefs were less active and hid deeper within the reef during the day than lionfish on patches where no culling had occurred. There were no differences at dawn when removals do not take place. Lionfish on culled reefs also adopted an alert posture at a greater distance from divers than lionfish on unculled reefs. More crepuscular activity likely leads to greater encounter rates by lionfish with more native fish species because the abundance of reef fish outside of shelters typically peaks at dawn and dusk. Hiding deeper within the reef could also make remaining lionfish less likely to be encountered and more difficult to catch by spearfishers during culling efforts. Shifts in the behaviour of hunted invasive animals might be common and they have implications both for the impact of invasive species and for the design and success of invasive control programs. PMID:24705447

  10. What Doesn't Kill You Makes You Wary? Effect of Repeated Culling on the Behaviour of an Invasive Predator

    PubMed Central

    Côté, Isabelle M.; Darling, Emily S.; Malpica-Cruz, Luis; Smith, Nicola S.; Green, Stephanie J.; Curtis-Quick, Jocelyn; Layman, Craig

    2014-01-01

    As a result of being hunted, animals often alter their behaviour in ways that make future encounters with predators less likely. When hunting is carried out for conservation, for example to control invasive species, these behavioural changes can inadvertently impede the success of future efforts. We examined the effects of repeated culling by spearing on the behaviour of invasive predatory lionfish (Pterois volitans/miles) on Bahamian coral reef patches. We compared the extent of concealment and activity levels of lionfish at dawn and midday on 16 coral reef patches off Eleuthera, The Bahamas. Eight of the patches had been subjected to regular daytime removals of lionfish by spearing for two years. We also estimated the distance at which lionfish became alert to slowly approaching divers on culled and unculled reef patches. Lionfish on culled reefs were less active and hid deeper within the reef during the day than lionfish on patches where no culling had occurred. There were no differences at dawn when removals do not take place. Lionfish on culled reefs also adopted an alert posture at a greater distance from divers than lionfish on unculled reefs. More crepuscular activity likely leads to greater encounter rates by lionfish with more native fish species because the abundance of reef fish outside of shelters typically peaks at dawn and dusk. Hiding deeper within the reef could also make remaining lionfish less likely to be encountered and more difficult to catch by spearfishers during culling efforts. Shifts in the behaviour of hunted invasive animals might be common and they have implications both for the impact of invasive species and for the design and success of invasive control programs. PMID:24705447

  11. Tissue-informative mechanism for wearable non-invasive continuous blood pressure monitoring.

    PubMed

    Woo, Sung Hun; Choi, Yun Young; Kim, Dae Jung; Bien, Franklin; Kim, Jae Joon

    2014-01-01

    Accurate continuous direct measurement of the blood pressure is currently available thru direct invasive methods via intravascular needles, and is mostly limited to use during surgical procedures or in the intensive care unit (ICU). Non-invasive methods that are mostly based on auscultation or cuff oscillometric principles do provide relatively accurate measurement of blood pressure. However, they mostly involve physical inconveniences such as pressure or stress on the human body. Here, we introduce a new non-invasive mechanism of tissue-informative measurement, where an experimental phenomenon called subcutaneous tissue pressure equilibrium is revealed and related for application in detection of absolute blood pressure. A prototype was experimentally verified to provide an absolute blood pressure measurement by wearing a watch-type measurement module that does not cause any discomfort. This work is supposed to contribute remarkably to the advancement of continuous non-invasive mobile devices for 24-7 daily-life ambulatory blood-pressure monitoring. PMID:25331013

  12. Tissue-Informative Mechanism for Wearable Non-invasive Continuous Blood Pressure Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woo, Sung Hun; Choi, Yun Young; Kim, Dae Jung; Bien, Franklin; Kim, Jae Joon

    2014-10-01

    Accurate continuous direct measurement of the blood pressure is currently available thru direct invasive methods via intravascular needles, and is mostly limited to use during surgical procedures or in the intensive care unit (ICU). Non-invasive methods that are mostly based on auscultation or cuff oscillometric principles do provide relatively accurate measurement of blood pressure. However, they mostly involve physical inconveniences such as pressure or stress on the human body. Here, we introduce a new non-invasive mechanism of tissue-informative measurement, where an experimental phenomenon called subcutaneous tissue pressure equilibrium is revealed and related for application in detection of absolute blood pressure. A prototype was experimentally verified to provide an absolute blood pressure measurement by wearing a watch-type measurement module that does not cause any discomfort. This work is supposed to contribute remarkably to the advancement of continuous non-invasive mobile devices for 24-7 daily-life ambulatory blood-pressure monitoring.

  13. Toward minimally invasive, continuous glucose monitoring in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vrancic, Christian; Gretz, Norbert; Kröger, Niels; Neudecker, Sabine; Pucci, Annemarie; Petrich, Wolfgang

    2012-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a disorder of glucose metabolism and it is one of the most challenging diseases, both from a medical and economic perspective. People with diabetes can benefit from a frequent or even continuous monitoring of their blood glucose concentrations. The approach presented here takes advantage of the observational nature of biomedical vibrational spectroscopy in contrast to chemical reactions which consume glucose. The particular technique employed here is based on the high sensitivity of mid-infrared transmission spectroscopy where strong vibrational bands of glucose can be monitored at wavelengths around 10 μm. The strong absorption of water in this spectral region was mitigated by the use of quantum cascade lasers and very short interaction path lengths below 50 μm. Various sensor concepts have been explored. In one of the concepts, the interaction of mid-infrared radiation with glucose is established within a miniature measurement cavity, formed by a gap between two silver halide fibers. In recent experiments, an additional quantum cascade laser was used for reference purposes. The long-term drift could significantly be reduced for time intervals > 1000 s, e. g., by more than 60% for a 3 hour interval. This extension for the compensation of long-term drifts of the measurement system in vitro is an important contribution towards the applicability in vivo.

  14. Aortic stenosis in adults. Non-invasive estimation of pressure differences by continuous wave Doppler echocardiography.

    PubMed Central

    Hegrenaes, L; Hatle, L

    1985-01-01

    The peak and mean aortic transvalvar pressure differences measured invasively and non-invasively by continuous wave Doppler echocardiography were compared in 87 consecutive patients with aortic stenosis. The mean values were calculated from the maximal velocities of the aortic jet recorded with a spectral display of the Doppler frequency shifts and by applying a modified Bernoulli equation. Technically satisfactory velocity curves for estimating the mean pressure differences could not be obtained in three patients and invasive measurements were not obtained in two. In all patients the peak transvalvar pressure difference was calculated since the aortic jet was identified non-invasively. The peak and mean pressure differences measured invasively and non-invasively correlated well--with only minor underestimation of the pressure differences measured with the Doppler technique--regardless of age, sex, and the presence or absence of aortic valvar regurgitation, or other valvar lesions. With a systematic search for the highest velocities in the aortic jet and with on line spectral analysis of the Doppler frequencies the peak and the mean aortic pressure differences can be determined non-invasively with a high degree of precision in almost all patients. Images PMID:4052281

  15. Lionfish predators use flared fin displays to initiate cooperative hunting.

    PubMed

    Lönnstedt, Oona M; Ferrari, Maud C O; Chivers, Douglas P

    2014-06-01

    Despite considerable study, mystery surrounds the use of signals that initiate cooperative hunting in animals. Using a labyrinth test chamber, we examined whether a lionfish, Dendrochirus zebra, would initiate cooperative hunts with piscine partners. We found that D. zebra uses a stereotyped flared fin display to alert conspecific and heterospecific lionfish species Pterois antennata to the presence of prey. Per capita success rate was significantly higher for cooperative hunters when compared with solitary ones, with hunt responders assisting hunt initiators in cornering the prey using their large extended pectoral fins. The initiators would most often take the first strike at the group of prey, but both hunters would then alternate striking at the remaining prey. Results suggest that the cooperative communication signal may be characteristic to the lionfish family, as interspecific hunters were equally coordinated and successful as intraspecific hunters. Our findings emphasize the complexity of collaborative foraging behaviours in lionfish; the turn-taking in strikes suggests that individuals do not solely try to maximize their own hunting success: instead they equally share the resources between themselves. Communicative group hunting has enabled Pteroine fish to function as highly efficient predators. PMID:24966203

  16. Lionfish predators use flared fin displays to initiate cooperative hunting

    PubMed Central

    Lönnstedt, Oona M.; Ferrari, Maud C. O.; Chivers, Douglas P.

    2014-01-01

    Despite considerable study, mystery surrounds the use of signals that initiate cooperative hunting in animals. Using a labyrinth test chamber, we examined whether a lionfish, Dendrochirus zebra, would initiate cooperative hunts with piscine partners. We found that D. zebra uses a stereotyped flared fin display to alert conspecific and heterospecific lionfish species Pterois antennata to the presence of prey. Per capita success rate was significantly higher for cooperative hunters when compared with solitary ones, with hunt responders assisting hunt initiators in cornering the prey using their large extended pectoral fins. The initiators would most often take the first strike at the group of prey, but both hunters would then alternate striking at the remaining prey. Results suggest that the cooperative communication signal may be characteristic to the lionfish family, as interspecific hunters were equally coordinated and successful as intraspecific hunters. Our findings emphasize the complexity of collaborative foraging behaviours in lionfish; the turn-taking in strikes suggests that individuals do not solely try to maximize their own hunting success: instead they equally share the resources between themselves. Communicative group hunting has enabled Pteroine fish to function as highly efficient predators. PMID:24966203

  17. Continuous non-invasive monitoring improves blood pressure stability in upright position: randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Benes, Jan; Simanova, Alena; Tovarnicka, Tereza; Sevcikova, Silvie; Kletecka, Jakub; Zatloukal, Jan; Pradl, Richard; Chytra, Ivan; Kasal, Eduard

    2015-02-01

    Intermittent blood pressure (BP) monitoring is the standard-of-care during low and intermediate risk anaesthesia, yet it could lead to delayed recognition of BP fluctuations. Perioperative hypotension is known to be associated with postoperative complications. Continuous, non-invasive methods for BP monitoring have been developed recently. We have tested a novel non-invasive, continuous monitor (using the volume clamp method) to assist with maintaining BP in safe ranges for patients undergoing surgery in a beach chair position. Forty adult patients undergoing thyroid gland surgery in an upright position were included in this prospective randomised controlled trial. Patients were equally allocated to the group with continuous monitoring of BP using the CNAP® Monitor and to the control group managed using an intermittent oscillometric BP cuff. The absolute and proportional time spent outside the range of ±20% of the target BP along with other hemodynamic and clinical parameters were evaluated. The continuous monitoring decreased the anaesthesia time spent below -20% pressure range [absolute: 12 min (4-20) vs. 27 min (16-34); p=0.001; relative to procedure length: 14% (7-20) vs. 33.5% (17.5-53); p=0.003]. No significant differences were observed in postoperative morbidity or in hospital length of stay. Continuous non-invasive BP monitoring via the CNAP® Monitor allows for better BP management in patients undergoing surgery in a beach chair position. In our randomised trial the time spent in hypotension was significantly shorter using continuous monitoring. PMID:24841333

  18. A Glucose Sensing Contact Lens: A Non-Invasive Technique for Continuous Physiological Glucose Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Badugu, Ramachandram; Lakowicz, Joseph R.; Geddes, Chris D.

    2016-01-01

    We have developed a range of glucose sensing contact lenses, using a daily, disposable contact lens embedded with newly developed boronic acid containing fluorophores. Our findings show that our approach may be suitable for the continuous monitoring of tear glucose levels in the range 50–1000 μM, which typically track blood glucose levels, which are ≈5–10 fold higher. Our non-invasive approach may well offer an alternative solution to current invasive glucose monitoring techniques for diabetes, such as “finger pricking.” PMID:27340364

  19. [Perioperative Pain Management of Minimally Invasive Esophagectomy with Bilateral Continuous Thoracic Paravertebral Block].

    PubMed

    Hida, Kumiko; Murata, Hiroaki; Sakai, Akiko; Ogami, Keiko; Maekawa, Takuji; Hara, Tetsuya

    2016-02-01

    Minimally invasive esophagectomy has become popular as a surgical procedure for esophageal cancer. We describe bilateral continuous thoracic paravertebral blocks for perioperative pain management in 3 patients who underwent minimally invasive esophagectomy. After anesthesia induction, bilateral thoracic paravertebral catheters were placed under ultrasound guidance with the patients in left lateral decubitus position at the sixth or seventh right intercostal space and eighth or ninth left intercostal space, respectively. Multiple ports for thoracoscopic procedures were located between the right third and ninth intercostal spaces. Laparoscopy-assisted gastric tube reconstruction was performed with skin incisions at bilateral T7-10 dermatomes. Intraoperative intermittent bolus injections of ropivacaine through the thoracic paravertebral catheters were used in combination with sevoflurane-remifentanil anesthesia, followed by continuous thoracic paravertebral infusion of ropivacaine for postoperative analgesia with continuous intravenous fentanyl infusion and periodical intravenous acetaminophen administration. Numerical rating scales of postoperative pain at rest and when coughing were 4 or less for 48 hr after surgery. No complications related to thoracic paravertebral catheterization were observed. Bilateral continuous thoracic paravertebral blocks at different intercostal levels can provide good perioperative analgesia for minimally invasive esophagectomy. PMID:27017762

  20. Non-Invasive Continuous Respiratory Monitoring on General Hospital Wards: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    van Loon, Kim; van Zaane, Bas; Bosch, Els J.; Kalkman, Cor J.; Peelen, Linda M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Failure to recognize acute deterioration in hospitalized patients may contribute to cardiopulmonary arrest, unscheduled intensive care unit admission and increased mortality. Purpose In this systematic review we aimed to determine whether continuous non-invasive respiratory monitoring improves early diagnosis of patient deterioration and reduces critical incidents on hospital wards. Data Sources Studies were retrieved from Medline, Embase, CINAHL, and the Cochrane library, searched from 1970 till October 25, 2014. Study Selection Electronic databases were searched using keywords and corresponding synonyms ‘ward’, ‘continuous’, ‘monitoring’ and ‘respiration’. Pediatric, fetal and animal studies were excluded. Data Extraction Since no validated tool is currently available for diagnostic or intervention studies with continuous monitoring, methodological quality was assessed with a modified tool based on modified STARD, CONSORT, and TREND statements. Data Synthesis Six intervention and five diagnostic studies were included, evaluating the use of eight different devices for continuous respiratory monitoring. Quantitative data synthesis was not possible because intervention, study design and outcomes differed considerably between studies. Outcomes estimates for the intervention studies ranged from RR 0.14 (0.03, 0.64) for cardiopulmonary resuscitation to RR 1.00 (0.41, 2.35) for unplanned ICU admission after introduction of continuous respiratory monitoring, Limitations The methodological quality of most studies was moderate, e.g. ‘before-after’ designs, incomplete reporting of primary outcomes, and incomplete clinical implementation of the monitoring system. Conclusions Based on the findings of this systematic review, implementation of routine continuous non-invasive respiratory monitoring on general hospital wards cannot yet be advocated as results are inconclusive, and methodological quality of the studies needs improvement. Future

  1. Wearable system for non-invasive and continuous monitoring central aortic pressure curve and augmentation index.

    PubMed

    Krivoshei, Andrei; Lamp, Jürgen; Min, Mart; Uuetoa, Tiina; Uuetoa, Hasso; Annus, Paul

    2013-01-01

    The paper presents a non-invasive method and system for a long-term and continuous monitoring of the central aortic pressure (CAP) waveform and the augmentation index (AI). The CAP curve is estimated from the measured radial electrical bio-impedance (EBI) using spectral domain transfer functions (TF), which are established on the basis of data analysis during clinical experiments. Experiments were carried out on 3 volunteers by now. During the experiment, a 0.5 mg sublingual nitroglycerin tablet was administrated to each volunteer. Both, the reconstructed CAP curve and the AI have very good correlation with the results obtained by the SphygmoCor system. But, in opposite to the traditional tonometry based CAP curve and AI estimation methods, the proposed one is more convenient to use and allows continuous and long-term personalized monitoring of the CAP curve and of the AI. PMID:23739366

  2. Modelling, verification, and calibration of a photoacoustics based continuous non-invasive blood glucose monitoring system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pai, Praful P.; Sanki, Pradyut K.; Sarangi, Satyabrata; Banerjee, Swapna

    2015-06-01

    This paper examines the use of photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS) at an excitation wavelength of 905 nm for making continuous non-invasive blood glucose measurements. The theoretical background of the measurement technique is verified through simulation. An apparatus is fabricated for performing photoacoustic measurements in vitro on glucose solutions and in vivo on human subjects. The amplitude of the photoacoustic signals measured from glucose solutions is observed to increase with the solution concentration, while photoacoustic amplitude obtained from in vivo measurements follows the blood glucose concentration of the subjects, indicating a direct proportionality between the two quantities. A linear calibration method is applied separately on measurements obtained from each individual in order to estimate the blood glucose concentration. The estimated glucose values are compared to reference glucose concentrations measured using a standard glucose meter. A plot of 196 measurement pairs taken over 30 normal subjects on a Clarke error grid gives a point distribution of 82.65% and 17.35% over zones A and B of the grid with a mean absolute relative deviation (MARD) of 11.78% and a mean absolute difference (MAD) of 15.27 mg/dl (0.85 mmol/l). The results obtained are better than or comparable to those obtained using photoacoustic spectroscopy based methods or other non-invasive measurement techniques available. The accuracy levels obtained are also comparable to commercially available continuous glucose monitoring systems.

  3. Modelling, verification, and calibration of a photoacoustics based continuous non-invasive blood glucose monitoring system.

    PubMed

    Pai, Praful P; Sanki, Pradyut K; Sarangi, Satyabrata; Banerjee, Swapna

    2015-06-01

    This paper examines the use of photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS) at an excitation wavelength of 905 nm for making continuous non-invasive blood glucose measurements. The theoretical background of the measurement technique is verified through simulation. An apparatus is fabricated for performing photoacoustic measurements in vitro on glucose solutions and in vivo on human subjects. The amplitude of the photoacoustic signals measured from glucose solutions is observed to increase with the solution concentration, while photoacoustic amplitude obtained from in vivo measurements follows the blood glucose concentration of the subjects, indicating a direct proportionality between the two quantities. A linear calibration method is applied separately on measurements obtained from each individual in order to estimate the blood glucose concentration. The estimated glucose values are compared to reference glucose concentrations measured using a standard glucose meter. A plot of 196 measurement pairs taken over 30 normal subjects on a Clarke error grid gives a point distribution of 82.65% and 17.35% over zones A and B of the grid with a mean absolute relative deviation (MARD) of 11.78% and a mean absolute difference (MAD) of 15.27 mg/dl (0.85 mmol/l). The results obtained are better than or comparable to those obtained using photoacoustic spectroscopy based methods or other non-invasive measurement techniques available. The accuracy levels obtained are also comparable to commercially available continuous glucose monitoring systems. PMID:26133859

  4. Continuous and less invasive central hemodynamic monitoring by blood pressure waveform analysis

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Da

    2010-01-01

    Blood pressure waveform analysis may permit continuous (i.e., automated) and less invasive (i.e., safer and simpler) central hemodynamic monitoring in the intensive care unit and other clinical settings without requiring any instrumentation beyond what is already in use or available. This practical approach has been a topic of intense investigation for decades and may garner even more interest henceforth due to the evolving demographics as well as recent trends in clinical hemodynamic monitoring. Here, we review techniques that have appeared in the literature for mathematically estimating clinically significant central hemodynamic variables, such as cardiac output, from different blood pressure waveforms. We begin by providing the rationale for pursuing such techniques. We then summarize earlier techniques and thereafter overview recent techniques by our collaborators and us in greater depth while pinpointing both their strengths and weaknesses. We conclude with suggestions for future research directions in the field and a description of some potential clinical applications of the techniques. PMID:20622106

  5. Non-invasive continuous core temperature measurement by zero heat flux.

    PubMed

    Teunissen, L P J; Klewer, J; de Haan, A; de Koning, J J; Daanen, H A M

    2011-05-01

    Reliable continuous core temperature measurement is of major importance for monitoring patients. The zero heat flux method (ZHF) can potentially fulfil the requirements of non-invasiveness, reliability and short delay time that current measurement methods lack. The purpose of this study was to determine the performance of a new ZHF device on the forehead regarding these issues. Seven healthy subjects performed a protocol of 10 min rest, 30 min submaximal exercise (average temperature increase about 1.5 °C) and 10 min passive recovery in ambient conditions of 35 °C and 50% relative humidity. ZHF temperature (T(zhf)) was compared to oesophageal (T(es)) and rectal (T(re)) temperature. ΔT(zhf)-T(es) had an average bias ± standard deviation of 0.17 ± 0.19 °C in rest, -0.05 ± 0.18 °C during exercise and -0.01 ± 0.20 °C during recovery, the latter two being not significant. The 95% limits of agreement ranged from -0.40 to 0.40 °C and T(zhf) had hardly any delay compared to T(es). T(re) showed a substantial delay and deviation from T(es) when core temperature changed rapidly. Results indicate that the studied ZHF sensor tracks T(es) very well in hot and stable ambient conditions and may be a promising alternative for reliable non-invasive continuous core temperature measurement in hospital. PMID:21444968

  6. Epidermal tattoo potentiometric sodium sensors with wireless signal transduction for continuous non-invasive sweat monitoring.

    PubMed

    Bandodkar, Amay J; Molinnus, Denise; Mirza, Omar; Guinovart, Tomás; Windmiller, Joshua R; Valdés-Ramírez, Gabriela; Andrade, Francisco J; Schöning, Michael J; Wang, Joseph

    2014-04-15

    This article describes the fabrication, characterization and application of an epidermal temporary-transfer tattoo-based potentiometric sensor, coupled with a miniaturized wearable wireless transceiver, for real-time monitoring of sodium in the human perspiration. Sodium excreted during perspiration is an excellent marker for electrolyte imbalance and provides valuable information regarding an individual's physical and mental wellbeing. The realization of the new skin-worn non-invasive tattoo-like sensing device has been realized by amalgamating several state-of-the-art thick film, laser printing, solid-state potentiometry, fluidics and wireless technologies. The resulting tattoo-based potentiometric sodium sensor displays a rapid near-Nernstian response with negligible carryover effects, and good resiliency against various mechanical deformations experienced by the human epidermis. On-body testing of the tattoo sensor coupled to a wireless transceiver during exercise activity demonstrated its ability to continuously monitor sweat sodium dynamics. The real-time sweat sodium concentration was transmitted wirelessly via a body-worn transceiver from the sodium tattoo sensor to a notebook while the subjects perspired on a stationary cycle. The favorable analytical performance along with the wearable nature of the wireless transceiver makes the new epidermal potentiometric sensing system attractive for continuous monitoring the sodium dynamics in human perspiration during diverse activities relevant to the healthcare, fitness, military, healthcare and skin-care domains. PMID:24333582

  7. Non-invasive diagnosis and continuous monitoring of thrombosis in clinics by near-infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ting; Sun, Yunglong; Chen, Xiao; Zhao, Yue; Ren, Rongrong; Liu, Mushuang

    2015-03-01

    Thrombosis became one of the most severe disease hazard to human health, and it incidence rate grows increasingly higher throughout the world. The conventional diagnosis and monitoring thrombosis mainly relied on the invasive techniques, e.g., digital subtraction angiography and blood sample analysis, and expensive and ionizing techniques, e.g., magnetic resonance angiography. And those techniques can not measure continuously. Here we reported our preliminary exploration of using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) in clinical monitoring of thrombosis. 7 healthy subjects and 6 thrombosis patients at similar age participated the NIRS measurements of oxy- and deoxy- hemoglobin ([HbO2] and [Hb]) on 6 particular parts of legs. We repeated [HbO2] measurement at the same specified time each day after thrombolytic therapy for one single-leg-DVT patient, and terminated till the patient was cured and left hospital. We found that - (1) [HbO2] kept lower in thrombosis patients and [Hb] kept lower in healthy people (p<0.001) (2) [HbO2] kept increasing in the thrombosis leg but decreasing in healthy leg for the patients after thrombolytic therapy, and coincidently, [HbO2] acted consistent just when the patients were cured and left. Our study successfully extended the application of NIRS in noninvasive, continuous, and low-cost monitoring of thrombosis in clinics. Our findings showed the powerful potential of [HbO2] by NIRS in diagnosis and therapeutic effect evaluation of thrombosis.

  8. Multiscattering-enhanced optical biosensor: multiplexed, non-invasive and continuous measurements of cellular processes

    PubMed Central

    Koman, Volodymyr B.; Santschi, Christian; Martin, Olivier J. F.

    2015-01-01

    The continuous measurement of uptake or release of biomarkers provides invaluable information for understanding and monitoring the metabolism of cells. In this work, a multiscattering-enhanced optical biosensor for the multiplexed, non-invasive, and continuous detection of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), lactate and glucose is presented. The sensing scheme is based on optical monitoring of the oxidation state of the metalloprotein cytochrome c (cyt c). The analyte of interest is enzymatically converted into H2O2 leading to an oxidation of the cyt c. Contact microspotting is used to prepare nanoliter-sized sensing spots containing either pure cyt c, a mixture of cyt c with glucose oxidase (GOx) to detect glucose, or a mixture of cyt c with lactate oxidase (LOx) to detect lactate. The sensing spots are embedded in a multiscattering porous medium that enhances the optical signal. We achieve limits of detection down to 240 nM and 110 nM for lactate and glucose, respectively. A microfluidic embodiment enables multiplexed and crosstalk-free experiments on living organisms. As an example, we study the uptake of exogenously supplied glucose by the green algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and simultaneously monitor the stress-related generation of H2O2. This multifunctional detection scheme provides a powerful tool to study biochemical processes at cellular level. PMID:26203366

  9. Multiscattering-enhanced optical biosensor: multiplexed, non-invasive and continuous measurements of cellular processes.

    PubMed

    Koman, Volodymyr B; Santschi, Christian; Martin, Olivier J F

    2015-07-01

    The continuous measurement of uptake or release of biomarkers provides invaluable information for understanding and monitoring the metabolism of cells. In this work, a multiscattering-enhanced optical biosensor for the multiplexed, non-invasive, and continuous detection of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), lactate and glucose is presented. The sensing scheme is based on optical monitoring of the oxidation state of the metalloprotein cytochrome c (cyt c). The analyte of interest is enzymatically converted into H2O2 leading to an oxidation of the cyt c. Contact microspotting is used to prepare nanoliter-sized sensing spots containing either pure cyt c, a mixture of cyt c with glucose oxidase (GOx) to detect glucose, or a mixture of cyt c with lactate oxidase (LOx) to detect lactate. The sensing spots are embedded in a multiscattering porous medium that enhances the optical signal. We achieve limits of detection down to 240 nM and 110 nM for lactate and glucose, respectively. A microfluidic embodiment enables multiplexed and crosstalk-free experiments on living organisms. As an example, we study the uptake of exogenously supplied glucose by the green algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and simultaneously monitor the stress-related generation of H2O2. This multifunctional detection scheme provides a powerful tool to study biochemical processes at cellular level. PMID:26203366

  10. A minimally invasive chip based near infrared sensor for continuous glucose monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben Mohammadi, L.; Sigloch, S.; Frese, I.; Stein, V.; Welzel, K.; Schmitz, F.; Klotzbücher, T.

    2012-06-01

    Assessment of glycaemia in diabetes is crucially important for prevention of both, acute and long term complications. Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) is certainly the most appropriate way for optimizing the glycaemic control, since it prevents or delays the progression of complications associated with hypo- or hyperglycaemic events, reducing morbidity, mortality, and overall costs in health care systems. In this paper we describe the concept and first in vitro results of a minimally invasive, chip-based NIR-Sensor for continuous glucose monitoring. The sensor concept is based on difference infrared absorption spectroscopy, which was evaluated within laboratory measurements of D+-Glucose dissolved in water. The laboratory measurements revealed a linear relationship between glucose concentration and the integrated difference spectroscopy signal with a coefficient of determination of 99.6% in the concentration range of 0- 500 mg/dL. Suitable wavelength bands were identified in which the correlation is preserved and commercial light sources are available for realisation of a spectrometer-less, integrated NIR-sensor. In the designed sensor the component area (non-disposable) is separated from the detection area (disposable, low-cost). The disposable part of the sensor is fluidically connected to a micro-dialyses needle, accessing glucose subcutaneously via the ISF (interstitial fluid) or intravascularly. The non-disposable part contains all the optical elements, like LED's and photo-detectors. The in- and out-coupling of the optical signal is achieved across the plane of the chip by using total internal reflection on mirrors integrated into the fluidic chip. The glucose is continuously measured by considering the difference signals of light at the corresponding wavelengths, as a function of time or in defined intervals if the light sources are modulated. The in-vitro measurements show an absolute error of about 5 mg/dL with a relative error of 5% for glucose

  11. Plasma surface reflectance spectroscopy for non-invasive and continuous monitoring of extracellular component of blood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakota, Daisuke; Takatani, Setsuo

    2012-04-01

    To achieve the quantitative optical non-invasive diagnosis of blood during extracorporeal circulation therapies, the instrumental technique to extract extracellular spectra from whole blood was developed. In the circuit, the continuous blood flow was generated by a centrifugal blood pump. The oxygen saturation was maintained 100% by an oxygenator. The developed glass optical flow cell was attached to the outlet tubing of the oxygenator. The halogen lamp including the light from 400 to 900 nm wavelength was used for the light source. The light was guided into an optical fiber. The light emitted by the fiber was collimated and emitted to the flow cell flat surface at the incident angle of 45 degrees. The light just reflected on the boundary between inner surface of the flow cell and plasma at 45 degrees was detected by the detection fiber. The detected light was analyzed by a spectral photometer. The obtained spectrum from 400 to 600nm wavelength was not changed with respect to the hematocrit. In contrast, the signal in the spectral range was changed when the plasma free hemoglobin increased. By using two spectral range, 505+/-5 nm and 542.5+/-2.5 nm, the differential spectrum was correlated with the free hemoglobin at R2=0.99. On the other hand, as for the hematocrit, the differential spectrum was not correlated at R2=0.01. Finally, the plasma free hemoglobin was quantified with the accuracy of 22+/-19mg/dL. The result shows that the developed plasma surface reflectance spectroscopy (PSRS) can extract the plasma spectrum from flowing whole blood.

  12. Invasive species: Ocean ecosystem case studies for earth systems and environmental sciences

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schofield, Pam; Brown, Mary E.

    2016-01-01

    Marine species are increasingly transferred from areas where they are native to areas where they are not. Some nonnative species become invasive, causing undesirable impacts to environment, economy and/or human health. Nonnative marine species can be introduced through a variety of vectors, including shipping, trade, inland corridors (such as canals), and others. Effects of invasive marine species can be dramatic and irreversible. Case studies of four nonnative marine species are given (green crab, comb jelly, lionfish and Caulerpa algae).

  13. The expanded invasive weed optimization metaheuristic for solving continuous and discrete optimization problems.

    PubMed

    Josiński, Henryk; Kostrzewa, Daniel; Michalczuk, Agnieszka; Switoński, Adam

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduces an expanded version of the Invasive Weed Optimization algorithm (exIWO) distinguished by the hybrid strategy of the search space exploration proposed by the authors. The algorithm is evaluated by solving three well-known optimization problems: minimization of numerical functions, feature selection, and the Mona Lisa TSP Challenge as one of the instances of the traveling salesman problem. The achieved results are compared with analogous outcomes produced by other optimization methods reported in the literature. PMID:24955420

  14. Environmental tolerance of an invasive riparian tree and its potential for continued spread in the southwestern US

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reynolds, L.V.; Cooper, D.J.

    2010-01-01

    Questions: Exotic plant invasion may be aided by facilitation and broad tolerance of environmental conditions, yet these processes are poorly understood in species-rich ecosystems such as riparian zones. In the southwestern United States (US) two plant species have invaded riparian zones: tamarisk (Tamarix ramosissima, T. chinensis, and their hybrids) and Russian olive (Elaeagnus angustifolia). We addressed the following questions: (1) is Russian olive able to tolerate drier and shadier conditions than cottonwood and tamarisk? (2) Can tamarisk and cottonwood facilitate Russian olive invasion? Location: Arid riparian zones, southwestern US. Methods: We analyzed riparian tree seedling requirements in a controlled experiment, performed empirical field studies, and analyzed stable oxygen isotopes to determine the water sources used by Russian olive. Results: Russian olive survival was significantly higher in dense shade and low moisture conditions than tamarisk and cottonwood. Field observations indicated Russian olive established where flooding cannot occur, and under dense canopies of tamarisk, cottonwood, and Russian olive. Tamarisk and native riparian plant species seedlings cannot establish in these dry, shaded habitats. Russian olive can rely on upper soil water until 15 years of age, before utilizing groundwater. Conclusions: We demonstrate that even though there is little evidence of facilitation by cottonwood and tamarisk, Russian olive is able to tolerate dense shade and low moisture conditions better than tamarisk and cottonwood. There is great potential for continued spread of Russian olive throughout the southwestern US because large areas of suitable habitat exist that are not yet inhabited by this species. ?? 2010 International Association for Vegetation Science.

  15. Enzymatic properties and primary structures of hyaluronidases from two species of lionfish (Pterois antennata and Pterois volitans).

    PubMed

    Kiriake, Aya; Madokoro, Mihoko; Shiomi, Kazuo

    2014-08-01

    Lionfish are representative venomous fish, having venomous glandular tissues in dorsal, pelvic and anal spines. Some properties and primary structures of proteinaceous toxins from the venoms of three species of lionfish, Pterois antennata, Pterois lunulata and Pterois volitans, have so far been clarified. Our recent survey established the presence of hyaluronidase, presumably a toxin-spreading factor, in the venoms of P. antennata and P. volitans. This prompted us to examine enzymatic properties and primary structures of lionfish hyaluronidases. The hyaluronidases of P. antennata and P. volitans were shown to be optimally active at pH 6.6, 37°C and 0.1 M NaCl and specifically active against hyaluronan. These enzymatic properties are almost the same as those of stonefish hyaluronidases. The primary structures (483 amino acid residues) of the lionfish hyaluronidases were elucidated by a cDNA cloning strategy using degenerate primers designed from the reported amino acid sequences of the stonefish hyaluronidases. Both lionfish hyaluronidases share as high as 99.6% of sequence identity with each other and also considerably high identities (72-77%) with the stonefish hyaluronidases but rather low identities (25-40%) with other hyaluronidases from mammals and venomous animals. In consistent with this, phylogenetic tree analysis revealed that the lionfish hyaluronidases, together with the stonefish hyaluronidases, form a cluster independently of other hyaluronidases. Nevertheless, the lionfish hyaluronidases as well as the stonefish hyaluronidases almost maintain structural features (active site, glyco_hydro_56 domain and cysteine location) observed in other hyaluronidases. PMID:24395601

  16. In-vivo testing of a non-invasive prototype device for the continuous monitoring of intracerebral hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Kandadai, Madhuvanthi A.; Korfhagen, Joseph; Beiler, Shauna; Beiler, Chris; Wagner, Kenneth; Adeoye, Opeolu M.; Shaw, George J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is a stroke subtype with the highest mortality rate. Hematoma expansion and re-bleeding post-ICH are common and exacerbate the initial cerebral insult. There is a need for continuous monitoring of the neurologic status of patients with an ICH injury. New Method A prototype device for non-invasive continuous monitoring of an ICH was developed and tested in-vivo using a porcine ICH model. The device consists of receiving and transmitting antennae in the 400–1000 MHz frequency range, placed directly in line with the site of the ICH. The device exploits the differences in the dielectric properties and geometry of tissue media of a healthy brain and a brain with an ICH injury. The power received by the receiving antenna is measured and the percent change in power received immediately after infusion of blood and 30 minutes after the infusion, allowing for the blood to clot, is calculated. Results An increase in the received power in the presence of an ICH is observed at 400 MHz, consistent with previous in-vitro studies. Frequency sweep experiments show a maximum percent change in received power in the 750–1000 MHz frequency range. Comparison with existing methods Currently, CT, MRI and catheter angiography (CA) are the main clinical neuroimaging modalities. However, these techniques require specialized equipment and personnel, substantial time, and patient- transportation to a radiology suite to obtain results. Moreover, CA is invasive and uses intra-venous dye or vascular catheters to accomplish the imaging. Conclusions The device has the potential to significantly improve neurologic care in the critically ill brain-injured patient. PMID:24997340

  17. Towards Continuous, Non-Invasive Assessment of Ventricular Function and Hemodynamics: Wearable Ballistocardiography

    PubMed Central

    Wiens, Andrew; Etemadi, Mozziyar; Roy, Shuvo; Klein, Liviu; Inan, Omer T.

    2015-01-01

    Ballistocardiography, the measurement of the reaction forces of the body to cardiac ejection of blood, is one of the few techniques available for unobtrusively assessing the mechanical aspects of cardiovascular health outside of clinical settings. Recently, multiple experimental studies involving healthy subjects and subjects with various cardiovascular diseases have demonstrated that the ballistocardiogram (BCG) signal can be used to trend cardiac output, contractility, and beat-by-beat ventricular function for arrhythmias. The majority of these studies have been performed with “fixed” BCG instrumentation—such as weighing scales or chairs—rather than wearable measurements. Enabling wearable, and thus continuous, recording of BCG signals would greatly expand the capabilities of the technique; however, BCG signals measured using wearable devices are morphologically dissimilar to measurements from “fixed” instruments, precluding the analysis and interpretation techniques from one domain to be applied to the other. In particular, the time intervals between the electrocardiogram (ECG) and BCG – namely, the R-J interval, a surrogate for measuring contractility changes – are significantly different for the accelerometer compared to a “fixed” BCG measurement. This paper addresses this need for quantitatively normalizing wearable BCG measurement to “fixed” measurements with a systematic experimental approach. With these methods, the same analysis and interpretation techniques developed over the past decade for “fixed” BCG measurement can be successfully translated to wearable measurements. PMID:25265619

  18. Some properties and cDNA cloning of proteinaceous toxins from two species of lionfish (Pterois antennata and Pterois volitans).

    PubMed

    Kiriake, Aya; Shiomi, Kazuo

    2011-11-01

    Lionfish, members of the genera Pterois, Parapterois and Dendrochirus, are well known to be venomous, having venomous glandular tissues in dorsal, pelvic and anal spines. The lionfish toxins have been shown to cross-react with the stonefish toxins by neutralization tests using the commercial stonefish antivenom, although their chemical properties including structures have been little characterized. In this study, an antiserum against neoverrucotoxin, the stonefish Synanceia verrucosa toxin, was first raised in a guinea pig and used in immunoblotting and inhibition immunoblotting to confirm that two species of Pterois lionfish (P. antennata and P. volitans) contain a 75kDa protein (corresponding to the toxin subunit) cross-reacting with neoverrucotoxin. Then, the amino acid sequences of the P. antennata and P. volitans toxins were successfully determined by cDNA cloning using primers designed from the highly conserved sequences of the stonefish toxins. Notably, either α-subunits (699 amino acid residues) or β-subunits (698 amino acid residues) of the P. antennata and P. volitans toxins share as high as 99% sequence identity with each other. Furthermore, both α- and β-subunits of the lionfish toxins exhibit high sequence identity (70-80% identity) with each other and also with the β-subunits of the stonefish toxins. As reported for the stonefish toxins, the lionfish toxins also contain a B30.2/SPRY domain (comprising nearly 200 amino acid residues) in the C-terminal region of each subunit. PMID:21878347

  19. A new electric method for non-invasive continuous monitoring of stroke volume and ventricular volume-time curves

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In this paper a new non-invasive, operator-free, continuous ventricular stroke volume monitoring device (Hemodynamic Cardiac Profiler, HCP) is presented, that measures the average stroke volume (SV) for each period of 20 seconds, as well as ventricular volume-time curves for each cardiac cycle, using a new electric method (Ventricular Field Recognition) with six independent electrode pairs distributed over the frontal thoracic skin. In contrast to existing non-invasive electric methods, our method does not use the algorithms of impedance or bioreactance cardiography. Instead, our method is based on specific 2D spatial patterns on the thoracic skin, representing the distribution, over the thorax, of changes in the applied current field caused by cardiac volume changes during the cardiac cycle. Since total heart volume variation during the cardiac cycle is a poor indicator for ventricular stroke volume, our HCP separates atrial filling effects from ventricular filling effects, and retrieves the volume changes of only the ventricles. Methods ex-vivo experiments on a post-mortem human heart have been performed to measure the effects of increasing the blood volume inside the ventricles in isolation, leaving the atrial volume invariant (which can not be done in-vivo). These effects have been measured as a specific 2D pattern of voltage changes on the thoracic skin. Furthermore, a working prototype of the HCP has been developed that uses these ex-vivo results in an algorithm to decompose voltage changes, that were measured in-vivo by the HCP on the thoracic skin of a human volunteer, into an atrial component and a ventricular component, in almost real-time (with a delay of maximally 39 seconds). The HCP prototype has been tested in-vivo on 7 human volunteers, using G-suit inflation and deflation to provoke stroke volume changes, and LVot Doppler as a reference technique. Results The ex-vivo measurements showed that ventricular filling caused a pattern over the

  20. Analysis of vesicle fluid following the sting of the lionfish Pterois volitans.

    PubMed

    Auerbach, P S; McKinney, H E; Rees, R S; Heggers, J P

    1987-01-01

    Fluid aspirated from blisters following a lionfish (Pterois volitans) sting was analyzed utilizing combined capillary column gas chromatography and negative ion chemical ionization mass spectrometry. Analysis for prostaglandin F2 alpha demonstrated 16.91 ng/ml, for prostaglandin E2 0.143 ng/ml, for 6-keto-prostaglandin F1 alpha less than 0.1 ng/ml (nondetectable) and for thromboxane B2 1.65 ng/ml. Platelet aggregation studies showed that blister fluid caused aggregation of isolated platelets only, which was inhibited by heat treatment or by the presence of normal donor plasma. PMID:3438924

  1. Continuing education course #1: non-invasive imaging as a problem-solving tool and translational biomarker strategy in toxicologic pathology.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Richard A; Gabrielson, Kathy L; Allan Johnson, G; Pomper, Martin G; Coatney, Robert W; Winkelmann, Christopher T

    2011-01-01

    The continuing education course "Non-Invasive Imaging as a Problem-Solving Tool and Translational Biomarker Strategy in Toxicologic Pathology" provided a thorough overview of commonly used imaging modalities and the logistics required for integration of small animal imaging into toxicologic pathology. Non-invasive imaging (NIN) is gaining acceptance as an important modality in toxicologic pathology. This technology allows nonterminal, time-course evaluation of functional and morphologic endpoints and can be used to translate biomarkers between preclinical animal models and human patients. NIN can support drug development as well as basic research in academic or industrial environments. An initial overview of theoretical principles was followed by focused presentations on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)/magnetic resonance microscopy (MRM), positron emission tomography (PET)/single proton emission computed tomography (SPECT), ultrasonography (US, primarily focused on echocardiography), optical (bioluminescent) imaging, and computed tomography (CT). The choice of imaging modality will depend on the research question and the needed resolution. PMID:21147931

  2. The development of minimally invasive continuous Metabolic Monitoring Technologies in the U.S. Army TMM Research Program.

    PubMed

    Hover, Carl G; Stedeford, Todd; Vigneulle, Roy M

    2005-02-01

    The Technologies for Metabolic Monitoring and Julia Weaver Fund Research Program (TMM) promotes the development of minimally invasive, innovative technologies for the monitoring and assessment of metabolic changes that are important to the management of diabetes. This program also promotes the advancement of biological monitoring technologies for healthy individuals operating in extreme environments, such as soldiers and astronauts. These technologies have focused on measurements of analytes in interstitial fluids and functional outcomes related to glucose regulation. TMM investigators have advanced new sensing methods and are working to overcome technological barriers to long-term implants. This paper reviews the current goals, research areas, and future direction of the program. PMID:15738719

  3. Control Strategy Scenarios for the Alien Lionfish Pterois volitans in Chinchorro Bank (Mexican Caribbean): Based on Semi-Quantitative Loop Analysis.

    PubMed

    Ortiz, Marco; Rodriguez-Zaragoza, Fabián; Hermosillo-Nuñez, Brenda; Jordán, Ferenc

    2015-01-01

    Ecological and eco-social network models were constructed with different levels of complexity in order to represent and evaluate management strategies for controlling the alien species Pterois volitans in Chinchorro bank (Mexican Caribbean). Levins´s loop analysis was used as a methodological framework for assessing the local stability (considered as a component of sustainability) of the modeled management interventions represented by various scenarios. The results provided by models of different complexity (models 1 through 4) showed that a reduction of coral species cover would drive the system to unstable states. In the absence of the alien lionfish, the simultaneous fishing of large benthic epifaunal species, adult herbivorous fish and adult carnivorous fish could be sustainable only if the coral species present high levels of cover (models 2 and 3). Once the lionfish is added to the simulations (models 4 and 5), the analysis suggests that although the exploitation or removal of lionfish from shallow waters may be locally stable, it remains necessary to implement additional and concurrent human interventions that increase the holistic sustainability of the control strategy. The supplementary interventions would require the implementation of programs for: (1) the restoration of corals for increasing their cover, (2) the exploitation or removal of lionfish from deeper waters (decreasing the chance of source/sink meta-population dynamics) and (3) the implementation of bans and re-stocking programs for carnivorous fishes (such as grouper) that increase the predation and competition pressure on lionfish (i.e. biological control). An effective control management for the alien lionfish at Chinchorro bank should not be optimized for a single action plan: instead, we should investigate the concurrent implementation of multiple strategies. PMID:26114745

  4. Control Strategy Scenarios for the Alien Lionfish Pterois volitans in Chinchorro Bank (Mexican Caribbean): Based on Semi-Quantitative Loop Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ortiz, Marco; Rodriguez-Zaragoza, Fabián; Hermosillo-Nuñez, Brenda; Jordán, Ferenc

    2015-01-01

    Ecological and eco-social network models were constructed with different levels of complexity in order to represent and evaluate management strategies for controlling the alien species Pterois volitans in Chinchorro bank (Mexican Caribbean). Levins´s loop analysis was used as a methodological framework for assessing the local stability (considered as a component of sustainability) of the modeled management interventions represented by various scenarios. The results provided by models of different complexity (models 1 through 4) showed that a reduction of coral species cover would drive the system to unstable states. In the absence of the alien lionfish, the simultaneous fishing of large benthic epifaunal species, adult herbivorous fish and adult carnivorous fish could be sustainable only if the coral species present high levels of cover (models 2 and 3). Once the lionfish is added to the simulations (models 4 and 5), the analysis suggests that although the exploitation or removal of lionfish from shallow waters may be locally stable, it remains necessary to implement additional and concurrent human interventions that increase the holistic sustainability of the control strategy. The supplementary interventions would require the implementation of programs for: (1) the restoration of corals for increasing their cover, (2) the exploitation or removal of lionfish from deeper waters (decreasing the chance of source/sink meta-population dynamics) and (3) the implementation of bans and re-stocking programs for carnivorous fishes (such as grouper) that increase the predation and competition pressure on lionfish (i.e. biological control). An effective control management for the alien lionfish at Chinchorro bank should not be optimized for a single action plan: instead, we should investigate the concurrent implementation of multiple strategies. PMID:26114745

  5. Laser-Doppler flowmetry--a non-invasive and continuous method for blood flow evaluation in microvascular studies.

    PubMed

    Oberg, P A; Tenland, T; Nilsson, G E

    1984-01-01

    Skin viability has during the last decades been studied by a number of different techniques. Some of these are briefly presented in this paper. One method, based on the laser-Doppler principle, makes possible continuous and noninvasive measurement of blood flow in the outermost layer (1 mm) of the skin. The basic physical principles and the properties of this flowmeter are presented. Some clinical and research applications of laser-Doppler flowmetry in a number of medical disciplines are discussed. PMID:6236674

  6. Lionfish string experiences of an inland poison center: a retrospective study of 23 cases.

    PubMed

    Trestrail, J H; al-Mahasneh, Q M

    1989-04-01

    From January 1979 through March 1988, our regional poison center, located many hundreds of miles from the nearest coastal salt water, documented 23 cases of envenomation by "Lionfish" (members of genus Pterois). All cases involved specimens which were maintained in the homes of amateur aquarists. A study of patient epidemiology showed the following: patient's sex 91.3% male, 8.7% female; patients ages ranged from 17 to 50 years with an average age for males of 29.8 years and 35 years for females; the site of the envenomation accident was always in the home; the only part of the body envenomated was the hand or finger; and all of the patients were symptomatic. Symptoms noted included sharp pain, swelling, redness, bleeding, nausea, numbness, joint pain, anxiety, headache, disorientation, and dizziness. One patient had a complication of cellulitis. Treatment provided included immersion of the effected area in hot water at 40 C for 60 to 90 min, analgesics, tetanus toxoid, and antibiotics. There were no deaths noted and treatment proved effective in all cases. This paper also discusses the natural history, clinical effects, and current treatment for envenomations from these beautiful but dangerous venomous fish, which can cause poisoning exposures that are likely to be encountered by poison centers anywhere in the world. PMID:2929130

  7. Molecular phylogeny of the lionfish genera Dendrochirus and Pterois (Scorpaenidae, Pteroinae) based on mitochondrial DNA sequences.

    PubMed

    Kochzius, Marc; Söller, Rainer; Khalaf, Maroof A; Blohm, Dietmar

    2003-09-01

    This study investigates the molecular phylogeny of seven lionfishes of the genera Dendrochirus and Pterois. MP, ML, and NJ phylogenetic analysis based on 964 bp of partial mitochondrial DNA sequences (cytochrome b and 16S rDNA) revealed two main clades: (1) "Pterois" clade (Pterois miles and Pterois volitans), and (2) "Pteropterus-Dendrochirus" clade (remainder of the sampled species). The position of Dendrochirus brachypterus either basal to the main clades or in the "Pteropterus-Dendrochirus" clade cannot be resolved. However, the molecular phylogeny did not support the current separation of the genera Pterois and Dendrochirus. The siblings P. miles and P. volitans are clearly separated and our results support the proposed allopatric or parapatric distribution in the Indian and Pacific Ocean. However, the present analysis cannot reveal if P. miles and P. volitans are separate species or two populations of a single species, because the observed separation in different clades can be either explained by speciation or lineage sorting. Molecular clock estimates for the siblings P. miles and P. volitans suggest a divergence time of 2.4-8.3 mya, which coincide with geological events that created vicariance between populations of the Indian and Pacific Ocean. PMID:12927126

  8. Non-invasive determination of glucose directly in raw fruits using a continuous flow system based on microdialysis sampling and amperometric detection at an integrated enzymatic biosensor.

    PubMed

    Vargas, E; Ruiz, M A; Campuzano, S; Reviejo, A J; Pingarrón, J M

    2016-03-31

    A non-destructive, rapid and simple to use sensing method for direct determination of glucose in non-processed fruits is described. The strategy involved on-line microdialysis sampling coupled with a continuous flow system with amperometric detection at an enzymatic biosensor. Apart from direct determination of glucose in fruit juices and blended fruits, this work describes for the first time the successful application of an enzymatic biosensor-based electrochemical approach to the non-invasive determination of glucose in raw fruits. The methodology correlates, through previous calibration set-up, the amperometric signal generated from glucose in non-processed fruits with its content in % (w/w). The comparison of the obtained results using the proposed approach in different fruits with those provided by other method involving the same commercial biosensor as amperometric detector in stirred solutions pointed out that there were no significant differences. Moreover, in comparison with other available methodologies, this microdialysis-coupled continuous flow system amperometric biosensor-based procedure features straightforward sample preparation, low cost, reduced assay time (sampling rate of 7 h(-1)) and ease of automation. PMID:26965327

  9. Report of 15 injuries caused by lionfish (pterois volitans) in aquarists in Brazil: a critical assessment of the severity of envenomations.

    PubMed

    Haddad, Vidal; Stolf, Hamilton Ometto; Risk, José Yamin; França, Francisco Os; Cardoso, João Luiz Costa

    2015-01-01

    Lionfish are venomous fish that belong to the Scorpaenidae family. Individuals of this family and those of the Synanceiidae family comprise most of the existing venomous fish in the world. Lionfish are originally found in the Indo-Pacific, but they have received special attention in the last years for their dissemination in the Atlantic Ocean, with the emergence of large populations in the USA, Caribbean and South America. Because of its beauty, this fish has always been present in private and commercial aquariums around the world. Herein, we describe 15 envenomations in aquarists registered in a period of eighteen years (1997-2014). The stings caused excruciating pain and marked inflammation, with local erythema, edema, heat, paleness and cyanosis. In one case, it was possible to observe vesicles and blisters. There were no skin necroses or marked systemic manifestations. We discuss the possible coming of the fish to South America and the circumstances and clinical impact of the envenomations. PMID:25810712

  10. An extract of lionfish (Pterois volitans) spine tissue contains acetylcholine and a toxin that affects neuromuscular transmission.

    PubMed

    Cohen, A S; Olek, A J

    1989-01-01

    A soluble toxic extract derived from spine tissue of the lionfish (Pterois volitans) decreased heart rate and force of contraction in isolated clam and frog hearts. These actions were due to the presence of micromolar concentrations of acetylcholine in the extract. Toxicity was retained after hydrolysis of acetylcholine by exogenous acetylcholinesterase, but heart function was no longer affected. Toxin treated in this way induced muscle fibrillation in an isolated nerve-muscle preparation, followed by blockade of neuromuscular transmission. Bursts of transient depolarizations were recorded at the muscle endplate shortly after toxin addition that correlated in time with the duration of toxin-induced muscle fibrillation. These effects are thought to be due to the increased release and then depletion of acetylcholine from the nerve terminal. PMID:2560846

  11. Genetic population structure of the lionfish Pterois miles (Scorpaenidae, Pteroinae) in the Gulf of Aqaba and northern Red Sea.

    PubMed

    Kochzius, Marc; Blohm, Dietmar

    2005-03-14

    The aim of this study is to reveal gene flow between populations of the coral reef dwelling lionfish Pterois miles in the Gulf of Aqaba and northern Red Sea. Due to the fjord-like hydrography and topology of the Gulf of Aqaba, isolation of populations might be possible. Analysis of 5' mitochondrial control region sequences from 94 P. miles specimens detected 32 polymorphic sites, yielding 38 haplotypes. Sequence divergence among different haplotypes ranged from 0.6% to 9.9% and genetic diversity was high (h=0.85, pi=1.9%). AMOVA indicates panmixia between the Gulf of Aqaba and northern Red Sea, but analysis of migration pattern shows an almost unidirectional migration originating from the Red Sea. PMID:15725379

  12. The first report on coagulation and phospholipase A2 activities of Persian Gulf lionfish, Pterois russelli, an Iranian venomous fish.

    PubMed

    Memar, Bahareh; Jamili, Shahla; Shahbazzadeh, Delavar; Bagheri, Kamran Pooshang

    2016-04-01

    Pterois russelli is a venomous fish belonging to scorpionidae family. Regarding to high significance value for tracing potential therapeutic molecules and special agents from venomous marine creatures, the present study was aimed to characterization of the Persian Gulf lionfish venom. Proteolytic, phospholipase, hemolytic, coagulation, edematogenic and dermonecrotic activities were determined for extracted venom. The LD50 of P. russelli venom was determined by intravenous injection in white Balb/c mice. Phospholipase A2 activity was recorded at 20 μg of total venom. Coagulation activity on human plasma was shown by Prothrombin Time (PT) and activated Partial Thromboplastin Time (APTT) assays and coagulation visualized after 7 and 14 s respectively for 60 μg of crude venom. LD50 was calculated as 10.5 mg/kg. SDS-PAGE revealed the presence of major and minor protein bands between 6 and 205 kDa. Different amounts of crude venom ranged from 1.87 to 30 μg showed proteolytic activity on casein. The highest edematic activity was detected at 20 μg. Our findings showed that the edematic activity was dose dependent and persisted for 48 h after injection. The crude venom did not induce dermonecrotic activity on rabbit skin and showed no hemolytic activity on human, mouse and rabbit erythrocytes. This is the first report for phospholipase A2 and coagulation activity in venomous fish and venomous marine animals respectively. Proteolytic activity of P. russelli venom is in accordance with the other genara of scorpionidae family. According to venom activity on intrinsic and extrinsic coagulation pathways, lionfish venom would be contained an interesting pharmaceutical agent. This study is pending to further characterization of phospholipase A2, coagulation, and protease activities and also in vivo activity on animal model of surface and internal bleeding. PMID:26853495

  13. Investigating Invasives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lightbody, Mary

    2008-01-01

    Invasive species, commonly known as "invasives," are nonnative plants, animals, and microbes that completely take over and change an established ecosystem. The consequences of invasives' spread are significant. In fact, many of the species that appear on the Endangered Species list are threatened by invasives. Therefore, the topic of invasive…

  14. A comparison of non-invasive continuous finger blood pressure measurement (Finapres) with intra-arterial pressure during prolonged head-up tilt.

    PubMed

    Petersen, M E; Williams, T R; Sutton, R

    1995-11-01

    Simultaneous intra-radial and non-invasive (Finapres, Ohmeda) blood pressures were compared during prolonged head-up tilt, in eight patients (mean age 49 years) with malignant vasovagal syncope. Twelve tilts were performed, of which eight resulted in vasovagal syncope. The mean bias (difference between Finapres and intra-arterial pressures) for systolic pressure was +0.7 mmHg (standard deviation 11.3 mmHg) and for diastolic pressure was +5.4 mmHg (standard deviation 7 mmHg). The within-tilt precision (standard deviation of the bias) of the non-invasive measurements varied between 2.9-12.4 mmHg (median 4.5 mmHg) for systolic comparisons, and 1.6-8.4 mmHg (median 4.4 mmHg) for diastolic comparisons. In all but one tilt highly significant positive increases in both systolic (median 7.1 mmHg) and diastolic bias (median 8.1 mmHg) occurred on tilt with respect to resting pre-tilt levels. Independent of the absolute level of agreement, the non-invasive measurements followed changes in intra-arterial pressure closely, with 89% of beat-to-beat changes in systolic pressure, and 95% of beat-to-beat changes in diastolic pressure followed to within +/- 2 mmHg. This study suggests that the Finapres is well suited for use during diagnostic tilt testing, demonstrating an acceptable within-tilt precision and closely following pressure changes during vasovagal syncope. PMID:8881861

  15. Invasive Candidiasis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Invasive candidiasis is an infection caused by a yeast (a type of fungus) called Candida . Unlike Candida ... mouth and throat (also called “thrush”) or vaginal “yeast infections,” invasive candidiasis is a serious infection that ...

  16. Newly developed photon-cell interactive Monte Carlo (pciMC) simulation for non-invasive and continuous diagnosis of blood during extracorporeal circulation support

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakota, Daisuke; Takatani, Setsuo

    2011-07-01

    We have sought for non-invasive diagnosis of blood during the extracorporeal circulation support. To achieve the goal, we have newly developed a photon-cell interactive Monte Carlo (pciMC) model for optical propagation through blood. The pciMC actually describes the interaction of photons with 3-dimentional biconcave RBCs. The scattering is described by micro-scopical RBC boundary condition based on geometric optics. By using pciMC, we modeled the RBCs inside the extracorporeal circuit will be oriented by the blood flow. The RBCs' orientation was defined as their long axis being directed to the center of the circulation tube. Simultaneously the RBCs were allowed to randomly rotate about the long axis direction. As a result, as flow rate increased, the orientation rate increased and converged to approximately 22% at 0.5 L/min flow rate and above. And finally, by using this model, the pciMC non-invasively and absolutely predicted Hct and hemoglobin with the accuracies of 0.84+/-0.82 [HCT%] and 0.42+/-0.28 [g/dL] respectively against measurements by a blood gas analyzer.

  17. Non-invasive continuous arterial pressure and pulse pressure variation measured with Nexfin(®) in patients following major upper abdominal surgery: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    de Wilde, R B P; de Wit, F; Geerts, B F; van Vliet, A L; Aarts, L P H J; Vuyk, J; Jansen, J R C

    2016-07-01

    We compared the accuracy and precision of the non-invasive Nexfin(®) device for determining systolic, diastolic, mean arterial pressure and pulse pressure variation, with arterial blood pressure values measured from a radial artery catheter in 19 patients following upper abdominal surgery. Measurements were taken at baseline and following fluid loading. Pooled data results of the arterial blood pressures showed no difference between the two measurement modalities. Bland-Altman analysis of pulse pressure variation showed significant differences between values obtained from the radial artery catheter and Nexfin finger cuff technology (mean (SD) 1.49 (2.09)%, p < 0.001, coefficient of variation 24%, limits of agreement -2.71% to 5.69%). The effect of volume expansion on pulse pressure variation was identical between methods (concordance correlation coefficient 0.848). We consider the Nexfin monitor system to be acceptable for use in patients after major upper abdominal surgery without major cardiovascular compromise or haemodynamic support. PMID:27291598

  18. Autocalibrating pulse contour analysis based on radial artery applanation tonometry for continuous non-invasive cardiac output monitoring in intensive care unit patients after major gastrointestinal surgery--a prospective method comparison study.

    PubMed

    Wagner, J Y; Langemann, M; Schön, G; Kluge, S; Reuter, D A; Saugel, B

    2016-05-01

    The T-Line(®) system (Tensys(®) Medical Inc., San Diego, CA, USA) non-invasively estimates cardiac output (CO) using autocalibrating pulse contour analysis of the radial artery applanation tonometry-derived arterial waveform. We compared T-Line CO measurements (TL-CO) with invasively obtained CO measurements using transpulmonary thermodilution (TDCO) and calibrated pulse contour analysis (PC-CO) in patients after major gastrointestinal surgery. We compared 1) TL-CO versus TD-CO and 2) TL-CO versus PC-CO in 27 patients treated in the intensive care unit (ICU) after major gastrointestinal surgery. For the assessment of TD-CO and PC-CO we used the PiCCO(®) system (Pulsion Medical Systems SE, Feldkirchen, Germany). Per patient, we compared two sets of TD-CO and 30 minutes of PC-CO measurements with the simultaneously recorded TL-CO values using Bland-Altman analysis. The mean of differences (± standard deviation; 95% limits of agreement) between TL-CO and TD-CO was -0.8 (±1.6; -4.0 to +2.3) l/minute with a percentage error of 45%. For TL-CO versus PC-CO, we observed a mean of differences of -0.4 (±1.5; -3.4 to +2.5) l/minute with a percentage error of 43%. In ICU patients after major gastrointestinal surgery, continuous non-invasive CO measurement based on autocalibrating pulse contour analysis of the radial artery applanation tonometry-derived arterial waveform (TL-CO) is feasible in a clinical study setting. However, the agreement of TL-CO with TD-CO and PC-CO observed in our study indicates that further improvements are needed before the technology can be recommended for clinical use in these patients. PMID:27246932

  19. Use of a haemostatic matrix (Floseal®) does not reduce blood loss in minimally invasive total knee arthroplasty performed under continued aspirin

    PubMed Central

    Schwab, Pierre-Emmanuel; Thienpont, Emmanuel

    2016-01-01

    Background Aspirin is being used for primary and secondary cardiovascular prevention. It has been proposed that aspirin should be discontinued 5 to 7 days before surgery. However, discontinuation might increase the risk of cardiac and thrombo-embolic co-morbidity. Aspirin also increases the risk of bleeding during and after total knee arthroplasty. This study evaluated if the intra-articular use of a haemostatic matrix (Floseal®) might decrease blood loss in total knee arthroplasty performed under continued aspirin use. Materials and methods We retrospectively compared matched pairs in two groups (80 patients in each group). Patients in both groups were taking aspirin: one group was managed with conventional haemostasis (with bovie electrocoagulation), while the other group was treated with an intra-articular haemostatic matrix as an adjunct to electrocoagulation. The outcomes compared were haemoglobin and haematocrit levels at days 2 and 4 after surgery as surrogates for blood loss, transfusion rate, surgical time, and length of stay in the hospital. Results No differences were observed between the two groups for haemoglobin and haematocrit levels on days 2 and 4. There were no differences in transfusion rate, surgical time or length of stay in hospital between the two groups. Discussion The present study shows that the use of Floseal® has no effect on reducing either visible or hidden blood loss after total knee arthroplasty with peri-operative continuation of aspirin use, as assessed by a drop in haemoglobin or haematocrit. PMID:26057492

  20. The surgical learning curve and accuracy of minimally invasive lumbar pedicle screw placement using CT based computer-assisted navigation plus continuous electromyography monitoring – a retrospective review of 627 screws in 150 patients

    PubMed Central

    McMillen, Jason

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study retrospectively assessed the accuracy of placement of lumbar pedicle screws placed by a single surgeon using a minimally-invasive, intra-operative CT-based computer navigated technique in combination with continuous electromyography (EMG) monitoring. The rates of incorrectly positioned screws were reviewed in the context of the surgeon's experience and learning curve. Methods Data was retrospectively reviewed from all consecutive minimally invasive lumbar fusions performed by the primary author over a period of over 4 years from April 2008 until October 2012. All cases that had utilized computer-assisted intra-operative CT-based image guidance and continuous EMG monitoring to guide percutaneous pedicle screw placement were analysed for the rates of malposition of the pedicle screws. Pedicle screw malposition was defined as having occurred if the screw trajectory was adjusted intraoperatively due to positive EMG responses, or due to breach of the pedicle cortex by more than 2mm on intraoperative CT imaging performed at the end of the instrumentation procedure. Further analysis of the data was undertaken to determine if the rates of malposition changed with the surgeon's experience with the technique. Results Six hundred and twenty-seven pedicle screws were placed in one hundred and fifty patients. The overall rate of intraoperative malposition and subsequent adjustment of pedicle screw placement was 3.8% (24 of 627 screws). Screw malposition was detected by intraoperative CT imaging. Warning of potential screw misplacement was provided by use of the EMG monitoring. With increased experience with the technique, rates of intraoperative pedicle screw malposition were found to decrease from 5.1% of screws in the first fifty patients, to 2.0% in the last 50 patients. Only one screw was suboptimally placed at the end of surgery, which did not result in a neurological deficit. Conclusion The use of CT-based computer-assisted navigation in combination

  1. Invasive mammals.

    PubMed

    Moutou, F; Pastoret, P P

    2010-08-01

    Every region of the world is concerned by potential mammal invasions, as humans are already present on all the world's land masses. All these invasions are a result of species introductions by humans for one reason or another. The authors briefly review the known movements and observed consequences of mammal-related invasions. They take examples from all five continents, as well as from a few island systems. The ancient introduction of game species, and later of domestic species, has been followed more recently by movements of commercial species. We are now seeing the emergence of what are known as entertainment species. In a number of cases, such introductions have led to the establishment of new epidemiological cycles that previously might never have been thought possible. According to current indicators, this phenomenon is not on the wane. PMID:20919577

  2. Proteinaceous toxins from three species of scorpaeniform fish (lionfish Pterois lunulata, devil stinger Inimicus japonicus and waspfish Hypodytes rubripinnis): close similarity in properties and primary structures to stonefish toxins.

    PubMed

    Kiriake, Aya; Suzuki, Yasuko; Nagashima, Yuji; Shiomi, Kazuo

    2013-08-01

    The crude toxins from three species of venomous fish (lionfish Pterois lunulata, devil stinger Inimicus japonicus and waspfish Hypodytes rubripinnis) belonging to the order Scorpaeniformes exhibited mouse-lethal, hemolytic, edema-forming and nociceptive activities. In view of the antigenic cross-reactivity with the stonefish toxins, the primary structures of the stonefish toxin-like toxins from the three scorpaeniform fish were determined by cDNA cloning using primers designed from the highly conserved sequences of the stonefish toxins. Based on the data obtained in gel filtration, immunoblotting and cDNA cloning, each toxin was judged to be a 160 kDa heterodimer composed of 80 kDa α- and β-subunits. The three scorpaeniform fish toxins contain a B30.2/SPRY domain (∼200 amino acid residues) in the C-terminal region of each subunit, as reported for the toxins from two species of lionfish and two species of stonefish. With respect to the amino acid sequence similarity, the scorpaeniform fish toxins are divided into the following two groups: toxins from three species of lionfish and those from devil stinger, two species of stonefish and waspfish. The phylogenetic tree generated also clearly supports the classification of the toxins. PMID:23665450

  3. Ecological Principles for Invasive Plant Management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Invasive annual grasses continue to advance at an alarming rate despite efforts of control by land managers. Ecologically-based invasive plant management (EBIPM) is a holistic framework that integrates ecosystem health assessment, knowledge of ecological processes and adaptive management into a succ...

  4. [Invasive yeast infections in neutropenic patients].

    PubMed

    Ruiz Camps, Isabel; Jarque, Isidro

    2016-01-01

    Invasive fungal diseases caused by yeasts still play an important role in the morbidity and mortality in neutropenic patients with haematological malignancies. Although the overall incidence of invasive candidiasis has decreased due to widespread use of antifungal prophylaxis, the incidence of non-Candida albicans Candida species is increasing compared with that of C.albicans, and mortality of invasive candidiasis continues to be high. In addition, there has been an increase in invasive infections caused by an array of uncommon yeasts, including species of the genus Malassezia, Rhodotorula, Trichosporon and Saprochaete, characterised by their resistance to echinocandins and poor prognosis. PMID:27395023

  5. Esophagectomy - minimally invasive

    MedlinePlus

    Minimally invasive esophagectomy; Robotic esophagectomy; Removal of the esophagus - minimally invasive; Achalasia - esophagectomy; Barrett esophagus - esophagectomy; Esophageal cancer - esophagectomy - laparoscopic; Cancer of the ...

  6. Cardiac Output Assessed by Invasive and Minimally Invasive Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Allison J.; Cohn, Jennifer Hochman; Ranasinghe, J. Sudharma

    2011-01-01

    Cardiac output (CO) measurement has long been considered essential to the assessment and guidance of therapeutic decisions in critically ill patients and for patients undergoing certain high-risk surgeries. Despite controversies, complications and inherent errors in measurement, pulmonary artery catheter (PAC) continuous and intermittent bolus techniques of CO measurement continue to be the gold standard. Newer techniques provide less invasive alternatives; however, currently available monitors are unable to provide central circulation pressures or true mixed venous saturations. Esophageal Doppler and pulse contour monitors can predict fluid responsiveness and have been shown to decrease postoperative morbidity. Many minimally invasive techniques continue to suffer from decreased accuracy and reliability under periods of hemodynamic instability, and so few have reached the level of interchangeability with the PAC. PMID:21776254

  7. Excluding access to invasion hubs can contain the spread of an invasive vertebrate.

    PubMed

    Florance, Daniel; Webb, Jonathan K; Dempster, Tim; Kearney, Michael R; Worthing, Alex; Letnic, Mike

    2011-10-01

    Many biological invasions do not occur as a gradual expansion along a continuous front, but result from the expansion of satellite populations that become established at 'invasion hubs'. Although theoretical studies indicate that targeting control efforts at invasion hubs can effectively contain the spread of invasions, few studies have demonstrated this in practice. In arid landscapes worldwide, humans have increased the availability of surface water by creating artificial water points (AWPs) such as troughs and dams for livestock. By experimentally excluding invasive cane toads (Bufo marinus) from AWP, we show that AWP provide a resource subsidy for non-arid-adapted toads and serve as dry season refuges and thus invasion hubs for cane toads in arid Australia. Using data on the distribution of permanent water in arid Australia and the dispersal potential of toads, we predict that systematically excluding toads from AWP would reduce the area of arid Australia across which toads are predicted to disperse and colonize under average climatic conditions by 38 per cent from 2,242,000 to 1,385,000 km(2). Our study shows how human modification of hydrological regimes can create a network of invasion hubs that facilitates a biological invasion, and confirms that targeted control at invasion hubs can reduce landscape connectivity to contain the spread of an invasive vertebrate. PMID:21345870

  8. Attacking invasive grasses

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Keeley, Jon E.

    2015-01-01

    In grasslands fire may play a role in the plant invasion process, both by creating disturbances that potentially favour non-native invasions and as a possible tool for controlling alien invasions. Havill et al. (Applied Vegetation Science, 18, 2015, this issue) determine how native and non-native species respond to different fire regimes as a first step in understanding the potential control of invasive grasses.

  9. Minimally Invasive Forefoot Surgery in France.

    PubMed

    Meusnier, Tristan; Mukish, Prikesht

    2016-06-01

    Study groups have been formed in France to advance the use of minimally invasive surgery. These techniques are becoming more frequently used and the technique nuances are continuing to evolve. The objective of this article was to advance the awareness of the current trends in minimally invasive surgery for common diseases of the forefoot. The percutaneous surgery at the forefoot is less developed at this time, but also will be discussed. PMID:27261810

  10. Non-invasive assessment of intracranial pressure.

    PubMed

    Robba, C; Bacigaluppi, S; Cardim, D; Donnelly, J; Bertuccio, A; Czosnyka, M

    2016-07-01

    Monitoring of intracranial pressure (ICP) is invaluable in the management of neurosurgical and neurological critically ill patients. Invasive measurement of ventricular or parenchymal pressure is considered the gold standard for accurate measurement of ICP but is not always possible due to certain risks. Therefore, the availability of accurate methods to non-invasively estimate ICP has the potential to improve the management of these vulnerable patients. This review provides a comparative description of different methods for non-invasive ICP measurement. Current methods are based on changes associated with increased ICP, both morphological (assessed with magnetic resonance, computed tomography, ultrasound, and fundoscopy) and physiological (assessed with transcranial and ophthalmic Doppler, tympanometry, near-infrared spectroscopy, electroencephalography, visual-evoked potentials, and otoacoustic emissions assessment). At present, none of the non-invasive techniques alone seem suitable as a substitute for invasive monitoring. However, following the present analysis and considerations upon each technique, we propose a possible flowchart based on the combination of non-invasive techniques including those characterizing morphologic changes (e.g., repetitive US measurements of ONSD) and those characterizing physiological changes (e.g., continuous TCD). Such an integrated approach, which still needs to be validated in clinical practice, could aid in deciding whether to place an invasive monitor, or how to titrate therapy when invasive ICP measurement is contraindicated or unavailable. PMID:26515159

  11. Adaptive invasive species distribution models: A framework for modeling incipient invasions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Uden, Daniel R.; Allen, Craig R.; Angeler, David G.; Corral, Lucia; Fricke, Kent A.

    2015-01-01

    The utilization of species distribution model(s) (SDM) for approximating, explaining, and predicting changes in species’ geographic locations is increasingly promoted for proactive ecological management. Although frameworks for modeling non-invasive species distributions are relatively well developed, their counterparts for invasive species—which may not be at equilibrium within recipient environments and often exhibit rapid transformations—are lacking. Additionally, adaptive ecological management strategies address the causes and effects of biological invasions and other complex issues in social-ecological systems. We conducted a review of biological invasions, species distribution models, and adaptive practices in ecological management, and developed a framework for adaptive, niche-based, invasive species distribution model (iSDM) development and utilization. This iterative, 10-step framework promotes consistency and transparency in iSDM development, allows for changes in invasive drivers and filters, integrates mechanistic and correlative modeling techniques, balances the avoidance of type 1 and type 2 errors in predictions, encourages the linking of monitoring and management actions, and facilitates incremental improvements in models and management across space, time, and institutional boundaries. These improvements are useful for advancing coordinated invasive species modeling, management and monitoring from local scales to the regional, continental and global scales at which biological invasions occur and harm native ecosystems and economies, as well as for anticipating and responding to biological invasions under continuing global change.

  12. Minimally invasive surgical training: challenges and solutions.

    PubMed

    Pierorazio, Phillip M; Allaf, Mohamad E

    2009-01-01

    Treatment options for urological malignancies continue to increase and include endoscopic, laparoscopic, robotic, and image-guided percutaneous techniques. This ever expanding array of technically demanding management options coupled with a static training paradigm introduces challenges to training the urological oncologist of the future. Minimally invasive learning opportunities continue to evolve, and include an intensive experience during residency, postgraduate short courses or mini-apprenticeships, and full time fellowship programs. Incorporation of large animal surgery and surgical simulators may help shorten the necessary learning curve. Ultimately, programs must provide an intense hands-on experience to trainees in all minimally invasive surgical aspects for optimal training. PMID:19285236

  13. Assessing Biofuel Crop Invasiveness: A Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Buddenhagen, Christopher Evan; Chimera, Charles; Clifford, Patti

    2009-01-01

    Background There is widespread interest in biofuel crops as a solution to the world's energy needs, particularly in light of concerns over greenhouse-gas emissions. Despite reservations about their adverse environmental impacts, no attempt has been made to quantify actual, relative or potential invasiveness of terrestrial biofuel crops at an appropriate regional or international scale, and their planting continues to be largely unregulated. Methodology/Principal Findings Using a widely accepted weed risk assessment system, we analyzed a comprehensive list of regionally suitable biofuel crops to show that seventy percent have a high risk of becoming invasive versus one-quarter of non-biofuel plant species and are two to four times more likely to establish wild populations locally or be invasive in Hawaii or in other locations with a similar climate. Conclusions/Significance Because of climatic and ecological similarities, predictions of biofuel crop invasiveness in Hawaii are applicable to other vulnerable island and subtropical ecosystems worldwide. We demonstrate the utility of an accessible and scientifically proven risk assessment protocol that allows users to predict if introduced species will become invasive in their region of interest. Other evidence supports the contention that propagule pressure created by extensive plantings will exacerbate invasions, a scenario expected with large-scale biofuel crop cultivation. Proactive measures, such as risk assessments, should be employed to predict invasion risks, which could then be mitigated via implementation of appropriate planting policies and adoption of the “polluter-pays” principle. PMID:19384412

  14. Mechanobiology of tumor invasion: engineering meets oncology

    PubMed Central

    Carey, Shawn P.; D’Alfonso, Timothy M.; Shin, Sandra J.; Reinhart-King, Cynthia A.

    2011-01-01

    The physical sciences and engineering have introduced novel perspectives into the study of cancer through model systems, tools, and metrics that enable integration of basic science observations with clinical data. These methods have contributed to the identification of several overarching mechanisms that drive processes during cancer progression including tumor growth, angiogenesis, and metastasis. During tumor cell invasion – the first clinically observable step of metastasis – cells demonstrate diverse and evolving physical phenotypes that cannot typically be defined by any single molecular mechanism, and mechanobiology has been used to study the physical cell behaviors that comprise the “invasive phenotype”. In this review, we discuss the continually evolving pathological characterization and in vitro mechanobiological characterization of tumor invasion, with emphasis on emerging physical biology and mechanobiology strategies that have contributed to a more robust mechanistic understanding of tumor cell invasion. These physical approaches may ultimately help to better predict and identify tumor metastasis. PMID:22178415

  15. Continuous Problem of Function Continuity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jayakody, Gaya; Zazkis, Rina

    2015-01-01

    We examine different definitions presented in textbooks and other mathematical sources for "continuity of a function at a point" and "continuous function" in the context of introductory level Calculus. We then identify problematic issues related to definitions of continuity and discontinuity: inconsistency and absence of…

  16. Allelopathy in the tropical alga Lobophora variegata (Phaeophyceae): mechanistic basis for a phase shift on mesophotic coral reefs?

    PubMed

    Slattery, Marc; Lesser, Michael P

    2014-06-01

    Macroalgal phase shifts on Caribbean reefs have been reported with increasing frequency, and recent reports of these changes on mesophotic coral reefs have raised questions regarding the mechanistic processes behind algal population expansions to deeper depths. The brown alga Lobophora variegata is a dominant species on many shallow and deep coral reefs of the Caribbean and Pacific, and it increased in percent cover (>50%) up to 61 m on Bahamian reefs following the invasion of the lionfish Pterois volitans. We examined the physiological and ecological constraints contributing to the spread of Lobophora on Bahamian reefs across a mesophotic depth gradient from 30 to 61 m, pre- and post-lionfish invasion. Results indicate that there were no physiological limitations to the depth distribution of Lobophora within this range prior to the lionfish invasion. Herbivory by acanthurids and scarids in algal recruitment plots at mesophotic depths was higher prior to the lionfish invasion, and Lobophora chemical defenses were ineffective against an omnivorous fish species. In contrast, Lobophora exhibited significant allelopathic activity against the coral Montastraea cavernosa and the sponge Agelas clathrodes in laboratory assays. These data indicate that when lionfish predation on herbivorous fish released Lobophora from grazing pressure at depth, Lobophora expanded its benthic cover to a depth of 61 m, where it replaced the dominant coral and sponge species. Our results suggest that this chemically defended alga may out-compete these species in situ, and that mesophotic reefs may be further impacted in the near future as Lobophora continues to expand to its compensation point. PMID:26988322

  17. Predicting the dynamics of local adaptation in invasive species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An invasive plant species may restrict its spread to only one habitat, or, after some time, may continue to spread into a different, secondary, habitat. The question of whether evolution is required for an invasive species to spread from one habitat to another is currently hotly debated. In order fo...

  18. LOUISIANA INVASIVE SPECIES PLAN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Identify the species, locations, and effects of invasive species within the state and the effects of these invasive species in Louisiana. Also identify how these species are spread, and the authorities that exist to manage and control them. With this information, create a m...

  19. Invasion of the Whiteflies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As invasive alien species spread, they often displace indigenous species, thus altering ecological communities and adversely affecting agricultural pest management, human health and well-being, and biodiversity. Despite the importance of invasive species, the processes enabling them to become estab...

  20. The Influence of the Disturbed Continuity of the River and the Invasive Species--Potamopyrgus antipodarum (Gray, 1843), Gammarus tigrinus (Sexton, 1939) on Benthos Fauna: A Case Study on Urban Area in the River Ruda (Poland).

    PubMed

    Spyra, Aneta; Kubicka, Justyna; Strzelec, Małgorzata

    2015-07-01

    The progressive degradation of aquatic ecosystems and ecohydrological role of rivers is one of the most important global environmental issues. The loss of the ability of rivers to self-purify waters due to the disturbances of river continuity cause a lack of biological life in parts of rivers or even in an entire river. The appearance of alien species in degraded aquatic environments is an increasingly common phenomenon and constitutes one of the threats to biodiversity. The aim of the study was to evaluate the possible impact of alien species Potamopyrgus antipodarum (Gray, 1843) and Gammarus tigrinus (Sexton, 1939) on native invertebrates as well as the influence of environmental factors on the occurrence benthos fauna including also alien species. The study conducted in industrial area, in the River Ruda (Poland), showed that at the sites at which the occurrence of the two alien species was observed, the density of native benthos and diversity decreased significantly. CCA analysis showed that non-native species occurred in fast water velocity and that their presence was associated with high values of conductivity, hardness, and a high chloride content. The arrival of new species from other geographical areas is one of the factors that influences the species balance in native aquatic fauna. The number of alien species in freshwater ecosystems probably will increase in the future as new aliens are moved outside of their native ranges. PMID:25868573

  1. The Influence of the Disturbed Continuity of the River and the Invasive Species— Potamopyrgus antipodarum (Gray, 1843), Gammarus tigrinus (Sexton, 1939) on Benthos Fauna: A Case Study on Urban Area in the River Ruda (Poland)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spyra, Aneta; Kubicka, Justyna; Strzelec, Małgorzata

    2015-07-01

    The progressive degradation of aquatic ecosystems and ecohydrological role of rivers is one of the most important global environmental issues. The loss of the ability of rivers to self-purify waters due to the disturbances of river continuity cause a lack of biological life in parts of rivers or even in an entire river. The appearance of alien species in degraded aquatic environments is an increasingly common phenomenon and constitutes one of the threats to biodiversity. The aim of the study was to evaluate the possible impact of alien species Potamopyrgus antipodarum (Gray, 1843) and Gammarus tigrinus (Sexton, 1939) on native invertebrates as well as the influence of environmental factors on the occurrence benthos fauna including also alien species. The study conducted in industrial area, in the River Ruda (Poland), showed that at the sites at which the occurrence of the two alien species was observed, the density of native benthos and diversity decreased significantly. CCA analysis showed that non-native species occurred in fast water velocity and that their presence was associated with high values of conductivity, hardness, and a high chloride content. The arrival of new species from other geographical areas is one of the factors that influences the species balance in native aquatic fauna. The number of alien species in freshwater ecosystems probably will increase in the future as new aliens are moved outside of their native ranges.

  2. The Human Release Hypothesis for biological invasions: human activity as a determinant of the abundance of invasive plant species

    PubMed Central

    Zimmermann, Heike; Brandt, Patric; Fischer, Joern; Welk, Erik; von Wehrden, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    Research on biological invasions has increased rapidly over the past 30 years, generating numerous explanations of how species become invasive. While the mechanisms of invasive species establishment are well studied, the mechanisms driving abundance patterns (i.e. patterns of population density and population size) remain poorly understood. It is assumed that invasive species typically have higher abundances in their new environments than in their native ranges, and patterns of invasive species abundance differ between invaded regions. To explain differences in invasive species abundance, we propose the Human Release Hypothesis. In parallel to the established Enemy Release Hypothesis, this hypothesis states that the differences in abundance of invasive species are found between regions because population expansion is reduced in some regions through continuous land management and associated cutting of the invasive species. The Human Release Hypothesis does not negate other important drivers of species invasions, but rather should be considered as a potentially important complementary mechanism. We illustrate the hypothesis via a case study on an invasive rose species, and hypothesize which locations globally may be most likely to support high abundances of invasive species. We propose that more extensive empirical work on the Human Release Hypothesis could be useful to test its general applicability. PMID:25352979

  3. The Human Release Hypothesis for biological invasions: human activity as a determinant of the abundance of invasive plant species.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, Heike; Brandt, Patric; Fischer, Joern; Welk, Erik; von Wehrden, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    Research on biological invasions has increased rapidly over the past 30 years, generating numerous explanations of how species become invasive. While the mechanisms of invasive species establishment are well studied, the mechanisms driving abundance patterns (i.e. patterns of population density and population size) remain poorly understood. It is assumed that invasive species typically have higher abundances in their new environments than in their native ranges, and patterns of invasive species abundance differ between invaded regions. To explain differences in invasive species abundance, we propose the Human Release Hypothesis. In parallel to the established Enemy Release Hypothesis, this hypothesis states that the differences in abundance of invasive species are found between regions because population expansion is reduced in some regions through continuous land management and associated cutting of the invasive species. The Human Release Hypothesis does not negate other important drivers of species invasions, but rather should be considered as a potentially important complementary mechanism. We illustrate the hypothesis via a case study on an invasive rose species, and hypothesize which locations globally may be most likely to support high abundances of invasive species. We propose that more extensive empirical work on the Human Release Hypothesis could be useful to test its general applicability. PMID:25352979

  4. Non invasive monitoring in mechanically ventilated pediatric patients.

    PubMed

    Al-Subu, Awni M; Rehder, Kyle J; Cheifetz, Ira M; Turner, David A

    2014-12-01

    Cardiopulmonary monitoring is a key component in the evaluation and management of critically ill patients. Clinicians typically rely on a combination of invasive and non-invasive monitoring to assess cardiac output and adequacy of ventilation. Recent technological advances have led to the introduction: of continuous non-invasive monitors that allow for data to be obtained at the bedside of critically ill patients. These advances help to identify hemodynamic changes and allow for interventions before complications occur. In this manuscript, we highlight several important methods of non-invasive cardiopulmonary monitoring, including capnography, transcutaneous monitoring, pulse oximetry, and near infrared spectroscopy. PMID:25119483

  5. Non-invasive monitoring of spreading depression.

    PubMed

    Bastany, Zoya J R; Askari, Shahbaz; Dumont, Guy A; Speckmann, Erwin-Josef; Gorji, Ali

    2016-10-01

    Spreading depression (SD), a slow propagating depolarization wave, plays an important role in pathophysiology of different neurological disorders. Yet, research into SD-related disorders has been hampered by the lack of non-invasive recording techniques of SD. Here we compared the manifestations of SD in continuous non-invasive electroencephalogram (EEG) recordings to invasive electrocorticographic (ECoG) recordings in order to obtain further insights into generator structures and electrogenic mechanisms of surface recording of SD. SD was induced by KCl application and simultaneous SD recordings were performed by scalp EEG as well as ECoG electrodes of somatosensory neocortex of rats using a novel homemade EEG amplifier, AgCl recording electrodes, and high chloride conductive gel. Different methods were used to analyze the data; including the spectrogram, bi-spectrogram, pattern distribution, relative spectrum power, and multivariable Gaussian fit analysis. The negative direct current (DC) shifts recorded by scalp electrodes exhibited a high homogeneity to those recorded by ECoG electrodes. Furthermore, this novel method of recording and analysis was able to separate SD recorded by scalp electrodes from non-neuronal DC shifts induced by other potential generators, such as the skin, muscles, arteries, dura, etc. These data suggest a novel application for continuous non-invasive monitoring of DC potential changes, such as SD. Non-invasive monitoring of SD would allow early intervention and improve outcome in SD-related neurological disorders. PMID:27397413

  6. State-of-the-Art Sensor Technology in Spain: Invasive and Non-Invasive Techniques for Monitoring Respiratory Variables

    PubMed Central

    Domingo, Christian; Blanch, Lluis; Murias, Gaston; Luján, Manel

    2010-01-01

    The interest in measuring physiological parameters (especially arterial blood gases) has grown progressively in parallel to the development of new technologies. Physiological parameters were first measured invasively and at discrete time points; however, it was clearly desirable to measure them continuously and non-invasively. The development of intensive care units promoted the use of ventilators via oral intubation ventilators via oral intubation and mechanical respiratory variables were progressively studied. Later, the knowledge gained in the hospital was applied to out-of-hospital management. In the present paper we review the invasive and non-invasive techniques for monitoring respiratory variables. PMID:22399898

  7. Minimally Invasive Valve Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Pope, Nicolas H.; Ailawadi, Gorav

    2014-01-01

    Cardiac valve surgery is life saving for many patients. The advent of minimally invasive surgical techniques has historically allowed for improvement in both post-operative convalescence and important clinical outcomes. The development of minimally invasive cardiac valve repair and replacement surgery over the past decade is poised to revolutionize the care of cardiac valve patients. Here, we present a review of the history and current trends in minimally invasive aortic and mitral valve repair and replacement, including the development of sutureless bioprosthetic valves. PMID:24797148

  8. Minimally invasive hip replacement

    MedlinePlus

    ... Smits SA, Swinford RR, Bahamonde RE. A randomized, prospective study of 3 minimally invasive surgical approaches in total hip arthroplasty: comprehensive gait analysis. J Arthroplasty . 2008;23:68-73. PMID: 18722305 ...

  9. MARveling at parasite invasion.

    PubMed

    Hager, Kristin M; Carruthers, Vern B

    2008-02-01

    Micronemal proteins (MICs) are key mediators of cytoadherence and invasion for Toxoplasma gondii. Emerging evidence indicates that carbohydrate binding facilitates Toxoplasma entry into host cells. The recently solved Toxoplasma MIC1s (TgMIC1s) structure reveals the presence of novel specialized domains that can discriminate between glycan residues. Comparison with Plasmodium erythrocyte-binding antigen 175 reveals that terminal sialic acid residues might represent a shared but tailored invasion pathway among apicomplexan parasites. PMID:18203663

  10. [Continuous computer-assisted monitoring].

    PubMed

    Ritz, R

    1982-07-01

    Optimal monitoring of vital parameters in critically ill patients should be performed continuously with non-invasive and automatic methods including trend presentation of the data. Continuous measurements are now in frequent use in intensive care units, and non-invasive techniques are being increasingly explored. Besides automatic registration, computerization of monitoring allows trend presentation of the measured values and thereby improves diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. The characteristic peculiarities of a computer, i.e. acquisition, computing and presentation of the data, as well as storage capacity, enable simultaneous monitoring of several complex parameters, as is demonstrated by arrhythmia monitoring systems already in routine use. Optimal patient surveillance is described in three practical examples of computer application. PMID:7112071

  11. A unified approach for quantifying invasibility and degree of invasion.

    PubMed

    Guo, Qinfeng; Fei, Songlin; Dukes, Jeffrey S; Oswalt, Christopher M; Iannone, Basil V; Potter, Kevin M

    2015-10-01

    Habitat invasibility is a central focus of invasion biology, with implications for basic ecological patterns and processes and for effective invasion management. "Invasibility" is, however, one of the most elusive metrics and misused terms in ecology. Empirical studies and meta-analyses of invasibility have produced inconsistent and even conflicting results. This lack of consistency, and subsequent difficulty in making broad cross-habitat comparisons, stem in part from (1) the indiscriminant use of a closely related, but fundamentally different concept, that of degree of invasion (DI) or level of invasion; and (2) the lack of common invasibility metrics, as illustrated by our review of all invasibility-related papers published in 2013. To facilitate both cross-habitat comparison and more robust ecological generalizations, we clarify the definitions of invasibility and DI, and for the first time propose a common metric for quantifying invasibility based on a habitat's resource availability as inferred from relative resident species richness and biomass. We demonstrate the feasibility of our metric using empirical data collected from 2475 plots from three forest ecosystems in the eastern United States. We also propose a similar metric for DI. Our unified, resource-based metrics are scaled from 0 to 1, facilitating cross-habitat comparisons. Our proposed metrics clearly distinguish invasibility and DI from each other, which will help to (1) advance invasion ecology by allowing more robust testing of generalizations and (2) facilitate more effective invasive species control and management. PMID:26649383

  12. Non-invasive sensing for food reassurance.

    PubMed

    Xiaobo, Zou; Xiaowei, Huang; Povey, Malcolm

    2016-03-01

    Consumers and governments are increasingly interested in the safety, authenticity and quality of food commodities. This has driven attention towards non-invasive sensing techniques used for rapid analyzing these commodities. This paper provides an overview of the state of the art in, and available alternatives for, food assurance based on non-invasive sensing techniques. The main food quality traits of interest using non-invasive sensing techniques are sensory characteristics, chemical composition, physicochemical properties, health-protecting properties, nutritional characteristics and safety. A wide range of non-invasive sensing techniques, from optical, acoustical, electrical, to nuclear magnetic, X-ray, biosensor, microwave and terahertz, are organized according to physical principle. Some of these techniques are now in a period of transition between experimental and applied utilization and several sensors and instruments are reviewed. With continued innovation and attention to key challenges, such non-invasive sensors and biosensors are expected to open up new exciting avenues in the field of portable and wearable wireless sensing devices and connecting with mobile networks, thus finding considerable use in a wide range of food assurance applications. The need for an appropriate regulatory framework is emphasized which acts to exclude unwanted components in foods and includes needed components, with sensors as part of a reassurance framework supporting regulation and food chain management. The integration of these sensor modalities into a single technological and commercial platform offers an opportunity for a paradigm shift in food reassurance. PMID:26835653

  13. Minimally invasive procedures

    PubMed Central

    Baltayiannis, Nikolaos; Michail, Chandrinos; Lazaridis, George; Anagnostopoulos, Dimitrios; Baka, Sofia; Mpoukovinas, Ioannis; Karavasilis, Vasilis; Lampaki, Sofia; Papaiwannou, Antonis; Karavergou, Anastasia; Kioumis, Ioannis; Pitsiou, Georgia; Katsikogiannis, Nikolaos; Tsakiridis, Kosmas; Rapti, Aggeliki; Trakada, Georgia; Zissimopoulos, Athanasios; Zarogoulidis, Konstantinos

    2015-01-01

    Minimally invasive procedures, which include laparoscopic surgery, use state-of-the-art technology to reduce the damage to human tissue when performing surgery. Minimally invasive procedures require small “ports” from which the surgeon inserts thin tubes called trocars. Carbon dioxide gas may be used to inflate the area, creating a space between the internal organs and the skin. Then a miniature camera (usually a laparoscope or endoscope) is placed through one of the trocars so the surgical team can view the procedure as a magnified image on video monitors in the operating room. Specialized equipment is inserted through the trocars based on the type of surgery. There are some advanced minimally invasive surgical procedures that can be performed almost exclusively through a single point of entry—meaning only one small incision, like the “uniport” video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS). Not only do these procedures usually provide equivalent outcomes to traditional “open” surgery (which sometimes require a large incision), but minimally invasive procedures (using small incisions) may offer significant benefits as well: (I) faster recovery; (II) the patient remains for less days hospitalized; (III) less scarring and (IV) less pain. In our current mini review we will present the minimally invasive procedures for thoracic surgery. PMID:25861610

  14. Minimally invasive pancreatic surgery.

    PubMed

    Yiannakopoulou, E

    2015-12-01

    Minimally invasive pancreatic surgery is feasible and safe. Laparoscopic distal pancreatectomy should be widely adopted for benign lesions of the pancreas. Laparoscopic pancreaticoduodenectomy, although technically demanding, in the setting of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma has a number of advantages including shorter hospital stay, faster recovery, allowing patients to recover in a timelier manner and pursue adjuvant treatment options. Furthermore, it seems that progression-free survival is longer in patients undergoing laparoscopic pancreaticoduodenectomy in comparison with those undergoing open pancreaticoduodenectomy. Minimally invasive middle pancreatectomy seems appropriate for benign or borderline tumors of the neck of the pancreas. Technological advances including intraoperative ultrasound and intraoperative fluorescence imaging systems are expected to facilitate the wide adoption of minimally invasive pancreatic surgery. Although, the oncological outcome seems similar with that of open surgery, there are still concerns, as the majority of relevant evidence comes from retrospective studies. Large multicenter randomized studies comparing laparoscopic with open pancreatectomy as well as robotic assisted with both open and laparoscopic approaches are needed. Robotic approach could be possibly shown to be less invasive than conventional laparoscopic approach through the less traumatic intra-abdominal handling of tissues. In addition, robotic approach could enable the wide adoption of the technique by surgeon who is not that trained in advanced laparoscopic surgery. A putative clinical benefit of minimally invasive pancreatic surgery could be the attenuated surgical stress response leading to reduced morbidity and mortality as well as lack of the detrimental immunosuppressive effect especially for the oncological patients. PMID:26530291

  15. Alien invasive birds.

    PubMed

    Brochier, B; Vangeluwe, D; van den Berg, T

    2010-08-01

    A bird species is regarded as alien invasive if it has been introduced, intentionally or accidentally, to a location where it did not previously occur naturally, becomes capable of establishing a breeding population without further intervention by humans, spreads and becomes a pest affecting the environment, the local biodiversity, the economy and/or society, including human health. European Starling (Sturnus vulgaris), Common Myna (Acridotheres tristis) and Red-vented Bulbul (Pycnonotus cafer) have been included on the list of '100 of the World's Worst Invasive Alien Species', a subset of the Global Invasive Species Database. The 'Delivering Alien Invasive Species Inventories for Europe' project has selected Canada Goose (Branta canadensis), Ruddy Duck (Oxyura jamaicensis), Rose-ringed Parakeet (Psittacula krameri) and Sacred Ibis (Threskiornis aethiopicus) as among 100 of the worst invasive species in Europe. For each of these alien bird species, the geographic range (native and introduced range), the introduction pathway, the general impacts and the management methods are presented. PMID:20919578

  16. Invasive aspergillosis: new insights into disease, diagnostic and treatment.

    PubMed

    Karthaus, Meinolf; Buchheidt, Dieter

    2013-01-01

    Aspergillus infections are a threat to in patients with hematological malignancies. Known risk factors are profound and long lasting neutropenia, uncontrolled graft versus host disease, continuous administration of steroids and environmental factors such as hospital construction. Numerous efforts have been undertaken for prophylaxis of invasive aspergillosis in high-risk populations. Most of them failed to demonstrate survival advantages. Prophylaxis makes sense, since diagnosis and treatment of invasive aspergillosis remain difficult. The introduction of non-culture based tools for the diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis is an important step forward for early and sensitive diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis. Early treatment is the cornerstone of a successful management of invasive aspergillosis. Substantial improvement came with the introduction of lipid formulations of amphotericin B in the early 1990s. Voriconazole was the first azole that improved the overall survival for patients with invasive aspergillosis. Newer azoles and the echinocandins were introduced for the treatment of invasive aspergillosis in the late 1990s. Voriconazole and liposomal amphotericin B allow a safer and more effective treatment of invasive aspergillosis when compared with amphotericin B-desoxycholate. Combination of antifungal agents has been introduced in clinical trials. Up to now no significant benefit has been obtained with antifungal combination compared to voriconazole alone. Because mortality of invasive aspergillosis remains up to more than 50%, prophylaxis, early diagnosis and early initiation of antifungal therapy are of utmost importance for the reduction of invasive aspergillosis related mortality. Despite all advances in the management of invasive aspergillosis important questions remain unresolved. This article reviews the current state and new insights in the management of invasive aspergillosis and points out clinicians unmet needs. PMID:23278538

  17. Invasion triangle: an organizational framework for species invasion

    PubMed Central

    Perkins, Lora B; Leger, Elizabeth A; Nowak, Robert S

    2011-01-01

    Species invasion is a complex, multifactor process. To encapsulate this complexity into an intuitively appealing, simple, and straightforward manner, we present an organizational framework in the form of an invasion triangle. The invasion triangle is an adaptation of the disease triangle used by plant pathologists to help envision and evaluate interactions among a host, a pathogen, and an environment. Our modification of this framework for invasive species incorporates the major processes that result in invasion as the three sides of the triangle: (1) attributes of the potential invader; (2) biotic characteristics of a potentially invaded site; and (3) environmental conditions of the site. The invasion triangle also includes the impact of external influences on each side of the triangle, such as climate and land use change. This paper introduces the invasion triangle, discusses how accepted invasion hypotheses are integrated in this framework, describes how the invasion triangle can be used to focus research and management, and provides examples of application. The framework provided by the invasion triangle is easy to use by both researchers and managers and also applicable at any level of data intensity, from expert opinion to highly controlled experiments. The organizational framework provided by the invasion triangle is beneficial for understanding and predicting why species are invasive in specific environments, for identifying knowledge gaps, for facilitating communication, and for directing management in regard to invasive species. PMID:22393528

  18. Mechanisms of Perineural Invasion.

    PubMed

    Bakst, Richard L; Wong, Richard J

    2016-04-01

    Perineural invasion (PNI) is the neoplastic invasion of nerves. PNI is widely recognized as an important adverse pathological feature of many malignancies, including pancreatic, prostate, and head and neck cancers and is associated with a poor prognosis. Despite widespread acknowledgment of the clinical significance of PNI, the mechanisms underlying its pathogenesis remain largely unknown. Recent theories of PNI pathogenesis have placed a significant emphasis on the active role of the nerve microenvironment, with PNI resulting from well-orchestrated reciprocal interactions between cancer and host. Elucidating the mechanisms involved in PNI may translate into targeted therapies for this ominous process. PMID:27123385

  19. Minimally Invasive Radiofrequency Devices.

    PubMed

    Sadick, Neil; Rothaus, Kenneth O

    2016-07-01

    This article reviews minimally invasive radiofrequency options for skin tightening, focusing on describing their mechanism of action and clinical profile in terms of safety and efficacy and presenting peer-reviewed articles associated with the specific technologies. Treatments offered by minimally invasive radiofrequency devices (fractional, microneedling, temperature-controlled) are increasing in popularity due to the dramatic effects they can have without requiring skin excision, downtime, or even extreme financial burden from the patient's perspective. Clinical applications thus far have yielded impressive results in treating signs of the aging face and neck, either as stand-alone or as postoperative maintenance treatments. PMID:27363771

  20. Intracellular Parasite Invasion Strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sibley, L. D.

    2004-04-01

    Intracellular parasites use various strategies to invade cells and to subvert cellular signaling pathways and, thus, to gain a foothold against host defenses. Efficient cell entry, ability to exploit intracellular niches, and persistence make these parasites treacherous pathogens. Most intracellular parasites gain entry via host-mediated processes, but apicomplexans use a system of adhesion-based motility called ``gliding'' to actively penetrate host cells. Actin polymerization-dependent motility facilitates parasite migration across cellular barriers, enables dissemination within tissues, and powers invasion of host cells. Efficient invasion has brought widespread success to this group, which includes Toxoplasma, Plasmodium, and Cryptosporidium.

  1. Porocarcinoma with perineural invasion

    PubMed Central

    Maguire, Ciara A.; Kazlouskaya, Viktoryia; Buchen, Daniel; Heller, Patricia; Elston, Dirk M.

    2015-01-01

    Herein we present the case of a 58 year old woman with porocarcinoma of the left forehead with perineural invasion, diagnosed after recurrence of previously excised benign poroma. This case serves as a reminder of the potential of malignant degeneration within long-standing benign adnexal tumors as well as the spectrum of histological features that may be seen in porocarcinoma. PMID:25821737

  2. Aquatic invasive species

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thorsteinson, Lyman

    2005-01-01

    Invasive species are plants or animals that are present in an ecosystem beyond their native range. They may have few natural controls in their new environment and proliferate. They can threaten native species and interfere with human activities. The Western Fisheries Research Center (WFRC) has been conducting research to understand how non-native species invade and affect ecosystems, thus aiding management efforts.

  3. Early Primary Invasion Scientists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spellman, Katie V.; Villano, Christine P.

    2011-01-01

    "We really need to get the government involved," said one student, holding his graph up to USDA scientist Steve Seefeldt. Dr. Steve studies methods to control "invasive" plants, plants that have been introduced to an area by humans and have potential to spread rapidly and negatively affect ecosystems. The first grader and his classmates had become…

  4. Mechanisms Regulating Glioma Invasion

    PubMed Central

    Paw, Ivy; Carpenter, Richard C.; Watabe, Kounosuke; Debinski, Waldemar; Lo, Hui-Wen

    2015-01-01

    Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most aggressive, deadliest, and most common brain malignancy in adults. Despite the advances made in surgical techniques, radiotherapy and chemotherapy, the median survival for GBM patients has remained at a mere 14 months. GBM poses several unique challenges to currently available treatments for the disease. For example, GBM cells have the propensity to aggressively infiltrate/invade into the normal brain tissues and along the vascular tracks, which prevents complete resection of all malignant cells and limits the effect of localized radiotherapy while sparing normal tissue. Although anti-angiogenic treatment exerts anti-edematic effect in GBM, unfortunately, tumors progress with acquired increased invasiveness. Therefore, it is an important task to gain a deeper understanding of the intrinsic and post-treatment invasive phenotypes of GBM in hopes that the gained knowledge would lead to novel GBM treatments that are more effective and less toxic. This review will give an overview of some of the signaling pathways that have been shown to positively and negatively regulate GBM invasion, including, the PI3K/Akt, Wnt, sonic hedgehog-GLI1, and microRNAs. The review will also discuss several approaches to cancer therapies potentially altering GBM invasiveness. PMID:25796440

  5. Riparian invasive alters stream nitrogen dynamics.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mineau, M.; Baxter, C.; Marcarelli, A.; Minshall, G.

    2008-12-01

    Invasive species may be most likely to have strong effects on the ecosystem they invade when they contribute a new function such as nitrogen (N) fixation. Russian olive (Eleagnus angustifolia) is a non-native invasive tree which is rapidly spreading along riparian corridors in the American West. Russian olive is a nitrogen fixing plant due to a symbiotic relationship with Actinomycetes and is invading systems that frequently lack a strong native N fixer. The contribution of reactive N by these invasive riparian plants to soils may also be altering N cycling and processing in the adjacent streams. We measured nutrient limitation via periphyton growth on nutrient diffusing substrates and nitrate uptake using short term nitrate additions in Deep Creek, ID. Measurements were made in three reaches along a Russian olive invasion gradient, with an upstream reference reach that has no Russian olive and two downstream invaded reaches, one with moderate density and one with high density. Periphyton growth in Deep Creek was significantly N limited in the reference reach while the moderately invaded reach showed no significant limitation and the highly invaded reach was significantly P limited. The nitrate uptake velocity (Vf) for both of the invaded reaches was an order of magnitude less than the reference reach, implying that biological demand for nitrate is significantly less in the invaded reaches than the reference. Considering the current extent of Russian olive invasion and its continued rapid spread, possible alteration of N cycling in waterways may have important implications for the management of both this invasive species and management of nutrient pollution in waters of the western U.S.

  6. Microvascular invasion in hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Ünal, Emre; İdilman, İlkay Sedakat; Akata, Deniz; Özmen, Mustafa Nasuh; Karçaaltıncaba, Muşturay

    2016-01-01

    Microvascular invasion is a crucial histopathologic prognostic factor for hepatocellular carcinoma. We reviewed the literature and aimed to draw attention to clinicopathologic and imaging findings that may predict the presence of microvascular invasion in hepatocellular carcinoma. Imaging findings suggesting microvascular invasion are disruption of capsule, irregular tumor margin, peritumoral enhancement, multifocal tumor, increased tumor size, and increased glucose metabolism on positron emission tomography-computed tomography. In the presence of typical findings, microvascular invasion may be predicted. PMID:26782155

  7. Invasive species and climate change

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Middleton, Beth A.

    2006-01-01

    Invasive species challenge managers in their work of conserving and managing natural areas and are one of the most serious problems these managers face. Because invasive species are likely to spread in response to changes in climate, managers may need to change their approaches to invasive species management accordingly.

  8. Different Degrees of Plant Invasion Significantly Affect the Richness of the Soil Fungal Community

    PubMed Central

    Si, Chuncan; Liu, Xueyan; Wang, Congyan; Wang, Lei; Dai, Zhicong; Qi, Shanshan; Du, Daolin

    2013-01-01

    Several studies have shown that soil microorganisms play a key role in the success of plant invasion. Thus, ecologists have become increasingly interested in understanding the ecological effects of biological invasion on soil microbial communities given continuing increase in the effects of invasive plants on native ecosystems. This paper aims to provide a relatively complete depiction of the characteristics of soil microbial communities under different degrees of plant invasion. Rhizospheric soils of the notorious invasive plant Wedelia trilobata with different degrees of invasion (uninvaded, low-degree, and high-degree using its coverage in the invaded ecosystems) were collected from five discrete areas in Hainan Province, P. R. China. Soil physicochemical properties and community structure of soil microorganisms were assessed. Low degrees of W. trilobata invasion significantly increased soil pH values whereas high degrees of invasion did not significantly affected soil pH values. Moreover, the degree of W. trilobata invasion exerted significant effects on soil Ca concentration but did not significantly change other indices of soil physicochemical properties. Low and high degrees of W. trilobata invasion increased the richness of the soil fungal community but did not pose obvious effects on the soil bacterial community. W. trilobata invasion also exerted obvious effects on the community structure of soil microorganisms that take part in soil nitrogen cycling. These changes in soil physicochemical properties and community structure of soil microbial communities mediated by different degrees of W. trilobata invasion may present significant functions in further facilitating the invasion process. PMID:24392015

  9. USGS invasive species solutions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Simpson, Annie

    2011-01-01

    Land managers must meet the invasive species challenge every day, starting with identification of problem species, then the collection of best practices for their control, and finally the implementation of a plan to remove the problem. At each step of the process, the availability of reliable information is essential to success. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has developed a suite of resources for early detection and rapid response, along with data management and sharing.

  10. Antarctic Crabs: Invasion or Endurance?

    PubMed Central

    Griffiths, Huw J.; Whittle, Rowan J.; Roberts, Stephen J.; Belchier, Mark; Linse, Katrin

    2013-01-01

    Recent scientific interest following the “discovery” of lithodid crabs around Antarctica has centred on a hypothesis that these crabs might be poised to invade the Antarctic shelf if the recent warming trend continues, potentially decimating its native fauna. This “invasion hypothesis” suggests that decapod crabs were driven out of Antarctica 40–15 million years ago and are only now returning as “warm” enough habitats become available. The hypothesis is based on a geographically and spatially poor fossil record of a different group of crabs (Brachyura), and examination of relatively few Recent lithodid samples from the Antarctic slope. In this paper, we examine the existing lithodid fossil record and present the distribution and biogeographic patterns derived from over 16,000 records of Recent Southern Hemisphere crabs and lobsters. Globally, the lithodid fossil record consists of only two known specimens, neither of which comes from the Antarctic. Recent records show that 22 species of crabs and lobsters have been reported from the Southern Ocean, with 12 species found south of 60°S. All are restricted to waters warmer than 0°C, with their Antarctic distribution limited to the areas of seafloor dominated by Circumpolar Deep Water (CDW). Currently, CDW extends further and shallower onto the West Antarctic shelf than the known distribution ranges of most lithodid species examined. Geological evidence suggests that West Antarctic shelf could have been available for colonisation during the last 9,000 years. Distribution patterns, species richness, and levels of endemism all suggest that, rather than becoming extinct and recently re-invading from outside Antarctica, the lithodid crabs have likely persisted, and even radiated, on or near to Antarctic slope. We conclude there is no evidence for a modern-day “crab invasion”. We recommend a repeated targeted lithodid sampling program along the West Antarctic shelf to fully test the validity of the “invasion

  11. Macrophage invasion does not contribute to muscle membrane injury during inflammation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tidball, J. G.; Berchenko, E.; Frenette, J.

    1999-01-01

    Previous observations have shown that neutrophil invasion precedes macrophage invasion during muscle inflammation and that peak muscle injury is observed at the peak of ED1+ macrophage invasion. We tested the hypothesis that neutrophil invasion causes subsequent invasion by ED1+ macrophages and that ED1+ macrophages then contribute significantly to muscle membrane injury during modified muscle use. Rat hindlimbs were unloaded for 10 days followed by reloading by normal ambulation to induce inflammation. Membrane injury was measured by assaying Evans blue-bound serum protein influx through membrane lesions. Muscle neutrophil populations increased significantly during the first 2 h of reloading but ED1+ macrophages did not increase until 24 h. Neutrophil invasion was uncoupled from subsequent macrophage invasion by reloading rat hindlimbs for 2 h to cause neutrophil invasion, followed by resuspension for hours 2-24. This produced similar increases in neutrophil concentration as measured in muscles continuously reloaded for 24 h without causing an increase in macrophages. However, resuspension did not reduce the extent of muscle damage compared with that occurring in muscles that were reloaded continuously for 24 h. Thus, muscle invasion by neutrophils is not sufficient to cause invasion by ED1+ macrophages. In addition, muscle membrane injury that occurs during reloading is independent of invasion by ED1+ macrophages.

  12. Decidual Control of Trophoblast Invasion.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Shipra; Godbole, Geeta; Modi, Deepak

    2016-03-01

    At the time of implantation, the trophoblast cells of the embryo adhere and then invade into the maternal endometrium and eventually establish placentation. The endometrium at the same time undergoes decidualization, which is essential for successful pregnancy. While the NK cells of the decidua have been implicated to play a key role in trophoblast invasion, few evidence are now available to demonstrate a pro-invasive property of decidual stromal cells. Secretions from decidualized endometrial stromal cells promote invasion of primary trophoblasts and model cell lines by activating proteases and altering expression of adhesion-related molecules. The decidual secretions contain high amounts of pro-invasive factors that include IL-1β, IL-5, IL-6, IL-7, IL-8, IL-9, IL-13, IL-15, Eotaxin CCL11, IP-10 and RANTES, and anti-invasive factors IL-10, IL-12 and VEGF. It appears that these decidual factors promote invasion by regulating the protease pathways and integrin expression utilizing the STAT pathways in the trophoblast cells. At the same time the decidua also seem to secrete some anti-invasive factors that are antagonist to the matrix metalloproteinases and/or are activators of tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases. This might be essential to neutralize the effects of the invasion-promoting factors and restrain overinvasion. It is tempting to propose that during the course of pregnancy, the decidua must balance the production of these pro and anti-invasive molecules and such harmonizing production would allow a timely and regulated invasion. PMID:26755153

  13. Cigarette smoking and invasive cervical cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Brinton, L.A.; Schairer, C.; Haenszel, W.; Stolley, P.; Lehman, H.F.; Levine, R.; Savitz, D.A.

    1986-06-20

    A case-control study of 480 patients with invasive cervical cancer and 797 population controls, conducted in five geographic areas in the United States, included an evaluation of the relationship of several cigarette smoking variables to cervical cancer risk. Although smoking was correlated with both age at first intercourse and number of sexual partners, a significant smoking-related risk persisted for squamous cell carcinoma after adjustment for these factors (relative risk, 1.5). Twofold excess risks were seen for those smoking 40 or more cigarettes per day and those smoking for 40 or more years. Increased risks, however, were observed only among recent and continuous smokers. In contrast to squamous cell cancer, no relationship was observed between smoking and risk of adenocarcinoma or adenosquamous carcinoma. These results suggest a causal relationship between cigarette smoking and invasive squamous cell cervical cancer, perhaps through a late-stage or promotional event, although the mechanisms of action require further elucidation.

  14. Minimally invasive parathyroid surgery

    PubMed Central

    Noureldine, Salem I.; Gooi, Zhen

    2015-01-01

    Traditionally, bilateral cervical exploration for localization of all four parathyroid glands and removal of any that are grossly enlarged has been the standard surgical treatment for primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT). With the advances in preoperative localization studies and greater public demand for less invasive procedures, novel targeted, minimally invasive techniques to the parathyroid glands have been described and practiced over the past 2 decades. Minimally invasive parathyroidectomy (MIP) can be done either through the standard Kocher incision, a smaller midline incision, with video assistance (purely endoscopic and video-assisted techniques), or through an ectopically placed, extracervical, incision. In current practice, once PHPT is diagnosed, preoperative evaluation using high-resolution radiographic imaging to localize the offending parathyroid gland is essential if MIP is to be considered. The imaging study results suggest where the surgeon should begin the focused procedure and serve as a road map to allow tailoring of an efficient, imaging-guided dissection while eliminating the unnecessary dissection of multiple glands or a bilateral exploration. Intraoperative parathyroid hormone (IOPTH) levels may be measured during the procedure, or a gamma probe used during radioguided parathyroidectomy, to ascertain that the correct gland has been excised and that no other hyperfunctional tissue is present. MIP has many advantages over the traditional bilateral, four-gland exploration. MIP can be performed using local anesthesia, requires less operative time, results in fewer complications, and offers an improved cosmetic result and greater patient satisfaction. Additional advantages of MIP are earlier hospital discharge and decreased overall associated costs. This article aims to address the considerations for accomplishing MIP, including the role of preoperative imaging studies, intraoperative adjuncts, and surgical techniques. PMID:26425454

  15. Minimally invasive mediastinal surgery.

    PubMed

    Melfi, Franca M A; Fanucchi, Olivia; Mussi, Alfredo

    2016-01-01

    In the past, mediastinal surgery was associated with the necessity of a maximum exposure, which was accomplished through various approaches. In the early 1990s, many surgical fields, including thoracic surgery, observed the development of minimally invasive techniques. These included video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS), which confers clear advantages over an open approach, such as less trauma, short hospital stay, increased cosmetic results and preservation of lung function. However, VATS is associated with several disadvantages. For this reason, it is not routinely performed for resection of mediastinal mass lesions, especially those located in the anterior mediastinum, a tiny and remote space that contains vital structures at risk of injury. Robotic systems can overcome the limits of VATS, offering three-dimensional (3D) vision and wristed instrumentations, and are being increasingly used. With regards to thymectomy for myasthenia gravis (MG), unilateral and bilateral VATS approaches have demonstrated good long-term neurologic results with low complication rates. Nevertheless, some authors still advocate the necessity of maximum exposure, especially when considering the distribution of normal and ectopic thymic tissue. In recent studies, the robotic approach has shown to provide similar neurological outcomes when compared to transsternal and VATS approaches, and is associated with a low morbidity. Importantly, through a unilateral robotic technique, it is possible to dissect and remove at least the same amount of mediastinal fat tissue. Preliminary results on early-stage thymomatous disease indicated that minimally invasive approaches are safe and feasible, with a low rate of pleural recurrence, underlining the necessity of a "no-touch" technique. However, especially for thymomatous disease characterized by an indolent nature, further studies with long follow-up period are necessary in order to assess oncologic and neurologic results through minimally invasive

  16. Minimally invasive mediastinal surgery

    PubMed Central

    Melfi, Franca M. A.; Mussi, Alfredo

    2016-01-01

    In the past, mediastinal surgery was associated with the necessity of a maximum exposure, which was accomplished through various approaches. In the early 1990s, many surgical fields, including thoracic surgery, observed the development of minimally invasive techniques. These included video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS), which confers clear advantages over an open approach, such as less trauma, short hospital stay, increased cosmetic results and preservation of lung function. However, VATS is associated with several disadvantages. For this reason, it is not routinely performed for resection of mediastinal mass lesions, especially those located in the anterior mediastinum, a tiny and remote space that contains vital structures at risk of injury. Robotic systems can overcome the limits of VATS, offering three-dimensional (3D) vision and wristed instrumentations, and are being increasingly used. With regards to thymectomy for myasthenia gravis (MG), unilateral and bilateral VATS approaches have demonstrated good long-term neurologic results with low complication rates. Nevertheless, some authors still advocate the necessity of maximum exposure, especially when considering the distribution of normal and ectopic thymic tissue. In recent studies, the robotic approach has shown to provide similar neurological outcomes when compared to transsternal and VATS approaches, and is associated with a low morbidity. Importantly, through a unilateral robotic technique, it is possible to dissect and remove at least the same amount of mediastinal fat tissue. Preliminary results on early-stage thymomatous disease indicated that minimally invasive approaches are safe and feasible, with a low rate of pleural recurrence, underlining the necessity of a “no-touch” technique. However, especially for thymomatous disease characterized by an indolent nature, further studies with long follow-up period are necessary in order to assess oncologic and neurologic results through minimally

  17. Invasive hemodynamic monitoring.

    PubMed

    Magder, Sheldon

    2015-01-01

    Although invasive hemodynamic monitoring requires considerable skill, studies have shown a striking lack of knowledge of the measurements obtained with the pulmonary artery catheter (PAC). This article reviews monitoring using a PAC. Issues addressed include basic physiology that determines cardiac output and blood pressure; methodology in the measurement of data obtained from a PAC; use of the PAC in making a diagnosis and for patient management, with emphasis on a responsive approach to management; and uses of the PAC that are not indications by themselves for placing the catheter, but can provide useful information when a PAC is in place. PMID:25435479

  18. Minimally Invasive Parathyroidectomy

    PubMed Central

    Starker, Lee F.; Fonseca, Annabelle L.; Carling, Tobias; Udelsman, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Minimally invasive parathyroidectomy (MIP) is an operative approach for the treatment of primary hyperparathyroidism (pHPT). Currently, routine use of improved preoperative localization studies, cervical block anesthesia in the conscious patient, and intraoperative parathyroid hormone analyses aid in guiding surgical therapy. MIP requires less surgical dissection causing decreased trauma to tissues, can be performed safely in the ambulatory setting, and is at least as effective as standard cervical exploration. This paper reviews advances in preoperative localization, anesthetic techniques, and intraoperative management of patients undergoing MIP for the treatment of pHPT. PMID:21747851

  19. Karyotype of the invasive species Pterois volitans (Scorpaeniformes: Scorpaenidae) from Margarita Island, Venezuela.

    PubMed

    Nirchio, Mauro; Ehemann, Nicolás; Siccha-Ramirez, Raquel; Ron, Ernesto; Pérez, Julio Eduardo; Rossi, Anna Rita; Oliveira, Claudio

    2014-12-01

    The genus Pterois includes nine valid species, native to the Red Sea and Indian Ocean throughout the Western Pacific. P. volitans and P. miles are native to the Indo-Pacific, and were introduced into Florida waters as a result of aquarium releases, and have been recently recognized as invaders of the Western Atlantic and Caribbean Sea (Costa Rica to Venezuela). Thus far, cytogenetic studies of the genus Pterois only cover basic aspects of three species, including P. volitans from Indo-Pacific Ocean. Considering the lack of more detailed information about cytogenetic characteristics of this invasive species, the objective of the present study was to investigate the basic and molecular cytogenetic characteristics of P. volitans in Venezuela, and compare the results with those from the original distribution area. For this, the karyotypic characteristics of four lionfish caught in Margarita Island, Venezuela, were investigated by examining metaphase chromosomes by Giemsa staining, C-banding, Ag-NOR, and two-colour-Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) for mapping of 18S and 5S ribosomal genes. Comparing the sequences of the 16S gene of the specimens analyzed, with sequences already included in the Genbank, we corroborated that our specimens identified as P. volitans are in fact this species, and hence exclude the possibility of a misidentification of P. miles. The diploid number was 2n = 48 (2m + 10sm + 36a) with FN = 60. Chromosomes uniformly decreased in size, making it difficult to clearly identify the homologues except for the only metacentric pair, and the pairs number two, the largest of the submetacentric series. C-banding revealed only three pairs of chromosomes negative for C-band, whereas all remaining chromosomes presented telomeric and some interstitial C-positive blocks. Only two chromosomes were C-banding positive at the pericentromeric regions. Sequential staining revealed Ag-NOR on the tips of the short arms of chromosome pair number two and the FISH

  20. Malignant cancer and invasive placentation

    PubMed Central

    D'Souza, Alaric W.; Wagner, Günter P.

    2014-01-01

    Cancer metastasis is an invasive process that involves the transplantation of cells into new environments. Since human placentation is also invasive, hypotheses about a relationship between invasive placentation in eutherian mammals and metastasis have been proposed. The relationship between metastatic cancer and invasive placentation is usually presented in terms of antagonistic pleiotropy. According to this hypothesis, evolution of invasive placentation also established the mechanisms for cancer metastasis. Here, in contrast, we argue that the secondary evolution of less invasive placentation in some mammalian lineages may have resulted in positive pleiotropic effects on cancer survival by lowering malignancy rates. These positive pleiotropic effects would manifest themselves as resistance to cancer cell invasion. To provide a preliminary test of this proposal, we re-analyze data from Priester and Mantel (Occurrence of tumors in domestic animals. Data from 12 United States and Canadian colleges of veterinary medicine. J Natl Cancer Inst 1971;47:1333-44) about malignancy rates in cows, horses, cats and dogs. From our analysis we found that equines and bovines, animals with less invasive placentation, have lower rates of metastatic cancer than felines and canines in skin and glandular epithelial cancers as well as connective tissue sarcomas. We conclude that a link between type of placentation and species-specific malignancy rates is more likely related to derived mechanisms that suppress invasion rather than different degrees of fetal placental aggressiveness. PMID:25324490

  1. Less invasive beractant administration in preterm infants: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Ramos-Navarro, Cristina; Sánchez-Luna, Manuel; Zeballos-Sarrato, Susana; González-Pacheco, Noelia

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aims of this study were to assess the efficacy and feasibility of a new, less invasive surfactant administration technique for beractant replacement using a specifically designed cannula in preterm infants born at <32 weeks of gestation and to compare short- and long-term outcomes between this approach and standard treatment, consisting of intubation, administration of surfactant and early extubation to nasal continuous positive airway pressure. METHOD: This was a single-center, prospective, open-label, non-randomized, controlled pilot study with an experimental cohort of 30 patients treated with less invasive surfactant administration and a retrospective control group comprising the 30 patients most recently treated with the standard approach. Beractant (4 ml/kg) was administered as an exogenous surfactant in both groups if patients on nasal continuous positive airway pressure during the first three days of life were in need of more than 30% FiO2. Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT02611284. RESULTS: In the group with less invasive surfactant administration, beractant was successfully administered in all patients. Thirteen patients (43.3%) in the group with less invasive surfactant administration required invasive mechanical ventilation for more than 1 hour during the first 3 days of life, compared with 22 (73%) in the control group (p<0.036). The rate of requiring invasive mechanical ventilation for more than 48 hours was similar between the infants in the two groups (46% vs. 40%, respectively). There were no differences in other outcomes. CONCLUSION: The administration of beractant (4 ml/kg) using a less invasive surfactant administration technique with a specifically designed cannula for administration is feasible. Moreover, early invasive mechanical ventilation exposure is significantly reduced by this method compared with the strategy involving intubation, surfactant administration and early extubation. PMID:27074172

  2. Dietary Flexibility Aids Asian Earthworm Invasion in North American Forests

    EPA Science Inventory

    On a local scale, invasiveness of introduced species and invasibility of habitats together determine invasion success. A key issue in invasion ecology has been how to quantify the contribution of species invasiveness and habitat invasibility separately. Conventional approaches, s...

  3. Clarifying debates in invasion biology: a survey of invasion biologists.

    PubMed

    Young, Ashley M; Larson, Brendon M H

    2011-10-01

    Invasion biology is a relatively new field, so there are ongoing debates about foundational issues regarding terminology and assessment of the causes and consequences of invasive species. These debates largely reflect differing views about the extent to which invasion biologists should advocate on behalf of native species. We surveyed reviewers of the journal Biological Invasions to obtain a better sense of how invasion biologists evaluate several foundational issues. We received 422 replies, which represented a very good response rate for an online survey of 42.5% of those contacted. Responses to several debates in the field were distributed bimodally, but respondents consistently indicated that contemporary biological invasions are unprecedented. Even still, this was not seen as justification for exaggerated language (hyperbole). In contrast to prevalent claims in the literature, only 27.3% of respondents ranked invasive species as the first or second greatest threat to biodiversity. The responses also highlighted the interaction of invasive species with other threats and the role of human activity in their spread. Finally, the respondents agreed that they need to be both more objective and better at communicating their results so that those results can be effectively integrated into management. PMID:21757195

  4. Minimally Invasive Atrial Fibrillation Surgery: Hybrid Approach

    PubMed Central

    Beller, Jared P.; Downs, Emily A.; Ailawadi, Gorav

    2016-01-01

    Atrial fibrillation is a challenging pathologic process. There continues to be a great need for the development of a reproducible, durable cure when medical management has failed. An effective, minimally invasive, sternal-sparing intervention without the need for cardiopulmonary bypass is a promising treatment approach. In this article, we describe a hybrid technique being refined at our center that combines a thoracoscopic epicardial surgical approach with an endocardial catheter-based procedure. We also discuss our results and review the literature describing this unique treatment approach. PMID:27127561

  5. Physiology of non-invasive respiratory support.

    PubMed

    Alexiou, Stamatia; Panitch, Howard B

    2016-06-01

    Non-invasive ventilation (NIV) is used in neonates to treat extrathoracic and intrathoracic airway obstruction, parenchymal lung disease and disorders of control of breathing. Avoidance of airway intubation is associated with a reduction in the incidence of chronic lung disease among preterm infants with respiratory distress syndrome. Use of nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP) may help establish and maintain functional residual capacity (FRC), decrease respiratory work, and improve gas exchange. Other modes of non-invasive ventilation, which include heated humidified high-flow nasal cannula therapy (HHHFNC), nasal intermittent mandatory ventilation (NIMV), non-invasive pressure support ventilation (NI-PSV), and bi-level CPAP (SiPAP™), have also been shown to provide additional benefit in improving breathing patterns, reducing work of breathing, and increasing gas exchange when compared with nCPAP. Newer modes, such as neurally adjusted ventilatory assist (NAVA), hold the promise of improving patient-ventilator synchrony and so might ultimately improve outcomes for preterm infants with respiratory distress. PMID:26923501

  6. Genetic Perspectives on Marine Biological Invasions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geller, Jonathan B.; Darling, John A.; Carlton, James T.

    2010-01-01

    The extent to which the geographic distributions of marine organisms have been reshaped by human activities remains underappreciated, and so does, consequently, the impact of invasive species on marine ecosystems. The application of molecular genetic data in fields such as population genetics, phylogeography, and evolutionary biology have improved our ability to make inferences regarding invasion histories. Genetic methods have helped to resolve longstanding questions regarding the cryptogenic status of marine species, facilitated recognition of cryptic marine biodiversity, and provided means to determine the sources of introduced marine populations and to begin to recover the patterns of anthropogenic reshuffling of the ocean's biota. These approaches stand to aid materially in the development of effective management strategies and sustainable science-based policies. Continued advancements in the statistical analysis of genetic data promise to overcome some existing limitations of current approaches. Still other limitations will be best addressed by concerted collaborative and multidisciplinary efforts that recognize the important synergy between understanding the extent of biological invasions and coming to a more complete picture of both modern-day and historical marine biogeography.

  7. Modeling Hawaiian ecosystem degradation due to invasive plants under current and future climates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vorsino, Adam E.; Fortini, Lucas B.; Amidon, Fred A.; Miller, Stephen E.; Jacobi, James D.; Price, Jonathan P.; `Ohukani`ohi`a Gon, Sam, III; Koob, Gregory A.

    2014-01-01

    Occupation of native ecosystems by invasive plant species alters their structure and/or function. In Hawaii, a subset of introduced plants is regarded as extremely harmful due to competitive ability, ecosystem modification, and biogeochemical habitat degradation. By controlling this subset of highly invasive ecosystem modifiers, conservation managers could significantly reduce native ecosystem degradation. To assess the invasibility of vulnerable native ecosystems, we selected a proxy subset of these invasive plants and developed robust ensemble species distribution models to define their respective potential distributions. The combinations of all species models using both binary and continuous habitat suitability projections resulted in estimates of species richness and diversity that were subsequently used to define an invasibility metric. The invasibility metric was defined from species distribution models with 0.8; True Skill Statistic >0.75) as evaluated per species. Invasibility was further projected onto a 2100 Hawaii regional climate change scenario to assess the change in potential habitat degradation. The distribution defined by the invasibility metric delineates areas of known and potential invasibility under current climate conditions and, when projected into the future, estimates potential reductions in native ecosystem extent due to climate-driven invasive incursion. We have provided the code used to develop these metrics to facilitate their wider use (Code S1). This work will help determine the vulnerability of native-dominated ecosystems to the combined threats of climate change and invasive species, and thus help prioritize ecosystem and species management actions.

  8. Inhibition between invasives: a newly introduced predator moderates the impacts of a previously established invasive predator.

    PubMed

    Griffen, Blaine D; Guy, Travis; Buck, Julia C

    2008-01-01

    1. With continued globalization, species are being transported and introduced into novel habitats at an accelerating rate. Interactions between invasive species may provide important mechanisms that moderate their impacts on native species. 2. The European green crab Carcinus maenas is an aggressive predator that was introduced to the east coast of North America in the mid-1800 s and is capable of rapid consumption of bivalve prey. A newer invasive predator, the Asian shore crab Hemigrapsus sanguineus, was first discovered on the Atlantic coast in the 1980s, and now inhabits many of the same regions as C. maenas within the Gulf of Maine. Using a series of field and laboratory investigations, we examined the consequences of interactions between these predators. 3. Density patterns of these two species at different spatial scales are consistent with negative interactions. As a result of these interactions, C. maenas alters its diet to consume fewer mussels, its preferred prey, in the presence of H. sanguineus. Decreased mussel consumption in turn leads to lower growth rates for C. maenas, with potential detrimental effects on C. maenas populations. 4. Rather than an invasional meltdown, this study demonstrates that, within the Gulf of Maine, this new invasive predator can moderate the impacts of the older invasive predator. PMID:18177327

  9. Cooperative prevention systems to protect rangelands from the spread of invasive plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Invasive plants continue to spread and impact rangelands in the western United States. Fortunately, many rangeland ecosystems still remain invasive weed-free.Cooperative prevention systems can safeguard these remaining areas. Local-level weed prevention areas (WPAs) prioritize prevention in the larg...

  10. A Conceptual Framework for Preventing the Spatial Dispersal of Invasive Plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Invasive plant species have adversely affected rangelands throughout the world and continue to invade previously uninfested lands at an alarming rate. Previous efforts have focused on eradication and control; however, recent efforts have recognized preventing invasive plant species from infesting n...

  11. Herbivorous insects and plant pathogen work together to suppress an invasive tree performance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Exotic, invasive plants continue to plague managed as well as natural ecosystems. Land managers rely heavily on cultural, mechanical, or herbicidal tools (singly or in combination) to control weedy invasive plants. While these tools are effective, managers and consumers are increasingly opting for m...

  12. Managing the invasive species risk

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Florida, California and Hawaii are on the front lines when it comes to the war with invasive species. One study documented the Florida invasion at more than one new arthropod species becoming established in the state each month with California estimated to be one every other month. This does not mea...

  13. MEDUSAHEAD INVASION, IMPLICATIONS, AND MANAGEMENT.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Medusahead invasion of western rangelands is at a cross-road, either an aggressive effort to prevent its invasion of new areas is initiated, or millions of acres will be lost. Medusahead is an aggressive, exotic, annual grass invading rangelands in the western United States. The rapid spread of me...

  14. Prioritizing invasive plant management strategies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Invasive plants are seriously impacting rangelands by displacing desirable species. Management of these species is expensive and careful allocation of scarce dollars is necessary. Ecologically-based invasive plant management (EBIPM) has the potential to provide an improved decision-making process ...

  15. Integrated assessment of biological invasions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As the main annalists of the ecological and economic impacts of invasions on ecosystems around the world, ecologists should be able to provide information that can guide management practices. Managers often want to know about the potential for invasion of specific organisms in the sites under their ...

  16. Managing the invasive species risk

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Florida, California and Hawaii are on the front lines when it comes to the war with invasive species. One study documented the Florida invasion at more than one new arthropod species becoming established in the state each month with California estimated to be one every other month. This does not me...

  17. Genetic reconstructions of invasion history.

    PubMed

    Cristescu, Melania E

    2015-05-01

    A diverse array of molecular markers and constantly evolving analytical approaches have been employed to reconstruct the invasion histories of the most notorious invasions. Detailed information on the source(s) of introduction, invasion route, type of vectors, number of independent introductions and pathways of secondary spread has been corroborated for a large number of biological invasions. In this review, I present the promises and limitations of current techniques while discussing future directions. Broad phylogeographic surveys of native and introduced populations have traced back invasion routes with surprising precision. These approaches often further clarify species boundaries and reveal complex patterns of genetic relationships with noninvasive relatives. Moreover, fine-scale analyses of population genetics or genomics allow deep inferences on the colonization dynamics across invaded ranges and can reveal the extent of gene flow among populations across various geographical scales, major demographic events such as genetic bottlenecks as well as other important evolutionary events such as hybridization with native taxa, inbreeding and selective sweeps. Genetic data have been often corroborated successfully with historical, geographical and ecological data to enable a comprehensive reconstruction of the invasion process. The advent of next-generation sequencing, along with the availability of extensive databases of repository sequences generated by barcoding projects opens the opportunity to broadly monitor biodiversity, to identify early invasions and to quantify failed invasions that would otherwise remain inconspicuous to the human eye. PMID:25703061

  18. [Minimally invasive breast surgery].

    PubMed

    Mátrai, Zoltán; Gulyás, Gusztáv; Kunos, Csaba; Sávolt, Akos; Farkas, Emil; Szollár, András; Kásler, Miklós

    2014-02-01

    Due to the development in medical science and industrial technology, minimally invasive procedures have appeared in the surgery of benign and malignant breast diseases. In general , such interventions result in significantly reduced breast and chest wall scars, shorter hospitalization and less pain, but they require specific, expensive devices, longer surgical time compared to open surgery. Furthermore, indications or oncological safety have not been established yet. It is quite likely, that minimally invasive surgical procedures with high-tech devices - similar to other surgical subspecialties -, will gradually become popular and it may form part of routine breast surgery even. Vacuum-assisted core biopsy with a therapeutic indication is suitable for the removal of benign fibroadenomas leaving behind an almost invisible scar, while endoscopically assisted skin-sparing and nipple-sparing mastectomy, axillary staging and reconstruction with latissimus dorsi muscle flap are all feasible through the same short axillary incision. Endoscopic techniques are also suitable for the diagnostics and treatment of intracapsular complications of implant-based breast reconstructions (intracapsular fluid, implant rupture, capsular contracture) and for the biopsy of intracapsular lesions with uncertain pathology. Perception of the role of radiofrequency ablation of breast tumors requires further hands-on experience, but it is likely that it can serve as a replacement of surgical removal in a portion of primary tumors in the future due to the development in functional imaging and anticancer drugs. With the reduction of the price of ductoscopes routine examination of the ductal branch system, guided microdochectomy and targeted surgical removal of terminal ducto-lobular units or a "sick lobe" as an anatomical unit may become feasible. The paper presents the experience of the authors and provides a literature review, for the first time in Hungarian language on the subject. Orv. Hetil

  19. Early detection of invasive fishes in Lake Superior

    EPA Science Inventory

    Invasive species pose a serious threat to the Great Lakes warranting continual monitoring for the arrival of new species. Three locations in Lake Superior were identified as "high risk" for new introductions: St. Louis River near Duluth, MN, Upper St. Marys River near S...

  20. Transwell(®) invasion assays.

    PubMed

    Marshall, John

    2011-01-01

    The need to identify inhibitors of cancer invasion has driven the development of quantitative in vitro invasion assays. The most common assays used are based on the original Boyden assay system. Today commercially available plastic inserts for multi-well plates, which possess a cell-permeable membrane, as typified by Transwell(®) Permeable Supports, permit accurate repeatable invasion assays. When placed in the well of a multi-well tissue culture plate these inserts create a two-chamber system separated by the cell-permeable membrane. To create an invasion assay the pores in the membrane are blocked with a gel composed of extracellular matrix that is meant to mimic the typical matrices that tumour cells encounter during the invasion process in vivo. By placing the cells on one side of the gel and a chemoattractant on the other side of the gel, invasion is determined by counting those cells that have traversed the cell-permeable membrane having invaded towards the higher concentration of chemoattractant. In this chapter, in addition to protocols for performing Transwell invasion assays, there is consideration of the limitations of current assay designs with regard to available matrices and the absence of tumour microenvironment cells. PMID:21748672

  1. Non-invasive and invasive imaging of vulnerable coronary plaque.

    PubMed

    Celeng, Csilla; Takx, Richard A P; Ferencik, Maros; Maurovich-Horvat, Pál

    2016-08-01

    Vulnerable plaque is characterized by a large necrotic core and an overlying thin fibrous cap. Non-invasive imaging modalities such as computed tomography angiography (CTA) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) allow for the assessment of morphological plaque characteristics, while positron emission tomography (PET) enables the detection of metabolic activity within the atherosclerotic lesions. Invasive imaging modalities such as intravascular ultrasound (IVUS), optical-coherence tomography (OCT), and intravascular MRI (IV-MRI) display plaques at a high spatial resolution. Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) allows for the detection of chemical components of atherosclerotic plaques. In this review, we describe state-of-the-art non-invasive and invasive imaging modalities and stress the combination of their advantages to identify vulnerable plaque features. PMID:27079893

  2. Continuous Glucose Monitoring Systems: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Vashist, Sandeep Kumar

    2013-01-01

    There have been continuous advances in the field of glucose monitoring during the last four decades, which have led to the development of highly evolved blood glucose meters, non-invasive glucose monitoring (NGM) devices and continuous glucose monitoring systems (CGMS). Glucose monitoring is an integral part of diabetes management, and the maintenance of physiological blood glucose concentration is the only way for a diabetic to avoid life-threatening diabetic complications. CGMS have led to tremendous improvements in diabetic management, as shown by the significant lowering of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) in adults with type I diabetes. Most of the CGMS have been minimally-invasive, although the more recent ones are based on NGM techniques. This manuscript reviews the advances in CGMS for diabetes management along with the future prospects and the challenges involved. PMID:26824930

  3. Invasive cancer cells and metastasis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mierke, Claudia Tanja

    2013-12-01

    , vinculin and FAK synergize their functions to regulate the mechanical properties of cells such as stiffness and contractile forces. Finally, the knowledge of the mechanical properties of invasive and non-invasive cells could provide a source for future drug developments to inhibit formation of metastases. This special section also includes two papers from the group of Martin Herrmann, a research paper and a review paper. The research paper by Janko et al deals with the cooperative binding of Annexin A5 to phosphatidylserines on apoptotic cell membranes [6]. This could not alone serve as an 'eat me' signal for macrophages as healthy cells also express Annexin A5 on their cell surface. The authors suggest that the cooperative binding is altered and subsequently the fluidity of Annexin A5 on the membrane. Together this may serve as a signal for phagocytic cells to eat apoptotic cells and leave healthy ones untouched. The paper by Biermann et al reviews the role of biophysical signals in the clearance of apoptotic cells [7]. In addition to the acto-myosin cytoskeleton, the keratin network seems to play a role in cancer research. The paper from the Beil and the Marti group demonstrates that microrheology is a valuable tool to determine the viscoelastic properties of polymer networks such as the keratin network in cells and an arbitrary in vitro network [8]. They describe how the topology of the keratin network affects the overall mechanical behavior of cells. It seems that the field of physical oncology will continue to grow in the future and more research will address the mechanical properties of cancer cells and whole tissues. Biophysical methods will need to be further improved and adapted to the needs of cancer research. References [1] Coughlin M F and Fredberg J J 2013 Phys. Biol. 10 065001 [2] Krause M, te Riet J and Wolf K 2013 Phys. Biol. 10 065002 [3] Munn L L 2013 Phys. Biol. 10 065003 [4] Bordeleau F, Tang L N and Reinhart-King C A 2013 Phys. Biol. 10 065004 [5

  4. Minimally Invasive Surgery in Gastrointestinal Cancer: Benefits, Challenges, and Solutions for Underutilization

    PubMed Central

    Gusani, Niraj J.; Kimchi, Eric T.; Kavic, Stephen M.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objectives: After the widespread application of minimally invasive surgery for benign diseases and given its proven safety and efficacy, minimally invasive surgery for gastrointestinal cancer has gained substantial attention in the past several years. Despite the large number of publications on the topic and level I evidence to support its use in colon cancer, minimally invasive surgery for most gastrointestinal malignancies is still underused. Methods: We explore some of the challenges that face the fusion of minimally invasive surgery technology in the management of gastrointestinal malignancies and propose solutions that may help increase the utilization in the future. These solutions are based on extensive literature review, observation of current trends and practices in this field, and discussion made with experts in the field. Results: We propose 4 different solutions to increase the use of minimally invasive surgery in the treatment of gastrointestinal malignancies: collaboration between surgical oncologists/hepatopancreatobiliary surgeons and minimally invasive surgeons at the same institution; a single surgeon performing 2 fellowships in surgical oncology/hepatopancreatobiliary surgery and minimally invasive surgery; establishing centers of excellence in minimally invasive gastrointestinal cancer management; and finally, using robotic technology to help with complex laparoscopic skills. Conclusions: Multiple studies have confirmed the utility of minimally invasive surgery techniques in dealing with patients with gastrointestinal malignancies. However, training continues to be the most important challenge that faces the use of minimally invasive surgery in the management of gastrointestinal malignancy; implementation of our proposed solutions may help increase the rate of adoption in the future. PMID:25489209

  5. Pins and needles: minimally invasive office techniques for facial rejuvenation.

    PubMed

    Maas, Corey S; Bapna, Sumit

    2009-11-01

    The desire for minimally invasive facial rejuvenation has continued to increase from the perspective of both the patients and injectors. For successful rejuvenation, it is important to understand the anatomic changes of the aging face as well as the properties of available neuromodulators and soft tissue fillers. The injector should be knowledgeable of the advantages and disadvantages of each product. Patient selection, perhaps, plays the largest role in success, choosing patients that would truly benefit from and have reasonable expectations for minimally invasive techniques. Unsatisfactory outcomes can be limited by meticulous injection technique and well thought out treatment plans. PMID:19924599

  6. Minimally Invasive Aortic Valve Replacement

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... screen and open the door to informed medical care. Good afternoon and welcome to the Heart Institute ... be progressive and less invasive in how we care for our patients. 8 Here's one from one ...

  7. Cheatgrass invasion and wildlife habitat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The introduction and subsequent invasion of cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum) has altered native plant communities and the wildlife species that depend on these communities. Cheatgrass has truncated secondary succession by outcompeting native plant species for limited resources, thus building persistent...

  8. Squamous cell carcinoma - invasive (image)

    MedlinePlus

    This irregular red nodule is an invasive squamous cell carcinoma (a form of skin cancer). Initial appearance, shown here, may be very similar to a noncancerous growth called a keratoacanthoma. Squamous cell cancers ...

  9. Squamous cell carcinoma - invasive (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... invasive squamous cell carcinoma (a form of skin cancer). Initial appearance, shown here, may be very similar to a noncancerous growth called a keratoacanthoma. Squamous cell cancers can metastasize (spread) and should be removed surgically ...

  10. Heart bypass surgery - minimally invasive

    MedlinePlus

    ... in 30-day outcomes in high-risk patients randomized to off-pump versus on-pump coronary bypass ... Thiele H, Neumann-Schniedewind P, Jacobs S, et al. Randomized comparison of minimally invasive direct coronary artery bypass ...

  11. Mitral valve surgery - minimally invasive

    MedlinePlus

    ... that does many of these procedures. Minimally invasive heart valve surgery has improved greatly in recent years. These ... WT, Mack MJ. Transcatheter cardiac valve interventions. Surg Clin North Am . 2009;89:951-66. ...

  12. Common Ground for Managing Invasive Annual Grasses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Invasive annual grasses often reach their full biological potential in ecosystems of the western United States. This suggests that crucial ecosystem "checks and balances" are not functioning. In other words, invasion occurs because ecosystems have lost resistance to invasion, and invasive plants a...

  13. Transanal Minimally Invasive Surgery: State of the Art.

    PubMed

    Keller, D S; Haas, E M

    2016-02-01

    The treatment for rectal cancer and benign rectal lesions continues to progress in the arena of minimally invasive surgery. While surgical excision of the primary mass remains essential for eradication of disease, there has been a paradigm shift towards less invasive resection methods. Local excision is increasing in popularity for its low morbidity and excellent functional results in select patients. Transanal minimally invasive surgery (TAMIS) is a new technology developed to elevate the practice of local excision to state-of-the-art resection. The goal of this article is to evaluate the history, short-term outcomes, and evolution of the TAMIS technique for excision of benign and malignant rectal neoplasia. PMID:26608195

  14. SOST Inhibits Prostate Cancer Invasion

    PubMed Central

    Hudson, Bryan D.; Hum, Nicholas R.; Thomas, Cynthia B.; Kohlgruber, Ayano; Sebastian, Aimy; Collette, Nicole M.; Coleman, Matthew A.; Christiansen, Blaine A.; Loots, Gabriela G.

    2015-01-01

    Inhibitors of Wnt signaling have been shown to be involved in prostate cancer (PC) metastasis; however the role of Sclerostin (Sost) has not yet been explored. Here we show that elevated Wnt signaling derived from Sost deficient osteoblasts promotes PC invasion, while rhSOST has an inhibitory effect. In contrast, rhDKK1 promotes PC elongation and filopodia formation, morphological changes characteristic of an invasive phenotype. Furthermore, rhDKK1 was found to activate canonical Wnt signaling in PC3 cells, suggesting that SOST and DKK1 have opposing roles on Wnt signaling in this context. Gene expression analysis of PC3 cells co-cultured with OBs exhibiting varying amounts of Wnt signaling identified CRIM1 as one of the transcripts upregulated under highly invasive conditions. We found CRIM1 overexpression to also promote cell-invasion. These findings suggest that bone-derived Wnt signaling may enhance PC tropism by promoting CRIM1 expression and facilitating cancer cell invasion and adhesion to bone. We concluded that SOST and DKK1 have opposing effects on PC3 cell invasion and that bone-derived Wnt signaling positively contributes to the invasive phenotypes of PC3 cells by activating CRIM1 expression and facilitating PC-OB physical interaction. As such, we investigated the effects of high concentrations of SOST in vivo. We found that PC3-cells overexpressing SOST injected via the tail vein in NSG mice did not readily metastasize, and those injected intrafemorally had significantly reduced osteolysis, suggesting that targeting the molecular bone environment may influence bone metastatic prognosis in clinical settings. PMID:26545120

  15. Synchronous unilateral triple breast cancers composed of invasive ductal carcinoma, invasive lobular carcinoma, and Paget's disease.

    PubMed

    Onoe, Shunsuke; Tsuda, Hitoshi; Akashi-Tanaka, Sadako; Hasebe, Takahiro; Iwamoto, Eriko; Hojo, Takashi; Kinoshita, Takayuki

    2014-03-01

    We report a case of synchronous unilateral triple breast cancers comprising invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC), invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC), and Paget's disease. A 57-year-old woman with a left breast mass was referred to our hospital. Mammography revealed only an isodense area with foci of microcalcification in the lateral area of the left breast. Ultrasonography revealed 2 hypoechoic masses in the outer lower and inner upper areas, and these 2 lesions were diagnosed by core needle biopsy as ILC and IDC, respectively. Left total mastectomy with sentinel lymph node biopsies was performed. In addition to the ILC and IDC, histological examination also identified Paget's disease. Breast cancer often manifests as multiple unilateral lesions; however, it is sometimes difficult to determine whether these tumors have developed multicentrically or have multifocally invaded from an intraductal carcinoma. This case was clearly diagnosed to have occurred multicentrically because of the absence of continuity among the 3 tumors, the presence of a non-invasive component in all 3 tumors, and different histopathological findings. The synchronous unilateral development of ILCs is well known. Cases of synchronous unilateral triple or more breast cancers were reviewed, and their histopathological characteristics, including the incidence of Paget's disease, is discussed. PMID:21140247

  16. Invasion and Management of Agricultural Alien Insects in China.

    PubMed

    Wan, Fang-Hao; Yang, Nian-Wan

    2016-01-01

    China is the world's fourth-largest country in terms of landmass. Its highly diverse biogeography presents opportunities for many invasive alien insects. However, physical and climate barriers sometimes prevent locally occurring species from spreading. China has 560 confirmed invasive alien species; 125 are insect pests, and 92 of these damage the agricultural ecosystem. The estimated annual economic loss due to alien invasive species is more than $18.9 billion. The most harmful invasive insects exhibit some common characteristics, such as high reproduction, competitive dominance, and high tolerance, and benefit from mutualist facilitation interactions. Regional cropping system structure adjustments have resulted in mono-agricultural ecosystems in cotton and other staple crops, providing opportunities for monophagous insect pests. Furthermore, human dietary shifts to fruits and vegetables and smallholder-based farming systems result in highly diverse agricultural ecosystems, which provide resource opportunities for polyphagous insects. Multiple cropping and widespread use of greenhouses provide continuous food and winter habitats for insect pests, greatly extending their geographic range. The current management system consists of early-warning, monitoring, eradication, and spread blocking technologies. This review provides valuable new synthetic information on integrated management practices based mainly on biological control for a number of invasive species. We encourage farmers and extension workers to be more involved in training and further research for novel protection methods that takes into consideration end users' needs. PMID:26527302

  17. Non invasive assessment of the human tear film dynamics.

    PubMed

    Ring, M H; Rabensteiner, D F; Horwath-Winter, J; Boldin, I; Schrödl, F; Reitsamer, H; Haslwanter, T

    2015-11-01

    Dry eye disease, or keratoconjunctivitis sicca, is a multifactorial syndrome with altered tear film homeostasis leading to ocular irritations. These alterations cause discomfort and stress for the patient, but only a few objective parameters allow for proper differential diagnosis into different subtypes of this condition. The mostly invasively performed standard assessment procedures for tear film diagnosis are manifold, but often correlate quite poorly with the subjectively reported symptoms. Due to the inherent limitations, e.g. the subjectivity of the commonly performed invasive tests, a number of devices have been developed to assess the human tear film non-invasively. Since the production, delivery, distribution and drainage of the tear film is a dynamic process, we have focused our review on non-invasive methods which are capable of continuous or repetitive observations of the tear film during an inter-blink interval. These dynamic methods include (1) Interferometry, (2) Pattern Projection, (3) Aberrometry, (4) Thermography; and (5) Evaporimetry. These techniques are discussed with respect to their diagnostic value, both for screening and differential diagnostic of Dry Eye Disease. Many of the parameters obtained from these tests have been shown to have the potential to reliably discriminate patients from healthy subjects, especially when the tests are performed automatically and objectively. The differentiation into subtypes based solely on a single, dynamic parameter may not be feasible, but the combination of non-invasively performed procedures may provide good discrimination results. PMID:26406882

  18. Rapidly advancing invasive endomyocardial aspergillosis.

    PubMed

    Davutoglu, Vedat; Soydinc, Serdar; Aydin, Abdullah; Karakok, Metin

    2005-02-01

    The exposure to Aspergillus organisms/spores is likely common, but disease caused by tissue invasion with these fungi is uncommon and occurs primarily in the setting of immunosuppression. We report a case of rapidly advancing invasive endomyocardial aspergillosis secondary to prolonged usage of multiple broad-spectrum antibiotics in a nonimmunocompromised host. A 36-year-old cotton textile worker presented to our institution with a 3-month history of weight loss and fatigue. He reported receiving prolonged use of multiple broad-spectrum antibiotic treatment. The echocardiogram demonstrated multiple endomyocardial vegetations and a mass in the left atrium. Myocardial biopsy specimen revealed an invasive endomyocardial aspergillosis. The patient was investigated for immune deficiency including HIV, and this workup was negative. Treatment was started with amphotericin B and heparin for presumed left atrial thrombus. The patient died because of a rupture of mycotic aneurysm that resulted in cerebral hemorrhage. This case illustrates the risk of an invasive fungal infection in a nonimmunocompromised host who is a prolonged user of antibiotics in the setting of environmental exposure of opportunistic invasive fungal infections. PMID:15682058

  19. Retrograde venous invasion in renal cell carcinoma: a complication of sinus vein and main renal vein invasion.

    PubMed

    Bonsib, Stephen M; Bhalodia, Ami

    2011-12-01

    Renal cell carcinoma, especially clear cell, gains access to the venous system as the initial route of extrarenal spread. Intravenous growth can involve extrarenal veins or renal veins in other portions of the kidney, referred to herein as retrograde venous invasion. This study investigates the incidence and defines the pathological features of retrograde venous invasion. Retrograde venous invasion is defined as rounded nodules of tumor separated from the primary tumor and in a location that conforms to the venous outflow. Nine cases of retrograde venous invasion were identified in a series of 115 renal cell carcinomas (8%). Two blocks from each case were stained with elastic van Gieson, Masson trichrome, CD31 and desmin to evaluate intravenous involvement. All cases were staged using the 2010 TNM staging schema. The tumors ranged in size from 4.2 to 17 cm. All cases showed sinus vein and main renal vein invasion (pT3a); three cases involved the vena cava (pT3b). Direct continuity between the primary tumor and tumor in the main renal vein was grossly evident in every case. Involved sinus veins could be followed retrograde to the cortex between renal pyramids with tumor nodules arrayed along the pyramid-cortex interface. Histologically, the involved parenchymal veins lacked a smooth muscle media and elastica. CD31 demonstrated an endothelial cell lining around many nodules. As intravenous nodules enlarged endothelium was lost, extra-venous invasion occurred and nodules coalesced and merged with the primary tumor. In conclusion, retrograde venous invasion occurred only with main renal vein involvement. Gross evaluation allowed detection in every case. Histological confirmation of intravenous nature is challenging due to the absence of smooth muscle in parenchymal veins. As retrograde growth becomes extensive nodules coalesce and merge with the primary tumor and may be included in measurement of primary tumor size if this process is unrecognized. PMID:21822202

  20. Serotype Specific Invasive Capacity and Persistent Reduction in Invasive Pneumococcal Disease

    PubMed Central

    Yildirim, Inci; Hanage, William P.; Lipsitch, Marc; Shea, Kimberly M.; Stevenson, Abbie; Finkelstein, Jonathan; Huang, Susan S.; Lee, Grace M.; Kleinman, Ken; Pelton, SI

    2011-01-01

    Defining the propensity of Streptoccocus pneumoniae (SP) serotypes to invade sterile body sites following nasopharyngeal (NP) acquisition has the potential to inform about how much invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) may occur in a typical population with a given distribution of carriage serotypes. Data from enhanced surveillance for IPD in Massachusetts children ≤7 years in 2003/04, 2006/07 and 2008/09 seasons and surveillance of SP NP carriage during the corresponding respiratory seasons in 16 Massachusetts communities in 2003/04 and 8 of the 16 communities in both 2006/07 and 2008/09 were used to compute a serotype specific “invasive capacity (IC)” by dividing the incidence of IPD due to serotype x by the carriage prevalence of that same serotype in children of the same age. A total of 206 IPD and 806 NP isolates of SP were collected during the study period. An approximate 50-fold variation in the point estimates between the serotypes having the highest (18C, 33F, 7F, 19A, 3 and 22F) and lowest (6C, 23A, 35F, 11A, 35B, 19F, 15A, and 15BC) IC was observed. Point estimates of IC for most of the common serotypes currently colonizing children in Massachusetts were low and likely explain the continued reduction in IPD from the pre-PCV era in the absence of specific protection against these serotypes. Invasive capacity differs among serotypes and as new pneumococcal conjugate vaccines are introduced, ongoing surveillance will be essential to monitor whether serotypes with high invasive capacity emerge (e.g. 33F, 22F) as successful colonizers resulting in increased IPD incidence due to replacement serotypes. PMID:21029807

  1. Innovations in minimally invasive mitral valve pair.

    PubMed

    Sündermann, Simon H; Seeburger, Joerg; Scherman, Jacques; Mohr, Friedrich Wilhelm; Falk, Volkmar

    2012-12-01

    Mitral valve (MV) insufficiency is the second most common heart valve disease represented in cardiac surgery. The gold standard therapy is surgical repair of the valve. Today, most centers prefer a minimally invasive approach through a right-sided mini-thoracotomy. Despite the small access, there is still the need to use cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB), and the operation has to be performed on the arrested heart. New devices have been developed to optimize the results of surgical repair by implementing mechanisms for post-implantation adjustment on the beating heart or the avoidance of CPB. Early attempts with adjustable mitral annuloplasty rings go back to the early 1990s. Only a few devices are available on the market. Recently, a mitral valve adjustable annuloplasty ring was CE-marked and is under further clinical investigation. In addition, a sutureless annuloplasty band to be implanted on the beating heart is under preclinical and initial clinical investigation for transatrial and transfemoral transcatheter implantation. Furthermore, new neochord systems are being developed, which allow for functional length adjustment on the beating heart after implantation. Some devices were developed for percutaneous MV repair implanted into the coronary sinus to reshape the posterior MV annulus. Other percutaneous devices are directly fixed to the posterior annulus to alter its shape. Several disadvantages have been observed preventing a broad clinical use of some of these devices. There is a continuous effort to develop innovative techniques to optimize MV repair and to decrease invasiveness. PMID:23315719

  2. Invasive aspergillosis complicating Cushing's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Walsh, T J; Mendelsohn, G

    1981-08-01

    Patients with Cushing's syndrome are susceptible to opportunistic infections. Invasive fungal infections in patients with Cushing's syndrome caused by endogenous glucocorticoid excess rarely are reported, and aspergillosis occurring in this setting, to our knowledge, has not been described. Two patients with Cushing's syndrome and notably elevated levels of circulating cortisol had invasive aspergillosis develop. A patient with endogenous hypercortisolism caused by adrenal cortical carcinoma suffered a subarachnoid hemorrhage from rupture of an Aspergillus mycotic aneurysm. The other patient, who had an adrenocorticotrophic hormone-producing prostatic carcinoma, had pulmonary and disseminated aspergillosis develop. Exogenous corticosteroids are known clinically and experimentally to facilitate disseminated aspergillosis. Endogenous hypercortisolism also may bae an important factor predisposing to invasive aspergillosis. PMID:7259386

  3. Minimally invasive training in urologic oncology.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jen-Jane; Gonzalgo, Mark L

    2011-11-01

    Use of minimally invasive surgical (MIS) techniques continues to expand in the field of urologic oncology; however, proficiency in these techniques is subject to a learning curve. Current training paradigms have incorporated MIS, but in a non-standardized fashion. Residency work-hour restrictions and ethical concerns may influence efforts to deliver adequate training during a defined residency period. Post-residency fellowships or mini-courses may help urologists gain proficiency in these skills, but are time-consuming and may not provide adequate exposure. Surgical simulation with dry labs and augmentation with virtual reality are important adjuncts to operative training for MIS. The urologic oncologist must be familiar with open and MIS techniques to effectively treat cancer in the least morbid way possible and adapt to the ever-changing field of MIS with dynamic training paradigms. PMID:22155873

  4. Isolation of invasive Plasmodium yoelii merozoites with a long half-life to evaluate invasion dynamics and potential invasion inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Mutungi, Joe Kimanthi; Yahata, Kazuhide; Sakaguchi, Miako; Kaneko, Osamu

    2015-11-01

    Malaria symptoms and pathogenesis are caused by blood stage parasite burdens of Plasmodium spp., for which invasion of red blood cells (RBCs) by merozoites is essential. Successful targeting by either drugs or vaccines directed against the whole merozoite or its antigens during its transient extracellular status would contribute to malaria control by impeding RBC invasion. To understand merozoite invasion biology and mechanisms, it is desired to obtain merozoites that retain their invasion activity in vitro. Accordingly, methods have been developed to isolate invasive Plasmodium knowlesi and Plasmodium falciparum merozoites. Rodent malaria parasite models offer ease in laboratory maintenance and experimental genetic modifications; however, no methods have been reported regarding isolation of high numbers of invasive rodent malaria merozoites. In this study, Plasmodium yoelii-infected RBCs were obtained from infected mice, and mature schizont-infected RBCs enriched via Histodenz™ density gradients. Merozoites retaining invasion activity were then isolated by passing the preparations through a filter membrane. RBC-invaded parasites developed to mature stages in vitro in a synchronous manner. Isolated merozoites were evaluated for retention of invasion activity following storage at different temperatures prior to incubation with uninfected mouse RBCs. Isolated merozoites retained their invasion activity 4h after isolation at 10 or 15 °C, whereas their invasion activity reduced to 0-10% within 30 min when incubated on ice or at 37 °C prior to RBC invasion assay. Images of merozoites at successive steps during RBC invasion were captured by light and transmission electron microscopy. Synthetic peptides derived from the amino acid sequence of the P. yoelii invasion protein RON2 efficiently inhibited RBC invasion. The developed method to isolate and keep invasive P. yoelii merozoites for up to 4h is a powerful tool to study the RBC invasion biology of this parasite

  5. Invasion Biology of Aedes japonicus japonicus (Diptera: Culicidae)

    PubMed Central

    Fonseca, Dina M.

    2014-01-01

    Aedes japonicus japonicus (Theobald) (Diptera: Culicidae) has recently expanded beyond its native range of Japan and Korea into large parts of North America and Central Europe. Population genetic studies begun immediately after the species was detected in North America revealed genetically distinct introductions that subsequently merged, likely contributing to the successful expansion. Interactions, particularly in the larval stage, with other known disease vectors give this invasive subspecies the potential to influence local disease dynamics. Its successful invasion likely does not involve superior direct competitive abilities, but it is associated with the use of diverse larval habitats and a cold tolerance that allows an expanded seasonal activity range in temperate climates. We predict a continued but slower expansion of Ae. j. japonicus in North America and a continued rapid expansion into other areas as this mosquito will eventually be considered a permanent resident of much of North America, Europe, Asia, and parts of Hawaii. PMID:24397520

  6. Minimally legally invasive dentistry.

    PubMed

    Lam, R

    2014-12-01

    One disadvantage of the rapid advances in modern dentistry is that treatment options have never been more varied or confusing. Compounded by a more educated population greatly assisted by online information in an increasingly litigious society, a major concern in recent times is increased litigation against health practitioners. The manner in which courts handle disputes is ambiguous and what is considered fair or just may not be reflected in the judicial process. Although legal decisions in Australia follow a doctrine of precedent, the law is not static and is often reflected by community sentiment. In medical litigation, this has seen the rejection of the Bolam principle with a preference towards greater patient rights. Recent court decisions may change the practice of dentistry and it is important that the clinician is not caught unaware. The aim of this article is to discuss legal issues that are pertinent to the practice of modern dentistry through an analysis of legal cases that have shaped health law. Through these discussions, the importance of continuing professional development, professional association and informed consent will be realized as a means to limit the legal complications of dental practice. PMID:25160114

  7. Non-invasive physiological measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Rolfe, P.

    1983-01-01

    This book discusses the diagnostic techniques of nondestructive type for monitoring the physiology of various organ systems. The topics covered are: non-invasive assessment of gastric activity; uterine activity, intestinal activity; monitoring of fetal cardiovascular system and bilirubin physiology of infants. Respiratory system of infants is monitored and ultrasonography of heart is discussed.

  8. Vaccines against invasive Salmonella disease

    PubMed Central

    MacLennan, Calman A; Martin, Laura B; Micoli, Francesca

    2014-01-01

    Though primarily enteric pathogens, Salmonellae are responsible for a considerable yet under-appreciated global burden of invasive disease. In South and South-East Asia, this manifests as enteric fever caused by serovars Typhi and Paratyphi A. In sub-Saharan Africa, a similar disease burden results from invasive nontyphoidal Salmonellae, principally serovars Typhimurium and Enteritidis. The existing Ty21a live-attenuated and Vi capsular polysaccharide vaccines target S. Typhi and are not effective in young children where the burden of invasive Salmonella disease is highest. After years of lack of investment in new Salmonella vaccines, recent times have seen increased interest in the area led by emerging-market manufacturers, global health vaccine institutes and academic partners. New glycoconjugate vaccines against S. Typhi are becoming available with similar vaccines against other invasive serovars in development. With other new vaccines under investigation, including live-attenuated, protein-based and GMMA vaccines, now is an exciting time for the Salmonella vaccine field. PMID:24804797

  9. Minimally invasive aortic valve surgery.

    PubMed

    Castrovinci, Sebastiano; Emmanuel, Sam; Moscarelli, Marco; Murana, Giacomo; Caccamo, Giuseppa; Bertolino, Emanuela Clara; Nasso, Giuseppe; Speziale, Giuseppe; Fattouch, Khalil

    2016-09-01

    Aortic valve disease is a prevalent disorder that affects approximately 2% of the general adult population. Surgical aortic valve replacement is the gold standard treatment for symptomatic patients. This treatment has demonstrably proven to be both safe and effective. Over the last few decades, in an attempt to reduce surgical trauma, different minimally invasive approaches for aortic valve replacement have been developed and are now being increasingly utilized. A narrative review of the literature was carried out to describe the surgical techniques for minimally invasive aortic valve surgery and report the results from different experienced centers. Minimally invasive aortic valve replacement is associated with low perioperative morbidity, mortality and a low conversion rate to full sternotomy. Long-term survival appears to be at least comparable to that reported for conventional full sternotomy. Minimally invasive aortic valve surgery, either with a partial upper sternotomy or a right anterior minithoracotomy provides early- and long-term benefits. Given these benefits, it may be considered the standard of care for isolated aortic valve disease. PMID:27582764

  10. Biological Warfare in Invasive Plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alliaria petiolata (garlic mustard) is an invasive species in temperate forests throughout North America that has led to a decrease in species diversity and alterations in nutrient cycling. Garlic mustard produces an arsenal of secondary chemicals in the glucosinolate family that have strong biocid...

  11. Advertising and Invasion of Privacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rohrer, Daniel Morgan

    The right of privacy as it relates to advertising and the use of a person's name or likeness is discussed in this paper. After an introduction that traces some of the history of invasion of privacy in court decisions, the paper examines cases involving issues such as public figures and newsworthy items, right of privacy waived, right of privacy…

  12. Minimally invasive aortic valve surgery

    PubMed Central

    Castrovinci, Sebastiano; Emmanuel, Sam; Moscarelli, Marco; Murana, Giacomo; Caccamo, Giuseppa; Bertolino, Emanuela Clara; Nasso, Giuseppe; Speziale, Giuseppe; Fattouch, Khalil

    2016-01-01

    Aortic valve disease is a prevalent disorder that affects approximately 2% of the general adult population. Surgical aortic valve replacement is the gold standard treatment for symptomatic patients. This treatment has demonstrably proven to be both safe and effective. Over the last few decades, in an attempt to reduce surgical trauma, different minimally invasive approaches for aortic valve replacement have been developed and are now being increasingly utilized. A narrative review of the literature was carried out to describe the surgical techniques for minimally invasive aortic valve surgery and report the results from different experienced centers. Minimally invasive aortic valve replacement is associated with low perioperative morbidity, mortality and a low conversion rate to full sternotomy. Long-term survival appears to be at least comparable to that reported for conventional full sternotomy. Minimally invasive aortic valve surgery, either with a partial upper sternotomy or a right anterior minithoracotomy provides early- and long-term benefits. Given these benefits, it may be considered the standard of care for isolated aortic valve disease. PMID:27582764

  13. Hybridization increases invasive knotweed success

    PubMed Central

    Parepa, Madalin; Fischer, Markus; Krebs, Christine; Bossdorf, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    Hybridization is one of the fundamental mechanisms by which rapid evolution can occur in exotic species. If hybrids show increased vigour, this could significantly contribute to invasion success. Here, we compared the success of the two invasive knotweeds, Fallopia japonica and F. sachalinensis, and their hybrid, F. × bohemica, in competing against experimental communities of native plants. Using plant material from multiple clones of each taxon collected across a latitudinal gradient in Central Europe, we found that knotweed hybrids performed significantly better in competition with a native community and that they more strongly reduced the growth of the native plants. One of the parental species, F. sachalinensis, regenerated significantly less well from rhizomes, and this difference disappeared if activated carbon was added to the substrate, which suggests allelopathic inhibition of F. sachalinensis regeneration by native plants. We found substantial within-taxon variation in competitive success in all knotweed taxa, but variation was generally greatest in the hybrid. Interestingly, there was also significant variation within the genetically uniform F. japonica, possibly reflecting epigenetic differences. Our study shows that invasive knotweed hybrids are indeed more competitive than their parents and that hybridization increased the invasiveness of the exotic knotweed complex. PMID:24665343

  14. Invasive aspergillosis in primary immunodeficiencies.

    PubMed

    Almyroudis, N G; Holland, S M; Segal, B H

    2005-05-01

    Primary immunodeficiencies are rare and usually first manifest during childhood. Invasive aspergillosis is the leading cause of mortality in chronic granulomatous disease (CGD), reflecting the key role of the phagocyte NADPH oxidase in host defense against opportunistic fungi. Despite interferon-gamma prophylaxis, invasive filamentous fungal infections are a persistent problem in CGD. Key principles of management of fungal infections involve early recognition and aggressive treatment and appropriate surgical debridement of localized disease. Because CGD is a disorder of phagocyte stem cells in which the gene defects are well defined, it is a model disease to evaluate immune reconstitution through stem cell transplantation and gene therapy. Patients with the hyper-IgE syndrome with recurrent infections (Job syndrome) are prone to colonization of lung cavities (pneumatoceles) by Aspergillus species leading to local invasion and rarely disseminated infection. Other primary phagocytic disorders, T-cell disorders, and mitochondrial disorders are uncommonly associated with invasive aspergillosis. Taken together, these rare primary immunodeficiencies highlight the complex coordination of both innate and acquired pathways mediating host defense against Aspergillus infection. PMID:16110817

  15. Evolutionary origins of invasive populations

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Carol Eunmi; Gelembiuk, Gregory William

    2008-01-01

    What factors shape the evolution of invasive populations? Recent theoretical and empirical studies suggest that an evolutionary history of disturbance might be an important factor. This perspective presents hypotheses regarding the impact of disturbance on the evolution of invasive populations, based on a synthesis of the existing literature. Disturbance might select for life-history traits that are favorable for colonizing novel habitats, such as rapid population growth and persistence. Theoretical results suggest that disturbance in the form of fluctuating environments might select for organismal flexibility, or alternatively, the evolution of evolvability. Rapidly fluctuating environments might favor organismal flexibility, such as broad tolerance or plasticity. Alternatively, longer fluctuations or environmental stress might lead to the evolution of evolvability by acting on features of the mutation matrix. Once genetic variance is generated via mutations, temporally fluctuating selection across generations might promote the accumulation and maintenance of genetic variation. Deeper insights into how disturbance in native habitats affects evolutionary and physiological responses of populations would give us greater capacity to predict the populations that are most likely to tolerate or adapt to novel environments during habitat invasions. Moreover, we would gain fundamental insights into the evolutionary origins of invasive populations. PMID:25567726

  16. Role of isavuconazole in the treatment of invasive fungal infections.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Dustin T; Dimondi, V Paul; Johnson, Steven W; Jones, Travis M; Drew, Richard H

    2016-01-01

    Despite recent advances in both diagnosis and prevention, the incidence of invasive fungal infections continues to rise. Available antifungal agents to treat invasive fungal infections include polyenes, triazoles, and echinocandins. Unfortunately, individual agents within each class may be limited by spectrum of activity, resistance, lack of oral formulations, significant adverse event profiles, substantial drug-drug interactions, and/or variable pharmacokinetic profiles. Isavuconazole, a second-generation triazole, was approved by the US Food and Drug Administration in March 2015 and the European Medicines Agency in July 2015 for the treatment of adults with invasive aspergillosis (IA) or mucormycosis. Similar to amphotericin B and posaconazole, isavuconazole exhibits a broad spectrum of in vitro activity against yeasts, dimorphic fungi, and molds. Isavuconazole is available in both oral and intravenous formulations, exhibits a favorable safety profile (notably the absence of QTc prolongation), and reduced drug-drug interactions (relative to voriconazole). Phase 3 studies have evaluated the efficacy of isavuconazole in the management of IA, mucormycosis, and invasive candidiasis. Based on the results of these studies, isavuconazole appears to be a viable treatment option for patients with IA as well as those patients with mucormycosis who are not able to tolerate or fail amphotericin B or posaconazole therapy. In contrast, evidence of isavuconazole for invasive candidiasis (relative to comparator agents such as echinocandins) is not as robust. Therefore, isavuconazole use for invasive candidiasis may initially be reserved as a step-down oral option in those patients who cannot receive other azoles due to tolerability or spectrum of activity limitations. Post-marketing surveillance of isavuconazole will be important to better understand the safety and efficacy of this agent, as well as to better define the need for isavuconazole serum concentration monitoring. PMID

  17. Role of isavuconazole in the treatment of invasive fungal infections

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Dustin T; Dimondi, V Paul; Johnson, Steven W; Jones, Travis M; Drew, Richard H

    2016-01-01

    Despite recent advances in both diagnosis and prevention, the incidence of invasive fungal infections continues to rise. Available antifungal agents to treat invasive fungal infections include polyenes, triazoles, and echinocandins. Unfortunately, individual agents within each class may be limited by spectrum of activity, resistance, lack of oral formulations, significant adverse event profiles, substantial drug–drug interactions, and/or variable pharmacokinetic profiles. Isavuconazole, a second-generation triazole, was approved by the US Food and Drug Administration in March 2015 and the European Medicines Agency in July 2015 for the treatment of adults with invasive aspergillosis (IA) or mucormycosis. Similar to amphotericin B and posaconazole, isavuconazole exhibits a broad spectrum of in vitro activity against yeasts, dimorphic fungi, and molds. Isavuconazole is available in both oral and intravenous formulations, exhibits a favorable safety profile (notably the absence of QTc prolongation), and reduced drug–drug interactions (relative to voriconazole). Phase 3 studies have evaluated the efficacy of isavuconazole in the management of IA, mucormycosis, and invasive candidiasis. Based on the results of these studies, isavuconazole appears to be a viable treatment option for patients with IA as well as those patients with mucormycosis who are not able to tolerate or fail amphotericin B or posaconazole therapy. In contrast, evidence of isavuconazole for invasive candidiasis (relative to comparator agents such as echinocandins) is not as robust. Therefore, isavuconazole use for invasive candidiasis may initially be reserved as a step-down oral option in those patients who cannot receive other azoles due to tolerability or spectrum of activity limitations. Post-marketing surveillance of isavuconazole will be important to better understand the safety and efficacy of this agent, as well as to better define the need for isavuconazole serum concentration monitoring

  18. Invasive rodent eradication on islands.

    PubMed

    Howald, Gregg; Donlan, C Josh; Galván, Juan Pablo; Russell, James C; Parkes, John; Samaniego, Araceli; Wang, Yiwei; Veitch, Dick; Genovesi, Piero; Pascal, Michel; Saunders, Alan; Tershy, Bernie

    2007-10-01

    Invasive mammals are the greatest threat to island biodiversity and invasive rodents are likely responsible for the greatest number of extinctions and ecosystem changes. Techniques for eradicating rodents from islands were developed over 2 decades ago. Since that time there has been a significant development and application of this conservation tool. We reviewed the literature on invasive rodent eradications to assess its current state and identify actions to make it more effective. Worldwide, 332 successful rodent eradications have been undertaken; we identified 35 failed eradications and 20 campaigns of unknown result. Invasive rodents have been eradicated from 284 islands (47,628 ha). With the exception of two small islands, rodenticides were used in all eradication campaigns. Brodifacoum was used in 71% of campaigns and 91% of the total area treated. The most frequent rodenticide distribution methods (from most to least) are bait stations, hand broadcasting, and aerial broadcasting. Nevertheless, campaigns using aerial broadcast made up 76% of the total area treated. Mortality of native vertebrates due to nontarget poisoning has been documented, but affected species quickly recover to pre-eradication population levels or higher. A variety of methods have been developed to mitigate nontarget impacts, and applied research can further aid in minimizing impacts. Land managers should routinely remove invasive rodents from islands <100 ha that lack vertebrates susceptible to nontarget poisoning. For larger islands and those that require nontarget mitigation, expert consultation and greater planning effort are needed. With the exception of house mice (Mus musculus), island size may no longer be the limiting factor for rodent eradications; rather, social acceptance and funding may be the main challenges. To be successful, large-scale rodent campaigns should be integrated with programs to improve the livelihoods of residents, island biosecurity, and reinvasion response

  19. LOUISIANA EXOTIC INVASIVE SPECIES SYMPOSIUM MX964256

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Louisiana Exotic Invasive Species Symposium will provide a multi-state collaboration among agency representatives, scientists, and the affected public to address the problem of exotic invasive species and to improve coastal environmental conditions in Louisiana.

  20. Modeling Hawaiian ecosystem degradation due to invasive plants under current and future climates.

    PubMed

    Vorsino, Adam E; Fortini, Lucas B; Amidon, Fred A; Miller, Stephen E; Jacobi, James D; Price, Jonathan P; Gon, Sam 'ohukani'ohi'a; Koob, Gregory A

    2014-01-01

    Occupation of native ecosystems by invasive plant species alters their structure and/or function. In Hawaii, a subset of introduced plants is regarded as extremely harmful due to competitive ability, ecosystem modification, and biogeochemical habitat degradation. By controlling this subset of highly invasive ecosystem modifiers, conservation managers could significantly reduce native ecosystem degradation. To assess the invasibility of vulnerable native ecosystems, we selected a proxy subset of these invasive plants and developed robust ensemble species distribution models to define their respective potential distributions. The combinations of all species models using both binary and continuous habitat suitability projections resulted in estimates of species richness and diversity that were subsequently used to define an invasibility metric. The invasibility metric was defined from species distribution models with <0.7 niche overlap (Warrens I) and relatively discriminative distributions (Area Under the Curve >0.8; True Skill Statistic >0.75) as evaluated per species. Invasibility was further projected onto a 2100 Hawaii regional climate change scenario to assess the change in potential habitat degradation. The distribution defined by the invasibility metric delineates areas of known and potential invasibility under current climate conditions and, when projected into the future, estimates potential reductions in native ecosystem extent due to climate-driven invasive incursion. We have provided the code used to develop these metrics to facilitate their wider use (Code S1). This work will help determine the vulnerability of native-dominated ecosystems to the combined threats of climate change and invasive species, and thus help prioritize ecosystem and species management actions. PMID:24805254

  1. Modeling Hawaiian ecosystem degradation due to invasive plants under current and future climates.

    PubMed

    Vorsino, Adam E; Fortini, Lucas B; Amidon, Fred A; Miller, Stephen E; Jacobi, James D; Price, Jonathan P; 'Ohukani'ohi'a Gon, Sam; Koob, Gregory A

    2014-01-01

    Occupation of native ecosystems by invasive plant species alters their structure and/or function. In Hawaii, a subset of introduced plants is regarded as extremely harmful due to competitive ability, ecosystem modification, and biogeochemical habitat degradation. By controlling this subset of highly invasive ecosystem modifiers, conservation managers could significantly reduce native ecosystem degradation. To assess the invasibility of vulnerable native ecosystems, we selected a proxy subset of these invasive plants and developed robust ensemble species distribution models to define their respective potential distributions. The combinations of all species models using both binary and continuous habitat suitability projections resulted in estimates of species richness and diversity that were subsequently used to define an invasibility metric. The invasibility metric was defined from species distribution models with <0.7 niche overlap (Warrens I) and relatively discriminative distributions (Area Under the Curve >0.8; True Skill Statistic >0.75) as evaluated per species. Invasibility was further projected onto a 2100 Hawaii regional climate change scenario to assess the change in potential habitat degradation. The distribution defined by the invasibility metric delineates areas of known and potential invasibility under current climate conditions and, when projected into the future, estimates potential reductions in native ecosystem extent due to climate-driven invasive incursion. We have provided the code used to develop these metrics to facilitate their wider use (Code S1). This work will help determine the vulnerability of native-dominated ecosystems to the combined threats of climate change and invasive species, and thus help prioritize ecosystem and species management actions. PMID:24991934

  2. Modeling Hawaiian Ecosystem Degradation due to Invasive Plants under Current and Future Climates

    PubMed Central

    Vorsino, Adam E.; Fortini, Lucas B.; Amidon, Fred A.; Miller, Stephen E.; Jacobi, James D.; Price, Jonathan P.; Gon, Sam 'Ohukani'ohi'a; Koob, Gregory A.

    2014-01-01

    Occupation of native ecosystems by invasive plant species alters their structure and/or function. In Hawaii, a subset of introduced plants is regarded as extremely harmful due to competitive ability, ecosystem modification, and biogeochemical habitat degradation. By controlling this subset of highly invasive ecosystem modifiers, conservation managers could significantly reduce native ecosystem degradation. To assess the invasibility of vulnerable native ecosystems, we selected a proxy subset of these invasive plants and developed robust ensemble species distribution models to define their respective potential distributions. The combinations of all species models using both binary and continuous habitat suitability projections resulted in estimates of species richness and diversity that were subsequently used to define an invasibility metric. The invasibility metric was defined from species distribution models with <0.7 niche overlap (Warrens I) and relatively discriminative distributions (Area Under the Curve >0.8; True Skill Statistic >0.75) as evaluated per species. Invasibility was further projected onto a 2100 Hawaii regional climate change scenario to assess the change in potential habitat degradation. The distribution defined by the invasibility metric delineates areas of known and potential invasibility under current climate conditions and, when projected into the future, estimates potential reductions in native ecosystem extent due to climate-driven invasive incursion. We have provided the code used to develop these metrics to facilitate their wider use (Code S1). This work will help determine the vulnerability of native-dominated ecosystems to the combined threats of climate change and invasive species, and thus help prioritize ecosystem and species management actions. PMID:24805254

  3. Normal mammary epithelial cells promote carcinoma basement membrane invasion by inducing microtubule-rich protrusions

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Meng-Horng; Wu, Pei-Hsun; Gilkes, Daniele; Aifuwa, Ivie; Wirtz, Denis

    2015-01-01

    Recent work suggests that the dissemination of tumor cells may occur in parallel with, and even preceed, tumor growth. The mechanism for this early invasion is largely unknown. Here, we find that mammary epithelial cells (MECs) induce neighboring breast carcinoma cells (BCCs) to cross the basement membrane by secreting soluble laminin. Laminin continuously produced by MECs induce long membrane cellular protrusions in BCCs that promote their contractility and invasion into the surrounding matrix. These protrusions depend on microtubule bundles assembled de novo through laminin-integrin β1 signaling. These results describe how non-cancerous MECs can actively participate in the invasive process of BCCs. PMID:26334095

  4. 75 FR 69698 - Invasive Species Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-15

    ...Pursuant to the provisions of the Federal Advisory Committee Act, notice is hereby given of meetings of the Invasive Species Advisory Committee (ISAC). Comprised of 30 nonfederal invasive species experts and stakeholders from across the nation, the purpose of the Advisory Committee is to provide advice to the National Invasive Species Council, as authorized by Executive Order 13112, on a broad......

  5. 76 FR 68776 - Invasive Species Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-07

    ...Pursuant to the provisions of the Federal Advisory Committee Act, notice is hereby given of meetings of the Invasive Species Advisory Committee (ISAC). Comprised of 29 nonfederal invasive species experts and stakeholders from across the nation, the purpose of the Advisory Committee is to provide advice to the National Invasive Species Council, as authorized by Executive Order 13112, on a broad......

  6. 77 FR 23740 - Invasive Species Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-20

    ...Pursuant to the provisions of the Federal Advisory Committee Act, notice is hereby given of meetings of the Invasive Species Advisory Committee (ISAC). Comprised of 30 nonfederal invasive species experts and stakeholders from across the nation, the purpose of the Advisory Committee is to provide advice to the National Invasive Species Council, as authorized by Executive Order 13112, on a broad......

  7. 78 FR 11899 - Invasive Species Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-20

    ... Office of the Secretary Invasive Species Advisory Committee AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, Interior... Invasive Species Advisory Committee. The document contained incorrect dates. This document corrects those.... Meeting of the Invasive Species Advisory Committee (OPEN): Thursday, March 7, 2013 through Friday, March...

  8. 78 FR 70317 - Invasive Species Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-25

    ... Office of the Secretary Invasive Species Advisory Committee AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, Interior. ACTION: Notice of Public Meeting (via Teleconference) of the Invasive Species Advisory Committee. SUMMARY... Invasive Species Advisory Committee. The purpose of the Advisory Committee is to provide advice to...

  9. Invasive Plants on Rangelands: a Global Threat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Invasive plant species are spreading and invading rangelands at an unprecedented rate costing ranchers billions of dollars to control invasive plants each year. In its simplest form, the invasion process has four primary stages, including introduction, establishment, spread and colonization. Th...

  10. CONSERVATION PROGRAMS THAT PROMOTE INVASIVE SPECIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Invasive plant species are degrading the structure and function of ecosystems throughout the world. Although most state and federal conservation agencies in the U.S. attempt to reduce the impact of invasive species, some agency activities can contribute to the spread of invasive...