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Sample records for lipid phosphatase pten

  1. Assays to Measure PTEN Lipid Phosphatase Activity In Vitro from Purified Enzyme or Immunoprecipitates.

    PubMed

    Spinelli, Laura; Leslie, Nicholas R

    2016-01-01

    PTEN is a one of the most frequently mutated tumor suppressors in human cancers. It is essential for regulating diverse biological processes and through its lipid phosphatase activity regulates the PI 3-Kinase signaling pathway. Sensitive phosphatase assays are employed to study the catalytic activity of PTEN against phospholipid substrates. Here we describe protocols to assay PTEN lipid phosphatase activity using either purified enzyme (purified PTEN lipid phosphatase assay) or PTEN immunopurified from tissues or cultured cells (cellular IP PTEN lipid phosphatase assay) against vesicles containing radiolabeled PIP3 substrate. PMID:27514802

  2. Differential Requirement for Pten Lipid and Protein Phosphatase Activity during Zebrafish Embryonic Development.

    PubMed

    Stumpf, Miriam; den Hertog, Jeroen

    2016-01-01

    The lipid- and protein phosphatase PTEN is one of the most frequently mutated tumor suppressor genes in human cancers and many mutations found in tumor samples directly affect PTEN phosphatase activity. In order to understand the functional consequences of these mutations in vivo, the aim of our study was to dissect the role of Pten phosphatase activities during zebrafish embryonic development. As in other model organisms, zebrafish mutants lacking functional Pten are embryonically lethal. Zebrafish have two pten genes and pten double homozygous zebrafish embryos develop a severe pleiotropic phenotype around 4 days post fertilization, which can be largely rescued by re-introduction of pten mRNA at the one-cell stage. We used this assay to characterize the rescue-capacity of Pten and variants with mutations that disrupt lipid, protein or both phosphatase activities. The pleiotropic phenotype at 4dpf could only be rescued by wild type Pten, indicating that both phosphatase activities are required for normal zebrafish embryonic development. An earlier aspect of the phenotype, hyperbranching of intersegmental vessels, however, was rescued by Pten that retained lipid phosphatase activity, independent of protein phosphatase activity. Lipid phosphatase activity was also required for moderating pAkt levels at 4 dpf. We propose that the role of Pten during angiogenesis mainly consists of suppressing PI3K signaling via its lipid phosphatase activity, whereas the complex process of embryonic development requires lipid and protein phosphatase of Pten. PMID:26848951

  3. Differential Requirement for Pten Lipid and Protein Phosphatase Activity during Zebrafish Embryonic Development

    PubMed Central

    Stumpf, Miriam; den Hertog, Jeroen

    2016-01-01

    The lipid- and protein phosphatase PTEN is one of the most frequently mutated tumor suppressor genes in human cancers and many mutations found in tumor samples directly affect PTEN phosphatase activity. In order to understand the functional consequences of these mutations in vivo, the aim of our study was to dissect the role of Pten phosphatase activities during zebrafish embryonic development. As in other model organisms, zebrafish mutants lacking functional Pten are embryonically lethal. Zebrafish have two pten genes and pten double homozygous zebrafish embryos develop a severe pleiotropic phenotype around 4 days post fertilization, which can be largely rescued by re-introduction of pten mRNA at the one-cell stage. We used this assay to characterize the rescue-capacity of Pten and variants with mutations that disrupt lipid, protein or both phosphatase activities. The pleiotropic phenotype at 4dpf could only be rescued by wild type Pten, indicating that both phosphatase activities are required for normal zebrafish embryonic development. An earlier aspect of the phenotype, hyperbranching of intersegmental vessels, however, was rescued by Pten that retained lipid phosphatase activity, independent of protein phosphatase activity. Lipid phosphatase activity was also required for moderating pAkt levels at 4 dpf. We propose that the role of Pten during angiogenesis mainly consists of suppressing PI3K signaling via its lipid phosphatase activity, whereas the complex process of embryonic development requires lipid and protein phosphatase of Pten. PMID:26848951

  4. Suppression of cellular proliferation and invasion by the concerted lipid and protein phosphatase activities of PTEN

    PubMed Central

    Davidson, Lindsay; Maccario, Helene; Perera, Nevin M.; Yang, Xuesong; Spinelli, Laura; Tibarewal, Priyanka; Glancy, Ben; Gray, Alex; Weijer, Cornelis J.; Downes, C. Peter; Leslie, Nick R.

    2009-01-01

    PTEN is a tumour suppressor with phosphatase activity in vitro against both lipids and proteins and other potential non-enzymatic mechanisms of action. Although the importance of PTEN’s lipid phosphatase activity in regulating the PI3K signalling pathway is recognised, the significance of PTEN’s other mechanisms of action is currently unclear. Here, we describe the systematic identification of a PTEN mutant, PTEN Y138L, with activity against lipid, but not soluble substrates. Using this mutant we provide evidence for the interfacial activation of PTEN against lipid substrates. We also show that when re-expressed at physiological levels in PTEN null U87MG glioblastoma cells the protein phosphatase activity of PTEN is not required to regulate cellular PtdInsP3 levels or the downstream protein kinase Akt/PKB. Finally, in 3D Matrigel cultures of U87MG cells similarly re-expressing PTEN mutants, both the protein and lipid phosphatase activities were required to inhibit invasion, but either activity alone significantly inhibited proliferation, albeit only weakly for the protein phosphatase activity. Our data provides a novel tool to address the significance of PTEN’s separable lipid and protein phosphatase activities and suggest that both activities act to suppress proliferation and act together to suppress invasion. PMID:19915616

  5. ZN2+ INDUCES COX-2 EXPRESSION THROUGH DOWNREGULATION OF LIPID PHOSPHATASE PTEN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Zn2+ Induces COX-2 Expression through Downregulation of Lipid Phosphatase PTEN
    Weidong Wu*, James M. Samet, Philip A. Bromberg*?, Young E. Whang?, and Lee M. Graves* ?
    *CEMALB, ?Department of Medicine, and ?Department of Pharmacology, UNC-Chapel Hill, NC27599; Human Studie...

  6. Phosphoinositide lipid phosphatase SHIP1 and PTEN coordinate to regulate cell migration and adhesion

    PubMed Central

    Mondal, Subhanjan; Subramanian, Kulandayan K.; Sakai, Jiro; Bajrami, Besnik; Luo, Hongbo R.

    2012-01-01

    The second messenger phosphatidylinositol(3,4,5)P3 (PtdIns(3,4,5)P3) is formed by stimulation of various receptors, including G protein–coupled receptors and integrins. The lipid phosphatases PTEN and SHIP1 are critical in regulating the level of PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 during chemotaxis. Observations that loss of PTEN had minor and loss of SHIP1 resulted in a severe chemotaxis defect in neutrophils led to the belief that SHIP1 rather than PTEN acts as a predominant phospholipid phosphatase in establishing a PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 compass. In this study, we show that SHIP1 regulates PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 production in response to cell adhesion and plays a limited role when cells are in suspension. SHIP1−/− neutrophils lose their polarity upon cell adhesion and are extremely adherent, which impairs chemotaxis. However, chemo­taxis can be restored by reducing adhesion. Loss of SHIP1 elevates Akt activation following cell adhesion due to increased PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 production. From our observations, we conclude that SHIP1 prevents formation of top-down PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 polarity to facilitate proper cell attachment and detachment during chemotaxis. PMID:22323291

  7. Pten (phosphatase and tensin homologue gene) haploinsufficiency promotes insulin hypersensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Wong, J. T.; Kim, P. T. W.; Peacock, J. W.; Yau, T. Y.; Mui, A. L.-F.; Chung, S. W.; Sossi, V.; Doudet, D.; Green, D.; Ruth, T. J.; Parsons, R.; Verchere, C. B.

    2006-01-01

    Aims/hypothesis Insulin controls glucose metabolism via multiple signalling pathways, including the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway in muscle and adipose tissue. The protein/lipid phosphatase Pten (phosphatase and tensin homologue deleted on chromosome 10) attenuates PI3K signalling by dephosphorylating the phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate generated by PI3K. The current study was aimed at investigating the effect of haploinsufficiency for Pten on insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. Materials and methods Insulin sensitivity in Pten heterozygous (Pten+/−) mice was investigated in i.p. insulin challenge and glucose tolerance tests. Glucose uptake was monitored in vitro in primary cultures of myocytes from Pten+/− mice, and in vivo by positron emission tomography. The phosphorylation status of protein kinase B (PKB/Akt), a downstream signalling protein in the PI3K pathway, and glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β), a substrate of PKB/Akt, was determined by western immunoblotting. Results Following i.p. insulin challenge, blood glucose levels in Pten+/− mice remained depressed for up to 120 min, whereas glucose levels in wild-type mice began to recover after approximately 30 min. After glucose challenge, blood glucose returned to normal about twice as rapidly in Pten+/− mice. Enhanced glucose uptake was observed both in Pten+/− myocytes and in skeletal muscle of Pten+/− mice by PET. PKB and GSK3β phosphorylation was enhanced and prolonged in Pten+/− myocytes. Conclusions/interpretation Pten is a key negative regulator of insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in vitro and in vivo. The partial reduction of Pten due to Pten haploinsufficiency is enough to elicit enhanced insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance in Pten+/− mice. PMID:17195063

  8. Fine-Tuning of Pten Localization and Phosphatase Activity Is Essential for Zebrafish Angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Stumpf, Miriam; Blokzijl-Franke, Sasja; den Hertog, Jeroen

    2016-01-01

    The lipid- and protein phosphatase PTEN is an essential tumor suppressor that is highly conserved among all higher eukaryotes. As an antagonist of the PI3K/Akt cell survival and proliferation pathway, it exerts its most prominent function at the cell membrane, but (PIP3-independent) functions of nuclear PTEN have been discovered as well. PTEN subcellular localization is tightly controlled by its protein conformation. In the closed conformation, PTEN localizes predominantly to the cytoplasm. Opening up of the conformation of PTEN exposes N-terminal and C-terminal regions of the protein that are required for both interaction with the cell membrane and translocation to the nucleus. Lack of Pten leads to hyperbranching of the intersegmental vessels during zebrafish embryogenesis, which is rescued by expression of exogenous Pten. Here, we observed that expression of mutant PTEN with an open conformation rescued the hyperbranching phenotype in pten double homozygous embryos and suppressed the increased p-Akt levels that are characteristic for embryos lacking Pten. In addition, in pten mutant and wild type embryos alike, open conformation PTEN induced stalled intersegmental vessels, which fail to connect with the dorsal longitudinal anastomotic vessel. Functional hyperactivity of open conformation PTEN in comparison to wild type PTEN seems to result predominantly from its enhanced recruitment to the cell membrane. Enhanced recruitment of phosphatase inactive mutants to the membrane did not induce the stalled vessel phenotype nor did it rescue the hyperbranching phenotype in pten double homozygous embryos, indicating that PTEN phosphatase activity is indispensable for its regulatory function during angiogenesis. Taken together, our data suggest that PTEN phosphatase activity needs to be carefully fine-tuned for normal embryogenesis and that the control of its subcellular localization is a key mechanism in this process. PMID:27138341

  9. Controlling PTEN (Phosphatase and Tensin Homolog) Stability: A DOMINANT ROLE FOR LYSINE 66.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Amit; Leslie, Nicholas R

    2016-08-26

    Phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) is a phosphoinositide lipid phosphatase and one of the most frequently disrupted tumor suppressors in many forms of cancer, with even small reductions in the expression levels of PTEN promoting cancer development. Although the post-translational ubiquitination of PTEN can control its stability, activity, and localization, a detailed understanding of how PTEN ubiquitination integrates with other cellular regulatory processes and may be dysregulated in cancer has been hampered by a poor understanding of the significance of ubiquitination at individual sites. Here we show that Lys(66) is not required for cellular activity, yet dominates over other PTEN ubiquitination sites in the regulation of protein stability. Notably, combined mutation of other sites (Lys(13), Lys(80), and Lys(289)) has relatively little effect on protein expression, protein stability, or PTEN polyubiquitination. The present work identifies a key role for Lys(66) in the regulation of PTEN expression and provides both an opportunity to improve the stability of PTEN as a protein therapy and a mechanistic basis for efforts to stabilize endogenous PTEN. PMID:27405757

  10. PD-1 Increases PTEN Phosphatase Activity While Decreasing PTEN Protein Stability by Inhibiting Casein Kinase 2

    PubMed Central

    Patsoukis, Nikolaos; Li, Lequn; Sari, Duygu; Petkova, Victoria

    2013-01-01

    Programmed death 1 (PD-1) is a potent inhibitor of T cell responses. PD-1 abrogates activation of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathway, but the mechanism remains unclear. We determined that during T cell receptor (TCR)/CD3- and CD28-mediated stimulation, PTEN is phosphorylated by casein kinase 2 (CK2) in the Ser380-Thr382-Thr383 cluster within the C-terminal regulatory domain, which stabilizes PTEN, resulting in increased protein abundance but suppressed PTEN phosphatase activity. PD-1 inhibited the stabilizing phosphorylation of the Ser380-Thr382-Thr383 cluster within the C-terminal domain of PTEN, thereby resulting in ubiquitin-dependent degradation and diminished abundance of PTEN protein but increased PTEN phosphatase activity. These effects on PTEN were secondary to PD-1-mediated inhibition of CK2 and were recapitulated by pharmacologic inhibition of CK2 during TCR/CD3- and CD28-mediated stimulation without PD-1. Furthermore, PD-1-mediated diminished abundance of PTEN was reversed by inhibition of ubiquitin-dependent proteasomal degradation. Our results identify CK2 as a new target of PD-1 and reveal an unexpected mechanism by which PD-1 decreases PTEN protein expression while increasing PTEN activity, thereby inhibiting the PI3K/Akt signaling axis. PMID:23732914

  11. Molecular Features of Phosphatase and Tensin Homolog (PTEN) Regulation by C-terminal Phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zan; Dempsey, Daniel R; Thomas, Stefani N; Hayward, Dawn; Bolduc, David M; Cole, Philip A

    2016-07-01

    PTEN is a tumor suppressor that functions to negatively regulate the PI3K/AKT pathway as the lipid phosphatase for phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-triphosphate. Phosphorylation of a cluster of Ser/Thr residues (amino acids 380-385) on the C-terminal tail serves to alter the conformational state of PTEN from an open active state to a closed inhibited state, resulting in a reduction of plasma membrane localization and inhibition of enzyme activity. The relative contribution of each phosphorylation site to PTEN autoinhibition and the structural basis for the conformational closure is still unclear. To further the structural understanding of PTEN regulation by C-terminal tail phosphorylation, we used protein semisynthesis to insert stoichiometric and site-specific phospho-Ser/Thr(s) in the C-terminal tail of PTEN. Additionally, we employed photo-cross-linking to map the intramolecular PTEN interactions of the phospho-tail. Systematic evaluation of the PTEN C-tail phospho-cluster showed autoinhibition, and conformational closure was influenced by the aggregate effect of multiple phospho-sites rather than dominated by a single phosphorylation site. Moreover, photo-cross-linking suggested a direct interaction between the PTEN C-tail and a segment in the N-terminal region of the catalytic domain. Mutagenesis experiments provided additional insights into how the PTEN phospho-tail interacts with both the C2 and catalytic domains. PMID:27226612

  12. A PTEN-like phosphatase with a novel substrate specificity.

    PubMed

    Pagliarini, David J; Worby, Carolyn A; Dixon, Jack E

    2004-09-10

    We show that a novel PTEN-like phosphatase (PLIP) exhibits a unique preference for phosphatidylinositol 5-phosphate (PI(5)P) as a substrate in vitro. PI(5)P is the least characterized member of the phosphoinositide (PI) family of lipid signaling molecules. Recent studies suggest a role for PI(5)P in a variety of cellular events, such as tumor suppression, and in response to bacterial invasion. Determining the means by which PI(5)P levels are regulated is therefore key to understanding these cellular processes. PLIP is highly enriched in testis tissue and, similar to other PI phosphatases, exhibits poor activity against several proteinaceous substrates. Despite a recent report suggesting a role for PI(5)P in the regulation of Akt, the overexpression of wild-type or catalytically inactive PLIP in Chinese hamster ovary-insulin receptor cells or a dsRNA-mediated knockdown of PLIP mRNA levels in Drosophila S2 cells does not alter Akt activity or phosphorylation. The unique in vitro catalytic activity and detailed biochemical and kinetic analyses reported here will be of great value in our continued efforts to identify in vivo substrate(s) for this highly conserved phosphatase. PMID:15247229

  13. Synthetic lethal targeting of PTEN-deficient cancer cells using selective disruption of polynucleotide kinase/phosphatase.

    PubMed

    Mereniuk, Todd R; El Gendy, Mohamed A M; Mendes-Pereira, Ana M; Lord, Christopher J; Ghosh, Sunita; Foley, Edan; Ashworth, Alan; Weinfeld, Michael

    2013-10-01

    A recent screen of 6,961 siRNAs to discover possible synthetic lethal partners of the DNA repair protein polynucleotide kinase/phosphatase (PNKP) led to the identification of the potent tumor suppressor phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN). Here, we have confirmed the PNKP/PTEN synthetic lethal partnership in a variety of different cell lines including the PC3 prostate cancer cell line, which is naturally deficient in PTEN. We provide evidence that codepletion of PTEN and PNKP induces apoptosis. In HCT116 colon cancer cells, the loss of PTEN is accompanied by an increased background level of DNA double-strand breaks, which accumulate in the presence of an inhibitor of PNKP DNA 3'-phosphatase activity. Complementation of PC3 cells with several well-characterized mutated PTEN cDNAs indicated that the critical function of PTEN required to prevent toxicity induced by an inhibitor of PNKP is most likely associated with its cytoplasmic lipid phosphatase activity. Finally, we show that modest inhibition of PNKP in a PTEN knockout background enhances cellular radiosensitivity, suggesting that such a "synthetic sickness" approach involving the combination of PNKP inhibition with radiotherapy may be applicable to PTEN-deficient tumors. PMID:23883586

  14. Biophysical methods for the characterization of PTEN/lipid bilayer interactions.

    PubMed

    Harishchandra, Rakesh K; Neumann, Brittany M; Gericke, Arne; Ross, Alonzo H

    2015-05-01

    PTEN, a tumor suppressor protein that dephosphorylates phosphoinositides at the 3-position of the inositol ring, is a cytosolic protein that needs to associate with the plasma membrane or other subcellular membranes to exert its lipid phosphatase function. Upon membrane association PTEN interacts with at least three different lipid entities: An anionic lipid that is present in sufficiently high concentration to create a negative potential that allows PTEN to interact electrostatically with the membrane, phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate, which interacts with PTEN's N-terminal end and the substrate, usually phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-trisphosphate. Many parameters influence PTEN's interaction with the lipid bilayer, for example, the lateral organization of the lipids or the presence of other chemical species like cholesterol or other lipids. To investigate systematically the different steps of PTEN's complex binding mechanism and to explore its dynamic behavior in the membrane bound state, in vitro methods need to be employed that allow for a systematic variation of the experimental conditions. In this review we survey a variety of methods that can be used to assess PTEN lipid binding affinity, the dynamics of its membrane association as well as its dynamic behavior in the membrane bound state. PMID:25697761

  15. Biophysical methods for the characterization of PTEN/lipid bilayer interactions1

    PubMed Central

    Harishchandra, Rakesh K.; Neumann, Brittany M.; Gericke, Arne; Ross, Alonzo H.

    2015-01-01

    PTEN, a tumor suppressor protein that dephosphorylates phosphoinositides at the 3-position of the inositol ring, is a cytosolic protein that needs to associate with the plasma membrane or other subcellular membranes to exert its lipid phosphatase function. Upon membrane association PTEN interacts with at least three different lipid entities: An anionic lipid that is present in sufficiently high concentration to create a negative potential that allows PTEN to interact electrostatically with the membrane, phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate, which interacts with PTEN's N-terminal end and the substrate, usually phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-trisphosphate. Many parameters influence PTEN's interaction with the lipid bilayer, for example, the lateral organization of the lipids or the presence of other chemical species like cholesterol or other lipids. To investigate systematically the different steps of PTEN's complex binding mechanism and to explore its dynamic behavior in the membrane bound state, in vitro methods need to be employed that allow for a systematic variation of the experimental conditions. In this review we survey a variety of methods that can be used to assess PTEN lipid binding affinity, the dynamics of its membrane association as well as its dynamic behavior in the membrane bound state. PMID:25697761

  16. A voltage-sensing phosphatase, Ci-VSP, which shares sequence identity with PTEN, dephosphorylates phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate.

    PubMed

    Iwasaki, Hirohide; Murata, Yoshimichi; Kim, Youngjun; Hossain, Md Israil; Worby, Carolyn A; Dixon, Jack E; McCormack, Thomas; Sasaki, Takehiko; Okamura, Yasushi

    2008-06-10

    Phosphatidylinositol lipids play diverse physiological roles, and their concentrations are tightly regulated by various kinases and phosphatases. The enzymatic activity of Ciona intestinalis voltage sensor-containing phosphatase (Ci-VSP), recently identified as a member of the PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10) family of phosphatidylinositol phosphatases, is regulated by its own voltage-sensor domain in a voltage-dependent manner. However, a detailed mechanism of Ci-VSP regulation and its substrate specificity remain unknown. Here we determined the in vitro substrate specificity of Ci-VSP by measuring the phosphoinositide phosphatase activity of the Ci-VSP cytoplasmic phosphatase domain. Despite the high degree of identity shared between the active sites of PTEN and Ci-VSP, Ci-VSP dephosphorylates not only the PTEN substrate, phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate [PI(3,4,5)P3], but also, unlike PTEN, phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate [PI(4,5)P2]. Enzymatic action on PI(4,5)P2 removes the phosphate at position 5 of the inositol ring, resulting in the production of phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate [PI(4)P]. The active site Cys-X(5)-Arg (CX(5)R) sequence of Ci-VSP differs with that of PTEN only at amino acid 365 where a glycine residue in Ci-VSP is replaced by an alanine in PTEN. Ci-VSP with a G365A mutation no longer dephosphorylates PI(4,5)P2 and is not capable of inducing depolarization-dependent rundown of a PI(4,5)P2-dependent potassium channel. These results indicate that Ci-VSP is a PI(3,4,5)P3/PI(4,5)P2 phosphatase that uniquely functions in the voltage-dependent regulation of ion channels through regulation of PI(4,5)P2 levels. PMID:18524949

  17. Reversible oxidation of phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) alters its interactions with signaling and regulatory proteins.

    PubMed

    Verrastro, Ivan; Tveen-Jensen, Karina; Woscholski, Rudiger; Spickett, Corinne M; Pitt, Andrew R

    2016-01-01

    Phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) is involved in a number of different cellular processes including metabolism, apoptosis, cell proliferation and survival. It is a redox-sensitive dual-specificity protein phosphatase that acts as a tumor suppressor by negatively regulating the PI3K/Akt pathway. While direct evidence of redox regulation of PTEN downstream signaling has been reported, the effect of PTEN redox status on its protein-protein interactions is poorly understood. PTEN-GST in its reduced and a DTT-reversible H2O2-oxidized form was immobilized on a glutathione-sepharose support and incubated with cell lysate to capture interacting proteins. Captured proteins were analyzed by LC-MSMS and comparatively quantified using label-free methods. 97 Potential protein interactors were identified, including a significant number that are novel. The abundance of fourteen interactors was found to vary significantly with the redox status of PTEN. Altered binding to PTEN was confirmed by affinity pull-down and Western blotting for Prdx1, Trx, and Anxa2, while DDB1 was validated as a novel interactor with unaltered binding. These results suggest that the redox status of PTEN causes a functional variation in the PTEN interactome. The resin capture method developed had distinct advantages in that the redox status of PTEN could be directly controlled and measured. PMID:26561776

  18. Redox Modulation of PTEN Phosphatase Activity by Hydrogen Peroxide and Bisperoxidovanadium Complexes.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chang-Uk; Hahne, Gernot; Hanske, Jonas; Bange, Tanja; Bier, David; Rademacher, Christoph; Hennig, Sven; Grossmann, Tom N

    2015-11-01

    PTEN is a dual-specificity protein tyrosine phosphatase. As one of the central tumor suppressors, a thorough regulation of its activity is essential for proper cellular homeostasis. The precise implications of PTEN inhibition by reactive oxygen species (e.g. H2 O2 ) and the subsequent structural consequences remain elusive. To study the effects of PTEN inhibition, bisperoxidovanadium (bpV) complexes serve as important tools with the potential for the treatment of nerve injury or cardiac ischemia. However, their mode of action is unknown, hampering further optimization and preventing therapeutic applications. Based on protein crystallography, mass spectrometry, and NMR spectroscopy, we elucidate the molecular basis of PTEN inhibition by H2O2 and bpV complexes. We show that both molecules inhibit PTEN via oxidative mechanisms resulting in the formation of the same intramolecular disulfide, therefore enabling the reactivation of PTEN under reductive conditions. PMID:26418532

  19. Redox Modulation of PTEN Phosphatase Activity by Hydrogen Peroxide and Bisperoxidovanadium Complexes

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chang-Uk; Hahne, Gernot; Hanske, Jonas; Bange, Tanja; Bier, David; Rademacher, Christoph; Hennig, Sven; Grossmann, Tom N

    2015-01-01

    PTEN is a dual-specificity protein tyrosine phosphatase. As one of the central tumor suppressors, a thorough regulation of its activity is essential for proper cellular homeostasis. The precise implications of PTEN inhibition by reactive oxygen species (e.g. H2O2) and the subsequent structural consequences remain elusive. To study the effects of PTEN inhibition, bisperoxidovanadium (bpV) complexes serve as important tools with the potential for the treatment of nerve injury or cardiac ischemia. However, their mode of action is unknown, hampering further optimization and preventing therapeutic applications. Based on protein crystallography, mass spectrometry, and NMR spectroscopy, we elucidate the molecular basis of PTEN inhibition by H2O2 and bpV complexes. We show that both molecules inhibit PTEN via oxidative mechanisms resulting in the formation of the same intramolecular disulfide, therefore enabling the reactivation of PTEN under reductive conditions. PMID:26418532

  20. Phospholipid-binding sites of phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN): exploring the mechanism of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate activation.

    PubMed

    Wei, Yang; Stec, Boguslaw; Redfield, Alfred G; Weerapana, Eranthie; Roberts, Mary F

    2015-01-16

    The lipid phosphatase activity of the tumor suppressor phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) is enhanced by the presence of its biological product, phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PI(4,5)P2). This enhancement is suggested to occur via the product binding to the N-terminal region of the protein. PTEN effects on short-chain phosphoinositide (31)P linewidths and on the full field dependence of the spin-lattice relaxation rate (measured by high resolution field cycling (31)P NMR using spin-labeled protein) are combined with enzyme kinetics with the same short-chain phospholipids to characterize where PI(4,5)P2 binds on the protein. The results are used to model a discrete site for a PI(4,5)P2 molecule close to, but distinct from, the active site of PTEN. This PI(4,5)P2 site uses Arg-47 and Lys-13 as phosphate ligands, explaining why PTEN R47G and K13E can no longer be activated by that phosphoinositide. Placing a PI(4,5)P2 near the substrate site allows for proper orientation of the enzyme on interfaces and should facilitate processive catalysis. PMID:25429968

  1. PTEN Phosphatase-Independent Maintenance of Glandular Morphology in a Predictive Colorectal Cancer Model System1

    PubMed Central

    Jagan, Ishaan C; Deevi, Ravi K; Fatehullah, Aliya; Topley, Rebecca; Eves, Joshua; Stevenson, Michael; Loughrey, Maurice; Arthur, Kenneth; Campbell, Frederick Charles

    2013-01-01

    Organotypic models may provide mechanistic insight into colorectal cancer (CRC) morphology. Three-dimensional (3D) colorectal gland formation is regulated by phosphatase and tensin homologue deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN) coupling of cell division cycle 42 (cdc42) to atypical protein kinase C (aPKC). This study investigated PTEN phosphatase-dependent and phosphatase-independent morphogenic functions in 3D models and assessed translational relevance in human studies. Isogenic PTEN-expressing or PTEN-deficient 3D colorectal cultures were used. In translational studies, apical aPKC activity readout was assessed against apical membrane (AM) orientation and gland morphology in 3D models and human CRC. We found that catalytically active or inactive PTEN constructs containing an intact C2 domain enhanced cdc42 activity, whereas mutants of the C2 domain calcium binding region 3 membrane-binding loop (M-CBR3) were ineffective. The isolated PTEN C2 domain (C2) accumulated in membrane fractions, but C2 M-CBR3 remained in cytosol. Transfection of C2 but not C2 M-CBR3 rescued defective AM orientation and 3D morphogenesis of PTEN-deficient Caco-2 cultures. The signal intensity of apical phospho-aPKC correlated with that of Na+/H+ exchanger regulatory factor-1 (NHERF-1) in the 3D model. Apical NHERF-1 intensity thus provided readout of apical aPKC activity and associated with glandular morphology in the model system and human colon. Low apical NHERF-1 intensity in CRC associated with disruption of glandular architecture, high cancer grade, and metastatic dissemination. We conclude that the membrane-binding function of the catalytically inert PTEN C2 domain influences cdc42/aPKC-dependent AM dynamics and gland formation in a highly relevant 3D CRC morphogenesis model system. PMID:24348097

  2. The role of PTEN, a phosphatase gene, in inherited and sporadic nonmedullary thyroid tumors.

    PubMed

    Eng, C

    1999-01-01

    PTEN/MMACI/TEP1, a tumor suppressor gene located on 10q23.3, encodes an almost ubiquitously expressed dual-specificity phosphatase. Germline mutations in PTEN have been found in the majority of cases of sporadic and familial Cowden syndrome (CS), an autosomal dominant inherited cancer syndrome characterised by multiple hamartomas and benign and malignant disease of the thyroid and breast. Interestingly, germline mutations in PTEN have also been found in about 50% of a related but distinct disorder, Bannayan-Ruvalcaba-Riley syndrome (BRR), which is characterised by neonatal-onset macrocephaly, mental retardation, Hashimoto's thyroiditis, lipomatosis, haemangiomas, hamartomatous polyps, and pigmented macules of the glans penis. Somatic PTEN mutation has been described to a greater or lesser extent in various benign and malignant tumor types. Somatic deletions have been described in follicular adenomas of the thyroid and papillary thyroid carcinomas. PMID:10548886

  3. Ischemia-reperfusion injury and cardioprotection: investigating PTEN, the phosphatase that negatively regulates PI3K, using a congenital model of PTEN haploinsufficiency.

    PubMed

    Siddall, Hilary K; Warrell, Clare E; Yellon, Derek M; Mocanu, Mihaela M

    2008-11-01

    Activation of the PI3K/Akt pathway protects the heart from ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI). The phosphatase PTEN is the main negative regulator of this pathway. We hypothesized that reduced PTEN levels could protect against IRI. Isolated perfused mouse hearts from PTEN(+/-) and their littermates PTEN(+/+) (WT), were subjected to 35 min global ischemia and 30 min reperfusion, with and without 2, 4 or 6 cycles ischemic preconditioning (IPC). The end point was infarct size, expressed as a percentage of the myocardium at risk (I/R%). PTEN and Akt levels were determined using Western blot analysis. Unexpectedly, there were no significant differences in infarction between PTEN(+/-) and WT (42.1 +/- 5.0% Vs. 45.6 +/- 3.3%). However, the preconditioning threshold was significantly reduced in the PTEN(+/-) Vs. WT, with 4 cycles of IPC being sufficient to reduce I/R%, compared to 6 cycles in the WT (4 cycles IPC: 29.8. +/- 3.69% in PTEN(+/-) Vs. 45.5. +/- 5.08% in WT, P < 0.01). In addition, the ratio between the phospho/total Akt (Ser473 and Thr308) was slightly but significantly increased in the PTEN(+/-) indicating an upregulation of PI3K/Akt pathway. Interestingly, the levels of the other phosphatases that may negatively regulate the PI3K/Akt pathway (PP2A, SHIP2 and PHLPP) were not significantly different between littermates and PTEN(+/-). In conclusion, PTEN haploinsufficiency alone does not induce cardioprotection in this model; however, it reduces the threshold of protection induced by IPC. PMID:18604624

  4. PTEN interaction with tethered bilayer lipid membranes containing PI(4,5)P2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moldovan, R.; Shenoy, S.; Shekhar, P.; Kalinowski, A.; Gericke, A.; Heinrich, F.; Loesche, M.

    2009-03-01

    Synthetic lipid membrane models are frequently used for the study of biophysical processes at cell membranes. We use a robust membrane model, the tethered bilayer lipid membrane (tBLM), based on a (C14)2-(PEO)6-thiol anchor, WC14 [1]. Such membranes can be prepared to contain single phospholipids or complex lipid mixtures [2], including functional lipids involved in cell signaling, such as the highly charged phosphatidylinositol phosphates (PIPs). To study the interaction between the tumor suppressor PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homologue deleted on chromosome 10) and model membranes we have incorporated phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate (PI(4,5)P2) in tBLMs and use fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS), neutron reflectometry (NR) and surface plasmon resonance (SPR) for their characterization. NR shows that tBLMs formed with PI(4,5)P2 are complete. FCS of labeled PI(4,5)P2 shows that diffusion occurs at the time scale characteristic of membrane-incorporated lipid. Finally, SPR shows specific binding of PTEN to the model membrane thus confirming the incorporation of PI(4,5)P2 into the tBLM. [1] McGillivray et al, Biointerphases 2, 21-33 (2007) [2] Heinrich et al, Langmuir, submitted

  5. Focus on PTEN Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Bermúdez Brito, Miriam; Goulielmaki, Evangelia; Papakonstanti, Evangelia A.

    2015-01-01

    The role of phosphatase and tensin homolog on chromosome 10 (PTEN) as a tumor suppressor has been for a long time attributed to its lipid phosphatase activity against PI(3,4,5)P3, the phospholipid product of the class I PI3Ks. Besides its traditional role as a lipid phosphatase at the plasma membrane, a wealth of data has shown that PTEN can function independently of its phosphatase activity and that PTEN also exists and plays a role in the nucleus, in cytoplasmic organelles, and extracellularly. Accumulating evidence has shed light on diverse physiological functions of PTEN, which are accompanied by a complex regulation of its expression and activity. PTEN levels and function are regulated transcriptionally, post-transcriptionally, and post-translationally. PTEN is also sensitive to regulation by its interacting proteins and its localization. Herein, we summarize the current knowledge on mechanisms that regulate the expression and enzymatic activity of PTEN and its role in human diseases. PMID:26284192

  6. The intrinsically disordered tails of PTEN and PTEN-L have distinct roles in regulating substrate specificity and membrane activity.

    PubMed

    Masson, Glenn R; Perisic, Olga; Burke, John E; Williams, Roger L

    2016-01-15

    Phosphatase and tensin homologue deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN) is a lipid and protein phosphatase, and both activities are necessary for its role as a tumour suppressor. PTEN activity is controlled by phosphorylation of its intrinsically disordered C-terminal tail. A recently discovered variant of PTEN, PTEN-long (PTEN-L), has a 173-residue N-terminal extension that causes PTEN-L to exhibit unique behaviour, such as movement from one cell to another. Using hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry (HDX-MS) and biophysical assays, we show that both the N-terminal extension of PTEN-L and C-terminal tail of PTEN affect the phosphatase activity using unique mechanisms. Phosphorylation of six residues in the C-terminal tail of PTEN results in auto-inhibitory interactions with the phosphatase and C2 domains, effectively blocking both the active site and the membrane-binding interface of PTEN. Partially dephosphorylating PTEN on pThr(366)/pSer(370) results in sufficient exposure of the active site to allow a selective activation for soluble substrates. Using HDX-MS, we identified a membrane-binding element in the N-terminal extension of PTEN-L, termed the membrane-binding helix (MBH). The MBH radically alters the membrane binding mechanism of PTEN-L compared with PTEN, switching PTEN-L to a 'scooting' mode of catalysis from the 'hopping' mode that is characteristic of PTEN. PMID:26527737

  7. The intrinsically disordered tails of PTEN and PTEN-L have distinct roles in regulating substrate specificity and membrane activity

    PubMed Central

    Masson, Glenn R.; Perisic, Olga; Burke, John E.; Williams, Roger L.

    2015-01-01

    Phosphatase and tensin homologue deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN) is a lipid and protein phosphatase, and both activities are necessary for its role as a tumour suppressor. PTEN activity is controlled by phosphorylation of its intrinsically disordered C-terminal tail. A recently discovered variant of PTEN, PTEN-long (PTEN-L), has a 173-residue N-terminal extension that causes PTEN-L to exhibit unique behaviour, such as movement from one cell to another. Using hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry (HDX–MS) and biophysical assays, we show that both the N-terminal extension of PTEN-L and C-terminal tail of PTEN affect the phosphatase activity using unique mechanisms. Phosphorylation of six residues in the C-terminal tail of PTEN results in auto-inhibitory interactions with the phosphatase and C2 domains, effectively blocking both the active site and the membrane-binding interface of PTEN. Partially dephosphorylating PTEN on pThr366/pSer370 results in sufficient exposure of the active site to allow a selective activation for soluble substrates. Using HDX–MS, we identified a membrane-binding element in the N-terminal extension of PTEN-L, termed the membrane-binding helix (MBH). The MBH radically alters the membrane binding mechanism of PTEN-L compared with PTEN, switching PTEN-L to a ‘scooting’ mode of catalysis from the ‘hopping’ mode that is characteristic of PTEN. PMID:26527737

  8. Regulatory T cells require the phosphatase PTEN to restrain type 1 and follicular helper T-cell responses

    PubMed Central

    Shrestha, Sharad; Yang, Kai; Guy, Cliff; Vogel, Peter; Neale, Geoffrey; Chi, Hongbo

    2015-01-01

    The interplay between effector and regulatory T (Treg) cells is crucial for adaptive immunity, but how Treg control diverse effector responses is elusive. We found that the phosphatase PTEN links Treg stability to repression of TH1 and TFH (follicular helper) responses. Depletion of PTEN in Treg resulted in excessive TFH and germinal center responses and spontaneous inflammatory disease. These defects are considerably blocked by deletion of Interferon-γ, indicating coordinated control of TH1 and TFH responses. Mechanistically, PTEN maintains Treg stability and metabolic balance between glycolysis and mitochondrial fitness. Moreover, PTEN deficiency upregulates mTORC2-Akt activity, and loss of this activity restores PTEN-deficient Treg function. Our studies establish a PTEN-mTORC2 axis that maintains Treg stability and coordinates Treg-mediated control of effector responses. PMID:25559258

  9. Controlling the Activity of a Phosphatase and Tensin Homolog (PTEN) by Membrane Potential*

    PubMed Central

    Lacroix, Jérôme; Halaszovich, Christian R.; Schreiber, Daniela N.; Leitner, Michael G.; Bezanilla, Francisco; Oliver, Dominik; Villalba-Galea, Carlos A.

    2011-01-01

    The recently discovered voltage-sensitive phosphatases (VSPs) hydrolyze phosphoinositides upon depolarization of the membrane potential, thus representing a novel principle for the transduction of electrical activity into biochemical signals. Here, we demonstrate the possibility to confer voltage sensitivity to cytosolic enzymes. By fusing the tumor suppressor PTEN to the voltage sensor of the prototypic VSP from Ciona intestinalis, Ci-VSP, we generated chimeric proteins that are voltage-sensitive and display PTEN-like enzymatic activity in a strictly depolarization-dependent manner in vivo. Functional coupling of the exogenous enzymatic activity to the voltage sensor is mediated by a phospholipid-binding motif at the interface between voltage sensor and catalytic domains. Our findings reveal that the main domains of VSPs and related phosphoinositide phosphatases are intrinsically modular and define structural requirements for coupling of enzymatic activity to a voltage sensor domain. A key feature of this prototype of novel engineered voltage-sensitive enzymes, termed Ci-VSPTEN, is the novel ability to switch enzymatic activity of PTEN rapidly and reversibly. We demonstrate that experimental control of Ci-VSPTEN can be obtained either by electrophysiological techniques or more general techniques, using potassium-induced depolarization of intact cells. Thus, Ci-VSPTEN provides a novel approach for studying the complex mechanism of activation, cellular control, and pharmacology of this important tumor suppressor. Moreover, by inducing temporally precise perturbation of phosphoinositide concentrations, Ci-VSPTEN will be useful for probing the role and specificity of these messengers in many cellular processes and to analyze the timing of phosphoinositide signaling. PMID:21454672

  10. Single-Cell Analysis of Phosphoinositide 3-Kinase (PI3K) and Phosphatase and Tensin Homolog (PTEN) Activation

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Dechen; Sims, Christopher Eldridge; Allbritton, Nancy Lynn

    2010-01-01

    Summary A single-cell assay was developed to measure the activation of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) using microanalytical chemical separations and a fluorescently labeled lipid substrate. Phosphatidyl-inositol 4,5 bisphosphate labeled on its acyl chain with Bodipy fluorescein (Bodipy Fl PIP2) was utilized as a substrate for both in vitro and cell-based assays. Detection limits for the substrate and product of the PI3K reaction were 10 to 20 zeptomoles. In vitro assays with PI3K with and without pharmacologic inhibitors demonstrated that Bodipy Fl PIP2 was converted to phosphatidyl-inositol 3,4,5 trisphosphate (Bodipy Fl PIP3 ). Bodipy Fl PIP3 could be back converted to Bodipy Fl PIP2 by the phosphatase PTEN. When Bodipy Fl PIP2 was added to a cell lysate, 1.4 fmoles of the Bodipy Fl PIP3 were produced per ng of protein in the cytoplasmic extract in 10 min. Addition of Bodipy Fl PIP3 to a cell lysate yielded 3 fmoles of Bodipy Fl PIP2 per ng of protein in 8 min. Both Bodipy Fl PIP2 and Bodipy Fl PIP3 were measureable in single cells and the two species could be inter-converted. Under the appropriate conditions, a fluorescent diacylglycerol was also detected in single cells. When the FcεR1 receptor on the cells loaded with the fluorescent lipid was cross-linked, the amount of Bodipy Fl PIP3 generated per cell increased 4-fold over that of unstimulated cells. This production of Bodipy Fl PIP3 was blocked by wortmannin. Chemical cytometry utilizing the fluorescent lipids will be of value in understanding lipid metabolism at the single-cell level. PMID:21221426

  11. Post-transcriptional modulation of protein phosphatase PPP2CA and tumor suppressor PTEN by endogenous siRNA cleaved from hairpin within PTEN mRNA 3′UTR in human liver cells

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Yu-en; Wang, Yuan; Chen, Fu-quan; Feng, Jin-yan; Yang, Guang; Feng, Guo-xing; Yang, Zhe; Ye, Li-hong; Zhang, Xiao-dong

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Increasing evidence shows that mRNAs exert regulatory function along with coding proteins. Recently we report that a hairpin within YAP mRNA 3′UTR can modulate the Hippo signaling pathway. PTEN is a tumor suppressor, and is mutated in human cancers. In this study we examined whether PTEN mRNA 3′UTR contained a hairpin structure that could regulate gene regulation at the post-transcriptional level. Methods: The secondary structure of PTEN mRNA 3′UTR was analyzed using RNAdraw and RNAstructure. Function of hairpin structure derived from the PTEN mRNA 3′UTR was examined using luciferase reporter assay, RT-PCR and Western blotting. RNA-immunoprecipitation (RIP) assay was used to analyze the interaction between PTEN mRNA and microprocessor Drosha and DGCR8. Endogenous siRNA (esiRNA) derived from PTEN mRNA 3′UTR was identified by RT-PCR and rt-PCR, and its target genes were predicted using RNAhybrid. Results: A bioinformatics analysis revealed that PTEN mRNA contained a hairpin structure (termed PTEN-sh) within 3′UTR, which markedly increased the reporter activities of AP-1 and NF-κB in 293T cells. Moreover, treatment with PTEN-sh (1 and 2 μg) dose-dependently inhibited the expression of PTEN in human liver L-O2 cells. RIP assay demonstrated that the microprocessor Drosha and DGCR8 was bound to PTEN-sh in L-O2 cells, leading to the cleavage of PTEN-sh from PTEN mRNA 3′UTR. In addition, microprocessor Dicer was involved in the processing of PTEN-sh. Interestingly, esiRNA (termed PTEN-sh-3p21) cleaved from PTEN-sh was identified in 293T cells and human liver tissues, which was found to target the mRNA 3′UTRs of protein phosphatase PPP2CA and PTEN in L-O2 cells. Treatment of L-O2 or Chang liver cells with PTEN-sh-3p21 (50, 100 nmol/L) promoted the cell proliferation in dose- and time-dependent manners. Conclusion: The endogenous siRNA (PTEN-sh-3p21) cleaved from PTEN-sh within PTEN mRNA 3′UTR modulates PPP2CA and PTEN at the post

  12. A method to control phosphoinositides and to analyze PTEN function in living cells using voltage sensitive phosphatases

    PubMed Central

    Mavrantoni, Angeliki; Thallmair, Veronika; Leitner, Michael G.; Schreiber, Daniela N.; Oliver, Dominik; Halaszovich, Christian R.

    2015-01-01

    Voltage sensitive phosphatases (VSPs), including engineered voltage sensitive PTEN, are excellent tools to rapidly and reversibly alter the phosphoinositide (PI) content of the plasma membrane in vivo and study the tumor suppressor PTEN. However, widespread adoption of these tools is hampered by the requirement for electrophysiological instrumentation to control the activity of VSPs. Additionally, monitoring and quantifying the PI changes in living cells requires sophisticated microscopy equipment and image analysis. Here we present methods that bypass these obstacles. First, we explore technically simple means for activation of VSPs via extracellularly applied agents or light. Secondly, we characterize methods to monitor PI(4,5)P2 and PI(3,4,5)P3 levels using fluorescence microscopy or photometry in conjunction with translocation or FRET based PI probes, respectively. We then demonstrate the application of these techniques by characterizing the effect of known PTEN mutations on its enzymatic activity, analyzing the effect of PTEN inhibitors, and detecting in real time rapid inhibition of protein kinase B following depletion of PI(3,4,5)P3. Thus, we established an approach that does not only allow for rapidly manipulating and monitoring PI(4,5)P2 and PI(3,4,5)P3 levels in a population of cells, but also facilitates the study of PTEN mutants and pharmacological targeting in mammalian cells. PMID:25873899

  13. Cellular prostatic acid phosphatase, a PTEN-functional homologue in prostate epithelia, functions as a prostate-specific tumor suppressor

    PubMed Central

    Muniyan, Sakthivel; Ingersoll, Matthew A.; Batra, Surinder K.; Lin, Ming-Fong

    2014-01-01

    The inactivation of tumor suppressor genes (TSGs) plays a vital role in the progression of human cancers. Nevertheless, those ubiquitous TSGs have been shown with limited roles in various stages of diverse carcinogenesis. Investigation on identifying unique TSG, especially for early stage of carcinogenesis, is imperative. As such, the search for organ-specific TSGs has emerged as a major strategy in cancer research. Prostate cancer (PCa) has the highest incidence in solid tumors in US males. Cellular prostatic acid phosphatase (cPAcP) is a prostate-specific differentiation antigen. Despite intensive studies over the past several decades on PAcP as a PCa biomarker, the role of cPAcP as a PCa-specific tumor suppressor has only recently been emerged and validated. The mechanism underlying the pivotal role of cPAcP as a prostate-specific TSG is, in part, due to its function as a protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) as well as a phosphoinositide phosphatase (PIP), an apparent functional homologue to Phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) in PCa cells. This review is focused on discussing the function of this authentic prostate-specific tumor suppressor and the mechanism behind the loss of cPAcP expression leading to prostate carcinogenesis. We review other phosphatases’ roles as TSGs which regulate oncogenic PI3K signaling in PCa and discuss the functional similarity between cPAcP and PTEN in prostate carcinogenesis. PMID:24747769

  14. PTEN: Multiple Functions in Human Malignant Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Milella, Michele; Falcone, Italia; Conciatori, Fabiana; Cesta Incani, Ursula; Del Curatolo, Anais; Inzerilli, Nicola; Nuzzo, Carmen M. A.; Vaccaro, Vanja; Vari, Sabrina; Cognetti, Francesco; Ciuffreda, Ludovica

    2015-01-01

    PTEN is the most important negative regulator of the PI3K signaling pathway. In addition to its canonical, PI3K inhibition-dependent functions, PTEN can also function as a tumor suppressor in a PI3K-independent manner. Indeed, the PTEN network regulates a broad spectrum of biological functions, modulating the flow of information from membrane-bound growth factor receptors to nuclear transcription factors, occurring in concert with other tumor suppressors and oncogenic signaling pathways. PTEN acts through its lipid and protein phosphatase activity and other non-enzymatic mechanisms. Studies conducted over the past 10 years have expanded our understanding of the biological role of PTEN, showing that in addition to its ability to regulate proliferation and cell survival, it also plays an intriguing role in regulating genomic stability, cell migration, stem cell self-renewal, and tumor microenvironment. Changes in PTEN protein levels, location, and enzymatic activity through various molecular mechanisms can generate a continuum of functional PTEN levels in inherited syndromes, sporadic cancers, and other diseases. PTEN activity can indeed, be modulated by mutations, epigenetic silencing, transcriptional repression, aberrant protein localization, and post-translational modifications. This review will discuss our current understanding of the biological role of PTEN, how PTEN expression and activity are regulated, and the consequences of PTEN dysregulation in human malignant tumors. PMID:25763354

  15. Study of PTEN subcellular localization

    PubMed Central

    Bononi, Angela; Pinton, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    The tumor suppressor PTEN is a key regulator of a plethora of cellular processes that are crucial in cancer development. Through its lipid phosphatase activity PTEN suppresses the PI3K/AKT pathway to govern cell proliferation, growth, migration, energy metabolism and death. The repertoire of roles fulfilled by PTEN has recently been expanded to include crucial functions in the nucleus, where it favors genomic stability and restrains cell cycle progression, as well as protein phosphatase dependent activity at the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and mitochondria-associated membranes (MAMs), where PTEN interacts with the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors (IP3Rs) and regulates Ca2+ release from the ER and sensitivity to apoptosis. Indeed, PTEN is present in definite subcellular locations where it performs distinct functions acting on specific effectors. In this review, we summarize recent advantages in methods to study PTEN subcellular localization and the distinct biological functions of PTEN in different cellular compartments. A deeper understanding of PTEN’s compartmentalized-functions will guide the rational design of novel therapies. PMID:25312582

  16. Identification of novel PTEN-binding partners: PTEN interaction with fatty acid binding protein FABP4.

    PubMed

    Gorbenko, O; Panayotou, G; Zhyvoloup, A; Volkova, D; Gout, I; Filonenko, V

    2010-04-01

    PTEN is a tumor suppressor with dual protein and lipid-phosphatase activity, which is frequently deleted or mutated in many human advanced cancers. Recent studies have also demonstrated that PTEN is a promising target in type II diabetes and obesity treatment. Using C-terminal PTEN sequence in pEG202-NLS as bait, yeast two-hybrid screening on Mouse Embryo, Colon Cancer, and HeLa cDNA libraries was carried out. Isolated positive clones were validated by mating assay and identified through automated DNA sequencing and BLAST database searches. Sequence analysis revealed a number of PTEN-binding proteins linking this phosphatase to a number of different signaling cascades, suggesting that PTEN may perform other functions besides tumor-suppressing activity in different cell types. In particular, the interplay between PTEN function and adipocyte-specific fatty-acid-binding protein FABP4 is of notable interest. The demonstrable tautology of PTEN to FABP4 suggested a role for this phosphatase in the regulation of lipid metabolism and adipocyte differentiation. This interaction was further studied using coimmunoprecipitation and gel-filtration assays. Finally, based on Biacore assay, we have calculated the K(D) of PTEN-FABP4 complex, which is around 2.8 microM. PMID:19911253

  17. Opening the conformation is a master switch for the dual localization and phosphatase activity of PTEN

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Hoai-Nghia; Yang, Jr-Ming; Miyamoto, Takafumi; Itoh, Kie; Rho, Elmer; Zhang, Qiang; Inoue, Takanari; Devreotes, Peter N.; Sesaki, Hiromi; Iijima, Miho

    2015-01-01

    Tumor suppressor PTEN mainly functions at two subcellular locations, the plasma membrane and the nucleus. At the plasma membrane, PTEN dephosphorylates the tumorigenic second messenger PIP3, which drives cell proliferation and migration. In the nucleus, PTEN controls DNA repair and genome stability independently of PIP3. Whereas the concept that a conformational change regulates protein function through post-translational modifications has been well established in biology, it is unknown whether a conformational change simultaneously controls dual subcellular localizations of proteins. Here, we discovered that opening the conformation of PTEN is the crucial upstream event that determines its key dual localizations of this crucial tumor suppressor. We identify a critical conformational switch that regulates PTEN’s localization. Most PTEN molecules are held in the cytosol in a closed conformation by intramolecular interactions between the C-terminal tail and core region. Dephosphorylation of the tail opens the conformation and exposes the membrane-binding regulatory interface in the core region, recruiting PTEN to the membrane. Moreover, a lysine at residue 13 is also exposed and when ubiquitinated, transports PTEN to the nucleus. Thus, opening the conformation of PTEN is a key mechanism that enhances its dual localization and enzymatic activity, providing a potential therapeutic strategy in cancer treatments. PMID:26216063

  18. On–off system for PI3-kinase–Akt signaling through S-nitrosylation of phosphatase with sequence homology to tensin (PTEN)

    PubMed Central

    Numajiri, Naoki; Takasawa, Kumi; Nishiya, Tadashi; Tanaka, Hirotaka; Ohno, Kazuki; Hayakawa, Wataru; Asada, Mariko; Matsuda, Hiromi; Azumi, Kaoru; Kamata, Hideaki; Nakamura, Tomohiro; Hara, Hideaki; Minami, Masabumi; Lipton, Stuart A.; Uehara, Takashi

    2011-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) physiologically regulates numerous cellular responses through S-nitrosylation of protein cysteine residues. We performed antibody-array screening in conjunction with biotin-switch assays to look for S-nitrosylated proteins. Using this combination of techniques, we found that phosphatase with sequence homology to tensin (PTEN) is selectively S-nitrosylated by low concentrations of NO at a specific cysteine residue (Cys-83). S-nitrosylation of PTEN (forming SNO-PTEN) inhibits enzymatic activity and consequently stimulates the downstream Akt cascade, indicating that Cys-83 is a critical site for redox regulation of PTEN function. In ischemic mouse brain, we observed SNO-PTEN in the core and penumbra regions but found SNO-Akt, which is known to inhibit Akt activity, only in the ischemic core. These findings suggest that low concentrations of NO, as found in the penumbra, preferentially S-nitrosylate PTEN, whereas higher concentrations of NO, known to exist in the ischemic core, also S-nitrosylate Akt. In the penumbra, inhibition of PTEN (but not Akt) activity by S-nitrosylation would be expected to contribute to cell survival by means of enhanced Akt signaling. In contrast, in the ischemic core, SNO-Akt formation would inhibit this neuroprotective pathway. In vitro model systems support this notion. Thus, we identify unique sites of PTEN and Akt regulation by means of S-nitrosylation, resulting in an “on–off” pattern of control of Akt signaling. PMID:21646525

  19. The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade controls phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) expression through multiple mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Ciuffreda, Ludovica; Di Sanza, Cristina; Cesta Incani, Ursula; Eramo, Adriana; Desideri, Marianna; Biagioni, Francesca; Passeri, Daniela; Falcone, Italia; Sette, Giovanni; Bergamo, Paola; Anichini, Andrea; Sabapathy, Kanaga; McCubrey, James A; Ricciardi, Maria Rosaria; Tafuri, Agostino; Blandino, Giovanni; Orlandi, Augusto; De Maria, Ruggero; Cognetti, Francesco; Del Bufalo, Donatella; Milella, Michele

    2012-06-01

    The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and PI3K pathways are regulated by extensive crosstalk, occurring at different levels. In tumors, transactivation of the alternate pathway is a frequent "escape" mechanism, suggesting that combined inhibition of both pathways may achieve synergistic antitumor activity. Here we show that, in the M14 melanoma model, simultaneous inhibition of both MEK and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) achieves synergistic effects at suboptimal concentrations, but becomes frankly antagonistic in the presence of relatively high concentrations of MEK inhibitors. This observation led to the identification of a novel crosstalk mechanism, by which either pharmacologic or genetic inhibition of constitutive MEK signaling restores phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) expression, both in vitro and in vivo, and inhibits downstream signaling through AKT and mTOR, thus bypassing the need for double pathway blockade. This appears to be a general regulatory mechanism and is mediated by multiple mechanisms, such as MAPK-dependent c-Jun and miR-25 regulation. Finally, PTEN upregulation appears to be a major effector of MEK inhibitors' antitumor activity, as cancer cells in which PTEN is inactivated are consistently more resistant to the growth inhibitory and anti-angiogenic effects of MEK blockade. PMID:22215152

  20. Tailor-Made Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases: In Vitro Site-Directed Mutagenesis of PTEN and PTPRZ-B.

    PubMed

    Luna, Sandra; Mingo, Janire; Aurtenetxe, Olaia; Blanco, Lorena; Amo, Laura; Schepens, Jan; Hendriks, Wiljan J; Pulido, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    In vitro site-directed mutagenesis (SDM) of protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) is a commonly used approach to experimentally analyze PTP functions at the molecular and cellular level and to establish functional correlations with PTP alterations found in human disease. Here, using the tumor-suppressor PTEN and the receptor-type PTPRZ-B (short isoform from PTPRZ1 gene) phosphatases as examples, we provide a brief insight into the utility of specific mutations in the experimental analysis of PTP functions. We describe a standardized, rapid, and simple method of mutagenesis to perform single and multiple amino acid substitutions, as well as deletions of short nucleotide sequences, based on one-step inverse PCR and DpnI restriction enzyme treatment. This method of SDM is generally applicable to any other protein of interest. PMID:27514801

  1. PTEN regulates retinal interneuron morphogenesis and synaptic layer formation

    PubMed Central

    Sakagami, Kiyo; Chen, Bryan; Nusinowitz, Steven; Wu, Hong; Yang, Xian-Jie

    2011-01-01

    The lipid phosphatase PTEN is a critical negative regulator of extracellular signal-induced PI3K activities, yet the roles of PTEN in the neural retina remain poorly understood. Here, we investigate the function of PTEN during retinal development. Deletion of Pten at the onset of neurogenesis in retinal progenitors results in the reduction of retinal ganglion cells and rod photoreceptors, but increased Müller glial genesis. In addition, PTEN deficiency leads to elevated phosphorylation of Akt, especially in the developing inner plexiform layer, where high levels of PTEN are normally expressed. In Pten mutant retinas, various subtypes of amacrine cells show severe dendritic overgrowth, causing specific expansion of the inner plexiform layer. However, the outer plexiform layer remains relatively undisturbed in the Pten deficient retina. Physiological analysis detects reduced rod function and augmented oscillatory potentials originating from amacrine cells in Pten mutants. Furthermore, deleting Pten or elevating Akt activity in individual amacrine cells is sufficient to disrupt dendritic arborization, indicating that Pten activity is required cell autonomously to control neuronal morphology. Moreover, inhibiting endogenous Akt activity attenuates inner plexiform layer formation in vitro. Together, these findings demonstrate that suppression of PI3K/Akt signaling by PTEN is crucial for proper neuronal differentiation and normal retinal network formation. PMID:22155156

  2. PTEN represses RNA polymerase III-dependent transcription by targeting the TFIIIB complex.

    PubMed

    Woiwode, Annette; Johnson, Sandra A S; Zhong, Shuping; Zhang, Cheng; Roeder, Robert G; Teichmann, Martin; Johnson, Deborah L

    2008-06-01

    PTEN, a tumor suppressor whose function is frequently lost in human cancers, possesses a lipid phosphatase activity that represses phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) signaling, controlling cell growth, proliferation, and survival. The potential for PTEN to regulate the synthesis of RNA polymerase (Pol) III transcription products, including tRNAs and 5S rRNAs, was evaluated. The expression of PTEN in PTEN-deficient cells repressed RNA Pol III transcription, whereas decreased PTEN expression enhanced transcription. Transcription repression by PTEN was uncoupled from PTEN-mediated effects on the cell cycle and was independent of p53. PTEN acts through its lipid phosphatase activity, inhibiting the PI3K/Akt/mTOR/S6K pathway to decrease transcription. PTEN, through the inactivation of mTOR, targets the TFIIIB complex, disrupting the association between TATA-binding protein and Brf1. Kinetic analysis revealed that PTEN initially induces a decrease in the serine phosphorylation of Brf1, leading to a selective reduction in the occupancy of all TFIIIB subunits on tRNA(Leu) genes, whereas prolonged PTEN expression results in the enhanced serine phosphorylation of Bdp1. Together, these results demonstrate a new class of genes regulated by PTEN through its ability to repress the activation of PI3K/Akt/mTOR/S6K signaling. PMID:18391023

  3. PTEN modulates EGFR late endocytic trafficking and degradation by dephosphorylating Rab7

    PubMed Central

    Shinde, Swapnil Rohidas; Maddika, Subbareddy

    2016-01-01

    Tumour suppressor phosphatase and tensin homologue deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN) is a lipid phosphatase that negatively regulates growth factor-induced survival signalling. Here, we demonstrate that PTEN attenuates epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signalling by promoting late endosome maturation by virtue of its protein phosphatase activity. Loss of PTEN impairs the transition of ligand-bound EGFR from early to late endosomes. We unveil Rab7, a critical GTPase for endosome maturation, as a functional PTEN interacting partner. PTEN dephosphorylates Rab7 on two conserved residues S72 and Y183, which are necessary for GDP dissociation inhibitor (GDI)-dependent recruitment of Rab7 on to late endosomes and subsequent maturation. Thus, our findings reveal PTEN-dependent endosome maturation through phosphoregulation of Rab7 as an important route of controlling EGFR signalling. PMID:26869029

  4. PTEN modulates EGFR late endocytic trafficking and degradation by dephosphorylating Rab7.

    PubMed

    Shinde, Swapnil Rohidas; Maddika, Subbareddy

    2016-01-01

    Tumour suppressor phosphatase and tensin homologue deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN) is a lipid phosphatase that negatively regulates growth factor-induced survival signalling. Here, we demonstrate that PTEN attenuates epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signalling by promoting late endosome maturation by virtue of its protein phosphatase activity. Loss of PTEN impairs the transition of ligand-bound EGFR from early to late endosomes. We unveil Rab7, a critical GTPase for endosome maturation, as a functional PTEN interacting partner. PTEN dephosphorylates Rab7 on two conserved residues S72 and Y183, which are necessary for GDP dissociation inhibitor (GDI)-dependent recruitment of Rab7 on to late endosomes and subsequent maturation. Thus, our findings reveal PTEN-dependent endosome maturation through phosphoregulation of Rab7 as an important route of controlling EGFR signalling. PMID:26869029

  5. Allele-specific tumor spectrum in pten knockin mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hui; Karikomi, Matt; Naidu, Shan; Rajmohan, Ravi; Caserta, Enrico; Chen, Hui-Zi; Rawahneh, Maysoon; Moffitt, Julie; Stephens, Julie A; Fernandez, Soledad A; Weinstein, Michael; Wang, Danxin; Sadee, Wolfgang; La Perle, Krista; Stromberg, Paul; Rosol, Thomas J; Eng, Charis; Ostrowski, Michael C; Leone, Gustavo

    2010-03-16

    Germline mutations in the tumor suppressor gene PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homology deleted on chromosome 10) cause Cowden and Bannayan-Riley-Ruvalcaba (BRR) syndromes, two dominantly inherited disorders characterized by mental retardation, multiple hamartomas, and variable cancer risk. Here, we modeled three sentinel mutant alleles of PTEN identified in patients with Cowden syndrome and show that the nonsense Pten(4-5) and missense Pten(C124R) and Pten(G129E) alleles lacking lipid phosphatase activity cause similar developmental abnormalities but distinct tumor spectra with varying severity and age of onset. Allele-specific differences may be accounted for by loss of function for Pten(4-5), hypomorphic function for Pten(C124R), and gain of function for Pten(G129E). These data demonstrate that the variable tumor phenotypes observed in patients with Cowden and BRR syndromes can be attributed to specific mutations in PTEN that alter protein function through distinct mechanisms. PMID:20194734

  6. Phosphatidate phosphatase, a key regulator of lipid homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Pascual, Florencia; Carman, George M

    2013-03-01

    Yeast Pah1p phosphatidate phosphatase (PAP) catalyzes the penultimate step in the synthesis of triacylglycerol. PAP plays a crucial role in lipid homeostasis by controlling the relative proportions of its substrate phosphatidate and its product diacylglycerol. The cellular amounts of these lipid intermediates influence the synthesis of triacylglycerol and the pathways by which membrane phospholipids are synthesized. Physiological functions affected by PAP activity include phospholipid synthesis gene expression, nuclear/endoplasmic reticulum membrane growth, lipid droplet formation, and vacuole homeostasis and fusion. Yeast lacking Pah1p PAP activity are acutely sensitive to fatty acid-induced toxicity and exhibit respiratory deficiency. PAP is distinguished in its cellular location, catalytic mechanism, and physiological functions from Dpp1p and Lpp1p lipid phosphate phosphatases that utilize a variety of substrates that include phosphatidate. Phosphorylation/dephosphorylation is a major mechanism by which Pah1p PAP activity is regulated. Pah1p is phosphorylated by cytosolic-associated Pho85p-Pho80p, Cdc28p-cyclin B, and protein kinase A and is dephosphorylated by the endoplasmic reticulum-associated Nem1p-Spo7p phosphatase. The dephosphorylation of Pah1p stimulates PAP activity and facilitates the association with the membrane/phosphatidate allowing for its reaction and triacylglycerol synthesis. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Phospholipids and Phospholipid Metabolism. PMID:22910056

  7. PTEN posttranslational inactivation and hyperactivation of the PI3K/Akt pathway sustain primary T cell leukemia viability

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Ana; Yunes, J. Andrés; Cardoso, Bruno A.; Martins, Leila R.; Jotta, Patrícia Y.; Abecasis, Miguel; Nowill, Alexandre E.; Leslie, Nick R.; Cardoso, Angelo A.; Barata, Joao T.

    2008-01-01

    Mutations in the phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) gene leading to PTEN protein deletion and subsequent activation of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway are common in cancer. Here we show that PTEN inactivation in human T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) cells is not always synonymous with PTEN gene lesions and diminished protein expression. Samples taken from patients with T-ALL at the time of diagnosis very frequently showed constitutive hyperactivation of the PI3K/Akt pathway. In contrast to immortalized cell lines, most primary T-ALL cells did not harbor PTEN gene alterations, displayed normal PTEN mRNA levels, and expressed higher PTEN protein levels than normal T cell precursors. However, PTEN overexpression was associated with decreased PTEN lipid phosphatase activity, resulting from casein kinase 2 (CK2) overexpression and hyperactivation. In addition, T-ALL cells had constitutively high levels of ROS, which can also downmodulate PTEN activity. Accordingly, both CK2 inhibitors and ROS scavengers restored PTEN activity and impaired PI3K/Akt signaling in T-ALL cells. Strikingly, inhibition of PI3K and/or CK2 promoted T-ALL cell death without affecting normal T cell precursors. Overall, our data indicate that T-ALL cells inactivate PTEN mostly in a nondeletional, posttranslational manner. Pharmacological manipulation of these mechanisms may open new avenues for T-ALL treatment. PMID:18830414

  8. Hematopoietic Stem Cell Activity Is Regulated by Pten Phosphorylation Through a Niche-Dependent Mechanism.

    PubMed

    Li, Jing; Zhang, Jun; Tang, Minghui; Xin, Junping; Xu, Yan; Volk, Andrew; Hao, Caiqin; Hu, Chenglong; Sun, Jiewen; Wei, Wei; Cao, Quichan; Breslin, Peter; Zhang, Jiwang

    2016-08-01

    The phosphorylated form of Pten (p-Pten) is highly expressed in >70% of acute myeloid leukemia samples. However, the role of p-Pten in normal and abnormal hematopoiesis has not been studied. We found that Pten protein levels are comparable among long-term (LT) hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), short-term (ST) HSCs, and multipotent progenitors (MPPs); however, the levels of p-Pten are elevated during the HSC-to-MPP transition. To study whether p-Pten is involved in regulating self-renewal and differentiation in HSCs, we compared the effects of overexpression of p-Pten and nonphosphorylated Pten (non-p-Pten) on the hematopoietic reconstitutive capacity (HRC) of HSCs. We found that overexpression of non-p-Pten enhances the LT-HRC of HSCs, whereas overexpression of p-Pten promotes myeloid differentiation and compromises the LT-HRC of HSCs. Such phosphorylation-regulated Pten functioning is mediated by repressing the cell:cell contact-induced activation of Fak/p38 signaling independent of Pten's lipid phosphatase activity because both p-Pten and non-p-Pten have comparable activity in repressing PI3K/Akt signaling. Our studies suggest that, in addition to repressing PI3K/Akt/mTor signaling, non-p-Pten maintains HSCs in bone marrow niches via a cell-contact inhibitory mechanism by inhibiting Fak/p38 signaling-mediated proliferation and differentiation. In contrast, p-Pten promotes the proliferation and differentiation of HSCs by enhancing the cell contact-dependent activation of Src/Fak/p38 signaling. Stem Cells 2016;34:2130-2144. PMID:27096933

  9. The PTEN tumor suppressor gene and its role in lymphoma pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaoxiao; Huang, Huiqiang; Young, Ken H.

    2015-01-01

    The phosphatase and tensin homolog gene PTEN is one of the most frequently mutated tumor suppressor genes in human cancer. Loss of PTEN function occurs in a variety of human cancers via its mutation, deletion, transcriptional silencing, or protein instability. PTEN deficiency in cancer has been associated with advanced disease, chemotherapy resistance, and poor survival. Impaired PTEN function, which antagonizes phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) signaling, causes the accumulation of phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5)-triphosphate and thereby the suppression of downstream components of the PI3K pathway, including the protein kinase B and mammalian target of rapamycin kinases. In addition to having lipid phosphorylation activity, PTEN has critical roles in the regulation of genomic instability, DNA repair, stem cell self-renewal, cellular senescence, and cell migration. Although PTEN deficiency in solid tumors has been studied extensively, rare studies have investigated PTEN alteration in lymphoid malignancies. However, genomic or epigenomic aberrations of PTEN and dysregulated signaling are likely critical in lymphoma pathogenesis and progression. This review provides updated summary on the role of PTEN deficiency in human cancers, specifically in lymphoid malignancies; the molecular mechanisms of PTEN regulation; and the distinct functions of nuclear PTEN. Therapeutic strategies for rescuing PTEN deficiency in human cancers are proposed. PMID:26655726

  10. Loss of PTEN stabilizes the lipid modifying enzyme cytosolic phospholipase A2α via AKT in prostate cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Vignarajan, Soma; Xie, Chanlu; Yao, Mu; Sun, Yuting; Simanainen, Ulla; Sved, Paul; Liu, Tao; Dong, Qihan

    2014-01-01

    Aberrant increase in pAKT, due to a gain-of-function mutation of PI3K or loss-of-function mutation or deletion of PTEN, occurs in prostate cancer and is associated with poor patient prognosis. Cytosolic phospholipase A2α (cPLA2α) is a lipid modifying enzyme by catalyzing the hydrolysis of membrane arachidonic acid. Arachidonic acid and its metabolites contribute to survival and proliferation of prostate cancer cells. We examined whether AKT plays a role in promoting cPLA2α action in prostate cancer cells. We found a concordant increase in pAKT and cPLA2α levels in prostate tissue of prostate epithelial-specific PTEN-knockout but not PTEN-wide type mice. Restoration of PTEN expression or inhibition of PI3K action decreased cPLA2α expression in PTEN-mutated or deleted prostate cancer cells. An increase in AKT by Myr-AKT elevated cPLA2α protein levels, which could be diminished by inhibition of AKT phosphorylation without noticeable change in total AKT levels. pAKT levels had no influence on cPLA2α at mRNA levels but reduced cPLA2α protein degradation. Anti-AKT antibody co-immunoprecipitated cPLA2α and vice versa. Hence, AKT plays a role in enhancing cPLA2α protein stability in PTEN-null prostate cancer cells, revealing a link between oncogenic pathway and lipid metabolism. PMID:25026288

  11. PTEN inhibits PREX2-catalyzed activation of RAC1 to restrain tumor cell invasion

    PubMed Central

    Mense, Sarah M.; Barrows, Douglas; Hodakoski, Cindy; Steinbach, Nicole; Schoenfeld, David; Su, William; Hopkins, Benjamin D.; Su, Tao; Fine, Barry; Hibshoosh, Hanina; Parsons, Ramon

    2016-01-01

    The tumor suppressor PTEN restrains cell migration and invasion by a mechanism that is independent of inhibition of the PI3K pathway and decreased activation of the kinase AKT. PREX2, a widely distributed GEF that activates the GTPase RAC1, binds to and inhibits PTEN. We used mouse embryonic fibroblasts and breast cancer cell lines to show that PTEN suppresses cell migration and invasion by blocking PREX2 activity. In addition to metabolizing the phosphoinositide PIP3, PTEN inhibited PREX2-induced invasion by a mechanism that required the tail domain of PTEN, but not its lipid phosphatase activity. Fluorescent nucleotide exchange assays revealed that PTEN inhibited the GEF activity of PREX2 toward RAC1. PREX2 is a frequently mutated GEF in cancer, and examination of human tumor data showed that PREX2 mutation was associated with high PTEN expression. Therefore, we tested whether cancer-derived somatic PREX2 mutants, which accelerate tumor formation of immortalized melanocytes, were inhibited by PTEN. The three stably expressed, somatic PREX2 cancer mutants that we tested were resistant to PTEN-mediated inhibition of invasion but retained the ability to inhibit the lipid phosphatase activity of PTEN. In vitro analysis showed that PTEN did not block the GEF activity of two PREX2 cancer mutants and had a reduced binding affinity for the third. Thus, PTEN antagonized migration and invasion by restraining PREX2 GEF activity, and PREX2 mutants are likely selected in cancer to escape PTEN-mediated inhibition of invasion. PMID:25829446

  12. Conditional Deletion of Pten Causes Bronchiolar Hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Davé, Vrushank; Wert, Susan E.; Tanner, Tiffany; Thitoff, Angela R.; Loudy, Dave E.; Whitsett, Jeffrey A.

    2008-01-01

    Tumor suppressor phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN) is a lipid phosphatase that regulates multiple cellular processes including cell polarity, migration, proliferation, and carcinogenesis. In this work, we demonstrate that conditional deletion of Pten (PtenΔ/Δ) in the respiratory epithelial cells of the developing mouse lung caused epithelial cell proliferation and hyperplasia as early as 4 to 6 weeks of age. While bronchiolar cell differentiation was normal, as indicated by β-tubulin and FOXJ1 expression in ciliated cells and by CCSP expression in nonciliated cells, cell proliferation (detected by expression of Ki-67, phospho-histone-H3, and cyclin D1) was increased and associated with activation of the AKT/mTOR survival pathway. Deletion of Pten caused papillary epithelial hyperplasia characterized by a hypercellular epithelium lining papillae with fibrovascular cores that protruded into the airway lumens. Cell polarity, as assessed by subcellular localization of cadherin, β-catenin, and zonula occludens-1, was unaltered. PTEN is required for regulation of epithelial cell proliferation in the lung and for the maintenance of the normal simple columnar epithelium characteristics of bronchi and bronchioles. PMID:17921358

  13. Subcellular targeting and dynamic regulation of PTEN: implications for neuronal cells and neurological disorders

    PubMed Central

    Kreis, Patricia; Leondaritis, George; Lieberam, Ivo; Eickholt, Britta J.

    2014-01-01

    PTEN is a lipid and protein phosphatase that regulates a diverse range of cellular mechanisms. PTEN is mainly present in the cytosol and transiently associates with the plasma membrane to dephosphorylate PI(3,4,5)P3, thereby antagonizing the PI3-Kinase signaling pathway. Recently, PTEN has been shown to associate also with organelles such as the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), the mitochondria, or the nucleus, and to be secreted outside of the cell. In addition, PTEN dynamically localizes to specialized sub-cellular compartments such as the neuronal growth cone or dendritic spines. The diverse localizations of PTEN imply a tight temporal and spatial regulation, orchestrated by mechanisms such as posttranslational modifications, formation of distinct protein–protein interactions, or the activation/recruitment of PTEN downstream of external cues. The regulation of PTEN function is thus not only important at the enzymatic activity level, but is also associated to its spatial distribution. In this review we will summarize (i) recent findings that highlight mechanisms controlling PTEN movement and sub-cellular localization, and (ii) current understanding of how PTEN localization is achieved by mechanisms controlling posttranslational modification, by association with binding partners and by PTEN structural or activity requirements. Finally, we will discuss the possible roles of compartmentalized PTEN in developing and mature neurons in health and disease. PMID:24744697

  14. Treatment with Sodium Orthovanadate Reduces Blood-Brain Barrier Disruption via Phosphatase and Tensin Homolog Deleted on Chromosome 10 (PTEN) Phosphorylation in Experimental Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Hasegawa, Yu; Suzuki, Hidenori; Altay, Orhan; Chen, Hank; Zhang, John H

    2012-01-01

    Attenuation of blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption is one of the therapeutic candidates for treatment of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). In this study, the protective effect of sodium orthovanadate (SOV) on BBB disruption was investigated in SAH using the endovascular perforation model. Fifty-five rats were randomly assigned to sham-operated, SAH treated with saline (as a vehicle) or 10mg/kg SOV groups, and evaluated for neurofunction and Evans blue dye extravasation. The phosphorylation of phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), and the expression of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), occludin, and collagen-IV were examined by Western blot analyses. Cell death on endothelial cells were revealed by immunofluorescence and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated uridine 5′-triphosphate-biotin nick end-labeling (TUNEL) staining. SOV significantly improved neurofunction and reduced Evans blue dye extravasation in brains after SAH. SOV phosphorylated PTEN, decreased phospho-JNK and MMP-9, and preserved occludin expression. SOV also attenuated SAH-induced capillary endothelial cell death. The current study showed that SOV was protective against BBB disruption after SAH possibly via PTEN phosphorylation. PMID:22183833

  15. Impacts of phosphatase and tensin homology deleted on chromosome ten (PTEN)-inhibiting chitosan scaffold on growth and differentiation of neural stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Guan, Yixiang; Yang, Fu; Yao, Qi; Shi, Jinlong; Wang, Gequan; Gu, Zhikai; Zhou, Fei; Shen, Jianhong

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate growth and differentiation of neural stem cells (NSCs) on the phosphatase and tensin homology deleted on chromosome ten (PTEN)-inhibitor-adsorbed chitosan scaffold. Methods: NSCs were divide into the chitosan group and the control groups, and performed CCK-8 test on 1st, 3rd and 7th d to compare the proliferation between the 2 groups. The chitosan scaffold adsorbed PTEN inhibitor bpv (pic), and the empty scaffold was used as the control for co-culture of NSCs, immunofluorescence staining was performed on 7th d to detect the differentiation of NSCs on the scaffold. Results: The results of CCK-8 test showed no significant difference in the absorbance between the 2 groups. Immunofluorescence staining showed that the NSCs numbers of the bpv scaffold group were more than the empty scaffold group, among which the anti-glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) positive cells were less than the empty scaffold group, while the anti-β-Tubulin III positive cells were more than the empty scaffold group, the two groups both showed rare anti-receptor-interacting protein (RIP) positive cells. Conclusions: Chitosan scaffold exhibited good compatibility to NSCs, the PTEN-inhibitor-adsorbed chitosan scaffold could promote the migration of NSCs towards the scaffold and their differentiation towards neurons. PMID:26550415

  16. NO signaling and S-nitrosylation regulate PTEN inhibition in neurodegeneration

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The phosphatase PTEN governs the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling pathway which is arguably the most important pro-survival pathway in neurons. Recently, PTEN has also been implicated in multiple important CNS functions such as neuronal differentiation, plasticity, injury and drug addiction. It has been reported that loss of PTEN protein, accompanied by Akt activation, occurs under excitotoxic conditions (stroke) as well as in Alzheimer's (AD) brains. However the molecular signals and mechanism underlying PTEN loss are unknown. Results In this study, we investigated redox regulation of PTEN, namely S-nitrosylation, a covalent modification of cysteine residues by nitric oxide (NO), and H2O2-mediated oxidation. We found that S-nitrosylation of PTEN was markedly elevated in brains in the early stages of AD (MCI). Surprisingly, there was no increase in the H2O2-mediated oxidation of PTEN, a modification common in cancer cell types, in the MCI/AD brains as compared to normal aged control. Using several cultured neuronal models, we further demonstrate that S-nitrosylation, in conjunction with NO-mediated enhanced ubiquitination, regulates both the lipid phosphatase activity and protein stability of PTEN. S-nitrosylation and oxidation occur on overlapping and distinct Cys residues of PTEN. The NO signal induces PTEN protein degradation via the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) through NEDD4-1-mediated ubiquitination. Conclusion This study demonstrates for the first time that NO-mediated redox regulation is the mechanism of PTEN protein degradation, which is distinguished from the H2O2-mediated PTEN oxidation, known to only inactivate the enzyme. This novel regulatory mechanism likely accounts for the PTEN loss observed in neurodegeneration such as in AD, in which NO plays a critical pathophysiological role. PMID:21067594

  17. PTEN expression and function in adult cancer stem cells and prospects for therapeutic targeting.

    PubMed

    Ciuffreda, Ludovica; Falcone, Italia; Incani, Ursula Cesta; Del Curatolo, Anais; Conciatori, Fabiana; Matteoni, Silvia; Vari, Sabrina; Vaccaro, Vanja; Cognetti, Francesco; Milella, Michele

    2014-09-01

    Phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome ten (PTEN) is a non-redundant lipid phosphatase that restrains and fine tunes the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K) signaling pathway. PTEN is involved in inherited syndromes, which predispose to different types of cancers and is among the most frequently inactivated tumor suppressor genes in sporadic cancers. Indeed, loss of PTEN function occurs in a wide spectrum of human cancers through a variety of mechanisms, including mutations, deletions, transcriptional silencing, or protein instability. PTEN prevents tumorigenesis through multiple mechanisms and regulates a plethora of cellular processes, including survival, proliferation, energy metabolism and cellular architecture. Moreover, recent studies have demonstrated that PTEN is able to exit, exist, and function outside the cell, allowing for inhibition of the PI3K pathway in neighboring cells in a paracrine fashion. Most recently, studies have shown that PTEN is also critical for stem cell maintenance and that PTEN loss can lead to the emergence and proliferation of cancer stem cell (CSC) clones. Depending on the cellular and tissue context of origin, PTEN deletion may result in increased self-renewal capacity or normal stem cell exhaustion and PTEN-defìcient stem and progenitor cells have been reported in prostate, lung, intestinal, and pancreatic tissues before tumor formation; moreover, reversible or irreversible PTEN loss is frequently observed in CSC from a variety of solid and hematologic malignancies, where it may contribute to the functional phenotype of CSC. In this review, we will focus on the role of PTEN expression and function and downstream pathway activation in cancer stem cell biology and regulation of the tumorigenic potential; the emerging role of PTEN in mediating the crosstalk between the PI3K and MAPK pathways will also be discussed, together with prospects for the therapeutic targeting of tumors lacking PTEN expression. PMID:25088603

  18. Dysregulation of AKT Pathway by SMYD2-Mediated Lysine Methylation on PTEN1,2

    PubMed Central

    Nakakido, Makoto; Deng, Zhenzhong; Suzuki, Takehiro; Dohmae, Naoshi; Nakamura, Yusuke; Hamamoto, Ryuji

    2015-01-01

    Phosphatase and tensin homologue (PTEN), one of the well-characterized tumor suppressor proteins, counteracts the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-AKT pathway through its unique lipid phosphatase activity. The functions of PTEN are regulated by a variety of posttranslational modifications such as acetylation, oxidation, ubiquitylation, phosphorylation, and SUMOylation. However, methylation of PTEN has not been reported so far. In this study, we demonstrated that the oncogenic protein lysine methyltransferase SET and MYND domain containing 2 (SMYD2) methylates PTEN at lysine 313 in vitro and in vivo. Knockdown of SMYD2 suppressed the cell growth of breast cancer cells and attenuated phosphorylation levels of AKT, indicating that SMYD2-mediated methylation negatively regulates PTEN tumor suppressor activity and results in activation of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-AKT pathway. Furthermore, PTEN protein with lysine 313 substitution diminished phosphorylation of PTEN at serine 380, which is known to inactivate tumor suppressor functions of PTEN. Taken together, our findings unveil a novel mechanism of PTEN dysregulation regulated by lysine methylation in human cancer. PMID:25925379

  19. Dysregulation of AKT Pathway by SMYD2-Mediated Lysine Methylation on PTEN.

    PubMed

    Nakakido, Makoto; Deng, Zhenzhong; Suzuki, Takehiro; Dohmae, Naoshi; Nakamura, Yusuke; Hamamoto, Ryuji

    2015-04-01

    Phosphatase and tensin homologue (PTEN), one of the well-characterized tumor suppressor proteins, counteracts the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-AKT pathway through its unique lipid phosphatase activity. The functions of PTEN are regulated by a variety of posttranslational modifications such as acetylation, oxidation, ubiquitylation, phosphorylation, and SUMOylation. However, methylation of PTEN has not been reported so far. In this study, we demonstrated that the oncogenic protein lysine methyltransferase SET and MYND domain containing 2 (SMYD2) methylates PTEN at lysine 313 in vitro and in vivo. Knockdown of SMYD2 suppressed the cell growth of breast cancer cells and attenuated phosphorylation levels of AKT, indicating that SMYD2-mediated methylation negatively regulates PTEN tumor suppressor activity and results in activation of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-AKT pathway. Furthermore, PTEN protein with lysine 313 substitution diminished phosphorylation of PTEN at serine 380, which is known to inactivate tumor suppressor functions of PTEN. Taken together, our findings unveil a novel mechanism of PTEN dysregulation regulated by lysine methylation in human cancer. PMID:25925379

  20. Association between TLR4 and PTEN Involved in LPS-TLR4 Signaling Response.

    PubMed

    Yin, Huahua; Tan, Yan; Wu, Xiaofeng; Yan, Hong; Liu, Feng; Yao, Yuanzhang; Jiang, Jianxin; Wan, Qi; Li, Lei

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we explored the potential mechanisms of how PTEN regulating LPS induced TLR4 signaling pathway. The initial findings from ELISA demonstrate that PTEN influences TNF-α secretion by its lipid phosphatase activity. Subsequently, western blot, immunoprecipitation assay, and immunofluorescence were performed to explore the activation process of PTEN by stimulation with LPS. As early as 20 minutes after LPS stimulation, reduced phosphorylation of PTEN was found obviously. Accordingly, the whole cell-scattered PTEN translocated towards the cell membrane 20 minutes after stimulating with LPS. Moreover, the weak physical association between PTEN and TLR4 in resting RAW264.7 cells increased gradually after the stimulation of LPS. Furthermore, our study showed PTEN decreased LPS-induced Akt activity and upregulated NF-κB-dependent gene transcription, identifying indirectly that the PTEN could regulate the activation of NF-κB by its downstream Akt kinase. In summary, our study illustrates the potential signal transduction process of PTEN while stimulated by LPS: by increasing the association of TLR4, PTEN recruits to its phosphoinositide substrate PI(3,4,5)P3 located on the cell membrane and exerts its dephosphorylated function and subsequently depresses the activity of downstream molecule Akt and results in activation of NF-κB, followed by the secretion of inflammatory mediators TNF-α. PMID:27563672

  1. Association between TLR4 and PTEN Involved in LPS-TLR4 Signaling Response

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Huahua; Tan, Yan; Wu, Xiaofeng; Yan, Hong; Liu, Feng; Yao, Yuanzhang; Jiang, Jianxin; Wan, Qi

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we explored the potential mechanisms of how PTEN regulating LPS induced TLR4 signaling pathway. The initial findings from ELISA demonstrate that PTEN influences TNF-α secretion by its lipid phosphatase activity. Subsequently, western blot, immunoprecipitation assay, and immunofluorescence were performed to explore the activation process of PTEN by stimulation with LPS. As early as 20 minutes after LPS stimulation, reduced phosphorylation of PTEN was found obviously. Accordingly, the whole cell-scattered PTEN translocated towards the cell membrane 20 minutes after stimulating with LPS. Moreover, the weak physical association between PTEN and TLR4 in resting RAW264.7 cells increased gradually after the stimulation of LPS. Furthermore, our study showed PTEN decreased LPS-induced Akt activity and upregulated NF-κB-dependent gene transcription, identifying indirectly that the PTEN could regulate the activation of NF-κB by its downstream Akt kinase. In summary, our study illustrates the potential signal transduction process of PTEN while stimulated by LPS: by increasing the association of TLR4, PTEN recruits to its phosphoinositide substrate PI(3,4,5)P3 located on the cell membrane and exerts its dephosphorylated function and subsequently depresses the activity of downstream molecule Akt and results in activation of NF-κB, followed by the secretion of inflammatory mediators TNF-α. PMID:27563672

  2. Lipid phosphate phosphatases regulate lysophosphatidic acid production and signaling in platelets: studies using chemical inhibitors of lipid phosphate phosphatase activity.

    PubMed

    Smyth, Susan S; Sciorra, Vicki A; Sigal, Yury J; Pamuklar, Zehra; Wang, Zuncai; Xu, Yong; Prestwich, Glenn D; Morris, Andrew J

    2003-10-31

    Blood platelets play an essential role in ischemic heart disease and stroke contributing to acute thrombotic events by release of potent inflammatory agents within the vasculature. Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is a bioactive lipid mediator produced by platelets and found in the blood and atherosclerotic plaques. LPA receptors on platelets, leukocytes, endothelial cells, and smooth muscle cells regulate growth, differentiation, survival, motility, and contractile activity. Definition of the opposing pathways of synthesis and degradation that control extracellular LPA levels is critical to understanding how LPA bioactivity is regulated. We show that intact platelets and platelet membranes actively dephosphorylate LPA and identify the major enzyme responsible as lipid phosphate phosphatase 1 (LPP1). Localization of LPP1 to the platelet surface is increased by exposure to LPA. A novel receptor-inactive sn-3-substituted difluoromethylenephosphonate analog of phosphatidic acid that is a potent competitive inhibitor of LPP1 activity potentiates platelet aggregation and shape change responses to LPA and amplifies LPA production by agonist-stimulated platelets. Our results identify LPP1 as a pivotal regulator of LPA signaling in the cardiovascular system. These findings are consistent with genetic and cell biological evidence implicating LPPs as negative regulators of lysophospholipid signaling and suggest that the mechanisms involve both attenuation of lysophospholipid actions at cell surface receptors and opposition of lysophospholipid production. PMID:12909631

  3. Enzymatic Analysis of PTEN Ubiquitylation by WWP2 and NEDD4-1 E3 Ligases.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zan; Thomas, Stefani N; Bolduc, David M; Jiang, Xuejun; Zhang, Xiangbin; Wolberger, Cynthia; Cole, Philip A

    2016-07-01

    PTEN is a lipid phosphatase that converts phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-phosphate (PIP3) to phosphatidylinositol 4,5-phosphate (PIP2) and plays a critical role in the regulation of tumor growth. PTEN is subject to regulation by a variety of post-translational modifications, including phosphorylation on a C-terminal cluster of four Ser/Thr residues (380, 382, 383, and 385) and ubiquitylation by various E3 ligases, including NEDD4-1 and WWP2. It has previously been shown that C-terminal phosphorylation of PTEN can increase its cellular half-life. Using in vitro ubiquitin transfer assays, we show that WWP2 is more active than NEDD4-1 in ubiquitylating unphosphorylated PTEN. The mapping of ubiquitylation sites in PTEN by mass spectrometry showed that both NEDD4-1 and WWP2 can target a broad range of Lys residues in PTEN, although NEDD4-1 versus WWP2 showed a stronger preference for ubiquitylating PTEN's C2 domain. Whereas tetraphosphorylation of PTEN did not significantly affect its ubiquitylation by NEDD4-1, it inhibited PTEN ubiquitylation by WWP2. Single-turnover and pull-down experiments suggested that tetraphosphorylation of PTEN appears to weaken its interaction with WWP2. These studies reveal how the PTEN E3 ligases WWP2 and NEDD4-1 exhibit distinctive properties in Lys selectivity and sensitivity to PTEN phosphorylation. Our findings also provide a molecular mechanism for the connection between PTEN Ser/Thr phosphorylation and PTEN's cellular stability. PMID:27295432

  4. Rapid estrogen signaling negatively regulates PTEN activity through phosphorylation in endometrial cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Scully, Melanie M.; Palacios-Helgeson, Leslie K.; Wah, Lah S.; Jackson, Twila A.

    2014-01-01

    Hyperestrogenicity is a risk factor for endometrial cancer. 17β-estradiol (E2) is known to stimulate both genomic and nongenomic estrogen receptor-α (ERα) actions in a number of reproductive tissues. However, the contributions of transcription-independent ERα signaling on normal and malignant endometrium are not fully understood. Phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) is a tumor suppressor that decreases cellular mitosis primarily through negative regulation of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase/AKT signaling axis. PTEN levels are elevated during the E2 dominated, mitotically active, proliferative phase of the menstrual cycle, indicating possible hormonal regulation of PTEN in the uterus. In order to determine if rapid E2 signaling regulates PTEN, we used ERα positive, PTEN positive, endometrial cells. We show that cytosolic E2/ERα signaling leads to increased phosphorylation of PTEN at key regulatory residues. Importantly, E2 stimulation decreased PTEN lipid phosphatase activity and caused consequent increases in phospho-AKT. We further demonstrate that cytosolic ERα forms a complex with PTEN in an E2-dependent manner, and that ERα constitutively complexes with protein kinase2-α (CK2α), a kinase previously shown to phosphorylate the C-terminal tail of PTEN. These results provide mechanistic support for an E2-dependent, ERα cytosolic signaling complex that negatively regulates PTEN activity through carboxy terminus phosphorylation. Using an animal model, we show that sustained E2 signaling results in increased phospho-PTEN (S380, T382, T383), total PTEN and phospho-AKT (S473). Taken together, we provide a novel mechanism in which transcription-independent E2/ERα signaling may promote a pro-tumorigenic environment in the endometrium. PMID:24844349

  5. AIF inhibits tumor metastasis by protecting PTEN from oxidation

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Shao-Ming; Guo, Meng; Xiong, Zhong; Yu, Yun; Zhao, Xu-Yun; Zhang, Fei-Fei; Chen, Guo-Qiang

    2015-01-01

    Apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) exerts dual roles on cell death and survival, but its substrates as a putative oxidoreductase and roles in tumorigenesis remain elusive. Here, we report that AIF physically interacts with and inhibits the oxidation of phosphatase and tensin homolog on chromosome ten (PTEN), a tumor suppressor susceptible for oxidation-mediated inactivation. More intriguingly, we also identify PTEN as a mitochondrial protein and the ectopic expression of mitochondrial targeting sequence-carrying PTEN almost completely inhibits Akt phosphorylation in PTEN-deficient cells. AIF knockdown causes oxidation-mediated inactivation of the lipid phosphatase activity of PTEN, with ensuing activation of Akt kinase, phosphorylation of the Akt substrate GSK-3β, and activation of β-catenin signaling in cancer cells. Through its effect on β-catenin signaling, AIF inhibits epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) and metastasis of cancer cells in vitro and in orthotopically implanted xenografts. Accordingly, the expression of AIF is correlated with the survival of human patients with cancers of multiple origins. These results identify PTEN as the substrate of AIF oxidoreductase and reveal a novel function for AIF in controlling tumor metastasis. PMID:26415504

  6. Ginkgetin Blocks Constitutive STAT3 Activation and Induces Apoptosis through Induction of SHP-1 and PTEN Tyrosine Phosphatases.

    PubMed

    Baek, Seung Ho; Lee, Jae Hwi; Ko, Jeong-Hyeon; Lee, Hanwool; Nam, Dongwoo; Lee, Seok Geun; Yang, Woong Mo; Um, Jae-Young; Lee, Junhee; Kim, Sung-Hoon; Shim, Bum Sang; Ahn, Kwang Seok

    2016-04-01

    Ginkgetin, a biflavone from Ginkgo biloba leaves, is known to exhibit antiinflammatory, antifungal, neuroprotective, and antitumor activities, but its precise mechanism of action has not been fully elucidated. Because the aberrant activation of STAT3 has been linked with regulation of inflammation, proliferation, invasion, and metastasis of tumors, we hypothesized that ginkgetin modulates the activation of STAT3 in tumor cells. We found that ginkgetin clearly suppressed constitutive phosphorylation of STAT3 through inhibition of the activation of upstream JAK1 and c-Src kinases and nuclear translocation of STAT3 on both A549 and FaDu cells. Treatment with sodium pervanadate reversed the ginkgetin-induced down-modulation of STAT3, thereby indicating a critical role for a PTP. We also found that ginkgetin strongly induced the expression of the SHP-1 and PTEN proteins and its mRNAs. Further, deletion of SHP-1 and PTEN genes by siRNA suppressed the induction of SHP-1 and PTEN, and reversed the inhibition of STAT3 activation. Ginkgetin induced apoptosis as characterized by an increased accumulation of cells in subG1 phase, positive Annexin V binding, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, down-regulation of STAT3-regulated gene products, and cleavage of PARP. Overall, ginkgetin abrogates STAT3 signaling pathway through induction of SHP-1 and PTEN proteins, thus attenuating STAT3 phosphorylation and tumorigenesis. PMID:27059688

  7. Allosteric substrate switching in a voltage-sensing lipid phosphatase.

    PubMed

    Grimm, Sasha S; Isacoff, Ehud Y

    2016-04-01

    Allostery provides a critical control over enzyme activity, biasing the catalytic site between inactive and active states. We found that the Ciona intestinalis voltage-sensing phosphatase (Ci-VSP), which modifies phosphoinositide signaling lipids (PIPs), has not one but two sequential active states with distinct substrate specificities, whose occupancy is allosterically controlled by sequential conformations of the voltage-sensing domain (VSD). Using fast fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) reporters of PIPs to monitor enzyme activity and voltage-clamp fluorometry to monitor conformational changes in the VSD, we found that Ci-VSP switches from inactive to a PIP3-preferring active state when the VSD undergoes an initial voltage-sensing motion and then into a second PIP2-preferring active state when the VSD activates fully. This two-step allosteric control over a dual-specificity enzyme enables voltage to shape PIP concentrations in time, and provides a mechanism for the complex modulation of PIP-regulated ion channels, transporters, cell motility, endocytosis and exocytosis. PMID:26878552

  8. PTEN suppresses the oncogenic function of AIB1 through decreasing its protein stability via mechanism involving Fbw7 alpha

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Phosphatase and tensin homologue deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN) is a phosphatase having both protein and lipid phosphatase activities, and is known to antagonize the phosphoinositide 3-kinase/AKT (PI3K/AKT) signaling pathway, resulting in tumor suppression. PTEN is also known to play a role in the regulation of numerous transcription factors. Amplified in breast cancer 1 (AIB1) is a transcriptional coactivator that mediates the transcriptional activities of nuclear receptors and other transcription factors. The present study investigated how PTEN may regulate AIB1, which is amplified and/or overexpressed in many human carcinomas, including breast cancers. Results PTEN interacted with AIB1 via its phophatase domain and regulated the transcriptional activity of AIB1 by enhancing the ubiquitin-mediated degradation of AIB1. This process did not appear to require the phosphatase activity of PTEN, but instead, involved the interaction between PTEN and F-box and WD repeat domain-containing 7 alpha (Fbw7α), the E3 ubiquitin ligase involved in the ubiquitination of AIB1. PTEN interacted with Fbw7α via its C2 domain, thereby acting as a bridge between AIB1 and Fbw7α, and this led to enhanced degradation of AIB1, which eventually accounted for its decreased transcriptional activity. At the cell level, knockdown of PTEN in MCF-7 cells promoted cell proliferation. However when AIB1 was also knocked down, knockdown of PTEN had no effect on cell proliferation. Conclusions PTEN might act as a negative regulator of AIB1 whereby the association of PTEN with both AIB1 and Fbw7α could lead to the downregulation of AIB1 transcriptional activity, with the consequence of regulating the oncogenic function of AIB1. PMID:23514585

  9. Notch1 Receptor Regulates AKT Protein Activation Loop (Thr308) Dephosphorylation through Modulation of the PP2A Phosphatase in Phosphatase and Tensin Homolog (PTEN)-null T-cell Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Cells*

    PubMed Central

    Hales, Eric C.; Orr, Steven M.; Larson Gedman, Amanda; Taub, Jeffrey W.; Matherly, Larry H.

    2013-01-01

    Notch1 activating mutations occur in more than 50% of T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) cases and increase expression of Notch1 target genes, some of which activate AKT. HES1 transcriptionally silences phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN), resulting in AKT activation, which is reversed by Notch1 inhibition with γ-secretase inhibitors (GSIs). Mutational loss of PTEN is frequent in T-ALL and promotes resistance to GSIs due to AKT activation. GSI treatments increased AKT-Thr308 phosphorylation and signaling in PTEN-deficient, GSI-resistant T-ALL cell lines (Jurkat, CCRF-CEM, and MOLT3), suggesting that Notch1 represses AKT independent of its PTEN transcriptional effects. AKT-Thr308 phosphorylation and downstream signaling were also increased by knocking down Notch1 in Jurkat (N1KD) cells. This was blocked by treatment with the AKT inhibitor perifosine. The PI3K inhibitor wortmannin and the protein phosphatase type 2A (PP2A) inhibitor okadaic acid both impacted AKT-Thr308 phosphorylation to a greater extent in nontargeted control than N1KD cells, suggesting decreased dephosphorylation of AKT-Thr308 by PP2A in the latter. Phosphorylations of AMP-activated protein kinaseα (AMPKα)-Thr172 and p70S6K-Thr389, both PP2A substrates, were also increased in both N1KD and GSI-treated cells and responded to okadaic acid treatment. A transcriptional regulatory mechanism was implied because ectopic expression of dominant-negative mastermind-like protein 1 increased and wild-type HES1 decreased phosphorylation of these PP2A targets. This was independent of changes in PP2A subunit levels or in vitro PP2A activity, but was accompanied by decreased association of PP2A with AKT in N1KD cells. These results suggest that Notch1 can regulate PP2A dephosphorylation of critical cellular regulators including AKT, AMPKα, and p70S6K. PMID:23788636

  10. Cloning and characterization of three Eimeria tenella lipid phosphate phosphatases.

    PubMed

    Guo, Aijiang; Cai, Jianping; Luo, Xuenong; Zhang, Shaohua; Hou, Junling; Li, Hui; Cai, Xuepeng

    2015-01-01

    Although lipid phosphate phosphatases (LPPs) play an important role in cellular signaling in addition to lipid biosynthesis, little is thus far known about parasite LPPs. In this study, we characterized three Eimeria tenella cDNA clones encoding LPP named EtLPP1, EtLPP2 and EtLPP3. Key structural features previously described in LPPs, including the three conserved domains proposed as catalytic sites, a single conserved N-glycosylation site, and putative transmembrane domains were discovered in the three resulting EtLPP amino acid sequences. Expression of His6-tagged EtLPP1, -2, and -3 in HEK293 cells produced immunoreactive proteins with variable molecular sizes, suggesting the presence of multiple forms of each of the three EtLPPs. The two faster-migrating protein bands below each of the three EtLPP proteins were found to be very similar to the porcine 35-kDa LPP enzyme in their molecular size and the extent of their N-glycosylation, suggesting that the three EtLPPs are partially N-glycosylated. Kinetic analyses of the activity of the three enzymes against PA, LPA, C1P and S1P showed that Km values for each of the substrates were (in μM) 284, 46, 28, and 22 for EtLPP1; 369, 179, 237, and 52 for EtLPP2; and 355, 83, and 260 for EtLPP3. However, EtLPP3 showed negligible activity on S1P. These results confirmed that the three EtLPPs have broad substrate specificity. The results also indicated that despite structural similarities, the three EtLPPs may play distinct functions through their different models of substrate preference. Furthermore, particularly high expression levels of the three EtLPP genes were detected in the sporozoite stage of the E. tenella life cycle (p<0.001), suggesting that their encoded proteins might play an important biological function in the sporozoite stage. PMID:25861032

  11. Cloning and Characterization of Three Eimeria tenella Lipid Phosphate Phosphatases

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Aijiang; Cai, Jianping; Luo, Xuenong; Zhang, Shaohua; Hou, Junling; Li, Hui; Cai, Xuepeng

    2015-01-01

    Although lipid phosphate phosphatases (LPPs) play an important role in cellular signaling in addition to lipid biosynthesis, little is thus far known about parasite LPPs. In this study, we characterized three Eimeria tenella cDNA clones encoding LPP named EtLPP1, EtLPP2 and EtLPP3. Key structural features previously described in LPPs, including the three conserved domains proposed as catalytic sites, a single conserved N-glycosylation site, and putative transmembrane domains were discovered in the three resulting EtLPP amino acid sequences. Expression of His6-tagged EtLPP1, -2, and -3 in HEK293 cells produced immunoreactive proteins with variable molecular sizes, suggesting the presence of multiple forms of each of the three EtLPPs. The two faster-migrating protein bands below each of the three EtLPP proteins were found to be very similar to the porcine 35-kDa LPP enzyme in their molecular size and the extent of their N-glycosylation, suggesting that the three EtLPPs are partially N-glycosylated. Kinetic analyses of the activity of the three enzymes against PA, LPA, C1P and S1P showed that Km values for each of the substrates were (in μM) 284, 46, 28, and 22 for EtLPP1; 369, 179, 237, and 52 for EtLPP2; and 355, 83, and 260 for EtLPP3. However, EtLPP3 showed negligible activity on S1P. These results confirmed that the three EtLPPs have broad substrate specificity. The results also indicated that despite structural similarities, the three EtLPPs may play distinct functions through their different models of substrate preference. Furthermore, particularly high expression levels of the three EtLPP genes were detected in the sporozoite stage of the E. tenella life cycle (p<0.001), suggesting that their encoded proteins might play an important biological function in the sporozoite stage. PMID:25861032

  12. A New Fluorescence-Based Method Identifies Protein Phosphatases Regulating Lipid Droplet Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Bozaquel-Morais, Bruno L.; Madeira, Juliana B.; Maya-Monteiro, Clarissa M.; Masuda, Claudio A.; Montero-Lomeli, Mónica

    2010-01-01

    In virtually every cell, neutral lipids are stored in cytoplasmic structures called lipid droplets (LDs) and also referred to as lipid bodies or lipid particles. We developed a rapid high-throughput assay based on the recovery of quenched BODIPY-fluorescence that allows to quantify lipid droplets. The method was validated by monitoring lipid droplet turnover during growth of a yeast culture and by screening a group of strains deleted in genes known to be involved in lipid metabolism. In both tests, the fluorimetric assay showed high sensitivity and good agreement with previously reported data using microscopy. We used this method for high-throughput identification of protein phosphatases involved in lipid droplet metabolism. From 65 yeast knockout strains encoding protein phosphatases and its regulatory subunits, 13 strains revealed to have abnormal levels of lipid droplets, 10 of them having high lipid droplet content. Strains deleted for type I protein phosphatases and related regulators (ppz2, gac1, bni4), type 2A phosphatase and its related regulator (pph21 and sap185), type 2C protein phosphatases (ptc1, ptc4, ptc7) and dual phosphatases (pps1, msg5) were catalogued as high-lipid droplet content strains. Only reg1, a targeting subunit of the type 1 phosphatase Glc7p, and members of the nutrient-sensitive TOR pathway (sit4 and the regulatory subunit sap190) were catalogued as low-lipid droplet content strains, which were studied further. We show that Snf1, the homologue of the mammalian AMP-activated kinase, is constitutively phosphorylated (hyperactive) in sit4 and sap190 strains leading to a reduction of acetyl-CoA carboxylase activity. In conclusion, our fast and highly sensitive method permitted us to catalogue protein phosphatases involved in the regulation of LD metabolism and present evidence indicating that the TOR pathway and the SNF1/AMPK pathway are connected through the Sit4p-Sap190p pair in the control of lipid droplet biogenesis. PMID:21060891

  13. Benefit to neoadjuvant anti-human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-targeted therapies in HER2-positive primary breast cancer is independent of phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted from chromosome 10 (PTEN) status

    PubMed Central

    Nuciforo, P. G.; Aura, C.; Holmes, E.; Prudkin, L.; Jimenez, J.; Martinez, P.; Ameels, H.; de la Peña, L.; Ellis, C.; Eidtmann, H.; Piccart-Gebhart, M. J.; Scaltriti, M.; Baselga, J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Assessment of phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted from chromosome 10 (PTEN) might be an important tool in identifying human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-positive breast cancer patients unlikely to derive benefit from anti-HER2 therapies. However, studies to date have failed to demonstrate its predictive role in any treatment setting. Patients and methods Prospectively collected baseline core biopsies from 429 early-stage HER2-positive breast cancer patients treated with trastuzumab, lapatinib, or their combination in the Neo-ALTTO study were stained using two anti-PTEN monoclonal antibodies (CST and DAKO). The association of PTEN status and PI3K pathway activation (defined as either PTEN loss and/or PIK3CA mutation) with total pathological complete response (tpCR) at surgery, event-free survival (EFS), and overall survival (OS) was evaluated. Results PTEN loss was observed in 27% and 29% of patients (all arms, n = 361 and n = 363) for CST and DAKO, respectively. PTEN loss was more frequently observed in hormone receptor (HR)-negative (33% and 36% with CST and DAKO, respectively) compared with HR-positive tumours (20% and 22% with CST and DAKO, respectively). No significant differences in tpCR rates were observed according to PTEN status. PI3K pathway activation was found in 47% and 48% of patients (all arms, n = 302 and n = 301) for CST and DAKO, respectively. Similarly, tpCR rates were not significantly different for those with or without PI3K pathway activation. Neither PTEN status nor PI3K pathway activation were predictive of tpCR, EFS, or OS, independently of treatment arm or HR status. High inter-antibody and inter-observer agreements were found (>90%). Modification of scoring variables significantly affected the correlation between PTEN and HR status but not with tpCR. Conclusion These data show that PTEN status determination is not a useful biomarker to predict resistance to trastuzumab and lapatinib-based therapies. The lack of

  14. The PTEN pathway in Tregs is a critical driver of the suppressive tumor microenvironment

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Madhav D.; Shinde, Rahul; McGaha, Tracy L.; Huang, Lei; Holmgaard, Rikke B.; Wolchok, Jedd D.; Mautino, Mario R.; Celis, Esteban; Sharpe, Arlene H.; Francisco, Loise M.; Powell, Jonathan D.; Yagita, Hideo; Mellor, Andrew L.; Blazar, Bruce R.; Munn, David H.

    2015-01-01

    The tumor microenvironment is profoundly immunosuppressive. We show that multiple tumor types create intratumoral immune suppression driven by a specialized form of regulatory T cell (Treg) activation dependent on the PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homolog) lipid phosphatase. PTEN acted to stabilize Tregs in tumors, preventing them from reprogramming into inflammatory effector cells. In mice with a Treg-specific deletion of PTEN, tumors grew slowly, were inflamed, and could not create an immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment. In normal mice, exposure to apoptotic tumor cells rapidly elicited PTEN-expressing Tregs, and PTEN-deficient mice were unable to maintain tolerance to apoptotic cells. In wild-type mice with large established tumors, pharmacologic inhibition of PTEN after chemotherapy or immunotherapy profoundly reconfigured the tumor microenvironment, changing it from a suppressive to an inflammatory milieu, and tumors underwent rapid regression. Thus, the immunosuppressive milieu in tumors must be actively maintained, and tumors become susceptible to immune attack if the PTEN pathway in Tregs is disrupted. PMID:26601142

  15. Inhibition of phosphatase and tensin homologue (PTEN) in human ovary in vitro results in increased activation of primordial follicles but compromises development of growing follicles.

    PubMed

    McLaughlin, Marie; Kinnell, Hazel L; Anderson, Richard A; Telfer, Evelyn E

    2014-08-01

    In the mammalian ovary a small number of follicles are steadily recruited from the quiescent pool to undergo development. Follicle loss, maintenance and growth are strictly controlled by complex molecular interactions including the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)-protein kinase B (Akt) signalling pathway. Stimulation of PI3K promotes phosphorylation of Akt resulting in follicle survival and activation of growth whereas this pathway is suppressed by the actions of the phosphatase and tensin homologue (PTEN). The aim of this study was to determine the effect of dipotassium bisperoxo(5-hydroxypyridine-2-carboxyl)oxovanadate (bpV), a reversible inhibitor of PTEN, on the activation, survival and development of human ovarian follicles in vitro. Biopsied ovarian tissue fragments were obtained from 17 women aged 23-46 years and exposed to 1 µM bpV(HOpic) (n = 146) or control medium (n = 128) for 24 h. Media were then replaced with control medium and all tissue incubated for a further 5 days. Ovarian tissue from each treatment group was fixed after the initial 24 h culture period and phosphorylated Akt was quantified by western blotting. After 6 days incubation all tissue fragments were inspected under light microscopy and any secondary follicles ≥100 µm isolated. Isolated follicles were cultured individually in control medium supplemented with 100 ng/ml recombinant human activin A. Tissue fragments without follicles suitable for isolation were fixed and processed for histological and immunohistochemical analysis. During 6 days culture, follicle activation occurred in tissue samples from both treatment groups but with significantly more follicles progressing to the secondary stage of development in the presence of 1 µM bpV(HOpic) compared with control (31 versus 16%; P < 0.05). Increased activation was associated with increased Akt phosphorylation and increased nuclear export of FOXO3. However isolated and cultured follicles that had been exposed to bpV(HOpic) showed

  16. Nuclear PTEN functions as an essential regulator of SRF-dependent transcription to control smooth muscle differentiation.

    PubMed

    Horita, Henrick; Wysoczynski, Christina L; Walker, Lori A; Moulton, Karen S; Li, Marcella; Ostriker, Allison; Tucker, Rebecca; McKinsey, Timothy A; Churchill, Mair E A; Nemenoff, Raphael A; Weiser-Evans, Mary C M

    2016-01-01

    Vascular disease progression is associated with marked changes in vascular smooth muscle cell (SMC) phenotype and function. SMC contractile gene expression and, thus differentiation, is under direct transcriptional control by the transcription factor, serum response factor (SRF); however, the mechanisms dynamically regulating SMC phenotype are not fully defined. Here we report that the lipid and protein phosphatase, PTEN, has a novel role in the nucleus by functioning as an indispensible regulator with SRF to maintain the differentiated SM phenotype. PTEN interacts with the N-terminal domain of SRF and PTEN-SRF interaction promotes SRF binding to essential promoter elements in SM-specific genes. Factors inducing phenotypic switching promote loss of nuclear PTEN through nucleo-cytoplasmic translocation resulting in reduced myogenically active SRF, but enhanced SRF activity on target genes involved in proliferation. Overall decreased expression of PTEN was observed in intimal SMCs of human atherosclerotic lesions underlying the potential clinical importance of these findings. PMID:26940659

  17. PTEN regulates cilia through Dishevelled

    PubMed Central

    Shnitsar, Iryna; Bashkurov, Mikhail; Masson, Glenn R.; Ogunjimi, Abiodun A.; Mosessian, Sherly; Cabeza, Eduardo Aguiar; Hirsch, Calley L.; Trcka, Daniel; Gish, Gerald; Jiao, Jing; Wu, Hong; Winklbauer, Rudolf; Williams, Roger L.; Pelletier, Laurence; Wrana, Jeffrey L.; Barrios-Rodiles, Miriam

    2015-01-01

    Cilia are hair-like cellular protrusions important in many aspects of eukaryotic biology. For instance, motile cilia enable fluid movement over epithelial surfaces, while primary (sensory) cilia play roles in cellular signalling. The molecular events underlying cilia dynamics, and particularly their disassembly, are not well understood. Phosphatase and tensin homologue (PTEN) is an extensively studied tumour suppressor, thought to primarily act by antagonizing PI3-kinase signalling. Here we demonstrate that PTEN plays an important role in multicilia formation and cilia disassembly by controlling the phosphorylation of Dishevelled (DVL), another ciliogenesis regulator. DVL is a central component of WNT signalling that plays a role during convergent extension movements, which we show here are also regulated by PTEN. Our studies identify a novel protein substrate for PTEN that couples PTEN to regulation of cilia dynamics and WNT signalling, thus advancing our understanding of potential underlying molecular etiologies of PTEN-related pathologies. PMID:26399523

  18. Inositol lipid phosphatases in membrane trafficking and human disease.

    PubMed

    Billcliff, Peter G; Lowe, Martin

    2014-07-15

    The specific interaction of phosphoinositides with proteins is critical for a plethora of cellular processes, including cytoskeleton remodelling, mitogenic signalling, ion channel regulation and membrane traffic. The spatiotemporal restriction of different phosphoinositide species helps to define compartments within the cell, and this is particularly important for membrane trafficking within both the secretory and endocytic pathways. Phosphoinositide homoeostasis is tightly regulated by a large number of inositol kinases and phosphatases, which respectively phosphorylate and dephosphorylate distinct phosphoinositide species. Many of these enzymes have been implicated in regulating membrane trafficking and, accordingly, their dysregulation has been linked to a number of human diseases. In the present review, we focus on the inositol phosphatases, concentrating on their roles in membrane trafficking and the human diseases with which they have been associated. PMID:24966051

  19. Phosphatase and tensin homologue (PTEN)-induced putative kinase 1 reduces pancreatic β-cells apoptosis in glucotoxicity through activation of autophagy.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Juan; Chen, Ke; Wang, Linghao; Wan, Xinxin; Shrestha, Chandrama; Zhou, Jingsong; Mo, Zhaohui

    2016-08-01

    Chronic elevated glucose is harmful to pancreatic β-cells, resulting in pancreatic β-cells dysfunction and apoptosis. Understanding the molecular mechanisms associated with β-cells survival is pivotal for the prevention of β-cells injury caused by glucotoxicity. The role of Phosphatase and tensin homologue (PTEN)-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1) in the fate of pancreatic β-cells constantly exposed to high glucose was studied. Sustained high glucose increased PINK1 protein expression both in rat pancreatic β-cells and INS-1 β-cells, and that this increase can be inhibited by PINK1 knockdown and further enhanced by PINK1 over-expression. PINK1 deficiency aggravated glucotoxicity-induced pancreatic β-cells apoptosis and inhibition of autophagy whereas PINK1 could reverse these adverse effects. This study provides fundamental data supporting the potential protective role of PINK1 as a new therapeutic target necessary to preserve β-cells survival under non-physiological hyperglycemia conditions. PMID:27233610

  20. Regulation of the activity of the tumor suppressor PTEN by thioredoxin in Drosophila melanogaster

    SciTech Connect

    Song, Zuohe; Saghafi, Negin; Gokhale, Vijay; Brabant, Marc; Meuillet, Emmanuelle J. . E-mail: emeuillet@azcc.arizona.edu

    2007-04-01

    Human Thioredoxin-1 (hTrx-1) is a small redox protein with a molecular weight of 12 kDa that contains two cysteine residues found in its catalytic site. HTrx-1 plays an important role in cell growth, apoptosis, and cancer patient prognosis. Recently, we have demonstrated that hTrx-1 binds to the C2 domain of the human tumor suppressor, PTEN, in a redox dependent manner. This binding leads to the inhibition of PTEN lipid phosphatase activity in mammalian tissue culture systems. In this study, we show that over-expression of hTrx-1 in Drosophila melanogaster promotes cell growth and proliferation during eye development as measured by eye size and ommatidia size. Furthermore, hTrx-1 rescues the small eye phenotype induced by the over-expression of PTEN. We demonstrate that this rescue of the PTEN-induced eye size phenotype requires cysteine-218 in the C2 domain of PTEN. We also show that hTrx-1 over-expression results in increased Akt phosphorylation in fly head extracts supporting our observations that the hTrx-1-induced eye size increase results from the inhibition of PTEN activity. Our study confirms the redox regulation of PTEN through disulfide bond formation with the hTrx-1 in Drosophila and suggests conserved mechanisms for thioredoxins and their interactions with the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase signaling pathway in humans and fruit flies.

  1. PTEN-induction in U251 glioma cells decreases the expression of insulin-like growth factor binding protein-2

    SciTech Connect

    Levitt, Randy J.; Georgescu, Maria-Magdalena; Pollak, Michael . E-mail: michael.pollak@mcgill.ca

    2005-11-04

    PTEN is a tumor suppressor gene whose loss of function is observed in {approx}40-50% of human cancers. Although insulin-like growth factor binding protein-2 (IGFBP-2) was classically described as a growth inhibitor, multiple recent reports have shown an association of overexpression and/or high serum levels of IGFBP-2 with poor prognosis of several malignancies, including gliomas. Using an inducible PTEN expression system in the PTEN-null glioma cell line U251, we demonstrate that PTEN-induction is associated with reduced proliferation, increased apoptosis, and a substantial reduction of the high levels of IGFBP-2 expression. The PTEN-induced decrease in IGFBP-2 expression could be mimicked with the PI3-kinase inhibitor LY294002, indicating that the lipid phosphatase activity of PTEN is responsible for the observed effect. However, the rapamycin analog CCI-779 did not affect IGFBP-2 expression, suggesting that the PTEN-induced decrease in IGFBP-2 expression is not attributable to decreased mTOR signalling. Recombinant human IGFBP-2 was unable to rescue U251-PTEN cells from the antiproliferative effects of PTEN, and IGFBP-2 siRNA did not affect the IGF-dependent or -independent growth of this cell line. These results suggest that the clinical data linking IGFBP-2 expression to poor prognosis may arise, at least in part, because high levels of IGFBP-2 expression correlate with loss of function of PTEN, which is well known to lead to aggressive behavior of gliomas. Our results motivate translational research regarding the relationship between IGFBP-2 expression and loss of function of PTEN.

  2. Simultaneous loss of the DLC1 and PTEN tumor suppressors enhances breast cancer cell migration

    SciTech Connect

    Heering, Johanna; Erlmann, Patrik; Olayioye, Monilola A.

    2009-09-10

    The phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) gene is a tumor suppressor frequently deleted or mutated in sporadic tumors of the breast, prostate, endometrium and brain. The protein acts as a dual specificity phosphatase for lipids and proteins. PTEN loss confers a growth advantage to cells, protects from apoptosis and favors cell migration. The deleted in liver cancer 1 (DLC1) gene has emerged as a novel tumor suppressor downregulated in a variety of tumor types including those of the breast. DLC1 contains a Rho GTPase activating domain that is involved in the inhibition of cell proliferation, migration and invasion. To investigate how simultaneous loss of PTEN and DLC1 contributes to cell transformation, we downregulated both proteins by RNA interference in the non-invasive MCF7 breast carcinoma cell line. Joint depletion of PTEN and DLC1 resulted in enhanced cell migration in wounding and chemotactic transwell assays. Interestingly, both proteins were found to colocalize at the plasma membrane and interacted physically in biochemical pulldowns and coimmunoprecipitations. We therefore postulate that the concerted local inactivation of signaling pathways downstream of PTEN and DLC1, respectively, is required for the tight control of cell migration.

  3. PTEN recruitment controls synaptic and cognitive function in Alzheimer's models.

    PubMed

    Knafo, Shira; Sánchez-Puelles, Cristina; Palomer, Ernest; Delgado, Igotz; Draffin, Jonathan E; Mingo, Janire; Wahle, Tina; Kaleka, Kanwardeep; Mou, Liping; Pereda-Perez, Inmaculada; Klosi, Edvin; Faber, Erik B; Chapman, Heidi M; Lozano-Montes, Laura; Ortega-Molina, Ana; Ordóñez-Gutiérrez, Lara; Wandosell, Francisco; Viña, Jose; Dotti, Carlos G; Hall, Randy A; Pulido, Rafael; Gerges, Nashaat Z; Chan, Andrew M; Spaller, Mark R; Serrano, Manuel; Venero, César; Esteban, José A

    2016-03-01

    Dyshomeostasis of amyloid-β peptide (Aβ) is responsible for synaptic malfunctions leading to cognitive deficits ranging from mild impairment to full-blown dementia in Alzheimer's disease. Aβ appears to skew synaptic plasticity events toward depression. We found that inhibition of PTEN, a lipid phosphatase that is essential to long-term depression, rescued normal synaptic function and cognition in cellular and animal models of Alzheimer's disease. Conversely, transgenic mice that overexpressed PTEN displayed synaptic depression that mimicked and occluded Aβ-induced depression. Mechanistically, Aβ triggers a PDZ-dependent recruitment of PTEN into the postsynaptic compartment. Using a PTEN knock-in mouse lacking the PDZ motif, and a cell-permeable interfering peptide, we found that this mechanism is crucial for Aβ-induced synaptic toxicity and cognitive dysfunction. Our results provide fundamental information on the molecular mechanisms of Aβ-induced synaptic malfunction and may offer new mechanism-based therapeutic targets to counteract downstream Aβ signaling. PMID:26780512

  4. Lipid A biosynthesis in Rhizobium leguminosarum: Role of a 2-keto-3-deoxyoctulosonate-activated 4{prime} phosphatase

    SciTech Connect

    Price, N.P.J.; Jeyaretnam, B.; Carlson, R.W.

    1995-08-01

    Lipid A from several strains of the N{sub 2}-fixing bacterium Rhizobium leguminosarum displays significant structural differences from Escherichia coli lipid A, one of which is the complete absence of phosphate groups. However, the first seven enzymes of E. coli lipid A biosynthesis, leading from UDP-GlcNAc to the phosphorylated intermediate, 2-keto-3-deoxyoctulosonate (Kdo{sub 2})-lipid IV{sub A}, are present in R. leguminosarum. We now describe a membrane-bound phosphatase in R. leguminosarum extracts that removes the 4{prime} phosphate of Kdo{sub 2}-lipid IV{sub A}. The 4{prime} phosphatase is selective for substrates containing the Kdo domain. It is present in extracts of R. leguminosarum biovars phaseoli, viciae, and trifolii but is not detectable in E. coli and Rhizobium meliloti. A nodulation-defective strain (24AR) of R. leguminosarum bovar trifolii, known to contain a 4{prime} phosphate residue on its lipid A, also lacks measurable 4{prime} phosphatase activity. the Kdo-dependent 4{prime} phosphatase appears to be a key reaction in a pathway for generating phosphate-deficient lipid A.

  5. Recent advances in targeting the autotaxin-lysophosphatidate-lipid phosphate phosphatase axis in vivo.

    PubMed

    Benesch, Matthew G K; Tang, Xiaoyun; Venkatraman, Ganesh; Bekele, Raie T; Brindley, David N

    2016-07-01

    Extracellular lysophosphatidate (LPA) is a potent bioactive lipid that signals through six G-protein-coupled receptors. This signaling is required for embryogenesis, tissue repair and remodeling processes. LPA is produced from circulating lysophosphatidylcholine by autotaxin (ATX), and is degraded outside cells by a family of three enzymes called the lipid phosphate phosphatases (LPPs). In many pathological conditions, particularly in cancers, LPA concentrations are increased due to high ATX expression and low LPP activity. In cancers, LPA signaling drives tumor growth, angiogenesis, metastasis, resistance to chemotherapy and decreased efficacy of radiotherapy. Hence, targeting the ATX-LPA-LPP axis is an attractive strategy for introducing novel adjuvant therapeutic options. In this review, we will summarize current progress in targeting the ATX-LPA-LPP axis with inhibitors of autotaxin activity, LPA receptor antagonists, LPA monoclonal antibodies, and increasing low LPP expression. Some of these agents are already in clinical trials and have applications beyond cancer, including chronic inflammatory diseases. PMID:27533936

  6. Recent advances in targeting the autotaxin-lysophosphatidate-lipid phosphate phosphatase axis in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Benesch, Matthew G.K.; Tang, Xiaoyun; Venkatraman, Ganesh; Bekele, Raie T.; Brindley, David N.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Extracellular lysophosphatidate (LPA) is a potent bioactive lipid that signals through six G-protein-coupled receptors. This signaling is required for embryogenesis, tissue repair and remodeling processes. LPA is produced from circulating lysophosphatidylcholine by autotaxin (ATX), and is degraded outside cells by a family of three enzymes called the lipid phosphate phosphatases (LPPs). In many pathological conditions, particularly in cancers, LPA concentrations are increased due to high ATX expression and low LPP activity. In cancers, LPA signaling drives tumor growth, angiogenesis, metastasis, resistance to chemotherapy and decreased efficacy of radiotherapy. Hence, targeting the ATX-LPA-LPP axis is an attractive strategy for introducing novel adjuvant therapeutic options. In this review, we will summarize current progress in targeting the ATX-LPA-LPP axis with inhibitors of autotaxin activity, LPA receptor antagonists, LPA monoclonal antibodies, and increasing low LPP expression. Some of these agents are already in clinical trials and have applications beyond cancer, including chronic inflammatory diseases. PMID:27533936

  7. A Lipid-signaled Myosin Phosphatase Surge Disperses Cortical Contractile Force Early in Cell Spreading

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    When cells cease migrating through the vasculature, adhere to extracellular matrix, and begin to spread, they exhibit rapid changes in contraction and relaxation at peripheral regions newly contacting the underlying substrata. We describe here a requirement in this process for myosin II disassembly at the cell cortex via the action of myosin phosphatase (MP), which in turn is regulated by a plasma membrane signaling lipid. Cells in suspension exhibit high levels of activity of the signaling enzyme phospholipase D2 (PLD2), elevating production of the lipid second messenger phosphatidic acid (PA) at the plasma membrane, which in turn recruits MP and stores it there in a presumed inactive state. On cell attachment, down-regulation of PLD2 activity decreases PA production, leading to MP release, myosin dephosphorylation, and actomyosin disassembly. This novel model for recruitment and restraint of MP provides a means to effect a rapid cytoskeletal reorganization at the cell cortex upon demand. PMID:18946083

  8. Impact of PTEN on the expression of insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) and IGF-binding proteins in human gastric adenocarcinoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Yi, Ho-Keun; Kim, Sun-Young; Hwang, Pyoung-Han; Kim, Chan-Young; Yang, Doo-Hyun; Oh, Youngman; Lee, Dae-Yeol . E-mail: leedy@chonbuk.ac.kr

    2005-05-13

    PTEN is a tumor suppressor gene that is frequently mutated or deleted in a variety of human cancers including human gastric cancer. PTEN functions primarily as a lipid phosphatase and plays a key role in the regulation of the PI3 kinase/Akt pathway, thereby modulating cell proliferation and cell survival. On the other hand, the IGF system plays an important role in cell proliferation and cell survival via the PI3 kinase/Akt and MAP kinase pathways in many cancer cells. To characterize the impact of PTEN on the IGF-IGFR-IGFBP axis in gastric cancer, we overexpressed PTEN using an adenovirus gene transfer system in human gastric adenocarcinoma cells, SNU-484 and SNU-663, which lack PTEN. Overexpression of PTEN inhibited serum-induced as well as IGF-I-induced cell proliferation as compared to control cells. PTEN overexpression resulted in a significant decrease in the expression of IGF-I, -II, and IGF-IR. Interestingly, amongst the six IGFBPs, only IGFBP-3 was upregulated by PTEN, whereas IGFBP-4 and -6 were reduced. The IGFBP-3 promoter activity assay and Western immunoblotting demonstrate that PTEN regulates IGFBP-3 at the transcriptional level. In addition, the PI3 kinase inhibitor, LY294002, upregulates IGFBP-3 expression but downregulates IGF-I and IGF-II, indicating that PTEN controls IGFBP-3 and IGFs by an Akt-dependent pathway. These findings suggest that PTEN may inhibit antiapoptotic IGF actions not only by blocking the IGF-IGFR-induced Akt activity, but also by regulating expression of components of the IGF system, in particular, upregulation of IGFBP-3, which is known to exert antiproliferative effects through IGF-dependent and IGF-independent mechanisms in cancer cells.

  9. Phosphatidate phosphatase-1 is functionally conserved in lipid synthesis and storage from human to yeast.

    PubMed

    Fang, Zhijia; Wang, Song; Du, Xiuxiu; Shi, Ping; Huang, Zhiwei

    2014-12-01

    Phosphatidate phosphatase-1 (PAP1) enzymes (yeast Pah1p/Smp2p, mammalian lipin1-3) have a key role in lipid homeostasis by controlling the relative proportions of its substrate phosphatidate (PA) and its product diacylglycerol (DAG). Recent investigation shows that mammalian lipin-1 complements phenotypes exhibited by yeast pah1Δ mutant cells, which indicates the functions of PAP1 enzymes are evolutionarily conserved. The observation was confirmed after transformation of human LPIN1 into PAH1-defective yeast, which resulted in human LPIN1-induced accumulation of triacylglycerol (TAG )and lipid droplet formation. In double mutants lacking Tgl3p and Tgl4p, overexpression of PAH1 or LPIN1 induced TAG accumulation and excessive obesity. Furthermore, the obese yeast was used as a model to study the anti-obesity effects of PAP1 activity inhibitors, including propranolol and clenbuterol. The data showed that the inhibitors significantly suppressed TAG accumulation and lipid droplets formation. These findings demonstrate that LPIN1 plays a functional role in lipid synthesis and storage, a role which is highly conserved from human to yeast. Inhibition of TAG synthesis will become an efficacious treatment strategy for obesity and our excessive obesity model will provide a very useful tool for discovery of new anti-obesity drugs in the future. PMID:25475986

  10. Modulation of Symbiont Lipid A Signaling by Host Alkaline Phosphatases in the Squid-Vibrio Symbiosis

    PubMed Central

    Rader, Bethany A.; Kremer, Natacha; Apicella, Michael A.; Goldman, William E.; McFall-Ngai, Margaret J.

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT The synergistic activity of Vibrio fischeri lipid A and the peptidoglycan monomer (tracheal cytotoxin [TCT]) induces apoptosis in the superficial cells of the juvenile Euprymna scolopes light organ during the onset of the squid-vibrio symbiosis. Once the association is established in the epithelium-lined crypts of the light organ, the host degrades the symbiont’s constitutively produced TCT by the amidase activity of a peptidoglycan recognition protein (E. scolopes peptidoglycan recognition protein 2 [EsPGRP2]). In the present study, we explored the role of alkaline phosphatases in transforming the lipid A of the symbiont into a form that changes its signaling properties to host tissues. We obtained full-length open reading frames for two E. scolopes alkaline phosphatase (EsAP) mRNAs (esap1 and esap2); transcript levels suggested that the dominant light organ isoform is EsAP1. Levels of total EsAP activity increased with symbiosis, but only after the lipid A-dependent morphogenetic induction at 12 h, and were regulated over the day-night cycle. Inhibition of total EsAP activity impaired normal colonization and persistence by the symbiont. EsAP activity localized to the internal regions of the symbiotic juvenile light organ, including the lumina of the crypt spaces where the symbiont resides. These data provide evidence that EsAPs work in concert with EsPGRPs to change the signaling properties of bacterial products and thereby promote persistent colonization by the mutualistic symbiont. PMID:22550038

  11. Nuclear PTEN controls DNA repair and sensitivity to genotoxic stress.

    PubMed

    Bassi, C; Ho, J; Srikumar, T; Dowling, R J O; Gorrini, C; Miller, S J; Mak, T W; Neel, B G; Raught, B; Stambolic, V

    2013-07-26

    Loss of function of the phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN) tumor suppressor gene is associated with many human cancers. In the cytoplasm, PTEN antagonizes the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) signaling pathway. PTEN also accumulates in the nucleus, where its function remains poorly understood. We demonstrate that SUMOylation (SUMO, small ubiquitin-like modifier) of PTEN controls its nuclear localization. In cells exposed to genotoxic stress, SUMO-PTEN was rapidly excluded from the nucleus dependent on the protein kinase ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM). Cells lacking nuclear PTEN were hypersensitive to DNA damage, whereas PTEN-deficient cells were susceptible to killing by a combination of genotoxic stress and a small-molecule PI3K inhibitor both in vitro and in vivo. Our findings may have implications for individualized therapy for patients with PTEN-deficient tumors. PMID:23888040

  12. Highly conserved nucleotide phosphatase essential for membrane lipid homeostasis in Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Kuipers, Kirsten; Gallay, Clement; Martínek, Václav; Rohde, Manfred; Martínková, Markéta; van der Beek, Samantha L; Jong, Wouter S P; Venselaar, Hanka; Zomer, Aldert; Bootsma, Hester; Veening, Jan-Willem; de Jonge, Marien I

    2016-07-01

    Proteins belonging to the DHH family, a member of the phosphoesterase superfamily, are produced by most bacterial species. While some of these proteins are well studied in Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli, their functions in Streptococcus pneumoniae remain unclear. Recently, the highly conserved DHH subfamily 1 protein PapP (SP1298) has been reported to play an important role in virulence. Here, we provide a plausible explanation for the attenuated virulence of the papP mutant. Recombinant PapP specifically hydrolyzed nucleotides 3'-phosphoadenosine-5'-phosphate (pAp) and 5'-phosphoadenylyl-(3'->5')-adenosine (pApA). Deletion of papP, potentially leading to pAp/pApA accumulation, resulted in morphological defects and mis-localization of several cell division proteins. Incubation with both polar solvent and detergent led to robust killing of the papP mutant, indicating that membrane integrity is strongly affected. This is in line with previous studies showing that pAp inhibits the ACP synthase, an essential enzyme involved in lipid precursor production. Remarkably, partial inactivation of the lipid biosynthesis pathway, by inhibition of FabF or depletion of FabH, phenocopied the papP mutant. We conclude that pAp and pApA phosphatase activity of PapP is required for maintenance of membrane lipid homeostasis providing an explanation how inactivation of this protein may attenuate pneumococcal virulence. PMID:26691161

  13. Rab35 GTPase and OCRL phosphatase remodel lipids and F-actin for successful cytokinesis.

    PubMed

    Dambournet, Daphné; Machicoane, Mickael; Chesneau, Laurent; Sachse, Martin; Rocancourt, Murielle; El Marjou, Ahmed; Formstecher, Etienne; Salomon, Rémi; Goud, Bruno; Echard, Arnaud

    2011-08-01

    Abscission is the least understood step of cytokinesis. It consists of the final cut of the intercellular bridge connecting the sister cells at the end of mitosis, and is thought to involve membrane trafficking as well as lipid and cytoskeleton remodelling. We previously identified the Rab35 GTPase as a regulator of a fast recycling endocytic pathway that is essential for post-furrowing cytokinesis stages. Here, we report that the phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate (PtdIns(4,5)P2) 5-phosphatase OCRL, which is mutated in Lowe syndrome patients, is an effector of the Rab35 GTPase in cytokinesis abscission. GTP-bound (active) Rab35 directly interacts with OCRL and controls its localization at the intercellular bridge. Depletion of Rab35 or OCRL inhibits cytokinesis abscission and is associated with local abnormal PtdIns(4,5)P2 and F-actin accumulation in the intercellular bridge. These division defects are also found in cell lines derived from Lowe patients and can be corrected by the addition of low doses of F-actin depolymerization drugs. Our data demonstrate that PtdIns(4,5)P2 hydrolysis is important for normal cytokinesis abscission to locally remodel the F-actin cytoskeleton in the intercellular bridge. They also reveal an unexpected role for the phosphatase OCRL in cell division and shed new light on the pleiotropic phenotypes associated with Lowe disease. PMID:21706022

  14. Transcript Abundance of Putative Lipid Phosphate Phosphatases During Development of Trypanosoma brucei in the Tsetse Fly.

    PubMed

    Alves e Silva, Thiago Luiz; Savage, Amy F; Aksoy, Serap

    2016-04-01

    African trypanosomes (Trypanosoma brucei spp.) cause devastating diseases in sub-Saharan Africa. Trypanosomes differentiate repeatedly during development in tsetse flies before gaining mammalian infectivity in fly salivary glands. Lipid phosphate phosphatases (LPPs) are involved in diverse biological processes, such as cell differentiation and cell migration. Gene sequences encoding two putative T. brucei LPP proteins were used to search the T. brucei genome, revealing two additional putative family members. Putative structural features and transcript abundance during parasite development in tsetse fly were characterized. Three of the four LPP proteins are predicted to have six transmembrane domains, while the fourth shows only one. Semiquantitative gene expression revealed differential regulation of LPPs during parasite development. Transcript abundance for three of the four putative LPP genes was elevated in parasites infecting salivary glands, but not mammalian-infective metacyclic cells in fly saliva, indicating a potential role of this family in parasite establishment in tsetse salivary glands. PMID:26856918

  15. Behavioral abnormalities in mice lacking mesenchyme-specific Pten.

    PubMed

    Borniger, Jeremy C; Cissé, Yasmine M; Cantemir-Stone, Carmen Z; Bolon, Brad; Nelson, Randy J; Marsh, Clay B

    2016-05-01

    Phosphatase and tensin homolog (Pten) is a negative regulator of cell proliferation and growth. Using a Cre-recombinase approach with Lox sequences flanking the fibroblast-specific protein 1 (Fsp1 aka S100A4; a mesenchymal marker), we probed sites of expression using a β-galactosidase Rosa26(LoxP) reporter allele; the transgene driving deletion of Pten (exons 4-5) was found throughout the brain parenchyma and pituitary, suggesting that deletion of Pten in Fsp1-positive cells may influence behavior. Because CNS-specific deletion of Pten influences social and anxiety-like behaviors and S100A4 is expressed in astrocytes, we predicted that loss of Pten in Fsp1-expressing cells would result in deficits in social interaction and increased anxiety. We further predicted that environmental enrichment would compensate for genetic deficits in these behaviors. We conducted a battery of behavioral assays on Fsp1-Cre;Pten(LoxP/LoxP) male and female homozygous knockouts (Pten(-/-)) and compared their behavior to Pten(LoxP/LoxP) (Pten(+/+)) conspecifics. Despite extensive physical differences (including reduced hippocampal size) and deficits in sensorimotor function, Pten(-/-) mice behaved remarkably similar to control mice on nearly all behavioral tasks. These results suggest that the social and anxiety-like phenotypes observed in CNS-specific Pten(-/-) mice may depend on neuronal Pten, as lack of Pten in Fsp1-expressing cells of the CNS had little effect on these behaviors. PMID:26876012

  16. Tetracyclines increase lipid phosphate phosphatase expression on plasma membranes and turnover of plasma lysophosphatidate.

    PubMed

    Tang, Xiaoyun; Zhao, Yuan Y; Dewald, Jay; Curtis, Jonathan M; Brindley, David N

    2016-04-01

    Extracellular lysophosphatidate and sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) are important bioactive lipids, which signal through G-protein-coupled receptors to stimulate cell growth and survival. The lysophosphatidate and S1P signals are terminated partly by degradation through three broad-specificity lipid phosphate phosphatases (LPPs) on the cell surface. Significantly, the expression of LPP1 and LPP3 is decreased in many cancers, and this increases the impact of lysophosphatidate and S1P signaling. However, relatively little is known about the physiological or pharmacological regulation of the expression of the different LPPs. We now show that treating several malignant and nonmalignant cell lines with 1 μg/ml tetracycline, doxycycline, or minocycline significantly increased the extracellular degradation of lysophosphatidate. S1P degradation was also increased in cells that expressed high LPP3 activity. These results depended on an increase in the stabilities of the three LPPs and increased expression on the plasma membrane. We tested the physiological significance of these results and showed that treating rats with doxycycline accelerated the clearance of lysophosphatidate, but not S1P, from the circulation. However, administering 100 mg/kg/day doxycycline to mice decreased plasma concentrations of lysophosphatidate and S1P. This study demonstrates a completely new property of tetracyclines in increasing the plasma membrane expression of the LPPs. PMID:26884614

  17. Silymarin Induces Insulin Resistance through an Increase of Phosphatase and Tensin Homolog in Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Kai-Chun; Asakawa, Akihiro; Li, Ying-Xiao; Chung, Hsien-Hui; Amitani, Haruka; Ueki, Takatoshi; Cheng, Juei-Tang; Inui, Akio

    2014-01-01

    Background and aims Phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) is a phosphoinositide phosphatase that regulates crucial cellular functions, including insulin signaling, lipid and glucose metabolism, as well as survival and apoptosis. Silymarin is the active ingredient in milk thistle and exerts numerous effects through the activation of PTEN. However, the effect of silymarin on the development of insulin resistance remains unknown. Methods Wistar rats fed fructose-rich chow or normal chow were administered oral silymarin to identify the development of insulin resistance using the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemic- euglycemic clamping. Changes in PTEN expression in skeletal muscle and liver were compared using western blotting analysis. Further investigation was performed in L6 cells to check the expression of PTEN and insulin-related signals. PTEN deletion in L6 cells was achieved by small interfering ribonucleic acid transfection. Results Oral administration of silymarin at a dose of 200 mg/kg once daily induced insulin resistance in normal rats and enhanced insulin resistance in fructose-rich chow-fed rats. An increase of PTEN expression was observed in the skeletal muscle and liver of rats with insulin resistance. A decrease in the phosphorylation of Akt in L6 myotube cells, which was maintained in a high-glucose condition, was also observed. Treatment with silymarin aggravated high-glucose-induced insulin resistance. Deletion of PTEN in L6 cells reversed silymarin-induced impaired insulin signaling and glucose uptake. Conclusions Silymarin has the ability to disrupt insulin signaling through increased PTEN expression. Therefore, silymarin should be used carefully in type-2 diabetic patients. PMID:24404172

  18. LipA, a Tyrosine and Lipid Phosphatase Involved in the Virulence of Listeria monocytogenes ▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Kastner, Renate; Dussurget, Olivier; Archambaud, Cristel; Kernbauer, Elisabeth; Soulat, Didier; Cossart, Pascale; Decker, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Intracellular bacterial pathogens manipulate host cell functions by producing enzymes that stimulate or antagonize signal transduction. The Listeria monocytogenes genome contains a gene, lmo1800, encoding a protein with a conserved motif of conventional tyrosine phosphatases. Here, we report that the lmo1800-encoded protein LipA is secreted by Listeria and displays tyrosine as well as lipid phosphatase activity in vitro. Bacteria lacking LipA are severely attenuated in virulence in vivo, thus revealing a so-far-undescribed enzymatic activity involved in Listeria infection. PMID:21444667

  19. Quantitative and dynamic analysis of PTEN phosphorylation by NMR.

    PubMed

    Cordier, Florence; Chaffotte, Alain; Wolff, Nicolas

    2015-05-01

    The dual lipid and protein phosphatase PTEN is a tumor suppressor controlling key biological processes, such as cell growth, proliferation and neuro-survival. Its activity and intracellular trafficking is finely regulated notably by multi-site phosphorylation of its C-terminal tail. The reversible and highly dynamic character of these regulatory events confers a temporal dimension to the cell for triggering crucial decisions. In this review, we describe how a recently developed time-resolved NMR spectroscopy approach unveils the dynamic establishment of the phosphorylation events of PTEN C-terminal tail controlled by CK2 and GSK3β kinases. Two cascades of reactions have been identified, in vitro and in extracts of human neuroblastoma cells. They are triggered independently on two nearby clusters of sites (S380-S385 and S361-S370) and occur on different timescales. In each cascade, the reactions follow an ordered model with a distributive kinetic mechanism. The vision of these cascades as two delay timers activating distinct or time-delayed regulatory responses gives a temporal dimension on PTEN regulation and is discussed in relation to the known functional roles of each cluster. PMID:25449899

  20. Brain patterning perturbations following PTEN loss

    PubMed Central

    Veleva-Rotse, Biliana O.; Barnes, Anthony P.

    2014-01-01

    This review will consider the impact of compromised PTEN signaling in brain patterning. We approach understanding the contribution of PTEN to nervous system development by surveying the findings from the numerous genetic loss-of-function models that have been generated as well as other forms of PTEN inactivation. By exploring the developmental programs influenced by this central transduction molecule, we can begin to understand the molecular mechanisms that shape the developing brain. A wealth of data indicates that PTEN plays critical roles in a variety of stages during brain development. Many of them are considered here including: stem cell proliferation, fate determination, polarity, migration, process outgrowth, myelination and somatic hypertrophy. In many of these contexts, it is clear that PTEN phosphatase activity contributes to the observed effects of genetic deletion or depletion, however recent studies have also ascribed non-catalytic functions to PTEN in regulating cell function. We also explore the potential impact this alternative pool of PTEN may have on the developing brain. Together, these elements begin to form a clearer picture of how PTEN contributes to the emergence of brain structure and binds form and function in the nervous system. PMID:24860420

  1. PTEN functions by recruitment to cytoplasmic vesicles.

    PubMed

    Naguib, Adam; Bencze, Gyula; Cho, Hyejin; Zheng, Wu; Tocilj, Ante; Elkayam, Elad; Faehnle, Christopher R; Jaber, Nadia; Pratt, Christopher P; Chen, Muhan; Zong, Wei-Xing; Marks, Michael S; Joshua-Tor, Leemor; Pappin, Darryl J; Trotman, Lloyd C

    2015-04-16

    PTEN is proposed to function at the plasma membrane, where receptor tyrosine kinases are activated. However, the majority of PTEN is located throughout the cytoplasm. Here, we show that cytoplasmic PTEN is distributed along microtubules, tethered to vesicles via phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate (PI(3)P), the signature lipid of endosomes. We demonstrate that the non-catalytic C2 domain of PTEN specifically binds PI(3)P through the CBR3 loop. Mutations render this loop incapable of PI(3)P binding and abrogate PTEN-mediated inhibition of PI 3-kinase/AKT signaling. This loss of function is rescued by fusion of the loop mutant PTEN to FYVE, the canonical PI(3)P binding domain, demonstrating the functional importance of targeting PTEN to endosomal membranes. Beyond revealing an upstream activation mechanism of PTEN, our data introduce the concept of PI 3-kinase signal activation on the vast plasma membrane that is contrasted by PTEN-mediated signal termination on the small, discrete surfaces of internalized vesicles. PMID:25866245

  2. Altered Lipid Synthesis by Lack of Yeast Pah1 Phosphatidate Phosphatase Reduces Chronological Life Span.

    PubMed

    Park, Yeonhee; Han, Gil-Soo; Mileykovskaya, Eugenia; Garrett, Teresa A; Carman, George M

    2015-10-16

    In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Pah1 phosphatidate phosphatase, which catalyzes the dephosphorylation of phosphatidate to yield diacylglycerol, plays a crucial role in the synthesis of the storage lipid triacylglycerol. This evolutionarily conserved enzyme also plays a negative regulatory role in controlling de novo membrane phospholipid synthesis through its consumption of phosphatidate. We found that the pah1Δ mutant was defective in the utilization of non-fermentable carbon sources but not in oxidative phosphorylation; the mutant did not exhibit major changes in oxygen consumption rate, mitochondrial membrane potential, F1F0-ATP synthase activity, or gross mitochondrial morphology. The pah1Δ mutant contained an almost normal complement of major mitochondrial phospholipids with some alterations in molecular species. Although oxidative phosphorylation was not compromised in the pah1Δ mutant, the cellular levels of ATP in quiescent cells were reduced by 2-fold, inversely correlating with a 4-fold increase in membrane phospholipids. In addition, the quiescent pah1Δ mutant cells had 3-fold higher levels of mitochondrial superoxide and cellular lipid hydroperoxides, had reduced activities of superoxide dismutase 2 and catalase, and were hypersensitive to hydrogen peroxide. Consequently, the pah1Δ mutant had a shortened chronological life span. In addition, the loss of Tsa1 thioredoxin peroxidase caused a synthetic growth defect with the pah1Δ mutation. The shortened chronological life span of the pah1Δ mutant along with its growth defect on non-fermentable carbon sources and hypersensitivity to hydrogen peroxide was suppressed by the loss of Dgk1 diacylglycerol kinase, indicating that the underpinning of pah1Δ mutant defects was the excess synthesis of membrane phospholipids. PMID:26338708

  3. Phosphatase and Tensin Homolog Is a Growth Repressor of Both Rhizoid and Gametophore Development in the Moss Physcomitrella patens.

    PubMed

    Saavedra, Laura; Catarino, Rita; Heinz, Tobias; Heilmann, Ingo; Bezanilla, Magdalena; Malhó, Rui

    2015-12-01

    Phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN) is a lipid phosphatase implicated in cellular proliferation and survival. In animal cells, loss of PTEN leads to increased levels of phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5)-trisphosphate, stimulation of glucose and lipid metabolism, cellular growth, and morphological changes (related to adaptation and survival). Intriguingly, in plants, phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5)-trisphosphate has not been detected, and the enzymes that synthesize it were never reported. In this study we performed a genetic, biochemical, and functional characterization of the moss Physcomitrella patens PTEN gene family. P. patens has four PTENs, which are ubiquitously expressed during the entire moss life cycle. Using a knock-in approach, we show that all four genes are expressed in growing tissues, namely caulonemal and rhizoid cells. At the subcellular level, PpPTEN-green fluorescent protein fusions localized to the cytosol and the nucleus. Analysis of single and double knockouts revealed no significant phenotypes at different developmental stages, indicative of functional redundancy. However, compared with wild-type triple and quadruple pten knockouts, caulonemal cells grew faster, switched from the juvenile protonemal stage to adult gametophores earlier, and produced more rhizoids. Furthermore, analysis of lipid content and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction data performed in quadruple mutants revealed altered phosphoinositide levels [increase in phosphatidylinositol (3,5)-bisphosphate and decrease in phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate] and up-regulation of marker genes from the synthesis phase of the cell cycle (e.g. P. patens proliferating cell nuclear antigen, ribonucleotide reductase, and minichromosome maintenance) and of the retinoblastoma-related protein gene P. patens retinoblastoma-related protein1. Together, these results suggest that PpPTEN is a suppressor of cell growth and morphogenic development in plants. PMID

  4. Proposed carrier lipid-binding site of undecaprenyl pyrophosphate phosphatase from Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Chang, Hsin-Yang; Chou, Chia-Cheng; Hsu, Min-Feng; Wang, Andrew H J

    2014-07-01

    Undecaprenyl pyrophosphate phosphatase (UppP), an integral membrane protein, catalyzes the dephosphorylation of undecaprenyl pyrophosphate to undecaprenyl phosphate, which is an essential carrier lipid in the bacterial cell wall synthesis. Sequence alignment reveals two consensus regions, containing glutamate-rich (E/Q)XXXE plus PGXSRSXXT motifs and a histidine residue, specific to the bacterial UppP enzymes. The predicted topological model suggests that both of these regions are localized near the aqueous interface of UppP and face the periplasm, implicating that its enzymatic function is on the outer side of the plasma membrane. The mutagenesis analysis demonstrates that most of the mutations (E17A/E21A, H30A, S173A, R174A, and T178A) within the consensus regions are completely inactive, indicating that the catalytic site of UppP is constituted by these two regions. Enzymatic analysis also shows an absolute requirement of magnesium or calcium ions in enzyme activity. The three-dimensional structural model and molecular dynamics simulation studies have shown a plausible structure of the catalytic site of UppP and thus provides insights into the molecular basis of the enzyme-substrate interaction in membrane bilayers. PMID:24855653

  5. The First Transmembrane Domain of Lipid Phosphatase SAC1 Promotes Golgi Localization

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jinzhi; Chen, Juxing; Enns, Caroline A.; Mayinger, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The lipid phosphatase Sac1 cycles between endoplasmic reticulum and cisternal Golgi compartments. In proliferating mammalian cells, a canonical dilysine motif at the C-terminus of Sac1 is required for coatomer complex-I (COP-I)-binding and continuous retrieval to the ER. Starvation triggers accumulation of Sac1 at the Golgi. The mechanism responsible for Golgi retention of Sac1 is unknown. Here we show that the first of the two transmembrane regions in human SAC1 (TM1) functions in Golgi localization. A minimal construct containing only TM1 and the adjacent flanking sequences is concentrated at the Golgi. Transplanting TM1 into transferrin receptor 2 (TfR2) induces Golgi accumulation of this normally plasma membrane and endosomal protein, indicating that TM1 is sufficient for Golgi localization. In addition, we determined that the N-terminal cytoplasmic domain of SAC1 also promotes Golgi localization, even when TM1 is mutated or absent. We conclude that the distribution of SAC1 within the Golgi is controlled via both passive membrane thickness-dependent partitioning of TM1 and a retention mechanism that requires the N-terminal cytoplasmic region. PMID:23936490

  6. Lipid phosphate phosphatase-1 expression in cancer cells attenuates tumor growth and metastasis in mice.

    PubMed

    Tang, Xiaoyun; Benesch, Matthew G K; Dewald, Jay; Zhao, Yuan Y; Patwardhan, Neeraj; Santos, Webster L; Curtis, Jonathan M; McMullen, Todd P W; Brindley, David N

    2014-11-01

    Lipid phosphate phosphatase-1 (LPP1) degrades lysophosphatidate (LPA) and attenuates receptor-mediated signaling. LPP1 expression is low in many cancer cells and tumors compared with normal tissues. It was hypothesized from studies with cultured cells that increasing LPP1 activity would decrease tumor growth and metastasis. This hypothesis has never been tested in vivo. To do this, we inducibly expressed LPP1 or a catalytically inactive mutant in cancer cells. Expressing active LPP1 increased extracellular LPA degradation by 5-fold. It also decreased the stimulation of Ca(2+) transients by LPA, a nondephosphorylatable LPA1/2 receptor agonist and a protease-activated receptor-1 peptide. The latter results demonstrate that LPP1 has effects downstream of receptor activation. Decreased Ca(2+) mobilization and Rho activation contributed to the effects of LPP1 in attenuating the LPA-induced migration of MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells and their growth in 3D culture. Increasing LPP1 expression in breast and thyroid cancer cells decreased tumor growth and the metastasis by up to 80% compared with expression of inactive LPP1 or green fluorescent protein in syngeneic and xenograft mouse models. The present work demonstrates for the first time that increasing the LPP1 activity in three lines of aggressive cancer cells decreases their abilities to produce tumors and metastases in mice. PMID:25210149

  7. Structural Insight into Substrate Selection and Catalysis of Lipid Phosphate Phosphatase PgpB in the Cell Membrane.

    PubMed

    Tong, Shuilong; Lin, Yibin; Lu, Shuo; Wang, Meitian; Bogdanov, Mikhail; Zheng, Lei

    2016-08-26

    PgpB belongs to the lipid phosphate phosphatase protein family and is one of three bacterial integral membrane phosphatases catalyzing dephosphorylation of phosphatidylglycerol phosphate (PGP) to generate phosphatidylglycerol. Although the structure of its apo form became recently available, the mechanisms of PgpB substrate binding and catalysis are still unclear. We found that PgpB was inhibited by phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) in a competitive mode in vitro Here we report the crystal structure of the lipid-bound form of PgpB. The structure shows that a PE molecule is stabilized in a membrane-embedded tunnel formed by TM3 and the "PSGH" fingerprint peptide near the catalytic site, providing structural insight into PgpB substrate binding mechanism. Noteworthy, in silico docking of varied lipid phosphates exhibited similar substrate binding modes to that of PE, and the residues in the lipid tunnel appear to be important for PgpB catalysis. The catalytic triad in the active site is essential for dephosphorylating substrates lysophosphatidic acid, phosphatidic acid, or sphingosine-1-phosphate but surprisingly not for the native substrate PGP. Remarkably, residue His-207 alone is sufficient to hydrolyze PGP, indicating a specific catalytic mechanism for PgpB in PG biosynthesis. We also identified two novel sensor residues, Lys-93 and Lys-97, on TM3. Our data show that Lys-97 is essential for the recognition of lyso-form substrates. Modification at the Lys-93 position may alter substrate specificity of lipid phosphate phosphatase proteins in prokaryotes versus eukaryotes. These studies reveal new mechanisms of lipid substrate selection and catalysis by PgpB and suggest that the enzyme rests in a PE-stabilized state in the bilayer. PMID:27405756

  8. Microtubule Affinity-regulating Kinase 2 (MARK2) Turns on Phosphatase and Tensin Homolog (PTEN)-induced Kinase 1 (PINK1) at Thr-313, a Mutation Site in Parkinson Disease

    PubMed Central

    Matenia, Dorthe; Hempp, Cindy; Timm, Thomas; Eikhof, Annika; Mandelkow, Eva-Maria

    2012-01-01

    The kinase MARK2/Par-1 plays key roles in several cell processes, including neurodegeneration such as Alzheimer disease by phosphorylating tau and detaching it from microtubules. In search of interaction partners of MARK2, we identified phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN)-induced kinase 1 (PINK1), which is important for the survival of neurons and whose mutations are linked to familial Parkinson disease (PD). MARK2 phosphorylated and activated the cleaved form of PINK1 (ΔN-PINK1; amino acids 156–581). Thr-313 was the primary phosphorylation site, a residue mutated to a non-phosphorylatable form (T313M) in a frequent variant of PD. Mutation of Thr-313 to Met or Glu in PINK1 showed toxic effects with abnormal mitochondrial distribution in neurons. MARK2 and PINK1 were found to colocalize with mitochondria and regulate their transport. ΔN-PINK1 promoted anterograde transport and increased the fraction of stationary mitochondria, whereas full-length PINK1 promoted retrograde transport. In both cases, MARK2 enhanced the effects. The results identify MARK2 as an upstream regulator of PINK1 and ΔN-PINK1 and provide insights into the regulation of mitochondrial trafficking in neurons and neurodegeneration in PD. PMID:22238344

  9. Regulation of cellular diacylglycerol through lipid phosphate phosphatases is required for pathogenesis of the rice blast fungus, Magnaporthe oryzae.

    PubMed

    Sadat, Md Abu; Jeon, Junhyun; Mir, Albely Afifa; Choi, Jaeyoung; Choi, Jaehyuk; Lee, Yong-Hwan

    2014-01-01

    Considering implication of diacylglycerol in both metabolism and signaling pathways, maintaining proper levels of diacylglycerol (DAG) is critical to cellular homeostasis and development. Except the PIP2-PLC mediated pathway, metabolic pathways leading to generation of DAG converge on dephosphorylation of phosphatidic acid catalyzed by lipid phosphate phosphatases. Here we report the role of such enzymes in a model plant pathogenic fungus, Magnaporthe oryzae. We identified five genes encoding putative lipid phosphate phosphatases (MoLPP1 to MoLPP5). Targeted disruption of four genes (except MoLPP4) showed that MoLPP3 and MoLPP5 are required for normal progression of infection-specific development and proliferation within host plants, whereas MoLPP1 and MoLPP2 are indispensable for fungal pathogenicity. Reintroduction of MoLPP3 and MoLPP5 into individual deletion mutants restored all the defects. Furthermore, exogenous addition of saturated DAG not only restored defect in appressorium formation but also complemented reduced virulence in both mutants. Taken together, our data indicate differential roles of lipid phosphate phosphatase genes and requirement of proper regulation of cellular DAGs for fungal development and pathogenesis. PMID:24959955

  10. High-resolution Structures of Protein-Membrane Complexes by Neutron Reflection and MD Simulation: Membrane Association of the PTEN Tumor Suppressor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lösche, Matthias

    2012-02-01

    The lipid matrix of biomembranes is an in-plane fluid, thermally and compositionally disordered leaflet of 5 nm thickness and notoriously difficult to characterize in structural terms. Yet, biomembranes are ubiquitous in the cell, and membrane-bound proteins are implicated in a variety of signaling pathways and intra-cellular transport. We developed methodology to study proteins associated with model membranes using neutron reflection measurements and showed recently that this approach can resolve the penetration depth and orientation of membrane proteins with ångstrom resolution if their crystal or NMR structure is known. Here we apply this technology to determine the membrane bindung and unravel functional details of the PTEN phosphatase, a key player in the PI3K apoptosis pathway. PTEN is an important regulatory protein and tumor suppressor that performs its phosphatase activity as an interfacial enzyme at the plasma membrane-cytoplasm boundary. Acting as an antagonist to phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K) in cell signaling, it is deleted in many human cancers. Despite its importance in regulating the levels of the phosphoinositoltriphosphate PI(3,4,5)P3, there is little understanding of how PTEN binds to membranes, is activated and then acts as a phosphatase. We investigated the structure and function of PTEN by studying its membrane affinity and localization on in-plane fluid, thermally disordered synthetic membrane models. The membrane association of the protein depends strongly on membrane composition, where phosphatidylserine (PS) and phosphatidylinositol diphosphate (PI(4,5)P2) act synergetically in attracting the enzyme to the membrane surface. Membrane affinities depend strongly on membrane fluidity, which suggests multiple binding sites on the protein for PI(4,5)P2. Neutron reflection measurements show that the PTEN phosphatase ``scoots'' along the membrane surface (penetration < 5 å) but binds the membrane tightly with its two major domains, the C2 and

  11. PTEN sequence analysis in endometrial hyperplasia and endometrial carcinoma in Slovak women.

    PubMed

    Gbelcová, H; Bakeš, P; Priščáková, P; Šišovský, V; Hojsíková, I; Straka, Ľ; Konečný, M; Markus, J; D'Acunto, C W; Ruml, T; Böhmer, D; Danihel, Ľ; Repiská, V

    2015-01-01

    Phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) is a protein that acts as a tumor suppressor by dephosphorylating the lipid second messenger phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate. Loss of PTEN function has been implicated in the pathogenesis of a number of different tumors, particularly endometrial carcinoma (ECa). ECa is the most common neoplasia of the female genital tract. Our study evaluates an association between the morphological appearance of endometrial hyperplasia and endometrial carcinoma and the degree of PTEN alterations. A total of 45 endometrial biopsies from Slovak women were included in present study. Formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded tissue samples with simple hyperplasia (3), complex hyperplasia (5), atypical complex hyperplasia (7), endometrioid carcinomas G1 (20) and G3 (5), and serous carcinoma (5) were evaluated for the presence of mutations in coding regions of PTEN gene, the most frequently mutated tumor suppressor gene in endometrial carcinoma. 75% of the detected mutations were clustered in exons 5 and 8. Out of the 39 mutations detected in 24 cases, 20 were frameshifts and 19 were nonsense, missense, or silent mutations. Some specimens harboured more than one mutation. The results of current study on Slovak women were compared to a previous study performed on Polish population. The two sets of results were similar. PMID:26114084

  12. A Functional Dissection of PTEN N-Terminus: Implications in PTEN Subcellular Targeting and Tumor Suppressor Activity

    PubMed Central

    Gil, Anabel; Rodríguez-Escudero, Isabel; Stumpf, Miriam; Molina, María; Cid, Víctor J.; Pulido, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    Spatial regulation of the tumor suppressor PTEN is exerted through alternative plasma membrane, cytoplasmic, and nuclear subcellular locations. The N-terminal region of PTEN is important for the control of PTEN subcellular localization and function. It contains both an active nuclear localization signal (NLS) and an overlapping PIP2-binding motif (PBM) involved in plasma membrane targeting. We report a comprehensive mutational and functional analysis of the PTEN N-terminus, including a panel of tumor-related mutations at this region. Nuclear/cytoplasmic partitioning in mammalian cells and PIP3 phosphatase assays in reconstituted S. cerevisiae defined categories of PTEN N-terminal mutations with distinct PIP3 phosphatase and nuclear accumulation properties. Noticeably, most tumor-related mutations that lost PIP3 phosphatase activity also displayed impaired nuclear localization. Cell proliferation and soft-agar colony formation analysis in mammalian cells of mutations with distinctive nuclear accumulation and catalytic activity patterns suggested a contribution of both properties to PTEN tumor suppressor activity. Our functional dissection of the PTEN N-terminus provides the basis for a systematic analysis of tumor-related and experimentally engineered PTEN mutations. PMID:25875300

  13. A new class of cancer-associated PTEN mutations defined by membrane translocation defects.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, H-N; Yang, J-M; Rahdar, M; Keniry, M; Swaney, K F; Parsons, R; Park, B H; Sesaki, H; Devreotes, P N; Iijima, M

    2015-07-01

    Phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN), which negatively regulates tumorigenic phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5)-trisphosphate (PIP3) signaling, is a commonly mutated tumor suppressor. The majority of cancer-associated PTEN mutations block its essential PIP3 phosphatase activity. However, there is a group of clinically identified PTEN mutations that maintain enzymatic activity, and it is unknown how these mutations contribute to tumor pathogenesis. Here, we show that these enzymatically competent PTEN mutants fail to translocate to the plasma membrane where PTEN converts PIP3 to PI(4,5)P2. Artificial membrane tethering of the PTEN mutants effectively restores tumor suppressor activity and represses excess PIP3 signaling in cells. Thus, our findings reveal a novel mechanism of tumorigenic PTEN deficiency. PMID:25263454

  14. Phosphatase and Tensin Homolog Is a Growth Repressor of Both Rhizoid and Gametophore Development in the Moss Physcomitrella patens1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Saavedra, Laura; Heilmann, Ingo

    2015-01-01

    Phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN) is a lipid phosphatase implicated in cellular proliferation and survival. In animal cells, loss of PTEN leads to increased levels of phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5)-trisphosphate, stimulation of glucose and lipid metabolism, cellular growth, and morphological changes (related to adaptation and survival). Intriguingly, in plants, phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5)-trisphosphate has not been detected, and the enzymes that synthesize it were never reported. In this study we performed a genetic, biochemical, and functional characterization of the moss Physcomitrella patens PTEN gene family. P. patens has four PTENs, which are ubiquitously expressed during the entire moss life cycle. Using a knock-in approach, we show that all four genes are expressed in growing tissues, namely caulonemal and rhizoid cells. At the subcellular level, PpPTEN-green fluorescent protein fusions localized to the cytosol and the nucleus. Analysis of single and double knockouts revealed no significant phenotypes at different developmental stages, indicative of functional redundancy. However, compared with wild-type triple and quadruple pten knockouts, caulonemal cells grew faster, switched from the juvenile protonemal stage to adult gametophores earlier, and produced more rhizoids. Furthermore, analysis of lipid content and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction data performed in quadruple mutants revealed altered phosphoinositide levels [increase in phosphatidylinositol (3,5)-bisphosphate and decrease in phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate] and up-regulation of marker genes from the synthesis phase of the cell cycle (e.g. P. patens proliferating cell nuclear antigen, ribonucleotide reductase, and minichromosome maintenance) and of the retinoblastoma-related protein gene P. patens retinoblastoma-related protein1. Together, these results suggest that PpPTEN is a suppressor of cell growth and morphogenic development in plants. PMID

  15. PTEN-PDZ domain interactions: binding of PTEN to PDZ domains of PTPN13.

    PubMed

    Sotelo, Natalia S; Schepens, Jan T G; Valiente, Miguel; Hendriks, Wiljan J A J; Pulido, Rafael

    2015-05-01

    Protein modular interactions mediated by PDZ domains are essential for the establishment of functional protein networks controlling diverse cellular functions. The tumor suppressor PTEN possesses a C-terminal PDZ-binding motif (PDZ-BM) that is recognized by a specific set of PDZ domains from scaffolding and regulatory proteins. Here, we review the current knowledge on PTEN-PDZ domain interactions and tumor suppressor networks, describe methodology suitable to analyze these interactions, and report the binding of PTEN and the PDZ domain-containing protein tyrosine phosphatase PTPN13. Yeast two-hybrid and GST pull-down analyses showed that PTEN binds to PDZ2/PTPN13 domain in a manner that depends on the specific PTPN13 PDZ domain arrangement involving the interdomain region between PDZ1 and PDZ2. Furthermore, a specific binding profile of PTEN to PDZ2/PTPN13 domain was observed by mutational analysis of the PTEN PDZ-BM. Our results disclose a PDZ-mediated physical interaction of PTEN and PTPN13 with potential relevance in tumor suppression and cell homeostasis. PMID:25448478

  16. PTEN-inhibition by zinc ions augments interleukin-2-mediated Akt phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Plum, Laura Marie; Brieger, Anne; Engelhardt, Gabriela; Hebel, Silke; Nessel, Andreas; Arlt, Marcus; Kaltenberg, Jennifer; Schwaneberg, Ulrich; Huber, Michael; Rink, Lothar; Haase, Hajo

    2014-07-01

    Free zinc ions (Zn(2+)) participate in several signaling pathways. The aim of the present study was to investigate a potential involvement of Zn(2+) in the PI3K/Akt pathway of interleukin (IL)-2 signaling in T-cells. The IL-2 receptor triggers three major pathways, ERK1/2, JAK/STAT5, and PI3K/Akt. We have previously shown that an IL-2-mediated release of lysosomal Zn(2+) into the cytoplasm activates ERK1/2, but not STAT5. In the present study, Akt phosphorylation in response to IL-2 was abrogated by the Zn(2+) chelator N,N,N',N'-tetrakis-2(pyridyl-methyl)ethylenediamine, and was induced by treatment with Zn(2+) and the ionophore pyrithione. The latter were ineffective in cells that were treated with siRNA against the phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN), a phosphatase that degrades the lipid second messenger PI(3,4,5)P3, which is produced by PI3K and leads to activation of Akt. Inhibition of recombinant PTEN by Zn(2+)in vitro yielded an IC50 of 0.59 nM. Considering a resting free cytoplasmic Zn(2+) level of 0.2 nM in the T-cell line CTLL-2, this seems ideally suited for dynamic regulation by cellular Zn(2+). Oxidation with H2O2 and supplementation with Zn(2+) led to similar changes in the CD spectrum of PTEN. Moreover, Zn(2+) partially prevented the oxidation of cysteines 71 and 124. Hence, we hypothesize that zinc signals affect the IL-2-dependent PI3K/Akt pathway by inhibiting the negative regulator PTEN through binding with a sub-nanomolar affinity to cysteine residues that are essential for its catalytic activity. PMID:24759986

  17. Phosphorylation of Yeast Pah1 Phosphatidate Phosphatase by Casein Kinase II Regulates Its Function in Lipid Metabolism.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Lu-Sheng; Su, Wen-Min; Han, Gil-Soo; Carman, George M

    2016-05-01

    Pah1 phosphatidate phosphatase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae catalyzes the penultimate step in the synthesis of triacylglycerol (i.e. the production of diacylglycerol by dephosphorylation of phosphatidate). The enzyme playing a major role in lipid metabolism is subject to phosphorylation (e.g. by Pho85-Pho80, Cdc28-cyclin B, and protein kinases A and C) and dephosphorylation (e.g. by Nem1-Spo7) that regulate its cellular location, catalytic activity, and stability/degradation. In this work, we show that Pah1 is a substrate for casein kinase II (CKII); its phosphorylation was time- and dose-dependent and was dependent on the concentrations of Pah1 (Km = 0.23 μm) and ATP (Km = 5.5 μm). By mass spectrometry, truncation analysis, site-directed mutagenesis, phosphopeptide mapping, and phosphoamino acid analysis, we identified that >90% of its phosphorylation occurs on Thr-170, Ser-250, Ser-313, Ser-705, Ser-814, and Ser-818. The CKII-phosphorylated Pah1 was a substrate for the Nem1-Spo7 protein phosphatase and was degraded by the 20S proteasome. The prephosphorylation of Pah1 by protein kinase A or protein kinase C reduced its subsequent phosphorylation by CKII. The prephosphorylation of Pah1 by CKII reduced its subsequent phosphorylation by protein kinase A but not by protein kinase C. The expression of Pah1 with combined mutations of S705D and 7A, which mimic its phosphorylation by CKII and lack of phosphorylation by Pho85-Pho80, caused an increase in triacylglycerol content and lipid droplet number in cells expressing the Nem1-Spo7 phosphatase complex. PMID:27044741

  18. Decreased aggression and increased repetitive behavior in Pten haploinsufficient mice.

    PubMed

    Clipperton-Allen, A E; Page, D T

    2015-02-01

    Aggression is an aspect of social behavior that can be elevated in some individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and a concern for peers and caregivers. Mutations in Phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN), one of several ASD risk factors encoding negative regulators of the PI3K-Akt-mTOR pathway, have been reported in individuals with ASD and comorbid macrocephaly. We previously showed that a mouse model of Pten germline haploinsufficiency (Pten(+/-) ) has selective deficits, primarily in social behavior, along with broad overgrowth of the brain. Here, we further examine the social behavior of Pten(+/-) male mice in the resident-intruder test of aggression, using a comprehensive behavioral analysis to obtain an overall picture of the agonistic, non-agonistic and non-social behavior patterns of Pten(+/-) mice during a free interaction with a novel conspecific. Pten(+/-) male mice were involved in less aggression than their wild-type littermates. Pten(+/-) mice also performed less social investigation, including anogenital investigation and approaching and/or attending to the intruder, which is consistent with our previous finding of decreased sociability in the social approach test. In contrast to these decreases in social behaviors, Pten(+/-) mice showed increased digging. In summary, we report decreased aggression and increased repetitive behavior in Pten(+/-) mice, thus extending our characterization of this model of an ASD risk factor that features brain overgrowth and social deficits. PMID:25561290

  19. ATM-mediated PTEN phosphorylation promotes PTEN nuclear translocation and autophagy in response to DNA-damaging agents in cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jing-Hong; Zhang, Peng; Chen, Wen-Dan; Li, Dan-Dan; Wu, Xiao-Qi; Deng, Rong; Jiao, Lin; Li, Xuan; Ji, Jiao; Feng, Gong-Kan; Zeng, Yi-Xin; Jiang, Jian-Wei; Zhu, Xiao-Feng

    2015-01-01

    PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homolog), a tumor suppressor frequently mutated in human cancer, has various cytoplasmic and nuclear functions. PTEN translocates to the nucleus from the cytoplasm in response to oxidative stress. However, the mechanism and function of the translocation are not completely understood. In this study, topotecan (TPT), a topoisomerase I inhibitor, and cisplatin (CDDP) were employed to induce DNA damage. The results indicate that TPT or CDDP activates ATM (ATM serine/threonine kinase), which phosphorylates PTEN at serine 113 and further regulates PTEN nuclear translocation in A549 and HeLa cells. After nuclear translocation, PTEN induces autophagy, in association with the activation of the p-JUN-SESN2/AMPK pathway, in response to TPT. These results identify PTEN phosphorylation by ATM as essential for PTEN nuclear translocation and the subsequent induction of autophagy in response to DNA damage. PMID:25701194

  20. DNMT1-mediated PTEN hypermethylation confers hepatic stellate cell activation and liver fibrogenesis in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Bian, Er-Bao; Huang, Cheng; Ma, Tao-Tao; Tao, Hui; Zhang, Hui; Cheng, Chang; Lv, Xiong-Wen; Li, Jun

    2012-10-01

    Hepatic stellate cell (HSC) activation is an essential event during liver fibrogenesis. Phosphatase and tension homolog deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN), a tumor suppressor, is a negative regulator of this process. PTEN promoter hypermethylation is a major epigenetic silencing mechanism in tumors. The present study aimed to investigate whether PTEN promoter methylation was involved in HSC activation and liver fibrosis. Treatment of activated HSCs with the DNA methylation inhibitor 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine (5-azadC) decreased aberrant hypermethylation of the PTEN gene promoter and prevented the loss of PTEN expression that occurred during HSC activation. Silencing DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1) gene also decreased the PTEN gene promoter methylation and upregulated the PTEN gene expression in activated HSC-T6 cells. In addition, knockdown of DNMT1 inhibited the activation of both ERK and AKT pathways in HSC-T6 cells. These results suggest that DNMT1-mediated PTEN hypermethylation caused the loss of PTEN expression, followed by the activation of the PI3K/AKT and ERK pathways, resulting in HSC activation. Highlights: ► PTEN methylation status and loss of PTEN expression ► DNMT1 mediated PTEN hypermethylation. ► Hypermethylation of PTEN contributes to the activation of ERK and AKT pathways.

  1. PTEN deletion enhances survival, neurite outgrowth and function of dopamine neuron grafts to MitoPark mice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, YaJun; Granholm, Ann-Charlotte; Huh, Kyounghee; Shan, Lufei; Diaz-Ruiz, Oscar; Malik, Nasir; Olson, Lars; Hoffer, Barry J; Lupica, Carl R; Hoffman, Alexander F; Bäckman, Cristina M

    2012-09-01

    Clinical trials in Parkinson's disease have shown that transplants of embryonic mesencephalic dopamine neurons form new functional connections within the host striatum, but the therapeutic benefits have been highly variable. One obstacle has been poor survival and integration of grafted dopamine neurons. Activation of Akt, a serine/threonine kinase that promotes cell survival and growth, increases the ability of neurons to survive after injury and to regenerate lost neuronal connections. Because the lipid phosphatase, phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) inhibits Akt, we generated a mouse with conditional knock-out of PTEN in dopamine neurons, leading to constitutive expression of Akt in these neurons. Ventral mesencephalic tissue from dopamine phosphatase and tensin homologue knock-out or control animals was then transplanted bilaterally into the dopamine depleted striata of MitoPark mice that express a parkinsonian phenotype because of severe respiratory chain dysfunction in dopamine neurons. After transplantation into MitoPark mice, PTEN-deficient dopamine neurons were less susceptible to cell death, and exhibited a more extensive pattern of fibre outgrowth compared to control grafts. Voltammetric measurements demonstrated that dopamine release and reuptake were significantly increased in the striata of animals receiving dopamine PTEN knock-out transplants. These animals also displayed enhanced spontaneous and drug-induced locomotor activity, relative to control transplanted MitoPark mice. Our results suggest that disinhibition of the Akt-signalling pathway may provide a valuable strategy to enhance survival, function and integration of grafted dopamine neurons within the host striatum and, more generally, to improve survival and integration of different forms of neural grafts. PMID:22961549

  2. PTEN deletion enhances survival, neurite outgrowth and function of dopamine neuron grafts to MitoPark mice

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, YaJun; Granholm, Ann-Charlotte; Huh, Kyounghee; Shan, Lufei; Diaz-Ruiz, Oscar; Malik, Nasir; Olson, Lars; Hoffer, Barry J.; Lupica, Carl R.; Hoffman, Alexander F.

    2012-01-01

    Clinical trials in Parkinson’s disease have shown that transplants of embryonic mesencephalic dopamine neurons form new functional connections within the host striatum, but the therapeutic benefits have been highly variable. One obstacle has been poor survival and integration of grafted dopamine neurons. Activation of Akt, a serine/threonine kinase that promotes cell survival and growth, increases the ability of neurons to survive after injury and to regenerate lost neuronal connections. Because the lipid phosphatase, phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) inhibits Akt, we generated a mouse with conditional knock-out of PTEN in dopamine neurons, leading to constitutive expression of Akt in these neurons. Ventral mesencephalic tissue from dopamine phosphatase and tensin homologue knock-out or control animals was then transplanted bilaterally into the dopamine depleted striata of MitoPark mice that express a parkinsonian phenotype because of severe respiratory chain dysfunction in dopamine neurons. After transplantation into MitoPark mice, PTEN-deficient dopamine neurons were less susceptible to cell death, and exhibited a more extensive pattern of fibre outgrowth compared to control grafts. Voltammetric measurements demonstrated that dopamine release and reuptake were significantly increased in the striata of animals receiving dopamine PTEN knock-out transplants. These animals also displayed enhanced spontaneous and drug-induced locomotor activity, relative to control transplanted MitoPark mice. Our results suggest that disinhibition of the Akt-signalling pathway may provide a valuable strategy to enhance survival, function and integration of grafted dopamine neurons within the host striatum and, more generally, to improve survival and integration of different forms of neural grafts. PMID:22961549

  3. Oncogenic and Therapeutic Targeting of PTEN Loss in Bone Malignancies.

    PubMed

    Xi, Yongming; Chen, Yan

    2015-09-01

    Being a tumor suppressor, PTEN functions as a dual-specificity protein and phospholipid phosphatase and regulates a variety of cellular processes and signal transduction pathways. Loss of PTEN function has been detected frequently in different forms of cancers, such as breast, prostate and lung cancer, gastric and colon cancer, skin cancer, as well as endometrial carcinoma. In this review, we provide a summary of PTEN and its role in bone malignancies including bone metastases, multiple myeloma, and osteosarcoma, etc. We highlight the importance of PTEN loss leading to activation of the oncogenic PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway in tumorigenesis and progression, which can be attributed to both genetic and non-genetic alterations involving gene mutation, loss of heterozygosity, promoter hypermethylation, and microRNA mediated negative regulation. We also discuss the emerging therapeutic applications targeting PTEN loss for the treatment of these bone malignant diseases. PMID:25773992

  4. Role of PTEN in neutrophil extracellular trap formation.

    PubMed

    Teimourian, Shahram; Moghanloo, Ehsan

    2015-08-01

    NETosis has been associated with a particular mode of cell death although it is still controversial as to what extent autophagy is involved in NETosis. Class I/AKT/mTOR pathway is a key regulator of autophagy. PTEN tumor suppressor gene encodes a dual specificity phosphatase that antagonizes the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase in class the I/AKT/mTOR pathway. In this study, we investigated the effects of PTEN down-regulation as well as overexpression on NETosis. Our results show that 35% of HL-60 differentiated neutrophil-like cells generated NETs by PMA. The portion of the population that produced NETs in PTEN knockdown HL-60 differentiated neutrophils was 9% and in PTEN overexpressed HL-60 differentiated neutrophils, it was 56%. Our results show that increasing PTEN expression increases NETs formation in neutrophils, and its suppression reduces NETs. PMID:25913476

  5. Lipid phosphate phosphatase 3 participates in transport carrier formation and protein trafficking in the early secretory pathway.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez-Martínez, Enric; Fernández-Ulibarri, Inés; Lázaro-Diéguez, Francisco; Johannes, Ludger; Pyne, Susan; Sarri, Elisabet; Egea, Gustavo

    2013-06-15

    The inhibition of phosphatidic acid phosphatase (PAP) activity by propanolol indicates that diacylglycerol (DAG) is required for the formation of transport carriers at the Golgi and for retrograde trafficking to the ER. Here we report that the PAP2 family member lipid phosphate phosphatase 3 (LPP3, also known as PAP2b) localizes in compartments of the secretory pathway from ER export sites to the Golgi complex. The depletion of human LPP3: (i) reduces the number of tubules generated from the ER-Golgi intermediate compartment and the Golgi, with those formed from the Golgi being longer in LPP3-silenced cells than in control cells; (ii) impairs the Rab6-dependent retrograde transport of Shiga toxin subunit B from the Golgi to the ER, but not the anterograde transport of VSV-G or ssDsRed; and (iii) induces a high accumulation of Golgi-associated membrane buds. LPP3 depletion also reduces levels of de novo synthesized DAG and the Golgi-associated DAG contents. Remarkably, overexpression of a catalytically inactive form of LPP3 mimics the effects of LPP3 knockdown on Rab6-dependent retrograde transport. We conclude that LPP3 participates in the formation of retrograde transport carriers at the ER-Golgi interface, where it transitorily cycles, and during its route to the plasma membrane. PMID:23591818

  6. Estrogen receptor beta (ERβ) produces autophagy and necroptosis in human seminoma cell line through the binding of the Sp1 on the phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted from chromosome 10 (PTEN) promoter gene.

    PubMed

    Guido, Carmela; Panza, Salvatore; Santoro, Marta; Avena, Paola; Panno, Maria Luisa; Perrotta, Ida; Giordano, Francesca; Casaburi, Ivan; Catalano, Stefania; De Amicis, Francesca; Sotgia, Federica; Lisanti, Michael P; Andò, Sebastiano; Aquila, Saveria

    2012-08-01

    Testicular germ cell tumors are the most common tumor in male and the least studied. We focused on human seminoma using the TCAM2 cell line. Through ERβ, 10 nM estradiol (E2) was able to induce PTEN gene expression and promoter transactivation. Transient transfections, ChIP and EMSA assays evidenced the 5'-flanking region of PTEN gene promoter E2-responsive. The ERβ binding to the Sp1 on PTEN promoter decreased cell survival. The presence of ERβ or PTEN is necessary to induce the loss of cell survival upon E2, addressing their cooperation in this action. pAKT and AKT expression decreased under E2 and DPN, while known apoptotic markers appeared to be unchanged. The PI3K/AKT pathway inhibition also leads to autophagy: E2 and DPN enhanced the expression of autophagy-related markers such as PI3III, Beclin 1, AMBRA and UVRAG. MDC and TEM assays confirmed E2-induced autophagy. The absence of DNA fragmentation, caspase 9 and PARP1 cleavages suggested that necroptosis and/or parthanatos may occur. FACS analysis, LDH assay and RIP1 expression attested this hypothesis. Our study reveals a unique mechanism through which ERβ/PTEN signaling induces cell death in TCAM2 by autophagy and necroptosis. These data, supporting estrogen-dependency of human seminoma, propose ERβ ligands for therapeutic use in the treatment of this pathological condition. PMID:22810004

  7. Activating PTEN by COX-2 inhibitors antagonizes radiation-induced AKT activation contributing to radiosensitization

    SciTech Connect

    Meng, Zhen; Gan, Ye-Hua

    2015-05-01

    Radiotherapy is still one of the most effective nonsurgical treatments for many tumors. However, radioresistance remains a major impediment to radiotherapy. Although COX-2 inhibitors can induce radiosensitization, the underlying mechanism is not fully understood. In this study, we showed that COX-2 selective inhibitor celecoxib enhanced the radiation-induced inhibition of cell proliferation and apoptosis in HeLa and SACC-83 cells. Treatment with celecoxib alone dephosphorylated phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome ten (PTEN), promoted PTEN membrane translocation or activation, and correspondingly dephosphorylated or inactivated protein kinase B (AKT). By contrast, treatment with radiation alone increased PTEN phosphorylation, inhibited PTEN membrane translocation and correspondingly activated AKT in the two cell lines. However, treatment with celecoxib or another COX-2 selective inhibitor (valdecoxib) completely blocked radiation-induced increase of PTEN phosphorylation, rescued radiation-induced decrease in PTEN membrane translocation, and correspondingly inactivated AKT. Moreover, celecoxib could also upregulate PTEN protein expression by downregulating Sp1 expression, thereby leading to the activation of PTEN transcription. Our results suggested that COX-2 inhibitors could enhance radiosensitization at least partially by activating PTEN to antagonize radiation-induced AKT activation. - Highlights: • COX-2 inhibitor, celecoxib, could enhance radiosensitization. • Radiation induced PTEN inactivation (phosphorylation) and AKT activation. • COX-2 inhibitor induced PTEN expression and activation, and inactivated AKT. • COX-2 inhibitor enhanced radiosensitization through activating PTEN.

  8. When the guardian becomes the enemy: Targeting ATM in PTEN-deficient cancers

    PubMed Central

    McCabe, Nuala; Walker, Steven M; Kennedy, Richard D

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) is an important signaling molecule in the DNA damage response and inhibitors of ATM are under clinical development. We identified a synthetic lethal interaction between ATM inhibition and phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) loss that was the result of increased oxidative stress. Inhibition of ATM therefore represents a novel strategy to target PTEN-associated cancers. PMID:27308567

  9. When the guardian becomes the enemy: Targeting ATM in PTEN-deficient cancers.

    PubMed

    McCabe, Nuala; Walker, Steven M; Kennedy, Richard D

    2016-01-01

    Ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) is an important signaling molecule in the DNA damage response and inhibitors of ATM are under clinical development. We identified a synthetic lethal interaction between ATM inhibition and phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) loss that was the result of increased oxidative stress. Inhibition of ATM therefore represents a novel strategy to target PTEN-associated cancers. PMID:27308567

  10. Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Progression in Rats is Accelerated by Splenic Regulation of Liver PTEN/AKT

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ziming; Li, Naishu; Wang, Biao; Lin, Jianhua

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aim: The spleen has been reported to participate in the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), but the mechanism has not been fully characterized. This study aims to elucidate how the spleen affects the development of NAFLD in a rat model. Materials and Methods: Following either splenectomy or sham operation, male Sprague–Dawley (SD) rats were fed a high-fat diet to drive the development of NAFLD; animals fed a normal diet were used as controls. Two months after surgery, livers and blood samples were collected. Serum lipids were measured; liver histology, phosphatase and tensin homologue deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN) gene expression, and the ratio of pAkt/Akt were determined. Results: Splenectomy increased serum lipids, except triglyceride (TG) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL), in animals fed either a high-fat or normal diet. Furthermore, splenectomy significantly accelerated hepatic steatosis. Western blot analysis and real-time polymerase chain reaction showed splenectomy induced significant downregulation of PTEN expression and a high ratio of pAkt/Akt in the livers. Conclusions: The spleen appears to play a role in the development of NAFLD, via a mechanism involving downregulation of hepatic PTEN expression. PMID:26228367

  11. Relation of fatty acid composition in lead-exposed mallards to fat mobilization, lipid peroxidation and alkaline phosphatase activity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mateo, R.; Beyer, W.N.; Spann, J.W.; Hoffman, D.J.

    2003-01-01

    The increase of n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in animal tissues has been proposed as a mechanism of Pb poisoning through lipid peroxidation or altered eicosanoids metabolism. We have studied fatty acid (FA) composition in liver and brain of mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) feeding for three weeks on diets containing combinations of low or high levels of vitamin E (20 or 200 UI/kg) and Pb (0 or 2 g/kg). Saturated FA, n-6 PUFA and total concentrations of FA were higher in livers of Pb-exposed mallards, but not in their brains. The percentage of n-6 PUFA in liver and brain was slightly higher in Pb-exposed mallards. The increase of n-6 PUFA in liver was associated with increased triglycerides and cholesterol in plasma, thus could be in part attributed to feed refusal and fat mobilization. The hepatic ratios between adrenic acid (22:4 n-6) and arachidonic acid (20:4 n-6) or between adrenic acid and linoleic acid (18:2 n-6) were higher in Pb exposed birds, supporting the existing hypothesis of increased fatty acid elongation by Pb. Among the possible consequences of increased n-6 PUFA concentration in tissues, we found increased lipid peroxidation in liver without important histopathological changes, and decreased plasma alkaline phosphatase activity that may reflect altered bone metabolism in birds.

  12. New Functions of the Inositol Polyphosphate 5-Phosphatases in Cancer.

    PubMed

    Erneux, Christophe; Ghosh, Somadri; Ramos, Ana Raquel; Edimo, William's Elong

    2016-01-01

    Inositol polyphosphate 5-phosphatases act on inositol phosphates and phosphoinositides as substrates. They are 10 different isoenzymes and several splice variants in the human genome that are involved in a series of human pathologies such as the Lowe syndrome, the Joubert and MORM syndromes, breast cancer, glioblastoma, gastric cancer and several other type of cancers. Inositol 5-phosphatases can be amplified in human cancer cells, whereas the 3- and 4- phosphatase tumor suppressor PTEN and INPP4B, repectively are often repressed or deleted. The inositol 5-phosphatases are critically involved in a complex network of higly regulated phosphoinositides, affecting the lipid content of PI(3, 4, 5)P3, PI(4, 5)P2 and PI(3, 4)P2. This has an impact on the normal behavior of many intracellular target proteins e.g. protein kinase B (PKB/Akt) or actin binding proteins and final biological responses. The production of PI(3, 4P)2 by dephosphorylation of the substrate PI(3, 4, 5)P3 is particularly important as it produces a new signal messenger in the control of cell migration, invasion and endocytosis. New inhibitors/activators of inositol 5- phosphatases have recently been identified for the possible control of their activity in several human pathologies such as inflamation and cancer. PMID:26916021

  13. Loss of Catalytically Inactive Lipid Phosphatase Myotubularin-related Protein 12 Impairs Myotubularin Stability and Promotes Centronuclear Myopathy in Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Vandana A.; Hnia, Karim; Smith, Laura L.; Gundry, Stacey R.; McIntire, Jessica E.; Shimazu, Junko; Bass, Jessica R.; Talbot, Ethan A.; Amoasii, Leonela; Goldman, Nathaniel E.; Laporte, Jocelyn; Beggs, Alan H.

    2013-01-01

    X-linked myotubular myopathy (XLMTM) is a congenital disorder caused by mutations of the myotubularin gene, MTM1. Myotubularin belongs to a large family of conserved lipid phosphatases that include both catalytically active and inactive myotubularin-related proteins (i.e., “MTMRs”). Biochemically, catalytically inactive MTMRs have been shown to form heteroligomers with active members within the myotubularin family through protein-protein interactions. However, the pathophysiological significance of catalytically inactive MTMRs remains unknown in muscle. By in vitro as well as in vivo studies, we have identified that catalytically inactive myotubularin-related protein 12 (MTMR12) binds to myotubularin in skeletal muscle. Knockdown of the mtmr12 gene in zebrafish resulted in skeletal muscle defects and impaired motor function. Analysis of mtmr12 morphant fish showed pathological changes with central nucleation, disorganized Triads, myofiber hypotrophy and whorled membrane structures similar to those seen in X-linked myotubular myopathy. Biochemical studies showed that deficiency of MTMR12 results in reduced levels of myotubularin protein in zebrafish and mammalian C2C12 cells. Loss of myotubularin also resulted in reduction of MTMR12 protein in C2C12 cells, mice and humans. Moreover, XLMTM mutations within the myotubularin interaction domain disrupted binding to MTMR12 in cell culture. Analysis of human XLMTM patient myotubes showed that mutations that disrupt the interaction between myotubularin and MTMR12 proteins result in reduction of both myotubularin and MTMR12. These studies strongly support the concept that interactions between myotubularin and MTMR12 are required for the stability of their functional protein complex in normal skeletal muscles. This work highlights an important physiological function of catalytically inactive phosphatases in the pathophysiology of myotubular myopathy and suggests a novel therapeutic approach through identification of

  14. TBX2 represses PTEN in rhabdomyosarcoma and skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Zhu, B; Zhang, M; Williams, E M; Keller, C; Mansoor, A; Davie, J K

    2016-08-11

    Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) is the most frequent soft tissue sarcoma in children that shares many features of developing skeletal muscle. TBX2, a T-box family member, is highly upregulated in tumor cells of both major RMS subtypes where it functions as an oncogene. TBX2 is a repressor that is often overexpressed in cancer cells and functions in bypassing cell growth control, including the repression of the cell cycle regulators p14 and p21. We have found that TBX2 directly represses the tumor-suppressor phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) in both RMS and normal muscle. Exogenous expression of TBX2 in normal muscle cells downregulates PTEN, and depletion or interference with TBX2 in RMS cells upregulates PTEN. Human RMS tumors show high levels of TBX2 and correspondingly low levels of PTEN. The expression of PTEN in clinical RMS samples is relatively uncharacterized, and we establish that suppression of PTEN is a frequent event in both subtypes of RMS. TBX2 represses PTEN by directly binding to the promoter and recruiting the histone deacetylase, HDAC1. RMS cells have high levels of activated AKT owing to the deregulation of phosphoinositide-3 kinase (PI3K) signaling, and depletion or interference with TBX2, which upregulates PTEN, results in a reduction of phospho-AKT. We have also found that the highly related T-box family member TBX3 does not repress PTEN in the muscle lineage. This work suggests that TBX2 is a central component of the PTEN/PI3K/AKT signaling pathway deregulation in RMS cells and that targeting TBX2 in RMS tumors may offer a novel therapeutic approach for RMS. PMID:26686089

  15. Discovery and functional characterization of a neomorphic PTEN mutation

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Helio A.; Leitner, Michael G.; Sos, Martin L.; Mavrantoni, Angeliki; Rychkova, Anna; Johnson, Jeffrey R.; Newton, Billy W.; Yee, Muh-Ching; De La Vega, Francisco M.; Ford, James M.; Krogan, Nevan J.; Shokat, Kevan M.; Oliver, Dominik; Halaszovich, Christian R.; Bustamante, Carlos D.

    2015-01-01

    Although a variety of genetic alterations have been found across cancer types, the identification and functional characterization of candidate driver genetic lesions in an individual patient and their translation into clinically actionable strategies remain major hurdles. Here, we use whole genome sequencing of a prostate cancer tumor, computational analyses, and experimental validation to identify and predict novel oncogenic activity arising from a point mutation in the phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) tumor suppressor protein. We demonstrate that this mutation (p.A126G) produces an enzymatic gain-of-function in PTEN, shifting its function from a phosphoinositide (PI) 3-phosphatase to a phosphoinositide (PI) 5-phosphatase. Using cellular assays, we demonstrate that this gain-of-function activity shifts cellular phosphoinositide levels, hyperactivates the PI3K/Akt cell proliferation pathway, and exhibits increased cell migration beyond canonical PTEN loss-of-function mutants. These findings suggest that mutationally modified PTEN can actively contribute to well-defined hallmarks of cancer. Lastly, we demonstrate that these effects can be substantially mitigated through chemical PI3K inhibitors. These results demonstrate a new dysfunction paradigm for PTEN cancer biology and suggest a potential framework for the translation of genomic data into actionable clinical strategies for targeted patient therapy. PMID:26504226

  16. Combined PDGFR and HDAC Inhibition Overcomes PTEN Disruption in Chordoma

    PubMed Central

    Kassam, Amin B.; Park, Myung-Jin; Gardner, Paul; Prevedello, Daniel; Henry, Stephanie; Horbinski, Craig; Beumer, Jan H.; Tawbi, Hussein; Williams, Brian J.; Shaffrey, Mark E.; Egorin, Merrill J.; Abounader, Roger; Park, Deric M.

    2015-01-01

    Background The majority of chordomas show activation of the platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR). Based on in vitro intertumoral variation in response to recombinant PDGF protein and PDGFR inhibition, and variable tumor response to imatinib, we hypothesized that chordomas resistant to PDGFR inhibition may possess downstream activation of the pathway. Methods Molecular profiling was performed on 23 consecutive chordoma primary tissue specimens. Primary cultures established from 20 of the 23 specimens, and chordoma cell lines, UCH-1 and UCH-2, were used for in vitro experiments. Results Loss of heterozygosity (LOH) at the phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) locus was observed in 6 specimens (26%). PTEN disruption statistically correlated with increased Ki-67 proliferation index, an established marker of poor outcome for chordoma. Compared to wild type, PTEN deficient chordomas displayed increased proliferative rate, and responded less favorably to PDGFR inhibition. PTEN gene restoration abrogated this growth advantage. Chordomas are characterized by intratumoral hypoxia and local invasion, and histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors are capable of attenuating both hypoxic signaling and cell migration. The combination of PDGFR and HDAC inhibition effectively disrupted growth and invasion of PTEN deficient chordoma cells. Conclusions Loss of heterozygosity of the PTEN gene seen in a subset of chordomas is associated with aggressive in vitro behavior and strongly correlates with increased Ki-67 proliferative index. Combined inhibition of PDGFR and HDAC attenuates proliferation and invasion in chordoma cells deficient for PTEN. PMID:26247786

  17. The Optimization of Soluble PTEN Expression in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Yamei; An, Yang; Fang, Na; Li, Yanzhang; Jin, Haiying; Nazarali, Adil; Ji, Shaoping

    2015-01-01

    As a vital tumor suppressor, PTEN (Phosphatase and tension homolog deleted on chromosome 10) is involved in inherited syndromes, and is among the most frequently inactivated tumor suppressor gene in sporadic cancers. PTEN loss-of-function widely occurs in human cancers via a variety of mechanisms, including genetic alterations and posttranslational modification. These suggest PTEN has a role of functional importance in a variety of cancers. In the present study, we constructed a prokaryotic expression vector that efficiently expresses GST-PTEN (the target protein in which PTEN is fused with glutathione S-transferase tag) in E. coli. We found that the target protein was partially soluble although major portions of the protein remained in the inclusion bodies. Furthermore, we explored the optimal induction temperature, isopropyl β-D-1-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG) concentration and induction time in a series of experiments. Expression level analysis indicated that PTEN reached its peak level at 36○C for 8 h with 1.5625mM IPTG, while solubility analysis revealed the optimal induction temperature was at 20○C, the optimal IPTG concentration was 0.1µM and the optimal induction time was up to 8 h. Taken together, we provide an optimal induction condition for expressing soluble fusion protein of PTEN in E. coli, facilitating further analysis of PTEN’s biological function in vitro. PMID:26464590

  18. Physical Foundations of PTEN/Phosphoinositide Interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gericke, Arne; Jiang, Zhiping; Redfern, Roberta E.; Kooijman, Edgar E.; Ross, Alonzo H.

    2009-03-01

    Phosphoinositides act as signaling molecules by recruiting critical effectors to specific subcellular membranes to regulate cell proliferation, apoptosis and cytoskeletal reorganization, which requires a tight regulation of phosphoinositide generation and turnover as well as a high degree of compartmentalization. PTEN is a phosphatase specific for the 3 position of the phosophoinositide ring that is deleted or mutated in many different disease states. PTEN association with membranes requires the interaction of its C2 domain with phosphatidylserine and the interaction of its N-terminal end with phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphophate (PI(4,5)P2). We have investigated PTEN/PI(4,5)P2 interaction and found that Lys13 is crucial for the observed binding. We also found that the presence of cholesterol enhances PTEN binding to mixed PI(4,5)P2/POPC vesicles. Fluorescence microscopy experiments utilizing GUVs yielded results consistent with enhanced phosphoinositide domain formation in the presence of cholesterol. These experiments were accompanied by zeta potential measurements and solid state MAS ^31P-NMR experiments aimed at investigating the ionization behavior of phosphoinositides.

  19. Lipid phosphate phosphatase-1 expression in cancer cells attenuates tumor growth and metastasis in mice[S

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Xiaoyun; Benesch, Matthew G. K.; Dewald, Jay; Zhao, Yuan Y.; Patwardhan, Neeraj; Santos, Webster L.; Curtis, Jonathan M.; McMullen, Todd P. W.; Brindley, David N.

    2014-01-01

    Lipid phosphate phosphatase-1 (LPP1) degrades lysophosphatidate (LPA) and attenuates receptor-mediated signaling. LPP1 expression is low in many cancer cells and tumors compared with normal tissues. It was hypothesized from studies with cultured cells that increasing LPP1 activity would decrease tumor growth and metastasis. This hypothesis has never been tested in vivo. To do this, we inducibly expressed LPP1 or a catalytically inactive mutant in cancer cells. Expressing active LPP1 increased extracellular LPA degradation by 5-fold. It also decreased the stimulation of Ca2+ transients by LPA, a nondephosphorylatable LPA1/2 receptor agonist and a protease-activated receptor-1 peptide. The latter results demonstrate that LPP1 has effects downstream of receptor activation. Decreased Ca2+ mobilization and Rho activation contributed to the effects of LPP1 in attenuating the LPA-induced migration of MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells and their growth in 3D culture. Increasing LPP1 expression in breast and thyroid cancer cells decreased tumor growth and the metastasis by up to 80% compared with expression of inactive LPP1 or green fluorescent protein in syngeneic and xenograft mouse models. The present work demonstrates for the first time that increasing the LPP1 activity in three lines of aggressive cancer cells decreases their abilities to produce tumors and metastases in mice. PMID:25210149

  20. Inhibition of lipid phosphate phosphatase activity by VPC32183 suppresses the ability of diacylglycerol pyrophosphate to activate ERK(1/2) MAP kinases.

    PubMed

    Violet, Pierre-Christian; Billon-Denis, Emmanuelle; Robin, Philippe

    2012-11-01

    The lipidic metabolite, diacylglycerol pyrophosphate (DGPP), in its dioctanoyl form (DGPP 8:0), has been described as an antagonist for mammalian lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) receptors LPA1 and LPA3. In this study we show that DGPP 8:0 does not antagonize LPA dependent activation of ERK(1/2) MAP kinases but strongly stimulated them in various mammalian cell lines. LPA and DGPP 8:0 stimulation of ERK(1/2) occurred through different pathways. The DGPP 8:0 effect appeared to be dependent on PKC, Raf and MEK but was insensitive to pertussis toxin and did not involve G protein activation. Finally we showed that DGPP 8:0 effect on ERK(1/2) was dependent on its dephosphorylation by a phosphatase activity sharing lipid phosphate phosphatase properties. The inhibition of this phosphatase activity by VPC32183, a previously characterized LPA receptor antagonist, blocked the DGPP 8:0 effect on ERK(1/2) activation. Moreover, down-regulation of lipid phosphate phosphatase 1 (LPP1) expression by RNA interference technique also reduced DGPP 8:0-induced ERK(1/2) activation. Consistently, over expression of LPP1 in HEK293 cells increases DGPP 8:0 hydrolysis and this increased activity was inhibited by VPC32183. In conclusion, DGPP 8:0 does not exert its effect by acting on a G protein coupled receptor, but through its dephosphorylation by LPP1, generating dioctanoyl phosphatidic acid which in turn activates PKC. These results suggest that LPP1 could have a positive regulatory function on cellular signaling processes such as ERK(1/2) activation. PMID:22820196

  1. PTEN inhibition and axon regeneration and neural repair

    PubMed Central

    Ohtake, Yosuke; Hayat, Umar; Li, Shuxin

    2015-01-01

    The intrinsic growth ability of all the neurons declines during development although some may grow better than others. Numerous intracellular signaling proteins and transcription factors have been shown to regulate the intrinsic growth capacity in mature neurons. Among them, PI3 kinase/Akt pathway is important for controlling axon elongation. As a negative regulator of this pathway, the tumor suppressor phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) appears critical to control the regenerative ability of young and adult neurons. This review will focus on recent research progress in axon regeneration and neural repair by PTEN inhibition and therapeutic potential of blocking this phosphatase for neurological disorders. Inhibition of PTEN by deletion in conditional knockout mice, knockdown by short-hairpin RNA, or blockade by pharmacological approaches, including administration of selective PTEN antagonist peptides, stimulates various degrees of axon regrowth in juvenile or adult rodents with central nervous system injuries. Importantly, post-injury PTEN suppression could enhance axonal growth and functional recovery in adult central nervous system after injury. PMID:26604880

  2. The C-terminal tail inhibitory phosphorylation sites of PTEN regulate its intrinsic catalytic activity and the kinetics of its binding to phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate.

    PubMed

    Chia, Yeong-Chit Joel; Catimel, Bruno; Lio, Daisy Sio Seng; Ang, Ching-Seng; Peng, Benjamin; Wu, Hong; Zhu, Hong-Jian; Cheng, Heung-Chin

    2015-12-01

    Dephosphorylation of four major C-terminal tail sites and occupancy of the phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate [PI(4,5)P2]-binding site of PTEN cooperate to activate its phospholipid phosphatase activity and facilitate its recruitment to plasma membrane. Our investigation of the mechanism by which phosphorylation of these C-terminal sites controls the PI(4,5)P2-binding affinity and catalytic activity of PTEN resulted in the following findings. First, dephosphorylation of all four sites leads to full activation; and phosphorylation of any one site significantly reduces the intrinsic catalytic activity of PTEN. These findings suggest that coordinated inhibition of the upstream protein kinases and activation of the protein phosphatases targeting the four sites are needed to fully activate PTEN phosphatase activity. Second, PI(4,5)P2 cannot activate the phosphopeptide phosphatase activity of PTEN, suggesting that PI(4,5)P2 can only activate the phospholipid phosphatase activity but not the phosphoprotein phosphatase activity of PTEN. Third, dephosphorylation of all four sites significantly decreases the affinity of PTEN for PI(4,5)P2. Since PI(4,5)P2 is a major phospholipid co-localizing with the phospholipid- and phosphoprotein-substrates in plasma membrane, we hypothesise that the reduced affinity facilitates PTEN to "hop" on the plasma membrane to dephosphorylate these substrates. PMID:26471078

  3. [Relationship between PTEN mutations and protein kinase B phosphorylation caused by insulin or recombinant human epidermal growth factor stimulation].

    PubMed

    Zhong, Hailan; Hu, Xianfu; Lin, Jianhua

    2016-08-01

    Objective To study the effect of phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN) mutations on protein kinase B (Akt) phosphorylation of CNE-1 nasopharyngeal carcinoma cell line. Methods CNE-1 cells were cultured in RPMI1640 medium containing 100 mL/L fetal calf serum, and then transfected with wild-type PTEN (wtPTEN), mutant PTEN C124S and mutant PTEN G129E plasmid separately. After overnight serum starvation, the cells were stimulated with 0.15 IU/mL insulin or 0.3 μg/mL recombinant human epidermal growth factor (rhEGF). At last, Akt phosphorylation was evaluated by Western blotting. Results Insulin or rhEGF stimulation led to Akt activation in CNE-1 cells. The wtPTEN inhibited insulin- or rhEGF-stimulated phosphorylation of Akt. PTEN C124S mutant activated insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of Akt, but not rhEGF-stimulated phosphorylation of Akt. PTEN G129E mutant inhibited insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of Akt. Conclusion The wtPTEN inhibited insulin- or rhEGF-stimulated phosphorylation of Akt, while PTEN C124S and G129E mutants failed to activate the phosphorylation of Akt consistently. This suggested PTEN mutations might not be correlated with activated Akt. PMID:27412938

  4. Phosphatase and Tensin Homologue: Novel Regulation by Developmental Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Jerde, Travis J.

    2015-01-01

    Phosphatase and tensin homologue (PTEN) is a critical cell endogenous inhibitor of phosphoinositide signaling in mammalian cells. PTEN dephosphorylates phosphoinositide trisphosphate (PIP3), and by so doing PTEN has the function of negative regulation of Akt, thereby inhibiting this key intracellular signal transduction pathway. In numerous cell types, PTEN loss-of-function mutations result in unopposed Akt signaling, producing numerous effects on cells. Numerous reports exist regarding mutations in PTEN leading to unregulated Akt and human disease, most notably cancer. However, less is commonly known about nonmutational regulation of PTEN. This review focuses on an emerging literature on the regulation of PTEN at the transcriptional, posttranscriptional, translational, and posttranslational levels. Specifically, a focus is placed on the role developmental signaling pathways play in PTEN regulation; this includes insulin-like growth factor, NOTCH, transforming growth factor, bone morphogenetic protein, wnt, and hedgehog signaling. The regulation of PTEN by developmental mediators affects critical biological processes including neuronal and organ development, stem cell maintenance, cell cycle regulation, inflammation, response to hypoxia, repair and recovery, and cell death and survival. Perturbations of PTEN regulation consequently lead to human diseases such as cancer, chronic inflammatory syndromes, developmental abnormalities, diabetes, and neurodegeneration. PMID:26339505

  5. Adenovirus-mediated transfer of the PTEN gene inhibits human colorectal cancer growth in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Saito, Y; Swanson, X; Mhashilkar, A M; Oida, Y; Schrock, R; Branch, C D; Chada, S; Zumstein, L; Ramesh, R

    2003-11-01

    The tumor-suppressor gene PTEN encodes a multifunctional phosphatase that is mutated in a variety of human cancers. PTEN inhibits the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase pathway and downstream functions, including activation of Akt/protein kinase B (PKB), cell survival, and cell proliferation in tumor cells carrying mutant- or deletion-type PTEN. In such tumor cells, enforced expression of PTEN decreases cell proliferation through cell-cycle arrest at G1 phase accompanied, in some cases, by induction of apoptosis. More recently, the tumor-suppressive effect of PTEN has been reported in ovarian and thyroid tumors that are wild type for PTEN. In the present study, we examined the tumor-suppressive effect of PTEN in human colorectal cancer cells that are wild type for PTEN. Adenoviral-mediated transfer of PTEN (Ad-PTEN) suppressed cell growth and induced apoptosis significantly in colorectal cancer cells (DLD-1, HT29, and SW480) carrying wtPTEN than in normal colon fibroblast cells (CCD-18Co) carrying wtPTEN. This suppression was induced through downregulation of the Akt/PKB pathway, dephosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and cell-cycle arrest at the G2/M phase, but not the G1 phase. Furthermore, treatment of human colorectal tumor xenografts (HT-29, and SW480) with Ad-PTEN resulted in significant (P=0.01) suppression of tumor growth. These results indicate that Ad-PTEN exerts its tumor-suppressive effect on colorectal cancer cells through inhibition of cell-cycle progression and induction of cell death. Thus Ad-PTEN may be a potential therapeutic for treatment of colorectal cancers. PMID:14528320

  6. Lipid phosphate phosphatase inhibitors locally amplify lysophosphatidic acid LPA1 receptor signalling in rat brain cryosections without affecting global LPA degradation

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is a signalling phospholipid with multiple biological functions, mainly mediated through specific G protein-coupled receptors. Aberrant LPA signalling is being increasingly implicated in the pathology of common human diseases, such as arteriosclerosis and cancer. The lifetime of the signalling pool of LPA is controlled by the equilibrium between synthesizing and degradative enzymatic activity. In the current study, we have characterized these enzymatic pathways in rat brain by pharmacologically manipulating the enzymatic machinery required for LPA degradation. Results In rat brain cryosections, the lifetime of bioactive LPA was found to be controlled by Mg2+-independent, N-ethylmaleimide-insensitive phosphatase activity, attributed to lipid phosphate phosphatases (LPPs). Pharmacological inhibition of this LPP activity amplified LPA1 receptor signalling, as revealed using functional autoradiography. Although two LPP inhibitors, sodium orthovanadate and propranolol, locally amplified receptor responses, they did not affect global brain LPA phosphatase activity (also attributed to Mg2+-independent, N-ethylmaleimide-insensitive phosphatases), as confirmed by Pi determination and by LC/MS/MS. Interestingly, the phosphate analog, aluminium fluoride (AlFx-) not only irreversibly inhibited LPP activity thereby potentiating LPA1 receptor responses, but also totally prevented LPA degradation, however this latter effect was not essential in order to observe AlFx--dependent potentiation of receptor signalling. Conclusions We conclude that vanadate- and propranolol-sensitive LPP activity locally guards the signalling pool of LPA whereas the majority of brain LPA phosphatase activity is attributed to LPP-like enzymatic activity which, like LPP activity, is sensitive to AlFx- but resistant to the LPP inhibitors, vanadate and propranolol. PMID:22686545

  7. Prognostic value of PTEN loss in men with conservatively managed localised prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Cuzick, J; Yang, Z H; Fisher, G; Tikishvili, E; Stone, S; Lanchbury, J S; Camacho, N; Merson, S; Brewer, D; Cooper, C S; Clark, J; Berney, D M; Møller, H; Scardino, P; Sangale, Z

    2013-01-01

    Background: The natural history of prostate cancer is highly variable and difficult to predict. We report on the prognostic value of phosphatase and tensin homologue (PTEN) loss in a cohort of 675 men with conservatively managed prostate cancer diagnosed by transurethral resection of the prostate. Methods: The PTEN status was assayed by immunohistochemistry (PTEN IHC) and fluorescent in situ hybridisation (PTEN FISH). The primary end point was death from prostate cancer. Results: The PTEN IHC loss was observed in 18% cases. This was significantly associated with prostate cancer death in univariate analysis (hazard ratio (HR)=3.51; 95% CI 2.60–4.73; P=3.1 × 10−14). It was highly predictive of prostate cancer death in the 50% of patients with a low risk score based on Gleason score, PSA, Ki-67 and extent of disease (HR=7.4; 95% CI 2.2–24.6; P=0.012) ), but had no prognostic value in the higher risk patients. The PTEN FISH loss was only weakly associated with PTEN IHC loss (κ=0.5). Both PTEN FISH loss and amplification were univariately predictive of death from prostate cancer, but this was not maintained in the multivariate analyses. Conclusion: In low-risk patients, PTEN IHC loss adds prognostic value to Gleason score, PSA, Ki-67 and extent of disease. PMID:23695019

  8. Activating PTEN by COX-2 inhibitors antagonizes radiation-induced AKT activation contributing to radiosensitization.

    PubMed

    Meng, Zhen; Gan, Ye-Hua

    2015-05-01

    Radiotherapy is still one of the most effective nonsurgical treatments for many tumors. However, radioresistance remains a major impediment to radiotherapy. Although COX-2 inhibitors can induce radiosensitization, the underlying mechanism is not fully understood. In this study, we showed that COX-2 selective inhibitor celecoxib enhanced the radiation-induced inhibition of cell proliferation and apoptosis in HeLa and SACC-83 cells. Treatment with celecoxib alone dephosphorylated phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome ten (PTEN), promoted PTEN membrane translocation or activation, and correspondingly dephosphorylated or inactivated protein kinase B (AKT). By contrast, treatment with radiation alone increased PTEN phosphorylation, inhibited PTEN membrane translocation and correspondingly activated AKT in the two cell lines. However, treatment with celecoxib or another COX-2 selective inhibitor (valdecoxib) completely blocked radiation-induced increase of PTEN phosphorylation, rescued radiation-induced decrease in PTEN membrane translocation, and correspondingly inactivated AKT. Moreover, celecoxib could also upregulate PTEN protein expression by downregulating Sp1 expression, thereby leading to the activation of PTEN transcription. Our results suggested that COX-2 inhibitors could enhance radiosensitization at least partially by activating PTEN to antagonize radiation-induced AKT activation. PMID:25770423

  9. Endothelial lipid phosphate phosphatase-3 deficiency that disrupts the endothelial barrier function is a modifier of cardiovascular development

    PubMed Central

    Chatterjee, Ishita; Baruah, Jugajyoti; Lurie, Erin E.; Wary, Kishore K.

    2016-01-01

    Aims Lipid phosphate phosphatase-3 (LPP3) is expressed at high levels in endothelial cells (ECs). Although LPP3 is known to hydrolyse the phosphate group from lysolipids such as spingosine-1-phosphate and its structural homologues, the function of Lpp3 in ECs is not completely understood. In this study, we investigated how tyrosine-protein kinase receptor (TEK or Tie2) promoter–dependent deletion of Lpp3 alters EC activities. Methods and results Lpp3fl/fl mice were crossed with the tg.Tie2Cre transgenic line. Vasculogenesis occurred normally in embryos with Tie2Cre-mediated deletion of Lpp3 (called Lpp3ECKO), but embryonic lethality occurred in two waves, the first wave between E8.5 and E10.5, while the second between E11.5 and E13.5. Lethality in Lpp3ECKO embryos after E11.5 was accompanied by vascular leakage and haemorrhage, which likely resulted in insufficient cardiovascular development. Analyses of haematoxylin- and eosin-stained heart sections from E11.5 Lpp3ECKO embryos showed insufficient heart growth associated with decreased trabeculation, reduced growth of the compact wall, and absence of cardiac cushions. Staining followed by microscopic analyses of Lpp3ECKO embryos revealed the presence of apoptotic ECs. Furthermore, Lpp3-deficient ECs showed decreased gene expression and protein levels of Cyclin-D1, VE-cadherin, Fibronectin, Klf2, and Klf4. To determine the underlying mechanisms of vascular leakage and barrier disruption, we performed knockdown and rescue experiments in cultured ECs. LPP3 knockdown decreased transendothelial electrical resistance and increased permeability. Re-expression of β-catenin cDNA in LPP3-knockdown ECs partially restored the effect of the LPP3 loss, whereas re-expression of p120ctn cDNA did not. Conclusion These findings demonstrate the essential roles of LPP3 in the maturation of EC barrier integrity and normal cardiovascular development. PMID:27125875

  10. Lipid rafts regulate PCB153-induced disruption of occludin and brain endothelial barrier function through protein phosphatase 2A and matrix metalloproteinase-2.

    PubMed

    Eum, Sung Yong; Jaraki, Dima; András, Ibolya E; Toborek, Michal

    2015-09-15

    Occludin is an essential integral transmembrane protein regulating tight junction (TJ) integrity in brain endothelial cells. Phosphorylation of occludin is associated with its localization to TJ sites and incorporation into intact TJ assembly. The present study is focused on the role of lipid rafts in polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-induced disruption of occludin and endothelial barrier function. Exposure of human brain endothelial cells to 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB153) induced dephosphorylation of threonine residues of occludin and displacement of occludin from detergent-resistant membrane (DRM)/lipid raft fractions within 1h. Moreover, lipid rafts modulated the reduction of occludin level through activation of matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2) after 24h PCB153 treatment. Inhibition of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) activity by okadaic acid or fostriecin markedly protected against PCB153-induced displacement of occludin and increased permeability of endothelial cells. The implication of lipid rafts and PP2A signaling in these processes was further defined by co-immunoprecipitation of occludin with PP2A and caveolin-1, a marker protein of lipid rafts. Indeed, a significant MMP-2 activity was observed in lipid rafts and was increased by exposure to PCB153. The pretreatment of MMP-2 inhibitors protected against PCB153-induced loss of occludin and disruption of lipid raft structure prevented the increase of endothelial permeability. Overall, these results indicate that lipid raft-associated processes, such as PP2A and MMP-2 activation, participate in PCB153-induced disruption of occludin function in brain endothelial barrier. This study contributes to a better understanding of the mechanisms leading to brain endothelial barrier dysfunction in response to exposure to environmental pollutants, such as ortho-substituted PCBs. PMID:26080028

  11. Lipid Emulsion Inhibits Vasodilation Induced by a Toxic Dose of Bupivacaine via Attenuated Dephosphorylation of Myosin Phosphatase Target Subunit 1 in Isolated Rat Aorta

    PubMed Central

    Ok, Seong-Ho; Byon, Hyo-Jin; Kwon, Seong-Chun; Park, Jungchul; Lee, Youngju; Hwang, Yeran; Baik, Jiseok; Choi, Mun-Jeoung; Sohn, Ju-Tae

    2015-01-01

    Lipid emulsions are widely used for the treatment of systemic toxicity that arises from local anesthetics. The goal of this in vitro study was to examine the cellular mechanism associated with the lipid emulsion-mediated attenuation of vasodilation induced by a toxic dose of bupivacaine in isolated endothelium-denuded rat aorta. The effects of lipid emulsion on vasodilation induced by bupivacaine, mepivacaine, and verapamil were assessed in isolated aorta precontracted with phenylephrine, the Rho kinase stimulant NaF, and the protein kinase C activator phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate (PDBu). The effects of Rho kinase inhibitor Y-27632 on contraction induced by phenylephrine or NaF were assessed. The effects of bupivacaine on intracellular calcium concentrations ([Ca2+]i) and tension induced by NaF were simultaneously measured. The effects of bupivacaine alone and lipid emulsion plus bupivacaine on myosin phosphatase target subunit 1 (MYPT1) phosphorylation induced by NaF were examined in rat aortic vascular smooth muscle cells. In precontracted aorta, the lipid emulsion attenuated bupivacaine-induced vasodilation but had no effect on mepivacaine-induced vasodilation. Y-27632 attenuated contraction induced by either phenylephrine or NaF. The lipid emulsion attenuated verapamil-induced vasodilation. Compared with phenylephrine-induced precontracted aorta, bupivacaine-induced vasodilation was slightly attenuated in NaF-induced precontracted aorta. The magnitude of the bupivacaine-induced vasodilation was higher than that of a bupivacaine-induced decrease in [Ca2+]i. Bupivacaine attenuated NaF-induced MYPT1 phosphorylation, whereas lipid emulsion pretreatment attenuated the bupivacaine-induced inhibition of MYPT1 phosphorylation induced by NaF. Taken together, these results suggest that lipid emulsions attenuate bupivacaine-induced vasodilation via the attenuation of inhibition of MYPT1 phosphorylation evoked by NaF. PMID:26664257

  12. Inhibition of autophagy induced by PTEN loss promotes intrinsic breast cancer resistance to trastuzumab therapy.

    PubMed

    Ning, Liao; Guo-Chun, Zhang; Sheng-Li, An; Xue-Rui, Li; Kun, Wang; Jian, Zu; Chong-Yang, Ren; Ling-Zhu, Wen; Hai-Tong, Lv

    2016-04-01

    This study aims to explore the effects of the phosphatase and tension homolog (PTEN) expression level on autophagic status and on the resistance of breast cancer to trastuzumab treatment. PTEN and LC3I/II were knocked down with shRNA expression vectors, which were transfected into estrogen receptor (ER)-positive breast cancer cell lines. After trastuzumab treatment, the changes in the autophagy signal transduction pathways and autophagic proteins (LC3I/II, p62, LAMP, and cathepsin B) in these stably transfected cells were detected using western blot. The cells were also orthotopically implanted into nude mice to explore the influence of PTEN knockdown on tumor size, cell viability, and autophagic proteins after trastuzumab treatment. Similar determinations were performed using the LC3I/II overexpressed shPTEN breast cancer cells (LC3I/II-shPTEN). Downregulation of PTEN and autophagic proteins LC3-I and LC3-II was observed in resistant human breast cancer samples. Knockdown of PTEN and PTEN+ LC3I/II with shRNA in breast cancer cells resulted in increased resistance to trastuzumab. Consistently, trastuzumab treatment could not effectively reduce tumor size. Significant decreases in the levels of autophagic proteins LC3I/II, LAMP, p62, cathepsin B, and PI3K-Akt-mTOR and the signaling pathway protein Akt were found in PTEN knockdown cells, compared to the PTEN normal group, after trastuzumab administration, both in vitro and in vivo. However, these findings were reversed with the LC3I/II-shPTEN treatment. Therefore, the loss of PTEN may promote the development of primary resistance to trastuzumab in breast cancer via autophagy defects. PMID:26563373

  13. Lipid rafts regulate PCB153-induced disruption of occludin and brain endothelial barrier function through protein phosphatase 2A and matrix metalloproteinase-2

    SciTech Connect

    Eum, Sung Yong Jaraki, Dima; András, Ibolya E.; Toborek, Michal

    2015-09-15

    Occludin is an essential integral transmembrane protein regulating tight junction (TJ) integrity in brain endothelial cells. Phosphorylation of occludin is associated with its localization to TJ sites and incorporation into intact TJ assembly. The present study is focused on the role of lipid rafts in polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-induced disruption of occludin and endothelial barrier function. Exposure of human brain endothelial cells to 2,2′,4,4′,5,5′-hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB153) induced dephosphorylation of threonine residues of occludin and displacement of occludin from detergent-resistant membrane (DRM)/lipid raft fractions within 1 h. Moreover, lipid rafts modulated the reduction of occludin level through activation of matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2) after 24 h PCB153 treatment. Inhibition of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) activity by okadaic acid or fostriecin markedly protected against PCB153-induced displacement of occludin and increased permeability of endothelial cells. The implication of lipid rafts and PP2A signaling in these processes was further defined by co-immunoprecipitation of occludin with PP2A and caveolin-1, a marker protein of lipid rafts. Indeed, a significant MMP-2 activity was observed in lipid rafts and was increased by exposure to PCB153. The pretreatment of MMP-2 inhibitors protected against PCB153-induced loss of occludin and disruption of lipid raft structure prevented the increase of endothelial permeability. Overall, these results indicate that lipid raft-associated processes, such as PP2A and MMP-2 activation, participate in PCB153-induced disruption of occludin function in brain endothelial barrier. This study contributes to a better understanding of the mechanisms leading to brain endothelial barrier dysfunction in response to exposure to environmental pollutants, such as ortho-substituted PCBs. - Highlights: • PCB153 disturbed human brain endothelial barrier through disruption of occludin. • Lipid raft-associated PP

  14. PTEN Is a Negative Regulator of NK Cell Cytolytic Function

    PubMed Central

    Briercheck, Edward L.; Trotta, Rossana; Chen, Li; Hartlage, Alex S.; Cole, Jordan P.; Cole, Tyler D.; Mao, Charlene; Banerjee, Pinaki P.; Hsu, Hsiang-Ting; Mace, Emily M.; Ciarlariello, David; Mundy-Bosse, Bethany L.; Garcia-Cao, Isabel; Scoville, Steven D.; Yu, Lianbo; Pilarski, Robert; Carson, William E.; Leone, Gustavo; Pandolfi, Pier Paolo; Yu, Jianhua; Orange, Jordan S.; Caligiuri, Michael A.

    2015-01-01

    Human NK cells are characterized by their ability to initiate an immediate and direct cytolytic response to virally infected or malignantly transformed cells. Within human peripheral blood, the more mature CD56dim NK cell efficiently kills malignant targets at rest, whereas the less mature CD56bright NK cells cannot. In this study, we show that resting CD56bright NK cells express significantly more phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN) protein when compared with CD56dim NK cells. Consistent with this, forced overexpression of PTEN in NK cells resulted in decreased cytolytic activity, and loss of PTEN in CD56bright NK cells resulted in elevated cytolytic activity. Comparable studies in mice showed PTEN overexpression did not alter NK cell development or NK cell–activating and inhibitory receptor expression yet, as in humans, did decrease expression of downstream NK activation targets MAPK and AKT during early cytolysis of tumor target cells. Confocal microscopy revealed that PTEN overexpression disrupts the NK cell’s ability to organize immunological synapse components including decreases in actin accumulation, polarization of the microtubule organizing center, and the convergence of cytolytic granules. In summary, our data suggest that PTEN normally works to limit the NK cell’s PI3K/AKT and MAPK pathway activation and the consequent mobilization of cytolytic mediators toward the target cell and suggest that PTEN is among the active regulatory components prior to human NK cells transitioning from the noncytolytic CD56bright NK cell to the cytolytic CD56dim NK cells. PMID:25595786

  15. Inherited PTEN mutations and the prediction of phenotype.

    PubMed

    Leslie, Nicholas R; Longy, Michel

    2016-04-01

    PTEN has been heavily studied due to its role as a tumour suppressor and as a core inhibitory component of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) signalling network. It is a broadly expressed phosphatase which displays complexity and diversity in both its functions and regulation and accordingly, in the laboratory numerous classes of functionally distinct mutations have been generated. Inherited loss of function mutations in the PTEN gene were originally identified in sufferers of Cowden disease, but later shown to associate with more diverse human pathologies, mostly relating to cell and tissue overgrowth, leading to the use of the broader term, PTEN Hamartoma Tumour Syndrome. Recent phenotypic analysis of clinical cohorts of PTEN mutation carriers, combined with laboratory studies of the consequences of these mutations implies that stable catalytically inactive PTEN mutants may lead to the most severe phenotypes, and conversely, that mutants retaining partial function associate more frequently with a milder phenotype, with autism spectrum disorder often being diagnosed. Future work will be needed to confirm and to refine these genotype-phenotype relationships and convert this developing knowledge into improved patient management and potentially treatment with emerging drugs which target the PI3K pathway. PMID:26827793

  16. Naturally occurring germline and tumor-associated mutations within the ATP-binding motifs of PTEN lead to oxidative damage of DNA associated with decreased nuclear p53

    PubMed Central

    He, Xin; Ni, Ying; Wang, Yu; Romigh, Todd; Eng, Charis

    2011-01-01

    Somatic and germline mutations in PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10) are found in sporadic cancers and Cowden syndrome patients, respectively. Recent identification of naturally occurring cancer and germline mutations within the ATP-binding motifs of PTEN (heretofore referred to as PTEN ATP-binding mutations) has revealed that these mutations disrupted the subcellular localization and tumor-suppressor activity of PTEN. However, very little is known about the underlying mechanisms of PTEN ATP-binding mutations in tumorigenesis. Here we show that these mutations impair PTEN's function both qualitatively and quantitatively. On the one hand, PTEN ATP-binding mutants lose their phosphatase activity and the effect of downregulation of cyclin D1. On the other, the mislocalized mutant PTEN results in a significantly decreased nuclear p53 protein level and transcriptional activity, enhanced production of reactive oxygen species, induction of Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase as well as dramatically increased DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). When compared with wild-type PTEN, the ATP-binding mutant PTEN has reduced half-life in vitro and decreased protein expression levels in vivo. Our data, thus, reveal a novel mechanism of tumorigenesis in patients with germline or somatic mutations affecting PTEN ATP-binding motifs, i.e. qualitative and quantitative impairment of PTEN due to the loss of its phosphatase activity, and nuclear mislocalization, resulting in rapid PTEN protein degradation, suppression of p53-mediated transcriptional activity, loss of protection against oxidative stress as well as accumulation of spontaneous DNA DSBs. PMID:20926450

  17. Planarian PTEN homologs regulate stem cells and regeneration through TOR signaling.

    PubMed

    Oviedo, Néstor J; Pearson, Bret J; Levin, Michael; Sánchez Alvarado, Alejandro

    2008-01-01

    We have identified two genes, Smed-PTEN-1 and Smed-PTEN-2, capable of regulating stem cell function in the planarian Schmidtea mediterranea. Both genes encode proteins homologous to the mammalian tumor suppressor, phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN). Inactivation of Smed-PTEN-1 and -2 by RNA interference (RNAi) in planarians disrupts regeneration, and leads to abnormal outgrowths in both cut and uncut animals followed soon after by death (lysis). The resulting phenotype is characterized by hyperproliferation of neoblasts (planarian stem cells), tissue disorganization and a significant accumulation of postmitotic cells with impaired differentiation capacity. Further analyses revealed that rapamycin selectively prevented such accumulation without affecting the normal neoblast proliferation associated with physiological turnover and regeneration. In animals in which PTEN function is abrogated, we also detected a significant increase in the number of cells expressing the planarian Akt gene homolog (Smed-Akt). However, functional abrogation of Smed-Akt in Smed-PTEN RNAi-treated animals does not prevent cell overproliferation and lethality, indicating that functional abrogation of Smed-PTEN is sufficient to induce abnormal outgrowths. Altogether, our data reveal roles for PTEN in the regulation of planarian stem cells that are strikingly conserved to mammalian models. In addition, our results implicate this protein in the control of stem cell maintenance during the regeneration of complex structures in planarians. PMID:19048075

  18. Hyperactivity of newborn Pten knock-out neurons results from increased excitatory synaptic drive.

    PubMed

    Williams, Michael R; DeSpenza, Tyrone; Li, Meijie; Gulledge, Allan T; Luikart, Bryan W

    2015-01-21

    Developing neurons must regulate morphology, intrinsic excitability, and synaptogenesis to form neural circuits. When these processes go awry, disorders, including autism spectrum disorder (ASD) or epilepsy, may result. The phosphatase Pten is mutated in some patients having ASD and seizures, suggesting that its mutation disrupts neurological function in part through increasing neuronal activity. Supporting this idea, neuronal knock-out of Pten in mice can cause macrocephaly, behavioral changes similar to ASD, and seizures. However, the mechanisms through which excitability is enhanced following Pten depletion are unclear. Previous studies have separately shown that Pten-depleted neurons can drive seizures, receive elevated excitatory synaptic input, and have abnormal dendrites. We therefore tested the hypothesis that developing Pten-depleted neurons are hyperactive due to increased excitatory synaptogenesis using electrophysiology, calcium imaging, morphological analyses, and modeling. This was accomplished by coinjecting retroviruses to either "birthdate" or birthdate and knock-out Pten in granule neurons of the murine neonatal dentate gyrus. We found that Pten knock-out neurons, despite a rapid onset of hypertrophy, were more active in vivo. Pten knock-out neurons fired at more hyperpolarized membrane potentials, displayed greater peak spike rates, and were more sensitive to depolarizing synaptic input. The increased sensitivity of Pten knock-out neurons was due, in part, to a higher density of synapses located more proximal to the soma. We determined that increased synaptic drive was sufficient to drive hypertrophic Pten knock-out neurons beyond their altered action potential threshold. Thus, our work contributes a developmental mechanism for the increased activity of Pten-depleted neurons. PMID:25609613

  19. Transnitrosylation from DJ-1 to PTEN Attenuates Neuronal Cell Death in Parkinson's Disease Models

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Min Sik; Nakamura, Tomohiro; Cho, Seung-Je; Han, Xuemei; Holland, Emily A.; Qu, Jing; Petsko, Gregory A.; Yates, John R.; Liddington, Robert C.

    2014-01-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that oxidative/nitrosative stress, as occurs during aging, contributes to the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD). In contrast, detoxification of reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species can protect neurons. DJ-1 has been identified as one of several recessively inherited genes whose mutation can cause familial PD, and inactivation of DJ-1 renders neurons more susceptible to oxidative stress and cell death. DJ-1 is also known to regulate the activity of the phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN), which plays a critical role in neuronal cell death in response to various insults. However, mechanistic details delineating how DJ-1 regulates PTEN activity remain unknown. Here, we report that PTEN phosphatase activity is inhibited via a transnitrosylation reaction [i.e., transfer of a nitric oxide (NO) group from the cysteine residue of one protein to another]. Specifically, we show that DJ-1 is S-nitrosylated (forming SNO-DJ-1); subsequently, the NO group is transferred from DJ-1 to PTEN by transnitrosylation. Moreover, we detect SNO-PTEN in human brains with sporadic PD. Using x-ray crystallography and site-directed mutagenesis, we find that Cys106 is the site of S-nitrosylation on DJ-1 and that mutation of this site inhibits transnitrosylation to PTEN. Importantly, S-nitrosylation of PTEN decreases its phosphatase activity, thus promoting cell survival. These findings provide mechanistic insight into the neuroprotective role of SNO-DJ-1 by elucidating how DJ-1 detoxifies NO via transnitrosylation to PTEN. Dysfunctional DJ-1, which lacks this transnitrosylation activity due to mutation or prior oxidation (e.g., sulfonation) of the critical cysteine thiol, could thus contribute to neurodegenerative disorders like PD. PMID:25378175

  20. Balancing Proliferation and Connectivity in PTEN-associated Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    PubMed

    Tilot, Amanda K; Frazier, Thomas W; Eng, Charis

    2015-07-01

    Germline mutations in PTEN, which encodes a widely expressed phosphatase, was mapped to 10q23 and identified as the susceptibility gene for Cowden syndrome, characterized by macrocephaly and high risks of breast, thyroid, and other cancers. The phenotypic spectrum of PTEN mutations expanded to include autism with macrocephaly only 10 years ago. Neurological studies of patients with PTEN-associated autism spectrum disorder (ASD) show increases in cortical white matter and a distinctive cognitive profile, including delayed language development with poor working memory and processing speed. Once a germline PTEN mutation is found, and a diagnosis of phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) hamartoma tumor syndrome made, the clinical outlook broadens to include higher lifetime risks for multiple cancers, beginning in childhood with thyroid cancer. First described as a tumor suppressor, PTEN is a major negative regulator of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/protein kinase B/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway-controlling growth, protein synthesis, and proliferation. This canonical function combines with less well-understood mechanisms to influence synaptic plasticity and neuronal cytoarchitecture. Several excellent mouse models of Pten loss or dysfunction link these neural functions to autism-like behavioral abnormalities, such as altered sociability, repetitive behaviors, and phenotypes like anxiety that are often associated with ASD in humans. These models also show the promise of mTOR inhibitors as therapeutic agents capable of reversing phenotypes ranging from overgrowth to low social behavior. Based on these findings, therapeutic options for patients with PTEN hamartoma tumor syndrome and ASD are coming into view, even as new discoveries in PTEN biology add complexity to our understanding of this master regulator. PMID:25916396

  1. Endothelial Cell Surface Expressed Chemotaxis and Apoptosis Regulator (ECSCR) Regulates Lipolysis in White Adipocytes via the PTEN/AKT Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Kilari, Sreenivasulu; Cossette, Stephanie; Pooya, Shabnam; Bordas, Michelle; Huang, Yi-Wen

    2015-01-01

    Elevated plasma triglycerides are associated with increased susceptibility to heart disease and stroke, but the mechanisms behind this relationship are unclear. A clearer understanding of gene products which influence plasma triglycerides might help identify new therapeutic targets for these diseases. The Endothelial Cell Surface expressed Chemotaxis and apoptosis Regulator (ECSCR) was initially studied as an endothelial cell marker, but has recently been identified in white adipocytes, the primary storage cell type for triglycerides. Here we confirm ECSCR expression in white adipocytes and show that Ecscr knockout mice show elevated fasting plasma triglycerides. At a cellular level, cultured 3T3-L1 adipocytes silenced for Ecscr show a blunted Akt phosphorylation response. Additionally we show that the phosphatase and tensin homology containing (PTEN) lipid phosphatase association with ECSCR is increased by insulin stimulation. These data suggest a scenario by which ECSCR contributes to control of white adipocyte lipolysis. In this scenario, white adipocytes lacking Ecscr display elevated PTEN activity, thereby reducing AKT activation and impairing insulin-mediated suppression of lipolysis. Collectively, these results suggest that ECSCR plays a critical function in regulating lipolysis in white adipose tissue. PMID:26692198

  2. Direct modification and regulation of a nuclear receptor-PIP2 complex by the nuclear inositol-lipid kinase IPMK

    PubMed Central

    Blind, Raymond D.; Suzawa, Miyuki; Ingraham, Holly A.

    2012-01-01

    Phosphatidylinositol (4,5)-bisphosphate (PIP2) is best known as a plasma membrane-bound regulatory lipid. While PIP2 and phosphoinositide-modifying enzymes coexist in the nucleus, their roles in the nucleus remain unclear. Here we show that the nuclear inositol polyphosphate multikinase (IPMK), which functions both as an inositol- and a PI3-kinase, interacts with the nuclear receptor SF-1 (NR5A1) and phosphorylates its bound ligand, PIP2. IPMK failed to recognize SF-1/PIP2 after blocking or displacing PIP2 from SF-1’s large hydrophobic pocket. In contrast to IPMK, p110 catalytic subunits of type 1 PI3-kinases were inactive on SF-1/PIP2. These and other in vitro analyses demonstrated specificity of IPMK for the SF-1/PIP2 protein/lipid complex. Once generated, SF-1/PIP3 is readily dephosphorylated by the lipid phosphatase PTEN. Importantly, decreasing IPMK or increasing PTEN expression greatly reduced SF-1 transcriptional activity. This ability of lipid kinases and phosphatases to alter the activity and directly remodel a non-membrane protein/lipid complex such SF-1/PIP2, establishes a new pathway for promoting lipid-mediated signaling in the nucleus. PMID:22715467

  3. Shp2 and Pten have antagonistic roles in myeloproliferation but cooperate to promote erythropoiesis in mammals

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Helen He; Luo, Xiaolin; Zhang, Kaiqing; Cui, Jian; Zhao, Huifang; Ji, Zhongzhong; Zhou, Zhicheng; Yao, Jufang; Zeng, Lifan; Ji, Kaihong; Gao, Wei-Qiang; Zhang, Zhong-Yin; Feng, Gen-Sheng

    2015-01-01

    Previous data suggested a negative role of phosphatase and tensin homolog (Pten) and a positive function of SH2-containing tyrosine phosphatase (Shp2)/Ptpn11 in myelopoiesis and leukemogenesis. Herein we demonstrate that ablating Shp2 indeed suppressed the myeloproliferative effect of Pten loss, indicating directly opposing functions between pathways regulated by these two enzymes. Surprisingly, the Shp2 and Pten double-knockout mice suffered lethal anemia, a phenotype that reveals previously unappreciated cooperative roles of Pten and Shp2 in erythropoiesis. The lethal anemia was caused collectively by skewed progenitor differentiation and shortened erythrocyte lifespan. Consistently, treatment of Pten-deficient mice with a specific Shp2 inhibitor suppressed myeloproliferative neoplasm while causing anemia. These results identify concerted actions of Pten and Shp2 in promoting erythropoiesis, while acting antagonistically in myeloproliferative neoplasm development. This study illustrates cell type-specific signal cross-talk in blood cell lineages, and will guide better design of pharmaceuticals for leukemia and other types of cancer in the era of precision medicine. PMID:26460004

  4. Autistic-Like Traits and Cerebellar Dysfunction in Purkinje Cell PTEN Knock-Out Mice.

    PubMed

    Cupolillo, Dario; Hoxha, Eriola; Faralli, Alessio; De Luca, Annarita; Rossi, Ferdinando; Tempia, Filippo; Carulli, Daniela

    2016-05-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by impaired social interaction, isolated areas of interest, and insistence on sameness. Mutations in Phosphatase and tensin homolog missing on chromosome 10 (PTEN) have been reported in individuals with ASDs. Recent evidence highlights a crucial role of the cerebellum in the etiopathogenesis of ASDs. In the present study we analyzed the specific contribution of cerebellar Purkinje cell (PC) PTEN loss to these disorders. Using the Cre-loxP recombination system, we generated conditional knockout mice in which PTEN inactivation was induced specifically in PCs. We investigated PC morphology and physiology as well as sociability, repetitive behavior, motor learning, and cognitive inflexibility of adult PC PTEN-mutant mice. Loss of PTEN in PCs results in autistic-like traits, including impaired sociability, repetitive behavior and deficits in motor learning. Mutant PCs appear hypertrophic and show structural abnormalities in dendrites and axons, decreased excitability, disrupted parallel fiber and climbing fiber synapses and late-onset cell death. Our results unveil new roles of PTEN in PC function and provide the first evidence of a link between the loss of PTEN in PCs and the genesis of ASD-like traits. PMID:26538449

  5. Long-term consequences of conditional genetic deletion of PTEN in the sensorimotor cortex of neonatal mice.

    PubMed

    Gutilla, Erin A; Buyukozturk, Melda M; Steward, Oswald

    2016-05-01

    Targeted deletion of the phosphatase and tensin homolog on chromosome ten (PTEN) gene in the sensorimotor cortex of neonatal mice enables robust regeneration of corticospinal tract (CST) axons following spinal cord injury as adults. Here, we assess the consequences of long-term conditional genetic PTEN deletion on cortical structure and neuronal morphology and screen for neuropathology. Mice with a LoxP-flanked exon 5 of the PTEN gene (PTENf/f mice) received AAV-Cre injections into the sensorimotor cortex at postnatal day 1 (P1) and were allowed to survive for up to 18months. As adults, mice were assessed for exploratory activity (open field), and motor coordination using the Rotarod®. Some mice received injections of Fluorogold into the spinal cord to retrogradely label the cells of origin of the CST. Brains were prepared for neurohistology and immunostained for PTEN and phospho-S6, which is a downstream marker of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) activation. Immunostaining revealed a focal area of PTEN deletion affecting neurons in all cortical layers, although in some cases PTEN expression was maintained in many small-medium sized neurons in layers III-IV. Neurons lacking PTEN were robustly stained for pS6. Cortical thickness was significantly increased and cortical lamination was disrupted in the area of PTEN deletion. PTEN-negative layer V neurons that give rise to the CST, identified by retrograde labeling, were larger than neurons with maintained PTEN expression, and the relative area occupied by neuropil vs. cell bodies was increased. There was no evidence of tumor formation or other neuropathology. Mice with PTEN deletion exhibited open field activity comparable to controls and there was a trend for impaired Rotarod performance (not statistically significant). Our findings indicate that early postnatal genetic deletion of PTEN that is sufficient to enable axon regeneration by adult neurons causes neuronal hypertrophy but no other detectable

  6. Roles of PTEN with DNA Repair in Parkinson's Disease.

    PubMed

    Ogino, Mako; Ichimura, Mayuko; Nakano, Noriko; Minami, Akari; Kitagishi, Yasuko; Matsuda, Satoru

    2016-01-01

    Oxidative stress is considered to play key roles in aging and pathogenesis of many neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's disease, which could bring DNA damage by cells. The DNA damage may lead to the cell apoptosis, which could contribute to the degeneration of neuronal tissues. Recent evidence suggests that PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homolog on chromosome 10) may be involved in the pathophysiology of the neurodegenerative disorders. Since PTEN expression appears to be one dominant determinant of the neuronal cell death, PTEN should be a potential molecular target of novel therapeutic strategies against Parkinson's disease. In addition, defects in DNA damage response and DNA repair are often associated with modulation of hormone signaling pathways. Especially, many observations imply a role for estrogen in a regulation of the DNA repair action. In the present review, we have attempted to summarize the function of DNA repair molecules at a viewpoint of the PTEN signaling pathway and the hormone related functional modulation of cells, providing a broad interpretation on the molecular mechanisms for treatment of Parkinson's disease. Particular attention will be paid to the mechanisms proposed to explain the health effects of food ingredients against Parkinson's disease related to reduce oxidative stress for an efficient therapeutic intervention. PMID:27314344

  7. Deletion of PTEN Produces Deficits in Conditioned Fear and Increases Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lugo, Joaquin N.; Smith, Gregory D.; Morrison, Jessica B.; White, Jessika

    2013-01-01

    The phosphatase and tensin homolog detected on chromosome 10 (PTEN) gene product modulates activation of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT pathway. The PI3K pathway has been found to be involved in the regulation of the fragile X mental retardation protein, which is important for long-term depression and in the formation of new…

  8. PTEN regulates sensitivity of melanoma cells to RO4929097, the γ-secretase inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Nair, Jayasree S; Sheikh, Tahir; Ho, Alan L; Schwartz, Gary K

    2013-04-01

    De-regulated expression of components of the Notch signaling pathway is observed in malignant melanoma. This pathway is activated by catalytic cleavage of the Notch receptor by γ-secretase. Phase-I trials with RO4929097, a potent gamma secretase inhibitor (GSI), and other agents of this class have demonstrated clinical activity in patients with melanoma. An understanding of the mechanisms for de novo sensitivity and resistance to this class of drugs would be critical for future drug development. We treated a panel of Phosphatase and Tensin Homolog (PTEN)-null, -mutant and -wild-type human melanoma cell lines with RO4929097 and evaluated the efficacy alone and in combination with chemotherapy. Although cleaved Notch-1 formation was observed in all the cell lines, RO4929097-induced senescence or apoptosis was achieved only in PTEN-wild-type cell lines in which gamma-secretase inhibition with an induction of PTEN expression and decreased AKT/PKB (protein kinase B) phosphorylation in addition to transcriptional suppression at the Hairy and enhancer of split-1 (HES1) gene promoter. Overexpression of wild-type PTEN in PTEN-null and -mutant cell lines, and studies with isogenic breast cell lines that differ only in PTEN status, confirmed the importance of PTEN expression for conferring tumor cell susceptibility to RO4929097. Furthermore, in PTEN-expressing rapidly accelerated fibrosarcoma 1 (B-RAF)-mutant melanoma cells, RO4929097 enhanced the effect of temozolomide both in vitro and in vivo. These results indicate that tumor cell susceptibility to a GSI, whether alone or in combination with chemotherapy, are reliant upon reducing AKT phosphorylation and hence GSI in combination with chemotherapy may be useful as a new therapeutic approach in treating PTEN-wild-type melanoma. PMID:23564767

  9. PTEN Redundancy: Overexpressing lpten, a Homolog of Dictyostelium discoideum ptenA, the Ortholog of Human PTEN, Rescues All Behavioral Defects of the Mutant ptenA−

    PubMed Central

    Lusche, Daniel F.; Wessels, Deborah; Richardson, Nicole A.; Russell, Kanoe B.; Hanson, Brett M.; Soll, Benjamin A.; Lin, Benjamin H.; Soll, David R.

    2014-01-01

    Mutations in the tumor suppressor gene PTEN are associated with a significant proportion of human cancers. Because the human genome also contains several homologs of PTEN, we considered the hypothesis that if a homolog, functionally redundant with PTEN, can be overexpressed, it may rescue the defects of a PTEN mutant. We have performed an initial test of this hypothesis in the model system Dictyostelium discoideum, which contains an ortholog of human PTEN, ptenA. Deletion of ptenA results in defects in motility, chemotaxis, aggregation and multicellular morphogenesis. D. discoideum also contains lpten, a newly discovered homolog of ptenA. Overexpressing lpten completely rescues all developmental and behavioral defects of the D. discoideum mutant ptenA−. This hypothesis must now be tested in human cells. PMID:25247494

  10. Oridonin upregulates PTEN through activating p38 MAPK and inhibits proliferation in human colon cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Wu, Qiu-Xiang; Yuan, Shuang-Xue; Ren, Chun-Mei; Yu, Yu; Sun, Wen-Juan; He, Bai-Cheng; Wu, Ke

    2016-06-01

    Oridonin (ORI) has been reported as an antiproliferation and apoptosis-inducing natural product in various cancer cells. However, the exact molecular mechanism underlying these effects remains unclear. In the present study, we demonstrated the antiproliferation effect of ORI in HCT116 cells, and analyzed the possible molecular mechanism which mediates this effect. We found that ORI inhibits proliferation, induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in HCT116 cells, thus also tumor growth. Mechanically, we found that ORI has no substantial effect on mRNA expression of phosphatase and tensin homologue (PTEN), but increases the total protein level of PTEN and markedly reduces the phosphorylation of PTEN; Exogenous expression of PTEN potentiates the anticancer effect of ORI, while knockdown of PTEN attenuates it. ORI also increases the phosphorylation of p38 MAPK, and p38 MAPK-specific inhibitor reduces the antiproliferation effect ORI in HCT116 cells. Moreover, inhibition of p38 MAPK increases the phosphorylation of PTEN, and reverses ORI-induced decrease of PTEN phosphorylation. Our findings suggested that ORI may be a potential anticancer drug for colon cancer, this effect may be mediated by enhancing the function of PTEN through reducing its phosphorylation, which may be resulted from the ORI-induced activation of p38 MAPK. PMID:27108927

  11. Restoring E-cadherin-mediated cell-cell adhesion increases PTEN protein level and stability in human breast carcinoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Li Zengxia; Wang Liying; Zhang Wen; Fu Yi; Zhao Hongbo; Hu Yali; Prins, Bram Peter; Zha Xiliang

    2007-11-09

    The phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN) is a well-characterized tumor suppressor that negatively regulates cell growth and survival. Despite the critical role of PTEN in cell signaling, the mechanisms of its regulation are still under investigation. We reported here that PTEN expression could be controlled by overexpression or knock-down of E-cadherin in several mammary carcinoma cell lines. Furthermore, we showed that the accumulation of PTEN protein in E-cadherin overexpressing cells was due to increased PTEN protein stability rather than the regulation of its transcription. The proteasome-dependent PTEN degradation pathway was impaired after restoring E-cadherin expression. Moreover, maintenance of E-cadherin mediated cell-cell adhesion was necessary for its regulating PTEN. Altogether, our results suggested that E-cadherin mediated cell-cell adhesion was essential for preventing the proteasome degradation of PTEN, which might explain how breast carcinoma cells which lost cell-cell contact proliferate rapidly and are prone to metastasis.

  12. Interaction of E-cadherin and PTEN regulates morphogenesis and growth arrest in human mammary epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Fournier, Marcia V.; Fata, Jimmie E.; Martin, Katherine J.; Yaswen, Paul; Bissell, Mina J.

    2009-06-03

    PTEN is a dual function phosphatase with tumor suppressor function compromised in a wide spectrum of cancers. Because tissue polarity and architecture are crucial modulators of normal and malignant behavior, we postulated that PTEN may play a role in maintenance of tissue integrity. We used two non-malignant human mammary epithelial cell lines (HMECs) that form polarized, growth-arrested structures (acini) when cultured in 3-dimensional laminin-rich extracellular matrix gels (3D lrECM). As acini begin to form, PTEN accumulates in both the cytoplasm, and at cell-cell contacts where it colocalizes with E-cadherin/{beta}-catenin complex. Reduction of PTEN levels by shRNA in lrECM prevents formation of organized breast acini and disrupts growth arrest. Importantly, disruption of acinar polarity and cell-cell contact by E-cadherin function-blocking antibodies reduces endogenous PTEN protein levels and inhibits its accumulation at cell-cell contacts. Conversely, in SKBR3 breast cancer cells lacking endogenous E-cadherin expression, exogenous introduction of E-cadherin gene causes induction of PTEN expression and its accumulation at sites of cell interactions. These studies provide evidence that E-cadherin regulates both the PTEN protein levels and its recruitment to cell-cell junctions in 3D lrECM indicating a dynamic reciprocity between architectural integrity and the levels and localization of PTEN. This interaction thus appears to be a critical integrator of proliferative and morphogenetic signaling in breast epithelial cells.

  13. Pten regulates spindle pole movement through Dlg1-mediated recruitment of Eg5 to centrosomes

    PubMed Central

    van Ree, Janine H.; Nam, Hyun-Ja; Jeganathan, Karthik B.; Kanakkanthara, Arun; van Deursen, Jan M.

    2016-01-01

    Phosphatase and tensin homologue (Pten) suppresses neoplastic growth by negatively regulating PI(3)K signalling through its phosphatase activity1. To gain insight into the actions of non-catalytic Pten domains in normal physiological processes and tumorigenesis2,3, we engineered mice lacking the PDZ-binding domain (PDZ-BD). Here, we show that the PDZ-BD regulates centrosome movement and that its heterozygous or homozygous deletion promotes aneuploidy and tumour formation. We found that Pten is recruited to pre-mitotic centrosomes in a Plk1-dependent fashion to create a docking site for protein complexes containing the PDZ-domain-containing protein Dlg1 (also known as Sap97) and Eg5 (also known as Kif11), a kinesin essential for centrosome movement and bipolar spindle formation4. Docking of Dlg1–Eg5 complexes to Pten depended on Eg5 phosphorylation by the Nek9–Nek6 mitotic kinase cascade and Cdk1. PDZ-BD deletion or Dlg1 ablation impaired loading of Eg5 onto centrosomes and spindle pole motility, yielding asymmetrical spindles that are prone to chromosome missegregation. Collectively, these data demonstrate that Pten, through the Dlg1-binding ability of its PDZ-BD, accumulates phosphorylated Eg5 at duplicated centrosomes to establish symmetrical bipolar spindles that properly segregate chromosomes, and suggest that this function contributes to tumour suppression. PMID:27240320

  14. Myeloid PTEN deficiency protects livers from ischemia reperfusion injury by facilitating M2 macrophage differentiation.

    PubMed

    Yue, Shi; Rao, Jianhua; Zhu, Jianjun; Busuttil, Ronald W; Kupiec-Weglinski, Jerzy W; Lu, Ling; Wang, Xuehao; Zhai, Yuan

    2014-06-01

    Although the role of phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN) in regulating cell proliferation is well established, its function in immune responses remains to be fully appreciated. In the current study, we analyzed myeloid-specific PTEN function in regulating tissue inflammatory immune response in a murine liver partial warm ischemia model. Myeloid-specific PTEN knockout (KO) resulted in liver protection from ischemia reperfusion injury (IRI) by deviating the local innate immune response against ischemia reperfusion toward the regulatory type: expression of proinflammatory genes was selectively decreased and anti-inflammatory IL-10 was simultaneously increased in ischemia reperfusion livers of PTEN KO mice compared with those of wild-type (WT) mice. PI3K inhibitor and IL-10-neutralizing Abs, but not exogenous LPS, recreated liver IRI in these KO mice. At the cellular level, Kupffer cells and peritoneal macrophages isolated from KO mice expressed higher levels of M2 markers and produced lower TNF-α and higher IL-10 in response to TLR ligands than did their WT counterparts. They had enhanced Stat3- and Stat6-signaling pathway activation, but diminished Stat1-signaling pathway activation, in response to TLR4 stimulation. Inactivation of Kupffer cells by gadolinium chloride enhanced proinflammatory immune activation and increased IRI in livers of myeloid PTEN KO mice. Thus, myeloid PTEN deficiency protects livers from IRI by facilitating M2 macrophage differentiation. PMID:24771857

  15. PTEN downregulates p75NTR expression by decreasing DNA-binding activity of Sp1

    SciTech Connect

    Rankin, Sherri L.; Guy, Clifford S.; Mearow, Karen M.

    2009-02-13

    p75NTR is expressed throughout the nervous system and its dysregulation is associated with pathological conditions. We have recently demonstrated a signalling cascade initiated by laminin (LN), which upregulates PTEN and downregulates p75NTR. Here we investigate the mechanism by which PTEN modulates p75NTR. Studies using PTEN mutants show that its protein phosphatase activity directly modulates p75NTR protein expression. Nuclear relocalization of PTEN subsequent to LN stimulation suggests transcriptional control of p75NTR expression, which was confirmed following EMSA and ChIP analysis of Sp1 transcription factor binding activity. LN and PTEN independently decrease the DNA-binding ability of PTEN to the p75NTR promoter. Sp1 regulation of p75NTR occurs via dephosphorylation of Sp1, thus reducing p75NTR transcription and protein expression. This mechanism represents a novel regulatory pathway which controls the expression level of a receptor with broad implications not only for the development of the nervous system but also for progression of pathological conditions.

  16. Cross talk between miR-214 and PTEN attenuates glomerular hypertrophy under diabetic conditions.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoxia; Shen, E; Wang, Yanzhe; Li, Junhui; Cheng, Dongsheng; Chen, Yuqiang; Gui, Dingkun; Wang, Niansong

    2016-01-01

    Glomerular mesangial cells (MCs) hypertrophy is one of the earliest pathological abnormalities in diabetic nephropathy (DN), which correlates with eventual glomerulosclerosis. This study aimed to investigate the therapeutic role of miRNA in diabetic glomerular MCs hypertrophy and synthesis of extracellular matrix (ECM). Microarray analysis revealed a significant up-regulation of miR-214 in the renal cortex of diabetic db/db mice, which was confirmed by real-time PCR of isolated glomeruli and primary cultured human MCs. In vitro studies showed that inhibition of miR-214 significantly reduced expression of α-SMA, SM22 and collagen IV, and partially restored phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) protein level in high glucose-stimulated human MCs. Furthermore, we identified PTEN as the target of miR-214 by a luciferase assay in HEK293 cells. Moreover, overexpression of PTEN ameliorated miR-214-mediated diabetic MC hypertrophy while knockdown of PTEN mimicked the MC hypertrophy. In vivo study further confirmed that inhibition of miR-214 significantly decreased the expression of SM22, α-SMA and collagen IV, partially restored PTEN level, and attenuated albuminuria and mesangial expansion in db/db mice. In conclusion, cross talk between miR-214 and PTEN attenuated glomerular hypertrophy under diabetic conditions in vivo and in vitro. Therefore, miR-214 may represent a novel therapeutic target for DN. PMID:27549568

  17. Plk1 Phosphorylation of PTEN Causes a Tumor-Promoting Metabolic State

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhiguo; Li, Jie; Bi, Pengpeng; Lu, Ying; Burcham, Grant; Elzey, Bennett D.; Ratliff, Timothy; Konieczny, Stephen F.; Ahmad, Nihal; Kuang, Shihuan

    2014-01-01

    One outcome of activation of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway is increased aerobic glycolysis, but the upstream signaling events that regulate the PI3K pathway, and thus the Warburg effect, are elusive. Increasing evidence suggests that Plk1, a cell cycle regulator, is also involved in cellular events in addition to mitosis. To test whether Plk1 contributes to activation of the PI3K pathway, and thus aerobic glycolysis, we examined potential targets of Plk1 and identified PTEN as a Plk1 substrate. We hypothesize that Plk1 phosphorylation of PTEN leads to its inactivation, activation of the PI3K pathway, and the Warburg effect. Our data show that overexpression of Plk1 leads to activation of the PI3K pathway and enhanced aerobic glycolysis. In contrast, inhibition of Plk1 causes markedly reduced glucose metabolism in mice. Mechanistically, we show that Plk1 phosphorylation of PTEN and Nedd4-1, an E3 ubiquitin ligase of PTEN, results in PTEN inactivation. Finally, we show that Plk1 phosphorylation of PTEN promotes tumorigenesis in both its phosphatase-dependent and -independent pathways, revealing potentially new drug targets to arrest tumor cell growth. PMID:25047839

  18. PTEN Tumor Suppressor Network in PI3K-Akt Pathway Control.

    PubMed

    Georgescu, Maria-Magdalena

    2010-12-01

    The PI3K-Akt pathway is a major survival pathway activated in cancer. Efforts to develop targeted therapies have not been fully successful, mainly because of extensive internal intrapathway or external interpathway negative feedback loops or because of networking between pathway suppressors. The PTEN tumor suppressor is the major brake of the pathway and a common target for inactivation in somatic cancers. This review will highlight the networking of PTEN with other inhibitors of the pathway, relevant to cancer progression. PTEN constitutes the main node of the inhibitory network, and a series of convergences at different levels in the PI3K-Akt pathway, starting from those with growth factor receptors, will be described. As PTEN exerts enzymatic activity as a phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-trisphosphate (PIP(3)) phosphatase, thus opposing the activity of PI3K, the concerted actions to increase the availability of PIP(3) in cancer cells, relying either on other phosphoinositide enzymes or on the intrinsic regulation of PTEN activity by other molecules, will be discussed. In particular, the synergy between PTEN and the circle of its direct interacting proteins will be brought forth in an attempt to understand both the activation of the PI3K-Akt pathway and the connections with other parallel oncogenic pathways. The understanding of the interplay between the modulators of the PI3K-Akt pathway in cancer should eventually lead to the design of therapeutic approaches with increased efficacy in the clinic. PMID:21779440

  19. Cross talk between miR-214 and PTEN attenuates glomerular hypertrophy under diabetic conditions

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaoxia; Shen, E.; Wang, Yanzhe; Li, Junhui; Cheng, Dongsheng; Chen, Yuqiang; Gui, Dingkun; Wang, Niansong

    2016-01-01

    Glomerular mesangial cells (MCs) hypertrophy is one of the earliest pathological abnormalities in diabetic nephropathy (DN), which correlates with eventual glomerulosclerosis. This study aimed to investigate the therapeutic role of miRNA in diabetic glomerular MCs hypertrophy and synthesis of extracellular matrix (ECM). Microarray analysis revealed a significant up-regulation of miR-214 in the renal cortex of diabetic db/db mice, which was confirmed by real-time PCR of isolated glomeruli and primary cultured human MCs. In vitro studies showed that inhibition of miR-214 significantly reduced expression of α-SMA, SM22 and collagen IV, and partially restored phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) protein level in high glucose-stimulated human MCs. Furthermore, we identified PTEN as the target of miR-214 by a luciferase assay in HEK293 cells. Moreover, overexpression of PTEN ameliorated miR-214-mediated diabetic MC hypertrophy while knockdown of PTEN mimicked the MC hypertrophy. In vivo study further confirmed that inhibition of miR-214 significantly decreased the expression of SM22, α-SMA and collagen IV, partially restored PTEN level, and attenuated albuminuria and mesangial expansion in db/db mice. In conclusion, cross talk between miR-214 and PTEN attenuated glomerular hypertrophy under diabetic conditions in vivo and in vitro. Therefore, miR-214 may represent a novel therapeutic target for DN. PMID:27549568

  20. Mutation and expression analysis of the putative prostate tumour-suppressor gene PTEN.

    PubMed Central

    Gray, I. C.; Stewart, L. M.; Phillips, S. M.; Hamilton, J. A.; Gray, N. E.; Watson, G. J.; Spurr, N. K.; Snary, D.

    1998-01-01

    The chromosomal region 10q23-24 is frequently deleted in a number of tumour types, including prostate adenocarcinoma and glioma. A candidate tumour-suppressor gene at 10q23.3, designated PTENor MMAC1, with putative actin-binding and tyrosine phosphatase domains has recently been described. Mutations in PTEN have been identified in cell lines derived from gliomas, melanomas and prostate tumours and from a number of tumour specimens derived from glial, breast, endometrial and kidney tissue. Germline mutations in PTEN appear to be responsible for Cowden disease. We identified five PTEN mutations in 37 primary prostatic tumours analysed and found that 70% of tumours showed loss or alteration of at least one PTEN allele, supporting the evidence for PTEN involvement in prostate tumour progression. We raised antisera to a peptide from PTEN and showed that reactivity occurs in numerous small cytoplasmic organelles and that the protein is commonly expressed in a variety of cell types. Northern blot analysis revealed multiple RNA species; some arise as a result of alternative polyadenylation sites, but others may be due to alternative splicing. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:9823969

  1. PTEN Protein Loss and Clinical Outcome from Castration-resistant Prostate Cancer Treated with Abiraterone Acetate

    PubMed Central

    Ferraldeschi, Roberta; Nava Rodrigues, Daniel; Riisnaes, Ruth; Miranda, Susana; Figueiredo, Ines; Rescigno, Pasquale; Ravi, Praful; Pezaro, Carmel; Omlin, Aurelius; Lorente, David; Zafeiriou, Zafeiris; Mateo, Joaquin; Altavilla, Amelia; Sideris, Spyridon; Bianchini, Diletta; Grist, Emily; Thway, Khin; Perez Lopez, Raquel; Tunariu, Nina; Parker, Chris; Dearnaley, David; Reid, Alison; Attard, Gerhardt; de Bono, Johann

    2015-01-01

    Background Loss of the tumor suppressor phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) occurs frequently in prostate cancers. Preclinical evidence suggests that activation of PI3K/AKT signaling through loss of PTEN can result in resistance to hormonal treatment in prostate cancer. Objective To explore the antitumor activity of abiraterone acetate (abiraterone) in castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) patients with and without loss of PTEN protein expression. Design, setting, and participants We retrospectively identified patients who had received abiraterone and had hormone-sensitive prostate cancer (HSPC) and/or CRPC tissue available for PTEN immunohistochemical analysis. Outcome measurements and statistical analysis The primary end point was overall survival from initiation of abiraterone treatment. Relationship with outcome was analyzed using multivariate Cox regression and log-rank analyses. Results and limitations A total of 144 patients were identified who had received abiraterone post-docetaxel and had available tumor tissue. Overall, loss of PTEN expression was observed in 40% of patients. Matched HSPC and CRPC tumor biopsies were available for 41 patients. PTEN status in CRPC correlated with HSPC in 86% of cases. Loss of PTEN expression was associated with shorter median overall survival (14 vs 21 mo; hazard ratio [HR]: 1.75; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.19–2.55; p = 0.004) and shorter median duration of abiraterone treatment (24 vs 28 wk; HR: 1.6; 95% CI, 1.12–2.28; p = 0.009). PTEN protein loss, high lactate dehydrogenase, and the presence of visceral metastases were identified as independent prognostic factors in multivariate analysis. Conclusions Our results indicate that loss of PTEN expression was associated with worse survival and shorter time on abiraterone treatment. Further studies in larger and prospective cohorts are warranted. Patient summary PTEN is a protein often lost in prostate cancer cells. In this study we evaluated if prostate

  2. Metformin inhibits inflammatory response via AMPK-PTEN pathway in vascular smooth muscle cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Sun Ae; Choi, Hyoung Chul

    2012-09-07

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PTEN was induced by metformin and inhibited by compound C and AMPK siRNA. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Metformin suppressed TNF-{alpha}-induced COX-2 and iNOS mRNA expression. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Compound C and bpv (pic) increased iNOS and COX-2 protein expression. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NF-{kappa}B activation was restored by inhibiting AMPK and PTEN. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer AMPK and PTEN regulated TNF-{alpha}-induced ROS production in VSMCs. -- Abstract: Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammation of the coronary arteries. Vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) stimulated by cytokines and chemokines accelerate the inflammatory response and migrate to the injured endothelium during the progression of atherosclerosis. Activation of AMP activated protein kinase (AMPK), a key sensor maintaining metabolic homeostasis, suppresses the inflammatory response. However, how AMPK regulates the inflammatory response is poorly understood. To identify the mechanism of this response, we focused on phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN), which is a negative regulator of inflammation. We investigated that activation of AMPK-induced PTEN expression and suppression of the inflammatory response through the AMPK-PTEN pathway in VSMCs. We treated with the well-known AMPK activator metformin to induce PTEN expression. PTEN was induced by metformin (2 mM) and inhibited by compound C (10 {mu}M) and AMPK siRNA. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-{alpha}) was used to induce inflammation. The inflammatory response was confirmed by cyclooxygenase (COX)-2, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression, and activation of nuclear factor (NF)-{kappa}B. Metformin suppressed COX-2 and iNOS mRNA and protein expression dose dependently. Treatment with compound C and bpv (pic) in the presence of metformin, iNOS and COX-2 protein expression increased. NF-{kappa}B activation decreased in response to metformin and was restored by inhibiting AMPK

  3. Ezrin-radixin-moesin-binding phosphoprotein-50 regulates EGF-induced AKT activation through interaction with EGFR and PTEN.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Junfang; Dai, Yuanping; Yang, Zhiyu; Yang, Longyan; Peng, Zhiqiang; Meng, Ran; Xiong, Ying; He, Junqi

    2016-01-01

    Dysregulated epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling, especially EGFR/AKT signaling, plays important roles in tumorigenesis and progression, the study on intracellular regulation of this signaling pathway has great clinical significance. Phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome ten (PTEN) is an important antagonist of AKT activity. Its regulation of AKT activity can be enhanced by ezrin-radixin-moesin-binding phosphoprotein-50 (EBP50)-mediated PTEN/EBP50/platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR) complex. EBP50 was reported to bind to EGFR, and that it may also mediate the formation of PTEN/EGFR complex to regulate EGFR/AKT signaling. In this study, experiments were performed to verify the hypothesis. Results showed that PTEN co-immunoprecipitated with EGFR, demonstrating PTEN/EGFR complex can form in tissue. Further studies showed that EBP50 knockdown decreased the amount of PTEN/EGFR complex by GST pull-down assay, and EBP50 overexpression increased the amount of PTEN/EGFR complex in a dose-dependent manner. While PTEN mutant (V403A), which can not bind with EBP50, only slightly mediated the formation of PTEN/EGFR complex, confirming that EBP50 specifically mediated the formation of the PTEN/EGFR complex. Both PTEN (V403A) and EGFR (L1043/1063F) mutants can not bind with EBP50. The expression of PTEN (V403A) or EGFR (L1043/1063F) mutant in cells resulted in higher AKT activation level than their respective wild-types by EGF stimulation, indicating that EBP50-mediated PTEN/EGFR complex can effectively inhibit EGF-induced AKT activation. EGF stimulation of siEBP50 cells induced higher AKT activation level compared with control cells, further confirming EBP50-mediated PTEN/EGFR complex can more effectively inhibit EGF-induced AKT activation. These results demonstrated the PTEN/EGFR complex formed under the mediation of EBP50, revealing a novel mechanism for negative regulation of EGF-induced AKT pathway, which may be an important molecular

  4. Reactivation of oxidized PTP1B and PTEN by Thioredoxin 1

    PubMed Central

    Schwertassek, Ulla; Haque, Aftabul; Krishnan, Navasona; Greiner, Romy; Weingarten, Lars; Dick, Tobias P.; Tonks, Nicholas K.

    2014-01-01

    The transient inactivation of protein phosphatases contributes to the efficiency and temporal control of kinase-dependent signal transduction. In particular, members of the protein tyrosine phosphatase family are known to undergo reversible oxidation of their active site cysteine. The thiol oxidation step requires activation of co-localized NADPH oxidases and is mediated by locally produced ROS, in particular H2O2. How oxidized phosphatases are returned to the reduced active state is less well studied. Both major thiol reductive systems, the thioredoxin and the glutathione systems, have been implicated in the reactivation of phosphatases. Here, we show that the protein tyrosine phosphatase PTP1B and the dual-specificity phosphatase PTEN are preferentially reactivated by the thioredoxin system. We show that inducible depletion of TRX1 slows down PTEN re-activation in intact living cells. Finally, using a mechanism-based trapping approach we demonstrate direct thiol disulfide exchange between the active sites of thioredoxin and either phosphatase. The application of thioredoxin trapping mutants represents a complementary approach to direct assays of PTP oxidation in elucidating the significance of redox regulation of PTP function in the control of cell signaling. PMID:24976139

  5. Convergent loss of PTEN leads to clinical resistance to a PI(3)Kα inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Juric, Dejan; Castel, Pau; Griffith, Malachi; Griffith, Obi L; Won, Helen H; Ellis, Haley; Ebbesen, Saya H; Ainscough, Benjamin J; Ramu, Avinash; Iyer, Gopa; Shah, Ronak H; Huynh, Tiffany; Mino-Kenudson, Mari; Sgroi, Dennis; Isakoff, Steven; Thabet, Ashraf; Elamine, Leila; Solit, David B; Lowe, Scott W; Quadt, Cornelia; Peters, Malte; Derti, Adnan; Schegel, Robert; Huang, Alan; Mardis, Elaine R; Berger, Michael F; Baselga, José; Scaltriti, Maurizio

    2015-02-12

    Broad and deep tumour genome sequencing has shed new light on tumour heterogeneity and provided important insights into the evolution of metastases arising from different clones. There is an additional layer of complexity, in that tumour evolution may be influenced by selective pressure provided by therapy, in a similar fashion to that occurring in infectious diseases. Here we studied tumour genomic evolution in a patient (index patient) with metastatic breast cancer bearing an activating PIK3CA (phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase, catalytic subunit alpha, PI(3)Kα) mutation. The patient was treated with the PI(3)Kα inhibitor BYL719, which achieved a lasting clinical response, but the patient eventually became resistant to this drug (emergence of lung metastases) and died shortly thereafter. A rapid autopsy was performed and material from a total of 14 metastatic sites was collected and sequenced. All metastatic lesions, when compared to the pre-treatment tumour, had a copy loss of PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homolog) and those lesions that became refractory to BYL719 had additional and different PTEN genetic alterations, resulting in the loss of PTEN expression. To put these results in context, we examined six other patients also treated with BYL719. Acquired bi-allelic loss of PTEN was found in one of these patients, whereas in two others PIK3CA mutations present in the primary tumour were no longer detected at the time of progression. To characterize our findings functionally, we examined the effects of PTEN knockdown in several preclinical models (both in cell lines intrinsically sensitive to BYL719 and in PTEN-null xenografts derived from our index patient), which we found resulted in resistance to BYL719, whereas simultaneous PI(3)K p110β blockade reverted this resistance phenotype. We conclude that parallel genetic evolution of separate metastatic sites with different PTEN genomic alterations leads to a convergent PTEN-null phenotype resistant

  6. MicroRNA-21 Regulates hTERT via PTEN in Hypertrophic Scar Fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Su, Lin-Lin; Liu, Jia-Qi; Li, Yan; Shi, Ji-Hong; Cai, Wei-Xia; Bai, Xiao-Zhi; Jia, Yan-Hui; Zhao, Bin; Wu, Xue; Li, Jun; Hu, Da-Hai

    2014-01-01

    Background As an important oncogenic miRNA, microRNA-21 (miR-21) is associated with various malignant diseases. However, the precise biological function of miR-21 and its molecular mechanism in hypertrophic scar fibroblast cells has not been fully elucidated. Methodology/Principal Findings Quantitative Real-Time PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis revealed significant upregulation of miR-21 in hypertrophic scar fibroblast cells compared with that in normal skin fibroblast cells. The effects of miR-21 were then assessed in MTT and apoptosis assays through in vitro transfection with a miR-21 mimic or inhibitor. Next, PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homologue deleted on chromosome ten) was identified as a target gene of miR-21 in hypertrophic scar fibroblast cells. Furthermore, Western-blot and qRT-PCR analyses revealed that miR-21 increased the expression of human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) via the PTEN/PI3K/AKT pathway. Introduction of PTEN cDNA led to a remarkable depletion of hTERT and PI3K/AKT at the protein level as well as inhibition of miR-21-induced proliferation. In addition, Western-blot and qRT-PCR analyses confirmed that hTERT was the downstream target of PTEN. Finally, miR-21 and PTEN RNA expression levels in hypertrophic scar tissue samples were examined. Immunohistochemistry assays revealed an inverse correlation between PTEN and hTERT levels in high miR-21 RNA expressing-hypertrophic scar tissues. Conclusions/Significance These data indicate that miR-21 regulates hTERT expression via the PTEN/PI3K/AKT signaling pathway by directly targeting PTEN, therefore controlling hypertrophic scar fibroblast cell growth. MiR-21 may be a potential novel molecular target for the treatment of hypertrophic scarring. PMID:24817011

  7. Global DNA methylation and PTEN hypermethylation alterations in lung tissues from human silicosis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xianan; Jia, Xiaowei; Mei, Liangying; Zheng, Min; Yu, Chen

    2016-01-01

    Background Silicosis is a respiratory disease caused by long-term silica dust exposure. Our previous study has demonstrated that silica mediates the activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN)/serine or threonine kinase (AKT)/mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK)/AP-1 pathway in human embryo lung fibroblasts (HELFs). The purpose of this study is to identify genome-wide aberrant DNA methylation profiling in lung tissues from silicosis patients. Methods We performed Illumina Human Methylation 450K Beadchip arrays to investigate the methylation alteration in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) lung specimens, immunohistochemistry to detect the level of c-Jun and PTEN proteins; methylation specific PCR (MS-PCR) to identify PTEN and c-Jun promoter methylation in HELFs. Results We found 86,770 CpG sites and 79,660 CpG sites significantly differed in methylation status in early-stage and advanced-stage compared with GEO normal lung methylation data. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) analysis revealed the methylated status of MAPK signaling pathway was considered changed. The number of PTEN and c-Jun CpG promoter methylated-sites were increased in advanced-stage. Early-stage showed the positive expression of c-Jun and PTEN protein and negative or mild expression in advanced-stage. PTEN promoter was no differentially methylated and c-Jun promoter differed at 12 and 24 h in HELFs. Conclusions Abnormal DNA methylation on genome-scale was implicated in silicosis, and PTEN promoter hypermethylation might be associated with decrease of PTEN protein.

  8. PTEN enhances G2/M arrest in etoposide-treated MCF‑7 cells through activation of the ATM pathway.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ruopeng; Zhu, Li; Zhang, Lirong; Xu, Anli; Li, Zhengwei; Xu, Yijuan; He, Pei; Wu, Maoqing; Wei, Fengxiang; Wang, Chenhong

    2016-05-01

    As an effective tumor suppressor, phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) has attracted the increased attention of scientists. Recent studies have shown that PTEN plays unique roles in the DNA damage response (DDR) and can interact with the Chk1 pathway. However, little is known about how PTEN contributes to DDR through the ATM-Chk2 pathway. It is well-known that etoposide induces G2/M arrest in a variety of cell lines, including MCF-7 cells. The DNA damage-induced G2/M arrest results from the activation of protein kinase ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM), followed by the activation of Chk2 that subsequently inactivates CDC25C, resulting in G2/M arrest. In the present study, we assessed the contribution of PTEN to the etoposide-induced G2/M cell cycle arrest. PTEN was knocked down in MCF-7 cells by specific shRNA, and the effects of PTEN on the ATM-Chk2 pathway were investigated through various approaches. The results showed that knockdown of PTEN strongly antagonized ATM activation in response to etoposide treatment, and thereby reduced the phosphorylation level of ATM substrates, including H2AX, P53 and Chk2. Furthermore, depletion of PTEN reduced the etoposide-induced phosphorylation of CDC25C and strikingly compromised etoposide-induced G2/M arrest in the MCF-7 cells. Altogether, we demonstrated that PTEN plays a unique role in etoposide-induced G2/M arrest by facilitating the activation of the ATM pathway, and PTEN was required for the proper activation of checkpoints in response to DNA damage in MCF-7 cells. PMID:26986476

  9. PTEN and p16 genes as epigenetic biomarkers in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC): a study on south Indian population.

    PubMed

    Sushma, P S; Jamil, Kaiser; Kumar, P Uday; Satyanarayana, U; Ramakrishna, M; Triveni, B

    2016-06-01

    Phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) and p16INK4a (p16) genes are tumor suppressor genes, associated with epigenetic alterations. PTEN and p16 promoter hypermethylation is a major epigenetic silencing mechanism leading to cancer. The cooperation between PTEN and p16 in pathogenesis of cancers suggest that their combination might be considered as potential molecular marker for specific subgroups of patients. Hence, the present study aimed to investigate whether PTEN and p16 promoter methylations were involved in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) in south Indian subjects. DNA methylation quantitative analyses of the two candidate tumor suppressor genes PTEN and p16 were performed by methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction (MSP). Fifty OSCC biopsy samples and their corresponding non-malignant portions as controls were studied comparatively. The methylation status was correlated with the clinical manifestations. Twelve out of 50 patients (24 %) were found to be methylated for PTEN gene, whereas methylation of the p16 gene occurred in 19 out of 50 cases (38 %). A statistically significant result was obtained (P = <0.0001 and 0.017) for both PTEN and p16 genes. PTEN and p16 promoter methylation may be the main mechanism leading to the low expression of PTEN and p16 genes indicating the progress of tumor development. Our data suggest that a low PTEN and p16 expression due to methylation may contribute to the cancer progression and could be useful for prognosis of OSCC. Therefore, analysis of promoter methylation in such genes may provide a biomarker valuable for early detection of oral cancer. PMID:26687648

  10. Suppression of Akt1 phosphorylation by adenoviral transfer of the PTEN gene inhibits hypoxia-induced proliferation of rat pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells

    SciTech Connect

    Luo, Chunxia; Yi, Bin; Bai, Li; Xia, Yongzhi; Wang, Guansong; Qian, Guisheng; Feng, Hua

    2010-07-02

    Recent findings identify the role of proliferation of pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMCs) in pulmonary vascular remodeling. Phosphoinositide 3 kinase (PI3K) and serine/threonine kinase (Akt) proteins are expressed in vascular smooth muscle cells. In addition, phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN) has been identified as a negative regulator of cytokine signaling that inhibits the PI3K-Akt pathway. However, little is known about the role of PTEN/Akt signaling in hypoxia-associated vascular remodeling. In this study, we found that hypoxia-induced the expression of Akt1 mRNA and phosphorylated protein by at least twofold in rat PASMCs. Phospho-PTEN significantly decreased in the nuclei of PASMCs after hypoxic stimulation. After forcing over-expression of PTEN by adenovirus-mediated PTEN (Ad-PTEN) transfection, the expression of phospho-Akt1 was significantly suppressed in PASMCs at all time-points measured. Additionally, we showed here that hypoxia increased proliferation of PASMCs by nearly twofold and over-expression of PTEN significantly inhibited hypoxia-induced PASMCs proliferation. These findings suggest that phospho-PTEN loss in the nuclei of PASMCs under hypoxic conditions may be the major cause of aberrant activation of Akt1 and may, therefore, play an important role in hypoxia-associated pulmonary arterial remodeling. Finally, the fact that transfection with Ad-PTEN inhibits the phosphorylation of Akt1 in PASMCs suggests a potential therapeutic effect on hypoxia-associated pulmonary arterial remodeling.

  11. PI3K/PTEN Signaling in Angiogenesis and Tumorigenesis

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Bing-Hua; Liu, Ling-Zhi

    2010-01-01

    Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN) signaling pathway play an important role in multiple cellular functions such as cell metabolism, proliferation, cell-cycle progression, and survival. PI3K is activated by growth factors and angiogenesis inducers such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and angiopoietins. The amplification and mutations of PI3K and the loss of the tumor suppressor PTEN are common in various kinds of human solid tumors. The genetic alterations of upstream and downstream of PI3K signaling molecules such as receptor tyrosine kinases and AKT, respectively, are also frequently altered in human cancer. PI3K signaling regulates tumor growth and angiogenesis by activating AKT and other targets, and by inducing HIF-1 and VEGF expression. Angiogenesis is required for tumor growth and metastasis. In this review, we highlight the recent studies on the roles and mechanisms of PI3K and PTEN in regulating tumorigenesis and angiogenesis, and the roles of the downstream targets of PI3K for transmitting the signals. We also discuss the crosstalk of these signaling molecules and cellular events during tumor growth, metastasis, and tumor angiogenesis. Finally, we summarize the potential applications of PI3K, AKT, and mTOR inhibitors and their outcome in clinical trials for cancer treatment. PMID:19595306

  12. Lipoxin A4 activates alveolar epithelial sodium channel gamma via the microRNA-21/PTEN/AKT pathway in lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory lung injury.

    PubMed

    Qi, Wei; Li, Hui; Cai, Xiao-Hong; Gu, Jia-Qi; Meng, Jin; Xie, Hai-Qing; Zhang, Jun-Li; Chen, Jie; Jin, Xian-Guan; Tang, Qian; Hao, Yu; Gao, Ye; Wen, Ai-Qing; Xue, Xiang-Yang; Gao Smith, Fang; Jin, Sheng-Wei

    2015-11-01

    Lipoxin A4 (LXA4), as an endogenously produced lipid mediator, promotes the resolution of inflammation. Previously, we demonstrated that LXA4 stimulated alveolar fluid clearance through alveolar epithelial sodium channel gamma (ENaC-γ). In this study, we sought to investigate the mechanisms of LXA4 in modulation of ENaC-γ in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory lung injury. miR-21 was upregulated during an LPS challenge and downregulated by LXA4 administration in vivo and in vitro. Serum miR-21 concentration was also elevated in acute respiratory distress syndrome patients as compared with healthy volunteers. LPS increased miR-21 expression by activation of activator protein 1 (AP-1). In A549 cells, miR-21 upregulated phosphorylation of AKT activation via inhibition of phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN), and therefore reduced the expression of ENaC-γ. In contrast, LXA4 reversed LPS-inhibited ENaC-γ expression through inhibition of AP-1 and activation of PTEN. In addition, an miR-21 inhibitor mimicked the effects of LXA4; overexpression of miR-21 abolished the protective effects of LXA4. Finally, both AKT and ERK inhibitors (LY294002 and UO126) blocked effects of LPS on the depression of ENaC-γ. However, LXA4 only inhibited LPS-induced phosphorylation of AKT. In summary, LXA4 activates ENaC-γ in part via the miR-21/PTEN/AKT signaling pathway. PMID:26302186

  13. Coordinate activation of Shh and PI3K signaling in PTEN-deficient glioblastoma: new therapeutic opportunities.

    PubMed

    Filbin, Mariella Gruber; Dabral, Sukriti K; Pazyra-Murphy, Maria F; Ramkissoon, Shakti; Kung, Andrew L; Pak, Ekaterina; Chung, Jarom; Theisen, Matthew A; Sun, Yanping; Franchetti, Yoko; Sun, Yu; Shulman, David S; Redjal, Navid; Tabak, Barbara; Beroukhim, Rameen; Wang, Qi; Zhao, Jean; Dorsch, Marion; Buonamici, Silvia; Ligon, Keith L; Kelleher, Joseph F; Segal, Rosalind A

    2013-11-01

    In glioblastoma, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) signaling is frequently activated by loss of the tumor suppressor phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN). However, it is not known whether inhibiting PI3K represents a selective and effective approach for treatment. We interrogated large databases and found that sonic hedgehog (SHH) signaling is activated in PTEN-deficient glioblastoma. We demonstrate that the SHH and PI3K pathways synergize to promote tumor growth and viability in human PTEN-deficient glioblastomas. A combination of PI3K and SHH signaling inhibitors not only suppressed the activation of both pathways but also abrogated S6 kinase (S6K) signaling. Accordingly, targeting both pathways simultaneously resulted in mitotic catastrophe and tumor apoptosis and markedly reduced the growth of PTEN-deficient glioblastomas in vitro and in vivo. The drugs tested here appear to be safe in humans; therefore, this combination may provide a new targeted treatment for glioblastoma. PMID:24076665

  14. SIPL1-facilitated PTEN ubiquitination contributes to its association with PTEN.

    PubMed

    De Melo, Jason; Lin, Xiaozeng; He, Lizhi; Wei, Fengxiang; Major, Pierre; Tang, Damu

    2014-12-01

    PTEN is post-translationally modified by ubiquitin via association with multiple E3 ubiquitin ligases, including NEDD4-1, XIAP, and WWP2. Despite the rapid progress made in researching the impact of ubiquitination on PTEN function, our understanding remains fragmented. Building on the previously observed interaction between SIPL1 and PTEN, we report here that SIPL1 promotes PTEN polyubiquitination via lysine 48 (K48)-independent polyubiquitin chains. Substitution of the K48 residue of ubiquitin with arginine (R) enhanced SIPL1-mediated PTEN polyubiquitination. In contrast, the K63R substitution significantly reduced it. The ubiquitin-like (UBL) domain is required for SIPL1-induced PTEN polyubiquitination. This post-translational modification promoted the association of SIPL1 with PTEN. Elevated amounts of the SIPL1/PTEN complex were precipitated in 293T cells co-transfected with PTEN, SIPL1, and ubiquitin compared to cells co-transfected with SIPL1 and PTEN only. Additionally, formation of the SIPL1/PTEN complex was inhibited when either lysine-less (K0) ubiquitin or K63R ubiquitin was co-transfected together with SIPL1+PTEN. The PTEN component in the SIPL1/PTEN complex contained polyubiquitin chains. The ubiquitination reaction may play a structural role, stabilizing the SIPL1/PTEN complex, as a ubiquitin binding-defective SIPL1 mutant (TFLV) is proficient in PTEN association. Collectively, we demonstrate that SIPL1 binds PTEN and enhances PTEN polyubiquitination which in turn promotes the interaction between SIPL1 and PTEN. PMID:25152374

  15. A novel functional interplay between Progesterone Receptor-B and PTEN, via AKT, modulates autophagy in breast cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    De Amicis, Francesca; Guido, Carmela; Santoro, Marta; Lanzino, Marilena; Panza, Salvatore; Avena, Paola; Panno, Maria Luisa; Perrotta, Ida; Aquila, Saveria; Andò, Sebastiano

    2014-01-01

    The tumour suppressor activity of the phosphatase and tensin homologue on chromosome 10 (PTEN) is subject of intense investigative efforts, although limited information on its regulation in breast cancer is available. Herein, we report that, in breast cancer cells, progesterone (OHPg), through its cognate receptor PR-B, positively modulates PTEN expression by inducing its mRNA and protein levels, and increasing PTEN-promoter activity. The OHPg-dependent up-regulation of PTEN gene activity requires binding of the PR-B to an Sp1-rich region within the PTEN gene promoter. Indeed, ChIP and EMSA analyses showed that OHPg treatment induced the occupancy of PTEN promoter by PR and Sp1 together with transcriptional coactivators such as SRC1 and CBP. PR-B isoform knockdown abolished the complex formation indicating its specific involvement. The OHPg/PR-B dependent induction of PTEN causes the down-regulation of PI3K/AKT signal, switching on the autophagy process through an enhanced expression of UVRAG and leading to a reduced cell survival. Altogether these findings highlight a novel functional connection between OHPg/PR-B and tumour suppressor pathways in breast cancer. PMID:25216078

  16. Targeted deletion of tumor suppressor PTEN augments neutrophil function and enhances host defense in neutropenia-associated pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yitang; Jia, Yonghui; Pichavant, Muriel; Loison, Fabien; Sarraj, Bara; Kasorn, Anongnard; You, Jian; Robson, Bryanne E.; Umetsu, Dale T.; Mizgerd, Joseph P.; Ye, Keqiang

    2009-01-01

    Neutropenia and related infections are the most important dose-limiting toxicities in anticancer chemotherapy and radiotherapy. In this study, we explored a new strategy for augmenting host defense in neutropenia-related pneumonia. Phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-trisphosphate (PtdIns(3,4,5)P3) signaling in neutrophils was elevated by depleting PTEN, a phosphatidylinositol 3′-phosphatase that hydrolyzes PtdIns(3,4,5)P3. In myeloid-specific PTEN knockout mice, significantly more neutrophils were recruited to the inflamed lungs during neutropenia-associated pneumonia. Using an adoptive transfer technique, we demonstrated that this enhancement could be caused directly by PTEN depletion in neutrophils. In addition, disruption of PTEN increased the recruitment of macrophages and elevated proinflammatory cytokines/chemokine levels in the inflamed lungs, which could also be responsible for the enhanced neutrophil recruitment. Depleting PTEN also significantly delayed apoptosis and enhanced the bacteria-killing capability of the recruited neutrophils. Finally, we provide direct evidence that enhancement of neutrophil function by elevating PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 signaling can alleviate pneumonia-associated lung damage and decrease pneumonia-elicited mortality. Collectively, these results not only provide insight into the mechanism of action of PTEN and PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 signaling pathway in modulating neutrophil function during lung infection and inflammation, but they also establish PTEN and related pathways as potential therapeutic targets for treating neutropenia-associated pneumonia. PMID:19286998

  17. The association between phosphatase and tensin homolog hypermethylation and patients with breast cancer, a meta-analysis and literature review.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yi-Min; Cheng, Feng; Teng, Li-Song

    2016-01-01

    The Phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) protein is a negative regulator of the Akt pathway, leading to suppression of apoptois and increased cell survival. Its role as a tumor-suppressor gene has been adequately substantiated, and PTEN hypermethylation has been demonstrated in familial and sporadic cancers. However, the association and clinical significance between PTEN hypermethylation and breast cancer remains unclear. In this study, we systematically reviewed studies of PTEN hypermethylation and breast cancer and quantify the association between PTEN hypermethylation and breast cancer using meta-analysis methods. The pooled OR, 22.30, 95% confidential intervals, CI = 1.98-251.51, P = 0.01, which demonstrates that loss of PTEN expression by hypermethylation plays a critical role in the early tumorigenesis of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS). In addition, PTEN hypermethylation also is detected in invasive ductal carcinomas (IDCs) and is significantly higher than in normal controls, OR = 23.32, 95% CI = 10.43-52.13, P < 0.00001. Further analysis did not show significant correlation between PTEN hypermethylation and the progression of breast cancer, estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PgR), as well as HER2 status. These results indicate the PTEN hypermethylation is significantly associated with both DCIS and IDCs. The detection of PTEN hypermethylation could be an early tumorigenesis marker for breast cancer patients. PMID:27620353

  18. FIZZ1 Promotes Airway Remodeling in Asthma Through the PTEN Signaling Pathway.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jiping; Jiao, Xingai; Wu, Jinxiang; Wang, Junfei; Gong, Wenbin; Liu, Fen; Liu, Wen; Bi, Wenxiang; Dong, Liang

    2015-08-01

    The aim of our study was to elucidate the function and signaling pathway of found in inflammatory zone 1 (FIZZ1) in airway remodeling in asthma. We used a mice model sensitized and challenged by ovalbumin (OVA) to evaluate the expression of FIZZ1, type I collagen, and fibronectin-1 in the airway in asthma. To investigate the signaling pathway regulated by FIZZ1, we treated a cultured murine lung epithelium cell-12 (MLE-12) with FIZZ1 recombination protein, silenced the expression of FIZZ1 with FIZZ1-shRNA in vitro, and then detected phosphorylated phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN) and expression of type I collagen and fibronectin-1 (FN-1) by Western blotting. In addition, we increased the expression of PTEN by PTEN plasmid transfection then detected the expression of type I collagen and fibronectin-1 in MLE-12 by Western blot analysis and immunofluorescence cytochemistry technology, respectively. First, the expression of FIZZ1, type I collagen, and fibronectin-1 was significantly elevated in the lungs of OVA-challenged mice compared with saline-treated control animals. Secondly, the phosphorylation of PTEN was decreased in MLE-12 treated with FIZZ1 recombination protein in vitro. On the contrary, the phosphorylation of PTEN was increased in MLE-12 cells transfected with FIZZ1-shRNA. Thirdly, results of the Western blot analysis and immunofluorescence cytochemistry showed that expression of type I collagen and fibronectin-1 was increased in cells treated with FIZZ1 recombination protein, while the levels of type I collagen and fibronectin-1 were significantly decreased in cells transfected with PTEN plasmid. FIZZ1 may be a critical cytokine in airway remodeling in asthma. This study indicates that targeting FIZZ1 and/or PTEN may be a new therapeutic strategy for asthma. PMID:25655389

  19. Additive effect of Zfhx3/Atbf1 and Pten deletion on mouse prostatic tumorigenesis

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Xiaodong; Xing, Changsheng; Fu, Xiaoying; Li, Jie; Zhang, Baotong; Frierson, Henry F.; Dong, Jin-Tang

    2016-01-01

    The phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) and the zinc finger homeobox 3 (ZFHX3)/AT-motif binding factor 1 (ATBF1) genes have been established as tumor suppressor genes in prostate cancer by their frequent deletions and mutations in human prostate cancer and by the formation of mouse prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (mPIN) or tumor by their deletions in mouse prostates. However, whether ZFHX3/ATBF1 deletion together with PTEN deletion facilitates prostatic tumorigenesis is unknown. In this study, we simultaneously deleted both genes in mouse prostatic epithelia and performed histological and molecular analyses. While deletion of one Pten allele alone caused low-grade (LG) mPIN as previously reported, concurrent deletion of Zfhx3/Atbf1 promoted the progression to high-grade (HG) mPIN or early carcinoma. Zfhx3/Atbf1 and Pten deletions together increased cell proliferation, disrupted the smooth muscle layer between epithelium and stroma, and increased the number of apoptotic cells. Deletion of both genes also accelerated the activation of Akt and Erk1/2 oncoproteins. These results suggest an additive effect of ZFHX3/ATBF1 and PTEN deletions on the development and progression of prostate neoplasia. PMID:26233892

  20. miR-17 inhibitor suppressed osteosarcoma tumor growth and metastasis via increasing PTEN expression

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, Yong; Luo, Ling-hui; Li, Shuai; Yang, Cao

    2014-02-07

    Highlights: • miR-17 was increased in OS tissues and cell lines. • Inhibition of miR-17 suppressed OS cell proliferation. • Inhibition of miR-17 suppressed OS cell migration and invasion. • PTEN was a target of miR-17. • miR-17 was negatively correlated with PTEN in OS tissues. - Abstract: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play essential roles in cancer development and progression. Here, we investigated the role of miR-17 in the progression and metastasis of osteosarcoma (OS). miR-17 was frequently increased in OS tissues and cell lines. Inhibition of miR-17 in OS cell lines substantially suppressed cell proliferation, migration, and invasion. Phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) was identified as a target of miR-17, and ectopic expression of miR-17 inhibited PTEN by direct binding to its 3′-untranslated region (3′-UTR). Expression of miR-17 was negatively correlated with PTEN in OS tissues. Together, these findings indicate that miR-17 acts as an oncogenic miRNA and may contribute to the progression and metastasis of OS, suggesting miR-17 as a potential novel diagnostic and therapeutic target of OS.

  1. Power of PTEN/AKT: Molecular switch between tumor suppressors and oncogenes

    PubMed Central

    XIE, YINGQIU; NAIZABEKOV, SANZHAR; CHEN, ZHANLIN; TOKAY, TURSONJAN

    2016-01-01

    An increasing amount of evidence has shown that tumor suppressors can become oncogenes, or vice versa, but the mechanism behind this is unclear. Recent findings have suggested that phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) is one of the powerful switches for the conversion between tumor suppressors and oncogenes. PTEN regulates a number of cellular processes, including cell death and proliferation, through the phosphoinositide 3-kinase/protein kinase B/mammalian target of rapamycin (PI3K/AKT/mTOR) pathway. Furthermore, a number of studies have suggested that PTEN deletions may alter various functions of certain tumor suppressor and oncogenic proteins. The aim of the present review was to analyze specific cases driven by PTEN loss/AKT activation, including aberrant signaling pathways and novel drug targets for clinical application in personalized medicine. The findings illustrate how PTEN loss and/or AKT activation switches MDM2-dependent p53 downregulation, and induces conversion between oncogene and tumor suppressor in enhancer of zeste homolog 2, BTB domain-containing 7A, alternative reading frame 2, p27 and breast cancer 1, early onset, through multiple mechanisms. This review highlights the genetic basis of complex drug targets and provides insights into the rationale of precision cancer therapy. PMID:27347153

  2. Reprogramming of the tumour microenvironment by stromal PTEN-regulated miR-320.

    PubMed

    Bronisz, A; Godlewski, J; Wallace, J A; Merchant, A S; Nowicki, M O; Mathsyaraja, H; Srinivasan, R; Trimboli, A J; Martin, C K; Li, F; Yu, L; Fernandez, S A; Pécot, T; Rosol, T J; Cory, S; Hallett, M; Park, M; Piper, M G; Marsh, C B; Yee, L D; Jimenez, R E; Nuovo, G; Lawler, S E; Chiocca, E A; Leone, G; Ostrowski, M C

    2012-02-01

    PTEN (Phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10) expression in stromal fibroblasts suppresses epithelial mammary tumours, but the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unknown. Using proteomic and expression profiling, we show that Pten loss from mammary stromal fibroblasts activates an oncogenic secretome that orchestrates the transcriptional reprogramming of other cell types in the microenvironment. Downregulation of miR-320 and upregulation of one of its direct targets, ETS2 (v-ets erythroblastosis virus E26 oncogene homolog 2) are critical events in Pten-deleted stromal fibroblasts responsible for inducing this oncogenic secretome, which in turn promotes tumour angiogenesis and tumour-cell invasion. Expression of the Pten-miR-320-Ets2-regulated secretome distinguished human normal breast stroma from tumour stroma and robustly correlated with recurrence in breast cancer patients. This work reveals miR-320 as a critical component of the Pten tumour-suppressor axis that acts in stromal fibroblasts to reprogramme the tumour microenvironment and curtail tumour progression. PMID:22179046

  3. Promoter Methylation of PTEN Is a Significant Prognostic Factor in Melanoma Survival.

    PubMed

    Roh, Mi Ryung; Gupta, Sameer; Park, Kyu-Hyun; Chung, Kee Yang; Lauss, Martin; Flaherty, Keith T; Jönsson, Göran; Rha, Sun Young; Tsao, Hensin

    2016-05-01

    Structural compromise of the tumor suppressor gene, phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN), occurs in 10% of melanoma specimens, and loss of PTEN expression through DNA methylation of the PTEN promoter region has also been reported in a number of other malignancies. However, the role of PTEN promoter methylation in melanoma is not well understood. We thus sought to elucidate the prevalence of PTEN promoter methylation in melanoma specimens, its relationship to clinical features, and its impact on the outcome of patients with melanoma. PTEN promoter methylation data were acquired from an archived primary Korean melanoma cohort (KMC) of 158 patients and, for validation, 234 patients from The Cancer Genome Atlas melanoma (TCGA-MEL) cohort. Hierarchical clustering was performed to identify PTEN "high methylated" and "low methylated" samples. Subsequently, differences in clinical features and outcomes based on PTEN promoter methylation status were then analyzed using SPSS and R. In the KMC, all tumors were acquired from primary tumors and 65.7% (n = 105) were acral or mucosal by site, whereas in the TCGA-MEL cohort, 90.5% of the tumors were from regional lymph node and distant metastatic lesions. Overall, 17.7% and 45.7% of the specimens harbored BRAF mutations in the KMC and TCGA-MEL cohort, respectively. Neuroblastoma RAS viral oncogene homolog was mutated in 12.2% and 26.9% of the tumors in the KMC and TCGA-MEL cohort, respectively. In the KMC, 31 cases (19.6%) were included in the high methylated group versus 142 cases (60.7%) in the TCGA-MEL cohort (P < 0.001). Multivariate Cox-regression analysis revealed promoter methylation of PTEN to be an independent negative prognostic factor for survival in both the KMC (hazard ratio 3.76, 95% confidence interval = 1.24-11.12, P = 0.017) and TCGA-MEL cohort (HR 1.88, 95% confidence interval = 1.13-3.12, P = 0.015). Our results indicate that PTEN promoter methylation is an independent predictor for impaired survival in

  4. Phosphatase and tensin homolog is a differential diagnostic marker between nonalcoholic and alcoholic fatty liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez-Pareja, Andrea; Clément, Sophie; Peyrou, Marion; Spahr, Laurent; Negro, Francesco; Rubbia-Brandt, Laura; Foti, Michelangelo

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the protein expression of phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) in human liver biopsies of patients with alcoholic and non-alcoholic liver disease. METHODS: PTEN protein expression was assessed by immunohistochemistry in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded liver sections of patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) (n = 44) or alcoholic liver disease (ALD) (n = 25). Liver resections obtained from 3 healthy subjects candidate for partial liver donation served as controls. Histological evaluations were performed by two experienced pathologists, and diagnoses established based on international criteria. The intensity of the PTEN staining in nuclei was compared between steatotic and non-steatotic areas of each liver fragment analyzed. For each liver specimen, the antibody-stained sections were examined and scored blindly by three independent observers, who were unaware of the patients’ clinical history. RESULTS: In healthy individuals, PTEN immunostaining was intense in both the cytoplasm and nuclei of all hepatocytes. However, PTEN was strongly downregulated in both the nucleus and the cytoplasm of hepatocytes from steatotic areas in patients with NAFLD, independently of the disease stage. In contrast, no changes in PTEN protein expression were observed in patients with ALD, regardless of the presence of steatosis or the stage of the disease. The degree of PTEN downregulation in hepatocytes of patients with NAFLD correlated with the percentage of steatosis (r = 0.3061, P = 0.0459) and the BMI (r = 0.4268, P = 0.0043). Hovewer, in patients with ALD, PTEN expression was not correlated with the percentage of steatosis with or without obesity as a confounding factor (P = 0.5574). Finally, PTEN expression level in steatotic areas of ALD patients was significantly different from that seen in steatotic areas of NAFLD patients (P < 0.0001). CONCLUSION: PTEN protein expression is downregulated early in NAFLD, but not in ALD. PTEN

  5. PTEN microdeletions in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia are caused by illegitimate RAG-mediated recombination events.

    PubMed

    Mendes, Rui D; Sarmento, Leonor M; Canté-Barrett, Kirsten; Zuurbier, Linda; Buijs-Gladdines, Jessica G C A M; Póvoa, Vanda; Smits, Willem K; Abecasis, Miguel; Yunes, J Andres; Sonneveld, Edwin; Horstmann, Martin A; Pieters, Rob; Barata, João T; Meijerink, Jules P P

    2014-07-24

    Phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN)-inactivating mutations and/or deletions are an independent risk factor for relapse of T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) patients treated on Dutch Childhood Oncology Group or German Cooperative Study Group for Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia protocols. Some monoallelic mutated or PTEN wild-type patients lack PTEN protein, implying that additional PTEN inactivation mechanisms exist. We show that PTEN is inactivated by small deletions affecting a few exons in 8% of pediatric T-ALL patients. These microdeletions were clonal in 3% and subclonal in 5% of patients. Conserved deletion breakpoints are flanked by cryptic recombination signal sequences (cRSSs) and frequently have non-template-derived nucleotides inserted in between breakpoints, pointing to an illegitimate RAG recombination-driven activity. Identified cRSSs drive RAG-dependent recombination in a reporter system as efficiently as bona fide RSSs that flank gene segments of the T-cell receptor locus. Remarkably, equivalent microdeletions were detected in thymocytes of healthy individuals. Microdeletions strongly associate with the TALLMO subtype characterized by TAL1 or LMO2 rearrangements. Primary and secondary xenotransplantation of TAL1-rearranged leukemia allowed development of leukemic subclones with newly acquired PTEN microdeletions. Ongoing RAG activity may therefore actively contribute to the acquisition of preleukemic hits, clonal diversification, and disease progression. PMID:24904117

  6. Modeling self-organized spatio-temporal patterns of PIP3 and PTEN during spontaneous cell polarization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knoch, Fabian; Tarantola, Marco; Bodenschatz, Eberhard; Rappel, Wouter-Jan

    2014-08-01

    During spontaneous cell polarization of Dictyostelium discoideum cells, phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5)-triphoshpate (PIP3) and PTEN (phosphatase tensin homolog) have been identified as key signaling molecules which govern the process of polarization in a self-organized manner. Recent experiments have quantified the spatio-temporal dynamics of these signaling components. Surprisingly, it was found that membrane-bound PTEN can be either in a high or low state, that PIP3 waves were initiated in areas lacking PTEN through an excitable mechanism, and that PIP3 was degraded even though the PTEN concentration remained low. Here we develop a reaction-diffusion model that aims to explain these experimental findings. Our model contains bistable dynamics for PTEN, excitable dynamics for PIP3, and postulates the existence of two species of PTEN with different dephosphorylation rates. We show that our model is able to produce results that are in good qualitative agreement with the experiments, suggesting that our reaction-diffusion model underlies the self-organized spatio-temporal patterns observed in experiments.

  7. PTEN-mRNA engineered mesenchymal stem cell-mediated cytotoxic effects on U251 glioma cells

    PubMed Central

    GUO, XING RONG; HU, QIN YONG; YUAN, YA HONG; TANG, XIANG JUN; YANG, ZHUO SHUN; ZOU, DAN DAN; BIAN, LIU JIAO; DAI, LONG JUN; LI, DONG SHENG

    2016-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been considered to have potential as ideal carriers for the delivery of anticancer agents since the capacity for tumor-oriented migration and integration was identified. In contrast to DNA-based vectors, mRNA synthesized in vitro may be readily transfected and is mutagenesis-free. The present study was performed in order to investigate the effects of phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) mRNA-engineered MSCs on human glioma U251 cells under indirect co-culture conditions. PTEN-bearing mRNA was generated by in vitro transcription and was transfected into MSCs. The expression of PTEN in transfected MSCs was detected by immunoblotting, and the migration ability of MSCs following PTEN-bearing mRNA transfection was verified using Transwell co-cultures. The indirect co-culture was used to determine the effects of PTEN-engineered MSCs on the viability of U251 glioma cells by luminescence and fluorescence microscopy. The synthesized PTEN mRNA was expressed in MSCs, and the expression was highest at 24 h subsequent to transfection. An enhanced migration rate was observed in MSCs transfected with PTEN mRNA compared with non-transfected MSCs (P<0.05). A significant inhibition of U251 cells was observed when the cells were cultured with conditioned medium from PTEN mRNA-engineered MSCs (P<0.05). The results suggested that anticancer gene-bearing mRNA synthesized in vitro is capable of being applied to a MSC-mediated anticancer strategy for the treatment of glioblastoma patients. PMID:27073544

  8. MicroRNA-21 Contributes to Liver Regeneration by Targeting PTEN

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xiaoyu; Song, Meiyi; Chen, Wei; Dimitrova-Shumkovska, Jasmina; Zhao, Yingying; Cao, Yan; Song, Yang; Yang, Wenzhuo; Wang, Fei; Xiang, Yang; Yang, Changqing

    2016-01-01

    Background Multiple microRNAs (miRNAs, miRs), including miR-21, have been documented to be critical regulators of liver regeneration, but the mechanism underlying their roles in hepatocyte proliferation and cell cycle progression is still far from understood. Material/Methods miR-21 levels were determined using qRT-PCRs in mouse livers at 48 h after 70% partial hepatectomy (PH-48 h). Cell proliferation was determined by use of a cell-counting kit-8 (CCK-8), EdU incorporation staining, and flow cytometry. Phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) expressions were determined using qRT-PCR and Western blot analysis. PTEN siRNA was used to perform the rescue experiment. Results A marked upregulation of miR-21 was observed in mouse livers at 48 h after 70% partial hepatectomy (PH-48 h) compared to 0 h after PH (PH-0 h). Overexpression of miR-21 was associated with increased proliferation and a rapid G1-to-S phase transition of the cell cycle in BNL CL.2 normal liver cells in vitro. In addition, we showed that PTEN expression was inversely correlated with miR-21 in BNL CL.2 cells and demonstrated that PTEN expression is lower in mouse livers at PH-48 h. Moreover, the presence of PTEN siRNA significantly abolished the suppressive effect of miR-21 inhibitor on hepatocyte proliferation. Conclusions miR-21 overexpression contributes to liver regeneration and hepatocyte proliferation by targeting PTEN. Upregulation of miR-21 might be a useful therapeutic strategy to promote liver regeneration. PMID:26744142

  9. PTEN gene mutations correlate to poor prognosis in glioma patients: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Han, Feng; Hu, Rong; Yang, Hua; Liu, Jian; Sui, Jianmei; Xiang, Xin; Wang, Fan; Chu, Liangzhao; Song, Shibin

    2016-01-01

    Background We conducted this meta-analysis based on eligible trials to investigate the relationship between phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) genetic mutation and glioma patients’ survival. Methods PubMed, Web of Science, and EMBASE were searched for eligible studies regarding the relationship between PTEN genetic mutation and glioma patients’ survival. The primary outcome was the overall survival of glioma patient with or without PTEN genetic mutation, and second outcome was prognostic factors for the survival of glioma patient. A fixed-effects or random-effects model was used to pool the estimates according to the heterogeneity among the included studies. Results Nine cohort studies, involving 1,173 patients, were included in this meta-analysis. Pooled results suggested that glioma patients with PTEN genetic mutation had a significant shorter overall survival than those without PTEN genetic mutation (hazard ratio [HR] =2.23, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.35, 3.67; P=0.002). Furthermore, subgroup analysis indicated that this association was only observed in American patients (HR =2.19, 95% CI: 1.23, 3.89; P=0.008), but not in Chinese patients (HR =1.44, 95% CI: 0.29, 7.26; P=0.657). Histopathological grade (HR =1.42, 95% CI: 0.07, 28.41; P=0.818), age (HR =0.94, 95% CI: 0.43, 2.04; P=0.877), and sex (HR =1.28, 95% CI: 0.55, 2.98; P=0.564) were not significant prognostic factors for the survival of patients with glioma. Conclusion Current evidence indicates that PTEN genetic mutation is associated with poor prognosis in glioma patients. However, this finding is derived from data in observational studies, potentially subject to selection bias, and hence well conducted, high-quality randomized controlled trials are warranted. PMID:27366085

  10. Suppression of phosphatase and tensin homolog protects insulin-resistant cells from apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Di-Fei; Yang, Hui-Jing; Gu, Jian-Qiu; Cao, Yan-Li; Meng, Xin; Wang, Xiao-Li; Lin, Yi-Chen; Gao, Ming

    2015-08-01

    In the present study, a glucosamine-induced model of insulin-resistant skeletal muscle cells was established in order to investigate the effect of inhibition of phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN)/5'-adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) on these cells. The glucosamine-induced insulin-resistant skeletal muscle cells were produced and the rate of glucose uptake was measured using the glucose oxidase-peroxidase method. The expression levels of PTEN and phosphorylated PTEN (p-PTEN) were assessed using western blotting. Glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) translocation was detected by immunofluorescence. Cell apoptosis was evaluated using flow cytometry. Following insulin stimulation, the rate of glucose uptake was significantly reduced in the cells with glucosamine-induced insulin-resistance in comparison with those in the control group. The expression and translocation of GLUT4 were reduced in the insulin-resistant muscle cells. By contrast, the expression of PTEN and p-PTEN as well as apoptosis were significantly increased. Following treatment with bisperoxopicolinatooxovanadate (BPV) or metformin in the insulin-resistant skeletal muscle cells, there was an increase in the rate of glucose uptake, an increase in GLUT4 expression and its translocation, a reduction in the expression of PTEN and p-PTEN, and a decrease in cell apoptosis compared with untreated insulin-resistant cells. Glucosamine may be used to produce an effective model of insulin-resistant skeletal muscle cells. Cells with glucosamine-induced insulin-resistance exhibited a reduced expression of GLUT4 and dysfunction in GLUT4 translocation, as well as increased activation of PTEN and increased cell apoptosis. Inhibition of PTEN or its upstream regulator, AMPK, protects glucosamine-induced insulin-resistant skeletal muscle cells from apoptosis. PMID:25962562

  11. MicroRNA 152 regulates hepatic glycogenesis by targeting PTEN.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shuyue; Wang, Lilin; Dou, Lin; Guo, Jun; Fang, Weiwei; Li, Meng; Meng, Xiangyu; Man, Yong; Shen, Tao; Huang, Xiuqing; Li, Jian

    2016-05-01

    Hepatic insulin resistance, defined as a diminished ability of hepatocytes to respond to the action of insulin, plays an important role in the development of type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome. Aberrant expression of mmu-miR-152-3p (miR-152) is related to the pathogenesis of tumors such as hepatitis B virus related hepatocellular carcinoma. However, the role of miR-152 in hepatic insulin resistance remains unknown. In the present study, we identified the potential role of miR-152 in regulating hepatic glycogenesis. The expression of miR-152 and the level of glycogen were significantly downregulated in the liver of db/db mice and mice fed a high fat diet. In vivo and in vitro results suggest that inhibition of miR-152 expression induced impaired glycogenesis in hepatocytes. Interestingly, miR-152 expression, glycogen synthesis and protein kinase B/glycogen synthase kinase (AKT/GSK) pathway activation were significantly decreased in the liver of mice injected with 16 μg·mL(-1) interleukin 6 (IL-6) by pumps for 7 days and in NCTC 1469 cells treated with 10 ng·mL(-1) IL-6 for 24 h. Moreover, hepatic overexpression of miR-152 rescued IL-6-induced impaired glycogenesis. Finally, phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) was identified as a direct target of miR-152 to mediate hepatic glycogen synthesis. Our findings provide mechanistic insight into the effects of miR-152 on the regulation of the AKT/GSK pathway and the synthesis of glycogen in hepatocytes. Downregulated miR-152 induced impaired hepatic glycogenesis by targeting PTEN. PTEN participated in miR-152-mediated glycogenesis in hepatocytes via regulation of the AKT/GSK pathway. PMID:26996529

  12. Hidden association of Cowden syndrome, PTEN mutation and meningioma frequency

    PubMed Central

    Yakubov, Eduard; Ghoochani, Ali; Buslei, Rolf; Buchfelder, Michael; Eyüpoglu, Ilker Y.; Savaskan, Nicolai

    2016-01-01

    Cowden syndrome (CS) is clinically presented by multiple hamartomas, often with mucocutaneous lesions, goiter, breast cancer and gastrointestinal polyps. CS is a genetic disorder of autosomal dominant inheritance and is one distinct syndrome of the phosphatase and tensin homolog on chromosome 10 (PTEN) hamartoma tumor spectrum. Noteworthy, PTEN germline mutations are related to a wide range of brain tumors. We performed a systematic analysis and review of the medical literature for Cowden syndrome and meningioma and additionally present the case of a 29-year- old CS patient diagnosed with multiple meningiomas. We found strong evidence for high incidence of brain tumors in CS patients. In particular meningiomas and gangliocytomas/Lhermitte-Duclos disease were often associated with 8% and 9% respectively in CS patients. Since aberrations in chromosome 10q are associated with meningiomas, it is likely that the underlying mutations in CS drive to a certain extent neoplastic meningioma growth. We propose to include meningiomas and brain tumors in the major criteria spectrum of CS-related disorders. This could warrant early diagnosis of brain lesions and close therapy, as well as better monitoring of patients with CS. PMID:27489861

  13. A novel functional interplay between Progesterone Receptor-B and PTEN, via AKT, modulates autophagy in breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    De Amicis, Francesca; Guido, Carmela; Santoro, Marta; Lanzino, Marilena; Panza, Salvatore; Avena, Paola; Panno, Maria Luisa; Perrotta, Ida; Aquila, Saveria; Andò, Sebastiano

    2014-11-01

    The tumour suppressor activity of the phosphatase and tensin homologue on chromosome 10 (PTEN) is subject of intense investigative efforts, although limited information on its regulation in breast cancer is available. Herein, we report that, in breast cancer cells, progesterone (OHPg), through its cognate receptor PR-B, positively modulates PTEN expression by inducing its mRNA and protein levels, and increasing PTEN-promoter activity. The OHPg-dependent up-regulation of PTEN gene activity requires binding of the PR-B to an Sp1-rich region within the PTEN gene promoter. Indeed, ChIP and EMSA analyses showed that OHPg treatment induced the occupancy of PTEN promoter by PR and Sp1 together with transcriptional coactivators such as SRC1 and CBP. PR-B isoform knockdown abolished the complex formation indicating its specific involvement. The OHPg/PR-B dependent induction of PTEN causes the down-regulation of PI3K/AKT signal, switching on the autophagy process through an enhanced expression of UVRAG and leading to a reduced cell survival. Altogether these findings highlight a novel functional connection between OHPg/PR-B and tumour suppressor pathways in breast cancer. PMID:25216078

  14. FAK mediates a compensatory survival signal parallel to PI3K-AKT in PTEN-null T-ALL cells.

    PubMed

    You, Dewen; Xin, Junping; Volk, Andrew; Wei, Wei; Schmidt, Rachel; Scurti, Gina; Nand, Sucha; Breuer, Eun-Kyoung; Kuo, Paul C; Breslin, Peter; Kini, Ameet R; Nishimura, Michael I; Zeleznik-Le, Nancy J; Zhang, Jiwang

    2015-03-31

    Mutations and inactivation of phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted from chromosome 10 (PTEN) are observed in 15%-25% of cases of human T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL). Pten deletion induces myeloproliferative disorders (MPDs), acute myeloid leukemia (AML), and/or T-ALL in mice. Previous studies attributed Pten-loss-related hematopoietic defects and leukemogenesis to excessive activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT/mTOR signaling. Although inhibition of this signal dramatically suppresses the growth of PTEN-null T-ALL cells in vitro, treatment with inhibitors of this pathway does not cause a complete remission in vivo. Here, we report that focal adhesion kinase (Fak), a protein substrate of Pten, also contributes to T-ALL development in Pten-null mice. Inactivation of the FAK signaling pathway by either genetic or pharmacologic methods significantly sensitizes both murine and human PTEN-null T-ALL cells to PI3K/AKT/mTOR inhibition when cultured in vitro on feeder layer cells or a matrix and in vivo. PMID:25801032

  15. PTEN IDENTIFIED AS IMPORTANT RISK FACTOR OF CHRONIC OBSTRUCTIVE PULMONARY DISEASE

    PubMed Central

    Hosgood, H Dean; Menashe, Idan; He, Xingzhou; Chanock, Stephen; Lan, Qing

    2009-01-01

    Common genetic variation may play an important role in altering chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) risk. In Xuanwei, China, the COPD rate is more than twice the Chinese national average, and COPD is strongly associated with in-home coal use. To identify genetic variation that may be associated with COPD in a population with substantial in-home coal smoke exposures, we evaluated 1,261 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 380 candidate genes potentially relevant for cancer and other human diseases in a population-based case-control study in Xuanwei (53 cases; 107 controls). PTEN was the most significantly associated gene with COPD in a minP analysis using 20,000 permutations (P = 0.00005). SNP-based analyses found that homozygote variant carriers of PTEN rs701848 (ORTT = 0.12, 95%CI = 0.03 - 0.47) had a significant decreased risk of COPD. PTEN, or phosphatase and tensin homolog, is an important regulator of cell cycle progression and cellular survival via the AKT signaling pathway. Our exploratory analysis suggests that genetic variation in PTEN may be an important risk factor of COPD in Xuanwei. However, due to the small sample size, additional studies are needed to evaluate these associations within Xuanwei and other populations with coal smoke exposures. PMID:19625176

  16. Self-organized spatiotemporal patterns of PIP3 and PTEN during spontaneous cell polarization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knoch, Fabian; Tarantola, Marco; Rappel, Wouter-Jan; Bodenschatz, Eberhard

    2014-03-01

    During spontaneous cell polarization of Dictyostelium discoideum cells, PIP3 (phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5)-triphoshpate) and PTEN (phosphatase tensin homolog) have been identified as key signaling molecules, which govern the process of polarization in a self-organized manner. Gerisch et al. have shown that randomly triggered excitable PIP3 waves regulate the anti-correlated PTEN concentration. Here we show that this requires a switch-like dynamics of the overall membrane bound PTEN concentration in combination with two species of PTEN differing in their dephosphorylation rates. A quantitative modeling with a coupled reaction-diffusion system shows excellent agreement with experimental results and predicts a ratio σ of dephosphorylation rates acting on PIP3 of σ ~ 80 - 100. Our quantitative analysis suggests that surface-attached cell membrane spanning PIP3 waves are necessary for resetting the global actin network. This is evidenced by the experimentally observed delay between polarization-cycles also quantitatively captured by our analysis. Max Planck Society and Center for Theoretical Biological Physics.

  17. Roles of PTEN with DNA Repair in Parkinson’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Ogino, Mako; Ichimura, Mayuko; Nakano, Noriko; Minami, Akari; Kitagishi, Yasuko; Matsuda, Satoru

    2016-01-01

    Oxidative stress is considered to play key roles in aging and pathogenesis of many neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson’s disease, which could bring DNA damage by cells. The DNA damage may lead to the cell apoptosis, which could contribute to the degeneration of neuronal tissues. Recent evidence suggests that PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homolog on chromosome 10) may be involved in the pathophysiology of the neurodegenerative disorders. Since PTEN expression appears to be one dominant determinant of the neuronal cell death, PTEN should be a potential molecular target of novel therapeutic strategies against Parkinson’s disease. In addition, defects in DNA damage response and DNA repair are often associated with modulation of hormone signaling pathways. Especially, many observations imply a role for estrogen in a regulation of the DNA repair action. In the present review, we have attempted to summarize the function of DNA repair molecules at a viewpoint of the PTEN signaling pathway and the hormone related functional modulation of cells, providing a broad interpretation on the molecular mechanisms for treatment of Parkinson’s disease. Particular attention will be paid to the mechanisms proposed to explain the health effects of food ingredients against Parkinson’s disease related to reduce oxidative stress for an efficient therapeutic intervention. PMID:27314344

  18. Missense mutation in the PTEN promoter of a patient with hemifacial hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Yamazaki, Kiyomi; Eng, Charis; Kuznetsov, Sergei A; Reinisch, John; Yamashita, Dennis-Duke; Walker, John; Cheung, Craig; Robey, Pamela G; Yen, Stephen L-K

    2015-01-01

    The cellular mechanisms involved in the asymmetric facial overgrowth syndrome, hemifacial hyperplasia (HFH), are not well understood. This study was conducted to compare primary cell cultures from hyperplastic and normal HFH bone for cellular and molecular differences. Primary cultures developed from biopsies of a patient with isolated HFH showed a twofold difference in cell size and cell number between hyperplastic and normal bone. Microarray data suggested a 40% suppression of PTEN (phosphatase-tensin homolog) transcripts. Sequencing of the PTEN gene and promoter identified novel C/G missense mutation (position −1053) in the regulatory region of the PTEN promoter. Western blots of downstream pathway components showed an increase in PKBa/Akt1 phosphorylation and TOR (target of rapamcyin) signal. Sirolimus, an inhibitor of TOR, when added to overgrowth cells reversed the cell size, cell number and total protein differences between hyperplastic and normal cells. In cases of facial overgrowth, which involve PTEN/Akt/TOR dysregulation, sirolimus could be used for limiting cell overgrowth. PMID:26229595

  19. Upregulation of microRNA‑337 promotes the proliferation of endometrial carcinoma cells via targeting PTEN.

    PubMed

    Cai, Yangyang; He, Tao; Liang, Lidan; Zhang, Xin; Yuan, Hongying

    2016-06-01

    Endometrial carcinoma (EC) is a common malignancy in females. MicroRNAs (miRs) are a class of non‑coding RNA that regulate a wide variety of cellular processes, and are important in the development of multiple types of malignancy. In the present study, cancerous and adjacent non‑cancerous normal tissue samples were collected from 24 patients diagnosed with EC. Reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction was performed on the tissue samples to determine the expression levels of six candidate miRs. These miRs have been previously reported to be differentially expressed in EC; however, the present study observed that only miR‑337 was differentially expressed. In addition, the current study identified phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) as a target of miR‑337 using computational analysis and a luciferase assay. EC cells transfected with miR‑337 mimics and anti‑PTEN small interfering RNA demonstrated significantly decreased expression of PTEN, markedly increased proliferation and inhibition of cell apoptosis. The results indicate that miR‑337 is oncogenic in EC cells, as it suppresses PTEN expression. This may facilitate the development of miR‑based prevention or treatment strategies for EC. PMID:27082228

  20. Nanotherapeutics of PTEN Inhibitor with Mesoporous Silica Nanocarrier Effective for Axonal Outgrowth of Adult Neurons.

    PubMed

    Kim, Min Soo; El-Fiqi, Ahmed; Kim, Jong-Wan; Ahn, Hong-Sun; Kim, Hyukmin; Son, Young-Jin; Kim, Hae-Won; Hyun, Jung Keun

    2016-07-27

    Development of therapeutic strategies such as effective drug delivery is an urgent and yet unmet need for repair of damaged nervous systems. Phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN) regulates axonal regrowth of central and peripheral nervous systems; its inhibition, meanwhile, facilitates axonal outgrowth of injured neurons. Here we show that nanotherapeutics based on mesoporous silica nanoparticles loading PTEN-inhibitor bisperoxovanadium (BpV) are effective for delivery of drug molecules and consequent improvement of axonal outgrowth. Mesoporous nanocarriers loaded BpV drug at large amount (27 μg per 1 mg of carrier), and released sustainably over 10 d. Nanocarrier-BpV treatment of primary neurons from the dorsal root ganglions (DRGs) of rats and mice at various concentrations induced them to actively take up the nanocomplexes with an uptake efficiency as high as 85%. The nanocomplex-administered neurons exhibited significantly enhanced axonal outgrowth compared with those treated with free-BpV drug. The expression of a series of proteins involved in PTEN inhibition and downstream signaling was substantially up-/down-regulated by the nanocarrier-BpV system. Injection of the nanocarriers into neural tissues (DRG, brain cortex, and spinal cord), moreover, demonstrated successful integration into neurons, glial cells, oligodendrocytes, and macrophages, suggesting the possible nanotherapeutics applications in vivo. Together, PTEN-inhibitor delivery via mesoporous nanocarriers can be considered a promising strategy for stimulating axonal regeneration in central and peripheral nervous systems. PMID:27386893

  1. Superoxide anion radicals induce IGF-1 resistance through concomitant activation of PTP1B and PTEN.

    PubMed

    Singh, Karmveer; Maity, Pallab; Krug, Linda; Meyer, Patrick; Treiber, Nicolai; Lucas, Tanja; Basu, Abhijit; Kochanek, Stefan; Wlaschek, Meinhard; Geiger, Hartmut; Scharffetter-Kochanek, Karin

    2015-01-01

    The evolutionarily conserved IGF-1 signalling pathway is associated with longevity, metabolism, tissue homeostasis, and cancer progression. Its regulation relies on the delicate balance between activating kinases and suppressing phosphatases and is still not very well understood. We report here that IGF-1 signalling in vitro and in a murine ageing model in vivo is suppressed in response to accumulation of superoxide anions (O2∙-) in mitochondria, either by chemical inhibition of complex I or by genetic silencing of O2∙--dismutating mitochondrial Sod2. The O2∙--dependent suppression of IGF-1 signalling resulted in decreased proliferation of murine dermal fibroblasts, affected translation initiation factors and suppressed the expression of α1(I), α1(III), and α2(I) collagen, the hallmarks of skin ageing. Enhanced O2∙- led to activation of the phosphatases PTP1B and PTEN, which via dephosphorylation of the IGF-1 receptor and phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-triphosphate dampened IGF-1 signalling. Genetic and pharmacologic inhibition of PTP1B and PTEN abrogated O2∙--induced IGF-1 resistance and rescued the ageing skin phenotype. We thus identify previously unreported signature events with O2∙-, PTP1B, and PTEN as promising targets for drug development to prevent IGF-1 resistance-related pathologies. PMID:25520316

  2. Superoxide anion radicals induce IGF-1 resistance through concomitant activation of PTP1B and PTEN

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Karmveer; Maity, Pallab; Krug, Linda; Meyer, Patrick; Treiber, Nicolai; Lucas, Tanja; Basu, Abhijit; Kochanek, Stefan; Wlaschek, Meinhard; Geiger, Hartmut; Scharffetter-Kochanek, Karin

    2015-01-01

    The evolutionarily conserved IGF-1 signalling pathway is associated with longevity, metabolism, tissue homeostasis, and cancer progression. Its regulation relies on the delicate balance between activating kinases and suppressing phosphatases and is still not very well understood. We report here that IGF-1 signalling in vitro and in a murine ageing model in vivo is suppressed in response to accumulation of superoxide anions () in mitochondria, either by chemical inhibition of complex I or by genetic silencing of -dismutating mitochondrial Sod2. The -dependent suppression of IGF-1 signalling resulted in decreased proliferation of murine dermal fibroblasts, affected translation initiation factors and suppressed the expression of α1(I), α1(III), and α2(I) collagen, the hallmarks of skin ageing. Enhanced led to activation of the phosphatases PTP1B and PTEN, which via dephosphorylation of the IGF-1 receptor and phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-triphosphate dampened IGF-1 signalling. Genetic and pharmacologic inhibition of PTP1B and PTEN abrogated -induced IGF-1 resistance and rescued the ageing skin phenotype. We thus identify previously unreported signature events with , PTP1B, and PTEN as promising targets for drug development to prevent IGF-1 resistance-related pathologies. PMID:25520316

  3. Difluorinated-Curcumin (CDF) Restores PTEN Expression in Colon Cancer Cells by Down-Regulating miR-21

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Sanchita; Yu, Yingjie; Padhye, Subhash B.; Sarkar, Fazlul H.; Majumdar, Adhip P.N.

    2013-01-01

    Despite recent advancement in medicine, nearly 50% of patients with colorectal cancer show recurrence of the disease. Although the reasons for the high relapse are not fully understood, the presence of chemo- and radiotherapy-resistant cancer stem/stem-like cells, where many oncomirs like microRNA-21 (miR-21) are upregulated, could be one of the underlying causes. miR-21 regulates the processes of invasion and metastasis by downregulating multiple tumor/metastatic suppressor genes including PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homolog). Tumor suppressor protein PTEN controls self-renewal of stem cells. Indeed, our current data demonstrate a marked downregulation of PTEN in SCID mice xenografts of miR-21 over-expressing colon cancer HCT116 cells. Colonospheres that are highly enriched in cancer stem/stem like cells reveal increased miR-21 expression and decreased PTEN. Difluorinated curcumin (CDF), a novel analog of the dietary ingredient curcumin, which has been shown to inhibit the growth of 5-Flurouracil + Oxaliplatin resistant colon cancer cells, downregulated miR-21 in chemo-resistant colon cancer HCT116 and HT-29 cells and restored PTEN levels with subsequent reduction in Akt phosphorylation. Similar results were also observed in metastatic colon cancer SW620 cells. Since PTEN-Akt confers drug resistance to different malignancies including colorectal cancer, our observation of normalization of miR-21-PTEN-Akt pathway by CDF suggests that the compound could be a potential therapeutic agent for chemotherapy-resistant colorectal cancer. PMID:23894315

  4. Fractionated Ionizing Radiation Promotes Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition in Human Esophageal Cancer Cells through PTEN Deficiency-Mediated Akt Activation

    PubMed Central

    He, Enhui; Pan, Fei; Li, Guangchao; Li, Jingjing

    2015-01-01

    In some esophageal cancer patients, radiotherapy may not prevent distant metastasis thus resulting in poor survival. The underlying mechanism of metastasis in these patients is not well established. In this study, we have demonstrated that ionizing radiation may induce epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) accompanied with increased cell migration and invasion, through downregulation of phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN), and activation of Akt/GSK-3β/Snail signaling. We developed a radioresistant (RR) esophageal squamous cancer cell line, KYSE-150/RR, by fractionated ionizing radiation (IR) treatment, and confirmed its radioresistance using a clonogenic survival assay. We found that the KYSE-150/RR cell line displayed typical morphological and molecular characteristics of EMT. In comparison to the parental cells, KYSE-150/RR cells showed an increase in post-IR colony survival, migration, and invasiveness. Furthermore, a decrease in PTEN in KYSE-150/RR cells was observed. We postulated that over-expression of PTEN may induce mesenchymal-epithelial transition in KYSE-150/RR cells and restore IR-induced increase of cell migration. Mechanistically, fractionated IR inhibits expression of PTEN, which leads to activation of Akt/GSK-3β signaling and is associated with the elevated levels of Snail protein, a transcription factor involved in EMT. Correspondingly, treatment with LY294002, a phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase inhibitor, mimicked PTEN overexpression effect in KYSE-150/RR cells, further suggesting a role for the Akt/GSK-3β/Snail signaling in effects mediated through PTEN. Together, these results strongly suggest that fractionated IR-mediated EMT in KYSE-150/RR cells is through PTEN-dependent pathways, highlighting a direct proinvasive effect of radiation treatment on tumor cells. PMID:26000878

  5. PTEN deficiency in mast cells causes a mastocytosis-like proliferative disease that heightens allergic responses and vascular permeability

    PubMed Central

    Furumoto, Yasuko; Charles, Nicolas; Olivera, Ana; Leung, Wai Hang; Dillahunt, Sandra; Sargent, Jennifer L.; Tinsley, Kevin; Odom, Sandra; Scott, Eric; Wilson, Todd M.; Ghoreschi, Kamran; Kneilling, Manfred; Chen, Mei; Lee, David M.; Bolland, Silvia

    2011-01-01

    Kit regulation of mast cell proliferation and differentiation has been intimately linked to the activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-OH kinase (PI3K). The activating D816V mutation of Kit, seen in the majority of mastocytosis patients, causes a robust activation of PI3K signals. However, whether increased PI3K signaling in mast cells is a key element for their in vivo hyperplasia remains unknown. Here we report that dysregulation of PI3K signaling in mice by deletion of the phosphatase and tensin homolog (Pten) gene (which regulates the levels of the PI3K product, phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate) caused mast cell hyperplasia and increased numbers in various organs. Selective deletion of Pten in the mast cell compartment revealed that the hyperplasia was intrinsic to the mast cell. Enhanced STAT5 phosphorylation and increased expression of survival factors, such as Bcl-XL, were observed in PTEN-deficient mast cells, and these were further enhanced by stem cell factor stimulation. Mice carrying PTEN-deficient mast cells also showed increased hypersensitivity as well as increased vascular permeability. Thus, Pten deletion in the mast cell compartment results in a mast cell proliferative phenotype in mice, demonstrating that dysregulation of PI3K signals is vital to the observed mast cell hyperplasia. PMID:21926349

  6. Phosphatase regulation of macrophage activation.

    PubMed

    Kozicky, Lisa K; Sly, Laura M

    2015-08-01

    Macrophages are innate immune cells that play critical roles in tissue homeostasis and the immune response to invading pathogens or tumor cells. A hallmark of macrophages is their "plasticity," that is, their ability to respond to cues in their local microenvironment and adapt their activation state or phenotype to mount an appropriate response. During the inflammatory response, macrophages may be required to mount a profound anti-bacterial or anti-tumor response, an anti-inflammatory response, an anti-parasitic response, or a wound healing response. To do so, macrophages express cell surface receptors for growth factors, chemokines and cytokines, as well pathogen and danger associated molecular patterns. Downstream of these cell surface receptors, cell signalling cascades are activated and deactivated by reversible and competing activities of lipid and protein kinases and phosphatases. While kinases drive the activation of cell signalling pathways critical for macrophage activation, the strength and duration of the signalling is regulated by phosphatases. Hence, gene knockout mouse models have revealed critical roles for lipid and protein phosphatases in macrophage activation. Herein, we describe our current understanding and the key roles of specific cellular phosphatases in the regulation of the quality of macrophage polarization as well as the quantity of cytokines produced by activated macrophages. PMID:26216598

  7. Vitamin A facilitates enteric nervous system precursor migration by reducing Pten accumulation

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Ming; Sato, Yoshiharu; Lyons-Warren, Ariel; Zhang, Bin; Kane, Maureen A.; Napoli, Joseph L.; Heuckeroth, Robert O.

    2010-01-01

    Hirschsprung disease is a serious disorder of enteric nervous system (ENS) development caused by the failure of ENS precursor migration into the distal bowel. We now demonstrate that retinoic acid (RA) is crucial for GDNF-induced ENS precursor migration, cell polarization and lamellipodia formation, and that vitamin A depletion causes distal bowel aganglionosis in serum retinol-binding-protein-deficient (Rbp4–/–) mice. Ret heterozygosity increases the incidence and severity of distal bowel aganglionosis induced by vitamin A deficiency in Rbp4–/– animals. Furthermore, RA reduces phosphatase and tensin homolog (Pten) accumulation in migrating cells, whereas Pten overexpression slows ENS precursor migration. Collectively, these data support the hypothesis that vitamin A deficiency is a non-genetic risk factor that increases Hirschsprung disease penetrance and expressivity, suggesting that some cases of Hirschsprung disease might be preventable by optimizing maternal nutrition. PMID:20110328

  8. PTEN negatively regulates mTORC2 formation and signaling in grade IV glioma via Rictor hyperphosphorylation at Thr1135 and direct the mode of action of an mTORC1/2 inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, K; Maiti, S; Mandal, C

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the role of PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homolog) in mammalian target of rapamycin complex 2 (mTORC2) signaling in glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), we found higher activation of mTORC2 in PTEN(mu) cells, as evidenced by enhanced phosphorylation of mTOR (Ser2481), AKT (Ser473) and glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta (GSK3β) (Ser9) as compared with PTEN(wt) cells. In addition, PTEN(wt) cells upon PTEN depletion showed mTORC2 activation. The reduced mTORC2 signaling in PTEN(wt) cells was related to higher Rictor phosphorylation at Thr1135 residue. Phosphorylation of Rictor at Thr1135 inhibited its association with mTORC and thus there was a reduction in mTORC2 complex formation. In addition, PTEN(wt) cells expressing mutated Rictor in which Thr1135 was substituted with alanine, showed enhanced mTORC2 formation and signaling. This enhanced mTORC2 signaling promoted inactivation of GSK3β. Thus, we established the reciprocal activation of mTORC2 and GSK3β in GBM. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report describing role of PTEN in mTORC2 formation by promoting Rictor phosphorylation (Thr1135) in GBM. Furthermore, the drug sensitivity of mTORC2 was evaluated. A newly identified carbazole alkaloid, mahanine, showed cytotoxicity in both PTEN(mu) and PTEN(wt) cells. It inhibited both mTORC1/2 and AKT completely in PTEN(mu) cells, whereas it inhibited only mTORC1 in PTEN(wt) cells. Cytotoxity and AKT-inhibitory activity of the mTORC1/2 inhibitor was increased either by depleting PTEN or in combination with phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase inhibitors in PTEN(wt) cells. In contrast, depletion of Rictor decreased the cytotoxicity of the mTORC1/2 inhibitor in PTEN(mu) cells. Thus, PTEN has an important role in mTORC2 formation and also influences the effectiveness of an mTORC1/2 inhibitor in GBM. PMID:27239959

  9. Combination of PTEN and {gamma}-Ionizing Radiation Enhances Cell Death and G{sub 2}/M Arrest Through Regulation of AKT Activity and p21 Induction in Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Jong Kuk; Jung, Hae-Yun; Park, Seon Ho; Kang, Seung Yi; Yi, Mi-Rang; Um, Hong Duck; Hong, Sung Hee

    2008-04-01

    Purpose: To identify the role of phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN) during {gamma}-ionizing radiation ({gamma}-IR) treatment for non-small-cell lung cancer cells. Methods and Materials: Wild-type PTEN or mutant forms of PTEN plasmids were transfected to construct stable transfectants of the NCI-H1299 non-small-cell lung cancer cell line. Combined effects of PTEN expression and IR treatment were tested using immunoblot, clonogenic, and cell-counting assays. Related signaling pathways were studied with immunoblot and kinase assays. Results: At steady state, stable transfectants showed almost the same proliferation rate but had different AKT phosphorylation patterns. When treated with {gamma}-IR, wild-type PTEN transfectants showed higher levels of cell death compared with mock vector or mutant transfectants, and showed increased G{sub 2}/M cell-cycle arrest accompanied by p21 induction and CDK1 inactivation. NCI-H1299 cells were treated with phosphosinositide-3 kinase (PI3K)/AKT pathway inhibitor (LY29002), resulting in reduced AKT phosphorylation levels. Treatment of NCI-H1299 cells with LY29002 and {gamma}-IR resulted in increased cell-cycle arrest and p21 induction. Endogenous wild-type PTEN-containing NCI-H460 cells were treated with PTEN-specific siRNA and then irradiated with {gamma}-IR: however reduced PTEN levels did not induce cell-cycle arrest or p21 expression. Conclusions: Taken together, these findings indicate that PTEN may modulate cell death or the cell cycle via AKT inactivation by PTEN and {gamma}-IR treatment. We also propose that a PTEN-PI3K/AKT-p21-CDK1 pathway could regulate cell death and the cell cycle by {gamma}-IR treatment.

  10. FOXO1/3 and PTEN Depletion in Granulosa Cells Promotes Ovarian Granulosa Cell Tumor Development.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhilin; Ren, Yi A; Pangas, Stephanie A; Adams, Jaye; Zhou, Wei; Castrillon, Diego H; Wilhelm, Dagmar; Richards, JoAnne S

    2015-07-01

    The forkhead box (FOX), FOXO1 and FOXO3, transcription factors regulate multiple functions in mammalian cells. Selective inactivation of the Foxo1 and Foxo3 genes in murine ovarian granulosa cells severely impairs follicular development and apoptosis causing infertility, and as shown here, granulosa cell tumor (GCT) formation. Coordinate depletion of the tumor suppressor Pten gene in the Foxo1/3 strain enhanced the penetrance and onset of GCT formation. Immunostaining and Western blot analyses confirmed FOXO1 and phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) depletion, maintenance of globin transcription factor (GATA) 4 and nuclear localization of FOXL2 and phosphorylated small mothers against decapentaplegic (SMAD) 2/3 in the tumor cells, recapitulating results we observed in human adult GCTs. Microarray and quantitative PCR analyses of mouse GCTs further confirmed expression of specific genes (Foxl2, Gata4, and Wnt4) controlling granulosa cell fate specification and proliferation, whereas others (Emx2, Nr0b1, Rspo1, and Wt1) were suppressed. Key genes (Amh, Bmp2, and Fshr) controlling follicle growth, apoptosis, and differentiation were also suppressed. Inhbb and Grem1 were selectively elevated, whereas reduction of Inha provided additional evidence that activin signaling and small mothers against decapentaplegic (SMAD) 2/3 phosphorylation impact GCT formation. Unexpectedly, markers of Sertoli/epithelial cells (SRY [sex determining region Y]-box 9/keratin 8) and alternatively activated macrophages (chitinase 3-like 3) were elevated in discrete subpopulations within the mouse GCTs, indicating that Foxo1/3/Pten depletion not only leads to GCTs but also to altered granulosa cell fate decisions and immune responses. Thus, analyses of the Foxo1/3/Pten mouse GCTs and human adult GCTs provide strong evidence that impaired functions of the FOXO1/3/PTEN pathways lead to dramatic changes in the molecular program within granulosa cells, chronic activin signaling in the presence of

  11. PTEN Regulates Renal Extracellular Matrix Deposit via Increased CTGF in Diabetes Mellitus.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Lin; Zhao, Song; Liu, Shuxia; Liu, Qingjuan; Li, Fan; Hao, Jun

    2016-05-01

    Extracellular matrix accumulation and fibrosis are the features of diabetic nephropathy. PI3K (phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase)/Akt (protein kinase B) signal pathway and its inhibitor PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10) are revealed to modulate renal fibrosis. However, the exact mechanism is still not well known. In the present study we found that compared with normal mice, diabetic mice showed decreased PTEN, increased phospho-Akt (Ser 473), phospho-Akt (Thr 308), CTGF (connective tissue growth factor), α-SMA (α-smooth muscle actin), and matricellular protein in kidney. Knocking down of PTEN caused an increase in phospho-Akt (Ser 473), phospho-Akt (Thr 308), CTGF, secreted fibronectin, and secreted Col 3 in HKC cells (human renal tubular epithelial cells). Again, in vitro experiment revealed 1.89, 2.18, 1.92, 3.06, 2.06-fold increases of phospho-Akt (Ser 473), phospho-Akt (Thr 308), CTGF, secreted fibronectin, and secreted Col 3 in high glucose-stimulated HKC cells in comparison with normal control cells. Furthermore, knocking down of CTGF reversed increased secreted fibronectin and Col 3 in high glucose-treated HKC cells. Moreover, transfection of PTEN expression vector prevented high glucose-caused these changes in HKC cells. Especially, CTGF expression, secretion of fibronectin and Col 3 were, respectively, decreased by 38.81, 53.85, and 39.12%. The treatment of LY294002 inhibited phospho-Akt (Ser 473) and phospho-Akt (Thr 308) expression followed by decreased CTGF, secretory fibronectin and secretory Col 3 in high glucose-treated HKC cells. In the end our study suggests that PTEN regulates renal extracellular matrix production via activated Akt and increased CTGF in diabetes mellitus. J. Cell. Biochem. 117: 1187-1198, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26447680

  12. Liver-Specific Deletion of Phosphatase and Tensin Homolog Deleted on Chromosome 10 Significantly Ameliorates Chronic EtOH-Induced Increases in Hepatocellular Damage.

    PubMed

    Shearn, Colin T; Orlicky, David J; McCullough, Rebecca L; Jiang, Hua; Maclean, Kenneth N; Mercer, Kelly E; Stiles, Bangyan L; Saba, Laura M; Ronis, Martin J; Petersen, Dennis R

    2016-01-01

    Alcoholic liver disease is a significant contributor to global liver failure. In murine models, chronic ethanol consumption dysregulates PTEN/Akt signaling. Hepatospecific deletion of phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 (PTENLKO) mice possess constitutive activation of Akt(s) and increased de novo lipogenesis resulting in increased hepatocellular steatosis. This makes PTENLKO a viable model to examine the effects of ethanol in an environment of preexisting steatosis. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of chronic ethanol consumption and the absence of PTEN (PTENLKO) compared to Alb-Cre control mice (PTENf/f) on hepatocellular damage as evidenced by changes in lipid accumulation, protein carbonylation and alanine amino transferase (ALT). In the control PTENf/f animals, ethanol significantly increased ALT, liver triglycerides and steatosis. In contrast, chronic ethanol consumption in PTENLKO mice decreased hepatocellular damage when compared to PTENLKO pair-fed controls. Consumption of ethanol elevated protein carbonylation in PTENf/f animals but had no effect in PTENLKO animals. In PTENLKO mice, overall hepatic mRNA expression of genes that contribute to GSH homeostasis as well as reduced glutathione (GSH) and oxidized glutathione (GSSG) concentrations were significantly elevated compared to respective PTENf/f counterparts. These data indicate that during conditions of constitutive Akt activation and steatosis, increased GSH homeostasis assists in mitigation of ethanol-dependent induction of oxidative stress and hepatocellular damage. Furthermore, data herein suggest a divergence in EtOH-induced hepatocellular damage and increases in steatosis due to polyunsaturated fatty acids downstream of PTEN. PMID:27124661

  13. Liver-Specific Deletion of Phosphatase and Tensin Homolog Deleted on Chromosome 10 Significantly Ameliorates Chronic EtOH-Induced Increases in Hepatocellular Damage

    PubMed Central

    Orlicky, David J.; McCullough, Rebecca L.; Jiang, Hua; Maclean, Kenneth N.; Mercer, Kelly E.; Stiles, Bangyan L.; Saba, Laura M.; Ronis, Martin J.; Petersen, Dennis R.

    2016-01-01

    Alcoholic liver disease is a significant contributor to global liver failure. In murine models, chronic ethanol consumption dysregulates PTEN/Akt signaling. Hepatospecific deletion of phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 (PTENLKO) mice possess constitutive activation of Akt(s) and increased de novo lipogenesis resulting in increased hepatocellular steatosis. This makes PTENLKO a viable model to examine the effects of ethanol in an environment of preexisting steatosis. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of chronic ethanol consumption and the absence of PTEN (PTENLKO) compared to Alb-Cre control mice (PTENf/f) on hepatocellular damage as evidenced by changes in lipid accumulation, protein carbonylation and alanine amino transferase (ALT). In the control PTENf/f animals, ethanol significantly increased ALT, liver triglycerides and steatosis. In contrast, chronic ethanol consumption in PTENLKO mice decreased hepatocellular damage when compared to PTENLKO pair-fed controls. Consumption of ethanol elevated protein carbonylation in PTENf/f animals but had no effect in PTENLKO animals. In PTENLKO mice, overall hepatic mRNA expression of genes that contribute to GSH homeostasis as well as reduced glutathione (GSH) and oxidized glutathione (GSSG) concentrations were significantly elevated compared to respective PTENf/f counterparts. These data indicate that during conditions of constitutive Akt activation and steatosis, increased GSH homeostasis assists in mitigation of ethanol-dependent induction of oxidative stress and hepatocellular damage. Furthermore, data herein suggest a divergence in EtOH-induced hepatocellular damage and increases in steatosis due to polyunsaturated fatty acids downstream of PTEN. PMID:27124661

  14. The relevance of PTEN-AKT in relation to NOTCH1-directed treatment strategies in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Mendes, Rui D; Canté-Barrett, Kirsten; Pieters, Rob; Meijerink, Jules P P

    2016-09-01

    The tumor suppressor phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) negatively regulates phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)-AKT signaling and is often inactivated by mutations (including deletions) in a variety of cancer types, including T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Here we review mutation-associated mechanisms that inactivate PTEN together with other molecular mechanisms that activate AKT and contribute to T-cell leukemogenesis. In addition, we discuss how Pten mutations in mouse models affect the efficacy of gamma-secretase inhibitors to block NOTCH1 signaling through activation of AKT. Based on these models and on observations in primary diagnostic samples from patients with T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia, we speculate that PTEN-deficient cells employ an intrinsic homeostatic mechanism in which PI3K-AKT signaling is dampened over time. As a result of this reduced PI3K-AKT signaling, the level of AKT activation may be insufficient to compensate for NOTCH1 inhibition, resulting in responsiveness to gamma-secretase inhibitors. On the other hand, de novo acquired PTEN-inactivating events in NOTCH1-dependent leukemia could result in temporary, strong activation of PI3K-AKT signaling, increased glycolysis and glutaminolysis, and consequently gamma-secretase inhibitor resistance. Due to the central role of PTEN-AKT signaling and in the resistance to NOTCH1 inhibition, AKT inhibitors may be a promising addition to current treatment protocols for T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia. PMID:27582570

  15. The PTEN-regulating microRNA miR-26a is amplified in high-grade glioma and facilitates gliomagenesis in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Huse, Jason T.; Brennan, Cameron; Hambardzumyan, Dolores; Wee, Boyoung; Pena, John; Rouhanifard, Sara H.; Sohn-Lee, Cherin; le Sage, Carlos; Agami, Reuven; Tuschl, Thomas; Holland, Eric C.

    2009-01-01

    Activated oncogenic signaling is central to the development of nearly all forms of cancer, including the most common class of primary brain tumor, glioma. Research over the last two decades has revealed the particular importance of the Akt pathway, and its molecular antagonist PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homolog), in the process of gliomagenesis. Recent studies have also demonstrated that microRNAs (miRNAs) may be responsible for the modulation of cancer-implicated genes in tumors. Here we report the identification miR-26a as a direct regulator of PTEN expression. We also show that miR-26a is frequently amplified at the DNA level in human glioma, most often in association with monoallelic PTEN loss. Finally, we demonstrate that miR-26a-mediated PTEN repression in a murine glioma model both enhances de novo tumor formation and precludes loss of heterozygosity and the PTEN locus. Our results document a new epigenetic mechanism for PTEN regulation in glioma and further highlight dysregulation of Akt signaling as crucial to the development of these tumors. PMID:19487573

  16. Role of PTEN in TNFα induced insulin resistance

    SciTech Connect

    Bulger, David A.; Conley, Jermaine; Conner, Spencer H.; Majumdar, Gipsy; Solomon, Solomon S.

    2015-06-05

    Aims/hypothesis: PTEN may play a reversible role in TNFα induced insulin resistance, which has been linked to obesity-associated insulin resistance (IR). Methods: Western blots for PTEN and p-Akt were performed on H-411E liver cells incubated with insulin, TNFα, and in selected experiments VO-OHpic vanadium complex in the presence and absence of PTEN siRNA. Total PTEN was compared to β-actin loading control and p-Akt was compared to total Akt. Results: Western blot and Real Time RT-PCR experiments showed increased PTEN after TNFα treatment (p = 0.04); slightly decreased PTEN after insulin treatment; and slightly increased PTEN after insulin + TNFα treatment. PTEN siRNA markedly inhibited the TNFα-induced increase in PTEN (p < 0.01) without significantly changing the p-Akt levels. The vanadium complex, exhibiting insulin-like effects, also significantly prevented the TNFα-induced increase in PTEN. Combining insulin and VO-OHpic was additive, providing both proof of concept and insight into mechanism. Discussion: The PTEN increase due to TNFα treatment was reversible by both PTEN siRNA knockdown and VO-OHpic treatment. Thus, PTEN is identified as a potential new therapeutic target for reducing IR in Type 2 DM. - Highlights: • TNFα treatment induced a significant increase in PTEN in H-411E liver cells. • PTEN siRNA knockdown prevented this effect. • VO-OHpic (vanadium complex) treatment, like insulin, decreased PTEN protein levels. • Thus, PTEN is identified as a potential therapeutic target in DM Type 2.

  17. Variable laterality of corticospinal tract axons that regenerate after spinal cord injury as a result of PTEN deletion or knock-down.

    PubMed

    Willenberg, Rafer; Zukor, Katherine; Liu, Kai; He, Zhigang; Steward, Oswald

    2016-09-01

    Corticospinal tract (CST) axons from one hemisphere normally extend and terminate predominantly in the contralateral spinal cord. We previously showed that deleting the gene phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) in the sensorimotor cortex enables CST axons to regenerate after spinal cord injury and that some regenerating axons extend along the "wrong" side. Here, we characterize the degree of specificity of regrowth in terms of laterality. PTEN was selectively deleted via cortical adeno-associated virus (AAV)-Cre injections in neonatal PTEN-floxed mice. As adults, mice received dorsal hemisection injuries at T12 or complete crush injuries at T9. CST axons from one hemisphere were traced by unilateral biotinylated dextran amine (BDA) injections in PTEN-deleted mice with spinal cord injury and in noninjured PTEN-floxed mice that had not received AAV-Cre. In noninjured mice, 97.9 ± 0.7% of BDA-labeled axons in white matter and 88.5 ± 1.0% of BDA-labeled axons in gray matter were contralateral to the cortex of origin. In contrast, laterality of CST axons that extended past a lesion due to PTEN deletion varied across animals. In some cases, regenerated axons extended predominantly on the ipsilateral side; in other cases, axons extended predominantly contralaterally, and in others, axons were similar in numbers on both sides. Similar results were seen in analyses of cases from previous studies using short hairpin (sh)RNA-mediated PTEN knock-down. These results indicate that CST axons that extend past a lesion due to PTEN deletion or knock-down do not maintain the contralateral rule of the noninjured CST, highlighting one aspect of how the resultant circuitry from regenerating axons may differ from that of the uninjured CST. J. Comp. Neurol. 524:2654-2676, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26878190

  18. PTEN loss defines a PI3K/AKT pathway-dependent germinal center subtype of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Pfeifer, Matthias; Grau, Michael; Lenze, Dido; Wenzel, Sören-Sebastian; Wolf, Annette; Wollert-Wulf, Brigitte; Dietze, Kerstin; Nogai, Hendrik; Storek, Benjamin; Madle, Hannelore; Dörken, Bernd; Janz, Martin; Dirnhofer, Stephan; Hummel, Michael; Tzankov, Alexandar; Lenz, Georg

    2013-01-01

    Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) represents a heterogeneous diagnostic category with distinct molecular subtypes that can be defined by gene expression profiling. However, even within these defined subtypes, heterogeneity prevails. To further elucidate the pathogenesis of these entities, we determined the expression of the tumor suppressor phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) in 248 primary DLBCL patient samples. These analyses revealed that loss of PTEN was detectable in 55% of germinal center B-cell-like (GCB) DLBCLs, whereas this abnormality was found in only 14% of non-GCB DLBCL patient samples. In GCB DLBCL, the PTEN status was inversely correlated with activation of the oncogenic PI3K/protein kinase B (AKT) pathway in both DLBCL cell lines and primary patient samples. Reexpression of PTEN induced cytotoxicity in PTEN-deficient GCB DLBCL cell line models by inhibiting PI3K/AKT signaling, indicating an addiction to this pathway in this subset of GCB DLBCLs. PI3K/AKT inhibition induced down-regulation of the transcription factor MYC. Reexpression of MYC rescued GCB DLBCL cells from PTEN-induced toxicity, identifying a regulatory mechanism of MYC expression in DLBCL. Finally, pharmacologic PI3K inhibition resulted in toxicity selectively in PTEN-deficient GCB DLBCL lines. Collectively, our results indicate that PTEN loss defines a PI3K/AKT-dependent GCB DLBCL subtype that is addicted to PI3K and MYC signaling and suggest that pharmacologic inhibition of PI3K might represent a promising therapeutic approach in these lymphomas. PMID:23840064

  19. MicroRNA-21 promotes phosphatase gene and protein kinase B/phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase expression in colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Sheng, Wei-Zhong; Chen, Yu-Sheng; Tu, Chuan-Tao; He, Juan; Zhang, Bo; Gao, Wei-Dong

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To explore the regulatory mechanism of the target gene of microRNA-21 (miR-21), phosphatase gene (PTEN), and its downstream proteins, protein kinase B (AKT) and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), in colorectal cancer (CRC) cells. METHODS: Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) and Western blot were used to detect the expression levels of miR-21 and PTEN in HCT116, HT29, Colo32 and SW480 CRC cell lines. Also, the expression levels of PTEN mRNA and its downstream proteins AKT and PI3K in HCT116 cells after downregulating miR-21 were investigated. RESULTS: Comparing the miR-21 expression in CRC cells, the expression levels of miR-21 were highest in HCT116 cells, and the expression levels of miR-21 were lowest in SW480 cells. In comparing miR-21 and PTEN expression in CRC cells, we found that the protein expression levels of miR-21 and PTEN were inversely correlated (P < 0.05); when miR-21 expression was reduced, mRNA expression levels of PTEN did not significantly change (P > 0.05), but the expression levels of its protein significantly increased (P < 0.05). In comparing the levels of PTEN protein and downstream AKT and PI3K in HCT116 cells after downregulation of miR-21 expression, the levels of AKT and PI3K protein expression significantly decreased (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: PTEN is one of the direct target genes of miR-21. Thus, phosphatase gene and its downstream AKT and PI3K expression levels can be regulated by regulating the expression levels of miR-21, which in turn regulates the development of CRC. PMID:27350731

  20. Klf5 Deletion Promotes Pten Deletion–Initiated Luminal-Type Mouse Prostate Tumors through Multiple Oncogenic Signaling Pathways12

    PubMed Central

    Xing, Changsheng; Ci, Xinpei; Sun, Xiaodong; Fu, Xiaoying; Zhang, Zhiqian; Dong, Eric N.; Hao, Zhao-Zhe; Dong, Jin-Tang

    2014-01-01

    Krüppel-like factor 5 (KLF5) regulates multiple biologic processes. Its function in tumorigenesis appears contradictory though, showing both tumor suppressor and tumor promoting activities. In this study, we examined whether and how Klf5 functions in prostatic tumorigenesis using mice with prostate-specific deletion of Klf5 and phosphatase and tensin homolog (Pten), both of which are frequently inactivated in human prostate cancer. Histologic analysis demonstrated that when one Pten allele was deleted, which causes mouse prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (mPIN), Klf5 deletion accelerated the emergence and progression of mPIN. When both Pten alleles were deleted, which causes prostate cancer, Klf5 deletion promoted tumor growth, increased cell proliferation, and caused more severe morphologic and molecular alterations. Homozygous deletion of Klf5 was more effective than hemizygous deletion. Unexpectedly, while Pten deletion alone expanded basal cell population in a tumor as reported, Klf5 deletion in the Pten-null background clearly reduced basal cell population while expanding luminal cell population. Global gene expression profiling, pathway analysis, and experimental validation indicate that multiple mechanisms could mediate the tumor-promoting effect of Klf5 deletion, including the up-regulation of epidermal growth factor and its downstream signaling molecules AKT and ERK and the inactivation of the p15 cell cycle inhibitor. KLF5 also appears to cooperate with several transcription factors, including CREB1, Sp1, Myc, ER and AR, to regulate gene expression. These findings validate the tumor suppressor function of KLF5. They also yield a mouse model that shares two common genetic alterations with human prostate cancer—mutation/deletion of Pten and deletion of Klf5. PMID:25425963

  1. Role of the PTEN/PI3K/VEGF pathway in the development of Kawasaki disease

    PubMed Central

    AN, XINJIANG; LV, HAITAO; TIAN, JING; HE, XIUHUA; LING, NAN

    2016-01-01

    Kawasaki disease (KD) is a disease of unknown etiology and the leading cause of childhood acquired heart disease. In this study, the significance of the phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN)/phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) pathway in the development of KD was investigated in a rabbit model. Rabbits were divided into the control group, which received saline injection, and the experimental group, which was treated with bovine serum albumin to induce arthritis and KD. After 1, 7 and 30 days the animals were sacrificed, and the white blood cell count, serum VEGF, and serum creatine kinase (CK) levels were measured. The coronary artery was examined histologically as well as immunohistochemically for PTEN and PI3K. After the induction of arthritis, coronary artery of the rabbits showed endothelial cell swelling, osteoporosis, necrosis and inflammatory cell infiltration. PTEN expression in these rabbits increased with the increasing number of modeling days. The expression of PI3K showed a decreasing trend. The number of white blood cells in rabbits after KD modeling were significantly higher than those in the controls. One day and 7 days after modeling the serum VEGF level in KD rabbits was significantly higher than that in the control group after 1 and 7 days followed by a decrease by 30 days. There was no significant change in serum CK on the day after the modeling, and the serum CK level was significantly higher after 7 and 30 days. In conclusion, the expression of PTEN/PI3K was altered at different stages of KD. PTEN expression gradually increased with the disease progression, while the expression of PI3K gradually decreased. Serum markers indicated that the PTEN/PI3K/VEGF signaling pathway is important in the vascular injury in KD. PMID:27073442

  2. Prognostic value of ERG, PTEN, CRISP3 and SPINK1 in predicting biochemical recurrence in prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    NOH, BYEONG-JOO; SUNG, JI-YOUN; KIM, YOUN WHA; CHANG, SUNG-GOO; PARK, YONG-KOO

    2016-01-01

    The established prognostic factors associated with prostatic adenocarcinoma are the Gleason score, pathological T staging and serum prostatic-specific antigen (PSA) level. However, these prognostic factors alone are not sufficient for predicting prognostic characteristics, including early stage or advanced prostate cancer, presence of metastasis or disease-related mortality. The purpose of the present study was to simultaneously evaluate the prognostic value and associations of four biomarkers, namely, transcriptional regulator ERG (ERG), phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN), cysteine-rich secretory protein 3 (CRISP3) and serine protease inhibitor Kazal type I (SPINK1), and to conduct risk stratification of prostate cancer for use in patient management. A total of 68 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded, prostate cancer samples from radical prostatectomies were obtained in the Kyung Hee University Hospital (Seoul, Korea) and were studied immunohistochemically for ERG, PTEN, CRISP3 and SPINK1 to determine the proportion and intensity of staining. SPINK1 expression was mutually exclusive of ERG expression (P=0.001). The loss of PTEN and high CRISP3 expression are unfavorable indicators for prostate cancer, as PTEN loss was associated with shorter biochemical recurrence (BCR) (P=0.039), and high CRISP3 expression was associated with increased BCR (P<0.001) and cancer-related mortalities (P=0.011). Using the combination of low PTEN and high CRISP3 expression enables attention to be focused on patients who exhibit a poor prognosis. Subgrouping of patients, into high-risk and low-risk categories, was correlated with BCR-free survival in prostate cancer upon multivariate analysis (P=0.030). Overall, low PTEN and high CRISP3 expression significantly characterize the subgroups of prostate cancer that have a poor prognosis for BCR. PMID:27284364

  3. AAVshRNA-Mediated Suppression of PTEN in Adult Rats in Combination with Salmon Fibrin Administration Enables Regenerative Growth of Corticospinal Axons and Enhances Recovery of Voluntary Motor Function after Cervical Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Conditional genetic deletion of phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) in the sensorimotor cortex of neonatal mice enables regeneration of corticospinal tract (CST) axons after spinal cord injury (SCI). The present study addresses three questions: (1) whether PTEN knockdown in adult rats by nongenetic techniques enables CST regeneration, (2) whether interventions to enable CST regeneration enhance recovery of voluntary motor function, and (3) whether delivery of salmon fibrin into the injury site further enhances CST regeneration and motor recovery. Adult rats were trained in a staircase-reaching task and then received either intracortical injections of AAVshPTEN to delete PTEN or a control vector expressing shRNA for luciferase (AAVshLuc). Rats then received cervical dorsal hemisection injuries and salmon fibrin was injected into the injury site in half the rats, yielding four groups (AAVshPTEN, AAVshLuc, AAVshPTEN + fibrin, and AAVshLuc + fibrin). Forepaw function was assessed for 10 weeks after injury and CST axons were traced by injecting biotin-conjugated dextran amine into the sensorimotor cortex. Rats that received AAVshPTEN alone did not exhibit improved motor function, whereas rats that received AAVshPTEN and salmon fibrin had significantly higher forelimb-reaching scores. Tract tracing revealed that CST axons extended farther caudally in the group that received AAVshPTEN and salmon fibrin versus other groups. There were no significant differences in lesion size between the groups. Together, these data suggest that the combination of PTEN deletion and salmon fibrin injection into the lesion can significantly improve voluntary motor function after SCI by enabling regenerative growth of CST axons. PMID:25057197

  4. PTEN methylation involved in benzene-induced hematotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jing; Zuo, Xin; Bai, Wenlin; Niu, Piye; Tian, Lin; Gao, Ai

    2014-06-01

    It is well known that benzene is a hematotoxic carcinogen. PTEN promoter methylation is a representative example of transcriptional silencing of tumor suppressor genes. However, the effect of PTEN methylation on benzene-induced hematotoxicity has not yet been elucidated. In this study, the animal model of benzene hematotoxicity was successfully established. WBC significantly decreased in experimental groups (P < 0.01). Compared with the control group, the weight of rats increased slowly and even declined with increasing doses of benzene in the benzene-treated groups. An increase in the level of PTEN methylation was observed in the low dose group, and PTEN methylation level increased significantly in a dose-dependent manner. However, it was interesting that PTEN mRNA expression increased in the low dose group, but declined with increasing doses of benzene. The decrease of tumor suppressor function caused by PTEN methylation may be an important mechanism of benzene hematotoxicity. Furthermore, lymphoblast cell line F32 was incubated by benzene and then treated with 5-aza and TSA, alone or in combination. A dramatic decrease in the PTEN mRNA expression and a significant increase of PTEN methylation level in benzene-treated cells were also shown. PTEN mRNA expression was up regulated and PTEN methylation level was reduced by the epigenetic inhibitors, 5-aza and TSA. In conclusion, PTEN methylation is involved in benzene-induced hematotoxicity through suppressing PTEN mRNA expression. PMID:24680972

  5. Small activating ribonucleic acid reverses tyrosine kinase inhibitor resistance in epidermal growth factor receptor‐mutant lung cancer by increasing the expression of phosphatase and tensin homolog

    PubMed Central

    Li, Meng; Peng, Zhongmin; Ren, Wangang

    2016-01-01

    Background Epidermal growth factor receptor‐tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI‐EGFRs) present a new prospect for the treatment of lung cancer. However, in clinical application, the majority of patients become TKI resistant within a year. More and more studies have shown that a loss of phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) expression is associated with TKI resistance. An alternative method of upregulating PTEN expression may reverse TKI resistance. Methods We designed five candidate small activating ribonucleic acids (saRNAs) to target PTEN, and transfected them into H‐157 cells to screen out functional saRNA. We used reverse transcriptase‐polymerase chain reaction and Western blot to evaluate the effect of saRNA to PTEN expression. We then analyzed the growth and apoptosis of cells transfected with saRNA under the treatment of TKI to investigate whether saRNAs can reverse TKI resistance by upregulating PTEN expression. Results The functional saRNA we designed could upregulate PTEN expression. The H‐157 cells transfected with saRNA grew slower in the presence of TKI drugs than the cells that were not transfected with saRNA. The apoptosis rate was also obviously higher. Conclusions Our study proves that loss of PTEN expression is an important mechanism of TKI resistance. It is possible to control TKI resistance by upregulating PTEN expression using RNA activation technology. PMID:27385992

  6. The Membrane and Lipids as Integral Participants in Signal Transduction: Lipid Signal Transduction for the Non-Lipid Biochemist

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eyster, Kathleen M.

    2007-01-01

    Reviews of signal transduction have often focused on the cascades of protein kinases and protein phosphatases and their cytoplasmic substrates that become activated in response to extracellular signals. Lipids, lipid kinases, and lipid phosphatases have not received the same amount of attention as proteins in studies of signal transduction.…

  7. Depression of liver microsomal glucose 6-phosphatase activity in carbon tetrachloride-poisoned rats. Potential synergistic effects of lipid peroxidation and of covalent binding of haloalkane-derived free radicals to cellular components in the process.

    PubMed

    González Padrón, A; de Toranzo, E G; Castro, J A

    1996-01-01

    Depression of liver microsomal glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase) activity is a relevant feature of CCl4 poisoning. In vitro studies from several laboratories led to the hypothesis that a CCl4 promoted lipid peroxidation (LP) process is responsible for that effect. In vivo studies from our laboratory with potent antioxidants in dosage regimes inhibiting LP, however, were in contrast with that hypothesis. In this work we studied the potential preventive effects of Pyrazole (Pyr), alpha-tocopherol (alpha T), and 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole (AT) against CCl4-induced depression of G6Pase activity. Pyr decreases the intensity of the covalent binding (CB) of CCl4 reactive metabolites to cellular components but does not inhibit LP in vitro or in vivo. alpha T inhibits LP in vitro and in vivo and AT inhibits both CB and LP. Our present studies give evidence that AT but neither Pyr nor alpha T are able to prevent the CCl4-induced depression of G6Pase activity. Results are compatible with the hypothesis that the cooperation of both factors is critical to explain the observed effects, and suggest that under in vitro experimental conditions used by others the relevance of LP might be artifactually promoted. PMID:8791095

  8. ALP (Alkaline Phosphatase) Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... known as: ALK PHOS; Alkp Formal name: Alkaline Phosphatase Related tests: AST ; ALT ; GGT ; Bilirubin ; Liver Panel ; Bone Markers ; Alkaline Phosphatase Isoenzymes; Bone Specific ALP All content on Lab ...

  9. Early Behavioral Abnormalities and Perinatal Alterations of PTEN/AKT Pathway in Valproic Acid Autism Model Mice

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Eun-Jeong; Ahn, Sangzin; Lee, Kihwan; Mahmood, Usman; Kim, Hye-Sun

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to valproic acid (VPA) during pregnancy has been linked with increased incidence of autism, and has repeatedly been demonstrated as a useful autism mouse model. We examined the early behavioral and anatomical changes as well as molecular changes in mice prenatally exposed to VPA (VPA mice). In this study, we first showed that VPA mice showed developmental delays as assessed with self-righting, eye opening tests and impaired social recognition. In addition, we provide the first evidence that primary cultured neurons from VPA-treated embryos present an increase in dendritic spines, compared with those from control mice. Mutations in phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) gene are also known to be associated with autism, and mice with PTEN knockout show autistic characteristics. Protein expression of PTEN was decreased and the ratio of p-AKT/AKT was increased in the cerebral cortex and the hippocampus, and a distinctive anatomical change in the CA1 region of the hippocampus was observed. Taken together, our study suggests that prenatal exposure to VPA induces developmental delays and neuroanatomical changes via the reduction of PTEN level and these changes were detectable in the early days of life. PMID:27071011

  10. Redox Signaling via Oxidative Inactivation of PTEN Modulates Pressure-Dependent Myogenic Tone in Rat Middle Cerebral Arteries

    PubMed Central

    Gebremedhin, Debebe; Terashvili, Maia; Wickramasekera, Nadi; Zhang, David X.; Rau, Nicole; Miura, Hiroto; Harder, David R.

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined the level of generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and roles of inactivation of the phosphatase PTEN and the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway in response to an increase in intramural pressure-induced myogenic cerebral arterial constriction. Step increases in intraluminal pressure of cannulated cerebral arteries induced myogenic constriction and concomitant formation of superoxide (O2.−) and its dismutation product hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) as determined by fluorescent HPLC analysis, microscopic analysis of intensity of dihydroethidium fluorescence and attenuation of pressure-induced myogenic constriction by pretreatment with the ROS scavenger 4,hydroxyl-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine1-oxyl (tempol) or Mito-tempol or MitoQ in the presence or absence of PEG-catalase. An increase in intraluminal pressure induced oxidation of PTEN and activation of Akt. Pharmacological inhibition of endogenous PTEN activity potentiated pressure-dependent myogenic constriction and caused a reduction in NPo of a 238 pS arterial KCa channel current and an increase in [Ca2+]i level in freshly isolated cerebral arterial muscle cells (CAMCs), responses that were attenuated by Inhibition of the PI3K/Akt pathway. These findings demonstrate an increase in intraluminal pressure induced increase in ROS production triggered redox-sensitive signaling mechanism emanating from the cross-talk between oxidative inactivation of PTEN and activation of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway that involves in the regulation of pressure-dependent myogenic cerebral arterial constriction. PMID:23861911

  11. Crystal Structure of Phosphatidylglycerophosphatase (PGPase), a Putative Membrane-Bound Lipid Phosphatase, Reveals a Novel Binuclear Metal Binding Site and Two Proton Wires

    SciTech Connect

    Kumaran,D.; Bonnano, J.; Burley, S.; Swaminathan, S.

    2006-01-01

    Phosphatidylglycerophosphatase (PGPase), an enzyme involved in lipid metabolism, catalyzes formation of phosphatidylglycerol from phosphatidylglycerophosphate. Phosphatidylglycerol is a multifunctional phospholipid, found in the biological membranes of many organisms. Here, we report the crystal structure of Listeria monocytogenes PGPase at 1.8 Angstroms resolution. PGPase, an all-helical molecule, forms a homotetramer. Each protomer contains an independent active site with two metal ions, Ca{sup 2+} and Mg{sup 2+}, forming a hetero-binuclear center located in a hydrophilic cavity near the surface of the molecule. The binuclear center, conserved ligands, metal-bound water molecules, and an Asp-His dyad form the active site. The catalytic mechanism of this enzyme is likely to proceed via binuclear metal activated nucleophilic water. The binuclear metal-binding active-site environment of this structure should provide insights into substrate binding and metal-dependent catalysis. A long channel with inter-linked linear water chains, termed 'proton wires', is observed at the tetramer interface. Comparison of similar water chain structures in photosynthetic reaction centers (RCs), Cytochrome f, gramicidin, and bacteriorhodopsin, suggests that PGPase may conduct protons via proton wires.

  12. Targeting PTEN-defined breast cancers with a one-two punch.

    PubMed

    Maggi, Leonard B; Weber, Jason D

    2015-01-01

    With tremendous advances in sequencing and analysis in recent years, a wealth of genetic information has become available to identify and classify breast cancer into five main subtypes - luminal A, luminal B, claudin-low, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-enriched, and basal-like. Current treatment decisions are often based on these classifications, and while more beneficial than any single treatment for all breast cancers, targeted therapeutics have exhibited limited success with most of the subtypes. Luminal B breast cancers are associated with early relapse following endocrine therapy and often exhibit a poor prognosis that is similar to that of the aggressive basal-like breast cancers. Identifying genetic components that contribute to the luminal B endocrine resistant phenotype has become imperative. To this end, numerous groups have identified activation of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway as a common recurring event in luminal B cancers with poor outcome. Examining the pathways downstream of PI3K, Fu and colleagues have recreated a human model of the luminal B subtype of breast cancer. The authors were able to reduce expression of phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN), the negative regulator of PI3K, using inducible short hairpin RNAs. By varying the expression of PTEN, the authors effectively conferred endocrine resistance and recapitulated the luminal B gene expression signature. Using this system in vitro and in vivo, they then tested the ability of selective kinase inhibitors downstream of PI3K to enhance current endocrine therapies. A combination of fulvestrant, which blocks ligand-dependent and -independent estrogen receptor signaling, with protein kinase B inhibition was found to overcome endocrine resistance. These findings squarely place PTEN expression levels at the nexus of luminal B breast cancers and indicates that patients with PTEN-low estrogen receptor-positive tumors might benefit from combined endocrine and PI3K

  13. MicroRNA-22 promotes cell survival upon UV radiation by repressing PTEN

    SciTech Connect

    Tan, Guangyun; Shi, Yuling; Wu, Zhao-Hui

    2012-01-06

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer miR-22 is induced in cells treated with UV radiation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ATM is required for miR-22 induction in response to UV. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer miR-22 targets 3 Prime -UTR of PTEN to repress its expression in UV-treated cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Upregulated miR-22 inhibits apoptosis in cells exposed to UV. -- Abstract: DNA damage response upon UV radiation involves a complex network of cellular events required for maintaining the homeostasis and restoring genomic stability of the cells. As a new class of players involved in DNA damage response, the regulation and function of microRNAs in response to UV remain poorly understood. Here we show that UV radiation induces a significant increase of miR-22 expression, which appears to be dependent on the activation of DNA damage responding kinase ATM (ataxia telangiectasia mutated). Increased miR-22 expression may result from enhanced miR-22 maturation in cells exposed to UV. We further found that tumor suppressor gene phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) expression was inversely correlated with miR-22 induction and UV-induced PTEN repression was attenuated by overexpression of a miR-22 inhibitor. Moreover, increased miR-22 expression significantly inhibited the activation of caspase signaling cascade, leading to enhanced cell survival upon UV radiation. Collectively, these results indicate that miR-22 is an important player in the cellular stress response upon UV radiation, which may promote cell survival via the repression of PTEN expression.

  14. Potential value of PTEN in predicting cetuximab response in colorectal cancer: An exploratory study

    PubMed Central

    Razis, Evangelia; Briasoulis, Evangelos; Vrettou, Eleni; Skarlos, Dimosthenis V; Papamichael, Dimitrios; Kostopoulos, Ioannis; Samantas, Epaminontas; Xanthakis, Ioannis; Bobos, Mattheos; Galanidi, Eleni; Bai, Maria; Gikonti, Ioanna; Koukouma, Alona; Kafiri, Georgia; Papakostas, Pavlos; Kalogeras, Konstantine T; Kosmidis, Paris; Fountzilas, George

    2008-01-01

    Background The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is over-expressed in 70–75% of colorectal adenocarcinomas (CRC). The anti-EGFR monoclonal antibody cetuximab has been approved for the treatment of metastatic CRC, however tumor response to cetuximab has not been found to be associated with EGFR over-expression by immunohistochemistry (IHC). The aim of this study was to explore EGFR and the downstream effector phosphatase and tensin homologue deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN) as potential predictors of response to cetuximab. Methods CRC patients treated with cetuximab by the Hellenic Cooperative Oncology group, whose formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tumor tissue was available, were included. Tissue was tested for EGFR and PTEN by IHC and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Results Eighty-eight patients were identified and 72 were included based on the availability of tissue blocks with adequate material for analysis on them. All patients, except one, received cetuximab in combination with chemotherapy. Median follow-up was 53 months from diagnosis and 17 months from cetuximab initiation. At the time of the analysis 53% of the patients had died. Best response was complete response in one and partial response in 23 patients. In 16 patients disease stabilized. Lack of PTEN gene amplification was associated with more responses to cetuximab and longer time to progression (p = 0.042). Conclusion PTEN could be one of the molecular determinants of cetuximab response. Due to the heterogeneity of the population and the retrospective nature of the study, our results are hypothesis generating and should be approached with caution. Further prospective studies are needed to validate this finding. PMID:18700047

  15. Profilin-PTEN interaction suppresses NF-κB activation via inhibition of IKK phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Zaidi, Adeel H; Manna, Sunil K

    2016-04-01

    The molecular mechanism of Profilin for its tumour suppressor activity is still unknown. Nuclear transcription factor κB (NF-κB) is known to activate many target genes involved in cell proliferation. In the present study, we provide evidence that supports the involvement of Profilin in regulation of NF-κB, which might repress the tumorigenic response. Profilin overexpressing cells show low basal activity of IκBα kinase (IKK), high amounts of cytoplasmic inhibitory subunit of NF-κB (IκBα) and p65, and low nuclear NF-κB DNA binding activity. Co-localization and co-immunoprecipitation (Co-IP) studies suggest that Profilin interacts with a protein phosphatase, phosphatase and tension homologue (PTEN), and protects it from degradation. In turn, PTEN interacts physically and maintains a low phosphorylated state of the IKK complex and thereby suppresses NF-κB signalling. Thus, Profilin overexpressing cells show a decrease in NF-κB activation mediated by most of the inducers and potentiate cell death by repressing NF-κB-dependent genes involved in cell cycle progression. For the first time, we provide evidence, which suggests that Profilin increases tumour suppressor activity by regulating NF-κB. PMID:26787927

  16. Calpain-2-mediated PTEN degradation contributes to BDNF-induced stimulation of dendritic protein synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Briz, Victor; Hsu, Yu-Tien; Li, Yi; Lee, Erin; Bi, Xiaoning; Baudry, Michel

    2013-01-01

    Memory consolidation has been suggested to be protein synthesis-dependent. Recent data indicate that BDNF-induced dendritic protein synthesis is a key event in memory formation through activation of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway. BDNF also activates calpain, a calcium-dependent cysteine protease, which has been shown to play a critical role in learning and memory. This study was therefore directed at testing the hypothesis that calpain activity is required for BDNF-stimulated local protein synthesis, and at identifying the underlying molecular mechanism. In rat hippocampal slices, cortical synaptoneurosomes, and cultured neurons, BDNF-induced mTOR pathway activation and protein translation were blocked by calpain inhibition. BDNF treatment rapidly reduced levels of hamartin and tuberin, negative regulators of mTOR, in a calpain-dependent manner. Treatment of brain homogenates with purified calpain-1 and calpain-2 truncated both proteins. BDNF treatment increased phosphorylation of both Akt and ERK, but only the effect on Akt was blocked by calpain inhibition. Levels of PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome ten), a phosphatase that inactivates Akt, were decreased following BDNF treatment, and calpain inhibition reversed this effect. Calpain-2 but not calpain-1 treatment of brain homogenates resulted in PTEN degradation. In cultured cortical neurons, knock-down of calpain-2 but not calpain-1 by siRNA completely suppressed the effect of BDNF on mTOR activation. Our results reveal a critical role for calpain-2 in BDNF-induced mTOR signaling and dendritic protein synthesis via PTEN, hamartin and tuberin degradation. This mechanism therefore provides a link between proteolysis and protein synthesis that might contribute to synaptic plasticity. PMID:23467348

  17. miR-10b expression in breast cancer stem cells supports self-renewal through negative PTEN regulation and sustained AKT activation.

    PubMed

    Bahena-Ocampo, Ivan; Espinosa, Magali; Ceballos-Cancino, Gisela; Lizarraga, Floria; Campos-Arroyo, Denise; Schwarz, Angela; Maldonado, Vilma; Melendez-Zajgla, Jorge

    2016-05-01

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are linked to metastasis. Moreover, a discrete group of miRNAs (metastamiRs) has been shown to promote metastasis. Accordingly, we propose that miRNAs that function as metastatic promoters may influence the CSC phenotype. To study this issue, we compared the expression of 353 miRNAs in CSCs enriched from breast cancer cell lines using qRT-PCR analysis. One of the most altered miRNAs was miR-10b, which is a reported promoter of metastasis and migration. Stable overexpression of miR-10b in MCF-7 cells (miR-10b-OE cells) promoted higher self-renewal and expression of stemness and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) markers. In agreement with these results, inhibiting miR-10b expression using synthetic antisense RNAs resulted in a decrease in CSCs self-renewal. Bioinformatics analyses identified several potential miR-10b mRNA targets, including phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN), a key regulator of the PI3K/AKT pathway involved in metastasis, cell survival, and self-renewal. The targeting of PTEN by miR-10b was confirmed using a luciferase reporter, qRT-PCR, and Western blot analyses. Lower PTEN levels were observed in CSCs, and miR-10b depletion not only increased PTEN mRNA and protein expression but also decreased the activity of AKT, a downstream PTEN target kinase. Correspondingly, PTEN knockdown increased stem cell markers, whereas AKT inhibitors compromised the self-renewal ability of CSCs and breast cancer cell lines overexpressing miR-10b. In conclusion, miR-10b regulates the self-renewal of the breast CSC phenotype by inhibiting PTEN and maintaining AKT pathway activation. PMID:27113763

  18. Transforming growth factor-beta1 upregulation triggers pulmonary artery smooth muscle cell proliferation and apoptosis imbalance in rats with hypoxic pulmonary hypertension via the PTEN/AKT pathways.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yun; Cao, Yonggang; Sun, Shuyang; Zhu, Jinquan; Gao, Shan; Pang, Jie; Zhu, Daling; Sun, Zengxian

    2016-08-01

    Transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGFβ1) and Phosphatase and Tensin homolog deleted on chromosome ten (PTEN) are involved in the regulation of proliferation, differentiation, migration and apoptosis of various cell types. In previous studies, we have shown that TGFβ1 and PTEN play an important role in the progression of pulmonary vascular remodeling induced by pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMCs). However, the mechanisms involved in the activation of PASMCs between TGFβ1 and PTEN pathways remain unknown. We found that pulmonary vascular walls in hypoxic pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) rats were thicker than the vessels from normal rats in vivo. Substantially higher levels of TGFβ1 and significant loss of PTEN expression were observed in the lungs of PAH rats when compared with normoxia. Meanwhile, AKT, a downstream proliferative signaling protein of the PTEN antagonist PI3K, was markedly activated in the lungs of PAH rats. In vitro studies using PASMCs showed that TGFβ1 increased cell proliferation in PTEN-dependent manner. Moreover, we found that TGFβ1 enhanced cell survival, up-regulated the expression of Bcl-2 and procaspase-3, decreased the number of TUNEL-positive cells and caspase-3 expression in PASMCs under serum-deprived (SD) condition via PI3K/AKT pathway. The results further establish that TGFβ1 promoted PAH by decreasing PTEN expression and increasing PI3K/AKT activation in the lung. In conclusion, TGFβ1 mediated PTEN inactivation and resistance to apoptosis seems to be key mediators of lung vascular remodeling associated with PAH. These findings further clarify molecular mechanisms that support targeting PTEN/AKT signaling pathway to attenuate pathogenic derangements in PAH. PMID:27297622

  19. Expression of Somatostatin Receptor Type 2A and PTEN in Neuroendocrine Neoplasms Is Associated with Tumor Grade but Not with Site of Origin.

    PubMed

    Wada, Hideo; Matsuda, Katsuya; Akazawa, Yuko; Yamaguchi, Yuka; Miura, Shiro; Ueki, Nozomi; Kinoshita, Akira; Yoshiura, Koh-Ichiro; Kondo, Hisayoshi; Ito, Masahiro; Nagayasu, Takeshi; Nakashima, Masahiro

    2016-09-01

    Neuroendocrine neoplasms (NENs) are derived from endocrine cells in various organs and share common morphological features. This study aimed to clarify whether NENs of different organs are comparable at the molecular pathologic level. We retrospectively collected 99 cases of NENs from gastro-entero-pancreatic, lung, and other organs and reclassified these according to identical criteria. Grade, site, and molecular expression profile including NE markers, Ki-67, p53, somatostatin receptor type 2A (SSTR2A), and phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) were compared. PTEN immunoreactivity was also compared with genomic copy number by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and droplet digital polymerase chain reaction (ddPCR). No significant differences were observed in the immunoreactivities of NE markers, p53, SSTR2A, or PTEN expression in NENs between the different organ sites. PTEN and p53 functional inactivation along with the loss of membranous SSTR2A expression appeared to be commonly involved in high-grade NEN. FISH results were significantly correlated with the level of PTEN immunoreactivity and with the findings of ddPCR analyses. The demonstration that these tumors are comparable at the molecular level will likely contribute to the broadening of therapeutic options such as the use of somatostatin analogues and mTOR inhibitors against NENs regardless of the affected organ, whereas molecular characterization of tumor grade will be useful for determining treatment strategy. PMID:27256098

  20. Upregulation of PTEN in Glioma Cells by Cord Blood Mesenchymal Stem Cells Inhibits Migration via Downregulation of the PI3K/Akt Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Dasari, Venkata Ramesh; Kaur, Kiranpreet; Velpula, Kiran Kumar; Gujrati, Meena; Fassett, Daniel; Klopfenstein, Jeffrey D.; Dinh, Dzung H.; Rao, Jasti S.

    2010-01-01

    Background PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homologue deleted on chromosome ten) is a tumor suppressor gene implicated in a wide variety of human cancers, including glioblastoma. PTEN is a major negative regulator of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. Most human gliomas show high levels of activated Akt, whereas less than half of these tumors carry PTEN mutations or homozygous deletions. The unique ability of mesenchymal stem cells to track down tumor cells makes them as potential therapeutic agents. Based on this capability, new therapeutic approaches have been developed using mesenchymal stem cells to cure glioblastoma. However, molecular mechanisms of interactions between glioma cells and stem cells are still unknown. Methodology/Principal Findings In order to study the mechanisms by which migration of glioma cells can be inhibited by the upregulation of the PTEN gene, we studied two glioma cell lines (SNB19 and U251) and two glioma xenograft cell lines (4910 and 5310) alone and in co-culture with human umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hUCBSC). Co-cultures of glioma cells showed increased expression of PTEN as evaluated by immunofluorescence and immunoblotting assays. Upregulation of PTEN gene is correlated with the downregulation of many genes including Akt, JUN, MAPK14, PDK2, PI3K, PTK2, RAS and RAF1 as revealed by cDNA microarray analysis. These results have been confirmed by reverse-transcription based PCR analysis of PTEN and Akt genes. Upregulation of PTEN resulted in the inhibition of migration capability of glioma cells under in vitro conditions. Also, wound healing capability of glioma cells was significantly inhibited in co-culture with hUCBSC. Under in vivo conditions, intracranial tumor growth was inhibited by hUCBSC in nude mice. Further, hUCBSC upregulated PTEN and decreased the levels of XIAP and Akt, which are responsible for the inhibition of tumor growth in the mouse brain. Conclusions/Significance Our studies indicated that

  1. Hypoxia induces cardiac fibroblast proliferation and phenotypic switch: a role for caveolae and caveolin-1/PTEN mediated pathway

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Yao; Chu, Ming; Hong, Jian; Shang, Jingping

    2014-01-01

    Background Cardiac fibrosis following myocardial infarction (MI) results in heart failure. Caveolin-1, the main structural protein of caveolae, regulates signal transduction pathways controlling cell proliferation and apoptosis. Meanwhile, low phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) activity enhances the PI3K/Akt signal pathway to induce cell proliferation. But whether caveolin-1 and PTEN activation regulates cardiac fibroblast proliferation and contributes to cardiac fibrosis from ischemic injury is incompletely understood. This study investigates whether hypoxia inducing cardiac fibroblast proliferation and phenotypic switch is caveolin-dependent. Methods We used in vitro and in vivo models of ischemic injury, immunohistochemical staining, and cell proliferation assays to address this hypothesis. Results We found that MI induced collagen deposition and cardiac dysfunction. After MI, mice displayed reduced caveolin-1 and PTEN expression and increased α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) expression in the infarct zone. Qualitative and quantitative analyses indicated that caveolin-1 expression was lowest at 7 days after MI, accompanied by increased collagen deposition and attenuated cardiac function. We cultured cardiac fibroblasts of mice were in hypoxia or normoxia conditions for 12, 24 and 48 hours. At all the time points, caveolin-1 and PTEN expression were gradually reduced, whereas, α-SMA was gradually increased. We also observed that cell viability was increased at 12 and 24 h after hypoxia then lightly decreased at 48 h. Additionally, disruption of caveolae with methyl-β-cyclodextrin (MβCD) enhanced p-Akt and α-SMA expression and fibroblast proliferation and phenotypic switch. Conclusions These findings suggest a key role for caveolae, perhaps through the caveolin-1/PTEN signaling pathway, in cardiac fibroblast proliferation and phenotypic switch under hypoxia. PMID:25364523

  2. MicroRNA-682-mediated downregulation of PTEN in intestinal epithelial cells ameliorates intestinal ischemia–reperfusion injury

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Z; Jiang, J; Yang, Q; Xiong, Y; Zou, D; Yang, C; Xu, J; Zhan, H

    2016-01-01

    Intestinal ischemia–reperfusion (I/R) injury causes inflammation and tissue damage and contributes to high morbidity and mortality, but the underlying mechanism remains elusive and effective therapies are still lacking. We report here a critical role of the microRNA 682 (miR-682) as a key regulator and therapeutic target in intestinal I/R injury. MiR-682 was markedly induced in intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) during intestinal ischemia in mice and in the human colonic epithelial cells during hypoxia, but was undetected rapidly after intestinal reperfusion in IEC of mice. MiR-682 induction during hypoxia was modulated by hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α). On lentivirus-mediated miR-682 overexpression in vivo during intestinal reperfusion or miR-682 mimic transfection in vitro during hypoxia, miR-682 decreased the expression of phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) and subsequently activated nuclear translocation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) p65. Consequently, NF-κB activation by miR-682-mediated PTEN downregulation prevented reactive oxygen species (ROS) induction, inflammatory reaction, mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis and IEC apoptosis. The effect of miR-682-mediated PTEN/NF-κB pathway on IECs resulted in protection against intestinal I/R injury in mice. However, NF-κB chemical inhibitor reversed miR-682-mediated decreased PTEN expression, ROS induction, inflammation and IEC apoptosis. Collectively, these results identify a novel miR-682/PTEN/NF-κBp65 signaling pathway in IEC injury induced by I/R that could be targeted for therapy. PMID:27124584

  3. The association of phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 polymorphisms and lifestyle habits with colorectal cancer risk in a Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Jing, Fangyuan; Mao, Yingying; Zhang, Zhenyu; Li, Yingjun; Cai, Shaofang; Li, Qilong; Ma, Xinyuan; Jin, Mingjuan; Chen, Kun

    2014-09-01

    The PI3K signaling pathway plays an important role in the development of colorectal cancer (CRC) and other neoplasm. Somatic phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN) mutations and deletions or epigenetic silencing have been observed in multiple tumor types including CRC. To assess the association of PTEN polymorphisms and lifestyle habits with CRC risk in Chinese population, we carried out a case-control study which included 545 cases and 522 controls. In the present study, we genotyped eight single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in PTEN and found that rs11202607 was associated with increased CRC risk (odds ratio (OR) = 1.40, 95 % confidence interval (CI) = 1.04-1.90). Stratification analysis by lifestyle habits showed a stronger association between rs11202607 and CRC risk among never tea drinkers than that among tea-drinkers (OR = 2.04, 95 % CI 1.29-3.22), and significant additive interaction between rs10490920 and tea drinking status was observed. Our study provided the evidence of an association between PTEN polymorphisms and the risk of CRC and significant additive interaction between PTEN polymorphism and tea drinking. Studies with larger sample size and further investigations into the mechanism are warranted to clarify the role of PTEN in colorectal carcinogenesis and the association between PTEN genetic variations, environment exposure, and CRC risk. PMID:24935469

  4. PTEN stabilizes TOP2A and regulates the DNA decatenation

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Xi; Song, Chang; Du, Xiao; Zhang, Cong; Liu, Yu; Liang, Ling; He, Jinxue; Lamb, Kristy; Shen, Wen H.; Yin, Yuxin

    2015-01-01

    PTEN is a powerful tumor suppressor that antagonizes the cytoplasmic PI3K-AKT pathway and suppresses cellular proliferation. PTEN also plays a role in the maintenance of genomic stability in the nucleus. Here we report that PTEN facilitates DNA decatenation and controls a decatenation checkpoint. Catenations of DNA formed during replication are decatenated by DNA topoisomerase II (TOP2), and this process is actively monitored by a decatenation checkpoint in G2 phase. We found that PTEN deficient cells form ultra-fine bridges (UFBs) during anaphase and these bridges are generated as a result of insufficient decatenation. We show that PTEN is physically associated with a decatenation enzyme TOP2A and that PTEN influences its stability through OTUD3 deubiquitinase. In the presence of PTEN, ubiquitination of TOP2A is inhibited by OTUD3. Deletion or deficiency of PTEN leads to down regulation of TOP2A, dysfunction of the decatenation checkpoint and incomplete DNA decatenation in G2 and M phases. We propose that PTEN controls DNA decatenation to maintain genomic stability and integrity. PMID:26657567

  5. Ursolic acid induced anti-proliferation effects in rat primary vascular smooth muscle cells is associated with inhibition of microRNA-21 and subsequent PTEN/PI3K.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Qixiao; Han, Yantao; Gao, Hui; Tian, Rong; Li, Ping; Wang, Chunbo

    2016-06-15

    This study focused on the anti-proliferation effects of ursolic acid (UA) in rat primary vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and investigated underlying molecular mechanism of action. Rat primary VSMCs were pretreated with UA (10, 20 or 30μM) or amino guanidine (AG, 50μM) for 12h or with PI3K inhibitor LY294002 for 30min or with Akt inhibitor MK2206 for 24h, then 10% fetal bovine serum was used to induce proliferation. CCK-8 was used to assess cell proliferation. To explore the mechanism, cells were treated with UA (10, 20 or 30μM), LY294002 or MK2206, or transient transfected to inhibit miRNA-21 (miRNA-21) or to overexpress PTEN, then quantitative real-time PCR was used to assess the mRNA levels of miRNA-21 and phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) for cells treated with UA or miRNA-21 inhibitor; western blotting was used to measure the protein levels of PTEN and PI3K. UA exerted significant anti-proliferation effects in rat primary VSMCs. Furthermore, UA inhibited the expression of miRNA-21 and subsequently enhanced the expression of PTEN. PTEN was found to inhibit the expression of PI3K. In conclusion, UA exerts anti-proliferation effects in rat primary VSMCs, which is associated with the inhibition of miRNA-21 expression and modulation of PTEN/PI3K signaling pathway. PMID:27085898

  6. Modeling the self-organized phosphatidylinositol lipid signaling system in chemotactic cells using quantitative image analysis.

    PubMed

    Shibata, Tatsuo; Nishikawa, Masatoshi; Matsuoka, Satomi; Ueda, Masahiro

    2012-11-01

    A key signaling event that is responsible for gradient sensing in eukaryotic cell chemotaxis is a phosphatidylinositol (PtdIns) lipid reaction system. The self-organization activity of this PtdIns lipid system induces an inherent polarity, even in the absence of an external chemoattractant gradient, by producing a localized PtdIns (3,4,5)-trisphosphate [PtdIns(3,4,5)P(3)]-enriched domain on the membrane. Experimentally, we found that such a domain could exhibit two types of behavior: (1) it could be persistent and travel on the membrane, or (2) be stochastic and transient. Taking advantage of the simultaneous visualization of PtdIns(3,4,5)P(3) and the enzyme phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN), for which PtdIns(3,4,5)P(3) is a substrate, we statistically demonstrated the inter-dependence of their spatiotemporal dynamics. On the basis of this statistical analysis, we developed a theoretical model for the self-organization of PtdIns lipid signaling that can accurately reproduce both persistent and transient domain formation; these types of formations can be explained by the oscillatory and excitability properties of the system, respectively. PMID:22899720

  7. Conditional genetic deletion of PTEN after a spinal cord injury enhances regenerative growth of CST axons and motor function recovery in mice

    PubMed Central

    Danilov, Camelia A.; Steward, Oswald

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies indicate that conditional genetic deletion of phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) in neonatal mice enhances the ability of axons to regenerate following spinal cord injury (SCI) in adults. Here, we assessed whether deleting PTEN in adult neurons post-SCI is also effective, and whether enhanced regenerative growth is accompanied by enhanced recovery of voluntary motor function. PTENloxP/loxP mice received moderate contusion injuries at cervical level 5 (C5). One group received unilateral injections of adeno-associated virus expressing CRE (AAV-CRE) into the sensorimotor cortex; controls received a vector expressing green fluorescent protein (AAV-GFP) or injuries only (no vector injections). Forelimb function was tested for 14 weeks post-SCI using a grip strength meter (GSM) and a hanging task. The corticospinal tract (CST) was traced by injecting mini-ruby BDA into the sensorimotor cortex. Forelimb gripping ability was severely impaired immediately post-SCI but recovered slowly over time. The extent of recovery was significantly greater in PTEN-deleted mice in comparison to either the AAV-GFP group or the injury only group. BDA tract tracing revealed significantly higher numbers of BDA-labeled axons in caudal segments in the PTEN-deleted group compared to control groups. In addition, in the PTEN-deleted group, there were exuberant collaterals extending from the main tract rostral to the lesion, into and around the scar tissue at the injury site. These results indicate that PTEN deletion in adult mice shortly post-SCI can enhance regenerative growth of CST axons and forelimb motor function recovery. PMID:25704959

  8. MAGI2 enhances the sensitivity of BEL-7404 human hepatocellular carcinoma cells to staurosporine-induced apoptosis by increasing PTEN stability.

    PubMed

    Li, Xin; Li, Zengxia; Li, Na; Qi, Jingjing; Fan, Kun; Yin, Peng; Zhao, Chao; Liu, Yonglei; Yao, Wantong; Cai, Xiumei; Wang, Liying; Zha, Xiliang

    2013-08-01

    Adaptor proteins are involved in the assembly of various intracellular complexes and the regulation of cellular functions. Membrane-associated guanylate kinase inverted 2 (MAGI2), also known as synaptic scaffolding molecule (S-SCAM), plays a critical role in signal transduction by assembling and anchoring its ligands. However, the role of MAGI2 in mediating apoptosis remains largely unknown. In the present study, BEL-7404 human hepatocellular carcinoma cells were transfected with a plasmid containing myc-MAGI2 or an empty plasmid and cell viability was then determined using the Cell Counting kit-8. Apoptosis was also detected using an Annexin V apoptosis assay. The cells were then treated with various doses of staurosporine (STS) for different periods of time. The overexpression of myc-MAGI2 was found to sensitize the BEL-7404 cells to apoptosis in response to STS in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Our results demonstrated that MAGI2 enhanced STS-induced apoptosis by increasing the protein expression of cytoplasmic phosphatase and tensin homologue deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN) and decreasing its protein degradation. The apoptotic sensitivity of the cells caused by the overexpression of myc-MAGI2 was reversed by the silencing of PTEN expression by PTEN siRNA, thus revealing a momentous role of PTEN in the enhancement of the sensitivity of cancer cells to STS-induced apoptosis by MAGI2. Finally, we observed that the MAGI-PTEN complex triggered by MAGI2 overexpression reduced the phosphorylation levels of AKT. These results suggest that MAGI2 overexpression enhances the sensitivity of cancer cells harboring ectopic PTEN to STS-induced apoptosis. PMID:23754155

  9. Modulation in Activation and Expression of PTEN, Akt1, and PDK1: Further Evidence Demonstrating Altered Phosphoinositide 3-kinase Signaling in Postmortem Brain of Suicide Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Dwivedi, Yogesh; Rizavi, Hooriyah S.; Zhang, Hui; Roberts, Rosalinda C.; Conley, Robert R.; Pandey, Ghanshyam N.

    2010-01-01

    Background Phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI 3-K) signaling plays a crucial role in neuronal growth and plasticity. Recently, we demonstrated that suicide brain is associated with decreased activation and expression of selective catalytic and regulatory subunits of PI 3-K. The present investigation examined the regulation and functional significance of compromised PI 3-K in suicide brain at the level of upstream phosphatase and tensin homolog on chromosome ten (PTEN) and downstream substrates 3-phosphoinositide-dependent kinase 1 (PDK1) and Akt. Method mRNA expression of Akt1, Akt3, PTEN, and PDK1 by competitive RT-PCR; protein expression of Akt1, Akt3, PTEN, PDK1, phosphorylated-Akt1 (Ser473), phosphorylated-Akt1(Thr308), phosphorylated-PDK1, and phosphorylated-PTEN by Western blot; and catalytic activities of Akt1, Akt3, and PDK1 by enzymatic assays were determined in prefrontal cortex (PFC) and hippocampus obtained from suicide subjects and nonpsychiatric controls. Results No significant changes in the expression of Akt1 or Akt3 were observed; however, catalytic activity of Akt1, but not of Akt3, was decreased in PFC and hippocampus of suicide subjects, which was associated with decreased phosphorylation of Akt1 at Ser473 and Thr308. The catalytic activity of PDK1 and the level of phosphorylated-PDK1 were also decreased in both brain areas without any change in expression levels of PDK1. On the other hand, mRNA and protein expression of PTEN was increased, whereas the level of phosphorylated-PTEN was decreased. Conclusion Our study demonstrates abnormalities in PI 3-K signaling at several levels in brain of suicide subjects and suggests the possible involvement of aberrant PI 3-K/Akt signaling in the pathogenic mechanisms of suicide. PMID:20163786

  10. Short Hairpin RNA against PTEN Enhances Regenerative Growth of Corticospinal Tract Axons after Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Zukor, Katherine; Belin, Stephane; Wang, Chen; Keelan, Nadia; Wang, Xuhua

    2013-01-01

    Developing approaches to promote the regeneration of descending supraspinal axons represents an ideal strategy for rebuilding neuronal circuits to improve functional recovery after spinal cord injury (SCI). Our previous studies demonstrated that genetic deletion of phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) in mouse corticospinal neurons reactivates their regenerative capacity, resulting in significant regeneration of corticospinal tract (CST) axons after SCI. However, it is unknown whether nongenetic methods of suppressing PTEN have similar effects and how regenerating axons interact with the extrinsic environment. Herein, we show that suppressing PTEN expression with short-hairpin RNA (shRNA) promotes the regeneration of injured CST axons, and these axons form anatomical synapses in appropriate areas of the cord caudal to the lesion. Importantly, this model of increased CST regrowth enables the analysis of extrinsic regulators of CST regeneration in vivo. We find that regenerating axons avoid dense clusters of fibroblasts and macrophages in the lesion, suggesting that these cell types might be key inhibitors of axon regeneration. Furthermore, most regenerating axons cross the lesion in association with astrocytes, indicating that these cells might be important for providing a permissive bridge for axon regeneration. Lineage analysis reveals that these bridge-forming astrocytes are not derived from ependymal stem cells within the spinal cord, suggesting that they are more likely derived from a subset of mature astrocytes. Overall, this study reveals insights into the critical extrinsic and intrinsic regulators of axon regeneration and establishes shRNA as a viable means to manipulate these regulators and translate findings into other mammalian models. PMID:24068802

  11. Cowden syndrome-associated germline SDHD variants alter PTEN nuclear translocation through SRC-induced PTEN oxidation.

    PubMed

    Yu, Wanfeng; He, Xin; Ni, Ying; Ngeow, Joanne; Eng, Charis

    2015-01-01

    Germline mutations in the PTEN tumor-suppressor gene and germline variations in succinate dehydrogenase subunit D gene (SDHD-G12S, SDHD-H50R) are associated with a subset of Cowden syndrome and Cowden syndrome-like individuals (CS/CSL) and confer high risk of breast, thyroid and other cancers. However, very little is known about the underlying crosstalk between SDHD and PTEN in CS-associated thyroid cancer. Here, we show SDHD-G12S and SDHD-H50R lead to impaired PTEN function through alteration of its subcellular localization accompanied by resistance to apoptosis and induction of migration in both papillary and follicular thyroid carcinoma cell lines. Other studies have shown elevated proto-oncogene tyrosine kinase (SRC) activity in invasive thyroid cancer cells; so, we explore bosutinib, a specific inhibitor for SRC, to explore SRC as a mediator of SDH-PTEN crosstalk in this context. We show that SRC inhibition could rescue SDHD dysfunction-induced cellular phenotype and tumorigenesis only when wild-type PTEN is expressed, in thyroid cancer lines. Patient lymphoblast cells carrying either SDHD-G12S or SDHD-H50R also show increased nuclear PTEN and more oxidized PTEN after hydrogen peroxide treatment. Like in thyroid cells, bosutinib decreases oxidative PTEN in patient lymphoblast cells carrying SDHD variants, but not in patients carrying both SDHD variants and PTEN truncating mutations. In summary, our data suggest a novel mechanism whereby SDHD germline variants SDHD-G12S or SDHD-H50R induce thyroid tumorigenesis mediated by PTEN accumulation in the nucleus and may shed light on potential treatment with SRC inhibitors like bosutinib in PTEN-wild-type SDHD-variant/mutation positive CS/CSL patients and sporadic thyroid neoplasias. PMID:25149476

  12. NEDD4-1 and PTEN expression in keloid scarring.

    PubMed

    Sang, P F; Wang, H; Wang, M; Hu, C; Zhang, J S; Li, X J; Zhu, F

    2015-01-01

    Keloid scarring remains a major problem in plastic surgery. The aim of this study was to determine the expression of the PTEN tumor suppressor and NEDD4-1 genes in keloid tissue and explore their effect on the formation of such scarring. Twenty keloid patients were enrolled in the study and underwent surgical removal of keloid tissue. No patient had received chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy prior to treatment. PTEN and NEDD4-1 mRNA expression was detected by reverse transcription PCR, while PTEN protein expression was assessed using immunohistochemistry. Our results showed that levels of PTEN were significantly diminished in keloid samples (P < 0.05), whereas those of NEDD4-1 did not significantly differ between keloid tissue and normal skin (P > 0.05). Furthermore, we found that NEDD4-1 expression is high and inversely correlated with that of PTEN in keloids. Our results suggest that the PTEN/PI3K/AKT pathway may play an important role in keloid formation and reduces PTEN expression in such tissue. Finally, although NEDD4-1 has previously been identified as a factor in keloid susceptibility, and the protein for which it encodes is known to degrade PTEN by catalyzing its polyubiquitylation, the detailed mechanism behind its involvement in keloid formation needs to be further studied. PMID:26535660

  13. Membrane association of the PTEN tumor suppressor: Neutron scattering and MD simulations reveal the structure of protein-membranes complexes

    PubMed Central

    Nanda, Hirsh; Heinrich, Frank; Lösche, Mathias

    2014-01-01

    Neutron reflection (NR) from planar interfaces is an emerging technology that provides unique and otherwise inaccessible structural information on disordered molecular systems such as membrane proteins associated with fluid bilayers, thus addressing one of the remaining challenges of structural biology. Although intrinsically a low-resolution technique, using structural information from crystallography or NMR allows the construction of NR models that describe the architecture of protein-membrane complexes at high resolution. In addition, a combination of these methods with molecular dynamics (MD) simulations has the potential to reveal the dynamics of protein interactions with the bilayer in atomistic detail. We review recent advances in this area by discussing the application of these techniques to the complex formed by the PTEN phosphatase with the plasma membrane. These studies provide insights in the cellular regulation of PTEN, its interaction with PI(4,5)P2 in the inner plasma membrane and the pathway by which its substrate, PI(3,4,5)P3, accesses the PTEN catalytic site. PMID:25461777

  14. MicroRNA-92a promotes metastasis of nasopharyngeal carcinoma by targeting the PTEN/AKT pathway

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Haixiong; Cao, Hui; Xu, Dadao; Zhu, Kang

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs have been confirmed to be a group of important regulators during the pathogenesis of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). This study confirmed that the expression of microRNA-92a (miR-92a) was significantly upregulated in NPC as compared to noncancerous nasopharyngeal epithelial tissues. Furthermore, high expression of miR-92a was observed in all NPC cell lines, especially in high metastatic cell lines. Clinical analysis indicated that high expression of miR-92a was associated with adverse clinicopathological features including the advanced tumor-node-metastasis stage and distant metastasis, and conferred poor prognosis of patients. In vitro assays showed that miR-92a overexpression potentiated the migration and invasion of 6-10B cells, and miR-92a silencing reduced the number of migrated and invaded 5-8F cells. Phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) was confirmed as a direct downstream target of miR-92a in NPC cells. Otherwise, alteration of miR-92a expression regulated PTEN/AKT pathway in NPC cells. Mechanistically, miR-92a exerted its promoting effects on the metastatic behaviors of NPC cells through suppressing PTEN/AKT pathway. Taken together, this study demonstrates that miR-92a is a promising prognostic biomarker for patients with NPC, and may be a potential therapeutic target to prevent the metastasis of NPC. PMID:27366095

  15. miR-92b regulates glioma cells proliferation, migration, invasion, and apoptosis via PTEN/Akt signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Song, Hang; Zhang, Yao; Liu, Na; Wan, Chao; Zhang, Dongdong; Zhao, Sheng; Kong, Yan; Yuan, Liudi

    2016-06-01

    Glioblastoma (GBM) is a highly invasive malignant primary brain tumor with neoplastic growth. Despite the progresses made in surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation in recent decade, the prognosis of patients with gliomas remains poor and the average survival time of patients suffering from glioblastoma is still short. As a potential therapy strategy, microRNAs have been considered as new targets for possible cancer treatment. In this study, we found that the miR-92b inhibitors (miR-92b-I) could inhibit the proliferation, migration, invasion, and promote the apoptosis of glioma cells. As a predicted target of miR-92b, phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN), also elevated at both mRNA and protein levels. Moreover, the Akt phosphorylation was consistently inhibited. The rescue experiment with miR-92b and PTEN double knockdown resulted in partial reversion of miR-92b-I-induced phenotypes. Taken together, our findings indicated that miR-92b-I could restrain the proliferation, invasion, migration, and stimulate apoptosis of glioma cells by targeting PTEN/Akt signaling pathway. Further investigations will focus on antitumor effect of miR‑92b-I in glioma treatment. PMID:26893028

  16. miR-214 promotes osteoclastogenesis by targeting Pten/PI3k/Akt pathway.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Chenyang; Sun, Weijia; Zhang, Pengfei; Ling, Shukuan; Li, Yuheng; Zhao, Dingsheng; Peng, Jiang; Wang, Aiyuan; Li, Qi; Song, Jinping; Wang, Cheng; Xu, Xiaolong; Xu, Zi; Zhong, Guohui; Han, Bingxing; Chang, Yan-Zhong; Li, Yingxian

    2015-01-01

    microRNA is necessary for osteoclast differentiation, function and survival. It has been reported that miR-199/214 cluster plays important roles in vertebrate skeletal development and miR-214 inhibits osteoblast function by targeting ATF4. Here, we show that miR-214 is up-regulated during osteoclastogenesis from bone marrow monocytes (BMMs) with macrophage colony stimulating factor (M-CSF) and receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL) induction, which indicates that miR-214 plays a critical role in osteoclast differentiation. Overexpression of miR-214 in BMMs promotes osteoclastogenesis, whereas inhibition of miR-214 attenuates it. We further find that miR-214 functions through PI3K/Akt pathway by targeting phosphatase and tensin homolog (Pten). In vivo, osteoclast specific miR-214 transgenic mice (OC-TG214) exhibit down-regulated Pten levels, increased osteoclast activity, and reduced bone mineral density. These results reveal a crucial role of miR-214 in the differentiation of osteoclasts, which will provide a potential therapeutic target for osteoporosis. PMID:25826666

  17. Hydrogen sulfide prevents Abeta-induced neuronal apoptosis by attenuating mitochondrial translocation of PTEN.

    PubMed

    Cui, Weigang; Zhang, Yinghua; Yang, Chenxi; Sun, Yiyuan; Zhang, Min; Wang, Songtao

    2016-06-14

    Neuronal cell apoptosis is an important pathological change in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) is known to be a novel gaseous signaling molecule and a cytoprotectant in many diseases including AD. However, the molecular mechanism of the antiapoptosis activity of H(2)S in AD is not yet fully understood. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the inhibitory effects of H(2)S on Abeta (Aβ)-induced apoptosis and the molecular mechanisms underlying primary neuron cells. Our results showed that sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS), a donor of H(2)S, significantly ameliorated Aβ-induced cell apoptosis. NaHS also reversed the Aβ-induced translocation of the phosphatase and tensin homologs deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN) from the cytosol to the mitochondria. Furthermore, H(2)S increased the level of p-AKT/AKT significantly. Interestingly, the antiapoptosis effects of H(2)S were blocked down by specific PI3K/AKT inhibitor wortmannin. In conclusion, these data indicate that H(2)S inhibits Aβ-induced neuronal apoptosis by attenuating mitochondrial translocation of PTEN and that activation of PI3K/AKT signaling pathway plays a critical role in H(2)S-mediated neuronal protection. Our findings provide a novel route into the molecular mechanisms of neuronal apoptosis in AD. PMID:27026591

  18. TBX2 represses PTEN in rhabdomyosarcoma and skeletal muscle

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Bo; Zhang, Meiling; Williams, Elizabeth M.; Keller, Charles; Mansoor, Atiya; Davie, Judith K.

    2015-01-01

    Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) is the most frequent soft tissue sarcoma in children that shares many features of developing skeletal muscle. TBX2, a T-box family member, is highly up regulated in tumor cells of both major RMS subtypes where it functions as an oncogene. TBX2 is a repressor that is often over expressed in cancer cells and functions in bypassing cell growth control, including the repression of the cell cycle regulators p14 and p21. We have found that TBX2 directly represses the tumor suppressor PTEN in both RMS and normal muscle. Exogenous expression of TBX2 in normal muscle cells down regulates PTEN, and depletion or interference with TBX2 in RMS cells up regulates PTEN. Human RMS tumors show high levels of TBX2 and correspondingly low levels of PTEN. The expression of PTEN in clinical RMS samples is relatively uncharacterized and we establish that suppression of PTEN is a frequent event in both subtypes of RMS. TBX2 represses PTEN by directly binding to the promoter and recruiting the histone deacetylase, HDAC1. RMS cells have high levels of activated AKT due to the deregulation of PI3K signaling, and depletion or interference with TBX2, which up regulates PTEN, results in a reduction of phospho-AKT. We have also found that the highly related T-box family member TBX3 does not repress PTEN in the muscle lineage. This work suggests that TBX2 is a central component of the PTEN/PI3K/AKT signaling pathway deregulation in RMS cells and that targeting TBX2 in RMS tumors may offer a novel therapeutic approach for RMS. PMID:26686089

  19. Short-Term PTEN Inhibition Improves In Vitro Activation of Primordial Follicles, Preserves Follicular Viability, and Restores AMH Levels in Cryopreserved Ovarian Tissue From Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Novella-Maestre, Edurne; Herraiz, Sonia; Rodríguez-Iglesias, Beatriz; Díaz-García, César; Pellicer, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Introduction In vitro activation and growth of primordial dormant follicles to produce fertilizable oocytes would provide a useful instrument for fertility preservation. The employment of Phosphatase and TENsin homolog (PTEN) inhibitors, in combination with Protein kinase B (Akt) stimulating molecules, has been previously employed to increase follicular activation through the stimulation of the PTEN-Akt pathway. Methods We aim to establish improved in vitro activation also for cancer patients whose ovarian tissue has already been cryopreserved. Fresh and previously cryopreserved human ovarian cortex were exposed to short-term, low-concentration and ovary-specific treatment with only a PTEN inhibitor. Results Our in vitro activation protocol enhances the activation mechanisms of primordial follicles in both fresh and cryopreserved samples, and enlarges growing populations without inducing apoptosis in either follicles or the surrounding stroma. Treatment augments estradiol secretion and restores the expression levels of the previously diminished Anti-Müllerian hormone by means of cryopreservation procedures. Genomic modulation of the relative expression of PTEN pathway genes was found in treated samples. Conclusion The in vitro activation protocol offers new alternatives for patients with cryopreserved tissue as it increases the pool of viable activated follicles available for in vitro growth procedures. The combination of ovarian tissue cryopreservation and in vitro activation of primordial follicles, the main ovarian reserve component, will be a major advancement in fertility preservation. PMID:26024525

  20. Overexpression of phosphatase and tensin homolog improves fitness and decreases Plasmodium falciparum development in Anopheles stephensi.

    PubMed

    Hauck, Eric S; Antonova-Koch, Yevgeniya; Drexler, Anna; Pietri, Jose; Pakpour, Nazzy; Liu, Darin; Blacutt, Jacob; Riehle, Michael A; Luckhart, Shirley

    2013-11-01

    The insulin/insulin-like growth factor signaling (IIS) cascade is highly conserved and regulates diverse physiological processes such as metabolism, lifespan, reproduction and immunity. Transgenic overexpression of Akt, a critical regulator of IIS, was previously shown to shorten mosquito lifespan and increase resistance to the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum. To further understand how IIS controls mosquito physiology and resistance to malaria parasite infection, we overexpressed an inhibitor of IIS, phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN), in the Anopheles stephensi midgut. PTEN overexpression inhibited phosphorylation of the IIS protein FOXO, an expected target for PTEN, in the midgut of A. stephensi. Further, PTEN overexpression extended mosquito lifespan and increased resistance to P. falciparum development. The reduction in parasite development did not appear to be due to alterations in an innate immune response, but rather was associated with increased expression of genes regulating autophagy and stem cell maintenance in the midgut and with enhanced midgut barrier integrity. In light of previous success in genetically targeting the IIS pathway to alter mosquito lifespan and malaria parasite transmission, these data confirm that multiple strategies to genetically manipulate IIS can be leveraged to generate fit, resistant mosquitoes for malaria control. PMID:23774695

  1. Overexpression of phosphatase and tensin homolog improves fitness and decreases Plasmodium falciparum development in Anopheles stephensi

    PubMed Central

    Hauck, Eric S.; Antonova-Koch, Yevgeniya; Drexler, Anna; Pietri, Jose; Pakpour, Nazzy; Liu, Darin; Blacutt, Jacob; Riehle, Michael A.; Luckhart, Shirley

    2013-01-01

    The insulin/insulin-like growth factor signaling (IIS) cascade is highly conserved and regulates diverse physiological processes such as metabolism, lifespan, reproduction and immunity. Transgenic overexpression of Akt, a critical regulator of IIS, was previously shown to shorten mosquito lifespan and increase resistance to the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum. To further understand how IIS controls mosquito physiology and resistance to malaria parasite infection, we overexpressed an inhibitor of IIS, phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN), in the Anopheles stephensi midgut. PTEN overexpression inhibited phosphorylation of the IIS protein FOXO, an expected target for PTEN, in the midgut of A. stephensi. Further, PTEN overexpression extended mosquito lifespan and increased resistance to P. falciparum development. The reduction in parasite development did not appear to be due to alterations in an innate immune response, but rather was associated with increased expression of genes regulating autophagy and stem cell maintenance in the midgut and with enhanced midgut barrier integrity. In light of previous success in genetically targeting the IIS pathway to alter mosquito lifespan and malaria parasite transmission, these data confirm that multiple strategies to genetically manipulate IIS can be leveraged to generate fit, resistant mosquitoes for malaria control. PMID:23774695

  2. Glucose-regulated protein 94 deficiency induces squamous cell metaplasia and suppresses PTEN-null driven endometrial epithelial tumor development

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Jieli; Yao, Lijing; Lin, Yvonne G.; DeMayo, Francesco J.; Lydon, John P.; Dubeau, Louis; Lee, Amy S.

    2016-01-01

    Endometrial carcinoma is the most prevalent gynecologic cancer in the United States. The tumor suppressor gene Pten (phosphatase and tensin homolog) is commonly mutated in the more common type 1 (endometrioid) subtype. The glucose-regulated protein 94 (GRP94) is emerging as a novel regulator for cancer development. Here we report that expression profiles from the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) showed significantly increased Grp94 mRNA levels in endometrial tumor versus normal tissues, correlating with highly elevated GRP94 protein expression in patient samples and the requirement of GRP94 for maintaining viability of human endometrioid adenocarcinoma (EAC) cell lines. Through generation of uterus-specific knockout mouse models with deletion of Grp94 alone (c94f/f) or in combination with Pten (cPf/f94f/f), we discovered that c94f/f uteri induced squamous cell metaplasia (SCM) and reduced active nuclear β-catenin. The cPf/f94f/f uteri showed accelerated SCM and suppression of PTEN-null driven EAC, with reduced cellular proliferation, attenuated β-catenin signaling and decreased AKT/S6 activation in the SCM. In contrast to single PTEN knockout uteri (cPf/f), cPf/f94f/f uteri showed no decrease in E-cadherin level and no invasive lesion. Collectively, our study implies that GRP94 downregulation induces SCM in EAC and suppresses AKT/S6 signaling, providing a novel mechanism for suppressing EAC progression. PMID:26910913

  3. Glucose-regulated protein 94 deficiency induces squamous cell metaplasia and suppresses PTEN-null driven endometrial epithelial tumor development.

    PubMed

    Shen, Jieli; Yao, Lijing; Lin, Yvonne G; DeMayo, Francesco J; Lydon, John P; Dubeau, Louis; Lee, Amy S

    2016-03-22

    Endometrial carcinoma is the most prevalent gynecologic cancer in the United States. The tumor suppressor gene Pten (phosphatase and tensin homolog) is commonly mutated in the more common type 1 (endometrioid) subtype. The glucose-regulated protein 94 (GRP94) is emerging as a novel regulator for cancer development. Here we report that expression profiles from the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) showed significantly increased Grp94 mRNA levels in endometrial tumor versus normal tissues, correlating with highly elevated GRP94 protein expression in patient samples and the requirement of GRP94 for maintaining viability of human endometrioid adenocarcinoma (EAC) cell lines. Through generation of uterus-specific knockout mouse models with deletion of Grp94 alone (c94f/f) or in combination with Pten (cPf/f94f/f), we discovered that c94f/f uteri induced squamous cell metaplasia (SCM) and reduced active nuclear β-catenin. The cPf/f94f/f uteri showed accelerated SCM and suppression of PTEN-null driven EAC, with reduced cellular proliferation, attenuated β-catenin signaling and decreased AKT/S6 activation in the SCM. In contrast to single PTEN knockout uteri (cPf/f), cPf/f94f/f uteri showed no decrease in E-cadherin level and no invasive lesion. Collectively, our study implies that GRP94 downregulation induces SCM in EAC and suppresses AKT/S6 signaling, providing a novel mechanism for suppressing EAC progression. PMID:26910913

  4. PTPN12 controls PTEN and the AKT signalling to FAK and HER2 in migrating ovarian cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Villa-Moruzzi, Emma

    2013-03-01

    Several tyrosine phosphatases control cell motility; understanding their signaling helps to decipher cancer mechanisms. Previously, we found that the negative regulation of migration exerted by PTPN12 in ovarian cancer SKOV-3 cells involves direct FAK Y397 targeting, in HER2-dependent way. In this study, we describe that PTPN12 silencing depresses also PTEN RNA and protein. This, in turn, contributes to regulate FAK, through the activation of the PI3K/AKT pathway, resulting in GSK3 inactivation and decreased FAK phosphorylation at the inhibitory and GSK3 target S722. Altogether, in SKOV-3 cells, both PTPN12 and PTEN signaling merge on FAK which is negatively regulated through Y397 dephosphorylation (directly by PTPN12) and S722 phosphorylation (through PTEN/AKT/GSK3). Although HER2 activity sustains SKOV-3 cell motility, the HER2 inhibitor Ag825 impairs migration only in PTPN12 silenced cells, suggesting the ability of PTPN12 to affect HER2. This hypothesis is supported by the finding that, in migrating cells, Ag825 decreases HER2 phosphorylation at Y1248, Y1221/2, and Y877 (i.e., inactivates HER2) only after PTPN12 silencing. Conversely, cell exposure to the PI3K inhibitor LY294002 increases HER2 phosphorylation, suggesting the involvement of PI3K/AKT in HER2 regulation. Altogether, the results reveal a new PTEN mechanism in the control cell migration and suggest a complex cross-talk between PTPN12 and HER2. PMID:23212450

  5. PTEN inhibitor bisperoxovanadium protects oligodendrocytes and myelin and prevents neuronal atrophy in adult rats following cervical hemicontusive spinal cord injury

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Chandler L.; Xu, Xiao-Ming

    2014-01-01

    Cervical spinal cord injury (SCI) damages axons and motor neurons responsible for ipsilateral forelimb function and causes demyelination and oligodendrocyte death. Inhibition of the phosphatase and tensin homologue, PTEN, promotes neural cell survival, neuroprotection and regeneration in vivo and in vitro. PTEN inhibition can also promote oligodendrocyte-mediated myelination of axons in vitro likely through Akt activation. We recently demonstrated that acute treatment with phosphatase PTEN inhibitor, bisperoxovanadium (bpV)-pic reduced tissue damage, neuron death, and promoted functional recovery after cervical hemi-contusion SCI. Evidence suggests bpV can promote myelin stability; however, bpV effects on myelination and oligodendrocytes in contusive SCI models are unclear. We hypothesized that bpV could increase myelin around the injury site through sparing or remyelination, and that bpV treatment may promote increased numbers of oligodendrocytes. Using histological and immunofluorescence labeling, we found that bpV treatment promoted significant spared white matter (30%; p < 0.01) and Luxol Fast Blue (LFB)+ myelin area rostral (Veh: 0.56 ± 0.01 vs. bpV: 0.64 ± 0.02; p < 0.05) and at the epicenter (Veh: 0.4175 ± 0.03 vs. bpV: 0.5400 ± 0.03; p < 0.05). VLF oligodendrocytes were also significantly greater with bpV therapy (109 ± 5.3 vs. Veh: 77 ± 2.7/mm2; p < 0.01). In addition, bpV increased mean motor neuron soma area versus vehicle-treatment (1.0 ± 0.02 vs. Veh: 0.77 ± 0.02) relative to Sham neuron size. This study provides key insight into additional cell and tissue effects that could contribute to bpV-mediated functional recovery observed after contusive cervical SCI. PMID:24582904

  6. Incorporation of Phosphatase Inhibitor in Culture Prompts Growth Initiation of Isolated Non-Growing Oocytes

    PubMed Central

    Morohaku, Kanako; Hoshino, Yumi; Sasada, Hiroshi; Sato, Eimei

    2013-01-01

    In vitro folliculogenesis of primordial and early preantral follicles is necessary for increment of reproductive efficiency in domestic animals, humans and endangered species. Recent study in phosphatase and tensin homolog (Pten) -knockout mice has revealed that this phosphatase acts as an inhibitory factor in follicle activation of primordial pool with the resultant inhibition of oocyte growth. To test in vitro effect of a phosphatase inhibitor on growth initiation of isolated non-growing oocytes in neonatal ovaries, we applied a specific inhibitor (bpV (HOpic)) for PTEN in culturing system. Non-growing oocytes isolated from the ovaries of newborn BDF1 (C57BL/6 × DBA/2) pups were divided to four culture groups. Five days after culture, the oocytes in 14 μmol/l bpV only, 14 μmol/l bpV plus 100 ng/ml Kit Ligand (KL), and 100 ng/ml KL groups showed significantly (P<0.05) growth (19.3±0.55, 25.8±0.53 and 21.6±0.29 μm, respectively) compared with that of the control (no additive) (16.9±0.53 μm). In addition, western blotting in those groups showed enhanced expression of phosphorylated Akt. In conclusion, we clearly demonstrate that isolated non-growing oocytes develop in phosphatase inhibitor, especially to PTEN, incorporated culturing system, and show first as we know that oocytes with zona Pellucidae can be obtained in vitro from isolated non-growing oocytes. PMID:24223714

  7. Networks of protein kinases and phosphatases in the individual phases of contextual fear conditioning in the C57BL/6J mouse.

    PubMed

    Mucic, Goran; Sase, Sunetra; Stork, Oliver; Lubec, Gert; Li, Lin

    2015-03-01

    Although protein kinases and phosphatases have been reported to be involved in fear memory, information about these signalling molecules in the individual phases of contextual fear conditioning (cFC) is limited. C57BL/6J mice were tested in cFC, sacrificed and hippocampi were used for screening of approximately 800 protein kinases and phosphatases by protein microarrays with subsequent Western blot confirmation of threefold higher or lower hippocampal levels as compared to foot shock controls. Immunoblotting of the protein kinases and phosphatases screened out was carried out by Western blotting. A network of protein kinases and phosphatases was generated (STRING 9.1). Animals learned the task in the paradigm and protein kinase and phosphatase levels were determined in the individual phases acquisition, consolidation and retrieval and compared to foot shock controls. Protein kinases discoidin containing receptor 2 (DDR2), mitogen activated protein kinase kinase kinase 7 (TAK1), protein phosphatases dual specificity protein phosphatase (PTEN) and protein phosphatase 2a (PP2A) were modulated in the individual phases of cFC. Phosphatidyl-inositol-3,4,5-triphosphate 3-phosphatase and phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K) that is interacting with PTEN were modulated as well. Freezing time was correlating with PP2A levels in the retrieval phase of cFC. The abovementioned protein kinases, phosphatases and inositol-signalling enzymes were not reported so far in cFC and the results are relevant for interpretation of previous and design of future studies in cFC or fear memory. Protein phosphatase PP2A was, however, the only signalling compound tested that was directly linked to retrieval in the cFC. PMID:25461266

  8. KRAS and BRAF Mutations and PTEN Expression Do Not Predict Efficacy of Cetuximab-Based Chemoradiotherapy in Locally Advanced Rectal Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Erben, Philipp; Stroebel, Philipp; Horisberger, Karoline; Popa, Juliana; Bohn, Beatrice; Hanfstein, Benjamin; Kaehler, Georg; Kienle, Peter; Post, Stefan; Wenz, Frederik; Hochhaus, Andreas

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: Mutations in KRAS and BRAF genes as well as the loss of expression of phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) (deleted on chromosome 10) are associated with impaired activity of antibodies directed against epidermal growth factor receptor in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer. The predictive and prognostic value of the KRAS and BRAF point mutations as well as PTEN expression in patients with locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC) treated with cetuximab-based neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy is unknown. Methods and Materials: We have conducted phase I and II trials of the combination of weekly administration of cetuximab and irinotecan and daily doses of capecitabine in conjunction with radiotherapy (45 Gy plus 5.4 Gy) in patients with LARC (stage uT3/4 or uN+). The status of KRAS and BRAF mutations was determined with direct sequencing, and PTEN expression status was determined with immunohistochemistry testing of diagnostic tumor biopsies. Tumor regression was evaluated by using standardized regression grading, and disease-free survival (DFS) was calculated according to the Kaplan-Meier method. Results: A total of 57 patients were available for analyses. A total of 31.6% of patients carried mutations in the KRAS genes. No BRAF mutations were found, while the loss of PTEN expression was observed in 9.6% of patients. Six patients achieved complete remission, and the 3-year DFS rate was 73%. No correlation was seen between tumor regression or DFS rate and a single marker or a combination of all markers. Conclusions: In the present series, no BRAF mutation was detected. The presence of KRAS mutations and loss of PTEN expression were not associated with impaired response to cetuximab-based chemoradiotherapy and 3-year DFS.

  9. Qualitative and Quantitative In Vitro Analysis of Phosphatidylinositol Phosphatase Substrate Specificity.

    PubMed

    Ip, Laura Ren Huey; Gewinner, Christina Anja

    2016-01-01

    Phosphoinositides compromise a family of eight membrane lipids which play important roles in many cellular signaling pathways. Signaling through phosphoinositides has been shown in a variety of cellular functions such cell proliferation, cell growth, apoptosis, and vesicle trafficking. Phospholipid phosphatases regulate cell signaling by modifying the concentration of phosphoinositides and their dephosphorylated products. To understand the role of individual lipid phosphatases in phosphoinositide turnover and functional signaling, it is crucial to determine the substrate specificity of the lipid phosphatase of interest. In this chapter we describe how the substrate specificity of an individual lipid phosphatase can be qualitatively and quantitatively measured in an in vitro radiometric assay. In addition, we specify the different expression systems and purification methods required to produce the necessary yield and functionality in order to further characterize these enzymes. The outstanding versatility and sensitivity of this assay system are yet unmatched and are therefore currently considered the standard of the field. PMID:26552675

  10. A cluster of protein kinases and phosphatases modulated in fetal Down syndrome (trisomy 21) brain.

    PubMed

    Weitzdoerfer, Rachel; Toran, Nuria; Subramaniyan, Saraswathi; Pollak, Arnold; Dierssen, Mara; Lubec, Gert

    2015-06-01

    Down syndrome (DS; trisomy 21) is the most frequent cause of mental retardation with major cognitive and behavioral deficits. Although a series of aberrant biochemical pathways has been reported, work on signaling proteins is limited. It was, therefore, the aim of the study to test a selection of protein kinases and phosphatases known to be essential for memory and learning mechanisms in fetal DS brain. 12 frontal cortices from DS brain were compared to 12 frontal cortices from controls obtained at legal abortions. Proteins were extracted from brains and western blotting with specific antibodies was carried out. Primary results were used for networking (IntAct Molecular Interaction Database) and individual predicted pathway components were subsequently quantified by western blotting. Levels of calcium-calmodulin kinase II alpha, transforming growth factor beta-activated kinase 1 as well as phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) were reduced in cortex of DS subjects and network generation pointed to interaction between PTEN and the dendritic spine protein drebrin that was subsequently determined and reduced levels were observed. The findings of reduced levels of cognitive-function-related protein kinases and the phosphatase may be relevant for interpretation of previous work and may be useful for the design of future studies on signaling in DS brain. Moreover, decreased drebrin levels may point to dendritic spine abnormalities. PMID:25740605

  11. Nrf2 Enhances Cholangiocyte Expansion in Pten-Deficient Livers

    PubMed Central

    Taguchi, Keiko; Hirano, Ikuo; Itoh, Tohru; Tanaka, Minoru; Miyajima, Atsushi; Suzuki, Akira

    2014-01-01

    Keap1-Nrf2 system plays a central role in the stress response. While Keap1 ubiquitinates Nrf2 for degradation under unstressed conditions, this Keap1 activity is abrogated in response to oxidative or electrophilic stresses, leading to Nrf2 stabilization and coordinated activation of cytoprotective genes. We recently found that nuclear accumulation of Nrf2 is significantly increased by simultaneous deletion of Pten and Keap1, resulting in the stronger activation of Nrf2 target genes. To clarify the impact of the cross talk between the Keap1-Nrf2 and Pten–phosphatidylinositide 3-kinase–Akt pathways on the liver pathophysiology, in this study we have conducted closer analysis of liver-specific Pten::Keap1 double-mutant mice (Pten::Keap1-Alb mice). The Pten::Keap1-Alb mice were lethal by 1 month after birth and displayed severe hepatomegaly with abnormal expansion of ductal structures comprising cholangiocytes in a Nrf2-dependent manner. Long-term observation of Pten::Keap1-Alb::Nrf2+/− mice revealed that the Nrf2-heterozygous mice survived beyond 1 month but developed polycystic liver fibrosis by 6 months. Gsk3 directing the Keap1-independent degradation of Nrf2 was heavily phosphorylated and consequently inactivated by the double deletion of Pten and Keap1 genes. Thus, liver-specific disruption of Keap1 and Pten augments Nrf2 activity through inactivation of Keap1-dependent and -independent degradation of Nrf2 and establishes the Nrf2-dependent molecular network promoting the hepatomegaly and cholangiocyte expansion. PMID:24379438

  12. PTEN regulates EG5 to control spindle architecture and chromosome congression during mitosis.

    PubMed

    He, Jinxue; Zhang, Zhong; Ouyang, Meng; Yang, Fan; Hao, Hongbo; Lamb, Kristy L; Yang, Jingyi; Yin, Yuxin; Shen, Wen H

    2016-01-01

    Architectural integrity of the mitotic spindle is required for efficient chromosome congression and accurate chromosome segregation to ensure mitotic fidelity. Tumour suppressor PTEN has multiple functions in maintaining genome stability. Here we report an essential role of PTEN in mitosis through regulation of the mitotic kinesin motor EG5 for proper spindle architecture and chromosome congression. PTEN depletion results in chromosome misalignment in metaphase, often leading to catastrophic mitotic failure. In addition, metaphase cells lacking PTEN exhibit defects of spindle geometry, manifested prominently by shorter spindles. PTEN is associated and co-localized with EG5 during mitosis. PTEN deficiency induces aberrant EG5 phosphorylation and abrogates EG5 recruitment to the mitotic spindle apparatus, leading to spindle disorganization. These data demonstrate the functional interplay between PTEN and EG5 in controlling mitotic spindle structure and chromosome behaviour during mitosis. We propose that PTEN functions to equilibrate mitotic phosphorylation for proper spindle formation and faithful genomic transmission. PMID:27492783

  13. PTEN regulates EG5 to control spindle architecture and chromosome congression during mitosis

    PubMed Central

    He, Jinxue; Zhang, Zhong; Ouyang, Meng; Yang, Fan; Hao, Hongbo; Lamb, Kristy L.; Yang, Jingyi; Yin, Yuxin; Shen, Wen H.

    2016-01-01

    Architectural integrity of the mitotic spindle is required for efficient chromosome congression and accurate chromosome segregation to ensure mitotic fidelity. Tumour suppressor PTEN has multiple functions in maintaining genome stability. Here we report an essential role of PTEN in mitosis through regulation of the mitotic kinesin motor EG5 for proper spindle architecture and chromosome congression. PTEN depletion results in chromosome misalignment in metaphase, often leading to catastrophic mitotic failure. In addition, metaphase cells lacking PTEN exhibit defects of spindle geometry, manifested prominently by shorter spindles. PTEN is associated and co-localized with EG5 during mitosis. PTEN deficiency induces aberrant EG5 phosphorylation and abrogates EG5 recruitment to the mitotic spindle apparatus, leading to spindle disorganization. These data demonstrate the functional interplay between PTEN and EG5 in controlling mitotic spindle structure and chromosome behaviour during mitosis. We propose that PTEN functions to equilibrate mitotic phosphorylation for proper spindle formation and faithful genomic transmission. PMID:27492783

  14. Synergistic effect of olaparib with combination of cisplatin on PTEN-deficient lung cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Minami, Daisuke; Takigawa, Nagio; Takeda, Hiromasa; Takata, Minoru; Ochi, Nobuaki; Ichihara, Eiki; Hisamoto, Akiko; Hotta, Katsuyuki; Tanimoto, Mitsune; Kiura, Katsuyuki

    2013-02-01

    PARP enzyme plays a key role in the cellular machinery responsible for DNA damage repair. PTEN is a tumor-suppressor gene deactivating PI3K downstream of EGFR signaling. We hypothesize that PTEN-deficient lung cancer cells suppressed DNA damage signaling and that the absence of PTEN can sensitize these cells to a concurrent treatment of a DNA-damaging agent (cisplatin) and a PARP inhibitor (olaparib). To investigate the effect of olaparib and cisplatin on PTEN-deficient lung tumors, two EGFR-mutant (deletion in exon19) non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines, PC-9 (PTEN wild-type) and H1650 (PTEN loss), were used. We transfected intact PTEN gene into H1650 cells (H1650(PTEN+)) and knocked down PTEN expression in the PC-9 cells (PC-9(PTEN-)) using short hairpin RNA (shRNA). Combination of cisplatin with olaparib showed a synergistic effect in vitro according to the combination index in H1650 cells. Restoration of PTEN in the H1650 cells decreased sensitivity to the combination. Ablation of PTEN in PC-9 cells increased sensitivity to olaparib and cisplatin. We also examined the effectiveness of cisplatin and olaparib in a xenograft model using H1650 and PC-9(PTEN-) cells. The combination of cisplatin with olaparib was more effective than each agent individually. This effect was not observed in a xenograft model using H1650(PTEN+) and PC-9 cells. Mechanistic investigations revealed that PTEN deficiency caused reductions in nuclear RAD51 and RPA focus formation and phosphorylated Chk1 and Mre11. Thus, genetic inactivation of PTEN led to the suppression of DNA repair. PMID:23239809

  15. MiR-205 inhibits cell apoptosis by targeting phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome ten in endometrial cancer ishikawa cells

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are frequently dysregulated in human cancers and can act as either potent oncogenes or tumor suppressor genes. In the present study, we intend to prove that the gene PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome ten) is a target gene of miR-205 and to investigate the suppressive effects on PTEN transcriptional activity by enhancing miR-205 expression in endometrial cancer Ishikawa cells. Methods Using Ishikawa cells as model systems, we up-regulated miR-205 expression by transient transfection with miR-205 mimics. A luciferase reporter assay, qRT-PCR and western blotting assays were used to verify whether PTEN is a direct target of miR-205. Meanwhile, the modulatory role of miR-205 in the AKT (protein kinase B) pathway was evaluated by determining the AKT phosphorylation. As a biological counterpart, we investigated cell apoptosis using flow cytometry. Results Our data indicate that miR-205 down-regulates the expression of PTEN through direct interaction with the putative binding site in the 3′-untranslated region (3′-UTR) of PTEN. Moreover, we documented the functional interactions of miR-205 and PTEN, which have a downstream effect on the regulation of the AKT pathway, explaining, at least in part, the inhibitory effects on Ishikawa cell apoptosis of enhancing miR-205 expression. Conclusions For the first time, we demonstrate that the expression of PTEN is directly regulated by miR-205 in endometrial cancer cells and leads the inhibition of cellular apoptosis. This relationship could be targeted for new therapeutic strategies for endometrial cancer. PMID:24929707

  16. Loss of heterozygosity on chromosome 10q23 and mutation of the phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted from chromosome 10 tumor suppressor gene in Korean hepatocellular carcinoma patients.

    PubMed

    Bae, Jei-Jun; Rho, Jin-Woo; Lee, Tae-Jin; Yun, Sung-Su; Kim, Hong-Jin; Choi, Joon-Hyuk; Jeong, Daewon; Jang, Byeong-Churl; Lee, Tae-Yoon

    2007-10-01

    Loss of heterozygosity (LOH) in the 10q23 chromosomal region was analyzed in 18 tissue samples from Korean hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients. LOH at the phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted from chromosome 10 (PTEN) region (D10S215, AFMa086wg9 and D10S541) was found in 8 of the 18 (44.4%) HCCs. LOH (20%) and microsatellite instability (26.7%) were also frequently found at the D10S2177 locus, which is located on the telomere side of the PTEN region. LOH was found in other loci, such as AFM280we1 and D10S2281. The presence of LOH in regions other than the PTEN region on chromosome 10q23 suggested the presence of additional tumor suppressor gene(s). PTEN mutation was found in only a subset of HCCs: A single base insertion at the end of the 5'-end splice signal (AG-GUAAGUU) in intron 5 and a silent mutation in exon 6 (codon 188, CTG-Val to CTA). Our data collectively suggest that the genetic alterations of chromosome 10q23, including the PTEN gene, could be important in hepatocarcinogenesis in the Korean population. PMID:17786367

  17. Pten in Stromal Fibroblasts Suppresses Mammary Epithelial Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Trimboli, Anthony J.; Cantemir-Stone, Carmen Z.; Li, Fu; Wallace, Julie A.; Merchant, Anand; Creasap, Nicholas; Thompson, John C.; Caserta, Enrico; Wang, Hui; Chong, Jean-Leon; Naidu, Shan; Wei, Guo; Sharma, Sudarshana M.; Stephens, Julie A.; Fernandez, Soledad A.; Gurcan, Metin N.; Weinstein, Michael B.; Barsky, Sanford H.; Yee, Lisa; Rosol, Thomas J.; Stromberg, Paul C.; Robinson, Michael L.; Pepin, Francois; Hallett, Michael; Park, Morag; Ostrowski, Michael C.; Leone, Gustavo

    2009-01-01

    SUMMARY The tumor stroma is believed to contribute to some of the most malignant characteristics of epithelial tumors. However, signaling between stromal and tumor cells is complex and remains poorly understood. Here we show that the genetic inactivation of Pten in stromal fibroblasts of mouse mammary glands accelerated the initiation, progression and malignant transformation of mammary epithelial tumors. This was associated with the massive remodeling of the extra-cellular matrix (ECM), innate immune cell infiltration and increased angiogenesis. Loss of Pten in stromal fibroblasts led to increased expression, phosphorylation (T72) and recruitment of Ets2 to target promoters known to be involved in these processes. Remarkably, Ets2 inactivation in Pten stroma-deleted tumors ameliorated disruption of the tumor microenvironment and was sufficient to decrease tumor growth and progression. Global gene expression profiling of mammary stromal cells identified a Pten-specific signature that was highly represented in the tumor stroma of breast cancer patients. These findings identify the Pten-Ets2 axis as a critical stroma-specific signaling pathway that suppresses mammary epithelial tumors. PMID:19847259

  18. PTEN loss in circulating tumour cells correlates with PTEN loss in fresh tumour tissue from castration-resistant prostate cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Punnoose, Elizabeth A; Ferraldeschi, Roberta; Szafer-Glusman, Edith; Tucker, Eric K; Mohan, Sankar; Flohr, Penelope; Riisnaes, Ruth; Miranda, Susana; Figueiredo, Ines; Rodrigues, Daniel Nava; Omlin, Aurelius; Pezaro, Carmel; Zhu, Jin; Amler, Lukas; Patel, Premal; Yan, Yibing; Bales, Natalee; Werner, Shannon L; Louw, Jessica; Pandita, Ajay; Marrinucci, Dena; Attard, Gerhardt; de Bono, Johann

    2015-01-01

    Background: PTEN gene loss occurs frequently in castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) and may drive progression through activation of the PI3K/AKT pathway. Here, we developed a novel CTC-based assay to determine PTEN status and examined the correlation between PTEN status in CTCs and matched tumour tissue samples. Methods: PTEN gene status in CTCs was evaluated on an enrichment-free platform (Epic Sciences) by fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH). PTEN status in archival and fresh tumour tissue was evaluated by FISH and immunohistochemistry. Results: Peripheral blood was collected from 76 patients. Matched archival and fresh cancer tissue was available for 48 patients. PTEN gene status detected in CTCs was concordant with PTEN status in matched fresh tissues and archival tissue in 32 of 38 patients (84%) and 24 of 39 patients (62%), respectively. CTC counts were prognostic (continuous, P=0.001). PTEN loss in CTCs associated with worse survival in univariate analysis (HR 2.05; 95% CI 1.17–3.62; P=0.01) and with high lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in metastatic CRPC patients. Conclusions: Our results illustrate the potential use of CTCs as a non-invasive, real-time liquid biopsy to determine PTEN gene status. The prognostic and predictive value of PTEN in CTCs warrants investigation in CRPC clinical trials of PI3K/AKT-targeted therapies. PMID:26379078

  19. A novel pharmacological strategy by PTEN inhibition for improving metabolic resuscitation and survival after mouse cardiac arrest

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jing; Wang, Huashan; Zhong, Qiang; Zhu, Xiangdong; Chen, Sy-Jou; Qian, Yuanyu; Costakis, Jim; Bunney, Gabrielle; Beiser, David G.; Leff, Alan R.; Lewandowski, E. Douglas; ÓDonnell, J. Michael

    2015-01-01

    Sudden cardiac arrest (SCA) is a leading cause of death in the United States. Despite return of spontaneous circulation, patients die due to post-SCA syndrome that includes myocardial dysfunction, brain injury, impaired metabolism, and inflammation. No medications improve SCA survival. Our prior work suggests that optimal Akt activation is critical for cooling protection and SCA recovery. Here, we investigate a small inhibitor of PTEN, an Akt-related phosphatase present in heart and brain, as a potential therapy in improving cardiac and neurological recovery after SCA. Anesthetized adult female wild-type C57BL/6 mice were randomized to pretreatment of VO-OHpic (VO) 30 min before SCA or vehicle control. Mice underwent 8 min of KCl-induced asystolic arrest followed by CPR. Resuscitated animals were hemodynamically monitored for 2 h and observed for 72 h. Outcomes included heart pressure-volume loops, energetics (phosphocreatine and ATP from 31P NMR), protein phosphorylation of Akt, GSK3β, pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) and phospholamban, circulating inflammatory cytokines, plasma lactate, and glucose as measures of systemic metabolic recovery. VO reduced deterioration of left ventricular maximum pressure, maximum rate of change in the left ventricular pressure, and Petco2 and improved 72 h neurological intact survival (50% vs. 10%; P < 0.05). It reduced plasma lactate, glucose, IL-1β, and Pre-B cell colony enhancing factor, while increasing IL-10. VO increased phosphorylation of Akt and GSK3β in both heart and brain, and cardiac phospholamban phosphorylation while reducing p-PDH. Moreover, VO improved cardiac bioenergetic recovery. We concluded that pharmacologic PTEN inhibition enhances Akt activation, improving metabolic, cardiovascular, and neurologic recovery with increased survival after SCA. PTEN inhibitors may be a novel pharmacologic strategy for treating SCA. PMID:25795713

  20. A novel pharmacological strategy by PTEN inhibition for improving metabolic resuscitation and survival after mouse cardiac arrest.

    PubMed

    Li, Jing; Wang, Huashan; Zhong, Qiang; Zhu, Xiangdong; Chen, Sy-Jou; Qian, Yuanyu; Costakis, Jim; Bunney, Gabrielle; Beiser, David G; Leff, Alan R; Lewandowski, E Douglas; ÓDonnell, J Michael; Vanden Hoek, Terry L

    2015-06-01

    Sudden cardiac arrest (SCA) is a leading cause of death in the United States. Despite return of spontaneous circulation, patients die due to post-SCA syndrome that includes myocardial dysfunction, brain injury, impaired metabolism, and inflammation. No medications improve SCA survival. Our prior work suggests that optimal Akt activation is critical for cooling protection and SCA recovery. Here, we investigate a small inhibitor of PTEN, an Akt-related phosphatase present in heart and brain, as a potential therapy in improving cardiac and neurological recovery after SCA. Anesthetized adult female wild-type C57BL/6 mice were randomized to pretreatment of VO-OHpic (VO) 30 min before SCA or vehicle control. Mice underwent 8 min of KCl-induced asystolic arrest followed by CPR. Resuscitated animals were hemodynamically monitored for 2 h and observed for 72 h. Outcomes included heart pressure-volume loops, energetics (phosphocreatine and ATP from (31)P NMR), protein phosphorylation of Akt, GSK3β, pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) and phospholamban, circulating inflammatory cytokines, plasma lactate, and glucose as measures of systemic metabolic recovery. VO reduced deterioration of left ventricular maximum pressure, maximum rate of change in the left ventricular pressure, and Petco2 and improved 72 h neurological intact survival (50% vs. 10%; P < 0.05). It reduced plasma lactate, glucose, IL-1β, and Pre-B cell colony enhancing factor, while increasing IL-10. VO increased phosphorylation of Akt and GSK3β in both heart and brain, and cardiac phospholamban phosphorylation while reducing p-PDH. Moreover, VO improved cardiac bioenergetic recovery. We concluded that pharmacologic PTEN inhibition enhances Akt activation, improving metabolic, cardiovascular, and neurologic recovery with increased survival after SCA. PTEN inhibitors may be a novel pharmacologic strategy for treating SCA. PMID:25795713

  1. Tanshinone IIA inhibits apoptosis in the myocardium by inducing microRNA-152-3p expression and thereby downregulating PTEN.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhen; Li, Yumei; Sheng, Chuqiao; Yang, Chunfeng; Chen, Liping; Sun, Jinghui

    2016-01-01

    Progressive loss of cardiac myocytes through apoptosis contributes to heart failure (HF). In this study, we tested whether tanshinone IIA, one of the most abundant constituents of the root of Salvia miltiorrhiza, protects rat myocardium-derived H9C2 cells against apoptosis. Treatment of H9C2 cells with tanshinone IIA inhibited angiotensin II-induced apoptosis by downregulating the expression of PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homolog), a tumor suppressor that plays a critical role in apoptosis. Furthermore, tanshinone IIA was found to inhibit PTEN expression by upregulating the microRNA miR-152-3p, a potential PTEN regulator that is highly conserved in both rat and human. Notably, the antiapoptotic effect of tanshinone IIA was partially reversed when H9C2 cells were transfected with an inhibitor of miR-152-3p. Collectively, our findings reveal a previously unrecognized mechanism underlying the cardioprotective role of tanshinone IIA, and further suggest that tanshinone IIA could represent a promising drug candidate for HF therapy. PMID:27508033

  2. PTP1B Deficiency Enables the Ability of a High-Fat Diet to Drive the Invasive Character of PTEN-Deficient Prostate Cancers.

    PubMed

    Labbé, David P; Uetani, Noriko; Vinette, Valérie; Lessard, Laurent; Aubry, Isabelle; Migon, Eva; Sirois, Jacinthe; Haigh, Jody J; Bégin, Louis R; Trotman, Lloyd C; Paquet, Marilène; Tremblay, Michel L

    2016-06-01

    Diet affects the risk and progression of prostate cancer, but the interplay between diet and genetic alterations in this disease is not understood. Here we present genetic evidence in the mouse showing that prostate cancer progression driven by loss of the tumor suppressor Pten is mainly unresponsive to a high-fat diet (HFD), but that coordinate loss of the protein tyrosine phosphatase Ptpn1 (encoding PTP1B) enables a highly invasive disease. Prostate cancer in Pten(-/-)Ptpn1(-/-) mice was characterized by increased cell proliferation and Akt activation, interpreted to reflect a heightened sensitivity to IGF-1 stimulation upon HFD feeding. Prostate-specific overexpression of PTP1B was not sufficient to initiate prostate cancer, arguing that it acted as a diet-dependent modifier of prostate cancer development in Pten(-/-) mice. Our findings offer a preclinical rationale to investigate the anticancer effects of PTP1B inhibitors currently being studied clinically for diabetes treatment as a new modality for management of prostate cancer. Cancer Res; 76(11); 3130-5. ©2016 AACR. PMID:27020859

  3. Resveratrol induces cell cycle arrest in human gastric cancer MGC803 cells via the PTEN-regulated PI3K/Akt signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Jing, Xiaoping; Cheng, Weiwei; Wang, Shiying; Li, Pin; He, Li

    2016-01-01

    Resveratrol is a polyphenolic compound that is extracted from Polygonum cuspidatum and is used in traditional Chinese medicine. Previous data have shown that resveratrol inhibits the growth of human gastric cancer. MTT [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide] and trypan blue assays showed that resveratrol significantly decreased the survival rate of MGC803 cells in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. Our flow cytometric analysis showed that resveratrol treatment arrested the cells at the G0/G1 phase of the cell cycle. Furthermore, western blotting demonstrated that resveratrol decreased the protein expression of phospho-glycogen synthase kinase 3β (p-GSK3β), cyclin D1, phospho-phosphatase and tensin homologue (p-PTEN), phospho-phosphatidylinositol 3'-OH kinase (p-PI3K), and phospho-protein kinase B (p-PKB/Akt). We also found that resveratrol inhibited the progression of the cell cycle in MGC803 cells by repressing p-PI3K and p-Akt expression. Meanwhile, resveratrol did not decrease the phosphorylation level of Akt when the PTEN gene expression was knocked down by an siRNA in the MGC803 cells. Taken together, these results suggest that resveratrol induced cell cycle arrest in human gastric cancer MGC803 cells by regulating the PTEN/PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. PMID:26530632

  4. Tanshinone IIA inhibits apoptosis in the myocardium by inducing microRNA-152-3p expression and thereby downregulating PTEN

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhen; Li, Yumei; Sheng, Chuqiao; Yang, Chunfeng; Chen, Liping; Sun, Jinghui

    2016-01-01

    Progressive loss of cardiac myocytes through apoptosis contributes to heart failure (HF). In this study, we tested whether tanshinone IIA, one of the most abundant constituents of the root of Salvia miltiorrhiza, protects rat myocardium-derived H9C2 cells against apoptosis. Treatment of H9C2 cells with tanshinone IIA inhibited angiotensin II-induced apoptosis by downregulating the expression of PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homolog), a tumor suppressor that plays a critical role in apoptosis. Furthermore, tanshinone IIA was found to inhibit PTEN expression by upregulating the microRNA miR-152-3p, a potential PTEN regulator that is highly conserved in both rat and human. Notably, the antiapoptotic effect of tanshinone IIA was partially reversed when H9C2 cells were transfected with an inhibitor of miR-152-3p. Collectively, our findings reveal a previously unrecognized mechanism underlying the cardioprotective role of tanshinone IIA, and further suggest that tanshinone IIA could represent a promising drug candidate for HF therapy. PMID:27508033

  5. Mitochondria-related miR-141-3p contributes to mitochondrial dysfunction in HFD-induced obesity by inhibiting PTEN

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Juan; Qin, Yufeng; Ren, Jing; Lu, Chuncheng; Wang, Rong; Dai, Xiuliang; Zhou, Ran; Huang, Zhenyao; Xu, Miaofei; Chen, Minjian; Wu, Wei; Song, Ling; Shen, Hongbing; Hu, Zhibin; Miao, Dengshun; Xia, Yankai; Wang, Xinru

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondria-related microRNAs (miRNAs) have recently emerged as key regulators of cell metabolism and can modulate mitochondrial fusion and division. In order to investigate the roles of mitochondria-related miRNAs played in obesity, we conducted comprehensive molecular analysis in vitro and in vivo. Based on high-fat-diet (HFD) induced obese mice, we found that hepatic mitochondrial function was markedly altered. Subsequently, we evaluated the expression levels of selected mitochondria-related miRNAs and found that miR-141-3p was up-regulated strikingly in HFD mice. To further verify the role of miR-141-3p in obesity, we carried out gain-and-loss-of-function study in human HepG2 cells. We found that miR-141-3p could modulate ATP production and induce oxidative stress. Through luciferase report gene assay, we identified that phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) was a target of miR-141-3p. Inhibiting PTEN could alter the mitochondrial function, too. Our study suggested that mitochondria-related miR-141-3p induced mitochondrial dysfunction by inhibiting PTEN. PMID:26548909

  6. MicroRNA-205-5p is upregulated in myelodysplastic syndromes and induces cell proliferation via PTEN suppression.

    PubMed

    Jang, Sook Jin; Choi, In-Sun; Park, Geon; Moon, Dae-Soo; Choi, Ji-Seon; Nam, Myung-Hyun; Yoon, Soo-Young; Choi, Cheol Hee; Kang, Seong-Ho

    2016-08-01

    Micro (mi)RNA dysregulation is implicated in the development of myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). Chromosomal abnormalities on 1q are frequently detected in Korean patients with MDS; however, how these are related to disease development is unknown. The present study compared the expression profiles of miRNAs encoded by chromosome 1q between 65 MDS patients and 11 controls. We found that miR-205-5p levels were 12.5 fold higher in the former (P=0.001). miR-205-5p level was increased in 44.7% of patients when an arbitrary 2(-ΔCt) cut-off value of 1.25 was used. miR-205-5p expression data were used to generate a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve for miR-205-5p, for which the area under the curve (AUC) was 0.825 (95% confidence interval: 0.710-0.941; P=0.001). Moreover, transfection with a miR-205-5p mimic induced cell proliferation by inhibiting the expression of the tumor suppressor protein phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN). Our findings suggest that miR-205-5p upregulation contributes to MDS by suppressing PTEN and that miR-205-5p thus acts as an oncogene in hematopoietic cells. PMID:27379838

  7. MicroRNA-130a promotes the metastasis and epithelial-mesenchymal transition of osteosarcoma by targeting PTEN.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jiansong; Yan, Dingding; Wu, Weiliang; Zhu, Jian; Ye, Wensong; Shu, Qiang

    2016-06-01

    MicroRNAs, which serve as post-transcriptional modulators of numerous genes, have been found to be important regulators during the pathogenesis of osteosarcoma. This study demonstrates for the first time that microRNA-130a (miR-130a) is significantly upregulated in osteosarcoma, and associated with the metastasis of osteosarcoma. Elevated level of miR-130a was closely correlated with poor clinical features and prognosis of osteosarcoma patients. In vitro assays revealed that miR-130a could potentiate the migration, invasion and the epithelial-mesenchymal transtion (EMT) of osteosarcoma cells. Moreover, phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) was confirmed as not only a direct downstream target but also a functional mediator of miR-130a. MiR-130a exerted promoting effects on metastatic behavior and EMT of osteosarcoma cells through suppressing PTEN expression. Based on these findings, we conclude that miR-130a is a promising prognostic biomarker for osteosarcoma patients, and targeting miR-130a may be a potential treatment option for osteosarcoma patients with metastasis. PMID:27035216

  8. Alkaline Phosphatase in Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Štefková, Kateřina; Procházková, Jiřina; Pacherník, Jiří

    2015-01-01

    Alkaline phosphatase is an enzyme commonly expressed in almost all living organisms. In humans and other mammals, determinations of the expression and activity of alkaline phosphatase have frequently been used for cell determination in developmental studies and/or within clinical trials. Alkaline phosphatase also seems to be one of the key markers in the identification of pluripotent embryonic stem as well as related cells. However, alkaline phosphatases exist in some isoenzymes and isoforms, which have tissue specific expressions and functions. Here, the role of alkaline phosphatase as a stem cell marker is discussed in detail. First, we briefly summarize contemporary knowledge of mammalian alkaline phosphatases in general. Second, we focus on the known facts of its role in and potential significance for the identification of stem cells. PMID:25767512

  9. Bacterial Expression and HTS Assessment of Soluble Epoxide Hydrolase Phosphatase.

    PubMed

    Klingler, Franca-Maria; Wolf, Markus; Wittmann, Sandra; Gribbon, Philip; Proschak, Ewgenij

    2016-08-01

    Soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) is a bifunctional enzyme that possesses an epoxide hydrolase and lipid phosphatase activity (sEH-P) at two distinct catalytic domains. While the physiological role of the epoxide hydrolase domain is well understood, the consequences of the phosphatase activity remain unclear. Herein we describe the bacterial expression of the recombinant N-terminal domain of sEH-P and the development of a high-throughput screening protocol using a sensitive and commercially available substrate fluorescein diphosphate. The usability of the assay system was demonstrated and novel inhibitors of sEH-P were identified. PMID:27009944

  10. PTEN overexpression improves cisplatin-resistance of human ovarian cancer cells through upregulating KRT10 expression

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Huijuan; Wang, Ke; Liu, Wenxin; Hao, Quan

    2014-02-07

    Highlights: • Overexpression of PTEN enhanced the sensitivity of C13K cells to cisplatin. • KRT10 is a downstream molecule of PTEN involved in the resistance-reversing effect. • Overexpression of KRT10 enhanced the chemosensitivity of C13K cells to cisplatin. - Abstract: Multi-drug resistance (MDR) is a common cause of the failure of chemotherapy in ovarian cancer. PTEN, a tumor suppressor gene, has been demonstrated to be able to reverse cisplatin-resistance in ovarian cancer cell line C13K. However, the downstream molecules of PTEN involved in the resistance-reversing effect have not been completely clarified. Therefore, we screened the downstream molecules of PTEN and studied their interactions in C13K ovarian cancer cells using a 3D culture model. Firstly, we constructed an ovarian cancer cell line stably expressing PTEN, C13K/PTEN. MTT assay showed that overexpression of PTEN enhanced the sensitivity of C13K cells to cisplatin, but not to paclitaxel. Then we examined the differently expressed proteins that interacted with PTEN in C13K/PTEN cells with or without cisplatin treatment by co-immunoprecipitation. KRT10 was identified as a differently expressed protein in cisplatin-treated C13K/PTEN cells. Further study confirmed that cisplatin could induce upregulation of KRT10 mRNA and protein in C13K/PTEN cells and there was a directly interaction between KRT10 and PTEN. Forced expression of KRT10 in C13K cells also enhanced cisplatin-induced proliferation inhibition and apoptosis of C13K cells. In addition, KRT10 siRNA blocked cisplatin-induced proliferation inhibition of C13K/PTEN cells. In conclusion, our data demonstrate that KRT10 is a downstream molecule of PTEN which improves cisplatin-resistance of ovarian cancer and forced KRT10 overexpression may also act as a therapeutic method for overcoming MDR in ovarian cancer.

  11. Modulators of intestinal alkaline phosphatase.

    PubMed

    Bobkova, Ekaterina V; Kiffer-Moreira, Tina; Sergienko, Eduard A

    2013-01-01

    Small molecule modulators of phosphatases can lead to clinically useful drugs and serve as invaluable tools to study functional roles of various phosphatases in vivo. Here, we describe lead discovery strategies for identification of inhibitors and activators of intestinal alkaline phosphatases. To identify isozyme-selective inhibitors and activators of the human and mouse intestinal alkaline phosphatases, ultrahigh throughput chemiluminescent assays, utilizing CDP-Star as a substrate, were developed for murine intestinal alkaline phosphatase (mIAP), human intestinal alkaline phosphatase (hIAP), human placental alkaline phosphatase (PLAP), and human tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase (TNAP) isozymes. Using these 1,536-well assays, concurrent HTS screens of the MLSMR library of 323,000 compounds were conducted for human and mouse IAP isozymes monitoring both inhibition and activation. This parallel screening approach led to identification of a novel inhibitory scaffold selective for murine intestinal alkaline phosphatase. SAR efforts based on parallel testing of analogs against different AP isozymes generated a potent inhibitor of the murine IAP with IC50 of 540 nM, at least 65-fold selectivity against human TNAP, and >185 selectivity against human PLAP. PMID:23860652

  12. Identification of the miR-106b∼25 MicroRNA Cluster as a Proto-Oncogenic PTEN-Targeting Intron That Cooperates with Its Host Gene MCM7 in Transformation

    PubMed Central

    Poliseno, Laura; Salmena, Leonardo; Riccardi, Luisa; Fornari, Alessandro; Song, Min Sup; Hobbs, Robin M.; Sportoletti, Paolo; Varmeh, Shorheh; Egia, Ainara; Fedele, Giuseppe; Rameh, Lucia; Loda, Massimo; Pandolfi, Pier Paolo

    2010-01-01

    PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10) is a tumor suppressor that antagonizes signaling through the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase–Akt pathway. We have demonstrated that subtle decreases in PTEN abundance can have critical consequences for tumorigenesis. Here, we used a computational approach to identify miR-22, miR-25, and miR-302 as three PTEN-targeting microRNA (miRNA) families found within nine genomic loci. We showed that miR-22 and the miR-106b∼25 cluster are aberrantly overexpressed in human prostate cancer, correlate with abundance of the miRNA processing enzyme DICER, and potentiate cellular transformation both in vitro and in vivo. We demonstrated that the intronic miR-106b∼25 cluster cooperates with its host gene MCM7 in cellular transformation both in vitro and in vivo, so that the concomitant overexpression of MCM7 and the miRNA cluster triggers prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia in transgenic mice. Therefore, the MCM7 gene locus delivers two simultaneous oncogenic insults when amplified or overexpressed in human cancer. Thus, we have uncovered a proto-oncogenic miRNA-dependent network for PTEN regulation and defined the MCM7 locus as a critical factor in initiating prostate tumorigenesis. PMID:20388916

  13. Assay of the redox state of the tumor suppressor PTEN by mobility shift.

    PubMed

    Han, Seong-Jeong; Ahn, Younghee; Park, Iha; Zhang, Ying; Kim, Inyoung; Kim, Hyun Woo; Ku, Chang-Sub; Chay, Kee-Oh; Yang, Sung Yeul; Ahn, Bong Whan; Jang, Dong Il; Lee, Seung-Rock

    2015-05-01

    PTEN is reversibly oxidized in various cells by exogenous hydrogen peroxide as well as by endogenous hydrogen peroxide generated when cells are stimulated with growth factors, cytokines and hormones. A gel mobility shift assay showed that oxidized PTEN migrated more rapidly than reduced PTEN on a non-reducing SDS-PAGE gel. Oxidized PTEN was reduced when treated with dithiothreitol. Supplementation of N-ethylmaleimide in the cell lysis buffer was critical for the apparent bands of oxidized and reduced PTEN. Formation of oxidized PTEN was abolished when the active site Cys(124) or nearby Cys(71) was replaced with Ser suggesting that Cys(124) and Cys(71) are involved in the formation of an intramolecular disulfide bond. These results show that the mobility shift assay is a convenient method to analyze the redox state of PTEN in cells. PMID:25637034

  14. Cell Surface Area and Membrane Folding in Glioblastoma Cell Lines Differing in PTEN and p53 Status

    PubMed Central

    Höring, Marcus; Westerling, Katherine; Fiedler, Vanessa; Katzer, Astrid; Krohne, Georg; Flentje, Michael; Djuzenova, Cholpon S.

    2014-01-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is characterized by rapid growth, invasion and resistance to chemo−/radiotherapy. The complex cell surface morphology with abundant membrane folds, microvilli, filopodia and other membrane extensions is believed to contribute to the highly invasive behavior and therapy resistance of GBM cells. The present study addresses the mechanisms leading to the excessive cell membrane area in five GBM lines differing in mutational status for PTEN and p53. In addition to scanning electron microscopy (SEM), the membrane area and folding were quantified by dielectric measurements of membrane capacitance using the single-cell electrorotation (ROT) technique. The osmotic stability and volume regulation of GBM cells were analyzed by video microscopy. The expression of PTEN, p53, mTOR and several other marker proteins involved in cell growth and membrane synthesis were examined by Western blotting. The combined SEM, ROT and osmotic data provided independent lines of evidence for a large variability in membrane area and folding among tested GBM lines. Thus, DK-MG cells (wild type p53 and wild type PTEN) exhibited the lowest degree of membrane folding, probed by the area-specific capacitance Cm = 1.9 µF/cm2. In contrast, cell lines carrying mutations in both p53 and PTEN (U373-MG and SNB19) showed the highest Cm values of 3.7–4.0 µF/cm2, which corroborate well with their heavily villated cell surface revealed by SEM. Since PTEN and p53 are well-known inhibitors of mTOR, the increased membrane area/folding in mutant GBM lines may be related to the enhanced protein and lipid synthesis due to a deregulation of the mTOR-dependent downstream signaling pathway. Given that membrane folds and extensions are implicated in tumor cell motility and metastasis, the dielectric approach presented here provides a rapid and simple tool for screening the biophysical cell properties in studies on targeting chemo- or radiotherapeutically the migration and invasion

  15. The mechanism involved in the loss of PTEN expression in NSCLC tumor cells

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Gang; Zhao, Jingfeng; Peng, Xianjing; Liang, Jian; Deng, Xin; Chen, Yuxiang

    2012-02-17

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Radiation stimulates PTEN reexpression in NSCLC independent of p53 activation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PTEN reexpression is mediated by miR-29b overexpression. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer miR-29b regulates Dnmts expression in NSCLC tumor cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Target therapy could be established by overexpressing miR-29b expression. -- Abstract: Loss of PTEN expression is observed in most non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLC). However, the mechanism by which PTEN expression is regulated in NSCLC has not been fully elucidated. In this study, we investigated the role of DNA methyltransferases (Dnmts), microRNA-29b (miR-29b), and anti-miR-29b inhibitor in PTEN promoter methylation and PTEN gene expression in H358 NSCLC cells in vitro and in vivo. PTEN mRNA was measured by RT-PCR. PTEN and Dnmts protein levels were measured by Western blot. miR-29b expression was detected by Northern blot. A xenograft H358 tumor mouse model was established by subcutaneously inoculating H358 cells into the right hind limbs of nude mice. We found that radiation induced cell apoptosis and hypomethylation in PTEN promoter, PTEN and miR-29b expression, and downregulation of Dnmt1, 3a and 3b expression in H358 tumor cells. The effect of radiation on gene expression and apoptosis was blocked by anti-miR-29b inhibitor. In the xenograft H358 tumor model, anti-miR-29b inhibitor reversed radiation-induced tumor growth delay, PTEN reexpression and downregulation of Dnmts expression. Our study suggested that miR-29b is an upstream molecule of PTEN. miR-29b regulates PTEN gene expression through downregulating Dnmts expression and subsequently induces hypomethylation in PTEN promoter. Targeting therapy could be established in NSCLC by upregulating miR-29b expression.

  16. Effects of the multikinase inhibitors Sorafenib and Regorafenib in PTEN deficient neoplasias.

    PubMed

    Mirantes, Cristina; Dosil, Maria Alba; Eritja, Núria; Felip, Isidre; Gatius, Sònia; Santacana, Maria; Matias-Guiu, Xavier; Dolcet, Xavier

    2016-08-01

    The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/protein kinase B/mammalian target of rapamycin (PI3K/AKT/mTOR) axis is frequently dysregulated in cancer due to mutations in different nodes of the pathway or constitutive activation of receptor tyrosine kinases. Multikinase inhibitors as sorafenib and regorafenib represent a therapeutic approach for the treatment of these types of tumours. In the present study, we have evaluated the anti-tumoural effects of Sorafenib and Regorafenib on endometrial, prostate and thyroid neoplasias. Both inhibitors reduced cell viability in vitro and lead to a disruption of the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway. In vivo, we have demonstrated that Sorafenib and Regorafenib reduce thyroid hyperplasias induced by the loss of phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN), although none of the treatments eliminated the disease. Altogether, we present the first study that correlates the response to multikinase inhibitors with a specific mutation. Moreover, this is the first report characterising the response to Regorafenib in thyroid, prostate and endometrial neoplasias. PMID:27288872

  17. Identification and Structural Characterization of a Legionella Phosphoinositide Phosphatase*

    PubMed Central

    Toulabi, Leila; Wu, Xiaochun; Cheng, Yanshu; Mao, Yuxin

    2013-01-01

    Bacterial pathogen Legionella pneumophila is the causative agent of Legionnaires' disease, which is associated with intracellular replication of the bacteria in macrophages of human innate immune system. Recent studies indicate that pathogenic bacteria can subvert host cell phosphoinositide (PI) metabolism by translocated virulence effectors. However, in which manner Legionella actively exploits PI lipids to benefit its infection is not well characterized. Here we report that L. pneumophila encodes an effector protein, named SidP, that functions as a PI-3-phosphatase specifically hydrolyzing PI(3)P and PI(3,5)P2 in vitro. This activity of SidP rescues the growth phenotype of a yeast strain defective in PI(3)P phosphatase activity. Crystal structure of SidP orthologue from Legionella longbeachae reveals that this unique PI-3-phosphatase is composed of three distinct domains: a large catalytic domain, an appendage domain that is inserted into the N-terminal portion of the catalytic domain, and a C-terminal α-helical domain. SidP has a small catalytic pocket that presumably provides substrate specificity by limiting the accessibility of bulky PIs with multiple phosphate groups. Together, our identification of a unique family of Legionella PI phosphatases highlights a common scheme of exploiting host PI lipids in many intracellular bacterial pathogen infections. PMID:23843460

  18. Ganglioside GM3 modulates tumor suppressor PTEN-mediated cell cycle progression--transcriptional induction of p21(WAF1) and p27(kip1) by inhibition of PI-3K/AKT pathway.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hee-Jung; Chung, Tae-Wook; Kang, Sung-Koo; Lee, Young-Choon; Ko, Jeong-Heon; Kim, Jong-Guk; Kim, Cheorl-Ho

    2006-07-01

    The simple ganglioside GM3 has been shown to have anti-proliferative effects in several in vitro and in vivo cancer models. Although the exogenous ganglioside GM3 has an inhibitory effect on cancer cell proliferation, the exact mechanism by which it prevents cell proliferation remains unclear. Previous studies showed that MDM2 is an oncoprotein that controls tumorigenesis through both p53-dependent and p53-independent mechanisms, and tumor suppressor phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN), a dual-specificity phosphatase that antagonizes phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI-3K)/AKT signaling, is capable of blocking MDM2 nuclear translocation and destabilizing the MDM2 protein. Results from our current study show that GM3 treatment dramatically increases cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitor (CKI) p21(WAF1) expression through the accumulation of p53 protein by the PTEN-mediated inhibition of the PI-3K/AKT/MDM2 survival signaling in HCT116 colon cancer cells. Moreover, the data herein clearly show that ganglioside GM3 induces p53-dependent transcriptional activity of p21(WAF1), as evidenced by the p21(WAF1) promoter-driven luciferase reporter plasmid (full-length p21(WAF1) promoter and a construct lacking the p53-binding sites). Additionally, ganglioside GM3 enhances expression of CKI p27(kip1) through the PTEN-mediated inhibition of the PI-3K/AKT signaling. Furthermore, the down-regulation of the cyclin E and CDK2 was clearly observed in GM3-treated HCT116 cells, but the down-regulation of cyclin D1 and CDK4 was not. On the contrary, suppression of PTEN levels by RNA interference restores the enhanced expression of p53-dependent p21(WAF1) and p53-independent p27(kip1) through inactivating the effect of PTEN on PI-3K/AKT signaling modulated by ganglioside GM3. These results suggest that ganglioside GM3-stimulated PTEN expression modulates cell cycle regulatory proteins, thus inhibiting cell growth. We conclude that ganglioside GM3 represents a

  19. Structural Genomics of Protein Phosphatases

    SciTech Connect

    Almo,S.; Bonanno, J.; Sauder, J.; Emtage, S.; Dilorenzo, T.; Malashkevich, V.; Wasserman, S.; Swaminathan, S.; Eswaramoorthy, S.; et al

    2007-01-01

    The New York SGX Research Center for Structural Genomics (NYSGXRC) of the NIGMS Protein Structure Initiative (PSI) has applied its high-throughput X-ray crystallographic structure determination platform to systematic studies of all human protein phosphatases and protein phosphatases from biomedically-relevant pathogens. To date, the NYSGXRC has determined structures of 21 distinct protein phosphatases: 14 from human, 2 from mouse, 2 from the pathogen Toxoplasma gondii, 1 from Trypanosoma brucei, the parasite responsible for African sleeping sickness, and 2 from the principal mosquito vector of malaria in Africa, Anopheles gambiae. These structures provide insights into both normal and pathophysiologic processes, including transcriptional regulation, regulation of major signaling pathways, neural development, and type 1 diabetes. In conjunction with the contributions of other international structural genomics consortia, these efforts promise to provide an unprecedented database and materials repository for structure-guided experimental and computational discovery of inhibitors for all classes of protein phosphatases.

  20. Neuronal RARβ Signaling Modulates PTEN Activity Directly in Neurons and via Exosome Transfer in Astrocytes to Prevent Glial Scar Formation and Induce Spinal Cord Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Goncalves, Maria B.; Malmqvist, Tony; Clarke, Earl; Hubens, Chantal J.; Grist, John; Hobbs, Carl; Trigo, Diogo; Risling, Mårten; Angeria, Maria; Damberg, Peter; Carlstedt, Thomas P.

    2015-01-01

    Failure of axonal regeneration in the central nervous system (CNS) is mainly attributed to a lack of intrinsic neuronal growth programs and an inhibitory environment from a glial scar. Phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) is a major negative regulator of neuronal regeneration and, as such, inhibiting its activity has been considered a therapeutic target for spinal cord (SC) injuries (SCIs). Using a novel model of rat cervical avulsion, we show that treatment with a retinoic acid receptor β (RARβ) agonist results in locomotor and sensory recovery. Axonal regeneration from the severed roots into the SC could be seen by biotinylated dextran amine labeling. Light micrographs of the dorsal root entry zone show the peripheral nervous system (PNS)–CNS transition of regrown axons. RARβ agonist treatment also resulted in the absence of scar formation. Mechanism studies revealed that, in RARβ-agonist-treated neurons, PTEN activity is decreased by cytoplasmic phosphorylation and increased secretion in exosomes. These are taken up by astrocytes, resulting in hampered proliferation and causing them to arrange in a normal-appearing scaffold around the regenerating axons. Attribution of the glial modulation to neuronal PTEN in exosomes was demonstrated by the use of an exosome inhibitor in vivo and PTEN siRNA in vitro assays. The dual effect of RARβ signaling, both neuronal and neuronal–glial, results in axonal regeneration into the SC after dorsal root neurotmesis. Targeting this pathway may open new avenues for the treatment of SCIs. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Spinal cord injuries (SCIs) often result in permanent damage in the adult due to the very limited capacity of axonal regeneration. Intrinsic neuronal programs and the formation of a glial scar are the main obstacles. Here, we identify a single target, neuronal retinoic acid receptor β (RARβ), which modulates these two aspects of the postinjury physiological response. Activation of RARβ in the neuron inactivates

  1. Adenovirus mediated homozygous endometrial epithelial Pten deletion results in aggressive endometrial carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Joshi, Ayesha; Ellenson, Lora Hedrick

    2011-07-01

    Pten is the most frequently mutated gene in uterine endometriod carcinoma (UEC) and its precursor complex atypical hyperplasia (CAH). Because the mutation frequency is similar in CAH and UEC, Pten mutations are thought to occur relatively early in endometrial tumorigenesis. Previous work from our laboratory using the Pten{sup +/-} mouse model has demonstrated somatic inactivation of the wild type allele of Pten in both CAH and UEC. In the present study, we injected adenoviruses expressing Cre into the uterine lumen of adult Pten floxed mice in an attempt to somatically delete both alleles of Pten specifically in the endometrium. Our results demonstrate that biallelic inactivation of Pten results in an increased incidence of carcinoma as compared to the Pten{sup +/-} mouse model. In addition, the carcinomas were more aggressive with extension beyond the uterus into adjacent tissues and were associated with decreased expression of nuclear ER{alpha} as compared to associated CAH. Primary cultures of epithelial and stromal cells were prepared from uteri of Pten floxed mice and Pten was deleted in vitro using Cre expressing adenovirus. Pten deletion was evident in both the epithelial and stromal cells and the treatment of the primary cultures with estrogen had different effects on Akt activation as well as Cyclin D3 expression in the two purified components. This study demonstrates that somatic biallelic inactivation of Pten in endometrial epithelium in vivo results in an increased incidence and aggressiveness of endometrial carcinoma compared to mice carrying a germline deletion of one allele and provides an important in vivo and in vitro model system for understanding the genetic underpinnings of endometrial carcinoma.

  2. Igf2 ligand dependency of Pten(+/-) developmental and tumour phenotypes in the mouse.

    PubMed

    Church, D N; Phillips, B R; Stuckey, D J; Barnes, D J; Buffa, F M; Manek, S; Clarke, K; Harris, A L; Carter, E J; Hassan, A B

    2012-08-01

    The tumour suppressor PTEN is a key negative regulator of the PI3K-Akt pathway, and is frequently either reduced or lost in human tumours. Murine genetic studies have confirmed that reduction of Pten promotes tumourigenesis in multiple organs, and demonstrated dependency of tumour development on the activation of downstream components such as Akt. Insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) act via IGF1R to activate the PI3K-Akt pathway, and are commonly upregulated in cancer. A context-dependent interplay between IGFs and PTEN exists in normal tissue and tumours; increased IGF2 ligand supply induces Pten expression creating an autoregulatory negative feedback loop, whereas complete loss of PTEN may either cooperate with IGF overexpression in tumour promotion, or result in desensitisation to IGF ligand. However, it remains unknown whether neoplasia associated with Pten loss is dependent on upstream IGF ligand supply in vivo. We evaluated this by generation of Pten(+/-) mice with differing allelic dosage of Igf2, an imprinted gene encoding the potent embryonic and tumour growth factor Igf2. We show that biallelic Igf2 supply potentiates a previously unreported Pten(+/-) placental phenotype and results in strain-dependent cardiac hyperplasia and neonatal lethality. Importantly, we also show that the effects of Pten loss in vivo are modified by Igf2 supply, as lack of Igf2 results in extended survival and delayed tumour development while biallelic supply is associated with reduced lifespan and accelerated neoplasia in females. Furthermore, we demonstrate that reduction of PTEN protein to heterozygote levels in human MCF7 cells is associated with increased proliferation in response to IGF2, and does not result in desensitisation to IGF2 signalling. These data indicate that the effects of Pten loss at heterozygote levels commonly observed in human tumours are modified by Igf2 ligand, and emphasise the importance of the evaluation of upstream pathways in tumours with Pten loss

  3. Glucose-6-phosphatase deficiency

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Glucose-6-phosphatase deficiency (G6P deficiency), or glycogen storage disease type I (GSDI), is a group of inherited metabolic diseases, including types Ia and Ib, characterized by poor tolerance to fasting, growth retardation and hepatomegaly resulting from accumulation of glycogen and fat in the liver. Prevalence is unknown and annual incidence is around 1/100,000 births. GSDIa is the more frequent type, representing about 80% of GSDI patients. The disease commonly manifests, between the ages of 3 to 4 months by symptoms of hypoglycemia (tremors, seizures, cyanosis, apnea). Patients have poor tolerance to fasting, marked hepatomegaly, growth retardation (small stature and delayed puberty), generally improved by an appropriate diet, osteopenia and sometimes osteoporosis, full-cheeked round face, enlarged kydneys and platelet dysfunctions leading to frequent epistaxis. In addition, in GSDIb, neutropenia and neutrophil dysfunction are responsible for tendency towards infections, relapsing aphtous gingivostomatitis, and inflammatory bowel disease. Late complications are hepatic (adenomas with rare but possible transformation into hepatocarcinoma) and renal (glomerular hyperfiltration leading to proteinuria and sometimes to renal insufficiency). GSDI is caused by a dysfunction in the G6P system, a key step in the regulation of glycemia. The deficit concerns the catalytic subunit G6P-alpha (type Ia) which is restricted to expression in the liver, kidney and intestine, or the ubiquitously expressed G6P transporter (type Ib). Mutations in the genes G6PC (17q21) and SLC37A4 (11q23) respectively cause GSDIa and Ib. Many mutations have been identified in both genes,. Transmission is autosomal recessive. Diagnosis is based on clinical presentation, on abnormal basal values and absence of hyperglycemic response to glucagon. It can be confirmed by demonstrating a deficient activity of a G6P system component in a liver biopsy. To date, the diagnosis is most commonly confirmed

  4. Pten Cell Autonomously Modulates the Hematopoietic Stem Cell Response to Inflammatory Cytokines.

    PubMed

    Porter, Shaina N; Cluster, Andrew S; Signer, Robert A J; Voigtmann, Jenna; Monlish, Darlene A; Schuettpelz, Laura G; Magee, Jeffrey A

    2016-06-14

    Pten negatively regulates the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway and is required to maintain quiescent adult hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). Pten has been proposed to regulate HSCs cell autonomously and non-cell autonomously, but the relative importance of each mechanism has not been directly tested. Furthermore, the cytokines that activate the PI3K pathway upstream of Pten are not well defined. We sought to clarify whether Pten cell autonomously or non-cell autonomously regulates HSC mobilization. We also tested whether Pten deficiency affects the HSC response to granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) and interferon-α (IFNα) since these cytokines induce HSC mobilization or proliferation, respectively. We show that Pten regulates HSC mobilization and expansion in the spleen primarily via cell-autonomous mechanisms. Pten-deficient HSCs do not require G-CSF to mobilize, although they are hyper-sensitized to even low doses of exogenous G-CSF. Pten-deficient HSCs are similarly sensitized to IFNα. Pten therefore modulates the HSC response to inflammatory cytokines. PMID:27185281

  5. PTEN is required to maintain luminal epithelial homeostasis and integrity in the adult mammary gland.

    PubMed

    Shore, Amy N; Chang, Chi-Hsuan; Kwon, Oh-Joon; Weston, Matthew C; Zhang, Mei; Xin, Li; Rosen, Jeffrey M

    2016-01-01

    In the mammary gland, PTEN loss in luminal and basal epithelial cells results in differentiation defects and enhanced proliferation, leading to the formation of tumors with basal epithelial characteristics. In breast cancer, PTEN loss is associated with a hormone receptor-negative, basal-like subtype that is thought to originate in a luminal epithelial cell. Here, we show that luminal-specific PTEN loss results in distinct effects on epithelial homeostasis and mammary tumor formation. Luminal PTEN loss increased proliferation of hormone receptor-negative cells, thereby decreasing the percentage of hormone receptor-positive cells. Moreover, luminal PTEN loss led to misoriented cell divisions and mislocalization of cells to the intraluminal space of mammary ducts. Despite their elevated levels of activated AKT, Pten-null intraluminal cells showed increased levels of apoptosis. One year after Pten deletion, the ducts had cleared and no palpable mammary tumors were detected. These data establish PTEN as a critical regulator of luminal epithelial homeostasis and integrity in the adult mammary gland, and further show that luminal PTEN loss alone is not sufficient to promote the progression of mammary tumorigenesis. PMID:26526198

  6. Vandetanib is effective in EGFR-mutant lung cancer cells with PTEN deficiency.

    PubMed

    Takeda, Hiromasa; Takigawa, Nagio; Ohashi, Kadoaki; Minami, Daisuke; Kataoka, Itaru; Ichihara, Eiki; Ochi, Nobuaki; Tanimoto, Mitsune; Kiura, Katsuyuki

    2013-02-15

    The effectiveness of vandetanib, an agent that targets RET, VEGFR and EGFR signaling, against EGFR-mutant lung cancer cells with PTEN loss was investigated. Two EGFR mutant non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines, PC-9 (PTEN wild type) and NCI-H1650 (PTEN null), were used. We transfected an intact PTEN gene into H1650 cells and knocked down PTEN expression in PC-9 cells using shRNA. The effectiveness of gefitinib and vandetanib was assessed using a xenograft model. While PC-9 cells were more resistant to vandetanib than gefitinib, H1650 cells were more sensitive to vandetanib than gefitinib. Both gefitinib and vandetanib suppressed the activation of EGFR and MAPK in H1650 cells, although phosphorylated AKT levels were not affected. In an H1650 cell xenograft model, vandetanib was also more effective than gefitinib. Although PTEN-transfected H1650 cells did not show restoration of sensitivity to gefitinib in vitro, the xenograft tumors responded to gefitinib and vandetanib. Knockdown of PTEN in PC-9 cells caused resistance to gefitinib. In conclusion, vandetanib might be effective in NSCLC with EGFR mutations that lack PTEN expression. The contribution of PTEN absence to vandetanib activity in NSCLC cells harboring EGFR mutations should be further examined. PMID:23274758

  7. Cholesterol modulates alkaline phosphatase activity of rat intestinal microvillus membranes.

    PubMed

    Brasitus, T A; Dahiya, R; Dudeja, P K; Bissonnette, B M

    1988-06-25

    Experiments were conducted, using a nonspecific lipid transfer protein, to vary the cholesterol/phospholipid molar ratio of rat proximal small intestinal microvillus membranes in order to assess the possible role of cholesterol in modulating enzymatic activities of this plasma membrane. Cholesterol/phospholipid molar ratios from 0.71 to 1.30 were produced from a normal value of 1.05 by incubation with the transfer protein and an excess of either phosphatidylcholine or cholesterol/phosphatidylcholine liposomes for 60 min at 37 degrees C. Cholesterol loading or depletion of the membranes was accompanied by a decrease or increase, respectively, in their lipid fluidity, as assessed by steady-state fluorescence polarization techniques using the lipid-soluble fluorophore 1,6-diphenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene. Increasing the cholesterol/phospholipid molar ratio also decreased alkaline phosphatase specific activity by approximately 20-30%, whereas decreasing this ratio increased this enzymatic activity by 20-30%. Sucrase, maltase, and lactase specific activities were not affected in these same preparations. Since the changes in alkaline phosphatase activity could be secondary to alterations in fluidity, cholesterol, or both, additional experiments were performed using benzyl alcohol, a known fluidizer. Benzyl alcohol (25 mM) restored the fluidity of cholesterol-enriched preparations to control levels, did not change the cholesterol/phospholipid molar ratio, and failed to alter alkaline phosphatase activity. These findings, therefore, indicate that alterations in the cholesterol content and cholesterol/phospholipid molar ratio of microvillus membranes can modulate alkaline phosphatase but not sucrase, maltase, or lactase activities. Moreover, membrane fluidity does not appear to be an important physiological regulator of these enzymatic activities. PMID:3379034

  8. Timing of the loss of Pten protein determines disease severity in a mouse model of myeloid malignancy

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Yan; Webster, Cody; Shao, Lijian; Lensing, Shelly Y.; Ni, Hongyu; Feng, Wei; Colorado, Natalia; Pathak, Rupak; Xiang, Zhifu; Hauer-Jensen, Martin; Li, Shaoguang; Zhou, Daohong; Emanuel, Peter D.

    2016-01-01

    Juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia (JMML) is an aggressive pediatric mixed myelodysplastic/myeloproliferative neoplasm (MDS/MPN). JMML leukemogenesis is linked to a hyperactivated RAS pathway, with driver mutations in the KRAS, NRAS, NF1, PTPN11, or CBL genes. Previous murine models demonstrated how those genes contributed to the selective hypersensitivity of JMML cells to granulocyte macrophage–colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), a unifying characteristic in the disease. However, it is unclear what causes the early death in children with JMML, because transformation to acute leukemia is rare. Here, we demonstrate that loss of Pten (phosphatase and tensin homolog) protein at postnatal day 8 in mice harboring Nf1 haploinsufficiency results in an aggressive MPN with death at a murine prepubertal age of 20 to 35 days (equivalent to an early juvenile age in JMML patients). The death in the mice was due to organ infiltration with monocytes/macrophages. There were elevated activities of protein kinase B (Akt) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) in cells at physiological concentrations of GM-CSF. These were more pronounced in mice with Nf1 haploinsufficiency than in littermates with wild-type Nf1, but this model is insufficient to cause cells to be GM-CSF hypersensitive. This new model represents a murine MPN model with features of a pediatric unclassifiable mixed MDS/MPN and mimics many clinical manifestations of JMML in terms of age of onset, aggressiveness, and organ infiltration with monocytes/macrophages. Our data suggest that the timing of the loss of PTEN protein plays a critical role in determining the disease severity in myeloid malignancies. This model may be useful for studying the pathogenesis of pediatric diseases with alterations in the Ras pathway. PMID:26764354

  9. Timing of the loss of Pten protein determines disease severity in a mouse model of myeloid malignancy.

    PubMed

    Liu, Y Lucy; Yan, Yan; Webster, Cody; Shao, Lijian; Lensing, Shelly Y; Ni, Hongyu; Feng, Wei; Colorado, Natalia; Pathak, Rupak; Xiang, Zhifu; Hauer-Jensen, Martin; Li, Shaoguang; Zhou, Daohong; Emanuel, Peter D

    2016-04-14

    Juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia (JMML) is an aggressive pediatric mixed myelodysplastic/myeloproliferative neoplasm (MDS/MPN). JMML leukemogenesis is linked to a hyperactivated RAS pathway, with driver mutations in theKRAS,NRAS,NF1,PTPN11, orCBLgenes. Previous murine models demonstrated how those genes contributed to the selective hypersensitivity of JMML cells to granulocyte macrophage-colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), a unifying characteristic in the disease. However, it is unclear what causes the early death in children with JMML, because transformation to acute leukemia is rare. Here, we demonstrate that loss of Pten (phosphatase and tensin homolog) protein at postnatal day 8 in mice harboringNf1haploinsufficiency results in an aggressive MPN with death at a murine prepubertal age of 20 to 35 days (equivalent to an early juvenile age in JMML patients). The death in the mice was due to organ infiltration with monocytes/macrophages. There were elevated activities of protein kinase B (Akt) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) in cells at physiological concentrations of GM-CSF. These were more pronounced in mice withNf1haploinsufficiency than in littermates with wild-typeNf1,but this model is insufficient to cause cells to be GM-CSF hypersensitive. This new model represents a murine MPN model with features of a pediatric unclassifiable mixed MDS/MPN and mimics many clinical manifestations of JMML in terms of age of onset, aggressiveness, and organ infiltration with monocytes/macrophages. Our data suggest that the timing of the loss of PTEN protein plays a critical role in determining the disease severity in myeloid malignancies. This model may be useful for studying the pathogenesis of pediatric diseases with alterations in the Ras pathway. PMID:26764354

  10. Soy peptide lunasin induces pten-mediated apoptosis in human breast cancer cells

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The tumor suppressor PTEN inhibits the AKT signaling pathway whose unrestrained activity underlies many human malignancies. Previously we showed that dietary intake of soy protein isolate (SPI) enhanced PTEN expression in mammary tissue of rats with lower NMU-induced mammary tumor incidence relative...

  11. PTEN deficiency reprogrammes human neural stem cells towards a glioblastoma stem cell-like phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Shunlei; Yuan, Guohong; Liu, Xiaomeng; Ren, Ruotong; Li, Jingyi; Zhang, Weizhou; Wu, Jun; Xu, Xiuling; Fu, Lina; Li, Ying; Yang, Jiping; Zhang, Weiqi; Bai, Ruijun; Yi, Fei; Suzuki, Keiichiro; Gao, Hua; Esteban, Concepcion Rodriguez; Zhang, Chuanbao; Belmonte, Juan Carlos Izpisua; Chen, Zhiguo; Wang, Xiaomin; Jiang, Tao; Qu, Jing; Tang, Fuchou; Liu, Guang-Hui

    2015-01-01

    PTEN is a tumour suppressor frequently mutated in many types of cancers. Here we show that targeted disruption of PTEN leads to neoplastic transformation of human neural stem cells (NSCs), but not mesenchymal stem cells. PTEN-deficient NSCs display neoplasm-associated metabolic and gene expression profiles and generate intracranial tumours in immunodeficient mice. PTEN is localized to the nucleus in NSCs, binds to the PAX7 promoter through association with cAMP responsive element binding protein 1 (CREB)/CREB binding protein (CBP) and inhibits PAX7 transcription. PTEN deficiency leads to the upregulation of PAX7, which in turn promotes oncogenic transformation of NSCs and instates ‘aggressiveness' in human glioblastoma stem cells. In a large clinical database, we find increased PAX7 levels in PTEN-deficient glioblastoma. Furthermore, we identify that mitomycin C selectively triggers apoptosis in NSCs with PTEN deficiency. Together, we uncover a potential mechanism of how PTEN safeguards NSCs, and establish a cellular platform to identify factors involved in NSC transformation, potentially permitting personalized treatment of glioblastoma. PMID:26632666

  12. Systematic analysis of the PTEN 5′ leader identifies a major AUU initiated proteoform

    PubMed Central

    Tzani, Ioanna; Ivanov, Ivaylo P.; Andreev, Dmitri E.; Dmitriev, Ruslan I.; Dean, Kellie A.; Baranov, Pavel V.; Atkins, John F.; Loughran, Gary

    2016-01-01

    Abundant evidence for translation within the 5′ leaders of many human genes is rapidly emerging, especially, because of the advent of ribosome profiling. In most cases, it is believed that the act of translation rather than the encoded peptide is important. However, the wealth of available sequencing data in recent years allows phylogenetic detection of sequences within 5′ leaders that have emerged under coding constraint and therefore allow for the prediction of functional 5′ leader translation. Using this approach, we previously predicted a CUG-initiated, 173 amino acid N-terminal extension to the human tumour suppressor PTEN. Here, a systematic experimental analysis of translation events in the PTEN 5′ leader identifies at least two additional non-AUG-initiated PTEN proteoforms that are expressed in most human cell lines tested. The most abundant extended PTEN proteoform initiates at a conserved AUU codon and extends the canonical AUG-initiated PTEN by 146 amino acids. All N-terminally extended PTEN proteoforms tested retain the ability to downregulate the PI3K pathway. We also provide evidence for the translation of two conserved AUG-initiated upstream open reading frames within the PTEN 5′ leader that control the ratio of PTEN proteoforms. PMID:27249819

  13. Efficacy of targeted AKT inhibition in genetically engineered mouse models of PTEN-deficient prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    De Velasco, Marco A.; Kura, Yurie; Yoshikawa, Kazuhiro; Nishio, Kazuto; Davies, Barry R.; Uemura, Hirotsugu

    2016-01-01

    The PI3K/AKT pathway is frequently altered in advanced human prostate cancer mainly through the loss of functional PTEN, and presents as potential target for personalized therapy. Our aim was to determine the therapeutic potential of the pan-AKT inhibitor, AZD5363, in PTEN-deficient prostate cancer. Here we used a genetically engineered mouse (GEM) model of PTEN-deficient prostate cancer to evaluate the in vivo pharmacodynamic and antitumor activity of AZD5363 in castration-naïve and castration-resistant prostate cancer. An additional GEM model, based on the concomitant inactivation of PTEN and Trp53 (P53), was established as an aggressive model of advanced prostate cancer and was used to further evaluate clinically relevant endpoints after treatment with AZD5363. In vivo pharmacodynamic studies demonstrated that AZD5363 effectively inhibited downstream targets of AKT. AZD5363 monotherapy significantly reduced growth of tumors in castration-naïve and castration-resistant models of PTEN-deficient prostate cancer. More importantly, AZD5363 significantly delayed tumor growth and improved overall survival and progression-free survival in PTEN/P53 double knockout mice. Our findings demonstrate that AZD5363 is effective against GEM models of PTEN-deficient prostate cancer and provide lines of evidence to support further investigation into the development of treatment strategies targeting AKT for the treatment of PTEN-deficient prostate cancer. PMID:26910118

  14. EGFRvIII expression and PTEN loss synergistically induce chromosomal instability and glial tumors

    PubMed Central

    Li, Li; Dutra, Amalia; Pak, Evgenia; Labrie, Joseph E.; Gerstein, Rachel M.; Pandolfi, Pier Paolo; Recht, Larry D.; Ross, Alonzo H.

    2009-01-01

    Glioblastomas often show activation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and loss of PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10) tumor suppressor, but it is not known if these two genetic lesions act together to transform cells. To answer this question, we infected PTEN−/− neural precursor cells with a retrovirus encoding EGFRvIII, which is a constitutively activated receptor. EGFRvIII PTEN−/− cells formed highly mitotic tumors with nuclear pleomorphism, necrotic areas, and glioblastoma markers. The transformed cells showed increased cell proliferation, centrosome amplification, colony formation in soft agar, self-renewal, expression of the stem cell marker CD133, and resistance to oxidative stress and ionizing radiation. The RAS/mitogen-activated protein kinase (ERK) and phosphoinositide 3-kinase/protein kinase B (PI3K/ Akt) pathways were activated, and checkpoint kinase 1 (Chk1), the DNA damage regulator, was phosphorylated at S280 by Akt, suppressing Chk1 phosphorylation at S345 in response to ionizing irradiation. The PTEN−/− cells showed low levels of DNA damage in the absence of irradiation, which was increased by EGFRvIII expression. Finally, secondary changes occurred during tumor growth in mice. Cells from these tumors showed decreased tumor latencies and additional chromosomal aberrations. Most of these tumor lines showed translocations of mouse chromosome 15. Intracranial injections of one of these lines led to invasive, glial fibrillary acidic protein–positive, nestin-positive tumors. These results provide a molecular basis for the occurrence of these two genetic lesions in brain tumors and point to a role in induction of genomic instability. PMID:18812521

  15. Pten loss promotes MAPK pathway dependency in HER2/neu breast carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Ebbesen, Saya H; Scaltriti, Maurizio; Bialucha, Carl U; Morse, Natasha; Kastenhuber, Edward R; Wen, Hannah Y; Dow, Lukas E; Baselga, José; Lowe, Scott W

    2016-03-15

    Loss of the tumor suppressor gene PTEN is implicated in breast cancer progression and resistance to targeted therapies, and is thought to promote tumorigenesis by activating PI3K signaling. In a transgenic model of breast cancer, Pten suppression using a tetracycline-regulatable short hairpin (sh)RNA cooperates with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2/neu), leading to aggressive and metastatic disease with elevated signaling through PI3K and, surprisingly, the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. Restoring Pten function is sufficient to down-regulate both PI3K and MAPK signaling and triggers dramatic tumor regression. Pharmacologic inhibition of MAPK signaling produces similar effects to Pten restoration, suggesting that the MAPK pathway contributes to the maintenance of advanced breast cancers harboring Pten loss. PMID:26929372

  16. Pten loss promotes MAPK pathway dependency in HER2/neu breast carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Ebbesen, Saya H.; Scaltriti, Maurizio; Bialucha, Carl U.; Morse, Natasha; Kastenhuber, Edward R.; Wen, Hannah Y.; Dow, Lukas E.; Baselga, José; Lowe, Scott W.

    2016-01-01

    Loss of the tumor suppressor gene PTEN is implicated in breast cancer progression and resistance to targeted therapies, and is thought to promote tumorigenesis by activating PI3K signaling. In a transgenic model of breast cancer, Pten suppression using a tetracycline-regulatable short hairpin (sh)RNA cooperates with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2/neu), leading to aggressive and metastatic disease with elevated signaling through PI3K and, surprisingly, the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. Restoring Pten function is sufficient to down-regulate both PI3K and MAPK signaling and triggers dramatic tumor regression. Pharmacologic inhibition of MAPK signaling produces similar effects to Pten restoration, suggesting that the MAPK pathway contributes to the maintenance of advanced breast cancers harboring Pten loss. PMID:26929372

  17. MicroRNA-22 is downregulated in clear cell renal cell carcinoma, and inhibits cell growth, migration and invasion by targeting PTEN.

    PubMed

    Fan, Wenxing; Huang, Jie; Xiao, Hua; Liang, Zhang

    2016-06-01

    MicroRNA (miR)-22 has previously been reported to be frequently downregulated in certain types of cancer. The present study examined the expression and effects of miR-22 in renal cell carcinoma (RCC). The results indicated that miR‑22 was downregulated in tumor tissue from patients with RCC. In addition, lower miR‑22 expression levels were associated with histological grade, tumor stage and lymph node metas-tasis. Following transfection of RCC cells with miR‑22, 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide, cell migration, cell invasion and luciferase assays, and western blotting were conducted. The results demonstrated that miR‑22 was able to inhibit cell proliferation, migration and invasion in 786‑O and A498 cells. Furthermore, the results indicated that miR‑22 may directly target phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) in RCC. In conclusion, the present study suggested that the miR-22/PTEN axis may be considered a novel therapeutic target in RCC. These findings may be beneficial for the development of an effective therapy against RCC. PMID:27082730

  18. PGF2α-associated vascular smooth muscle hypertrophy is ROS dependent and involves the activation of mTOR, p70S6k, and PTEN

    PubMed Central

    Rice, K. M.; Uddemarri, S.; Desai, D. H.; Morrison, R.G.; Harris, R.; Wright, G.L.; Blough, E.R.

    2008-01-01

    Prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α) increases reactive oxygen species (ROS) and induces vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) hypertrophy by largely unknown mechanism(s). To investigate the signaling events governing PGF2α –induced VSMC hypertrophy we examined the ability of the PGF2α analog, fluprostenol to elicit phosphorylation of Akt, the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), ribosomal protein S6 kinase (p70S6k), glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β), phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN), extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) and Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) in growth arrested A7r5 VSMC. Fluprostenol-induced hypertrophy was associated with increased ROS, mTOR translocation from the nucleus to the cytoplasm, along with Akt, mTOR, GSK-3β, PTEN and ERK1/2 but not JNK phosphorylation. Whereas inhibition of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) by LY294002 blocked fluprostenol-induced changes in total protein content, pretreatment with rapamycin or with the ERK1/2-MAPK inhibitor UO126 did not. Taken together, these findings suggest that fluprostenol-induced changes in A7R5 hypertrophy involve mTOR translocation and occur through PI3K-dependent mechanisms. PMID:18160324

  19. The miR-130 family promotes cell migration and invasion in bladder cancer through FAK and Akt phosphorylation by regulating PTEN

    PubMed Central

    Egawa, Hiroshi; Jingushi, Kentaro; Hirono, Takayuki; Ueda, Yuko; Kitae, Kaori; Nakata, Wataru; Fujita, Kazutoshi; Uemura, Motohide; Nonomura, Norio; Tsujikawa, Kazutake

    2016-01-01

    Bladder cancer causes an estimated 150,000 deaths per year worldwide. Although 15% of the recurrent bladder cancer becomes an invasive type, currently used targeted therapy for malignant bladder cancer is still not efficient. We focused on the miR-130 family (miR-130b, miR-301a, and miR-301b) that was significantly upregulated in bladder cancer specimens than that of the normal urothelial specimens. We analyzed the functional significance of miR-130 family using a 5637 bladder cancer cell line and revealed that miR-130 family of inhibitors suppressed cell migration and invasion by downregulating focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and Akt phosphorylation. Mechanistic analyses indicate that the miR-130 family directly targets phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted from chromosome 10 (PTEN), resulting in the upregulation of FAK and Akt phosphorylation. In clinical bladder cancer specimens, downregulation of PTEN was found to be closely correlated with miR-130 family expression levels. Overall, the miR-130 family has a crucial role in malignant progression of bladder cancer and thus the miR-130 family could be a promising therapeutic target for invasive bladder cancer. PMID:26837847

  20. Tumor-suppressor NFκB2 p100 interacts with ERK2 and stabilizes PTEN mRNA via inhibition of miR-494.

    PubMed

    Wang, Y; Xu, J; Gao, G; Li, J; Huang, H; Jin, H; Zhu, J; Che, X; Huang, C

    2016-08-01

    Emerging evidence from The Cancer Genome Atlas has revealed that nuclear factor κB2 (nfκb2) gene encoding p100 is genetically deleted or mutated in human cancers, implicating NFκB2 as a potential tumor suppressor. However, the molecular mechanism underlying the antitumorigenic action of p100 remains poorly understood. Here we report that p100 inhibits cancer cell anchorage-independent growth, a hallmark of cellular malignancy, by stabilizing the tumor-suppressor phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) mRNA via a mechanism that is independent of p100's inhibitory role in NFκB activation. We further demonstrate that the regulatory effect of p100 on PTEN expression is mediated by its downregulation of miR-494 as a result of the inactivation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 2 (ERK2), in turn leading to inhibition of c-Jun/activator protein-1-dependent transcriptional activity. Furthermore, we identify that p100 specifically interacts with non-phosphorylated ERK2 and prevents ERK2 phosphorylation and nuclear translocation. Moreover, the death domain at C-terminal of p100 is identified as being crucial and sufficient for its interaction with ERK2. Taken together, our findings provide novel mechanistic insights into the understanding of the tumor-suppressive role for NFκB2 p100. PMID:26686085

  1. Comprehensive protein tyrosine phosphatase mRNA profiling identifies new regulators in the progression of glioma.

    PubMed

    Bourgonje, Annika M; Verrijp, Kiek; Schepens, Jan T G; Navis, Anna C; Piepers, Jolanda A F; Palmen, Chantal B C; van den Eijnden, Monique; Hooft van Huijsduijnen, Rob; Wesseling, Pieter; Leenders, William P J; Hendriks, Wiljan J A J

    2016-01-01

    The infiltrative behavior of diffuse gliomas severely reduces therapeutic potential of surgical resection and radiotherapy, and urges for the identification of new drug-targets affecting glioma growth and migration. To address the potential role of protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs), we performed mRNA expression profiling for 91 of the 109 known human PTP genes on a series of clinical diffuse glioma samples of different grades and compared our findings with in silico knowledge from REMBRANDT and TCGA databases. Overall PTP family expression levels appeared independent of characteristic genetic aberrations associated with lower grade or high grade gliomas. Notably, seven PTP genes (DUSP26, MTMR4, PTEN, PTPRM, PTPRN2, PTPRT and PTPRZ1) were differentially expressed between grade II-III gliomas and (grade IV) glioblastomas. For DUSP26, PTEN, PTPRM and PTPRT, lower expression levels correlated with poor prognosis, and overexpression of DUSP26 or PTPRT in E98 glioblastoma cells reduced tumorigenicity. Our study represents the first in-depth analysis of PTP family expression in diffuse glioma subtypes and warrants further investigations into PTP-dependent signaling events as new entry points for improved therapy. PMID:27586084

  2. Mitochondrial Phosphatase PTPMT1 is essential for cardiolipin biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ji; Guan, Ziqiang; Murphy, Anne N.; Wiley, Sandra E.; Perkins, Guy A.; Worby, Carolyn A.; Engel, James L.; Heacock, Philip; Nguyen, Oanh Kim; Wang, Jonathan H.; Raetz, Christian R.H.; Dowhan, William; Dixon, Jack E.

    2011-01-01

    Summary PTPMT1 was the first protein tyrosine phosphatase found localized to the mitochondria, but its biological function was unknown. Herein, we demonstrate that whole body deletion of Ptpmt1 in mice leads to embryonic lethality, suggesting an indispensable role for PTPMT1 during development. Ptpmt1-deficiency in mouse embryonic fibroblasts compromises mitochondrial respiration and results in abnormal mitochondrial morphology. Lipid analysis of Ptpmt1-deficient fibroblasts reveals an accumulation of phosphatidylglycerophosphate (PGP) along with a concomitant decrease in phosphatidylglycerol. PGP is an essential intermediate in the biosynthetic pathway of cardiolipin, a mitochondrial-specific phospholipid regulating the membrane integrity and activities of the organelle. We further demonstrate that PTPMT1 specifically dephosphorylates PGP in vitro. Loss of PTPMT1 leads to dramatic diminution of cardiolipin, which can be partially reversed by the expression of catalytic active PTPMT1. Our study identifies PTPMT1 as the mammalian PGP phosphatase and points to its role as a regulator of cardiolipin biosynthesis. PMID:21641550

  3. Molecular characterization and function of a PTEN gene from Litopenaeus vannamei after Vibrio alginolyticus challenge.

    PubMed

    Xie, C-Y; Kong, J-R; Zhao, C-S; Xiao, Y-C; Peng, T; Liu, Y; Wang, W-N

    2016-06-01

    PTEN, a tumor suppressor gene, suppresses cell survival, growth, apoptosis, cell migration and DNA damage repair by inhibiting the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway. In this study, the full-length Litopenaeus vannamei PTEN (LvPTEN) cDNA was obtained, containing a 5'UTR of 59bp, an ORF of 1269bp and a 3'UTR of 146bp besides the poly (A) tail. The PTEN gene encoded a protein of 422 amino acids with an estimated molecular mass of 48.3 KDa and a predicted isoelectric point (pI) of 7.6. Subcellular localization analysis revealed that LvPTEN was distributed in both cytoplasm and nucleus, and the tissue distribution patterns showed that LvPTEN was ubiquitously expressed in all the examined tissues. Vibrio alginolyticus challenge induced upregulation of LvPTEN expression. Moreover, RNAi knock-down of LvPTEN in vivo significantly increased the expression of LvAKT mRNA, while reducing that of the downstream apoptosis genes LvP53 and LvCaspase3. LvPTEN knock-down also caused a sharp increase in cumulative mortality, bacterial numbers, and DNA damage in the hemolymph of L. vannamei following V. alginolyticus challenge, together with a sharp decrease in the total hemocyte count (THC). These results suggested that LvPTEN may participate in apoptosis via the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway in L. vannamei, and play an important role in shrimp innate immunity. PMID:26801100

  4. PTEN Inhibition Improves Muscle Regeneration in Mice Fed a High-Fat Diet

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Zhaoyong; Wang, Huiling; Lee, In Hee; Modi, Swati; Wang, Xiaonan; Du, Jie; Mitch, William E.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Mechanisms impairing wound healing in diabetes are poorly understood. To identify mechanisms, we induced insulin resistance by chronically feeding mice a high-fat diet (HFD). We also examined the regulation of phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate (PIP3) during muscle regeneration because augmented IGF-1 signaling can improve muscle regeneration. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Muscle regeneration was induced by cardiotoxin injury, and we evaluated satellite cell activation and muscle maturation in HFD-fed mice. We also measured PIP3 and the enzymes regulating its level, IRS-1–associated phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and PTEN. Using primary cultures of muscle, we examined how fatty acids affect PTEN expression and how PTEN knockout influences muscle growth. Mice with muscle-specific PTEN knockout were used to examine how the HFD changes muscle regeneration. RESULTS The HFD raised circulating fatty acids and impaired the growth of regenerating myofibers while delaying myofiber maturation and increasing collagen deposition. These changes were independent of impaired proliferation of muscle progenitor or satellite cells but were principally related to increased expression of PTEN, which reduced PIP3 in muscle. In cultured muscle cells, palmitate directly stimulated PTEN expression and reduced cell growth. Knocking out PTEN restored cell growth. In mice, muscle-specific PTEN knockout improved the defects in muscle repair induced by HFD. CONCLUSIONS Insulin resistance impairs muscle regeneration by preventing myofiber maturation. The mechanism involves fatty acid–stimulated PTEN expression, which lowers muscle PIP3. If similar pathways occur in diabetic patients, therapeutic strategies directed at improving the repair of damaged muscle could include suppression of PTEN activity. PMID:20200318

  5. An inducible knockout mouse to model the cell-autonomous role of PTEN in initiating endometrial, prostate and thyroid neoplasias

    PubMed Central

    Mirantes, Cristina; Eritja, Núria; Dosil, Maria Alba; Santacana, Maria; Pallares, Judit; Gatius, Sónia; Bergadà, Laura; Maiques, Oscar; Matias-Guiu, Xavier; Dolcet, Xavier

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY PTEN is one of the most frequently mutated tumor suppressor genes in human cancers. The role of PTEN in carcinogenesis has been validated by knockout mouse models. PTEN heterozygous mice develop neoplasms in multiple organs. Unfortunately, the embryonic lethality of biallelic excision of PTEN has inhibited the study of complete PTEN deletion in the development and progression of cancer. By crossing PTEN conditional knockout mice with transgenic mice expressing a tamoxifen-inducible Cre-ERT under the control of a chicken actin promoter, we have generated a tamoxifen-inducible mouse model that allows temporal control of PTEN deletion. Interestingly, administration of a single dose of tamoxifen resulted in PTEN deletion mainly in epithelial cells, but not in stromal, mesenchymal or hematopoietic cells. Using the mT/mG double-fluorescent Cre reporter mice, we demonstrate that epithelial-specific PTEN excision was caused by differential Cre activity among tissues and cells types. Tamoxifen-induced deletion of PTEN resulted in extremely rapid and consistent formation of endometrial in situ adenocarcinoma, prostate intraepithelial neoplasia and thyroid hyperplasia. We also analyzed the role of PTEN ablation in other epithelial cells, such as the tubular cells of the kidney, hepatocytes, colonic epithelial cells or bronchiolar epithelium, but those tissues did not exhibit neoplastic growth. Finally, to validate this model as a tool to assay the efficacy of anti-tumor drugs in PTEN deficiency, we administered the mTOR inhibitor everolimus to mice with induced PTEN deletion. Everolimus dramatically reduced the progression of endometrial proliferations and significantly reduced thyroid hyperplasia. This model could be a valuable tool to study the cell-autonomous mechanisms involved in PTEN-loss-induced carcinogenesis and provides a good platform to study the effect of anti-neoplastic drugs on PTEN-negative tumors. PMID:23471917

  6. Characterization of Heterogeneous Prostate Tumors in Targeted Pten Knockout Mice

    PubMed Central

    Korsten, Hanneke; Ziel-van der Made, Angelique C. J.; van Weerden, Wytske M.; van der Kwast, Theo; Trapman, Jan; Van Duijn, Petra W.

    2016-01-01

    Previously, we generated a preclinical mouse prostate tumor model based on PSA-Cre driven inactivation of Pten. In this model homogeneous hyperplastic prostates (4-5m) developed at older age (>10m) into tumors. Here, we describe the molecular and histological characterization of the tumors in order to better understand the processes that are associated with prostate tumorigenesis in this targeted mouse Pten knockout model. The morphologies of the tumors that developed were very heterogeneous. Different histopathological growth patterns could be identified, including intraductal carcinoma (IDC), adenocarcinoma and undifferentiated carcinoma, all strongly positive for the epithelial cell marker Cytokeratin (CK), and carcinosarcomas, which were negative for CK. IDC pattern was already detected in prostates of 7–8 month old mice, indicating that it could be a precursor stage. At more than 10 months IDC and carcinosarcoma were most frequently observed. Gene expression profiling discriminated essentially two molecular subtypes, denoted tumor class 1 (TC1) and tumor class 2 (TC2). TC1 tumors were characterized by high expression of epithelial markers like Cytokeratin 8 and E-Cadherin whereas TC2 tumors showed high expression of mesenchyme/stroma markers such as Snail and Fibronectin. These molecular subtypes corresponded with histological growth patterns: where TC1 tumors mainly represented adenocarcinoma / intraductal carcinoma, in TC2 tumors carcinosarcoma was the dominant growth pattern. Further molecular characterization of the prostate tumors revealed an increased expression of genes associated with the inflammatory response. Moreover, functional markers for senescence, proliferation, angiogenesis and apoptosis were higher expressed in tumors compared to hyperplasia. The highest expression of proliferation and angiogenesis markers was detected in TC2 tumors. Our data clearly showed that in the genetically well-defined PSA-Cre;Pten-loxP/loxP prostate tumor model

  7. PTEN regulation of the proliferation and differentiation of auditory progenitors through the PTEN/PI3K/Akt-signaling pathway in mice

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Chen; Zhao, Jing; Jin, Yecheng; Hou, Congzhe; Zong, Wen; Lu, Tingting

    2014-01-01

    The organ of Corti, which is the sensory organ of hearing, consists of a single row of inner hair cells and three rows of outer hair cells in mice. The auditory hair cells develop from auditory progenitors. Hair cell development is related to several genes, including PTEN. Homozygous null mutant (PTEN−/−) mice die at around embryonic day 9, when hair cells are extremely immature. Moreover, in heterozygous PTEN knockout mice, it was found that PTEN regulates the proliferation of auditory progenitors. However, little is known about the molecular mechanism underlying this regulation. In the present study, we generated PTEN conditional knockout in the inner ear of mice and studied the aforementioned molecular mechanisms. Our results showed that PTEN knockout resulted in supernumerary hair cells, increased p-Akt level, and decreased p27kip1 level. Furthermore, the presence of supernumerary hair cells could be explained by the delayed withdrawal of auditory progenitors from the cell cycle. The increased p-Akt level correlates with p27kip1 downregulation in the cochlea in the Pax2-PTEN−/− mice. The reduced p27kip1 could not maintain the auditory progenitors in the nonproliferative state and some progenitors continued to divide. Consequently, additional progenitors differentiated into supernumerary hair cells. We suggest that PTEN regulates p27kip1 through p-Akt, thereby regulating the proliferation and differentiation of auditory progenitors. PMID:24481416

  8. Detecting PTEN and PI3K signaling in brain

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Guo; Baker, Suzanne J.

    2016-01-01

    Summary The central nervous system is comprised of multiple cell types including neurons, glia and other supporting cells that may differ dramatically in levels of signaling pathway activation. Immunohistochemistry in conjunction with drug interference are powerful tools that allow evaluation of signaling pathways in different cell types of the mouse central nervous system in vivo. Here we provide detailed protocols for immunohistochemistry to evaluate three essential components in the PI3K pathway in mouse brain: Pten, p-Akt and p-4ebp1, and for rapamycin treatment to modulate mTOR signaling in vivo. PMID:27033070

  9. Concomitant Inhibition of PI3Kβ and BRAF or MEK in PTEN-Deficient/BRAF-Mutant Melanoma Treatment: Preclinical Assessment of SAR260301 Oral PI3Kβ-Selective Inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Bonnevaux, Hélène; Lemaitre, Olivier; Vincent, Loic; Levit, Mikhail N; Windenberger, Fanny; Halley, Frank; Delorme, Cécile; Lengauer, Christoph; Garcia-Echeverria, Carlos; Virone-Oddos, Angela

    2016-07-01

    Class IA PI3K pathway activation resulting from PTEN deficiency has been associated with lack of sensitivity of melanoma to BRAF kinase inhibitors. Although previous studies have shown synergistic activity when pan-PI3K inhibitors were combined with MAPK inhibitors in the treatment of melanoma exhibiting concurrent genetic abnormalities, overlapping adverse events in patients limit optimal dosing and clinical application. With the aim of specifically targeting PTEN-deficient cancers and minimizing the potential for on-target toxicity when inhibiting multiple PI3K isoforms, we developed a program to discover PI3Kβ-selective kinase inhibitors and identified SAR260301 as a potent PI3Kβ-selective, orally available compound, which is now in clinical development. Herein, we provide a detailed biological characterization of SAR260301, and show that this compound has outstanding biochemical and cellular selectivity for the PI3Kβ isoform versus the α, δ, and γ isoforms and a large panel of protein and lipid kinases. We demonstrate that SAR260301 blocks PI3K pathway signaling preferentially in PTEN-deficient human tumor models, and has synergistic antitumor activity when combined with vemurafenib (BRAF inhibitor) or selumetinib (MEK inhibitor) in PTEN-deficient/BRAF-mutated human melanoma tumor models. Combination treatments were very well tolerated, suggesting the potential for a superior safety profile at optimal dosing using selective compounds to inhibit multiple signaling pathways. Together, these experiments provide a preclinical proof-of-concept for safely combining inhibitors of PI3Kβ and BRAF or MEK kinase modulators to improve antitumor activity in PTEN-deficient/BRAF-mutant melanoma, and support the evaluation of SAR260301-based combinations in clinical studies. Mol Cancer Ther; 15(7); 1460-71. ©2016 AACR. PMID:27196754

  10. REGULATION OF PTEN EXPRESSION IN INTESTINAL EPITHELIAL CELLS BY JNK ACTIVATION AND NF-κB INHIBITION

    PubMed Central

    Wang, QingDing; Zhou, Yuning; Wang, Xiaofu; Chung, Dai H.; Evers, B. Mark

    2008-01-01

    The tumor suppressor protein PTEN plays an important role in intestinal cell proliferation and differentiation and tumor suppression by antagonizing phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K). Despite its importance, the molecular mechanisms regulating PTEN expression are largely undefined. Here, we show that treatment of the colon cancer cell line, HT29, with the differentiating agent sodium butyrate (NaBT) increased PTEN protein and mRNA expression and induced JNK activation. Inhibition of c-Jun-NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) by chemical or genetic methods attenuated NaBT-induced PTEN expression. In addition, our findings demonstrated a cross-talk between NF-κB and JNK with respect to PTEN regulation. Overexpression of the NF-κB superrepressor increased PTEN expression and JNK activity, whereas overexpression of the p65 NF-κB subunit reduced both basal and NaBT-mediated JNK activation and PTEN expression. Moreover, we showed that overexpression of PTEN or treatment with NaBT increased expression of the cyclin dependent kinase inhibitor p27kip1 in HT29 cells; this induction was attenuated by inhibition of PTEN or JNK expression or overexpression of p65. Finally, we demonstrate a role for PTEN in NaBT-mediated cell death and differentiation. Our findings suggest that the NF-κB/JNK/PTEN pathway plays a critical role in normal intestinal homeostasis and colon carcinogenesis. PMID:17699782

  11. Fine-Tuning of PI3K/AKT Signalling by the Tumour Suppressor PTEN Is Required for Maintenance of Flight Muscle Function and Mitochondrial Integrity in Ageing Adult Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Mensah, Lawrence B.; Davison, Claire; Fan, Shih-Jung; Morris, John F.; Goberdhan, Deborah C. I.; Wilson, Clive

    2015-01-01

    Insulin/insulin-like growth factor signalling (IIS), acting primarily through the PI3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT kinase signalling cassette, plays key evolutionarily conserved regulatory roles in nutrient homeostasis, growth, ageing and longevity. The dysfunction of this pathway has been linked to several age-related human diseases including cancer, Type 2 diabetes and neurodegenerative disorders. However, it remains unclear whether minor defects in IIS can independently induce the age-dependent functional decline in cells that accompany some of these diseases or whether IIS alters the sensitivity to other aberrant signalling. We identified a novel hypomorphic allele of PI3K’s direct antagonist, Phosphatase and tensin homologue on chromosome 10 (Pten), in the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster. Adults carrying combinations of this allele, Pten5, combined with strong loss-of-function Pten mutations exhibit subtle or no increase in mass, but are highly susceptible to a wide range of stresses. They also exhibit dramatic upregulation of the oxidative stress response gene, GstD1, and a progressive loss of motor function that ultimately leads to defects in climbing and flight ability. The latter phenotype is associated with mitochondrial disruption in indirect flight muscles, although overall muscle structure appears to be maintained. We show that the phenotype is partially rescued by muscle-specific expression of the Bcl-2 homologue Buffy, which in flies, maintains mitochondrial integrity, modulates energy homeostasis and suppresses cell death. The flightless phenotype is also suppressed by mutations in downstream IIS signalling components, including those in the mechanistic Target of Rapamycin Complex 1 (mTORC1) pathway, suggesting that elevated IIS is responsible for functional decline in flight muscle. Our data demonstrate that IIS levels must be precisely regulated by Pten in adults to maintain the function of the highly metabolically active indirect flight muscles

  12. HES-Mediated Repression of Pten in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Chou, Han Ting; Vazquez, Raymarie Gomez; Wang, Kun; Campbell, Richard; Milledge, Gaolin Zheng; Walthall, Walter W.; Johnson, Casonya M.

    2015-01-01

    The hairy/enhancer-of-split (HES) group of transcription factors controls embryonic development, often by acting downstream of the Notch signaling pathway; however, little is known about postembryonic roles of these proteins. In Caenorhabditis elegans, the six proteins that make up the REF-1 family are considered to be HES orthologs that act in both Notch-dependent and Notch-independent pathways to regulate embryonic events. To further our understanding of how the REF-1 family works to coordinate postembryonic cellular events, we performed a functional characterization of the REF-1 family member, HLH-25. We show that, after embryogenesis, hlh-25 expression persists throughout every developmental stage, including dauer, into adulthood. Like animals that carry loss-of-function alleles in genes required for normal cell-cycle progression, the phenotypes of hlh-25 animals include reduced brood size, unfertilized oocytes, and abnormal gonad morphology. Using gene expression microarray, we show that the HLH-25 transcriptional network correlates with the phenotypes of hlh-25 animals and that the C. elegans Pten ortholog, daf-18, is one major hub in the network. Finally, we show that HLH-25 regulates C. elegans lifespan and dauer recovery, which correlates with a role in the transcriptional repression of daf-18 activity. Collectively, these data provide the first genetic evidence that HLH-25 may be a functional ortholog of mammalian HES1, which represses PTEN activity in mice and human cells. PMID:26438299

  13. Mice Lacking Pten in Osteoblasts Have Improved Intramembranous and Late Endochondral Fracture Healing

    PubMed Central

    Burgers, Travis A.; Hoffmann, Martin F.; Collins, Caitlyn J.; Zahatnansky, Juraj; Alvarado, Martin A.; Morris, Michael R.; Sietsema, Debra L.; Mason, James J.; Jones, Clifford B.; Ploeg, Heidi L.; Williams, Bart O.

    2013-01-01

    The failure of an osseous fracture to heal (development of a non-union) is a common and debilitating clinical problem. Mice lacking the tumor suppressor Pten in osteoblasts have dramatic and progressive increases in bone volume and density throughout life. Since fracture healing is a recapitulation of bone development, we investigated the process of fracture healing in mice lacking Pten in osteoblasts (Ocn-cretg/+;Ptenflox/flox). Mid-diaphyseal femoral fractures induced in wild-type and Ocn-cretg/+;Ptenflox/flox mice were studied via micro-computed tomography (µCT) scans, biomechanical testing, histological and histomorphometric analysis, and protein expression analysis. Ocn-cretg/+;Ptenflox/flox mice had significantly stiffer and stronger intact bones relative to controls in all cohorts. They also had significantly stiffer healing bones at day 28 post-fracture (PF) and significantly stronger healing bones at days 14, 21, and 28 PF. At day 7 PF, the proximal and distal ends of the Pten mutant calluses were more ossified. By day 28 PF, Pten mutants had larger and more mineralized calluses. Pten mutants had improved intramembranous bone formation during healing originating from the periosteum. They also had improved endochondral bone formation later in the healing process, after mature osteoblasts are present in the callus. Our results indicate that the inhibition of Pten can improve fracture healing and that the local or short-term use of commercially available Pten-inhibiting agents may have clinical application for enhancing fracture healing. PMID:23675511

  14. Methylation of the PTEN promoter defines low-grade gliomas and secondary glioblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Wiencke, John K.; Zheng, Shichun; Jelluma, Nanette; Tihan, Tarik; Vandenberg, Scott; Tamgüney, Tanja; Baumber, Rachel; Parsons, Ramon; Lamborn, Kathleen R.; Berger, Mitchel S.; Wrensch, Margaret R.; Haas-Kogan, Daphne Adele; Stokoe, David

    2007-01-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) can present as either de novo or secondary tumors arising from previously diagnosed low-grade gliomas. Although these tumor types are phenotypically indistinguishable, de novo and secondary GBMs are associated with distinct genetic characteristics. PTEN mutations, which result in activation of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) signal transduction pathway, are frequent in de novo but not in secondary GBMs or their antecedent low-grade tumors. Results we present here show that grade II astrocytomas, oligodendrogliomas, and oligoastrocytomas commonly display methylation of the PTEN promoter, a finding that is absent in nontumor brain specimens and rare in de novo GBMs. Methylation of the PTEN promoter correlates with protein kinase B (PKB/Akt) phosphorylation, reflecting functional activation of the PI3K pathway. Our results also demonstrate frequent methylation of the PTEN promoter in grade III astrocytomas and secondary GBMs, consistent with the hypothesis that these tumors arise from lower grade precursors. PTEN methylation is rare in de novo GBMs and is mutually exclusive with PTEN mutations. We conclude that methylation of the PTEN promoter may represent an alternate mechanism by which PI3K signaling is increased in grade II and III gliomas as well as secondary GBMs, a finding that offers new therapeutic approaches in these patients. PMID:17504928

  15. Methylation of the PTEN promoter defines low-grade gliomas and secondary glioblastoma.

    PubMed

    Wiencke, John K; Zheng, Shichun; Jelluma, Nanette; Tihan, Tarik; Vandenberg, Scott; Tamgüney, Tanja; Baumber, Rachel; Parsons, Ramon; Lamborn, Kathleen R; Berger, Mitchel S; Wrensch, Margaret R; Haas-Kogan, Daphne Adele; Stokoe, David

    2007-07-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) can present as either de novo or secondary tumors arising from previously diagnosed low-grade gliomas. Although these tumor types are phenotypically indistinguishable, de novo and secondary GBMs are associated with distinct genetic characteristics. PTEN mutations, which result in activation of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) signal transduction pathway, are frequent in de novo but not in secondary GBMs or their antecedent low-grade tumors. Results we present here show that grade II astrocytomas, oligodendrogliomas, and oligoastrocytomas commonly display methylation of the PTEN promoter, a finding that is absent in nontumor brain specimens and rare in de novo GBMs. Methylation of the PTEN promoter correlates with protein kinase B (PKB/Akt) phosphorylation, reflecting functional activation of the PI3K pathway. Our results also demonstrate frequent methylation of the PTEN promoter in grade III astrocytomas and secondary GBMs, consistent with the hypothesis that these tumors arise from lower grade precursors. PTEN methylation is rare in de novo GBMs and is mutually exclusive with PTEN mutations. We conclude that methylation of the PTEN promoter may represent an alternate mechanism by which PI3K signaling is increased in grade II and III gliomas as well as secondary GBMs, a finding that offers new therapeutic approaches in these patients. PMID:17504928

  16. Dual Pten/Tp53 Suppression Promotes Sarcoma Progression by Activating Notch Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Guijarro, Maria V.; Dahiya, Sonika; Danielson, Laura S.; Segura, Miguel F.; Vales-Lara, Frances M.; Menendez, Silvia; Popiolek, Dorota; Mittal, Khushbakhat; Wei, Jian Jun; Zavadil, Jiri; Cordon-Cardo, Carlos; Pandolfi, Pier Paolo; Hernando, Eva

    2014-01-01

    Soft tissue sarcomas are a heterogeneous group of tumors associated with poor clinical outcome. Although a subset of soft tissue sarcomas is characterized by simple karyotypes and recurrent chromosomal translocations, the mechanisms driving cytogenetically complex sarcomas are largely unknown. Clinical evidence led us to partially inactivate Pten and Tp53 in the smooth muscle lineage of mice, which developed high-grade undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcomas, leiomyosarcomas, and carcinosarcomas that widely recapitulate the human disease, including the aberrant karyotype and metastatic behavior. Pten was found haploinsufficient, whereas the wild-type allele of Tp53 invariably gained point mutations. Gene expression profiles showed up-regulated Notch signaling in PtenΔ/+Tp53Δ/+ tumors compared with Pten+/+Tp53Δ/+ tumors. Consistently, Pten silencing exacerbated the clonogenic and invasive potential of Tp53-deficient bone marrow–derived mouse mesenchymal stem cells and tumor cells and activated the Notch pathway. Moreover, the increased oncogenic behavior of PtenΔ/+Tp53Δ/+ and shPten-transduced Pten+/+Tp53Δ/+ tumor cells was counteracted by treatment with a γ-secretase inhibitor, suggesting that the aggressiveness of those tumors can be attributed, at least in part, to enhanced Notch signaling. This study demonstrates a cooperative role for Pten and Tp53 suppression in complex karyotype sarcomas while establishing Notch as an important functional player in the cross talk of these pathways during tumor progression. Our results highlight the importance of molecularly subclassifying patients with high-grade sarcoma for targeted treatments. PMID:23708211

  17. Endogenous S-sulfhydration of PTEN helps protect against modification by nitric oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Ohno, Kazuki; Okuda, Kosaku; Uehara, Takashi

    2015-01-02

    Highlights: • PTEN is S-sulfhydrated endogenously in SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells. • Preventing this modification by knocking down CBS renders PTEN sensitive to NO. • pAkt levels are increased significantly in CBS siRNA-transfected cells. • H{sub 2}S functions as an endogenous regulator of PTEN in neuronal cells. - Abstract: Hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) is a gaseous regulatory factor produced by several enzymes, and plays a pivotal role in processes such as proliferation or vasodilation. Recent reports demonstrated the physiological and pathophysiological functions of H{sub 2}S in neurons. PTEN is a target of nitric oxide (NO) or hydrogen peroxide, and the oxidative modification of cysteine (Cys) residue(s) attenuates its enzymatic activity. In the present study, we assessed the effect of H{sub 2}S on the direct modification of PTEN and the resulting downstream signaling. A modified biotin switch assay in SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells revealed that PTEN is S-sulfhydrated endogenously. Subsequently, site-directed mutagenesis demonstrated that both Cys71 and Cys124 in PTEN are targets for S-sulfhydration. Further, the knockdown of cystathionine β-synthetase (CBS) using siRNA decreased this modification in a manner that was correlated to amount of H{sub 2}S. PTEN was more sensitive to NO under these conditions. These results suggest that the endogenous S-sulfhydration of PTEN via CBS/H{sub 2}S plays a role in preventing the S-nitrosylation that would inhibition its enzymatic activity under physiological conditions.

  18. The glucose-6-phosphatase system.

    PubMed Central

    van Schaftingen, Emile; Gerin, Isabelle

    2002-01-01

    Glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase), an enzyme found mainly in the liver and the kidneys, plays the important role of providing glucose during starvation. Unlike most phosphatases acting on water-soluble compounds, it is a membrane-bound enzyme, being associated with the endoplasmic reticulum. In 1975, W. Arion and co-workers proposed a model according to which G6Pase was thought to be a rather unspecific phosphatase, with its catalytic site oriented towards the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum [Arion, Wallin, Lange and Ballas (1975) Mol. Cell. Biochem. 6, 75--83]. Substrate would be provided to this enzyme by a translocase that is specific for glucose 6-phosphate, thereby accounting for the specificity of the phosphatase for glucose 6-phosphate in intact microsomes. Distinct transporters would allow inorganic phosphate and glucose to leave the vesicles. At variance with this substrate-transport model, other models propose that conformational changes play an important role in the properties of G6Pase. The last 10 years have witnessed important progress in our knowledge of the glucose 6-phosphate hydrolysis system. The genes encoding G6Pase and the glucose 6-phosphate translocase have been cloned and shown to be mutated in glycogen storage disease type Ia and type Ib respectively. The gene encoding a G6Pase-related protein, expressed specifically in pancreatic islets, has also been cloned. Specific potent inhibitors of G6Pase and of the glucose 6-phosphate translocase have been synthesized or isolated from micro-organisms. These as well as other findings support the model initially proposed by Arion. Much progress has also been made with regard to the regulation of the expression of G6Pase by insulin, glucocorticoids, cAMP and glucose. PMID:11879177

  19. Myosin light-chain phosphatase.

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, M; Perry, S V; Ottaway, J

    1976-01-01

    1. A method for the isolation of a new enzyme, myosin light-chain phosphatase, from rabbit white skeletal muscle by using a Sepharose-phosphorylated myosin light-chain affinity column is described. 2. The enzyme migrated as a single component on electrophoresis in sodium dodecyl sulphate/polyacrylamide gel at pH7.0, with apparent mol.wt. 70000. 3. The enzyme was highly specific for the phosphorylated P-light chain of myosin, had pH optima at 6.5 and 8.0 and was not inhibited by NaF. 4. A Ca2+-sensitive 'ATPase' (adenosine triphosphatase) system consisting of myosin light-chain kinase, myosin light-chain phosphatase and the P-light chain is described. 5. Evidence is presented for a phosphoryl exchange between Pi, phosphorylated P-light chain and myosin light-chain phosphatase. 6. Heavy meromyosin prepared by chymotryptic digestion can be phosphorylated by myosin light-chain kinase. 7. The ATPase activities of myosin and heavy meromyosin, in the presence and absence of F-actin, were not significantly changed (+/- 10%) by phosphorylation of the P-light chain. Images PLATE 1 PMID:186030

  20. Restoration of skilled locomotion by sprouting corticospinal axons induced by co-deletion of PTEN and SOCS3.

    PubMed

    Jin, Duo; Liu, Yuanyuan; Sun, Fang; Wang, Xuhua; Liu, Xuefeng; He, Zhigang

    2015-01-01

    The limited rewiring of the corticospinal tract (CST) only partially compensates the lost functions after stroke, brain trauma and spinal cord injury. Therefore it is important to develop new therapies to enhance the compensatory circuitry mediated by spared CST axons. Here by using a unilateral pyramidotomy model, we find that deletion of cortical suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3), a negative regulator of cytokine-activated pathway, promotes sprouting of uninjured CST axons to the denervated spinal cord. A likely trigger of such sprouting is ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) expressed in local spinal neurons. Such sprouting can be further enhanced by deletion of phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN), a mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) negative regulator, resulting in significant recovery of skilled locomotion. Ablation of the corticospinal neurons with sprouting axons abolishes the improved behavioural performance. Furthermore, by optogenetics-based specific CST stimulation, we show a direct limb motor control by sprouting CST axons, providing direct evidence for the reformation of a functional circuit. PMID:26598325

  1. MicroRNA-21 accelerates hepatocyte proliferation in vitro via PI3K/Akt signaling by targeting PTEN

    SciTech Connect

    Yan-nan, Bai; Zhao-yan, Yu; Li-xi, Luo; Jiang, Yi; Qing-jie, Xia

    2014-01-17

    Highlights: •miRNAs-expression patterns of primary hepatocytes under proliferative status. •miR-21 expression level peaked at 12 h after stimulated by EGF. •miR-21 drive rapid S phase entry of primary hepatocytes. •PI3K/Akt signaling was modulated via targeting PTEN by miR-21. -- Abstract: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are involved in controlling hepatocyte proliferation during liver regeneration. In this study, we established the miRNAs-expression patterns of primary hepatocytes in vitro under stimulation of epidermal growth factor (EGF), and found that microRNA-21 (miR-21) was appreciably up-regulated and peaked at 12 h. In addition, we further presented evidences indicating that miR-21 promotes primary hepatocyte proliferation through in vitro transfecting with miR-21 mimics or inhibitor. We further demonstrated that phosphatidylinositol 3′-OH kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling was altered accordingly, it is, by targeting phosphatase and tensin homologue deleted on chromosome 10, PI3K/Akt signaling is activated by miR-21 to accelerate hepatocyte rapid S-phase entry and proliferation in vitro.

  2. Restoration of skilled locomotion by sprouting corticospinal axons induced by co-deletion of PTEN and SOCS3

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Duo; Liu, Yuanyuan; Sun, Fang; Wang, Xuhua; Liu, Xuefeng; He, Zhigang

    2015-01-01

    The limited rewiring of the corticospinal tract (CST) only partially compensates the lost functions after stroke, brain trauma and spinal cord injury. Therefore it is important to develop new therapies to enhance the compensatory circuitry mediated by spared CST axons. Here by using a unilateral pyramidotomy model, we find that deletion of cortical suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3), a negative regulator of cytokine-activated pathway, promotes sprouting of uninjured CST axons to the denervated spinal cord. A likely trigger of such sprouting is ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) expressed in local spinal neurons. Such sprouting can be further enhanced by deletion of phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN), a mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) negative regulator, resulting in significant recovery of skilled locomotion. Ablation of the corticospinal neurons with sprouting axons abolishes the improved behavioural performance. Furthermore, by optogenetics-based specific CST stimulation, we show a direct limb motor control by sprouting CST axons, providing direct evidence for the reformation of a functional circuit. PMID:26598325

  3. p34 is a novel regulator of the oncogenic behavior of NEDD4-1 and PTEN

    PubMed Central

    Hong, S-W; Moon, J-H; Kim, J-S; Shin, J-S; Jung, K-A; Lee, W-K; Jeong, S-Y; Hwang, J J; Lee, S-J; Suh, Y-A; Kim, I; Nam, K-Y; Han, S; Kim, J E; Kim, K-p; Hong, Y S; Lee, J-L; Lee, W-J; Choi, E K; Lee, J S; Jin, D-H; Kim, T W

    2014-01-01

    PTEN is one of the most frequently mutated or deleted tumor suppressors in human cancers. NEDD4-1 was recently identified as the E3 ubiquitin ligase for PTEN; however, a number of important questions remain regarding the role of ubiquitination in regulating PTEN function and the mechanisms by which PTEN ubiquitination is regulated. In the present study, we demonstrated that p34, which was identified as a binding partner of NEDD4-1, controls PTEN ubiquitination by regulating NEDD4-1 protein stability. p34 interacts with the WW1 domain of NEDD4-1, an interaction that enhances NEDD4-1 stability. Expression of p34 promotes PTEN poly-ubiquitination, leading to PTEN protein degradation, whereas p34 knockdown results in PTEN mono-ubiquitination. Notably, an inverse correlation between PTEN and p34/NEDD4-1 levels was confirmed in tumor samples from colon cancer patients. Thus, p34 acts as a key regulator of the oncogenic behavior of NEDD4-1 and PTEN. PMID:24141722

  4. Methodological aspects of the molecular and histological study of prostate cancer: Focus on PTEN

    PubMed Central

    Ugalde-Olano, Aitziber; Egia, Ainara; Fernández-Ruiz, Sonia; Loizaga-Iriarte, Ana; Zuñiga-García, Patricia; Garcia, Stephane; Royo, Félix; Lacasa-Viscasillas, Isabel; Castro, Erika; Cortazar, Ana R.; Zabala-Letona, Amaia; Martín-Martín, Natalia; Arruabarrena-Aristorena, Amaia; Torrano-Moya, Verónica; Valcárcel-Jiménez, Lorea; Sánchez-Mosquera, Pilar; Caro-Maldonado, Alfredo; González-Tampan, Jorge; Cachi-Fuentes, Guido; Bilbao, Elena; Montero, Rocío; Fernández, Sara; Arrieta, Edurne; Zorroza, Kerman; Castillo-Martín, Mireia; Serra, Violeta; Salazar, Eider; Macías-Cámara, Nuria; Tabernero, Jose; Baselga, Jose; Cordón-Cardo, Carlos; Aransay, Ana M.; Villar, Amaia Del; Iovanna, Juan L.; Falcón-Pérez, Juan M.; Unda, Miguel; Bilbao, Roberto; Carracedo, Arkaitz

    2015-01-01

    Prostate cancer is among the most frequent cancers in men, and despite its high rate of cure, the high number of cases results in an elevated mortality worldwide. Importantly, prostate cancer incidence is dramatically increasing in western societies in the past decades, suggesting that this type of tumor is exquisitely sensitive to lifestyle changes. Prostate cancer frequently exhibits alterations in the PTEN gene (inactivating mutations or gene deletions) or at the protein level (reduced protein expression or altered sub-cellular compartmentalization). The relevance of PTEN in this type of cancer is further supported by the fact that the sole deletion of PTEN in the murine prostate epithelium recapitulates many of the features of the human disease. In order to study the molecular alterations in prostate cancer, we need to overcome the methodological challenges that this tissue imposes. In this review we present protocols and methods, using PTEN as proof of concept, to study different molecular characteristics of prostate cancer. PMID:25697760

  5. Convergent loss of PTEN leads to clinical resistance to a PI3Kα inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    Juric, Dejan; Castel, Pau; Griffith, Malachi; Griffith, Obi L.; Won, Helen H.; Ellis, Haley; Ebbesen, Saya H.; Ainscough, Benjamin J.; Ramu, Avinash; Iyer, Gopa; Shah, Ronak H.; Huynh, Tiffany; Mino-Kenudson, Mari; Sgroi, Dennis; Isakoff, Steven; Thabet, Ashraf; Elamine, Leila; Solit, David B.; Lowe, Scott W.; Quadt, Cornelia; Peters, Malte; Derti, Adnan; Schegel, Robert; Huang, Alan; Mardis, Elaine R.; Berger, Michael F.; Baselga, José; Scaltriti., Maurizio

    2014-01-01

    Summary The feasibility of performing broad and deep tumour genome sequencing has shed new light into tumour heterogeneity and provided important insights into the evolution of metastases arising from different clones1,2. To add an additional layer of complexity, tumour evolution may be influenced by selective pressure provided by therapy, in a similar fashion as it occurs in infectious diseases. Here, we have studied the tumour genomic evolution in a patient with metastatic breast cancer bearing an activating PIK3CA mutation. The patient was treated with the PI3Kα inhibitor BYL719 and achieved a lasting clinical response, although eventually progressed to treatment and died shortly thereafter. A rapid autopsy was performed and a total of 14 metastatic sites were collected and sequenced. All metastatic lesions, when compared to the pre-treatment tumour, had a copy loss of PTEN, and those lesions that became refractory to BYL719 had additional and different PTEN genetic alterations, resulting in the loss of PTEN expression. Acquired bi-allelic loss of PTEN was found in one additional patient treated with BYL719 whereas in two patients PIK3CA mutations present in the primary tumour were no longer detected at the time of progression. To functionally characterize our findings, inducible PTEN knockdown in sensitive cells resulted in resistance to BYL719, while simultaneous PI3Kp110β blockade reverted this resistance phenotype, both in cell lines and in PTEN-null xenografts derived from our patient. We conclude that parallel genetic evolution of separate sites with different PTEN genomic alterations leads to a convergent PTEN- null phenotype resistant to PI3Kα inhibition. PMID:25409150

  6. SAHA-induced loss of tumor suppressor Pten gene promotes thyroid carcinogenesis in a mouse model.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xuguang; Kim, Dong Wook; Zhao, Li; Willingham, Mark C; Cheng, Sheue-Yann

    2016-07-01

    Thyroid cancer is on the rise. Novel approaches are needed to improve the outcome of patients with recurrent and advanced metastatic thyroid cancers. FDA approval of suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA; vorinostat), an inhibitor of histone deacetylase, for the treatment of hematological malignancies led to the clinical trials of vorinostat for advanced thyroid cancer. However, patients were resistant to vorinostat treatment. To understand the molecular basis of resistance, we tested the efficacy of SAHA in two mouse models of metastatic follicular thyroid cancer: Thrb(PV/PV) and Thrb(PV/PV)Pten(+/-) mice. In both, thyroid cancer is driven by overactivation of PI3K-AKT signaling. However, the latter exhibit more aggressive cancer progression due to haplodeficiency of the tumor suppressor, the Pten gene. SAHA had no effects on thyroid cancer progression in Thrb(PV/PV) mice, indicative of resistance to SAHA. Unexpectedly, thyroid cancer progressed in SAHA-treated Thrb(PV/PV)Pten(+/-) mice with accelerated occurrence of vascular invasion, anaplastic foci, and lung metastasis. Molecular analyses showed further activated PI3K-AKT in thyroid tumors of SAHA-treated Thrb(PV/PV)Pten(+/-) mice, resulting in the activated effectors, p-Rb, CDK6, p21(Cip1), p-cSrc, ezrin, and matrix metalloproteinases, to increase proliferation and invasion of tumor cells. Single-molecule DNA analysis indicated that the wild-type allele of the Pten gene was progressively lost, whereas carcinogenesis progressed in SAHA-treated Thrb(PV/PV)Pten(+/-) mice. Thus, this study has uncovered a novel mechanism by which SAHA-induced loss of the tumor suppressor Pten gene to promote thyroid cancer progression. Effectors downstream of the Pten loss-induced signaling may be potential targets to overcome resistance of thyroid cancer to SAHA. PMID:27267120

  7. Three Phosphatidylglycerol-phosphate Phosphatases in the Inner Membrane of Escherichia coli*

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Yi-Hsueh; Guan, Ziqiang; Zhao, Jinshi; Raetz, Christian R. H.

    2011-01-01

    The phospholipids of Escherichia coli consist mainly of phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol (PG), and cardiolipin. PG makes up ∼25% of the cellular phospholipid and is essential for growth in wild-type cells. PG is synthesized on the inner surface of the inner membrane from cytidine diphosphate-diacylglycerol and glycerol 3-phosphate, generating the precursor phosphatidylglycerol-phosphate (PGP). This compound is present at low levels (∼0.1% of the total lipid). Dephosphorylation of PGP to PG is catalyzed by several PGP-phosphatases. The pgpA and pgpB genes, which encode structurally distinct PGP-phosphatases, were identified previously. Double deletion mutants lacking pgpA and pgpB are viable and still make PG, suggesting the presence of additional phosphatase(s). We have identified a third PGP-phosphatase gene (previously annotated as yfhB but renamed pgpC) using an expression cloning strategy. A mutant with deletions in all three phosphatase genes is not viable unless covered by a plasmid expressing either pgpA, pgpB, or pgpC. When the triple mutant is covered with the temperature-sensitive plasmid pMAK705 expressing any one of the three pgp genes, the cells grow at 30 but not 42 °C. As growth slows at 42 °C, PGP accumulates to high levels, and the PG content declines. PgpC orthologs are present in many other bacteria. PMID:21148555

  8. Dormant Intestinal Stem Cells are Regulated by PTEN and Nutritional Status

    PubMed Central

    Richmond, Camilla A.; Shah, Manasvi S.; Deary, Luke T.; Trotier, Danny C.; Thomas, Horatio; Ambruzs, Dana M.; Jiang, Lijie; Whiles, Bristol B.; Rickner, Hannah D.; Montgomery, Robert K.; Tovaglieri, Alessio; Carlone, Diana L.; Breault, David T.

    2015-01-01

    The cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying adaptive changes to physiological stress within the intestinal epithelium remain poorly understood. Here, we show that PTEN, a negative regulator of the PI3K→AKT→mTORC1 signaling pathway, is an important regulator of dormant intestinal stem cells (dISCs). Acute nutrient deprivation leads to transient PTEN phosphorylation within d-ISCs and a corresponding increase in their number. This release of PTEN inhibition renders d-ISCs functionally poised to contribute to the regenerative response during re-feeding via cell-autonomous activation of the PI3K→AKT→mTORC1 pathway. Consistent with its role in mediating cell survival, PTEN is required for d-ISC maintenance at baseline, and intestines lacking PTEN have diminished regenerative capacity following irradiation. Our results highlight a PTEN-dependent mechanism for d-ISC maintenance and further demonstrate the role of d-ISCs in the intestinal response to stress. PMID:26686631

  9. PTEN deletion from adult-generated dentate granule cells disrupts granule cell mossy fiber axon structure

    PubMed Central

    LaSarge, Candi L.; Santos, Victor R; Danzer, Steve C.

    2015-01-01

    Dysregulation of the mTOR-signaling pathway is implicated in the development of temporal lobe epilepsy. In mice, deletion of PTEN from hippocampal dentate granule cells leads to mTOR hyperactivation and promotes the rapid onset of spontaneous seizures. The mechanism by which these abnormal cells initiate epileptogenesis, however, is unclear. PTEN-knockout granule cells develop abnormally, exhibiting morphological features indicative of increased excitatory input. If these cells are directly responsible for seizure genesis, it follows that they should also possess increased output. To test this prediction, dentate granule cell axon morphology was quantified in control and PTEN-knockout mice. Unexpectedly, PTEN deletion increased giant mossy fiber bouton spacing along the axon length, suggesting reduced innervation of CA3. Increased width of the mossy fiber axon pathway in stratum lucidum, however, which likely reflects an unusual increase in mossy fiber axon collateralization in this region, offset the reduction in boutons per axon length. These morphological changes predicts a net increase in granule cell >> CA3 innervation. Increased diameter of axons from PTEN-knockout cells would further enhance granule cell >> CA3 communication. Altogether, these findings suggest that amplified information flow through the hippocampal circuit contributes to seizure occurrence in the PTEN-knockout mouse model of temporal lobe epilepsy. PMID:25600212

  10. A recessive form of extreme macrocephaly and mild intellectual disability complements the spectrum of PTEN hamartoma tumour syndrome.

    PubMed

    Schwerd, Tobias; Khaled, Andrea V; Schürmann, Manfred; Chen, Hannah; Händel, Norman; Reis, André; Gillessen-Kaesbach, Gabriele; Uhlig, Holm H; Abou Jamra, Rami

    2016-06-01

    PTEN hamartoma tumour syndrome (PHTS) is caused by heterozygous variants in PTEN and is characterised by tumour predisposition, macrocephaly, and cognition impairment. Bi-allelic loss of PTEN activity has not been reported so far and animal models suggest that bi-allelic loss of PTEN activity is embryonically lethal. Here, we report the identification of a novel homozygous variant in PTEN, NM_000314.4; c.545T>C; p.Leu182Ser, in two adolescent siblings with severe macrocephaly and mild intellectual disability. The variant is predicted to be damaging and is associated with significantly increased phospho-S6 downstream of PTEN. The absence of tumours in the two homozygous siblings as well as lack of symptoms of PHTS in the heterozygous carriers of the family suggest that this particular variant is functionally hypomorphic rather than deleterious. PMID:26443266

  11. [Phosphoprotein phosphatase nonspecifically hydrolyzes CoA].

    PubMed

    Reziapkin, V I; Moiseenok, A G

    1988-01-01

    CoA hydrolysis was studied by a homogenous phosphoprotein phosphatase (EC 3.1 3.16) preparation from bovine spleen nuclei at pH 5.8. Phosphoprotein phosphatase catalyzed hydrolysis of the CoA 3'-phosphoester bond to form dephospho-CoA and Pi. The Km value for phosphoprotein phosphatase with CoA as substrate was 3.7 mM, the specific activity - 0.26 mmol Pi.min-1.mg-1. Phosphoprotein phosphatase did not essentially catalyze the calcium pantothenate hydrolysis (not more than 2% as compared with the CoA hydrolysis rate). PMID:2849829

  12. Colonic manifestations of PTEN hamartoma tumor syndrome: Case series and systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Stanich, Peter P; Pilarski, Robert; Rock, Jonathan; Frankel, Wendy L; El-Dika, Samer; Meyer, Marty M

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To investigate our clinical experience with the colonic manifestations of phosphatase and tensin homolog on chromosome ten (PTEN) hamartoma tumor syndrome (PHTS) and to perform a systematic literature review regarding the same. METHODS: This study was approved by the appropriate institutional review board prior to initiation. A clinical genetics database was searched for patients with PHTS or a component syndrome that received gastrointestinal endoscopy or pathology interpretation at our center. These patient’s records were retrospectively reviewed for clinical characteristics (including family history and genetic testing), endoscopy results and pathology findings. We also performed a systematic review of the literature for case series of PHTS or component syndromes that reported gastrointestinal manifestations and investigations published after consensus diagnostic criteria were established in 1996. These results were compiled and reported. RESULTS: Eight patients from our institution met initial inclusion criteria. Of these, 5 patients underwent 4.2 colonoscopies at mean age 45.8 ± 10.8 years. All were found to have colon polyps during their clinical course and polyp histology included adenoma, hyperplastic, ganglioneuroma and juvenile. No malignant lesions were identified. Two had multiple histologic types. One patient underwent colectomy due to innumerable polyps and concern for future malignant potential. Systematic literature review of PHTS patients undergoing endoscopy revealed 107 patients receiving colonoscopy at mean age 37.4 years. Colon polyps were noted in 92.5% and multiple colon polyp histologies were reported in 53.6%. Common polyp histologies included hyperplastic (43.6%), adenoma (40.4%), hamartoma (38.3%), ganglioneuroma (33%) and inflammatory (24.5%) polyps. Twelve (11.2%) patients had colorectal cancer at mean age 46.7 years (range 35-62). Clinical outcomes secondary to colon polyposis and malignancy were not commonly reported

  13. Protein phosphatases in pancreatic islets

    PubMed Central

    Ortsäter, Henrik; Grankvist, Nina; Honkanen, Richard E.; Sjöholm1, Åke

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of diabetes is increasing rapidly world-wide. A cardinal feature of most forms of diabetes is the lack of insulin-producing capability, due to the loss of insulin-producing β-cells, impaired glucose-sensitive insulin secretion from the β-cell, or a combination thereof, the reasons for which largely remain elusive. Reversible phosphorylation is an important and versatile mechanism for regulating the biological activity of many intracellular proteins, which, in turn, controls a variety of cellular functions. For instance, significant changes in protein kinase activities and in protein phosphorylation patterns occur subsequent to stimulation of insulin release by glucose. Therefore, the molecular mechanisms regulating phosphorylation of proteins involved in the insulin secretory process by the β-cell have been extensively investigated. However, far less is known about the role and regulation of protein dephosphorylation by various protein phosphatases. Herein we review extant data implicating serine/threonine and tyrosine phosphatases in various aspects of healthy and diabetic islet biology, ranging from control of hormonal stimulus-secretion coupling to mitogenesis and apoptosis. PMID:24681827

  14. Activation of nuclear PTEN by inhibition of Notch signaling induces G2/M cell cycle arrest in gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Kim, S-J; Lee, H-W; Baek, J-H; Cho, Y-H; Kang, H G; Jeong, J S; Song, J; Park, H-S; Chun, K-H

    2016-01-14

    Mutation in PTEN has not yet been detected, but its function as a tumor suppressor is inactivated in many cancers. In this study we determined that, activated Notch signaling disables PTEN by phosphorylation and thereby contributes to gastric tumorigenesis. Notch inhibition by small interfering RNA or γ-secretase inhibitor (GSI) induced mitotic arrest and apoptosis in gastric cancer cells. Notch inhibition induced dephosphorylation in the C-terminal domain of PTEN, which led to PTEN nuclear localization. Overexpression of activated Notch1-induced phosphorylation of PTEN and reversed GSI-induced mitotic arrest. Dephosphorylated nuclear PTEN caused prometaphase arrest by interaction with the cyclin B1-CDK1 complex, resulting in their accumulation in the nucleus and subsequent apoptosis. We found a correlation between high expression levels of Notch1 and low survival rates and, similarly, between reduced nuclear PTEN expression and increasing the TNM classification of malignant tumours stages in malignant tissues from gastric cancer patients. The growth of Notch1-depleted gastric tumors was significantly retarded in xenografted mice, and in addition, PTEN deletion restored growth similar to control tumors. We also demonstrated that combination treatment with GSI and chemotherapeutic agents significantly reduced the orthotopically transplanted gastric tumors in mice without noticeable toxicity. Overall, our findings suggest that inhibition of Notch signaling can be employed as a PTEN activator, making it a potential target for gastric cancer therapy. PMID:25823029

  15. A Critical Role of the PTEN/PDGF Signaling Network for the Regulation of Radiosensitivity in Adenocarcinoma of the Prostate

    SciTech Connect

    Christensen, Michael; Najy, Abdo J.; Snyder, Michael; Movilla, Lisa S.; Kim, Hyeong-Reh Choi

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Loss or mutation of the phosphate and tensin homologue (PTEN) is a common genetic abnormality in prostate cancer (PCa) and induces platelet-derived growth factor D (PDGF D) signaling. We examined the role of the PTEN/PDGF axis on radioresponse using a murine PTEN null prostate epithelial cell model. Methods and Materials: PTEN wild-type (PTEN{sup +/+}) and PTEN knockout (PTEN{sup −/−}) murine prostate epithelial cell lines were used to examine the relationship between the PTEN status and radiosensitivity and also to modulate the PDGF D expression levels. PTEN{sup −/−} cells were transduced with a small hairpin RNA (shRNA) lentiviral vector containing either scrambled nucleotides (SCRM) or sequences targeted to PDGF D (shPDGF D). Tumorigenesis and morphogenesis of these cell lines were evaluated in vivo via subcutaneous injection of male nude mice and in vitro using Matrigel 3-dimensional (3D) culture. Effects of irradiation on clonogenic survival, cell migration, and invasion were measured with respect to the PTEN status and the PDGF D expression level. In addition, apoptosis and cell cycle redistribution were examined as potential mechanisms for differences seen. Results: PTEN{sup −/−} cells were highly tumorigenic in animals and effectively formed foci in 3D culture. Importantly, loss of PDGF D in these cell lines drastically diminished these phenotypes. Furthermore, PTEN{sup −/−} cells demonstrated increased clonogenic survival in vitro compared to PTEN{sup +/+}, and attenuation of PDGF D significantly reversed this radioresistant phenotype. PTEN{sup −/−} cells displayed greater migratory and invasive potential at baseline as well as after irradiation. Both the basal and radiation-induced migratory and invasive phenotypes in PTEN{sup −/−} cells required PDGF D expression. Interestingly, these differences were independent of apoptosis and cell cycle redistribution, as they showed no significant difference. Conclusions: We propose

  16. PTEN Depletion Decreases Disease Severity and Modestly Prolongs Survival in a Mouse Model of Spinal Muscular Atrophy

    PubMed Central

    Little, Daniel; Valori, Chiara F; Mutsaers, Chantal A; Bennett, Ellen J; Wyles, Matthew; Sharrack, Basil; Shaw, Pamela J; Gillingwater, Thomas H; Azzouz, Mimoun; Ning, Ke

    2015-01-01

    Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is the second most common genetic cause of death in childhood. However, no effective treatment is available to halt disease progression. SMA is caused by mutations in the survival motor neuron 1 (SMN1) gene. We previously reported that PTEN depletion leads to an increase in survival of SMN-deficient motor neurons. Here, we aimed to establish the impact of PTEN modulation in an SMA mouse model in vivo. Initial experiments using intramuscular delivery of adeno-associated vector serotype 6 (AAV6) expressing shRNA against PTEN in an established mouse model of severe SMA (SMNΔ7) demonstrated the ability to ameliorate the severity of neuromuscular junction pathology. Subsequently, we developed self-complementary AAV9 expressing siPTEN (scAAV9-siPTEN) to allow evaluation of the effect of systemic suppression of PTEN on the disease course of SMA in vivo. Treatment with a single injection of scAAV9-siPTEN at postnatal day 1 resulted in a modest threefold extension of the lifespan of SMNΔ7 mice, increasing mean survival to 30 days, compared to 10 days in untreated mice. Our data revealed that systemic PTEN depletion is an important disease modifier in SMNΔ7 mice, and therapies aimed at lowering PTEN expression may therefore offer a potential therapeutic strategy for SMA. PMID:25369768

  17. DNA demethylation in the PTEN gene promoter induced by 5-azacytidine activates PTEN expression in the MG-63 human osteosarcoma cell line.

    PubMed

    Song, Deye; Ni, Jiangdong; Xie, Hongming; Ding, Muliang; Wang, Jun

    2014-05-01

    This study used the MG-63 osteosarcoma cell line to investigate the demethylation of the phosphate and tension homolog (PTEN) gene promoter and the change in PTEN gene expression levels, which are caused by the methylation inhibitor 5-azacytidine (5-Zac), and the association between the two. Different concentrations of 5-Zac (0, 5 and 10 μmol/l) were added into the MG-63 cell culture medium and the cells were cultured for 72 h. The following techniques were performed on the cells: Western blot analysis to detect the PTEN protein; reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to detect the mRNA transcription levels of the PTEN gene; flow cytometry to detect the cell apoptotic rate; and sodium bisulfate to deal with the DNA of each group. The genes of the PTEN promoter and the transcription factors specificity protein 1 (Sp1) and Myc were PCR amplified and transformed into Escherichia coli, then a number of clones were selected for sequencing and the methylation status of the amplified PTEN promoter fragment was detected. Following culture of the MG-63 cells with 5-Zac at concentrations of 0, 5 and 10 μmol/l for 72 h, the expression levels of PTEN protein in each group were gradually increased, presenting a concentration-dependent effect: Group 0 μmol/l compared with groups 5 and 10 μmol/l, P<0.05; and group 5 μmol/l compared with group 10 μmol/l, P=0.007. The mRNA expression levels of the PTEN gene significantly increased. The apoptotic rates of groups 0, 5 and 10 μmol/l were 0.69±0.42, 2.50±0.30 and 6.59±0.62%, and significant differences (P<0.01) were observed between every two groups. The bisulfate DNA sequencing results of three groups showed that, following the treatment with 5-Zac, the binding of the CG site to transcription factors was affected by demethylation. The average rate of demethylation indicated a statistical difference among the three groups. In conclusion, the methylation inhibitor 5-Zac leads to a significant increase in the

  18. DNA demethylation in the PTEN gene promoter induced by 5-azacytidine activates PTEN expression in the MG-63 human osteosarcoma cell line

    PubMed Central

    SONG, DEYE; NI, JIANGDONG; XIE, HONGMING; DING, MULIANG; WANG, JUN

    2014-01-01

    This study used the MG-63 osteosarcoma cell line to investigate the demethylation of the phosphate and tension homolog (PTEN) gene promoter and the change in PTEN gene expression levels, which are caused by the methylation inhibitor 5-azacytidine (5-Zac), and the association between the two. Different concentrations of 5-Zac (0, 5 and 10 μmol/l) were added into the MG-63 cell culture medium and the cells were cultured for 72 h. The following techniques were performed on the cells: Western blot analysis to detect the PTEN protein; reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to detect the mRNA transcription levels of the PTEN gene; flow cytometry to detect the cell apoptotic rate; and sodium bisulfate to deal with the DNA of each group. The genes of the PTEN promoter and the transcription factors specificity protein 1 (Sp1) and Myc were PCR amplified and transformed into Escherichia coli, then a number of clones were selected for sequencing and the methylation status of the amplified PTEN promoter fragment was detected. Following culture of the MG-63 cells with 5-Zac at concentrations of 0, 5 and 10 μmol/l for 72 h, the expression levels of PTEN protein in each group were gradually increased, presenting a concentration-dependent effect: Group 0 μmol/l compared with groups 5 and 10 μmol/l, P<0.05; and group 5 μmol/l compared with group 10 μmol/l, P=0.007. The mRNA expression levels of the PTEN gene significantly increased. The apoptotic rates of groups 0, 5 and 10 μmol/l were 0.69±0.42, 2.50±0.30 and 6.59±0.62%, and significant differences (P<0.01) were observed between every two groups. The bisulfate DNA sequencing results of three groups showed that, following the treatment with 5-Zac, the binding of the CG site to transcription factors was affected by demethylation. The average rate of demethylation indicated a statistical difference among the three groups. In conclusion, the methylation inhibitor 5-Zac leads to a significant increase in the

  19. Microenvironment-induced PTEN loss by exosomal microRNA primes brain metastasis outgrowth

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Jun; Lowery, Frank J.; Zhang, Qingling; Huang, Wen-Chien; Li, Ping; Li, Min; Wang, Xiao; Zhang, Chenyu; Wang, Hai; Ellis, Kenneth; Cheerathodi, Mujeeburahiman; McCarty, Joseph H.; Palmieri, Diane; Saunus, Jodi; Lakhani, Sunil; Huang, Suyun; Sahin, Aysegul A.; Aldape, Kenneth D.; Steeg, Patricia S.; Yu, Dihua

    2016-01-01

    Summary Development of life-threatening cancer metastases at distant organs requires disseminated tumor cells’ adaptation to and co-evolution with the drastically different microenvironments of metastatic sites1. Cancer cells of common origin manifest distinct gene expression patterns after metastasizing to different organs2. Clearly, the dynamic interplay between metastatic tumor cells and extrinsic signals at individual metastatic organ sites critically impacts the subsequent metastatic outgrowth3,4. Yet, it is unclear when and how disseminated tumor cells acquire the essential traits from the microenvironment of metastatic organs that prime their subsequent outgrowth. Here we show that primary tumor cells with normal expression of PTEN, an important tumor suppressor, lose PTEN expression after dissemination to the brain, but not to other organs. PTEN level in PTEN-loss brain metastatic tumor cells is restored after leaving brain microenvironment. This brain microenvironment-dependent, reversible PTEN mRNA and protein down-regulation is epigenetically regulated by microRNAs (miRNAs) from astrocytes. Mechanistically, astrocyte-derived exosomes mediate an intercellular transfer of PTEN-targeting miRNAs to metastatic tumor cells, while astrocyte-specific depletion of PTEN-targeting miRNAs or blockade of astrocyte exosome secretion rescues the PTEN loss and suppresses brain metastasis in vivo. Furthermore, this adaptive PTEN loss in brain metastatic tumor cells leads to an increased secretion of cytokine chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 (CCL2), which recruits Iba1+ myeloid cells that reciprocally enhance outgrowth of brain metastatic tumor cells via enhanced proliferation and reduced apoptosis. Our findings demonstrate a remarkable plasticity of PTEN expression in metastatic tumor cells in response to different organ microenvironments, underpinning an essential role of co-evolution between the metastatic cells and their microenvironment during the adaptive metastatic

  20. Enhancer of Zeste Homolog 2 Inhibition Attenuates Renal Fibrosis by Maintaining Smad7 and Phosphatase and Tensin Homolog Expression.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiaoxu; Zang, Xiujuan; Ponnusamy, Murugavel; Masucci, Monica V; Tolbert, Evelyn; Gong, Rujun; Zhao, Ting C; Liu, Na; Bayliss, George; Dworkin, Lance D; Zhuang, Shougang

    2016-07-01

    Enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2) is a methyltransferase that induces histone H3 lysine 27 trimethylation (H3K27me3) and functions as an oncogenic factor in many cancer types. However, the role of EZH2 in renal fibrogenesis remains unexplored. In this study, we found high expression of EZH2 and H3K27me3 in cultured renal fibroblasts and fibrotic kidneys from mice with unilateral ureteral obstruction and humans with CKD. Pharmacologic inhibition of EZH2 with 3-deazaneplanocin A (3-DZNeP) or GSK126 or siRNA-mediated silencing of EZH2 inhibited serum- and TGFβ1-induced activation of renal interstitial fibroblasts in vitro, and 3-DZNeP administration abrogated deposition of extracellular matrix proteins and expression of α-smooth muscle actin in the obstructed kidney. Injury to the kidney enhanced Smad7 degradation, Smad3 phosphorylation, and TGFβ receptor 1 expression, and 3-DZNeP administration prevented these effects. 3-DZNeP also suppressed phosphorylation of the renal EGF and PDGFβ receptors and downstream signaling molecules signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 after injury. Moreover, EZH2 inhibition increased the expression of phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN), a protein previously associated with dephosphorylation of tyrosine kinase receptors in the injured kidney and serum-stimulated renal interstitial fibroblasts. Finally, blocking PTEN with SF1670 largely diminished the inhibitory effect of 3-DZNeP on renal myofibroblast activation. These results uncovered the important role of EZH2 in mediating the development of renal fibrosis by downregulating expression of Smad7 and PTEN, thus activating profibrotic signaling pathways. Targeted inhibition of EZH2, therefore, could be a novel therapy for treating CKD. PMID:26701983

  1. The role of 1,25-dyhydroxyvitamin D3 in mouse liver ischemia reperfusion injury: regulation of autophagy through activation of MEK/ERK signaling and PTEN/PI3K/Akt/mTORC1 signaling

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jinghui; Chen, Qi; Tian, Shiyin; Song, Shaohua; Liu, Fang; Wang, Quanxing; Fu, Zhiren

    2015-01-01

    Autophagy is an important mechanism for cellular homeostasis and survival during pathologic stress conditions in the liver, such as ischemia-reperfusion injury. In this study, we hypothesized a protective role of vitamin Din hepatic IR model. The administration of vitamin D displayed significantly preserved liver function as characterized by less histological damage and reduced serum enzymes level. We found that the protective effect was associated with ameliorated oxidative stress as manifested by the increase of antioxidant capacity and decrease of lipid peroxidation. Further, increased autophagic flux after vitamin D administration was demonstrated by the increase of protein light chain 3 (LC3) conversion both in vivo and in vitro. MEK/ERK and PTEN/PI3K/Akt/mTOR were both found critically involved in vitamin D-induced autophagy. By employing intracellular ROS and cell viability assay, we further confirmed this hypothesis with the observation that inhibition either of the MEK/ERK or PTEN/PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway partly abolished the protective effect of vitamin D-induced autophagy, while inhibiting initiation of autophagy signaling pathway by knockdown of Beclin-1 completely reversed the protection provided by vitamin D. Collectively, the present results indicate that the protective role of vitamin D in murine hepatic IR injury is autophagy dependent, which is regulated by both MEK/ERK and PTEN/PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway. PMID:26885262

  2. Variants on the promoter region of PTEN affect breast cancer progression and patient survival

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction The PTEN gene, a regulator of the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt oncogenic pathway, is mutated in various cancers and its expression has been associated with tumor progression in a dose-dependent fashion. We investigated the effect of germline variation in the promoter region of the PTEN gene on clinical characteristics and survival in breast cancer. Methods We screened the promoter region of the PTEN gene for germline variation in 330 familial breast cancer cases and further determined the genotypes of three detected PTEN promoter polymorphisms -903GA, -975GC, and -1026CA in a total of 2,412 breast cancer patients to evaluate the effects of the variants on tumor characteristics and disease outcome. We compared the gene expression profiles in breast cancers of 10 variant carriers and 10 matched non-carriers and performed further survival analyses based on the differentially expressed genes. Results All three promoter variants associated with worse prognosis. The Cox's regression hazard ratio for 10-year breast cancer specific survival in multivariate analysis was 2.01 (95% CI 1.17 to 3.46) P = 0.0119, and for 5-year breast cancer death or distant metastasis free survival 1.79 (95% CI 1.03 to 3.11) P = 0.0381 for the variant carriers, indicating PTEN promoter variants as an independent prognostic factor. The breast tumors from the promoter variant carriers exhibited a similar gene expression signature of 160 differentially expressed genes compared to matched non-carrier tumors. The signature further stratified patients into two groups with different recurrence free survival in independent breast cancer gene expression data sets. Conclusions Inherited variation in the PTEN promoter region affects the tumor progression and gene expression profile in breast cancer. Further studies are warranted to establish PTEN promoter variants as clinical markers for prognosis in breast cancer. PMID:22171747

  3. HuPho: the human phosphatase portal.

    PubMed

    Liberti, Susanna; Sacco, Francesca; Calderone, Alberto; Perfetto, Livia; Iannuccelli, Marta; Panni, Simona; Santonico, Elena; Palma, Anita; Nardozza, Aurelio P; Castagnoli, Luisa; Cesareni, Gianni

    2013-01-01

    Phosphatases and kinases contribute to the regulation of protein phosphorylation homeostasis in the cell. Phosphorylation is a key post-translational modification underlying the regulation of many cellular processes. Thus, a comprehensive picture of phosphatase function and the identification of their target substrates would aid a systematic approach to a mechanistic description of cell signalling. Here we present a website designed to facilitate the retrieval of information about human protein phosphatases. To this end we developed a search engine to recover and integrate information annotated in several publicly available web resources. In addition we present a text-mining-assisted annotation effort aimed at extracting phosphatase related data reported in the scientific literature. The HuPho (human phosphatases) website can be accessed at http://hupho.uniroma2.it. PMID:22804825

  4. Phosphoinositide Phosphatases in Cell Biology and Disease

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yang; Bankaitis, Vytas A.

    2010-01-01

    Phosphoinositides are essential signaling molecules linked to a diverse array of cellular processes in eukaryotic cells. The metabolic interconversions of these phospholipids are subject to exquisite spatial and temporal regulation executed by arrays of phosphatidylinositol (PtdIns) and phosphoinositide-metabolizing enzymes. These include PtdIns- and phosphoinositide-kinases that drive phosphoinositide synthesis, and phospholipases and phosphatases that regulate phosphoinositide degradation. In the past decade, phosphoinositide phosphatases have emerged as topics of particular interest. This interest is driven by the recent appreciation that these enzymes represent primary mechanisms for phosphoinositide degradation, and because of their ever-increasing connections with human diseases. Herein, we review the biochemical properties of six major phosphoinositide phosphatases, the functional involvements of these enzymes in regulating phosphoinositide metabolism, the pathologies that arise from functional derangements of individual phosphatases, and recent ideas concerning the involvements of phosphoinositide phosphatases in membrane traffic control. PMID:20043944

  5. TSC but not PTEN loss in starving cones of retinitis pigmentosa mice leads to an autophagy defect and mTORC1 dissociation from the lysosome.

    PubMed

    Venkatesh, A; Ma, S; Punzo, C

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the mechanisms that contribute to secondary cone photoreceptor loss in retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is critical to devise strategies to prolong vision in this neurodegenerative disease. We previously showed that constitutive activation of the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1), by loss of its negative regulator the tuberous sclerosis complex protein 1 (Tsc1; also known as Hamartin), was sufficient to promote robust survival of nutrient-stressed cones in two mouse models of RP by improving glucose uptake and utilization. However, while cone protection remained initially stable for several weeks, eventually cone loss resumed. Here we show that loss of Tsc1 in the cones of RP mice causes a defect in autophagy, leading to the accumulation of ubiquitinated aggregates. We demonstrate that this defect was not due to an inhibition of autophagy initiation, but due to an accumulation of autolysosomes, suggesting a defect in the end-stage of the process causing an amino-acid shortage in cones, thereby hampering long-term cone survival. Because cells with TSC loss fail to completely inhibit mTORC1 and properly activate autophagy in the absence of amino acids, we sporadically administered the mTORC1 inhibitor rapamycin, which was sufficient to correct the defects seen in cones, further enhancing the efficiency of cone survival mediated by Tsc1 loss. Concordantly, activation of mTORC1 by loss of the phosphatase and tensin homolog (Pten) did not affect autophagy and amino-acid metabolism, leading to a more sustained long-term protection of cones. As loss of Pten, which in cones results in less robust mTORC1 activation when compared with loss of Tsc1, still affords long-term cone survival, therapeutic interventions with mTORC1 activators or gene therapy with selected mTORC1 targets that improve glucose metabolism are potential strategies to delay vision loss in patients with RP. PMID:27362797

  6. HDAC inhibition prevents white matter injury by modulating microglia/macrophage polarization through the GSK3β/PTEN/Akt axis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guohua; Shi, Yejie; Jiang, Xiaoyan; Leak, Rehana K; Hu, Xiaoming; Wu, Yun; Pu, Hongjian; Li, Wei-Wei; Tang, Bo; Wang, Yun; Gao, Yanqin; Zheng, Ping; Bennett, Michael V L; Chen, Jun

    2015-03-01

    Severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) elicits destruction of both gray and white matter, which is exacerbated by secondary proinflammatory responses. Although white matter injury (WMI) is strongly correlated with poor neurological status, the maintenance of white matter integrity is poorly understood, and no current therapies protect both gray and white matter. One candidate approach that may fulfill this role is inhibition of class I/II histone deacetylases (HDACs). Here we demonstrate that the HDAC inhibitor Scriptaid protects white matter up to 35 d after TBI, as shown by reductions in abnormally dephosphorylated neurofilament protein, increases in myelin basic protein, anatomic preservation of myelinated axons, and improved nerve conduction. Furthermore, Scriptaid shifted microglia/macrophage polarization toward the protective M2 phenotype and mitigated inflammation. In primary cocultures of microglia and oligodendrocytes, Scriptaid increased expression of microglial glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta (GSK3β), which phosphorylated and inactivated phosphatase and tensin homologue (PTEN), thereby enhancing phosphatidylinositide 3-kinases (PI3K)/Akt signaling and polarizing microglia toward M2. The increase in GSK3β in microglia and their phenotypic switch to M2 was associated with increased preservation of neighboring oligodendrocytes. These findings are consistent with recent findings that microglial phenotypic switching modulates white matter repair and axonal remyelination and highlight a previously unexplored role for HDAC activity in this process. Furthermore, the functions of GSK3β may be more subtle than previously thought, in that GSK3β can modulate microglial functions via the PTEN/PI3K/Akt signaling pathway and preserve white matter homeostasis. Thus, inhibition of HDACs in microglia is a potential future therapy in TBI and other neurological conditions with white matter destruction. PMID:25691750

  7. MiR-21 controls in situ expansion of CCR6⁺ regulatory T cells through PTEN/AKT pathway in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yan; Wang, Chunhong; Li, Yongju; Zhao, Juanjuan; Chen, Chao; Zhou, Ya; Tao, Yijin; Guo, Mengmeng; Qin, Nalin; Ren, Tao; Wen, Zhenke; Xu, Lin

    2015-09-01

    Our recent evidence showed that prior expansion of CCR6(+) Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells (Tregs) was important for their dominant enrichment in tumor tissue, which was closely related to poor prognosis of breast cancer patients. However, the underlying regulation mechanism of expansion of CCR6(+) Tregs in situ remains largely unknown. In this study, we reported that miR-21 was highly expressed in CCR6(+) Tregs in tumor tissues from a murine breast cancer model. And silencing of miR-21 could significantly reduce the proliferation of CCR6(+) Tregs in vitro. Adoptive cell-transfer assay further showed that silencing of miR-21 could alter the enrichment of CCR6(+) Tregs in the tumor mass and endow effectively antitumor effect of CD8(+) T cells using a murine breast cancer model. Mechanistic evidence showed that silencing of miR-21 enhanced the expression of its target phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome ten (PTEN) and subsequently altered the activation of Akt pathway, which was ultimately responsible for reduced proliferation activity of CCR6(+) Tregs. Finally, we further revealed that miR-21 was also highly expressed on CCR6(+) Tregs in clinical breast cancer patients. Therefore, miR-21 can act as a fine tuner in the regulation of PTEN/Akt pathway transduction in the expansion of CCR6(+) Tregs in tumor sites and provided a novel insight into the development of therapeutic strategies for promoting T-cell immunity by regulating distinct subset of Tregs through targeting specific miRNAs. PMID:25735723

  8. Neural transcriptome of constitutional Pten dysfunction in mice and its relevance to human idiopathic autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Tilot, A K; Bebek, G; Niazi, F; Altemus, J B; Romigh, T; Frazier, T W; Eng, C

    2016-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental condition with a clear, but heterogeneous, genetic component. Germline mutations in the tumor suppressor Pten are a well-established risk factor for ASD with macrocephaly, and conditional Pten mouse models have impaired social behavior and brain development. Some mutations observed in patients disrupt the normally balanced nuclear-cytoplasmic localization of the Pten protein, and we developed the Pten(m3m4) model to study the effects of a cytoplasm-predominant Pten. In this model, germline mislocalization of Pten causes inappropriate social behavior with intact learning and memory, a profile reminiscent of high-functioning ASD. These animals also exhibit histological evidence of neuroinflammation and expansion of glial populations by 6 weeks of age. We hypothesized that the neural transcriptome of this model would be altered in a manner that could inform human idiopathic ASD, a constitutional condition. Using total RNA sequencing, we found progressive disruption of neural gene expression in Pten(m3m4) mice from 2-6 weeks of age, involving both immune and synaptic pathways. These alterations include downregulation of many highly coexpressed human ASD-susceptibility genes. Comparison with a human cortical development coexpression network revealed that genes disrupted in Pten(m3m4) mice were enriched in the same areas as those of human ASD. Although Pten-related ASD is relatively uncommon, our observations suggest that the Pten(m3m4) model recapitulates multiple molecular features of human ASD, and that Pten operates far upstream of common pathways within ASD pathogenesis. PMID:25754085

  9. Specificity of a protein phosphatase inhibitor from rabbit skeletal muscle.

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, P; Nimmo, G A; Antoniw, J F

    1977-01-01

    A hear-stable protein, which is a specific inhibitor of protein phosphatase-III, was purified 700-fold from skeletal muscle by a procedure that involved heat-treatment at 95 degrees C, chromatography on DEAE-cellulose and gel filtration on Sephadex G-100. The final step completely resolved the protein phosphatase inhibitor from the protein inhibitor of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase. The phosphorylase phosphatase, beta-phosphorylase kinase phosphatase, glycogen synthase phosphatase-1 and glycogen synthase phosphatase-2 activities of protein phosphatase-III [Antoniw, J. F., Nimmo, H. G., Yeaman, S. J. & Cohen, P.(1977) Biochem.J. 162, 423-433] were inhibited in a very similar manner by the protein phosphatase inhibitor and at least 95% inhibition was observed at high concentrations of inhibitor. The two forms of protein phosphatase-III, termed IIIA and IIIB, were equally susceptible to the protein phosphatase inhibitor. The protein phosphatase inhibitor was at least 200 times less effective in inhibiting the activity of protein phosphatase-I and protein phosphatase-II. The high degree of specificity of the inhibitor for protein phosphatase-III was used to show that 90% of the phosphorylase phosphatase and glycogen synthase phosphatase activities measured in muscle extracts are catalysed by protein phosphatase-III. Protein phosphatase-III was tightly associated with the protein-glycogen complex that can be isolated from skeletal muscle, whereas the protein phosphatase inhibitor and protein phosphatase-II were not. The results provide further evidence that the enzyme that catalyses the dephosphorylation of the alpha-subunit of phosphorylase kinase (protein phosphatase-II) and the enzyme that catalyses the dephosphorylation of the beta-subunit of phosphorylase kinase (protein phosphatase-III) are distinct. The results suggest that the protein phosphatase inhibitor may be a useful probe for differentiating different classes of protein phosphatases in mammalian

  10. Reciprocal positive regulation between TRPV6 and NUMB in PTEN-deficient prostate cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Sung-Young; Hong, Chansik; Wie, Jinhong; Kim, Euiyong; Kim, Byung Joo; Ha, Kotdaji; Cho, Nam-Hyuk; Kim, In-Gyu; Jeon, Ju-Hong; So, Insuk

    2014-04-25

    Highlights: • TRPV6 interacts with tumor suppressor proteins. • Numb has a selective effect on TRPV6, depending on the prostate cancer cell line. • PTEN is a novel regulator of TRPV6–Numb complex. - Abstract: Calcium acts as a second messenger and plays a crucial role in signaling pathways involved in cell proliferation. Recently, calcium channels related to calcium influx into the cytosol of epithelial cells have attracted attention as a cancer therapy target. Of these calcium channels, TRPV6 is overexpressed in prostate cancer and is considered an important molecule in the process of metastasis. However, its exact role and mechanism is unclear. NUMB, well-known tumor suppressor gene, is a novel interacting partner of TRPV6. We show that NUMB and TRPV6 have a reciprocal positive regulatory relationship in PC-3 cells. We repeated this experiment in two other prostate cancer cell lines, DU145 and LNCaP. Interestingly, there were no significant changes in TRPV6 expression following NUMB knockdown in DU145. We revealed that the presence or absence of PTEN was the cause of NUMB–TRPV6 function. Loss of PTEN caused a positive correlation of TRPV6–NUMB expression. Collectively, we determined that PTEN is a novel interacting partner of TRPV6 and NUMB. These results demonstrated a novel relationship of NUMB–TRPV6 in prostate cancer cells, and show that PTEN is a novel regulator of this complex.

  11. NUAK2 Amplification Coupled with PTEN Deficiency Promotes Melanoma Development via CDK Activation.

    PubMed

    Namiki, Takeshi; Yaguchi, Tomonori; Nakamura, Kenta; Valencia, Julio C; Coelho, Sergio G; Yin, Lanlan; Kawaguchi, Masakazu; Vieira, Wilfred D; Kaneko, Yasuhiko; Tanemura, Atsushi; Katayama, Ichiro; Yokozeki, Hiroo; Kawakami, Yutaka; Hearing, Vincent J

    2015-07-01

    The AMPK-related kinase NUAK2 has been implicated in melanoma growth and survival outcomes, but its therapeutic utility has yet to be confirmed. In this study, we show how its genetic amplification in PTEN-deficient melanomas may rationalize the use of CDK2 inhibitors as a therapeutic strategy. Analysis of array-CGH data revealed that PTEN deficiency is coupled tightly with genomic amplification encompassing the NUAK2 locus, a finding strengthened by immunohistochemical evidence that phospho-Akt overexpression was correlated with NUAK2 expression in clinical specimens of acral melanoma. Functional studies in melanoma cells showed that inactivation of the PI3K pathway upregulated p21 expression and reduced the number of cells in S phase. NUAK2 silencing and inactivation of the PI3K pathway efficiently controlled CDK2 expression, whereas CDK2 inactivation specifically abrogated the growth of NUAK2-amplified and PTEN-deficient melanoma cells. Immunohistochemical analyses confirmed an association of CDK2 expression with NUAK2 amplification and p-Akt expression in melanomas. Finally, pharmacologic inhibition of CDK2 was sufficient to suppress the growth of NUAK2-amplified and PTEN-deficient melanoma cells in vitro and in vivo. Overall, our results show how CDK2 blockade may offer a promising therapy for genetically defined melanomas, where NUAK2 is amplified and PTEN is deleted. PMID:25832654

  12. Identification of Androgen Receptor Splice Variants in the Pten Deficient Murine Prostate Cancer Model.

    PubMed

    Liang, Mengmeng; Adisetiyo, Helty; Li, Xiuqing; Liu, Xiuqing; Liu, Ren; Gill, Parkash; Roy-Burman, Pradip; Jones, Jeremy O; Mulholland, David J

    2015-01-01

    Androgen receptor (AR) variants are associated with resistance to anti androgen therapy both in human prostate cancer cell lines and clinical samples. These observations support the hypothesis that AR isoform accumulation is a consequence of selective therapeutic pressure on the full length AR. The Pten deficient prostate cancer model proceeds with well-defined kinetics including progression to castration resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). While surgical castration and enzalutamide treatments yield an initial therapeutic response, Pten-/-epithelia continue to proliferate yielding locally invasive primary tumor pathology. That most epithelium remains AR positive, but ligand independent, suggests the presence of oncogenic AR variants. To address this hypothesis, we have used a panel of recently described Pten-/- tumor cell lines derived from both from hormone intact (E4, E8) and castrated Pten mutants (cE1, cE2) followed by RACE PCR to identify and characterize three novel truncated, amino terminus containing AR variants (mAR-Va, b, c). Variants appear not only conserved throughout progression but are correlated with nearly complete loss of full length AR (AR-FL) at castrate androgen levels. The overexpression of variants leads to enhanced transcriptional activity of AR while knock down studies show reduced transcriptional output. Collectively, the identification of truncated AR variants in the conditional PTEN deletion model supports a role for maintaining the CRPC phenotype and provides further therapeutic applications of this preclinical model. PMID:26196517

  13. PTEN-DEFICIENT TUMORS DEPEND ON AKT2 FOR MAINTENANCE AND SURVIVAL

    PubMed Central

    Chin, Y. Rebecca; Yuan, Xin; Balk, Steven P.; Toker, Alex

    2014-01-01

    Loss of PTEN is a common event in many cancers and leads to hyperactivation of the PI 3-K/Akt signaling pathway. The mechanisms by which Akt isoforms mediate signaling to phenotypes associated with PTEN-inactivation in cancer have not been defined. Here we show that Akt2 is exclusively required for PTEN-deficient prostate tumor spheroid maintenance whereas Akt1 is dispensable. shRNA silencing of Akt2 but not Akt1 promotes regression of prostate cancer xenografts. Mechanistically, we show that Akt2 silencing up-regulates p21 and the pro-apoptotic protein Bax and downregulates the insulin-like growth factor receptor-1. We also show that p21 is an effector of Akt2 in mediating prostate tumor maintenance. Moreover, Akt2 is also exclusively required for the maintenance and survival of other PTEN-deficient solid tumors, including breast cancer and glioblastoma. These findings identify a specific function for Akt2 in mediating survival of PTEN-deficient tumors and provide a rationale for developing therapeutics targeting Akt2. PMID:24838891

  14. Coding-independent regulation of the tumor suppressor PTEN by competing endogenous mRNAs

    PubMed Central

    Tay, Yvonne; Kats, Lev; Salmena, Leonardo; Weiss, Dror; Tan, Shen Mynn; Ala, Ugo; Karreth, Florian; Poliseno, Laura; Provero, Paolo; Di Cunto, Ferdinando; Lieberman, Judy; Rigoutsos, Isidore; Pandolfi, Pier Paolo

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY Here we demonstrate that protein-coding RNA transcripts can crosstalk by competing for common microRNAs, with microRNA response elements as the foundation of this interaction. We have termed such RNA transcripts as competing endogenous RNAs (ceRNAs). We tested this hypothesis in the context of PTEN, a key tumor suppressor whose abundance determines critical outcomes in tumorigenesis. By a combined computational and experimental approach, we identified and validated endogenous protein-coding transcripts that regulate PTEN, antagonize PI3K/AKT signaling and possess growth and tumor suppressive properties. Notably, we also show that these genes display concordant expression patterns with PTEN and copy number loss in cancers. Our study presents a road map for the prediction and validation of ceRNA activity and networks, and thus imparts a trans-regulatory function to protein-coding mRNAs. PMID:22000013

  15. Regeneration of diabetic axons is enhanced by selective knockdown of the PTEN gene.

    PubMed

    Singh, Bhagat; Singh, Vandana; Krishnan, Anand; Koshy, Kurien; Martinez, Jose A; Cheng, Chu; Almquist, Chris; Zochodne, Douglas W

    2014-04-01

    Diabetes mellitus renders both widespread and localized irreversible damage to peripheral axons while imposing critical limitations on their ability to regenerate. A major failure of regenerative capacity thereby imposes a 'double hit' in diabetic patients who frequently develop focal neuropathies such as carpal tunnel syndrome in addition to generalized diffuse polyneuropathy. The mechanisms of diabetic neuron regenerative failure have been speculative and few approaches have offered therapeutic opportunities. In this work we identify an unexpected but major role for PTEN upregulation in diabetic peripheral neurons in attenuating axon regrowth. In chronic diabetic neuropathy models in mice, we identified significant PTEN upregulation in peripheral sensory neurons of messenger RNA and protein compared to littermate controls. In vitro, sensory neurons from these mice responded to PTEN knockdown with substantial rises in neurite outgrowth and branching. To test regenerative plasticity in a chronic diabetic model with established neuropathy, we superimposed an additional focal sciatic nerve crush injury and assessed morphological, electrophysiological and behavioural recovery. Knockdown of PTEN in dorsal root ganglia ipsilateral to the side of injury was achieved using a unique form of non-viral short interfering RNA delivery to the ipsilateral nerve injury site and paw. In comparison with scrambled sequence control short interfering RNA, PTEN short interfering RNA improved several facets of regeneration: recovery of compound muscle action potentials, reflecting numbers of reconnected motor axons to endplates, conduction velocities of both motor and sensory axons, reflecting their maturation during regrowth, numbers and calibre of regenerating myelinated axons distal to the injury site, reinnervation of the skin by unmyelinated epidermal axons and recovery of mechanical sensation. Collectively, these findings identify a novel therapeutic approach, potentially

  16. A Critical Role of the PTEN/PDGF Signaling Network for the Regulation of Radiosensitivity in Adenocarcinoma of the Prostate

    PubMed Central

    Christensen, Michael; Najy, Abdo J.; Snyder, Michael; Movilla, Lisa S.; Kim, Hyeong-Reh Choi

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Loss or mutation of the phosphate and tensin homologue (PTEN) is a common genetic abnormality in prostate cancer (PCa) and induces platelet-derived growth factor D (PDGF D) signaling. We examined the role of the PTEN/PDGF axis on radioresponse using a murine PTEN null prostate epithelial cell model. Methods and Materials PTEN wild-type (PTEN+/+) and PTEN knockout (PTEN−/−) murine prostate epithelial cell lines were used to examine the relationship between the PTEN status and radiosensitivity and also to modulate the PDGF D expression levels. PTEN−/− cells were transduced with a small hairpin RNA (shRNA) lentiviral vector containing either scrambled nucleotides (SCRM) or sequences targeted to PDGF D (shPDGF D). Tumorigenesis and morphogenesis of these cell lines were evaluated in vivo via subcutaneous injection of male nude mice and in vitro using Matrigel 3-dimensional (3D) culture. Effects of irradiation on clonogenic survival, cell migration, and invasion were measured with respect to the PTEN status and the PDGF D expression level. In addition, apoptosis and cell cycle redistribution were examined as potential mechanisms for differences seen. Results PTEN−/− cells were highly tumorigenic in animals and effectively formed foci in 3D culture. Importantly, loss of PDGF D in these cell lines drastically diminished these phenotypes. Furthermore, PTEN−/− cells demonstrated increased clonogenic survival in vitro compared to PTEN+/+, and attenuation of PDGF D significantly reversed this radioresistant phenotype. PTEN−/− cells displayed greater migratory and invasive potential at baseline as well as after irradiation. Both the basal and radiation-induced migratory and invasive phenotypes in PTEN−/− cells required PDGF D expression. Interestingly, these differences were independent of apoptosis and cell cycle redistribution, as they showed no significant difference. Conclusions We propose that PDGF D represents a potentially promising

  17. PTEN Loss Does Not Predict for Response to RAD001 (Everolimus) in a Glioblastoma Orthotopic Xenograft Test Panel

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Lin; Clarke, Michelle J.; Carlson, Brett L.; Mladek, Ann C.; Schroeder, Mark A.; Decker, Paul; Wu, Wenting; Kitange, Gaspar J.; Grogan, Patrick T.; Goble, Jennie M.; Uhm, Joon; Galanis, Evanthia; Giannini, Caterina; Lane, Heidi A.; James, C. David; Sarkaria, Jann N.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Hyperactivation of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt signaling through disruption of PTEN function is common in glioblastoma multiforme, and these genetic changes are predicted to enhance sensitivity to mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitors such as RAD001 (everolimus). Experimental Design To test whether PTEN loss could be used as a predictive marker for mTOR inhibitor sensitivity, the response of 17 serially transplantable glioblastoma multiforme xenografts was evaluated in an orthotopic therapy evaluation model. Of these 17 xenograft lines, 7 have either genomic deletion or mutation of PTEN. Results Consistent with activation of Akt signaling, there was a good correlation between loss of PTEN function and elevated levels of Akt phosphorylation. However, of the 7 lines with disrupted PTEN function, only 1 tumor line (GBM10) was significantly sensitive to RAD001 therapy (25% prolongation in median survival), whereas1 of 10 xenograft lines with wild-type PTEN was significantly sensitive to RAD001 (GS22; 34% prolongation in survival). Relative to placebo, 5 days of RAD001 treatment was associated with a marked 66% reduction in the MIB1 proliferation index in the sensitive GBM10 line (deleted PTEN) compared with a 25% and 7% reduction in MIB1 labeling index in the insensitive GBM14 (mutant PTEN) and GBM15 (wild-type PTEN) lines, respectively. Consistent with a cytostatic antitumor effect, bioluminescent imaging of luciferase-transduced intracranial GBM10 xenografts showed slowed tumor growth without significant tumor regression during RAD001 therapy. Conclusion These data suggest that loss of PTEN function is insufficient to adequately predict responsiveness to mTOR inhibitors in glioblastoma multiforme. PMID:18559622

  18. MCT-1 expression and PTEN deficiency synergistically promote neoplastic multinucleation through the Src/p190B signaling activation.

    PubMed

    Wu, M-H; Chen, Y-A; Chen, H-H; Chang, K-W; Chang, I-S; Wang, L-H; Hsu, H-L

    2014-10-23

    Multinucleation is associated with malignant neoplasms; however, the molecular mechanism underlying the nuclear abnormality remains unclear. Loss or mutation of PTEN promotes the development of malignant tumors. We now demonstrate that increased expression of the oncogene MCT-1 (multiple copies in T-cell malignancy 1) antagonizes PTEN gene presentation, PTEN protein stability and PTEN functional activity, thereby further promoting phosphoinositide 3 kinase/AKT signaling, survival rate and malignancies of the PTEN-deficient cells. In the PTEN-null cancer cells, MCT-1 interacts with p190B and Src in vivo, supporting that they are in proximity of the signaling complexes. MCT-1 overexpression and PTEN loss synergistically augments the Src/p190B signaling function that leads to inhibition of RhoA activity. Under such a condition, the incidence of mitotic catastrophes including spindle multipolarity and cytokinesis failure is enhanced, driving an Src/p190B/RhoA-dependent neoplastic multinucleation. Targeting MCT-1 by the short hairpin RNA markedly represses the Src/p190B function, improves nuclear structures and suppresses xenograft tumorigenicity of the PTEN-null breast cancer cells. Consistent with the oncogenic effects in vitro, clinical evidence has confirmed that MCT-1 gene stimulation is correlated with p190B gene promotion and PTEN gene suppression in human breast cancer. Accordingly, MCT-1 gene induction is recognized as a potential biomarker of breast tumor development. Abrogating MCT-1 function may be a promising stratagem for management of breast cancer involving Src hyperactivation and/or PTEN dysfunction. PMID:24858043

  19. Methods for Assessing the In Vivo Role of PTEN in Glucose Homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Luk, Cynthia T; Schroer, Stephanie A; Woo, Minna

    2016-01-01

    PTEN plays an important role in diabetes pathogenesis not only as a key negative regulator of the PI3K/Akt pathway required for insulin action, but also via its role in other cell processes required to maintain metabolic homeostasis. We describe the generation of tissue-specific PTEN knockout mice and models of both type 1 and type 2 diabetes, which we have found useful for the study of diabetes pathogenesis. We also outline common methods suitable for the characterization of glucose homeostasis in rodent models, including techniques to measure beta cell function and insulin sensitivity. PMID:27033072

  20. Methods for the Identification of PTEN-Targeting MicroRNAs.

    PubMed

    Tuccoli, Andrea; Vitiello, Marianna; Marranci, Andrea; Russo, Francesco; Poliseno, Laura

    2016-01-01

    The identification of PTEN-targeting microRNAs usually starts from an in silico bioinformatic prediction and then requires a careful experimental validation that exploits both heterologous and endogenous systems. Here we describe the methods used to carry on these analyses and experiments, examining pitfalls and alternatives for each step. Moreover, we give an overview of the latest high-throughput microRNA target identification techniques which offer a more comprehensive view of the microRNAs that can bind a fundamental tumor suppressor such as PTEN. PMID:27033074

  1. Cyanogenic Lipids

    PubMed Central

    Selmar, Dirk; Grocholewski, Sabine; Seigler, David S.

    1990-01-01

    Large amounts of cyanogenic lipids (esters of 1 cyano-2-methylprop-2-ene-1-ol with C:20 fatty acids) are stored in the seeds of Ungnadia speciosa. During seedling development, these lipids are completely consumed without liberation of free HCN to the atmosphere. At the same time, cyanogenic glycosides are synthesized, but the total amount is much lower (about 26%) than the quantity of cyanogenic lipids formerly present in the seeds. This large decrease in the total content of cyanogens (HCN-potential) demonstrates that at least 74% of cyanogenic lipids are converted to noncyanogenic compounds. Whether the newly synthesized cyanogenic glycosides are derived directly from cyanogenic lipids or produced by de novo synthesis is still unknown. Based on the utilization of cyanogenic lipids for the synthesis of noncyanogenic compounds, it is concluded that these cyanogens serve as storage for reduced nitrogen. The ecophysiological significance of cyanolipids based on multifunctional aspects is discussed. PMID:16667514

  2. Multiple Functions of the Eya Phosphotyrosine Phosphatase

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Eyes absent (Eya), a protein conserved from plants to humans and best characterized as a transcriptional coactivator, is also the prototype for a novel class of eukaryotic aspartyl protein tyrosine phosphatases. This minireview discusses recent breakthroughs in elucidating the substrates and cellular events regulated by Eya's tyrosine phosphatase function and highlights some of the complexities, new questions, and surprises that have emerged from efforts to understand how Eya's unusual multifunctionality influences developmental regulation and signaling. PMID:26667035

  3. 21 CFR 864.7660 - Leukocyte alkaline phosphatase test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Leukocyte alkaline phosphatase test. 864.7660... Leukocyte alkaline phosphatase test. (a) Identification. A leukocyte alkaline phosphatase test is a device used to identify the enzyme leukocyte alkaline phosphatase in neutrophilic granulocytes...

  4. 21 CFR 864.7660 - Leukocyte alkaline phosphatase test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Leukocyte alkaline phosphatase test. 864.7660... Leukocyte alkaline phosphatase test. (a) Identification. A leukocyte alkaline phosphatase test is a device used to identify the enzyme leukocyte alkaline phosphatase in neutrophilic granulocytes...

  5. Analysis of Smad Phosphatase Activity In Vitro.

    PubMed

    Shen, Tao; Qin, Lan; Lin, Xia

    2016-01-01

    Phosphorylation of Smad1/5/8 at the C-terminal SXS motif by BMP type I receptors is one of the most critical events in BMP signaling. Conversely, protein phosphatases that dephosphorylate phospho-Smad1/5/8 can consequently prevent or terminate BMP signaling. PPM1H is an undercharacterized phosphatase in the PPM family. We recently demonstrated that PPM1H can dephosphorylate Smad1 in the cytoplasm and block BMP signaling responses in cellular assays. Here we describe in vitro method showing that PPM1H is a bona fide phosphatase for Smad1/5/8. PPM1H is produced as GST fusion protein in E. coli, and purified against glutathione sepharose beads. Bacterially purified recombinant PPM1H possesses phosphatase activity toward artificial substrate para-nitrophenyl phosphate (pNPP). Recombinant PPM1H also dephosphorylates immuno-purified phosphorylated Smad1 in test tubes. These direct in vitro phosphatase assays provide convincing evidence demonstrating the role of PPM1H as a specific phosphatase for P-Smad1. PMID:26520120

  6. Assessing the Biological Activity of the Glucan Phosphatase Laforin.

    PubMed

    Romá-Mateo, Carlos; Raththagala, Madushi; Gentry, Mathew S; Sanz, Pascual

    2016-01-01

    Glucan phosphatases are a recently discovered family of enzymes that dephosphorylate either starch or glycogen and are essential for proper starch metabolism in plants and glycogen metabolism in humans. Mutations in the gene encoding the only human glucan phosphatase, laforin, result in the fatal, neurodegenerative, epilepsy known as Lafora disease. Here, we describe phosphatase assays to assess both generic laforin phosphatase activity and laforin's unique glycogen phosphatase activity. PMID:27514803

  7. Milk lipids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Milk fat conveys a number of desirable qualities to food, and various lipid components contribute to human nutrition and health. Over 96% of milk lipids consist of triacylglycerols, which contain a variety of fatty acids. Di- and monoacylglycerols, free fatty acids, sterols, and phospho-, glyco-,...

  8. Reciprocal regulation of autism-related genes MeCP2 and PTEN via microRNAs.

    PubMed

    Lyu, Jing-Wen; Yuan, Bo; Cheng, Tian-Lin; Qiu, Zi-Long; Zhou, Wen-Hao

    2016-01-01

    MeCP2 encodes a methyl-CpG-binding protein that plays a critical role in repressing gene expression, mutations of which lead to Rett syndrome and autism. PTEN is a critical tumor suppressor gene that is frequently mutated in human cancers and autism spectrum disorders. Various studies have shown that both MeCP2 and PTEN proteins play important roles in brain development. Here we find that MeCP2 and PTEN reciprocally regulate expression of each other via microRNAs. Knockdown of MeCP2 leads to upregulation of microRNA-137, which in turn represses expression of PTEN, thus PTEN would be down-regulated when MeCP2 is knockdown. Furthermore, we find that deletion of PTEN leads to phosphorylation of Serine 133 of CREB, then increases the expression of microRNA-132. miR-132 inhibits the expression of MeCP2 by targeting on the 3'UTR of MeCP2 mRNA. Our work shows that two critical disorders-related gene MeCP2 and PTEN reciprocally regulate expression of each other by distinct mechanisms, suggesting that rare mutations in various disorders may lead to dysregulation of other critical genes and yield unexpected consequences. PMID:26843422

  9. In vivo identification of tumor- suppressive PTEN ceRNAs in an oncogenic BRAF-induced mouse model of melanoma.

    PubMed

    Karreth, Florian A; Tay, Yvonne; Perna, Daniele; Ala, Ugo; Tan, Shen Mynn; Rust, Alistair G; DeNicola, Gina; Webster, Kaitlyn A; Weiss, Dror; Perez-Mancera, Pedro A; Krauthammer, Michael; Halaban, Ruth; Provero, Paolo; Adams, David J; Tuveson, David A; Pandolfi, Pier Paolo

    2011-10-14

    We recently proposed that competitive endogenous RNAs (ceRNAs) sequester microRNAs to regulate mRNA transcripts containing common microRNA recognition elements (MREs). However, the functional role of ceRNAs in cancer remains unknown. Loss of PTEN, a tumor suppressor regulated by ceRNA activity, frequently occurs in melanoma. Here, we report the discovery of significant enrichment of putative PTEN ceRNAs among genes whose loss accelerates tumorigenesis following Sleeping Beauty insertional mutagenesis in a mouse model of melanoma. We validated several putative PTEN ceRNAs and further characterized one, the ZEB2 transcript. We show that ZEB2 modulates PTEN protein levels in a microRNA-dependent, protein coding-independent manner. Attenuation of ZEB2 expression activates the PI3K/AKT pathway, enhances cell transformation, and commonly occurs in human melanomas and other cancers expressing low PTEN levels. Our study genetically identifies multiple putative microRNA decoys for PTEN, validates ZEB2 mRNA as a bona fide PTEN ceRNA, and demonstrates that abrogated ZEB2 expression cooperates with BRAF(V600E) to promote melanomagenesis. PMID:22000016

  10. Reciprocal regulation of autism-related genes MeCP2 and PTEN via microRNAs

    PubMed Central

    Lyu, Jing-Wen; Yuan, Bo; Cheng, Tian-Lin; Qiu, Zi-Long; Zhou, Wen-Hao

    2016-01-01

    MeCP2 encodes a methyl-CpG-binding protein that plays a critical role in repressing gene expression, mutations of which lead to Rett syndrome and autism. PTEN is a critical tumor suppressor gene that is frequently mutated in human cancers and autism spectrum disorders. Various studies have shown that both MeCP2 and PTEN proteins play important roles in brain development. Here we find that MeCP2 and PTEN reciprocally regulate expression of each other via microRNAs. Knockdown of MeCP2 leads to upregulation of microRNA-137, which in turn represses expression of PTEN, thus PTEN would be down-regulated when MeCP2 is knockdown. Furthermore, we find that deletion of PTEN leads to phosphorylation of Serine 133 of CREB, then increases the expression of microRNA-132. miR-132 inhibits the expression of MeCP2 by targeting on the 3′UTR of MeCP2 mRNA. Our work shows that two critical disorders-related gene MeCP2 and PTEN reciprocally regulate expression of each other by distinct mechanisms, suggesting that rare mutations in various disorders may lead to dysregulation of other critical genes and yield unexpected consequences. PMID:26843422

  11. High frequency of loss of PTEN expression in human solid salivary adenoid cystic carcinoma and its implication for targeted therapy.

    PubMed

    Liu, Han; Du, Li; Wang, Ru; Wei, Chao; Liu, Bo; Zhu, Lei; Liu, Pixu; Liu, Qiang; Li, Jiang; Lu, Shi-Long; Xiao, Jing

    2015-05-10

    Salivary gland tumor (SGT) is one of the least studied cancers due to its rarity and heterogeneous histological types. Here, we reported that loss of PTEN expression was most frequently found in the poorly differentiated, high grade solid adenoid cystic carcinomas. Loss of PTEN expression correlated with activation of mTOR by increased phosphorylated S6 ribosome protein. We further functionally studied the role of PTEN in a pair of human SACC cell lines, SACC-83 and SACC-LM. Reduced PTEN level was correlated with the metastasis potential. When we knocked down PTEN in the SACC-83 cell line, we observed increased proliferation and enhanced migration/invasion in vitro, and increased tumor size in vivo. We further tested the therapeutical effect by applying a PI3K/mTOR inhibitor NVP-BEZ235 to both SACC cell lines. Decreased cell proliferation, increased apoptosis, as well as reduced cell migration/invasion were observed in both cell lines upon the NVP-BEZ235 treatment. Moreover, the NVP-BEZ235 treatment in a SGT xenograft mouse model significantly reduced primary tumor size and lung metastasis. Taken together, our results demonstrated that PTEN is a potent tumor suppressor in human SGTs, and targeting PI3K/mTOR pathway may be effective in the targeted therapy for human SGT patients with loss of PTEN expression. PMID:25909167

  12. Utilization of alkaline phosphatase PhoA in the bioproduction of geraniol by metabolically engineered Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wei; Zhang, Rubing; Tian, Ning; Xu, Xin; Cao, Yujing; Xian, Mo; Liu, Huizhou

    2015-01-01

    Geraniol is a valuable acyclic monoterpene alcohol and has many applications in the perfume industries, pharmacy and others. It has been hypothesized that phosphatases can convert geranyl diphosphate (GPP) into geraniol. However, whether and which phosphatases can transform GPP to geraniol has remained unanswered up till now. In this paper, the catalysis abilities of 4 different types of phosphatases were studied with GPP as substrate in vitro. They are bifunctional diacylglycerol diphosphate phosphatase (DPP1) and lipid phosphate phosphatase (LPP1) from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, ADP-ribose pyrophosphatase (NudF) and alkaline phosphatase (PhoA) from Escherichia coli. The results show that just PhoA from E. coli can convert GPP into geraniol. Moreover, in order to confirm the ability of PhoA in vivo, the heterologous mevalonate pathway and geranyl diphosphate synthase gene from Abies grandis were co-overexpressed in E. coli with PhoA gene and 5.3 ± 0.2 mg/l geraniol was produced from glucose in flask-culture. Finally, we also evaluated the fed-batch fermentation of this engineered E. coli and a maximum concentration of 99.3 mg/l geraniol was produced while the conversion efficiency of glucose to geranoid (gram to gram) was 0.51%. Our results offer a new option for geraniol biosynthesis and promote the industrial bio-production of geraniol. PMID:26091008

  13. Utilization of alkaline phosphatase PhoA in the bioproduction of geraniol by metabolically engineered Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Wei; Zhang, Rubing; Tian, Ning; Xu, Xin; Cao, Yujing; Xian, Mo; Liu, Huizhou

    2015-01-01

    Geraniol is a valuable acyclic monoterpene alcohol and has many applications in the perfume industries, pharmacy and others. It has been hypothesized that phosphatases can convert geranyl diphosphate (GPP) into geraniol. However, whether and which phosphatases can transform GPP to geraniol has remained unanswered up till now. In this paper, the catalysis abilities of 4 different types of phosphatases were studied with GPP as substrate in vitro. They are bifunctional diacylglycerol diphosphate phosphatase (DPP1) and lipid phosphate phosphatase (LPP1) from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, ADP-ribose pyrophosphatase (NudF) and alkaline phosphatase (PhoA) from Escherichia coli. The results show that just PhoA from E. coli can convert GPP into geraniol. Moreover, in order to confirm the ability of PhoA in vivo, the heterologous mevalonate pathway and geranyl diphosphate synthase gene from Abies grandis were co-overexpressed in E. coli with PhoA gene and 5.3 ± 0.2 mg/l geraniol was produced from glucose in flask-culture. Finally, we also evaluated the fed-batch fermentation of this engineered E. coli and a maximum concentration of 99.3 mg/l geraniol was produced while the conversion efficiency of glucose to geranoid (gram to gram) was 0.51%. Our results offer a new option for geraniol biosynthesis and promote the industrial bio-production of geraniol. PMID:26091008

  14. Protein Phosphatase 1 β Paralogs Encode the Zebrafish Myosin Phosphatase Catalytic Subunit

    PubMed Central

    Jayashankar, Vaishali; Nguyen, Michael J.; Carr, Brandon W.; Zheng, Dale C.; Rosales, Joseph B.; Rosales, Joshua B.; Weiser, Douglas C.

    2013-01-01

    Background The myosin phosphatase is a highly conserved regulator of actomyosin contractility. Zebrafish has emerged as an ideal model system to study the in vivo role of myosin phosphatase in controlling cell contractility, cell movement and epithelial biology. Most work in zebrafish has focused on the regulatory subunit of the myosin phosphatase called Mypt1. In this work, we examined the critical role of Protein Phosphatase 1, PP1, the catalytic subunit of the myosin phosphatase. Methodology/Principal Findings We observed that in zebrafish two paralogous genes encoding PP1β, called ppp1cba and ppp1cbb, are both broadly expressed during early development. Furthermore, we found that both gene products interact with Mypt1 and assemble an active myosin phosphatase complex. In addition, expression of this complex results in dephosphorylation of the myosin regulatory light chain and large scale rearrangements of the actin cytoskeleton. Morpholino knock-down of ppp1cba and ppp1cbb results in severe defects in morphogenetic cell movements during gastrulation through loss of myosin phosphatase function. Conclusions/Significance Our work demonstrates that zebrafish have two genes encoding PP1β, both of which can interact with Mypt1 and assemble an active myosin phosphatase. In addition, both genes are required for convergence and extension during gastrulation and correct dosage of the protein products is required. PMID:24040418

  15. Targeting the glucose-regulated protein-78 abrogates Pten-null driven AKT activation and endometrioid tumorigenesis.

    PubMed

    Lin, Y G; Shen, J; Yoo, E; Liu, R; Yen, H-Y; Mehta, A; Rajaei, A; Yang, W; Mhawech-Fauceglia, P; DeMayo, F J; Lydon, J; Gill, P; Lee, A S

    2015-10-01

    Rates of the most common gynecologic cancer, endometrioid adenocarcinoma (EAC), continue to rise, mirroring the global epidemic of obesity, a well-known EAC risk factor. Thus, identifying novel molecular targets to prevent and/or mitigate EAC is imperative. The prevalent Type 1 EAC commonly harbors loss of the tumor suppressor, Pten, leading to AKT activation. The major endoplasmic reticulum (ER) chaperone, GRP78, is a potent pro-survival protein to maintain ER homeostasis, and as a cell surface protein, is known to regulate the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT pathway. To determine whether targeting GRP78 could suppress EAC development, we created a conditional knockout mouse model using progesterone receptor-Cre-recombinase to achieve Pten and Grp78 (cPten(f/f)Grp78(f/f)) deletion in the endometrial epithelium. Mice with a single Pten (cPten(f/f)) deletion developed well-differentiated EAC by 4 weeks. In contrast, no cPten(f/f)Grp78(f/f) mice developed EAC, even after more than 8 months of observation. Histologic examination of uteri from cPten(f/f)Grp78(f/f) mice also revealed no complex atypical hyperplasia, a well-established EAC precursor. These histologic observations among the cPten(f/f)Grp78(f/f) murine uteri also corresponded to abrogation of AKT activation within the endometrium. We further observed that GRP78 co-localized with activated AKT on the surface of EAC, thus providing an opportunity for therapeutic targeting. Consistent with previous findings that cell surface GRP78 is an upstream regulator of PI3K/AKT signaling, we show here that in vivo short-term systemic treatment with a highly specific monoclonal antibody against GRP78 suppressed AKT activation and increased apoptosis in the cPten(f/f) tumors. Collectively, these findings present GRP78-targeting therapy as an efficacious therapeutic option for EAC. PMID:25684138

  16. Loss of PTEN promotes resistance to T cell-mediated immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Weiyi; Chen, Jie Qing; Liu, Chengwen; Malu, Shruti; Creasy, Caitlin; Tetzlaff, Michael T; Xu, Chunyu; McKenzie, Jodi A; Zhang, Chunlei; Liang, Xiaoxuan; Williams, Leila J; Deng, Wanleng; Chen, Guo; Mbofung, Rina; Lazar, Alexander J; Torres-Cabala, Carlos A; Cooper, Zachary A; Chen, Pei-Ling; Tieu, Trang N; Spranger, Stefani; Yu, Xiaoxing; Bernatchez, Chantale; Forget, Marie-Andree; Haymaker, Cara; Amaria, Rodabe; McQuade, Jennifer L; Glitza, Isabella C; Cascone, Tina; Li, Haiyan S; Kwong, Lawrence N; Heffernan, Timothy P; Hu, Jianhua; Bassett, Roland L; Bosenberg, Marcus W; Woodman, Scott E; Overwijk, Willem W; Lizée, Gregory; Roszik, Jason; Gajewski, Thomas F; Wargo, Jennifer A; Gershenwald, Jeffrey E; Radvanyi, Laszlo; Davies, Michael A; Hwu, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    T cell-mediated immunotherapies are promising cancer treatments. However, most patients still fail to respond to these therapies. The molecular determinants of immune resistance are poorly understood. We show that loss of PTEN in tumor cells in preclinical models of melanoma inhibits T cell-mediated tumor killing and decreases T cell trafficking into tumors. In patients, PTEN loss correlates with decreased T cell infiltration at tumor sites, reduced likelihood of successful T cell expansion from resected tumors, and inferior outcomes with PD-1 inhibitor therapy. PTEN loss in tumor cells increased the expression of immunosuppressive cytokines, resulting in decreased T cell infiltration in tumors, and inhibited autophagy, which decreased T cell-mediated cell death. Treatment with a selective PI3Kβ inhibitor improved the efficacy of both anti-PD-1 and anti-CTLA4 antibodies in murine models. Together these findings demonstrate that PTEN loss promotes immune resistance and support the rationale to explore combinations of immunotherapies and PI3K-AKT pathway inhibitors. PMID:26645196

  17. PTEN Mediates the Antioxidant Effect of Resveratrol at Nutritionally Relevant Concentrations

    PubMed Central

    Inglés, Marta; Gambini, Juan; Miguel, M. Graça; Bonet-Costa, Vicent; Abdelaziz, Kheira M.; El Alami, Marya; Viña, Jose; Borrás, Consuelo

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Antioxidant properties of resveratrol have been intensively studied for the last years, both in vivo and in vitro. Its bioavailability after an oral dose is very low and therefore it is very important to make sure that plasma concentrations of free resveratrol are sufficient enough to be active as antioxidant. Aims. In the present study, using nutritionally relevant concentrations of resveratrol, we aim to confirm its antioxidant capacity on reducing peroxide levels and look for the molecular pathway involved in this antioxidant effect. Methods. We used mammary gland tumor cells (MCF-7), which were pretreated with different concentrations of resveratrol for 48 h, and/or a PTEN inhibitor (bpV: bipy). Hydrogen peroxide levels were determined by fluorimetry, PTEN levels and Akt phosphorylation by Western Blotting, and mRNA expression of antioxidant genes by real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Results. Resveratrol treatment for 48 h lowered peroxide levels in MCF-7, even at low nutritional concentrations (1 nM). This effect was mediated by the activation of PTEN/Akt pathway, which resulted in an upregulation of catalase and MnSOD mRNA levels. Conclusion. Resveratrol acts as an antioxidant at nutritionally relevant concentrations by inducing the expression of antioxidant enzymes, through a mechanism involving PTEN/Akt signaling pathway. PMID:24812624

  18. Loss of Pten Disrupts the Thymic Epithelium and Alters Thymic Function

    PubMed Central

    Garfin, Phillip M.; Nguyen, Thuyen; Sage, Julien

    2016-01-01

    The thymus is the site of T cell development and selection. In addition to lymphocytes, the thymus is composed of several types of stromal cells that are exquisitely organized to create the appropriate environment and microenvironment to support the development and selection of maturing T cells. Thymic epithelial cells (TECs) are one of the more important cell types in the thymic stroma, and they play a critical role in selecting functional T cell clones and supporting their development. In this study, we used a mouse genetics approach to investigate the consequences of deleting the Pten tumor suppressor gene in the TEC compartment of the developing thymus. We found that PTEN deficiency in TECs results in a smaller thymus with significantly disordered architecture and histology. Accordingly, loss of PTEN function also results in decreased T cells with a shift in the distribution of T cell subtypes towards CD8+ T cells. These experiments demonstrate that PTEN is critically required for the development of a functional thymic epithelium in mice. This work may help better understand the effects that certain medical conditions or clinical interventions have upon the thymus and immune function. PMID:26914657

  19. Loss of Pten Disrupts the Thymic Epithelium and Alters Thymic Function.

    PubMed

    Garfin, Phillip M; Nguyen, Thuyen; Sage, Julien

    2016-01-01

    The thymus is the site of T cell development and selection. In addition to lymphocytes, the thymus is composed of several types of stromal cells that are exquisitely organized to create the appropriate environment and microenvironment to support the development and selection of maturing T cells. Thymic epithelial cells (TECs) are one of the more important cell types in the thymic stroma, and they play a critical role in selecting functional T cell clones and supporting their development. In this study, we used a mouse genetics approach to investigate the consequences of deleting the Pten tumor suppressor gene in the TEC compartment of the developing thymus. We found that PTEN deficiency in TECs results in a smaller thymus with significantly disordered architecture and histology. Accordingly, loss of PTEN function also results in decreased T cells with a shift in the distribution of T cell subtypes towards CD8+ T cells. These experiments demonstrate that PTEN is critically required for the development of a functional thymic epithelium in mice. This work may help better understand the effects that certain medical conditions or clinical interventions have upon the thymus and immune function. PMID:26914657

  20. Hepatocyte-specific Pten deficiency results in steatohepatitis and hepatocellular carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Horie, Yasuo; Suzuki, Akira; Kataoka, Ei; Sasaki, Takehiko; Hamada, Koichi; Sasaki, Junko; Mizuno, Katsunori; Hasegawa, Go; Kishimoto, Hiroyuki; Iizuka, Masahiro; Naito, Makoto; Enomoto, Katsuhiko; Watanabe, Sumio; Mak, Tak Wah; Nakano, Toru

    2004-01-01

    PTEN is a tumor suppressor gene mutated in many human cancers, and its expression is reduced or absent in almost half of hepatoma patients. We used the Cre-loxP system to generate a hepatocyte-specific null mutation of Pten in mice (AlbCrePtenflox/flox mice). AlbCrePtenflox/flox mice showed massive hepatomegaly and steatohepatitis with triglyceride accumulation, a phenotype similar to human nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. Adipocyte-specific genes were induced in mutant hepatocytes, implying adipogenic-like transformation of these cells. Genes involved in lipogenesis and β-oxidation were also induced, possibly as a result of elevated levels of the transactivating factors PPARγ and SREBP1c. Importantly, the loss of Pten function in the liver led to tumorigenesis, with 47% of AlbCrePtenflox/flox livers developing liver cell adenomas by 44 weeks of age. By 74–78 weeks of age, 100% of AlbCrePtenflox/flox livers showed adenomas and 66% had hepatocellular carcinomas. AlbCrePtenflox/flox mice also showed insulin hypersensitivity. In vitro, AlbCrePtenflox/flox hepatocytes were hyperproliferative and showed increased hyperoxidation with abnormal activation of protein kinase B and MAPK. Pten is thus an important regulator of lipogenesis, glucose metabolism, hepatocyte homeostasis, and tumorigenesis in the liver. PMID:15199412

  1. Myocardial ischemic post-conditioning attenuates ischemia reperfusion injury via PTEN/Akt signal pathway

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chun-Mei; Shen, Shu-Wen; Wang, Tao; Zhang, Xing-Hua

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate whether myocardial ischemic post-conditioning attenuates ischemia reperfusion injury via PTEN/Akt signal pathway. Design: Forty-five male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups: Sham, Ischemia reperfusion (I/R) and Ischemic post-conditioning (IPost) group. After the experiment finished, myocardial infarction area was examined. Serum creatine phosphokinase and lactate dehydrogenase activity were detected at baseline and the end of reperfusion. The protein levels of PTEN, Akt, p-Akt, Bax and Bcl-2 were measured by Western blot method. Results: Myocardial infarct size was significantly reduced in IPost as compared to I/R. Results were confirmed by serum creatine phosphokinase and lactate dehydrogenase activity. In addition, PTEN and Bax protein expression were inhibited and the p-Akt and bcl-2 protein expression were enhanced in IPost compared with I/R (P < 0.05). At the same time, the ratio of Bax and Bcl-2 was decreased in IPost (P < 0.05). However, ischemic post conditioning did not affect the total Akt level (P > 0.05). Conclusions: We confirmed that ischemic post-conditioning protects the heart against reperfusion injury. It is important that we demonstrated that the cardioprotective effect of ischemic post-conditioning was involved in the inhibition of PTEN, activation of the PI3K/Akt pathway and reduction of the cardiomyocyte apoptosis. PMID:26629079

  2. miR-382 targeting PTEN-Akt axis promotes liver regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Fei; Dimitrova-Shumkovska, Jasmina; Xiang, Yang; Zhao, Yingying; Liu, Jingqi; Xiao, Junjie; Yang, Changqing

    2016-01-01

    Liver regeneration is a highly orchestrated process which can be regulated by microRNAs (miRNAs, miRs), though the mechanisms are largely unclear. This study was aimed to identify miRNAs responsible for hepatocyte proliferation during liver regeneration. Here we detected a marked elevation of miR-382 in the mouse liver at 48 hrs after partial hepatectomy (PH-48h) using microarray analysis and qRT-PCRs. miR-382 overexpression accelerated the proliferation and the G1 to S phase transition of the cell cycle both in mouse NCTC1469 and human HL7702 normal liver cells, while miR-382 downregulation had inverse effects. Moreover, miR-382 negatively regulated PTEN expression and increased Akt phosphorylation both in vitro and in vivo. Using PTEN siRNA and Akt activator/inhibitor, we further found that PTEN inhibition and Akt phosphorylation were essential for mediating the promotive effect of miR-382 in the proliferation and cell growth of hepatocytes. Collectively, our findings identify miR-382 as a promoter for hepatocyte proliferation and cell growth via targeting PTEN-Akt axis which might be a novel therapeutic target to enhance liver regeneration capability. PMID:26636539

  3. Upregulation of PTEN involved in scorpion venom-induced apoptosis in a lymphoma cell line.

    PubMed

    Gao, Fang; Li, Hao; Chen, Ya-Dong; Yu, Xiao-Ning; Wang, Ran; Chen, Xue-Liang

    2009-04-01

    We investigated whether the venom of the scorpion Buthus martensii Karsch (BmK) inhibited growth of human lymphoma cells by inducing apoptosis, and studied possible signal pathways involved in this cell death. BmK venom selectively reduced the viability of Raji and Jurkat cells, and had low toxicity to human peripheral blood lymphocytes. Flow cytometry showed that BmK venom-induced apoptosis and G(0)/G(1) cell cycle arrest in Raji and Jurkat cells. In Raji cells, BmK venom upregulated the expression of PTEN accompanied by decreased levels of Akt and Bad phosphorylation. Treatment with BmK venom and LY294002 (an inhibitor of Akt) synergistically enhanced apoptosis. The expression of p27 was increased in both PTEN-positive Raji and PTEN-negative Jurkat cells exposed to BmK venom. The results indicate that key regulators in BmK venom-induced apoptosis are PTEN, acting through downregulation of the PI3K/Akt signal pathway, in Raji cells and p27 in Jurkat cells. PMID:19373662

  4. MicroRNA-221 and -222 Regulate Radiation Sensitivity by Targeting the PTEN Pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Chunzhi; Kang Chunsheng; Wang Ping; Cao Yongzhen; Lv Zhonghong; Yu Shizhu; Wang Guangxiu; Zhang Anling; Jia Zhifan; Han Lei; Yang Chunying; Ishiyama, Hiromichi; Teh, Bin S.; Xu Bo; Pu Peiyu

    2011-05-01

    Purpose: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are noncoding RNAs inhibiting expression of numerous target genes by posttranscriptional regulation. miRNA-221 and miRNA-222 (miRNA-221/-222) expression is elevated in radioresistant tumor cell lines; however, it is not known whether and how miRNAs control cellular responses to ionizing irradiation. Methods and Materials: We used bioinformatic analyses, luciferase reporter assay, and genetic knockdown and biochemical assays to characterize the regulation pathways of miRNA-221/-222 in response to radiation treatment. Results: We identified the PTEN gene as a target of miRNA-221/-222. Furthermore, we found that knocking down miRNA-221/-222 by antisense oligonucleotides upregulated PTEN expression. Upregulated PTEN expression suppressed AKT activity and increased radiation-induced apoptosis, resulting in enhancement of radiosensitivity in tumor cells. Conclusions: miRNA-221/-222 control radiation sensitivity by regulating the PTEN/AKT pathway and can be explored as novel targets for radiosensitization.

  5. Pten and EphB4 regulate the establishment of perisomatic inhibition in mouse visual cortex.

    PubMed

    Baohan, Amy; Ikrar, Taruna; Tring, Elaine; Xu, Xiangmin; Trachtenberg, Joshua T

    2016-01-01

    Perisomatic inhibition of pyramidal neurons is established by fast-spiking, parvalbumin-expressing interneurons (PV cells). Failure to assemble adequate perisomatic inhibition is thought to underlie the aetiology of neurological dysfunction in seizures, autism spectrum disorders and schizophrenia. Here we show that in mouse visual cortex, strong perisomatic inhibition does not develop if PV cells lack a single copy of Pten. PTEN signalling appears to drive the assembly of perisomatic inhibition in an experience-dependent manner by suppressing the expression of EphB4; PV cells hemizygous for Pten show an ∼2-fold increase in expression of EphB4, and over-expression of EphB4 in adult PV cells causes a dismantling of perisomatic inhibition. These findings implicate a molecular disinhibitory mechanism driving the establishment of perisomatic inhibition whereby visual experience enhances Pten signalling, resulting in the suppression of EphB4 expression; this relieves a native synaptic repulsion between PV cells and pyramidal neurons, thereby promoting the assembly of perisomatic inhibition. PMID:27611660

  6. miR-1297 mediates PTEN expression and contributes to cell progression in LSCC

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Xin; Wang, Hong-liang; Peng, Xin; Zhou, Hui-fang; Wang, Xin

    2012-10-19

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer miR-1297 was found to be overexpressed in LSCC and contribute to the cell progression. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PTEN was confirmed to be a target gene of miR-1297. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Downregulation of PTEN can rescue the proliferation and invasion ability of miR-1297 downregulated Hep-2 cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Downregulation of miR-1297 inhibits tumor growth in vivo. -- Abstract: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding RNAs that regulate gene expression after transcription, and are involved in cancer development. Laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC) is one of the most common malignant neoplasms with increasing incidence in recent years. In this paper, we report the overexpression of miR-1297 in LSCC and Hep-2 cells. In addition, PTEN was identified to be directly regulated by miR-1297 through western blot and luciferase activity assay. Furthermore, downregulation of miR-1297 in Hep-2 cells was shown to inhibit cancer cell proliferation, migration, and tumor genesis. Our results document a new epigenetic mechanism for PTEN regulation in LSCC, which is crucial for the development of these tumors.

  7. miR-21 promotes human nucleus pulposus cell proliferation through PTEN/AKT signaling.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hongzhe; Huang, Xiangwang; Liu, Xiangyang; Xiao, Sheng; Zhang, Yi; Xiang, Tiecheng; Shen, Xiongjie; Wang, Guoping; Sheng, Bin

    2014-01-01

    The precise role of nucleus pulposus cell proliferation in the pathogenesis of intervertebral disc degeneration remains to be elucidated. Recent findings have revealed that microRNAs, a class of small noncoding RNAs, may regulate cell proliferation in many pathological conditions. Here, we showed that miR-21 was significantly upregulated in degenerative nucleus pulposus tissues when compared with nucleus pulposus tissues that were isolated from patients with idiopathic scoliosis and that miR-10b levels were associated with disc degeneration grade. Moreover, bioinformatics target prediction identified PTEN as a putative target of miR-21. miR-21 inhibited PTEN expression by directly targeting the 3'UTR, and this inhibition was abolished through miR-21 binding site mutations. miR-21 overexpression stimulated cell proliferation and AKT signaling pathway activation, which led to cyclin D1 translation. Additionally, the increase in proliferation and cyclin D1 expression induced by miR-21 overexpression was almost completely blocked by Ly294002, an AKT inhibitor. Taken together, aberrant miR-21 upregulation in intervertebral disc degeneration could target PTEN, which would contribute to abnormal nucleus pulposus cell proliferation through derepressing the Akt pathway. Our study also underscores the potential of miR-21 and the PTEN/Akt pathway as novel therapeutic targets in intervertebral disc degeneration. PMID:24603539

  8. miR-21 Promotes Human Nucleus Pulposus Cell Proliferation through PTEN/AKT Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hongzhe; Huang, Xiangwang; Liu, Xiangyang; Xiao, Sheng; Zhang, Yi; Xiang, Tiecheng; Shen, Xiongjie; Wang, Guoping; Sheng, Bin

    2014-01-01

    The precise role of nucleus pulposus cell proliferation in the pathogenesis of intervertebral disc degeneration remains to be elucidated. Recent findings have revealed that microRNAs, a class of small noncoding RNAs, may regulate cell proliferation in many pathological conditions. Here, we showed that miR-21 was significantly upregulated in degenerative nucleus pulposus tissues when compared with nucleus pulposus tissues that were isolated from patients with idiopathic scoliosis and that miR-10b levels were associated with disc degeneration grade. Moreover, bioinformatics target prediction identified PTEN as a putative target of miR-21. miR-21 inhibited PTEN expression by directly targeting the 3′UTR, and this inhibition was abolished through miR-21 binding site mutations. miR-21 overexpression stimulated cell proliferation and AKT signaling pathway activation, which led to cyclin D1 translation. Additionally, the increase in proliferation and cyclin D1 expression induced by miR-21 overexpression was almost completely blocked by Ly294002, an AKT inhibitor. Taken together, aberrant miR-21 upregulation in intervertebral disc degeneration could target PTEN, which would contribute to abnormal nucleus pulposus cell proliferation through derepressing the Akt pathway. Our study also underscores the potential of miR-21 and the PTEN/Akt pathway as novel therapeutic targets in intervertebral disc degeneration. PMID:24603539

  9. Bacterial-like PPP protein phosphatases

    PubMed Central

    Kerk, David; Uhrig, R Glen; Moorhead, Greg B

    2013-01-01

    Reversible phosphorylation is a widespread modification affecting the great majority of eukaryotic cellular proteins, and whose effects influence nearly every cellular function. Protein phosphatases are increasingly recognized as exquisitely regulated contributors to these changes. The PPP (phosphoprotein phosphatase) family comprises enzymes, which catalyze dephosphorylation at serine and threonine residues. Nearly a decade ago, “bacterial-like” enzymes were recognized with similarity to proteins from various bacterial sources: SLPs (Shewanella-like phosphatases), RLPHs (Rhizobiales-like phosphatases), and ALPHs (ApaH-like phosphatases). A recent article from our laboratory appearing in Plant Physiology characterizes their extensive organismal distribution, abundance in plant species, predicted subcellular localization, motif organization, and sequence evolution. One salient observation is the distinct evolutionary trajectory followed by SLP genes and proteins in photosynthetic eukaryotes vs. animal and plant pathogens derived from photosynthetic ancestors. We present here a closer look at sequence data that emphasizes the distinctiveness of pathogen SLP proteins and that suggests that they might represent novel drug targets. A second observation in our original report was the high degree of similarity between the bacterial-like PPPs of eukaryotes and closely related proteins of the “eukaryotic-like” phyla Myxococcales and Planctomycetes. We here reflect on the possible implications of these observations and their importance for future research. PMID:24675170

  10. Structure-Function Analysis of the 3' Phosphatase Component of T4 Polynucleotide Kinase/phosphatase

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu,H.; Smith, P.; Wang, L.; Shuman, S.

    2007-01-01

    T4 polynucleotide kinase/phosphatase (Pnkp) exemplifies a family of bifunctional enzymes with 5'-kinase and 3' phosphatase activities that function in nucleic acid repair. T4 Pnkp is a homotetramer of a 301-aa polypeptide, which consists of an N-terminal kinase domain of the P-loop phosphotransferase superfamily and a C-terminal phosphatase domain of the DxD acylphosphatase superfamily. The homotetramer is formed via pairs of phosphatase-phosphatase and kinase-kinase homodimer interfaces. Here we identify four side chains-Asp187, Ser211, Lys258, and Asp277-that are required for 3' phosphatase activity. Alanine mutations at these positions abolished phosphatase activity without affecting kinase function or tetramerization. Conservative substitutions of asparagine or glutamate for Asp187 did not revive the 3' phosphatase, nor did arginine or glutamine substitutions for Lys258. Threonine in lieu of Ser211 and glutamate in lieu of Asp277 restored full activity, whereas asparagine at position 277 had no salutary effect. We report a 3.0 A crystal structure of the Pnkp tetramer, in which a sulfate ion is coordinated between Arg246 and Arg279 in a position that we propose mimics one of the penultimate phosphodiesters (5'NpNpNp-3') of the polynucleotide 3'-PO(4) substrate. The amalgam of mutational and structural data engenders a plausible catalytic mechanism for the phosphatase that includes covalent catalysis (via Asp165), general acid-base catalysis (via Asp167), metal coordination (by Asp165, Asp277 and Asp278), and transition state stabilization (via Lys258, Ser211, backbone amides, and the divalent cation). Other critical side chains play architectural roles (Arg176, Asp187, Arg213, Asp254). To probe the role of oligomerization in phosphatase function, we introduced six double-alanine cluster mutations at the phosphatase-phosphatase domain interface, two of which (R297A-Q295A and E292A-D300A) converted Pnkp from a tetramer to a dimer and ablated phosphatase activity.

  11. MiR-106b-5p Inhibits Tumor Necrosis Factor-α-induced Apoptosis by Targeting Phosphatase and Tensin Homolog Deleted on Chromosome 10 in Vascular Endothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jing; Li, Su-Fang; Chen, Hong; Song, Jun-Xian

    2016-01-01

    Background: Apoptosis of endothelial cells (ECs) plays a key role in the development of atherosclerosis and there are also evidence indicated that phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN) is a viable target in therapeutic approaches to prevent vascular ECs apoptosis. Aberrant miR-106b-5p expression has been reported in the plasma of patients with unstable atherosclerotic plaques. However, the role and underlying mechanism of miR-106-5p in the genesis of atherosclerosis have not been addressed. In this study, we explored the anti-apoptotic role of miR-106-5p by regulating PTEN expression in vascular ECs. Methods: Real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was performed to detect the expression levels of miR-106b-5p in human atherosclerotic plaques and normal vascular tissues. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) were transfected with miR-106b-5p mimic or negative control mimic, and apoptosis was induced by serum starvation and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) treat. Western blotting and real-time RT-PCR experiments were used to detect PTEN expression levels and TNF-α-induced apoptosis was evaluated by the activation of caspase-3 and cell DNA fragmentation levels in HUVEC. Results: The expression of miR-106b-5p was significantly downregulated in plaques than in normal vascular tissues. TNF-α significantly downregulated miR-106b-5p expression levels and upregulated activation of caspase-3 and cell DNA fragmentation levels in HUVEC. Overexpression of miR-106b-5p with miR-106b-5p mimic inhibited PTEN expression and TNF-α-induced apoptosis in HUVEC. Luciferase reporter assays confirmed that miR-106b-5p binds to PTEN mRNA 3’ untranslated region site. Conclusion: MiR-106b-5p could inhibit the expression of PTEN in vascular ECs, which could block TNF-α-induced activation of caspase-3, thus prevent ECs apoptosis in atherosclerosis diseases. PMID:27270534

  12. Protein Phosphatase 2A Mediates Oxidative Stress Induced Apoptosis in Osteoblasts.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chong-xin; Lv, Bo; Wang, Yue

    2015-01-01

    Osteoporosis is one of the most common bone diseases, which is characterized by a systemic impairment of bone mass and fragility fractures. Age-related oxidative stress is highly associated with impaired osteoblastic dysfunctions and subsequent osteoporosis. In osteoblasts (bone formation cells), reactive oxygen species (ROS) are continuously generated and further cause lipid peroxidation, protein damage, and DNA lesions, leading to osteoblastic dysfunctions, dysdifferentiations, and apoptosis. Although much progress has been made, the mechanism responsible for oxidative stress induced cellular alternations and osteoblastic toxicity is still not fully elucidated. Here, we demonstrate that protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A), a major protein phosphatase in mammalian cells, mediates oxidative stress induced apoptosis in osteoblasts. Our results showed that lipid peroxidation products (4-HNE) may induce dramatic oxidative stress, inflammatory reactions, and apoptosis in osteoblasts. These oxidative stress responses may ectopically activate PP2A phosphatase activity, which may be mediated by inactivation of AKT/mTOR pathway. Moreover, inhibition of PP2A activity by okadaic acid might partly prevent osteoblastic apoptosis under oxidative conditions. These findings may reveal a novel mechanism to clarify the role of oxidative stress for osteoblastic apoptosis and provide new possibilities for the treatment of related bone diseases, such as osteoporosis. PMID:26538836

  13. Protein Phosphatase 2A Mediates Oxidative Stress Induced Apoptosis in Osteoblasts

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Chong-xin; Lv, Bo; Wang, Yue

    2015-01-01

    Osteoporosis is one of the most common bone diseases, which is characterized by a systemic impairment of bone mass and fragility fractures. Age-related oxidative stress is highly associated with impaired osteoblastic dysfunctions and subsequent osteoporosis. In osteoblasts (bone formation cells), reactive oxygen species (ROS) are continuously generated and further cause lipid peroxidation, protein damage, and DNA lesions, leading to osteoblastic dysfunctions, dysdifferentiations, and apoptosis. Although much progress has been made, the mechanism responsible for oxidative stress induced cellular alternations and osteoblastic toxicity is still not fully elucidated. Here, we demonstrate that protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A), a major protein phosphatase in mammalian cells, mediates oxidative stress induced apoptosis in osteoblasts. Our results showed that lipid peroxidation products (4-HNE) may induce dramatic oxidative stress, inflammatory reactions, and apoptosis in osteoblasts. These oxidative stress responses may ectopically activate PP2A phosphatase activity, which may be mediated by inactivation of AKT/mTOR pathway. Moreover, inhibition of PP2A activity by okadaic acid might partly prevent osteoblastic apoptosis under oxidative conditions. These findings may reveal a novel mechanism to clarify the role of oxidative stress for osteoblastic apoptosis and provide new possibilities for the treatment of related bone diseases, such as osteoporosis. PMID:26538836

  14. B cell expression of the SH2-containing inositol 5-phosphatase (SHIP-1) is required to establish anergy to high affinity, proteinacious autoantigens

    PubMed Central

    Akerlund, Janie; Getahun, Andrew; Cambier, John C

    2015-01-01

    Many self-reactive B cells exist in the periphery in a rapidly reversible state of unresponsiveness referred to as anergy. Reversibility of anergy indicates that chronically occupied BCR must transduce non-durable regulatory signals that maintain unresponsiveness. Consistent with such a mechanism, studies of immunoglobulin transgenic, as well as naturally occurring polyclonal autoreactive B cells demonstrate activation of the inositol 5-phosphatase SHIP-1 in anergic cells, and low affinity chromatin autoantigen-reactive B cells have been shown to require expression of this phosphatase to maintain anergy. However, it has been reported that anergy of B cells recognizing high affinity soluble antigen may not require SHIP-1, and is instead mediated by upregulation of the inositol 3-phosphatase PTEN. To further explore this apparent difference in mechanism we analyzed the effect of B cell-targeted SHIP-1 deletion on immune tolerance of high affinity anti-HEL B cells in mice expressing soluble HEL (MD4.ML-5). We report that SHIP-1 functions to dampen responses of naïve and low-dose antigen-primed B cells in vitro, and is required for induction of B cell tolerance. Thus, while anergy of B cells reactive with low affinity and likely polyvalent chromatin antigens is maintained by activation of inhibitory signaling circuitry involving SHIP-1, anergy of B cells recognizing soluble self antigen with high affinity also requires increased activity of SHIP-1. PMID:26152931

  15. Transforming Growth Factor β-regulated MicroRNA-29a Promotes Angiogenesis through Targeting the Phosphatase and Tensin Homolog in Endothelium*

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jun; Wang, Youliang; Wang, Yu; Ma, Ying; Lan, Yu; Yang, Xiao

    2013-01-01

    The TGF-β pathway plays an important role in physiological and pathological angiogenesis. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of 18- to 25-nucleotide, small, noncoding RNAs that function by regulating gene expression. A number of miRNAs have been found to be regulated by the TGF-β pathway. However, the role of endothelial miRNAs in the TGF-β-mediated control of angiogenesis is still largely unknown. Here we investigated the regulation of endothelial microRNA-29a (miR-29a) by TGF-β signaling and the potential role of miR-29a in angiogenesis. MiR-29a was directly up-regulated by TGF-β/Smad4 signaling in human and mice endothelial cells. In a chick chorioallantoic membrane assay, miR-29a overexpression promoted the formation of new blood vessels, and miR-29a suppression completely blocked TGF-β1-stimulated angiogenesis. Consistently, miR-29a overexpression increased tube formation and migration in endothelial cultures. Mechanistically, miR-29a directly targeted the phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) in endothelial cells, leading to activation of the AKT pathway. PTEN knockdown recapitulated the role of miR-29a in endothelial migration, whereas AKT inhibition completely attenuated the stimulating role of miR-29a in angiogenesis. Taken together, these results reveal a crucial role of a TGF-β-regulated miRNA in promoting angiogenesis by targeting PTEN to stimulate AKT activity. PMID:23426367

  16. PTEN and PI-3 kinase inhibitors control LPS signaling and the lymphoproliferative response in the CD19+ B cell compartment

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Alok R.; Peirce, Susan K.; Joshi, Shweta; Durden, Donald L.

    2014-09-10

    Pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), e.g. toll receptors (TLRs) that bind ligands within the microbiome have been implicated in the pathogenesis of cancer. LPS is a ligand for two TLR family members, TLR4 and RP105 which mediate LPS signaling in B cell proliferation and migration. Although LPS/TLR/RP105 signaling is well-studied; our understanding of the underlying molecular mechanisms controlling these PRR signaling pathways remains incomplete. Previous studies have demonstrated a role for PTEN/PI-3K signaling in B cell selection and survival, however a role for PTEN/PI-3K in TLR4/RP105/LPS signaling in the B cell compartment has not been reported. Herein, we crossed a CD19cre and PTEN{sup fl/fl} mouse to generate a conditional PTEN knockout mouse in the CD19+ B cell compartment. These mice were further crossed with an IL-14α transgenic mouse to study the combined effect of PTEN deletion, PI-3K inhibition and expression of IL-14α (a cytokine originally identified as a B cell growth factor) in CD19+ B cell lymphoproliferation and response to LPS stimulation. Targeted deletion of PTEN and directed expression of IL-14α in the CD19+ B cell compartment (IL-14+PTEN-/-) lead to marked splenomegaly and altered spleen morphology at baseline due to expansion of marginal zone B cells, a phenotype that was exaggerated by treatment with the B cell mitogen and TLR4/RP105 ligand, LPS. Moreover, LPS stimulation of CD19+ cells isolated from these mice display increased proliferation, augmented AKT and NFκB activation as well as increased expression of c-myc and cyclinD1. Interestingly, treatment of LPS treated IL-14+PTEN-/- mice with a pan PI-3K inhibitor, SF1126, reduced splenomegaly, cell proliferation, c-myc and cyclin D1 expression in the CD19+ B cell compartment and normalized the splenic histopathologic architecture. These findings provide the direct evidence that PTEN and PI-3K inhibitors control TLR4/RP105/LPS signaling in the CD19+ B cell compartment and that pan PI

  17. PTEN loss is a context-dependent outcome determinant in obese and non-obese endometrioid endometrial cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Westin, Shannon N; Ju, Zhenlin; Broaddus, Russell R; Krakstad, Camilla; Li, Jane; Pal, Navdeep; Lu, Karen H; Coleman, Robert L; Hennessy, Bryan T; Klempner, Samuel J; Werner, Henrica M J; Salvesen, Helga B; Cantley, Lewis C; Mills, Gordon B; Myers, Andrea P

    2015-10-01

    Endometrial cancer incidence is increasing, due in part to a strong association with obesity. Mutations in the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway, the central relay pathway of insulin signals, occur in the majority of endometrioid adenocarcinomas, the most common form of endometrial cancer. We sought to determine the impact of PI3K pathway alterations on progression free survival in a cohort of endometrioid endometrial cancers. Prognostic utility of PIK3CA, PIK3R1, and PTEN mutations, as well as PTEN protein loss by immunohistochemistry, was explored in the context of patient body mass index. Reverse-phase protein arrays were utilized to assess protein expression based on PTEN status. Among 187 endometrioid endometrial cancers, there were no statistically significant associations between PFS and PIK3CA, PIK3R1, PTEN mutation or loss. When stratified by body mass index, PTEN loss was associated with improved progression free survival (P < 0.006) in obese (body mass index ≥ 30) patients. PTEN loss resulted in distinct protein changes: Canonical PI3K pathway activation was observed only in the non-obese population while decreased expression of β-CATENIN and phosphorylated FOXO3A was observed in obese patients. These data suggest the impact of PTEN loss on tumor biology and clinical outcomes must be interpreted in the context of body mass index, and provide a potential explanation for discrepant reports on the effect of PTEN status and obesity on prognosis in endometrial cancer. This reveals a clinically important interaction between metabolic state and tumor genetics that may unveil the biologic underpinning of obesity-related cancers and impact ongoing clinical trials with PI3K pathway inhibitors. PMID:26045339

  18. Increased prevalence of eosinophilic gastrointestinal disorders (EGID) in pediatric PTEN hamartoma tumor syndromes (PHTS)

    PubMed Central

    Henderson, Carol J.; Ngeow, Joanne; Collins, Margaret H.; Martin, Lisa J.; Putnam, Philip E.; Abonia, J. Pablo; Marsolo, Keith; Eng, Charis; Rothenberg, Marc E.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The PTEN hamartoma tumor syndromes (PHTS) are a collection of disorders caused by germline mutations of the tumor suppressor gene PTEN. Eosinophilic gastrointestinal disorders (EGID) are rare diseases characterized by food-induced, eosinophil-dominant inflammation in various segments of the gastrointestinal tract. On the basis of our clinical observations of several patients with EGID-PHTS, we investigated whether there is an association between these two disorders. Methods: Cincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical Center (CCHMC) Informatics for Integrating Biology & the Bedside (i2b2) warehouse was queried for the years 2007-2012 using ICD 9 codes for PTEN-related diseases; the results were cross-referenced with participants enrolled in the Cincinnati Center for Eosinophilic Disorder’s EGID database to identify patients with both disorders. Similarly, the Cleveland Clinic Genomic Medicine Institute PTEN database was queried for cases between 2005 and 2012. Inclusion criteria were age ≥18 years, history of PHTS, and an esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) and/or colonoscopy with at least one histologic EGID diagnosis confirmed by a CCHMC pathologist. Pearson’s Chi-square was used to determine the odds of EGID enrichment in PHTS. Results: Of the 1,058,260 CCHMC distinct patients identified by the i2b2 search, 53 had clinical diagnoses suggestive of PHTS. Thirteen of the 53 had PTEN mutations, with 8/13 (62%) having had an EGD and/or colonoscopy. Five of the 8 had confirmed EGID. At the Cleveland Clinic, 3/75 patients with PHTS had confirmed EGID. CCHMC i2b2 query data showed a substantial enrichment of EGID in PHTS (OR=272; CI 89-831, p<0.0001). An EGID prevalence estimate from the i2b2 query supported a marked enrichment of EGID in PHTS in the Cleveland Clinic database (p<0.0001). Among the 8 subjects with EGID and PHTS, the age at EGID and PHTS diagnosis was 7.6 ± 3.2 and 7.9 ± 5.8 years, respectively. Patients with EGID-PHTS had excess eosinophils

  19. Targeted Disruption of Pten in Ovarian Granulosa Cells Enhances Ovulation and Extends the Life Span of Luteal Cells